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Sample records for meat increases iron

  1. Developing a heme iron database for meats according to meat type, cooking method and doneness level

    PubMed Central

    Cross, Amanda J.; Harnly, James M.; Ferrucci, Leah M.; Risch, Adam; Mayne, Susan T.; Sinha, Rashmi

    2012-01-01

    Background Animal studies have demonstrated that iron may be related to carcinogenesis, and human studies found that heme iron can increase the formation of N-nitroso compounds, which are known carcinogens. Objectives One of the postulated mechanisms linking red meat intake to cancer risk involves iron. Epidemiologic studies attempt to investigate the association between heme iron intake and cancer by applying a standard factor to total iron from meat. However, laboratory studies suggest that heme iron levels in meat vary according to cooking method and doneness level. We measured heme iron in meats cooked by different cooking methods to a range of doneness levels to use in conjunction with a food frequency questionnaire to estimate heme iron intake. Methods Composite meat samples were made to represent each meat type, cooking method and doneness level. Heme iron was measured using atomic absorption spectrometry and inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectrometry. Results Steak and hamburgers contained the highest levels of heme iron, pork and chicken thigh meat had slightly lower levels, and chicken breast meat had the lowest. Conclusions Although heme iron levels varied, there was no clear effect of cooking method or doneness level. We outline the methods used to create a heme iron database to be used in conjunction with food frequency questionnaires to estimate heme iron intake in relation to disease outcome. PMID:23459329

  2. Developing a heme iron database for meats according to meat type, cooking method and doneness level

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Background: Animal studies have demonstrated that iron may be related to carcinogenesis, and human studies found that heme iron can increase the formation of N-nitroso compounds, which are known carcinogens. Objectives: One of the postulated mechanisms linking red meat intake to cancer risk involves...

  3. Is red meat required for the prevention of iron deficiency among children and adolescents?

    PubMed

    Savva, Savvas C; Kafatos, Anthony

    2014-01-01

    Iron deficiency remains the most common nutritional deficiency worldwide despite the fact that global prevention is a high priority. Recent guidelines suggest intake of red meat both in infants and toddlers to prevent iron deficiency. However frequent consumption of red and processed meat may be associated with an increased risk for cancer, cardiovascular disease and diabetes. Evidence also suggests that even in vegetarian diets or diets with little consumption of white or red meat, iron status may not be adversely affected. The Eastern Orthodox Christian Church dietary recommendations which is a type of periodic vegetarian diet, has proved beneficial for the prevention of iron deficiency and avoidance of excess iron intake. This paper aims to provide examples of meals for children and adolescents that may be sufficient to meet age specific iron requirements without consumption of red meat beyond the recommended consumption which is once or twice per month. PMID:25088337

  4. Intakes of red meat, processed meat, and meat-mutagens increase lung cancer risk

    PubMed Central

    Lam, Tram Kim; Cross, Amanda J.; Consonni, Dario; Randi, Giorgia; Bagnardi, Vincenzo; Bertazzi, Pier Alberto; Caporaso, Neil E.; Sinha, Rashmi; Subar, Amy F.; Landi, Maria Teresa

    2009-01-01

    Red and processed meat intake may increase lung cancer risk. However, the epidemiologic evidence is inconsistent and few studies have evaluated the role of meat-mutagens formed during high cooking temperatures. We investigated the association of red meat, processed meat, and meat-mutagen intake with lung cancer risk in Environment And Genetics in Lung cancer Etiology (EAGLE), a population-based case-control study. Primary lung cancer cases (n=2101) were recruited from 13 hospitals within the Lombardy region of Italy examining ~80% of the cases from the area. Non-cancer population controls (n=2120), matched to cases on gender, residence, and age, were randomly selected from the same catchment area. Diet was assessed in 1903 cases and 2073 controls, and used in conjunction with a meat-mutagen database to estimate intake of heterocyclic amines and benzo[a]pyrene. Multivariable odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for sex-specific tertiles of intake were calculated using unconditional logistic regression. Red and processed meat were positively associated with lung cancer risk (highest-versus-lowest tertile: OR=1.8; 95% CI=1.5–2.2; p-trend<0.001 and OR=1.7; 95% CI=1.4–2.1; p-trend<0.001, respectively); the risks were strongest among never smokers (OR=2.4, 95% CI=1.4–4.0, p-trend=0.001 and OR=2.5, 95% CI=1.5–4.2, p-trend=0.001, respectively). Heterocyclic amines and benzo[a]pyrene were significantly associated with increased risk of lung cancer. When separated by histology, significant positive associations for both meat groups were restricted to adenocarcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma, but not small cell carcinoma of the lung. In summary, red meat, processed meat, and meat-mutagens were independently associated with increased risk of lung cancer. PMID:19141639

  5. Ferritin, an iron source in meat for Staphylococcus xylosus?

    PubMed

    Vermassen, Aurore; Talon, Régine; Leroy, Sabine

    2016-05-16

    Staphylococcus xylosus is frequently isolated from food of animal origin. Moreover, this species is one of the major starter cultures used for meat fermentation. Iron is a key element for growth and survival of bacteria. Meat is particularly rich in haemic (myoglobin and haemoglobin) and non-haemic (ferritin and transferrin) iron sources. Ferritin is a storage protein able to capture large quantities of iron. It is highly resistant to microbial attack and few microorganisms can use it as an iron source. Surprisingly, we found that the S. xylosus C2a strain grows in the presence of ferritin as a sole iron source. A three-cistron operon was highly overexpressed under ferritin iron growth conditions. We generated a deletion-insertion in the first gene of the operon and evaluated the phenotype of the mutant. The mutant showed decreased growth because it was less able to acquire iron from ferritin. Transcriptional analysis of the mutant revealed downregulation of several genes involved in the response to oxidative stress. This study characterized for the first time the capacity of a Staphylococcus to use iron from ferritin and revealed that a potential reductive pathway was involved in this acquisition. We hypothesize that this ability could give an advantage to S. xylosus in meat products. PMID:26971013

  6. Correlation between Antioxidant Enzyme Activity, Free Iron Content and Lipid Oxidation in Four Lines of Korean Native Chicken Meat

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Hye-Kyung; Cho, Chang-Yeon; Lee, Cheol-Koo

    2016-01-01

    This study was conducted to observe the association between antioxidant enzyme activity, free iron content and lipid oxidation of Korean native chicken (KNC) meat during refrigerated storage. Four lines of KNC (Yeonsan ogye, Hyunin black, Hoengseong yakdak and Hwangbong) were raised under similar conditions. A total of 16 roosters were randomly sampled and slaughtered at the age of 12 mon. The breast and thigh meats were stored aerobically for 10 d at 4℃. Although thigh meat had higher antioxidant enzyme activity, it was more susceptible to lipid oxidation and released more iron during storage than breast meat. Aerobic refrigerated storage for 10 d significantly decreased the activity of antioxidant enzymes and increased the amount of free iron and malondialdehyde. The activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) were negatively correlated with lipid oxidation, whereas that of catalase was not. The amount of free iron was positively associated with lipid oxidation. We concluded that chicken line did not affect strongly on antioxidant enzyme activity and lipid oxidation in breast meat of KNC. However, the thigh meat of Hwangbong and Hyunin black had higher SOD and GSH-Px activity, respectively, and lower malondialdehyde contents than that of other chickens. SOD, GSH-Px and free iron play significant roles in meat lipid oxidation during refrigerated storage. PMID:27499663

  7. Correlation between Antioxidant Enzyme Activity, Free Iron Content and Lipid Oxidation in Four Lines of Korean Native Chicken Meat.

    PubMed

    Utama, Dicky Tri; Lee, Seung Gyu; Baek, Ki Ho; Kim, Hye-Kyung; Cho, Chang-Yeon; Lee, Cheol-Koo; Lee, Sung Ki

    2016-01-01

    This study was conducted to observe the association between antioxidant enzyme activity, free iron content and lipid oxidation of Korean native chicken (KNC) meat during refrigerated storage. Four lines of KNC (Yeonsan ogye, Hyunin black, Hoengseong yakdak and Hwangbong) were raised under similar conditions. A total of 16 roosters were randomly sampled and slaughtered at the age of 12 mon. The breast and thigh meats were stored aerobically for 10 d at 4℃. Although thigh meat had higher antioxidant enzyme activity, it was more susceptible to lipid oxidation and released more iron during storage than breast meat. Aerobic refrigerated storage for 10 d significantly decreased the activity of antioxidant enzymes and increased the amount of free iron and malondialdehyde. The activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) were negatively correlated with lipid oxidation, whereas that of catalase was not. The amount of free iron was positively associated with lipid oxidation. We concluded that chicken line did not affect strongly on antioxidant enzyme activity and lipid oxidation in breast meat of KNC. However, the thigh meat of Hwangbong and Hyunin black had higher SOD and GSH-Px activity, respectively, and lower malondialdehyde contents than that of other chickens. SOD, GSH-Px and free iron play significant roles in meat lipid oxidation during refrigerated storage. PMID:27499663

  8. A central role for heme iron in colon carcinogenesis associated with red meat intake.

    PubMed

    Bastide, Nadia M; Chenni, Fatima; Audebert, Marc; Santarelli, Raphaelle L; Taché, Sylviane; Naud, Nathalie; Baradat, Maryse; Jouanin, Isabelle; Surya, Reggie; Hobbs, Ditte A; Kuhnle, Gunter G; Raymond-Letron, Isabelle; Gueraud, Françoise; Corpet, Denis E; Pierre, Fabrice H F

    2015-03-01

    Epidemiology shows that red and processed meat intake is associated with an increased risk of colorectal cancer. Heme iron, heterocyclic amines, and endogenous N-nitroso compounds (NOC) are proposed to explain this effect, but their relative contribution is unknown. Our study aimed at determining, at nutritional doses, which is the main factor involved and proposing a mechanism of cancer promotion by red meat. The relative part of heme iron (1% in diet), heterocyclic amines (PhIP + MeIQx, 50 + 25 μg/kg in diet), and NOC (induced by NaNO₂+ NaNO₂; 0.17 + 0.23 g/L of drinking water) was determined by a factorial design and preneoplastic endpoints in chemically induced rats and validated on tumors in Min mice. The molecular mechanisms (genotoxicity, cytotoxicity) were analyzed in vitro in normal and Apc-deficient cell lines and confirmed on colon mucosa. Heme iron increased the number of preneoplastic lesions, but dietary heterocyclic amines and NOC had no effect on carcinogenesis in rats. Dietary hemoglobin increased tumor load in Min mice (control diet: 67 ± 39 mm²; 2.5% hemoglobin diet: 114 ± 47 mm², P = 0.004). In vitro, fecal water from rats given hemoglobin was rich in aldehydes and was cytotoxic to normal cells, but not to premalignant cells. The aldehydes 4-hydroxynonenal and 4-hydroxyhexenal were more toxic to normal versus mutated cells and were only genotoxic to normal cells. Genotoxicity was also observed in colon mucosa of mice given hemoglobin. These results highlight the role of heme iron in the promotion of colon cancer by red meat and suggest that heme iron could initiate carcinogenesis through lipid peroxidation. . PMID:25592152

  9. Are meat and heme iron intake associated with pancreatic cancer? Results from the NIH-AARP diet and health cohort.

    PubMed

    Taunk, Pulkit; Hecht, Eric; Stolzenberg-Solomon, Rachael

    2016-05-01

    Several studies on pancreatic cancer have reported significant positive associations for intake of red meat but null associations for heme iron. We assessed total, red, white and processed meat intake, meat cooking methods and doneness and heme iron and mutagen intake in relation to pancreatic cancer in the NIH-AARP Diet and Health Study cohort. A total of 322,846 participants (187,265 men and 135,581 women) successfully completed and returned the food frequency questionnaire between 1995 and 1996. After a mean follow-up of 9.2 years (up to 10.17 years), 1,417 individuals (895 men and 522 women) developed exocrine pancreatic cancer. Cox proportional hazard models were used to calculate hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs), and trends were calculated using the median value of each quantile. Models incorporated age as the time metric and were adjusted for smoking history, body mass index, self-reported diabetes and energy-adjusted saturated fat. Pancreatic cancer risk significantly increased with intake of total meat (Q5 vs. Q1: HR = 1.20, 95% CI 1.02-1.42, p-trend = 0.03), red meat (HR = 1.22, 95% CI 1.01-1.48, p-trend = 0.02), high-temperature cooked meat (HR = 1.21, 95% CI 1.00-1.45, p-trend = 0.02), grilled/barbequed meat (HR = 1.24, 95% CI 1.03-1.50, p-trend = 0.007), well/very well done meat (HR = 1.32, 95% CI 1.10-1.58, p-trend = 0.005) and heme iron from red meat (Q4 vs. Q1: HR = 1.21, 95% CI 1.01-1.45, p-trend = 0.04). When stratified by sex, these associations remained significant in men but not women except for white meat intake in women (HR = 1.33, 95% CI 1.02-1.74, p-trend = 0.04). Additional studies should confirm our findings that consuming heme iron from red meat increases pancreatic cancer risk. PMID:26666579

  10. Goat Meat Does Not Cause Increased Blood Pressure

    PubMed Central

    Sunagawa, Katsunori; Kishi, Tetsuya; Nagai, Ayako; Matsumura, Yuka; Nagamine, Itsuki; Uechi, Shuntoku

    2014-01-01

    While there are persistent rumors that the consumption of goat meat dishes increases blood pressure, there is no scientific evidence to support this. Two experiments were conducted to clarify whether or not blood pressure increases in conjunction with the consumption of goat meat dishes. In experiment 1, 24 Dahl/Iwai rats (15 weeks old, body weight 309.3±11.1 g) were evenly separated into 4 groups. The control group (CP) was fed a diet containing 20% chicken and 0.3% salt on a dry matter basis. The goat meat group (GM) was fed a diet containing 20% goat meat and 0.3% salt. The goat meat/salt group (GS) was fed a diet containing 20% goat meant and 3% to 4% salt. The Okinawan mugwort (Artemisia Princeps Pampan)/salt group (GY) was fed a diet containing 20% goat meat, 3% to 4% salt and 5% of freeze-dried mugwort powder. The experiment 1 ran for a period of 14 weeks during which time the blood pressure of the animals was recorded. The GS, and GY groups consumed significantly more water (p<0.01) than the CP and GM groups despite the fact that their diet consumption levels were similar. The body weight of animals in the CP, GM, and GS groups was similar while the animals in the GY group were significantly smaller (p<0.01). The blood pressure in the GM group was virtually the same as the CP group throughout the course of the experiment. In contrast, while the blood pressure of the animals in the GS and GY group from 15 to 19 weeks old was the same as the CP group, their blood pressures were significantly higher (p<0.01) after 20 weeks of age. The GY group tended to have lower blood pressure than the GS group. In experiment 2, in order to clarify whether or not the increase in blood pressure in the GS group and the GY group in experiment 1 was caused by an excessive intake of salt, the effects on blood pressure of a reduction of salt in diet were investigated. When amount of salt in the diet of the GS and GY group was reduced from 4% to 0.3%, the animal’s blood pressure

  11. Meat eaters by dissociation: How we present, prepare and talk about meat increases willingness to eat meat by reducing empathy and disgust.

    PubMed

    Kunst, Jonas R; Hohle, Sigrid M

    2016-10-01

    Many people enjoy eating meat but dislike causing pain to animals. Dissociating meat from its animal origins may be a powerful way to avoid cognitive dissonance resulting from this 'meat paradox'. Here, we provide the first comprehensive test of this hypothesis, highlighting underlying psychological mechanisms. Processed meat made participants less empathetic towards the slaughtered animal than unprocessed meat (Study 1). When beheaded, a whole roasted pork evoked less empathy (Study 2a) and disgust (Study 2b) than when the head was present. These affective responses, in turn, made participants more willing to eat the roast and less willing to consider an alternative vegetarian dish. Conversely, presenting a living animal in a meat advertisement increased empathy and reduced willingness to eat meat (Study 3). Next, describing industrial meat production as "harvesting" versus "killing" or "slaughtering" indirectly reduced empathy (Study 4). Last, replacing "beef/pork" with "cow/pig" in a restaurant menu increased empathy and disgust, which both equally reduced willingness to eat meat and increased willingness to choose an alternative vegetarian dish (Study 5). In all experiments, effects were strongly mediated by dissociation and interacted with participants' general dissociation tendencies in Study 3 and 5, so that effects were particularly pronounced among participants who generally spend efforts disassociating meat from animals in their daily lives. Together, this line of research demonstrates the large role various culturally-entrenched processes of dissociation play for meat consumption. PMID:27405101

  12. Meat supplementation increases arm muscle area in Kenyan schoolchildren.

    PubMed

    Neumann, Charlotte G; Jiang, Luohua; Weiss, Robert E; Grillenberger, Monika; Gewa, Constance A; Siekmann, Jonathan H; Murphy, Suzanne P; Bwibo, Nimrod O

    2013-04-14

    The present study examines the effect of animal-source-food (ASF) intake on arm muscle area growth as part of a larger study examining causal links between ASF intake, growth rate, physical activity, cognitive function and micronutrient status in Kenyan schoolchildren. This randomised, controlled feeding intervention study was designed with three isoenergetic feeding interventions of meat, milk, and plain traditional vegetable stew (githeri), and a control group receiving no snack. A total of twelve elementary schools were randomly assigned to interventions, with three schools per group, and two cohorts of 518 and 392 schoolchildren were enrolled 1 year apart. Children in each cohort were given feedings at school and studied for three school terms per year over 2 years, a total of 9 months per year: cohort I from 1998 to 2000 and cohort II from 1999 to 2001. Food intake was assessed by 24 h recall every 1-2 months and biochemical analysis for micronutrient status conducted annually (in cohort I only). Anthropometric measurements included height, weight, triceps skinfold (TSF) and mid-upper-arm circumference (MUAC). Mid-upper-arm muscle area (MAMA) and mid-upper-arm fat area (MAFA) were calculated. The two cohorts were combined for analyses. The meat group showed the steepest rates of gain in MUAC and MAMA over time, and the milk group showed the next largest significant MUAC and MAMA gain compared with the plain githeri and control groups (P< 0.05). The meat group showed the least increase in TSF and MAFA of all groups. These findings have implications for increasing micronutrient intake and lean body mass in primary schoolchildren consuming vegetarian diets. PMID:22856533

  13. Antioxidant Enzyme Activity, Iron Content and Lipid Oxidation of Raw and Cooked Meat of Korean Native Chickens and Other Poultry.

    PubMed

    Muhlisin; Utama, Dicky Tri; Lee, Jae Ho; Choi, Ji Hye; Lee, Sung Ki

    2016-05-01

    This study was conducted to observe antioxidant enzyme activity, iron content and lipid oxidation of Korean native chickens and other poultry. The breast and thigh meat of three Korean native chicken breeds including Woorimatdak, Hyunin black and Yeonsan ogye, and three commercial poultry breeds including the broiler, White Leghorn and Pekin duck (Anasplatyrhyncos domesticus) were studied. The analyses of the antioxidant enzymes activity, iron content and lipid oxidation were performed in raw and cooked samples. The activity of catalase (CAT) in the thigh meat was higher than that of the breast meat of three Korean native chickens and the broiler, respectively. The activity of glutathione peroxidase (GPx) in the uncooked thigh meat of three Korean native chickens was higher than that of the breasts. The breast meat of Woorimatdak and Pekin duck had higher superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity than the others, while only the thigh meat of Pekin duck had the highest activity. Cooking inactivated CAT and decreased the activity of GPx and SOD. The thigh meat of Woorimatdak, White Leghorn, Yeonsan ogye and Hyunin black contained more total iron than the breast meat of those breeds. The heme-iron lost during cooking ranged from 3.2% to 14.8%. It is noted that the thigh meat had higher thiobarbituric acid reactive substances values than the breast in all chicken breeds. Though Woorimatdak showed higher antioxidant enzyme activity and lower released-iron percentage among Korean native chickens, no differences were found on lipid oxidation. We confirm that the dark meat of poultry exhibited higher antioxidant enzyme activity and contained more iron than the white meat. PMID:26954148

  14. Antioxidant Enzyme Activity, Iron Content and Lipid Oxidation of Raw and Cooked Meat of Korean Native Chickens and Other Poultry

    PubMed Central

    Muhlisin; Utama, Dicky Tri; Lee, Jae Ho; Choi, Ji Hye; Lee, Sung Ki

    2016-01-01

    This study was conducted to observe antioxidant enzyme activity, iron content and lipid oxidation of Korean native chickens and other poultry. The breast and thigh meat of three Korean native chicken breeds including Woorimatdak, Hyunin black and Yeonsan ogye, and three commercial poultry breeds including the broiler, White Leghorn and Pekin duck (Anasplatyrhyncos domesticus) were studied. The analyses of the antioxidant enzymes activity, iron content and lipid oxidation were performed in raw and cooked samples. The activity of catalase (CAT) in the thigh meat was higher than that of the breast meat of three Korean native chickens and the broiler, respectively. The activity of glutathione peroxidase (GPx) in the uncooked thigh meat of three Korean native chickens was higher than that of the breasts. The breast meat of Woorimatdak and Pekin duck had higher superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity than the others, while only the thigh meat of Pekin duck had the highest activity. Cooking inactivated CAT and decreased the activity of GPx and SOD. The thigh meat of Woorimatdak, White Leghorn, Yeonsan ogye and Hyunin black contained more total iron than the breast meat of those breeds. The heme-iron lost during cooking ranged from 3.2% to 14.8%. It is noted that the thigh meat had higher thiobarbituric acid reactive substances values than the breast in all chicken breeds. Though Woorimatdak showed higher antioxidant enzyme activity and lower released-iron percentage among Korean native chickens, no differences were found on lipid oxidation. We confirm that the dark meat of poultry exhibited higher antioxidant enzyme activity and contained more iron than the white meat. PMID:26954148

  15. Proteolysis of meat and bone meal to increase utilisation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Meat & bone meal (MBM) is the ground, dehydrated remainder of an animal after removal of the hide and meat. The majority of MBM is insoluble. Trypsin and Subtilisin were used to convert MBM to a soluble form. Sequential measurements were made on the soluble material: dried mass, equivalent prote...

  16. Residual Antibiotics Disrupt Meat Fermentation and Increase Risk of Infection

    PubMed Central

    Kjeldgaard, Jette; Cohn, Marianne T.; Casey, Pat G.; Hill, Colin; Ingmer, Hanne

    2012-01-01

    ABSTRACT Fermented sausages, although presumed safe for consumption, sometimes cause serious bacterial infections in humans that may be deadly. Not much is known about why and when this is the case. We tested the hypothesis that residual veterinary antibiotics in meat can disrupt the fermentation process, giving pathogenic bacteria a chance to survive and multiply. We found that six commercially available starter cultures were susceptible to commonly used antibiotics, namely, oxytetracycline, penicillin, and erythromycin. In meat, statutorily tolerable levels of oxytetracycline and erythromycin inhibited fermentation performance of three and five of the six starter cultures, respectively. In model sausages, the disruption of meat fermentation enhanced survival of the pathogens Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium compared to successful fermentations. Our work reveals an overlooked risk associated with the presence of veterinary drugs in meat. PMID:22930338

  17. Red and processed meat, nitrite, and heme iron intakes and postmenopausal breast cancer risk in the NIH-AARP Diet and Health Study.

    PubMed

    Inoue-Choi, Maki; Sinha, Rashmi; Gierach, Gretchen L; Ward, Mary H

    2016-04-01

    Previous studies have shown inconsistent associations between red and processed meat intake and breast cancer risk. N-nitroso compounds and heme iron have been hypothesized as contributing factors. We followed 193,742 postmenopausal women in the NIH-AARP Diet and Health Study and identified 9,305 incident breast cancers (1995-2006). Dietary intake was assessed using a food frequency questionnaire at baseline. We adjusted daily intakes of meat, nitrite and heme iron for energy intake using the nutrient density method. We estimated multivariable-adjusted hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) by quintiles of dietary exposures for all breast cancer, by stage (in-situ, localized, regional/distant) and by estrogen/progesterone receptor (ER/PR) status using Cox proportional hazards regression. Total red meat intake was positively associated with risk of regional/distant cancer (p-trend = 0.02). The risk was 25% higher in the highest vs. lowest intake quintile (95% CI = 1.03-1.52). Higher processed red meat intake (Q5 vs. Q1) was associated with 27% higher risk of localized breast cancer (95% CI = 1.01-1.27, p-trend = 0.03) and a 19% higher risk of regional/distant cancer (95% CI = 0.98-1.44, p-trend = 0.10). In addition, higher nitrite intake from processed red meat was positively associated with localized cancer (HR for Q5 vs. Q1 = 1.23, 95% CI = 1.09-1.39, p-trend < 0.0001). Heme iron intake was positively associated with breast cancer risk overall and all cancer stages (p-trend = 0.02-0.05). No heterogeneity was observed in risk associations by hormone receptor status. Our findings suggest that high consumption of red meat and processed meat may increase risk of postmenopausal breast cancer. Added nitrite and heme iron may partly contribute to these observed associations. PMID:26505173

  18. Intake of Meat Proteins Substantially Increased the Relative Abundance of Genus Lactobacillus in Rat Feces.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Yingying; Lin, Xisha; Li, He; Li, Yingqiu; Shi, Xuebin; Zhao, Fan; Xu, Xinglian; Li, Chunbao; Zhou, Guanghong

    2016-01-01

    Diet has been shown to have a critical influence on gut bacteria and host health, and high levels of red meat in diet have been shown to increase colonic DNA damage and thus be harmful to gut health. However, previous studies focused more on the effects of meat than of meat proteins. In order to investigate whether intake of meat proteins affects the composition and metabolic activities of gut microbiota, feces were collected from growing rats that were fed with either meat proteins (from beef, pork or fish) or non-meat proteins (casein or soy) for 14 days. The resulting composition of gut microbiota was profiled by sequencing the V4-V5 region of the 16S ribosomal RNA genes and the short chain fatty acids (SCFAs) were analyzed using gas chromatography. The composition of gut microbiota and SCFA levels were significantly different between the five diet groups. At a recommended dose of 20% protein in the diet, meat protein-fed rats had a higher relative abundance of the beneficial genus Lactobacillus, but lower levels of SCFAs and SCFA-producing bacteria including Fusobacterium, Bacteroides and Prevotella, compared with the soy protein-fed group. Further work is needed on the regulatory pathways linking dietary protein intake to gut microbiota. PMID:27042829

  19. Intake of Meat Proteins Substantially Increased the Relative Abundance of Genus Lactobacillus in Rat Feces

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Yingying; Lin, Xisha; Li, He; Li, Yingqiu; Shi, Xuebin; Zhao, Fan; Xu, Xinglian; Li, Chunbao; Zhou, Guanghong

    2016-01-01

    Diet has been shown to have a critical influence on gut bacteria and host health, and high levels of red meat in diet have been shown to increase colonic DNA damage and thus be harmful to gut health. However, previous studies focused more on the effects of meat than of meat proteins. In order to investigate whether intake of meat proteins affects the composition and metabolic activities of gut microbiota, feces were collected from growing rats that were fed with either meat proteins (from beef, pork or fish) or non-meat proteins (casein or soy) for 14 days. The resulting composition of gut microbiota was profiled by sequencing the V4-V5 region of the 16S ribosomal RNA genes and the short chain fatty acids (SCFAs) were analyzed using gas chromatography. The composition of gut microbiota and SCFA levels were significantly different between the five diet groups. At a recommended dose of 20% protein in the diet, meat protein-fed rats had a higher relative abundance of the beneficial genus Lactobacillus, but lower levels of SCFAs and SCFA-producing bacteria including Fusobacterium, Bacteroides and Prevotella, compared with the soy protein-fed group. Further work is needed on the regulatory pathways linking dietary protein intake to gut microbiota. PMID:27042829

  20. Daily supplementation with iron increases lipid peroxidation in young women with low iron stores.

    PubMed

    King, Sarah M; Donangelo, Carmen M; Knutson, Mitchell D; Walter, Patrick B; Ames, Bruce N; Viteri, Fernando E; King, Janet C

    2008-06-01

    The aim of this study was to determine whether women with low iron stores (plasma ferritin iron supplement for 8 wks at a level commonly used to treat poor iron status develop increased lipid peroxidation as measured by ethane exhalation rates and plasma malondialdehyde. The women served as their own control as pre- and post-supplementation periods were compared. Twelve women participated in the study for a 70-day period and consumed daily iron supplements (98 mg of iron as ferrous sulfate) from day 14 to day 70. Baseline blood and expired air samples were obtained on days 1 and 14; measurements during supplementation were performed on days 56 and 70, that is at 6 and 8 weeks of supplementation. Iron status improved during the iron supplementation period; biochemical indicators of lipid peroxidation also increased. After 6 wks of iron supplementation, serum ferritin almost doubled and body iron more than doubled. Hemoglobin levels increased slightly and other indicators of iron status became normal. However, plasma malondialdehyde (MDA) and breath ethane exhalation rates (BEER) increased by more than 40% between baseline and 6 wks of supplementation; these increases correlated significantly with plasma iron and ferritin levels. MDA was positively correlated with BEER. BEER increased further after 8 wks of iron supplementation. The increased indicators of lipid peroxidation with duration of supplementation and as iron status improved suggest that providing daily nearly 100 mg iron may not be a totally innocuous regimen for correcting iron depletion in women. PMID:18408148

  1. Heme Iron Content in Lamb Meat Is Differentially Altered upon Boiling, Grilling, or Frying as Assessed by Four Distinct Analytical Methods

    PubMed Central

    Pourkhalili, Azin; Rahimi, Ebrahim

    2013-01-01

    Lamb meat is regarded as an important source of highly bioavailable iron (heme iron) in the Iranians diet. The main objective of this study is to evaluate the effect of traditional cooking methods on the iron changes in lamb meat. Four published experimental methods for the determination of heme iron were assessed analytically and statistically. Samples were selected from lambs' loin. Standard methods (AOAC) were used for proximate analysis. For measuring heme iron, the results of four experimental methods were compared regarding their compliance to Ferrozine method which was used for the determination of nonheme iron. Among three cooking methods, the lowest total iron and heme iron were found in boiling method. The heme iron proportions to the total iron in raw, boiled lamb meat and grilled, were counted as 65.70%, 67.75%, and 76.01%, receptively. Measuring the heme iron, the comparison of the methods in use showed that the method in which heme extraction solution was composed of 90% acetone, 18% water, and 2% hydrochloric acid was more appropriate and more correlated with the heme iron content calculated by the difference between total iron and nonheme iron. PMID:23737716

  2. Increased sensitivity to iron deficiency in Arabidopsis thaliana overaccumulating nicotianamine.

    PubMed

    Cassin, Gaëlle; Mari, Stéphane; Curie, Catherine; Briat, Jean-François; Czernic, Pierre

    2009-01-01

    Nicotianamine (NA) is a non-protein amino acid derivative synthesized from S-adenosyl L-methionine able to bind several metal ions such as iron, copper, manganese, zinc, or nickel. In plants, NA appears to be involved in iron availability and is essential for the plant to complete its biological cycle. In graminaceous plants, NA is also the precursor in the biosynthesis of phytosiderophores. Arabidopsis lines accumulating 4- and 100-fold more NA than wild-type plants were used in order to evaluate the impact of such an NA overaccumulation on iron homeostasis. The expression of iron-regulated genes including the IRT1/FRO2 iron uptake system is highly induced at the transcript level under both iron-sufficient and iron-deficient conditions. Nevertheless, NA overaccumulation does not interfere with the iron uptake mechanisms since the iron levels are similar in the NA-overaccumulating line and wild-type plants in both roots and leaves under both sufficient and deficient conditions. This observation also suggests that the translocation of iron from the root to the shoot is not affected in the NA-overaccumulating line. However, NA overaccumulation triggers an enhanced sensitivity to iron starvation, associated with a decrease in iron availability. This study draws attention to a particular phenotype where NA in excess paradoxically leads to iron deficiency, probably because of an increase of the NA apoplastic pool sequestering iron. This finding strengthens the notion that extracellular NA in the apoplast could be a major checkpoint to control plant iron homeostasis. PMID:19188276

  3. Increased sensitivity to iron deficiency in Arabidopsis thaliana overaccumulating nicotianamine

    PubMed Central

    Cassin, Gaëlle; Mari, Stéphane; Curie, Catherine; Briat, Jean-François; Czernic, Pierre

    2009-01-01

    Nicotianamine (NA) is a non-protein amino acid derivative synthesized from S-adenosyl L-methionine able to bind several metal ions such as iron, copper, manganese, zinc, or nickel. In plants, NA appears to be involved in iron availability and is essential for the plant to complete its biological cycle. In graminaceous plants, NA is also the precursor in the biosynthesis of phytosiderophores. Arabidopsis lines accumulating 4- and 100-fold more NA than wild-type plants were used in order to evaluate the impact of such an NA overaccumulation on iron homeostasis. The expression of iron-regulated genes including the IRT1/FRO2 iron uptake system is highly induced at the transcript level under both iron-sufficient and iron-deficient conditions. Nevertheless, NA overaccumulation does not interfere with the iron uptake mechanisms since the iron levels are similar in the NA-overaccumulating line and wild-type plants in both roots and leaves under both sufficient and deficient conditions. This observation also suggests that the translocation of iron from the root to the shoot is not affected in the NA-overaccumulating line. However, NA overaccumulation triggers an enhanced sensitivity to iron starvation, associated with a decrease in iron availability. This study draws attention to a particular phenotype where NA in excess paradoxically leads to iron deficiency, probably because of an increase of the NA apoplastic pool sequestering iron. This finding strengthens the notion that extracellular NA in the apoplast could be a major checkpoint to control plant iron homeostasis. PMID:19188276

  4. Modulation of iron metabolism by iron chelation regulates intracellular calcium and increases sensitivity to doxorubicin

    PubMed Central

    Yalcintepe, Leman; Halis, Emre

    2016-01-01

    Increased intracellular iron levels can both promote cell proliferation and death, as such; iron has a “two-sided effect” in the delicate balance of human health. Though the role of iron in the development of cancer remains unclear, investigations of iron chelators as anti-tumor agents have revealed promising results. Here, we investigated the influence of iron and desferrioxamine (DFO), the iron chelating agent on intracellular calcium in a human leukemia cell line, K562. Iron uptake is associated with increased reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation. Therefore, we showed that iron also caused dose-dependent ROS generation in K562 cells. The measurement of intracellular calcium was determined using Furo-2 with a fluorescence spectrophotometer. The iron delivery process to the cytoplasmic iron pool was examined by monitoring the fluorescence of cells loaded with calcein-acetoxymethyl. Our data showed that iron increased intracellular calcium, and this response was 8 times higher when cells were incubated with DFO. K562 cells with DFO caused a 3.5 times increase of intracellular calcium in the presence of doxorubicin (DOX). In conclusion, DFO induces intracellular calcium and increases their sensitivity to DOX, a chemotherapeutic agent. PMID:26773173

  5. Lean meat and heart health.

    PubMed

    Li, Duo; Siriamornpun, Sirithon; Wahlqvist, Mark L; Mann, Neil J; Sinclair, Andrew J

    2005-01-01

    The general health message to the public about meat consumption is both confusing and misleading. It is stated that meat is not good for health because meat is rich in fat and cholesterol and high intakes are associated with increased blood cholesterol levels and coronary heart disease (CHD). This paper reviewed 54 studies from the literature in relation to red meat consumption and CHD risk factors. Substantial evidence from recent studies shows that lean red meat trimmed of visible fat does not raise total blood cholesterol and LDL-cholesterol levels. Dietary intake of total and saturated fat mainly comes from fast foods, snack foods, oils, spreads, other processed foods and the visible fat of meat, rather than lean meat. In fact, lean red meat is low in saturated fat, and if consumed in a diet low in SFA is associated with reductions in LDL-cholesterol in both healthy and hypercholesterolemia subjects. Lean red meat consumption has no effect on in vivo and ex vivo production of thromboxane and prostacyclin or the activity of haemostatic factors. Lean red meat is also a good source of protein, omega-3 fatty acids, vitamin B12, niacin, zinc and iron. In conclusion, lean red meat, trimmed of visible fat, which is consumed in a diet low in saturated fat does not increase cardiovascular risk factors (plasma cholesterol levels or thrombotic risk factors). PMID:15927927

  6. Increased collagen III in culled chicken meat after feeding dietary wood charcoal and vinegar contributes to palatability and tenderness.

    PubMed

    Yamauchi, Kohsyo; Manabe, Noboru; Matsumoto, Yoshiki; Takenoyama, Shin-ichi; Yamauchi, Koh-en

    2014-04-01

    We comprehensively evaluated meat quality in chickens fed a diet consisting of wood charcoal and vinegar (WCV) using food scientific and histological approaches. In culled hens, lipid and fatty acid in Musculus semimembranosus, cooking loss and sensory tests of whole thigh meat, and meat texture of breast meat were observed. In male broilers, cross section of M. semimembranosus was used for observations on muscle area, perimysium, non-collagen total protein and total collagen content, and anti-collagen I and III reactions. In frozen male broilers, conventional morphology of M. semimembranosus as well as chicken anti-collagen III reaction to selected muscles of thigh meat and breast meat were compared between the control and WCV-fed birds. Increased lipid and fatty acids, decreased cooking loss, high score in total evaluation for sensory test of thigh meat, and decreased meat texture values were observed for culled hens fed WCV. The higher values of muscle area, total collagen and collagen III were observed for broilers fed WCV. No perimysium collapse for M. semitendinosus or increased collagen III reactions of M. tensor fasciae latae, the flexor muscle group and M. pectoralis superficialis were observed for frozen muscles in the WCV group. These total results suggest that WCV produces palatable and tender meat by increasing collagen III. PMID:24450882

  7. Contribution of meat to vitamin B-12, iron, and zinc intakes in five ethnic groups in the U.S.: Implications for developing food-based dietary guidelines

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Sangita; Sheehy, Tony; Kolonel, Laurence N

    2016-01-01

    Background To describe the sources of meat and their contributions to vitamin B-12, iron, and zinc in five ethnic groups in the USA. Methods Dietary data for the Multiethnic Cohort, established in Hawaii and Los Angeles, were collected using a quantitative food frequency questionnaire from more than 215,000 subjects aged 45–75 years at baseline (1993–1996). Participants included African American, Latino, Japanese American (JpAm), Native Hawaiian (NH) and Caucasian men and women. Servings of meat items were calculated based on the USDA recommendations and their contributions to intakes of total meat, red meat, vitamin B-12, iron, and zinc were determined. Results Of all types of meat, poultry contributed the most to meat consumption, followed by red meat and fish among all ethnicities, except for Latino (born in Mexico and Central/South America) men who consumed more beef. Lean beef was the most commonly consumed red meat for all ethnic-sex groups (9.3–14.3%), except for NH and JpAm men, and JpAm women whose top contributor was stew/curry with beef/lamb and stir-fried beef/pork with vegetables respectively. The contribution of meat was most substantial for zinc (11.1–29.3%) and vitamin B-12 (19.7–40%), and to a lesser extent for iron (4.3–14.2%). Conclusions This is the first large multiethnic cohort study to describe meat sources and their contributions to selected nutrients among ethnic minorities in the U.S. These findings may be used to develop ethnic-specific recommendations for meat consumption to improve dietary quality among these groups. PMID:23398393

  8. Does Iron Increase the Risk of Malaria in Pregnancy?

    PubMed

    Moya-Alvarez, Violeta; Cottrell, Gilles; Ouédraogo, Smaila; Accrombessi, Manfred; Massougbodgi, Achille; Cot, Michel

    2015-04-01

    Background.  Pregnancy-associated malaria (PAM) remains a significant health concern in sub-Saharan Africa. Cross-sectional studies report that iron might be associated with increased malaria morbidity, raising fears that current iron supplementation policies will cause harm in the present context of increasing resistance against intermittent preventive treatment in pregnancy (IPTp). Therefore, it is necessary to assess the relation of iron levels with malaria risk during the entire pregnancy. Methods.  To investigate the association of maternal iron levels on malaria risk in the context of an IPTp clinical trial, 1005 human immunodeficiency virus-negative, pregnant Beninese women were monitored throughout their pregnancy between January 2010 and May 2011. Multilevel models with random intercept at the individual levels and random slope for gestational age were used to analyze the factors associated with increased risk of a positive blood smear and increased Plasmodium falciparum density. Results.  During the follow-up, 29% of the women had at least 1 episode of malaria. On average, women had 0.52 positive smears (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.44-0.60). High iron levels (measured by the log10 of ferritin corrected on inflammation) were significantly associated with increased risk of a positive blood smear (adjusted odds ratio = 1.75; 95% CI, 1.46-2.11; P < .001) and high P falciparum density (beta estimate = 0.22; 95% CI, 0.18-0.27; P < .001) during the follow-up period adjusted on pregnancy parameters, comorbidities, environmental and socioeconomic indicators, and IPTp regime. Furthermore, iron-deficient women were significantly less likely to have a positive blood smear and high P falciparum density (P < .001 in both cases). Conclusions.  Iron levels were positively associated with increased PAM during pregnancy in the context of IPTp. Supplementary interventional studies are needed to determine the benefits and risks of differently dosed iron and

  9. Low Intracellular Iron Increases the Stability of Matriptase-2*

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Ningning; Nizzi, Christopher P.; Anderson, Sheila A.; Wang, Jiaohong; Ueno, Akiko; Tsukamoto, Hidekazu; Eisenstein, Richard S.; Enns, Caroline A.; Zhang, An-Sheng

    2015-01-01

    Matriptase-2 (MT2) is a type II transmembrane serine protease that is predominantly expressed in hepatocytes. It suppresses the expression of hepatic hepcidin, an iron regulatory hormone, by cleaving membrane hemojuvelin into an inactive form. Hemojuvelin is a bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) co-receptor. Here, we report that MT2 is up-regulated under iron deprivation. In HepG2 cells stably expressing the coding sequence of the MT2 gene, TMPRSS6, incubation with apo-transferrin or the membrane-impermeable iron chelator, deferoxamine mesylate salt, was able to increase MT2 levels. This increase did not result from the inhibition of MT2 shedding from the cells. Rather, studies using a membrane-permeable iron chelator, salicylaldehyde isonicotinoyl hydrazone, revealed that depletion of cellular iron was able to decrease the degradation of MT2 independently of internalization. We found that lack of the putative endocytosis motif in its cytoplasmic domain largely abolished the sensitivity of MT2 to iron depletion. Neither acute nor chronic iron deficiency was able to alter the association of Tmprss6 mRNA with polyribosomes in the liver of rats indicating a lack of translational regulation by low iron levels. Studies in mice showed that Tmprss6 mRNA was not regulated by iron nor the BMP-mediated signaling with no evident correlation with either Bmp6 mRNA or Id1 mRNA, a target of BMP signaling. These results suggest that regulation of MT2 occurs at the level of protein degradation rather than by changes in the rate of internalization and translational or transcriptional mechanisms and that the cytoplasmic domain of MT2 is necessary for its regulation. PMID:25550162

  10. Increasing and decreasing phases of ferritin and hemosiderin iron determined by serum ferritin kinetics.

    PubMed

    Saito, Hiroshi; Hayashi, Hisao; Tomita, Akihiro; Ohashi, Haruhiko; Maeda, Hideaki; Naoe, Tomoki

    2013-08-01

    We attempted to clarify the mechanism of the storage iron metabolism. A new program of serum ferritin kinetics was applied for studying the increasing and decreasing phases of ferritin and hemosiderin iron in iron addition and removal in patients with a normal level of iron stores or iron overload. The change of ferritin iron in response to iron addition and removal was rapid in the initial stage, but it was slow later. In contrast, the change of hemosiderin iron was slow in the initial stage, but it became rapid later. These changes of ferritin and hemosiderin iron suggest that the turnover of ferritin iron is preferential to that of hemosiderin iron, and that the initially existed ferritin iron is gradually replaced by the ferritin iron recovered by taking iron from hemosiderin in iron mobilization. The crossing of the increasing curves of ferritin and hemosiderin iron in iron addition indicates a switching of the principal storage iron from ferritin to hemosiderin. The crossing point shifted toward a higher storage iron level in the increase of iron deposition. Iron storing capacity can be increased not only by the transformation of ferritin into hemosiderin, but also by the expansion of cell space as seen by hepatomegaly in hereditary hemochromatosis. The amounts of hemosiderin iron exceeded ferritin iron in all 10 patients with chronic hepatitis C even though they had normal storage iron levels. This suggests it is difficult to store iron in the form of ferritin in chronic hepatitis C. PMID:24640177

  11. Does Iron Increase the Risk of Malaria in Pregnancy?

    PubMed Central

    Moya-Alvarez, Violeta; Cottrell, Gilles; Ouédraogo, Smaila; Accrombessi, Manfred; Massougbodgi, Achille; Cot, Michel

    2015-01-01

    Background. Pregnancy-associated malaria (PAM) remains a significant health concern in sub-Saharan Africa. Cross-sectional studies report that iron might be associated with increased malaria morbidity, raising fears that current iron supplementation policies will cause harm in the present context of increasing resistance against intermittent preventive treatment in pregnancy (IPTp). Therefore, it is necessary to assess the relation of iron levels with malaria risk during the entire pregnancy. Methods. To investigate the association of maternal iron levels on malaria risk in the context of an IPTp clinical trial, 1005 human immunodeficiency virus-negative, pregnant Beninese women were monitored throughout their pregnancy between January 2010 and May 2011. Multilevel models with random intercept at the individual levels and random slope for gestational age were used to analyze the factors associated with increased risk of a positive blood smear and increased Plasmodium falciparum density. Results. During the follow-up, 29% of the women had at least 1 episode of malaria. On average, women had 0.52 positive smears (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.44–0.60). High iron levels (measured by the log10 of ferritin corrected on inflammation) were significantly associated with increased risk of a positive blood smear (adjusted odds ratio = 1.75; 95% CI, 1.46–2.11; P < .001) and high P falciparum density (beta estimate = 0.22; 95% CI, 0.18–0.27; P < .001) during the follow-up period adjusted on pregnancy parameters, comorbidities, environmental and socioeconomic indicators, and IPTp regime. Furthermore, iron-deficient women were significantly less likely to have a positive blood smear and high P falciparum density (P < .001 in both cases). Conclusions. Iron levels were positively associated with increased PAM during pregnancy in the context of IPTp. Supplementary interventional studies are needed to determine the benefits and risks of differently dosed iron and

  12. Iron ions increase the thermostability of phycocyanin of Spirulina maxima

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Jian-Hong; Tai, Zi-Hou; Tseng, Chao-Tsi

    1998-03-01

    A spectral method to investigate the effect of Fe3+, Fe2+ on the thermostability of phycocyanin (PC) of Spirulina maxima showed that iron ions provent decrease of visible light absorbance and fluorescence intensity of PC. Increase in denaturation temperature caused by Fe3+ was observed by the micro-differential scanning calorimetric method. All results showed iron ions maintain the aggregation stability of the PC. The absorption spectrum of phycocyanobilin (PCB, a prosthetic group of PC) with Fe3+ in chloroform was quite different from that of free PCB.

  13. Processed meat: the real villain?

    PubMed

    Rohrmann, Sabine; Linseisen, Jakob

    2016-08-01

    Meat is a food rich in protein, minerals such as iron and zinc as well as a variety of vitamins, in particular B vitamins. However, the content of cholesterol and saturated fat is higher than in some other food groups. Processed meat is defined as products usually made of red meat that are cured, salted or smoked (e.g. ham or bacon) in order to improve the durability of the food and/or to improve colour and taste, and often contain a high amount of minced fatty tissue (e.g. sausages). Hence, high consumption of processed foods may lead to an increased intake of saturated fats, cholesterol, salt, nitrite, haem iron, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, and, depending upon the chosen food preparation method, also heterocyclic amines. Several large cohort studies have shown that a high consumption of processed (red) meat is related to increased overall and cause-specific mortality. A meta-analysis of nine cohort studies observed a higher mortality among high consumers of processed red meat (relative risk (RR) = 1·23; 95 % CI 1·17, 1·28, top v. bottom consumption category), but not unprocessed red meat (RR = 1·10; 95 % CI 0·98, 1·22). Similar associations were reported in a second meta-analysis. All studies argue that plausible mechanisms are available linking processed meat consumption and risk of chronic diseases such as CVD, diabetes mellitus or some types of cancer. However, the results of meta-analyses do show some degree of heterogeneity between studies, and it has to be taken into account that individuals with low red or processed meat consumption tend to have a healthier lifestyle in general. Hence, substantial residual confounding cannot be excluded. Information from other types of studies in man is needed to support a causal role of processed meat in the aetiology of chronic diseases, e.g. studies using the Mendelian randomisation approach. PMID:26621069

  14. Red and Processed Meat Consumption Increases Risk for Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Li; Dong, Jianming; Jiang, Shenghua; Shi, Wenyu; Xu, Xiaohong; Huang, Hongming; You, Xuefen; Liu, Hong

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The association between consumption of red and processed meat and non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) remains unclear. We performed a meta-analysis of the published observational studies to explore this relationship. We searched databases in MEDLINE and EMBASE to identify observational studies which evaluated the association between consumption of red and processed meat and risk of NHL. Quality of included studies was evaluated using Newcastle-Ottawa Quality Assessment Scale (NOS). Random-effects models were used to calculate summary relative risk (SRR) and the corresponding 95% confidence interval (CI). We identified a total of 16 case–control and 4 prospective cohort studies, including 15,189 subjects with NHL. The SRR of NHL comparing the highest and lowest categories were 1.32 (95% CI: 1.12–1.55) for red meat and 1.17 (95% CI: 1.07–1.29) for processed meat intake. Stratified analysis indicated that a statistically significant risk association between consumption of red and processed meat and NHL risk was observed in case–control studies, but not in cohort studies. The SRR was 1.11 (95% CI: 1.04–1.18) for per 100 g/day increment in red meat intake and 1.28 (95% CI: 1.08–1.53) for per 50 g/day increment in processed meat intake. There was evidence of a nonlinear association for intake of processed meat, but not for intake of red meat. Findings from our meta-analysis indicate that consumption of red and processed meat may be related to NHL risk. More prospective epidemiological studies that control for important confounders and focus on the NHL risk related with different levels of meat consumption are required to clarify this association. PMID:26559248

  15. Red meat and colon cancer: should we become vegetarians, or can we make meat safer?

    PubMed

    Corpet, Denis E

    2011-11-01

    The effect of meat consumption on cancer risk is a controversial issue. However, recent meta-analyses show that high consumers of cured meats and red meat are at increased risk of colorectal cancer. This increase is significant but modest (20-30%). Current WCRF-AICR recommendations are to eat no more than 500 g per week of red meat, and to avoid processed meat. Moreover, our studies show that beef meat and cured pork meat promote colon carcinogenesis in rats. The major promoter in meat is heme iron, via N-nitrosation or fat peroxidation. Dietary additives can suppress the toxic effects of heme iron. For instance, promotion of colon carcinogenesis in rats by cooked, nitrite-treated and oxidized high-heme cured meat was suppressed by dietary calcium and by α-tocopherol, and a study in volunteers supported these protective effects in humans. These additives, and others still under study, could provide an acceptable way to prevent colorectal cancer. PMID:21558046

  16. Prospective controlled research on red meat, haem iron, and blood pressure

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The recent report of Tzoulaki and colleagues (Reference 1) on a large cross-sectional epidemiological international collaborative study on macro-/micronutrients and blood pressure (INTERMAP) indicated that blood pressure was negatively associated with non-haem iron ingestion and positively associate...

  17. High intakes of protein and processed meat associate with increased incidence of type 2 diabetes.

    PubMed

    Ericson, Ulrika; Sonestedt, Emily; Gullberg, Bo; Hellstrand, Sophie; Hindy, George; Wirfält, Elisabet; Orho-Melander, Marju

    2013-03-28

    Diets high in protein have shown positive effects on short-term weight reduction and glycaemic control. However, the understanding of how dietary macronutrient composition relates to long-term risk of type 2 diabetes is limited. The aim of the present study was to examine intakes of macronutrients, fibre and protein sources in relation to incident type 2 diabetes. In total, 27 140 individuals, aged 45-74 years, from the population-based Malmö Diet and Cancer cohort, were included. Dietary data were collected with a modified diet history method, including registration of cooked meals. During 12 years of follow-up, 1709 incident type 2 diabetes cases were identified. High protein intake was associated with increased risk of type 2 diabetes (hazard ratio (HR) 1.27 for highest compared with lowest quintile; 95 % CI 1.08, 1.49; P for trend = 0.01). When protein consumption increased by 5 % of energy at the expense of carbohydrates (HR 1.20; 95 % CI 1.09, 1.33) or fat (HR 1.21; 95 % CI 1.09, 1.33), increased diabetes risk was observed. Intakes in the highest quintiles of processed meat (HR 1.16; 95 % CI 1.00, 1.36; P for trend = 0.01) and eggs (HR 1.21; 95 % CI 1.04, 1.41; P for trend = 0.02) were associated with increased risk. Intake of fibre-rich bread and cereals was inversely associated with type 2 diabetes (HR 0.84; 95 % CI 0.73, 0.98; P for trend = 0.004). In conclusion, results from the present large population-based prospective study indicate that high protein intake is associated with increased risk of type 2 diabetes. Replacing protein with carbohydrates may be favourable, especially if fibre-rich breads and cereals are chosen as carbohydrate sources. PMID:22850191

  18. MODIFYING IRON REMOVAL PROCESSES TO INCREASE ARSENIC REMOVAL

    EPA Science Inventory

    Iron and manganese are naturally occurring substances that are normally found in insoluble forms in many ground waters in the US. Similar to iron and manganese, arsenic also occurs widely in the earth's crust and is a natural contaminant of many ground waters. Iron and manganese ...

  19. Can an increase in leaf iron reductase activity enhance seed iron accumulation in soybean?

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Iron is an important micronutrient for human nutrition, with plant foods providing a significant amount of dietary iron in certain population groups, and in some cases, providing the sole source of dietary iron. Because iron deficiency is unfortunately common in many human populations, we have been...

  20. Increased iron abundances in slope avalanches of certain lunar craters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Ya.; Shevchenko, V. V.

    2012-07-01

    On the basis of the first images of certain areas of Lunar surface obtained by the Chang'e-2 spacecraft and materials of large-scale image acquisition from the LRO (Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter) spacecraft, supplemented with remote spectral measurements performed from the Clementine spacecraft, the slope movements of material have been studied in lunar craters Daniell, Burg and Mauri A. It is established that despite a significantly different age of formation of these craters, the slope formations are of similar structure and differ by increased iron abundance in the soil surface layer. All objects are characterized with by increase in FeO abundance to 20 wt % at depths of several hundred meters from the surface. The material of the slope structures is distinguished by a low maturity rate. According to preliminary assessments using the optical maturity index and spectropolarimetric maturity index, the fresher slope formations can have an exposure age from several tens of years to several years.

  1. Sugars increase non-heme iron bioavailability in human epithelial intestinal and liver cells.

    PubMed

    Christides, Tatiana; Sharp, Paul

    2013-01-01

    Previous studies have suggested that sugars enhance iron bioavailability, possibly through either chelation or altering the oxidation state of the metal, however, results have been inconclusive. Sugar intake in the last 20 years has increased dramatically, and iron status disorders are significant public health problems worldwide; therefore understanding the nutritional implications of iron-sugar interactions is particularly relevant. In this study we measured the effects of sugars on non-heme iron bioavailability in human intestinal Caco-2 cells and HepG2 hepatoma cells using ferritin formation as a surrogate marker for iron uptake. The effect of sugars on iron oxidation state was examined by measuring ferrous iron formation in different sugar-iron solutions with a ferrozine-based assay. Fructose significantly increased iron-induced ferritin formation in both Caco-2 and HepG2 cells. In addition, high-fructose corn syrup (HFCS-55) increased Caco-2 cell iron-induced ferritin; these effects were negated by the addition of either tannic acid or phytic acid. Fructose combined with FeCl3 increased ferrozine-chelatable ferrous iron levels by approximately 300%. In conclusion, fructose increases iron bioavailability in human intestinal Caco-2 and HepG2 cells. Given the large amount of simple and rapidly digestible sugars in the modern diet their effects on iron bioavailability may have important patho-physiological consequences. Further studies are warranted to characterize these interactions. PMID:24340076

  2. Pathways to increase consumer trust in meat as a safe and wholesome food.

    PubMed

    Gellynck, Xavier; Verbeke, Wim; Vermeire, Bert

    2006-09-01

    This paper focuses on the effect of information about meat safety and wholesomeness on consumer trust based on several studies with data collected in Belgium. The research is grounded in the observation that despite the abundant rise of information through labelling, traceability systems and quality assurance schemes, the effect on consumer trust in meat as a safe and wholesome product is only limited. The overload and complexity of information on food products results in misunderstanding and misinterpretation. Functional traceability attributes such as organisational efficiency and chain monitoring are considered to be highly important but not as a basis for market segmentation. However, process traceability attributes such as origin and production method are of interest for particular market segments as a response to meat quality concerns. Quality assurance schemes and associated labels have a poor impact on consumers' perception. It is argued that the high interest of retailers in such schemes is driven by procurement management efficiency rather than safety or overall quality. Future research could concentrate on the distribution of costs and benefits associated with meat quality initiatives among the chain participants. PMID:22062725

  3. Atmospheric processing outside clouds increases soluble iron in mineral dust.

    PubMed

    Shi, Zongbo; Krom, Michael D; Bonneville, Steeve; Benning, Liane G

    2015-02-01

    Iron (Fe) is a key micronutrient regulating primary productivity in many parts of the global ocean. Dust deposition is an important source of Fe to the surface ocean, but most of this Fe is biologically unavailable. Atmospheric processing and reworking of Fe in dust aerosol can increase the bioavailable Fe inputs to the ocean, yet the processes are not well understood. Here, we experimentally simulate and model the cycling of Fe-bearing dust between wet aerosol and cloud droplets. Our results show that insoluble Fe in dust particles readily dissolves under acidic conditions relevant to wet aerosols. By contrast, under the higher pH conditions generally relevant to clouds, Fe dissolution tends to stop, and dissolved Fe precipitates as poorly crystalline nanoparticles. If the dust-bearing cloud droplets evaporated again (returning to the wet aerosol stage with low pH), those neo-formed Fe nanoparticles quickly redissolve, while the refractory Fe-bearing phases continue to dissolve gradually. Overall, the duration of the acidic, wet aerosol stage ultimately increases the amount of potentially bioavailable Fe delivered to oceans, while conditions in clouds favor the formation of Fe-rich nanoparticles in the atmosphere. PMID:25574950

  4. Overexpression of Arabidopsis VIT1 increases accumulation of iron in cassava roots and stems

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Iron is extremely abundant in the soil, but its uptake in plants is limited due to low solubility in neutral or alkaline soils. Plants can rely on rhizosphere acidification to increase iron solubility. AtVIT1 was previously found to be involved in mediating vacuolar sequestration of iron, which indi...

  5. Exposure of aconitase to smoking-related oxidants results in iron loss and increased iron response protein-1 activity: potential mechanisms for iron accumulation in human arterial cells.

    PubMed

    Talib, Jihan; Davies, Michael J

    2016-06-01

    Smokers have an elevated risk of cardiovascular disease, but the origin(s) of this increased risk are incompletely defined. Evidence supports an accumulation of the oxidant-generating enzyme myeloperoxidase (MPO) in the inflamed artery wall, and smokers have high levels of SCN(-), a preferred MPO substrate, with this resulting in HOSCN formation. We hypothesised that HOSCN, a thiol-specific oxidant may target the iron-sulphur cluster of aconitase (both isolated, and within primary human coronary artery endothelial cells; HCAEC) resulting in enzyme dysfunction, release of iron, and conversion of the cytosolic isoform to iron response protein-1, which regulates intracellular iron levels. We show that exposure of isolated aconitase to increasing concentrations of HOSCN releases iron from the aconitase [Fe-S]4 cluster, and decreases enzyme activity. This is associated with protein thiol loss and modification of specific Cys residues in, and around, the [Fe-S]4 cluster. Exposure of HCAEC to HOSCN resulted in increased intracellular levels of chelatable iron, loss of aconitase activity and increased iron response protein-1 (IRP-1) activity. These data indicate HOSCN, an oxidant associated with oxidative stress in smokers, can induce aconitase dysfunction in human endothelial cells via Cys oxidation, damage to the [Fe-S]4 cluster, iron release and generation of IRP-1 activity, which modulates ferritin protein levels and results in dysregulation of iron metabolism. These data may rationalise, in part, the presence of increased levels of iron in human atherosclerotic lesions and contribute to increased oxidative damage and endothelial cell dysfunction in smokers. Similar reactions may occur at other sites of inflammation. PMID:26837749

  6. IRON INCREASES EXPRESSION OF IRON-EXPORT PROTEIN MTP1 IN LUNG CELLS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Accumulation of reactive iron in acute and chronic lung disease suggests that iron-driven free radical formation could contribute to tissue injury. Safe transport and sequestration of this metal is likely to be of importance in lung defense. We provide evidence for the expression...

  7. Meats and Meat Cookery.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marine Corps Inst., Washington, DC.

    Developed as part of the Marine Corps Institute (MCI) correspondence training program, this course on meats and meat cookery is designed to help the Marine cook to identify, handle, process, and serve meats, poultry, fish, and shellfish. Introductory materials include specific information for MCI students and a study guide (guidelines to complete…

  8. [Iron substitution in outpatients in Switzerland: Increase of costs associated with intravenous administration].

    PubMed

    Giger, Max; Achermann, Rita

    2013-01-01

    Iron anaemia and iron-deficient erythropoiesis are treated with oral iron supplements. For chronic haemodialysis or in the case of therapy failure or intolerance to oral iron therapy, intravenous supplements are administered. The costs of iron supplements borne by statutory health care insurance had strongly increased during the observation period from 2006 to 2010. Based on the invoice data of a large health insurance company with a market share of around 18 %, prescription data of iron preparations and laboratory tests were analysed and extrapolated to the Swiss population. During the 5-year observation period, costs of intravenous iron substitution increased by 16.5 m EUR (340.3 %) and the number of individuals treated by 243.5 %. A sharp rise was observed in women of menstruating age, which was mainly due to prescriptions issued by primary care physicians. More than 8 % of intravenous iron substitutions were administered without prior laboratory analysis,and must therefore be regarded as off-label use. A cost-benefit analysis is needed to demonstrate the additional value of intravenous over oral iron supplementation, and intravenous iron supplementation should be administered only to patients with proven iron deficiency. PMID:23916272

  9. Treatment of PC12 cells with nerve growth factor increases iron uptake.

    PubMed Central

    Mwanjewe, J; Hui, B K; Coughlin, M D; Grover, A K

    2001-01-01

    Phaeochromocytoma PC12 cells treated with nerve growth factor (NGF) differentiate into a neuronal phenotype. Here we compare the uptake of transferrin-bound and non-transferrin-bound iron in NGF-treated (neuronal phenotype) and control (proliferating) PC12 cells. The non-transferrin-bound iron uptake was greater in the NGF-treated cells than in the control, independently of the uptake time, the iron-chelating agents used, the oxidation state of iron (Fe(2+) or Fe(3+)) and the iron concentration tested. The NGF-treated cells expressed L-type and N-type voltage-operated Ca(2+) channels. Nitrendipine (an L-type inhibitor) and possibly omega-conotoxin (an N-type inhibitor) inhibited the iron uptake by 20%. Thapsigargin inhibits the endoplasmic reticulum Ca(2+) pump and allowed Mn(2+) entry into cells. Preincubating PC12 cells with thapsigargin increased the iron uptake. The rate of transferrin-bound iron uptake was less than 1% of the non-transferrin-bound iron uptake and the maximum transferrin-bound iron uptake was also very low. We conclude that an increase in the iron uptake by multiple pathways accompanies the transition of PC12 cells from the proliferating to the neuronal phenotype. PMID:11463361

  10. Rye and Wheat Bran Extracts Isolated with Pressurized Solvents Increase Oxidative Stability and Antioxidant Potential of Beef Meat Hamburgers.

    PubMed

    Šulniūtė, Vaida; Jaime, Isabel; Rovira, Jordi; Venskutonis, Petras Rimantas

    2016-02-01

    Rye and wheat bran extracts containing phenolic compounds and demonstrating high DPPH• (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl), ABTS(•+) (2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulphonic acid) scavenging and oxygen radical absorbance capacities (ORAC) were tested in beef hamburgers as possible functional ingredients. Bran extracts significantly increased the indicators of antioxidant potential of meat products and their global antioxidant response (GAR) during physiological in vitro digestion. The extracts also inhibited the formation of oxidation products, hexanal and malondialdehyde, of hamburgers during their storage; however, they did not have significant effect on the growth of microorganisms. Hamburgers with 0.8% wheat bran extract demonstrated the highest antioxidant potential. Some effects of bran extracts on other quality characteristics such as pH, color, formation of metmyoglobin were also observed, however, these effects did not have negative influence on the overall sensory evaluation score of hamburgers. Consequently, the use of bran extracts in meat products may be considered as promising means of increasing oxidative product stability and enriching with functional ingredients which might possess health benefits. PMID:26753797

  11. Increased sow nutrition during midgestation affects muscle fiber development and meat quality, with no consequences on growth performance.

    PubMed

    Cerisuelo, A; Baucells, M D; Gasa, J; Coma, J; Carrión, D; Chapinal, N; Sala, R

    2009-02-01

    Pregnant sow nutrition has potential effects on the muscle fiber development of progeny in utero. A total of 199 Landrace x Large White sows from parities 0 to 6 and their offspring were used to evaluate the effects of increasing the feeding amount during midpregnancy on the muscle tissue, growth performance, and meat quality of the progeny. The experiment was divided into 2 study replicates, and in each replicate, sows were assigned to 1 of the 2 treatments: 1) sows in the control group (C sows) were fed 2.5 to 3.0 kg/d (feed: 12.1 MJ of ME/kg and 0.62% lysine) throughout gestation; and 2) sows in the high group (H sows) received an extra feed allowance of 1.5 kg/d for gilts and 2.0 kg/d for multiparous sows above the C amount from d 45 to 85 of gestation (period of secondary muscle fiber formation). Sow backfat was recorded on d 40 and 85 of gestation. Sow performance (litter size and piglet BW) at farrowing and on d 18 of lactation was measured. At weaning, pigs were divided into 5 BW groups/treatment, and progeny growth performance was measured during the nursery (n = 958) and the growing-finishing (n = 636) periods. At slaughter, carcass and meat quality traits (lean content, main cut weight, pH, Minolta color, and drip loss) were recorded from the second lightest group at weaning (BW group 4; n = 90), and samples from the longissimus thoracis muscle were taken to study muscle fiber characteristics (n = 70). The extra nutrition from d 45 to 85 of gestation did not lead to differences in litter size or piglet BW at farrowing and on d 18 of lactation. Pigs born to H mothers had fewer muscle fibers and fewer estimated primary and secondary fibers than did pigs born to C mothers (P < 0.05). However, postnatal growth performance was not consistently affected by the maternal treatment. The smaller number of muscle fibers found in the H group of pigs was associated with fewer type IIB fibers (P < 0.05) with greater cross-sectional areas (P < 0.10), which might be

  12. Interaction between Red Meat Intake and NAT2 Genotype in Increasing the Risk of Colorectal Cancer in Japanese and African Americans

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Hansong; Iwasaki, Motoki; Haiman, Christopher A.; Kono, Suminori; Wilkens, Lynne R.; Keku, Temitope O.; Berndt, Sonja I.; Tsugane, Shoichiro; Le Marchand, Loïc

    2015-01-01

    Heterocyclic aromatic amines formed in cooked meat may be an underlying mechanism for the red meat-colorectal cancer (CRC) association. These compounds require bioactivaction by N-acetyltransferase 2 (NAT2). An interaction effect between red meat consumption and NAT2 in increasing CRC risk has been inconsistently reported in whites. We investigated this interaction in two populations in which the high-activity rapid NAT2 phenotype is 10- and 2-fold more common than in whites. We meta-analyzed four studies of Japanese (2,217 cases, 3,788 controls) and three studies of African Americans (527 cases, 4,527 controls). NAT2 phenotype was inferred from an optimized seven-SNP genotyping panel. Processed and total red meat intakes were associated with an increased CRC risk in Japanese and in both ethnic groups combined (P’s ≤ 0.002). We observed an interaction between processed meat intake and NAT2 in Japanese (P = 0.04), African Americans (P = 0.02), and in both groups combined (P = 0.006). The association of processed meat with CRC was strongest among individuals with the rapid NAT2 phenotype (combined analysis, OR for highest vs. lowest quartile: 1.62, 95% CI: 1.28–2.05; Ptrend = 8.0×10−5), intermediate among those with the intermediate NAT2 phenotype (1.29, 95% CI: 1.05–1.59; Ptrend = 0.05) and null among those with the slow phenotype (Ptrend = 0.45). A similar interaction was found for NAT2 and total red meat (Pinteraction = 0.03). Our findings support a role for NAT2 in modifying the association between red meat consumption and CRC in Japanese and African Americans. PMID:26683305

  13. Interaction between Red Meat Intake and NAT2 Genotype in Increasing the Risk of Colorectal Cancer in Japanese and African Americans.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hansong; Iwasaki, Motoki; Haiman, Christopher A; Kono, Suminori; Wilkens, Lynne R; Keku, Temitope O; Berndt, Sonja I; Tsugane, Shoichiro; Le Marchand, Loïc

    2015-01-01

    Heterocyclic aromatic amines formed in cooked meat may be an underlying mechanism for the red meat-colorectal cancer (CRC) association. These compounds require bioactivaction by N-acetyltransferase 2 (NAT2). An interaction effect between red meat consumption and NAT2 in increasing CRC risk has been inconsistently reported in whites. We investigated this interaction in two populations in which the high-activity rapid NAT2 phenotype is 10- and 2-fold more common than in whites. We meta-analyzed four studies of Japanese (2,217 cases, 3,788 controls) and three studies of African Americans (527 cases, 4,527 controls). NAT2 phenotype was inferred from an optimized seven-SNP genotyping panel. Processed and total red meat intakes were associated with an increased CRC risk in Japanese and in both ethnic groups combined (P's ≤ 0.002). We observed an interaction between processed meat intake and NAT2 in Japanese (P = 0.04), African Americans (P = 0.02), and in both groups combined (P = 0.006). The association of processed meat with CRC was strongest among individuals with the rapid NAT2 phenotype (combined analysis, OR for highest vs. lowest quartile: 1.62, 95% CI: 1.28-2.05; Ptrend = 8.0×10-5), intermediate among those with the intermediate NAT2 phenotype (1.29, 95% CI: 1.05-1.59; Ptrend = 0.05) and null among those with the slow phenotype (Ptrend = 0.45). A similar interaction was found for NAT2 and total red meat (Pinteraction = 0.03). Our findings support a role for NAT2 in modifying the association between red meat consumption and CRC in Japanese and African Americans. PMID:26683305

  14. Pathways of iron absorption.

    PubMed

    Conrad, Marcel E; Umbreit, Jay N

    2002-01-01

    Iron is vital for all living organisms but excess iron can be lethal because it facilitates free radical formation. Thus iron absorption is carefully regulated to maintain an equilibrium between absorption and body loss of iron. In countries where meat is a significant part of the diet, most body iron is derived from dietary heme because heme binds few of the dietary chelators that bind inorganic iron. Uptake of heme into enterocytes occurs as a metalloporphyrin in an endosomal process. Intracellular iron is released from heme by heme oxygenase to enter plasma as inorganic iron. Ferric iron is absorbed via a beta(3) integrin and mobilferrin pathway (IMP) which is unshared with other nutritional metals. Ferrous iron uptake is facilitated by a DMT-1 pathway which is shared with manganese. In the iron deficient gut, large quantities of both mobilferrin and DMT-1 are found in goblet cells and intraluminal mucins suggesting that they are secreted with mucin into the intestinal lumen to bind iron to facilitate uptake by the cells. In the cytoplasm, IMP and DMT associate in a large protein complex called paraferritin which serves as a ferrireductase. Paraferritin solublizes iron binding proteins and reduces iron to make iron available for production of iron containing proteins such as heme. Iron uptake by intestinal absorptive cells is regulated by the iron concentration within the cell. Except in hemochromatosis it remains in equilibrium with total body stores via transferrin receptors on the basolateral membrane of absorptive cells. Increased intracellular iron either up-regulates or satiates iron binding proteins on regulatory proteins to alter their location in the intestinal mucosa. PMID:12547224

  15. Iron control in west Texas sour-gas wells provides sustained production increases

    SciTech Connect

    Walker, M.L.; Dill, W.R.; Besler, M.R.; McFatridge, D.G. )

    1991-05-01

    Permian Basin operators have recorded sustained production increases in oil wells by preventing precipitation of iron sulfide and other sulfur-containing species. This improvement has resulted largely from cleaning out tubing before acidizing and from preventing the precipitation of ferrous sulfide and the formation of elemental sulfur by simultaneous use of iron chelants and sulfide-control agents. Previously used methods gave only temporary production increases that terminated when iron dissolved by the stimulation acid reprecipitated in the pay zone and damage the formation after the stimulation acid was spent. This paper describes a method to optimize iron sulfide control, methods to minimize reprecipitation, and case histories from the Permian Basin that show improved methods to control iron in sour-well environments.

  16. Effect of increasing concentrations of zinc on the absorption of iron from iron-fortified milk.

    PubMed

    Olivares, Manuel; Wiedeman, Alejandra; Bolívar, Lorena; López de Romaña, Daniel; Pizarro, Fernando

    2012-12-01

    The cofortification of milk with iron (Fe) and zinc (Zn) is a strategy used to prevent these deficiencies during childhood. Given that Zn can negatively interact with iron in aqueous solutions, the objective of the present study was to determine the effect of Zn on Fe absorption of milk fortified with Fe and Zn. Twenty-eight women between 33 and 47 years of age, with contraception and a negative pregnancy test, participated in one of two absorption studies. They received on four different days, after an overnight fast, 200 mL of milk (26 % fat) fortified with 10 mg Fe/L, as (A) ferrous sulfate, or the same milk but with graded doses of added Zn, as Zn sulfate of (B) 5, (C) 10, and (D) 20 mg/L (study 1, n = 15). In study 2 (n = 13), subjects received the same milk formulations, but these were also fortified with ascorbic acid (70 mg/L). Milk was labeled with radioisotopes ⁵⁹Fe or ⁵⁵Fe, and the absorption of iron was measured by erythrocyte incorporation of radioactive Fe. The geometric mean and range of ±1 SD of Fe absorption in study 1 were as follows: formula A = 6.0 % (2.8-13.0 %); B = 6.7 % (3.3-13.6 %); C = 5.4 % (2.2-13.2 %); and D = 5.2 % (2.8-10.0 %) (ANOVA for repeated measures, not significant). For study 2, data are as follows: 8.2 % (3.6-18.7 %); B = 6.4 % (2.5-16.4 %); C = 7.7 % (3.2-18.9 %); and D = 5.2 (1.8-14.8 %) (ANOVA for repeated measures, not significant). In conclusion, according to the results from this study, it appears that the addition of zinc up to 20 mg/L does not significantly inhibit iron absorption from milk fortified with 10 mg/L of iron. PMID:22760642

  17. Ambivalence towards meat.

    PubMed

    Berndsen, Mariëtte; van der Pligt, Joop

    2004-02-01

    The purpose of the present study was to examine whether differences in ambivalence between meat eaters affect their attitude towards eating meat, the belief structure underlying these attitudes, meat consumption, and intentions to reduce consumption in the future. Not surprisingly, more ambivalent meat eaters held a less positive attitude towards meat as compared to less ambivalent meat eaters. Moreover, the belief structure of the two groups also differed: More ambivalent persons associated the consumption of meat with slightly negative feelings, morally unacceptable issues, and risks for both their health and the environment. In contrast, less ambivalent meat eaters reported positive affective beliefs, did not emphasize moral issues, and perceived less risk. Results highlight the role of affective beliefs as a predictor of both attitude and ambivalence. Ambivalence, in turn, was a predictor of actual meat consumption; i.e. increased ambivalence was related to reduced meat consumption. Moreover, more ambivalent meat eaters intended to further reduce their meat consumption in the future. Practical and theoretical implications of these results are discussed. PMID:15036785

  18. A higher proportion of iron-rich leafy vegetables in a typical Burkinabe maize meal does not increase the amount of iron absorbed in young women.

    PubMed

    Cercamondi, Colin I; Icard-Vernière, Christèle; Egli, Ines M; Vernay, Marlène; Hama, Fatoumata; Brouwer, Inge D; Zeder, Christophe; Berger, Jacques; Hurrell, Richard F; Mouquet-Rivier, Claire

    2014-09-01

    Food-to-food fortification can be a promising approach to improve the low dietary iron intake and bioavailability from monotonous diets based on a small number of staple plant foods. In Burkina Faso, the common diet consists of a thick, cereal-based paste consumed with sauces composed of mainly green leaves, such as amaranth and jute leaves. Increasing the quantity of leaves in the sauces substantially increases their iron concentration. To evaluate whether increasing the quantity of leaves in sauces would provide additional bioavailable iron, an iron absorption study in 18 young women was conducted in Zurich, Switzerland. Burkinabe composite test meals consisting of the maize paste tô accompanied by an iron-improved amaranth sauce, an iron-improved jute sauce, or a traditional amaranth sauce were provided as multiple meals twice a day for 2 consecutive days. Iron absorption was measured as erythrocyte incorporation of stable iron isotopes. Mean fractional iron absorption from maize paste consumed with an iron-improved amaranth sauce (4.9%) did not differ from the same meal consumed with an iron-improved jute sauce (4.9%; P = 0.9), resulting in a similar quantity of total iron absorbed (679 vs. 578 μg; P = 0.3). Mean fractional iron absorption from maize paste accompanied by a traditional amaranth sauce (7.4%) was significantly higher than that from the other 2 meal types (P < 0.05), but the quantity of total iron absorbed was similar (591 μg; P = 0.4 and 0.7, respectively). A food-to-food fortification approach based on an increase in leafy vegetables does not provide additional bioavailable iron, presumably due to the high phenolic compound concentration of the leaves tested. Alternative measures, such as adding iron absorption enhancers to the sauces, need to be investigated to improve iron nutrition from Burkinabe maize meals. PMID:25031328

  19. THE IRON PROJECT & Iron Opacity Project: Evidence of increased opacity for solar plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eissner, W.; Hala, -; Nahar, S.; Pradhan, A.; Bailey, J.

    2015-05-01

    The recently reported measurement1 of opacity of iron plasma at high energy density similar to that in the solar convection zone near the boundary of radiative zone shows enhanced continuum, and the integrated opacity is about 7% higher than that from prediction using the existing Opacity Project (OP) data for photoionization and oscillator strengths. This agrees toward 15% increment of opacity needed to explain the lower abundance of elements determined by 3D spectral analysis of solar observation. However, our later large-scale calculations that included strong resonances due to excitations to highly excited cores states for Fe XVII indicated significant amount of opacity missing in the OP data. We will present our latest findings on the importance of highly excited states on the opacity and how proper inclusion of resonances could enhance the continuum. These will have important impact on the composition of the Sun, the benchmark for astronomical objects. We will also present in progress work under the Iron Project on the collision strengths of Si IX obtained using relativistic effects in the Breit-Pauli R-matrix method and transition probabilities of fine structure transitions in Ti I.*Partial support: NSF, DO.

  20. Risk of Oxidative Damage to Bone from Increased Iron Stores During Space Flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zwart, S. R.; Smith, S. M.

    2014-01-01

    Iron stores are increased secondary to neocytolysis of red blood cells and a high dietary intake of iron during space flight. This raises concerns about the risk of excess iron causing oxidative damage in many tissues, including bone. Biomarkers of iron status, oxidative damage, and bone resorption during space flight were analyzed for 23 (16 M/7 F) International Space Station crewmembers as part of the Nutrition SMO project. Up to 5 in-flight blood samples and 24-h urine pools were collected over the course of the 4-6 month missions. Serum iron increased slightly during space flight and was decreased at landing (P < 0.0004). An increase in serum ferritin early in flight (217% in women and 68% in men, P < 0.0004), returning to preflight concentrations at landing, and a decrease in transferrin and transferrin receptors during flight indicated that a transient increase in iron stores occurred. No inflammatory response was observed during flight. The oxidative damage markers 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine and prostaglandin F(sub 2(alpha)) were positively correlated (both P < 0.001) with serum ferritin. A greater area under the curve for ferritin during flight was correlated with greater changes in bone mineral density of several bone regions after flight (1). In a separate study (2), a ground-based investigation was conducted that examined the combined effects of radiation exposure and iron overload on sensitivity to radiation injury in several physiological systems in 12-wk male Sprague-Dawley rats. The rats were acclimated to an adequate iron diet (45 mg iron (ferric citrate)/kg diet) for 3 wk and then assigned to one of four groups: adequate iron (Fe) diet/no radiation, adequate Fe diet/ radiation, moderately high Fe diet (650 mg Fe (ferric citrate)/kg diet)/no radiation, and moderately high Fe diet/radiation. Animals remained on the assigned diet for 4 wk. Starting on day 14 of experimental diet treatment, animals were exposed to a fractionated dose (0.375 Gy) of Cs

  1. Iron

    MedlinePlus

    Iron is a mineral that our bodies need for many functions. For example, iron is part of hemoglobin, a protein which carries ... It helps our muscles store and use oxygen. Iron is also part of many other proteins and ...

  2. In vivo MR evaluation of age-related increases in brain iron

    SciTech Connect

    Bartzokis, G.; Mintz, J.; Sultzer, D.; Marx, P.; Herzberg, J.S.; Phelan, C.K.

    1994-06-01

    To assess the validity of an MR method of evaluating tissue iron. The difference between the transverse relaxation rate (R{sub 2}) measured with a high-field MR instrument and the R{sub 2} measured with a lower field instrument defines a measure termed the field-dependent R{sub 2} increase (FDRI). Previous in vivo and in vitro studies indicated that FDRI is a specific measure of tissue iron stores (ferritin). T2 relaxation times were obtained using two clinical MR instruments operating at 0.5 T and 1.5 T. T2 relaxation times were measured in the frontal white matter, caudate nucleus, putamen, and globus pallidus of 20 health adult male volunteers with an age range of 20 to 81 years. R{sub 2} was calculated as the reciprocal of T2 relaxation time. These in vivo MR results were correlated with previously published postmortem data on age-related increases of nonheme iron levels. The FDRI was very highly correlated with published brain iron levels for the four regions examined. In the age range examined, robust and highly significant age-related increases in FDRI were observed in the caudate and putamen. The correlations of age and FDRI in the globus pallidus and white matter were significantly lower and did not have statistical significance. The data provide additional evidence that FDRI is a specific measure of tissue iron stores. The data also show that age-related increases in tissue iron stores can be quantified in vivo despite significant age-related processes that oppose the increase in R{sub 2} caused by iron. These results are relevant to the investigation of neurodegenerative processes in which iron may catalyze toxic free-radical reactions. 63 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs.

  3. Prenatal Iron Deficiency in Guinea Pigs Increases Locomotor Activity but Does Not Influence Learning and Memory

    PubMed Central

    Fiset, Catherine; Rioux, France M.; Surette, Marc E.; Fiset, Sylvain

    2015-01-01

    The objective of the current study was to determine whether prenatal iron deficiency induced during gestation in guinea pigs affected locomotor activity and learning and memory processes in the progeny. Dams were fed either iron-deficient anemic or iron-sufficient diets throughout gestation and lactation. After weaning, all pups were fed an iron-sufficient diet. On postnatal day 24 and 40, the pups’ locomotor activity was observed within an open-field test, and from postnatal day 25 to 40, their learning and memory processes were assessed within a Morris Water Maze. The behavioural and cognitive tests revealed that the iron deficient pup group had increased locomotor activity, but solely on postnatal day 40, and that there were no group differences in the Morris Water Maze. In the general discussion, we propose that prenatal iron deficiency induces an increase in nervousness due to anxiety in the progeny, which, in the current study, resulted in an increase of locomotor activity. PMID:26186713

  4. Meat Feeding Restricts Rapid Cold Hardening Response and Increases Thermal Activity Thresholds of Adult Blow Flies, Calliphora vicina (Diptera: Calliphoridae)

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Virtually all temperate insects survive the winter by entering a physiological state of reduced metabolic activity termed diapause. However, there is increasing evidence that climate change is disrupting the diapause response resulting in non-diapause life stages encountering periods of winter cold. This is a significant problem for adult life stages in particular, as they must remain mobile, periodically feed, and potentially initiate reproductive development at a time when resources should be diverted to enhance stress tolerance. Here we present the first evidence of protein/meat feeding restricting rapid cold hardening (RCH) ability and increasing low temperature activity thresholds. No RCH response was noted in adult female blow flies (Calliphora vicina Robineau-Desvoidy) fed a sugar, water and liver (SWL) diet, while a strong RCH response was seen in females fed a diet of sugar and water (SW) only. The RCH response in SW flies was induced at temperatures as high as 10°C, but was strongest following 3h at 0°C. The CTmin (loss of coordinated movement) and chill coma (final appendage twitch) temperature of SWL females (-0.3 ± 0.5°C and -4.9 ± 0.5°C, respectively) was significantly higher than for SW females (-3.2 ± 0.8°C and -8.5 ± 0.6°C). We confirmed this was not directly the result of altered extracellular K+, as activity thresholds of alanine-fed adults were not significantly different from SW flies. Instead we suggest the loss of cold tolerance is more likely the result of diverting resource allocation to egg development. Between 2009 and 2013 winter air temperatures in Birmingham, UK, fell below the CTmin of SW and SWL flies on 63 and 195 days, respectively, suggesting differential exposure to chill injury depending on whether adults had access to meat or not. We conclude that disruption of diapause could significantly impact on winter survival through loss of synchrony in the timing of active feeding and reproductive development with favourable

  5. Meat Processing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Legacy, Jim; And Others

    This publication provides an introduction to meat processing for adult students in vocational and technical education programs. Organized in four chapters, the booklet provides a brief overview of the meat processing industry and the techniques of meat processing and butchering. The first chapter introduces the meat processing industry and…

  6. Postgraduate Symposium: Long-chain n-3 PUFA: intakes in the UK and the potential of a chicken meat prototype to increase them.

    PubMed

    Gibbs, Rachael A; Rymer, Caroline; Givens, D Ian

    2010-02-01

    With the wide acceptance of the long-chain (LC) n-3 PUFA EPA and DHA as important nutrients playing a role in the amelioration of certain diseases, efforts to understand factors affecting intakes of these fatty acids along with potential strategies to increase them are vital. Widespread aversion to oil-rich fish, the richest natural source of EPA and DHA, highlights both the highly suboptimal current intakes in males and females across all age-groups and the critical need for an alternative supply of EPA and DHA. Poultry meat is a popular and versatile food eaten in large quantities relative to other meats and is open to increased LC n-3 PUFA content through manipulation of the chicken's diet to modify fatty acid deposition and therefore lipid composition of the edible tissues. It is therefore seen as a favourable prototype food for increasing human dietary supply of LC n-3 PUFA. Enrichment of chicken breast and leg tissue is well established using fish oil or fishmeal, but concerns about sustainability have led to recent consideration of algal biomass as an alternative source of LC n-3 PUFA. Further advances have also been made in the quality of the resulting meat, including achieving acceptable flavour and storage properties as well as understanding the impact of cooking on the retention of fatty acids. Based on these considerations it may be concluded that EPA- and DHA-enriched poultry meat has a very positive potential future in the food chain. PMID:19954567

  7. Iron fortification of whole wheat flour reduces iron deficiency and iron deficiency anemia and increases body iron stores in Indian school-aged children.

    PubMed

    Muthayya, Sumithra; Thankachan, Prashanth; Hirve, Siddhivinayak; Amalrajan, Vani; Thomas, Tinku; Lubree, Himangi; Agarwal, Dhiraj; Srinivasan, Krishnamachari; Hurrell, Richard F; Yajnik, Chittaranjan S; Kurpad, Anura V

    2012-11-01

    Wheat is the primary staple food for nearly one-third of the world's population. NaFeEDTA is the only iron (Fe) compound suitable for fortifying high extraction flours. We tested the hypothesis that NaFeEDTA-fortified, whole wheat flour reduces Fe deficiency (ID) and improves body Fe stores (BIS) and cognitive performance in Indian children. In a randomized, double-blind, controlled, school feeding trial, 6- to 15-y-old, Fe-depleted children (n = 401) were randomly assigned to either a daily wheat-based lunch meal fortified with 6 mg of Fe as NaFeEDTA or an otherwise identical unfortified control meal. Hemoglobin (Hb) and Fe status were measured at baseline, 3.5 mo, and 7 mo. Cognitive performance was evaluated at baseline and 7 mo in children (n = 170) at one of the study sites. After 7 mo, the prevalence of ID and ID anemia in the treatment group significantly decreased from 62 to 21% and 18 to 9%, respectively. There was a time x treatment interaction for Hb, serum ferritin, transferrin receptor, zinc protoporphyrin, and BIS (all P < 0.0001). Changes in BIS differed between the groups; it increased in the treatment group (0.04 ± 0.04 mmol/kg body weight) and decreased in the control group (-0.02 ± 0.04 mmol/kg body weight) (P < 0.0001). In sensory tests, NaFeEDTA-fortified flour could not be differentiated from unfortified flour. There were no significant differences in cognitive performance tests between the groups. NaFeEDTA-fortified wheat flour markedly improved BIS and reduced ID in Fe-depleted children. It may be recommended for wider use in national school feeding programs. PMID:23014487

  8. A long-term high-fat diet changes iron distribution in the body, increasing iron accumulation specifically in the mouse spleen.

    PubMed

    Yamano, Noriko; Ikeda, Yasumasa; Sakama, Minoru; Izawa-Ishizawa, Yuki; Kihira, Yoshitaka; Ishizawa, Keisuke; Miyamoto, Licht; Tomita, Shuhei; Tsuchiya, Koichiro; Tamaki, Toshiaki

    2015-01-01

    Although iron is an essential trace metal, its presence in excess causes oxidative stress in the human body. Recent studies have indicated that iron storage is a risk factor for type 2 diabetes mellitus. Dietary iron restriction or iron chelation ameliorates symptoms of type 2 diabetes in mouse models. However, whether iron content in the body changes with the development of diabetes is unknown. Here, we investigated the dynamics of iron accumulation and changes in iron absorption-related genes in mice that developed obesity and diabetes by consuming a high-fat diet (HFD-fed mice). HFD-fed mice (18-20 wk) were compared with control mice for hematologic features, serum ferritin levels, and iron contents in the gastrocnemius muscle, heart, epididymal fat, testis, liver, duodenum, and spleen. In addition, the spleen was examined histologically. Iron absorption-related gene expression in the liver and duodenum was also examined. Hemoglobin and serum ferritin levels were increased in HFD-fed mice. The HFD-fed mice showed iron accumulation in the spleen, but not in the heart or liver. Increased percentages of the splenic red pulp and macrophages were observed in HFD-fed mice and iron accumulation in the spleen was found mainly in the splenic red pulp. The HFD-fed mice also showed decreased iron content in the duodenum. The mRNA expression of divalent metal transporter-1 (DMT-1), an iron absorption-related gene, was elevated in the duodenum of HFD-fed mice. These results indicate that iron accumulation (specifically accumulation in the spleen) is enhanced by the development of type 2 diabetes induced by HFD. PMID:25994136

  9. Meat and bone meal and mineral feed additives may increase the risk of oral prion disease transmission

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Johnson, Christopher J.; McKenzie, Debbie; Pedersen, Joel A.; Aiken, Judd M.

    2011-01-01

    Ingestion of prion-contaminated materials is postulated to be a primary route of prion disease transmission. Binding of prions to soil (micro)particles dramatically enhances peroral disease transmission relative to unbound prions, and it was hypothesized that micrometer-sized particles present in other consumed materials may affect prion disease transmission via the oral route of exposure. Small, insoluble particles are present in many substances, including soil, human foods, pharmaceuticals, and animal feeds. It is known that meat and bone meal (MBM), a feed additive believed responsible for the spread of bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE), contains particles smaller than 20 μm and that the pathogenic prion protein binds to MBM. The potentiation of disease transmission via the oral route by exposure to MBM or three micrometer-sized mineral feed additives was determined. Data showed that when the disease agent was bound to any of the tested materials, the penetrance of disease was increased compared to unbound prions. Our data suggest that in feed or other prion-contaminated substances consumed by animals or, potentially, humans, the addition of MBM or the presence of microparticles could heighten risks of prion disease acquisition.

  10. Meat and bone meal and mineral feed additives may increase the risk of oral prion disease transmission

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Johnson, C.J.; McKenzie, D.; Pedersen, J.A.; Aiken, Judd M.

    2011-01-01

    Ingestion of prion-contaminated materials is postulated to be a primary route of prion disease transmission. Binding of prions to soil (micro)particles dramatically enhances peroral disease transmission relative to unbound prions, and it was hypothesized that micrometer-sized particles present in other consumed materials may affect prion disease transmission via the oral route of exposure. Small, insoluble particles are present in many substances, including soil, human foods, pharmaceuticals, and animal feeds. It is known that meat and bone meal (MBM), a feed additive believed responsible for the spread of bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE), contains particles smaller than 20 ??m and that the pathogenic prion protein binds to MBM. The potentiation of disease transmission via the oral route by exposure to MBM or three micrometer-sized mineral feed additives was determined. Data showed that when the disease agent was bound to any of the tested materials, the penetrance of disease was increased compared to unbound prions. Our data suggest that in feed or other prion-contaminated substances consumed by animals or, potentially, humans, the addition of MBM or the presence of microparticles could heighten risks of prion disease acquisition. Copyright ?? 2011 Taylor & Francis Group, LLC.

  11. Marked increase of calcium uptake in the ATP-depleted red cells of patients with iron deficiency

    SciTech Connect

    Shimoda, M.; Yawata, Y.

    1985-05-01

    Calcium (Ca) uptake was markedly increased in ATP-depleted red cells of patients with iron deficiency anemia (IDA) compared to ATP- depleted normal red cells. The extent of increased Ca uptake was related to the severity of iron deficiency as judged by decreased mean cell volume. Moreover, the increased Ca uptake returned to normal levels after oral iron supplementation therapy. The net calcium content of fresh red cells from iron-deficient individuals was the same as in red cells from normal subjects. Sodium influx and ferric ion uptake appeared to be virtually unaffected in the iron deficient red cells.

  12. No evidence for increased brain iron deposition in patients with ischemic white matter disease.

    PubMed

    Gattringer, Thomas; Khalil, Michael; Langkammer, Christian; Jehna, Margit; Pichler, Alexander; Pinter, Daniela; Kneihsl, Markus; Petrovic, Katja; Ropele, Stefan; Fazekas, Franz; Enzinger, Christian

    2016-09-01

    Besides specific iron accumulation in some neurodegenerative disorders, increased iron deposition in cerebral deep gray matter (DGM) is found in multiple sclerosis. As this is considered largely a white matter (WM) disease, we speculated that patients with more severe ischemic WM hyperintensities (WMH) might also have an increased iron concentration in DGM structures and tested this assumption by using magnetic resonance imaging-based quantitative R2* relaxometry. WMH severity was measured in 61 patients with acute transient neurological symptoms (mean age: 71.5 ± 8.3 years) undergoing 3-Tesla magnetic resonance imaging. Despite a 6-year higher age of patients with more severe (i.e., early confluent or confluent) WMH, their DGM R2* rates did not differ from patients with punctate or no WMH. In the globus pallidum, R2* rates were even lower in patients with severe WMH. WMH volume was not correlated with R2* levels in any of the analyzed DGM structures. These findings argue against WM damage per se causing increased DGM iron deposition in multiple sclerosis and suggest no role of iron accumulation in ischemic small vessel disease. PMID:27459926

  13. Copper-2 Ingestion, Plus Increased Meat Eating Leading to Increased Copper Absorption, Are Major Factors Behind the Current Epidemic of Alzheimer's Disease.

    PubMed

    Brewer, George J

    2015-12-01

    It has become clear that copper toxicity is playing a major role in Alzheimer's disease; but why is the brain copper toxicity with cognition loss in Alzheimer's disease so much different clinically than brain copper toxicity in Wilson's disease, which results in a movement disorder? Furthermore, why is the inorganic copper of supplement pills and in drinking water so much more damaging to cognition than the organic copper in food? A recent paper, which shows that almost all food copper is copper-1, that is the copper-2 of foods reverts to the reduced copper-1 form at death or harvest, gives new insight into these questions. The body has an intestinal transport system for copper-1, Ctr1, which channels copper-1 through the liver and into safe channels. Ctr1 cannot absorb copper-2, and some copper-2 bypasses the liver, ends up in the blood quickly, and is toxic to cognition. Humans evolved to handle copper-1 safely, but not copper-2. Alzheimer's is at least in part, a copper-2 toxicity disease, while Wilson's is a general copper overload disease. In this review, we will show that the epidemiology of the Alzheimer's epidemic occurring in developed, but not undeveloped countries, fits with the epidemiology of exposure to copper-2 ingestion leached from copper plumbing and from copper supplement pill ingestion. Increased meat eating in developed countries is also a factor, because it increases copper absorption, and thus over all copper exposure. PMID:26633489

  14. IRON

    EPA Science Inventory

    The document surveys the effects of organic and inorganic iron that are relevant to humans and their environment. The biology and chemistry of iron are complex and only partially understood. Iron participates in oxidation reduction processes that not only affect its geochemical m...

  15. Increased oxidative and nitrosative reactions during digestion could contribute to the association between well-done red meat consumption and colorectal cancer.

    PubMed

    Van Hecke, Thomas; Vossen, Els; Hemeryck, Lieselot Y; Vanden Bussche, Julie; Vanhaecke, Lynn; De Smet, Stefaan

    2015-11-15

    Uncured and nitrite-cured pork were subjected, raw, cooked (65 °C, 15 min) or overcooked (90 °C, 30 min), to an in vitro digestion model, which includes mouth, stomach, duodenum, and colon phases. Heating of uncured meat resulted in a pronounced increase in lipid and protein oxidation products throughout digestion. Nitrite-curing had an antioxidant effect during digestion, but this effect disappeared when the meat was overcooked, resulting in up to ninefold higher 4-hydroxy-2-nonenal concentrations compared with digested nitrite-cured raw and cooked pork. Colonic digesta contained significantly higher concentrations of the NOC-specific DNA adduct O(6)-carboxy-methylguanine when pork underwent a more intense heating procedure, independent of nitrite-curing, depending strongly on the fecal inoculum used. Since processed meats are usually nitrite-cured, the present study suggests that overcooking processed meat is likely to result in the formation of genotoxic compounds during digestion and should, therefore, be avoided. PMID:25976994

  16. Iron depletion increases manganese uptake and potentiates apoptosis through ER stress

    PubMed Central

    Seo, Young Ah; Li, Yuan; Wessling-Resnick, Marianne

    2013-01-01

    Iron deficiency is a risk factor for manganese (Mn) accumulation. Excess Mn promotes neurotoxicity but the mechanisms involved and whether iron depletion might affect these pathways is unknown. To study Mn intoxication in vivo, iron deficient and control rats were intranasally instilled with 60 mg MnCl2/kg over 3 weeks. TUNEL staining of olfactory tissue revealed that Mn exposure induced apoptosis and that iron deficiency potentiated this effect. In vitro studies using the dopaminergic SH-SY5Y cell line confirmed that Mn-induced apoptosis was enhanced by iron depletion using the iron chelator desferrioxamine. Mn has been reported to induce apoptosis through endoplasmic reticulum stress. In SH-SY5Y cells, Mn exposure induced the ER stress genes glucose regulated protein 94 (GRP94) and C/EBP homologous protein (CHOP). Increased phosphorylation of the eukaryotic translation initiation factor 2α (phospho-eIF2α) was also observed. These effects were accompanied by the activation of ER resident enzyme caspase-12, and the downstream apoptotic effector caspase-3 was also activated. All of the Mn-induced responses were enhanced by DFO treatment. Inhibitors of ER stress and caspases significantly blocked Mn-induced apoptosis and its potentiation by DFO, indicating that ER stress and subsequent caspase activation underlie cell death. Taken together, these data reveal that Mn induces neuronal cell death through ER stress and the UPR response pathway and that this apoptotic effect is potentiated by iron deficiency most likely through upregulation of DMT1. PMID:23764342

  17. Thermal treatment for increasing magnetostrictive response of rare earth-iron alloy rods

    DOEpatents

    Verhoeven, J.D.; McMasters, O.D.

    1989-07-18

    Magnetostrictive rods formed from rare earth-iron alloys are subjected to a short time heat treatment to increase their magnetostrictive response under compression. The heat treatment is preferably carried out at a temperature of from 900 to 1,000 C for 20 minutes to six hours.

  18. Thermal treatment for increasing magnetostrictive response of rare earth-iron alloy rods

    DOEpatents

    Verhoeven, John D.; McMasters, O. D.

    1989-07-18

    Magnetostrictive rods formed from rare earth-iron alloys are subjected to a short time heat treatment to increase their Magnetostrictive response under compression. The heat treatment is preferably carried out at a temperature of from 900.degree. to 1000.degree. C. for 20 minutes to six hours.

  19. Update on meat irradiation

    SciTech Connect

    Olson, D.G.

    1997-12-01

    The irradiation of meat and poultry in the United States is intended to eliminate pathogenic bacteria from raw product, preferably after packaging to prevent recontamination. Irradiation will also increase the shelf life of raw meat and poultry products approximately two to three times the normal shelf life. Current clearances in the United States are for poultry (fresh or frozen) at doses from 1.5 to 3.0 kGy and for fresh pork at doses from 0.3 to 1.0 kGy. A petition for the clearance of all red meat was submitted to the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) in July 1994. The petition is for clearances of fresh meat at doses from 1.5 to 4.5 kGy and for frozen meat at {approximately}2.5 to 7.5 kGy. Clearance for red meat is expected before the end of 1997. There are 28 countries that have food irradiation clearances, of which 18 countries have clearances for meat or poultry. However, there are no uniform categories or approved doses for meat and poultry among the countries that could hamper international trade of irradiated meat and poultry.

  20. Replacing electrolytic iron in a fortification-mix with NaFeEDTA increases both iron and zinc availabilities in traditional African maize porridges.

    PubMed

    Kruger, Johanita

    2016-08-15

    While replacing electrolytic iron with NaFeEDTA in multi-micronutrient fortification-mixes is a popular option, there is no information about the effect on the iron and zinc availabilities in African staple foods. This study evaluated the effects of adding a multi-micronutrient fortification-mix, with no iron, electrolytic iron or NaFeEDTA on the availabilities of iron and zinc from thick and fermented special-grade maize porridges using a Caco-2 cell model. Replacing electrolytic iron with NaFeEDTA significantly (p ⩽ 0.05) increased iron and, importantly zinc, availabilities in both the thick (2.16% vs. 1.45% and 2.51% vs. 2.29%, respectively) and fermented (3.35% vs. 2.66% and 3.04% vs. 2.61%, respectively) porridges. Some of the NaFeEDTA complexes perhaps partially dissociated because of pH changes during simulated digestion, binding with zinc and increasing its availability. NaFeEDTA in a multi-micronutrient fortification-mix, added to less refined, high phytate maize meal, would be more effective than electrolytic iron in addressing both iron and zinc deficiencies in low socio-economic populations of sub-Saharan Africa. PMID:27006207

  1. Increased expression of host iron-binding proteins precedes iron accumulation and calcification of primary lung lesions in experimental tuberculosis in the guinea pig

    PubMed Central

    Basaraba, Randall J.; Bielefeldt-Ohmann, Helle; Eschelbach, Ellie K.; Reisenhauer, Claire; Tolnay, Airn E.; C.Taraba, Lauren; Shanley, Crystal A.; Smith, Erin A.; Bedwell, Cathy L.; Chlipala, Elizabeth A.; Orme, Ian M.

    2008-01-01

    The growth and virulence of Mycobacterium tuberculosis depends on its ability to scavenge host iron, an essential and limited micronutrient in vivo. In this study we show that ferric iron accumulates both intra- and extra-cellularly in the primary lung lesions of guinea pigs aerosol-infected with the H37Rv strain of Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Iron accumulated within macrophages at the periphery of the primary granulomatous lesions while extra-cellular ferric iron was concentrated in areas of lesion necrosis. Accumulation of iron within primary lesions was preceded by an increase in expression of heavy chain (H) ferritin, lactoferrin and receptors for transferrin, primarily by macrophages and granulocytes. The increased expression of intra-cellular H ferritin and extra-cellular lactoferrin, more so than transferrin receptor, paralleled the development of necrosis within primary lesions. The deposition of extra-cellular ferric iron within necrotic foci coincided with the accumulation of calcium and phosphorus and other cations in the form of dystrophic calcification. Primary lung lesions from guinea pigs vaccinated with Mycobactrium bovis BCG prior to experimental infection, had reduced iron accumulation as well as H ferritin, lactoferrin and transferrin receptor expression. The amelioration of primary lesion necrosis and dystrophic calcification by BCG vaccination was coincident with the lack of extra-cellular ferric iron and lactoferrin accumulation. These data demonstrate that BCG vaccination ameliorates primary lesion necrosis, dystrophic mineralization and iron accumulation, in part by down-regulating the expression of macrophage H ferritin, lactoferrin and transferrin receptors, in vivo. PMID:17942369

  2. Dephytinisation with Intrinsic Wheat Phytase and Iron Fortification Significantly Increase Iron Absorption from Fonio (Digitaria exilis) Meals in West African Women

    PubMed Central

    Moretti, Diego; Schuth, Stephan; Egli, Ines; Zimmermann, Michael B.; Brouwer, Inge D.

    2013-01-01

    Low iron and high phytic acid content make fonio based meals a poor source of bioavailable iron. Phytic acid degradation in fonio porridge using whole grain cereals as phytase source and effect on iron bioavailability when added to iron fortified fonio meals were investigated. Grains, nuts and seeds collected in Mali markets were screened for phytic acid and phytase activity. We performed an iron absorption study in Beninese women (n = 16), using non-dephytinised fonio porridge (FFP) and dephytinised fonio porridge (FWFP; 75% fonio-25% wheat), each fortified with 57Fe or 58Fe labeled FeSO4. Iron absorption was quantified by measuring the erythrocyte incorporation of stable iron isotopes. Phytic acid varied from 0.39 (bambara nut) to 4.26 g/100 g DM (pumpkin seed), with oilseeds values higher than grains and nuts. Phytase activity ranged from 0.17±1.61 (fonio) to 2.9±1.3 phytase unit (PU) per g (whole wheat). Phytic acid was almost completely degraded in FWFP after 60 min of incubation (pH≈5.0, 50°C). Phytate∶iron molar ratios decreased from 23.7∶1 in FFP to 2.7∶1 in FWFP. Iron fortification further reduced phytate∶iron molar ratio to 1.9∶1 in FFP and 0.3∶1 in FWFP, respectively. Geometric mean (95% CI) iron absorption significantly increased from 2.6% (0.8–7.8) in FFP to 8.3% (3.8–17.9) in FWFP (P<0.0001). Dephytinisation of fonio porridge with intrinsic wheat phytase increased fractional iron absorption 3.2 times, suggesting it could be a possible strategy to decrease PA in cereal-based porridges. PMID:24124445

  3. Iron deprivation results in a rapid but not sustained increase of the expression of genes involved in iron metabolism and sulfate uptake in tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) seedlings.

    PubMed

    Paolacci, Anna Rita; Celletti, Silvia; Catarcione, Giulio; Hawkesford, Malcolm J; Astolfi, Stefania; Ciaffi, Mario

    2014-01-01

    Characterization of the relationship between sulfur and iron in both Strategy I and Strategy II plants, has proven that low sulfur availability often limits plant capability to cope with iron shortage. Here it was investigated whether the adaptation to iron deficiency in tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) plants was associated with an increased root sulfate uptake and translocation capacity, and modified dynamics of total sulfur and thiols accumulation between roots and shoots. Most of the tomato sulfate transporter genes belonging to Groups 1, 2, and 4 were significantly upregulated in iron-deficient roots, as it commonly occurs under S-deficient conditions. The upregulation of the two high affinity sulfate transporter genes, SlST1.1 and SlST1.2, by iron deprivation clearly suggests an increased root capability to take up sulfate. Furthermore, the upregulation of the two low affinity sulfate transporter genes SlST2.1 and SlST4.1 in iron-deficient roots, accompanied by a substantial accumulation of total sulfur and thiols in shoots of iron-starved plants, likely supports an increased root-to-shoot translocation of sulfate. Results suggest that tomato plants exposed to iron-deficiency are able to change sulfur metabolic balance mimicking sulfur starvation responses to meet the increased demand for methionine and its derivatives, allowing them to cope with this stress. PMID:24119307

  4. Copper-2 Ingestion, Plus Increased Meat Eating Leading to Increased Copper Absorption, Are Major Factors Behind the Current Epidemic of Alzheimer’s Disease

    PubMed Central

    Brewer, George J.

    2015-01-01

    It has become clear that copper toxicity is playing a major role in Alzheimer’s disease; but why is the brain copper toxicity with cognition loss in Alzheimer’s disease so much different clinically than brain copper toxicity in Wilson’s disease, which results in a movement disorder? Furthermore, why is the inorganic copper of supplement pills and in drinking water so much more damaging to cognition than the organic copper in food? A recent paper, which shows that almost all food copper is copper-1, that is the copper-2 of foods reverts to the reduced copper-1 form at death or harvest, gives new insight into these questions. The body has an intestinal transport system for copper-1, Ctr1, which channels copper-1 through the liver and into safe channels. Ctr1 cannot absorb copper-2, and some copper-2 bypasses the liver, ends up in the blood quickly, and is toxic to cognition. Humans evolved to handle copper-1 safely, but not copper-2. Alzheimer’s is at least in part, a copper-2 toxicity disease, while Wilson’s is a general copper overload disease. In this review, we will show that the epidemiology of the Alzheimer’s epidemic occurring in developed, but not undeveloped countries, fits with the epidemiology of exposure to copper-2 ingestion leached from copper plumbing and from copper supplement pill ingestion. Increased meat eating in developed countries is also a factor, because it increases copper absorption, and thus over all copper exposure. PMID:26633489

  5. Dairy products, meat and sports performance.

    PubMed

    Fogelholm, Mikael

    2003-01-01

    Creatine supplementation improves repetitive, short-term performance. It has not been shown that exclusion of meat from the diet would impair repetitive short-term performance. In contrast, reduction of protein intake and a concomitant increase of carbohydrate intake during a period of 3-5 days improves anaerobic (2-7 minutes) performance. The protein intake in a mixed or lacto-vegetarian diet is adequate even for elite athletes, providing that energy requirements are met. Many dietary supplements have been suggested to increase muscle mass and/or to decrease fat mass. Although the effects of conjugated linoleic acid on body composition in athletes are not clear, some positive findings in untrained, obese individuals call for more studies. Strenuous training may impair immune function and increase the susceptibility to infections. Exclusion of meat from the diet does not seem to have adverse effects on immune function. Glutamine supplementation (>3-6 g/day) may improve immune function, but more studies are needed. Similarly, more studies on the possible effects of whey protein and probiotic supplementation on immune function and performance in physically highly active individuals are warranted. Vitamin and mineral balance are not usually a problem among athletes. Notable exceptions may be calcium and iron in some females. Increased calcium intake in athletes with hormonal and menstrual disturbances could theoretically help in maintaining bone status; however, no data are available. A diet with meat may help in maintaining adequate iron stores. PMID:12797842

  6. Halal authenticity issues in meat and meat products.

    PubMed

    Nakyinsige, Khadijah; Man, Yaakob Bin Che; Sazili, Awis Qurni

    2012-07-01

    In the recent years, Muslims have become increasingly concerned about the meat they eat. Proper product description is very crucial for consumers to make informed choices and to ensure fair trade, particularly in the ever growing halal food market. Globally, Muslim consumers are concerned about a number of issues concerning meat and meat products such as pork substitution, undeclared blood plasma, use of prohibited ingredients, pork intestine casings and non-halal methods of slaughter. Analytical techniques which are appropriate and specific have been developed to deal with particular issues. The most suitable technique for any particular sample is often determined by the nature of the sample itself. This paper sets out to identify what makes meat halal, highlight the halal authenticity issues that occur in meat and meat products and provide an overview of the possible analytical methods for halal authentication of meat and meat products. PMID:22405913

  7. Processed meat and colorectal cancer: a review of epidemiologic and experimental evidence

    PubMed Central

    Santarelli, Raphaëlle L.; Pierre, Fabrice; Corpet, Denis E.

    2008-01-01

    Processed meat intake may be involved in the etiology of colorectal cancer, a major cause of death in affluent countries. The epidemiologic studies published to date conclude that the excess risk in the highest category of processed meat-eaters is comprised between 20 and 50% compared with non-eaters. In addition, the excess risk per gram of intake is clearly higher than that of fresh red meat. Several hypotheses, which are mainly based on studies carried out on red meat, may explain why processed meat intake is linked to cancer risk. Those that have been tested experimentally are (i) that high-fat diets could promote carcinogenesis via insulin resistance or fecal bile acids; (ii) that cooking meat at a high temperature forms carcinogenic heterocyclic amines and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons; (iii) that carcinogenic N-nitroso compounds are formed in meat and endogenously; (iv) that heme iron in red meat can promote carcinogenesis because it increases cell proliferation in the mucosa, through lipoperoxidation and/or cytotoxicity of fecal water. Nitrosation might increase the toxicity of heme in cured products. Solving this puzzle is a challenge that would permit to reduce cancer load by changing the processes rather than by banning processed meat. PMID:18444144

  8. Mechanisms of an increased level of serum iron in gamma-irradiated mice.

    PubMed

    Xie, Li-hua; Zhang, Xiao-hong; Hu, Xiao-dan; Min, Xuan-yu; Zhou, Qi-fu; Zhang, Hai-qian

    2016-03-01

    The potential mechanisms underlying the increase in serum iron concentration in gamma-irradiated mice were studied. The gamma irradiation dose used was 4 Gy, and cobalt-60 ((60)Co) source was used for the irradiation. The dose rate was 0.25 Gy/min. In the serum of irradiated mice, the concentration of ferrous ions decreased, whereas the serum iron concentration increased. The concentration of ferrous ions in irradiated mice returned to normal at 21 day post-exposure. The concentration of reactive oxygen species in irradiated mice increased immediately following irradiation but returned to normal at 7 day post-exposure. Serum iron concentration in gamma-irradiated mice that were pretreated with reduced glutathione was significant lower (p < 0.01) than that in mice exposed to gamma radiation only. However, the serum iron concentration was still higher than that in normal mice (p < 0.01). This change was biphasic, characterized by a maximal decrease phase occurring immediately after gamma irradiation (relative to the irradiated mice) and a recovery plateau observed during the 7th and 21st day post-irradiation, but serum iron recovery was still less than that in the gamma-irradiated mice (4 Gy). In gamma-irradiated mice, ceruloplasmin activity increased and serum copper concentration decreased immediately after irradiation, and both of them were constant during the 7th and 21st day post-irradiation. It was concluded that ferrous ions in irradiated mice were oxidized to ferric ions by ionizing radiation. Free radicals induced by gamma radiation and ceruloplasmin mutually participated in this oxidation process. The ferroxidase effect of ceruloplasmin was achieved by transfer of electrons from ferrous ions to cupric ions. PMID:26511140

  9. Differences in nutrient composition and choice of side dishes between red meat and fish dinners in Norwegian adults

    PubMed Central

    Myhre, Jannicke Borch; Løken, Elin Bjørge; Wandel, Margareta; Andersen, Lene Frost

    2016-01-01

    Background Food-based dietary guidelines often recommend increased consumption of fish and reduced intake of red and processed meat. However, little is known about how changing the main protein source from red meat to fish may influence the choice of side dishes. Objective To investigate whether side dish choices differed between red meat and fish dinners. Moreover, to compare intakes of macronutrients and selected micronutrients in red meat and fish dinners and to see whether whole-day intakes of these nutrients differed between days with red meat dinners and days with fish dinners. Design Data were collected in a cross-sectional nationwide Norwegian dietary survey using two non-consecutive telephone-administered 24-h recalls. The recalls were conducted approximately 4 weeks apart. In total, 2,277 dinners from 1,517 participants aged 18–70 were included in the analyses. Results Fish dinners were more likely to include potatoes and carrots than red meat dinners, whereas red meat dinners more often contained bread, tomato sauce, and cheese. Red meat dinners contained more energy and iron; had higher percentages of energy (E%) from fat, saturated fat, and monounsaturated fat; and a lower E% from protein and polyunsaturated fat than fish dinners. Fish dinners contained more vitamin D, β-carotene, and folate than red meat dinners. Similar differences were found when comparing whole-day intakes of the same nutrients on days with red meat versus fish dinners. Conclusion Fish dinners were accompanied by different side dishes than red meat dinners. With regard to nutrient content, fish dinners generally had a healthier profile than red meat dinners. However, iron intake was higher for red meat dinners. Information about associated foods will be useful both for developing public health guidelines and when studying associations between dietary factors and health outcomes. PMID:26781818

  10. Iron deficiency.

    PubMed

    Scrimshaw, N S

    1991-10-01

    The world's leading nutritional problem is iron deficiency. 66% of children and women aged 15-44 years in developing countries have it. Further, 10-20% of women of childbearing age in developed countries are anemic. Iron deficiency is identified with often irreversible impairment of a child's learning ability. It is also associated with low capacity for adults to work which reduces productivity. In addition, it impairs the immune system which reduces the body's ability to fight infection. Iron deficiency also lowers the metabolic rate and the body temperature when exposed to cold. Hemoglobin contains nearly 73% of the body's iron. This iron is always being recycled as more red blood cells are made. The rest of the needed iron does important tasks for the body, such as binds to molecules that are reservoirs of oxygen for muscle cells. This iron comes from our diet, especially meat. Even though some plants, such as spinach, are high in iron, the body can only absorb 1.4-7% of the iron in plants whereas it can absorb 20% of the iron in red meat. In many developing countries, the common vegetarian diets contribute to high rates of iron deficiency. Parasitic diseases and abnormal uterine bleeding also promote iron deficiency. Iron therapy in anemic children can often, but not always, improve behavior and cognitive performance. Iron deficiency during pregnancy often contributes to maternal and perinatal mortality. Yet treatment, if given to a child in time, can lead to normal growth and hinder infections. However, excess iron can be damaging. Too much supplemental iron in a malnourished child promotes fatal infections since the excess iron is available for the pathogens use. Many countries do not have an effective system for diagnosing, treating, and preventing iron deficiency. Therefore a concerted international effort is needed to eliminate iron deficiency in the world. PMID:1745900

  11. Impacts of increasing anthropogenic soluble iron and nitrogen deposition on ocean biogeochemistry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krishnamurthy, Aparna; Moore, J. Keith; Mahowald, Natalie; Luo, Chao; Doney, Scott C.; Lindsay, Keith; Zender, Charles S.

    2009-09-01

    We present results from transient sensitivity studies with the Biogeochemical Elemental Cycling (BEC) ocean model to increasing anthropogenic atmospheric inorganic nitrogen (N) and soluble iron (Fe) deposition over the industrial era. Elevated N deposition results from fossil fuel combustion and agriculture, and elevated soluble Fe deposition results from increased atmospheric processing in the presence of anthropogenic pollutants and soluble Fe from combustion sources. Simulations with increasing Fe and increasing Fe and N inputs raised simulated marine nitrogen fixation, with the majority of the increase in the subtropical North and South Pacific, and raised primary production and export in the high-nutrient low-chlorophyll (HNLC) regions. Increasing N inputs alone elevated small phytoplankton and diatom production, resulting in increased phosphorus (P) and Fe limitation for diazotrophs, hence reducing nitrogen fixation (˜6%). Globally, the simulated primary production, sinking particulate organic carbon (POC) export. and atmospheric CO2 uptake were highest under combined increase in Fe and N inputs compared to preindustrial control. Our results suggest that increasing combustion iron sources and aerosol Fe solubility along with atmospheric anthropogenic nitrogen deposition are perturbing marine biogeochemical cycling and could partially explain the observed trend toward increased P limitation at station ALOHA in the subtropical North Pacific. Excess inorganic nitrogen ([NO3-] + [NH4+] - 16[PO43-]) distributions may offer useful insights for understanding changing ocean circulation and biogeochemistry.

  12. Breathing Assistance by the Iron Lung Increases Sympathetic Tone and Modifies Fluid Excretion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baisch, F. J.; Gerzer, R.

    Adaptation to weightlessness is not accompanied by an increase in sodium- and urine- excretion in humans in contrast to the expectations and the bed rest model in use to simulate effects of weightlessness on earth. On earth the thorax remains compressed by gravity in the horizontal body position while its unloading in weightlessness reduces transmural pressure in the mediastinal walls and membranes. Thus, wall stretching. or the Henry-Gauer mechanism, is reduced and may even result in a reduced water and sodium excretion. We have therefore lowered the transmural mediastinal pressure by the principle of the "Iron Lung" in a terrestrial model, and have studied whether or not this principle might reduce body fluid loss seen during onset of head down tilt bed rest. Methods: Two experiment runs were performed in a cross over design: one run pure 6° head down tilt body position (HDT) and the other with iron lung assistance. Six male subjects (26.5 +/- 8.1 years old; 187+/- 5 cm tall; 84.0 +/- 6.6 kg body weight) participated. Lung pressure was modified by the iron lung where the whole body except the head is enclosed in a box. The air pressure inside the box was 5 cm H2O lower than ambient during activation of the iron lung. For inspiration negative pressure increased up to 15 cm H2O, roughly doubling resting breath tide. The counteracting lung pressure was 8.1 +/- 0.6 cm H2O for 4 hours in mean. Breathing rate was reduced under iron lung to avoid hyperventilation (10.2 +/- 0.6 bpm [iron lung] versus 14.0 +/- 1.2 Bpm [spontaneously]). The relationship between expiration and inspiration remained at 2:1 in both runs. End expiratory CO2 was measured breath by breath via a nose clip. Heart rate, peripheral oxygen saturation, and sphygmomanometric blood pressure were determined every half hour. Urine volume was measured hourly. sodium excretion and pH was determined. Ambient conditions were kept constant at thermoneutral conditions. Evaporative fluid loss was evaluated by a

  13. Method of increasing magnetostrictive response of rare earth-iron alloy rods

    DOEpatents

    Verhoeven, J.D.; McMasters, O.D.; Gibson, E.D.; Ostenson, J.E.; Finnemore, D.K.

    1989-04-04

    This invention comprises a method of increasing the magnetostrictive response of rare earth-iron (RFe) magnetostrictive alloy rods by a thermal-magnetic treatment. The rod is heated to a temperature above its Curie temperature, viz. from 400 to 600 C; and, while the rod is at that temperature, a magnetic field is directionally applied and maintained while the rod is cooled, at least below its Curie temperature. 2 figs.

  14. Method of increasing magnetostrictive response of rare earth-iron alloy rods

    DOEpatents

    Verhoeven, John D.; McMasters, O. Dale; Gibson, Edwin D.; Ostenson, Jerome E.; Finnemore, Douglas K.

    1989-04-04

    This invention comprises a method of increasing the magnetostrictive response of rare earth-iron (RFe) magnetostrictive alloy rods by a thermal-magnetic treatment. The rod is heated to a temperature above its Curie temperature, viz. from 400.degree. to 600.degree. C.; and, while the rod is at that temperature, a magnetic field is directionally applied and maintained while the rod is cooled, at least below its Curie temperature.

  15. Magnetic separation of algae genetically modified for increased intracellular iron uptake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buck, Amy; Moore, Lee R.; Lane, Christopher D.; Kumar, Anil; Stroff, Clayton; White, Nicolas; Xue, Wei; Chalmers, Jeffrey J.; Zborowski, Maciej

    2015-04-01

    Algae were investigated in the past as a potential source of biofuel and other useful chemical derivatives. Magnetic separation of algae by iron oxide nanoparticle binding to cells has been proposed by others for dewatering of cellular mass prior to lipid extraction. We have investigated feasibility of magnetic separation based on the presence of natural iron stores in the cell, such as the ferritin in Auxenochlorella protothecoides (A. protothecoides) strains. The A. protothecoides cell constructs were tested for inserted genes and for increased intracellular iron concentration by inductively coupled plasma atomic absorption (ICP-AA). They were grown in Sueoka's modified high salt media with added vitamin B1 and increasing concentration of soluble iron compound (FeCl3 EDTA, from 1× to 8× compared to baseline). The cell magnetic separation conditions were tested using a thin rectangular flow channel pressed against interpolar gaps of a permanent magnet forming a separation system of a well-defined fluid flow and magnetic fringing field geometry (up to 2.2 T and 1000 T/m) dubbed "magnetic deposition microscopy", or MDM. The presence of magnetic cells in suspension was detected by formation of characteristic deposition bands at the edges of the magnet interpolar gaps, amenable to optical scanning and microscopic examination. The results demonstrated increasing cellular Fe uptake with increasing Fe concentration in the culture media in wild type strain and in selected genetically-modified constructs, leading to magnetic separation without magnetic particle binding. The throughput in this study is not sufficient for an economical scale harvest.

  16. Iron

    MedlinePlus

    ... organ failure, coma, convulsions, and death. Child-proof packaging and warning labels on iron supplements have greatly ... levodopa that the body absorbs, making it less effective. Levodopa, found in Sinemet® and Stalevo®, is used ...

  17. Plant extracts as natural antioxidants in meat and meat products.

    PubMed

    Shah, Manzoor Ahmad; Bosco, Sowriappan John Don; Mir, Shabir Ahmad

    2014-09-01

    Antioxidants are used to minimize the oxidative changes in meat and meat products. Oxidative changes may have negative effects on the quality of meat and meat products, causing changes in their sensory and nutritional properties. Although synthetic antioxidants have already been used but in recent years, the demand for natural antioxidants has been increased mainly because of adverse effects of synthetic antioxidants. Thus most of the recent investigations have been directed towards the identification of natural antioxidants from various plant sources. Plant extracts have been prepared using different solvents and extraction methods. Grape seed, green tea, pine bark, rosemary, pomegranate, nettle and cinnamon have exhibited similar or better antioxidant properties compared to some synthetic ones. This review provides the recent information on plant extracts used as natural antioxidants in meat and meat products, specifically red meat. PMID:24824531

  18. Iron supplementation increases disease activity and vitamin E ameliorates the effect in rats with dextran sulfate sodium-induced colitis.

    PubMed

    Carrier, Julie; Aghdassi, Elaheh; Cullen, Jim; Allard, Johane P

    2002-10-01

    Inflammatory bowel disease is often associated with iron deficiency anemia and oral iron supplementation may be required. However, iron may increase oxidative stress through the Fenton reaction and thus exacerbate the disease. This study was designed to determine in rats with dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced colitis whether oral iron supplementation increases intestinal inflammation and oxidative stress and whether the addition of an antioxidant, vitamin E, would reduce this detrimental effect. Four groups of rats that consumed 50 g/L DSS in drinking water were studied for 7 d and were fed: a control, nonpurified diet (iron, 270 mg, and dl-alpha-tocopherol acetate, 49 mg/kg); diet + iron (iron, 3000 mg/kg); diet + vitamin E (dl-alpha-tocopherol acetate, 2000 mg/kg) and the diet + both iron and vitamin E, each at the same concentrations as above. Body weight change, rectal bleeding, histological scores, plasma and colonic lipid peroxides (LPO), plasma 8-isoprostane, colonic glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and plasma vitamin E were measured. Iron supplementation increased disease activity as demonstrated by higher histological scores and heavier rectal bleeding. This was associated with an increase in colonic and plasma LPO and plasma 8-isoprostane as well as a decrease in colonic GPx. Vitamin E supplementation decreased colonic inflammation and rectal bleeding but did not affect oxidative stress, suggesting another mechanism for reducing inflammation. In conclusion, oral iron supplementation resulted in an increase in disease activity in this model of colitis. This detrimental effect on disease activity was reduced by vitamin E. Therefore, the addition of vitamin E to oral iron supplementation may be beneficial. PMID:12368409

  19. Milk peptides increase iron solubility in water but do not affect DMT-1 expression in Caco-2 cells

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In vitro digestion of milk produces peptide fractions that enhance iron uptake by Caco-2 cells. Our objectives were to investigate whether these fractions a) exert their effect by increasing relative gene expression of DMT-1 in Caco-2 cells b) enhance iron dialyzability when added in meals. Peptid...

  20. Increased iron-stress resilience of maize through inoculation of siderophore-producing Arthrobacter globiformis from mine.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Meenakshi; Mishra, Vandana; Rau, Nupur; Sharma, Radhey Shyam

    2016-07-01

    Iron deficiency is common among graminaceous crops. Ecologically successful wild grasses from iron-limiting habitats are likely to harbour bacteria which secrete efficient high-affinity iron-chelating molecules (siderophores) to solubilize and mobilize iron. Such siderophore-producing rhizobacteria may increase the iron-stress resilience of graminaceous crops. Considering this, 51 rhizobacterial isolates of Dichanthium annulatum from iron-limiting abandoned mine (∼84% biologically unavailable iron) were purified and tested for siderophore production; and efficacy of Arthrobacter globiformis inoculation to increase iron-stress resilience of maize and wheat was also evaluated. 16S rRNA sequence analyses demonstrated that siderophore-producing bacteria were taxonomically diverse (seven genera, nineteen species). Among these, Gram-positive Bacillus (eleven species) was prevalent (76.92%). A. globiformis, a commonly found rhizobacterium of graminaceous crops was investigated in detail. Its siderophore has high iron-chelation capacity (ICC: 13.0 ± 2.4 μM) and effectively dissolutes diverse iron-complexes (FeCl3 : 256.13 ± 26.56 μM/ml; Fe2 O3 red: 84.3 ± 4.74 μM/ml; mine spoil: 123.84 ± 4.38 μM/ml). Siderophore production (ICC) of A. globiformis BGDa404 also varied with supplementation of different iron complexes. In plant bioassay with iron-deficiency sensitive species maize, A. globiformis inoculation triggered stress-associated traits (peroxidase and proline) in roots, enhanced plant biomass, uptake of iron and phosphate, and protein and chlorophyll contents. However, in iron deficiency tolerant species wheat, growth improvement was marginal. The present study illustrates: (i) rhizosphere of D. annulatum colonizing abandoned mine as a "hotspot" of siderophore-producing bacteria; and (ii) potential of A. globiformis BGDa404 inoculation to increase iron-stress resilience in maize. A. globiformis BGDa404 has the potential to develop as

  1. Replacement of Pork Meat with Pork Head Meat for Frankfurters.

    PubMed

    Choi, Yun-Sang; Hwang, Ko-Eun; Kim, Hyun-Wook; Song, Dong-Heon; Jeon, Ki-Hong; Park, Jong-Dae; Sung, Jung-Min; Kim, Young-Boong; Kim, Cheon-Jei

    2016-01-01

    The effect of reducing pork meat concentrations from 50% to 30% and replacing it with up to 20% pork head meat on chemical composition, cooking characteristics, physicochemical and textural properties, apparent viscosity, and sensory characteristics of frankfurters was determined. The highest moisture content in frankfurters was found in the control and T1 (frankfurter with 45% pork meat + 5% pork head). Protein and fat contents in frankfurters with pork head meat added were significantly (p<0.05) higher than those in the control. When the concentration of pork head meat was increased from 0% to 20%, cooking loss, total expressible fluid separation, fat separation, and pH of frankfurters were increased, while the lightness, redness, yellowness, and apparent viscosity of frankfurters were decreased. Ash contents, cohesiveness, color, and tenderness of sensory characteristics of frankfurters added with different amounts of pork meat or pork head meat were not significantly (p>0.05) different from those of the control or there treatments. Frankfurters in T4 (frankfurter with 30% pork meat + 20% pork head) had the lowest (p<0.05) hardness and gumminess. The hardness and gumminess of frankfurters in other treatments were not significantly different (p>0.05) from that in the control. Frankfurters with higher pork head meat concentrations had lower flavor, juiciness, and overall acceptability scores. Therefore, replacing pork meat with pork head meat in the formulation could successfully produce results similar to those of control frankfurters. The best results were obtained when 10% pork head meat was used to replace pork meat. PMID:27621683

  2. Replacement of Pork Meat with Pork Head Meat for Frankfurters

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Yun-Sang; Hwang, Ko-Eun; Kim, Hyun-Wook; Song, Dong-Heon; Jeon, Ki-Hong; Park, Jong-Dae; Sung, Jung-Min; Kim, Young-Boong; Kim, Cheon-Jei

    2016-01-01

    The effect of reducing pork meat concentrations from 50% to 30% and replacing it with up to 20% pork head meat on chemical composition, cooking characteristics, physicochemical and textural properties, apparent viscosity, and sensory characteristics of frankfurters was determined. The highest moisture content in frankfurters was found in the control and T1 (frankfurter with 45% pork meat + 5% pork head). Protein and fat contents in frankfurters with pork head meat added were significantly (p<0.05) higher than those in the control. When the concentration of pork head meat was increased from 0% to 20%, cooking loss, total expressible fluid separation, fat separation, and pH of frankfurters were increased, while the lightness, redness, yellowness, and apparent viscosity of frankfurters were decreased. Ash contents, cohesiveness, color, and tenderness of sensory characteristics of frankfurters added with different amounts of pork meat or pork head meat were not significantly (p>0.05) different from those of the control or there treatments. Frankfurters in T4 (frankfurter with 30% pork meat + 20% pork head) had the lowest (p<0.05) hardness and gumminess. The hardness and gumminess of frankfurters in other treatments were not significantly different (p>0.05) from that in the control. Frankfurters with higher pork head meat concentrations had lower flavor, juiciness, and overall acceptability scores. Therefore, replacing pork meat with pork head meat in the formulation could successfully produce results similar to those of control frankfurters. The best results were obtained when 10% pork head meat was used to replace pork meat. PMID:27621683

  3. BIOAVAILABILITY OF IRON, ZINC AND OTHER TRACE MINERALS FROM VEGETARIAN DIETS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Iron and zinc are the trace minerals of greatest concern when considering the nutritional value of vegetarian diets. With elimination of meat and increased intake of phytate-containing legumes and whole grains, both iron and zinc absorption are reduced from vegetarian, compared with nonvegetarian di...

  4. BIOAVAILABILITY OF IRON, ZINC, AND OTHER TRACE MINERALS FROM VEGETARIAN DIETS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Iron and zinc are the trace minerals of greatest concern when considering the nutritional value of vegetarian diets. With elimination of meat and increased intake of phytate-containing legumes and whole grains, both iron and zinc absorption are reduced from vegetarian, compared with nonvegetarian di...

  5. Higher iron pearl millet (Pennisetum glaucum L.) provides more absorbable iron that is limited by increased polyphenolic content

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Background: Our objective was to compare the capacity of iron (Fe) biofortified and standard pearl millet (Pennisetum glaucum L.) to deliver Fe for hemoglobin (Hb) synthesis. Pearl millet is the most widely grown type of millet. It is common primarily in West Africa and the Indian subcontinent, and ...

  6. Expression of the hereditary hemochromatosis protein HFE increases ferritin levels by inhibiting iron export in HT29 cells.

    PubMed

    Davies, Paige S; Enns, Caroline A

    2004-06-11

    Iron is essential for life in almost all organisms and, in mammals, is absorbed through the villus cells of the duodenum. Using a human colonic carcinoma cell line that has many duodenal characteristics, HT29, we show that genes involved in intestinal iron transport are endogenously expressed. When stably transfected to express the hereditary hemochromatosis protein HFE these cells have increased ferritin levels. We demonstrate that this is not due to an effect on the transferrin (TF)-mediated iron uptake pathway but rather due to inhibition of iron efflux from the cell. The effect of HFE was independent of its interaction with TF receptor 1 as indicated by similar results using both the wild type HFE and the W81A mutant that binds TF receptor 1 with greatly reduced affinity. HFE expression did not affect the mRNA levels of most of the genes involved in iron absorption that were tested; however, it did correspond to a decrease in hephaestin message levels. These results point to a role for HFE in inhibition of iron efflux in HT29 cells. This is a distinct role from that in HeLa and human embryonic kidney 293 cells where HFE has been shown to inhibit TF-mediated iron uptake resulting in decreased ferritin levels. Such a distinction suggests a multifunctional role for HFE that is dependent upon expression levels of proteins involved in iron transport. PMID:15044462

  7. Iron ion irradiation increases promotes adhesion of monocytic cells to arterial vascular endothelium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kucik, Dennis; Khaled, Saman; Gupta, Kiran; Wu, Xing; Yu, Tao; Chang, Polly; Kabarowski, Janusz

    Radiation causes inflammation, and chronic, low-level vascular inflammation is a risk factor for atherosclerosis. Consistent with this, exposure to radiation from a variety of sources is associated with increased risk of heart disease and stroke. Part of the inflammatory response to radiation is a change in the adhesiveness of the endothelial cells that line the blood vessels, triggering inappropriate accumulation of leukocytes, leading to later, damaging effects of inflammation. Although some studies have been done on the effects of gamma irradiation on vascular endothelium, the response of endothelium to heavy ion radiation likely to be encountered in prolonged space flight has not been determined. We investigated how irradiation of aortic endothelial cells with iron ions affects adhesiveness of cultured aortic endothelial cells for monocytic cells and the consequences of this for development of atherosclerosis. Aortic endothelial cells were irradiated with 600 MeV iron ions at Brookhaven National Laboratory and adhesion-related changes were measured. Cells remained viable for at least 72 hours, and were even able to repair acute damage to cell junctions. We found that iron ion irradiation altered expression levels of specific endothelial cell adhesion molecules. Further, these changes had functional consequences. Using a flow chamber adhesion assay to measure adhesion of monocytic cells to endothelial cells under physiological shear stress, we found that adhesivity of vascular endothelium was enhanced in as little as 24 hours after irradiation. Further, the radiation dose dependence was not monotonic, suggesting that it was not simply the result of endothelial cell damage. We also irradiated aortic arches and carotid arteries of Apolipoprotein-E-deficient mice. Histologic analysis of these mice will be conducted to determine whether effects of radiation on endothelial adhesiveness result in consequences for development of atherosclerosis. (Supported by NSBRI

  8. [The role of iron as a deficient element].

    PubMed

    Schümann, K

    1989-12-01

    Iron is an essential trace element. In its heme-form as well as in its non heme-form it is a part of enzymes and hemoproteins. For a safe and adequate dietary intake 10-18 mg of iron are recommended daily. Frequently, this quantity is not available: approximately 20% of the world population is iron-deficient. In this state the enteral transfer capacity for toxic metals, e.g., Cd and Pb, is increased and the adaptation to physical strain as well as the immunological responses are depressed. Alterations of body iron-stores are almost exclusively balanced by adequate adaptation of the enteral iron-transfer capacity. The mechanism of this adaptation process can neither be satisfactorily explained by the "mucosal block hypothesis", nor by the "mucosal transferrin hypothesis". When the time-course of iron storage and its relation to intestinal iron transfer was investigated after i.v. iron administration to iron-deficient rats, the results indicated that the process of adaptation is located in the intestinal mucosa. Intestinal iron loading is decreased in iron deficiency, whereas the iron transfer into the organism is increased. Further investigation is necessary to find out by which mechanism the iron manages to bypass existing mucosal storage capacity in this situation. The geographical distribution of iron deficiency is influenced by a variety of local factors. Still, the paramount causes of iron-deficiency are unbalanced iron losses and the lack of bioavailable iron in the diet. The bioavailability of non heme iron is influenced by the composition of the diet. The effect of promotors of iron absorption, such as meat, amino acids, polycarbonic acids and ascorbate is opposed by the influence of inhibitors, such as bran, soya products, vegetables and egg-dishes. Iron losses are mainly due to blood losses. Thus, the wide distribution of hookworm diseases in tropical areas contributes significantly to the endemic iron-deficiency in these regions. A more physiological loss

  9. The influence of thermal processing on the fatty acid profile of pork and lamb meat fed diet with increased levels of unsaturated fatty acids.

    PubMed

    Janiszewski, Piotr; Grześkowiak, Eugenia; Lisiak, Dariusz; Borys, Bronisław; Borzuta, Karol; Pospiech, Edward; Poławska, Ewa

    2016-01-01

    The research was carried out on 32 crossbred pigs of Polish Large White × Danish Landrace with Duroc and 80 rams, crossbreds of the Prolific-Dairy Koludzka Sheep with the Ile de France, a meat sheep. The fodder for the animals was enriched with the unsaturated fatty acids originated mainly from linseed and rapeseed oils. The fatty acid profile was determined in cooked longissimus lumborum, roasted triceps brachii and raw ripened rump from pigs as well as in grilled lambs' legs and their corresponding raw materials. Roasting caused the most pronounced increase of the saturated fatty acids and decrease in the polyunsaturated fatty acids of heated pork muscles. The smallest changes were observed in grilled lamb legs. The heating processes applied in this study, in most cases, did not cause essential changes in the indices of pro-health properties of fatty acid, therefore meat in the majority fulfil the latest recommendations of EFSA and FAO/WHO according to human health. PMID:26422798

  10. Increasing the band gap of iron pyrite by alloying with oxygen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Law, Matthew; Hu, Jun; Zhang, Yanning; Wu, Ruqian

    2013-03-01

    Systematic density functional theory studies and model analyses have been used to show that the band gap of iron pyrite (FeS2) can be increased from ~ 1.0 to 1.2 -1.3 eV by replacing ~ 10% of the sulfur atoms with oxygen atoms (i.e., ~ 10% OS impurities). OS formation is exothermic, and the oxygen atoms tend to avoid O-O dimerization, which favors the structural stability of homogeneous FeS2-xOx alloys and frustrates phase separation into FeS2 and iron oxides. With an ideal band gap, absence of OSinduced gap states, high optical absorptivity, and low electron effective mass, FeS2-xOx alloys are promising for the development of pyrite-based heterojunction solar cells that feature large photovoltages and high device efficiencies. Acknowledgement: We thank the NSF SOLAR Program (Award CHE-1035218) and the UCI School of Physical Sciences Center for Solar Energy for support of this work. Calculations were performed on parallel computers at NERSC and at NSF supercomputer centers.

  11. Selected micronutrient intake and status in men with differing meat intakes, vegetarians and vegans.

    PubMed

    Li, D; Sinclair, A J; Mann, N J; Turner, A; Ball, M J

    2000-03-01

    Dietary factors play a critical role in human health. The aim of this cross-sectional study was to examine micronutrient intake and status of subjects who were habitual meat eaters eating different quantities of meat with those who were habitual vegetarians or vegans. One hundred and thirty-nine healthy male subjects (vegan, n = 18; ovolacto-vegetarian, n = 46; moderate meat-eater, n = 65; and high meat-eater, n = 18) aged 20-55 years were recruited in metropolitan Melbourne. Each volunteer completed a semiquantitative Food Frequency Questionnaire (FFQ) and gave a fasting venous blood sample. Dietary sodium/potassium ratio was significantly lower and vitamin C, fibre and iron intakes were higher in vegetarians than in meat-eaters. High meat-eaters had a significantly higher calcium, retinol and zinc intake than did the other three dietary groups; moderate meateaters had the lowest mean intake of fibre, vitamin C and β-carotene. Vegans had a significantly higher β-carotene intake than did the other groups. Serum ferritin and vitamin B12 levels, and haemoglobin concentration were significantly lower in vegetarians than in meat-eaters. Vegans had a significantly higher serum folate concentration than did ovolacto-vegetarian and moderate meat-eater groups. There was no significant difference in serum α-tocopherol concentration. There are differences between the four diet groups that have potential to affect the subjects' health and susceptibility to chronic diseases including cardiovascular disease and cancer. Based on the present data, high meat-eaters may particularly benefit from altering their dietary pattern to reduce their sodium and saturated fat intake, and moderate meat-eaters from increasing their fibre and antioxidant consumption. Vegetarians, especially vegans, may need to increase their vitamin B12 and zinc intakes. PMID:24394311

  12. Red and Processed Meat Consumption Increases Risk for Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma: A PRISMA-Compliant Meta-Analysis of Observational Studies.

    PubMed

    Yang, Li; Dong, Jianming; Jiang, Shenghua; Shi, Wenyu; Xu, Xiaohong; Huang, Hongming; You, Xuefen; Liu, Hong

    2015-11-01

    The association between consumption of red and processed meat and non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) remains unclear. We performed a meta-analysis of the published observational studies to explore this relationship.We searched databases in MEDLINE and EMBASE to identify observational studies which evaluated the association between consumption of red and processed meat and risk of NHL. Quality of included studies was evaluated using Newcastle-Ottawa Quality Assessment Scale (NOS). Random-effects models were used to calculate summary relative risk (SRR) and the corresponding 95% confidence interval (CI).We identified a total of 16 case-control and 4 prospective cohort studies, including 15,189 subjects with NHL. The SRR of NHL comparing the highest and lowest categories were 1.32 (95% CI: 1.12-1.55) for red meat and 1.17 (95% CI: 1.07-1.29) for processed meat intake. Stratified analysis indicated that a statistically significant risk association between consumption of red and processed meat and NHL risk was observed in case-control studies, but not in cohort studies. The SRR was 1.11 (95% CI: 1.04-1.18) for per 100 g/day increment in red meat intake and 1.28 (95% CI: 1.08-1.53) for per 50 g/day increment in processed meat intake. There was evidence of a nonlinear association for intake of processed meat, but not for intake of red meat.Findings from our meta-analysis indicate that consumption of red and processed meat may be related to NHL risk. More prospective epidemiological studies that control for important confounders and focus on the NHL risk related with different levels of meat consumption are required to clarify this association. PMID:26559248

  13. Icariin regulates systemic iron metabolism by increasing hepatic hepcidin expression through Stat3 and Smad1/5/8 signaling.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Miao; Liu, Jing; Guo, Wenli; Liu, Xin; Liu, Sijin; Yin, Huijun

    2016-05-01

    Systemic iron homeostasis is strictly controlled under normal conditions to ensure a balance between the absorption, utilization, storage and recycling of iron. The hepcidin-ferroportin (FPN) axis is of critical importance in the maintenance of iron homeostasis. Hepcidin deficiency gives rise to enhanced dietary iron absorption, as well as to increased iron release from macrophages, and this in turn results in iron accumulation in the plasma and organs, and is associated with a range of tissue pathologies. Low hepcidin levels have been demonstrated in most forms of hereditary hemochromatosis (HH), as well as in β-thalassemia. Therapies that increase hepcidin concentrations may potentially play a role in the treatment of these iron overload-related diseases. To date, natural compounds have not been extensively investigated for this purpose, to the best of our knowledge. Thus, in the present study, we screened natural compounds that have the potential to regulate hepcidin expression. By performing hepcidin promoter-luciferase assay, RT-qPCR and animal experiments, we demonstrated that icariin and berberine were potent stimulators of hepcidin transcription. Mechanistic experiments indicated that icariin and berberine increased hepcidin expression by activating the signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (Stat3) and Smad1/5/8 signaling pathways. The induction of hepcidin was confirmed in mice following icariin administration, coupled with associated changes in serum and tissue iron concentrations. In support of these findings, the icariin analogues, epimedin A, B and C, also increased hepatic hepcidin expression. However, these changes were not observed in hepcidin-deficient [Hamp1-/- or Hamp1‑knockout (KO)] mice following icariin administration, thereby verifying hepatic hepcidin as the target of icariin. Although berberine exhibited a robust capacity to promote hepcidin expression in vitro, it failed to alter hepcidin expression in mice. Taken together

  14. Radiation decontamination of meat lyophylized products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Migdał, W.; Owczarczyk, H. B.

    2002-03-01

    There is an increasing demand for a powder soups and sauces composed with lyophylizated meat. Technology of lyophylization is not always accompanied by thermal treatment of raw materials. That is the reason the meat lyophylization process does not ensure as good microbiological quality as is required. Degree of microbiological decontamination and organoleptic properties of lyophilized meat were investigated after radiation treatment.

  15. Self-Assembled Monolayers of n-Alkanethiols Suppress Hydrogen Evolution and Increase the Efficiency of Rechargeable Iron Battery Electrodes

    SciTech Connect

    Malkhandi, S; Yang, B; Manohar, AK; Prakash, GKS; Narayanan, SR

    2013-01-09

    Iron-based rechargeable batteries, because of their low cost, eco-friendliness, and durability, are extremely attractive for large-scale energy storage. A principal challenge in the deployment of these batteries is their relatively low electrical efficiency. The low efficiency is due to parasitic hydrogen evolution that occurs on the iron electrode during charging and idle stand. In this study, we demonstrate for the first time that linear alkanethiols are very effective in suppressing hydrogen evolution on alkaline iron battery electrodes. The alkanethiols form self-assembled monolayers on the iron electrodes. The degree of suppression of hydrogen evolution by the alkanethiols was found to be greater than 90%, and the effectiveness of the alkanethiol increased with the chain length. Through steady-state potentiostatic polarization studies and impedance measurements on high-purity iron disk electrodes, we show that the self-assembly of alkanethiols suppressed the parasitic reaction by reducing the interfacial area available for the electrochemical reaction. We have modeled the effect of chain length of the alkanethiol on the surface coverage, charge-transfer resistance, and double-layer capacitance of the interface using a simple model that also yields a value for the interchain interaction energy. We have verified the improvement in charging efficiency resulting from the use of the alkanethiols in practical rechargeable iron battery electrodes. The results of battery tests indicate that alkanethiols yield among the highest faradaic efficiencies reported for the rechargeable iron electrodes, enabling the prospect of a large-scale energy storage solution based on low-cost iron-based rechargeable batteries.

  16. Tenderizing Meat with Explosives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gustavson, Paul K.; Lee, Richard J.; Chambers, George P.; Solomon, Morse B.; Berry, Brad W.

    2001-06-01

    Investigators at the Food Technology and Safety Laboratory have had success tenderizing meat by explosively shock loading samples submerged in water. This technique, referred to as the Hydrodynamic Pressure (HDP) Process, is being developed to improve the efficiency and reproducibility of the beef tenderization processing over conventional aging techniques. Once optimized, the process should overcome variability in tenderization currently plaguing the beef industry. Additional benefits include marketing lower quality grades of meat, which have not been commercially viable due to a low propensity to tenderization. The simplest and most successful arrangement of these tests has meat samples (50 to 75 mm thick) placed on a steel plate at the bottom of a plastic water vessel. Reported here are tests which were instrumented by Indian Head investigators. Carbon-composite resistor-gauges were used to quantify the shock profile delivered to the surface of the meat. PVDF and resistor gauges (used later in lieu of PVDF) provided data on the pressure-time history at the meat/steel interface. Resulting changes in tenderization were correlated with increasing shock duration, which were provided by various explosives.

  17. Increased Sucrose Accumulation Regulates Iron-Deficiency Responses by Promoting Auxin Signaling in Arabidopsis Plants.

    PubMed

    Lin, Xian Yong; Ye, Yi Quan; Fan, Shi Kai; Jin, Chong Wei; Zheng, Shao Jian

    2016-02-01

    Previous studies have identified that auxins acts upstream of nitric oxide in regulating iron deficiency responses in roots, but the upstream signaling molecule of auxins remains unknown. In this study, we showed that Fe deficiency increased sucrose (Suc) level in roots of Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana). Exogenous application of Suc further stimulated Fe deficiency-induced ferric-chelate-reductase (FCR) activity and expression of Fe acquisition-related genes FRO2, IRT1, and FIT in roots. The opposite patterns were observed in the dark treatment. In addition, FCR activity and expression of Fe acquisition-related genes were higher in the Suc high-accumulating transgenic plant 35S::SUC2 but were lower in the Suc low-accumulating mutant suc2-5 compared with wild-type plants under Fe-deficient conditions. Consequently, Fe deficiency tolerance was enhanced in 35S::SUC2 but was compromised in suc2-5. Exogenous Suc also increased root β-glucuronidase (GUS) activity in auxin-inducible reporter DR5-GUS transgenic plants under Fe deficiency. However, exogenous Suc failed to increase FCR activity and expression of Fe acquisition-related genes in the auxin transport-impaired mutants aux1-7 and pin1-1 as well as in the wild-type plants treated with an auxin transport inhibitor under Fe deficiency. In summary, we found that increased Suc accumulation is required for regulating Fe deficiency responses in plants, with auxins acting downstream in transmitting the Fe deficiency signal. PMID:26644507

  18. Effect of processed and red meat on endogenous nitrosation and DNA damage.

    PubMed

    Joosen, Annemiek M C P; Kuhnle, Gunter G C; Aspinall, Sue M; Barrow, Timothy M; Lecommandeur, Emmanuelle; Azqueta, Amaya; Collins, Andrew R; Bingham, Sheila A

    2009-08-01

    Haem in red meat (RM) stimulates the endogenous production of mutagenic nitroso compounds (NOC). Processed (nitrite-preserved red) meat additionally contains high concentrations of preformed NOC. In two studies, of a fresh RM versus a vegetarian (VEG) diet (six males and six females) and of a nitrite-preserved red meat (PM) versus a VEG diet (5 males and 11 females), we investigated whether processing of meat might increase colorectal cancer risk by stimulating nitrosation and DNA damage. Meat diets contained 420 g (males) or 366 g (females) meat/per day. Faecal homogenates from day 10 onwards were analysed for haem and NOC and associated supernatants for genotoxicity. Means are adjusted for differences in male to female ratios between studies. Faecal NOC concentrations on VEG diets were low (2.6 and 3.5 mmol/g) but significantly higher on meat diets (PM 175 +/- 19 nmol/g versus RM 185 +/- 22 nmol/g; P = 0.75). The RM diet resulted in a larger proportion of nitrosyl iron (RM 78% versus PM 54%; P < 0.0001) and less nitrosothiols (RM 12% versus PM 19%; P < 0.01) and other NOC (RM 10% versus PM 27%; P < 0.0001). There was no statistically significant difference in DNA breaks induced by faecal water (FW) following PM and RM diets (P = 0.80). However, PM resulted in higher levels of oxidized pyrimidines (P < 0.05). Surprisingly, VEG diets resulted in significantly more FW-induced DNA strand breaks than the meat diets (P < 0.05), which needs to be clarified in further studies. Meats cured with nitrite have the same effect as fresh RM on endogenous nitrosation but show increased FW-induced oxidative DNA damage. PMID:19498009

  19. Iron absorption in humans: bovine serum albumin compared with beef muscle and egg white

    SciTech Connect

    Hurrell, R.F.; Lynch, S.R.; Trinidad, T.P.; Dassenko, S.A.; Cook, J.D.

    1988-01-01

    We studied the influence of bovine serum albumin and beef meat on nonheme iron absorption in humans and on dialyzable iron in vitro. The addition of serum albumin to a maize gruel had no significant effect on nonheme Fe absorption whereas the addition of beef meat caused a threefold increase. When added to a bread meal, serum albumin caused a modest 60% increase in nonheme Fe absorption and beef meat had no effect. When added to a protein-free meal, serum albumin reduced Fe absorption by 47% compared with a 72% reduction on addition of egg white. The bioavailability of nonheme Fe from meals containing serum albumin was consistently overestimated by the in vitro technique. We conclude that the facilitation of nonheme Fe absorption by meat is not a general property of all animal protein but is better explained by the action of one or more specific animal tissues.

  20. Iron deficiency increases growth and nitrogen-fixation rates of phosphorus-deficient marine cyanobacteria.

    PubMed

    Garcia, Nathan S; Fu, Feixue; Sedwick, Peter N; Hutchins, David A

    2015-01-01

    Marine dinitrogen (N2)-fixing cyanobacteria have large impacts on global biogeochemistry as they fix carbon dioxide (CO2) and fertilize oligotrophic ocean waters with new nitrogen. Iron (Fe) and phosphorus (P) are the two most important limiting nutrients for marine biological N2 fixation, and their availabilities vary between major ocean basins and regions. A long-standing question concerns the ability of two globally dominant N2-fixing cyanobacteria, unicellular Crocosphaera and filamentous Trichodesmium, to maintain relatively high N2-fixation rates in these regimes where both Fe and P are typically scarce. We show that under P-deficient conditions, cultures of these two cyanobacteria are able to grow and fix N2 faster when Fe deficient than when Fe replete. In addition, growth affinities relative to P increase while minimum concentrations of P that support growth decrease at low Fe concentrations. In Crocosphaera, this effect is accompanied by a reduction in cell sizes and elemental quotas. Relatively high growth rates of these two biogeochemically critical cyanobacteria in low-P, low-Fe environments such as those that characterize much of the oligotrophic ocean challenge the common assumption that low Fe levels can have only negative effects on marine primary producers. The closely interdependent influence of Fe and P on N2-fixing cyanobacteria suggests that even subtle shifts in their supply ratio in the past, present and future oceans could have large consequences for global carbon and nitrogen cycles. PMID:24972068

  1. Low Iron Diet Increases Susceptibility to Noise-Induced Hearing Loss in Young Rats.

    PubMed

    Yu, Fei; Hao, Shuai; Yang, Bo; Zhao, Yue; Yang, Jun

    2016-01-01

    We evaluated the role of iron deficiency (ID) without anemia on hearing function and cochlear pathophysiology of young rats before and after noise exposure. We used rats at developmental stages as an animal model to induce ID without anemia by dietary iron restriction. We have established this dietary restriction model in the rat that should enable us to study the effects of iron deficiency in the absence of severe anemia on hearing and ribbon synapses. Hearing function was measured on Postnatal Day (PND) 21 after induction of ID using auditory brainstem response (ABR). Then, the young rats were exposed to loud noise on PND 21. After noise exposure, hearing function was again measured. We observed the morphology of ribbon synapses, hair cells and spiral ganglion cells (SGCs), and assessed the expression of myosin VIIa, vesicular glutamate transporter 3 and prestin in the cochlea. ID without anemia did not elevate ABR threshold shifts, but reduced ABR wave I peak amplitude of young rats. At 70, 80, and 90 dB SPL, amplitudes of wave I (3.11 ± 0.96 µV, 3.52 ± 1.31 µV, and 4.37 ± 1.08 µV, respectively) in pups from the ID group were decreased compared to the control (5.92 ± 1.67 µV, 6.53 ± 1.70 µV, and 6.90 ± 1.76 µV, respectively) (p < 0.05). Moreover, ID without anemia did not impair the morphology hair cells and SGCs, but decreased the number of ribbon synapses. Before noise exposure, the mean number of ribbon synapses per inner hair cell (IHC) was significantly lower in the ID group (8.44 ± 1.21) compared to that seen in the control (13.08 ± 1.36) (p < 0.05). In addition, the numbers of ribbon synapses per IHC of young rats in the control (ID group) were 6.61 ± 1.59, 3.07 ± 0.83, 5.85 ± 1.63 and 12.25 ± 1.97 (3.75 ± 1.45, 2.03 ± 1.08, 3.81 ± 1.70 and 4.01 ± 1.65) at 1, 4, 7 and 14 days after noise exposure, respectively. Moreover, ABR thresholds at 4 and 8 kHz in young rats from the ID group were significantly elevated at 7 and 14 days after

  2. Low Iron Diet Increases Susceptibility to Noise-Induced Hearing Loss in Young Rats

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Fei; Hao, Shuai; Yang, Bo; Zhao, Yue; Yang, Jun

    2016-01-01

    We evaluated the role of iron deficiency (ID) without anemia on hearing function and cochlear pathophysiology of young rats before and after noise exposure. We used rats at developmental stages as an animal model to induce ID without anemia by dietary iron restriction. We have established this dietary restriction model in the rat that should enable us to study the effects of iron deficiency in the absence of severe anemia on hearing and ribbon synapses. Hearing function was measured on Postnatal Day (PND) 21 after induction of ID using auditory brainstem response (ABR). Then, the young rats were exposed to loud noise on PND 21. After noise exposure, hearing function was again measured. We observed the morphology of ribbon synapses, hair cells and spiral ganglion cells (SGCs), and assessed the expression of myosin VIIa, vesicular glutamate transporter 3 and prestin in the cochlea. ID without anemia did not elevate ABR threshold shifts, but reduced ABR wave I peak amplitude of young rats. At 70, 80, and 90 dB SPL, amplitudes of wave I (3.11 ± 0.96 µV, 3.52 ± 1.31 µV, and 4.37 ± 1.08 µV, respectively) in pups from the ID group were decreased compared to the control (5.92 ± 1.67 µV, 6.53 ± 1.70 µV, and 6.90 ± 1.76 µV, respectively) (p < 0.05). Moreover, ID without anemia did not impair the morphology hair cells and SGCs, but decreased the number of ribbon synapses. Before noise exposure, the mean number of ribbon synapses per inner hair cell (IHC) was significantly lower in the ID group (8.44 ± 1.21) compared to that seen in the control (13.08 ± 1.36) (p < 0.05). In addition, the numbers of ribbon synapses per IHC of young rats in the control (ID group) were 6.61 ± 1.59, 3.07 ± 0.83, 5.85 ± 1.63 and 12.25 ± 1.97 (3.75 ± 1.45, 2.03 ± 1.08, 3.81 ± 1.70 and 4.01 ± 1.65) at 1, 4, 7 and 14 days after noise exposure, respectively. Moreover, ABR thresholds at 4 and 8 kHz in young rats from the ID group were significantly elevated at 7 and 14 days after

  3. Increased brain iron coincides with early plaque formation in a mouse model of Alzheimer's disease

    SciTech Connect

    Leskovjan, A.C.; Miller, L.; Kretlow, A.; Lanzirotti, A.; Barrea,R.; Vogt, S.

    2010-11-23

    Elevated brain iron content, which has been observed in late-stage human Alzheimer's disease, is a potential target for early diagnosis. However, the time course for iron accumulation is currently unclear. Using the PSAPP mouse model of amyloid plaque formation, we conducted a time course study of metal ion content and distribution [iron (Fe), copper (Cu), and zinc (Zn)] in the cortex and hippocampus using X-ray fluorescence microscopy (XFM). We found that iron in the cortex was 34% higher than age-matched controls at an early stage, corresponding to the commencement of plaque formation. The elevated iron was not associated with the amyloid plaques. Interestingly, none of the metal ions were elevated in the amyloid plaques until the latest time point (56 weeks), where only the Zn content was significantly elevated by 38%. Since neuropathological changes in human Alzheimer's disease are presumed to occur years before the first cognitive symptoms appear, quantification of brain iron content could be a powerful marker for early diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease.

  4. Influence of diet on iron, copper, and zinc status in children under 24 months of age.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Andrew; Redworth, Edward Wallis; Morgan, Jane B

    2004-03-01

    The objective of the study was to determine whether iron and micronutrient status is improved with an increased amount of meat in the diet. To this end, a longitudinal prospective study with infants recruited at 4 mo and followed until 24 mo of age was undertaken. One hundred ninety-eight infants formed the original study cohort; 48 withdrew before the end of the study. Subjects were classified as nonmeat eaters or as mixed (red and white)-meat eaters subgrouped into tertiles depending on the meat content reported in diet diaries. Seven-day weighed food records were recorded at 4, 8, 12, 16, 20, and 24 mo. Blood samples taken at 4, 12, and 24 mo were analyzed for parameters of iron and micronutrient status. Iron intake increased during the first year, thereafter remaining constant. The percentages of subjects with hemoglobin values below 110 g/L were 34.1, 23.1, and 13.4 at 4, 12, and 24 mo, respectively. For parameters of iron status, the number of results below the reference range was determined for each diet group and a significant negative relationship between serum iron and meat intake at 12 mo of age was seen (p<0.023). There was a trend for hemoglobin concentrations to be inversely related to the meat intake, at the same age (p<0.068). No effects on zinc or copper status were seen. We conclude that a weak association between dietary meat and iron/Hb suggests a positive role for red meat. There was no disadvantage to the nonmeat-eating infants with respect to zinc or copper. PMID:14997021

  5. Increased optical contrast in imaging of epidermal growth factor receptor using magnetically actuated hybrid gold/iron oxide nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aaron, Jesse S.; Oh, Junghwan; Larson, Timothy A.; Kumar, Sonia; Milner, Thomas E.; Sokolov, Konstantin V.

    2006-12-01

    We describe a new approach for optical imaging that combines the advantages of molecularly targeted plasmonic nanoparticles and magnetic actuation. This combination is achieved through hybrid nanoparticles with an iron oxide core surrounded by a gold layer. The nanoparticles are targeted in-vitro to epidermal growth factor receptor, a common cancer biomarker. The gold portion resonantly scatters visible light giving a strong optical signal and the superparamagnetic core provides a means to externally modulate the optical signal. The combination of bright plasmon resonance scattering and magnetic actuation produces a dramatic increase in contrast in optical imaging of cells labeled with hybrid gold/iron oxide nanoparticles.

  6. Influences on meat consumption in Australia.

    PubMed

    Lea, E; Worsley, A

    2001-04-01

    In a study of influences on meat consumption, over 700 South Australians answered questions on frequency of meat consumption, beliefs about meat and nutrition, perceived difficulties with and benefits of vegetarian diets, personal values, number of vegetarian significant others, use in and trust of health/nutrition/food information sources, and demography. Perceived difficulties with vegetarian diets, the number of vegetarian significant others and beliefs about meat were important predictors of meat consumption. There were differences between men and women and members of different age groups, which should be taken into account when attempts are made to influence meat consumption. For example, health promotion campaigns that focus on whether or not meat is necessary in the diet may influence meat consumption, but would be most successful if directed predominantly at older people and men. In contrast, the meat consumption of women and younger people was strongly associated with more specific concerns about lack of iron and protein in the vegetarian diet. Some of the difficulties people find with vegetarian diets will also apply to plant-based diets generally, and such diets are becoming more widely acknowledged as providing health benefits. Therefore, the findings have important implications for public health. PMID:11237348

  7. Effect of dietary meat and fish on endogenous nitrosation, inflammation and genotoxicity of faecal water.

    PubMed

    Joosen, Annemiek M C P; Lecommandeur, Emmanuelle; Kuhnle, Gunter G C; Aspinall, Sue M; Kap, Lisanne; Rodwell, Sheila A

    2010-05-01

    N-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids have been associated with reduced colon tumorigenesis. However, their association with colorectal cancer incidence is not conclusive. We investigated the influence of isocaloric replacement of red meat with fatty fish on endogenous nitrosation, inflammation and genotoxicity of faecal water in apparently healthy human volunteers on controlled diets. Fourteen volunteers consumed a high red meat, a combined red meat/fish and a high fish diet for 8 days each. Faecal homogenates were analysed for haem, nitroso compounds (NOC) and calprotectin and associated supernatants for genotoxicity. Both faecal NOC and haem excretion decreased with more fish and less meat in the diet. Nitrosyl iron (FeNO) was the main contributor to total NOC on all diets. The proportion of other NOC increased with more fish and less meat in the diet (P = 0.01), resulting in a non-statistically significant decrease in the proportion of FeNO on the fish diet. There was no statistically significant difference in faecal calprotectin (P = 0.54) and faecal water-induced DNA strand breaks and oxidized purines and pyrimidines between the diets (P > 0.36). Increasing fish intake and reducing the intake of red meat does not seem to have an effect on inflammation and faecal water-induced (oxidative) DNA damage; however, it does reduce the formation of mutagenic and potentially carcinogenic NOC and may as such beneficially affect colorectal risk. PMID:20106932

  8. Behavioral and Neurochemical Deficits in Aging Rats with Increased Neonatal Iron Intake: Silibinin’s Neuroprotection by Maintaining Redox Balance

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Hanqing; Wang, Xijin; Wang, Meihua; Yang, Liu; Yan, Zhiqiang; Zhang, Yuhong; Liu, Zhenguo

    2015-01-01

    Aging is a critical risk factor for Parkinson’s disease. Silibinin, a major flavonoid in Silybum marianum, has been suggested to display neuroprotective properties against various neurodegenerative diseases. In the present study, we observed that neonatal iron (120 μg/g body weight) supplementation resulted in significant abnormality of behavior and depletion of striatal dopamine (DA) in the aging male and female rats while it did not do so in the young male and female rats. No significant change in striatal serotonin content was observed in the aging male and female rats with neonatal supplementation of the same dose of iron. Furthermore, we found that the neonatal iron supplementation resulted in significant increase in malondialdehyde (MDA) and decrease in glutathione (GSH) in the substantia nigra (SN) of the aging male and female rats. No significant change in content of MDA and GSH was observed in the cerebellum of the aging male and female rats with the neonatal iron supplementation. Interestingly, silibinin (25 and 50 mg/kg body weight) treatment significantly and dose-dependently attenuated depletion of striatal DA and improved abnormality of behavior in the aging male and female rats with the neonatal iron supplementation. Moreover, silibinin significantly reduced MDA content and increased GSH content in the SN of the aging male and female rats. Taken together, our results indicate that elevated neonatal iron supplementation may result in neurochemical and behavioral deficits in the male and female rats with aging and silibinin may exert dopaminergic neuroprotection by maintaining redox balance. PMID:26578951

  9. Rice and Bean Targets for Biofortification Combined with High Carotenoid Content Crops Regulate Transcriptional Mechanisms Increasing Iron Bioavailability

    PubMed Central

    Dias, Desirrê Morais; de Castro Moreira, Maria Eliza; Gomes, Mariana Juste Contin; Lopes Toledo, Renata Celi; Nutti, Marilia Regini; Pinheiro Sant’Ana, Helena Maria; Martino, Hércia Stampini Duarte

    2015-01-01

    Iron deficiency affects thousands of people worldwide. Biofortification of staple food crops aims to support the reduction of this deficiency. This study evaluates the effect of combinations of common beans and rice, targets for biofortification, with high carotenoid content crops on the iron bioavailability, protein gene expression, and antioxidant effect. Iron bioavailability was measured by the depletion/repletion method. Seven groups were tested (n = 7): Pontal bean (PB); rice + Pontal bean (R + BP); Pontal bean + sweet potato (PB + SP); Pontal bean + pumpkin (PB + P); Pontal bean + rice + sweet potato (PB + R + P); Pontal bean + rice + sweet potato (PB + R + SP); positive control (Ferrous Sulfate). The evaluations included: hemoglobin gain, hemoglobin regeneration efficiency (HRE), gene expression of divalente metal transporter 1 (DMT-1), duodenal citocromo B (DcytB), ferroportin, hephaestin, transferrin and ferritin and total plasma antioxidant capacity (TAC). The test groups, except the PB, showed higher HRE (p < 0.05) than the control. Gene expression of DMT-1, DcytB and ferroportin increased (p < 0.05) in the groups fed with high content carotenoid crops (sweet potato or pumpkin). The PB group presented lower (p < 0.05) TAC than the other groups. The combination of rice and common beans, and those with high carotenoid content crops increased protein gene expression, increasing the iron bioavailability and antioxidant capacity. PMID:26610564

  10. Rice and Bean Targets for Biofortification Combined with High Carotenoid Content Crops Regulate Transcriptional Mechanisms Increasing Iron Bioavailability.

    PubMed

    Dias, Desirrê Morais; de Castro Moreira, Maria Eliza; Gomes, Mariana Juste Contin; Lopes Toledo, Renata Celi; Nutti, Marilia Regini; Pinheiro Sant'Ana, Helena Maria; Martino, Hércia Stampini Duarte

    2015-11-01

    Iron deficiency affects thousands of people worldwide. Biofortification of staple food crops aims to support the reduction of this deficiency. This study evaluates the effect of combinations of common beans and rice, targets for biofortification, with high carotenoid content crops on the iron bioavailability, protein gene expression, and antioxidant effect. Iron bioavailability was measured by the depletion/repletion method. Seven groups were tested (n = 7): Pontal bean (PB); rice + Pontal bean (R + BP); Pontal bean + sweet potato (PB + SP); Pontal bean + pumpkin (PB + P); Pontal bean + rice + sweet potato (PB + R + P); Pontal bean + rice + sweet potato (PB + R + SP); positive control (Ferrous Sulfate). The evaluations included: hemoglobin gain, hemoglobin regeneration efficiency (HRE), gene expression of divalente metal transporter 1 (DMT-1), duodenal citocromo B (DcytB), ferroportin, hephaestin, transferrin and ferritin and total plasma antioxidant capacity (TAC). The test groups, except the PB, showed higher HRE (p < 0.05) than the control. Gene expression of DMT-1, DcytB and ferroportin increased (p < 0.05) in the groups fed with high content carotenoid crops (sweet potato or pumpkin). The PB group presented lower (p < 0.05) TAC than the other groups. The combination of rice and common beans, and those with high carotenoid content crops increased protein gene expression, increasing the iron bioavailability and antioxidant capacity. PMID:26610564

  11. Can supplemental nitrate in cured meats be used as a means of increasing residual and dietary nitrate and subsequent potential for physiological nitric oxide without affecting product properties?

    PubMed

    Usinger, Emily L; Larson, Elaine M; Niebuhr, Steven E; Fedler, Christine A; Prusa, Kenneth J; Dickson, James S; Tarté, Rodrigo; Sebranek, Joseph G

    2016-11-01

    The effects of formulated sodium nitrate plus supplemental nitrate (SN) from celery juice powder on residual nitrite, residual nitrate, rancidity, microbial growth, color, sensory properties, and proximate composition of frankfurters, cotto salami and boneless ham during storage (1°C) were studied. The products were assigned one of two treatments, which were each replicated twice: control (156ppm sodium nitrite) or SN (156ppm sodium nitrite and 1718ppm sodium nitrate in combination with 2% VegStable 502). Sensory parameters and proximate composition were measured once for each replication. All other analytical measurements were conducted at regular intervals for 97-98days. The SN showed no increase in residual nitrite compared to the control. No changes (P>0.05) were observed in residual nitrate during storage for any of the products. The results showed that addition of SN did not significantly alter most physical, chemical or microbial properties of cured meat products during refrigerated storage, but some product dependent sensory effects were observed. PMID:27411075

  12. Over-expression of the MxIRT1 gene increases iron and zinc content in rice seeds.

    PubMed

    Tan, Song; Han, Rui; Li, Peng; Yang, Guang; Li, Shuang; Zhang, Peng; Wang, Wei-Bing; Zhao, Wei-Zhong; Yin, Li-Ping

    2015-02-01

    Iron and zinc are essential in plant and human nutrition. Iron deficiency has been one of the causes of human mortality, especially in developing countries with high rice consumption. MxIRT1 is a ferrous transporter that has been screened from an iron-efficient genotype of the apple tree, Malus xiaojinensis Cheng et Jiang. In order to produce Fe-biofortified rice with MxIRT1 to solve the Fe-deficiency problem, plant expression vectors of pCAMBIA1302-MxIRT1:GFP and pCAMBIA1302-anti MxIRT1:GFP were constructed that led to successful production of transgenic rice. The transgenic plant phenotypes showed that the expression of endogenous OsIRT1 was suppressed by anti-MxIRT1 in antisense lines that acted as an opposing control, while sense lines had a higher tolerance under Zn- and Fe-deficient conditions. The iron and zinc concentration in T3 seeds increased by three times in sense lines when compared to the wild type. To understand the MxIRT1 cadmium uptake, the MxIRT1 cadmium absorption trait was compared with AtIRT1 and OsIRT1 in transgenic rice protoplasts, and it was found that MxIRT1 had the lowest Cd uptake capacity. MxIRT1 transgenic tobacco-cultured bright yellow-2 (BY-2) cells and rice lines were subjected to different Fe conditions and the results from the non-invasive micro-test technique showed that iron was actively transported compared to cadmium as long as iron was readily available in the environment. This suggests that MxIRT1 is a good candidate gene for plant Fe and Zn biofortification. PMID:25099285

  13. Heme-related gene expression signatures of meat intakes in lung cancer tissues

    PubMed Central

    Lam, Tram Kim; Rotunno, Melissa; Ryan, Brid M.; Pesatori, Angela C.; Bertazzi, Pier Alberto; Spitz, Margaret; Caporaso, Neil E.; Landi, Maria Teresa

    2014-01-01

    Lung cancer causes more deaths worldwide than any other cancer. In addition to cigarette smoking, dietary factors may contribute to lung carcinogenesis. Epidemiologic studies, including the Environment and Genetics in Lung cancer Etiology (EAGLE), have reported increased consumption of red/processed meats to be associated with higher risk of lung cancer. Heme-iron toxicity may link meat intake with cancer. We investigated this hypothesis in meat-related lung carcinogenesis using whole genome expression. We measured genome-wide expression (HG-U133A) in 49 tumor and 42 non-involved fresh frozen lung tissues of 64 adenocarcinoma EAGLE patients. We studied gene expression profiles by high-versus-low meat consumption, with and without adjustment by sex, age, and smoking. Threshold for significance was a False Discovery Rate (FDR) ≤0.15. We studied whether the identified genes played a role in heme-iron related processes by means of manually curated literature search and gene ontology-based pathway analysis. We found that gene expression of 232 annotated genes in tumor tissue significantly distinguished lung adenocarcinoma cases who consumed above/below the median intake of fresh red meats (FDR=0.12). Sixty-three (~28%) of the 232 identified genes (12 expected by chance, p-value<0.001) were involved in heme binding, absorption, transport, and Wnt signaling pathway (e.g., CYPs, TPO, HPX, HFE, SLCs, WNTs). We also identified several genes involved in lipid metabolism (e.g., NCR1, TNF, UCP3) and oxidative stress (e.g., TPO, SGK2, MTHFR) that may be indirectly related to heme-toxicity. The study’s results provide preliminary evidence that heme-iron toxicity might be one underlying mechanism linking fresh red meat intake and lung cancer. PMID:23681825

  14. Heme-related gene expression signatures of meat intakes in lung cancer tissues.

    PubMed

    Lam, Tram Kim; Rotunno, Melissa; Ryan, Brid M; Pesatori, Angela C; Bertazzi, Pier Alberto; Spitz, Margaret; Caporaso, Neil E; Landi, Maria Teresa

    2014-07-01

    Lung cancer causes more deaths worldwide than any other cancer. In addition to cigarette smoking, dietary factors may contribute to lung carcinogenesis. Epidemiologic studies, including the environment and genetics in lung cancer etiology (EAGLE), have reported increased consumption of red/processed meats to be associated with higher risk of lung cancer. Heme-iron toxicity may link meat intake with cancer. We investigated this hypothesis in meat-related lung carcinogenesis using whole genome expression. We measured genome-wide expression (HG-U133A) in 49 tumor and 42 non-involved fresh frozen lung tissues of 64 adenocarcinoma EAGLE patients. We studied gene expression profiles by high-versus-low meat consumption, with and without adjustment by sex, age, and smoking. Threshold for significance was a false discovery rate (FDR) ≤ 0.15. We studied whether the identified genes played a role in heme-iron related processes by means of manually curated literature search and gene ontology-based pathway analysis. We found that gene expression of 232 annotated genes in tumor tissue significantly distinguished lung adenocarcinoma cases who consumed above/below the median intake of fresh red meats (FDR = 0.12). Sixty-three (∼ 28%) of the 232 identified genes (12 expected by chance, P-value < 0.001) were involved in heme binding, absorption, transport, and Wnt signaling pathway (e.g., CYPs, TPO, HPX, HFE, SLCs, and WNTs). We also identified several genes involved in lipid metabolism (e.g., NCR1, TNF, and UCP3) and oxidative stress (e.g., TPO, SGK2, and MTHFR) that may be indirectly related to heme-toxicity. The study's results provide preliminary evidence that heme-iron toxicity might be one underlying mechanism linking fresh red meat intake and lung cancer. PMID:23681825

  15. Serum ceruloplasmin protein expression and activity increases in iron-deficient rats and is further enhanced by higher dietary copper intake

    PubMed Central

    Ranganathan, Perungavur N.; Lu, Yan; Jiang, Lingli; Kim, Changae

    2011-01-01

    Increases in serum and liver copper content are noted during iron deficiency in mammals, suggesting that copper-dependent processes participate during iron deprivation. One point of intersection between the 2 metals is the liver-derived, multicopper ferroxidase ceruloplasmin (Cp) that is important for iron release from certain tissues. The current study sought to explore Cp expression and activity during physiologic states in which hepatic copper loading occurs (eg, iron deficiency). Weanling rats were fed control or low iron diets containing low, normal, or high copper for ∼ 5 weeks, and parameters of iron homeostasis were measured. Liver copper increased in control and iron-deficient rats fed extra copper. Hepatic Cp mRNA levels did not change; however, serum Cp protein was higher during iron deprivation and with higher copper consumption. In-gel and spectrophotometric ferroxidase and amine oxidase assays demonstrated that Cp activity was enhanced when hepatic copper loading occurred. Interestingly, liver copper levels strongly correlated with Cp protein expression and activity. These observations support the possibility that liver copper loading increases metallation of the Cp protein, leading to increased production of the holo enzyme. Moreover, this phenomenon may play an important role in the compensatory response to maintain iron homeostasis during iron deficiency. PMID:21768302

  16. Pig feeds rich in rapeseed products and organic selenium increased omega-3 fatty acids and selenium in pork meat and backfat

    PubMed Central

    Gjerlaug-Enger, Eli; Haug, Anna; Gaarder, Mari; Ljøkjel, Kari; Stenseth, Ragna Sveipe; Sigfridson, Kerstin; Egelandsdal, Bjørg; Saarem, Kristin; Berg, Per

    2015-01-01

    The concentration of omega-3 fatty acids and selenium (Se) is generally too low in the Western diet. But as the nutrient composition of pork meat and adipose tissue is influenced by the feed given to the animals, the product can be changed to support nutrient demands. Half (297/594) the pigs were given a feed concentrate based on low-glucosinolate rapeseed products (RS), while the other half was fed a traditional concentrate (Contr): The RS feed had an omega-6/omega-3 ratio of 3.6:1, and the Contr feed had a ratio of 8.9:1, and both feeds were supplemented with 0.4 mg Se/kg (organic Se: inorganic Se, 1:1). There was a small difference in growth rate, but no differences in feed conversion ratio, lean meat percentage, carcass value, and margin per pig for the two groups. There were no differences in meat quality between the two groups, but there were differences in technological fat quality. The RS pigs contained about 2 times more alpha-linolenic acid in the backfat and 41% more in the meat (M. longissimus dorsi) compared to the controls. The concentration of EPA, DPA, and DHA were 42% and 20% higher in backfat and meat of the RS pigs compared to the control pigs respectively. The ratio between omega-6/omega-3 fatty acids were 4.7 in the meat and 4.0 in the backfat in the RS pigs, and the corresponding values were 6.6 and 8.0 in the control pigs. The selenium content was 0.3 mg/kg meat in both groups. The study showed that a portion of the present pig meat (175 g) provided the daily recommended intake of Se for men and women and about 1/6 of proposed reference intake of omega-3 LCPUFA (250 mg/day) to reduce the risk of CVD thereby providing a meat that is somewhat healthier for the consumer. PMID:25838890

  17. Reversal of HO-1 related cytoprotection with increased expression is due to reactive iron.

    PubMed

    Suttner, D M; Dennery, P A

    1999-10-01

    It is often postulated that the cytoprotective nature of heme oxygenase (HO-1) explains the inducible nature of this enzyme. However, the mechanisms by which protection occurs are not verified by systematic evaluation of the physiological effects of HO. To explain how induction of HO-1 results in protection against oxygen toxicity, hamster fibroblasts (HA-1) were stably transfected with a tetracycline response plasmid containing the full-length rat HO-1 cDNA construct to allow for regulation of gene expression by varying concentrations of doxycycline (Dox). Transfected cells were exposed to hyperoxia (95% O(2)/5% CO2) for 24 h and several markers of oxidative injury were measured. With varying concentrations of Dox, HO activity was regulated between 3- and 17-fold. Despite cytoprotection with low (less than fivefold) HO activity, high levels of HO-1 expression (greater than 15-fold) were associated with significant oxygen cytotoxicity. Levels of non-heme reactive iron correlated with cellular injury in hyperoxia whereas lower levels of heme were associated with cytoprotection. Cellular levels of cyclic GMP and bilirubin were not significantly altered by modification of HO activity, precluding a substantial role for activation of guanylate cyclase by carbon monoxide or for accumulation of bile pigments in the physiological consequences of HO-1 overexpression. Inhibition of HO activity or chelation of cellular iron prior to hyperoxic exposure decreased reactive iron levels in the samples and significantly reduced oxygen toxicity. We conclude that there is a beneficial threshold of HO-1 overexpression related to the accumulation of reactive iron released in the degradation of heme. Therefore, despite the ready induction of HO-1 in oxidant stress, accumulation of reactive iron formed makes it unlikely that exaggerated expression of HO-1 is a cytoprotective response. PMID:10506583

  18. Effect of radiation processing on meat tenderisation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kanatt, Sweetie R.; Chawla, S. P.; Sharma, Arun

    2015-06-01

    The effect of radiation processing (0, 2.5, 5 and 10 kGy) on the tenderness of three types of popularly consumed meat in India namely chicken, lamb and buffalo was investigated. In irradiated meat samples dose dependant reduction in water holding capacity, cooking yield and shear force was observed. Reduction in shear force upon radiation processing was more pronounced in buffalo meat. Protein and collagen solubility as well as TCA soluble protein content increased on irradiation. Radiation processing of meat samples resulted in some change in colour of meat. Results suggested that irradiation leads to dose dependant tenderization of meat. Radiation processing of meat at a dose of 2.5 kGy improved its texture and had acceptable odour.

  19. Association of cardiac injury with iron-increased oxidative and nitrative modifications of the SERCA2a isoform of sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca(2+)-ATPase in diabetic rats.

    PubMed

    Li, Xueli; Li, Wenliang; Gao, Zhonghong; Li, Hailing

    2016-08-01

    The role of iron in the etiology of diabetes complications is not well established. Thus, this study was performed to test whether the iron-induced increase of oxidative/nitrative damage is involved in SERCA2a-related diabetic heart complication. Four randomly divided groups of rats were used: normal control group; iron overload group; diabetes group, and diabetic plus iron overload group. Iron supplementation stimulated cardiomyocyte hypertrophy and led to an increase in cardiac protein carbonyls, nitrotyrosine (3-NT) formation, and iNOS protein expression, thus resulting in abnormal myocardium calcium homeostasis of diabetic rats. The levels of SECA2a oxidation/nitration were significantly increased in the iron overload diabetic rats, along with a decrease in SECA2a expression and activity. In order to elucidate the possible role of iron in SERCA2a dysfunction, the effects of iron (Fe(3+) or hemin) on peroxynitrite (ONOO(-)) induced SERCA2a oxidation and nitration were further investigated in vitro. It was found that tyrosine nitration played more important role in SERCA2a inactivation than thiol oxidation. These results present a potential mechanism in which iron exacerbates the diabetes-induced oxidative/nitrative modification of SERCA2a, which may cause functional deficits in the myocyte associated with diabetic cardiac dysfunction. Our findings may help to further understand the role of iron in the pathogenesis of diabetic complications. PMID:27222135

  20. Influence of dietary iron source on measures of iron status among female runners.

    PubMed

    Snyder, A C; Dvorak, L L; Roepke, J B

    1989-02-01

    The purpose of the present investigation was to determine whether female runners who consume a modified vegetarian diet are predisposed to iron deficiency. Two groups of female runners who were matched for age, weight, aerobic capacity, miles run per week, and number of pregnancies were obtained for this study. One group (N = 9) regularly consumed a modified vegetarian diet (MV, less than 100 g red meat.wk-1), while the other group (N = 9) consumed a diet which included red meat (RM). Serum ferritin values were significantly (P less than 0.05) lower for the MV group (X +/- SE, 7.4 +/- 1.4 ng.100 ml-1) than for the RM group (19.8 +/- 4.2 ng.100 ml-1). Total iron binding capacity (TIBC) of the serum was also significantly different between the two groups of subjects (MV, 366.5 +/- 12.2 micrograms.100 ml-1; RM, 327.2 +/- 9.6 micrograms.100 ml-1). While dietary iron intake was comparable for the two groups (MV, 14.7 +/- 2.0 mg.d-1; RM, 14.0 +/- 2.2 mg.d-1, the bioavailability of the dietary iron was significantly different (MV, 0.66 +/- 0.08 mg.d-1; RM, 0.91 +/- 0.10 mg.d-1). As the presence of heme iron (from meat, fish, and poultry) increases the bioavailability of dietary iron, the results of the present investigation suggest that vegetarian athletes have altered iron status due to the form in which their dietary iron is consumed. PMID:2927304

  1. Contamination of meat products by trace quantities of nitrosodiethanolamine (NDELA)

    SciTech Connect

    Anucha, T.C.A.; Okieimen, F.E.; Ajibola, M.M.

    1986-03-01

    Suya is a popular indigenous ready-to-eat meat product in Nigeria. The most common type of suya is prepared by coating boneless meat with spices. The spice coated meat is attached to a stick or iron rod and grilled around or on top of an open fire. In this communication, the authors report on the levels of N-nitrosodiethanolamine (NDELA) in suya and the effect of storage and of temperature on the level of NDELA contamination of this product.

  2. Continuously increasing δ98Mo values in Neoarchean black shales and iron formations from the Hamersley Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kurzweil, Florian; Wille, Martin; Schoenberg, Ronny; Taubald, Heinrich; Van Kranendonk, Martin J.

    2015-09-01

    We present Mo-, C- and O-isotope data from black shales, carbonate- and oxide facies iron formations from the Hamersley Group, Western Australia, that range in age from 2.6 to 2.5 billion years. The data show a continuous increase from near crustal δ98Mo values of around 0.50‰ for the oldest Marra Mamba and Wittenoom formations towards higher values of up to 1.51‰ for the youngest sample of the Brockman Iron Formation. Thereby, the trend in increasing δ98Mo values is portrayed by both carbonate facies iron formations and black shales. Considering the positive correlation between Mo concentration and total organic carbon, we argue that this uniformity is best explained by molybdate adsorption onto organic matter in carbonate iron formations and scavenging of thiomolybdate onto sulfurized organic matter in black shales. A temporal increase in the seawater δ98Mo over the period 2.6-2.5 Ga is observed assuming an overall low Mo isotope fractionation during both Mo removal processes. Oxide facies iron formations show lowest Mo concentrations, lowest total organic carbon and slightly lower δ98Mo compared to nearly contemporaneous black shales. This may indicate that in iron formation settings with very low organic matter burial rates, the preferential adsorption of light Mo isotopes onto Fe-(oxyhydr)oxides becomes more relevant. A similar Mo-isotope pattern was previously found in contemporaneous black shales and carbonates of the Griqualand West Basin, South Africa. The consistent and concomitant increase in δ98Mo after 2.54 billion years ago suggests a more homogenous distribution of seawater molybdate with uniform isotopic composition in various depositional settings within the Hamersley Basin and the Griqualand West Basin. The modeling of the oceanic Mo inventory in relation to the Mo in- and outflux suggests that the long-term build-up of an isotopically heavy seawater Mo reservoir requires a sedimentary sink for isotopically light Mo. The search for this

  3. Research gaps in evaluating the relationship of meat and health

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Humans evolved as omnivores and it has been proposed that cooking meat allowed for evolution of larger brains that has led to our success as a species. Meat is one of the most nutrient dense foods, providing high-quality protein, heme iron, zinc, and vitamins B6 and B12. Despite these advantages, ep...

  4. A review of potential metabolic etiologies of the observed association between red meat consumption and development of type 2 diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed

    Kim, Yoona; Keogh, Jennifer; Clifton, Peter

    2015-07-01

    Epidemiological studies suggest that red and processed meat consumption is related to an increased risk of type 2 diabetes. However, it is not clearly understood which components of red and processed meat contribute to this increased risk. This review examines potential mechanisms addressing the role of saturated fatty acid, sodium, advanced glycation end products (AGEs), nitrates/nitrites, heme iron, trimethylamine N-oxide (TMAO), branched amino acids (BCAAs) and endocrine disruptor chemicals (EDCs) in the development of type 2 diabetes based on data from published clinical trials and animal models. TMAO which is derived from dietary carnitine and choline by the action of bacterial enzymes followed by oxidation in the liver may be a strong candidate molecule mediating the risk of type 2 diabetes. BCAAs may induce insulin resistance via the mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) and ribosomal protein S6 kinase β 1 (S6k1)-associated pathways. The increased risk associated with processed meat compared with red meat suggests that there are interactions between the saturated fat, salt, and nitrates in processed meat and iron, AGEs and TMAO. Intervention studies are required to clarify potential mechanisms and explore interactions among components, in order to make firm recommendations on red and processed meat consumption. PMID:25838035

  5. International red meat trade.

    PubMed

    Brester, Gary W; Marsh, John M; Plain, Ronald L

    2003-07-01

    The maturation of the US beef and pork markets and increasing consumer demands for convenience, safety, and nutrition suggests that the beef and pork industries must focus on product development and promotion. New marketing arrangements are developing that help coordinate production with consumer demands. The relative high levels of incomes in the United States are likely to increase the demands for branded products rather than increase total per capita consumption. Foreign markets represent the greatest opportunity for increased demand for commodity beef and pork products. Increasing incomes in developing countries will likely allow consumers to increase consumption of animal-source proteins. Real prices of beef and pork have declined substantially because of sagging domestic demand and increasing farm-level production technologies. Increasing US beef and pork exports have obviated some of the price declines. Pork attained a net export position from a quantity perspective in 1995. The United States continues to be a net importer of beef on a quantity basis but is close to becoming a net exporter in terms of value. By-products continue to play a critical role in determining the red meat trade balance and producer prices. The United States, however, must continue to become cost, price, and quality competitive with other suppliers and must secure additional market access if it is to sustain recent trade trends. Several trade tensions remain in the red meat industry. For example, mandated COOL will undoubtedly have domestic and international effects on the beef and pork sectors. Domestically, uncertainty regarding consumer demand responses or quality perceptions regarding product origin, as well as added processor-retailer costs will be nontrivial. How these factors balance out in terms of benefits versus costs to the industry is uncertain. From an international perspective, some beef and pork export suppliers to the United States could view required labeling as a

  6. Large prospective investigation of meat intake, related mutagens, and risk of renal cell carcinoma1234

    PubMed Central

    Daniel, Carrie R; Cross, Amanda J; Graubard, Barry I; Park, Yikyung; Ward, Mary H; Rothman, Nathaniel; Hollenbeck, Albert R; Chow, Wong-Ho; Sinha, Rashmi

    2012-01-01

    Background: The evidence for meat intake and renal cell carcinoma (RCC) risk is inconsistent. Mutagens related to meat cooking and processing, and variation by RCC subtype may be important to consider. Objective: In a large US cohort, we prospectively investigated intake of meat and meat-related compounds in relation to risk of RCC, as well as clear cell and papillary RCC histologic subtypes. Design: Study participants (492,186) completed a detailed dietary assessment linked to a database of heme iron, heterocyclic amines (HCA), polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), nitrate, and nitrite concentrations in cooked and processed meats. Over 9 (mean) y of follow-up, we identified 1814 cases of RCC (498 clear cell and 115 papillary adenocarcinomas). HRs and 95% CIs were estimated within quintiles by using multivariable Cox proportional hazards regression. Results: Red meat intake [62.7 g (quintile 5) compared with 9.8 g (quintile 1) per 1000 kcal (median)] was associated with a tendency toward an increased risk of RCC [HR: 1.19; 95% CI: 1.01, 1.40; P-trend = 0.06] and a 2-fold increased risk of papillary RCC [P-trend = 0.002]. Intakes of benzo(a)pyrene (BaP), a marker of PAHs, and 2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenyl-imidazo[4,5-b]pyridine (PhIP), an HCA, were associated with a significant 20–30% elevated risk of RCC and a 2-fold increased risk of papillary RCC. No associations were observed for the clear cell subtype. Conclusions: Red meat intake may increase the risk of RCC through mechanisms related to the cooking compounds BaP and PhIP. Our findings for RCC appeared to be driven by strong associations with the rarer papillary histologic variant. This study is registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT00340015. PMID:22170360

  7. Iron Dextran Increases Hepatic Oxidative Stress and Alters Expression of Genes Related to Lipid Metabolism Contributing to Hyperlipidaemia in Murine Model

    PubMed Central

    Silva, Maísa; Guerra, Joyce Ferreira da Costa; Sampaio, Ana Flávia Santos; de Lima, Wanderson Geraldo; Silva, Marcelo Eustáquio

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of iron dextran on lipid metabolism and to determine the involvement of oxidative stress. Fischer rats were divided into two groups: the standard group (S), which was fed the AIN-93M diet, and the standard plus iron group (SI), which was fed the same diet but also received iron dextran injections. Serum cholesterol and triacylglycerol levels were higher in the SI group than in the S group. Iron dextran was associated with decreased mRNA levels of pparα, and its downstream gene cpt1a, which is involved in lipid oxidation. Iron dextran also increased mRNA levels of apoB-100, MTP, and L-FABP indicating alterations in lipid secretion. Carbonyl protein and TBARS were consistently higher in the liver of the iron-treated rats. Moreover, a significant positive correlation was found between oxidative stress products, lfabp expression, and iron stores. In addition, a negative correlation was found between pparα expression, TBARS, carbonyl protein, and iron stores. In conclusion, our results suggest that the increase observed in the transport of lipids in the bloodstream and the decreased fatty acid oxidation in rats, which was promoted by iron dextran, might be attributed to increased oxidative stress. PMID:25685776

  8. Iron dextran increases hepatic oxidative stress and alters expression of genes related to lipid metabolism contributing to hyperlipidaemia in murine model.

    PubMed

    Silva, Maísa; da Costa Guerra, Joyce Ferreira; Sampaio, Ana Flávia Santos; de Lima, Wanderson Geraldo; Silva, Marcelo Eustáquio; Pedrosa, Maria Lucia

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of iron dextran on lipid metabolism and to determine the involvement of oxidative stress. Fischer rats were divided into two groups: the standard group (S), which was fed the AIN-93M diet, and the standard plus iron group (SI), which was fed the same diet but also received iron dextran injections. Serum cholesterol and triacylglycerol levels were higher in the SI group than in the S group. Iron dextran was associated with decreased mRNA levels of pparα, and its downstream gene cpt1a, which is involved in lipid oxidation. Iron dextran also increased mRNA levels of apoB-100, MTP, and L-FABP indicating alterations in lipid secretion. Carbonyl protein and TBARS were consistently higher in the liver of the iron-treated rats. Moreover, a significant positive correlation was found between oxidative stress products, lfabp expression, and iron stores. In addition, a negative correlation was found between pparα expression, TBARS, carbonyl protein, and iron stores. In conclusion, our results suggest that the increase observed in the transport of lipids in the bloodstream and the decreased fatty acid oxidation in rats, which was promoted by iron dextran, might be attributed to increased oxidative stress. PMID:25685776

  9. Dissolution behaviour of ferric pyrophosphate and its mixtures with soluble pyrophosphates: Potential strategy for increasing iron bioavailability.

    PubMed

    Tian, Tian; Blanco, Elena; Smoukov, Stoyan K; Velev, Orlin D; Velikov, Krassimir P

    2016-10-01

    Ferric pyrophosphate (FePP) is a widely used iron source in food fortification and in nutritional supplements, due to its white colour, that is very uncommon for insoluble Fe salts. Although its dissolution is an important determinant of Fe adsorption in human body, the solubility characteristics of FePP are complex and not well understood. This report is a study on the solubility of FePP as a function of pH and excess of pyrophosphate ions. FePP powder is sparingly soluble in the pH range of 3-6 but slightly soluble at pH<2 and pH>8. In the presence of pyrophosphate ions the solubility of FePP strongly increases at pH 5-8.5 due to formation a soluble complex between Fe(III) and pyrophosphate ions, which leads to an 8-10-fold increase in the total ionic iron concentration. This finding is beneficial for enhancing iron bioavailability, which important for the design of fortified food, beverages, and nutraceutical products. PMID:27132828

  10. METABOLISM OF IRON STORES

    PubMed Central

    SAITO, HIROSHI

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Remarkable progress was recently achieved in the studies on molecular regulators of iron metabolism. Among the main regulators, storage iron, iron absorption, erythropoiesis and hepcidin interact in keeping iron homeostasis. Diseases with gene-mutations resulting in iron overload, iron deficiency, and local iron deposition have been introduced in relation to the regulators of storage iron metabolism. On the other hand, the research on storage iron metabolism has not advanced since the pioneering research by Shoden in 1953. However, we recently developed a new method for determining ferritin iron and hemosiderin iron by computer-assisted serum ferritin kinetics. Serum ferritin increase or decrease curves were measured in patients with normal storage iron levels (chronic hepatitis C and iron deficiency anemia treated by intravenous iron injection), and iron overload (hereditary hemochromatosis and transfusion dependent anemia). We thereby confirmed the existence of two iron pathways where iron flows followed the numbered order (1) labile iron, (2) ferritin and (3) hemosiderin in iron deposition and mobilization among many previously proposed but mostly unproven routes. We also demonstrated the increasing and decreasing phases of ferritin iron and hemosiderin iron in iron deposition and mobilization. The author first demonstrated here the change in proportion between pre-existing ferritin iron and new ferritin iron synthesized by removing iron from hemosiderin in the course of iron removal. In addition, the author disclosed the cause of underestimation of storage iron turnover rate which had been reported by previous investigators in estimating storage iron turnover rate of normal subjects. PMID:25741033

  11. Measuring Meat Texture

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Due to the complex and highly structured nature of muscle tissue, meat is an inherently tough and widely variable food product. In order to better predict and control meat tenderness issues, accurate measures of meat texture are needed. Unfortunately, the multifaceted characteristic of meat texture ...

  12. Probiotic strain Lactobacillus plantarum 299v increases iron absorption from an iron-supplemented fruit drink: a double-isotope cross-over single-blind study in women of reproductive age.

    PubMed

    Hoppe, Michael; Önning, Gunilla; Berggren, Anna; Hulthén, Lena

    2015-10-28

    Iron deficiency is common, especially among young women. Adding probiotics to foods could be one way to increase iron absorption. The aim of this study was to test the hypothesis that non-haem iron absorption from a fruit drink is improved by adding Lactobacillus plantarum 299v (Lp299v). Iron absorption was studied in healthy women of reproductive age using a single-blind cross-over design in two trials applying the double-isotope (55Fe and 59Fe) technique. In Trial 1, iron absorption from a fruit drink containing 109 colony-forming units (CFU) Lp299v was compared with that from a control drink without Lp299v. Trial 2 had the same design but 1010 CFU were used. The test and control drinks contained approximately 5 mg of iron as ferrous lactate and were labelled with 59Fe (B) and 55Fe (A), respectively, and consumed on 4 consecutive days in the order AABB. Retention of the isotopes was measured with whole-body counting and in blood. Mean iron absorption from the drink containing 109 CFU Lp299v (28·6(sd 12·5) %) was significantly higher than from the control drink (18·5(sd 5·8) %), n 10, P<0·028). The fruit drink with 1010 CFU Lp299v gave a mean iron absorption of 29·1(sd 17·0) %, whereas the control drink gave an absorption of (20·1(sd 6·4) %) (n 11, P<0·080). The difference in iron absorption between the 109 CFU Lp299v and the 1010 CFU Lp299v drinks was not significant (P=0·941). In conclusion, intake of probiotics can increase iron absorption by approximately 50 % from a fruit drink having an already relatively high iron bioavailability. PMID:26428277

  13. JAK2 exon 12 mutant mice display isolated erythrocytosis and changes in iron metabolism favoring increased erythropoiesis.

    PubMed

    Grisouard, Jean; Li, Sai; Kubovcakova, Lucia; Rao, Tata Nageswara; Meyer, Sara C; Lundberg, Pontus; Hao-Shen, Hui; Romanet, Vincent; Murakami, Masato; Radimerski, Thomas; Dirnhofer, Stephan; Skoda, Radek C

    2016-08-11

    Mutations in JAK2 exon 12 are frequently found in patients with polycythemia vera (PV) that do not carry a JAK2-V617F mutation. The majority of these patients display isolated erythrocytosis. We generated a mouse model that expresses JAK2-N542-E543del, the most frequent JAK2 exon 12 mutation found in PV patients. Mice expressing the human JAK2-N542-E543del (Ex12) showed a strong increase in red blood cell parameters but normal neutrophil and platelet counts, and reduced overall survival. Erythropoiesis was increased in the bone marrow and spleen, with normal megakaryopoiesis and absence of myelofibrosis in histopathology. Erythroid progenitors and precursors were increased in hematopoietic tissues, but the numbers of megakaryocytic precursors were unchanged. Phosphorylation Stat3 and Erk1/2 proteins were increased, and a trend toward increased phospho-Stat5 and phospho-Stat1 was noted. However, Stat1 knock out in Ex12 mice induced no changes in platelet or red cell parameters, indicating that Stat1 does not play a central role in mediating the effects of Ex12 signaling on megakaryopoiesis or erythropoiesis. Ex12 mice showed decreased expression of hepcidin and increased expression of transferrin receptor-1 and erythroferrone, suggesting that the strong erythroid phenotype in Ex12 mutant mice is favored by changes in iron metabolism that optimize iron availability to allow maximal production of red cells. PMID:27288519

  14. NOD promoter-controlled AtIRT1 expression functions synergistically with NAS and FERRITIN genes to increase iron in rice grains.

    PubMed

    Boonyaves, Kulaporn; Gruissem, Wilhelm; Bhullar, Navreet K

    2016-02-01

    Rice is a staple food for over half of the world's population, but it contains only low amounts of bioavailable micronutrients for human nutrition. Consequently, micronutrient deficiency is a widespread health problem among people who depend primarily on rice as their staple food. Iron deficiency anemia is one of the most serious forms of malnutrition. Biofortification of rice grains for increased iron content is an effective strategy to reduce iron deficiency. Unlike other grass species, rice takes up iron as Fe(II) via the IRON REGULATED TRANSPORTER (IRT) in addition to Fe(III)-phytosiderophore chelates. We expressed Arabidopsis IRT1 (AtIRT1) under control of the Medicago sativa EARLY NODULIN 12B promoter in our previously developed high-iron NFP rice lines expressing NICOTIANAMINE SYNTHASE (AtNAS1) and FERRITIN. Transgenic rice lines expressing AtIRT1 alone had significant increases in iron and combined with NAS and FERRITIN increased iron to 9.6 µg/g DW in the polished grains that is 2.2-fold higher as compared to NFP lines. The grains of AtIRT1 lines also accumulated more copper and zinc but not manganese. Our results demonstrate that the concerted expression of AtIRT1, AtNAS1 and PvFERRITIN synergistically increases iron in both polished and unpolished rice grains. AtIRT1 is therefore a valuable transporter for iron biofortification programs when used in combination with other genes encoding iron transporters and/or storage proteins. PMID:26560141

  15. Increased cell survival of cells exposed to superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles through biomaterial substrate-induced autophagy.

    PubMed

    Tseng, Ting-Chen; Hsieh, Fu-Yu; Hsu, Shan-Hui

    2016-04-22

    The cellular uptake of nanoparticles (NPs) can be promoted by NP surface modification but cell viability is often sacrificed. Our previous study has shown that intracellular uptake of iron oxide NPs was significantly increased for cells cultured on chitosan. However, the mechanism for having the higher cellular uptake as well as better cell survival on the chitosan surface remains unclear. In this study, we sought to clarify if the autophagic response may contribute to cell survival under excessive NP exposure conditions on chitosan. L929 fibroblasts and neural stem cells (NSCs) were challenged with different concentrations (0-300 μg ml(-1)) of superparamagnetic iron oxide NPs. The autophagic response as well as the metabolic activity of cells was evaluated. Results showed that culturing both types of cells on chitosan substrates significantly enhanced the cellular uptake of NPs. At higher NP concentrations, cells on chitosan showed a greater survival rate than those on TCPS. The expression levels of autophagy-related genes (Atg5 and Atg7 genes) and autophagy associated protein (LC3-II) on chitosan were higher than that on TCPS. The NP exposure further increased the expressions. We suggest that cells cultured on chitosan were more tolerant to NP cytotoxicity because of the increased autophagic response. Moreover, NP exposure increased the metabolic activity of cells grown on chitosan, while it decreased the metabolism of cells cultured on TCPS. In animal studies, iron oxide-labeled NSCs were injected in zebrafish embryos. Results also showed that cells grown on chitosan had better survival after transplantation than those grown on TCPS. Taken together, chitosan as a culture substrate can induce cell autophagy to increase cell survival in particular for NP-labeled cells. This will be valuable for the biomedical application of NPs in cell therapy. PMID:26815305

  16. [Nutrition and health--potential health benefits and risks of vegetarianism and limited consumption of meat in the Netherlands].

    PubMed

    Dagnelie, P C

    2003-07-01

    In the latest Dutch national food consumption survey (1998) just over 1% of subjects (about 150,000 persons) claimed to be vegetarians; however, a much larger group (6% or approximately 1 million persons) ate meat < or = once a week. Vegetarianism can be subdivided into lacto-vegetarianism (a diet without meat and fish) and veganism (a diet without any animal foods whatsoever, including dairy products and eggs). A recent meta-analysis showed that vegetarians had a lower mortality from ischaemic heart disease than omniovorous subjects; however, cancer mortality and total mortality did not differ. Although a high consumption of red meat, which is rich in haeme iron and saturated fat, may increase the risk of cardiovascular disease and some types of cancer, this does not apply to white meat and fish. In fact, the most important protective effect would seem to be derived from the consumption of unrefined vegetable products (whole-grain cereals, vegetables, fruits, nuts and legumes) and fish. In other words, a prudent, omnivorous diet with moderate amounts of animal products, in which red meat is partly replaced by white meat and fish (especially fatty fish), together with the consumption of ample amounts of unrefined vegetable products, is thought to be just as protective as a vegetarian diet. On the other hand, the omission of meat and fish from the diet increases the risk of nutritional deficiencies. A vegan diet, in particular, leads to a strongly increased risk of deficiencies of vitamin B12, vitamin B2 and several minerals, such as calcium, iron and zinc. However, even a lacto-vegetarian diet produces an increased risk of deficiencies of vitamin B12 and possibly certain minerals, such as iron. Data from the latest Dutch food consumption survey suggest that 5-10% of all inhabitants of the Netherlands (up to 1 million persons) actually have a vitamin B12 intake below recommended daily levels. In medical practice, the possibility of vitamin B12 deficiency in subjects

  17. Residues from the thermal conversion of waste from the meat industry as a source of valuable macro- and micronutrients.

    PubMed

    Staroń, Paweł; Kowalski, Zygmunt; Staroń, Anita; Seidlerová, Jana; Banach, Marcin

    2016-03-01

    The increased consumption of meat (including poultry) observed over the last decade has led to the intensification of its production. With the production increase, the amount of generated waste also increases. Appropriate disposal of waste from the meat industry will significantly reduce the amount of such waste and its negative impact on the environment. The paper presents a method for the thermal neutralisation of feathers, poultry litter and meat and bone meal (MBM). Waste incineration was carried out in a stationary electric furnace, at a temperature varying in the range of 600-900°C. The resulting ashes were characterised by a high percentage of phosphorus (30-170 g/kg ash), calcium (20-360 g/kg ash) and other valuable macro- and micronutrients like copper, iron, manganese and zinc. The ashes produced during the thermal treatment are safe in terms of sanitary and can be used as additives enriching the fertilisers and soil improvers. PMID:26810077

  18. Gender and plasma iron biomarkers, but not HFE gene mutations, increase the risk of colorectal cancer and polyps.

    PubMed

    Castiella, Agustin; Múgica, Fernando; Zapata, Eva; Zubiaurre, Leire; Iribarren, Arantxa; de Juan, M Dolores; Alzate, Luis; Gil, Ines; Urdapilleta, Gregorio; Otazua, Pedro; Emparanza, José Ignacio

    2015-09-01

    A cohort study of patients included in the Basque Country colorectal cancer (CRC) screening programme was carried out to assess the risk of adenomatous polyps and CRC (P-CRC) associated with HFE gene mutations, with gender and with iron biomarkers (serum ferritin (SF), iron (Fe) and transferrin saturation index (TSI)). Among 432 included patients (mean age 59.8 years), 263 were men (60.9 %) and 169 women (39.1 %). P-CRC were identified in 221 patients (51.2 %) and no polyps (NP) in 211 patients (48.8 %). HFE mutations were identified in 43.8 % of the patients. C282Y/wt genotypic frequency was 6.8 % in the P-CRC group and 1.4 % in the NP group (p < 0.05). The allelic frequency was 3.8 versus 1.2 % (p < 0.05). For laboratory, all three iron biomarkers showed a statistically significant difference: mean Fe, 91.29 ± 34 for P-CRC and 80.81 ± 30.59 for NP group. Mean TSI for P-CRC was 24.95 ± 8.90 and 22.74 ± 8.79 for NP group. Mean SF 308.09 ± 536.32 for P-CRC and 177.55 ± 159.95 for NP group. In a multivariate logistic regression analysis, only male gender (odds ratio (OR) = 2.04, 1.29-3.22), SF (OR = 1.001, 1.0004-1.003) and Fe (OR = 1.01, 1.004-1.02) were related with the presence of CRC and adenoma. Men gender and raised serum iron biomarkers increase the risk of P-CRC. PMID:25854174

  19. Combined effects of marinating and γ-irradiation in ensuring safety, protection of nutritional value and increase in shelf-life of ready-to-cook meat for immunocompromised patients.

    PubMed

    Ben Fadhel, Yosra; Leroy, Valentin; Dussault, Dominic; St-Yves, France; Lauzon, Martine; Salmieri, Stéphane; Jamshidian, Majid; Vu, Dang Khanh; Lacroix, Monique

    2016-08-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of combining marinating and γ-irradiation at doses of 1, 1.5 and 3kGy on Escherichia coli O157:H7, Salmonella typhimurium and Clostridium sporogenes in raw meat packed under vacuum and stored at 4°C and to estimate its safety and shelf-life. Further, the effect of combined treatments on sensorial, nutritional values (lipid oxidation, concentration of thiamin and riboflavin) and color was evaluated. The study demonstrated that the use of marinade in combination with a low dose of γ-irradiation (1.5kGy) could act in synergy to reduce to undetectable level of pathogenic bacteria and increase the shelf-life of ready-to-cook meat loin without affecting its sensorial and nutritional quality. PMID:27043970

  20. Designing an intervention to help people with colorectal adenomas reduce their intake of red and processed meat and increase their levels of physical activity: a qualitative study

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Most cases of colorectal cancer (CRC) arise from adenomatous polyps and malignant potential is greatest in high risk adenomas. There is convincing observational evidence that red and processed meat increase the risk of CRC and that higher levels of physical activity reduce the risk. However, no definitive randomised trial has demonstrated the benefit of behaviour change on reducing polyp recurrence and no consistent advice is currently offered to minimise patient risk. This qualitative study aimed to assess patients’ preferences for dietary and physical activity interventions and ensure their appropriate and acceptable delivery to inform a feasibility trial. Methods Patients aged 60–74 included in the National Health Service Bowel Cancer Screening Programme (NHSBCSP) were selected from a patient tracking database. After a positive faecal occult blood test (FOBt), all had been diagnosed with an intermediate or high risk adenoma (I/HRA) at colonoscopy between April 2008 and April 2010. Interested patients and their partners were invited to attend a focus group or interview in July 2010. A topic guide, informed by the objectives of the study, was used. A thematic analysis was conducted in which transcripts were examined to ensure that all occurrences of each theme had been accounted for and compared. Results Two main themes emerged from the focus groups: a) experiences of having polyps and b) changing behaviour. Participants had not associated polyp removal with colorectal cancer and most did not remember being given any information or advice relating to this at the time. Heterogeneity of existing diet and physical activity levels was noted. There was a lack of readiness to change behaviour in many people in the target population. Conclusions This study has confirmed and amplified recently published factors involved in developing interventions to change dietary and physical activity behaviour in this population. The need to tailor the intervention to

  1. Increased Ferroportin-1 Expression and Rapid Splenic Iron Loss Occur with Anemia Caused by Salmonella enterica Serovar Typhimurium Infection in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Nick, Heidi J.; McCoy, Melissa W.; Moreland, Sarah M.; Stepanek, Aaron M.; Benik, Ross; O'Connell, Karyn E.; Pilonieta, Maria C.; Nagy, Toni A.

    2015-01-01

    The Gram-negative intracellular bacterium Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium causes persistent systemic inflammatory disease in immunocompetent mice. Following oral inoculation with S. Typhimurium, mice develop a hematopathological syndrome akin to typhoid fever with splenomegaly, microcytic anemia, extramedullary erythropoiesis, and increased hemophagocytic macrophages in the bone marrow, liver, and spleen. Additionally, there is marked loss of iron from the spleen, an unanticipated result, given the iron sequestration reported in anemia of inflammatory disease. To establish why tissue iron does not accumulate, we evaluated multiple measures of pathology for 4 weeks following oral infection in mice. We demonstrate a quantitative decrease in splenic iron following infection despite increased numbers of splenic phagocytes. Infected mice have increased duodenal expression of the iron exporter ferroportin-1, consistent with increased uptake of dietary iron. Liver and splenic macrophages also express high levels of ferroportin-1. These observations indicate that splenic and hepatic macrophages export iron during S. Typhimurium infection, in contrast to macrophage iron sequestration observed in anemia of inflammatory disease. Tissue macrophage export of iron occurs concurrent with high serum concentrations of interferon gamma (IFN-γ) and interleukin 12 (IL-12). In individual mice, high concentrations of both proinflammatory (tumor necrosis factor alpha [TNF-α]) and anti-inflammatory (IL-10) cytokines in serum correlate with increased tissue bacterial loads throughout 4 weeks of infection. These in vivo observations are consistent with previous cell culture studies and suggest that the relocation of iron from tissue macrophages during infection may contribute to anemia and also to host survival of acute S. Typhimurium infection. PMID:25824831

  2. Increased ferroportin-1 expression and rapid splenic iron loss occur with anemia caused by Salmonella enterica Serovar Typhimurium infection in mice.

    PubMed

    Brown, Diane E; Nick, Heidi J; McCoy, Melissa W; Moreland, Sarah M; Stepanek, Aaron M; Benik, Ross; O'Connell, Karyn E; Pilonieta, Maria C; Nagy, Toni A; Detweiler, Corrella S

    2015-06-01

    The Gram-negative intracellular bacterium Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium causes persistent systemic inflammatory disease in immunocompetent mice. Following oral inoculation with S. Typhimurium, mice develop a hematopathological syndrome akin to typhoid fever with splenomegaly, microcytic anemia, extramedullary erythropoiesis, and increased hemophagocytic macrophages in the bone marrow, liver, and spleen. Additionally, there is marked loss of iron from the spleen, an unanticipated result, given the iron sequestration reported in anemia of inflammatory disease. To establish why tissue iron does not accumulate, we evaluated multiple measures of pathology for 4 weeks following oral infection in mice. We demonstrate a quantitative decrease in splenic iron following infection despite increased numbers of splenic phagocytes. Infected mice have increased duodenal expression of the iron exporter ferroportin-1, consistent with increased uptake of dietary iron. Liver and splenic macrophages also express high levels of ferroportin-1. These observations indicate that splenic and hepatic macrophages export iron during S. Typhimurium infection, in contrast to macrophage iron sequestration observed in anemia of inflammatory disease. Tissue macrophage export of iron occurs concurrent with high serum concentrations of interferon gamma (IFN-γ) and interleukin 12 (IL-12). In individual mice, high concentrations of both proinflammatory (tumor necrosis factor alpha [TNF-α]) and anti-inflammatory (IL-10) cytokines in serum correlate with increased tissue bacterial loads throughout 4 weeks of infection. These in vivo observations are consistent with previous cell culture studies and suggest that the relocation of iron from tissue macrophages during infection may contribute to anemia and also to host survival of acute S. Typhimurium infection. PMID:25824831

  3. Deferoxamine-induced increase in the intracellular iron levels in highly aggressive breast cancer cells leads to increased cell migration by enhancing TNF-α-dependent NF-κB signaling and TGF-β signaling.

    PubMed

    Liu, Ping; He, Kun; Song, Hongjiao; Ma, Zhufeng; Yin, Weihai; Xu, Lisa X

    2016-07-01

    Recent studies have suggested that excess iron accumulation may be a risk factor for breast cancer. However the role of iron in breast cancer metastasis has remained unclear. The major goal of our study is to investigate the roles of iron in breast cancer metastasis. We modulated the intracellular iron levels of human breast cancer cells, including the aggressive MDA-MB-231 cells and non-aggressive MCF-7 cells, by using Deferoxamine (DFO) - a most widely used iron chelator. We found that DFO treatment could deplete intracellular iron in MCF-7 cells. In contrast, DFO treatment led to a significant increase in the intracellular iron level in MDA-MB-231 cells. The MDA-MB-231 cells with the increased intracellular iron level exhibited increases in both mesenchymal markers and cell migration. Furthermore, the DFO-treated MDA-MB-231 cells showed increases in both tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α)-induced nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) signaling and transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) signaling, which could contribute to the enhanced cell migration. Collectively, our study has provided the first evidence suggesting that increased intracellular iron levels could lead to enhanced migration of aggressive breast cancer cells by increasing TNF-α-dependent NF-κB signaling and TGF-β signaling. Our study has also suggested that caution should be taken when DFO is applied for treating breast cancer cells, since DFO could produce differential effects on the intracellular iron levels for aggressive breast cancer cells and non-aggressive breast cancer cells. PMID:27138103

  4. Micro-Raman spectroscopy for meat type detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Biasio, M.; Stampfer, P.; Leitner, R.; Huck, C. W.; Wiedemair, V.; Balthasar, D.

    2015-06-01

    The recent horse meat scandal in Europe increased the demand for optical sensors that can identify meat type. Micro-Raman spectroscopy is a promising technique for the discrimination of meat types. Here, we present micro-Raman measurements of chicken, pork, turkey, mutton, beef and horse meat test samples. The data was analyzed with different combinations of data normalization and classification approaches. Our results show that Raman spectroscopy can discriminate between different meat types. Red and white meat are easily discriminated, however a sophisticated chemometric model is required to discriminate species within these groups.

  5. Lipid oxidation stability of omega-3- and conjugated linoleic acid-enriched sous vide chicken meat.

    PubMed

    Narciso-Gaytán, C; Shin, D; Sams, A R; Keeton, J T; Miller, R K; Smith, S B; Sánchez-Plata, M X

    2011-02-01

    Lipid oxidation is known to occur rather rapidly in cooked chicken meat containing relatively high amounts of polyunsaturated fatty acids. To assess the lipid oxidation stability of sous vide chicken meat enriched with n-3 and conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) fatty acids, 624 Cobb × Ross broilers were raised during a 6-wk feeding period. The birds were fed diets containing CLA (50% cis-9, trans-11 and 50% trans-10, cis-12 isomers), flaxseed oil (FSO), or menhaden fish oil (MFO), each supplemented with 42 or 200 mg/kg of vitamin E (dl-α-tocopheryl acetate). Breast or thigh meat was vacuum-packed, cooked (74°C), cooled in ice water, and stored at 4.4°C for 0, 5, 10, 15, and 30 d. The lipid oxidation development of the meat was estimated by quantification of malonaldehyde (MDA) values, using the 2-thiobarbituric acid reactive substances analysis. Fatty acid, nonheme iron, moisture, and fat analyses were performed as well. Results showed that dietary CLA induced deposition of cis-9, trans-11 and trans-10, cis-12 CLA isomers, increased the proportion of saturated fatty acids, and decreased the proportions of monounsaturated and polyunsaturated fatty acids. Flaxseed oil induced higher deposition of C18:1, C18:2, C18:3, and C20:4 fatty acids, whereas MFO induced higher deposition of n-3 fatty acids, eicosapentaenoic acid (C20:5), and docosahexaenoic acid (C22:6; P < 0.05). Meat lipid oxidation stability was affected by the interaction of either dietary oil or vitamin E with storage day. Lower (P < 0.05) MDA values were found in the CLA treatment than in the MFO and FSO treatments. Lower (P < 0.05) MDA values were detected in meat samples from the 200 mg/kg of vitamin E than in meat samples from the 42 mg/kg of vitamin E. Nonheme iron values did not affect (P > 0.05) lipid oxidation development. In conclusion, dietary CLA, FSO, and MFO influenced the fatty acid composition of chicken muscle and the lipid oxidation stability of meat over the storage time. Supranutritional

  6. Increasing the Number of Oxygen Vacancies on TiO(2) By Doping With Iron Increases the Activity of Supported Gold for CO Oxidation

    SciTech Connect

    Carrettin, S.; Hao, Y.; Aguilar-Guerrero, V.; Gates, B.C.; Trasobares, S.; Calvino, J.J.; Corma, A.

    2009-05-28

    The addition of iron to high-area TiO{sub 2} (Degussa P25, a mixture of anatase and rutile) increases the number of oxygen defect sites that react with O{sub 2} to form peroxide and superoxide species. In the presence of gold nanoclusters on the TiO{sub 2} surface, the superoxide species become highly reactive, and the activity of the supported gold catalyst for CO oxidation is approximately twice that of the most active comparable catalysts described in the literature. Images of the catalyst obtained by scanning transmission electron microscopy combined with spectra of the catalyst measured in the working state (Raman, extended X-ray absorption fine structure, and X-ray absorption near-edge structure) indicate strong interactions of gold with the support and the presence of iron near the interfaces between the gold clusters and the TiO{sub 2} support. The high activity of the catalysts is attributed to the presence of defects in these sites that activate oxygen.

  7. Interactions of proteins with biogenic iron oxyhydroxides and a new culturing technique to increase biomass yields of neutrophilic, iron-oxidizing bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Barco, Roman A.; Edwards, Katrina J.

    2014-01-01

    Neutrophilic, bacterial iron-oxidation remains one of the least understood energy-generating biological reactions to date. One of the reasons it remains under-studied is because there are inherent problems with working with iron-oxidizing bacteria (FeOB), including low biomass yields and interference from the iron oxides in the samples. In an effort to circumvent the problem of low biomass, a new large batch culturing technique was developed. Protein interactions with biogenic iron oxides were investigated confirming that such interactions are strong. Therefore, a protein extraction method is described to minimize binding of proteins to biogenic iron oxides. The combination of these two methods results in protein yields that are appropriate for activity assays in gels and for proteomic profiling. PMID:24910632

  8. High Dietary Iron and Radiation Exposure Increase Biomarkers of Oxidative Stress in Blood and Liver of Rats

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morgan, Jennifer L. L.; Theriot, Corey A.; Wu, Honglu; Smith, Scott M.; Zwart, Sara R.

    2012-01-01

    Radiation exposure and increased iron (Fe) status independently cause oxidative damage that can result in protein, lipid, and DNA oxidation. During space flight astronauts are exposed to both increased radiation and increased Fe stores. Increased body Fe results from a decrease in red blood cell mass and the typically high Fe content of the food system. In this study we investigated the combined effects of radiation exposure (0.375 Gy of Cs-137 every other day for 16 days for a total of 3 Gy) and high dietary Fe (650 mg Fe/kg diet compared to 45 mg Fe/kg for controls) in Sprague-Dawley rats (n=8/group). Liver and serum Fe were significantly increased in the high dietary Fe groups. Likewise, radiation treatment increased serum ferritin and Fe concentrations. These data indicate that total body Fe stores increase with both radiation exposure and excess dietary Fe. Hematocrit decreased in the group exposed to radiation, providing a possible mechanism for the shift in Fe indices after radiation exposure. Markers of oxidative stress were also affected by both radiation and high dietary Fe, evidenced by increased liver glutathione peroxidase (GPX) and serum catalase as well as decreased serum GPX. We thus found preliminary indications of synergistic effects of radiation exposure and increased dietary Fe, warranting further study. This study was funded by the NASA Human Research Project.

  9. Increased dietary iron and radiation in rats promote oxidative stress, induce localized and systemic immune system responses, and alter colon mucosal environment.

    PubMed

    Morgan, Jennifer L L; Ritchie, Lauren E; Crucian, Brian E; Theriot, Corey; Wu, Honglu; Sams, Clarence; Smith, Scott M; Turner, Nancy D; Zwart, Sara R

    2014-03-01

    Astronauts are exposed to increased body iron stores and radiation, both of which can cause oxidative damage leading to negative health effects. The purpose of this study was to investigate combined effects of high dietary iron (650 mg/kg diet) and radiation exposure (0.375 Gy cesium-137 every other day for 16 d) on markers of oxidative stress, immune system function, and colon mucosal environment in male Sprague-Dawley rats (n=8/group). Control rats consumed adequate iron (45 mg/kg diet) and were not irradiated. Combined treatments increased liver glutathione peroxidase, serum catalase, and colon myeloperoxidase while decreasing total fecal short-chain fatty acid concentrations. The high-iron diet alone increased leukocyte count. Radiation decreased the T-cell CD4:CD8 ratio. Plasma iron was negatively correlated with cytokine production in activated monocytes. Genes involved in colon microbial signaling, immune response, and injury repair were altered by radiation. Genes involved with injury repair and pathogen recognition changed with dietary iron. These data demonstrate that dietary iron and radiation, alone and combined, contribute to oxidative stress that is related to immune system alterations in circulation and the colon. The model presented may help us better understand the changes to these systems that have been identified among astronauts. PMID:24334706

  10. Advances in ingredient and processing systems for meat and meat products.

    PubMed

    Weiss, Jochen; Gibis, Monika; Schuh, Valerie; Salminen, Hanna

    2010-09-01

    Changes in consumer demand of meat products as well as increased global competition are causing an unprecedented spur in processing and ingredient system developments within the meat manufacturing sector. Consumers demand healthier meat products that are low in salt, fat, cholesterol, nitrites and calories in general and contain in addition health-promoting bioactive components such as for example carotenoids, unsaturated fatty acids, sterols, and fibers. On the other hand, consumers expect these novel meat products with altered formulations to taste, look and smell the same way as their traditionally formulated and processed counterparts. At the same time, competition is forcing the meat processing industry to use the increasingly expensive raw material "meat" more efficiently and produce products at lower costs. With these changes in mind, this article presents a review of novel ingredient systems and processing approaches that are emerging to create high quality, affordable meat products not only in batch mode but also in large-scale continuous processes. Fat replacers, fat profile modification and cholesterol reduction techniques, new texture modifiers and alternative antioxidant and antimicrobial systems are being discussed. Modern processing equipment to establish continuously operating product manufacturing lines and that allow new meat product structures to be created and novel ingredients to be effectively utilized including vacuum fillers, grinders and fine dispersers, and slicers is reviewed in the context of structure creation in meat products. Finally, trends in future developments of ingredient and processing systems for meat products are highlighted. PMID:20619800

  11. Increased cellular uptake of biocompatible superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles into malignant cells by an external magnetic field.

    PubMed

    Prijic, Sara; Scancar, Janez; Romih, Rok; Cemazar, Maja; Bregar, Vladimir B; Znidarsic, Andrej; Sersa, Gregor

    2010-07-01

    Superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPIONs) are used as delivery systems for different therapeutics including nucleic acids for magnetofection-mediated gene therapy. The aim of our study was to evaluate physicochemical properties, biocompatibility, cellular uptake and trafficking pathways of the custom-synthesized SPIONs for their potential use in magnetofection. Custom-synthesized SPIONs were tested for size, shape, crystalline composition and magnetic behavior using a transmission electron microscope, X-ray diffractometer and magnetometer. SPIONs were dispersed in different aqueous media to obtain ferrofluids, which were tested for pH and stability using a pH meter and zetameter. Cytotoxicity was determined using the MTS and clonogenic assays. Cellular uptake and trafficking pathways were qualitatively evaluated by transmission electron microscopy and quantitatively by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry. SPIONs were composed of an iron oxide core with a diameter of 8-9 nm, coated with a 2-nm-thick layer of silica. SPIONs, dispersed in 0.9% NaCl solution, resulted in a stable ferrofluid at physiological pH for several months. SPIONs were not cytotoxic in a broad range of concentrations and were readily internalized into different cells by endocytosis. Exposure to neodymium-iron-boron magnets significantly increased the cellular uptake of SPIONs, predominantly into malignant cells. The prepared SPIONs displayed adequate physicochemical and biomedical properties for potential use in magnetofection. Their cellular uptake was dependent on the cell type, and their accumulation within the cells was dependent on the duration of exposure to an external magnetic field. PMID:20602230

  12. Increased Cellular Uptake of Biocompatible Superparamagnetic Iron Oxide Nanoparticles into Malignant Cells by an External Magnetic Field

    PubMed Central

    Prijic, Sara; Scancar, Janez; Romih, Rok; Cemazar, Maja; Bregar, Vladimir B.; Znidarsic, Andrej

    2010-01-01

    Superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPIONs) are used as delivery systems for different therapeutics including nucleic acids for magnetofection-mediated gene therapy. The aim of our study was to evaluate physicochemical properties, biocompatibility, cellular uptake and trafficking pathways of the custom-synthesized SPIONs for their potential use in magnetofection. Custom-synthesized SPIONs were tested for size, shape, crystalline composition and magnetic behavior using a transmission electron microscope, X-ray diffractometer and magnetometer. SPIONs were dispersed in different aqueous media to obtain ferrofluids, which were tested for pH and stability using a pH meter and zetameter. Cytotoxicity was determined using the MTS and clonogenic assays. Cellular uptake and trafficking pathways were qualitatively evaluated by transmission electron microscopy and quantitatively by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry. SPIONs were composed of an iron oxide core with a diameter of 8–9 nm, coated with a 2-nm-thick layer of silica. SPIONs, dispersed in 0.9% NaCl solution, resulted in a stable ferrofluid at physiological pH for several months. SPIONs were not cytotoxic in a broad range of concentrations and were readily internalized into different cells by endocytosis. Exposure to neodymium-iron-boron magnets significantly increased the cellular uptake of SPIONs, predominantly into malignant cells. The prepared SPIONs displayed adequate physicochemical and biomedical properties for potential use in magnetofection. Their cellular uptake was dependent on the cell type, and their accumulation within the cells was dependent on the duration of exposure to an external magnetic field. PMID:20602230

  13. Understanding consumers' perception of lamb meat using free word association.

    PubMed

    de Andrade, Juliana Cunha; de Aguiar Sobral, Louise; Ares, Gastón; Deliza, Rosires

    2016-07-01

    The aims of the present study were to gather information about Brazilian consumers' perception of lamb meat and to study whether the perception is affected by the consumption frequency of this type of meat. A total of 1025 Brazilian consumers completed word association task with lamb meat. The elicited words were analyzed using inductive coding. Participants' associations with lamb meat were mainly related to sensory characteristics and hedonic attitudes and feelings, indicating that they might be the main motivations for consuming this product. Participants strongly associated lamb meat with special consumption occasions, which suggests that lack of perceived appropriateness for everyday consumption situations might be a barrier for increasing lamb meat consumption. Conceptualization of lamb meat was strongly affected by frequency of consumption of this product. Results from the present work provide a comprehensive insight on Brazilian consumers' perception of lamb meat, which can be used to develop strategies to increase its consumption and improve profitability. PMID:26946479

  14. Increasing Superoxide Production and the Labile Iron Pool in Tumor Cells may Sensitize Them to Extracellular Ascorbate

    PubMed Central

    McCarty, Mark Frederick; Contreras, Francisco

    2014-01-01

    ascorbic acid with oxygen. An increased pool of labile iron in cancer cells may contribute to the selective susceptibility of many cancers to i.v. ascorbate; antagonism of NF-kappaB activity with salicylate, and intravenous iron administration, could be employed to further elevate free iron in cancers. PMID:25279352

  15. Phenyl-1-Pyridin-2yl-ethanone-based iron chelators increase IκB-α expression, modulate CDK2 and CDK9 activities, and inhibit HIV-1 transcription.

    PubMed

    Kumari, Namita; Iordanskiy, Sergey; Kovalskyy, Dmytro; Breuer, Denitra; Niu, Xiaomei; Lin, Xionghao; Xu, Min; Gavrilenko, Konstantin; Kashanchi, Fatah; Dhawan, Subhash; Nekhai, Sergei

    2014-11-01

    HIV-1 transcription is activated by the Tat protein, which recruits CDK9/cyclin T1 to the HIV-1 promoter. CDK9 is phosphorylated by CDK2, which facilitates formation of the high-molecular-weight positive transcription elongation factor b (P-TEFb) complex. We previously showed that chelation of intracellular iron inhibits CDK2 and CDK9 activities and suppresses HIV-1 transcription, but the mechanism of the inhibition was not understood. In the present study, we tested a set of novel iron chelators for the ability to inhibit HIV-1 transcription and elucidated their mechanism of action. Novel phenyl-1-pyridin-2yl-ethanone (PPY)-based iron chelators were synthesized and examined for their effects on cellular iron, HIV-1 inhibition, and cytotoxicity. Activities of CDK2 and CDK9, expression of CDK9-dependent and CDK2-inhibitory mRNAs, NF-κB expression, and HIV-1- and NF-κB-dependent transcription were determined. PPY-based iron chelators significantly inhibited HIV-1, with minimal cytotoxicity, in cultured and primary cells chronically or acutely infected with HIV-1 subtype B, but they had less of an effect on HIV-1 subtype C. Iron chelators upregulated the expression of IκB-α, with increased accumulation of cytoplasmic NF-κB. The iron chelators inhibited CDK2 activity and reduced the amount of CDK9/cyclin T1 in the large P-TEFb complex. Iron chelators reduced HIV-1 Gag and Env mRNA synthesis but had no effect on HIV-1 reverse transcription. In addition, iron chelators moderately inhibited basal HIV-1 transcription, equally affecting HIV-1 and Sp1- or NF-κB-driven transcription. By virtue of their involvement in targeting several key steps in HIV-1 transcription, these novel iron chelators have the potential for the development of new therapeutics for the treatment of HIV-1 infection. PMID:25155598

  16. Phenyl-1-Pyridin-2yl-Ethanone-Based Iron Chelators Increase IκB-α Expression, Modulate CDK2 and CDK9 Activities, and Inhibit HIV-1 Transcription

    PubMed Central

    Kumari, Namita; Iordanskiy, Sergey; Kovalskyy, Dmytro; Breuer, Denitra; Niu, Xiaomei; Lin, Xionghao; Xu, Min; Gavrilenko, Konstantin; Kashanchi, Fatah; Dhawan, Subhash

    2014-01-01

    HIV-1 transcription is activated by the Tat protein, which recruits CDK9/cyclin T1 to the HIV-1 promoter. CDK9 is phosphorylated by CDK2, which facilitates formation of the high-molecular-weight positive transcription elongation factor b (P-TEFb) complex. We previously showed that chelation of intracellular iron inhibits CDK2 and CDK9 activities and suppresses HIV-1 transcription, but the mechanism of the inhibition was not understood. In the present study, we tested a set of novel iron chelators for the ability to inhibit HIV-1 transcription and elucidated their mechanism of action. Novel phenyl-1-pyridin-2yl-ethanone (PPY)-based iron chelators were synthesized and examined for their effects on cellular iron, HIV-1 inhibition, and cytotoxicity. Activities of CDK2 and CDK9, expression of CDK9-dependent and CDK2-inhibitory mRNAs, NF-κB expression, and HIV-1- and NF-κB-dependent transcription were determined. PPY-based iron chelators significantly inhibited HIV-1, with minimal cytotoxicity, in cultured and primary cells chronically or acutely infected with HIV-1 subtype B, but they had less of an effect on HIV-1 subtype C. Iron chelators upregulated the expression of IκB-α, with increased accumulation of cytoplasmic NF-κB. The iron chelators inhibited CDK2 activity and reduced the amount of CDK9/cyclin T1 in the large P-TEFb complex. Iron chelators reduced HIV-1 Gag and Env mRNA synthesis but had no effect on HIV-1 reverse transcription. In addition, iron chelators moderately inhibited basal HIV-1 transcription, equally affecting HIV-1 and Sp1- or NF-κB-driven transcription. By virtue of their involvement in targeting several key steps in HIV-1 transcription, these novel iron chelators have the potential for the development of new therapeutics for the treatment of HIV-1 infection. PMID:25155598

  17. Power ultrasound in meat processing.

    PubMed

    Alarcon-Rojo, A D; Janacua, H; Rodriguez, J C; Paniwnyk, L; Mason, T J

    2015-09-01

    Ultrasound has a wide range of applications in various agricultural sectors. In food processing, it is considered to be an emerging technology with the potential to speed up processes without damaging the quality of foodstuffs. Here we review the reports on the applications of ultrasound specifically with a view to its use in meat processing. Emphasis is placed on the effects on quality and technological properties such as texture, water retention, colour, curing, marinating, cooking yield, freezing, thawing and microbial inhibition. After the literature review it is concluded that ultrasound is a useful tool for the meat industry as it helps in tenderisation, accelerates maturation and mass transfer, reduces cooking energy, increases shelf life of meat without affecting other quality properties, improves functional properties of emulsified products, eases mould cleaning and improves the sterilisation of equipment surfaces. PMID:25974043

  18. Biosensors for Detecting Pathogenic Bacteria in the Meat Industry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alocilja, Evangelyn C.

    Global meat production in 2006 increased 1.6% compared to 2005 (Food and Agriculture Organization [FAO], 2006). According to a September 2007 report by the U.S.Meat Export Federation, the U.S. beef and beef variety meat exports worldwide increased 27% in value to 1.42 billion with a volume of 425,394 metric tons (mt) while U.S. pork and pork variety meat exports were up 5% in value to 1.7 billion with a volume of 704,138 mt. However, with increasing production also comes increasing product recalls, averaging 4,536 mt of meat and poultry every year since 1997 (Teratanavat &Hooker, 2004). For example, in September 2007, a major meat processing company recalled up to 9,843 mt (21.7 million pounds) of ground beef due E. coli O157:H7 contamination, one of the largest meat recalls in U.S. history.

  19. Theory of the evolution of magnetic order in Fe1+yTe compounds with increasing interstitial iron

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ducatman, Samuel; Fernandes, Rafael M.; Perkins, Natalia B.

    2014-10-01

    We examine the influence of the excess of interstitial Fe on the magnetic properties of Fe1+yTe compounds. Because in iron chalcogenides the correlations are stronger than in the iron arsenides, we assume in our model that some of the Fe orbitals give rise to localized magnetic moments. These moments interact with each other via exchange interactions as well as phonon-mediated biquadratic interactions that favor a collinear double-stripe state, corresponding to the ordering vectors (±π/2,±π/2). The remaining Fe orbitals are assumed to be itinerant, giving rise to the first-principles derived Fermi surface displaying nesting features at momenta (π,0)/(0,π). Increasing the amount of itinerant electrons due to excess Fe, y, leads to changes in the Fermi surface and to the suppression of its nesting properties. As a result, due to the Hund's coupling between the itinerant and localized moments, increasing y leads to modifications in the local moments' exchange interactions via the multiorbital generalization of the long-range Ruderman-Kittel-Kasuya-Yosida (RKKY) interaction. By numerically computing the RKKY corrections and minimizing the resulting effective exchange Hamiltonian, we find, in general, that the excess electrons introduced in the system change the classical magnetic ground state from a double-stripe state to an incommensurate spiral, consistent with the experimental observations. We show that these results can be understood as a result of the suppression of magnetic spectral weight of the itinerant electrons at momenta (π,0)/(0,π), combined with the transfer of broad magnetic spectral weight from large to small momenta, promoted by the introduction of excess Fe.

  20. Meat analog: a review.

    PubMed

    Malav, O P; Talukder, S; Gokulakrishnan, P; Chand, S

    2015-01-01

    The health-conscious consumers are in search of nutritious and convenient food item which can be best suited in their busy life. The vegetarianism is the key for the search of such food which resembles the meat in respect of nutrition and sensory characters, but not of animal origin and contains vegetable or its modified form, this is the point when meat analog evolved out and gets shape. The consumers gets full satisfaction by consumption of meat analog due to its typical meaty texture, appearance and the flavor which are being imparted during the skilled production of meat analog. The supplement of protein in vegetarian diet through meat alike food can be fulfilled by incorporating protein-rich vegetative food grade materials in meat analog and by adopting proper technological process which can promote the proper fabrication of meat analog with acceptable meat like texture, appearance, flavor, etc. The easily available vegetables, cereals, and pulses in India have great advantages and prospects to be used in food products and it can improve the nutritional and functional characters of the food items. The various form and functional characters of food items are available world over and attracts the meat technologists and the food processors to bring some innovativeness in meat analog and its presentation and marketability so that the acceptability of meat analog can be overgrown by the consumers. PMID:24915320

  1. Research gaps in evaluating the relationship of meat and health.

    PubMed

    Klurfeld, David M

    2015-11-01

    Humans evolved as omnivores and it has been proposed that cooking meat allowed for evolution of larger brains that has led to our success as a species. Meat is one of the most nutrient dense foods, providing high-quality protein, heme iron, zinc, and vitamins B6 and B12. Despite these advantages, epidemiologic studies have linked consumption of red or processed meat with obesity, type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular diseases, and cancers of multiple organs. Most observational studies report small, increased relative risks. However, there are many limitations of such studies including inability to accurately estimate intake, lack of prespecified hypotheses, multiple comparisons, and confounding from many factors - including body weight, fruit/vegetable intake, physical activity, smoking, and alcohol - that correlate significantly either positively or negatively with meat intake and limit the reliability of conclusions from these studies. The observational studies are heterogeneous and do not fulfill many of the points proposed by AB Hill in 1965 for inferring causality; his most important factor was strength of the association which in dietary studies is usually <1.5 but is not considered adequate in virtually all other areas of epidemiology outside nutrition. Accepting small, statistically significant risks as "real" from observational associations, the field of nutrition has a long list of failures including beta-carotene and lung cancer, low-fat diets and breast cancer or heart disease that have not been confirmed in randomized trials. Moderate intake of a variety of foods that are enjoyed by people remains the best dietary advice. PMID:26043666

  2. Zinc, iron, manganese and copper uptake requirement in response to nitrogen supply and the increased grain yield of summer maize.

    PubMed

    Xue, Yanfang; Yue, Shanchao; Zhang, Wei; Liu, Dunyi; Cui, Zhenling; Chen, Xinping; Ye, Youliang; Zou, Chunqin

    2014-01-01

    The relationships between grain yields and whole-plant accumulation of micronutrients such as zinc (Zn), iron (Fe), manganese (Mn) and copper (Cu) in maize (Zea mays L.) were investigated by studying their reciprocal internal efficiencies (RIEs, g of micronutrient requirement in plant dry matter per Mg of grain). Field experiments were conducted from 2008 to 2011 in North China to evaluate RIEs and shoot micronutrient accumulation dynamics during different growth stages under different yield and nitrogen (N) levels. Fe, Mn and Cu RIEs (average 64.4, 18.1 and 5.3 g, respectively) were less affected by the yield and N levels. ZnRIE increased by 15% with an increased N supply but decreased from 36.3 to 18.0 g with increasing yield. The effect of cultivars on ZnRIE was similar to that of yield ranges. The substantial decrease in ZnRIE may be attributed to an increased Zn harvest index (from 41% to 60%) and decreased Zn concentrations in straw (a 56% decrease) and grain (decreased from 16.9 to 12.2 mg kg-1) rather than greater shoot Zn accumulation. Shoot Fe, Mn and Cu accumulation at maturity tended to increase but the proportions of pre-silking shoot Fe, Cu and Zn accumulation consistently decreased (from 95% to 59%, 90% to 71% and 91% to 66%, respectively). The decrease indicated the high reproductive-stage demands for Fe, Zn and Cu with the increasing yields. Optimized N supply achieved the highest yield and tended to increase grain concentrations of micronutrients compared to no or lower N supply. Excessive N supply did not result in any increases in yield or micronutrient nutrition for shoot or grain. These results indicate that optimized N management may be an economical method of improving micronutrient concentrations in maize grain with higher grain yield. PMID:24705926

  3. Optimization of Iron Cobalt-based Nanocomposite Alloys for High Induction and Increased Resistivity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shen, Shen

    FeCo-based nanocrystalline soft magnetic materials are promising to provide high saturation induction, high Curie temperature and excellent soft magnetic properties for electric vehicle and high frequency power conversion applications. The increasing operation frequency of various inductive applications requires nanocomposite alloys with higher resistivity to suppress power losses. In this thesis, the method of measuring as-cast and annealed resistivity of melt-spun ribbon alloys by obtaining alloy densities was established. Archimedes method with deionized water as a medium was used to determine the density of crystalline alloys. A gas pycnometer using dry Helium gas as the medium exhibited improved accuracy in measuring the density of amorphous ribbon alloys compared to the conventional Archimedes method using a liquid medium. This method was applied to previously developed HITPERM (FeCoZrBCu) and HTX002 (FeCoBSiCu) type of alloys as well as carbon-containing (FeCoBCCu) alloys to guide composition adjustments pursuing for improved magnetic properties. In the HITPERM type of alloys, the composition dependence of as-cast resistivity was studied and simulated by Mott's two-current model with a rigid-band assumption which provided guidance for further adjusting alloy composition looking for higher resistivity. An alloy designed with the Fe:Co ratio for maximum as-cast resistivity and Hf as glass former exhibits low power loss values being approximately 1/4 of those measured on the alloy with the original HITPERM composition for a range of frequencies. The Al and Si additions were found effective to achieve a high resistivity of 151.9 muO·cm in the as-cast alloys but also lead to embrittlement of melt-spun ribbons. Composition adjustments on the HTX002 type of alloys which are castable in air and available for larger-scale production were also explored. Increasing the ferromagnetic late transition metal content by reducing glass formers was found effective to achieve

  4. Increase in cellular pool of low-molecular-weight iron during ethanol metabolism in rat hepatocyte cultures. Relationship with lipid peroxidation.

    PubMed

    Sergent, O; Morel, I; Cogrel, P; Chevanne, M; Pasdeloup, N; Brissot, P; Lescoat, G; Cillard, P; Cillard, J

    1995-01-01

    Ethanol-induced lipid peroxidation was studied in primary rat hepatocyte cultures supplemented with ethanol at the concentration of 50 mM. Lipid peroxidation was assessed by two indices: (1) conjugated dienes by second-derivative UV spectroscopy in lipid extract of hepatocytes (intracellular content), and (2) free malondialdehyde (MDA) by HPLC-UV detection and quantitation for the incubation medium (extracellular content). In cultures supplemented with ethanol, free MDA increased significantly in culture media, whereas no elevation of conjugated diene level was observed in the corresponding hepatocytes. The cellular pool of low-mol-wt (LMW) iron was also evaluated in the hepatocytes using an electron spin resonance procedure. An early increase of intracellular LMW iron (< or = 1 hr) was observed in ethanol-supplemented cultures; it was inhibited by 4-methylpyrazole, an inhibitor of alcohol dehydrogenase, whereas alpha-tocopherol, which prevented lipid peroxidation, did not inhibit the increase of LMW iron. Therefore, the LMW iron elevation was the result of ethanol metabolism and was not secondarily induced by lipid hydroperoxides. Thus, ethanol caused lipid peroxidation in rat hepatocytes as shown by the increase of free MDA, although no conjugated diene elevation was detected. During ethanol metabolism, an increase in cellular LMW iron was observed that could enhance conjugated diene degradation. PMID:7779546

  5. Soybean, palm kernel, and animal-vegetable oils and vitamin E supplementation effect on lipid oxidation stability of sous vide chicken meat.

    PubMed

    Narciso-Gaytán, C; Shin, D; Sams, A R; Bailey, C A; Miller, R K; Smith, S B; Leyva-Ovalle, O R; Sánchez-Plata, M X

    2010-04-01

    There is an increasing demand in precooked chicken meat products for restaurants and catering services. Because cooked chicken meat develops lipid oxidation relatively fast, sous vide chicken meat was studied to assess its shelf-life. Six hundred Cobb x Ross broilers were fed for 6 wk with a basal corn-soybean meal diet including soybean, palm kernel, or animal-vegetable oil, each supplemented with 33 or 200 mg/kg of dl-alpha-tocopheryl acetate. Broilers were randomly assigned into 6 treatments and 4 repetitions with 25 birds each. Boneless breast or thigh muscle pieces were dissected into 5 x 5 x 5 cm cubes, vacuum-packed, cooked in water bath (until 74 degrees C internal temperature), chilled, and stored at 4 degrees C for 1, 5, 10, 25, and 40 d. For each storage day, each pouch contained 3 pieces of meat, either breast or thigh. Thiobarbituric acid reactive substances analysis, to quantify malonaldehyde (MDA) values, was conducted to estimate the lipid oxidation development. Nonheme iron values of cooked meat were analyzed. Fatty acid methyl esters analysis was performed in chicken muscle to determine its fatty acid composition. There was no interaction between dietary fat and vitamin E level in all of the variables studied except in nonheme iron. Dietary fat significantly influenced the fatty acid composition of the muscle (P < 0.01), but it did not affect the MDA values, regardless of differences in the muscle fatty acid composition between treatments. Supplementation of the high level of vitamin E significantly reduced the MDA values in both breast and thigh meat (P < 0.01). The maximum MDA values were observed at d 40 of storage in thigh and breast meat in animal-vegetable and soybean oil treatments with the low levels of vitamin E, 0.91 and 0.70 mg/kg, respectively. Nonheme iron values in thigh meat differed between treatments at 1 or 25 d of storage but not in breast meat. In conclusion, refrigerated sous vide chicken meat has a prolonged shelf-life, which

  6. Institutional Care and Iron Deficiency Increase ADHD Symptomology and Lower IQ 2.5-5 Years Post-adoption

    PubMed Central

    Doom, Jenalee R.; Georgieff, Michael K.; Gunnar, Megan R.

    2014-01-01

    Increased ADHD symptomology and lower IQ have been reported in internationally adopted (IA) children compared to non-adopted peers (Hostinar et al., 2013; Kreppner, O’Connor, & Rutter, 2001). However, it is unclear whether these outcomes are due to institutional deprivation specifically or to co-occurring micronutrient deficiencies that disrupt brain development (Fuglestad et al., 2008). In this study, IA children were compared to children raised in their biological families to examine differences in ADHD symptomology and IQ 2.5-5 years post-adoption and to assess the contributions of iron deficiency (ID) and duration of deprivation to these cognitive outcomes. ADHD symptoms (parent- and experimenter-reported) and IQ were evaluated in 88 IA (M= 62.1 months, SD = 2.4) and 35 non-adopted children (M= 61.4 months, SD = 1.6). IA children were assessed 29-64 months post-adoption (M = 41.9 months, SD = 10.2). ID was assessed during the initial post-adoption medical visit in 69 children, and children were classified into 4 groups by iron status, ranging from normal to ID anemia (most severe). IA children had greater ADHD symptomology, p < .01, and lower IQ, p = .001, than non-adopted children. Within the IA group, children with more severe ID at adoption had greater ADHD symptomology, r(69) = 0.40, p = .001, and lower IQ, r(68) = −0.28, p < .05. Duration of institutional care was positively correlated with ADHD symptoms, r(86) = .28, p < .01, but not IQ, r(85) = −.08, p = .52. Longitudinal results indicate improvement in IQ from 12 months post-adoption to age 5 for children with greater ID severity at adoption and longer duration of institutional care but no improvement in ADHD symptoms. These results signify continuing effects of early deprivation and ID on ADHD symptoms and IQ years after adoption. PMID:25070881

  7. Mechanisms of increased Trichodesmium fitness under iron and phosphorus co-limitation in the present and future ocean.

    PubMed

    Walworth, Nathan G; Fu, Fei-Xue; Webb, Eric A; Saito, Mak A; Moran, Dawn; Mcllvin, Matthew R; Lee, Michael D; Hutchins, David A

    2016-01-01

    Nitrogen fixation by cyanobacteria supplies critical bioavailable nitrogen to marine ecosystems worldwide; however, field and lab data have demonstrated it to be limited by iron, phosphorus and/or CO2. To address unknown future interactions among these factors, we grew the nitrogen-fixing cyanobacterium Trichodesmium for 1 year under Fe/P co-limitation following 7 years of both low and high CO2 selection. Fe/P co-limited cell lines demonstrated a complex cellular response including increased growth rates, broad proteome restructuring and cell size reductions relative to steady-state growth limited by either Fe or P alone. Fe/P co-limitation increased abundance of a protein containing a conserved domain previously implicated in cell size regulation, suggesting a similar role in Trichodesmium. Increased CO2 further induced nutrient-limited proteome shifts in widespread core metabolisms. Our results thus suggest that N2-fixing microbes may be significantly impacted by interactions between elevated CO2 and nutrient limitation, with broad implications for global biogeochemical cycles in the future ocean. PMID:27346420

  8. Mechanisms of increased Trichodesmium fitness under iron and phosphorus co-limitation in the present and future ocean

    PubMed Central

    Walworth, Nathan G.; Fu, Fei-Xue; Webb, Eric A.; Saito, Mak A.; Moran, Dawn; Mcllvin, Matthew R.; Lee, Michael D.; Hutchins, David A.

    2016-01-01

    Nitrogen fixation by cyanobacteria supplies critical bioavailable nitrogen to marine ecosystems worldwide; however, field and lab data have demonstrated it to be limited by iron, phosphorus and/or CO2. To address unknown future interactions among these factors, we grew the nitrogen-fixing cyanobacterium Trichodesmium for 1 year under Fe/P co-limitation following 7 years of both low and high CO2 selection. Fe/P co-limited cell lines demonstrated a complex cellular response including increased growth rates, broad proteome restructuring and cell size reductions relative to steady-state growth limited by either Fe or P alone. Fe/P co-limitation increased abundance of a protein containing a conserved domain previously implicated in cell size regulation, suggesting a similar role in Trichodesmium. Increased CO2 further induced nutrient-limited proteome shifts in widespread core metabolisms. Our results thus suggest that N2-fixing microbes may be significantly impacted by interactions between elevated CO2 and nutrient limitation, with broad implications for global biogeochemical cycles in the future ocean. PMID:27346420

  9. The nutritional value of some processed meat products in Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Babji, A S; Mohdyusof, S

    1995-03-01

    Per capita consumption of meat and meat products in Malaysia more than doubled from 15.70 kg in 1970 to 35.71 kg in 1990. This increase in meat consumption is mainly due to the rapid development and wide acceptance of value added meat and poultry products amongst Malaysian consumers. Meat products such as burgers, sausages, hotdogs and nuggets are widely accepted and consumed by all ethnic groups at home as well as in the fast food restaurants. The significant expansion of the fast food industry and the increase consumption of processed meat products makes it necessary for a re-evaluation of the nutritional quality of popular meat products currently available in the market. This review paper described the quality of some processed meat products, their proximate composition, meat quality, use of non meat proteins and binders, and the use of additives in the formulation of burgers, frankfurters, nuggets, bologna, chicken and beef balls. Preliminary results on the protein efficiency ratio of local meat products seemed favourable but this study is limited to only one laboratory. In vivo and in vitro protein digestibility studies indicated high values on the digestibility of locally manufactured meat products. Proximate analysis of the raw materials used in the formulation of such products showed many with high fat and low protein contents being utilized. The meat content was lower than the minimum amount stated by the food regulation. This paper concludes that due to lack of information and studies on the nutritional composition of processed meat products, concerned bodies should take positive steps to generate reliable data to elucidate the actual nutritional composition of such products. It is also observed that many by-products from the animal industry from non-conventional sources are increasingly being utilized in the manufacture of processed meat product. PMID:22692017

  10. Hepcidin is a Better Predictor of Iron Stores in Premenopausal Women than Blood Loss or Dietary Intake.

    PubMed

    Lim, Karen H C; Booth, Alison O; Nowson, Caryl A; Szymlek-Gay, Ewa A; Irving, David O; Riddell, Lynn J

    2016-01-01

    The relationship between dietary intake, circulating hepcidin and iron status in free-living premenopausal women has not been explored. This cross-sectional study aimed to identify dietary determinants of iron stores after accounting for blood loss and to determine whether iron intake predicts iron stores independently of hepcidin in a sample of Australian women. Three hundred thirty eight women aged 18-50 years were recruited. Total intake and food sources of iron were determined via food frequency questionnaire; the magnitude of menstrual losses was estimated by self-report; and blood donation volume was quantified using blood donation records and self-reported donation frequency. Serum samples were analysed for ferritin, hepcidin and C-reactive protein concentrations. Linear regression was used to investigate associations. Accounting for blood loss, each 1 mg/day increase in dietary iron was associated with a 3% increase in iron stores (p = 0.027); this association was not independent of hepcidin. Hepcidin was a more influential determinant of iron stores than blood loss and dietary factors combined (R² of model including hepcidin = 0.65; R² of model excluding hepcidin = 0.17, p for difference <0.001), and increased hepcidin diminished the positive association between iron intake and iron stores. Despite not being the biggest contributor to dietary iron intake, unprocessed meat was positively associated with iron stores, and each 10% increase in consumption was associated with a 1% increase in iron stores (p = 0.006). No other dietary factors were associated with iron stores. Interventions that reduce hepcidin production combined with dietary strategies to increase iron intake may be important means of improving iron status in women with depleted iron stores. PMID:27598194

  11. Bacteriocins from lactic acid bacteria and their applications in meat and meat products.

    PubMed

    Woraprayote, Weerapong; Malila, Yuwares; Sorapukdee, Supaluk; Swetwiwathana, Adisorn; Benjakul, Soottawat; Visessanguan, Wonnop

    2016-10-01

    Meat and meat products have always been an important part of human diet, and contain valuable nutrients for growth and health. Nevertheless, they are perishable and susceptible to microbial contamination, leading to an increased health risk for consumers as well as to the economic loss in meat industry. The utilization of bacteriocins produced by lactic acid bacteria (LAB) as a natural preservative has received a considerable attention. Inoculation of bacteriocin-producing LAB cell as starter or protective cultures is suitable for fermented meats, whilst the direct addition of bacteriocin as food additive is more preferable when live cells of LAB could not produce bacteriocin in the real meat system. The incorporation of bacteriocins in packaging is another way to improve meat safety to avoid direct addition of bacteriocin to meat. Utilization of bacteriocins can effectively contribute to food safety, especially when integrated into hurdle concepts. In this review, LAB bacteriocins and their applications in meat and meat products are revisited. The molecular structure and characteristics of bacteriocins recently discovered, as well as exemplary properties are also discussed. PMID:27118166

  12. The Effect of Thawing Condition for Frozen Fish Meats

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abe, Shuji; Osako, Kazufumi; Watanabe, Manabu; Suzuki, Toru

    The influence of thawing speed on denaturation of muscle protein and quality of several kinds frozen fish meat was studied by measuring Ca-ATPase activity, drip loss, and microscopic observation. Frozen bigeye tuna, chub mackerel, alaska pollack and yellow tail meat thawed at 10°C by air (slow thawing) and water (rapid thawing). Ca-ATPase activity of slow thawed fishes meat decreased than it of rapid thawed fishes meat. On the other hand drip loss of slow thawed fishes meat increased than it of rapid thawed fishes meat. Decreasing of Ca-ATPase activity showed a good linear relation to increasing of drip loss. Further, from microscopic observation, it was confirmed that muscle cells of slow thawed fishes meat were disrupted than it of rapid thawed samples. Therefore,it was suggested that rapid warming on thawing process is better to inhibit protein denaturation and drip loss.

  13. Increasing concentrations of iron in surface waters as a consequence of reducing conditions in the catchment area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ekström, Sara M.; Regnell, Olof; Reader, Heather E.; Nilsson, P. Anders; Löfgren, Stefan; Kritzberg, Emma S.

    2016-02-01

    Recent studies report trends of strongly increasing iron (Fe) concentrations in freshwaters. Since Fe is a key element with a decisive role in the biogeochemical cycling of major elements, it is important to understand the mechanisms behind these trends. We hypothesized that variations in Fe concentration are driven mainly by redox dynamics in hydraulically connected soils. Notably, Fe(III), which is the favored oxidation state except in environments where microbial activity provide strong reducing intensity, has several orders of magnitude lower water solubility than Fe(II). To test our hypothesis, seasonal variation in water chemistry, discharge, and air temperature was studied in three Swedish rivers. Methylmercury and sulfate were used as indicators of seasonal redox changes. Seasonal variability in water chemistry, discharge, and air temperature in the Emån and Lyckeby Rivers implied that the variation in Fe was primarily driven by the prevalence of reducing conditions in the catchment. In general, high Fe concentrations were observed when methylmercury was high and sulfate was low, indicative of reducing conditions. The Fe concentrations showed no or weak relationships with variations in dissolved organic matter concentration and aromaticity. The seasonal variation in Fe concentration of the Ume river was primarily dependent on timing of the snowmelt in high- versus low-altitude areas of the catchment. There were long-term trends of increasing temperature in all catchments and also trends of increasing discharge in the southern rivers, which should increase the probability for anaerobic conditions in space and time and thereby increase Fe transport to the aquatic systems.

  14. Acoustoconvection Drying of Meat

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhilin, A. A.; Fedorov, A. V.

    2016-03-01

    The dynamics of moisture extraction from meat samples by the acoustoconvection and thermoconvection methods has been investigated. To describe the dynamics of moisture extraction from meat, we propose a simple relaxation model with a relaxation time of 8-10 min in satisfactorily describing experimental data on acoustoconvection drying of meat. For thermoconvection drying the relaxation time is thereby 30 and 45 min for the longitudinal and transverse positions of fibers, respectively.

  15. Increasing Iron and Zinc in Pre-Menopausal Women and Its Effects on Mood and Cognition: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Lomagno, Karla A.; Hu, Feifei; Riddell, Lynn J.; Booth, Alison O.; Szymlek-Gay, Ewa A.; Nowson, Caryl A.; Byrne, Linda K.

    2014-01-01

    Iron and zinc are essential minerals often present in similar food sources. In addition to the adverse effects of frank iron and zinc-deficient states, iron insufficiency has been associated with impairments in mood and cognition. This paper reviews current literature on iron or zinc supplementation and its impact on mood or cognition in pre-menopausal women. Searches included MEDLINE complete, Excerpta Medica Database (EMBASE), psychINFO, psychARTICLES, pubMED, ProQuest Health and Medical Complete Academic Search complete, Scopus and ScienceDirect. Ten randomized controlled trials and one non-randomized controlled trial were found to meet the inclusion criteria. Seven studies found improvements in aspects of mood and cognition after iron supplementation. Iron supplementation appeared to improve memory and intellectual ability in participants aged between 12 and 55 years in seven studies, regardless of whether the participant was initially iron insufficient or iron-deficient with anaemia. The review also found three controlled studies providing evidence to suggest a role for zinc supplementation as a treatment for depressive symptoms, as both an adjunct to traditional antidepressant therapy for individuals with a diagnosis of major depressive disorder and as a therapy in its own right in pre-menopausal women with zinc deficiency. Overall, the current literature indicates a positive effect of improving zinc status on enhanced cognitive and emotional functioning. However, further study involving well-designed randomized controlled trials is needed to identify the impact of improving iron and zinc status on mood and cognition. PMID:25405366

  16. Increasing iron and zinc in pre-menopausal women and its effects on mood and cognition: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Lomagno, Karla A; Hu, Feifei; Riddell, Lynn J; Booth, Alison O; Szymlek-Gay, Ewa A; Nowson, Caryl A; Byrne, Linda K

    2014-11-01

    Iron and zinc are essential minerals often present in similar food sources. In addition to the adverse effects of frank iron and zinc-deficient states, iron insufficiency has been associated with impairments in mood and cognition. This paper reviews current literature on iron or zinc supplementation and its impact on mood or cognition in pre-menopausal women. Searches included MEDLINE complete, Excerpta Medica Database (EMBASE), psychINFO, psychARTICLES, pubMED, ProQuest Health and Medical Complete Academic Search complete, Scopus and ScienceDirect. Ten randomized controlled trials and one non-randomized controlled trial were found to meet the inclusion criteria. Seven studies found improvements in aspects of mood and cognition after iron supplementation. Iron supplementation appeared to improve memory and intellectual ability in participants aged between 12 and 55 years in seven studies, regardless of whether the participant was initially iron insufficient or iron-deficient with anaemia. The review also found three controlled studies providing evidence to suggest a role for zinc supplementation as a treatment for depressive symptoms, as both an adjunct to traditional antidepressant therapy for individuals with a diagnosis of major depressive disorder and as a therapy in its own right in pre-menopausal women with zinc deficiency. Overall, the current literature indicates a positive effect of improving zinc status on enhanced cognitive and emotional functioning. However, further study involving well-designed randomized controlled trials is needed to identify the impact of improving iron and zinc status on mood and cognition. PMID:25405366

  17. Fetal programming in meat production.

    PubMed

    Du, Min; Wang, Bo; Fu, Xing; Yang, Qiyuan; Zhu, Mei-Jun

    2015-11-01

    Nutrient fluctuations during the fetal stage affects fetal development, which has long-term impacts on the production efficiency and quality of meat. During the early development, a pool of mesenchymal progenitor cells proliferate and then diverge into either myogenic or adipogenic/fibrogenic lineages. Myogenic progenitor cells further develop into muscle fibers and satellite cells, while adipogenic/fibrogenic lineage cells develop into adipocytes, fibroblasts and resident fibro-adipogenic progenitor cells. Enhancing the proliferation and myogenic commitment of progenitor cells during fetal development enhances muscle growth and lean production in offspring. On the other hand, promoting the adipogenic differentiation of adipogenic/fibrogenic progenitor cells inside the muscle increases intramuscular adipocytes and reduces connective tissue, which improves meat marbling and tenderness. Available studies in mammalian livestock, including cattle, sheep and pigs, clearly show the link between maternal nutrition and the quantity and quality of meat production. Similarly, chicken muscle fibers develop before hatching and, thus, egg and yolk sizes and hatching temperature affect long-term growth performance and meat production of chicken. On the contrary, because fishes are able to generate new muscle fibers lifelong, the impact of early nutrition on fish growth performance is expected to be minor, which requires further studies. PMID:25953215

  18. Microbiological Spoilage of Meat and Poultry Products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cerveny, John; Meyer, Joseph D.; Hall, Paul A.

    Humankind has consumed animal protein since the dawn of its existence. The archaeological record shows evidence of animal protein consumption as early as 12,500 BC (Mann, 2005). Raw meat and poultry are highly perishable commodities subject to various types of spoilage depending on handling and storage conditions. Because of this high potential for spoilage, the historical record reveals that early civilizations used techniques such as salting, smoking, and drying to preserve meat (Mack, 2001; Bailey, 1986). Today, more than ever, because of the globalization of the food supply, and increasing demands from exacting consumers, the control of meat and poultry spoilage is essential.

  19. Role of poultry meat in a balanced diet aimed at maintaining health and wellbeing: an Italian consensus document

    PubMed Central

    Marangoni, Franca; Corsello, Giovanni; Cricelli, Claudio; Ferrara, Nicola; Ghiselli, Andrea; Lucchin, Lucio; Poli, Andrea

    2015-01-01

    The relationship between the consumption of meat and health is multifaceted, and it needs to be analyzed in detail, with specific attention to the relevant differences that characterize the effects of the different meat types, as yet considered by only a limited literature. A variable but moderate energy content, highly digestible proteins (with low levels of collagen) of good nutritional quality, unsaturated lipids (mainly found in the skin and easily removed), B-group vitamins (mainly thiamin, vitamin B6, and pantothenic acid), and minerals (like iron, zinc, and copper) make poultry meat a valuable food. Epidemiological studies performed across the world, in highly diverse populations with different food preferences and nutritional habits, provide solid information on the association between poultry consumption, within a balanced diet, and good health. Consumption of poultry meat, as part of a vegetable-rich diet, is associated with a risk reduction of developing overweight and obesity, cardiovascular diseases, and type 2 diabetes mellitus. Also, white meat (and poultry in particular) is considered moderately protective or neutral on cancer risk. The relevance of poultry meat for humans also has been recognized by the UN Food and Agricultural Organization (FAO), who considers this widely available, relatively inexpensive food to be particularly useful in developing countries, where it can help to meet shortfalls in essential nutrients. Moreover, poultry meat consumption also contributes to the overall quality of the diet in specific ages and conditions (prior to conception, during pregnancy up to the end of breastfeeding, during growth, and in the geriatric age) and is suitable for those who have an increased need for calorie and protein compared to the general population. PMID:26065493

  20. The possibility to increase the rated output as a result of index tests performed in Iron Gates II- Romania

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Novac, D.; Pantelimon, D.; Popescu, E.

    2010-08-01

    The Index Tests have been used for many years to obtain the optimized cam corellation between wicket gates and runner blades for double regulated turbines (Kaplan, bulb). The cam is based on homologous model tests and is verified by site measurements, as model tests generally do not reproduce the exact intake configuration. Index Tests have also a considerable importance for checking of the relative efficiency curve of all type of turbines and can demonstrate if the prototype efficiency curve at plant condition has the shape expected from the test of the homologues model. During the Index Tests measurements the influence of all losses at multiple points of turbine operation can be proved. This publication deals with an overview on the Index Tests made after modernization of large bulb units in Iron Gates II - Romania. These field tests, together with the comparative, fully homologous tests for the new hydraulic shape of the runner blades have confirmed the smooth operational behavior and the guaranteed performance. Over the whole "guaranteed operating range" for H = 8m, the characteristic of the Kaplan curve (enveloping curve to the proppeler curves), agreed very well to the predicted efficiency curve from the hydraulic prototype hill chart. The new cam correlation have been determined for different head and realised in the governor, normally based on model tests. The guaranteed, maximum turbine output for H = 7,8m is specified with 32, 5 MW. The maximum measured turbine output during the Index Tests on cam operation was 35,704 MW at the net head of 7,836 m. This coresponds to 35,458 MW for the specified head H= 7, 8 m. All these important improvements ensure a significant increase of annual energy production without any change of the civil construction and without increasing the runner diameter. Also the possibility to increase the turbine rated output is evident.

  1. Mechanical Disruption of Tumors by Iron Particles and Magnetic Field Application Results in Increased Anti-Tumor Immune Responses

    PubMed Central

    Bouchlaka, Myriam N.; Sckisel, Gail D.; Wilkins, Danice; Maverakis, Emanual; Monjazeb, Arta M.; Fung, Maxwell; Welniak, Lisbeth; Redelman, Doug; Fuchs, Alan; Evrensel, Cahit A.; Murphy, William J.

    2012-01-01

    The primary tumor represents a potential source of antigens for priming immune responses for disseminated disease. Current means of debulking tumors involves the use of cytoreductive conditioning that impairs immune cells or removal by surgery. We hypothesized that activation of the immune system could occur through the localized release of tumor antigens and induction of tumor death due to physical disruption of tumor architecture and destruction of the primary tumor in situ. This was accomplished by intratumor injection of magneto-rheological fluid (MRF) consisting of iron microparticles, in Balb/c mice bearing orthotopic 4T1 breast cancer, followed by local application of a magnetic field resulting in immediate coalescence of the particles, tumor cell death, slower growth of primary tumors as well as decreased tumor progression in distant sites and metastatic spread. This treatment was associated with increased activation of DCs in the draining lymph nodes and recruitment of both DCs and CD8(+)T cells to the tumor. The particles remained within the tumor and no toxicities were observed. The immune induction observed was significantly greater compared to cryoablation. Further anti-tumor effects were observed when MRF/magnet therapy was combined with systemic low dose immunotherapy. Thus, mechanical disruption of the primary tumor with MRF/magnetic field application represents a novel means to induce systemic immune activation in cancer. PMID:23133545

  2. Institutional care and iron deficiency increase ADHD symptomology and lower IQ 2.5-5 years post-adoption.

    PubMed

    Doom, Jenalee R; Georgieff, Michael K; Gunnar, Megan R

    2015-05-01

    Increased ADHD symptomology and lower IQ have been reported in internationally adopted (IA) children compared to non-adopted peers (Hostinar, Stellern, Schaefer, Carlson & Gunnar, 2012; Kreppner, O'Connor & Rutter, 2001). However, it is unclear whether these outcomes are due to institutional deprivation specifically or to co-occurring micronutrient deficiencies that disrupt brain development (Fuglestad, Rao & Georgieff, 2008b). In this study, IA children were compared to children raised in their biological families to examine differences in ADHD symptomology and IQ 2.5-5 years post-adoption and to assess the contributions of iron deficiency (ID) and duration of deprivation to these cognitive outcomes. ADHD symptoms (parent- and experimenter-reported) and IQ were evaluated in 88 IA (M = 62.1 months, SD = 2.4) and 35 non-adopted children (M = 61.4 months, SD = 1.6). IA children were assessed 29-64 months post-adoption (M = 41.9 months, SD = 10.2). ID was assessed during the initial post-adoption medical visit in 69 children, and children were classified into four groups by iron status, ranging from normal to ID anemia (most severe). IA children had greater ADHD symptomology, p < .01, and lower IQ, p = .001, than non-adopted children. Within the IA group, children with more severe ID at adoption had greater ADHD symptomology, r(69) = 0.40, p = .001, and lower IQ, r(68) = -0.28, p < .05. Duration of institutional care was positively correlated with ADHD symptoms, r(86) = .28, p < .01, but not IQ, r(85) = -.08, p = .52. Longitudinal results indicate improvement in IQ from 12 months post-adoption to age 5 for children with greater ID severity at adoption and longer duration of institutional care but no improvement in ADHD symptoms. These results signify continuing effects of early deprivation and ID on ADHD symptoms and IQ years after adoption. A video abstract of this article can be viewed at http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=vUFDAS3DD1c. PMID:25070881

  3. Clostridium perfringens in Meat and Meat Products

    PubMed Central

    Hall, Herbert E.; Angelotti, Robert

    1965-01-01

    A total of 262 specimens of meat and meat dishes were examined for the presence of Clostridium perfringens. Of this total, 161 were raw, unprocessed beef, veal, lamb, pork, or chicken; 101 were processed meats and meat dishes. C. perfringens was isolated from 113 (43.1%) of these specimens. The highest percentage of contamination (82%) was found in veal cuts, and the lowest (4.7%) in sliced sandwich meats and spreads. Only 2 of the 113 isolates were shown to produce heat-resistant spores, which indicates a very low incidence (0.8%) of contamination. These findings indicate that outbreaks of C. perfringens food-borne disease in the Cincinnati area are caused principally by the contamination of the food with vegetative cells or spores of the organism after cooking. Studies of the effects of various holding temperatures on the growth of C. perfringens indicated that, in the range of 5 to 15 C, no multiplication would occur, but that viable cells would still be present at the end of a 5-day holding period. Extremely rapid growth occurred at temperatures around 45 C, and complete inhibition of growth was accomplished between 49 and 52 C. PMID:14325274

  4. Patents for stretching and shaping meats.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Johanne M; Hopkins, David L

    2011-05-01

    Attempts over the years to speed up the slaughter and processing of meat have been limited by the impact on important meat quality traits, such as tenderness. A number of methods and equipment have been developed for stretching and/or shaping to enhance the tenderness of meat, reducing the need for long term storage and ageing of meat. The more successful methods and equipment to improve the tenderness of meat - Tenderstretch (pelvic suspension), Tendercut (skeletal separation), SmartStretch™/Smartshape™ and Tenderbound (Pi-Vac Elasto-Pack system) are the subject of this review. Minimal research has been performed to compare these methods of tenderising meat. Tenderstretch and Tendercut are relatively easy to implement and require no specialised equipment, but they are relatively inflexible and only impact on a small number of muscles. The adoption of Tenderstretch has also been limited by increased resource requirements (chiller space and labour). SmartStretch™/Smartshape™ and Tenderbound, which wrap hot-boned pre-rigor muscles to prevent muscle contraction and shortening during rigor, are systems that do require specialised equipment. The major advantage of these systems is that they are very flexible and can be applied to any target muscle. Further research needs to be undertaken to compare these methods to better facilitate their commercial adoption. The article presents some promising patents on stretching and shaping meats. PMID:21428872

  5. Natural antioxidants in meat and poultry products.

    PubMed

    Karre, Liz; Lopez, Keyla; Getty, Kelly J K

    2013-06-01

    In response to recent claims that synthetic antioxidants have the potential to cause toxicological effects and consumers' increased interest in purchasing natural products, the meat and poultry industry has been seeking sources of natural antioxidants. Due to their high phenolic compound content, fruits and other plant materials provide a good alternative to conventional antioxidants. Plum, grape seed extract, cranberry, pomegranate, bearberry, pine bark extract, rosemary, oregano, and other spices functions as antioxidants in meat and poultry products. Pomegranate, pine bark extract, cinnamon, and cloves have exhibited stronger antioxidant properties than some synthetic options. Plum products, grape seed extract, pine bark extract, rosemary, and some spices all have been shown to affect the color of finished meat or poultry products; however, in some products such as pork sausage or uncured meats, an increase in red color may be desired. When selecting a natural antioxidant, sensory and quality impact on the product should be considered to achieve desired traits. PMID:23501254

  6. Meat Science Made Practical

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Groves, Marjorie P.

    1973-01-01

    A group of Extension specialists at Iowa State University, Ames, Iowa, adapted meat science courses for the particular needs of meat packing middle management, home economists, and families. Participant involvement in choosing the topics, timing, format, and scheduling contributed to the success of the program. (AG)

  7. The glycolytic shift in fumarate-hydratase-deficient kidney cancer lowers AMPK levels, increases anabolic propensities and lowers cellular iron levels.

    PubMed

    Tong, Wing-Hang; Sourbier, Carole; Kovtunovych, Gennady; Jeong, Suh Young; Vira, Manish; Ghosh, Manik; Romero, Vladimir Valera; Sougrat, Rachid; Vaulont, Sophie; Viollet, Benoit; Kim, Yeong-Sang; Lee, Sunmin; Trepel, Jane; Srinivasan, Ramaprasad; Bratslavsky, Gennady; Yang, Youfeng; Linehan, W Marston; Rouault, Tracey A

    2011-09-13

    Inactivation of the TCA cycle enzyme, fumarate hydratase (FH), drives a metabolic shift to aerobic glycolysis in FH-deficient kidney tumors and cell lines from patients with hereditary leiomyomatosis renal cell cancer (HLRCC), resulting in decreased levels of AMP-activated kinase (AMPK) and p53 tumor suppressor, and activation of the anabolic factors, acetyl-CoA carboxylase and ribosomal protein S6. Reduced AMPK levels lead to diminished expression of the DMT1 iron transporter, and the resulting cytosolic iron deficiency activates the iron regulatory proteins, IRP1 and IRP2, and increases expression of the hypoxia inducible factor HIF-1α, but not HIF-2α. Silencing of HIF-1α or activation of AMPK diminishes invasive activities, indicating that alterations of HIF-1α and AMPK contribute to the oncogenic growth of FH-deficient cells. PMID:21907923

  8. Iron homeostasis and distal colorectal adenoma risk in the prostate, lung, colorectal, and ovarian cancer screening trial.

    PubMed

    Cross, Amanda J; Sinha, Rashmi; Wood, Richard J; Xue, Xiaonan; Huang, Wen-Yi; Yeager, Meredith; Hayes, Richard B; Gunter, Marc J

    2011-09-01

    Red meat consumption has been positively associated with colorectal cancer; however, the biological mechanism underlying this relationship is not understood. Red meat is a major source of iron, which may play a role in colorectal carcinogenesis via increased crypt cell proliferation, cytotoxicity, and endogenous N-nitrosation. In a nested case-control study within the Prostate, Lung, Colorectal, and Ovarian Cancer Screening Trial, we prospectively evaluated multiple iron exposure parameters, including dietary intake and serum measures of iron, ferritin, transferrin, total iron binding capacity (TIBC), and unsaturated iron binding capacity (UIBC) in relation to incident colorectal adenoma in 356 cases and 396 matched polyp-free controls. We also investigated variation in eight key genes involved in iron homeostasis in relation to colorectal adenoma in an additional series totaling 1,126 cases and 1,173 matched controls. We observed a positive association between red meat intake and colorectal adenoma [OR comparing extreme quartiles (OR(q4-q1)) = 1.59, 95% CI = 1.02-2.49, P(trend) = 0.03]. Serum TIBC and UIBC were inversely associated with colorectal adenoma (OR(q4-q1) = 0.57, 95% CI = 0.37-0.88, P(trend) = 0.03; and OR(q4-q1) = 0.62, 95% CI = 0.40-0.95, P(trend) = 0.04, respectively). Colorectal adenoma was not associated with serum ferritin, iron, or transferrin saturation or with polymorphisms in genes involved in iron homeostasis. Serum TIBC and UIBC, parameters that have a reciprocal relationship with overall iron load, were inversely related to colorectal adenoma, suggesting that individuals with lower iron status have a reduced risk of developing colorectal adenoma. PMID:21685236

  9. Adolescent meat intake and breast cancer risk.

    PubMed

    Farvid, Maryam S; Cho, Eunyoung; Chen, Wendy Y; Eliassen, A Heather; Willett, Walter C

    2015-04-15

    The breast is particularly vulnerable to carcinogenic influences during adolescence due to rapid proliferation of mammary cells and lack of terminal differentiation. We investigated consumption of adolescent red meat and other protein sources in relation to breast cancer risk in the Nurses' Health Study II cohort. We followed prospectively 44,231 women aged 33-52 years who, in 1998, completed a detailed questionnaire about diet during adolescence. Relative risks (RR) and 95% confidence intervals (95%CI) were estimated using Cox proportional hazard regression. We documented 1132 breast cancer cases during 13-year follow-up. In multivariable Cox regression models with major breast cancer risk factors adjustment, greater consumption of total red meat in adolescence was significantly associated with higher premenopausal breast cancer risk (highest vs. lowest quintiles, RR, 1.43; 95%CI, 1.05-1.94; Ptrend  = 0.007), but not postmenopausal breast cancer. Adolescent intake of poultry was associated with lower risk of breast cancer overall (RR, 0.76; 95%CI, 0.60-0.97; for each serving/day). Adolescent intakes of iron, heme iron, fish, eggs, legumes and nuts were not associated with breast cancer. Replacement of one serving/day of total red meat with one serving of combination of poultry, fish, legumes, and nuts was associated with a 15% lower risk of breast cancer overall (RR, 0.85; 95%CI, 0.74-0.96) and a 23% lower risk of premenopausal breast cancer (RR, 0.77; 95%CI, 0.64-0.92). In conclusion, higher consumption of red meat during adolescence was associated with premenopausal breast cancer. Substituting other dietary protein sources for red meat in adolescent diet may decrease premenopausal breast cancer risk. PMID:25220168

  10. Cultured meat: every village its own factory?

    PubMed

    van der Weele, Cor; Tramper, Johannes

    2014-06-01

    Rising global demand for meat will result in increased environmental pollution, energy consumption, and animal suffering. Cultured meat, produced in an animal-cell cultivation process, is a technically feasible alternative lacking these disadvantages, provided that an animal-component-free growth medium can be developed. Small-scale production looks particularly promising, not only technologically but also for societal acceptance. Economic feasibility, however, emerges as the real obstacle. PMID:24856100

  11. Effects of increased iron intake during the neonatal period on the brain of adult AbetaPP/PS1 transgenic mice.

    PubMed

    Fernandez, Liana Lisboa; Carmona, Marga; Portero-Otin, Manuel; Naudi, Alba; Pamplona, Reinald; Schröder, Nadja; Ferrer, Isidro

    2010-01-01

    The present study was aimed to investigate neuropathological changes in AbetaPP/PS1 transgenic mice (Tg), as a model of Alzheimer's disease, subjected to supplementary iron administration in a critical postnatal period, in order to reveal the interaction of genetic and environmental risk factors in the pathogenesis of the disease. Twelve Tg and 10 wild-type (Wt) littermates were administered iron between the 12th and 14th post-natal days (TgFe, WtFe); 11 Tg and 15 Wt received vehicle (sorbitol 5%) alone in the same period (TgSb, WtSb). Mice were killed at the age of six months and processed for morphological and biochemical studies. No modifications in amyloid-beta burden were seen in iron-treated and non-iron-treated AbetaPP/PS1 mice. No differences in microglial reactions were observed when comparing the four groups of mice. Yet increased astrocytosis, as revealed by densitometry of GFAP-immunoreactive astrocytes, and increased expression levels of GFAP, as revealed by gel electrophoresis and western blotting, were found in iron-treated mice (both Tg and Wt) when compared with TgSb and WtSb. This was accompanied by significant changes in brain fatty acid composition in AbetaPP/PS1 mice that led to a lower membrane peroxidizability index and to reduced protein oxidative damage, as revealed by reduced percentages of the oxidative stress markers: glutamic semialdehyde, aminoadipic semialdehyde, Nepsilon-carboxymethyl-lysine, Nepsilon-carboxyethyl-lysine, and Nepsilon-malondialdehyde-lysine. These findings demonstrate that transient dietary iron supplementation during the neonatal period is associated with cellular and metabolic imprinting in the brain in adult life, but it does not interfere with the appearance of amyloid plaques in AbetaPP/PS1 transgenic mice. PMID:20157260

  12. An Outline of Meat Consumption in the Indian Population - A Pilot Review

    PubMed Central

    Balachandar, Vellingiri; Lee, Sang In

    2014-01-01

    The consumption of meat is increasing in India and agriculture is considered as the backbone of a majority of people. Livestock plays a significant role, and poultry and dairy are the major sectors contributing to economic development. The majority of meats consumed in India are fish, bovine, mutton, goat, pig, and poultry. In Indian context, culture, traditions, customs, and taboos influence meat consumption to a great extent. However, studies show that urbanization has been causing a rise in demand for meat products. India is the world’s second largest exporter of beef. In India, 95% of goat meat produced is consumed locally. Meat consumption, in particular, is determined by the religions where pork is forbidden to Muslims and beef is prohibited to Hindus. The preference and consumption of chicken meat can be considered as a universal phenomenon and chicken meat is greatly accepted by consumers in India as compared to the other meat consumption. The increase of chicken meat consumption is due to the versatility of the meat, relatively low cost in comparison to other meat, and the acceptance of the chicken meat to all religions. There has been a great rise in the production of livestock products and this is expected to continue in the future. The pattern of meat consumption depends considerably on culture, tradition and urbanization. This review was formulated with the objective of identifying the meat consumption patterns in a typical Indian society. PMID:26761289

  13. Effect of Heating on DPPH Radical Scavenging Activity of Meat Substitute

    PubMed Central

    Song, Hyeun Sung; Bae, Jun Kyu; Park, Inshik

    2013-01-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the increase of DPPH radical scavenging activity of meat substitute by heating. The meat substitute showed higher DPPH radical scavenging activity than those of other foods rich in protein such as beef, pork, chicken, and soybean curd. The DPPH radical scavenging activity of meat substitute was dependent upon concentration, heating temperature and heating time of meat substitute. The DPPH radical scavenging activity of meat substitute was enhanced with increasing heating temperature and time. The increase of DPPH radical scavenging activity was only applied to meat substitute without showing any activation in other foods rich in protein such as beef, pork, chicken, and soybean curd. PMID:24471114

  14. Meat Products, Hydrodynamic Pressure Processing

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The hydrodynamic pressure process (HDP) has been shown to be very effective at improving meat tenderness in a variety of meat cuts. When compared to conventional aging for tenderization, HDP was more effective. The HDP process may offer the meat industry a new alternative for tenderizing meat in add...

  15. Can land use intensification in the Mallee, Australia increase the supply of soluble iron to the Southern Ocean?

    PubMed

    Bhattachan, Abinash; D'Odorico, Paolo

    2014-01-01

    The supply of soluble iron through atmospheric dust deposition limits the productivity of the Southern Ocean. In comparison to the Northern Hemisphere, the Southern Hemisphere exhibits low levels of dust activity. However, given their proximity to the Southern Ocean, dust emissions from continental sources in the Southern Hemisphere could have disproportionate impact on ocean productivity. Australia is the largest source of dust in the Southern Hemisphere and aeolian transport of dust has major ecological, economic and health implications. In the Mallee, agriculture is a major driver of dust emissions and dust storms that affect Southeastern Australia. In this study, we assess the dust generating potential of the sediment from the Mallee, analyze the sediment for soluble iron content and determine the likely depositional region of the emitted dust. Our results suggest that the Mallee sediments have comparable dust generating potential to other currently active dust sources in the Southern Hemisphere and the dust-sized fraction is rich in soluble iron. Forward trajectory analyses show that this dust will impact the Tasman Sea and the Australian section of the Southern Ocean. This iron-rich dust could stimulate ocean productivity in future as more areas are reactivated as a result of land-use and droughts. PMID:25109703

  16. Can land use intensification in the Mallee, Australia increase the supply of soluble iron to the Southern Ocean?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhattachan, Abinash; D'Odorico, Paolo

    2014-08-01

    The supply of soluble iron through atmospheric dust deposition limits the productivity of the Southern Ocean. In comparison to the Northern Hemisphere, the Southern Hemisphere exhibits low levels of dust activity. However, given their proximity to the Southern Ocean, dust emissions from continental sources in the Southern Hemisphere could have disproportionate impact on ocean productivity. Australia is the largest source of dust in the Southern Hemisphere and aeolian transport of dust has major ecological, economic and health implications. In the Mallee, agriculture is a major driver of dust emissions and dust storms that affect Southeastern Australia. In this study, we assess the dust generating potential of the sediment from the Mallee, analyze the sediment for soluble iron content and determine the likely depositional region of the emitted dust. Our results suggest that the Mallee sediments have comparable dust generating potential to other currently active dust sources in the Southern Hemisphere and the dust-sized fraction is rich in soluble iron. Forward trajectory analyses show that this dust will impact the Tasman Sea and the Australian section of the Southern Ocean. This iron-rich dust could stimulate ocean productivity in future as more areas are reactivated as a result of land-use and droughts.

  17. A novel approach for in vitro meat production.

    PubMed

    Pandurangan, Muthuraman; Kim, Doo Hwan

    2015-07-01

    The present review describes the possibility of in vitro meat production with the help of advanced co-culturing methods. In vitro meat production method could be a possible alternative for the conventional meat production. Originally, the research on in vitro meat production was initiated by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) for space voyages. The required key qualities for accepting in vitro meat for consumption would be good efficiency ratio, increased protein synthesis rate in skeletal muscles, and mimicking the conventional meat qualities. In vitro culturing of meat is possible with the use of skeletal muscle tissue engineering, stem cell, cell co-culture, and tissue culture methods. Co-culture of myoblast and fibroblast is believed as one of the major techniques for in vitro meat production. In our lab, we have co-cultured myoblast and fibroblast. We believe that a billion pounds of in vitro meat could be produced from one animal for consumption. However, we require a great deal of research on in vitro meat production. PMID:25971200

  18. The Growth of Halal Meat Markets in Europe: An Exploration of the Supply Side Theory of Religion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lever, John; Miele, Mara

    2012-01-01

    Over the last 15 years dedicated markets for halal meat have emerged in a number of European countries. While ethnic stores still constitute the major retail outlet for halal meat in most countries, "halal" labelled meat and meat products are increasingly available in supermarkets and fast food restaurants. Market expansion has also facilitated…

  19. Meat, Poultry and Fish

    MedlinePlus

    ... Select meat substitutes such as dried beans, peas, lentils or tofu (soybean curd) in entrees, salads or ... one-cup serving of cooked beans, peas or lentils, or soybean curd (tofu) can replace a 2- ...

  20. Increasing the rate of hydrogen oxidation without increasing the overpotential: A bio-inspired iron molecular electrocatalyst with an outer coordination sphere proton relay

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Darmon, Jonathan M.; Kumar, Neeraj; Hulley, Elliott B.; Weiss, Charles J.; Raugei, Simone; Bullock, R. Morris; Helm, Monte L.

    2015-03-05

    Oxidation of hydrogen (H₂) to protons and electrons for energy production in fuel cells is catalyzed by platinum, but its low abundance and high cost present drawbacks to widespread adoption. Precisely controlled proton delivery and removal is critical in hydrogenase enzymes in nature that catalyze H₂ oxidation using earth-abundant metals (iron and nickel). Here we report a synthetic iron complex, (CpC5F4N)Fe(PEtN(CH2)3NMe2PEt)(Cl), that serves as a precatalyst for the oxidation of H₂, with turnover frequencies of 290 s⁻¹ in fluorobenzene, under 1 atm of H₂ using 1,4-diazabicyclo[2.2.2]octane (DABCO) as the exogenous base. The cooperative effect of the primary, secondary and outermore » coordination spheres for moving protons in this remarkably fast catalyst emphasizes the key role of pendant amines in mimicking the functionality of the proton pathway in the hydrogenase enzymes.« less

  1. Increasing the rate of hydrogen oxidation without increasing the overpotential: A bio-inspired iron molecular electrocatalyst with an outer coordination sphere proton relay

    SciTech Connect

    Darmon, Jonathan M.; Kumar, Neeraj; Hulley, Elliott B.; Weiss, Charles J.; Raugei, Simone; Bullock, R. Morris; Helm, Monte L.

    2015-03-05

    Oxidation of hydrogen (H₂) to protons and electrons for energy production in fuel cells is catalyzed by platinum, but its low abundance and high cost present drawbacks to widespread adoption. Precisely controlled proton delivery and removal is critical in hydrogenase enzymes in nature that catalyze H₂ oxidation using earth-abundant metals (iron and nickel). Here we report a synthetic iron complex, (CpC5F4N)Fe(PEtN(CH2)3NMe2PEt)(Cl), that serves as a precatalyst for the oxidation of H₂, with turnover frequencies of 290 s⁻¹ in fluorobenzene, under 1 atm of H₂ using 1,4-diazabicyclo[2.2.2]octane (DABCO) as the exogenous base. The cooperative effect of the primary, secondary and outer coordination spheres for moving protons in this remarkably fast catalyst emphasizes the key role of pendant amines in mimicking the functionality of the proton pathway in the hydrogenase enzymes.

  2. Modification of carbon-coated TiO2 by iron to increase adsorptivity and photoactivity for phenol.

    PubMed

    Tryba, B; Toyoda, M; Morawski, A W; Inagaki, M

    2005-07-01

    Carbon-coated TiO(2) modified by iron, were prepared from TiO(2) of anatase structure and PET modified by FeC(2)O(4). Catalysts were prepared by mixing powders of TiO(2) and modified PET and heating at different temperatures, from 400 to 800 degrees C under flow of Ar gas. High adsorption of phenol was observed on the catalyst heated at 400 degrees C, confirmed by FT-IR analysis. On this catalyst, fast rate of phenol decomposition was achieved by addition of small amount of H(2)O(2) to the reaction mixture. Phenol decomposition proceeded mainly through the direct oxidation of phenol species adsorbed on the catalyst surface due to the photo-Fenton reaction. Iron-modified carbon-coated TiO(2) catalysts heated at 500-800 degrees C showed almost no phenol adsorption or oxidation. PMID:15950040

  3. Signal changes on MRI and increases in reactive microgliosis, astrogliosis, and iron in the putamen of two patients with multiple system atrophy.

    PubMed Central

    Schwarz, J; Weis, S; Kraft, E; Tatsch, K; Bandmann, O; Mehraein, P; Vogl, T; Oertel, W H

    1996-01-01

    A correlation of clinical, MRI, and neuropathological data is reported in two patients with multiple system atrophy (MSA). On MRI, patient 1 showed striatal atrophy, reduction of T2 relaxation times within most of the putamen, and a band of hyperintense signal changes in the lateral putamen. In patient 2, MRI disclosed only shortening of the T2 signal in the putamen. Immunohistochemistry showed pronounced reactive microgliosis and astrogliosis in the affected brain regions. In patient 1, the area with the most pronounced microgliosis and astrogliosis most likely correlated with the area of hyperintense signal changes on MRI. This area also contained the highest amount of ferric iron, which was increased in the putamen of patient 1 but not patient 2. It is unlikely that the hypointense signal changes in the putamen are due to an increase of iron alone. Reactive microglial and astroglial cells may play a part in the pathogenesis of MSA. Images PMID:8558163

  4. CHICKEN THIGH, CHICKEN LIVER AND IRON-FORTIFIED WHEAT FLOUR OPTIMIZE IRON UPTAKE IN AN INVITRO DIGESTION/CACO-2 CELL MODEL

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective of this study was to screen multiple meat and fortified-food combinations to identify those that optimize iron uptake in an in vitro digestion/Caco-2 cell model, a proxy for iron bioavailability. Four experiments were conducted to test combinations of meats such as chicken (blood, spl...

  5. Treatment of flaxseed to reduce biohydrogenation of a-linolenic acid by ruminal microbes in sheep and cattle and increase n-3 fatty acid concentrations in red meat

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Our study determined if flaxseed treated with a formaldehyde-free process increased n-3 fatty acid (FA) levels in ruminant muscle. Twenty-four lambs (initial BW 43.8 ± 4.4 kg) were randomly divided into 4 groups for a 90-d trial. One treatment group (FLX) was fed 136 g/d of non-treated ground flaxse...

  6. Chemical safety of meat and meat products.

    PubMed

    Andrée, Sabine; Jira, W; Schwind, K-H; Wagner, H; Schwägele, F

    2010-09-01

    Since the Second World War the consumer behaviour in developed countries changed drastically. Primarily there existed the demand for sufficient food after a period of starvation, afterwards the desire for higher quality was arising, whereas today most people ask for safe and healthy food with high quality. Therefore a united approach comprising consistent standards, sound science and robust controls is required to ensure consumers' health and to maintain consumers' confidence and satisfaction. Chemical analysis along the whole food chain downstream (tracking) from primary production to the consumer and upstream (tracing) from the consumer to primary production is an important prerequisite to ensure food safety and quality. In this frame the focus of the following paper is the "chemical safety of meat and meat products" taking into account inorganic as well as organic residues and contaminants, the use of nitrite in meat products, the incidence of veterinary drugs, as well as a Failure Mode and Effect Analysis (FMEA) system assessing (prioritizing) vulnerable food chain steps to decrease or eliminate vulnerability. PMID:20510527

  7. Microstructure and physical changes in the Mexican cooked lamb meat barbacoa made with chilled and frozen meat.

    PubMed

    Estrada-Solís, Joaquín; Figueroa-Rodríguez, Katia A; Figueroa-Sandoval, Benjamín; Hernández-Rosas, Francisco; Hernández-Cazares, Aleida S

    2016-08-01

    Longissimus dorci (LD) samples of different origin (imported and domestic) with pre-treatments (imported meat stored at -18°C for 6months, domestic meat stored at -18°C for 10days, and domestic meat stored at 4°C for 24h) were cooked as barbacoa and frozen using two treatments (air blast and liquid immersion) and then evaluated after 30days of storage. The results showed that the origin and pre-treatment of meat affected L*, a*, instrumental texture and microstructure; that the storage time affected pH, aw, b* and microstructure; and that the freezing treatments did not affect the meat. Overall, the frozen cooked lamb dish barbacoa could present some problems at the conservation stage due to an increase in pH, aw and changes in microstructure; however, the physical traits (color and texture) remained mostly unchanged and depended more on the quality of the raw meat. PMID:27093350

  8. Regulation of taste-active components of meat by dietary leucine.

    PubMed

    Imanari, M; Kadowaki, M; Fujimura, S

    2007-04-01

    1. Regulation of meat taste is one effective method for improvement of meat quality. In this study, effects of dietary leucine (Leu) content on taste-active components, especially free glutamate (Glu), in meat were investigated. 2. Broiler chickens (28 d old) were fed on diets with graded dietary Leu content (100, 130 or 150% of Leu requirement in NRC, 1994) for 10 d before marketing. Taste-active components of meat (free amino acids and ATP metabolites) and sensory score of meat soup were estimated. 3. Free Glu content, the main taste-active component of meat, was significantly increased by dietary Leu. Compared with the Leu 130% group, free Glu was increased by 17% in the Leu 100% group. Free Glu of meat tended to decrease in the Leu 150% group. In contrast, inosine monophosphate content in meat did not change among all groups. 4. Sensory evaluation of meat soup from the Leu 100 and 150% groups showed that they had different meat tastes. Sensory scores of overall preference, umami taste and chicken-like taste were significantly higher in the Leu 100% group. 5. These results suggest that dietary Leu content is a regulating factor of free Glu in meat. Decreasing dietary Leu induces an increase in the free Glu content of meat and improves meat taste. PMID:17453808

  9. Silencing the Menkes Copper-Transporting ATPase (Atp7a) Gene in Rat Intestinal Epithelial (IEC-6) Cells Increases Iron Flux via Transcriptional Induction of Ferroportin 1 (Fpn1)123

    PubMed Central

    Gulec, Sukru; Collins, James F.

    2014-01-01

    The Menkes copper-transporting ATPase (Atp7a) gene is induced in rat duodenum during iron deficiency, consistent with copper accumulation in the intestinal mucosa and liver. To test the hypothesis that ATP7A influences intestinal iron metabolism, the Atp7a gene was silenced in rat intestinal epithelial (IEC-6) cells using short hairpin RNA (shRNA) technology. Perturbations in intracellular copper homeostasis were noted in knockdown cells, consistent with the dual roles of ATP7A in pumping copper into the trans-Golgi (for cuproenzyme synthesis) and exporting copper from cells. Intracellular iron concentrations were unaffected by Atp7a knockdown. Unexpectedly, however, vectorial iron (59Fe) transport increased (∼33%) in knockdown cells grown in bicameral inserts and increased further (∼70%) by iron deprivation (compared with negative control shRNA-transfected cells). Additional experiments were designed to elucidate the molecular mechanism of increased transepithelial iron flux. Enhanced iron uptake by knockdown cells was associated with increased expression of a ferrireductase (duodenal cytochrome b) and activity of a cell-surface ferrireductase. Increased iron efflux from knockdown cells was likely mediated via transcriptional activation of the ferroportin 1 gene (by an unknown mechanism). Moreover, Atp7a knockdown significantly attenuated expression of an iron oxidase [hephaestin (HEPH); by ∼80%] and membrane ferroxidase activity (by ∼50%). Cytosolic ferroxidase activity, however, was retained in knockdown cells (75% of control cells), perhaps compensating for diminished HEPH activity. This investigation has thus documented alterations in iron homeostasis associated with Atp7a knockdown in enterocyte-like cells. Alterations in copper transport, trafficking, or distribution may underlie the increase in transepithelial iron flux noted when ATP7A activity is diminished. PMID:24174620

  10. Effect of meat (beef, chicken, and bacon) on rat colon carcinogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Parnaud, Géraldine; Peiffer, Ginette; Taché, Sylviane; Corpet, Denis E.

    1998-01-01

    High intake of red meat or processed meat is associated with increased risk of colon cancer. In contrast, consumption of white meat (chicken) is not associated with risk and might even reduce the occurrence of colorectal cancer. We speculated that a diet containing beef or bacon would increase and a diet containing chicken would decrease colon carcinogenesis in rats. One hundred female Fischer 344 rats were given a single injection of azoxymethane (20 mg/kg i.p.), then randomized to 10 different AIN-76-based diets. Five diets were adjusted to 14% fat and 23% protein and five other diets to 28% fat and 40% protein. Fat and protein were supplied by 1) lard and casein, 2) olive oil and casein, 3) beef, 4) chicken with skin, and 5) bacon. Meat diets contained 30% or 60% freeze-dried fried meat. The diets were given ad libitum for 100 days, then colon tumor promotion was assessed by the multiplicity of aberrant crypt foci [number of crypts per aberrant crypt focus (ACF)]. The ACF multiplicity was nearly the same in all groups, except bacon-fed rats, with no effect of fat and protein level or source (p = 0.7 between 8 groups by analysis of variance). In contrast, compared with lard- and casein-fed controls, the ACF multiplicity was reduced by 12% in rats fed a diet with 30% bacon and by 20% in rats fed a diet with 60% bacon (p < 0.001). The water intake was higher in bacon-fed rats than in controls (p < 0.0001). The concentrations of iron and bile acids in fecal water and total fatty acids in feces changed with diet, but there was no correlation between these concentrations and the ACF multiplicity. Thus the hypothesis that colonic iron, bile acids, or total fatty acids can promote colon tumors is not supported by this study. The results suggest that, in rats, beef does not promote the growth of ACF and chicken does not protect against colon carcinogenesis. A bacon-based diet appears to protect against carcinogenesis, perhaps because bacon contains 5% NaCl and increased

  11. Iron deficiency is associated with increased levels of blood cadmium in the Korean general population: Analysis of 2008-2009 Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey data

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Byung-Kook; Kim, Yangho

    2012-01-15

    Introduction: We present data from the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2008-2009 on the distribution of blood cadmium levels and their association with iron deficiency in a representative sample of the adult Korean population. Methods: Serum ferritin was categorized into three levels: low (serum ferritin <15.0 {mu}g/L), low normal (15.0-30.0 {mu}g/L for women and 15.0-50.0 for men), and normal ({>=}30.0 {mu}g/L for women and {>=}50.0 for men), and its association with blood cadmium level was assessed after adjustment for various demographic and lifestyle factors. Results: Geometric means of blood cadmium in the low serum ferritin group in women, men, and all participants were significantly higher than in the normal group. Additionally, multiple regression analysis after adjusting for various covariates showed that blood cadmium was significantly higher in the low-ferritin group in women, men, and all participants compared with the normal group. We also found an association between serum ferritin and blood cadmium among never-smoking participants. Discussion: We found, similar to other recent population-based studies, an association between iron deficiency and increased blood cadmium in men and women, independent of smoking status. The results of the present study show that iron deficiency is associated with increased levels of blood cadmium in the general population.

  12. An increase in hemoglobin, platelets and white blood cells levels by iron chelation as single treatment in multitransfused patients with myelodysplastic syndromes: clinical evidences and possible biological mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Breccia, Massimo; Voso, Maria Teresa; Aloe Spiriti, Maria Antonietta; Fenu, Susanna; Maurillo, Luca; Buccisano, Francesco; Tafuri, Agostino; Alimena, Giuliana

    2015-05-01

    Iron chelation therapy can improve hematopoiesis in myelodysplastic syndromes. Only few studies showed hematologic improvement with deferoxamine, and the erythroid responses were correlated with good compliance to long-term treatment. Indeed, single-case reports and data from clinical trials testing the efficacy of deferasirox reported hematologic improvements with varying rates of response in different lineages. Overall, about 760 myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) patients with iron overload receiving deferasirox were included in six different studies, and an increase in hemoglobin level was reported to range from 6 to 44.5%, an increase in platelet count from 13 to 61%, and in neutrophil count from 3 to 76%. In all the published studies, hematologic improvements were not related to serum ferritin or to non-total binding iron changes; indeed, other pathways were indicated as possible pathogenetic mechanisms, such as decreased NF-kB activity, modulation of mTOR signalling, and reduced reactive oxygen species. The aims of this review are to provide all available information relating clinical and hematologic changes after chelation therapy and to discuss potential mechanisms involved in such responses. PMID:25743685

  13. Emerging Profiles for Cultured Meat; Ethics through and as Design

    PubMed Central

    van der Weele, Cor; Driessen, Clemens

    2013-01-01

    Simple Summary The idea of cultured meat is to grow meat from animal cells with tissue engineering techniques. Cultured meat is an idea under investigation that will not be ready for the market for several years. It is also still open what it could or should be like. We argue that this openness offers the opportunity to explore different directions in which this idea could be developed. Feelings, critical thinking and the imagination all have important roles to play in this exploration. Abstract The development of cultured meat has gained urgency through the increasing problems associated with meat, but what it might become is still open in many respects. In existing debates, two main moral profiles can be distinguished. Vegetarians and vegans who embrace cultured meat emphasize how it could contribute to the diminishment of animal suffering and exploitation, while in a more mainstream profile cultured meat helps to keep meat eating sustainable and affordable. In this paper we argue that these profiles do not exhaust the options and that (gut) feelings as well as imagination are needed to explore possible future options. On the basis of workshops, we present a third moral profile, “the pig in the backyard”. Here cultured meat is imagined as an element of a hybrid community of humans and animals that would allow for both the consumption of animal protein and meaningful relations with domestic (farm) animals. Experience in the workshops and elsewhere also illustrates that thinking about cultured meat inspires new thoughts on “normal” meat. In short, the idea of cultured meat opens up new search space in various ways. We suggest that ethics can take an active part in these searches, by fostering a process that integrates (gut) feelings, imagination and rational thought and that expands the range of our moral identities. PMID:26479525

  14. [Correlations between certain parameters of weight increase, slaughter performance, meat condition and thyroid function in swine for slaughter comparing various boar offspring].

    PubMed

    Schöberlein, L; Seffner, W

    1981-01-01

    Comprehensive tests were applied to a larger number of pigs for slaughter, all kept under the same conditions and all of known genetic origin. Subjects of testing were pork quality parameters, pH45, colour brightness, and drip loss as well as morphological thyroid parameters, epithelial level, nuclear surface, and follicle diameter as well as butanol-extractable iodine in the serum. All parameters were compared with one another, and each of them was then related to net body growth and increase in high-quality pork components. Follicular epithelial level and butanol-extractable iodine were found to be in negative correlation with one another. Higher drip loss was in concomitance with relative morphological thyroid quiescence. Higher net growth was exhibited by animals with portions of high-quality pork components went along with significant deterioration of general pork quality. Six boar progenies were tested for the above parameters. Some of the boar progenies exhibited statistically secured differences with regard to the thyroid parameters, butanol-extractable iodine, and pork quality. PMID:7224791

  15. Ferrous iron content of intravenous iron formulations.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Ajay; Pratt, Raymond D; Crumbliss, Alvin L

    2016-06-01

    The observed biological differences in safety and efficacy of intravenous (IV) iron formulations are attributable to physicochemical differences. In addition to differences in carbohydrate shell, polarographic signatures due to ferric iron [Fe(III)] and ferrous iron [Fe(II)] differ among IV iron formulations. Intravenous iron contains Fe(II) and releases labile iron in the circulation. Fe(II) generates toxic free radicals and reactive oxygen species and binds to bacterial siderophores and other in vivo sequestering agents. To evaluate whether differences in Fe(II) content may account for some observed biological differences between IV iron formulations, samples from multiple lots of various IV iron formulations were dissolved in 12 M concentrated HCl to dissociate and release all iron and then diluted with water to achieve 0.1 M HCl concentration. Fe(II) was then directly measured using ferrozine reagent and ultraviolet spectroscopy at 562 nm. Total iron content was measured by adding an excess of ascorbic acid to reduce Fe(III) to Fe(II), and Fe(II) was then measured by ferrozine assay. The Fe(II) concentration as a proportion of total iron content [Fe(III) + Fe(II)] in different lots of IV iron formulations was as follows: iron gluconate, 1.4 and 1.8 %; ferumoxytol, 0.26 %; ferric carboxymaltose, 1.4 %; iron dextran, 0.8 %; and iron sucrose, 10.2, 15.5, and 11.0 % (average, 12.2 %). The average Fe(II) content in iron sucrose was, therefore, ≥7.5-fold higher than in the other IV iron formulations. Further studies are needed to investigate the relationship between Fe(II) content and increased risk of oxidative stress and infections with iron sucrose. PMID:26956439

  16. Emerging Profiles for Cultured Meat; Ethics through and as Design.

    PubMed

    van der Weele, Cor; Driessen, Clemens

    2013-01-01

    The development of cultured meat has gained urgency through the increasing problems associated with meat, but what it might become is still open in many respects. In existing debates, two main moral profiles can be distinguished. Vegetarians and vegans who embrace cultured meat emphasize how it could contribute to the diminishment of animal suffering and exploitation, while in a more mainstream profile cultured meat helps to keep meat eating sustainable and affordable. In this paper we argue that these profiles do not exhaust the options and that (gut) feelings as well as imagination are needed to explore possible future options. On the basis of workshops, we present a third moral profile, "the pig in the backyard". Here cultured meat is imagined as an element of a hybrid community of humans and animals that would allow for both the consumption of animal protein and meaningful relations with domestic (farm) animals. Experience in the workshops and elsewhere also illustrates that thinking about cultured meat inspires new thoughts on "normal" meat. In short, the idea of cultured meat opens up new search space in various ways. We suggest that ethics can take an active part in these searches, by fostering a process that integrates (gut) feelings, imagination and rational thought and that expands the range of our moral identities. PMID:26479525

  17. Nanotechnology in meat processing and packaging: potential applications - a review.

    PubMed

    Ramachandraiah, Karna; Han, Sung Gu; Chin, Koo Bok

    2015-02-01

    Growing demand for sustainable production, increasing competition and consideration of health concerns have led the meat industries on a path to innovation. Meat industries across the world are focusing on the development of novel meat products and processes to meet consumer demand. Hence, a process innovation, like nanotechnology, can have a significant impact on the meat processing industry through the development of not only novel functional meat products, but also novel packaging for the products. The potential benefits of utilizing nanomaterials in food are improved bioavailability, antimicrobial effects, enhanced sensory acceptance and targeted delivery of bioactive compounds. However, challenges exist in the application of nanomaterials due to knowledge gaps in the production of ingredients such as nanopowders, stability of delivery systems in meat products and health risks caused by the same properties which also offer the benefits. For the success of nanotechnology in meat products, challenges in public acceptance, economics and the regulation of food processed with nanomaterials which may have the potential to persist, accumulate and lead to toxicity need to be addressed. So far, the most promising area for nanotechnology application seems to be in meat packaging, but the long term effects on human health and environment due to migration of the nanomaterials from the packaging needs to be studied further. The future of nanotechnology in meat products depends on the roles played by governments, regulatory agencies and manufacturers in addressing the challenges related to the application of nanomaterials in food. PMID:25557827

  18. Biosurveillance at the United States Meat Animal Research Center

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The mission of the 50 scientists and 165 support staff at the U.S. Meat Animal Research Center (USMARC) is to develop new technologies to increase the efficiency of livestock production and improve meat safety, quality, and animal health to benefit consumers worldwide. The facilities include 35,000 ...

  19. Muscle Growth and Poultry Meat Quality Issues

    PubMed Central

    Petracci, Massimiliano; Cavani, Claudio

    2011-01-01

    Over the past 50 years the worldwide growing demand of poultry meat has resulted in pressure on breeders, nutritionists and growers to increase the growth rate of birds, feed efficiency, size of breast muscle and reduction in abdominal fatness. Moreover, the shift toward further processed products has emphasized the necessity for higher standards in poultry meat to improve sensory characteristics and functional properties. It is believed that genetic progress has put more stress on the growing bird and it has resulted in histological and biochemical modifications of the muscle tissue by impairing some meat quality traits. The most current poultry meat quality concerns are associated with deep pectoral muscle disease and white striping which impair product appearance, and increased occurrence of problems related with the meat’s poor ability to hold water during processing and storage (PSE-like condition) as well as poor toughness and cohesiveness related to immaturity of intramuscular connective tissue. This paper is aimed at making a general statement of recent studies focusing on the relationship between muscle growth and meat quality issues in poultry. PMID:22347614

  20. Retail Meat Cutting I. Apprentice Meat Cutter Related Training. Revised.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Dale H., Ed.

    Intended as a first-year curriculum for apprentice meat cutters, this text focuses on retail meat cutting. Topics covered in the 24 chapters are background and purpose of apprenticeship, job preparation, general layout of the meat department, operational procedures, beef structure and evaluation, retail cuts and cooking methods, beef forequarter:…

  1. Iron Test

    MedlinePlus

    ... detect and help diagnose iron deficiency or iron overload. In people with anemia , these tests can help ... also be ordered when iron deficiency or iron overload is suspected. Early iron deficiency often goes unnoticed. ...

  2. Red Meat and Processed Meat Consumption and Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma Risk: A Dose-response Meta-analysis of Observational Studies.

    PubMed

    Li, Fuqin; Duan, Fujiao; Zhao, Xia; Song, Chunhua; Cui, Shuli; Dai, Liping

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to clarify and quantify the potential dose-response association between the intake of total red and total processed meat and risk of nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC). Relevant studies were identified by searching PubMed, EMBASE, and Chinese databases (CNKI and Wanfang). The summary relative risk (RR) with 95% confidence interval (95%CI) was calculated. A total of 15 independent studies with 12,735 subjects were identified. Compared with the low-rank intake, the summary RR of NPC was 1.35 (95%CI, 1.21-1.51) for total red meat and 1.46 (95%CI, 1.34-1.64) for total processed meat. For the moderate-rank intake, the summary RR of NPC was 1.54 (95%CI, 1.36-1.79) for total red meat and 1.59 (95%CI, 1.3-1.90) for total processed meat. The summary RR for high-rank intake was 1.71 (95%CI, 1.14-2.55) for total red meat and 2.11 (95%CI, 1.31-3.42) for total processed meat. The combined estimates showed obvious evidence of statistically significant association between total red and total processed meat consumption dose and risk of NPC (Ptrend< 0.01). In conclusion, our data suggest that a high intake of total red or total processed meat is associated with a significantly increased risk of NPC. PMID:27367552

  3. Effects of diet on brain iron levels among healthy individuals: an MRI pilot study.

    PubMed

    Hagemeier, Jesper; Tong, Olivia; Dwyer, Michael G; Schweser, Ferdinand; Ramanathan, Murali; Zivadinov, Robert

    2015-04-01

    Increased brain iron levels may be a risk factor for age-related neurologic disorders. Little is known about factors other than age and sex potentially affecting brain iron concentration. We investigated dietary habits (iron and calcium supplements, dairy products, vegetables, and red meat) as a potential modifiable predictor of brain iron levels using 3-T susceptibility-weighted magnetic resonance imaging. One hundred ninety volunteers were scanned, and mean phase and mean phase of low-phase voxels were determined for deep gray-matter (DGM) structures, including the caudate, putamen, thalamus, pulvinar, hippocampus, amygdala, red nucleus, and substantia nigra. There was a trend for lower mean phase (suggestive of high iron levels) in individuals taking iron supplements (p = 0.075). Among men, both increased dairy and vegetable intakes were significantly associated with lower DGM mean phase (p < 0.05) and mean phase of low-phase voxels (p < 0.05) in the thalamus, pulvinar, and red nucleus. In contrast, among women, iron levels were not associated with dairy consumption (p > 0.05) in the DGM but were inversely associated with vegetable intake in the thalamus (p = 0.006). Brain iron levels appear to be modulated by diet, with effects being highly dependent on gender. PMID:25680267

  4. The role of rabbit meat as functional food.

    PubMed

    Dalle Zotte, Antonella; Szendro, Zsolt

    2011-07-01

    Increasing consumer knowledge of the link between diet and health has raised the awareness and demand for functional food ingredients. Meat and its derivatives may be considered functional foods to the extent that they contain numerous compounds thought to be functional. This review will attempt to outline the excellent nutritional and dietetic properties of rabbit meat and offer an overview of the studies performed on the strategies adopted to improve the functional value of rabbit meat. Dietary manipulation has been seen to be very effective in increasing the levels of essential FA, EPA, DHA, CLA, branched chain FA, vitamin E, and selenium in rabbit meat. Dietary fortification with vitamin E or natural products such as oregano essential oil, chia seed oil, and Spirulina platensis microalga seem promising in improving the oxidative stability of rabbit meat while also adding functional ingredients. PMID:21392894

  5. Serum Ferritin Is Associated with Metabolic Syndrome and Red Meat Consumption

    PubMed Central

    Felipe, Avila; Guadalupe, Echeverría; Druso, Pérez; Carlos, Martinez; Pablo, Strobel; Oscar, Castillo; Luis, Villaroel; Diego, Mezzano; Jaime, Rozowski; Inés, Urquiaga; Federico, Leighton

    2015-01-01

    Background and Aims. Hyperferritinemia has been related with a wide spectrum of pathologies, including diabetes, cardiovascular disease, neurodegenerative disorders, and metabolic syndrome. The aim of this study was to investigate the association between hyperferritinemia and iron consumption. Methods and Results. Serum ferritin concentration was evaluated in 66 presumed healthy men, along with other clinical and biochemical markers of chronic diseases. A three-day food questionnaire was applied for nutrition information. Hyperferritinemia was a condition found in 13.4% of the volunteers analyzed. Significant correlations were found between serum ferritin concentration and metabolic syndrome parameters (HDL cholesterol, triglycerides, and fasting glucose) as well as an increase of the serum ferritin mean value with the number of risk factors of metabolic syndrome. Also, oxidative stress markers (carbonyl groups, AOPP, and glycated hemoglobin), hepatic damage markers (GGT, SGOT), and parameters related to insulin resistance (HOMA, blood insulin, and blood glucose) correlate significantly with serum ferritin. Volunteers had an excessive iron intake, principally by bread consumption. Analyses of food intake showed that red meat consumption correlates significantly with serum ferritin. Conclusion. Red meat consumption, metabolic syndrome, and chronic disease markers are associated with hyperferritinemia in a population of Chilean men. PMID:26451235

  6. Iron deficiency in Europe.

    PubMed

    Hercberg, S; Preziosi, P; Galan, P

    2001-04-01

    In Europe, iron deficiency is considered to be one of the main nutritional deficiency disorders affecting large fractions of the population, particularly such physiological groups as children, menstruating women and pregnant women. Some factors such as type of contraception in women, blood donation or minor pathological blood loss (haemorrhoids, gynaecological bleeding...) considerably increase the difficulty of covering iron needs. Moreover, women, especially adolescents consuming low-energy diets, vegetarians and vegans are at high risk of iron deficiency. Although there is no evidence that an absence of iron stores has any adverse consequences, it does indicate that iron nutrition is borderline, since any further reduction in body iron is associated with a decrease in the level of functional compounds such as haemoglobin. The prevalence of iron-deficient anaemia has slightly decreased in infants and menstruating women. Some positive factors may have contributed to reducing the prevalence of iron-deficiency anaemia in some groups of population: the use of iron-fortified formulas and iron-fortified cereals; the use of oral contraceptives and increased enrichment of iron in several countries; and the use of iron supplements during pregnancy in some European countries. It is possible to prevent and control iron deficiency by counseling individuals and families about sound iron nutrition during infancy and beyond, and about iron supplementation during pregnancy, by screening persons on the basis of their risk for iron deficiency, and by treating and following up persons with presumptive iron deficiency. This may help to reduce manifestations of iron deficiency and thus improve public health. Evidence linking iron status with risk of cardiovascular disease or cancer is unconvincing and does not justify changes in food fortification or medical practice, particularly because the benefits of assuring adequate iron intake during growth and development are well established

  7. Antimicrobial Edible Films and Coatings for Meat and Meat Products Preservation

    PubMed Central

    Sánchez-Ortega, Irais; García-Almendárez, Blanca E.; Santos-López, Eva María; Amaro-Reyes, Aldo; Barboza-Corona, J. Eleazar; Regalado, Carlos

    2014-01-01

    Animal origin foods are widely distributed and consumed around the world due to their high nutrients availability but may also provide a suitable environment for growth of pathogenic and spoilage microorganisms. Nowadays consumers demand high quality food with an extended shelf life without chemical additives. Edible films and coatings (EFC) added with natural antimicrobials are a promising preservation technology for raw and processed meats because they provide good barrier against spoilage and pathogenic microorganisms. This review gathers updated research reported over the last ten years related to antimicrobial EFC applied to meat and meat products. In addition, the films gas barrier properties contribute to extended shelf life because physicochemical changes, such as color, texture, and moisture, may be significantly minimized. The effectiveness showed by different types of antimicrobial EFC depends on meat source, polymer used, film barrier properties, target microorganism, antimicrobial substance properties, and storage conditions. The perspective of this technology includes tailoring of coating procedures to meet industry requirements and shelf life increase of meat and meat products to ensure quality and safety without changes in sensory characteristics. PMID:25050387

  8. Antimicrobial edible films and coatings for meat and meat products preservation.

    PubMed

    Sánchez-Ortega, Irais; García-Almendárez, Blanca E; Santos-López, Eva María; Amaro-Reyes, Aldo; Barboza-Corona, J Eleazar; Regalado, Carlos

    2014-01-01

    Animal origin foods are widely distributed and consumed around the world due to their high nutrients availability but may also provide a suitable environment for growth of pathogenic and spoilage microorganisms. Nowadays consumers demand high quality food with an extended shelf life without chemical additives. Edible films and coatings (EFC) added with natural antimicrobials are a promising preservation technology for raw and processed meats because they provide good barrier against spoilage and pathogenic microorganisms. This review gathers updated research reported over the last ten years related to antimicrobial EFC applied to meat and meat products. In addition, the films gas barrier properties contribute to extended shelf life because physicochemical changes, such as color, texture, and moisture, may be significantly minimized. The effectiveness showed by different types of antimicrobial EFC depends on meat source, polymer used, film barrier properties, target microorganism, antimicrobial substance properties, and storage conditions. The perspective of this technology includes tailoring of coating procedures to meet industry requirements and shelf life increase of meat and meat products to ensure quality and safety without changes in sensory characteristics. PMID:25050387

  9. The role of intramuscular connective tissue in meat texture.

    PubMed

    Nishimura, Takanori

    2010-02-01

    The structure, composition and amount of intramuscular connective tissue (IMCT) vary tremendously between muscles, species and breeds, and certainly contribute to meat texture. With animal growth, collagen crosslinks become more stable, and the structural integrity of IMCT increases. These changes increase the mechanical properties of IMCT, contributing to the toughening of meat. Intramuscular fat deposits, mainly in the perimysium between muscle fiber bundles, result in marbling. This causes the remodeling of IMCT structures and reduces the mechanical strength of IMCT, contributing to the tenderization of beef. The IMCT has been thought to be rather immutable compared to myofibrils during postmortem ageing of meat. However, recent studies have shown the disintegration of IMCT during postmortem ageing of meat and its relationship to tenderization of raw meat, although its contribution to cooked meat is still controversial. Given the large influence of IMCT on meat texture, further elucidations of molecular mechanisms which change the structural integrity of IMCT during chronological ageing of animals and postmortem ageing of meat are needed. PMID:20163668

  10. Meat-cooking mutagens and risk of renal cell carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Daniel, C R; Schwartz, K L; Colt, J S; Dong, L M; Ruterbusch, J J; Purdue, M P; Cross, A J; Rothman, N; Davis, F G; Wacholder, S; Graubard, B I; Chow, W H; Sinha, R

    2011-01-01

    Background: High-temperature cooked meat contains two families of carcinogens, heterocyclic amines (HCAs) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Given the kidneys' role in metabolism and urinary excretion of these compounds, we investigated meat-derived mutagens, as well as meat intake and cooking methods, in a population-based case–control study conducted in metropolitan Detroit and Chicago. Methods: Newly diagnosed, histologically confirmed adenocarcinoma of the renal parenchyma (renal cell carcinoma (RCC)) cases (n=1192) were frequency matched on age, sex, and race to controls (n=1175). The interviewer-administered Diet History Questionnaire (DHQ) included queries for meat-cooking methods and doneness with photographic aids. Levels of meat mutagens were estimated using the DHQ in conjunction with the CHARRED database. Results: The risk of RCC increased with intake of barbecued meat (Ptrend=0.04) and the PAH, benzo(a)pyrene (BaP) (multivariable-adjusted odds ratio and 95% confidence interval, highest vs lowest quartile: 1.50 (1.14, 1.95), Ptrend=0.001). With increasing BaP intake, the risk of RCC was more than twofold in African Americans and current smokers (Pinteraction<0.05). We found no association for HCAs or overall meat intake. Conclusion: BaP intake, a PAH in barbecued meat, was positively associated with RCC. These biologically plausible findings advocate further epidemiological investigation into dietary intake of BaP and risk of RCC. PMID:21897389

  11. Effect of ohmic treatment on quality characteristic of meat: a review.

    PubMed

    Yildiz-Turp, G; Sengun, I Y; Kendirci, P; Icier, F

    2013-03-01

    Ohmic cooking, a well-known electro-heating technique, provides an alternative method for cooking meat products due to its ability for rapid heat generation. Ohmic heating uses the resistance of meat products to convert the electric energy into heat. The rate of heat generation depends on the voltage gradient applied and the electrical conductivity of the meat product. The advantages of ohmic cooking over conventional heating include shorter processing times, higher yields, and less power consumption while still maintaining the colour and nutritional value of meat products. In recent years, ohmic cooking has increasingly drawn interest from the meat industry as a method to ensure the quality and the safety of meat products. The present paper reviews the effects of ohmic cooking on the physical, chemical, sensory, and microbiological quality characteristics and toxicological properties of meat and meat products. PMID:23273448

  12. Iron, radiation, and cancer.

    PubMed Central

    Stevens, R G; Kalkwarf, D R

    1990-01-01

    Increased iron content of cells and tissue may increase the risk of cancer. In particular, high available iron status may increase the risk of a radiation-induced cancer. There are two possible mechanisms for this effect: iron can catalyze the production of oxygen radicals, and it may be a limiting nutrient to the growth and development of a transformed cell in vivo. Given the high available iron content of the western diet and the fact that the world is changing to the western model, it is important to determine if high iron increases the risk of cancer. PMID:2269234

  13. [Iron-refractory iron deficiency anemia].

    PubMed

    Kawabata, Hiroshi

    2016-02-01

    The major causes of iron deficiency anemia (IDA) include iron loss due to bleeding, increased iron requirements, and decreased iron absorption by the intestine. The most common cause of IDA in Japanese women is iron loss during menstruation. Autoimmune atrophic gastritis and Helicobacter pylori infection can also cause IDA by reducing intestinal iron absorption. In addition to these common etiologies, germline mutations of TMPRSS6 can cause iron-refractory IDA (IRIDA). TMPRSS6 encodes matriptase-2, a membrane-bound serine protease primarily expressed in the liver. Functional loss of matriptase-2 due to homozygous mutations results in an increase in the expression of hepcidin, which is the key regulator of systemic iron homeostasis. The serum hepcidin increase in turn leads to a decrease in iron supply from the intestine and macrophages to erythropoietic cells. IRIDA is microcytic and hypochromic, but decreased serum ferritin is not observed as in IDA. IRIDA is refractory to oral iron supplementation, but does respond to intravenous iron supplementation to some extent. Because genetic testing is required for the diagnoses of IRIDA, a considerable number of cases may go undiagnosed and may thus be overlooked. PMID:26935626

  14. Iron-refractory iron deficiency anemia.

    PubMed

    Yılmaz Keskin, Ebru; Yenicesu, İdil

    2015-03-01

    Iron is essential for life because it is indispensable for several biological reactions, such as oxygen transport, DNA synthesis, and cell proliferation. Over the past few years, our understanding of iron metabolism and its regulation has changed dramatically. New disorders of iron metabolism have emerged, and the role of iron as a cofactor in other disorders has begun to be recognized. The study of genetic conditions such as hemochromatosis and iron-refractory iron deficiency anemia (IRIDA) has provided crucial insights into the molecular mechanisms controlling iron homeostasis. In the future, these advances may be exploited to improve treatment of both genetic and acquired iron disorders. IRIDA is caused by mutations in TMPRSS6, the gene encoding matriptase-2, which downregulates hepcidin expression under conditions of iron deficiency. The typical features of this disorder are hypochromic, microcytic anemia with a very low mean corpuscular volume of erythrocytes, low transferrin saturation, no (or inadequate) response to oral iron, and only a partial response to parenteral iron. In contrast to classic iron deficiency anemia, serum ferritin levels are usually low-normal, and serum or urinary hepcidin levels are inappropriately high for the degree of anemia. Although the number of cases reported thus far in the literature does not exceed 100, this disorder is considered the most common of the "atypical" microcytic anemias. The aim of this review is to share the current knowledge on IRIDA and increase awareness in this field. PMID:25805669

  15. Exogenous proteases for meat tenderization.

    PubMed

    Bekhit, Alaa A; Hopkins, David L; Geesink, Geert; Bekhit, Adnan A; Franks, Philip

    2014-01-01

    The use of exogenous proteases to improve meat tenderness has attracted much interest recently, with a view to consistent production of tender meat and added value to lower grade meat cuts. This review discusses the sources, characteristics, and use of exogenous proteases in meat tenderization to highlight the specificity of the proteases toward meat proteins and their impact on meat quality. Plant enzymes (such as papain, bromelain, and ficin) have been extensively investigated as meat tenderizers. New plant proteases (actinidin and zingibain) and microbial enzyme preparations have been of recent interest due to controlled meat tenderization and other advantages. Successful use of these enzymes in fresh meat requires their enzymatic kinetics and characteristics to be determined, together with an understanding of the impact of the surrounding environmental conditions of the meat (pH, temperature) on enzyme function. This enables the optimal conditions for tenderizing fresh meat to be established, and the elimination or reduction of any negative impacts on other quality attributes. PMID:24499119

  16. Pasteurization of Ready-to-Eat Meats

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A microwave heating system was developed for inactivating Listeria monocytogenes in ready-to-eat meats. Frankfurters, inoculated and vacuum-sealed in plastic packages, were subjected to heating, with the package surface temperature increased to and maintained at three temperature set points for dif...

  17. Clostridium difficile in poultry and poultry meat

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The incidence and severity of disease associated with toxigenic Clostridium difficile have increased in hospitals in North America from the emergence of newer, more virulent strains. Toxigenic C. difficile has been isolated from food animals and retail meat with potential implications of transfer t...

  18. A diet high in meat protein and potential renal acid load increases fractional Ca absorption and urinary Ca excretion, without affecting markers of bone resorption or formation in postmenopausal women

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Objective: The objective was to determine the effects of high dietary protein (mostly meat) and high potential renal acid load (PRAL) on calcium (Ca) balance and markers of bone metabolism. Methods: In a randomized crossover design, sixteen healthy postmenopausal women consumed two diets: one with l...

  19. Cooking and grinding reduces the cost of meat digestion.

    PubMed

    Boback, Scott M; Cox, Christian L; Ott, Brian D; Carmody, Rachel; Wrangham, Richard W; Secor, Stephen M

    2007-11-01

    The cooking of food is hypothesized to have played a major role in human evolution partly by providing an increase in net energy gain. For meat, cooking compromises the structural integrity of the tissue by gelatinizing the collagen. Hence, cooked meat should take less effort to digest compared to raw meat. Likewise, less energy would be expended digesting ground meat compared to intact meat. We tested these hypotheses by assessing how the cooking and/or grinding of meat influences the energy expended on its digestion, absorption, and assimilation (i.e., specific dynamic action, SDA) using the Burmese python, Python molurus. Pythons were fed one of four experimental diets each weighing 25% of the snake's body mass: intact raw beef, intact cooked beef, ground raw beef, and ground cooked beef. We measured oxygen consumption rates of snakes prior to and up to 14 days following feeding and calculated SDA from the extra oxygen consumed above standard metabolic rate. Postprandial peak in oxygen consumption, the scope of peak rates, and SDA varied significantly among meal treatments. Pythons digesting raw or intact meals exhibited significantly larger postprandial metabolic responses than snakes digesting the cooked ground meals. We found cooking to decrease SDA by 12.7%, grinding to decrease SDA by 12.4%, and the combination of the two (cooking and grinding) to have an additive effect, decreasing SDA by 23.4%. These results support the hypothesis that the consumption of cooked meat provides an energetic benefit over the consumption of raw meat. PMID:17827047

  20. The significance of sensory appeal for reduced meat consumption.

    PubMed

    Tucker, Corrina A

    2014-10-01

    Reducing meat (over-)consumption as a way to help address environmental deterioration will require a range of strategies, and any such strategies will benefit from understanding how individuals might respond to various meat consumption practices. To investigate how New Zealanders perceive such a range of practices, in this instance in vitro meat, eating nose-to-tail, entomophagy and reducing meat consumption, focus groups involving a total of 69 participants were held around the country. While it is the damaging environmental implications of intensive farming practices and the projected continuation of increasing global consumer demand for meat products that has propelled this research, when asked to consider variations on the conventional meat-centric diet common to many New Zealanders, it was the sensory appeal of the areas considered that was deemed most problematic. While an ecological rationale for considering these 'meat' alternatives was recognised and considered important by most, transforming this value into action looks far less promising given the recurrent sensory objections to consuming different protein-based foods or of reducing meat consumption. This article considers the responses of focus group participants in relation to each of the dietary practices outlined, and offers suggestions on ways to encourage a more environmentally viable diet. PMID:24953197

  1. Meat processing and colon carcinogenesis: cooked, nitrite-treated, and oxidized high-heme cured meat promotes mucin-depleted foci in rats

    PubMed Central

    Santarelli, Raphaëlle L; Vendeuvre, Jean-Luc; Naud, Nathalie; Taché, Sylviane; Guéraud, Françoise; Viau, Michelle; Genot, Claude; Corpet, Denis E; Pierre, Fabrice H F

    2010-01-01

    Processed meat intake is associated with colorectal cancer risk, but no experimental study supports the epidemiologic evidence. To study the effect of meat processing on carcinogenesis promotion, we first did a 14-day study with 16 models of cured meat. Studied factors, in a 2 × 2 × 2 × 2 design, were muscle color (a proxy for heme level), processing temperature, added nitrite, and packaging. Fischer 344 rats were fed these 16 diets, and we evaluated fecal and urinary fat oxidation and cytotoxicity, three biomarkers of heme-induced carcinogenesis promotion. A principal component analysis allowed for selection of four cured meats for inclusion into a promotion study. These selected diets were given for 100 days to rats pretreated with 1,2-dimethylhydrazine. Colons were scored for preneoplastic lesions: aberrant crypt foci (ACF) and mucin-depleted foci (MDF). Cured meat diets significantly increased the number of ACF/colon compared with a no-meat control diet (P = 0.002). Only the cooked nitrite-treated and oxidized high heme meat significantly increased the fecal level of apparent total N-nitroso compounds (ATNC) and the number of MDF per colon compared with the no-meat control diet (P < 0.05). This nitrite-treated and oxidized cured meat specifically increased the MDF number compared with similar non nitrite-treated meat (P = 0.03) and with similar non oxidized meat (P = 0.004). Thus, a model cured meat, similar to ham stored aerobically, increased the number of preneoplastic lesions, which suggests colon carcinogenesis promotion. Nitrite treatment and oxidation increased this promoting effect, which was linked with increased fecal ATNC level. This study could lead to process modifications to make non promoting processed meat. PMID:20530708

  2. Nutrient uplift in a cyclonic eddy increases diversity, primary productivity and iron demand of microbial communities relative to a western boundary current.

    PubMed

    Doblin, Martina A; Petrou, Katherina; Sinutok, Sutinee; Seymour, Justin R; Messer, Lauren F; Brown, Mark V; Norman, Louiza; Everett, Jason D; McInnes, Allison S; Ralph, Peter J; Thompson, Peter A; Hassler, Christel S

    2016-01-01

    The intensification of western boundary currents in the global ocean will potentially influence meso-scale eddy generation, and redistribute microbes and their associated ecological and biogeochemical functions. To understand eddy-induced changes in microbial community composition as well as how they control growth, we targeted the East Australian Current (EAC) region to sample microbes in a cyclonic (cold-core) eddy (CCE) and the adjacent EAC. Phototrophic and diazotrophic microbes were more diverse (2-10 times greater Shannon index) in the CCE relative to the EAC, and the cell size distribution in the CCE was dominated (67%) by larger micro-plankton [Formula: see text], as opposed to pico- and nano-sized cells in the EAC. Nutrient addition experiments determined that nitrogen was the principal nutrient limiting growth in the EAC, while iron was a secondary limiting nutrient in the CCE. Among the diazotrophic community, heterotrophic NifH gene sequences dominated in the EAC and were attributable to members of the gamma-, beta-, and delta-proteobacteria, while the CCE contained both phototrophic and heterotrophic diazotrophs, including Trichodesmium, UCYN-A and gamma-proteobacteria. Daily sampling of incubation bottles following nutrient amendment captured a cascade of effects at the cellular, population and community level, indicating taxon-specific differences in the speed of response of microbes to nutrient supply. Nitrogen addition to the CCE community increased picoeukaryote chlorophyll a quotas within 24 h, suggesting that nutrient uplift by eddies causes a 'greening' effect as well as an increase in phytoplankton biomass. After three days in both the EAC and CCE, diatoms increased in abundance with macronutrient (N, P, Si) and iron amendment, whereas haptophytes and phototrophic dinoflagellates declined. Our results indicate that cyclonic eddies increase delivery of nitrogen to the upper ocean to potentially mitigate the negative consequences of increased

  3. Nutrient uplift in a cyclonic eddy increases diversity, primary productivity and iron demand of microbial communities relative to a western boundary current

    PubMed Central

    Petrou, Katherina; Sinutok, Sutinee; Seymour, Justin R.; Messer, Lauren F.; Brown, Mark V.; Norman, Louiza; Everett, Jason D.; McInnes, Allison S.; Ralph, Peter J.; Thompson, Peter A.; Hassler, Christel S.

    2016-01-01

    The intensification of western boundary currents in the global ocean will potentially influence meso-scale eddy generation, and redistribute microbes and their associated ecological and biogeochemical functions. To understand eddy-induced changes in microbial community composition as well as how they control growth, we targeted the East Australian Current (EAC) region to sample microbes in a cyclonic (cold-core) eddy (CCE) and the adjacent EAC. Phototrophic and diazotrophic microbes were more diverse (2–10 times greater Shannon index) in the CCE relative to the EAC, and the cell size distribution in the CCE was dominated (67%) by larger micro-plankton \\documentclass[12pt]{minimal} \\usepackage{amsmath} \\usepackage{wasysym} \\usepackage{amsfonts} \\usepackage{amssymb} \\usepackage{amsbsy} \\usepackage{upgreek} \\usepackage{mathrsfs} \\setlength{\\oddsidemargin}{-69pt} \\begin{document} }{}$(\\geq 20\\lrm{\\mu }\\mathrm{m})$\\end{document}≥20μm, as opposed to pico- and nano-sized cells in the EAC. Nutrient addition experiments determined that nitrogen was the principal nutrient limiting growth in the EAC, while iron was a secondary limiting nutrient in the CCE. Among the diazotrophic community, heterotrophic NifH gene sequences dominated in the EAC and were attributable to members of the gamma-, beta-, and delta-proteobacteria, while the CCE contained both phototrophic and heterotrophic diazotrophs, including Trichodesmium, UCYN-A and gamma-proteobacteria. Daily sampling of incubation bottles following nutrient amendment captured a cascade of effects at the cellular, population and community level, indicating taxon-specific differences in the speed of response of microbes to nutrient supply. Nitrogen addition to the CCE community increased picoeukaryote chlorophyll a quotas within 24 h, suggesting that nutrient uplift by eddies causes a ‘greening’ effect as well as an increase in phytoplankton biomass. After three days in both the EAC and CCE, diatoms

  4. Influence of cutting and deboning operations on the microbiological quality and shelf life of buffalo meat.

    PubMed

    Voloski, F L S; Tonello, L; Ramires, T; Reta, G G; Dewes, C; Iglesias, M; Mondadori, R G; Gandra, E A; da Silva, W P; Duval, E H

    2016-06-01

    Considering the specific biochemical composition of buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) meat (high iron content, high biological value proteins and essential fatty acids, low amounts of fat and cholesterol), we evaluated the influence of cutting and deboning operations on the microbiological quality and shelf-life of vacuum-packed buffalo meat stored under refrigeration. On the processing day, samples were collected from carcass, deboning room surfaces and meat cuts. Samples from meat cuts were evaluated weekly for two months. On the processing day, higher counts of Pseudomonas spp. were observed in samples from meat cuts compared with the hindquarters and the processing surfaces. For thermotolerant coliform scores, the averages were -0.5 log MPN·cm(-2), -0.4 log MPN·cm(-2) and 0.9 log MPN·g(-1), respectively. Higher counts of Pseudomonas spp. and LAB in meat cuts were observed on the processing day and after the first week of storage, respectively, remaining constant during shelf life. Listeria grayi was identified in two samples of hindquarters and meat cuts during storage. Listeria innocua was identified in one meat cut. In conclusion, cutting and deboning operations influence the microbiological quality and shelf life of vacuum-packed buffalo meat stored under refrigeration. PMID:26897086

  5. Iron-Superoxide Dismutase Expression in Transgenic Alfalfa Increases Winter Survival without a Detectable Increase in Photosynthetic Oxidative Stress Tolerance1

    PubMed Central

    McKersie, Bryan D.; Murnaghan, Julia; Jones, Kim S.; Bowley, Stephen R.

    2000-01-01

    To determine whether overexpression of Fe-superoxide (SOD) dismutase would increase superoxide-scavenging capacity and thereby improve the winter survival of transgenic alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) plants, two genotypes were transformed with the vector pEXSOD10, which contains a cDNA for Arabidopsis Fe-SOD with a chloroplast transit peptide and cauliflower mosaic virus 35S promoter. A novel Fe-SOD was detected by native PAGE in both greenhouse- and field-grown transgenic plants, but activity varied among independent transgenic plants. The increased Fe-SOD activity was associated with increased winter survival over 2 years in field trials, but not with oxidative stress tolerance as measured by resistance of leaves to methyl viologen, a superoxide generator. Total shoot dry matter production over 2 harvest years was not associated with Fe-SOD activity. There was no detectable difference in the pattern of primary freezing injury, as shown by vital staining, nor was there additional accumulation of carbohydrates in field-acclimated roots of the transgenic alfalfa plants. We did not detect any difference in growth of one transgenic plant with high Fe-SOD activity compared with a non-transgenic control. Therefore, the improvement in winter survival did not appear to be a consequence of improved oxidative stress tolerance associated with photosynthesis, nor was it a consequence of a change in primary freezing injury. We suggest that Fe-SOD overexpression reduced secondary injury symptoms and thereby enhanced recovery from stresses experienced during winter. PMID:10759538

  6. Mechanisms of radical formation in beef and chicken meat during high pressure processing evaluated by electron spin resonance detection and the addition of antioxidants.

    PubMed

    Bolumar, Tomas; Andersen, Mogens L; Orlien, Vibeke

    2014-05-01

    The generation of radicals during high pressure (HP) processing of beef loin and chicken breast was studied by spin trapping and electron spin resonance detection. The pressurization resulted in a higher level of spin adducts in the beef loin than in the chicken breast. It was shown that radicals were formed in the sarcoplasmic and myofibrillar fractions as well as in the non-soluble protein fraction due to the HP treatment, indicating that other radicals than iron-derived radicals were formed, and most likely protein-derived radicals. The addition of iron as well as the natural antioxidants caffeic acid, rosemary extract, and ascorbic acid resulted in an increased formation of radicals during the HP treatment, whereas addition of ethylendiamintetraacetic acid (EDTA) reduced the radical formation. This suggests that iron-species (protein-bound or free) catalyses the formation of radicals when meat systems are submitted to HP. PMID:24360471

  7. Iron Chelation

    MedlinePlus

    ... iron overload and need treatment. What is iron overload? Iron chelation therapy is used when you have ... may want to perform: How quickly does iron overload happen? This is different for each person. It ...

  8. Efficacy of reverse micellar extracted fruit bromelain in meat tenderization.

    PubMed

    Chaurasiya, Ram Saran; Sakhare, P Z; Bhaskar, N; Hebbar, H Umesh

    2015-06-01

    Reverse micellar extraction (RME) was used for the separation and purification of bromelain from pineapple core and efficacy of RME purified bromelain (RMEB) in tenderization of beef meat was compared with that of commercial stem bromelain (CSB). RME resulted in reasonably high bromelain activity recovery (85.0 %) and purification fold (4.0). Reduction in meat toughness was higher in RMEB treated meat (52.1 %) compared to raw (control) and CSB treated (26.7 %). Significant increase in water holding capacity (WHC) was observed in RMEB treated meat (91.1 %) as against CSB treated (55.6 %) and control (56.6 %). No change in cooking loss was observed in RMEB treated meat, whereas the loss increased by nearly 14.0 % in case of CSB treated. While the meat color was retained, trichloroacetic acid (TCA) soluble protein content increased due to hydrolysis of protein in RMEB treated meat. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) analysis revealed that RMEB treatment completely ruptures myofibril tissues, indicating a higher degree of tenderization. PMID:26028772

  9. Health implications of Mediterranean diets in light of contemporary knowledge. 2. Meat, wine, fats, and oils.

    PubMed

    Kushi, L H; Lenart, E B; Willett, W C

    1995-06-01

    Consumption of beef, pork, and lamb has traditionally been low in Mediterranean countries. Regular consumption of red meat has been associated in epidemiologic studies with increased risks of coronary heart disease (CHD) and colon and other cancers; possible mechanisms may involve dietary cholesterol, saturated fat, heme iron, and the presence of carcinogens formed in cooking. Also, high consumption of red meat, the major source of animal protein in most Western diets, increases urinary calcium losses and is therefore likely to contribute to osteoporotic fractures. In Mediterranean diets the major source of dietary fat has traditionally been olive oil, which, compared with saturated and partially hydrogenated fats, reduces low-density-lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol and, compared with carbohydrates, increases high-density-lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol. A wealth of epidemiologic evidence supports a potent protective effect of moderate alcohol consumption against CHD, probably in part by increasing HDL concentrations. Although dietary factors alone may not fully explain the excellent health of Mediterranean populations, available evidence strongly suggests important contributions of high consumption of fruit, vegetables, and whole grains; moderate intake of alcohol; and low consumption of animal products, saturated and hydrogenated fats, and refined carbohydrates. PMID:7754997

  10. In-home fortification with 2.5 mg iron as NaFeEDTA does not reduce anaemia but increases weight gain: a randomised controlled trial in Kenyan infants.

    PubMed

    Barth-Jaeggi, Tanja; Moretti, Diego; Kvalsvig, Jane; Holding, Penny A; Njenga, Jane; Mwangi, Alice; Chhagan, Meera K; Lacroix, Christophe; Zimmermann, Michael B

    2015-12-01

    In-home fortification of infants with micronutrient powders (MNPs) containing 12.5 mg iron may increase morbidity from infections; therefore, an efficacious low-dose iron-containing MNP might be advantageous. Effects of iron-containing MNPs on infant growth are unclear. We assessed the efficacy of a low-iron MNP on iron status and growth and monitored safety in a randomised, controlled, double-blind 1-year trial in 6-month-old infants (n = 287) consuming daily a maize porridge fortified with either a MNP including 2.5 mg iron as NaFeEDTA (MNP + Fe) or the same MNP without iron (MNP - Fe). At baseline, after 6 and 12 months, we determined haemoglobin (Hb), iron status [serum ferritin (SF), soluble transferrin receptor (sTfR) and zinc protoporphyrin (ZPP)], inflammation [C-reactive protein (CRP)] and anthropometrics. We investigated safety using weekly morbidity questionnaires asking for diarrhoea, cough, flu, bloody or mucus-containing stool and dyspnoea, and recorded any other illness. Furthermore, feeding history and compliance were assessed weekly. At baseline, 71% of the infants were anaemic and 22% iron deficient; prevalence of inflammation was high (31% had an elevated CRP). Over the 1 year, Hb increased and SF decreased in both groups, without significant treatment effects of the iron fortification. At end point, the weight of infants consuming MNP + Fe was greater than in the MNP - Fe group (9.9 vs. 9.5 kg, P = 0.038). Mothers of infants in the MNP + Fe group reported more infant days spent with cough (P = 0.003) and dyspnoea (P = 0.0002); there were no significant differences on any other of the weekly morbidity measures. In this study, low-dose iron-containing MNP did not improve infant's iron status or reduce anaemia prevalence, likely because absorption was inadequate due to the high prevalence of infections and the low-iron dose. PMID:25420455

  11. Meat and components of meat and the risk of bladder cancer in the NIH-AARP Diet and Health Study

    PubMed Central

    Ferrucci, Leah M.; Sinha, Rashmi; Ward, Mary H.; Graubard, Barry I.; Hollenbeck, Albert R.; Kilfoy, Briseis A.; Schatzkin, Arthur; Michaud, Dominique S.; Cross, Amanda J.

    2010-01-01

    Background Meat could be involved in bladder carcinogenesis via multiple potentially carcinogenic meat-related compounds related to cooking and processing, including nitrate, nitrite, heterocyclic amines (HCAs), and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. We comprehensively investigated the association between meat and meat components and bladder cancer. Methods During 7 years of follow-up, 854 transitional cell bladder cancer cases were identified among 300,933 men and women who completed a validated food frequency questionnaire in the large prospective NIH-AARP Diet and Health Study. We estimated intake of nitrate and nitrite from processed meat and HCAs and PAHs from cooked meat using quantitative databases of measured values. We calculated total dietary nitrate and nitrite based on literature values. Results The hazard ratios (HR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for red meat (HR for fifth compared to first quintile=1.22, 95% CI=0.96–1.54, p-trend=0.07) and the HCA 2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine (PhIP) (HR=1.19, 95% CI=0.95–1.48, p-trend=0.06) conferred a borderline statistically significant increased risk of bladder cancer. We observed positive associations in the top quintile for total dietary nitrite (HR=1.28, 95% CI=1.02–1.61, p-trend= 0.06) and nitrate plus nitrite intake from processed meat (HR=1.29 95% CI=1.00–1.67, p-trend= 0.11). Conclusions These findings provide modest support for a role for total dietary nitrite and nitrate plus nitrite from processed meat in bladder cancer. Our results also suggest a positive association between red meat and PhIP and bladder carcinogenesis. PMID:20681011

  12. Color Developing Capacity of Plasma-treated Water as a Source of Nitrite for Meat Curing

    PubMed Central

    Jung, Samooel; Kim, Hyun Joo; Park, Sanghoo; Choe, Jun Ho; Jeon, Hee-Joon; Choe, Wonho

    2015-01-01

    The interaction of plasma with liquid generates nitrogen species including nitrite (NO−2). Therefore, the color developing capacity of plasma-treated water (PTW) as a nitrite source for meat curing was investigated in this study. PTW, which is generated by surface dielectric barrier discharge in air, and the increase of plasma treatment time resulted in increase of nitrite concentration in PTW. The PTW used in this study contains 46 ppm nitrite after plasma treatment for 30 min. To evaluate the effect of PTW on the cured meat color, meat batters were prepared under three different conditions (control, non-cured meat batter; PTW, meat batter cured with PTW; Sodium nitrite, meat batter cured with sodium nitrite). The meat batters were vacuum-packaged and cooked in a water-bath at 80℃ for 30 min. The typical color of cured meat developed in cooked meat batter treated with sodium nitrite or PTW. The lightness (L*) and yellowness (b*) values were similar in all conditions, whereas, the redness (a*) values of cooked meat batter with PTW and sodium nitrite (p<0.05) were significantly higher than the control. These data indicate that PTW can be used as a nitrite source in the curing process of meat without addition of other nitrite sources. PMID:26761900

  13. Red Meat and Colorectal Cancer

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) is the third most common cancer in men and the second in women worldwide. More than half of cases occur in more developed countries. The consumption of red meat (beef, pork, lamb, veal, mutton) is high in developed countries and accumulated evidence until today demonstrated a convincing association between the intake of red meat and especially processed meat and CRC risk. In this review, meta-analyses of prospective epidemiological studies addressed to this association, observed link of some subtypes of red meat with CRC risk, potential carcinogenic compounds, their mechanisms and actual recommendations of international guidelines are presented. PMID:26779313

  14. Red Meat and Colorectal Cancer.

    PubMed

    Aykan, Nuri Faruk

    2015-02-10

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) is the third most common cancer in men and the second in women worldwide. More than half of cases occur in more developed countries. The consumption of red meat (beef, pork, lamb, veal, mutton) is high in developed countries and accumulated evidence until today demonstrated a convincing association between the intake of red meat and especially processed meat and CRC risk. In this review, meta-analyses of prospective epidemiological studies addressed to this association, observed link of some subtypes of red meat with CRC risk, potential carcinogenic compounds, their mechanisms and actual recommendations of international guidelines are presented. PMID:26779313

  15. Supramolecular effects in redox chemistry. Local solvation in basket-handle iron porphyrins containing an increasing number of secondary amide groups

    SciTech Connect

    Lexa, D.; Maillard, P.; Momenteau, M.; Saveant, J.M.

    1987-03-26

    Local solvation can be created by including dipolar groups in a molecular superstructure attached to a reacting center. Changes in reactivity of the latter ensue in a manner which is reminiscent of the modulation of the reactivity of the prosthetic groups by surrounding protein chains in enzymatic systems. Quite large effects can thus be obtained as shown by an electrochemical study of two redox reactions, Fe(II) + e/sup -/ in equilibrium Fe(I)/sup -/, Fe(I)/sup -/ + e/sup -/ in equilibrium Fe(0)/sup 2 -/, in a series of basket-handle iron prophyrins including an increasing number of secondary amide groups in the chains. The local solvation which results from the electrostatic interaction between the CONH dipoles and the negatively charged porphyrin centers is shown to build up as more and more CONH groups are included and to depend upon the distance between these groups and the reacting center.

  16. High hydrostatic pressure effects on the texture of meat and meat products.

    PubMed

    Sun, Xiang Dong; Holley, Richard A

    2010-01-01

    High hydrostatic pressure (HHP) treatment can influence meat protein conformation and induce protein denaturation, aggregation, or gelation. The means whereby HHP treatment exerts effects on meat protein structure change are due to the rupture of noncovalent interactions within protein molecules, and to the subsequent re-formation of intra- and inter-molecular bonds within or among protein molecules. Depending upon the meat protein system, the pressure, the temperature, and the duration of the pressure treatment, meat can be either tenderized or toughened. Muscle texture variation induced by heat treatment is due to breakage of hydrogen bonds, whereas changes from high pressure treatment are due to the rupture of hydrophobic and electrostatic interactions. Pressure treatment has little effect on the toughness of connective tissue. Juiciness, springiness, and chewiness are increased upon HHP treatment. Prerigor HHP treatment tenderizes meat, whereas tenderizing effects of postrigor HHP treatment are only measureable if pressure and heat treatment are combined. The limitations and future applications of high pressure technology are also discussed. PMID:20492191

  17. Low total and nonheme iron intakes are associated with a greater risk of hypertension.

    PubMed

    Galan, Pilar; Vergnaud, Anne-Claire; Tzoulaki, Ioanna; Buyck, Jean-François; Blacher, Jacques; Czernichow, Sébastien; Hercberg, Serge

    2010-01-01

    The relationship between iron intake and blood pressure (BP) status has not been well established. Only 1 cross-sectional study has suggested an inverse association of dietary total iron intake and nonheme iron intake with BP. We investigated the relationship between total, heme, and nonheme iron intakes, markers of iron status, 5.4-y changes in BP, and the incidence of hypertension. A total of 2895 participants included in the Supplémentation en Vitamines et Minéraux Antioxydants cohort were followed up for 5.4 y. At least 3 repeated 24-h dietary records were performed at baseline and 5.4 y later. Hemoglobin and serum ferritin concentrations were assessed at baseline. Low nonheme iron intake at baseline was associated with a greater increase in systolic BP (SBP) and pulse pressure over time after adjustment for multiple possible confounding factors (P-trend = 0.002 and 0.0005, respectively). Conversely, participants in the 3rd tertile of nonheme iron intake at baseline had a 37% lower risk of hypertension after 5.4 y of follow-up compared with those in the first tertile (P-trend = 0.04). Heme iron intake was not associated with BP changes or risk of hypertension. Meat intake was positively associated with an increase in SBP (P-trend = 0.04). However, that relation became nonsignificant after adjusting for dietary pattern scores. Baseline hemoglobin and ferritin concentrations were not associated with changes in BP or incidental hypertension. Our data support a possible role of low nonheme iron intake, independent of heme iron intake, in the development of hypertension. PMID:19923383

  18. Proteomics of Pseudomonas aeruginosa Australian epidemic strain 1 (AES-1) cultured under conditions mimicking the cystic fibrosis lung reveals increased iron acquisition via the siderophore pyochelin.

    PubMed

    Hare, Nathan J; Soe, Cho Zin; Rose, Barbara; Harbour, Colin; Codd, Rachel; Manos, Jim; Cordwell, Stuart J

    2012-02-01

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa is an opportunistic pathogen that is the major cause of morbidity and mortality in patients with cystic fibrosis (CF). While most CF patients are thought to acquire P. aeruginosa from the environment, person-to-person transmissible strains have been identified in CF clinics worldwide, and the molecular basis for transmissibility remains poorly understood. We undertook a complementary proteomics approach to characterize protein profiles from a transmissible, acute isolate of the Australian epidemic strain 1 (AES-1R), the virulent burns/wound isolate PA14, and the poorly virulent, laboratory-associated strain PAO1 when grown in an artificial medium that mimics the CF lung environment compared to growth in standard laboratory medium. Proteins elevated in abundance in AES-1R included those involved in methionine and S-adenosylmethionine biosynthesis and in the synthesis of phenazines. Proteomic data were validated by measuring culture supernatant levels of the virulence factor pyocyanin, which is the final product of the phenazine pathway. AES-1R and PAO1 released higher extracellular levels of pyocyanin compared to PA14 when grown in conditions that mimic the CF lung. Proteins associated with biosynthesis of the iron-scavenging siderophore pyochelin (PchDEFGH and FptA) were also present at elevated abundance in AES-1R and at much higher levels than in PAO1, whereas they were reduced in PA14. These protein changes resulted phenotypically in increased extracellular iron acquisition potential and, specifically, elevated pyochelin levels in AES-1R culture supernatants as detected by chrome azurol-S assay and fluorometry, respectively. Transcript analysis of pyochelin genes (pchDFG and fptA) showed they were highly expressed during the early stage of growth in artificial sputum medium (18 h) but returned to basal levels following the establishment of microcolony growth (72 h) consistent with that observed in the CF lung. This provides further

  19. Understanding tenderness variability and ageing changes in buffalo meat: biochemical, ultrastructural and proteome characterization.

    PubMed

    Kiran, M; Naveena, B M; Reddy, K S; Shahikumar, M; Reddy, V R; Kulkarni, V V; Rapole, S; More, T H

    2016-06-01

    Understanding of biological impact of proteome profile on meat quality is vital for developing different approaches to improve meat quality. Present study was conducted to unravel the differences in biochemical, ultrastructural and proteome profile of longissimus dorsi muscle between buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis) of different age groups (young v. old). Higher (P<0.05) myofibrillar and total protein extractability, muscle fibre diameter, and Warner-Bratzler shear force (WBSF) values was observed in old buffalo meat relative to meat from young buffaloes. Scanning electron microscopy photographs revealed reduced fibre size with increased inter-myofibrillar space in young compared with old buffalo meat. Transmission electron microscopy results revealed longer sarcomeres in young buffalo meat relative to meat from old buffaloes. Proteomic characterization using two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2DE) found 93 differentially expressed proteins between old and young buffalo meat. Proteome analysis using 2DE revealed 191 and 95 differentially expressed protein spots after 6 days of ageing in young and old buffalo meat, respectively. The matrix assisted laser desorption ionization time-of flight/time-of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF/TOF MS) analysis of selected gel spots helped in identifying molecular markers of tenderness mainly consisting of structural proteins. Protein biomarkers identified in the present study have the potential to differentiate meat from young and old buffaloes and pave the way for optimizing strategies for improved buffalo meat quality. PMID:27076348

  20. Processing of meats and cardiovascular risk: time to focus on preservatives.

    PubMed

    Micha, Renata; Michas, Georgios; Lajous, Martin; Mozaffarian, Dariush

    2013-01-01

    Dietary guidelines emphasize selecting lean (low-fat) meats to reduce saturated fat and cholesterol, but growing evidence suggests that health effects may relate to other ingredients, such as sodium, heme iron, or L-carnitine. Understanding how meats influence health, and on which nutrients this relationship depends, is essential to advise consumer choices, set guidelines, and inform food reformulations. A recent study published in BMC Medicine involving 448,568 participants in 10 European countries, provides important evidence in this regard. After multivariate adjustment, intake of unprocessed red meat was not significantly associated with total or cause-specific mortality; conversely, intake of processed meat was associated with a 30% higher rate of cardiovascular disease (CVD) (per 50 g/day, relative risk 1.30, 95% confidence interval 1.17 to 1.45) and also higher cancer mortality. These findings are consistent with our previous meta-analysis, based on smaller studies, showing strong associations of processed meats, but not unprocessed meats, with CVD. Preservatives are the notable difference; the calculated blood-pressure effects of sodium differences (around 400% higher in processed meats) explain most of the observed higher risk. Although unprocessed red meats seem to be relatively neutral for CVD, healthier choices are available, including fish, nuts, legumes, fruits, and vegetables. Public-health guidance should prioritize avoidance of processed meats, including the low-fat deli meats currently marketed as healthy choices, and the food industry should substantially reduce sodium and other preservatives in processed meats.See related research article here http://www.biomedcentral.com/1741-7015/11/63. PMID:23701737

  1. Reformulated meat products protect against ischemia-induced cardiac damage.

    PubMed

    Asensio-Lopez, M C; Lax, A; Sanchez-Mas, J; Avellaneda, A; Planes, J; Pascual-Figal, D A

    2016-02-17

    The protective effects of the antioxidants present in food are of great relevance for cardiovascular health. This study evaluates whether the extracts from reformulated meat products with a reduction in fat and/or sodium content exert a cardioprotective effect against ischemia-induced oxidative stress in cardiomyocytes, compared with non-meat foods. Ischemic damage caused loss of cell viability, increased reactive oxygen species and lipid peroxidation and decreased the antioxidant activity. Pretreatment for 24 h with digested or non-digested extracts from reformulated meat products led to protection against ischemia-induced oxidative damage: increased cell viability, reduced oxidative stress and restored the antioxidant activity. Similar results were obtained using extracts from tuna fish, but not with the extracts of green peas, salad or white beans. These results suggest that reformulated meat products have a beneficial impact in protecting cardiac cells against ischemia, and they may represent a source of natural antioxidants with benefits for cardiovascular health. PMID:26751429

  2. Associations of genetic and non-genetic factors with concentrations of iron and zinc in the longissimus muscle of lamb.

    PubMed

    Pannier, L; Pethick, D W; Boyce, M D; Ball, A J; Jacob, R H; Gardner, G E

    2014-02-01

    There is a concern regarding the possible decline of nutritional value of meat with an increasing selection for lean meat yield. The selection for reduced fatness reduces muscle aerobicity and possible subsequent mineral concentrations. Average concentrations of iron and zinc of 5625 lamb longissimus muscles were 2.03 and 2.43 mg/100 g, qualifying as a good source claim for the majority of the population. Reduced post-weaning fat depth was associated with decreased concentrations of iron but not zinc, whereas post-weaning eye muscle depth and weaning weight were not associated with either mineral. These results confirm that the impact of lean meat yield selection on these minerals is minimal, but should be monitored to avoid lower levels. Both minerals had a positive relationship with age at slaughter, highlighting age as a key determinant of the concentration of these nutrients. The magnitude of the positive associations of isocitrate dehydrogenase and myoglobin with iron was larger than for zinc, but they strongly indicated the association of these aerobic makers with both minerals. PMID:24035247

  3. Meat quality evaluation by hyperspectral imaging technique: an overview.

    PubMed

    Elmasry, Gamal; Barbin, Douglas F; Sun, Da-Wen; Allen, Paul

    2012-01-01

    During the last two decades, a number of methods have been developed to objectively measure meat quality attributes. Hyperspectral imaging technique as one of these methods has been regarded as a smart and promising analytical tool for analyses conducted in research and industries. Recently there has been a renewed interest in using hyperspectral imaging in quality evaluation of different food products. The main inducement for developing the hyperspectral imaging system is to integrate both spectroscopy and imaging techniques in one system to make direct identification of different components and their spatial distribution in the tested product. By combining spatial and spectral details together, hyperspectral imaging has proved to be a promising technology for objective meat quality evaluation. The literature presented in this paper clearly reveals that hyperspectral imaging approaches have a huge potential for gaining rapid information about the chemical structure and related physical properties of all types of meat. In addition to its ability for effectively quantifying and characterizing quality attributes of some important visual features of meat such as color, quality grade, marbling, maturity, and texture, it is able to measure multiple chemical constituents simultaneously without monotonous sample preparation. Although this technology has not yet been sufficiently exploited in meat process and quality assessment, its potential is promising. Developing a quality evaluation system based on hyperspectral imaging technology to assess the meat quality parameters and to ensure its authentication would bring economical benefits to the meat industry by increasing consumer confidence in the quality of the meat products. This paper provides a detailed overview of the recently developed approaches and latest research efforts exerted in hyperspectral imaging technology developed for evaluating the quality of different meat products and the possibility of its widespread

  4. Improved Yield of High Molecular Weight DNA Coincides with Increased Microbial Diversity Access from Iron Oxide Cemented Sub-Surface Clay Environments

    SciTech Connect

    Hurt, Jr., Richard Ashley; Moberly, James G; Shakya, Migun; Vishnivetskaya, T.; Elias, Dwayne A

    2014-01-01

    Despite more than three decades of progress, efficient nucleic acid extraction from microbial communities has remained difficult, particularly from clay environments. Lysis with concentrated guanidine followed by concentrated sodium phosphate extraction supported DNA and RNA recovery from high iron, low humus content clay. Alterating the extraction pH or using other ionic solutions (Na2SO4 and NH4H2PO4) yielded no detectable nucleic acid. DNA recovered using a lysis solution with 500 mM phosphate buffer (PB) followed by a 1 M PB wash was 15.22 2.33 g DNA/g clay, with most DNA consisting of >20 Kb fragments, compared to 2.46 0.25 g DNA/g clay with the Powerlyzer soil DNA system (MoBio). Increasing [PB] in the lysis reagent coincided with increasing DNA fragment length. Rarefaction plots based on16S rRNA (V1/V3 region) pyrosequencing libraries from A-horizon and clay soils showed an ~80% and ~400% larger accessed diversity compared to a previous grinding protocol or the Powerlyzer soil DNA system, respectively. The observed diversity from the Firmicutes showed the strongest increase with >3-fold more bacterial species recovered using this system. Additionally, some OTU s having more than 100 sequences in these libraries were absent in samples extracted using the PowerLyzer reagents or the previous lysis method.

  5. Genetic variances, heritabilities and maternal effects on body weight, breast meat yield, meat quality traits and the shape of the growth curve in turkey birds

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Turkey is an important agricultural species and is largely used as a meat bird. In 2004, turkey represented 6.5% of the world poultry meat production. The world-wide turkey population has rapidly grown due to increased commercial farming. Due to the high demand for turkey meat from both consumers and industry global turkey stocks increased from 100 million in 1970 to over 276 million in 2004. This rapidly increasing importance of turkeys was a reason to design this study for the estimation of genetic parameters that control body weight, body composition, meat quality traits and parameters that shape the growth curve in turkey birds. Results The average heritability estimate for body weight traits was 0.38, except for early weights that were strongly affected by maternal effects. This study showed that body weight traits, upper asymptote (a growth curve trait), percent breast meat and redness of meat had high heritability whereas heritabilities of breast length, breast width, percent drip loss, ultimate pH, lightness and yellowness of meat were medium to low. We found high positive genetic and phenotypic correlations between body weight, upper asymptote, most breast meat yield traits and percent drip loss but percent drip loss was found strongly negatively correlated with ultimate pH. Percent breast meat, however, showed genetic correlations close to zero with body weight traits and upper asymptote. Conclusion The results of this analysis and the growth curve from the studied population of turkey birds suggest that the turkey birds could be selected for breeding between 60 and 80 days of age in order to improve overall production and the production of desirable cuts of meat. The continuous selection of birds within this age range could promote high growth rates but specific attention to meat quality would be needed to avoid a negative impact on the quality of meat. PMID:21266032

  6. Water distribution and mobility in meat during the conversion of muscle to meat and ageing and the impacts on fresh meat quality attributes--a review.

    PubMed

    Pearce, Kelly L; Rosenvold, Katja; Andersen, Henrik J; Hopkins, David L

    2011-10-01

    This paper reviews current knowledge on the distribution and mobility of water in muscle (myowater) ante- and post mortem and factors affecting these in relation to fresh meat quality parameters; water-holding capacity (WHC), tenderness and juiciness. NMR transverse relaxometry (T(2)) using bench-top Low-Field Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (LF-NMR) has characterised myowater distribution and mobility as well as structural features in meat which directly affect WHC. The current literature demonstrates that WHC is correlated to the water located outside the myofibrillar network (extra-myofibrillar). This review identifies the critical stages which affect the translocation of water into the extra-myofibrillar space and thus the potential for decreased WHC during proteolysis (the conversion of muscle to meat). This review discusses how the intrinsic properties of the water held within the meat could contribute to juiciness and tenderness. Tenderness has been shown to correlate to T(2), however breed and species differences made it difficult to draw firm conclusions. Further understanding of the inherent water properties of fresh meat and the factors affecting water distribution and mobility using NMR technologies will increase the understanding of WHC and tenderisation of fresh meat. PMID:21592675

  7. Iron-Air Rechargeable Battery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Narayan, Sri R. (Inventor); Prakash, G.K. Surya (Inventor); Kindler, Andrew (Inventor)

    2014-01-01

    Embodiments include an iron-air rechargeable battery having a composite electrode including an iron electrode and a hydrogen electrode integrated therewith. An air electrode is spaced from the iron electrode and an electrolyte is provided in contact with the air electrode and the iron electrodes. Various additives and catalysts are disclosed with respect to the iron electrode, air electrode, and electrolyte for increasing battery efficiency and cycle life.

  8. Reactive solute transport in an acidic stream: Experimental pH increase and simulation of controls on pH, aluminum, and iron

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Broshears, R.E.; Runkel, R.L.; Kimball, B.A.; McKnight, Diane M.; Bencala, K.E.

    1996-01-01

    Solute transport simulations quantitatively constrained hydrologic and geochemical hypotheses about field observations of a pH modification in an acid mine drainage stream. Carbonate chemistry, the formation of solid phases, and buffering interactions with the stream bed were important factors in explaining the behavior of pH, aluminum, and iron. The precipitation of microcrystalline gibbsite accounted for the behavior of aluminum; precipitation of Fe(OH)3 explained the general pattern of iron solubility. The dynamic experiment revealed limitations on assumptions that reactions were controlled only by equilibrium chemistry. Temporal variation in relative rates of photoreduction and oxidation influenced iron behavior. Kinetic limitations on ferrous iron oxidation and hydrous oxide precipitation and the effects of these limitations on field filtration were evident. Kinetic restraints also characterized interaction between the water column and the stream bed, including sorption and desorption of protons from iron oxides at the sediment-water interface and post-injection dissolution of the precipitated aluminum solid phase.

  9. Meat and its place in the diet.

    PubMed

    MacDonald, H B

    1991-01-01

    Canadians are becoming increasingly aware of the importance of nutrition in their long-term health prospects. With this increased awareness, however, has come an abundance of misconceptions including the notion that meat is "bad" for you. In their haste to avoid saturated fat, physicians and the public alike have lost sight of the fact that lean meat in reasonable serving sizes poses no threat to health and is an extremely important source of many nutrients. The mistaken notion that only animal fats are saturated has resulted in a change in the source of fat but not the quantity. Health professionals must work together to educate the public about the many nutrient-dense, low-fat food choices available in a well-balanced diet. PMID:1768992

  10. Meat traditions. The co-evolution of humans and meat.

    PubMed

    Leroy, Frédéric; Praet, Istvan

    2015-07-01

    The debate on the future of meat centres on recent environmental, economical, ethical, and health issues, whereas historical dimensions are all too often overlooked. The fiery discussions are nevertheless affected by an underlying legacy of "meat traditions" and accompanying hunting, slaughtering, eating, and sharing activities, rituals, and rites. Eating meat is a biocultural activity. Therefore, a closer inspection of the evolutionary, collective, and semiotic aspects of meat in human societies is required. This study ventures such an exploration based on a heuristic model inspired by Maslow's pyramid of needs, distinguishing between physiological, security, community, value, and holistic levels. Besides the potential relevance of an innate craving, it is argued that meat has interfered with the development of fundamental human characteristics, both as a physical and conceptual resource. This relates, amongst others, to elements of gender differentiation, cooperation and reciprocity, social stratification and power, religion, cultural expression, and identity. As such, meat traditions provide a basis for evolutionary and long-term social processes, on which more recent and shallow courses of action are superposed, affecting contemporary behaviour. Several research questions were identified to further explore and anticipate the impact of meat on human populations and their societal and economic functioning. PMID:25794684

  11. [Iron function and carcinogenesis].

    PubMed

    Akatsuka, Shinya; Toyokuni, Shinya

    2016-07-01

    Though iron is an essential micronutrient for humans, the excess state is acknowledged to be associated with oncogenesis. For example, iron overload in the liver of the patients with hereditary hemocromatosis highly increases the risk of hepatocellular carcinoma. Also, as to asbestos-related mesothelioma, such kinds of asbestos with a higher iron content are considered to be more carcinogenic. Iron is a useful element, which enables fundamental functions for life such as oxygen carrying and electron transport. However, in the situation where organisms are unable to have good control of it, iron turns into a dangerous element which catalyzes generation of reactive oxygen. In this review, I first outline the relationships between iron and cancer in general, then give an explanation about iron-related animal carcinogenesis models. PMID:27455808

  12. Iron overdose

    MedlinePlus

    Iron is an ingredient in many mineral and vitamin supplements. Iron supplements are also sold by themselves. Types include: Ferrous sulfate (Feosol, Slow Fe) Ferrous gluconate (Fergon) Ferrous fumarate (Femiron, Feostat) Other products may also contain iron.

  13. Preference structure for lamb meat consumers. A Spanish case study.

    PubMed

    Bernabéu, Rodolfo; Tendero, Antonio

    2005-11-01

    There is a current tendency in the European Union member countries to cut down on meat consumption. This tendency is not due as much to the traditional income-price factor, but to other attributes whose influence is gaining relative importance. Some of them are: quality, image, health, food safety and changes in people's taste. In addition, the relative importance of different attributes valued by the consumer must be weighed in order to develop marketing strategies which increase lamb meat consumption. In order to determine these preferences, 400 consumers were asked to evaluate different attributes (price, certification, origin, and commercial type) of lamb meat. Results obtained by means of conjoint analysis techniques show that regular consumers as well as occasional ones show a preference for lamb meat type. In this sense, a market share simulation of preferred (suckling and "ternasco") types proved that regular consumers generally prefer suckling lamb to "ternasco" lamb when both are from Castilla-La Mancha. PMID:22060921

  14. Meat Consumption Culture in Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    Jo, Cheorun

    2014-01-01

    The consumption of animal flesh food in Ethiopia has associated with cultural practices. Meat plays pivotal and vital parts in special occasions and its cultural symbolic weight is markedly greater than that accorded to most other food. Processing and cooking of poultry is a gender based duty and has socio-cultural roles. Ethiopians are dependent on limited types of animals for meats due to the taboo associated culturally. Moreover, the consumption of meat and meat products has a very tidy association with religious beliefs, and are influenced by religions. The main religions of Ethiopia have their own peculiar doctrines of setting the feeding habits and customs of their followers. They influence meat products consumption through dictating the source animals that should be used or not be used for food, and scheduling the days of the years in periodical permeation and restriction of consumptions which in turn influences the pattern of meat consumption in the country. In Ethiopia, a cow or an ox is commonly butchered for the sole purpose of selling within the community. In special occasions, people have a cultural ceremony of slaughtering cow or ox and sharing among the group, called Kircha, which is a very common option of the people in rural area where access of meat is challenging frequently. PMID:26760739

  15. 9 CFR 317.308 - Labeling of meat or meat food products with number of servings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Labeling of meat or meat food products... SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY... Nutrition Labeling § 317.308 Labeling of meat or meat food products with number of servings. The label...

  16. 9 CFR 317.308 - Labeling of meat or meat food products with number of servings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Labeling of meat or meat food products... SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY... Nutrition Labeling § 317.308 Labeling of meat or meat food products with number of servings. The label...

  17. 9 CFR 317.308 - Labeling of meat or meat food products with number of servings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Labeling of meat or meat food products... SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY... Nutrition Labeling § 317.308 Labeling of meat or meat food products with number of servings. The label...

  18. 9 CFR 317.308 - Labeling of meat or meat food products with number of servings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Labeling of meat or meat food products... SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY... Nutrition Labeling § 317.308 Labeling of meat or meat food products with number of servings. The label...

  19. 9 CFR 317.308 - Labeling of meat or meat food products with number of servings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Labeling of meat or meat food products... SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY... Nutrition Labeling § 317.308 Labeling of meat or meat food products with number of servings. The label...

  20. Isothiocyanates may chemically detoxify mutagenic amines formed in heat processed meat.

    PubMed

    Lewandowska, Anna; Przychodzeń, Witold; Kusznierewicz, Barbara; Kołodziejski, Dominik; Namieśnik, Jacek; Bartoszek, Agnieszka

    2014-08-15

    Meat consumption represents a dietary risk factor increasing the incidence of common cancers, probably due to carcinogenic amines (HAAs) formed upon meat heating. Interestingly, cancers whose incidence is increased by meat consumption, are decreased in populations consuming brassica vegetables regularly. This inverse correlation is attributed to brassica anticarcinogenic components, especially isothiocyanates (ITCs) that stimulate detoxification of food carcinogens. However, ITC reactivity towards amines generating stable thioureas, may also decrease mutagenicity of processed meat. We confirmed here that combining meat with cabbage (fresh or lyophilized), in proportions found in culinary recipes, limited by 17-20% formation of HAAs and significantly lowered mutagenic activity of fried burgers. Moreover, MeIQx mutagenicity was lowered in the presence of ITCs, as well as for synthetic ITC-MeIQx conjugates. This suggests that formation of thioureas could lead to chemical detoxification of food carcinogens, reducing the cancer risk associated with meat consumption. PMID:24679758

  1. Effects of Whey Powder Supplementation on Dry-Aged Meat Quality

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the effect of dietary supplementation with whey powder (WP, 1g/kg feed) from weaning to slaughter (150 d) on dry-aged loin quality of pigs. Fifty-eight pigs were randomly divided into two dietary treatment groups (seven replications of four pigs per treatments). Basal diet with 0.1% whey powder was supplied to the WP group. Basal diet was used for the control group (CON). Diet whey protein did not appear to influence the moisture or protein contents. However, ash and fat contents were significantly (p<0.05) decreased in the WP group compared to the control group. Drip loss was significantly (p<0.05) lower in the WP group than that of the control group. Increasing redness with decreasing lightness was found in the inner loin of the WP group. Calcium and iron contents in the WP group were significantly higher than those in the control group. Protein degradation was higher in the WP group than that in the control group (p<0.05), whereas shear force was lower in the WP group than that in the control group (p<0.05). In conclusion, the basal diet supplemented with 0.1% whey powder influence negatively the lipid oxidation of meat whereas the texture property and mineral composition of meat from whey powder fed pigs are developed. PMID:27433111

  2. An update on iron physiology

    PubMed Central

    Muñoz, Manuel; Villar, Isabel; García-Erce, José Antonio

    2009-01-01

    Iron is an essential micronutrient, as it is required for adequate erythropoietic function, oxidative metabolism and cellular immune responses. Although the absorption of dietary iron (1-2 mg/d) is regulated tightly, it is just balanced with losses. Therefore, internal turnover of iron is essential to meet the requirements for erythropoiesis (20-30 mg/d). Increased iron requirements, limited external supply, and increased blood loss may lead to iron deficiency (ID) and iron-deficiency anemia. Hepcidin, which is made primarily in hepatocytes in response to liver iron levels, inflammation, hypoxia and anemia, is the main iron regulatory hormone. Once secreted into the circulation, hepcidin binds ferroportin on enterocytes and macrophages, which triggers its internalization and lysosomal degradation. Thus, in chronic inflammation, the excess of hepcidin decreases iron absorption and prevents iron recycling, which results in hypoferremia and iron-restricted erythropoiesis, despite normal iron stores (functional ID), and anemia of chronic disease (ACD), which can evolve to ACD plus true ID (ACD + ID). In contrast, low hepcidin expression may lead to iron overload, and vice versa. Laboratory tests provide evidence of iron depletion in the body, or reflect iron-deficient red cell production. The appropriate combination of these laboratory tests help to establish a correct diagnosis of ID status and anemia. PMID:19787824

  3. Effects of iron deficiency on iron binding and internalization into acidic vacuoles in Dunaliella salina.

    PubMed

    Paz, Yakov; Shimoni, Eyal; Weiss, Meira; Pick, Uri

    2007-07-01

    Uptake of iron in the halotolerant alga Dunaliella salina is mediated by a transferrin-like protein (TTf), which binds and internalizes Fe(3+) ions. Recently, we found that iron deficiency induces a large enhancement of iron binding, which is associated with accumulation of three other plasma membrane proteins that associate with TTf. In this study, we characterized the kinetic properties of iron binding and internalization and identified the site of iron internalization. Iron deficiency induces a 4-fold increase in Fe binding, but only 50% enhancement in the rate of iron uptake and also increases the affinity for iron and bicarbonate, a coligand for iron binding. These results indicate that iron deprivation leads to accumulation and modification of iron-binding sites. Iron uptake in iron-sufficient cells is preceded by an apparent time lag, resulting from prebound iron, which can be eliminated by unloading iron-binding sites. Iron is tightly bound to surface-exposed sites and hardly exchanges with medium iron. All bound iron is subsequently internalized. Accumulation of iron inhibits further iron binding and internalization. The vacuolar inhibitor bafilomycin inhibits iron uptake and internalization. Internalized iron was localized by electron microscopy within vacuolar structures that were identified as acidic vacuoles. Iron internalization is accompanied by endocytosis of surface proteins into these acidic vacuoles. A novel kinetic mechanism for iron uptake is proposed, which includes two pools of bound/compartmentalized iron separated by a rate-limiting internalization stage. The major parameter that is modulated by iron deficiency is the iron-binding capacity. We propose that excessive iron binding in iron-deficient cells serves as a temporary reservoir for iron that is subsequently internalized. This mechanism is particularly suitable for organisms that are exposed to large fluctuations in iron availability. PMID:17513481

  4. Alternating Magnetic Field-Induced Hyperthermia Increases Iron Oxide Nanoparticle Cell Association/Uptake and Flux in Blood– Brain Barrier Models

    PubMed Central

    Dan, Mo; Bae, Younsoo; Pittman, Thomas A.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (IONPs) are being investigated for brain cancer therapy because alternating magnetic field (AMF) activates them to produce hyperthermia. For central nervous system applications, brain entry of diagnostic and therapeutic agents is usually essential. We hypothesized that AMF-induced hyperthermia significantly increases IONP blood–brain barrier (BBB) association/uptake and flux. Methods Cross-linked nanoassemblies loaded with IONPs (CNA-IONPs) and conventional citrate-coated IONPs (citrate-IONPs) were synthesized and characterized in house. CNA-IONP and citrate-IONP BBB cell association/uptake and flux were studied using two BBB Transwell® models (bEnd.3 and MDCKII cells) after conventional and AMF-induced hyperthermia exposure. Results AMF-induced hyperthermia for 0.5 h did not alter CNA-IONP size but accelerated citrate-IONP agglomeration. AMF-induced hyperthermia for 0.5 h enhanced CNA-IONP and citrate-IONP BBB cell association/uptake. It also enhanced the flux of CNA-IONPs across the two in vitro BBB models compared to conventional hyperthermia and normothermia, in the absence of cell death. Citrate-IONP flux was not observed under these conditions. AMF-induced hyperthermia also significantly enhanced paracellular pathway flux. The mechanism appears to involve more than the increased temperature surrounding the CNA-IONPs. Conclusions Hyperthermia induced by AMF activation of CNA-IONPs has potential to increase the BBB permeability of therapeutics for the diagnosis and therapy of various brain diseases. PMID:25377069

  5. Randomized controlled trial of meat compared with multimicronutrient-fortified cereal in infants and toddlers with high stunting rates in diverse settings123

    PubMed Central

    Krebs, Nancy F; Mazariegos, Manolo; Chomba, Elwyn; Sami, Neelofar; Pasha, Omrana; Tshefu, Antoinette; Carlo, Waldemar A; Goldenberg, Robert L; Bose, Carl L; Wright, Linda L; Koso-Thomas, Marion; Goco, Norman; Kindem, Mark; McClure, Elizabeth M; Westcott, Jamie; Garces, Ana; Lokangaka, Adrien; Manasyan, Albert; Imenda, Edna; Hartwell, Tyler D; Hambidge, K Michael

    2012-01-01

    Background: Improved complementary feeding is cited as a critical factor for reducing stunting. Consumption of meats has been advocated, but its efficacy in low-resource settings has not been tested. Objective: The objective was to test the hypothesis that daily intake of 30 to 45 g meat from 6 to 18 mo of age would result in greater linear growth velocity and improved micronutrient status in comparison with an equicaloric multimicronutrient-fortified cereal. Design: This was a cluster randomized efficacy trial conducted in the Democratic Republic of Congo, Zambia, Guatemala, and Pakistan. Individual daily portions of study foods and education messages to enhance complementary feeding were delivered to participants. Blood tests were obtained at trial completion. Results: A total of 532 (86.1%) and 530 (85.8%) participants from the meat and cereal arms, respectively, completed the study. Linear growth velocity did not differ between treatment groups: 1.00 (95% CI: 0.99, 1.02) and 1.02 (95% CI: 1.00, 1.04) cm/mo for the meat and cereal groups, respectively (P = 0.39). From baseline to 18 mo, stunting [length-for-age z score (LAZ) <−2.0] rates increased from ∼33% to nearly 50%. Years of maternal education and maternal height were positively associated with linear growth velocity (P = 0.0006 and 0.003, respectively); LAZ at 6 mo was negatively associated (P < 0.0001). Anemia rates did not differ by group; iron deficiency was significantly lower in the cereal group. Conclusion: The high rate of stunting at baseline and the lack of effect of either the meat or multiple micronutrient-fortified cereal intervention to reverse its progression argue for multifaceted interventions beginning in the pre- and early postnatal periods. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT01084109. PMID:22952176

  6. Exploring future patterns of meat consumption.

    PubMed

    Mathijs, Erik

    2015-11-01

    The nutrition transition encompasses a set of major shifts in human diet and nutritional status, throughout history and that is influenced by a wide range of factors such as income, technical change, urbanisation and culture. High-income societies are witnessing a shift towards diets with more fat, sugar, processed foods and less fibre, leading to a sharp increase in non-communicable diseases, such as obesity. This trend can also be observed among the middle classes of emerging countries. However, increasing evidence suggests that a final shift is occurring, following behavioural change towards consuming higher-quality fats, more whole grains, fruit and vegetables, and particularly less meat. The purpose of this paper is twofold. First, an assessment is made of where different countries are located in the different phases of the nutrition transition. Second, a qualitative investigation is made into the factors enhancing and hindering the latest phase of the transition-particularly towards less meat consumption-taking into account cultural differences between consumer groups across countries. The analysis of both objectives generates insights into possible future scenarios of meat consumption. PMID:26002118

  7. Effects of Chicken Breast Meat on Quality Properties of Mackerel (Scomber japonicus) Sausage

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Koth-Bong-Woo-Ri; Pak, Won-Min; Kang, Ja-Eun; Park, Hong-Min; Kim, Bo-Ram; Ahn, Dong-Hyun

    2014-01-01

    This study was performed to evaluate the effects of chicken breast meat on the quality of mackerel sausages. The mackerel sausages were manufactured by additions of 5%, 7%, and 10% of chicken breast meat. The lightness of mackerel sausages showed no significant differences between the control and addition groups. The redness increased in a dose-dependent manner, but the yellowness decreased significantly with the addition of 7% chicken breast meat (p<0.05). The whiteness value of mackerel sausage added with 7% chicken breast meat was significantly higher than those of the other groups (p<0.05). In texture analysis, the hardness and adhesiveness of the mackerel sausage added with 5% of chicken breast meat showed no significant differences as compared to the control. However, the mackerel sausages added with 7% and 10% of chicken breast meat showed a dose-dependent decrease. The gel strength of the mackerel sausage added with 5% chicken breast meat was not significantly different from the control, but the addition of 7% and 10% chicken breast meat reduced the gel strength of the mackerel sausage. In sensory evaluation, the mackerel sausages prepared with chicken breast meat have higher scores in smell, taste, texture, hardness, chewiness, and overall preference as compared to the no addition group. Therefore, these results suggest that the optimal condition for improving the properties within mackerel sausages was 5% addition of chicken breast meat. PMID:26760754

  8. The potential of lentil (Lens culinaris L.) as a whole food for increased selenium, iron, and zinc intake: Preliminary results from a three year study

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Micronutrient malnutrition, especially selenium (Se), iron (Fe), and zinc (Zn) deficiency, is a major global health problem. Previous attempts to prevent micronutrient malnutrition through food fortification, supplementation, and enrichment of staple crops has had limited success. Canadian grown len...

  9. Impact of extruded flaxseed meal supplemented diet on growth performance, oxidative stability and quality of broiler meat and meat products

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    This study was intended to explore the effect of extruded flaxseed meal supplemented diet on broiler growth performance, oxidative stability and organoleptic characteristics of broiler meat and meat products. 120 (day old) broiler chicks were randomly allotted to 12 experimental groups and fed on diets containing extruded flaxseed meal at 0, 5, 10 and 15%. The supplementation of extruded flaxseed in the diet decreases the body weight gain, feed intake and increased feed conversion ratio (FCR) values of broilers. The antioxidant enzymes were strongly influenced by different levels of extruded flaxseed supplementation among treatments. The TBARS assay revealed that maximum malondialdehyde were produced in T3 containing highest extruded flaxseed level (15%) and minimum malondialdehyde were produced in T0 treatment having no extruded flaxseed. The TBARS values ranged from 0.850-2.106 and 0.460-1.052 in leg and breast met respectively. The Free radical scavenging activity varied significantly and DPPH values of breast meat ranged from 20.70% to 39.09% and in leg meat 23.53% to 43.09% respectively. The sensory acceptability of broiler meat nuggets was decreased with the increase in the level of flaxseeds due to the lipid peroxidation of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) which generated off flavors and bad odors. Feeding extruded flaxseed to chicken through feed strongly inflated the quality and functional properties, fatty acid contents and reduced the oxidative stability of broiler meat and meat products. The present study concludes that up to 10% of flaxseed meal may be used in broiler diet to enhance the omega 3 fatty acids content in the broiler meat. PMID:23391137

  10. Ultrasonic characterization of pork meat salting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    García-Pérez, J. V.; De Prados, M.; Pérez-Muelas, N.; Cárcel, J. A.; Benedito, J.

    2012-12-01

    Salting process plays a key role in the preservation and quality of dry-cured meat products. Therefore, an adequate monitoring of salt content during salting is necessary to reach high quality products. Thus, the main objective of this work was to test the ability of low intensity ultrasound to monitor the salting process of pork meat. Cylindrical samples (diameter 36 mm, height 60±10 mm) of Biceps femoris were salted (brine 20% NaCl, w/w) at 2 °C for 1, 2, 4 and 7 days. During salting and at each experimental time, three cylinders were taken in order to measure the ultrasonic velocity at 2 °C. Afterwards, the cylinders were split in three sections (height 20 mm), measuring again the ultrasonic velocity and determining the salt and the moisture content by AOAC standards. In the whole cylinders, moisture content was reduced from 763 (g/kg sample) in fresh samples to 723 (g/kg sample) in samples salted for 7 days, while the maximum salt gain was 37.3 (g/kg sample). Although, moisture and salt contents up to 673 and 118 (g/kg sample) were reached in the sections of meat cylinders, respectively. During salting, the ultrasonic velocity increased due to salt gain and water loss. Thus, significant (p<0.05) linear relationships were found between the ultrasonic velocity and the salt (R2 = 0.975) and moisture (R2 = 0.863) contents. In addition, the change of the ultrasonic velocity with the increase of the salt content showed a good agreement with the Kinsler equation. Therefore, low intensity ultrasound emerges as a potential technique to monitor, in a non destructive way, the meat salting processes carried out in the food industry.

  11. Convenient meat and meat products. Societal and technological issues.

    PubMed

    Leroy, Frédéric; Degreef, Filip

    2015-11-01

    In past and contemporary foodscapes, meat and meat products have not only been following convenience trends, they have been at the heart of them. Historically, the first substantial demands for meat convenience must have been for the outsourcing of hunting or domestication, as well as slaughtering activities. In its turn, this prompted concerns for shelf-life stabilisation and the development of preservation strategies, such as meat fermentation. Demands for ease of preparation and consumption can be traced back to Antiquity but have gained in importance over the centuries, especially with the emergence of novel socio-cultural expectations and (perceived) time scarcity. Amongst other trends, this has led to the creation of ready meals and meat snacks and the expansion of urban fast food cultures. Additionally, contemporary requirements focus on the reduction of mental investments, via the "convenient" concealment of slaughtering, the optimisation of nutritional qualities, and the instant incorporation of more intangible matters, such as variety, hedonistic qualities, reassurance, and identity. An overview is given of the technological issues related to the creation of meat convenience, in its broadest sense, along with their societal implications. PMID:25656303

  12. Effects of meat addition on pasta structure, nutrition and in vitro digestibility.

    PubMed

    Liu, Tingting; Hamid, Nazimah; Kantono, Kevin; Pereira, Loveena; Farouk, Mustafa M; Knowles, Scott O

    2016-12-15

    In our study, semolina flour was substituted with beef emulsion (EM) at three different levels of 15, 30 and 45% (w/w) to develop a pasta with enhanced nutritional profile. The protein, fat, and water content significantly increased with addition of meat. The addition of meat enhanced the pasta gluten network. The redness and yellowness of cooked pasta increased with meat addition. Tensile strength increased from 0.018N/mm(2) in the control sample to 0.046N/mm(2) in 45% beef emulsion (45EM) sample. All meat-containing samples had significantly higher elasticity than control (0.039N/mm(2)). GI significantly decreased and IVPD value increased in 45EM sample. Five essential amino acids (leucine, lysine, methionine, threonine, tryptophan) in pasta digesta increased significantly with increasing meat addition. PMID:27451161

  13. Consumer consciousness on meat and the environment - Exploring differences.

    PubMed

    Pohjolainen, Pasi; Tapio, Petri; Vinnari, Markus; Jokinen, Pekka; Räsänen, Pekka

    2016-06-01

    Global environmental challenges require changes in both the production and the consumption of goods. In this paper we analyse how consumers perceive the high environmental burden of meat. We analysed consumer environmental consciousness, including problem awareness and a support to action dimensions, latter including perceived self-efficacy as well as solutions to problems. The solutions were positioned on a continuum from increasing the efficiency of production to discussing sufficiency levels in consumption practices (techno-optimism, local meat, organic meat and meat reduction, respectively). We used a statistically representative survey sample (n = 1890) from the population of Finland and cluster analysis to explore differences among consumers. The analysis revealed that most Finns seem to be rather unsure of the study topic. At the same time they tend to have a comparably high level of self-efficacy (55 per cent of respondents) and endorsement of particularly local meat solution type (55%), followed by organic meat (35%), meat reduction (25%) and techno-optimism (15%), though the neutral stand was the most common one across the data. We also identified six consumer groups that reveal not only a high number of Highly unsure consumers (40%), but also some Rather conscious (20%) and a relatively small number of Highly conscious (8%). In addition, there were also easily observable groups of Careless conscious (14%), Rather unsure (9%) and Resistant (8%). The results highlight the need for a multitude of political actions to guide meat consumption, as there are groups that may benefit from practical tools for making dietary changes as well as groups in need for more comprehensive selection of measures, including environmental information. PMID:26873454

  14. Meat intake and reproductive parameters among young men

    PubMed Central

    Afeiche, Myriam C; Williams, Paige L; Gaskins, Audrey J; Mendiola, Jaime; Jørgensen, Niels; Swan, Shanna H

    2014-01-01

    Background In the United States, anabolic sex steroids are administered to cattle for growth promotion. There is concern regarding the reproductive consequences of this practice for men who eat beef. We investigated whether meat consumption was associated with semen quality parameters and reproductive hormone levels in young men. Methods Semen samples were obtained from 189 men aged 18-22 years. Diet was assessed with a previously validated food frequency questionnaire. We used linear regression to analyze the cross-sectional associations of meat intake with semen quality parameters and reproductive hormones, while adjusting for potential confounders. Results There was an inverse relation between processed red meat intake and total sperm count. The adjusted relative differences in total sperm counts for men in increasing quartiles of processed meat intake were 0 (ref), −3 (95% confidence interval = −67 to 37), −14 (−82 to 28), and −78 (−202 to −5) million (test for trend, P = 0.01). This association was strongest among men with abstinence time less than 2 days and was driven by a strong inverse relation between processed red meat intake and ejaculate volume (test for trend, P =0.003). Conclusions In our population of young men, processed meat intake was associated with lower total sperm count. We cannot distinguish whether this association is due to residual confounding by abstinence time or represents a true biological effect. PMID:24681577

  15. Control of Thermal Meat Processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Griffis, Carl L.; Osaili, Tareq M.

    The recent growth of the market for ready-to-eat (RTE) meat and poultry products has led to serious concern over foodborne illnesses due to the presence of pathogens, particularly Salmonella spp, Listeria monocytogenes and Escherichia coli O157:H7 in meat and poultry products. Emphasis has been placed on thermal processing since heat treatment is still considered the primary means of eliminating foodborne pathogens from raw meat and poultry products (Juneja, Eblen, & Ransom, 2001). Inadequate time/temperature exposure during cooking is a contributing factor in food poisoning outbreaks. Optimal heat treatment is required not only to destroy pathogenic microorganisms in meat and poultry products but also to maintain desirable food quality and product yield.

  16. Extruded rice grains fortified with zinc, iron, and vitamin A increase zinc status of Thai school children when incorporated into a school lunch program.

    PubMed

    Pinkaew, Siwaporn; Winichagoon, Pattanee; Hurrell, Richard F; Wegmuller, Rita

    2013-03-01

    Iron (Fe), zinc (Zn), and vitamin A (VA) deficiencies are common among children in developing countries and often occur in the same individual. Rice is widely consumed in the developing countries of Asia and the low phytate in polished rice makes it ideal for Zn and Fe fortification. Triple-fortified rice grains with Zn, Fe, and VA were produced using hot extrusion technology. The main objective of the present study was to determine the impact of triple-fortified extruded rice on Zn status in school children in Southern Thailand. Although serum zinc was the main outcome indicator, Fe and VA status were also assessed. School children with low serum zinc (n = 203) were randomized to receive either triple-fortified rice (n = 101) or natural control rice (n = 102) as a component of school lunch meals for 5 mo. Serum Zn, hemoglobin, serum ferritin, serum retinol, and C-reactive protein were measured at baseline and at the end of the study. After the intervention, serum Zn increased (P < 0.05) in both the fortification (11.3 ± 1.3 μmol/L) and control (10.6 ± 1.4 μmol/L) groups, most likely due to the proper implementation of the school lunch and school milk programs, with the increase greater in the group receiving the triple-fortified rice (P < 0.05). Because the children were not Fe or VA deficient at baseline, there was no change in Fe or VA status. We conclude that Zn fortification of extruded rice grains is efficacious and can be used to improve Zn status in school children. PMID:23303870

  17. Animal welfare and meat quality: the perspective of Uruguay, a "small" exporter country.

    PubMed

    Del Campo, M; Brito, G; Montossi, F; Soares de Lima, J M; San Julián, R

    2014-11-01

    Public sensitivity towards animal welfare has risen in recent years. Uruguay is a primary meat exporter. Therefore, it is compulsory not only to provide good quality and safe meat, but also to project a welfare friendly image. Uruguayan meat production systems are mainly based on rangeland pastures but, due to international meat prices and the opening of new markets, intensive fattening systems increased. These systems include a wide range of feeding alternatives between pasture and concentrate utilization, involving differences in terms of animal welfare, carcass and meat quality, that require to be studied. Accordingly, some husbandry practices associated mainly with extensive systems must be evaluated, as well as their applicability to international recommendations related to pre-slaughter handling which may not be suitable for local conditions. In the present paper we share scientific results related to the impact of different production systems, husbandry practices and pre-slaughter procedures associated to animal welfare and meat quality in Uruguayan conditions. PMID:25052465

  18. Intestinal Iron Homeostasis and Colon Tumorigenesis

    PubMed Central

    Xue, Xiang; Shah, Yatrik M.

    2013-01-01

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) is the third most common cause of cancer-related deaths in industrialized countries. Understanding the mechanisms of growth and progression of CRC is essential to improve treatment. Iron is an essential nutrient for cell growth. Iron overload caused by hereditary mutations or excess dietary iron uptake has been identified as a risk factor for CRC. Intestinal iron is tightly controlled by iron transporters that are responsible for iron uptake, distribution, and export. Dysregulation of intestinal iron transporters are observed in CRC and lead to iron accumulation in tumors. Intratumoral iron results in oxidative stress, lipid peroxidation, protein modification and DNA damage with consequent promotion of oncogene activation. In addition, excess iron in intestinal tumors may lead to increase in tumor-elicited inflammation and tumor growth. Limiting intratumoral iron through specifically chelating excess intestinal iron or modulating activities of iron transporter may be an attractive therapeutic target for CRC. PMID:23812305

  19. IRON IN MULTIPLE MYELOMA

    PubMed Central

    VanderWall, Kristina; Daniels-Wells, Tracy R; Penichet, Manuel; Lichtenstein, Alan

    2013-01-01

    Multiple myeloma is a non-curable B cell malignancy in which iron metabolism plays an important role. Patients with this disorder almost universally suffer from a clinically significant anemia, which is often symptomatic, and which is due to impaired iron utilization. Recent studies indicate that the proximal cause of dysregulated iron metabolism and anemia in these patients is cytokine-induced upregulation of hepcidin expression. Malignant myeloma cells are dependent on an increased influx of iron and therapeutic efforts are being made to target this requirement. The studies detailing the characteristics and biochemical abnormalities in iron metabolism causing anemia and the initial attempts to target iron therapeutically are described in this review. PMID:23879589

  20. A cluster of three cases of trichinellosis linked to bear meat consumption in the Arctic.

    PubMed

    Dupouy-Camet, Jean; Yera, Hélène; Dahane, Naïma; Bouthry, Elise; Kapel, Christian M O

    2016-05-01

    We report here three cases of trichinellosis due to polar bear meat consumption in East Greenland. In the past 20 years, 31 cases of trichinellosis have been reported in French travellers to the Arctic (North Quebec, Nunavut and Greenland) who consumed undercooked meat from black, brown, or polar bears. If local communities are increasingly becoming aware of the risk of trichinellosis, travellers visiting regions where bear meat is consumed should be informed of the risk of eating raw or non-heat-processed meats. PMID:27296583

  1. Improving efficiency in meat production.

    PubMed

    Brameld, John M; Parr, Tim

    2016-08-01

    Selective breeding and improved nutritional management over the past 20-30 years has resulted in dramatic improvements in growth efficiency for pigs and poultry, particularly lean tissue growth. However, this has been achieved using high-quality feed ingredients, such as wheat and soya that are also used for human consumption and more recently biofuels production. Ruminants on the other hand are less efficient, but are normally fed poorer quality ingredients that cannot be digested by human subjects, such as grass or silage. The challenges therefore are to: (i) maintain the current efficiency of growth of pigs and poultry, but using more ingredients not needed to feed the increasing human population or for the production of biofuels; (ii) improve the efficiency of growth in ruminants; (iii) at the same time produce animal products (meat, milk and eggs) of equal or improved quality. This review will describe the use of: (a) enzyme additives for animal feeds, to improve feed digestibility; (b) known growth promoting agents, such as growth hormone, β-agonists and anabolic steroids, currently banned in the European Union but used in other parts of the world; (c) recent transcriptomic studies into molecular mechanisms for improved growth efficiency via low residual feed intake. In doing so, the use of genetic manipulation in animals will also be discussed. PMID:27087253

  2. Is the desire to eat familiar and unfamiliar meat products influenced by the emotions expressed on eaters' faces?

    PubMed

    Rousset, S; Schlich, P; Chatonnier, A; Barthomeuf, L; Droit-Volet, S

    2008-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to test if the social context represented by eaters' faces expressing emotions can modulate the desire to eat meat, especially for unfamiliar meat products. Forty-four young men and women were presented with two series of photographs. The first series (non-social context) was composed of eight meat pictures, four unfamiliar and four familiar. The second series (social context) consisted of the same pictures presented with eaters expressing three different emotions: disgust, pleasure or neutrality. For every picture, the participants were asked to estimate the intensity of their desire to eat the meat product viewed on the picture. Results showed that meat desire depended on interactions between product familiarity, social context and the participant's gender. In the non-social context, the men liked the familiar meat products more than the women, whereas their desire to eat unfamiliar meat products was similar. Compared to the non-social context, viewing another person eating with a neutral and a happy facial expression increased the desire to eat. Furthermore, the increase in the desire to eat meat associated with happy faces was greater for the unfamiliar than for the familiar meat products in men, and greater for the familiar than for the unfamiliar meats in women. In the presence of disgusted faces, the desire to eat meat remained constant for unfamiliar products in all participants whereas it only decreased for familiar products in men. PMID:17655970

  3. High processed meat consumption is a risk factor of type 2 diabetes in the ATBC study

    PubMed Central

    Männistö, Satu; Kontto, Jukka; Kataja-Tuomola, Merja; Albanes, Demetrius; Virtamo, Jarmo

    2012-01-01

    Relatively small lifestyle modifications related to weight reduction, physical activity and diet has been shown to decrease the risk of type 2 diabetes. Connected with diet, low consumption of meat has been suggested as a protective factor of diabetes. The aim was to examine the association between the consumption of total meat or the specific types of meat and risk of type 2 diabetes. The ATBC cohort included middle aged male smokers. During up to 12 years of follow-up, 1098 incident cases of diabetes were diagnosed from 24,845 participants through the nationwide register. Food consumption was assessed by a validated food frequency questionnaire. In the age and intervention group adjusted model, high total meat consumption was a risk factor of type 2 diabetes (relative risk (RR) 1.50, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.23, 1.82, highest vs. lowest quintile). The result was similar after adjustment for environmental factors and foods related to diabetes and meat consumption. The RR of type 2 diabetes was 1.37 for processed meat (95% CI: 1.11, 1.71) in the multivariate model. The results were explained more by intakes of sodium than intakes of saturated fatty acids, protein, cholesterol, heme iron, magnesium and nitrate, and were not modified by obesity. No association was found between red meat, poultry and the risk of type 2 diabetes. In conclusion, it may help to prevent the global epidemic of type 2 diabetes by reducing the consumption of processed meat. It seems that sodium of processed meat may explain the association. PMID:20187985

  4. Inclusion of pork meat in the diets of young women reduces their intakes of energy-dense, nutrient-poor foods: results from a randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    McArthur, Jennifer O; Gough, Natalie M; Petocz, Peter; Samman, Samir

    2014-06-01

    Adherence of young women to dietary recommendations has been examined predominantly by surveys. This study aimed to determine the quality of women's diets relative to the Australian Guide to Healthy Eating (AGHE); and to evaluate dietary changes during an intervention trial with pork meat or an iron supplement. A 12-week randomized trial was conducted in young women who were assigned to one of three groups. They maintained three, seven-day food diaries while continuing their routine diet (CG); taking an iron supplement (SG); or incorporating into their diets 500 g/week of pork (PG). Participants (n = 58) provided dietary information on 1218 diary-days. The serves consumed from the vegetable, fruit and dairy groups were lower (p < 0.001), and from the meat and alternatives group greater (p < 0.001) than the recommended serves. PG consumed significantly fewer (p < 0.001) serves of "extra" foods, and ate fruit more frequently (p < 0.001) than CG and SG. The participants' dietary self-assessment showed poor agreement with the AGHE description of "serve". The inclusion of pork in the diets of young women is associated with the reduced consumption of energy-dense nutrient-poor "extra" foods and increased frequency of fruit intake. The effect may be explained by diverse factors such as increased food knowledge, cooking skills and the effect of pork on satiety. PMID:24949547

  5. Inclusion of Pork Meat in the Diets of Young Women Reduces Their Intakes of Energy-Dense, Nutrient-Poor Foods: Results from a Randomized Controlled Tria

    PubMed Central

    McArthur, Jennifer O.; Gough, Natalie M.; Petocz, Peter; Samman, Samir

    2014-01-01

    Adherence of young women to dietary recommendations has been examined predominantly by surveys. This study aimed to determine the quality of women’s diets relative to the Australian Guide to Healthy Eating (AGHE); and to evaluate dietary changes during an intervention trial with pork meat or an iron supplement. A 12-week randomized trial was conducted in young women who were assigned to one of three groups. They maintained three, seven-day food diaries while continuing their routine diet (CG); taking an iron supplement (SG); or incorporating into their diets 500 g/week of pork (PG). Participants (n = 58) provided dietary information on 1218 diary-days. The serves consumed from the vegetable, fruit and dairy groups were lower (p < 0.001), and from the meat and alternatives group greater (p < 0.001) than the recommended serves. PG consumed significantly fewer (p < 0.001) serves of “extra” foods, and ate fruit more frequently (p < 0.001) than CG and SG. The participants’ dietary self-assessment showed poor agreement with the AGHE description of “serve”. The inclusion of pork in the diets of young women is associated with the reduced consumption of energy-dense nutrient-poor “extra” foods and increased frequency of fruit intake. The effect may be explained by diverse factors such as increased food knowledge, cooking skills and the effect of pork on satiety. PMID:24949547

  6. The Quality of Modified Atmosphere Packaged Meat from Lambs Slaughtered at 50 and 100 Days of Age

    PubMed Central

    Tański, Zenon; Stanisław, Milewski; Bożena, Zaleska

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the quality of modified atmosphere (MA) packaged meat from Pomeranian rams slaughtered at 50 and 100 days of age. Determined: chemical composition, physicochemical and sensory properties of meat, and the fatty acid profile of intramuscular fat. Meat from 100-d-old lambs was characterized by a significantly higher content of dry matter, total protein and crude fat, a darker color and higher physiological maturity (p≤0.01). Meat from younger lambs was marked by a better water-holding capacity (p≤0.05), a lower energy value and higher concentrations of monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA) and polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA). An increase in the content of dry matter, total protein and ash, and energy value was noted in MA-stored meat. Meat pH decreased over MA storage and the sensory properties deteriorated. The studied meat remained safe from microbial contamination during storage. PMID:25049582

  7. Natural antioxidants as food and feed additives to promote health benefits and quality of meat products: A review.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Jiang; Xiong, Youling L

    2016-10-01

    Fresh and processed meats offer numerous nutritional and health benefits and provide unique eating satisfaction in the lifestyle of the modern society. However, consumption of red meat including processed products is subjected to increasing scrutiny due to the health risks associated with cytotoxins that potentially could be generated during meat preparation. Evidence from recent studies suggests free radical pathways as a plausible mechanism for toxin formation, and antioxidants have shown promise to mitigate process-generated chemical hazards. The present review discusses the involvements of lipid and protein oxidation in meat quality, nutrition, safety, and organoleptic properties; animal production and meat processing strategies which incorporate natural antioxidants to enhance the nutritional and health benefits of meat; and the application of mixed or purified natural antioxidants to eliminate or minimize the formation of carcinogens for chemical safety of cooked and processed meats. PMID:27091079

  8. Physics of iron

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, O.

    1993-10-01

    This volume comprises papers presented at the AIRAPT Conference, June 28 to July 1993. The iron sessions at the meeting were identified as the Second Ironworkers Convention. The renewal of interest stems from advances in technologies in both diamond-anvil cell (DAC) and shock wave studies as well as from controversies arising from a lack of consensus among both experimentalists and theoreticians. These advances have produced new data on iron in the pressure-temperature regime of interest for phase diagrams and for temperatures of the core/mantle and inner-core/outer-core boundaries. Particularly interesting is the iron phase diagram inferred from DAC studies. A new phase, {beta}, with a {gamma}-{beta}-{epsilon} triple point at about 30 GPa and 1190 K, and possible sixth phase, {omega}, with an {epsilon}-{Theta}-melt triple point at about 190 GPa and 4000 K are deemed possible. The importance of the equation of state of iron in consideration of Earth`s heat budget and the origin of its magnetic field invoke the interest of theoreticians who argue on the basis of molecular dynamics and other first principles methods. While the major thrust of both meetings was on the physics of pure iron, there was notable contributions on iron alloys. Hydrogen-iron alloys, iron-sulfur liquids, and the comparability to rhenium in phase diagram studies are discussed. The knowledge of the physical properties of iron were increased by several contributions.

  9. The impact of red and processed meat consumption on cancer and other health outcomes: Epidemiological evidences.

    PubMed

    Boada, Luis D; Henríquez-Hernández, L A; Luzardo, O P

    2016-06-01

    Meat is one of the staples of the human diet, which provides high-quality nutrients, but that also constitutes a relevant source of cholesterol and saturated fatty acids. Epidemiologic studies have linked consumption of red or processed meat with obesity, type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular diseases, and cancers. Most epidemiological studies suggest that a high intake of meat, especially processed meat, is associated with increased colorectal cancer risk. Potential reasons for the association between high meat intake and colorectal cancer risk include some chemicals naturally contained in meat, or generated by the processing and cooking. From the literature it can be concluded that there is enough epidemiological evidence linking processed meat intake and colorectal cancer risk, but there is limited evidence regarding unprocessed red meat intake and the disease. On the contrary, there is only limited evidence linking meat intake with other diseases such as cardiovascular disease, type 2 diabetes or other cancers. Nevertheless, the literature suggest that dietary intervention may be a promising approach for prevention of cancers of the colon, esophagus, liver, stomach and bladder, and type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease which still need to be confirmed by further well designed prospective studies and experimental research. PMID:27106137

  10. Nanotechnology in Meat Processing and Packaging: Potential Applications — A Review

    PubMed Central

    Ramachandraiah, Karna; Han, Sung Gu; Chin, Koo Bok

    2015-01-01

    Growing demand for sustainable production, increasing competition and consideration of health concerns have led the meat industries on a path to innovation. Meat industries across the world are focusing on the development of novel meat products and processes to meet consumer demand. Hence, a process innovation, like nanotechnology, can have a significant impact on the meat processing industry through the development of not only novel functional meat products, but also novel packaging for the products. The potential benefits of utilizing nanomaterials in food are improved bioavailability, antimicrobial effects, enhanced sensory acceptance and targeted delivery of bioactive compounds. However, challenges exist in the application of nanomaterials due to knowledge gaps in the production of ingredients such as nanopowders, stability of delivery systems in meat products and health risks caused by the same properties which also offer the benefits. For the success of nanotechnology in meat products, challenges in public acceptance, economics and the regulation of food processed with nanomaterials which may have the potential to persist, accumulate and lead to toxicity need to be addressed. So far, the most promising area for nanotechnology application seems to be in meat packaging, but the long term effects on human health and environment due to migration of the nanomaterials from the packaging needs to be studied further. The future of nanotechnology in meat products depends on the roles played by governments, regulatory agencies and manufacturers in addressing the challenges related to the application of nanomaterials in food. PMID:25557827

  11. An Overview of Meat Industry in Sri Lanka: A Comprehensive Review

    PubMed Central

    Alahakoon, Amali U.; Jo, Cheorun

    2016-01-01

    Livestock is considered as one of the most important segments in agriculture since animal husbandry was practiced for centuries as a backyard system by rural families. Livestock plays as a powerful tool in rural development where meat industry contributes a dominant part. Meat and meat products become a vital component in the diet, which had been one of the main protein sources traditionally as well. The development in the livestock and meat industry of Sri Lanka basically depends upon religious, cultural, and economic factors. There is a growing demand for processed meat products in Sri Lankan urban culture and several large scale processors entered the business during the past few decades. The consumption of meat and meat products shows an upward trend in Sri Lanka during the last decade and is anticipated to increase further in future. The growth potential of the local meat industry is considerably high owing to the improvement of the market and consumer perception. The present status, trends, and future prospects for the Sri Lankan meat industry with respect to production, consumption, processing, marketing, and improvement are discussed in this review. PMID:27194920

  12. Meat Intake and Insulin Resistance in Women without Type 2 Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Tucker, Larry A.; LeCheminant, James D.; Bailey, Bruce W.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose. To examine the relationship between meat intake and insulin resistance (IR) in 292 nondiabetic women. Methods. IR was evaluated using the homeostasis model assessment (HOMA). Diet was assessed via 7-day weighed food records. Servings of very lean meat (VLM) and regular meat (meat) were indexed using the ADA Exchange Lists Program. Physical activity was assessed using accelerometers and body fat was measured using the Bod Pod. Results. Meat intake was directly related to HOMA (F = 7.4; P = 0.007). Women with moderate or high meat intakes had significantly higher HOMA levels than their counterparts. Adjusting for body fat weakened the relationship (F = 1.0; P = 0.3201). Odds ratio results showed that the low meat quartile had 67% lower odds of being IR (75th percentile) compared to their counterparts (OR = 0.33; 95% CI = 0.16–0.71). These findings changed little after adjusting for all covariates simultaneously (OR = 0.34; 95% CI = 0.14–0.83). Conversely, VLM intake was not related to HOMA, with or without the covariates. Conclusion. Moderate and high meat intakes are associated with increased insulin resistance in nondiabetic women. However, differences in body fat contribute significantly to the relationship. VLM is not predictive of IR. Prudence in the amount and type of meat consumed may be helpful in decreasing the likelihood of IR. PMID:26240831

  13. An Overview of Meat Industry in Sri Lanka: A Comprehensive Review.

    PubMed

    Alahakoon, Amali U; Jo, Cheorun; Jayasena, Dinesh D

    2016-01-01

    Livestock is considered as one of the most important segments in agriculture since animal husbandry was practiced for centuries as a backyard system by rural families. Livestock plays as a powerful tool in rural development where meat industry contributes a dominant part. Meat and meat products become a vital component in the diet, which had been one of the main protein sources traditionally as well. The development in the livestock and meat industry of Sri Lanka basically depends upon religious, cultural, and economic factors. There is a growing demand for processed meat products in Sri Lankan urban culture and several large scale processors entered the business during the past few decades. The consumption of meat and meat products shows an upward trend in Sri Lanka during the last decade and is anticipated to increase further in future. The growth potential of the local meat industry is considerably high owing to the improvement of the market and consumer perception. The present status, trends, and future prospects for the Sri Lankan meat industry with respect to production, consumption, processing, marketing, and improvement are discussed in this review. PMID:27194920

  14. Food safety through the meat supply chain.

    PubMed

    Attenborough, M; Matthews, K R

    2000-01-01

    Food poisoning in humans can be caused by many different bacterial genera. While the incidence of food poisoning in England, Wales and Scotland from Salmonella has reached a plateau, there has been an increase in the incidence from Campylobacter. The incidence from Escherichia coli O157:H7 rose to 1997 but declined slightly in 1998 (data from the Public Health Laboratory Service and the Scottish Centre for Infection and Environmental Health). This organism has a high virulence in humans and a very low infective dose. Infection can produce a wide range of responses, including death. The low infective dose presents a major threat. The organism is relatively heat-sensitive and the cooking of food products to achieve a centre core temperature of 70 degrees C for 2 min is sufficient to destroy it. It is relatively acid-tolerant and will survive for several weeks at pH 4.2. Several foodstuffs, as well as water, have been implicated in world-wide outbreaks. The E. coli O157:H7 food-borne outbreak in Lanarkshire in 1996 led to 21 fatalities. The Pennington Group report, issued in April 1997, reported on the circumstances leading to this outbreak, the implications for food safety and the lessons to be learnt. Four areas covered within the Pennington Group report specific to meat hygiene are reviewed in this paper. On-farm practices must ensure the presentation of clean animals for slaughter. There is a requirement for the development and introduction of risk assessment techniques based upon Hazard Analysis of Critical Control Points in abattoirs, and the Meat and Livestock Commission (MLC) is producing a manual for use by the abattoir sector. The Pennington report stated that there was a need for research into the potential use of end-process treatments such as steam pasteurization. The MLC is involved in evaluating such a system. Meat production premises and butchers' shops in England are introducing HACCP through an MLC scheme funded by the Department of Health. At the

  15. Genetic reduction of antinutrients in common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) seed, increases nutrients and in vitro iron bioavailability without depressing main agronomical traits

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In common bean, lectins, phytic acid, polyphenols and tannins exert major antinutritional effects when grains are consumed as a staple food. Reduced iron and zinc absorption, low protein digestibility and high toxicity at the intestinal level are the causes of their antinutritional effect. To improv...

  16. The use of dielectric spectroscopy as a tool for predicting meat quality in poultry

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Interest in dielectric spectroscopy has increased due to its potential use as an on-line tool for predicting meat quality. The use of dielectric spectroscopy for predicting poultry meat quality was investigated. The following quality parameters were measured: pH, color, water holding capacity (WHC)...

  17. Effects of broiler breast meat thickness and background on color measurements.

    PubMed

    Bianchi, M; Fletcher, D L

    2002-11-01

    Experiments were conducted to determine the influence of broiler and turkey breast meat thickness and background on breast meat color measurements. Broiler breast fillets were sliced into two 1 cm thick slices and the turkey breast fillets into three 1 cm slices. Color values for lightness (L*), redness (a*), and yellowness (b*) were measured on the same top slice singly or while placed over the corresponding broiler and turkey slices. Color was measured in triplicate while the fillets were placed on the following backgrounds: plastic-coated white paper, white nylon, aluminum foil, black plastic, and a yellow commercial packaging tray (broiler only). Sample thickness significantly affected L*, a*, and b* values of turkey and chicken. Increased breast meat thickness resulted in lower L*, a*, and b5 values. Increased turkey meat thickness from 1 to 2 cm resulted in lower a* and b* values; however, only lower L* values were observed, with sample thickness increased from 1 to 3 cm. No differences in meat color were found when increasing turkey meat sample thickness from 2 to 3 cm. Background had a significant effect on single (1 cm) broiler and turkey meat color measurements but did not influence the color readings of the thicker multiple slice samples. These results indicate that the application of machine vision or in-line color measurement systems may have to take into account breast meat thickness, and in thinner samples, background color. PMID:12455607

  18. Meat Training Council Aims to Make Willing Workers into Professional Managers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pollitt, David

    2002-01-01

    Details the UK Meat Training Council's management development programme, aimed at increasing the levels of professionalism in the meat and poultry industry and making it more attractive to young people as a long-term career. Describes the course contents and assessment methods, and contains interviews with course participants.

  19. Effects of Broiler Pectoralis Major Size on Sensory Descriptive Flavor and Texture Profiles of Cooked Meat

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Increasing breast muscle mass has been the focus of chicken genetic selection in meat line for decades. The practice results in the investigation of effects of growth rates or body weight on sensory quality of cooked chicken breast meat. The objective of the present study was to compare sensory desc...

  20. Meat composition, fatty acid profile and oxidative stability of meat from broilers supplemented with pomegranate (Punica granatum L.) by-products.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, Sonia Tabasum; Islam, Md Manirul; Bostami, A B M Rubayet; Mun, Hong-Seok; Kim, Ye-Jin; Yang, Chul-Ju

    2015-12-01

    The effects of diets supplemented with four levels (0%, 0.5%, 1.0% and 2.0%) of pomegranate by-product (PB) on meat composition, fatty acid profile and oxidative stability of broiler meat were evaluated. The crude protein and moisture contents increased, whereas ether extract in breast and thigh meat and cholesterol in breast meat decreased in response to dietary PB supplementation (p<0.05). In breast and thigh meat, the sum of saturated fatty acids was lower, while the sum of mono-unsaturated and n-3 fatty acids were higher, alongside lower n-6/n-3 ratio in the 1.0% and 2.0% PB supplemented group (p<0.05). The TBARS values and pH of breast and thigh meat were reduced in the PB supplemented groups (p<0.05). Overall, the results presented herein indicate that supplementation of diets with up to 2% pomegranate by-products improved the meat composition, fatty acid profile and reduced lipid oxidation of broiler meat. PMID:26041221

  1. Effect of lean red meat from lamb v. lean white meat from chicken on the serum lipid profile: a randomised, cross-over study in women.

    PubMed

    Mateo-Gallego, Rocio; Perez-Calahorra, Sofia; Cenarro, Ana; Bea, Ana M; Andres, Eva; Horno, Jaime; Ros, Emilio; Civeira, Fernando

    2012-05-01

    The main dietary guidelines recommend restricting total and saturated fat intake in the management of high blood cholesterol levels for cardiovascular risk. These recommendations are usually oversimplified by considering that all red meats should be limited and replaced by white meats. However, lean red meat can be as low in fat as white meat. We examined the effects of red meat (lean breed lamb) and lean white meat (chicken) intake on the lipid profile of a group of women with stable life conditions (nuns living in convents). An open-label, randomised, cross-over study was carried out in thirty-six nuns who consumed either lamb or chicken three times per week for 5-week periods with their usual diet. Clinical, dietary and biochemical variables were evaluated at baseline and the end of each diet period. A validated FFQ was used to assess nutrient intake and monitor compliance. The results showed neither between-diet differences in lipid responses nor differences from baseline in total cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol or TAG for any diet period. In conclusion, consumption of lean red meat (lamb) or lean white meat (chicken) as part of the usual diet is associated with a similar lipid response. These two foods can be exchanged in a healthy diet to increase palatability. PMID:21902857

  2. CH4 and N2O emissions embodied in international trade of meat

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caro, Dario; LoPresti, Anna; Davis, Steven J.; Bastianoni, Simone; Caldeira, Ken

    2014-11-01

    Although previous studies have quantified carbon dioxide emissions embodied in products traded internationally, there has been limited attention to other greenhouse gases such as methane (CH4) and nitrous oxide (N2O). Following IPCC guidelines, we estimate non-CO2 emissions from beef, pork and chicken produced in 237 countries over the period 1990-2010, and assign these emissions to the country where the meat is ultimately consumed. We find that, between 1990 and 2010, an average of 32.8 Mt CO2-eq emissions (using 100 year global warming potentials) are embodied in beef, pork and chicken traded internationally. Further, over the 20 year period, the quantity of CO2-eq emissions embodied in traded meat increased by 19%. The largest trade flows of emissions embodied in meat were from Brazil and Argentina to Russia (2.8 and 1.4 Mt of CO2-eq, respectively). Trade flows within the European region are also substantial: beef and pork exported from France embodied 3.3 Mt and 0.4 Mt of CO2-eq, respectively. Emissions factor of meat production (i.e. CO2-eq emissions per kg of meat) produced depend on ambient temperature, development level, livestock category (e.g. cattle, pork, and chicken) and livestock management practices. Thus, trade may result in an overall increase of GHG emissions when meat-consuming countries import meat from countries with a greater emissions intensity of meat production rather than producing the meat domestically. Comparing the emissions intensity of meat production of trading partners, we assess trade flows according to whether they tend to reduce or increase global emissions from meat production.

  3. Role of mitochondria on muscle cell death and meat tenderization.

    PubMed

    Sierra, Verónica; Oliván, Mamen

    2013-05-01

    The possibility that mitochondria are involved in cellular dysfunction is particularly high in situations associated with increases in free radical activity, like hypoxia or ischemia; therefore its potential role in the muscle post-mortem metabolism is reviewed. In the dying muscle, different routes of cell death catabolism (apoptosis, autophagy) may occur having great influence on the process of conversion of muscle into meat. Mitochondria are the first and also one of the main organelles affected by post-mortem changes; therefore they are decisive in the subsequent cellular responses influencing the pathway to cell demise and thus, the final meat quality. Depending on the cell death programme followed by muscle cells after exsanguination, diverse proteases would be activated to a different extent, which is also reviewed in order to understand how they affect meat tenderization. This review also summarizes recent patents relating cell death processes and meat tenderness. Further research is encouraged as there is still a need of knowledge on cell death post-mortem processes to increase our understanding of the conversion of muscle into meat. PMID:23432120

  4. Review: Automation and meat quality-global challenges.

    PubMed

    Barbut, Shai

    2014-01-01

    The global meat industry has seen significant changes in the methods used to harvest and process fresh meat over the past century. Increased use of automation has led to significant increases in line speed for beef, pork, sheep, poultry and fish operations. For example, currently the fastest line observed has been broilers at 13,500/h. Such developments have required in-depth understanding of the pre and post rigor processes to prevent defects. Procedures such as maturation chilling and electrical stimulation are now common in red meat and poultry processing; allowing shorter time to deboning, while harvesting high quality meat. Robots designed to cut meat are also appearing on the market, and replacing traditional manual operations. This is a challenge, because high speed equipment is not necessarily sensitive to variations in size/quality issues, and requires development of unique sensors and control systems. Also, progress in breeding and genetics is contributing to greater product uniformity and quality; helping in operating automated equipment. PMID:23933632

  5. Brain iron homeostasis.

    PubMed

    Moos, Torben

    2002-11-01

    deficiency altered the cellular content of these proteins so that transferrin receptors were higher and ferritin lower. The transport of iron from brain to blood was addressed in the last part of the thesis. It was found that in the case of iron and transferrin, there is no evidence showing other significant routes of transport from the brain extracellular fluid into the blood than drainage to the ventricular system followed by export to the blood via the arachnoid villi. The turnover of transferrin in the CSF was found to be very high. For reasons mentioned above, transferrin of the CSF is of little significance for transport and cellular delivery of iron to transferrin receptor-expressing neurons. Instead, transferrin of the CSF probably plays a significant role for neutralization and export to the blood of metals, including iron. Once appearing in blood, transferrin of the CSF was degraded at the same rate as intravenously injected transferrin, which indicates that the transferrin of CSF is not altered to an extent that changes its catabolism during the passage from CSF to blood plasma. The metabolism of iron in the developing brain was found to differ markedly when compared to that of the adult brain. A developing regulated transfer of iron to the brain was reflected morphologically by a higher content of transferrin receptors and non-heme iron in endothelial cells of the developing rat brain than in the adult. Neurons had a very low level of transferrin receptors. After about 20 days of age, iron transport into the brain decreased rapidly, and transferrin receptors appeared on neurons. Iron and transferrin injected into the ventricular system of the developing brain were much more widely distributed in the brain parenchyma than in the adult brain. This high accumulation of substances injected into the ventricles in young animals is probably due to the lower rate of production and turnover of CSF, which will increase the time available for diffusion of proteins into the

  6. 9 CFR 317.300 - Nutrition labeling of meat and meat food products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Nutrition labeling of meat and meat... AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION LABELING, MARKING DEVICES, AND CONTAINERS Nutrition Labeling § 317.300 Nutrition labeling of meat and meat food products. (a) Nutrition labeling must...

  7. 9 CFR 317.300 - Nutrition labeling of meat or meat food products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Nutrition labeling of meat or meat... AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION LABELING, MARKING DEVICES, AND CONTAINERS Nutrition Labeling § 317.300 Nutrition labeling of meat or meat food products. Link to an amendment published at...

  8. 9 CFR 317.300 - Nutrition labeling of meat and meat food products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Nutrition labeling of meat and meat... AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION LABELING, MARKING DEVICES, AND CONTAINERS Nutrition Labeling § 317.300 Nutrition labeling of meat and meat food products. (a) Nutrition labeling must...

  9. 9 CFR 317.300 - Nutrition labeling of meat or meat food products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Nutrition labeling of meat or meat... AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION LABELING, MARKING DEVICES, AND CONTAINERS Nutrition Labeling § 317.300 Nutrition labeling of meat or meat food products. (a) Nutrition labeling shall...

  10. 9 CFR 317.300 - Nutrition labeling of meat or meat food products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Nutrition labeling of meat or meat... AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION LABELING, MARKING DEVICES, AND CONTAINERS Nutrition Labeling § 317.300 Nutrition labeling of meat or meat food products. Link to an amendment published at...

  11. Heme-Induced Biomarkers Associated with Red Meat Promotion of colon Cancer Are Not Modulated by the Intake of Nitrite

    PubMed Central

    Chenni, Fatima Z; Taché, Sylviane; Naud, Nathalie; Guéraud, Françoise; Hobbs, Ditte A; Kunhle, Gunter G C; Pierre, Fabrice H; Corpet, Denis E

    2013-01-01

    Red and processed meat consumption is associated with the risk of colorectal cancer. Three hypotheses are proposed to explain this association, via heme/alcenal, heterocyclic amines or N-nitroso compounds. Rats have often been used to study these hypotheses, but the lack of enterosalivary cycle of nitrate in rats casts doubt on the relevance of this animal model to predict nitroso- and heme-associated human colon carcinogenesis. The present study was thus designed to clarify whether a nitrite intake that mimics the enterosalivary cycle can modulate heme-induced nitrosation and fat peroxidation. This study shows that, in contrast with the starting hypothesis, salivary nitrite did not change the effect of hemoglobin on biochemical markers linked to colon carcinogenesis, notably lipid peroxidation and cytotoxic activity in the colon of rat. However, ingested sodium nitrite increased fecal nitroso-compounds level, but their fecal concentration and their nature (iron-nitrosyl) would not be associated with an increased risk of cancer. The rat model could thus be relevant to study the effect of red meat on colon carcinogenesis in spite of the lack of nitrite recycling in rat’s saliva. PMID:23441609

  12. Heme-induced biomarkers associated with red meat promotion of colon cancer are not modulated by the intake of nitrite.

    PubMed

    Chenni, Fatima Z; Taché, Sylviane; Naud, Nathalie; Guéraud, Françoise; Hobbs, Ditte A; Kunhle, Gunter G C; Pierre, Fabrice H; Corpet, Denis E

    2013-01-01

    Red and processed meat consumption is associated with the risk of colorectal cancer. Three hypotheses are proposed to explain this association, via heme-induced oxidation of fat, heterocyclic amines, or N-nitroso compounds. Rats have often been used to study these hypotheses, but the lack of enterosalivary cycle of nitrate in rats casts doubt on the relevance of this animal model to predict nitroso- and heme-associated human colon carcinogenesis. The present study was thus designed to clarify whether a nitrite intake that mimics the enterosalivary cycle can modulate heme-induced nitrosation and fat peroxidation. This study shows that, in contrast with the starting hypothesis, drinking water added with nitrite to mimic the salivary nitrite content did not change the effect of hemoglobin on biochemical markers linked to colon carcinogenesis, notably lipid peroxidation and cytotoxic activity in the colon of rat. However, ingested sodium nitrite increased fecal nitroso-compounds level, but their fecal concentration and their nature (iron-nitrosyl) would probably not be associated with an increased risk of cancer. We thus suggest that the rat model could be relevant for study the effect of red meat on colon carcinogenesis, in spite of the lack of nitrite in the saliva of rats. PMID:23441609

  13. Carcass characteristics, meat quality and nutritional value of horsemeat: a review.

    PubMed

    Lorenzo, José M; Sarriés, María Victoria; Tateo, Alessandra; Polidori, Paolo; Franco, Daniel; Lanza, Massimiliano

    2014-04-01

    Meat has exerted a crucial role in human evolution and is an important component of a healthy and well balanced diet due to its nutritional richness. The aim of the present review was to shed light on the nutritional composition of horsemeat and their benefits for human health. One of the reasons for such interest was the occurrence, in Europe several years ago, of dioxin, Bovine Encephalopathy and foot-and-mouth disease problems in farm animals. Therefore, consumers began to look for alternative red meats from other non-traditional species. There is no carcass classification system on horses designated to meat consumption. It would be advisable to standardize the equine meat market to reduce variations that may reflect differences in meat quality. The nutritional composition of horsemeat by comparison with pork, beef or poultry is characterized by low levels of fat and cholesterol (about 20% less), relatively high concentrations of n-3 fatty acids and heme iron indicating that its consumption may be beneficial for health. Therefore, horsemeat may supplement the meat market with good quality products, although as in other dietary components moderation is advisable. PMID:24423453

  14. 9 CFR 319.304 - Meat stews.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Meat stews. 319.304 Section 319.304... ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION DEFINITIONS AND STANDARDS OF IDENTITY OR COMPOSITION Canned, Frozen, or Dehydrated Meat...

  15. 9 CFR 319.80 - Barbecued meats.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Barbecued meats. 319.80 Section 319.80... ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION DEFINITIONS AND STANDARDS OF IDENTITY OR COMPOSITION Cooked Meats § 319.80 Barbecued...

  16. 9 CFR 319.720 - Meat extract.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Meat extract. 319.720 Section 319.720... ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION DEFINITIONS AND STANDARDS OF IDENTITY OR COMPOSITION Meat Soups, Soup Mixes, Broths,...

  17. 9 CFR 319.260 - Luncheon meat.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Luncheon meat. 319.260 Section 319.260... ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION DEFINITIONS AND STANDARDS OF IDENTITY OR COMPOSITION Luncheon Meat, Loaves and Jellied...

  18. 9 CFR 319.261 - Meat loaf.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Meat loaf. 319.261 Section 319.261... ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION DEFINITIONS AND STANDARDS OF IDENTITY OR COMPOSITION Luncheon Meat, Loaves and Jellied...

  19. 9 CFR 319.80 - Barbecued meats.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Barbecued meats. 319.80 Section 319.80... ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION DEFINITIONS AND STANDARDS OF IDENTITY OR COMPOSITION Cooked Meats § 319.80 Barbecued...

  20. 9 CFR 319.720 - Meat extract.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Meat extract. 319.720 Section 319.720... ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION DEFINITIONS AND STANDARDS OF IDENTITY OR COMPOSITION Meat Soups, Soup Mixes, Broths,...

  1. 9 CFR 319.261 - Meat loaf.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Meat loaf. 319.261 Section 319.261... ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION DEFINITIONS AND STANDARDS OF IDENTITY OR COMPOSITION Luncheon Meat, Loaves and Jellied...

  2. 9 CFR 319.260 - Luncheon meat.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Luncheon meat. 319.260 Section 319.260... ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION DEFINITIONS AND STANDARDS OF IDENTITY OR COMPOSITION Luncheon Meat, Loaves and Jellied...

  3. 9 CFR 319.261 - Meat loaf.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Meat loaf. 319.261 Section 319.261... ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION DEFINITIONS AND STANDARDS OF IDENTITY OR COMPOSITION Luncheon Meat, Loaves and Jellied...

  4. 9 CFR 319.500 - Meat pies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Meat pies. 319.500 Section 319.500... ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION DEFINITIONS AND STANDARDS OF IDENTITY OR COMPOSITION Meat Food Entree Products, Pies,...

  5. 9 CFR 319.500 - Meat pies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Meat pies. 319.500 Section 319.500... ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION DEFINITIONS AND STANDARDS OF IDENTITY OR COMPOSITION Meat Food Entree Products, Pies,...

  6. 9 CFR 319.260 - Luncheon meat.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Luncheon meat. 319.260 Section 319.260... ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION DEFINITIONS AND STANDARDS OF IDENTITY OR COMPOSITION Luncheon Meat, Loaves and Jellied...

  7. 9 CFR 319.80 - Barbecued meats.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Barbecued meats. 319.80 Section 319.80... ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION DEFINITIONS AND STANDARDS OF IDENTITY OR COMPOSITION Cooked Meats § 319.80 Barbecued...

  8. 9 CFR 319.304 - Meat stews.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Meat stews. 319.304 Section 319.304... ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION DEFINITIONS AND STANDARDS OF IDENTITY OR COMPOSITION Canned, Frozen, or Dehydrated Meat...

  9. 9 CFR 319.80 - Barbecued meats.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Barbecued meats. 319.80 Section 319.80... ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION DEFINITIONS AND STANDARDS OF IDENTITY OR COMPOSITION Cooked Meats § 319.80 Barbecued...

  10. 9 CFR 319.261 - Meat loaf.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Meat loaf. 319.261 Section 319.261... ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION DEFINITIONS AND STANDARDS OF IDENTITY OR COMPOSITION Luncheon Meat, Loaves and Jellied...

  11. 9 CFR 319.500 - Meat pies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Meat pies. 319.500 Section 319.500... ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION DEFINITIONS AND STANDARDS OF IDENTITY OR COMPOSITION Meat Food Entree Products, Pies,...

  12. 9 CFR 319.304 - Meat stews.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Meat stews. 319.304 Section 319.304... ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION DEFINITIONS AND STANDARDS OF IDENTITY OR COMPOSITION Canned, Frozen, or Dehydrated Meat...

  13. 9 CFR 319.720 - Meat extract.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Meat extract. 319.720 Section 319.720... ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION DEFINITIONS AND STANDARDS OF IDENTITY OR COMPOSITION Meat Soups, Soup Mixes, Broths,...

  14. 9 CFR 319.80 - Barbecued meats.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Barbecued meats. 319.80 Section 319.80... ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION DEFINITIONS AND STANDARDS OF IDENTITY OR COMPOSITION Cooked Meats § 319.80 Barbecued...

  15. 9 CFR 319.304 - Meat stews.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Meat stews. 319.304 Section 319.304... ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION DEFINITIONS AND STANDARDS OF IDENTITY OR COMPOSITION Canned, Frozen, or Dehydrated Meat...

  16. 9 CFR 319.720 - Meat extract.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Meat extract. 319.720 Section 319.720... ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION DEFINITIONS AND STANDARDS OF IDENTITY OR COMPOSITION Meat Soups, Soup Mixes, Broths,...

  17. 9 CFR 319.261 - Meat loaf.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Meat loaf. 319.261 Section 319.261... ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION DEFINITIONS AND STANDARDS OF IDENTITY OR COMPOSITION Luncheon Meat, Loaves and Jellied...

  18. 9 CFR 319.260 - Luncheon meat.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Luncheon meat. 319.260 Section 319.260... ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION DEFINITIONS AND STANDARDS OF IDENTITY OR COMPOSITION Luncheon Meat, Loaves and Jellied...

  19. 9 CFR 319.720 - Meat extract.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Meat extract. 319.720 Section 319.720... ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION DEFINITIONS AND STANDARDS OF IDENTITY OR COMPOSITION Meat Soups, Soup Mixes, Broths,...

  20. 9 CFR 319.500 - Meat pies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Meat pies. 319.500 Section 319.500... ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION DEFINITIONS AND STANDARDS OF IDENTITY OR COMPOSITION Meat Food Entree Products, Pies,...

  1. 9 CFR 319.304 - Meat stews.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Meat stews. 319.304 Section 319.304... ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION DEFINITIONS AND STANDARDS OF IDENTITY OR COMPOSITION Canned, Frozen, or Dehydrated Meat...

  2. 9 CFR 319.500 - Meat pies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Meat pies. 319.500 Section 319.500... ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION DEFINITIONS AND STANDARDS OF IDENTITY OR COMPOSITION Meat Food Entree Products, Pies,...

  3. 9 CFR 319.260 - Luncheon meat.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Luncheon meat. 319.260 Section 319.260... ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION DEFINITIONS AND STANDARDS OF IDENTITY OR COMPOSITION Luncheon Meat, Loaves and Jellied...

  4. Chapter 3. Fresh Meat Texture and Tenderness

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This book chapter summarizes the current state of knowledge of meat tenderness and the antemortem and postmortem strategies that can be used to influence meat tenderness. Tenderness is critical to the consumer acceptance of meat products. Numerous antemortem and postmortem factors can impact tende...

  5. Processed Meat Ingredients: Past, Present and Future

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Ingredients were first utilized to preserve meat and improve its palatability which date back to when our ancestors used salt and fire to preserve meat. Since that time man has incorporated a wide variety of ingredients to develop unique meat products and find ways to extend the shelf life of these ...

  6. Radiosensitization of Bacillus cereus spores in minced meat treated with cinnamaldehyde

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ayari, S.; Dussault, D.; Jerbi, T.; Hamdi, M.; Lacroix, M.

    2012-08-01

    Minced meat beef inoculated with Bacillus cereus spores was treated with four essential oil constituents. The active compounds were sprayed separately onto the meat in order to determine the concentration needed to reduce by 1 log the population of B. cereus spores. Cinnamaldehyde was the best antimicrobial compound selected. It was mixed with ascorbic acid and/or sodium pyrophosphate decahydrate and tested for its efficiency to increase the relative radiation sensitivity (RRS) of B. cereus spores in minced meat packed under air. Results demonstrated that the radiation treatment in presence of the cinnamaldehyde and sodium phosphate decahydrate increased the RRS of B. cereus spores by two fold. The study revealed also that the irradiation of raw beef meat pre-treated with cinnamaldehyde produced an inhibition of the growth of B. cereus count during refrigerated storage. This technology seems to be compatible with industrial meat processing.

  7. Heterocyclic amine content in commercial ready to eat meat products.

    PubMed

    Puangsombat, Kanithaporn; Gadgil, Priyadarshini; Houser, Terry A; Hunt, Melvin C; Smith, J Scott

    2011-06-01

    Heterocyclic amines (HCAs) are produced in meats cooked at high temperature, which are potent mutagens and a risk factor for human cancers. The aim of this study was to estimate the amount of HCAs in some commonly consumed ready-to-eat (RTE) meat products. The RTE products were purchased from a local grocery store, and HCA were analyzed using an analytical method based on solid-phase extraction followed by HPLC. The primary HCAs in these samples were PhIP (2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo [4,5-b]pyridine) (not detected-7.9 ng/g) and MeIQx (2-amino-3,8-dimethylimidazo [4,5-f]quinoxaline) (not detected-3.6 ng/g). Products ranked in order of increasing total HCA content: pepperoni (0.05 ng/g)meat products (0.5 ng/g)meat (1.9 ng/g)meat products contributes very little to HCA intake. Results from this study can be used in risk assessment study to estimate human exposure to HCAs due to food consumption. PMID:21242037

  8. Assessment of beef production from Brahman x Thai native and Charolais x Thai native crossbred bulls slaughtered at different weights. II: meat quality.

    PubMed

    Waritthitham, A; Lambertz, C; Langholz, H-J; Wicke, M; Gauly, M

    2010-05-01

    The objective was to assess meat quality of Brahman x Thai native (BRA) and Charolais x Thai native (CHA) crossbred bulls. In total 34 BRA and 34 CHA under practical farm conditions were randomly assigned for slaughter at 500, 550 and 600 kg live weight, respectively. Longissimus dorsi muscle was taken for meat quality and sensory evaluations. CHA meat had higher intramuscular fat, exhibited higher marbling scores and relatively better colour than BRA meat. Although muscle fiber area was similar for both genotypes, shear force values were higher for CHA meat. Water holding capacity was better for CHA meat shown by lower 7-day ageing, thawing and grilling losses. However, the sensory evaluation ratings were similar for both genotypes. Increasing slaughter weight from 500 kg up to 600 kg had no significant effect on meat quality. In conclusion, meat quality of CHA was superior to BRA. PMID:20374885

  9. Survival of experimentally induced Toxoplasma gondii tissue cysts in vacuum packed goat meat and dry fermented goat meat sausages.

    PubMed

    Neumayerová, Helena; Juránková, Jana; Saláková, Alena; Gallas, Leo; Kovařčík, Kamil; Koudela, Břetislav

    2014-05-01

    Ingestion of raw or undercooked meat is a potential source of human toxoplasmosis. The aim of this study was to determine the viability of Toxoplasma gondii cysts in vacuum packed (VP) goat meat and in dry fermented sausages (DFS), and evaluate certain physical and chemical parameters, like water activity (aw), pH value, content of salt, dry matter and fat. A portion of muscle tissue from experimentally infected animals was used for production of VP meat with or without addition of 2.5% curing salt, and stored at 4 °C or at -20 °C. Results of bioassay showed that, samples of vacuum packed Toxoplasma positive meat without salt addition were alive after six weeks at 4 °C. Incubation at -20 °C supported the viability after 3 h, but not after 4 h. After 7 days in 2.5% of curing salt, samples of T. gondii VP goat meat were still viable, but not after 14 days at 4 °C. All the DFS samples were not positive for infective cysts which mean that, they do not pose a risk of T. gondii transmission. These data suggest that vacuum packaging increases the survival of T. gondii cysts. PMID:24387851

  10. A prospective cohort study on the relation between meat consumption and the risk of colon cancer.

    PubMed

    Goldbohm, R A; van den Brandt, P A; van 't Veer, P; Brants, H A; Dorant, E; Sturmans, F; Hermus, R J

    1994-02-01

    The high incidence of colon cancer in affluent societies has often been attributed to a high fat diet and, more in particular, the consumption of meat. The association of the consumption of meat and the intake of fat with risk of colon cancer was investigated in a prospective cohort study on diet and cancer, which is being conducted in the Netherlands since 1986 among 120,852 men and women, aged 55-69. The analysis was based on 215 incident cases of colon cancer (105 men and 110 women) accumulated in 3.3 years of follow-up, excluding cases diagnosed in the first year of follow-up. Dietary habits were assessed at baseline with a 150-item semiquantitative food frequency questionnaire. No trends in relative rates of colon cancer were detected for intake of energy or for the energy-adjusted intake of fats, protein, fat from meat, and protein from meat. Consumption of total fresh meat, beef, pork, minced meat, chicken, and fish was not associated with risk of colon cancer either. Processed meats, however, were associated with an increased risk in men and women (relative rate, 1.17 per increment of 15 g/day; 95% confidence interval, 1.03-1.33). The increased risk appeared to be attributable to one of the five questionnaire items on processed meat, which comprised mainly sausages. This study does not support a role of fresh meat and dietary fat in the etiology of colon cancer in this population. As an exception, some processed meats may increase the risk, but the mechanism is not yet clear. PMID:8306333

  11. Regulations on Meat Hygiene in the USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seward, Robert (Skip) A.

    Regulations on meat hygiene in the United States of America (US) stem from the Federal Meat Inspection Act (FMIA, 21 USC §§ 601 et. seq.), promulgated in 1906, that gives the US Secretary of Agriculture (the Secretary) the power to oversee the conversion of livestock into meat products. The FMIA is reviewed herein to provide a background for discussion on how the US Department of Agriculture (USDA) and its departments, particularly the Food Safety and Inspection Service (FSIS), control and regulate the meat industry. This chapter discusses regulations that pertain to meat, herein meant to mean beef, veal, and pork, and does not specifically address poultry, although the regulations for poultry slaughter and processing are in many ways similar to those for meat and meat food products.

  12. Main Concerns of Pathogenic Microorganisms in Meat

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nørrung, Birgit; Andersen, Jens Kirk; Buncic, Sava

    Although various foods can serve as sources of foodborne illness, meat and meat products are important sources of human infections with a variety of foodborne pathogens, i.e. Salmonella spp., Campylobacter jejuni/coli, Yersinia enterocolitica, Verotoxigenic E. coli and, to some extent, Listeria monocytogenes. All these may be harboured in the gastrointestinal tract of food-producing animals. The most frequent chain of events leading to meat-borne illness involves food animals, which are healthy carriers of the pathogens that are subsequently transferred to humans through production, handling and consumption of meat and meat products. Occurrences of Salmonella spp., C. jejuni/coli, Y. enterocolitica and Verotoxigenic E. coli in fresh red meat vary relatively widely, although most often are between 1 and 10%, depending on a range of factors including the organism, geographical factors, farming and/or meat production practices.

  13. Effect of reduced dietary protein and supplementation with a docosahexaenoic acid product on broiler performance and meat quality.

    PubMed

    Ribeiro, T; Lordelo, M M; Costa, P; Alves, S P; Benevides, W S; Bessa, R J B; Lemos, J P C; Pinto, R M A; Ferreira, L M A; Fontes, C M G A; Prates, J A M

    2014-01-01

    1. Chicken breast meat is a lean meat due to its low content of intramuscular fat (IMF) resulting in an overall lower acceptability by consumers due to a decrease in juiciness, flavour and increased chewiness. Recently, studies performed in pigs suggested the possibility of increasing IMF by decreasing dietary crude protein (CP) content, an effect possibly mediated through an increased lipogenesis. 2. Dietary supplementation with lipids rich in omega 3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 LC-PUFA) may modulate an increase in the content of these fatty acids in meat from monogastric animals and, thus, promote the daily intake of n-3 LC-PUFA by humans. 3. LC-PUFA are very susceptible to oxidation, resulting in off-flavours that affect meat quality and consumers' acceptability. 4. This trial was conducted to assess the effect of reducing dietary CP, from 21% to 17%, on chicken's meat IMF content and, simultaneously, to evaluate if a complementary supplementation with a proprietary n-3 LC-PUFA source (DHA Gold™) could improve meat quality. These effects were assessed by measuring productive performance and meat quality, oxidative stability, sensory traits and fatty acid profile. 5. A reduction in CP content of broiler diets, from 21% to 17%, balanced for lysine, improved performance while it was not sufficient to increase IMF content in chicken meat. In contrast, DHA Gold™ supplementation had a positive impact both in broiler productive parameters and in meat fatty acid profile. 6. In addition, incorporation of 7.4% of DHA Gold™ in the diet promoted carcass yield but negatively affected chicken meat acceptability by consumers, due to a decrease of meat oxidative stability. 7. Overall the data suggest that neither a dietary supplementation with DHA Gold™ nor a reduction in CP have a direct positive effect in the levels of IMF present in broiler meat. PMID:25277689

  14. Language, Employment, and Settlement: Temporary Meat Workers in Australia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Piller, Ingrid; Lising, Loy

    2014-01-01

    Australia is one of the world's largest beef exporters. However, meat processing jobs are widely considered undesirable and are increasingly filled with employer-sponsored migrant workers on temporary long-stay visas. Against this background, our paper explores the role of language in the employment and migration trajectories of a group of…

  15. Clostridium difficile in retail meat and processing plants in Texas

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The incidence and severity of disease associated with toxigenic Clostridium difficile (Cd) have increased in hospitals in North America from the emergence of newer, more virulent strains of Cd. Toxigenic Cd has been isolated from food animals and retail meat with potential implications of transfer ...

  16. Regulation of taste-active components of meat by dietary branched-chain amino acids; effects of branched-chain amino acid antagonism.

    PubMed

    Imanari, M; Kadowaki, M; Fujimura, S

    2008-05-01

    1. The effects of dietary branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs) including leucine (Leu), isoleucine (Ile) and valine (Val) on taste-active components, especially free glutamate (Glu), in meat were investigated. 2. Broiler chickens (28 d old) were given varied dietary BCAA levels for 10 d before marketing. Dietary BCAA content ratios were either 100:100:100 (Low Leu group), 150:100:100 (Control group) or 150:150:150 (High Ile + Val group) for Leu:Ile:Val (% of each BCAA requirement according to NRC, 1994). Taste-related components of meat (free amino acids and ATP metabolites) and sensory scores of meat soup were estimated. 3. Free Glu content, the main taste-active component of meat, was significantly increased by dietary BCAA. Compared to the Control group, free Glu content increased by 30% in the High Ile + Val group. However, the inosine monophosphate (IMP) content in meat did not change among groups. 4. Sensory evaluation of meat soups showed that Control and High Ile + Val groups had different meat flavours. The sensory score of overall taste intensity was significantly higher in the High Ile + Val group. 5. These results suggest that dietary BCAA concentrations regulate free Glu in meat. Increasing dietary Ile + Val induces an increase in free Glu content of meat, improves meat taste and is more effective for increasing free Glu content in meat than decreasing dietary Leu level. PMID:18568754

  17. Effect of slaughter weight and breed on instrumental and sensory meat quality of suckling kids.

    PubMed

    Ripoll, G; Alcalde, M J; Horcada, A; Campo, M M; Sañudo, C; Teixeira, A; Panea, B

    2012-09-01

    The effects of breed and slaughter weight on chemical composition, fatty acid groups, texture, and sensory characteristics of meat of 141 suckling male kids from 5 Spanish breeds were studied. There was a decrease in texture and lightness and hue angle with the increase of the slaughter weight. Fatty acid composition was correlated with the intramuscular fat content. All the breeds except MO had values of n-6/n-3 ratio below 4, which is the healthy limit recommended, and a low atherogenic index as well as a low intramuscular fat content. A multivariate analysis discriminated light kid, which had the most tender and juicy meat, from heavy kid which had more intense kid and milk odours. Blanca Andaluza and Pirenaica had most tender and juicy meat. The effect of slaughter weight on meat traits should be considered separately for each breed to find the most appropriate meat according to consumers preferences. PMID:22546814

  18. Influence of familiarity with goat meat on liking and preference for capretto and chevon.

    PubMed

    Borgogno, Monica; Corazzin, Mirco; Saccà, Elena; Bovolenta, Stefano; Piasentier, Edi

    2015-08-01

    The research aimed at assessing liking and preference for capretto and chevon as a function of consumer familiarity with goat meat. Five meats were produced: traditional milk capretto (MC), heavy summer capretto (HSC), summering (SCh), fall (FCh) and late fall chevon (LFCh). HSC was the most tender meat, having less cooking losses than both MC and redder chevon types. The instrumental profile corresponded with the appearance and texture attributes perceived by panellists. With aging of kids, meat lost its milk aroma (MC) and sweet taste (HSC) and acquired an increasing intensity of goat flavour and livery notes, partially related to feeding regime and fatty acid profile. A niche market preferred chevon over capretto, while the cluster of consumers who were unfamiliar with chevon showed a decrease in pleasantness when tasting chevon, the familiar group reduced their ratings only for meat from the oldest kids. PMID:25900784

  19. Relationship between gilt behavior and meat quality using principal component analysis.

    PubMed

    Ros-Freixedes, R; Sadler, L J; Onteru, S K; Smith, R M; Young, J M; Johnson, A K; Lonergan, S M; Huff-Lonergan, E; Dekkers, J C M; Rothschild, M F

    2014-01-01

    Pig on-farm behavior has important repercussions on pig welfare and performance, but generally its relationship with meat quality is not well understood. We used principal component analysis to determine the relationship between meat quality traits, feeding patterns, scale activity, and number of conflict-avoidance interactions. The first principal component indicated that gilts with greater daily feed intake stayed longer in the feeder and their meat had increased intramuscular fat (IMF), was lighter in color, and, in the second principal component, had better juiciness, tenderness, chewiness, and flavor. Meat from gilts with lower scale activity scores appeared to have more IMF but greater drip losses (DL). The third principal component suggested that dominant gilts could gain priority access to the feeder, eating more and growing fatter. In conclusion, except for the slight associations with IMF and DL, gilt scale activity and conflict-avoidance behaviors were not good indicators of final meat quality attributes. PMID:23921217

  20. Understanding Urban Demand for Wild Meat in Vietnam: Implications for Conservation Actions

    PubMed Central

    Shairp, Rachel; Veríssimo, Diogo; Fraser, Iain; Challender, Daniel; MacMillan, Douglas

    2016-01-01

    Vietnam is a significant consumer of wildlife, particularly wild meat, in urban restaurant settings. To meet this demand, poaching of wildlife is widespread, threatening regional and international biodiversity. Previous interventions to tackle illegal and potentially unsustainable consumption of wild meat in Vietnam have generally focused on limiting supply. While critical, they have been impeded by a lack of resources, the presence of increasingly organised criminal networks and corruption. Attention is, therefore, turning to the consumer, but a paucity of research investigating consumer demand for wild meat will impede the creation of effective consumer-centred interventions. Here we used a mixed-methods research approach comprising a hypothetical choice modelling survey and qualitative interviews to explore the drivers of wild meat consumption and consumer preferences among residents of Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam. Our findings indicate that demand for wild meat is heterogeneous and highly context specific. Wild-sourced, rare, and expensive wild meat-types are eaten by those situated towards the top of the societal hierarchy to convey wealth and status and are commonly consumed in lucrative business contexts. Cheaper, legal and farmed substitutes for wild-sourced meats are also consumed, but typically in more casual consumption or social drinking settings. We explore the implications of our results for current conservation interventions in Vietnam that attempt to tackle illegal and potentially unsustainable trade in and consumption of wild meat and detail how our research informs future consumer-centric conservation actions. PMID:26752642

  1. Understanding Urban Demand for Wild Meat in Vietnam: Implications for Conservation Actions.

    PubMed

    Shairp, Rachel; Veríssimo, Diogo; Fraser, Iain; Challender, Daniel; MacMillan, Douglas

    2016-01-01

    Vietnam is a significant consumer of wildlife, particularly wild meat, in urban restaurant settings. To meet this demand, poaching of wildlife is widespread, threatening regional and international biodiversity. Previous interventions to tackle illegal and potentially unsustainable consumption of wild meat in Vietnam have generally focused on limiting supply. While critical, they have been impeded by a lack of resources, the presence of increasingly organised criminal networks and corruption. Attention is, therefore, turning to the consumer, but a paucity of research investigating consumer demand for wild meat will impede the creation of effective consumer-centred interventions. Here we used a mixed-methods research approach comprising a hypothetical choice modelling survey and qualitative interviews to explore the drivers of wild meat consumption and consumer preferences among residents of Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam. Our findings indicate that demand for wild meat is heterogeneous and highly context specific. Wild-sourced, rare, and expensive wild meat-types are eaten by those situated towards the top of the societal hierarchy to convey wealth and status and are commonly consumed in lucrative business contexts. Cheaper, legal and farmed substitutes for wild-sourced meats are also consumed, but typically in more casual consumption or social drinking settings. We explore the implications of our results for current conservation interventions in Vietnam that attempt to tackle illegal and potentially unsustainable trade in and consumption of wild meat and detail how our research informs future consumer-centric conservation actions. PMID:26752642

  2. Effects of wearing knitted or rubber gloves on the transfer of Escherichia cohi between hands and meat.

    PubMed

    Gill, C O; Jones, T

    2002-06-01

    On eight occasions, five volunteers each handled five pieces of meat with bare hands or while wearing dry or wet knitted gloves or rubber gloves after hands had been inoculated with Escherichia coli or after handling a piece of meat inoculated with E. coli. On each occasion, after all meat was handled, each piece of meat, glove, and hand were sampled to recover E. coli. When hands were inoculated, E. coli was recovered from all meat handled with bare hands, in lesser numbers from some pieces handled with knitted gloves, and from only one piece handled with rubber gloves. When pieces of inoculated meat were handled, the numbers of E. coli transferred to uninoculated meat from bare hands or rubber gloves decreased substantially with each successive piece of uninoculated meat, but decreases were small with knitted gloves. The findings indicate that, compared with bare hands, the use of knitted gloves could reduce the transfer of bacteria from hands to meat but could increase the transfer of bacteria between meat pieces, whereas the use of rubber gloves could largely prevent the first and greatly reduce the second type of bacteria transfer. PMID:12092720

  3. Host iron status and iron supplementation mediate susceptibility to erythrocytic stage Plasmodium falciparum.

    PubMed

    Clark, Martha A; Goheen, Morgan M; Fulford, Anthony; Prentice, Andrew M; Elnagheeb, Marwa A; Patel, Jaymin; Fisher, Nancy; Taylor, Steve M; Kasthuri, Raj S; Cerami, Carla

    2014-01-01

    Iron deficiency and malaria have similar global distributions, and frequently co-exist in pregnant women and young children. Where both conditions are prevalent, iron supplementation is complicated by observations that iron deficiency anaemia protects against falciparum malaria, and that iron supplements increase susceptibility to clinically significant malaria, but the mechanisms remain obscure. Here, using an in vitro parasite culture system with erythrocytes from iron-deficient and replete human donors, we demonstrate that Plasmodium falciparum infects iron-deficient erythrocytes less efficiently. In addition, owing to merozoite preference for young erythrocytes, iron supplementation of iron-deficient individuals reverses the protective effects of iron deficiency. Our results provide experimental validation of field observations reporting protective effects of iron deficiency and harmful effects of iron administration on human malaria susceptibility. Because recovery from anaemia requires transient reticulocytosis, our findings imply that in malarious regions iron supplementation should be accompanied by effective measures to prevent falciparum malaria. PMID:25059846

  4. Iron status in the elderly

    PubMed Central

    Fairweather-Tait, Susan J.; Wawer, Anna A.; Gillings, Rachel; Jennings, Amy; Myint, Phyo K.

    2014-01-01

    Iron deficiency anaemia is prevalent in older age, particularly after the age of 80. Serum ferritin concentrations also decline, although there is no evidence to suggest that changes in iron stores are an inevitable consequence of ageing. Chronic inflammation is a common condition in older people, making the measurement of iron status difficult, and it is likely that elevated levels of circulating hepcidin are responsible for changes in iron metabolism that result in systemic iron depletion. Other contributory factors are poor diet and some medications, such as aspirin. Anaemia in older age has undesirable health outcomes, including increased susceptibility to falling and depression. However, there are concerns about possible adverse effects of iron supplements, either in relation to pro-inflammatory effects in the gut or inappropriate tissue iron deposition. Brain iron levels are increased with age-related degenerative diseases, but it is not known if this is the cause or a consequence of the disease, and genetic factors are likely to play a role. In order to maintain body iron within the normal range a personalised approach is required, taking into account all of the factors that may affect iron metabolism and the available strategies for preventing iron deficiency or overload. PMID:24275120

  5. Methylmercury concentrations in broiler's meat and hen's meat and eggs

    SciTech Connect

    Kambamanoli-Dimou, A. ); Kilikidis, S.; Kamarianos, A. )

    1989-05-01

    The concentration of mercury in food has been considered to present the greatest toxicological danger to the average citizen. The presence of mercury in foods has been reported in several studies. Much of the research has been carried out on total mercury concentration in foods and not on methylmercury concentration and as it is known methylmercury is the most dangerous form of mercury. Methylmercury, which is highly resistant to biodegradation, can be synthesized from any other form of mercury in the aquatic biosphere, can be bioconcentrated in the aquatic food chain and through fish-meals can be transported and concentrated in animals and their products. Such food chains, together with the various terrestrial food chains would represent a serious risk for man. This study was undertaken to determine the methylmercury levels in broiler's meat, hen's meat and eggs.

  6. Assessment of tolerance induction by Origanum vulgare L. essential oil or carvacrol in Pseudomonas aeruginosa cultivated in a meat-based broth and in a meat model.

    PubMed

    da Silva Luz, Isabelle; Gomes-Neto, Nelson Justino; Magnani, Marciane; de Souza, Evandro Leite

    2015-12-01

    This study assessed the efficacy of Origanum vulgare L. essential oil (OVEO) and carvacrol in inhibiting the growth of Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC 9027, as well as the development of direct tolerance and cross-tolerance when this bacterium was challenged with sublethal amounts of these substances in a meat-based broth and in a meat model. OVEO and carvacrol at their minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs), 1/2 MIC and 1/4 MIC decreased the viable cell counts of P. aeruginosa in meat-based broth. Direct tolerance or cross-tolerance was not induced after exposure of the assayed bacterial strain to sublethal amounts of OVEO or carvacrol in meat-based broth and in an artificially contaminated ground beef. Bacterial cells progressively subcultured in meat-based broth with increasing amounts of the tested substances survived up to the MIC of OVEO and to 1/2 MIC of carvacrol. The results reveal a lack of induction of tolerance in P. aeruginosa by exposure to OVEO or carvacrol in meat-based broth and in a meat model. PMID:25293767

  7. From meatless Mondays to meatless Sundays: motivations for meat reduction among vegetarians and semi-vegetarians who mildly or significantly reduce their meat intake.

    PubMed

    De Backer, Charlotte J S; Hudders, Liselot

    2014-01-01

    This study explores vegetarians' and semi-vegetarians' motives for reducing their meat intake. Participants are categorized as vegetarians (remove all meat from their diet); semi-vegetarians (significantly reduce meat intake: at least three days a week); or light semi-vegetarians (mildly reduce meat intake: once or twice a week). Most differences appear between vegetarians and both groups of semi-vegetarians. Animal-rights and ecological concerns, together with taste preferences, predict vegetarianism, while an increase in health motives increases the odds of being semi-vegetarian. Even within each group, subgroups with different motives appear, and it is recommended that future researchers pay more attention to these differences. PMID:25357269

  8. High intensity ultrasound effects on meat brining.

    PubMed

    Cárcel, J A; Benedito, J; Bon, J; Mulet, A

    2007-08-01

    Pork loin (longissimus dorsi) samples of two different geometries, cylinders and slabs, were immersed in saturated NaCl brine for 45min under different conditions: without brine agitation (STAT), with brine agitation (AG) and with ultrasound application (US) at eight levels of ultrasonic intensity. Moisture content change and NaCl gain were considered in order to evaluate the difference in the brining treatments. No significant differences were found in moisture and NaCl content of samples treated under STAT conditions and AG conditions, while the influence of ultrasound on the mass transfer process during meat brining depended on the intensity applied. There was an ultrasonic intensity threshold above which the influence of ultrasound appeared. At the highest level of intensity studied, the water content of samples was significantly higher than the initial water content of meat. As regards NaCl transfer, once above the intensity threshold, the increase in the NaCl content was proportional to the applied ultrasonic intensity. Not statistically significant differences were found for sample geometry. PMID:22061236

  9. [Identification and prevention of meat poisoning].

    PubMed

    van Logtestijn, J G; Koolmees, P A; Mossel, D A

    1987-09-15

    In this contribution to a series 'Papers of Yesterday and Today' a retrospective review of developments in the identification and control of meat 'poisoning' defined as infections and intoxications following the ingestion of bacteriologically unsound meat and meat products is presented. Starting from two classical Dutch papers, viz. by H. J. H. Stempel (1891) and K. Hoefnagel (1899) illustrating the knowledge of meat 'poisoning' acquired in the nineties of the 19th century, developments in the field of bacteriological research on meats and the resulting efforts to manage meat 'poisoning' are summarised. Attention is paid to the role of Dutch veterinarians in investigations on the aetiology of meat infections resulting in the adoption of legal meat inspection in 1922 and the ensuing reduction in the occurrence of mass outbreaks of meat poisoning. However, despite marked improvement of the standard of hygiene in the food industry in general and expert monitoring of meat production lines by veterinarians in particular, infections and intoxications transmitted by meat and meat products are still quite prevalent. Essentially, their management can only be achieved by strict adherence to Good Manufacturing Practices (GMP) throughout animal husbandry, slaughter, distribution and storage, termed longitudinally integrated safety assurance. Professional monitoring by an up-to-date meat inspection system, however, continues to be indispensable in the prevention of food-borne infections and intoxications. Some recommendations are made for effective intervention in the infection cycle of food-transmitted pathogens originating from the high infection pressure on slaughter lines, resulting from contamination acquired at previous stages of the animal production chain. PMID:3672466

  10. Effects of Dietary Selenium and Vitamin E on Growth Performance, Meat Yield, and Selenium Content and Lipid Oxidation of Breast Meat of Broilers Reared Under Heat Stress.

    PubMed

    Habibian, Mahmood; Ghazi, Shahab; Moeini, Mohammad Mehdi

    2016-01-01

    This study was conducted using 360 broiler chickens to evaluate the effects of dietary vitamin E (0, 125, and 250 mg/kg), selenium (0, 0.5, and 1 mg/kg), or their different combinations on performance, meat yield, and selenium content and lipid oxidation of breast meat of broilers raised under either a thermoneutral (TN, 24 °C constant) or heat stress (HS, 24 to 37 °C cycling) condition. There was a reduction (P < 0.05) in body weight and feed intake and an increase (P < 0.05) in feed conversion ratio when broilers exposed to HS. In the overall period of the study (1 to 49 days), growth performance of TN broilers was not affected (P < 0.05) by vitamin E and selenium supplementation. However, under HS condition, broilers receiving 250 mg/kg vitamin E and 0.5 mg/kg selenium consumed more (P < 0.05) feed than that of broilers receiving 250 mg/kg vitamin E alone, but similar (P > 0.05) to that of broilers receiving 250 mg/kg vitamin E and 1 mg/kg selenium. The malondialdehyde (MDA) content of the breast meat was increased (P < 0.05), but its selenium content was decreased (P < 0.05) by exposure to HS. The breast meat selenium content was increased (P < 0.05) by selenium supplementation. The breast meat selenium content was decreased (P < 0.05) by supplementation of 250 mg/kg vitamin E to diet of TN birds. However, the breast meat selenium content was increased (P < 0.05) by supplementation of vitamin E under HS condition. The breast meat MDA content was not affected (P > 0.05) by dietary treatments under TN condition. However, the breast meat MDA content was decreased (P < 0.05) by both vitamin E and selenium supplementation under HS condition, and the lowest MDA content was observed in the breast meat of broilers receiving combination of 125 mg/kg vitamin E and 1 mg/kg selenium. The results showed that supplementation of selenium and vitamin E was capable of increasing the selenium content of the breast meat and could improve the lipid

  11. Iron refractory iron deficiency anemia

    PubMed Central

    De Falco, Luigia; Sanchez, Mayka; Silvestri, Laura; Kannengiesser, Caroline; Muckenthaler, Martina U.; Iolascon, Achille; Gouya, Laurent; Camaschella, Clara; Beaumont, Carole

    2013-01-01

    Iron refractory iron deficiency anemia is a hereditary recessive anemia due to a defect in the TMPRSS6 gene encoding Matriptase-2. This protein is a transmembrane serine protease that plays an essential role in down-regulating hepcidin, the key regulator of iron homeostasis. Hallmarks of this disease are microcytic hypochromic anemia, low transferrin saturation and normal/high serum hepcidin values. The anemia appears in the post-natal period, although in some cases it is only diagnosed in adulthood. The disease is refractory to oral iron treatment but shows a slow response to intravenous iron injections and partial correction of the anemia. To date, 40 different Matriptase-2 mutations have been reported, affecting all the functional domains of the large ectodomain of the protein. In vitro experiments on transfected cells suggest that Matriptase-2 cleaves Hemojuvelin, a major regulator of hepcidin expression and that this function is altered in this genetic form of anemia. In contrast to the low/undetectable hepcidin levels observed in acquired iron deficiency, in patients with Matriptase-2 deficiency, serum hepcidin is inappropriately high for the low iron status and accounts for the absent/delayed response to oral iron treatment. A challenge for the clinicians and pediatricians is the recognition of the disorder among iron deficiency and other microcytic anemias commonly found in pediatric patients. The current treatment of iron refractory iron deficiency anemia is based on parenteral iron administration; in the future, manipulation of the hepcidin pathway with the aim of suppressing it might become an alternative therapeutic approach. PMID:23729726

  12. Effects of Different Complementary Feeding Regimens on Iron Status and Enteric Microbiota in Breastfed Infants

    PubMed Central

    Krebs, Nancy F.; Sherlock, Laurie G.; Westcott, Jamie; Culbertson, Diana; Hambidge, K. Michael; Feazel, Leah M.; Robertson, Charles E.; Frank, Daniel N.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives To compare iron status in breastfed infants randomized to complementary feeding regimens that provided iron from fortified infant cereals or meats, and examined the development of the enteric microbiota among groups. Study design Forty-five exclusively breastfed 5 month old infants were randomized to commercially available pureed meats, iron- and zinc-fortified infant cereals, or iron-only fortified infant cereals as the first and primary complementary food through 9–10 months of age. Dietary iron was determined by monthly 3-d diet records. Iron status was assessed at end of the study by hemoglobin (Hb), serum ferritin (SF), and soluble transferrin receptor (STfR) measurements. In a subsample 14 infants, enteric microbiota were profiled in monthly stool samples (5–9 mo) by 16S rRNA gene pyrosequencing. Results Infants in cereal groups had 2–3 fold greater daily iron intakes vs the meat group (P < 0.0001). 27% of participants had low SF, and 36% were mildly anemic, without significant differences by feeding group; more infants in meat group had high STfR (p=0.03). Sequence analysis identified differences by time and feeding group in the abundances of several bacterial groups, including significantly more abundant butyrate producing Clostridium Group XIVa in the meat group (P=0.01) Conclusions A high percentage of healthy infants who were breastfed-only were iron deficient, and complementary feeding, including iron exposure, influenced the development of the enteric microbiota. If these findings are confirmed, reconsideration of strategies to both meet infants’ iron requirements and optimize the developing microbiome may be warranted. PMID:23452586

  13. Color of Meat and Poultry

    MedlinePlus

    ... Administrative Forms Standard Forms Skip Navigation Z7_0Q0619C0JGR010IFST1G5B10H1 Web Content Viewer (JSR 286) Actions ${title} Loading... / Topics / ... The Color of Meat and Poultry Z7_0Q0619C0JGR010IFST1G5B10H3 Web Content Viewer (JSR 286) Actions ${title} Loading... Z7_ ...

  14. Navigating the maize between red meat and oncomirs.

    PubMed

    Thompson, Patricia A

    2014-08-01

    High red meat consumption is associated with increased risk of colorectal cancer. Various mechanisms have been proposed, including mutagenesis, alterations of the gut microbiome, and effects on local immunity and inflammation. This lack of well-defined mechanistic explanations for diet and cancer associations coupled with our inability to derive causal inferences from population-based studies allows us to rationalize that burger we ate at lunch or that steak we ate at dinner. The preparation and consumption of red meat is a major social and dining pleasure in the Western culture, so there is resistance to concern ourselves with the cancer risk associated with red meat. In fact, advertisements do not add a rapid-fire statement that consumption of more than half a portion of red meat per day has been associated with increased risk of cardiovascular disease, diabetes, cancer, and even death, because these data are not from randomized controlled trials? Would we heed a warning if there was evidence that burgers and steaks induced the expression of small noncoding RNAs that inhibit the expression of tumor-suppressor genes in our enterocytes? What level of evidence is necessary to convince ourselves that a dietary exposure is sufficiently causal to put a warning label on it? How do we experimentally obtain such evidence? If we knew the mechanism, perhaps we could modify the risk sufficiently such that we can have our steak and eat it too-without the warnings. PMID:25092885

  15. Iron and cancer: recent insights.

    PubMed

    Manz, David H; Blanchette, Nicole L; Paul, Bibbin T; Torti, Frank M; Torti, Suzy V

    2016-03-01

    Iron is an essential dietary element. However, the ability of iron to cycle between oxidized and reduced forms also renders it capable of contributing to free radical formation, which can have deleterious effects, including promutagenic effects that can potentiate tumor formation. Dysregulation of iron metabolism can increase cancer risk and promote tumor growth. Cancer cells exhibit an enhanced dependence on iron relative to their normal counterparts, a phenomenon we have termed iron addiction. Work conducted in the past few years has revealed new cellular processes and mechanisms that deepen our understanding of the link between iron and cancer. Control of iron efflux through the combined action of ferroportin, an iron efflux pump, and its regulator hepcidin appears to play an important role in tumorigenesis. Ferroptosis is a form of iron-dependent cell death involving the production of reactive oxygen species. Specific mechanisms involved in ferroptosis, including depletion of glutathione and inhibition of glutathione peroxidase 4, have been uncovered. Ferritinophagy is a newly identified mechanism for degradation of the iron storage protein ferritin. Perturbations of mechanisms that control transcripts encoding proteins that regulate iron have been observed in cancer cells, including differences in miRNA, methylation, and acetylation. These new insights may ultimately provide new therapeutic opportunities for treating cancer. PMID:26890363

  16. Chinese ethnic meat products: Continuity and development.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Weicai; Wen, Wenting; Deng, Yue; Tian, Yuanyuan; Sun, Honghu; Sun, Qun

    2016-10-01

    With their distinctive sensory characterizations and unique processing technologies, Chinese ethnic meat products possess great potential for development and continuity in modern China's meat industry. Due to the greater demand for meat products and higher quality and safety concerns in economically fast growing China, the development and continuity of ethnic meat products face its own unique challenges. In this review, the classification of typical ethnic products and their characteristics, and the research progress on their quality and processing technologies are discussed. The application of innovative and green technologies to improve the safety and quality of ethnic meat products for greater industrialization and sustainable development is highlighted. Furthermore, the strategy for promoting the production of Chinese ethnic meat products during the next five years is presented. PMID:27091319

  17. The Ethics of Producing In Vitro Meat

    PubMed Central

    Schaefer, G Owen; Savulescu, Julian

    2014-01-01

    The prospect of consumable meat produced in a laboratory setting without the need to raise and slaughter animals is both realistic and exciting. Not only could such in vitro meat become popular due to potential cost savings, but it also avoids many of the ethical and environmental problems with traditional meat productions. However, as with any new technology, in vitro meat is likely to face some detractors. We examine in detail three potential objections: 1) in vitro meat is disrespectful, either to nature or to animals; 2) it will reduce the number of happy animals in the world; and 3) it will open the door to cannibalism. While each objection has some attraction, we ultimately find that all can be overcome. The upshot is that in vitro meat production is generally permissible and, especially for ethical vegetarians, worth promoting. PMID:25954058

  18. Differences between spent hens of different genotype in performance, meat yield and suitability of the meat for sausage production.

    PubMed

    Loetscher, Y; Albiker, D; Stephan, R; Kreuzer, M; Messikommer, R E

    2015-02-01

    storage, TBARS increased continuously, but not to an extent that would prevent its use as food. The sausages from the ISA Warren genotype had marginally higher TBARS levels during storage. Total colony counts decreased with storage time, with slightly lower values found in the non-spiced sausage material from the ISA Warren hens. In conclusion, when intending to use spent hens as food, ISA Warren are clearly superior to Dekalb White in meat and sausage yield. When processing the meat to sausages, the higher shear energy is probably advantageous. PMID:25288104

  19. Composition and Fatty Acid Profile of Goat Meat Sausages with Added Rice Bran

    PubMed Central

    Gebrelul, Sebhatu

    2014-01-01

    A scientific consensus on the relationship between obesity, obesity related diseases, and diet has emerged. One of the factors is overconsumption of the red meats such as pork and beef. Goat meat has the potential to replace these traditionally consumed meats. Rice bran is a rich source of antioxidants such as vitamin E. In this study, goat meat sausages were formulated to contain 0, 1.5 or 3 percent stabilized rice bran. Proximate and fatty acid composition, α-tocopherol, cholesterol concentration, and antioxidant activities of cooked goat meat sausages containing varying percentages of rice bran were measured. Data were analyzed using a fixed effects model. The fat percentage in the goat meat sausages increased in response to increasing rice bran percentages (P < 0.001). Saturated fatty acids concentration decreased linearly (P < 0.01), while unsaturated fatty acids and omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acids increased linearly in response to increasing rice bran percentages (P < 0.05). The concentration of α-tocopherol in sausages increased linearly in response to increasing rice bran percentages (P < 0.01). Also, antioxidant activity increased linearly in sausages in response to added rice bran (P < 0.01). The cholesterol concentration of sausages did not vary significantly in response to added rice bran. PMID:26904643

  20. 9 CFR 311.38 - Meat and meat byproducts from livestock which have been exposed to radiation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Meat and meat byproducts from... MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION DISPOSAL OF DISEASED OR OTHERWISE ADULTERATED CARCASSES AND PARTS § 311.38 Meat and meat byproducts from livestock which have...

  1. 9 CFR 311.38 - Meat and meat byproducts from livestock which have been exposed to radiation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Meat and meat byproducts from... MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION DISPOSAL OF DISEASED OR OTHERWISE ADULTERATED CARCASSES AND PARTS § 311.38 Meat and meat byproducts from livestock which have...

  2. 9 CFR 311.38 - Meat and meat byproducts from livestock which have been exposed to radiation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Meat and meat byproducts from... MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION DISPOSAL OF DISEASED OR OTHERWISE ADULTERATED CARCASSES AND PARTS § 311.38 Meat and meat byproducts from livestock which have...

  3. 9 CFR 311.38 - Meat and meat byproducts from livestock which have been exposed to radiation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Meat and meat byproducts from... MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION DISPOSAL OF DISEASED OR OTHERWISE ADULTERATED CARCASSES AND PARTS § 311.38 Meat and meat byproducts from livestock which have...

  4. 9 CFR 311.38 - Meat and meat byproducts from livestock which have been exposed to radiation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Meat and meat byproducts from... MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION DISPOSAL OF DISEASED OR OTHERWISE ADULTERATED CARCASSES AND PARTS § 311.38 Meat and meat byproducts from livestock which have...

  5. Iron deficiency in pregnancy

    PubMed Central

    McMahon, Lawrence P

    2010-01-01

    Iron deficiency (ID) and related anaemia (IDA) during pregnancy are highly prevalent worldwide in both developed and developing nations although the causes are often different. At conception, many women lack sufficient iron stores to meet the increased requirements of pregnancy, which are calculated at approximately 1200 mg. Appraisal of iron status in pregnant women is problematic, however the most reliable available diagnostic test is a serum ferritin < 20 µg/L. ID is often associated with other nutritional disorders, and there is frequently a secondary cause or association. A greater oral intake is usually insufficient to meet the increased demands of pregnancy, however regular oral supplements (given either daily or intermittently) can often meet maternal needs and avoid associated neonatal complications of IDA. Over-treatment with iron should be avoided, but intravenous administration is useful when deficiency is discovered late, is severe, or if the woman is intolerant of oral formulations. This paper reviews the current literature, and addresses differences in the prevalence and causes of ID betwen developed and developing nations. It examines gestational iron requirements, distinguishes between ID and IDA, and highlights difficulties in diagnostic testing. Finally, it appraises the evidence for and against different treatment regimens, ranging from food fortification to intravenous iron infusions, according to availability and to need.

  6. Health Risks Associated with Meat Consumption: A Review of Epidemiological Studies.

    PubMed

    Battaglia Richi, Evelyne; Baumer, Beatrice; Conrad, Beatrice; Darioli, Roger; Schmid, Alexandra; Keller, Ulrich

    2015-01-01

    Recent evidence from large prospective US and European cohort studies and from meta-analyses of epidemiological studies indicates that the long-term consumption of increasing amounts of red meat and particularly of processed meat is associated with an increased risk of total mortality, cardiovascular disease, colorectal cancer and type 2 diabetes, in both men and women. The association persists after inclusion of known confounding factors, such as age, race, BMI, history, smoking, blood pressure, lipids, physical activity and multiple nutritional parameters in multivariate analysis. The association has not always been noted with red meat, and it has been absent with white meat. There is evidence of several mechanisms for the observed adverse effects that might be involved, however, their individual role is not defined at present. It is concluded that recommendations for the consumption of unprocessed red meat and particularly of processed red meat should be more restrictive than existing recommendations. Restrictive recommendations should not be applied to subjects above about 70 years of age, as the studies quoted herein did not examine this age group, and the inclusion of sufficient protein supply (e. g. in the form of meat) is particularly important in the elderly. PMID:26780279

  7. The effects of quercetin dietary supplementation on broiler growth performance, meat quality, and oxidative stability.

    PubMed

    Goliomytis, M; Tsoureki, D; Simitzis, P E; Charismiadou, M A; Hager-Theodorides, A L; Deligeorgis, S G

    2014-08-01

    The present study was conducted to describe the effects of quercetin dietary supplementation, at levels of 0.5 and 1 g/kg of feed, on growth performance, internal organ weights, meat quality, and meat oxidative stability during storage of broiler chickens reared from hatching to 42 d of age. Body weight and cumulative feed intake were not affected by quercetin supplementation (P > 0.05). However, poorer feed conversion ratio values were obtained with increasing levels of dietary quercetin (P-linear < 0.05). Relative heart weight was significantly higher for chickens that were given quercetin in comparison with the controls (P < 0.05). The rest of the internal organ weights measured (liver, spleen, and fat pad) and meat quality traits were not affected by dietary supplementation with quercetin, except for meat lightness and redness. Meat oxidative stability, expressed as nanograms of malondialdehyde per gram of meat, was improved (P < 0.05) during refrigerated storage for 3 and 9 d, when birds were fed quercetin at a level of 1 g/kg of feed. It is concluded that the incorporation of quercetin in broiler diets could prolong meat shelf life by reducing the rate of lipid oxidation, and increase relative heart weight, potentially contributing to improved animal health. PMID:24894531

  8. Novel trends in development of dietary fiber rich meat products-a critical review.

    PubMed

    Mehta, Nitin; Ahlawat, S S; Sharma, D P; Dabur, R S

    2015-02-01

    Meat and meat products are generally recognized as good sources of high biological value proteins, fat-soluble vitamins, minerals, trace elements and bioactive compounds. Changes in socioeconomic factors in recent years have increased the consumer's preference for ready to eat foods including meat products. The processing of meat and meat products leads to generation of many functional compounds beneficial to human health but most of those foods are rich in fat, added salts but deficient in complex carbohydrates like dietary fiber and pose a health hazard that somehow is proved to be a predisposing factor for cardiovascular diseases, colon cancer, obesity including diabetes mellitus. With increasing consciousness among consumers about their nutrition and well being, there is a growing concern over nutritional diseases of affluence. Therefore an increase in dietary fiber inclusion in daily diet has been recommended. For adults, the recommended acceptable intakes of dietary fiber are 28-36 g/day, 70-80 % of which must be insoluble fiber. The insoluble fraction of dietary fiber has been related to intestinal regulation whereas soluble fiber is associated with decrease in cholesterol level and absorption of intestinal glucose. So incorporation of dietary fibers from different sources in meat products would help to enhance their desirability. Dietary fiber sources are generally agricultural byproducts that are comparatively cheap and incorporation in meat products reduces its overall cost. Whole grains and cereal brans are the rich source of insoluble fiber and pectins, gums, starch and other storage polysaccharides have high content of the soluble fraction. With this background, the effect of various dietary fibers on the quality attributes of meat and meat products with its physiological role has been reviewed here. PMID:25694673

  9. Iron metabolism in obesity: how interaction between homoeostatic mechanisms can interfere with their original purpose. Part II: epidemiological and historic aspects of the iron/obesity interaction.

    PubMed

    Becker, Christiane; Orozco, Mónica; Solomons, Noel W; Schümann, Klaus

    2015-04-01

    The change from a mainly vegetarian fare to meat consumption went along with brain growth and increased insulin resistance to improve brain's glucose supply. Meat consumption increased iron bioavailability and, thus, physical and mental fitness. The "predation-release-hypothesis" proposes that group coordination, arms and fire abolished the survival advantage of lean individuals from predation. The "thrifty gene-hypothesis", in contrast, proposes that surviving repeated episodes of starvation increased efficiency of food utilization in the offspring; they learned to utilize every available calorie. As a consequence of either mechanism, improved food security will increase prevalence of obesity along with that of its fatal consequences, such as diabetes, hypertension, heart diseases, and cancer. Thus, improved food security collides with the biologically evolved mechanisms to store excessive calories in preparation for a famine that never came. The crash between homoeostatic mechanisms and human intervention caused the presently observed pandemia of obesity and explains why it is so difficult to avoid, in spite of its well known and often fatal consequences. PMID:25467852

  10. 9 CFR 319.761 - Potted meat food product and deviled meat food product.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Potted meat food product and deviled meat food product. 319.761 Section 319.761 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND...

  11. 9 CFR 319.761 - Potted meat food product and deviled meat food product.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Potted meat food product and deviled meat food product. 319.761 Section 319.761 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND...

  12. 9 CFR 319.311 - Chow mein vegetables with meat, and chop suey vegetables with meat.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Chow mein vegetables with meat, and chop suey vegetables with meat. 319.311 Section 319.311 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND...

  13. 9 CFR 319.311 - Chow mein vegetables with meat, and chop suey vegetables with meat.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Chow mein vegetables with meat, and chop suey vegetables with meat. 319.311 Section 319.311 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND...

  14. 9 CFR 319.311 - Chow mein vegetables with meat, and chop suey vegetables with meat.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Chow mein vegetables with meat, and chop suey vegetables with meat. 319.311 Section 319.311 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND...

  15. 9 CFR 319.311 - Chow mein vegetables with meat, and chop suey vegetables with meat.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Chow mein vegetables with meat, and chop suey vegetables with meat. 319.311 Section 319.311 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND...

  16. 9 CFR 319.311 - Chow mein vegetables with meat, and chop suey vegetables with meat.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Chow mein vegetables with meat, and chop suey vegetables with meat. 319.311 Section 319.311 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND...

  17. 9 CFR 319.761 - Potted meat food product and deviled meat food product.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Potted meat food product and deviled meat food product. 319.761 Section 319.761 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND...

  18. 9 CFR 319.761 - Potted meat food product and deviled meat food product.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Potted meat food product and deviled meat food product. 319.761 Section 319.761 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND...

  19. 9 CFR 319.761 - Potted meat food product and deviled meat food product.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Potted meat food product and deviled meat food product. 319.761 Section 319.761 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND...

  20. 19 CFR 4.72 - Inspection of meat, meat-food products, and inedible fats.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ..., Meat and Poultry Inspection (9 CFR part 322). If such certificate has been obtained but is unavailable... 19 Customs Duties 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Inspection of meat, meat-food products, and... SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY VESSELS IN FOREIGN AND DOMESTIC TRADES Foreign Clearances §...

  1. 19 CFR 4.72 - Inspection of meat, meat-food products, and inedible fats.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ..., Meat and Poultry Inspection (9 CFR part 322). If such certificate has been obtained but is unavailable... 19 Customs Duties 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Inspection of meat, meat-food products, and... SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY VESSELS IN FOREIGN AND DOMESTIC TRADES Foreign Clearances §...

  2. 19 CFR 4.72 - Inspection of meat, meat-food products, and inedible fats.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ..., Meat and Poultry Inspection (9 CFR part 322). If such certificate has been obtained but is unavailable... 19 Customs Duties 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Inspection of meat, meat-food products, and... SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY VESSELS IN FOREIGN AND DOMESTIC TRADES Foreign Clearances §...

  3. 19 CFR 4.72 - Inspection of meat, meat-food products, and inedible fats.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ..., Meat and Poultry Inspection (9 CFR part 322). If such certificate has been obtained but is unavailable... 19 Customs Duties 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Inspection of meat, meat-food products, and... SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY VESSELS IN FOREIGN AND DOMESTIC TRADES Foreign Clearances §...

  4. 19 CFR 4.72 - Inspection of meat, meat-food products, and inedible fats.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ..., Meat and Poultry Inspection (9 CFR part 322). If such certificate has been obtained but is unavailable... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Inspection of meat, meat-food products, and... SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY VESSELS IN FOREIGN AND DOMESTIC TRADES Foreign Clearances §...

  5. Iron-control additives improve acidizing

    SciTech Connect

    Walker, M.; Dill, W. ); Besler, M. )

    1989-07-24

    Iron sulfide and sulfur precipitation in sour wells can be controlled with iron-sequestering agents and sulfide modifiers. Oil production has been routinely increased in sour wells where precipitation of iron sulfide and elemental sulfur has been brought under control. Production increases have been especially noteworthy on wells that had a history of rapid production decline after acid stimulation. Twenty-fold production increases have been recorded. Key to the production increase has been to increase permeability with: Iron chelating agents that control precipitation of iron sulfide. A sulfide modifier that reduces precipitation of solids in the presence of excessive amounts of hydrogen sulfide and prevents precipitation of elemental sulfur.

  6. Overview of current meat hygiene and safety risks and summary of recent studies on biofilms, and control of Escherichia coli O157:H7 in nonintact, and Listeria monocytogenes in ready-to-eat, meat products.

    PubMed

    Sofos, John N; Geornaras, Ifigenia

    2010-09-01

    As meat consumption is increasing around the world, so do concerns and challenges to meat hygiene and safety. These concerns are mostly of a biological nature and include bacterial pathogens, such as Escherichia coli O157:H7, Salmonella and Campylobacter in raw meat and poultry, and Listeria monocytogenes in ready-to-eat processed products, while viral pathogens are of major concern at foodservice. A major goal of scientists, industry, public health and regulatory authorities is to control pathogenic microorganisms and improve meat product hygiene and safety within a country and internationally. This paper is not a comprehensive or critical review of the scientific literature on the broad area of meat hygiene and safety, but it provides an overview of major current meat hygiene and safety issues, and then a summary of studies on biofilm formation by pathogens, control of E. coli O157:H7 in nonintact meat products, and control of L. monocytogenes in ready-to-eat meat products, conducted at the Center for Meat Safety & Quality and Food Safety Cluster of Colorado State University in recent years. PMID:20510532

  7. Factors affecting conjugated linoleic acid content in milk and meat.

    PubMed

    Dhiman, Tilak R; Nam, Seung-Hee; Ure, Amy L

    2005-01-01

    Conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) has been recently studied mainly because of its potential in protecting against cancer, atherogenesis, and diabetes. Conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) is a collective term for a series of conjugated dienoic positional and geometrical isomers of linoleic acid, which are found in relative abundance in milk and tissue fat of ruminants compared with other foods. The cis-9, trans-11 isomer is the principle dietary form of CLA found in ruminant products and is produced by partial ruminal biohydrogenation of linoleic acid or by endogenous synthesis in the tissues themselves. The CLA content in milk and meat is affected by several factors, such as animal's breed, age, diet, and management factors related to feed supplements affecting the diet. Conjugated linoleic acid in milk or meat has been shown to be a stable compound under normal cooking and storage conditions. Total CLA content in milk or dairy products ranges from 0.34 to 1.07% of total fat. Total CLA content in raw or processed beef ranges from 0.12 to 0.68% of total fat. It is currently estimated that the average adult consumes only one third to one half of the amount of CLA that has been shown to reduce cancer in animal studies. For this reason, increasing the CLA contents of milk and meat has the potential to raise the nutritive and therapeutic values of dairy products and meat. PMID:16183568

  8. Red meat consumption and healthy ageing: A review.

    PubMed

    Kouvari, Matina; Tyrovolas, Stefanos; Panagiotakos, Demosthenes B

    2016-02-01

    According to World Health Organization older individuals is the fastest growing age-group around the globe, thanks to the tremendous improvements in medical and pharmaceutical therapies, as well as in quality of life. Unfortunately, this raise in life span is accompanied by significant increase in disease burden, and consequent economical costs. Lifestyle modifications and effective prevention strategies have shown considerable benefits as regards the development of age-oriented chronic diseases. Among lifestyle factors, nutrition is a key component for achieving good health. Nevertheless, this parameter has insufficiently been investigated in older people. This is a rather important scientific gap, considering the westernization of nutritional habits observed the last few decades, with high red meat consumption and its processed products being an indispensable part. Moreover, its adverse impact in cardiovascular disease and cancer has been extensively investigated, while in recent literature, interest has been remarkably oriented towards its subtypes (i.e., fresh and processed); however, outcomes as regards the older population are controversial with a variety of them proposing moderation of red meat mainly the processed type, whilst others recognizing fresh red meat, especially the lean type, an important source of high quality protein so as to manage muscle tissue loss, a common implication of advanced-age discount. The aim of the present review was to present an overview of studies which have investigated the association between red meat and its subtypes, with chronic diseases, in middle and advanced age individuals. PMID:26642896

  9. Low temperature cooking of pork meat - Physicochemical and sensory aspects.

    PubMed

    Becker, André; Boulaaba, Annika; Pingen, Sylvia; Krischek, Carsten; Klein, Günter

    2016-08-01

    Low-temperature cooking is increasingly used in the food sector. This study compared three different low temperature heating methods and one conventional cooking procedure of pork meat in a combi steamer with special emphasis on sensory parameters. Low temperature, long time (LTLT) treatments over 20h at 53°C or 58°C (LTLT 53°C or 58°C) showed considerable effects on meat tenderization. Heating to a core temperature of 60°C (low temperature method=LT) at 60°C oven temperature resulted in less tender but clearly juicier meat. LTLT 53°C and LT were evaluated as being equally acceptable by the panelists. The tenderest meat (LTLT 58°C) was mainly rejected because of a crumbly and dry mouth feeling. Conventional heating to a core temperature of 80°C at 180°C oven temperature resulted in low eating quality due to high toughness and low juiciness. PMID:27060409

  10. New insights into meat by-product utilization.

    PubMed

    Toldrá, Fidel; Mora, Leticia; Reig, Milagro

    2016-10-01

    Meat industry generates large volumes of by-products like blood, bones, meat trimmings, skin, fatty tissues, horns, hoofs, feet, skull and viscera among others that are costly to be treated and disposed ecologically. These costs can be balanced through innovation to generate added value products that increase its profitability. Rendering results in feed ingredients for livestock, poultry and aquaculture as well as for pet foods. Energy valorization can be obtained through the thermochemical processing of meat and bone meal or the use of waste animal fats for the production of biodiesel. More recently, new applications have been reported like the production of polyhydroxyalkanoates as alternative to plastics produced from petroleum. Other interesting valorization strategies are based on the hydrolysis of by-products to obtain added value products like bioactive peptides with relevant physiological effects as antihypertensive, antioxidant, antidiabetic, antimicrobial, etc. with promising applications in the food, pharmaceutical and cosmetics industry. This paper reports and discusses the latest developments and trends in the use and valorisation of meat industry by-products. PMID:27156911

  11. Tenacity of Alaria alata mesocercariae in homemade German meat products.

    PubMed

    González-Fuentes, Hiromi; Hamedy, Ahmad; von Borell, Eberhard; Luecker, Ernst; Riehn, Katharina

    2014-04-17

    A renewed interest in the pathogenic potential of Alaria alata mesocercariae emerged over the last 10years as a result of increased findings of this parasite in feral pigs during official examination for Trichinella spp. Cases of food associated human alariosis in North America suggest that a risk associated with the consumption of traditional raw cured products from infected wild boar meat cannot be neglected because the commonly applied preservation techniques may not necessarily kill the mesocercariae. In addition, changes in consumer behavior and new preparation methods for game meat (e.g. pink roasting and grilling) may increase the risk for food-associated parasitic infections. Thus, there is a strong need for the evaluation of the tenacity of A. alata mesocercariae against different physical and chemical influences as pertaining to common preservation and preparation techniques. Against this backdrop the aim of our work was a sound analysis of the survivability of A. alata mesocercariae during curing, fermentation, cold smoking and drying in raw cured meat products. Eighty three samples of traditional German meat products were prepared from naturally infected game meat and partly spiked with additional vital mesocercariae to achieve an adequate dose of infection. The resultant products were examined chronologically for dead and viable A. alata mesocercariae with the Alaria mesocercariae migration technique. After 24h of production, vital A. alata mesocercariae were still found in raw type sausages but no vital parasites were detected in the final products. Based on these results a possible risk for the consumer for an infection with A. alata mesocercariae through the consumption of contaminated raw cured products can be largely ruled out if the respective food technological procedures are carried out properly. However, a risk for the consumer cannot be excluded in cases of very early consumption of these products. PMID:24553052

  12. The efficacy of a vitamin D(3) metabolite for improving the myofibrillar tenderness of meat from Bos indicus cattle.

    PubMed

    Lawrence, R W; Doyle, J; Elliott, R; Loxton, I; McMeniman, J P; Norton, B W; Reid, D J; Tume, R W

    2006-01-01

    The influence of a once only administration of a metabolite of vitamin D(3) (HY·D(®)-25-hydroxy vitamin D(3)) on myofibrillar meat tenderness in Australian Brahman cattle was studied. Ninety-six Brahman steers of three phenotypes (Indo-Brazil, US and US/European) and with two previous hormonal growth promotant (HGP) histories (implanted or not implanted with Compudose(®)) were fed a standard feedlot ration for 70d. Treatment groups of 24 steers were offered daily 10g/head HY·D(®) (125mg 25-hydroxyvitamin D(3)) for 6, 4, or 2d before slaughter. One other group of 24 steers was given the basal diet without HY·D(®). Feed lot performance, blood and muscle samples and carcass quality data were collected at slaughter. Calcium, magnesium, potassium, sodium, iron and Vitamin D(3) metabolites were measured in plasma and longissimus dorsi muscle. Warner-Bratzler (WB) shear force (peak force, initial yield) and other objective meat quality measurements were made on the longissimus dorsi muscle of each steer after ageing for 1, 7 and 14d post-mortem at 0-2°C. There were no significant effects of HY·D(®) supplements on average daily gain (ADG, 1.28-1.45kg/d) over the experimental period. HY·D(®) supplements given 6d prior to slaughter resulted in significantly higher (P<0.05) initial yield values compared to supplements given 2d prior to slaughter. Supplementation had no significant effect on meat colour, ultimate pH, sarcomere length, cooking loss, instron compression or peak force. There was a significant treatment (HY·D(®)) by phenotype/HGP interaction for peak force (P=0.028), in which Indo-Brazil steers without previous HGP treatment responded positively (increased tenderness) to HY·D(®) supplements at 2d when compared with Indo-Brazil steers previously given HGP. There were no significant effects of treatment on other phenotypes. HY·D(®) supplements did not affect muscle or plasma concentrations of calcium, potassium or sodium, but did significantly

  13. Antibody-mediated targeting of iron oxide nanoparticles to the folate receptor alpha increases tumor cell association in vitro and in vivo

    PubMed Central

    Ndong, Christian; Toraya-Brown, Seiko; Kekalo, Katsiaryna; Baker, Ian; Gerngross, Tillman U; Fiering, Steven N; Griswold, Karl E

    2015-01-01

    Active molecular targeting has become an important aspect of nanoparticle development for oncology indications. Here, we describe molecular targeting of iron oxide nanoparticles (IONPs) to the folate receptor alpha (FOLRα) using an engineered antibody fragment (Ffab). Compared to control nanoparticles targeting the non-relevant botulinum toxin, the Ffab-IONP constructs selectively accumulated on FOLRα-overexpressing cancer cells in vitro, where they exhibited the capacity to internalize into intracellular vesicles. Similarly, Ffab-IONPs homed to FOLRα-positive tumors upon intraperitoneal administration in an orthotopic murine xenograft model of ovarian cancer, whereas negative control particles showed no detectable tumor accumulation. Interestingly, Ffab-IONPs built with custom 120 nm nanoparticles exhibited lower in vitro targeting efficiency when compared to those built with commercially sourced 180 nm nanoparticles. In vivo, however, the two Ffab-IONP platforms achieved equivalent tumor homing, although the smaller 120 nm IONPs were more prone to liver sequestration. Overall, the results show that Ffab-mediated targeting of IONPs yields specific, high-level accumulation within cancer cells, and this fact suggests that Ffab-IONPs could have future utility in ovarian cancer diagnostics and therapy. PMID:25878495

  14. Cured Meat Consumption, Lung Function, and Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease among United States Adults

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Rui; Paik, David C.; Hankinson, John L.; Barr, R. Graham

    2007-01-01

    Rationale: Cured meats are high in nitrites. Nitrites generate reactive nitrogen species that may cause nitrative and nitrosative damage to the lung resulting in emphysema. Objective: To test the hypothesis that frequent consumption of cured meats is associated with lower lung function and increased odds of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Methods: Cross-sectional study of 7,352 participants in the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 45 years of age or more, who had adequate measures of cured meat, fish, fruit, and vegetable intake, and spirometry. Results: After adjustment for age, smoking, and multiple other potential confounders, frequency of cured meat consumption was inversely associated with FEV1 and FEV1/FVC but not FVC. The adjusted differences in FEV1 between individuals who did not consume cured meats and those who consumed cured meats 1 to 2, 3 to 4, 5 to 13, and 14 or more times per month were −37.6, −11.5, −42.0, and −110 ml, respectively (p for trend < 0.001). Corresponding differences for FEV1/FVC were −0.91, −0.54, −1.13, and −2.13% (p for trend = 0.001). These associations were not modified by smoking status. The multivariate odds ratio for COPD (FEV1/FVC ⩽ 0.7 and FEV1 < 80% predicted) was 1.78 (95% confidence interval, 1.29–2.47) comparing the highest with the lowest category of cured meat consumption. The corresponding odds ratios for mild, moderate, and severe COPD were 1.11, 1.46, and 2.41, respectively. Conclusions: Frequent cured meat consumption was associated independently with an obstructive pattern of lung function and increased odds of COPD. Additional studies are required to determine if cured meat consumption is a causal risk factor for COPD. PMID:17255565

  15. Effect of Duck Feet Gelatin Concentration on Physicochemical, Textural, and Sensory Properties of Duck Meat Jellies

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    This study was conducted to determine the effect of duck feet gelatin concentration on the physicochemical, textural and sensory properties of duck meat jellies. Duck feet gelatin was prepared with acidic swelling and hot water extraction. In this study, four duck meat jellies were formulated with 3, 4, 5, and 6% duck feet gelatin, respectively. In the preliminary experiment, the increase in duck feet gelatin ranged from 5 to 20%, resulting in a significant (p<0.001) increase in the color score, but a decline in the hardness and dispersibility satisfaction scores. An increase in the added amount of duck feet gelatin contributed to decreased lightness and increased protein content in duck meat jellies. Regarding the textural properties, increase in the added amount of duck feet gelatin highly correlated with the hardness in the center (p<0.01, R2=0.91), and edge (p<0.01, R2=0.89), of duck meat jellies. Meanwhile, the increase in duck feet gelatin decreased the score for textural satisfaction; duck meat jellies containing 6% duck feet gelatin had a significantly lower textural satisfaction score, than those containing 3% duck feet gelatin (p<0.05). Furthermore, a significant difference in the overall acceptance of duck meat jellies formulated with 5% duck feet gelatin was observed, as compared to those prepared with 3% duck feet gelatin. Therefore, this study suggested that duck feet gelatin is a useful ingredient for manufacturing cold-cut meat products. In consideration of the sensory acceptance, the optimal level of duck feet gelatin in duck meat jellies was determined to be 5%. PMID:26761181

  16. Genome-wide Association Study of Integrated Meat Quality-related Traits of the Duroc Pig Breed.

    PubMed

    Lee, Taeheon; Shin, Dong-Hyun; Cho, Seoae; Kang, Hyun Sung; Kim, Sung Hoon; Lee, Hak-Kyo; Kim, Heebal; Seo, Kang-Seok

    2014-03-01

    The increasing importance of meat quality has implications for animal breeding programs. Research has revealed much about the genetic background of pigs, and many studies have revealed the importance of various genetic factors. Since meat quality is a complex trait which is affected by many factors, consideration of the overall phenotype is very useful to study meat quality. For integrating the phenotypes, we used principle component analysis (PCA). The significant SNPs refer to results of the GRAMMAR method against PC1, PC2 and PC3 of 14 meat quality traits of 181 Duroc pigs. The Genome-wide association study (GWAS) found 26 potential SNPs affecting various meat quality traits. The loci identified are located in or near 23 genes. The SNPs associated with meat quality are in or near five genes (ANK1, BMP6, SHH, PIP4K2A, and FOXN2) and have been reported previously. Twenty-five of the significant SNPs also located in meat quality-related QTL regions, these result supported the QTL effect indirectly. Each single gene typically affects multiple traits. Therefore, it is a useful approach to use integrated traits for the various traits at the same time. This innovative approach using integrated traits could be applied on other GWAS of complex-traits including meat-quality, and the results will contribute to improving meat-quality of pork. PMID:25049955

  17. Factors associated with the purchase of designation of origin lamb meat.

    PubMed

    Sepúlveda, Wilmer S; Maza, María T; Mantecón, Angel R

    2010-05-01

    As in other products, quality labels that designate the origin of lamb meat are increasingly used by consumers as a cue for inferring the quality of the meat. The aim of the present paper is to identify those factors that most affect the purchase of lamb with an origin quality label. For this purpose a total of 371 questionnaires were carried out in the region of Aragón located in the north east of Spain. This region produces 48.5% of the total amount of lamb meat with a Spanish protected geographical indication, whilst it also has the country's greatest per capita consumption (6.8 kg/person/year). To identify the most determining factors a logistic regression analysis was performed between three groups of buyers, characterised by their degree of loyalty towards purchasing origin quality-labelled lamb. The results show that those buyers who are less loyal to the label pay less attention to the origin of the meat when forming quality expectations at the time of purchase, whilst these are the buyers that place greatest importance on animal feeding as an aspect affecting the final quality of lamb meat. The buyers that are very loyal to the quality label associate this label with a product that offers greater guarantees and is healthier. Lamb meat buyers with medium loyalty to quality labels, consider quality-labelled lamb meat has better intrinsic attributes. PMID:20374881

  18. Dietary soy and meat proteins induce distinct physiological and gene expression changes in rats

    PubMed Central

    Song, Shangxin; Hooiveld, Guido J.; Li, Mengjie; Zhao, Fan; Zhang, Wei; Xu, Xinglian; Muller, Michael; Li, Chunbao; Zhou, Guanghong

    2016-01-01

    This study reports on a comprehensive comparison of the effects of soy and meat proteins given at the recommended level on physiological markers of metabolic syndrome and the hepatic transcriptome. Male rats were fed semi-synthetic diets for 1 wk that differed only regarding protein source, with casein serving as reference. Body weight gain and adipose tissue mass were significantly reduced by soy but not meat proteins. The insulin resistance index was improved by soy, and to a lesser extent by meat proteins. Liver triacylglycerol contents were reduced by both protein sources, which coincided with increased plasma triacylglycerol concentrations. Both soy and meat proteins changed plasma amino acid patterns. The expression of 1571 and 1369 genes were altered by soy and meat proteins respectively. Functional classification revealed that lipid, energy and amino acid metabolic pathways, as well as insulin signaling pathways were regulated differently by soy and meat proteins. Several transcriptional regulators, including NFE2L2, ATF4, Srebf1 and Rictor were identified as potential key upstream regulators. These results suggest that soy and meat proteins induce distinct physiological and gene expression responses in rats and provide novel evidence and suggestions for the health effects of different protein sources in human diets. PMID:26857845

  19. Antioxidant Enzyme Activity and Meat Quality of Meat Type Ducks Fed with Dried Oregano (Origanum vulgare L.) Powder

    PubMed Central

    Park, J. H.; Kang, S. N.; Shin, D.; Shim, K. S.

    2015-01-01

    One-day-old Cherry valley meat-strain ducks were used to investigate the effect of supplemental dried oregano powder (DOP) in feed on the productivity, antioxidant enzyme activity, and breast meat quality. One hundred sixty five ducks were assigned to 5 dietary treatments for 42 days. The dietary treatment groups were control group (CON; no antibiotic, no DOP), antibiotic group (ANT; CON+0.1% Patrol), 0.1% DOP (CON+0.1% DOP), 0.5% DOP (CON+0.5% DOP), and 1.0% DOP (CON+1.0% DOP). Upon feeding, 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl-hydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging activity of oregano extracts was higher than that of tocopherol, although it was less than that of ascorbic acid. As a result of in vivo study, DOP in the diet showed no effects on final body weight, feed intake, or feed conversion ratio. However, dietary 0.5% and 1% DOP supplementation caused a significant increase in the serum enzyme activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD) compared with CON and ANT, while glutathione peroxidase (GPx) in tissue was increased as compared to ANT (p<0.05). Cooking loss from ducks fed with DOP decreased compared with the control ducks. Thiobarbituric acid reactive substance (TBARS) values of duck breast meat at 5 d post slaughter was found to be significantly reduced in ducks whose diets were supplemented with 0.5% and 1% DOP (p<0.05). These results suggest that diets containing 0.5% and 1% DOP may beneficially affect antioxidant enzyme activity of GPx and SOD, improve meat cooking loss, and reduce TBARS values in breast meat at 5 d of storage in ducks. PMID:25557678

  20. Non-heme iron as ferrous sulfate does not interact with heme iron absorption in humans.

    PubMed

    Gaitán, Diego; Olivares, Manuel; Lönnerdal, Bo; Brito, Alex; Pizarro, Fernando

    2012-12-01

    The absorption of heme iron has been described as distinctly different from that of non-heme iron. Moreover, whether heme and non-heme iron compete for absorption has not been well established. Our objective was to investigate the potential competition between heme and non-heme iron as ferrous sulfate for absorption, when both iron forms are ingested on an empty stomach. Twenty-six healthy nonpregnant women were selected to participate in two iron absorption studies using iron radioactive tracers. We obtained the dose-response curve for absorption of 0.5, 10, 20, and 50 mg heme iron doses, as concentrated red blood cells. Then, we evaluated the absorption of the same doses, but additionally we added non-heme iron, as ferrous sulfate, at constant heme/non-heme iron molar ratio (1:1). Finally, we compare the two curves by a two-way ANOVA. Iron sources were administered on an empty stomach. One factor analysis showed that heme iron absorption was diminished just by increasing total heme iron (P < 0.0001). The addition of non-heme iron as ferrous sulfate did not have any effect on heme iron absorption (P = NS). We reported evidence that heme and non-heme iron as ferrous sulfate does not compete for absorption. The mechanism behind the absorption of these iron sources is not clear. PMID:22935997

  1. Challenges to meat safety in the 21st century.

    PubMed

    Sofos, John N

    2008-01-01

    The safety of meat has been at the forefront of societal concerns in recent years, and indications exist that challenges to meat safety will continue in the future. Major meat safety issues and related challenges include the need to control traditional as well as "new," "emerging," or "evolving" pathogenic microorganisms, which may be of increased virulence and low infectious doses, or of resistance to antibiotics or food related stresses. Other microbial pathogen related concerns include cross-contamination of other foods and water with enteric pathogens of animal origin, meat animal manure treatment and disposal issues, foodborne illness surveillance and food attribution activities, and potential use of food safety programs at the farm. Other issues and challenges include food additives and chemical residues, animal identification and traceability issues, the safety and quality of organic and natural products, the need for and development of improved and rapid testing and pathogen detection methodologies for laboratory and field use, regulatory and inspection harmonization issues at the national and international level, determination of responsibilities for zoonotic diseases between animal health and regulatory public health agencies, establishment of risk assessment based food safety objectives, and complete and routine implementation of HACCP at the production and processing level on the basis of food handler training and consumer education. Viral pathogens will continue to be of concern at food service, bacterial pathogens such as Escherichia coli O157:H7, Salmonella and Campylobacter will continue affecting the safety of raw meat and poultry, while Listeria monocytogenes will be of concern in ready-to-eat processed products. These challenges become more important due to changes in animal production, product processing and distribution; increased international trade; changing consumer needs and increased preference for minimally processed products; increased

  2. The Concentration of Iron in Real-World Geogenic PM10 Is Associated with Increased Inflammation and Deficits in Lung Function in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Zosky, Graeme R.; Iosifidis, Thomas; Perks, Kara; Ditcham, Will G. F.; Devadason, Sunalene G.; Siah, W. Shan; Devine, Brian; Maley, Fiona; Cook, Angus

    2014-01-01

    Background There are many communities around the world that are exposed to high levels of particulate matter <10 µm (PM10) of geogenic (earth derived) origin. Mineral dusts in the occupational setting are associated with poor lung health, however very little is known about the impact of heterogeneous community derived particles. We have preliminary evidence to suggest that the concentration of iron (Fe) may be associated with the lung inflammatory response to geogenic PM10. We aimed to determine which physico-chemical characteristics of community sampled geogenic PM10 are associated with adverse lung responses. Methods We collected geogenic PM10 from four towns in the arid regions of Western Australia. Adult female BALB/c mice were exposed to 100 µg of particles and assessed for inflammatory and lung function responses 6 hours, 24 hours and 7 days post-exposure. We assessed the physico-chemical characteristics of the particles and correlated these with lung outcomes in the mice using principal components analysis and multivariate linear regression. Results Geogenic particles induced an acute inflammatory response that peaked 6 hours post-exposure and a deficit in lung mechanics 7 days post-exposure. This deficit in lung mechanics was positively associated with the concentration of Fe and particle size variability and inversely associated with the concentration of Si. Conclusions The lung response to geogenic PM10 is complex and highly dependent on the physico-chemical characteristics of the particles. In particular, the concentration of Fe in the particles may be a key indicator of the potential population health consequences for inhaling geogenic PM10. PMID:24587402

  3. Effect of Intravenous Iron Supplementation on Iron Stores in Non-Anemic Iron-Deficient Patients with Hereditary Hemorrhagic Telangiectasia

    PubMed Central

    Cherif, Honar

    2016-01-01

    In hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia (HHT), frequent episodes of nasal and gastrointestinal bleeding commonly lead to iron-deficiency with or without anemia. In the retrospective study presented here we assessed the iron stores, as determined by analysis of plasma ferritin, during oral and intravenous iron supplementation, respectively, in a population of iron-deficient non-anemic HHT patients who were inadequately iron-repleted by oral supplementation. A switch from oral to intravenous iron supplementation was associated with a significant increase in ferritin in this patient population. PMID:27103980

  4. Alternative futures for world cereal and meat consumption.

    PubMed

    Rosegrant, M W; Leach, N; Gerpacio, R V

    1999-05-01

    Fundamental changes in the global structure of food demand will lead to an extraordinary increase in the importance of developing countries in global food markets. Economic growth in developing countries is changing consumption patterns, with slower growth (and in many countries actual declines) in per capita food consumption of grains and rapidly growing per capita and total meat consumption, combined with induced growth in cereal feed consumption. The present paper examines the hypothesis, suggested by some researchers, that high-meat diets in developed countries limit improvement in food security in developing countries. These analysts argue that reduced meat consumption in developed countries would release cereals from livestock feed to food for poorer populations, thus improving food security in developing countries. Using the International Food Policy Research Institute (Washington, DC, USA) global food projections model, the international model for policy analysis of agricultural commodities and trade (see Rosegrant et al. 1995), we first analyse the implications for future global cereal and meat supply and demand resulting from changes in global income, population growth and other structural changes, then simulate alternative scenarios to examine the effect of large reductions in meat consumption in developed countries on food consumption and food security in developing countries. The paper shows that while the long-term prospects for food supply, demand and trade indicate a strengthening of world cereal and livestock markets, the improvement in food security in the developing world will be slow, and changes in the dietary patterns in developed countries are not an effective route to improvement in food security in developing countries. PMID:10466160

  5. Poultry breast meat attributes and marination performance

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The relationship between intrinsic meat attributes (pH, color, weight, and postmortem age) and marination performance (marinade uptake and retention, and final product yield) were investigated in poultry meat using broiler breast fillets (pectoralis major) as a model. Results showed that marinade up...

  6. Meat Cutting Classes--Popular with Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mostad, James; Carpentier, Dale

    1976-01-01

    Presents a session by session description of a "meats" class, which is offered to high school students (9-week period) and adults (8-week period). The classes cover identification of cuts (beef, sheep, hogs, and veal; grades and grading of live animals and carcasses; economics of butchering and cutting your own meat; actual slaughtering; and the…

  7. Meat and Poultry Processing. Teacher Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oklahoma State Dept. of Vocational and Technical Education, Stillwater. Curriculum and Instructional Materials Center.

    This curriculum guide contains instructional materials for a program that provides students with job skills in meat and poultry processing. The curriculum consists of 10 units that cover the following material: orientation to meat and poultry processing; maintaining plant facilities; equipment and equipment maintenance; purchasing livestock for…

  8. Molecular identification of isolated fungi, microbial and heavy metal contamination of canned meat products sold in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia

    PubMed Central

    Nasser, Laila A.

    2014-01-01

    Several studies have shown that canned meat products may be contaminated with fungal elements, bacteria and even heavy metals which may occur during the transportation, storage and handling processes. We conducted this study to determine the fungal, microbial and heavy metal contents of canned meats in Saudi Arabia. Of the 13 canned meat samples studied, Aspergillus and Penicillium were found in more than 70% of the total samples. Sequences of Penicillium species isolated from meat samples generated a phylogenetic tree which shows that the studied isolates were clustered in four groups. No bacterial contamination was noted in all of the samples. Nine of the 13 samples had iron concentrations above the permissible limit. All samples had zinc and copper levels below the maximum permissible limit. Four samples had cadmium levels above the maximum permissible level. All samples had levels of lead above the maximum permissible levels. These results indicate that fungal elements and higher levels of heavy metals such as lead and cadmium can be found in canned meat products. This may pose as a real danger to consumers, since canned meat products are readily accessible and convenient in Saudi Arabia. PMID:26288552

  9. Assuring eating quality of meat.

    PubMed

    Dalen, G A

    1996-01-01

    The way of assuring quality has changed over the years, from inspection of end product to quality management systems and on-line process control. The latter concepts have had a great impact in many industries during the last decades. But the concept of Total Quality is continuos improvement so it is time to take advantage of the next generation of quality assurance tools: Quality by Design. This is the most powerful instrument in quality assurance today. Quality by design has been used with outstanding results in many industries as the automobile and the electronics industry. Maybe the meat industry will be the next? To succeed, the "eating quality attributes" that are most important to the customer must be brought into focus. The challenge to the meat research scientist is to design products and processes that take care of customer needs despite variation in the raw material and the consumer's rough handling. The Quality Management Standards are helpful in conducting the design and production process, but to focus on the right aspects, there also are need for suitable methods as Quality Function Deployment. Customer needs change and new research changes old 'truths'. This require an organisation, a quality system and a culture which can handle rapid changes and a diversity of customer needs. PMID:22060638

  10. Effects of Mixed Bone and Brisket Meat on Physico-Chemical Characteristics of Shank Bone and Rib Extracts from Hanwoo.

    PubMed

    Choi, Hyung-Gyu; Choi, Hyun-Su; Choi, Young-Seok; Jung, Myung-Ok; Choi, Jung-Seok; Choi, Yang-Il

    2016-01-01

    This study was conducted to investigate the effects of mixed bone and brisket meat on the quality characteristics and nutritional components of shank bone extract and rib extract from Hanwoo. The pH values were influenced by the raw bones, mixed bone, brisket meat and their interactions (p<0.05). The salinity, sugar content, turbidity, and essential amino acid values increased significantly with addition of mixed bone and brisket meat. All attributes of sensory evaluation score were the highest in T6 (Rib 500 g + Mixed bone 500 g + Brisket meat 400 g) (p<0.05). The mixed bone significantly increased the saturated fatty acids of shank bone extract (p<0.001). Thus, the addition of mixed bone and brisket meat had a positive effect on the quality and nutritional components in shank and rib extracts of Hanwoo cattle. PMID:27499665

  11. Effects of Mixed Bone and Brisket Meat on Physico-Chemical Characteristics of Shank Bone and Rib Extracts from Hanwoo

    PubMed Central

    Jung, Myung-Ok; Choi, Jung-Seok

    2016-01-01

    This study was conducted to investigate the effects of mixed bone and brisket meat on the quality characteristics and nutritional components of shank bone extract and rib extract from Hanwoo. The pH values were influenced by the raw bones, mixed bone, brisket meat and their interactions (p<0.05). The salinity, sugar content, turbidity, and essential amino acid values increased significantly with addition of mixed bone and brisket meat. All attributes of sensory evaluation score were the highest in T6 (Rib 500 g + Mixed bone 500 g + Brisket meat 400 g) (p<0.05). The mixed bone significantly increased the saturated fatty acids of shank bone extract (p<0.001). Thus, the addition of mixed bone and brisket meat had a positive effect on the quality and nutritional components in shank and rib extracts of Hanwoo cattle. PMID:27499665

  12. Effects of goat milk or milk replacer diet on meat quality and fat composition of suckling goat kids.

    PubMed

    Bañón, S; Vila, R; Price, A; Ferrandini, E; Garrido, M D

    2006-02-01

    The effects of a diet with goat milk "GM" or milk replacer "MR" on the meat quality and fat composition of suckling Murciano-Granadina kids were studied. MR consisted of powdered skimmed milk, coconut oil and fat, and cereal products and by-products. Raw meat quality (moisture, protein, lipids, ash, collagen, cholesterol, haem pigments, CIELab colour, pH and water retention capacity), fatty acid "FA" composition and eating quality of cooked meat (odour, flavour and texture) were determined. Diet had only a slight effect on raw meat quality but had a pronounced effect on fatty acid composition and eating quality of cooked meat. MR diet increased the water/protein proportion in the muscle. The saturated/unsaturated FA ratio in GM and MR fat was 0.94 and 2.27, respectively. The major FA in GM and MR fat were C16:0 and C18:1, respectively. Short-chain C4-C12 hardly accumulated in the adipose tissue of suckling kid, increasing the relative percentages of C14-C20. This effect was more pronounced in MR fat, due to the fact that MR contained more short-chain fatty acids than GM. MR diet gave cooked meat a more intense characteristic goat meat odour and flavour, more tenderness and more juiciness than the natural suckling diet. This fact could be related to differences in meat and fat composition. PMID:22061547

  13. Influence of Inflammatory Disorders and Infection on Iron Absorption and Efficacy of Iron- Fortified Foods

    PubMed Central

    Hurrell, Richard F.

    2014-01-01

    The provision of iron- fortified foods is a common strategy to prevent iron deficiency; however, ensuring adequate iron absorption is a challenge. Iron bioavailability depends on the choice of iron compound, the presence enhancers and inhibitors of absorption in the food matrix, and the physiological state of the consumer, including iron status, other nutritional deficiencies and inflammatory disorders. Inflammation associated with infections and inflammatory disorders would be expected to decrease iron absorption and reduce the efficacy of iron- fortified foods. The decreased absorption is due to an increase in circulating hepcidin in response to inflammatory cytokines. Hepcidin degrades ferroportin and blocks the passage of iron from the intestinal cell to the plasma. This is the innate immune response to infections and aims to restrict pathogen growth by restricting iron supply. Stable isotope studies have reported women and children with chronic malaria parasitemia or febrile malaria to have increased inflammatory cytokines, increased hepcidin and much decreased iron absorption. No studies have specifically investigated the efficacy of iron- fortified foods in the absence and presence of infections. In contrast, inflammation and increased hepcidin associated with adiposity in overweight have been linked to both lower iron absorption and the decreased efficacy of iron- fortified foods. PMID:25762975

  14. Incidence of Salmonellae in Meat and Meat Products

    PubMed Central

    Weissman, M. A.; Carpenter, J. A.

    1969-01-01

    Standard enrichment, plating, and biochemical techniques were used to assess the incidence of Salmonella species on beef and pork carcasses and processed meat products. The incidence of Salmonella in pork carcasses was 56% and in beef carcasses, 74%. These figures are about the same as previously reported for pork but much higher than previously reported for beef carcasses; however, they represent only three to five abattoirs in Georgia and do not necessarily represent contamination levels throughout the country. Examination of carcasses by area did not indicate greater incidence of Salmonella in any one area. Two areas suggested for representative sampling are the cervical and anal areas of the carcass. Of the sausage samples examined, 38% of the fresh pork sausage, 9% of the smoked pork sausage, and 1 sample (souse) of 16 samples of miscellaneous sausage products were contaminated. Examination of subsamples indicated that Salmonella, when present in sausage products, could be found in any section of the entire sample. PMID:5797942

  15. Meat Consumption and Risk of Oral Cavity and Oropharynx Cancer: A Meta-Analysis of Observational Studies

    PubMed Central

    Li, Xiao-yu; Bai, Bo

    2014-01-01

    Purpose High meat consumption, especially red and processed meat consumption is associated with an increased risk of several cancers, however, evidence for oral cavity and oropharynx cancer is limited. Thus, we performed this meta-analysis to determine the association between intakes of total meat, processed meat, red meat, and white meat, and the risk of oral cavity and oropharynx cancer. Methods Electronic search of Pubmed, Embase, and Cochrane Library Central database was conducted to select relevant studies. Fixed-effect and random-effect models were used to estimate summary relative risks (RR) and the corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Potential sources of heterogeneity were detected by meta-regression. Subgroup analyses and sensitivity analysis were also performed. Results 12 case–control studies and one cohort study were included in the analyses, including 501,730 subjects and 4,104 oral cavity and oropharynx cancer cases. Pooled results indicated that high consumption of total meat, red meat, and white meat were not significantly associated with increased risk of oral cavity and oropharynx cancer (RR = 1.14, 95% CI[0.78–1.68]; RR = 1.05, 95% CI[0.66, 1.66] and RR = 0.81, 95% CI[0.54, 1.22], respectively), while the high consumption of processed meat was significantly associated with a 91% increased risk of oral cavity and oropharynx cancer (RR = 1.91, 95% CI [1.19–3.06]). Sensitivity analysis indicated that no significant variation in combined RR by excluding any of the study, confirming the stability of present results. Conclusions The present meta-analysis suggested that high consumption of processed meat was significantly associated with an increased risk of oral cavity and oropharynx cancer, while there was no significantly association between total meat, red meat or white meat and the risk of oral cavity and oropharynx cancer. More prospective cohort studies are warranted to confirm these associations. PMID:24736706

  16. Metabolomics of meat exudate: Its potential to evaluate beef meat conservation and aging.

    PubMed

    Castejón, David; García-Segura, Juan Manuel; Escudero, Rosa; Herrera, Antonio; Cambero, María Isabel

    2015-12-11

    In this study we analyzed the exudate of beef to evaluate its potential as non invasive sampling for nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) based metabolomic analysis of meat samples. Exudate, as the natural juice from raw meat, is an easy to obtain matrix that it is usually collected in small amounts in commercial meat packages. Although meat exudate could provide complete and homogeneous metabolic information about the whole meat piece, this sample has been poorly studied. Exudates from 48 beef samples of different breeds, cattle and storage times have been studied by (1)H NMR spectroscopy. The liquid exudate spectra were compared with those obtained by High Resolution Magic Angle Spinning (HRMAS) of the original meat pieces. The close correlation found between both spectra (>95% of coincident peaks in both registers; Spearman correlation coefficient = 0.945) lead us to propose the exudate as an excellent alternative analytical matrix with a view to apply meat metabolomics. 60 metabolites could be identified through the analysis of mono and bidimensional exudate spectra, 23 of them for the first time in NMR meat studies. The application of chemometric tools to analyze exudate dataset has revealed significant metabolite variations associated with meat aging. Hence, NMR based metabolomics have made it possible both to classify meat samples according to their storage time through Principal Component Analysis (PCA), and to predict that storage time through Partial Least Squares (PLS) regression. PMID:26614053

  17. At-Line Methods for Controlling Microbial Growth and Spoilage in Meat Processing Abattoirs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fung, Daniel Y. C.; Edwards, Jessica R.; Crozier-Dodson, Beth Ann

    Many decontamination strategies are available to the meat industry for the control of spoilage and disease causing microorganisms. Most of these strategies are spraywash methods, and a variety of other methods are becoming increasingly popular in the industry as new research and developments are made. Hide-on decontamination has been shown to be extremely effective for controlling pathogens and may become more commonly incorporated into the hazard analysis and critical control point (HACCP) plans. A comprehensive review of decontamination of Escherichia coli O157:H7 in meat processing was made by Edwards and Fung (2006). The current chapter is for at-line consideration of all types of microorganisms related to meat processing with E. coli O157:H7 as the main model. Another detailed analysis of the entire topic of meat safety was made by Fung et al.

  18. Dietary inclusion level effects of distillers dried grains with solubles on broiler meat quality.

    PubMed

    Schilling, M W; Battula, V; Loar, R E; Jackson, V; Kin, S; Corzo, A

    2010-04-01

    A completely randomized design with 7 replications (n = 7, treatments = 5 with 8 subsamples per treatment) was used to evaluate the effects of feeding various levels of distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS; 0, 6, 12, 18, and 24%) on broiler breast and thigh meat quality. Broilers were harvested in a pilot scale processing plant with commercial prototype equipment at 42 d of age. The right half of each breast was evaluated for pH, instrumental color, cooking loss, proximate analysis, and tenderness. The left half of each breast was used for consumer acceptability testing. Thigh meat was evaluated for proximate composition, fatty acid composition, and TBA reactive substances. Breast meat from broilers that were fed DDGS had a higher (P < 0.05) pH than those from the control diet. In addition, the 18 and 24% DDGS treatments yielded breast meat with higher (P < 0.05) pH values than the 6% DDGS treatment. No differences existed (P > 0.05) among breast meat from the different treatments with respect to cooking loss, instrumental color, and consumer acceptability, but breast meat from the control (0% DDGS) treatment had slightly lower (P < 0.05) shear force than breast meat from the 18 and 24% DDGS treatments. In addition, no differences (P > 0.05) existed among proximate composition of breast and thigh meat from the control and DDGS treatments. As DDGS concentration increased, there was a linear increase (P < 0.05) in linoleic and polyunsaturated fatty acids, which indicates a greater potential for lipid oxidation. The TBA reactive substances values were greater (P < 0.05) for the 18 and 24% DDGS treatments at d 5 when compared with the control and 6% DDGS treatments, which indicates increased oxidation. Overall, data suggest that all treatments yielded high-quality breast meat and that thigh meat quality was similar among treatments containing 0 to 12% DDGS, but higher inclusion levels led to thigh meat that was more susceptible to oxidation. PMID:20308408

  19. Inclusion of red meat in healthful dietary patterns.

    PubMed

    McNeill, Shalene H

    2014-11-01

    Dietary patterns are an important concept in dietary recommendations. The Western pattern is most commonly defined as a diet characterized by high intakes of refined grains, sugar and red meat, and has been shown to be associated with increased risks for certain types of cancer, coronary heart disease, diabetes, and obesity. However, isolating the independent effects of individual foods on health outcomes is central to helping individuals choose foods to build healthier dietary patterns to which they can adhere. Red meat is a popular source of high quality protein and provides a variety of essential nutrients that improve overall diet quality. It is also a source of saturated fatty acids, which observational evidence suggests are associated with heart disease, although recent data challenge this. Several studies have shown that lean red meat can be successfully included in recommended heart-healthy dietary patterns without detriment to blood lipids. Furthermore, increased dietary protein has been shown to promote healthy body weight and composition, in part by increasing satiety, and to improve vitality and stamina. PMID:25034452

  20. Double Muscling in Cattle: Genes, Husbandry, Carcasses and Meat

    PubMed Central

    Fiems, Leo O.

    2012-01-01

    Simple Summary Selection for an increased meatiness in beef cattle has resulted in double-muscled (DM) animals, owing to the inactivation of the myostatin gene. These animals are characterized by an excellent conformation and an extremely high carcass yield, coinciding with a reduced organ mass. As a consequence, voluntary feed intake is reduced, but feed efficiency is considerably improved, although maintenance requirements are not clearly reduced. DM animals are more susceptible to respiratory disease, stress and dystocia, requiring extra attention for accommodation and welfare. Carcasses of DM animals are very lean, and intramuscular fat content is low. The fatty acid profile is different when compared with non-DM animals, containing less saturated fatty acids. Collagen content of the meat is lower, so that meat from double-muscled animals is mostly more tender. However, meat tenderness, color and juiciness are not always improved. A different metabolism as a consequence of faster glycolytic myofibers can be partly responsible for this phenomenon. DM animals are interesting for the producer and butcher, and beneficial for the consumer, if an appropriate nutrition and accommodation, and adequate slaughter conditions are taken into account. Abstract Molecular biology has enabled the identification of the mechanisms whereby inactive myostatin increases skeletal muscle growth in double-muscled (DM) animals. Myostatin is a secreted growth differentiation factor belonging to the transforming growth factor-β superfamily. Mutations make the myostatin gene inactive, resulting in muscle hypertrophy. The relationship between the different characteristics of DM cattle are defined with possible consequences for livestock husbandry. The extremely high carcass yield of DM animals coincides with a reduction in the size of most vital organs. As a consequence, DM animals may be more susceptible to respiratory disease, urolithiasis, lameness, nutritional stress, heat stress and

  1. Oxidative stability of fermented meat products.

    PubMed

    Wójciak, Karolina M; Dolatowski, Zbigniew J

    2012-04-01

    Meat and meat products, which form a major part of our diet, are very susceptible to quality changes resulting from oxidative processes. Quality of fermented food products depends on the course of various physicochemical and biochemical processes. Oxidation of meat components in raw ripening products may be the result of enzymatic changes occurring as a result of activity of enzymes originating in tissues and microorganisms, as well as lipid peroxidation by free radicals. Primary and secondary products of lipid oxidation are extremely reactive and react with other components of meat, changing their physical and chemical properties. Oxidised proteins take on a yellowish, red through brown hue. Products of lipid and protein degradation create a specific flavour and aroma ; furthermore, toxic substances (such as biogenic amines or new substances) are formed as a result of interactions between meat components, e.g. protein-lipid or protein-protein combinations, as well as transverse bonds in protein structures. Oxidation of meat components in raw ripening products is a particularly difficult process. On the one hand it is essential, since the enzymatic and non-enzymatic lipid oxidation creates flavour and aroma compounds characteristic for ripening products; on the other hand excessive amounts or transformations of those compounds may cause the fermented meat product to become a risk to health. PMID:22493153

  2. An experimental meat-free diet maintained haematological characteristics in sprint-racing sled dogs.

    PubMed

    Brown, Wendy Y; Vanselow, Barbara A; Redman, Andrew J; Pluske, John R

    2009-11-01

    A dog's nutrient requirements can theoretically be met from a properly balanced meat-free diet; however, proof for this is lacking. Exercise places additional demands on the body, and dogs fed a meat-free diet may be at increased risk of developing sports anaemia. We hypothesised that exercising dogs would remain in good health and not develop anaemia when fed a nutritionally balanced meat-free diet. To this end, twelve sprint-racing Siberian huskies were fed either a commercial diet recommended for active dogs (n 6), or a meat-free diet formulated to the same nutrient specifications (n 6). The commercial diet contained 43 % poultry meal, whereas soyabean meal and maize gluten made up 43 % of the meat-free diet, as the main protein ingredients. Dogs were fed these diets as their sole nutrient intake for 16 weeks, including 10 weeks of competitive racing. Blood samples were collected at weeks 0, 3, 8 and 16, and veterinary health checks were conducted at weeks 0, 8 and 16. Haematology results for all dogs, irrespective of diet, were within normal range throughout the study and the consulting veterinarian assessed all dogs to be in excellent physical condition. No dogs in the present study developed anaemia. On the contrary, erythrocyte counts and Hb values increased significantly over time (P < 0.01) in both groups of dogs. The present study is the first to demonstrate that a carefully balanced meat-free diet can maintain normal haematological values in exercising dogs. PMID:19480731

  3. Significance of Heme-Based Respiration in Meat Spoilage Caused by Leuconostoc gasicomitatum

    PubMed Central

    Johansson, Per; Kostiainen, Olli; Nieminen, Timo; Schmidt, Georg; Somervuo, Panu; Mohsina, Marzia; Vanninen, Paula; Auvinen, Petri; Björkroth, Johanna

    2013-01-01

    Leuconostoc gasicomitatum is a psychrotrophic lactic acid bacterium (LAB) which causes spoilage in cold-stored modified-atmosphere-packaged (MAP) meat products. In addition to the fermentative metabolism, L. gasicomitatum is able to respire when exogenous heme and oxygen are available. In this study, we investigated the respiration effects on growth rate, biomass, gene expression, and volatile organic compound (VOC) production in laboratory media and pork loin. The meat samples were evaluated by a sensory panel every second or third day for 29 days. We observed that functional respiration increased the growth (rate and yield) of L. gasicomitatum in laboratory media with added heme and in situ meat with endogenous heme. Respiration increased enormously (up to 2,600-fold) the accumulation of acetoin and diacetyl, which are buttery off-odor compounds in meat. Our transcriptome analyses showed that the gene expression patterns were quite similar, irrespective of whether respiration was turned off by excluding heme from the medium or mutating the cydB gene, which is essential in the respiratory chain. The respiration-based growth of L. gasicomitatum in meat was obtained in terms of population development and subsequent development of sensory characteristics. Respiration is thus a key factor explaining why L. gasicomitatum is so well adapted in high-oxygen packed meat. PMID:23204416

  4. Horse-meat for human consumption - Current research and future opportunities.

    PubMed

    Belaunzaran, Xabier; Bessa, Rui J B; Lavín, Paz; Mantecón, Angel R; Kramer, John K G; Aldai, Noelia

    2015-10-01

    The consumption of horse-meat is currently not popular in most countries, but because of its availability and recognized nutritional value consumption is slowly increasing in several western European countries based on claims that it could be an alternative red meat. In this review, horse-meat production, trade and supply values have been summarized. In addition, the advantage of horse production is noted because of its lower methane emissions and increased uptake, particularly of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), which is based on its digestive physiology. Of particular interest in this review is the unique fatty acid composition of horse-meat with its high level of the nutritionally desirable PUFAs in both the adipose and muscle fat. Because of its large frame size and digestive physiology, the horse can be considered an alternative to bovine meat, with large advantages regarding the maintenance of less favored mountain grazing areas and its facility to transfer PUFA from feed to meat. PMID:26047980

  5. 9 CFR 319.307 - Spaghetti sauce with meat.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Spaghetti sauce with meat. 319.307... AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY... Dehydrated Meat Food Products § 319.307 Spaghetti sauce with meat. “Spaghetti Sauce with Meat” shall...

  6. 9 CFR 319.307 - Spaghetti sauce with meat.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Spaghetti sauce with meat. 319.307... AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY... Dehydrated Meat Food Products § 319.307 Spaghetti sauce with meat. “Spaghetti Sauce with Meat” shall...

  7. 9 CFR 319.307 - Spaghetti sauce with meat.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Spaghetti sauce with meat. 319.307... AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY... Dehydrated Meat Food Products § 319.307 Spaghetti sauce with meat. “Spaghetti Sauce with Meat” shall...

  8. 9 CFR 319.881 - Liver meat food products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Liver meat food products. 319.881... AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY... Liver meat food products. Meat food products characterized and labeled as liver products such as...

  9. 9 CFR 319.881 - Liver meat food products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Liver meat food products. 319.881... AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY... Liver meat food products. Meat food products characterized and labeled as liver products such as...

  10. 9 CFR 319.307 - Spaghetti sauce with meat.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Spaghetti sauce with meat. 319.307... AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY... Dehydrated Meat Food Products § 319.307 Spaghetti sauce with meat. “Spaghetti Sauce with Meat” shall...

  11. 9 CFR 319.307 - Spaghetti sauce with meat.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Spaghetti sauce with meat. 319.307... AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY... Dehydrated Meat Food Products § 319.307 Spaghetti sauce with meat. “Spaghetti Sauce with Meat” shall...

  12. 9 CFR 319.881 - Liver meat food products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Liver meat food products. 319.881... AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY... Liver meat food products. Meat food products characterized and labeled as liver products such as...

  13. 9 CFR 319.881 - Liver meat food products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Liver meat food products. 319.881... AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY... Liver meat food products. Meat food products characterized and labeled as liver products such as...

  14. 9 CFR 319.881 - Liver meat food products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Liver meat food products. 319.881... AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY... Liver meat food products. Meat food products characterized and labeled as liver products such as...

  15. Silver-iron batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lindstroem, O.

    1980-04-01

    Production methods for iron electrodes were studied. It was found that a sintering temperature of 700 C gave the best strength and capacity. Production methods and additions for silver electrodes were also studied. The capacity of the produced iron and silver electrodes were 1100 mAh/cu cm. Different separators were investigated. Cellophane I and II from Du Pont was found to be the best. In tests open cells achieved 60 percent of the calculated capacity. In order to minimize the increase of the pressure in closed cells different additions to the electrodes were studied.

  16. Iron Dextran Injection

    MedlinePlus

    Iron dextran injection is used to treat iron-deficiency anemia (a lower than normal number of red blood cells ... treated with iron supplements taken by mouth. Iron dextran injection is in a class of medications called ...

  17. Adipocyte iron regulates adiponectin and insulin sensitivity

    PubMed Central

    Gabrielsen, J. Scott; Gao, Yan; Simcox, Judith A.; Huang, Jingyu; Thorup, David; Jones, Deborah; Cooksey, Robert C.; Gabrielsen, David; Adams, Ted D.; Hunt, Steven C.; Hopkins, Paul N.; Cefalu, William T.; McClain, Donald A.

    2012-01-01

    Iron overload is associated with increased diabetes risk. We therefore investigated the effect of iron on adiponectin, an insulin-sensitizing adipokine that is decreased in diabetic patients. In humans, normal-range serum ferritin levels were inversely associated with adiponectin, independent of inflammation. Ferritin was increased and adiponectin was decreased in type 2 diabetic and in obese diabetic subjects compared with those in equally obese individuals without metabolic syndrome. Mice fed a high-iron diet and cultured adipocytes treated with iron exhibited decreased adiponectin mRNA and protein. We found that iron negatively regulated adiponectin transcription via FOXO1-mediated repression. Further, loss of the adipocyte iron export channel, ferroportin, in mice resulted in adipocyte iron loading, decreased adiponectin, and insulin resistance. Conversely, organismal iron overload and increased adipocyte ferroportin expression because of hemochromatosis are associated with decreased adipocyte iron, increased adiponectin, improved glucose tolerance, and increased insulin sensitivity. Phlebotomy of humans with impaired glucose tolerance and ferritin values in the highest quartile of normal increased adiponectin and improved glucose tolerance. These findings demonstrate a causal role for iron as a risk factor for metabolic syndrome and a role for adipocytes in modulating metabolism through adiponectin in response to iron stores. PMID:22996660

  18. Institutional Care and Iron Deficiency Increase ADHD Symptomology and Lower IQ 2.5-5 Years Post-Adoption

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doom, Jenalee R.; Georgieff, Michael K.; Gunnar, Megan R.

    2015-01-01

    Increased ADHD symptomology and lower IQ have been reported in internationally adopted (IA) children compared to non-adopted peers (Hostinar, Stellern, Schaefer, Carlson & Gunnar, 2012; Kreppner, O'Connor & Rutter, 2001). However, it is unclear whether these outcomes are due to institutional deprivation specifically or to co-occurring…

  19. Direct Biohydrometallurgical Extraction of Iron from Ore

    SciTech Connect

    T.C. Eisele

    2005-10-01

    A completely novel approach to iron extraction was investigated, based on reductive leaching of iron by anaerobic bacteria. Microorganisms were collected from an anaerobic bog where natural seepage of dissolved iron was observed. This mixed culture was used to reduce insoluble iron in a magnetite ore to the soluble ferrous (Fe{sup +2}) state. While dissolution rates were slow, concentrations of dissolved iron as high as 3487 mg/l could be reached if sufficient time was allowed. A factorial study of the effects of trace nutrients and different forms of organic matter indicated that the best dissolution rates and highest dissolved iron concentrations were achieved using soluble carbohydrate (sucrose) as the bacterial food source, and that nutrients other than nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium, sodium, and acetate were not necessary. A key factor in reaching high levels of dissolved iron was maintaining a high level of carbon dioxide in solution, since the solubility of iron carbonates increases markedly as the quantity of dissolved carbon dioxide increases. Once the iron is dissolved, it has been demonstrated that the ferrous iron can then be electroplated from solution, provided that the concentration of iron is sufficiently high and the hydrogen ion concentration is sufficiently low. However, if the leaching solution is electrolyzed directly, organic matter precipitates at the cathode along with the metallic iron. To prevent this problem, the ferrous iron should be separated from the bulk solution in a more concentrated, purified form. One route to accomplishing this is to take advantage of the change in solubility of ferrous iron as a function of carbon dioxide concentration. By cycling the concentration of carbon dioxide in solution, it is possible to produce an iron-rich concentrate that should be suitable for electrolysis. This represents the first viable hydrometallurgical method for leaching iron directly from ore and producing metallic iron.

  20. An evaluation of zinc bearing palygorskite inclusion on the growth performance, mineral content, meat quality, and antioxidant status of broilers.

    PubMed

    Yang, W L; Chen, Y P; Cheng, Y F; Li, X H; Zhang, R Q; Wen, C; Zhou, Y M

    2016-04-01

    The current study was conducted to investigate the effect of zinc (Zn) bearing palygorskite (ZnPal) inclusion on the growth performance, mineral content, meat quality, and antioxidant status of broilers. A total of 240 one-day-old Arbor Acres broiler chicks were randomly allocated into 5 dietary treatments with 6 replicates of 8 chicks. Broilers in the 5 treatments were fed a basal diet supplemented with 0, 20, 40, 60, and 80 mg/kg Zn diet in the form of ZnPal for 42 d, respectively. Birds exhibited similar average daily gain (ADG), average daily feed intake (ADFI), and feed/gain ratio (F:G) among groups during the 42-day study (P>0.05). ZnPal supplementation linearly increased iron (Fe) (P=0.031) and magnesium (Mg) (P=0.002) content in the pectoralis major muscle. Similarly, the inclusion of ZnPal tended to increase Zn content in the thigh (P=0.072) and linearly increase Zn content in the pectoralis major muscle (P=0.055). The concentration of copper (Cu) in the thigh was linearly decreased by ZnPal inclusion (P=0.011). Meanwhile, a quadratic trend for reduced Cu content was observed in the pectoralis major muscle (P=0.074) and thigh (P=0.082), respectively. The supplementation of ZnPal linearly reduced cooking loss in the pectoralis major muscle (P=0.013), and linearly (P=0.029) and quadratically (P=0.034) decreased cooking loss in the thigh. Malondialdehyde (MDA) concentration in the thigh was linearly (P=0.020) and quadratically (P=0.017) reduced by ZnPal inclusion. Additionally, ZnPal supplementation tended to linearly enhance total antioxidant capacity (T-AOC) activity of the pectoralis major muscle (P=0.083). The results obtained in the current study indicated that ZnPal inclusion could alter muscular mineral accumulation, improve meat quality, and enhance the muscular antioxidant capacity of broilers, and Zn supplementation in the form of ZnPal at the dosage of 20 mg/kg would be sufficient in improving meat quality and muscular oxidative status. PMID