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Sample records for meat science association

  1. Meat Science Made Practical

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Groves, Marjorie P.

    1973-01-01

    A group of Extension specialists at Iowa State University, Ames, Iowa, adapted meat science courses for the particular needs of meat packing middle management, home economists, and families. Participant involvement in choosing the topics, timing, format, and scheduling contributed to the success of the program. (AG)

  2. Understanding consumers' perception of lamb meat using free word association.

    PubMed

    de Andrade, Juliana Cunha; de Aguiar Sobral, Louise; Ares, Gastón; Deliza, Rosires

    2016-07-01

    The aims of the present study were to gather information about Brazilian consumers' perception of lamb meat and to study whether the perception is affected by the consumption frequency of this type of meat. A total of 1025 Brazilian consumers completed word association task with lamb meat. The elicited words were analyzed using inductive coding. Participants' associations with lamb meat were mainly related to sensory characteristics and hedonic attitudes and feelings, indicating that they might be the main motivations for consuming this product. Participants strongly associated lamb meat with special consumption occasions, which suggests that lack of perceived appropriateness for everyday consumption situations might be a barrier for increasing lamb meat consumption. Conceptualization of lamb meat was strongly affected by frequency of consumption of this product. Results from the present work provide a comprehensive insight on Brazilian consumers' perception of lamb meat, which can be used to develop strategies to increase its consumption and improve profitability. PMID:26946479

  3. ASAS Centennial paper: a century of pioneers and progress in meat science in the United States leads to new frontiers.

    PubMed

    Beermann, D H

    2009-03-01

    Discoveries, understanding, and innovations in meat science during the last century have led to revolutionary changes in meat and poultry production, processing, marketing, and consumption. American Society of Animal Science members have made key contributions in most, if not all, categories of advancement. The first US university meat science program was begun in Minnesota in 1905. Use of mechanical refrigeration in the meatpacking industry, improved transportation and packaging, and home refrigeration provided more flexibility, variety, and consistency in meat and meat products in the early 1900s. Cooperative meat research was begun by 27 universities in 1925, with a focus on the observational characterization of carcass traits and composition, meat quality attributes, and causes of the wide variation in these variables. Scientific study of genetic, nutritional, and environmental influences on the growth, physiology, and postmortem biochemistry of muscle often used muscle-comparative investigations. Rigor mortis, cold shortening and thaw rigor, postmortem muscle metabolism, postmortem tenderization and tenderness variation, and postmortem myoglobin and lipid oxidation were studied vigorously in the 1960s and beyond, defining the biochemical bases for associated outcomes in fresh and processed products. Value-added benefits resulted from implementation of electrical stimulation, boxed beef and modified-atmosphere packaging, restructuring technologies, collagen recovery, and muscle profiling work. Isolation, purification, and definition of the primary structure and biophysical properties of the myofribillar and cytoskeletal proteins in muscle aided the understanding of contraction and postmortem changes. The role of Ca-dependent proteases in meat tenderness and muscle growth is being clarified. The chemistry of meat curing, meat emulsion formation, fermentation, and other processing methods led to new technologies, new meat products, and new benchmarks in product

  4. Meat science and muscle biology symposium: In utero factors that influence postnatal muscle growth, carcass composition, and meat quality

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Meat Science and Muscle Biology Symposium titled “In utero factors that influence postnatal muscle growth, carcass composition, and meat quality” was held at the Joint Annual Meeting in Phoenix, AZ, July 15 to 19, 2012. The goal of this symposium was to highlight research on the impact of fetal...

  5. Red Meat and Colorectal Cancer: A Quantitative Update on the State of the Epidemiologic Science

    PubMed Central

    Alexander, Dominik D.; Weed, Douglas L.; Miller, Paula E.; Mohamed, Muhima A.

    2015-01-01

    The potential relationship between red meat consumption and colorectal cancer (CRC) has been the subject of scientific debate. Given the high degree of resulting uncertainty, our objective was to update the state of the science by conducting a systematic quantitative assessment of the epidemiologic literature. Specifically, we updated and expanded our previous meta-analysis by integrating data from new prospective cohort studies and conducting a broader evaluation of the relative risk estimates by specific intake categories. Data from 27 independent prospective cohort studies were meta-analyzed using random-effects models, and sources of potential heterogeneity were examined through subgroup and sensitivity analyses. In addition, a comprehensive evaluation of potential dose-response patterns was conducted. In the meta-analysis of all cohorts, a weakly elevated summary relative risk was observed (1.11, 95% CI: 1.03–1.19); however, statistically significant heterogeneity was present. In general, summary associations were attenuated (closer to the null and less heterogeneous) in models that isolated fresh red meat (from processed meat), adjusted for more relevant factors, analyzed women only, and were conducted in countries outside of the United States. Furthermore, no clear patterns of dose-response were apparent. In conclusion, the state of the epidemiologic science on red meat consumption and CRC is best described in terms of weak associations, heterogeneity, an inability to disentangle effects from other dietary and lifestyle factors, lack of a clear dose-response effect, and weakening evidence over time. Key Teaching Points: •The role of red meat consumption in colorectal cancer risk has been widely contested among the scientific community.•In the current meta-analysis of red meat intake and colorectal cancer, we comprehensively examined associations by creating numerous sub-group stratifications, conducting extensive sensitivity analyses, and evaluating

  6. Meat subtypes and their association with colorectal cancer: Systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Carr, Prudence R; Walter, Viola; Brenner, Hermann; Hoffmeister, Michael

    2016-01-15

    Associations between specific red meat subtypes and risk of colorectal cancer (CRC) have been investigated in a number of epidemiological studies. However, no publication to date has summarised the overall epidemiological evidence. We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of prospective studies (cohort, nested case-control or case-cohort studies), which reported relative risk (RR) estimates and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for the association between intake of meat subtypes with colorectal, colon or rectal cancer or colorectal adenoma risk. PubMed and ISI Web of Science were searched up until August 1, 2014. Nineteen studies examined meat subtypes (5 beef, 5 pork, 2 lamb, 1 veal and 19 poultry) and associations with colorectal, colon or rectal cancer risk and 4 studies examined associations with adenoma risk (1 beef and 4 poultry). Comparing highest versus lowest intake, beef consumption was associated with an increased risk of CRC (RR = 1.11, 95% CI = 1.01 to 1.22) and colon cancer (RR = 1.24, 95% CI = 1.07 to 1.44), but no association was found with rectal cancer (RR = 0.95, 95% CI = 0.78 to 1.16). Higher consumption of lamb was also associated with increased risk of CRC (RR = 1.24, 95% CI = 1.08 to 1.44). No association was observed for pork (RR = 1.07, 95% CI = 0.90 to 1.27), but some between study heterogeneity was observed. No association was observed for poultry consumption and risk of colorectal adenomas or cancer. This meta-analysis suggests that red meat subtypes differ in their association with CRC and its sub sites. Further analysis of data from prospective cohort studies is warranted, especially regarding the role of pork. PMID:25583132

  7. Associations of processed meat and unprocessed red meat intake with incident diabetes: the Strong Heart Family Study1234

    PubMed Central

    Howard, Barbara V; McKnight, Barbara; Duncan, Glen E; Beresford, Shirley AA; Mete, Mihriye; Eilat-Adar, Sigal; Zhang, Ying; Siscovick, David S

    2012-01-01

    Background: Fifty percent of American Indians (AIs) develop diabetes by age 55 y. Whether processed meat is associated with the risk of diabetes in AIs, a rural population with a high intake of processed meat (eg, canned meats in general, referred to as “spam”) and a high rate of diabetes, is unknown. Objective: We examined the associations of usual intake of processed meat with incident diabetes in AIs. Design: This prospective cohort study included AI participants from the Strong Heart Family Study who were free of diabetes and cardiovascular disease at baseline and who participated in a 5-y follow-up examination (n = 2001). Dietary intake was ascertained by using a Block food-frequency questionnaire at baseline. Incident diabetes was defined on the basis of 2003 American Diabetes Association criteria. Generalized estimating equations were used to examine the associations of dietary intake with incident diabetes. Results: We identified 243 incident cases of diabetes. In a comparison of upper and lower quartiles, intake of processed meat was associated with a higher risk of incident diabetes (OR: 1.63; 95% CI: 1.21, 2.63), after adjustment for potential confounders. The relation was particularly strong for spam (OR for the comparison of upper and lower quartiles: 2.06; 95% CI: 1.30, 3.27). Intake of unprocessed red meat was not associated with incident diabetes (OR for the comparison of upper and lower quartiles: 0.90; 95% CI: 0.59, 1.37). Conclusion: The consumption of processed meat, such as spam, but not unprocessed red meat, was associated with higher risk of diabetes in AIs, a rural population at high risk of diabetes and with limited access to healthy foods. PMID:22277554

  8. CNV-based genome wide association study reveals additional variants contributing to meat quality in swine

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Pork quality is important both to the meat processing industry and consumers’ purchasing attitudes. Copy number variation (CNV) is a burgeoning kind of variant that may influence meat quality. Herein, a genome-wide association study (GWAS) was performed between CNVs and meat quality traits in swine....

  9. Association of Processed Meat Intake with Hypertension Risk in Hemodialysis Patients: A Cross-Sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Pei-Yu; Yang, Shwu-Huey; Wong, Te-Chih; Chen, Tzen-Wen; Chen, His-Hsien; Chen, Tso-Hsiao; Chen, Yu-Tong

    2015-01-01

    In this cross-sectional study, we hypothesized that hemodialysis patients consuming greater processed meat is associated with hypertension risk, which can be partly explained by the high sodium content in processed meat. From September 2013 to May 2014, one hundred and four patients requiring chronic hemodialysis treatment were recruited from hemodialysis centers. Data on systolic blood pressure and diastolic blood pressure before receiving dialysis, and 3-day dietary records of the recruited patients were collected. HD patients with systolic and diastolic blood pressures greater than140 mmHg and higher than 90 mmHg, respectively, were considered hypertension risk. Protein foods were divided into 4 categories: red meat, white meat, soybeans, and processed meat (e.g., sausage and ham). In a model adjusted for energy intake and hypertension history, additional servings of processed meats was positively associated to systolic blood pressure >140 mmHg (odds ratio [95% confidence interval]: 2.1 [1.0–4.3]), and diastolic blood pressure > 90 mmHg (odds ratio: 2.5 [1.2–5.5]). After adjustment for dietary sodium contents or body mass index (BMI), most associations were substantially attenuated and were no longer significant. In systolic blood pressure greater than140 mmHg, one serving per day of red meats (β = -1.22, P < .05) and white meats (β = -0. 75, P = .05) was associated with a reduced risk compared with one serving per day of processed meats. Similarly, compared with one serving per day of processed meat, a reduced risk of diastolic blood pressure higher than 90 mmHg was associated with one serving per day of red meat (β = -1. 59, P < .05), white meat (β = -0. 62, P < .05). Thus, in these hemodialysis patients, intake of processed meat is significantly positively associated with higher blood pressure risk, and both sodium contents in processed meat and BMI significantly contributes to this association. PMID:26517837

  10. Qualitative Assessment for Toxoplasma gondii Exposure Risk Associated with Meat Products in the United States.

    PubMed

    Guo, Miao; Buchanan, Robert L; Dubey, Jitender P; Hill, Dolores E; Lambertini, Elisabetta; Ying, Yuqing; Gamble, H Ray; Jones, Jeffrey L; Pradhan, Abani K

    2015-12-01

    Toxoplasma gondii is a global protozoan parasite capable of infecting most warm-blooded animals. Although healthy adult humans generally have no symptoms, severe illness does occur in certain groups, including congenitally infected fetuses and newborns, immunocompromised individuals including transplant patients. Epidemiological studies have demonstrated that consumption of raw or undercooked meat products is one of the major sources of infection with T. gondii. The goal of this study was to develop a framework to qualitatively estimate the exposure risk to T. gondii from various meat products consumed in the United States. Risk estimates of various meats were analyzed by a farm-to-retail qualitative assessment that included evaluation of farm, abattoir, storage and transportation, meat processing, packaging, and retail modules. It was found that exposure risks associated with meats from free-range chickens, nonconfinement-raised pigs, goats, and lamb are higher than those from confinement-raised pigs, cattle, and caged chickens. For fresh meat products, risk at the retail level was similar to that at the farm level unless meats had been frozen or moisture enhanced. Our results showed that meat processing, such as salting, freezing, commercial hot air drying, long fermentation times, hot smoking, and cooking, are able to reduce T. gondii levels in meat products. whereas nitrite and/or nitrate, spice, low pH, and cold storage have no effect on the viability of T. gondii tissue cysts. Raw-fermented sausage, cured raw meat, meat that is not hot-air dried, and fresh processed meat were associated with higher exposure risks compared with cooked meat and frozen meat. This study provides a reference for meat management control programs to determine critical control points and serves as the foundation for future quantitative risk assessments. PMID:26613916

  11. Toxicological issues associated with production and processing of meat.

    PubMed

    Püssa, Tõnu

    2013-12-01

    Meat is a very complex and continuously changing ex vivo system of various high- and low-molecular substances that can be used for satisfying needs of the human organism for metabolic energy, building material and fulfilling of the other vital functions. A great majority of these substances are useful and safe for the consumer. Yet, meat and meat products may always contain substances exerting detrimental effects to the consumer's organism. The present paper is a literature review of the most important potentially toxic substances found in meat and meat products; their classification, ways of getting into the meat or formation during meat processing, undesirable physiological outcomes and biochemical mechanisms of their toxic effects, and methods for reduction of these responses. PMID:23660174

  12. URINARY MUTAGENICITY AS A BIOMARKER OF COOKED-MEAT-ASSOCIATED MUTAGENS AND RISK FOR COLORECTAL ADENOMA

    EPA Science Inventory

    Urinary Mutagenicity as a Biomarker of Cooked-Meat-Associated Mutagens and Risk for Colorectal Adenoma

    In a controlled feeding study involving 60 subjects, we have investigated urinary mutagenicity as a biomarker of exposure to cooked-meat-associated mutagens. In a separa...

  13. JWST Associated Science Data Products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Swade, D.; Alexov, A.; Bushouse, H.; Greene, G.; Swam, M.

    2015-09-01

    Associated science data products for the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) will be generated within the Data Management Subsystem (DMS) of the Science and Operations Center at the Space Telescope Science Institute. Associations capture the relationship between exposures and higher level data products. Association Pools are generated to capture a list of exposures that could potentially form an association and provide relevant information about those exposures. The Association Generator runs within the calibration software to generate association definitions in an Association Table format. Based on the Association Table content, the calibration software creates the Associated Science Data Products.

  14. Perceptions, practices, and consequences associated with foodborne pathogens and the feeding of raw meat to dogs

    PubMed Central

    Lenz, Jennifer; Joffe, Daniel; Kauffman, Michael; Zhang, Yifan; LeJeune, Jeffery

    2009-01-01

    This study explored the impact of feeding raw meat to dogs on the fecal prevalence of several enteric bacterial zoonotic pathogens. Campylobacter jejuni was isolated from 1/42 (2.6%) raw meat-fed dogs. Salmonella enterica was isolated from 2/40 (5%) of the raw meat feeds, 6/42 (14%) raw meat-fed dog feces, none of the dogs that did not receive raw meat (P = 0.001), 4/38 (10.5%) of the vacuum cleaner waste samples from households where raw meat was fed, and 2/44 (4.5%) of vacuum cleaner waste samples from households where raw meat was not fed to dogs (P = 0.41). Responses to a questionnaire probing practices and beliefs regarding raw meat feeding that was administered to dog owners demonstrated that dog owners may either not be aware or refuse to acknowledge the risks associated with raw meat-feeding; thus, they may neglect to conduct adequate intervention strategies to prevent zoonoses among themselves and their families. PMID:19721784

  15. Meats Units for Agricultural Science I and Advanced Livestock Production and Marketing Courses. Instructor's Guide. Volume 18, Number 4.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stewart, Bob R.; McCaskey, Michael J.

    These two units are designed to aid teachers in lesson planning in the secondary agricultural education curriculum in Missouri. The first unit, on meat identification, is to be taught as part of the first year of instruction in agricultural science, while the second unit, advanced meats, was prepared for use with 11th- and 12th-grade students in…

  16. Using the Implicit Association Test and the Implicit Relational Assessment Procedure to Measure Attitudes toward Meat and Vegetables in Vegetarians and Meat-Eaters

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barnes-Holmes, Dermot; Murtagh, Louise; Barnes-Holmes, Yvonne; Stewart, Ian

    2010-01-01

    The current study aimed to assess the implicit attitudes of vegetarians and non-vegetarians towards meat and vegetables, using the Implicit Association Test (IAT) and the Implicit Relational Assessment Procedure (IRAP). Both measures involved asking participants to respond, under time pressure, to pictures of meat or vegetables as either positive…

  17. Health Risks Associated with Meat Consumption: A Review of Epidemiological Studies.

    PubMed

    Battaglia Richi, Evelyne; Baumer, Beatrice; Conrad, Beatrice; Darioli, Roger; Schmid, Alexandra; Keller, Ulrich

    2015-01-01

    Recent evidence from large prospective US and European cohort studies and from meta-analyses of epidemiological studies indicates that the long-term consumption of increasing amounts of red meat and particularly of processed meat is associated with an increased risk of total mortality, cardiovascular disease, colorectal cancer and type 2 diabetes, in both men and women. The association persists after inclusion of known confounding factors, such as age, race, BMI, history, smoking, blood pressure, lipids, physical activity and multiple nutritional parameters in multivariate analysis. The association has not always been noted with red meat, and it has been absent with white meat. There is evidence of several mechanisms for the observed adverse effects that might be involved, however, their individual role is not defined at present. It is concluded that recommendations for the consumption of unprocessed red meat and particularly of processed red meat should be more restrictive than existing recommendations. Restrictive recommendations should not be applied to subjects above about 70 years of age, as the studies quoted herein did not examine this age group, and the inclusion of sufficient protein supply (e. g. in the form of meat) is particularly important in the elderly. PMID:26780279

  18. A whole genome association study on meat palatability in hanwoo.

    PubMed

    Hyeong, K-E; Lee, Y-M; Kim, Y-S; Nam, K C; Jo, C; Lee, K-H; Lee, J-E; Kim, J-J

    2014-09-01

    A whole genome association (WGA) study was carried out to find quantitative trait loci (QTL) for sensory evaluation traits in Hanwoo. Carcass samples of 250 Hanwoo steers were collected from National Agricultural Cooperative Livestock Research Institute, Ansung, Gyeonggi province, Korea, between 2011 and 2012 and genotyped with the Affymetrix Bovine Axiom Array 640K single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) chip. Among the SNPs in the chip, a total of 322,160 SNPs were chosen after quality control tests. After adjusting for the effects of age, slaughter-year-season, and polygenic effects using genome relationship matrix, the corrected phenotypes for the sensory evaluation measurements were regressed on each SNP using a simple linear regression additive based model. A total of 1,631 SNPs were detected for color, aroma, tenderness, juiciness and palatability at 0.1% comparison-wise level. Among the significant SNPs, the best set of 52 SNP markers were chosen using a forward regression procedure at 0.05 level, among which the sets of 8, 14, 11, 10, and 9 SNPs were determined for the respectively sensory evaluation traits. The sets of significant SNPs explained 18% to 31% of phenotypic variance. Three SNPs were pleiotropic, i.e. AX-26703353 and AX-26742891 that were located at 101 and 110 Mb of BTA6, respectively, influencing tenderness, juiciness and palatability, while AX-18624743 at 3 Mb of BTA10 affected tenderness and palatability. Our results suggest that some QTL for sensory measures are segregating in a Hanwoo steer population. Additional WGA studies on fatty acid and nutritional components as well as the sensory panels are in process to characterize genetic architecture of meat quality and palatability in Hanwoo. PMID:25178363

  19. A Whole Genome Association Study on Meat Palatability in Hanwoo

    PubMed Central

    Hyeong, K.-E.; Lee, Y.-M.; Kim, Y.-S.; Nam, K. C.; Jo, C.; Lee, K.-H.; Lee, J.-E.; Kim, J.-J.

    2014-01-01

    A whole genome association (WGA) study was carried out to find quantitative trait loci (QTL) for sensory evaluation traits in Hanwoo. Carcass samples of 250 Hanwoo steers were collected from National Agricultural Cooperative Livestock Research Institute, Ansung, Gyeonggi province, Korea, between 2011 and 2012 and genotyped with the Affymetrix Bovine Axiom Array 640K single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) chip. Among the SNPs in the chip, a total of 322,160 SNPs were chosen after quality control tests. After adjusting for the effects of age, slaughter-year-season, and polygenic effects using genome relationship matrix, the corrected phenotypes for the sensory evaluation measurements were regressed on each SNP using a simple linear regression additive based model. A total of 1,631 SNPs were detected for color, aroma, tenderness, juiciness and palatability at 0.1% comparison-wise level. Among the significant SNPs, the best set of 52 SNP markers were chosen using a forward regression procedure at 0.05 level, among which the sets of 8, 14, 11, 10, and 9 SNPs were determined for the respectively sensory evaluation traits. The sets of significant SNPs explained 18% to 31% of phenotypic variance. Three SNPs were pleiotropic, i.e. AX-26703353 and AX-26742891 that were located at 101 and 110 Mb of BTA6, respectively, influencing tenderness, juiciness and palatability, while AX-18624743 at 3 Mb of BTA10 affected tenderness and palatability. Our results suggest that some QTL for sensory measures are segregating in a Hanwoo steer population. Additional WGA studies on fatty acid and nutritional components as well as the sensory panels are in process to characterize genetic architecture of meat quality and palatability in Hanwoo. PMID:25178363

  20. Factors associated with the purchase of designation of origin lamb meat.

    PubMed

    Sepúlveda, Wilmer S; Maza, María T; Mantecón, Angel R

    2010-05-01

    As in other products, quality labels that designate the origin of lamb meat are increasingly used by consumers as a cue for inferring the quality of the meat. The aim of the present paper is to identify those factors that most affect the purchase of lamb with an origin quality label. For this purpose a total of 371 questionnaires were carried out in the region of Aragón located in the north east of Spain. This region produces 48.5% of the total amount of lamb meat with a Spanish protected geographical indication, whilst it also has the country's greatest per capita consumption (6.8 kg/person/year). To identify the most determining factors a logistic regression analysis was performed between three groups of buyers, characterised by their degree of loyalty towards purchasing origin quality-labelled lamb. The results show that those buyers who are less loyal to the label pay less attention to the origin of the meat when forming quality expectations at the time of purchase, whilst these are the buyers that place greatest importance on animal feeding as an aspect affecting the final quality of lamb meat. The buyers that are very loyal to the quality label associate this label with a product that offers greater guarantees and is healthier. Lamb meat buyers with medium loyalty to quality labels, consider quality-labelled lamb meat has better intrinsic attributes. PMID:20374881

  1. Identification of genetic markers associated with residual feed intake and meat quality traits in the pig.

    PubMed

    Fan, B; Lkhagvadorj, S; Cai, W; Young, J; Smith, R M; Dekkers, J C M; Huff-Lonergan, E; Lonergan, S M; Rothschild, M F

    2010-04-01

    Residual feed intake (RFI) has become increasingly important and is being considered as a more reasonable approach to evaluate feed efficiency in livestock. However, the cost and technical difficulties in measuring this trait restrict the extensive adoption of RFI selection, and this makes marker assisted selection (MAS) a feasible tool. In addition, the effects on meat quality caused by low RFI selection have yet to be clarified. In this study, 11 SNPs from eight candidate genes were evaluated in a Yorkshire pig experimental population (n=169) consisting of a low RFI selection line and a randomly selected control line. Associations of these SNPs with RFI, growth rate, carcass composition, and meat quality measures including water holding capacity, pH at 2d postmortem, meat color and sensory traits were analyzed. The SNPs FTO p.Ala198Ala and TCF7L2 c.646+514A>G showed significant (P<0.05) and suggestively significant (P<0.1) associations with RFI, respectively. The MC4R SNP p.Asp298Asn was associated with backfat but it was not with ADG and meat quality attributes. Both SNPs within HNF1A were associated with intramuscular lipid content and sensory juiciness. The SNPs ACC1 c(*)384C>T and TCF7L2 c.646+514A>G were significantly (P<0.05) associated with ADG. The SNPs CTSZ p.Arg64Lys and TCF7L2 c.646+514A>G were associated with both visual scoring of meat color and the objective L-value measure of meat color. This study has identified potential genetic markers suitable for MAS in improving RFI, ADG, and meat color traits, but these associations need to be validated in other larger populations. PMID:20374837

  2. Familiarizing with science editors' associations

    PubMed Central

    Gasparyan, Armen Yuri

    2011-01-01

    The number of science editors' associations is growing to resolve a variety of professional problems. The main objective of the associations is to educate their members by facilitating dissemination of information, publishing scholarly journals, books, networking of experts, and regular meetings. There are many science editing associations – general and specialized, traditional, and new. The article presents activities of some of these associations, which include upholding standards of science writing, editing, indexing, research reporting, peer review, editorial independence, and other editorial policies. PMID:22180273

  3. Human health risks associated with antimicrobial-resistant enterococci and Staphylococcus aureus on poultry meat.

    PubMed

    Bortolaia, V; Espinosa-Gongora, C; Guardabassi, L

    2016-02-01

    Enterococci and staphylococci are frequent contaminants on poultry meat. Enterococcus faecalis, Enterococcus faecium and Staphylococcus aureus are also well-known aetiological agents of a wide variety of infections resulting in major healthcare costs. This review provides an overview of the human health risks associated with the occurrence of these opportunistic human pathogens on poultry meat with particular focus on the risk of food-borne transmission of antimicrobial resistance. In the absence of conclusive evidence of transmission, this risk was inferred using data from scientific articles and national reports on prevalence, bacterial load, antimicrobial resistance and clonal distribution of these three species on poultry meat. The risks associated with ingestion of antimicrobial-resistant enterococci of poultry origin comprise horizontal transfer of resistance genes and transmission of multidrug-resistant E. faecalis lineages such as sequence type ST16. Enterococcus faecium lineages occurring in poultry meat products are distantly related to those causing hospital-acquired infections but may act as donors of quinupristin/dalfopristin resistance and other resistance determinants of clinical interest to the human gut microbiota. Ingestion of poultry meat contaminated with S. aureus may lead to food poisoning. However, antimicrobial resistance in the toxin-producing strains does not have clinical implications because food poisoning is not managed by antimicrobial therapy. Recently methicillin-resistant S. aureus of livestock origin has been reported on poultry meat. In theory handling or ingestion of contaminated meat is a potential risk factor for colonization by methicillin-resistant S. aureus. However, this risk is presently regarded as negligible by public health authorities. PMID:26706616

  4. Consumer perception and the role of science in the meat industry.

    PubMed

    Troy, D J; Kerry, J P

    2010-09-01

    The relationship between consumer perception of quality and the food industry's drive to satisfy consumer needs is complex and involves many different components. Science and innovation play a major role in equipping the industry to respond to consumer concerns and expectations. This paper examines the main elements of consumer perception of meat with focus on the red meat sector. Emphasis is placed on perception at point of sale particularly the intrinsic quality cues of colour, packaging and degree of visual fat. The state of the art developments in increasing consumers' perception at this point are discussed. Experienced quality cues such as tenderness and flavour are well known as being of immense importance to consumers at point of consumption. The latest technological developments to enhance the quality experienced by consumers are discussed. The use of pre-rigor restraining techniques offers the industry a method for changing its conventional procedures of processing beef for instance. Background cues of safety, nutrition, animal welfare and sustainability are also discussed. Finally opportunities and challenges facing the industry are outlined. It is concluded that the meat industry needs to invest in and embrace an innovation agenda in order to be sustainable. It must utilise emerging scientific knowledge and take a more proactive role in setting out a research agenda. PMID:20579814

  5. Proopiomelanocortin gene polymorphisms and its association with meat quality traits by ultrasound measurement in Chinese cattle.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yongfeng; Zan, Linsen; Li, Linqiang; Xin, Yaping

    2013-10-15

    Ultrasound technology was used to measure live animal meat traits instead of true carcass meat traits for beef production and cattle breeding by an increasing number of institutions. In this study, we analyzed the association between genetic polymorphisms of proopiomelanocortin (POMC) and ultrasound measurement traits in Chinese cattle. Using direct DNA sequencing in 322 individuals of 7 different cattle subpopulation, 7 SNPs were identified for genotyping within 790bp region of intron 2 and exon 3 of POMC. 6586 T>G in intron 2 and 6769 C>T and 7216 C>T in exon 3 were significantly associated with ultrasound backfat thickness (UBF) (P<0.05) and ultrasound loin muscle area (ULMA) (P<0.01) in the total population; 6694 C>T, 6706 T>C, 6796 C>T and 6810 C>T in exon 3 were significantly associated with ULMA (P<0.0001) in the total population. These results clearly suggest that these SNPs of POMC be benefit for selection of individuals with good quality meat in Chinese cattle breeding program. Following validation in other populations and breeds, these markers could be incorporated into breeding programs to increase the rate of improvement in carcass and meat quality traits. PMID:23872232

  6. Genome-wide Association Study of Integrated Meat Quality-related Traits of the Duroc Pig Breed.

    PubMed

    Lee, Taeheon; Shin, Dong-Hyun; Cho, Seoae; Kang, Hyun Sung; Kim, Sung Hoon; Lee, Hak-Kyo; Kim, Heebal; Seo, Kang-Seok

    2014-03-01

    The increasing importance of meat quality has implications for animal breeding programs. Research has revealed much about the genetic background of pigs, and many studies have revealed the importance of various genetic factors. Since meat quality is a complex trait which is affected by many factors, consideration of the overall phenotype is very useful to study meat quality. For integrating the phenotypes, we used principle component analysis (PCA). The significant SNPs refer to results of the GRAMMAR method against PC1, PC2 and PC3 of 14 meat quality traits of 181 Duroc pigs. The Genome-wide association study (GWAS) found 26 potential SNPs affecting various meat quality traits. The loci identified are located in or near 23 genes. The SNPs associated with meat quality are in or near five genes (ANK1, BMP6, SHH, PIP4K2A, and FOXN2) and have been reported previously. Twenty-five of the significant SNPs also located in meat quality-related QTL regions, these result supported the QTL effect indirectly. Each single gene typically affects multiple traits. Therefore, it is a useful approach to use integrated traits for the various traits at the same time. This innovative approach using integrated traits could be applied on other GWAS of complex-traits including meat-quality, and the results will contribute to improving meat-quality of pork. PMID:25049955

  7. First report of identification of livestock-associated MRSA ST9 in retail meat in England.

    PubMed

    Dhup, V; Kearns, A M; Pichon, B; Foster, H A

    2015-10-01

    Sixty percent of all meat consumed in the UK is imported from European countries where there have been increasing reports of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) identified in food-producing animals, but rarely from such animals in the UK. Thirty samples each of raw chicken, pork and beef, sourced in England, were collected from retail outlets in Greater Manchester. MRSA was recovered from three chicken samples and one each of pork and beef, all from prepackaged supermarket meat. Four isolates were identified as representatives of the most common human healthcare-associated MRSA clone in the UK [EMRSA-15, spa type t032, belonging to multilocus sequence type clonal complex 22 (MLST-CC22)], suggesting contamination from human source(s) during meat processing. The fifth isolate (from chicken) was multiply-resistant (including oxacillin, ciprofloxacin, erythromycin, clindamycin and tetracycline), identified as ST9-SCCmecIV, spa type t1939 and lacked the immune evasion cluster, a characteristic of livestock-associated strains. This lineage has been identified previously from animals and meat products in Asia and mainland Europe but not the UK. PMID:25697759

  8. Consumption of Red/Processed Meat and Colorectal Carcinoma: Possible Mechanisms Underlying the Significant Association.

    PubMed

    Hammerling, Ulf; Bergman Laurila, Jonas; Grafström, Roland; Ilbäck, Nils-Gunnar

    2016-03-11

    Epidemiology and experimental studies provide an overwhelming support of the notion that diets high in red or processed meat accompany an elevated risk of developing pre-neoplastic colorectal adenoma and frank colorectal carcinoma (CRC). The underlying mechanisms are disputed; thus several hypotheses have been proposed. A large body of reports converges, however, on haem and nitrosyl haem as major contributors to the CRC development, presumably acting through various mechanisms. Apart from a potentially higher intestinal mutagenic load among consumers on a diet rich in red/processed meat, other mechanisms involving subtle interference with colorectal stem/progenitor cell survival or maturation are likewise at play. From an overarching perspective, suggested candidate mechanisms for red/processed meat-induced CRC appear as three partly overlapping tenets: (i) increased N-nitrosation/oxidative load leading to DNA adducts and lipid peroxidation in the intestinal epithelium, (ii) proliferative stimulation of the epithelium through haem or food-derived metabolites that either act directly or subsequent to conversion, and (iii) higher inflammatory response, which may trigger a wide cascade of pro-malignant processes. In this review, we summarize and discuss major findings of the area in the context of potentially pertinent mechanisms underlying the above-mentioned association between consumption of red/processed meat and increased risk of developing CRC. PMID:25849747

  9. Four genes located on a SSC2 meat quality QTL region are associated with different meat quality traits in Landrace x Chinese-European crossbred population

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Several quantitative trait loci (QTL) for different meat quality traits have been localized on the q arm of porcine chromosome 2 at position 55–78 cM. Association analyses were performed in a commercial Landrace x Chinese-European (LCE) crossbred population (n = 446) slaughtered at approximately 127...

  10. Genome-Wide Association Studies for Growth and Meat Production Traits in Sheep

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Li; Liu, Jiasen; Zhao, Fuping; Ren, Hangxing; Xu, Lingyang; Lu, Jian; Zhang, Shifang; Zhang, Xiaoning; Wei, Caihong; Lu, Guobin; Zheng, Youmin; Du, Lixin

    2013-01-01

    Background Growth and meat production traits are significant economic traits in sheep. The aim of the study is to identify candidate genes affecting growth and meat production traits at genome level with high throughput single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) genotyping technologies. Methodology and Results Using Illumina OvineSNP50 BeadChip, we performed a GWA study in 329 purebred sheep for 11 growth and meat production traits (birth weight, weaning weight, 6-month weight, eye muscle area, fat thickness, pre-weaning gain, post-weaning gain, daily weight gain, height at withers, chest girth, and shin circumference). After quality control, 319 sheep and 48,198 SNPs were analyzed by TASSEL program in a mixed linear model (MLM). 36 significant SNPs were identified for 7 traits, and 10 of them reached genome-wise significance level for post-weaning gain. Gene annotation was implemented with the latest sheep genome Ovis_aries_v3.1 (released October 2012). More than one-third SNPs (14 out of 36) were located within ovine genes, others were located close to ovine genes (878bp-398,165bp apart). The strongest new finding is 5 genes were thought to be the most crucial candidate genes associated with post-weaning gain: s58995.1 was located within the ovine genes MEF2B and RFXANK, OAR3_84073899.1, OAR3_115712045.1 and OAR9_91721507.1 were located within CAMKMT, TRHDE, and RIPK2 respectively. GRM1, POL, MBD5, UBR2, RPL7 and SMC2 were thought to be the important candidate genes affecting post-weaning gain too. Additionally, 25 genes at chromosome-wise significance level were also forecasted to be the promising genes that influencing sheep growth and meat production traits. Conclusions The results will contribute to the similar studies and facilitate the potential utilization of genes involved in growth and meat production traits in sheep in future. PMID:23825544

  11. Associations between single nucleotide polymorphisms in 33 candidate genes and meat quality traits in commercial pigs.

    PubMed

    Zhang, C Y; Wang, Z; Bruce, H L; Janz, J; Goddard, E; Moore, S; Plastow, G S

    2014-08-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the effects of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in candidate genes for meat quality using a custom 96-SNP panel (Illumina Vera Code GoldenGate Assay) on 15 traits collected from 400 commercial pigs. Meat quality measurements included muscle pH, color (L*, a* and b*), drip loss, cooking loss, peak shear force and six sensory traits including appearance (outside and inside), tenderness, juiciness, flavor and overall liking as well as carcass weight and probe yield. Thirty-five SNPs with minor allele frequencies > 0.10 remained for the multimarker association using the GLM procedure of sas 9.2. Results showed that 20 SNPs were significantly associated with at least one of the traits with either additive or dominance or both effects (P < 0.05). Among these significant SNPs, five of them in ADIPOQ, FTO, TNF, LEPR and AMPD1 had an effect on more than three traits simultaneously; those in MC4R, CAST, DGAT1 and MYF6 had an effect on two traits, while the others were associated with one trait. The results suggest that these markers could be incorporated into commercial pigs for marker-assisted selection and breeding programs for carcass and meat quality trait improvement. PMID:24707962

  12. The identification of 14 new genes for meat quality traits in chicken using a genome-wide association study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Meat quality is an important economic trait in chickens. To identify loci and genes associated with meat quality traits, we conducted a genome-wide association study (GWAS) of F2 populations derived from a local Chinese breed (Beijing-You chickens) and a commercial fast-growing broiler line (Cobb-Vantress). Results In the present study, 33 association signals were detected from the compressed mixed linear model (MLM) for 10 meat quality traits: dry matter in breast muscle (DMBr), dry matter in thigh muscle (DMTh), intramuscular fat content in breast muscle (IMFBr), meat color lightness (L*) and yellowness (b*) values, skin color L*, a* (redness) and b* values, abdominal fat weight (AbFW) and AbFW as a percentage of eviscerated weight (AbFP). Relative expressions of candidate genes identified near significant signals were compared using samples of chickens with High and Low phenotypic values. A total of 14 genes associated with IMFBr, meat color L*, AbFW, and AbFP, were differentially expressed between the High and Low phenotypic groups. These genes are, therefore, prospective candidate genes for meat quality traits: protein tyrosine kinase (TYRO3) and microsomal glutathione S-transferase 1 (MGST1) for IMFBr; collagen, type I, alpha 2 (COL1A2) for meat color L*; and RET proto-oncogene (RET), natriuretic peptide B (NPPB) and sterol regulatory element binding transcription factor 1 (SREBF1) for the abdominal fat (AbF) traits. Conclusions Based on the association signals and differential expression of nearby genes, 14 candidate loci and genes for IMFBr, meat L* and b* values, and AbF are identified. The results provide new insight into the molecular mechanisms underlying meat quality traits in chickens. PMID:23834466

  13. Association between ADSL, GARS-AIRS-GART, DGAT1, and DECR1 expression levels and pork meat quality traits.

    PubMed

    Zhang, X D; Zhang, S J; Ding, Y Y; Feng, Y F; Zhu, H Y; Huang, L; Wu, T; Zhou, J; Yin, Z J

    2015-01-01

    In this study, meat quality traits were compared between Chinese lard- and European lean-type pigs. The association between expression of four genes (ADSL, GARS-AIRS-GART, DGAT1, and DECR1) and meat quality traits was also investigated. Meat quality traits were found to differ significantly between pig breeds. Meat color parameter values (a* and b*) and intramuscular fat content in Anqingliubai were significantly higher than those in Landrace (P < 0.01). Meat pH at 1 and 24 h following slaughter was significantly higher in Landrace than in Wei pigs, and meat inosine monophosphate (IMP) content was significantly higher in Landrace than in Wei and Anqingliubai pigs (both P < 0.01). Expression levels of ADSL, GARS-AIRS-GART, and DGAT1 were higher in longissimus lumborum muscle than in heart or liver tissues. ADSL and GARS-AIRS-GART expression levels were correlated with meat IMP content and pH levels. The results of this study will contribute to the understanding of meat quality traits in Chinese lard- and European lean-type pigs. PMID:26600543

  14. Evaluation of a Teaching Kit for Family and Consumer Science Classrooms: Motivating Students to Use a Food Thermometer with Small Cuts of Meat

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edwards, Zena; Edlefsen, Miriam; Hillers, Virginia; McCurdy, Sandra M.

    2005-01-01

    The U.S. Dept. of Agriculture recommends use of food thermometers to safely cook small cuts of meat, yet most consumers do not use them. Consumers lack knowledge about how and why to use food thermometers with small cuts of meat. Opportunities exist for family and consumer science classes to provide education about thermometers to adolescents, who…

  15. Genome-wide association study identifies loci and candidate genes for meat quality traits in Simmental beef cattle.

    PubMed

    Xia, Jiangwei; Qi, Xin; Wu, Yang; Zhu, Bo; Xu, Lingyang; Zhang, Lupei; Gao, Xue; Chen, Yan; Li, Junya; Gao, Huijiang

    2016-06-01

    Improving meat quality is the best way to enhance profitability and strengthen competitiveness in beef industry. Identification of genetic variants that control beef quality traits can help breeders design optimal breeding programs to achieve this goal. We carried out a genome-wide association study for meat quality traits in 1141 Simmental cattle using the Illumina Bovine HD 770K SNP array to identify the candidate genes and genomic regions associated with meat quality traits for beef cattle, including fat color, meat color, marbling score, longissimus muscle area, and shear force. In our study, we identified twenty significant single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) (p < 1.47 × 10(-6)) associated with these five meat quality traits. Notably, we observed several SNPs were in or near eleven genes which have been reported previously, including TMEM236, SORL1, TRDN, S100A10, AP2S1, KCTD16, LOC506594, DHX15, LAMA4, PREX1, and BRINP3. We identified a haplotype block on BTA13 containing five significant SNPs associated with fat color trait. We also found one of 19 SNPs was associated with multiple traits (shear force and longissimus muscle area) on BTA7. Our results offer valuable insights to further explore the potential mechanism of meat quality traits in Simmental beef cattle. PMID:27126640

  16. Colorectal polyp type and the association with charred meat consumption, smoking, and microsomal epoxide hydrolase polymorphisms.

    PubMed

    Burnett-Hartman, Andrea N; Newcomb, Polly A; Mandelson, Margaret T; Adams, Scott V; Wernli, Karen J; Shadman, Mazyar; Wurscher, Michelle A; Makar, Karen W

    2011-01-01

    We determined the association between charred meat consumption, cigarette smoking, microsomal epoxide hydrolase (mEH) polymorphisms (rs1051740 and rs2234922), and colorectal adenomas and hyperplastic polyps (HPs) and explored gene-environment interactions. Men and women with colorectal adenomas (n = 519), HPs (n = 691), or concurrently with both types of polyps (n = 227) and polyp-free controls (n = 772) receiving a colonoscopy from December 2004 to September 2007 were recruited. Participants completed telephone interviews and provided buccal cell samples; genotyping of mEH was completed using Taqman assays. We conducted polytomous regression and calculated odd ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals. Interactions were evaluated using Wald chi-square tests. Consumption of >3 servings of charred meat per week was associated with distal HPs (OR = 2.0, 1.2-3.4) but not adenomas nor either type of proximal polyp. Heavy cigarette smoking (≥ 22 pack-years) was associated with an increased risk for colorectal adenomas (OR = 1.7, 95% CI: 1.2-2.4), HPs (OR = 2.4, 95% CI: 1.7-3.3), and both types (OR = 2.8, 95% CI: 1.8-4.3) with the strongest association for distal polyps. There was no association between mEH genotype and colorectal polyps, nor were any statistically significant gene-environment interactions identified. Future investigation of BaP exposure and colorectal neoplasia should analyze whether associations are dependent upon anatomic location. PMID:21598178

  17. Variant of association of sciences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dubro, V. G.

    2008-03-01

    The variant of association of sciences, offered in the given work, is based on the multilevel description complex (with dynamic treelike structure and with number of levels > 2) systems. In its basis the definition such physical, but dimensionless functions of interactions, as quality and quantity of the information, developed at interaction, lays. Thus levels are defined by hierarchy of interactions and "subordinates" to itself physical functions (space - time systems of readout, energy, pulse, moment of a pulse, information, etc.). The relations, traditional for them, and laws remain, but as special cases of more general (common) relations, i.e. they are formulated anew on some new uniform base of the reconsidered concepts.

  18. Associations of red and processed meat with survival among patients with cancers of the upper aerodigestive tract and lung.

    PubMed

    Miles, Fayth L; Chang, Shen-Chih; Morgenstern, Hal; Tashkin, Donald; Rao, Jian-Yu; Cozen, Wendy; Mack, Thomas; Lu, Qing-Yi; Zhang, Zuo-Feng

    2016-06-01

    The effect of red and processed meats on cancer survival is unclear. We sought to examine the role of total and processed red meat consumption on all-cause mortality among patients with cancers of the upper aerodigestive tract (UADT) and lung, in order to test our hypothesis that red or processed meat was associated with overall mortality in these patients. Using data from a population-based case-control study conducted in Los Angeles County, we conducted a case-only analysis to examine the association of red or processed meat consumption on mortality after 12 years of follow-up, using a diet history questionnaire. Cox regression was used to estimate adjusted hazard ratios (HRs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs), adjusting for potential confounders. Of 601 UADT cancer cases and 611 lung cancer cases, there were 248 and 406 deaths, respectively, yielding crude mortality rates of 0.07 and 0.12 deaths per year. Comparing the highest with lowest quartile of red meat consumption, the adjusted HR was 1.64 (95% CI, 1.04-2.57) among UADT cancer cases; for red or processed meat, the adjusted HR was 1.76 (95% CI, 1.10-2.82). A dose-response trend was observed. A weaker association was observed with red meat consumption and overall mortality among lung cancer cases. In conclusion, this case-only analysis demonstrated that increased consumption of red or processed meats was associated with mortality among UADT cancer cases and WAS weakly associated with mortality among lung cancer cases. PMID:27188908

  19. Meat Science and Muscle Biology Symposium: in utero nutrition related to fetal development, postnatal performance, and meat quality of pork.

    PubMed

    Oksbjerg, N; Nissen, P M; Therkildsen, M; Møller, H S; Larsen, L B; Andersen, M; Young, J F

    2013-03-01

    Intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) occurs naturally in pigs and leads to low birth weight of piglets due to undernutrition caused by placental insufficiency. For 2 main reasons, low birth weight causes economic loss. First, low birth weight pigs have a greater mortality and increasing the litter size causes more low birth weight piglets within litters. Second, surviving low birth weight piglets have reduced performance (i.e., ADG, feed conversion rate, and percentage meat). To develop dietary strategies for preventing IUGR, knowledge of the biological basis of IUGR is required. Muscle fiber number, formed during myogenesis, is correlated positively with performance traits and has been shown in several studies to be reduced in low birth weight pigs. Postnatal muscle hypertrophy is due to satellite cell number per fiber at birth and their rate of proliferation as well as protein deposition (i.e., protein synthesis and degradation). Previous studies and some recent ones indicate that low birth weight littermates in mice are born with fewer satellite cells and studies on pigs show that the rate of satellite cell proliferation may vary within litters. Proteomics studies show that protein synthesis and degradation is downregulated in IUGR pigs and low birth weight pigs also produce meat with less tenderness. Alternative maternal feeding strategies to prevent IUGR have been examined. Increasing maternal global nutrition had no beneficial effect on performance and muscle growth traits in several studies. Feeding excess maternal dietary protein also did not influence muscle growth traits whereas moderately decreased maternal dietary protein may decrease muscle fiber number and performance. On the other hand, addition of L-carnitine to the maternal gestation or lactation diet may increase birth and weaning weights or the muscle fiber number, respectively, in low birth weight pig offspring. Finally, promising data have been obtained on reproductive traits in pigs after

  20. Association between functional candidate genes and organoleptic meat traits in intensively-fed beef.

    PubMed

    Avilés, C; Peña, F; Polvillo, O; Barahona, M; Campo, M M; Sañudo, C; Juárez, M; Horcada, A; Alcalde, M J; Molina, A

    2015-09-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the associations between the single nucleotide polymorphisms in CAPN1, CAST, DGAT1, FABP4, LEP, RORC and SCD1 genes and the sensory meat quality in an intensively fed commercial population (Charolais, Limousin and Retinta breed). This work carried out analyses on a common Spanish population and evaluated the association between the markers and sensory traits. A total of 161 bulls were allocated to two different feedlots with two different finishing diets. Steaks aged for 7 and 21 days were assessed by both untrained and trained sensory panels. A significant association and allelic substitution effect were observed for markers UoG-CAST, LEP: g.73C>T and SCD1: g.878T>C on different descriptors evaluated by a consumer panel (tenderness and overall acceptability). There are no precedents of these kinds of association studies in a Spanish commercial population. The study suggested that CAST, LEP and SCD1 genes have a potential effect on the different measurements of sensory meat quality. PMID:25935847

  1. Are meat and heme iron intake associated with pancreatic cancer? Results from the NIH-AARP diet and health cohort.

    PubMed

    Taunk, Pulkit; Hecht, Eric; Stolzenberg-Solomon, Rachael

    2016-05-01

    Several studies on pancreatic cancer have reported significant positive associations for intake of red meat but null associations for heme iron. We assessed total, red, white and processed meat intake, meat cooking methods and doneness and heme iron and mutagen intake in relation to pancreatic cancer in the NIH-AARP Diet and Health Study cohort. A total of 322,846 participants (187,265 men and 135,581 women) successfully completed and returned the food frequency questionnaire between 1995 and 1996. After a mean follow-up of 9.2 years (up to 10.17 years), 1,417 individuals (895 men and 522 women) developed exocrine pancreatic cancer. Cox proportional hazard models were used to calculate hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs), and trends were calculated using the median value of each quantile. Models incorporated age as the time metric and were adjusted for smoking history, body mass index, self-reported diabetes and energy-adjusted saturated fat. Pancreatic cancer risk significantly increased with intake of total meat (Q5 vs. Q1: HR = 1.20, 95% CI 1.02-1.42, p-trend = 0.03), red meat (HR = 1.22, 95% CI 1.01-1.48, p-trend = 0.02), high-temperature cooked meat (HR = 1.21, 95% CI 1.00-1.45, p-trend = 0.02), grilled/barbequed meat (HR = 1.24, 95% CI 1.03-1.50, p-trend = 0.007), well/very well done meat (HR = 1.32, 95% CI 1.10-1.58, p-trend = 0.005) and heme iron from red meat (Q4 vs. Q1: HR = 1.21, 95% CI 1.01-1.45, p-trend = 0.04). When stratified by sex, these associations remained significant in men but not women except for white meat intake in women (HR = 1.33, 95% CI 1.02-1.74, p-trend = 0.04). Additional studies should confirm our findings that consuming heme iron from red meat increases pancreatic cancer risk. PMID:26666579

  2. Diet and Cancer Are Cooked Meats Involved

    SciTech Connect

    LLNL - University of California Television

    2008-05-01

    Diet has been associated with differences in cancer rates in human populations for many years. Mark Knize presents the latest research on cancer causes including work performed at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory investigating some interesting chemical products created when meat is cooked and how to reduce them. Series: Science on Saturday [10/2006] [Health and Medicine] [Science] [Show ID: 11542

  3. Diet and Cancer Are Cooked Meats Involved

    ScienceCinema

    LLNL - University of California Television

    2009-09-01

    Diet has been associated with differences in cancer rates in human populations for many years. Mark Knize presents the latest research on cancer causes including work performed at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory investigating some interesting chemical products created when meat is cooked and how to reduce them. Series: Science on Saturday [10/2006] [Health and Medicine] [Science] [Show ID: 11542

  4. Cattle temperament: persistence of assessments and associations with productivity, efficiency, carcass and meat quality traits.

    PubMed

    Cafe, L M; Robinson, D L; Ferguson, D M; McIntyre, B L; Geesink, G H; Greenwood, P L

    2011-05-01

    that the average values were a more reliable assessment of cattle temperament than any single measure. In Brahman cattle, increased average FS and CS were associated with significant (P < 0.05) reductions in backgrounding and feedlot growth rates, feed intake and time spent eating, carcass weight, and objective measures of meat quality. In Angus cattle, the associations between temperament and growth rates, feed intake, and carcass traits were weaker than in Brahmans, although the strength of relationships with meat quality were similar. PMID:21169516

  5. Delayed Anaphylaxis to Red Meat Associated With Specific IgE Antibodies to Galactose

    PubMed Central

    Wen, Liping; Zhou, Junxiong; Sun, Jin-lu; Sun, Yi; Wu, Kai; Katial, Rohit

    2015-01-01

    A novel delayed anaphylactic reaction to red meat, associated with tick bites and IgE antibodies against galactose-α-1, 3-galactose (α-gal), was reported in 2009 in the US, Australia and Europe. In this case, serum specific IgE to galactose-α-1, 3-galactose (>100 kU/L) and IgE to multiple non-primate mammalian proteins were positive. However, the pathogenesis of this disease remains unclear. We report the first case in Asia of delayed anaphylactic reaction to red meat, which was induced by bites from the hard tick, Hematophagous ixodidae. We confirmed the increased concentration of IgE reactive epitopes in non-primate mammalian organs, which may be rich in α-gal proteins in lymphatic and endothelial tissues. All confirmed ticks associated with this disorder in the literature and in our case belonged to the hard tick family. We hypothesize that hard tick saliva is enriched with blood-type substances, such as oligosaccharides, from the non-primate mammal victim's blood after days to weeks of blood sucking, which sensitizes humans through the injection route while blood sucking. PMID:25553269

  6. Serum Ferritin Is Associated with Metabolic Syndrome and Red Meat Consumption

    PubMed Central

    Felipe, Avila; Guadalupe, Echeverría; Druso, Pérez; Carlos, Martinez; Pablo, Strobel; Oscar, Castillo; Luis, Villaroel; Diego, Mezzano; Jaime, Rozowski; Inés, Urquiaga; Federico, Leighton

    2015-01-01

    Background and Aims. Hyperferritinemia has been related with a wide spectrum of pathologies, including diabetes, cardiovascular disease, neurodegenerative disorders, and metabolic syndrome. The aim of this study was to investigate the association between hyperferritinemia and iron consumption. Methods and Results. Serum ferritin concentration was evaluated in 66 presumed healthy men, along with other clinical and biochemical markers of chronic diseases. A three-day food questionnaire was applied for nutrition information. Hyperferritinemia was a condition found in 13.4% of the volunteers analyzed. Significant correlations were found between serum ferritin concentration and metabolic syndrome parameters (HDL cholesterol, triglycerides, and fasting glucose) as well as an increase of the serum ferritin mean value with the number of risk factors of metabolic syndrome. Also, oxidative stress markers (carbonyl groups, AOPP, and glycated hemoglobin), hepatic damage markers (GGT, SGOT), and parameters related to insulin resistance (HOMA, blood insulin, and blood glucose) correlate significantly with serum ferritin. Volunteers had an excessive iron intake, principally by bread consumption. Analyses of food intake showed that red meat consumption correlates significantly with serum ferritin. Conclusion. Red meat consumption, metabolic syndrome, and chronic disease markers are associated with hyperferritinemia in a population of Chilean men. PMID:26451235

  7. Colorectal polyp type and the association with charred meat consumption, smoking, and microsomal epoxide hydrolase polymorphisms

    PubMed Central

    Burnett-Hartman, Andrea N.; Newcomb, Polly A.; Mandelson, Margaret T.; Adams, Scott V.; Wernli, Karen J.; Shadman, Mazyar; Wurscher, Michelle A.; Makar, Karen W.

    2011-01-01

    Objective We determined the association between charred meat consumption, cigarette smoking, microsomal epoxide hydrolase (mEH) polymorphisms [rs1051740 and rs2234922], and colorectal adenomas and hyperplastic polyps (HPs) and explored gene-environment interactions. Methods Men and women with colorectal adenomas (n=519), HPs (n=691), or concurrently with both types of polyps (n=227) and polyp-free controls (n=772) receiving a colonoscopy from 12/04-9/07 were recruited. Participants completed telephone interviews and provided buccal cell samples; genotyping of mEH was completed using Taqman assays. We conducted polytomous regression and calculated odd ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals. Interactions were evaluated using Wald chi-square tests. Results Consumption of >3 servings of charred meat per week was associated with distal HPs (OR=2.0, 1.2–3.4) but not adenomas nor either type of proximal polyp. Heavy cigarette smoking (≥22 pack-years) was associated with an increased risk for colorectal adenomas (OR=1.7, 95% CI 1.2–2.4), HPs (OR=2.4, 95% CI 1.7–3.3), and both types (OR=2.8, 95% CI 1.8–4.3) with the strongest association for distal polyps. There was no association between mEH genotype and colorectal polyps, nor were any statistically significant gene-environment interactions identified. Discussion Future investigation of BaP exposure and colorectal neoplasia should analyze whether associations are dependent upon anatomic location. PMID:21598178

  8. Meats and Meat Cookery.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marine Corps Inst., Washington, DC.

    Developed as part of the Marine Corps Institute (MCI) correspondence training program, this course on meats and meat cookery is designed to help the Marine cook to identify, handle, process, and serve meats, poultry, fish, and shellfish. Introductory materials include specific information for MCI students and a study guide (guidelines to complete…

  9. A central role for heme iron in colon carcinogenesis associated with red meat intake.

    PubMed

    Bastide, Nadia M; Chenni, Fatima; Audebert, Marc; Santarelli, Raphaelle L; Taché, Sylviane; Naud, Nathalie; Baradat, Maryse; Jouanin, Isabelle; Surya, Reggie; Hobbs, Ditte A; Kuhnle, Gunter G; Raymond-Letron, Isabelle; Gueraud, Françoise; Corpet, Denis E; Pierre, Fabrice H F

    2015-03-01

    Epidemiology shows that red and processed meat intake is associated with an increased risk of colorectal cancer. Heme iron, heterocyclic amines, and endogenous N-nitroso compounds (NOC) are proposed to explain this effect, but their relative contribution is unknown. Our study aimed at determining, at nutritional doses, which is the main factor involved and proposing a mechanism of cancer promotion by red meat. The relative part of heme iron (1% in diet), heterocyclic amines (PhIP + MeIQx, 50 + 25 μg/kg in diet), and NOC (induced by NaNO₂+ NaNO₂; 0.17 + 0.23 g/L of drinking water) was determined by a factorial design and preneoplastic endpoints in chemically induced rats and validated on tumors in Min mice. The molecular mechanisms (genotoxicity, cytotoxicity) were analyzed in vitro in normal and Apc-deficient cell lines and confirmed on colon mucosa. Heme iron increased the number of preneoplastic lesions, but dietary heterocyclic amines and NOC had no effect on carcinogenesis in rats. Dietary hemoglobin increased tumor load in Min mice (control diet: 67 ± 39 mm²; 2.5% hemoglobin diet: 114 ± 47 mm², P = 0.004). In vitro, fecal water from rats given hemoglobin was rich in aldehydes and was cytotoxic to normal cells, but not to premalignant cells. The aldehydes 4-hydroxynonenal and 4-hydroxyhexenal were more toxic to normal versus mutated cells and were only genotoxic to normal cells. Genotoxicity was also observed in colon mucosa of mice given hemoglobin. These results highlight the role of heme iron in the promotion of colon cancer by red meat and suggest that heme iron could initiate carcinogenesis through lipid peroxidation. . PMID:25592152

  10. Genetic association of growth traits with carcass and meat traits in Nellore cattle.

    PubMed

    Tonussi, R L; Espigolan, R; Gordo, D G M; Magalhães, A F B; Venturini, G C; Baldi, F; de Oliveira, H N; Chardulo, L A L; Tonhati, H; de Albuquerque, L G

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to estimate genetic and phenotypic associations of growth traits with carcass and meat traits in Nellore cattle. Data from male and female animals were used for weaning weight (WW; N = 241,416), yearling weight (YW, N = 126,596), weight gain from weaning to yearling (GWY, N = 78,687), and yearling hip height (YHH, N = 90,720), respectively; 877 male animals were used for hot carcass weight (HCW) and 884 for longissimus muscle area (LMA), backfat thickness (BT), marbling score (MS), and shear force (SF). The variance components were estimated by the restricted maximum likelihood method using three-trait animal models that included WW. The model for WW included direct and maternal additive genetic, maternal permanent environmental, and residual effects as random effects; contemporary group as fixed effects; and age of dam at calving and age of animal as covariates (linear and quadratic effects). For the other traits, maternal effects and the effect of age of dam at calving were excluded from the model. Heritability ranged from 0.10 ± 0.12 (LMA) to 0.44 ± 0.007 (YW). Genetic correlations ranged from -0.40 ± 0.38 (WW x LMA) to 0.55 ± 0.10 (HCW x YW). Growth, carcass, and meat traits have sufficient genetic variability to be included as selection criteria in animal breeding programs. PMID:26782521

  11. An outbreak of Salmonella typhimurium DT170 associated with kebab meat and yogurt relish.

    PubMed Central

    Evans, M. R.; Salmon, R. L.; Nehaul, L.; Mably, S.; Wafford, L.; Nolan-Farrell, M. Z.; Gardner, D.; Ribeiro, C. D.

    1999-01-01

    During July 1995, an outbreak of Salmonella typhimurium definitive type (DT) 170, an unusual strain, occurred in South Wales. A case-control study found that illness was associated with eating kebabs (odds ratio undefined, P = 0.002), doner kebabs (odds ratio 7.9, 95 % confidence interval 1.5-20.5, P = 0.02) and kebabs with yoghurt based relish (odds ratio undefined, P = 0.009) but not with eating kebabs with mayonnaise-based relish (odds ratio 2.4, 95 % confidence interval 0.4-13.9, P = 0.53). Environmental investigations discovered a complex web of producers and wholesale suppliers. Kebab meat and yoghurt had been supplied to the two main implicated outlets by a single wholesaler. Samples of raw minced lamb and several environmental swabs taken at the wholesaler were positive for S. typhimurium DT170. Blood-stained, unsealed yoghurt pots were observed to be stored under a rack of raw lamb. Investigators of food poisoning outbreaks linked to takeaway food should consider cross-contaminated relishes and dressings as well as undercooked meat as potential vehicles of infection. PMID:10459639

  12. Genome-Wide Detection of CNVs and Their Association with Meat Tenderness in Nelore Cattle

    PubMed Central

    da Silva, Vinicius Henrique; Regitano, Luciana Correia de Almeida; Geistlinger, Ludwig; Pértille, Fábio; Morosini, Natália Silva; Zimmer, Ralf; Coutinho, Luiz Lehmann

    2016-01-01

    Brazil is one of the largest beef producers and exporters in the world with the Nelore breed representing the vast majority of Brazilian cattle (Bos taurus indicus). Despite the great adaptability of the Nelore breed to tropical climate, meat tenderness (MT) remains to be improved. Several factors including genetic composition can influence MT. In this article, we report a genome-wide analysis of copy number variation (CNV) inferred from Illumina® High Density SNP-chip data for a Nelore population of 723 males. We detected >2,600 CNV regions (CNVRs) representing ≈6.5% of the genome. Comparing our results with previous studies revealed an overlap in ≈1400 CNVRs (>50%). A total of 1,155 CNVRs (43.6%) overlapped 2,750 genes. They were enriched for processes involving guanosine triphosphate (GTP), previously reported to influence skeletal muscle physiology and morphology. Nelore CNVRs also overlapped QTLs for MT reported in other breeds (8.9%, 236 CNVRs) and from a previous study with this population (4.1%, 109 CNVRs). Two CNVRs were also proximal to glutathione metabolism genes that were previously associated with MT. Genome-wide association study of CN state with estimated breeding values derived from meat shear force identified 6 regions, including a region on BTA3 that contains genes of the cAMP and cGMP pathway. Ten CNVRs that overlapped regions associated with MT were successfully validated by qPCR. Our results represent the first comprehensive CNV study in Bos taurus indicus cattle and identify regions in which copy number changes are potentially of importance for the MT phenotype. PMID:27348523

  13. Genome-Wide Detection of CNVs and Their Association with Meat Tenderness in Nelore Cattle.

    PubMed

    Silva, Vinicius Henrique da; Regitano, Luciana Correia de Almeida; Geistlinger, Ludwig; Pértille, Fábio; Giachetto, Poliana Fernanda; Brassaloti, Ricardo Augusto; Morosini, Natália Silva; Zimmer, Ralf; Coutinho, Luiz Lehmann

    2016-01-01

    Brazil is one of the largest beef producers and exporters in the world with the Nelore breed representing the vast majority of Brazilian cattle (Bos taurus indicus). Despite the great adaptability of the Nelore breed to tropical climate, meat tenderness (MT) remains to be improved. Several factors including genetic composition can influence MT. In this article, we report a genome-wide analysis of copy number variation (CNV) inferred from Illumina® High Density SNP-chip data for a Nelore population of 723 males. We detected >2,600 CNV regions (CNVRs) representing ≈6.5% of the genome. Comparing our results with previous studies revealed an overlap in ≈1400 CNVRs (>50%). A total of 1,155 CNVRs (43.6%) overlapped 2,750 genes. They were enriched for processes involving guanosine triphosphate (GTP), previously reported to influence skeletal muscle physiology and morphology. Nelore CNVRs also overlapped QTLs for MT reported in other breeds (8.9%, 236 CNVRs) and from a previous study with this population (4.1%, 109 CNVRs). Two CNVRs were also proximal to glutathione metabolism genes that were previously associated with MT. Genome-wide association study of CN state with estimated breeding values derived from meat shear force identified 6 regions, including a region on BTA3 that contains genes of the cAMP and cGMP pathway. Ten CNVRs that overlapped regions associated with MT were successfully validated by qPCR. Our results represent the first comprehensive CNV study in Bos taurus indicus cattle and identify regions in which copy number changes are potentially of importance for the MT phenotype. PMID:27348523

  14. The association between polymorphism of PKM2 gene and glycolytic potential and pork meat quality.

    PubMed

    Sieczkowska, H; Koćwin-Podsiadła, M; Zybert, A; Krzecio, E; Antosik, K; Kamiński, S; Wójcik, E

    2010-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the association of PKM2 gene with glycolytic potential and meat quality traits in three groups of fatteners - Landrace, Landrace x Yorkshire and (Landrace x Yorkshire) x Duroc. The present study was conducted on 243 fatteners, free of RYR1(T) gene, which 95 were of Landrace breed and the rest were the following crosses: 66 - Landrace x Yorkshire and 82 (Landrace x Yorkshire) x Duroc. It has been stated, that PKM2 gene (independently from the breed) was significantly associated with GP, lactate content, R(1) indicator, pH and drip loss. The presence of TT genotype may lead to increase of GP and lactate content and results in low pH(24) and pH(144) and bigger drip loss measured 96 and 144 h after the slaughter. Except for the landrace fatteners, the association of the PKM2 gene with the glycogen content has not been statistically confirmed. Statistically confirmed interaction shows, that the association of PKM2 gene with glycolytic potential and glycogen content concerns mainly the Landrace pigs. Moreover, a high (almost 89%) conformability of the genotype of PKM2 gene with the RN(-) phenotype, can serve as an additional argument in favour of the thesis. PMID:20374772

  15. Rural Elementary Students' Understanding of Science and Agricultural Education Benchmarks Related to Meat and Livestock.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meischen, Deanna L.; Trexler, Cary J.

    2003-01-01

    Seven fifth-graders developed concept maps depicting their knowledge of meat product development. Despite their rural background, they lacked understanding of agriculture concepts and had mixed knowledge of agricultural literacy benchmarks concerning food products. Their language did not reflect scientific terminology in the benchmarks. (Contains…

  16. Toxoplasma gondii: Pig seroprevalence, associated risk factors and viability in fresh pork meat.

    PubMed

    Herrero, Laura; Gracia, María Jesús; Pérez-Arquillué, Consuelo; Lázaro, Regina; Herrera, Marta; Herrera, Antonio; Bayarri, Susana

    2016-07-15

    This study was conducted on 161 fattening pig farms located in Aragón (Northeast Spain). Serum samples from 1200 pigs were tested for antibodies against T. gondii by indirect immunofluorescence assay (IFA). Antibodies to T. gondii (≥1:20) were detected in 301 pigs (24.52%). The seroprevalence observed in the present study indicates a widespread exposure to T. gondii, as seropositive pigs were found in 96.67% of the farms studied although low pig titers were determined. Risk factors associated with T. gondii seroprevalence were presence of cats in or around the farms, presence of dogs around the facilities, low number of animals in the farms, poor hygiene and bad maintenance of the farms. Finally, it was observed that where rodent baits were used, Toxoplasma prevalence was lower. Risk management measures including control of cats and rodents on the farms, among others, could help to reduce the observed prevalence levels. By mouse bioassay, T. gondii was detected in 73.7% and isolated from 42.1% of seropositive pigs and a significant relation between the titers of pigs and the presence and viability of T. gondii in the tissues was found. The detection of T. gondii is not possible by currently practiced meat inspection. Nevertheless, the increased probability of detecting viable forms of T. gondii in tissues of pigs with titers ≥1: 80 could be used as the cutoff for discriminating higher risk animals, and could be used as an effective control tool for the industry of cured meat products. In practical terms, we propose that this value could be used as a critical limit in the HACCP system. PMID:27270390

  17. Ambivalence towards meat.

    PubMed

    Berndsen, Mariëtte; van der Pligt, Joop

    2004-02-01

    The purpose of the present study was to examine whether differences in ambivalence between meat eaters affect their attitude towards eating meat, the belief structure underlying these attitudes, meat consumption, and intentions to reduce consumption in the future. Not surprisingly, more ambivalent meat eaters held a less positive attitude towards meat as compared to less ambivalent meat eaters. Moreover, the belief structure of the two groups also differed: More ambivalent persons associated the consumption of meat with slightly negative feelings, morally unacceptable issues, and risks for both their health and the environment. In contrast, less ambivalent meat eaters reported positive affective beliefs, did not emphasize moral issues, and perceived less risk. Results highlight the role of affective beliefs as a predictor of both attitude and ambivalence. Ambivalence, in turn, was a predictor of actual meat consumption; i.e. increased ambivalence was related to reduced meat consumption. Moreover, more ambivalent meat eaters intended to further reduce their meat consumption in the future. Practical and theoretical implications of these results are discussed. PMID:15036785

  18. Trends in meat science and technology: the future looks bright, but the journey will be long.

    PubMed

    Kristensen, L; Støier, S; Würtz, J; Hinrichsen, L

    2014-11-01

    With an increasing world population, an increase in affluence and a substantial growth in the demand for high quality protein, the meat sector faces a fantastic but challenging century. New scientific knowledge, technology and creative minds are the main ingredients in order to reach out for this great opportunity. Efficiency all the way from breeding and farming to processing and dispatch is crucial for success. Technology has brought us far, and there is still a huge potential for increased efficiency by implementing best practices on a global scale. New challenges include: hyper flexible automation, more accurate and faster measurement systems and meeting special consumer demands already at the production line. Systems for optimal animal welfare will be even more important and sustainability is no longer a consumer trend but a license to operate. The scientific meat society must provide knowledge and technology so we together can reach out for a seemingly bright future. PMID:25028094

  19. Translating science into the next generation meat quality program for Australian lamb.

    PubMed

    Pethick, D W; Ball, A J; Banks, R G; Gardner, G E; Rowe, J B; Jacob, R H

    2014-02-01

    This paper introduces a series of papers in the form of a special edition that reports phenotypic analyses done in parallel with genotypic analyses for the Australian Sheep Industry Cooperative Research Centre (Sheep CRC) using data generated from the information nucleus flock (INF). This has allowed new knowledge to be gained of the genetic, environment and management factors that impact on the carcase and eating quality, visual appeal, odour and health attributes of Australian lamb meat. The research described involved close collaboration with commercial partners across the supply chain in the sire breeding as well as the meat processing industries. This approach has enabled timely delivery and adoption of research results to industry in an unprecedented way and provides a good model for future research. PMID:24125627

  20. Genome-Wide Association Study of Meat Quality Traits in Nellore Cattle

    PubMed Central

    Magalhães, Ana F. B.; de Camargo, Gregório M. F.; Fernandes, Gerardo A.; Gordo, Daniel G. M.; Tonussi, Rafael L.; Costa, Raphael B.; Espigolan, Rafael; Silva, Rafael M. de O.; Bresolin, Tiago; de Andrade, Willian B. F.; Takada, Luciana; Feitosa, Fabieli L. B.; Baldi, Fernando; Carvalheiro, Roberto; Chardulo, Luis A. L.; de Albuquerque, Lucia G.

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to identify genomic regions that are associated with meat quality traits in the Nellore breed. Nellore steers were finished in feedlots and slaughtered at a commercial slaughterhouse. This analysis included 1,822 phenotypic records of tenderness and 1,873 marbling records. After quality control, 1,630 animals genotyped for tenderness, 1,633 animals genotyped for marbling, and 369,722 SNPs remained. The results are reported as the proportion of variance explained by windows of 150 adjacent SNPs. Only windows with largest effects were considered. The genomic regions were located on chromosomes 5, 15, 16 and 25 for marbling and on chromosomes 5, 7, 10, 14 and 21 for tenderness. These windows explained 3,89% and 3,80% of the additive genetic variance for marbling and tenderness, respectively. The genes associated with the traits are related to growth, muscle development and lipid metabolism. The study of these genes in Nellore cattle is the first step in the identification of causal mutations that will contribute to the genetic evaluation of the breed. PMID:27359122

  1. Genome-Wide Association Study of Meat Quality Traits in Nellore Cattle.

    PubMed

    Magalhães, Ana F B; de Camargo, Gregório M F; Fernandes, Gerardo A; Gordo, Daniel G M; Tonussi, Rafael L; Costa, Raphael B; Espigolan, Rafael; Silva, Rafael M de O; Bresolin, Tiago; de Andrade, Willian B F; Takada, Luciana; Feitosa, Fabieli L B; Baldi, Fernando; Carvalheiro, Roberto; Chardulo, Luis A L; de Albuquerque, Lucia G

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to identify genomic regions that are associated with meat quality traits in the Nellore breed. Nellore steers were finished in feedlots and slaughtered at a commercial slaughterhouse. This analysis included 1,822 phenotypic records of tenderness and 1,873 marbling records. After quality control, 1,630 animals genotyped for tenderness, 1,633 animals genotyped for marbling, and 369,722 SNPs remained. The results are reported as the proportion of variance explained by windows of 150 adjacent SNPs. Only windows with largest effects were considered. The genomic regions were located on chromosomes 5, 15, 16 and 25 for marbling and on chromosomes 5, 7, 10, 14 and 21 for tenderness. These windows explained 3,89% and 3,80% of the additive genetic variance for marbling and tenderness, respectively. The genes associated with the traits are related to growth, muscle development and lipid metabolism. The study of these genes in Nellore cattle is the first step in the identification of causal mutations that will contribute to the genetic evaluation of the breed. PMID:27359122

  2. High intakes of protein and processed meat associate with increased incidence of type 2 diabetes.

    PubMed

    Ericson, Ulrika; Sonestedt, Emily; Gullberg, Bo; Hellstrand, Sophie; Hindy, George; Wirfält, Elisabet; Orho-Melander, Marju

    2013-03-28

    Diets high in protein have shown positive effects on short-term weight reduction and glycaemic control. However, the understanding of how dietary macronutrient composition relates to long-term risk of type 2 diabetes is limited. The aim of the present study was to examine intakes of macronutrients, fibre and protein sources in relation to incident type 2 diabetes. In total, 27 140 individuals, aged 45-74 years, from the population-based Malmö Diet and Cancer cohort, were included. Dietary data were collected with a modified diet history method, including registration of cooked meals. During 12 years of follow-up, 1709 incident type 2 diabetes cases were identified. High protein intake was associated with increased risk of type 2 diabetes (hazard ratio (HR) 1.27 for highest compared with lowest quintile; 95 % CI 1.08, 1.49; P for trend = 0.01). When protein consumption increased by 5 % of energy at the expense of carbohydrates (HR 1.20; 95 % CI 1.09, 1.33) or fat (HR 1.21; 95 % CI 1.09, 1.33), increased diabetes risk was observed. Intakes in the highest quintiles of processed meat (HR 1.16; 95 % CI 1.00, 1.36; P for trend = 0.01) and eggs (HR 1.21; 95 % CI 1.04, 1.41; P for trend = 0.02) were associated with increased risk. Intake of fibre-rich bread and cereals was inversely associated with type 2 diabetes (HR 0.84; 95 % CI 0.73, 0.98; P for trend = 0.004). In conclusion, results from the present large population-based prospective study indicate that high protein intake is associated with increased risk of type 2 diabetes. Replacing protein with carbohydrates may be favourable, especially if fibre-rich breads and cereals are chosen as carbohydrate sources. PMID:22850191

  3. Factors Associated with the Adoption of Food Safety Controls by the Mexican Meat Industry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maldonado-Simán, Ema; Martínez-Hernández, Pedro Arturo; García-Muñiz, José G.; Cadena-Meneses, José

    Food marketing at international and domestic markets has focused on processing systems that improve food safety. The objective of this research is to determine the factors influencing the implementation of the HACCP system in the Mexican meat industry, and to identify the main marketing destination of their products. Only 18.5% of enterprises reports fully operational HACCP in their plants. The main destination of their production in the domestic market is supermarkets, suppliers and distributors and specific niches of the domestic market. Exports are to USA, Japan, Korea and Central America and some niches of the domestic market with requirements of higher quality. The four principal factors that motivate enterprises to adopt HACCP are associated with improvement of plant efficiency and profitability, adoption of good practices, improvement of product quality and waste reduction. It is concluded that Mexican enterprises adopt HACCP to successfully remain and face competition by foreign enterprises in the domestic market and to a lesser extent to compete in the international market.

  4. Genome-wide Association Study to Identify Quantitative Trait Loci for Meat and Carcass Quality Traits in Berkshire.

    PubMed

    Iqbal, Asif; Kim, You-Sam; Kang, Jun-Mo; Lee, Yun-Mi; Rai, Rajani; Jung, Jong-Hyun; Oh, Dong-Yup; Nam, Ki-Chang; Lee, Hak-Kyo; Kim, Jong-Joo

    2015-11-01

    Meat and carcass quality attributes are of crucial importance influencing consumer preference and profitability in the pork industry. A set of 400 Berkshire pigs were collected from Dasan breeding farm, Namwon, Chonbuk province, Korea that were born between 2012 and 2013. To perform genome wide association studies (GWAS), eleven meat and carcass quality traits were considered, including carcass weight, backfat thickness, pH value after 24 hours (pH24), Commission Internationale de l'Eclairage lightness in meat color (CIE L), redness in meat color (CIE a), yellowness in meat color (CIE b), filtering, drip loss, heat loss, shear force and marbling score. All of the 400 animals were genotyped with the Porcine 62K SNP BeadChips (Illumina Inc., USA). A SAS general linear model procedure (SAS version 9.2) was used to pre-adjust the animal phenotypes before GWAS with sire and sex effects as fixed effects and slaughter age as a covariate. After fitting the fixed and covariate factors in the model, the residuals of the phenotype regressed on additive effects of each single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) under a linear regression model (PLINK version 1.07). The significant SNPs after permutation testing at a chromosome-wise level were subjected to stepwise regression analysis to determine the best set of SNP markers. A total of 55 significant (p<0.05) SNPs or quantitative trait loci (QTL) were detected on various chromosomes. The QTLs explained from 5.06% to 8.28% of the total phenotypic variation of the traits. Some QTLs with pleiotropic effect were also identified. A pair of significant QTL for pH24 was also found to affect both CIE L and drip loss percentage. The significant QTL after characterization of the functional candidate genes on the QTL or around the QTL region may be effectively and efficiently used in marker assisted selection to achieve enhanced genetic improvement of the trait considered. PMID:26580276

  5. Genome-wide Association Study to Identify Quantitative Trait Loci for Meat and Carcass Quality Traits in Berkshire

    PubMed Central

    Iqbal, Asif; Kim, You-Sam; Kang, Jun-Mo; Lee, Yun-Mi; Rai, Rajani; Jung, Jong-Hyun; Oh, Dong-Yup; Nam, Ki-Chang; Lee, Hak-Kyo; Kim, Jong-Joo

    2015-01-01

    Meat and carcass quality attributes are of crucial importance influencing consumer preference and profitability in the pork industry. A set of 400 Berkshire pigs were collected from Dasan breeding farm, Namwon, Chonbuk province, Korea that were born between 2012 and 2013. To perform genome wide association studies (GWAS), eleven meat and carcass quality traits were considered, including carcass weight, backfat thickness, pH value after 24 hours (pH24), Commission Internationale de l’Eclairage lightness in meat color (CIE L), redness in meat color (CIE a), yellowness in meat color (CIE b), filtering, drip loss, heat loss, shear force and marbling score. All of the 400 animals were genotyped with the Porcine 62K SNP BeadChips (Illumina Inc., USA). A SAS general linear model procedure (SAS version 9.2) was used to pre-adjust the animal phenotypes before GWAS with sire and sex effects as fixed effects and slaughter age as a covariate. After fitting the fixed and covariate factors in the model, the residuals of the phenotype regressed on additive effects of each single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) under a linear regression model (PLINK version 1.07). The significant SNPs after permutation testing at a chromosome-wise level were subjected to stepwise regression analysis to determine the best set of SNP markers. A total of 55 significant (p<0.05) SNPs or quantitative trait loci (QTL) were detected on various chromosomes. The QTLs explained from 5.06% to 8.28% of the total phenotypic variation of the traits. Some QTLs with pleiotropic effect were also identified. A pair of significant QTL for pH24 was also found to affect both CIE L and drip loss percentage. The significant QTL after characterization of the functional candidate genes on the QTL or around the QTL region may be effectively and efficiently used in marker assisted selection to achieve enhanced genetic improvement of the trait considered. PMID:26580276

  6. Calcium and α-tocopherol suppress cured-meat promotion of chemically induced colon carcinogenesis in rats and reduce associated biomarkers in human volunteers123

    PubMed Central

    Martin, Océane CB; Santarelli, Raphaelle L; Taché, Sylviane; Naud, Nathalie; Guéraud, Françoise; Audebert, Marc; Dupuy, Jacques; Meunier, Nathalie; Attaix, Didier; Vendeuvre, Jean-Luc; Mirvish, Sidney S; Kuhnle, Gunter CG; Cano, Noel; Corpet, Denis E

    2013-01-01

    Background: Processed meat intake has been associated with increased colorectal cancer risk. We have shown that cured meat promotes carcinogen-induced preneoplastic lesions and increases specific biomarkers in the colon of rats. Objectives: We investigated whether cured meat modulates biomarkers of cancer risk in human volunteers and whether specific agents can suppress cured meat–induced preneoplastic lesions in rats and associated biomarkers in rats and humans. Design: Six additives (calcium carbonate, inulin, rutin, carnosol, α-tocopherol, and trisodium pyrophosphate) were added to cured meat given to groups of rats for 14 d, and fecal biomarkers were measured. On the basis of these results, calcium and tocopherol were kept for the following additional experiments: cured meat, with or without calcium or tocopherol, was given to dimethylhydrazine-initiated rats (47% meat diet for 100 d) and to human volunteers in a crossover study (180 g/d for 4 d). Rat colons were scored for mucin-depleted foci, putative precancer lesions. Biomarkers of nitrosation, lipoperoxidation, and cytotoxicity were measured in the urine and feces of rats and volunteers. Results: Cured meat increased nitroso compounds and lipoperoxidation in human stools (both P < 0.05). Calcium normalized both biomarkers in rats and human feces, whereas tocopherol only decreased nitro compounds in rats and lipoperoxidation in feces of volunteers (all P < 0.05). Last, calcium and tocopherol reduced the number of mucin-depleted foci per colon in rats compared with nonsupplemented cured meat (P = 0.01). Conclusion: Data suggest that the addition of calcium carbonate to the diet or α-tocopherol to cured meat may reduce colorectal cancer risk associated with cured-meat intake. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT00994526. PMID:24025632

  7. Associations between response to handling and growth and meat quality in frequently handled Bos taurus beef cattle.

    PubMed

    Turner, S P; Navajas, E A; Hyslop, J J; Ross, D W; Richardson, R I; Prieto, N; Bell, M; Jack, M C; Roehe, R

    2011-12-01

    Fearful behavioral responses to handling (temperament) are undesirably associated with ADG and meat quality in infrequently handled Bos indicus cattle. It has never been assessed whether these relationships exist in calmer Bos taurus breeds in systems where handling is more frequent. Such systems predominate in some countries where beef production is a major agricultural activity. During fattening, 144 crossbred cattle from Limousin and Aberdeen Angus sires were assessed for temperament using 4 approaches: response to movement along a race (race score; 4 occasions), restraint in a crush (crush score; 4 occasions), flight speed from the crush (flight speed; 4 occasions), and isolation in a pen with a human (isolation score; 1 occasion in yr 1, 2 occasions in yr 2). Measurements of ADG were made between birth and slaughter and between 16 and 18 mo of age during fattening. Fattening occurred indoors on a complete mixed diet fed for ad libitum intake. Meat quality was measured by pH, color, and Volodkevitch shear force and by a sensory panel. The repeatability of temperament traits was 0.17 (race score), 0.35 (crush score), 0.51 (flight speed), and 0.36 (isolation score). The proportion of the total variance of temperament traits attributable to the sire and the social group was low (0.003 to 0.402). However, the sire did affect behavior in all tests apart from the crush score (ranging from P = 0.02 to P < 0.001). Correlations between behavior in the different tests (ranging from r = 0.21 to 0.54, and P = 0.02 to P < 0.001) apart from between-flight speed and isolation score indicate that fearful behavior was consistently shown across assessment methods. A calm response in the crush score test was associated with a greater ADG during fattening (P = 0.05), whereas a calm response during the isolation test was associated with a greater ADG in cold carcass weight (P = 0.02). Animals with a calm isolation score had less tender meat as judged by the sensory panel (P = 0

  8. [Associations of PRLR/AluI gene polymorphism with reproductive, growth and meat quality traits in pigs].

    PubMed

    Mikhaĭlov, N V; Usatov, A V; Getmantseva, L V; Bakoev, S Iu

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine associations between genotypes for the prolactin receptor (PRLR) gene and swine reproductive, growth and meat traits. 210 sows of three genetic groups: Large White (LW), Danish Landrace (LD) and Landrace x Yorkshire x Duroc (L x x Y x D) were included. The studied reproductive traits included the total number of born (TNB), number born alive (NBA). The growth traits were the number of days to 100-kg, average daily gains (ADG). The meat traits were the average backfat thickness (BFT), half carcass weight (HCW), area of M. longissimus dorsi (MLT) and lean meat content (LM). The polymorphism was detected using polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment-length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) method. It was shown that BB genotype is associated with the best NBA on 1.9 and 0.7 piglets at sows LW and LD, respectively. AB genotype is associated with best number of days to 100-kg at sows LD on 3.1 days and AA genotype with less BFT on 1.7 mm, bigger HCW on 0.5 kg and MLT on 5, 4 cm I at L x Y x D. PMID:25318178

  9. A genome-wide association study of meat and carcass traits in Australian cattle.

    PubMed

    Bolormaa, S; Neto, L R Porto; Zhang, Y D; Bunch, R J; Harrison, B E; Goddard, M E; Barendse, W

    2011-08-01

    Chromosomal regions containing DNA variation affecting the traits intramuscular fat percentage (IMF), meat tenderness measured as peak force to shear the LM (LLPF), and rump fat measured at the sacro-iliac crest in the chiller (CHILLP8) were identified using a set of 53,798 SNP genotyped on 940 taurine and indicine cattle sampled from a large progeny test experiment. Of these SNP, 87, 64, and 63 were significantly (P < 0.001) associated with the traits IMF, LLPF, and CHILLP8, respectively. A second, nonoverlapping sample of 1,338 taurine and indicine cattle from the same large progeny test experiment genotyped for 335 SNP, including as a positive control the calpastatin (CAST) c.2832A > G SNP, was used to confirm these locations. In total, 37 SNP were significantly (P < 0.05) associated with the same trait and with the same favorable homozygote in both data sets, representing 27 chromosomal regions. For the trait IMF, the effect of SNP in the confirmation data set was predicted from the discovery set by multiplying the estimated allele effect of each SNP in the discovery set by the number of copies of the reference allele of each SNP in the confirmation set. These weighted effects were then summed over all SNP to generate a molecular breeding value (MBV) for each animal in the confirmation data set. Using a bivariate analysis of MBV and IMF phenotypes of animals in the confirmation set, a panel of 14 SNP explained 5.6 and 15.6% of the phenotypic and genetic variance of IMF, respectively, in the confirmation data set. The amount of variation did not increase as more SNP were added to the MBV and instead decreased to 1.2 and 3.8% of the phenotypic and genetic variance of IMF, respectively, when 329 SNP were included in the analysis. PMID:21421834

  10. Polymorphisms in Epigenetic and Meat Quality Related Genes in Fourteen Cattle Breeds and Association with Beef Quality and Carcass Traits

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Xuan; Usman, Tahir; Wang, Yachun; Wang, Zezhao; Xu, Xianzhou; Wu, Meng; Zhang, Yi; Zhang, Xu; Li, Qiang; Liu, Lin; Shi, Wanhai; Qin, Chunhua; Geng, Fanjun; Wang, Congyong; Tan, Rui; Huang, Xixia; Liu, Airong; Wu, Hongjun; Tan, Shixin; Yu, Ying

    2015-01-01

    Improvement for carcass traits related to beef quality is the key concern in beef production. Recent reports found that epigenetics mediates the interaction of individuals with environment and nutrition. The present study was designed to analyze the genetic effect of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in seven epigenetic-related genes (DNMT1, DNMT3a, DNMT3b, DNMT3L, Ago1, Ago2, and HDAC5) and two meat quality candidate genes (CAPN1 and PRKAG3) on fourteen carcass traits related to beef quality in a Snow Dragon beef population, and also to identify SNPs in a total of fourteen cattle populations. Sixteen SNPs were identified and genotyped in 383 individuals sampled from the 14 cattle breeds, which included 147 samples from the Snow Dragon beef population. Data analysis showed significant association of 8 SNPs within 4 genes related to carcass and/or meat quality traits in the beef populations. SNP1 (13154420A>G) in exon 17 of DNMT1 was significantly associated with rib-eye width and lean meat color score (p<0.05). A novel SNP (SNP4, 76198537A>G) of DNMT3a was significantly associated with six beef quality traits. Those individuals with the wild-type genotype AA of DNMT3a showed an increase in carcass weight, chilled carcass weight, flank thicknesses, chuck short rib thickness, chuck short rib score and in chuck flap weight in contrast to the GG genotype. Five out of six SNPs in DNMT3b gene were significantly associated with three beef quality traits. SNP15 (45219258C>T) in CAPN1 was significantly associated with chuck short rib thickness and lean meat color score (p<0.05). The significant effect of SNP15 on lean meat color score individually and in combination with each of other 14 SNPs qualify this SNP to be used as potential marker for improving the trait. In addition, the frequencies of most wild-type alleles were higher than those of the mutant alleles in the native and foreign cattle breeds. Seven SNPs were identified in the epigenetic-related genes. The SNP

  11. Meat Processing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Legacy, Jim; And Others

    This publication provides an introduction to meat processing for adult students in vocational and technical education programs. Organized in four chapters, the booklet provides a brief overview of the meat processing industry and the techniques of meat processing and butchering. The first chapter introduces the meat processing industry and…

  12. Carcass traits and meat quality of Nellore cattle fed different non-fiber carbohydrates sources associated with crude glycerin.

    PubMed

    Favaro, V R; Ezequiel, J M B; Almeida, M T C; D'Aurea, A P; Paschoaloto, J R; van Cleef, E H C B; Carvalho, V B; Junqueira, N B

    2016-08-01

    Crude glycerin, a potential energy source for ruminant animals, has been evaluated, mainly, in diets with high starch content. However, a limit number of studies have evaluated the inclusion of crude glycerin in low starch diets. This study aimed to evaluate the effects of the association of crude glycerin with corn grain or citrus pulp on carcass traits and meat quality of Nellore bulls (n=30, 402±31 kg initial weight). The treatment consisted of: CON=control, without crude glycerin; CG10=10% of crude glycerin and corn grain; CG15=15% of crude glycerin and corn grain; CP10=10% of crude glycerin and citrus pulp; CP15=15% of crude glycerin and citrus pulp. The performance parameters and carcass traits were not affected by treatments (P>0.05). The inclusion of crude glycerin decreased yellow color intensity and increased fatty acids pentadecanoic and heptadecenoic in meat (P<0.05), without affecting neither the concentration of polyunsaturated fatty acids nor the relationship of saturated and unsaturated fatty acids. The association of crude glycerin with corn or citrus pulp has no adverse effects on carcass characteristics and meat quality. PMID:26857157

  13. Association of halothane sensitivity with growth and meat quality in pigs.

    PubMed

    Bates, R O; Doumit, M E; Raney, N E; Helman, E E; Ernst, C W

    2012-09-01

    Previous reports have indicated that a proportion of pigs, homozygous normal for the skeletal muscle ryanodine receptor gene (RYR1), was halothane sensitive, and this was associated with poor meat quality when pigs were handled aggressively. This study was conducted to evaluate halothane sensitivity in RYR1-normal pigs, managed under simulated commercial conditions, to ascertain the association of halothane sensitivity with growth rate and meat quality. A total of 363 pigs across four farrowing groups, from seven Landrace sires and 38 Yorkshire-Landrace F1 dams, were tested at 8 weeks of age for halothane sensitivity using a closed system that delivered 5% halothane at 2 l/min for 3 (group 1) or 2 (groups 2 to 4) min. After 1 min, limb rigidity, limb tremors and abdominal discoloration were evaluated on a binomial scale with 0 indicating no reaction and 1 indicating reaction. Testing was repeated 2 days later. At 10 weeks of age, pigs were moved to finishing pens and not moved again until marketing. Within farrowing group, pigs were harvested in one of two groups, and at marketing were moved a distance of 91 m, weighed, tattooed, loaded and transported a distance of 550 km to a commercial harvest plant. After overnight rest, pigs were harvested and the pH of the loin muscle was measured at 45 min (pH45) after stunning. After an 18-h chill, loin muscle pH (pHu), International Commission on Illumination (CIE) L*, a*, b*, color (1 to 6) and marbling (1 to 10) scores and fluid loss percent were collected. Generalized linear mixed models were used to estimate repeatabilities for response to halothane challenge. Repeatabilities for limb rigidity for the front right and left legs were 0.24 and 0.31, respectively, whereas rear right and left leg repeatabilities were 0.19 and 0.17, respectively. Repeatabilities for front right and left leg tremors were 0.16 and 0.20, respectively. Growth rate was not influenced by any measure of halothane sensitivity. Carcasses from pigs

  14. Estimation of Genetic Associations between Production and Meat Quality Traits in Duroc Pigs

    PubMed Central

    Cabling, M. M.; Kang, H. S.; Lopez, B. M.; Jang, M.; Kim, H. S.; Nam, K. C.; Choi, J. G.; Seo, K. S.

    2015-01-01

    Data collected from 690 purebred Duroc pigs from 2009 to 2012 were used to estimate the heritability, and genetic and phenotypic correlations between production and meat quality traits. Variance components were obtained through the restricted maximum likelihood procedure using Wombat and SAS version 9.0. Animals were raised under the same management in five different breeding farms. The average daily gain, loin muscle area (LMA), backfat thickness (BF), and lean percent (LP) were measured as production traits. Meat quality traits included pH, cooking loss, lightness (L*), redness (a*), yellowness (b*), marbling score (MS), moisture content (MC), water holding capacity (WHC), and shear force. The results showed that the heritability estimates for meat quality traits varied largely from 0.19 to 0.79. Production traits were moderate to highly heritable from 0.41 to 0.73. Genotypically, the BF was positively correlated (p<0.05) with MC (0.786), WHC (0.904), and pH (0.328) but negatively correlated with shear force (−0.533). The results of genetic correlations indicated that selection for less BF could decrease pH, moisture content, and WHC and increase the shear force of meat. Additionally, a significant positive correlation was recorded between average daily gain and WHC, which indicates pork from faster-growing animals has higher WHC. Furthermore, selection for larger LMA and LP could increase MS and lightness color of meat. The meat quality and production traits could be improved simultaneously if desired. Hence, to avoid further deterioration of pork characteristics, appropriate selection of traits should be considered. PMID:26104512

  15. MEAT SCIENCE AND MUSCLE BIOLOGY SYMPOSIUM--implant and beta agonist impacts on beef palatability.

    PubMed

    Garmyn, A J; Miller, M F

    2014-01-01

    The use of anabolic implants has a long-standing place in the cattle feeding industry, due to their positive impact on growth performance and subsequent profitability. However, implants can have adverse effects on carcass quality, shear force, and eating quality depending on the dose and frequency, or what some refer to as the aggressiveness of the implant regimen administered. Within the past decade, a new class of growth promotants, known as β-adrenergic agonists (βAA), has emerged in the beef feeding industry in the United States. Currently, 2 have gained U.S. Food and Drug Administration approval for use in beef finishing diets to improve performance and carcass yields. Much like anabolic implants, these repartitioning agents can have negative effects on Warner-Bratzler shear force (WBSF), but the differences do not necessarily translate directly to consumer responses for palatability and acceptance in some instances, especially when tenderness is managed through proper postmortem aging. As researchers continued to investigate the mechanisms responsible for the impact of βAA, inevitably this led to consideration of the interaction between βAA and anabolic implants. Early work combining zilpaterol hydrochloride (ZH) with anabolic implants improved performance, carcass yield, and meat yield with additive negative effects on WBSF. Similar results were produced when pairing ZH with anabolic steroids equipped with various release patterns. As with any tool, the key to success is proper management. Certain cattle populations may be better suited to receive growth promotants such as implants and βAA, and postmortem management of subprimal cuts becomes vital when producers take more aggressive approaches to improve performance and yield. The objective of this review is to overview research findings related to the impact of growth promotant technologies on beef palatability, focusing specifically on the role of implants and βAA on carcass quality, beef tenderness

  16. Evaluation of Biochemical Parameters and Genetic Markers for Association with Meat Tenderness in South African Cattle

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A large proportion of South African feedlot cattle are crossbreds of Brahman (BrX, Bos indicus), and Simmental (SiX, Bos taurus). A sample of 20 grain fed bulls from each of these crossbreeds was used to compare meat quality with that of the small frame indigenous Nguni (NgX, Sanga) by evaluating a ...

  17. Development of the dose-response relationship for human toxoplasma gondii infection associated with meat consumption

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Toxoplasma gondii is a protozoan parasite that is responsible for approximately 24% of deaths attributed to foodborne pathogens in the United States.A substantial portion of human T. gondii infections may be acquired through the consumption of meats. The dose-response relationship for human exposure...

  18. Heme-Induced Biomarkers Associated with Red Meat Promotion of colon Cancer Are Not Modulated by the Intake of Nitrite

    PubMed Central

    Chenni, Fatima Z; Taché, Sylviane; Naud, Nathalie; Guéraud, Françoise; Hobbs, Ditte A; Kunhle, Gunter G C; Pierre, Fabrice H; Corpet, Denis E

    2013-01-01

    Red and processed meat consumption is associated with the risk of colorectal cancer. Three hypotheses are proposed to explain this association, via heme/alcenal, heterocyclic amines or N-nitroso compounds. Rats have often been used to study these hypotheses, but the lack of enterosalivary cycle of nitrate in rats casts doubt on the relevance of this animal model to predict nitroso- and heme-associated human colon carcinogenesis. The present study was thus designed to clarify whether a nitrite intake that mimics the enterosalivary cycle can modulate heme-induced nitrosation and fat peroxidation. This study shows that, in contrast with the starting hypothesis, salivary nitrite did not change the effect of hemoglobin on biochemical markers linked to colon carcinogenesis, notably lipid peroxidation and cytotoxic activity in the colon of rat. However, ingested sodium nitrite increased fecal nitroso-compounds level, but their fecal concentration and their nature (iron-nitrosyl) would not be associated with an increased risk of cancer. The rat model could thus be relevant to study the effect of red meat on colon carcinogenesis in spite of the lack of nitrite recycling in rat’s saliva. PMID:23441609

  19. Heme-induced biomarkers associated with red meat promotion of colon cancer are not modulated by the intake of nitrite.

    PubMed

    Chenni, Fatima Z; Taché, Sylviane; Naud, Nathalie; Guéraud, Françoise; Hobbs, Ditte A; Kunhle, Gunter G C; Pierre, Fabrice H; Corpet, Denis E

    2013-01-01

    Red and processed meat consumption is associated with the risk of colorectal cancer. Three hypotheses are proposed to explain this association, via heme-induced oxidation of fat, heterocyclic amines, or N-nitroso compounds. Rats have often been used to study these hypotheses, but the lack of enterosalivary cycle of nitrate in rats casts doubt on the relevance of this animal model to predict nitroso- and heme-associated human colon carcinogenesis. The present study was thus designed to clarify whether a nitrite intake that mimics the enterosalivary cycle can modulate heme-induced nitrosation and fat peroxidation. This study shows that, in contrast with the starting hypothesis, drinking water added with nitrite to mimic the salivary nitrite content did not change the effect of hemoglobin on biochemical markers linked to colon carcinogenesis, notably lipid peroxidation and cytotoxic activity in the colon of rat. However, ingested sodium nitrite increased fecal nitroso-compounds level, but their fecal concentration and their nature (iron-nitrosyl) would probably not be associated with an increased risk of cancer. We thus suggest that the rat model could be relevant for study the effect of red meat on colon carcinogenesis, in spite of the lack of nitrite in the saliva of rats. PMID:23441609

  20. A review of potential metabolic etiologies of the observed association between red meat consumption and development of type 2 diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed

    Kim, Yoona; Keogh, Jennifer; Clifton, Peter

    2015-07-01

    Epidemiological studies suggest that red and processed meat consumption is related to an increased risk of type 2 diabetes. However, it is not clearly understood which components of red and processed meat contribute to this increased risk. This review examines potential mechanisms addressing the role of saturated fatty acid, sodium, advanced glycation end products (AGEs), nitrates/nitrites, heme iron, trimethylamine N-oxide (TMAO), branched amino acids (BCAAs) and endocrine disruptor chemicals (EDCs) in the development of type 2 diabetes based on data from published clinical trials and animal models. TMAO which is derived from dietary carnitine and choline by the action of bacterial enzymes followed by oxidation in the liver may be a strong candidate molecule mediating the risk of type 2 diabetes. BCAAs may induce insulin resistance via the mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) and ribosomal protein S6 kinase β 1 (S6k1)-associated pathways. The increased risk associated with processed meat compared with red meat suggests that there are interactions between the saturated fat, salt, and nitrates in processed meat and iron, AGEs and TMAO. Intervention studies are required to clarify potential mechanisms and explore interactions among components, in order to make firm recommendations on red and processed meat consumption. PMID:25838035

  1. Origin and ecological selection of core and food-specific bacterial communities associated with meat and seafood spoilage

    PubMed Central

    Chaillou, Stéphane; Chaulot-Talmon, Aurélie; Caekebeke, Hélène; Cardinal, Mireille; Christieans, Souad; Denis, Catherine; Hélène Desmonts, Marie; Dousset, Xavier; Feurer, Carole; Hamon, Erwann; Joffraud, Jean-Jacques; La Carbona, Stéphanie; Leroi, Françoise; Leroy, Sabine; Lorre, Sylvie; Macé, Sabrina; Pilet, Marie-France; Prévost, Hervé; Rivollier, Marina; Roux, Dephine; Talon, Régine; Zagorec, Monique; Champomier-Vergès, Marie-Christine

    2015-01-01

    The microbial spoilage of meat and seafood products with short shelf lives is responsible for a significant amount of food waste. Food spoilage is a very heterogeneous process, involving the growth of various, poorly characterized bacterial communities. In this study, we conducted 16S ribosomal RNA gene pyrosequencing on 160 samples of fresh and spoiled foods to comparatively explore the bacterial communities associated with four meat products and four seafood products that are among the most consumed food items in Europe. We show that fresh products are contaminated in part by a microbiota similar to that found on the skin and in the gut of animals. However, this animal-derived microbiota was less prevalent and less abundant than a core microbiota, psychrotrophic in nature, mainly originated from the environment (water reservoirs). We clearly show that this core community found on meat and seafood products is the main reservoir of spoilage bacteria. We also show that storage conditions exert strong selective pressure on the initial microbiota: alpha diversity in fresh samples was 189±58 operational taxonomic units (OTUs) but dropped to 27±12 OTUs in spoiled samples. The OTU assemblage associated with spoilage was shaped by low storage temperatures, packaging and the nutritional value of the food matrix itself. These factors presumably act in tandem without any hierarchical pattern. Most notably, we were also able to identify putative new clades of dominant, previously undescribed bacteria occurring on spoiled seafood, a finding that emphasizes the importance of using culture-independent methods when studying food microbiota. PMID:25333463

  2. Origin and ecological selection of core and food-specific bacterial communities associated with meat and seafood spoilage.

    PubMed

    Chaillou, Stéphane; Chaulot-Talmon, Aurélie; Caekebeke, Hélène; Cardinal, Mireille; Christieans, Souad; Denis, Catherine; Desmonts, Marie Hélène; Dousset, Xavier; Feurer, Carole; Hamon, Erwann; Joffraud, Jean-Jacques; La Carbona, Stéphanie; Leroi, Françoise; Leroy, Sabine; Lorre, Sylvie; Macé, Sabrina; Pilet, Marie-France; Prévost, Hervé; Rivollier, Marina; Roux, Dephine; Talon, Régine; Zagorec, Monique; Champomier-Vergès, Marie-Christine

    2015-05-01

    The microbial spoilage of meat and seafood products with short shelf lives is responsible for a significant amount of food waste. Food spoilage is a very heterogeneous process, involving the growth of various, poorly characterized bacterial communities. In this study, we conducted 16S ribosomal RNA gene pyrosequencing on 160 samples of fresh and spoiled foods to comparatively explore the bacterial communities associated with four meat products and four seafood products that are among the most consumed food items in Europe. We show that fresh products are contaminated in part by a microbiota similar to that found on the skin and in the gut of animals. However, this animal-derived microbiota was less prevalent and less abundant than a core microbiota, psychrotrophic in nature, mainly originated from the environment (water reservoirs). We clearly show that this core community found on meat and seafood products is the main reservoir of spoilage bacteria. We also show that storage conditions exert strong selective pressure on the initial microbiota: alpha diversity in fresh samples was 189±58 operational taxonomic units (OTUs) but dropped to 27±12 OTUs in spoiled samples. The OTU assemblage associated with spoilage was shaped by low storage temperatures, packaging and the nutritional value of the food matrix itself. These factors presumably act in tandem without any hierarchical pattern. Most notably, we were also able to identify putative new clades of dominant, previously undescribed bacteria occurring on spoiled seafood, a finding that emphasizes the importance of using culture-independent methods when studying food microbiota. PMID:25333463

  3. Association of single nucleotide polymorphisms in CAPN1, CAST and MB genes with meat color of Brahman and crossbreed cattle.

    PubMed

    Castro, Susan; Ríos, Marcela; Ortiz, Yurany; Manrique, Carlos; Jiménez, Ariel; Ariza, Fernando

    2016-07-01

    The objective of this research was to determine the association of SNPs in the candidate genes Calpain (CAPN1), Calpastatin (CAST) and Myoglobin (MB) with colorimetric parameters (L *, a *, b *, C *, hue) in a F1 population (n = 164) obtained from crossing Bos taurus × Bos indicus and Bos indicus × Bos indicus. SNPs were analyzed using PCR-RFLP and SSCP. Colorimetric measurements were performed in the muscles Longissimus thoracis et lumborum (LTL) and Semitendinosus (ST) at 7, 14 and 21 days postmortem applying the methodology CIE L* a* b*. The CAST gene showed a significant effect on the b* and hue* parameters in both muscles. MB gene showed significant association with all colorimetric parameters in both LTL and ST muscles, except with b* parameter. The CAPN1 gene did not show any significant association. These results suggest an important role of genetics in meat color variation for cattle raised under the tropic conditions. PMID:26946475

  4. Innovations in Science and Technology Education through Science Teacher Associations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Akpan, Ben B.

    2010-01-01

    One emerging issue highlighted in a UNESCO booklet (Fensham, 2008, p6) is to draw attention to the need for students to receive science education from able science teachers. The booklet emphasizes that quality science learning time, albeit less, is preferable to the damage done by underequipped science teachers. It also draws attention to the…

  5. Consumption of meat is associated with higher fasting glucose and insulin concentrations regardless of glucose and insulin genetic risk scores: a meta-analysis of 50,345 Caucasians

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    BACKGROUND: Recent studies suggest that meat intake is associated with diabetes-related phenotypes. However, whether the associations of meat intake and glucose and insulin homeostasis are modified by genes related to glucose and insulin is unknown. OBJECTIVE: We investigated the associations of mea...

  6. Association analysis between carcass weight and meat quality of Bamei pigs.

    PubMed

    Zhou, J P; Wu, G F; Xiang, A Q; Wang, L; Sun, S D; Yang, C; Xu, F F

    2016-01-01

    A total of 48 crossbred Bamei pig carcasses were divided into three groups (A, 60-69 kg; B, 70-79 kg; and C, 80-90 kg) to investigate the influence of carcass weight on meat quality. The intramuscular fat content of the three groups increased from 2.20% (Group A) to 4.14% (Group C). Group B had higher drip loss (6.83%, P < 0.05) than the other two groups. Warner-Bratzler shear force decreased with increasing weight (61.16 > 51.63 > 43.64 N, P < 0.05). No significant differences were observed in meat color, cooking percentage, and water holding capacity among the three groups. The polyunsaturated fatty acids/saturated fatty acids ratio in group B (0.23) was significantly higher than that in the other two groups. In conclusion, our results suggested that a carcass weight of 70-79 kg is suitable for the production of Bamei pigs. PMID:27525930

  7. Lean meat and heart health.

    PubMed

    Li, Duo; Siriamornpun, Sirithon; Wahlqvist, Mark L; Mann, Neil J; Sinclair, Andrew J

    2005-01-01

    The general health message to the public about meat consumption is both confusing and misleading. It is stated that meat is not good for health because meat is rich in fat and cholesterol and high intakes are associated with increased blood cholesterol levels and coronary heart disease (CHD). This paper reviewed 54 studies from the literature in relation to red meat consumption and CHD risk factors. Substantial evidence from recent studies shows that lean red meat trimmed of visible fat does not raise total blood cholesterol and LDL-cholesterol levels. Dietary intake of total and saturated fat mainly comes from fast foods, snack foods, oils, spreads, other processed foods and the visible fat of meat, rather than lean meat. In fact, lean red meat is low in saturated fat, and if consumed in a diet low in SFA is associated with reductions in LDL-cholesterol in both healthy and hypercholesterolemia subjects. Lean red meat consumption has no effect on in vivo and ex vivo production of thromboxane and prostacyclin or the activity of haemostatic factors. Lean red meat is also a good source of protein, omega-3 fatty acids, vitamin B12, niacin, zinc and iron. In conclusion, lean red meat, trimmed of visible fat, which is consumed in a diet low in saturated fat does not increase cardiovascular risk factors (plasma cholesterol levels or thrombotic risk factors). PMID:15927927

  8. Evaluation of biochemical parameters and genetic markers for association with meat tenderness in South African feedlot cattle.

    PubMed

    Frylinck, L; van Wyk, G L; Smith, T P L; Strydom, P E; van Marle-Köster, E; Webb, E C; Koohmaraie, M; Smith, M F

    2009-12-01

    A large proportion of South African feedlot cattle are crossbreds of Brahman (BrX, Bos indicus), and Simmental (SiX, Bos taurus). A sample of 20 grain fed bulls from each of these crossbreeds was used to compare meat quality with that of the small frame indigenous Nguni (NgX, Sanga) by evaluating a variety of biochemical and genetic parameters previously shown to be associated with meat tenderness. Shear force values were generally high (5.6kg average at 14days post mortem), with SiX animals higher than BrX or NgX (P=0.051) despite higher calpastatin:calpain ratio in BrX (P<0.05). Calpain activity and cold shortening were both correlated with tenderness for all classes. The sample size was too small to accurately estimate genotypic effects of previously published markers in the CAST and CAPN1 genes, but the allele frequencies suggest that only modest progress would be possible in these South African crossbreds using these markers. PMID:20416642

  9. Polymorphisms of the porcine cathepsins, growth hormone-releasing hormone and leptin receptor genes and their association with meat quality traits in Ukrainian Large White breed.

    PubMed

    Balatsky, Viktor; Bankovska, Irina; Pena, Ramona N; Saienko, Artem; Buslyk, Tetyana; Korinnyi, Sergii; Doran, Olena

    2016-06-01

    Cathepsins, growth hormone-releasing hormone (GHRH) and leptin receptor (LEPR) genes have been receiving increasing attention as potential markers for meat quality and pig performance traits. This study investigated the allele variants in four cathepsin genes (CTSB, CTSK, CTSL, CTSS), GHRH and LEPR in pure-bred Ukrainian Large White pigs and evaluated effects of the allele variants on meat quality characteristics. The study was conducted on 72 pigs. Genotyping was performed using PCR-RFLP technique. Meat quality characteristics analysed were intramuscular fat content, tenderness, total water content, ultimate pH, crude protein and ashes. A medium level of heterozygosity values was established for GHRH and LEPR genes which corresponded to very high levels of informativeness indexes. Cathepsins CTSL, CTSB and CTSK had a low level of heterozygosity, and CTSS did not segregate in this breed. Association studies established that intramuscular fat content and tenderness were affected by the allele variance in GHRH and LEPR but not by CTSB and CTSL genes. The GHRH results could be particularly relevant for the production of lean prime cuts as the A allele is associated with both, a lower meat fat content and better tenderness values, which are two attributes highly regarded by consumers. Results of this study suggest that selective breeding towards GHRH/AA genotype would be particularly useful for improving meat quality characteristics in the production systems involving lean Large White lines, which typically have less than 2 % intramuscular fat content. PMID:27075656

  10. Substrate utilization during incubation in meat juice medium of psychrotolerant clostridia associated with blown pack spoilage.

    PubMed

    Yang, Xianqin; Badoni, Madhu

    2013-06-01

    Several new species of psychrophilic or psychrotolerant clostridia have been identified in recent years. Some of these may be involved in 'blown pack' spoilage (BPS) of vacuum packaged beef. Organisms that cause BPS must produce large volumes of gas while utilizing substrates available in raw meat. Therefore, Clostridium algoriphilum, Clostridium algidixylanolyticum, Clostridium bowmanii, Clostridium frigoris, Clostridium frigidicarnis, Clostridium gasigenes, Clostridium lacusfryxellense, Clostridium psychrophilum, Clostridium tagluense and Clostridium vincentii were grown in meat juice medium (MJM), and changes in substrate concentrations were monitored to assess the potential for gas production by each organism. All 10 species were able to grow exponentially on glucose with simultaneous hydrolysis of glycogen, reaching maximum values for absorbance at 600 nm of 0.3-1.90. All ceased growing when glucose and glycogen were still detectable in the growth medium. C. frigidicarnis utilized most of the amino acids available in MJM and reduced the concentration of total amino acids by 10 mM. The other 9 species caused little or no reduction in amino acid concentrations. C. algidixylanolyticum and C. frigidicarnis utilized glucose, glycogen and lactate simultaneously during growth and after growth ceased. C. algoriphilum and C. frigoris commenced utilization of lactate, while continuing utilization of glucose and glycogen, only after growth ceased, but utilization of lactate by C. algoriphilum was weak. C. psychrophilum ceased utilization of glucose and glycogen but initiated weak utilization of lactate after growth ceased. The other 5 species did not utilize any substrate after growth ceased. The utilization of glucose, glycogen and relatively large amounts of lactate by C. algidixylanolyticum, C. frigoris, and C. frigidicarnis after growth ceased indicates that these organisms have the potential to cause BPS. The other 7 species appear to lack such potential. PMID

  11. Amblyomma sculptum tick saliva: α-Gal identification, antibody response and possible association with red meat allergy in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Araujo, Ricardo Nascimento; Franco, Paula Ferreira; Rodrigues, Henrique; Santos, Luiza C B; McKay, Craig S; Sanhueza, Carlos A; Brito, Carlos Ramon Nascimento; Azevedo, Maíra Araújo; Venuto, Ana Paula; Cowan, Peter J; Almeida, Igor C; Finn, M G; Marques, Alexandre F

    2016-03-01

    The anaphylaxis response is frequently associated with food allergies, representing a significant public health hazard. Recently, exposure to tick bites and production of specific IgE against α-galactosyl (α-Gal)-containing epitopes has been correlated to red meat allergy. However, this association and the source of terminal, non-reducing α-Gal-containing epitopes have not previously been established in Brazil. Here, we employed the α-1,3-galactosyltransferase knockout mouse (α1,3-GalT-KO) model and bacteriophage Qβ-virus like particles (Qβ-VLPs) displaying Galα1,3Galβ1,4GlcNAc (Galα3LN) epitopes to investigate the presence of α-Gal-containing epitopes in the saliva of Amblyomma sculptum, a species of the Amblyomma cajennense complex, which represents the main tick that infests humans in Brazil. We confirmed that the α-1,3-galactosyltransferase knockout animals produce significant levels of anti-α-Gal antibodies against the Galα1,3Galβ1,4GlcNAc epitopes displayed on Qβ-virus like particles. The injection of A. sculptum saliva or exposure to feeding ticks was also found to induce both IgG and IgE anti-α-Gal antibodies in α-1,3-galactosyltransferase knockout mice, thus indicating the presence of α-Gal-containing epitopes in the tick saliva. The presence of α-Gal-containing epitopes was confirmed by ELISA and immunoblotting following removal of terminal α-Gal epitopes by α-galactosidase treatment. These results suggest for the first known time that bites from the A. sculptum tick may be associated with the unknown etiology of allergic reactions to red meat in Brazil. PMID:26812026

  12. Association of AMPK subunit gene polymorphisms with growth, feed intake, and feed efficiency in meat-type chickens.

    PubMed

    Jin, Sihua; Moujahid, El Mostafa El; Duan, Zhongyi; Zheng, Jiawei; Qu, Lujiang; Xu, Guiyun; Yang, Ning; Chen, Sirui

    2016-07-01

    Investigations on regulatory genes of feed intake will provide a rational scientific basis to improve future selection indices for more efficient chickens. In the present study, we investigated the association of 13 previously reported SNPs in the chicken adenosine monophosphate activated protein kinase (AMPK) subunits PRKAB1, PRKAG2, and PRKAG3 genes with body weight (BW), body weight gain (BWG), feed intake (FI), and feed conversion ratio (FCR) in two distinct yellow meat-type strains. Six SNPs with a very low minor allele frequency were removed by genotype quality control and data filtering. The experimental population comprised 796 pedigreed males from two strains with different genetic backgrounds, 335 chickens from N202 and 461 chickens from N301. BW at 49 (BW49) and 70 days of age (BW70) and FI (from 49 to 70 days of age) were determined individually. BWG and FCR were computed based on BW and FI in the interval between 49 to 70 days. The results indicated that PRKAB1 SNPs rs14094358 and rs14094362 were significantly associated with BW70, BWG, and FI in the N202 strain, and rs14094361 and rs14094363 were significantly associated with FI and FCR in the N301 strain (P < 0.05). In addition, the PRKAG2 SNP rs14133282 showed significant association with FI in N202, and rs13535812 was significantly associated with BW70 in N202 (P < 0.05). Moreover, the PRKAG3 SNP rs13595570 was significantly associated with BW in N202 (P < 0.05), and significantly associated with FI and FCR in N301 (P < 0.05). Additionally, a two-SNP haplotype comprising rs14094361 and rs14094362 in PRKAB1 was significantly associated with BWG in N202 (P < 0.05). Meanwhile, haplotypes based on two SNPs, rs14133282, and rs13535812, showed significant effects on FI in N202 (P < 0.05). Our findings therefore provide important evidence for association of AMPK subunits polymorphisms with body weight, feed intake, and feed efficiency that may be applied in meat-type chicken breeding programs. PMID

  13. Red Meat and Colorectal Cancer

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) is the third most common cancer in men and the second in women worldwide. More than half of cases occur in more developed countries. The consumption of red meat (beef, pork, lamb, veal, mutton) is high in developed countries and accumulated evidence until today demonstrated a convincing association between the intake of red meat and especially processed meat and CRC risk. In this review, meta-analyses of prospective epidemiological studies addressed to this association, observed link of some subtypes of red meat with CRC risk, potential carcinogenic compounds, their mechanisms and actual recommendations of international guidelines are presented. PMID:26779313

  14. Red Meat and Colorectal Cancer.

    PubMed

    Aykan, Nuri Faruk

    2015-02-10

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) is the third most common cancer in men and the second in women worldwide. More than half of cases occur in more developed countries. The consumption of red meat (beef, pork, lamb, veal, mutton) is high in developed countries and accumulated evidence until today demonstrated a convincing association between the intake of red meat and especially processed meat and CRC risk. In this review, meta-analyses of prospective epidemiological studies addressed to this association, observed link of some subtypes of red meat with CRC risk, potential carcinogenic compounds, their mechanisms and actual recommendations of international guidelines are presented. PMID:26779313

  15. Selective deworming effects on performance and parameters associated with gastrointestinal parasite management in lambs and meat-goat kids finished on pasture

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We evaluated health parameters associated with gastrointestinal parasite control when lambs and meat-goat kids were finished on a mixed sward of orchardgrass (Dactylis glomerata L.), red clover (Trifolium pratense L.), and white clover (Trifolium repens L.) with and without supplemental whole cotton...

  16. Genome Sequence and Transcriptome Analysis of Meat-Spoilage-Associated Lactic Acid Bacterium Lactococcus piscium MKFS47

    PubMed Central

    Johansson, Per; Laine, Pia; Smolander, Olli-Pekka; Sonck, Matti; Rahkila, Riitta; Jääskeläinen, Elina; Paulin, Lars; Auvinen, Petri; Björkroth, Johanna

    2015-01-01

    Lactococcus piscium is a psychrotrophic lactic acid bacterium and is known to be one of the predominant species within spoilage microbial communities in cold-stored packaged foods, particularly in meat products. Its presence in such products has been associated with the formation of buttery and sour off-odors. Nevertheless, the spoilage potential of L. piscium varies dramatically depending on the strain and growth conditions. Additional knowledge about the genome is required to explain such variation, understand its phylogeny, and study gene functions. Here, we present the complete and annotated genomic sequence of L. piscium MKFS47, combined with a time course analysis of the glucose catabolism-based transcriptome. In addition, a comparative analysis of gene contents was done for L. piscium MKFS47 and 29 other lactococci, revealing three distinct clades within the genus. The genome of L. piscium MKFS47 consists of one chromosome, carrying 2,289 genes, and two plasmids. A wide range of carbohydrates was predicted to be fermented, and growth on glycerol was observed. Both carbohydrate and glycerol catabolic pathways were significantly upregulated in the course of time as a result of glucose exhaustion. At the same time, differential expression of the pyruvate utilization pathways, implicated in the formation of spoilage substances, switched the metabolism toward a heterofermentative mode. In agreement with data from previous inoculation studies, L. piscium MKFS47 was identified as an efficient producer of buttery-odor compounds under aerobic conditions. Finally, genes and pathways that may contribute to increased survival in meat environments were considered. PMID:25819958

  17. Genome Sequence and Transcriptome Analysis of Meat-Spoilage-Associated Lactic Acid Bacterium Lactococcus piscium MKFS47.

    PubMed

    Andreevskaya, Margarita; Johansson, Per; Laine, Pia; Smolander, Olli-Pekka; Sonck, Matti; Rahkila, Riitta; Jääskeläinen, Elina; Paulin, Lars; Auvinen, Petri; Björkroth, Johanna

    2015-06-01

    Lactococcus piscium is a psychrotrophic lactic acid bacterium and is known to be one of the predominant species within spoilage microbial communities in cold-stored packaged foods, particularly in meat products. Its presence in such products has been associated with the formation of buttery and sour off-odors. Nevertheless, the spoilage potential of L. piscium varies dramatically depending on the strain and growth conditions. Additional knowledge about the genome is required to explain such variation, understand its phylogeny, and study gene functions. Here, we present the complete and annotated genomic sequence of L. piscium MKFS47, combined with a time course analysis of the glucose catabolism-based transcriptome. In addition, a comparative analysis of gene contents was done for L. piscium MKFS47 and 29 other lactococci, revealing three distinct clades within the genus. The genome of L. piscium MKFS47 consists of one chromosome, carrying 2,289 genes, and two plasmids. A wide range of carbohydrates was predicted to be fermented, and growth on glycerol was observed. Both carbohydrate and glycerol catabolic pathways were significantly upregulated in the course of time as a result of glucose exhaustion. At the same time, differential expression of the pyruvate utilization pathways, implicated in the formation of spoilage substances, switched the metabolism toward a heterofermentative mode. In agreement with data from previous inoculation studies, L. piscium MKFS47 was identified as an efficient producer of buttery-odor compounds under aerobic conditions. Finally, genes and pathways that may contribute to increased survival in meat environments were considered. PMID:25819958

  18. Non-O157 Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli: prevalence associated with meat animals and controlling interventions

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This paper reviews the current state of knowledge of non-O157 STEC in products of meat animals. There is a wide range in pathogenicity of STEC strains. Potential regulation in meat products is currently focused on the group of six O groups the CDC indicates accounts of 71% of non-O157 STEC illness...

  19. American Association for the Advancement of Science

    MedlinePlus

    ... Use Bees for Web Hosting Full Story journals_science_20160909_hmpg.jpg Latest Issue Read more news ... teaser.jpg U.S. Presidential Candidates Address 20 Key Science-Related Questions news_20140216_am14-gun-violence_teaser- ...

  20. Intakes of red meat, processed meat, and meat-mutagens increase lung cancer risk

    PubMed Central

    Lam, Tram Kim; Cross, Amanda J.; Consonni, Dario; Randi, Giorgia; Bagnardi, Vincenzo; Bertazzi, Pier Alberto; Caporaso, Neil E.; Sinha, Rashmi; Subar, Amy F.; Landi, Maria Teresa

    2009-01-01

    Red and processed meat intake may increase lung cancer risk. However, the epidemiologic evidence is inconsistent and few studies have evaluated the role of meat-mutagens formed during high cooking temperatures. We investigated the association of red meat, processed meat, and meat-mutagen intake with lung cancer risk in Environment And Genetics in Lung cancer Etiology (EAGLE), a population-based case-control study. Primary lung cancer cases (n=2101) were recruited from 13 hospitals within the Lombardy region of Italy examining ~80% of the cases from the area. Non-cancer population controls (n=2120), matched to cases on gender, residence, and age, were randomly selected from the same catchment area. Diet was assessed in 1903 cases and 2073 controls, and used in conjunction with a meat-mutagen database to estimate intake of heterocyclic amines and benzo[a]pyrene. Multivariable odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for sex-specific tertiles of intake were calculated using unconditional logistic regression. Red and processed meat were positively associated with lung cancer risk (highest-versus-lowest tertile: OR=1.8; 95% CI=1.5–2.2; p-trend<0.001 and OR=1.7; 95% CI=1.4–2.1; p-trend<0.001, respectively); the risks were strongest among never smokers (OR=2.4, 95% CI=1.4–4.0, p-trend=0.001 and OR=2.5, 95% CI=1.5–4.2, p-trend=0.001, respectively). Heterocyclic amines and benzo[a]pyrene were significantly associated with increased risk of lung cancer. When separated by histology, significant positive associations for both meat groups were restricted to adenocarcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma, but not small cell carcinoma of the lung. In summary, red meat, processed meat, and meat-mutagens were independently associated with increased risk of lung cancer. PMID:19141639

  1. Genetic Diversity and Incidence of Virulence-Associated Genes of Arcobacter butzleri and Arcobacter cryaerophilus Isolates from Pork, Beef, and Chicken Meat in Poland

    PubMed Central

    Zacharow, Iwona; Bystroń, Jarosław; Wałecka-Zacharska, Ewa; Podkowik, Magdalena; Bania, Jacek

    2015-01-01

    Incidence of 9 virulence-associated genes and genetic diversity was determined in 79 A. butzleri and 6 A. cryaerophilus isolates from pork, beef, and chicken meat. All A. butzleri isolates harboured the tlyA gene, and most of them carried ciaB, mviN, pldA, cadF, and cj1349 genes. ciaB was found to occur with higher frequency in poultry if compared with pork (p = 0.0007), while irgA was more frequent in poultry than in beef (p = 0.007). All 6 A. cryaerophilus isolates harboured the ciaB gene, while mviN and tlyA were detected in 3 out of these isolates. Only one isolate carried the cadF gene. All beef-derived A. cryaerophilus isolates carried ciaB, mviN, and tlyA genes. A. cryaerophilus isolates from chicken meat harboured ciaB gene only. The pork-derived isolate harboured ciaB and cadF genes. Seventy-four genotypes were distinguished within 79 A. butzleri isolates. Nineteen from 21 isolates derived from beef and pork were found to be closely related to A. butzleri from chicken meat. Each of the 6 A. cryaerophilus isolates was found to have unique genotype. We demonstrated that closely related genotypes can spread within pork, beef, and chicken meat populations of A. butzleri but not A. cryaerophilus. PMID:26539546

  2. ESA Science Archives and associated VO activities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arviset, Christophe; Baines, Deborah; Barbarisi, Isa; Castellanos, Javier; Cheek, Neil; Costa, Hugo; Fajersztejn, Nicolas; Gonzalez, Juan; Fernandez, Monica; Laruelo, Andrea; Leon, Ignacio; Ortiz, Inaki; Osuna, Pedro; Salgado, Jesus; Tapiador, Daniel

    ESA's European Space Astronomy Centre (ESAC), near Madrid, Spain, hosts most of ESA space based missions' scientific archives, in planetary (Mars Express, Venus Express, Rosetta, Huygens, Giotto, Smart-1, all in ESA Planetary Science Archive), in astronomy (XMM-Newton, Herschel, ISO, Integral, Exosat, Planck) and in solar physics (Soho). All these science archives are operated by a dedicated Science Archives and Virtual Observatory Team (SAT) at ESAC, enabling common and efficient design, development, operations and maintenance of the archives software systems. This also ensures long term preservation and availability of such science archives, as a sustainable service to the science community. ESA space science data can be accessed through powerful and user friendly user interface, as well as from machine scriptable interface and through VO interfaces. Virtual Observatory activities are also fully part of ESA archiving strategy and ESA is a very ac-tive partner in VO initiatives in Europe through Euro-VO AIDA and EuroPlanet and worldwide through the IVOA (International Virtual Observatory Alliance) and the IPDA (International Planetary Data Alliance).

  3. Novel single nucleotide polymorphisms of the bovine methyltransferase 3b gene and their association with meat quality traits in beef cattle.

    PubMed

    Liu, X; Guo, X Y; Xu, X Z; Wu, M; Zhang, X; Li, Q; Ma, P P; Zhang, Y; Wang, C Y; Geng, F J; Qin, C H; Liu, L; Shi, W H; Wang, Y C; Yu, Y

    2012-01-01

    DNA methylation is essential for adipose deposition in mammals. We screened SNPs of the bovine DNA methyltransferase 3b (DNMT3b) gene in Snow Dragon beef, a commercial beef cattle population in China. Nine SNPs were found in the population and three of six novel SNPs were chosen for genotyping and analyzing a possible association with 16 meat quality traits. The frequencies of the alleles and genotypes of the three SNPs in Snow Dragon beef were similar to those in their terminal-paternal breed, Wagyu. Association analysis disclosed that SNP1 was not associated with any of the traits; SNP2 was significantly associated with lean meat color score and chuck short rib score, and SNP3 had a significant effect on dressing percentage and back-fat thickness in the beef population. The individuals with genotype GG for SNP2 had a 25.7% increase in lean meat color score and a 146% increase in chuck short rib score, compared with genotype AA. The cattle with genotype AG for SNP3 had 35.7 and 24% increases in dressing percentage and 28.8 and 29.2% increases in back-fat thickness, compared with genotypes GG and AA, respectively. Genotypic combination analysis revealed significant interactions between SNP1 and SNP2 and between SNP2 and SNP3 for the traits rib-eye area and live weight. We conclude that there is considerable evidence that DNMT3b is a determiner of beef quality traits. PMID:22843074

  4. An NSTA Position Statement: International Science Education and the National Science Teachers Association

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Science Teachers Association (NJ1), 2009

    2009-01-01

    The National Science Teachers Association (NSTA) encourages and promotes international science education because it has the ability to improve the teaching and learning of science, as well as to "empower people, improve their quality of life, and increase their capacity to participate in the decision-making processes leading to social, cultural,…

  5. Association of a single nucleotide polymorphism of calpain 1 gene with meat tenderness of the yak

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The association of a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) of calpain 1 (CAPN1) gene with shear force of 2.54 cm steaks from M. longissimus dorsi from Gannan yaks (Bos grunniens, n = 181) was studied. The experimental design was a repeated measures with the main unit in a completely randomized design...

  6. Genome-wide association of meat quality traits and tenderness in swine

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Pork quality has a large impact on consumer preference and perception of eating quality. A genome-wide association was performed for pork quality traits [intramuscular fat (IMF)], slice shear force (SSF), color attributes, purge, cooking loss, and pH] from 531 to 1,237 records on barrows and gilts o...

  7. An SNP in Exon 11 of Chicken 5'-AMP-Activated Protein Kinase Gamma 3 Subunit Gene was Associated with Meat Water Holding Capacity.

    PubMed

    Yang, Yunzhou; Xiong, Dan; Yao, Ling; Zhao, Chunjiang

    2016-01-01

    The 5'-Adenosine-monophosphate -activated protein kinase plays a key role in regulating cellular energy homeostasis, and it was reported that nucleotide variants in the genes coding the protein were associated with meat quality. In the present study, genetic variations in the exons of gamma non-catalytic subunit genes of the protein kinase were screened among 284 White Plymouth Rock chickens from 7 families with denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis, and their meat quality traits including drip loss and cooked meat rate which reflect water holding capacity and serum biochemical indices were also measured, and the association between the genotypes and the traits was analyzed with a SAS GLM procedure. Our results showed that there were three G/A nucleotide variants including one in exon 6 of the gamma subunit 2 gene and two in exon 11 of the gamma subunit 3 gene, which resulted in amino acid substitutions V150I, V315 M, and A337 T, respectively. And locus V315 M was associated with water holding capacity significantly (P < 0.05). The studied polymorphic locus has the potential to be used as a genetic marker for poultry breeding work. PMID:26597656

  8. The associations of diet with serum insulin-like growth factor I and its main binding proteins in 292 women meat-eaters, vegetarians, and vegans.

    PubMed

    Allen, Naomi E; Appleby, Paul N; Davey, Gwyneth K; Kaaks, Rudolf; Rinaldi, Sabina; Key, Timothy J

    2002-11-01

    The lower rates of some cancers in Asian countries than in Western countries may be partly because of diet, although the mechanisms are unknown. The aim of this cross-sectional study was to determine whether a plant-based (vegan) diet is associated with a lower circulating level of insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) compared with a meat-eating or lacto-ovo-vegetarian diet among 292 British women, ages 20-70 years. The mean serum IGF-I concentration was 13% lower in 92 vegan women compared with 99 meat-eaters and 101 vegetarians (P = 0.0006). The mean concentrations of both serum IGF-binding protein (IGFBP)-1 and IGFBP-2 were 20-40% higher in vegan women compared with meat-eaters and vegetarians (P = 0.005 and P = 0.0008 for IGFBP-1 and IGFBP-2, respectively). There were no significant differences in IGFBP-3, C-peptide, or sex hormone-binding globulin concentrations between the diet groups. Intake of protein rich in essential amino acids was positively associated with serum IGF-I (Pearson partial correlation coefficient; r = 0.27; P < 0.0001) and explained most of the differences in IGF-I concentration between the diet groups. These data suggest that a plant-based diet is associated with lower circulating levels of total IGF-I and higher levels of IGFBP-1 and IGFBP-2. PMID:12433724

  9. Chemical safety of meat and meat products.

    PubMed

    Andrée, Sabine; Jira, W; Schwind, K-H; Wagner, H; Schwägele, F

    2010-09-01

    Since the Second World War the consumer behaviour in developed countries changed drastically. Primarily there existed the demand for sufficient food after a period of starvation, afterwards the desire for higher quality was arising, whereas today most people ask for safe and healthy food with high quality. Therefore a united approach comprising consistent standards, sound science and robust controls is required to ensure consumers' health and to maintain consumers' confidence and satisfaction. Chemical analysis along the whole food chain downstream (tracking) from primary production to the consumer and upstream (tracing) from the consumer to primary production is an important prerequisite to ensure food safety and quality. In this frame the focus of the following paper is the "chemical safety of meat and meat products" taking into account inorganic as well as organic residues and contaminants, the use of nitrite in meat products, the incidence of veterinary drugs, as well as a Failure Mode and Effect Analysis (FMEA) system assessing (prioritizing) vulnerable food chain steps to decrease or eliminate vulnerability. PMID:20510527

  10. Pathway-Based Genome-Wide Association Studies for Two Meat Production Traits in Simmental Cattle

    PubMed Central

    Fan, Huizhong; Wu, Yang; Zhou, Xiaojing; Xia, Jiangwei; Zhang, Wengang; Song, Yuxin; Liu, Fei; Chen, Yan; Zhang, Lupei; Gao, Xue; Gao, Huijiang; Li, Junya

    2015-01-01

    Most single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) detected by genome-wide association studies (GWAS), explain only a small fraction of phenotypic variation. Pathway-based GWAS were proposed to improve the proportion of genes for some human complex traits that could be explained by enriching a mass of SNPs within genetic groups. However, few attempts have been made to describe the quantitative traits in domestic animals. In this study, we used a dataset with approximately 7,700,000 SNPs from 807 Simmental cattle and analyzed live weight and longissimus muscle area using a modified pathway-based GWAS method to orthogonalise the highly linked SNPs within each gene using principal component analysis (PCA). As a result, of the 262 biological pathways of cattle collected from the KEGG database, the gamma aminobutyric acid (GABA)ergic synapse pathway and the non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) pathway were significantly associated with the two traits analyzed. The GABAergic synapse pathway was biologically applicable to the traits analyzed because of its roles in feed intake and weight gain. The proposed method had high statistical power and a low false discovery rate, compared to those of the smallest P-value and SNP set enrichment analysis methods. PMID:26672757

  11. Growth hormone-releasing hormone (GHRH) polymorphisms associated with carcass traits of meat in Korean cattle

    PubMed Central

    Cheong, Hyun Sub; Yoon, Du-Hak; Kim, Lyoung Hyo; Park, Byung Lae; Choi, Yoo Hyun; Chung, Eui Ryong; Cho, Yong Min; Park, Eng Woo; Cheong, Il-Cheong; Oh, Sung-Jong; Yi, Sung-Gon; Park, Taesung; Shin, Hyoung Doo

    2006-01-01

    Background Cold carcass weight (CW) and longissimus muscle area (EMA) are the major quantitative traits in beef cattle. In this study, we found several polymorphisms of growth hormone-releasing hormone (GHRH) gene and examined the association of polymorphisms with carcass traits (CW and EMA) in Korean native cattle (Hanwoo). Results By direct DNA sequencing in 24 unrelated Korean cattle, we identified 12 single nucleotide polymorphisms within the 9 kb full gene region, including the 1.5 kb promoter region. Among them, six polymorphic sites were selected for genotyping in our beef cattle (n = 428) and five marker haplotypes (frequency > 0.1) were identified. Statistical analysis revealed that -4241A>T showed significant associations with CW and EMA. Conclusion Our findings suggest that polymorphisms in GHRH might be one of the important genetic factors that influence carcass yield in beef cattle. Sequence variation/haplotype information identified in this study would provide valuable information for the production of a commercial line of beef cattle. PMID:16749938

  12. The Association of Family Influence and Initial Interest in Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dabney, Katherine P.; Chakraverty, Devasmita; Tai, Robert H.

    2013-01-01

    With recent attention to improving scientific workforce development and student achievement, there has been a rise in effort to understand and encourage student engagement in physical science. This study examines the association of family influence and initial interest in science through multiple and logistic regression models. Research questions…

  13. Child Development Associate. Conceptual Science: From Atoms to Galaxies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oscar Rose Junior Coll., Midwest City, OK.

    This Child Development Associate (CDA) training module, one of a series of 18, provides a guide to science activities for preschool children. Objectives state that upon completion of the module the CDA trainee will be able to provide daily opportunities for science concept development; enhance children's problem solving abilities; stimulate…

  14. The association of CAPN1 316 marker genotypes with growth and meat quality traits of steers finished on pasture.

    PubMed

    Miquel, María C; Villarreal, Edgardo; Mezzadra, Carlos; Melucci, Lilia; Soria, Liliana; Corva, Pablo; Schor, Alejandro

    2009-07-01

    The objective of this paper was to determine the association of a SNP in the μ-calpain gene at position 316 with growth and quality of meat traits of steers grown on pasture. Fifty-nine Brangus and 20 Angus steers were genotyped for CAPN1 316. Warner Bratzler shear force was measured in l. lumborum samples after a 7-day aging period. A multivariate analysis of variance was performed, including shear force (WBSF), final weight (FW), average daily gain (ADG), backfat thickness (BFT), average monthly fat thickness gain (AMFTG), rib-eye area (REA), and beef rib-eye depth (RED) as dependent variables. The CAPN1 316 genotype was statistically significant. Univariate analyses were done with these variables. The marker genotype was statistically significant (p < 0.05) for WBSF (kg: CC: 4.41 ± 0.57; CG: 5.58 ± 0.20; GG: 6.29 ± 0.18), FW (kg: CC: 360.23 ± 14.71; CG: 381.34 ± 5.26; GG: 399.23 ± 4.68), and ADG (kg/d: CC: 0.675 ± 0.046; CG: 0.705 ± 0.016; GG: 0.765 ± 0.014) Shear force, final weight and average daily gain were significantly different according to the CAPN1 316 marker genotypes. The marker genotype was statistically significant in the multivariate analysis (p = 0.001). The first characteristic root explained 89% of the differences among genotypes. WBSF, FW and ADG were the most important traits in the first vector, indicating that animals with the marker genotype for lowest WBSF also have the lowest FW and ADG. PMID:21637511

  15. The association of CAPN1 316 marker genotypes with growth and meat quality traits of steers finished on pasture

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    The objective of this paper was to determine the association of a SNP in the μ-calpain gene at position 316 with growth and quality of meat traits of steers grown on pasture. Fifty-nine Brangus and 20 Angus steers were genotyped for CAPN1 316. Warner Bratzler shear force was measured in l. lumborum samples after a 7-day aging period. A multivariate analysis of variance was performed, including shear force (WBSF), final weight (FW), average daily gain (ADG), backfat thickness (BFT), average monthly fat thickness gain (AMFTG), rib-eye area (REA), and beef rib-eye depth (RED) as dependent variables. The CAPN1 316 genotype was statistically significant. Univariate analyses were done with these variables. The marker genotype was statistically significant (p < 0.05) for WBSF (kg: CC: 4.41 ± 0.57; CG: 5.58 ± 0.20; GG: 6.29 ± 0.18), FW (kg: CC: 360.23 ± 14.71; CG: 381.34 ± 5.26; GG: 399.23 ± 4.68), and ADG (kg/d: CC: 0.675 ± 0.046; CG: 0.705 ± 0.016; GG: 0.765 ± 0.014) Shear force, final weight and average daily gain were significantly different according to the CAPN1 316 marker genotypes. The marker genotype was statistically significant in the multivariate analysis (p = 0.001). The first characteristic root explained 89% of the differences among genotypes. WBSF, FW and ADG were the most important traits in the first vector, indicating that animals with the marker genotype for lowest WBSF also have the lowest FW and ADG. PMID:21637511

  16. Occupational hazards among the abattoir workers associated with noncompliance to the meat processing and waste disposal laws in Malaysia

    PubMed Central

    Abdullahi, Auwalu; Hassan, Azmi; Kadarman, Norizhar; Junaidu, Yakubu Muhammad; Adeyemo, Olanike Kudrat; Lua, Pei Lin

    2016-01-01

    Purpose This study aims to investigate the occupational hazards among the abattoir workers associated with noncompliance to the meat processing and waste disposal laws in Terengganu State, Malaysia. Occupational hazards are the major source of morbidity and mortality among the animal workers due to exposure to many hazardous situations in their daily practices. Occupational infections mostly contracted by abattoir workers could be caused by iatrogenic or transmissible agents, including viruses, bacteria, fungi, and parasites and the toxins produced by these organisms. Materials and methods The methodology was based on a cross-sectional survey using cluster sampling technique in the four districts of Terengganu State, Malaysia. One hundred and twenty-one abattoir workers from five abattoirs were assessed using a validated structured questionnaire and an observation checklist. Results The mean and standard deviation of occupational hazards scores of the workers were 2.32 (2.721). Physical, chemical, biological, psychosocial, musculoskeletal, and ergonomics hazards were the major findings of this study. However, the highest prevalence of occupational hazards identified among the workers was injury by sharp equipment such as a knife (20.0%), noise exposure (17.0%), and due to offensive odor within the abattoir premises (12.0%). Conclusion The major occupational hazards encountered by the workers in the study area were physical, chemical, biological, psychosocial, musculoskeletal, and ergonomics hazards. To ensure proper control of occupational health hazards among the abattoir workers, standard design and good environmental hygiene must be taken into consideration all the time. Exposure control plan, which includes risk identification, risk characterization, assessment of workers at risk, risk control, workers’ education/training, and implementation of safe work procedures, should be implemented by the government and all the existing laws governing the abattoir

  17. Associations between unprocessed red and processed meat, poultry, seafood and egg intake and the risk of prostate cancer: A pooled analysis of 15 prospective cohort studies.

    PubMed

    Wu, Kana; Spiegelman, Donna; Hou, Tao; Albanes, Demetrius; Allen, Naomi E; Berndt, Sonja I; van den Brandt, Piet A; Giles, Graham G; Giovannucci, Edward; Alexandra Goldbohm, R; Goodman, Gary G; Goodman, Phyllis J; Håkansson, Niclas; Inoue, Manami; Key, Timothy J; Kolonel, Laurence N; Männistö, Satu; McCullough, Marjorie L; Neuhouser, Marian L; Park, Yikyung; Platz, Elizabeth A; Schenk, Jeannette M; Sinha, Rashmi; Stampfer, Meir J; Stevens, Victoria L; Tsugane, Shoichiro; Visvanathan, Kala; Wilkens, Lynne R; Wolk, Alicja; Ziegler, Regina G; Smith-Warner, Stephanie A

    2016-05-15

    Reports relating meat intake to prostate cancer risk are inconsistent. Associations between these dietary factors and prostate cancer were examined in a consortium of 15 cohort studies. During follow-up, 52,683 incident prostate cancer cases, including 4,924 advanced cases, were identified among 842,149 men. Cox proportional hazard models were used to calculate study-specific relative risks (RR) and then pooled using random effects models. Results do not support a substantial effect of total red, unprocessed red and processed meat for all prostate cancer outcomes, except for a modest positive association for tumors identified as advanced stage at diagnosis (advanced(r)). For seafood, no substantial effect was observed for prostate cancer regardless of stage or grade. Poultry intake was inversely associated with risk of advanced and fatal cancers (pooled multivariable RR [MVRR], 95% confidence interval, comparing ≥ 45 vs. <5 g/day: advanced 0.83, 0.70-0.99; trend test p value 0.29), fatal, 0.69, 0.59-0.82, trend test p value 0.16). Participants who ate ≥ 25 versus <5 g/day of eggs (1 egg ∼ 50 g) had a significant 14% increased risk of advanced and fatal cancers (advanced 1.14, 1.01-1.28, trend test p value 0.01; fatal 1.14, 1.00-1.30, trend test p value 0.01). When associations were analyzed separately by geographical region (North America vs. other continents), positive associations between unprocessed red meat and egg intake, and inverse associations between poultry intake and advanced, advanced(r) and fatal cancers were limited to North American studies. However, differences were only statistically significant for eggs. Observed differences in associations by geographical region warrant further investigation. PMID:26685908

  18. Associations between unprocessed red and processed meat, poultry, seafood and egg intake and the risk of prostate cancer: A pooled analysis of 15 prospective cohort studies

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Kana; Spiegelman, Donna; Hou, Tao; Albanes, Demetrius; Allen, Naomi E.; Berndt, Sonja I.; van den Brandt, Piet A.; Giles, Graham G.; Giovannucci, Edward; Goldbohm, R. Alexandra; Goodman, Gary G.; Goodman, Phyllis J.; Håkansson, Niclas; Inoue, Manami; Key, Timothy J.; Kolonel, Laurence N.; Männistö, Satu; McCullough, Marjorie L.; Neuhouser, Marian L.; Park, Yikyung; Platz, Elizabeth A.; Schenk, Jeannette M.; Sinha, Rashmi; Stampfer, Meir J.; Stevens, Victoria L.; Tsugane, Shoichiro; Visvanathan, Kala; Wilkens, Lynne R.; Wolk, Alicja; Ziegler, Regina G.; Smith-Warner, Stephanie A.

    2016-01-01

    Reports relating meat intake to prostate cancer risk are inconsistent. Associations between these dietary factors and prostate cancer were examined in a consortium of 15 cohort studies. During follow-up, 52, 683 incident prostate cancer cases, including 4,924 advanced cases, were identified among 842, 149 men. Cox proportional hazard models were used to calculate study-specific relative risks (RR) and then pooled using random effects models. Results do not support a substantial effect of total red, unprocessed red and processed meat for all prostate cancer outcomes, except for a modest positive association for tumors identified as advanced stage at diagnosis (advanced(r)). For seafood, no substantial effect was observed for prostate cancer regardless of stage or grade. Poultry intake was inversely associated with risk of advanced and fatal cancers (pooled multivariable RR [MVRR], 95% confidence interval, comparing ≥45 vs. <5 g/day: advanced 0.83, 0.70–0.99; trend test p value 0.29), fatal, 0.69, 0.59–0.82, trend test p value 0.16). Participants who ate ≥25 versus <5 g/day of eggs (1 egg ~ 50 g) had a significant 14% increased risk of advanced and fatal cancers (advanced 1.14, 1.01–1.28, trend test p value 0.01; fatal 1.14, 1.00–1.30, trend test p value 0.01). When associations were analyzed separately by geographical region (North America vs. other continents), positive associations between unprocessed red meat and egg intake, and inverse associations between poultry intake and advanced, advanced(r) and fatal cancers were limited to North American studies. However, differences were only statistically significant for eggs. Observed differences in associations by geographical region warrant further investigation. PMID:26685908

  19. Meat Consumption Culture in Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    Jo, Cheorun

    2014-01-01

    The consumption of animal flesh food in Ethiopia has associated with cultural practices. Meat plays pivotal and vital parts in special occasions and its cultural symbolic weight is markedly greater than that accorded to most other food. Processing and cooking of poultry is a gender based duty and has socio-cultural roles. Ethiopians are dependent on limited types of animals for meats due to the taboo associated culturally. Moreover, the consumption of meat and meat products has a very tidy association with religious beliefs, and are influenced by religions. The main religions of Ethiopia have their own peculiar doctrines of setting the feeding habits and customs of their followers. They influence meat products consumption through dictating the source animals that should be used or not be used for food, and scheduling the days of the years in periodical permeation and restriction of consumptions which in turn influences the pattern of meat consumption in the country. In Ethiopia, a cow or an ox is commonly butchered for the sole purpose of selling within the community. In special occasions, people have a cultural ceremony of slaughtering cow or ox and sharing among the group, called Kircha, which is a very common option of the people in rural area where access of meat is challenging frequently. PMID:26760739

  20. Genome-Wide Association Study Identifies Loci and Candidate Genes for Body Composition and Meat Quality Traits in Beijing-You Chickens

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Guiping; Wang, Fangjie; Wu, Dan; Zheng, Maiqing; Chen, Jilan; Zhang, Lei; Hu, Yaodong; Wen, Jie

    2013-01-01

    Body composition and meat quality traits are important economic traits of chickens. The development of high-throughput genotyping platforms and relevant statistical methods have enabled genome-wide association studies in chickens. In order to identify molecular markers and candidate genes associated with body composition and meat quality traits, genome-wide association studies were conducted using the Illumina 60 K SNP Beadchip to genotype 724 Beijing-You chickens. For each bird, a total of 16 traits were measured, including carcass weight (CW), eviscerated weight (EW), dressing percentage, breast muscle weight (BrW) and percentage (BrP), thigh muscle weight and percentage, abdominal fat weight and percentage, dry matter and intramuscular fat contents of breast and thigh muscle, ultimate pH, and shear force of the pectoralis major muscle at 100 d of age. The SNPs that were significantly associated with the phenotypic traits were identified using both simple (GLM) and compressed mixed linear (MLM) models. For nine of ten body composition traits studied, SNPs showing genome wide significance (P<2.59E−6) have been identified. A consistent region on chicken (Gallus gallus) chromosome 4 (GGA4), including seven significant SNPs and four candidate genes (LCORL, LAP3, LDB2, TAPT1), were found to be associated with CW and EW. Another 0.65 Mb region on GGA3 for BrW and BrP was identified. After measuring the mRNA content in beast muscle for five genes located in this region, the changes in GJA1 expression were found to be consistent with that of breast muscle weight across development. It is highly possible that GJA1 is a functional gene for breast muscle development in chickens. For meat quality traits, several SNPs reaching suggestive association were identified and possible candidate genes with their functions were discussed. PMID:23637794

  1. Association of selected SNP with carcass and taste panel assessed meat quality traits in a commercial population of Aberdeen Angus-sired beef cattle

    PubMed Central

    Gill, Jennifer L; Bishop, Stephen C; McCorquodale, Caroline; Williams, John L; Wiener, Pamela

    2009-01-01

    Background The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of eight single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP), previously associated with meat and milk quality traits in cattle, in a population of 443 commercial Aberdeen Angus-cross beef cattle. The eight SNP, which were located within five genes: μ-calpain (CAPN1), calpastatin (CAST), leptin (LEP), growth hormone receptor (GHR) and acylCoA:diacylglycerol acyltransferase 1 (DGAT1), are included in various commercial tests for tenderness, fatness, carcass composition and milk yield/quality. Methods A total of 27 traits were examined, 19 relating to carcass quality, such as carcass weight and fatness, one mechanical measure of tenderness, and the remaining seven were sensory traits, such as flavour and tenderness, assessed by a taste panel. Results An SNP in the CAPN1 gene, CAPN316, was significantly associated with tenderness measured by both the tenderometer and the taste panel as well as the weight of the hindquarter, where animals inheriting the CC genotype had more tender meat and heavier hindquarters. An SNP in the leptin gene, UASMS2, significantly affected overall liking, where animals with the TT genotype were assigned higher scores by the panellists. The SNP in the GHR gene was significantly associated with odour, where animals inheriting the AA genotype produced steaks with an intense odour when compared with the other genotypes. Finally, the SNP in the DGAT1 gene was associated with sirloin weight after maturation and fat depth surrounding the sirloin, with animals inheriting the AA genotype having heavier sirloins and more fat. Conclusion The results of this study confirm some previously documented associations. Furthermore, novel associations have been identified which, following validation in other populations, could be incorporated into breeding programmes to improve meat quality. PMID:19555501

  2. Meat Science and Muscle Biology Symposium: developmental programming in cattle: consequences for growth, efficiency, carcass, muscle, and beef quality characteristics.

    PubMed

    Robinson, D L; Cafe, L M; Greenwood, P L

    2013-03-01

    This paper reviews results of studies on effects of fetal programming and maternal nutrition during pregnancy on growth, efficiency, carcass, muscle, and meat quality characteristics of cattle. It includes results from our Australian Beef Cooperative Research Centre studies on factors such as chronic severe nutritional restriction from approximately d 80 of pregnancy to parturition and/or throughout lactation used to create early-life growth differences in the offspring of cows within pasture-based systems and the effect of these treatments on production characteristics to 30 mo of age. Fetal programming and related maternal effects are most pronounced and explain substantial amounts of variation for growth-related production characteristics such as BW, feed intake, carcass weight, muscle weights, meat yield, and fat and bone weights at any given age but are less evident when assessed at the same BW and carcass weight. Some effects of maternal and early-life factors in our studies were evident for efficiency traits but fewer affected beef quality characteristics at 30 mo of age, explaining only small amounts of variation in these traits. It is difficult to uncouple maternal nutritional effects specific to prenatal life from those that carry over to the postnatal period until weaning, particularly the effects of maternal nutrition during pregnancy on subsequent lactational performance. Hence, experimental design considerations for studying fetal programming effects on offspring during later life are discussed in relation to minimizing or removing prenatal and postnatal confounding effects. The relative contribution of fetal programming to the profitability of beef production systems is also briefly discussed. In this regard, the importance of health and survival of cows and calves, the capacity of cows to rebreed in a timely manner, and the efficiency with which feed and other resources are used cannot be overemphasized in relation to economics, welfare, and the

  3. Frequency, duration, and time devoted to elementary science instruction and the association with science achievement and science interest

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Almarode, John Taylor

    Although the United States continues to lead in many STEM areas (i.e., research and design and productivity), the Science and Engineering Indicators (NSB, 2010) suggest that the country is experiencing an erosion of its STEM advantage, ultimately losing the edge in each of these areas. Looking at trends in K-12 science, the 2010 National Science Board report indicated that the United States' position among selected countries declined in fourth grade science (NSB, 2010). This trend raises concern about the lagging student interest in the natural sciences, and thus the fate of science achievement outcomes for students in the United States. The research questions addressed in this study were: What is the pattern of growth for first-time kindergartners in science achievement from the end of third grade to the end of eighth grade? Controlling for differences in student demographics, are gains that first-time kindergartners make in science achievement from the end of third grade to the end of eighth grade associated with the frequency, duration, and time devoted to science in the third grade? Controlling for differences in student demographics is the frequency, duration, and time devoted to science in the third grade associated with the students' interest in eighth grade science? A subset of the variables contained in the ECLS-K: Early Childhood Longitudinal Study, Kindergarten Class of 1998-1999 data set and a subsample of the cohort of students in the ECLS-K data set. An unconditional growth model indicated that science achievement followed a non-linear pattern with significant individual variation in trajectories. In addition, students beginning with lower initial science achievement experience more rapid growth than those students beginning with higher initial science achievement. A conditional growth model suggested that the frequency of science in the third grade was a significant predictor of the achievement trajectory in science above and beyond demographic

  4. Characterization of volatile metabolites associated with confinement odour during the shelf-life of vacuum packed lamb meat under different storage conditions.

    PubMed

    Reis, Marlon M; Reis, Mariza G; Mills, John; Ross, Colleen; Brightwell, Gale

    2016-03-01

    Confinement odour was investigated. Volatiles were extracted directly from the pack, using solid phase microextraction and analysed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Sensory evaluation and microbiological analysis of the meat surface were also performed. Commercial samples of vacuum packed lamb legs (n=85), from two meat processing plants, were kept for 7weeks at -1.5°C then at different regimes of temperature (-1.5 to +4°C) until 11, 12 or 13weeks. Persistent odour was observed in 66% of samples, confinement odour in 24% and no odour in 11%. Volatiles associated with confinement odour (3-methyl-butanal, 3-hydroxy-2-butanone and sulphur dioxide) corresponded with end/sub products of glucose fermentation and catabolism of amino acids by bacteria (all bacteria naturally found in meat and do not represent a risk to health). Confinement odour could indicate a stage at which the environment for bacteria growth is becoming favourable for the production of volatiles with strong odours that are noticed by the consumer. PMID:26624794

  5. Associate of Applied Science Degree in Office Systems. Proposal.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gallaudet Coll., Washington, DC. School of Preparatory Studies.

    This proposal culminates a 5-year study of the possibility of awarding associate degrees at Gallaudet College, a private, liberal arts college for hearing impaired adults. The proposal outlines an Associate of Applied Science degree (AAS) in Office Systems at the School of Preparatory Studies. First, introductory material provides a brief history…

  6. THE GOVERNMENT OF ASSOCIATIONS, SELECTIONS FROM THE BEHAVIORAL SCIENCES.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    GLASER, WILLIAM A., ED.; SILLS, DAVID L., ED.

    A COMPILATION OF 47 SELECTIONS FROM BOOKS, JOURNALS, AND RESEARCH REPORTS IN THE BEHAVIORAL SCIENCES, THIS BOOK OF READINGS EITHER ABOUT VOLUNTARY ASSOCIATIONS OR WITH IMPLICATIONS FOR THEM IS ADDRESSED TO LEADERS, BOARD MEMBERS, WORKING VOLUNTEERS, AND STAFF MEMBERS OF VOLUNTARY ASSOCIATIONS AND TO BEHAVIORAL SCIENTISTS AND SOCIAL WORKERS…

  7. Policy Statements for the Associate Degree, the Associate in Applied Science Degree, and the Associate Degree in Nursing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Association of Community and Junior Colleges, Washington, DC.

    The policy statements contained in this document present the position of the American Association of Community and Junior Colleges (AACJC) on the Associate Degree, the Associate in Applied Science Degree (AAS), and the Associate Degree in Nursing. In its statement on the Associate Degree, the AACJC: (1) stresses the responsibility of faculty and…

  8. Dietary Patterns High in Red Meat, Potato, Gravy, and Butter Are Associated with Poor Cognitive Functioning but Not with Rate of Cognitive Decline in Very Old Adults1234

    PubMed Central

    Davies, Karen; Adamson, Ashley; Kirkwood, Thomas; Hill, Tom R; Siervo, Mario; Mathers, John C; Jagger, Carol

    2016-01-01

    Background: Healthy dietary patterns (DPs) have been linked to better cognition and reduced risk of dementia in older adults, but their role in cognitive functioning and decline in the very old (aged ≥85 y) is unknown. Objective: We investigated the association between previously established DPs from the Newcastle 85+ Study and global and attention-specific cognition over 5 y. Methods: We followed up with 302 men and 489 women (1921 birth cohort from Northeast United Kingdom) for change in global cognition [measured by the Standardized Mini-Mental State Examination (SMMSE)] over 5 y and attention (assessed by the cognitive drug research attention battery) over 3 y. We used 2-step clustering to derive DPs and mixed models to determine the relation between DPs and cognition in the presence of the dementia susceptibility gene. Results: Previously, we characterized 3 DPs that differed in intake of red meat, potato, gravy, and butter and varied with key health measures. When compared with participants in DP1 (high red meat) and DP3 (high butter), participants in DP2 (low meat) had higher SMMSE scores at baseline (P < 0.001) and follow-ups, and better initial attention (P < 0.05). Membership in DP1 and DP3 was associated with overall worse SMMSE scores (β = 0.09, P = 0.01 and β = 0.08, P = 0.02, respectively) than membership in DP2 after adjustment for sociodemographic factors, lifestyle, multimorbidity, and body mass index (BMI). Additional adjustment for apolipoprotein (apoE) ε4 genotype attenuated the association to nonsignificant in women but not in men in DP1 (β = 0.13, P = 0.02). Participants in DP1 and DP3 also had overall worse concentration (β = 0.04, P = 0.002 and β = 0.028, P = 0.03, respectively) and focused attention (β = 0.02, P = 0.01 and β = 0.02, P = 0.03, respectively), irrespective of apoE ε4 genotype, but similar rate of decline in all cognitive measures over time. Conclusion: DPs high in red meat, potato, gravy (DP1), or butter (DP3) were

  9. Informal science educators network project Association of Science-Technology Centers Incorporated. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    1997-05-09

    Funding from the Department of Energy and the Annenberg/CPB Math and Science Project have helped the Association of Science-technology Centers Incorporated (ASTC) to establish and sustain an on-line community of informal science educators nationwide. The Project, called the Informal Science Educators Network Project (ISEN), is composed primarily of informal science educators and exhibit developers from science centers, museums, zoos, aquariums, botanical gardens, parks, and nature centers. Although museum-based professionals represent the majority of subscribers to ISEN, also involved are some classroom teachers and teacher educators from colleges and universities. Common to all ISEN participants is a commitment to school and science education reform. Specifically, funding from the Department of Energy helped to boot strap the effort, providing Barrier Reduction Vouchers to 123 educators that enabled them participate in ISEN. Among the major accomplishments of the Project are these: (1) assistance to 123 informal science educators to attend Internet training sessions held in connection with the Project and/or purchase hardware and software that linked them to the Internet; (2) Internet training for 153 informal science educators; (3) development of a listserv which currently has over 180 subscribers--an all-time high; (4) opportunity to participate in four web chats involving informal science educators with noted researchers; (5) development of two sites on the World Wide Web linking informal science educators to Internet resources; (6) creation of an on-line collection of over 40 articles related to inquiry-based teaching and science education reform. In order to continue the momentum of the Project, ASTC has requested from the Annenberg/CPB Math and Science project a no/cost extension through December 1997.

  10. Processed meat: the real villain?

    PubMed

    Rohrmann, Sabine; Linseisen, Jakob

    2016-08-01

    Meat is a food rich in protein, minerals such as iron and zinc as well as a variety of vitamins, in particular B vitamins. However, the content of cholesterol and saturated fat is higher than in some other food groups. Processed meat is defined as products usually made of red meat that are cured, salted or smoked (e.g. ham or bacon) in order to improve the durability of the food and/or to improve colour and taste, and often contain a high amount of minced fatty tissue (e.g. sausages). Hence, high consumption of processed foods may lead to an increased intake of saturated fats, cholesterol, salt, nitrite, haem iron, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, and, depending upon the chosen food preparation method, also heterocyclic amines. Several large cohort studies have shown that a high consumption of processed (red) meat is related to increased overall and cause-specific mortality. A meta-analysis of nine cohort studies observed a higher mortality among high consumers of processed red meat (relative risk (RR) = 1·23; 95 % CI 1·17, 1·28, top v. bottom consumption category), but not unprocessed red meat (RR = 1·10; 95 % CI 0·98, 1·22). Similar associations were reported in a second meta-analysis. All studies argue that plausible mechanisms are available linking processed meat consumption and risk of chronic diseases such as CVD, diabetes mellitus or some types of cancer. However, the results of meta-analyses do show some degree of heterogeneity between studies, and it has to be taken into account that individuals with low red or processed meat consumption tend to have a healthier lifestyle in general. Hence, substantial residual confounding cannot be excluded. Information from other types of studies in man is needed to support a causal role of processed meat in the aetiology of chronic diseases, e.g. studies using the Mendelian randomisation approach. PMID:26621069

  11. Interesting Times: Practice, Science, and Professional Associations in Behavior Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Critchfield, Thomas S

    2011-01-01

    Neither practitioners nor scientists appear to be fully satisfied with the world's largest behavior-analytic membership organization. Each community appears to believe that initiatives that serve the other will undermine the association's capacity to serve their own needs. Historical examples suggest that such discord is predicted when practitioners and scientists cohabit the same association. This is true because all professional associations exist to address guild interests, and practice and science are different professions with different guild interests. No association, therefore, can succeed in being all things to all people. The solution is to assure that practice and science communities are well served by separate professional associations. I comment briefly on how this outcome might be promoted. PMID:22532750

  12. Basalt: Biologic Analog Science Associated with Lava Terrains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lim, D. S. S.; Abercromby, A.; Kobs-Nawotniak, S. E.; Kobayashi, L.; Hughes, S. S.; Chappell, S.; Bramall, N. E.; Deans, M. C.; Heldmann, J. L.; Downs, M.; Cockell, C. S.; Stevens, A. H.; Caldwell, B.; Hoffman, J.; Vadhavk, N.; Marquez, J.; Miller, M.; Squyres, S. W.; Lees, D. S.; Fong, T.; Cohen, T.; Smith, T.; Lee, G.; Frank, J.; Colaprete, A.

    2015-12-01

    This presentation will provide an overview of the BASALT (Biologic Analog Science Associated with Lava Terrains) program. BASALT research addresses Science, Science Operations, and Technology. Specifically, BASALT is focused on the investigation of terrestrial volcanic terrains and their habitability as analog environments for early and present-day Mars. Our scientific fieldwork is conducted under simulated Mars mission constraints to evaluate strategically selected concepts of operations (ConOps) and capabilities with respect to their anticipated value for the joint human and robotic exploration of Mars. a) Science: The BASALT science program is focused on understanding habitability conditions of early and present-day Mars in two relevant Mars-analog locations (the Southwest Rift Zone (SWRZ) and the East Rift Zone (ERZ) flows on the Big Island of Hawai'i and the eastern Snake River Plain (ESRP) in Idaho) to characterize and compare the physical and geochemical conditions of life in these environments and to learn how to seek, identify, and characterize life and life-related chemistry in basaltic environments representing these two epochs of martian history. b) Science Operations: The BASALT team will conduct real (non-simulated) biological and geological science at two high-fidelity Mars analogs, all within simulated Mars mission conditions (including communication latencies and bandwidth constraints) that are based on current architectural assumptions for Mars exploration missions. We will identify which human-robotic ConOps and supporting capabilities enable science return and discovery. c) Technology: BASALT will incorporate and evaluate technologies in to our field operations that are directly relevant to conducting the scientific investigations regarding life and life-related chemistry in Mars-analogous terrestrial environments. BASALT technologies include the use of mobile science platforms, extravehicular informatics, display technologies, communication

  13. Association of a single nucleotide polymorphism in the 5' upstream region of the porcine myosin heavy chain 4 gene with meat quality traits in pigs.

    PubMed

    Cho, Eun-Seok; Lee, Kyung-Tai; Kim, Jun-Mo; Lee, Si-Woo; Jeon, Hyeon-Jeong; Lee, Seung-Hwan; Hong, Ki-Chang; Kim, Tae-Hun

    2016-03-01

    We identified a potential molecular marker associated with meat quality traits in the myosin heavy chain 4, MYH4 gene of Landrace pigs. Sequencing revealed a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP; g.-1398G>T) in the 5' upstream region of MYH4. It was significantly associated with the number of type IIa muscle fibers and water-holding capacity based on filter-paper fluid uptake. The GG genotype groups had a greater number of type IIa fibers and a larger area composed of type IIa fibers than the other genotype group (P = 0.004 and P = 0.061, respectively). Expression level of MYH4 gene in the genotype TT or GT was higher than in genotype of GG (P < 0.0001). The T allele may enhance expression level of MYH4 gene and then the portion of IIb type fiber in the muscle be increased by the T allelle. Therefore, we suggest that the g.-1398G>T in the 5' upstream region of the porcine MYH4 may be used as a molecular marker for meat quality traits, although its functional effect is not defined yet. PMID:26271027

  14. URINARY MUTAGENESIS AS AN EXPOSURE BIOMARKER OF COOKED-MEAT-ASSOCIATED MUTAGENS: INFLUENCE OF COOKING TEMPERATURE, PHENOTYPE, AND GENOTYPE IN A CONTROLLED METABOLIC FEEDING STUDY

    EPA Science Inventory

    ABSTRACT
    We evaluated urinary mutagenicity and selected phenotypes and genotypes in 60 subjects in a metabolic feeding study in which meat cooked at low temperature (100oC) was consumed for 1 week followed by meat cooked at high temperature (250oC) the second week. Meat coo...

  15. Development of Dose-Response Models to Predict the Relationship for Human Toxoplasma gondii Infection Associated with Meat Consumption.

    PubMed

    Guo, Miao; Mishra, Abhinav; Buchanan, Robert L; Dubey, Jitender P; Hill, Dolores E; Gamble, H Ray; Jones, Jeffrey L; Du, Xianzhi; Pradhan, Abani K

    2016-05-01

    Toxoplasma gondii is a protozoan parasite that is responsible for approximately 24% of deaths attributed to foodborne pathogens in the United States. It is thought that a substantial portion of human T. gondii infections is acquired through the consumption of meats. The dose-response relationship for human exposures to T. gondii-infected meat is unknown because no human data are available. The goal of this study was to develop and validate dose-response models based on animal studies, and to compute scaling factors so that animal-derived models can predict T. gondii infection in humans. Relevant studies in literature were collected and appropriate studies were selected based on animal species, stage, genotype of T. gondii, and route of infection. Data were pooled and fitted to four sigmoidal-shaped mathematical models, and model parameters were estimated using maximum likelihood estimation. Data from a mouse study were selected to develop the dose-response relationship. Exponential and beta-Poisson models, which predicted similar responses, were selected as reasonable dose-response models based on their simplicity, biological plausibility, and goodness fit. A confidence interval of the parameter was determined by constructing 10,000 bootstrap samples. Scaling factors were computed by matching the predicted infection cases with the epidemiological data. Mouse-derived models were validated against data for the dose-infection relationship in rats. A human dose-response model was developed as P (d) = 1-exp (-0.0015 × 0.005 × d) or P (d) = 1-(1 + d × 0.003 / 582.414)(-1.479) . Both models predict the human response after consuming T. gondii-infected meats, and provide an enhanced risk characterization in a quantitative microbial risk assessment model for this pathogen. PMID:26477997

  16. Genome-Wide Association Study of Meat Quality Traits in a White Duroc×Erhualian F2 Intercross and Chinese Sutai Pigs

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Junwu; Yang, Jie; Zhou, Lisheng; Zhang, Zhiyan; Ma, Huanban; Xie, Xianhua; Zhang, Feng; Xiong, Xinwei; Cui, Leilei; Yang, Hui; Liu, Xianxian; Duan, Yanyu; Xiao, Shijun; Ai, Huashui; Ren, Jun; Huang, Lusheng

    2013-01-01

    Thousands of QTLs for meat quality traits have been identified by linkage mapping studies, but most of them lack precise position or replication between populations, which hinder their application in pig breeding programs. To localize QTLs for meat quality traits to precise genomic regions, we performed a genome-wide association (GWA) study using the Illumina PorcineSNP60K Beadchip in two swine populations: 434 Sutai pigs and 933 F2 pigs from a White Duroc×Erhualian intercross. Meat quality traits, including pH, color, drip loss, moisture content, protein content and intramuscular fat content (IMF), marbling and firmness scores in the M. longissimus (LM) and M. semimembranosus (SM) muscles, were recorded on the two populations. In total, 127 chromosome-wide significant SNPs for these traits were identified. Among them, 11 SNPs reached genome-wise significance level, including 1 on SSC3 for pH, 1 on SSC3 and 3 on SSC15 for drip loss, 3 (unmapped) for color a*, and 2 for IMF each on SSC9 and SSCX. Except for 11 unmapped SNPs, 116 significant SNPs fell into 28 genomic regions of approximately 10 Mb or less. Most of these regions corresponded to previously reported QTL regions and spanned smaller intervals than before. The loci on SSC3 and SSC7 appeared to have pleiotropic effects on several related traits. Besides them, a few QTL signals were replicated between the two populations. Further, we identified thirteen new candidate genes for IMF, marbling and firmness, on the basis of their positions, functional annotations and reported expression patterns. The findings will contribute to further identification of the causal mutation underlying these QTLs and future marker-assisted selection in pigs. PMID:23724019

  17. Wildlife-associated zoonotic diseases in some southern African countries in relation to game meat safety: a review.

    PubMed

    Bekker, Johan L; Hoffman, Louw C; Jooste, Piet J

    2012-01-01

    With on-going changes in land use practices from conventional livestock farming to commercial, wildlife-based activities, the interface or interaction between livestock and wildlife is increasing. As part of the wildlife-based activities of ecotourism, breeding and hunting, game farmers are also exploring the utilisation of meat from hunted or harvested game. The expanding interface or increased interaction between livestock and wildlife increases the risk of disease incidence and the emergence of new diseases or the re-emergence of previously diagnosed diseases. The risk is not only related to domestic and wild animal health, but also to the occupational hazards that it poses to animal handlers and the consumers of game meat. This review endeavours to highlight the role that game plays in the spreading of zoonotic diseases to other animals and humans. Examples of zoonotic diseases that have occurred in wild animals in the past, their relevance and risk have been summarised and should function as a quick reference guide for wildlife veterinarians, ecologists, farmers, hunters, slaughter staff, processors and public health professionals. PMID:23327327

  18. Association of the leptin gene E2-169T>C and E3-299T>A mutations with carcass and meat quality traits of the Chinese Simmental-cross steers.

    PubMed

    Tian, Jing; Zhao, Zhihui; Zhang, Lupei; Zhang, Qingfeng; Yu, Zhongjiang; Li, Junya; Yang, Runjun

    2013-04-15

    Leptin is a hormone affecting the regulation of body composition, energy balance, and meat quality in mammals. The objective of this study was to evaluate the association of novel single nucleotide polymorphisms in coding region for leptin gene with carcass and meat quality traits of Chinese Simmental-cross steers. Two SNPs (E2-169 T>C and E3-299 T>A) were genotyped on 135 crossbred bulls. The 45 traits being measured included dressing percentage, dressed weight, marbling score, muscle color score, backfat thickness, fatty acid content, etc. Statistical analysis revealed that two SNPs in the exon of leptin gene were associated with the carcass and meat quality traits. The C-bearing genotypes (CC or TC) of E2-169 T>C (C57R) showed higher dressed weight, thickness of loin, MCS, FCS, intramuscular fat content, and polyunsaturated fatty acid content (P<0.05). E3-299 >A(S100T) also showed a significant association with the carcass traits (dressing percentage, living QIB) and fatty acid content in Simmental-cross steers(P<0.05). Our findings suggested that polymorphisms in leptin might be one of the important genetic factors that influence carcass yield and meat quality in beef cattle, and it may be a useful marker for meat quality traits in future marker-assisted selection programs in beef cattle breeding and production. PMID:23291417

  19. Measuring Meat Texture

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Due to the complex and highly structured nature of muscle tissue, meat is an inherently tough and widely variable food product. In order to better predict and control meat tenderness issues, accurate measures of meat texture are needed. Unfortunately, the multifaceted characteristic of meat texture ...

  20. SNPs of MYPN and TTN genes are associated to meat and carcass traits in Italian Large White and Italian Duroc pigs.

    PubMed

    Braglia, Silvia; Davoli, Roberta; Zappavigna, Andrea; Zambonelli, Paolo; Buttazzoni, Luca; Gallo, Maurizio; Russo, Vincenzo

    2013-12-01

    Myopalladin (MYPN) and titin (TTN) play key roles in skeletal muscle structural organisation and for this reason they may be functional candidates for meat production traits in pigs. We analysed by PCR-RFLP two polymorphisms previously identified and described in the 3'UTR of MYPN and TTN genes in a group of Italian Large White (ILW) and Italian Duroc (ID) pigs with extreme divergent estimated breeding values for some production traits. Significant allele frequency differences were observed for lean cuts (LC) at the MYPN locus in ILW breed and for visible intermuscular fat (VIF) at MYPN and TTN loci in ID breed. Moreover, association analysis between the two genes and some production traits (average daily gain, LC, backfat thickness, ham weight, feed conversion ratio and VIF) was performed in a sample of 409 ILW and 381 ID pigs. On the whole, the results showed significant effects of both genes on some of the considered traits in ID breed, and for TTN gene in ILW animals. These results indicate that both genes can be considered as candidates for meat and carcass traits in ID pigs. PMID:24158610

  1. Teachers' tendencies to promote student-led science projects: Associations with their views about science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bencze, J. Lawrence; Bowen, G. Michael; Alsop, Steve

    2006-05-01

    School science students can benefit greatly from participation in student-directed, open-ended scientific inquiry projects. For various possible reasons, however, students tend not to be engaged in such inquiries. Among factors that may limit their opportunities to engage in open-ended inquiries of their design are teachers' conceptions about science. To explore possible relationships between teachers' conceptions about science and the types of inquiry activities in which they engage students, instrumental case studies of five secondary science teachers were developed, using field notes, repertory grids, samples of lesson plans and student activities, and semistructured interviews. Based on constructivist grounded theory analysis, participating teachers' tendencies to promote student-directed, open-ended scientific inquiry projects seemed to correspond with positions about the nature of science to which they indicated adherence. A tendency to encourage and enable students to carry out student-directed, open-ended scientific inquiry projects appeared to be associated with adherence to social constructivist views about science. Teachers who opposed social constructivist views tended to prefer tight control of student knowledge building procedures and conclusions. We suggest that these results can be explained with reference to human psychological factors, including those associated with teachers' self-esteem and their relationships with knowledge-building processes in the discipline of their teaching.

  2. Characterization of Leuconostoc gasicomitatum sp. nov., Associated with Spoiled Raw Tomato-Marinated Broiler Meat Strips Packaged under Modified-Atmosphere Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Björkroth, K. Johanna; Geisen, Rolf; Schillinger, Ulrich; Weiss, Norbert; De Vos, Paul; Holzapfel, Wilhelm H.; Korkeala, Hannu J.; Vandamme, Peter

    2000-01-01

    Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) associated with gaseous spoilage of modified-atmosphere-packaged, raw, tomato-marinated broiler meat strips were identified on the basis of a restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) (ribotyping) database containing DNAs coding for 16S and 23S rRNAs (rDNAs). A mixed LAB population dominated by a Leuconostoc species resembling Leuconostoc gelidum caused the spoilage of the product. Lactobacillus sakei, Lactobacillus curvatus, and a gram-positive rod phenotypically similar to heterofermentative Lactobacillus species were the other main organisms detected. An increase in pH together with the extreme bulging of packages suggested a rare LAB spoilage type called “protein swell.” This spoilage is characterized by excessive production of gas due to amino acid decarboxylation, and the rise in pH is attributed to the subsequent deamination of amino acids. Protein swell has not previously been associated with any kind of meat product. A polyphasic approach, including classical phenotyping, whole-cell protein electrophoresis, 16 and 23S rDNA RFLP, 16S rDNA sequence analysis, and DNA-DNA reassociation analysis, was used for the identification of the dominant Leuconostoc species. In addition to the RFLP analysis, phenotyping, whole-cell protein analysis, and 16S rDNA sequence homology indicated that L. gelidum was most similar to the spoilage-associated species. The two spoilage strains studied possessed 98.8 and 99.0% 16S rDNA sequence homology with the L. gelidum type strain. DNA-DNA reassociation, however, clearly distinguished the two species. The same strains showed only 22 and 34% hybridization with the L. gelidum type strain. These results warrant a separate species status, and we propose the name Leuconostoc gasicomitatum sp. nov. for this spoilage-associated Leuconostoc species. PMID:10966388

  3. South Australian Science Teachers Association Conference and Science Fair, Salisbury Teachers College, July 1971.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    1971

    The major papers presented at the 1971 conference of the South Australian Science Teachers Association are included in this pamphlet. Scientists from industry, research institutions, and the police forensic laboratory, and practicing teachers presented papers which included descriptions of modern scientific techniques, discussions of the role of…

  4. A Field Guide for Science Writers - The Official Guide of the National Association of Science Writers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blum, Deborah; Knudson, Mary; Marantz Henig, Robin

    2005-09-01

    This is the official text for the National Association of Science Writers. In the eight years since the publication of the first edition of A Field Guide for Science Writing, much about the world has changed. Some of the leading issues in today's political marketplace - embryonic stem cell research, global warming, health care reform, space exploration, genetic privacy, germ warfare - are informed by scientific ideas. Never has it been more crucial for the lay public to be scientifically literate. That's where science writers come in. And that's why it's time for an update to the Field Guide, already a staple of science writing graduate programs across the country. The academic community has recently recognized how important it is for writers to become more sophisticated, knowledgeable, and skeptical about what they write. More than 50 institutions now offer training in science writing. In addition mid-career fellowships for science writers are growing, giving journalists the chance to return to major universities for specialized training. We applaud these developments, and hope to be part of them with this new edition of the Field Guide. In A Field Guide for Science Writers, 2nd Edition, the editors have assembled contributions from a collections of experienced journalists who are every bit as stellar as the group that contributed to the first edition. In the end, what we have are essays written by the very best in the science writing profession. These wonderful writers have written not only about style, but about content, too. These leaders in the profession describe how they work their way through the information glut to find the gems worth writing about. We also have chapters that provide the tools every good science writer needs: how to use statistics, how to weigh the merits of conflicting studies in scientific literature, how to report about risk. And, ultimately, how to write.

  5. Teaching the nature of science: Practices and associated factors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herman, Benjamin C.

    This exploratory study investigated the extent and manner that former ISU-STEP students implemented the nature of science (NOS), and potential factors associated with their varying levels of NOS implementation. Thirteen teachers from the ISU-STEP participated in this study. All of the participants completed the nature of science in science education course at ISU, and were in at least in their second year of professional practice. A naturalistic inquiry approach was employed in this study and data sources included teaching observations, classroom artifacts, questionnaires, and interviews. Evidence from this study indicates factors associated with teachers' NOS implementation levels include their implementation of reform-based practices, self reflection abilities, considerations of how people learn, understanding of NOS teaching, perceived utility value for NOS teaching, level of responsibility to implement reform-based and NOS teaching practices, and coping strategies in response to teaching constraints. Furthermore, teachers who implemented the NOS at moderate or high levels interacted with one another forming a kind of informal support network which resulted in a higher level of responsibility to accurately and effectively teach the NOS. Recommendations for pre and inservice science teacher professional development include: (1) ensuring sufficient opportunities to understand and reflect upon the NOS and effective NOS teaching through focused coursework and practical experiences; (2) facilitating the internalization of the importance and utility value of NOS instruction; (3) explicitly addressing how to effectively cope with teaching constrains; and (4) facilitating the development of support networks and co-generated responsibility to teach the NOS.

  6. Meat: The balance between nutrition and health. A review.

    PubMed

    De Smet, Stefaan; Vossen, Els

    2016-10-01

    Fresh and processed meats provide high biological value proteins and important micronutrients. On the other hand, a working group of IARC recently classified processed meat as 'carcinogenic to humans' and red meat as 'probably carcinogenic to humans' for colorectal cancer, appealing to critically consider the future role of meat in a healthy diet. This manuscript first evaluates the contribution of meat consumption to the supply of important micronutrients in the human food chain, and the extent to which this can be improved by primary production strategies, and impacts on human health. Secondly, the IARC hazard analysis of the carcinogenicity of red and processed meat consumption is discussed, arguing that having more insight in the mechanisms of the association offers opportunities for mitigation. It is advocated that the benefits and risks associated with red and processed meat consumption should not necessarily cause dilemmas, if these meats are consumed in moderate amounts as part of balanced diets. PMID:27107745

  7. Influences on meat consumption in Australia.

    PubMed

    Lea, E; Worsley, A

    2001-04-01

    In a study of influences on meat consumption, over 700 South Australians answered questions on frequency of meat consumption, beliefs about meat and nutrition, perceived difficulties with and benefits of vegetarian diets, personal values, number of vegetarian significant others, use in and trust of health/nutrition/food information sources, and demography. Perceived difficulties with vegetarian diets, the number of vegetarian significant others and beliefs about meat were important predictors of meat consumption. There were differences between men and women and members of different age groups, which should be taken into account when attempts are made to influence meat consumption. For example, health promotion campaigns that focus on whether or not meat is necessary in the diet may influence meat consumption, but would be most successful if directed predominantly at older people and men. In contrast, the meat consumption of women and younger people was strongly associated with more specific concerns about lack of iron and protein in the vegetarian diet. Some of the difficulties people find with vegetarian diets will also apply to plant-based diets generally, and such diets are becoming more widely acknowledged as providing health benefits. Therefore, the findings have important implications for public health. PMID:11237348

  8. Characterization of Antimicrobial Susceptibility and Its Association with Virulence Genes Related to Adherence, Invasion, and Cytotoxicity in Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli Isolates from Animals, Meat, and Humans.

    PubMed

    Lapierre, Lisette; Gatica, María A; Riquelme, Víctor; Vergara, Constanza; Yañez, José Manuel; San Martín, Betty; Sáenz, Leonardo; Vidal, Maricel; Martínez, María Cristina; Araya, Pamela; Flores, Roberto; Duery, Oscar; Vidal, Roberto

    2016-07-01

    The aim of this research was to statistically analyze the association between antimicrobial susceptibility/resistance to erythromycine, gentamicin, ciprofloxacin, and tetracycline and 11 virulence genes associated with adherence, invasion, and cytotoxicity in 528 isolates of Campylobacter coli and Campylobacter jejuni obtained from retail meat and fecal samples from food-producing animals and human patients. A high percentage of Campylobacter strains were resistant to antimicrobials, specifically ciprofloxacin and tetracycline. Moreover, we observed a wide distribution of virulence genes within the analyzed strains. C. jejuni strains were more susceptible to antimicrobials, and showed greater number of virulence genes than C. coli strains. Genes related to invasion capability, such as racR, ciaB, and pldA, were associated with antimicrobial-susceptible strains in both species. The genes cdtA and dnaJ, a citotoxin unit and an adherence-related gene, respectively, were associated with antimicrobial-resistant strains in both species. In conclusion, Campylobacter strains show a statistically significant association between antimicrobial susceptibility and the presence of virulence genes. PMID:26779841

  9. Identification of Polymorphisms in the Rabbit Growth Hormone Receptor (GHR) Gene and Association with Finishing Weight in a Commercial Meat Rabbit Line.

    PubMed

    Fontanesi, Luca; Sparacino, Giuseppe; Utzeri, Valerio Joe; Scotti, Emilio; Fornasini, Daniela; Dall'Olio, Stefania; Frabetti, Andrea

    2016-04-01

    A shortcut to identify DNA markers associated with economic traits is to use a candidate gene approach that is still useful in livestock species in which molecular tools and resources are not advanced or not well developed. Mutations in the growth hormone receptor (GHR) gene associated with production traits have been already described in several livestock species. For this reason GHR could be an interesting candidate gene in the rabbit. In this study we re-sequenced all exons and non-coding regions of the rabbit GHR gene in a panel of 10 different rabbits and identified 10 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). One of them (g.63453192C>G or c.106C>G), located in exon 3 was a missense mutation (p.L36V) substituting an amino acid in a highly conserved position across all mammals. This mutation was genotyped in 297 performance tested rabbits of a meat male line and association analysis showed that the investigated SNP was associated with weight at 70 days (P < 0.05). The most frequent genotype (GG) was in animals with higher weight at this age, suggesting that the high directional selection pressure toward this trait since the constitution of the genotyped line might have contributed to shape allele frequencies at this polymorphic site. PMID:26913548

  10. Metabolomics of meat exudate: Its potential to evaluate beef meat conservation and aging.

    PubMed

    Castejón, David; García-Segura, Juan Manuel; Escudero, Rosa; Herrera, Antonio; Cambero, María Isabel

    2015-12-11

    In this study we analyzed the exudate of beef to evaluate its potential as non invasive sampling for nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) based metabolomic analysis of meat samples. Exudate, as the natural juice from raw meat, is an easy to obtain matrix that it is usually collected in small amounts in commercial meat packages. Although meat exudate could provide complete and homogeneous metabolic information about the whole meat piece, this sample has been poorly studied. Exudates from 48 beef samples of different breeds, cattle and storage times have been studied by (1)H NMR spectroscopy. The liquid exudate spectra were compared with those obtained by High Resolution Magic Angle Spinning (HRMAS) of the original meat pieces. The close correlation found between both spectra (>95% of coincident peaks in both registers; Spearman correlation coefficient = 0.945) lead us to propose the exudate as an excellent alternative analytical matrix with a view to apply meat metabolomics. 60 metabolites could be identified through the analysis of mono and bidimensional exudate spectra, 23 of them for the first time in NMR meat studies. The application of chemometric tools to analyze exudate dataset has revealed significant metabolite variations associated with meat aging. Hence, NMR based metabolomics have made it possible both to classify meat samples according to their storage time through Principal Component Analysis (PCA), and to predict that storage time through Partial Least Squares (PLS) regression. PMID:26614053

  11. Genetic variants in glucocorticoid and mineralocorticoid receptors are associated with concentrations of plasma cortisol, muscle glycogen content, and meat quality traits in male Nellore cattle.

    PubMed

    Poleti, M D; DeRijk, R H; Rosa, A F; Moncau, C T; Oliveira, P S; Coutinho, L L; Eler, J P; Balieiro, J C C

    2015-04-01

    The glucocorticoid receptor (GR) and mineralocorticoid receptor (MR) are key components in the regulation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal neuroendocrine axis and coordinate the physiological response to stress agents to reestablish homeostasis. Genetic variations of GR (NR3C1) and MR (NR3C2) genes could explain the alterations in animals to adapt to challenges, and therefore, their influence on production traits. The present study aimed to identify single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the bovine NR3C1 and NR3C2 genes and explore their associations to relevant traits of beef cattle production. Genotypes and phenotypes were collected from 241 male Nellore cattle (119 noncastrated and 122 castrated surgically) with an average of 24 ± 1.2 mo of age and live weight of 508 ± 39 kg. The traits evaluated were concentrations of plasma adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) and cortisol, muscle glycogen and lactate content, and pH, color, cooking loss, and shear force of longissimus thoracis measured on the 1st, 7th, and 14th days postmortem. Five SNPs were identified, 2 in the NR3C1 gene and 3 in the NR3C2 gene. There was an associative relationship between the SNP NR3C1_1 g.3293A>G and postmortem plasma concentration of cortisol (P = 0.0008). The SNPs NR3C2_1 g.115T>C and NR3C2_2 g.570T>C were associated with muscle glycogen content (P = 0.0306 and P = 0.0158), postmortem plasma concentration of ACTH (P = 0.0118 and P = 0.0095), and cooking loss of the steak aged 1 d (P = 0.0398 and P = 0.0423). Haplotype analysis showed associations of GR haplotypes with postmortem plasma concentrations of cortisol and MR haplotypes with meat color, cooking losses, muscle glycogen content, and plasma concentrations of ACTH. The associations observed in the present study show that SNPs in GR and MR genes are related with changes of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis activity and metabolic profile in cattle, leading to individual variation in meat quality traits. PMID:25617989

  12. National Earth Science Teachers Association Achievements in Earth Science Education Leadership

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Passow, M. J.; Johnson, R. M.; Pennington, P.; Herrold, A.; Holzer, M.; Ervin, T.; Hall, B.

    2008-12-01

    The National Earth Science Teachers Association (NESTA) continues its 25-year-long effort to advance geoscience education at all levels. NESTA especially employs multiple approaches to provide leadership, support, and resources to teachers so that all K - 12 students may receive a quality Earth and Space Science education. NESTA presents Share-a-thons, Earth and Space Science Resources Days, lectures, Rock and Mineral Raffles, field experiences, and social events that foster networking at national and regional science education conferences. Our quarterly journal,The Earth Scientist,provides quality classroom activities as well as background science information and news of opportunities of value to classroom teachers and their students. Recent issues have focused on the International Polar Year, professional development in the Earth Sciences, and recent advances in astronomy. These have included contributions from classroom and university educators and researchers. NESTA's web site, www.nestanet.org, provides timely information about upcoming events and opportunities, links to useful resources for geoscience teachers, access to the current and archived journals, and organizational information. A revised website, supported by an NSF grant, will be unveiled before the next NSTA National Conference on Science Education. These are supplemented by a monthly E-News and special "e-blasts". NESTA's leadership engages in frequent teleconferences to keep current with organizational planning. Among other accomplishments during the past year, NESTA revitalized our State contact network, identifying a member in almost every state plus some Canadian Provinces. This network will help disseminate information from NESTA, as well as provide feedback on issues of importance to members around the country. NESTA leaders and members interact with other national geoscience education organizations, including NAGT, GSA, AGI, AMS, and the Triangle Coalition. NESTA representatives also serve

  13. Meat analog: a review.

    PubMed

    Malav, O P; Talukder, S; Gokulakrishnan, P; Chand, S

    2015-01-01

    The health-conscious consumers are in search of nutritious and convenient food item which can be best suited in their busy life. The vegetarianism is the key for the search of such food which resembles the meat in respect of nutrition and sensory characters, but not of animal origin and contains vegetable or its modified form, this is the point when meat analog evolved out and gets shape. The consumers gets full satisfaction by consumption of meat analog due to its typical meaty texture, appearance and the flavor which are being imparted during the skilled production of meat analog. The supplement of protein in vegetarian diet through meat alike food can be fulfilled by incorporating protein-rich vegetative food grade materials in meat analog and by adopting proper technological process which can promote the proper fabrication of meat analog with acceptable meat like texture, appearance, flavor, etc. The easily available vegetables, cereals, and pulses in India have great advantages and prospects to be used in food products and it can improve the nutritional and functional characters of the food items. The various form and functional characters of food items are available world over and attracts the meat technologists and the food processors to bring some innovativeness in meat analog and its presentation and marketability so that the acceptability of meat analog can be overgrown by the consumers. PMID:24915320

  14. Associate in Science (AS) to Bachelor of Science in Applied Science (BSAS) Transfer Students: An Analysis of Student Characteristics, Engagement, and Success

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Collins, Jerry C.

    2009-01-01

    This study sought to examine and comprehensively describe transfer students who have earned a two-year technical or occupational Associate in Science (AS) degree at the community college and entered the university to pursue the Bachelor of Science in Applied Science (BSAS). The BSAS degree is a specialized baccalaureate degree program created…

  15. Associations and Committees of or for Women in Science, Engineering, Mathematics and Medicine.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aldrich, Michele, Comp.; Leach, Alicia, Comp.

    Provided is a list of associations and committees of or for women in science, engineering, mathematics, and medicine. The list is organized by discipline, with cross-referencing to cognate specialties. The disciplines include: anthropology; astronomy; atmospheric sciences; biology; chemistry; computer sciences; earth sciences; energy; engineering;…

  16. Association, effects and validation of polymorphisms within the NCAPG - LCORL locus located on BTA6 with feed intake, gain, meat and carcass traits in beef cattle

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background In a previously reported genome-wide association study based on a high-density bovine SNP genotyping array, 8 SNP were nominally associated (P ≤ 0.003) with average daily gain (ADG) and 3 of these were also associated (P ≤ 0.002) with average daily feed intake (ADFI) in a population of crossbred beef cattle. The SNP were clustered in a 570 kb region around 38 Mb on the draft sequence of bovine chromosome 6 (BTA6), an interval containing several positional and functional candidate genes including the bovine LAP3, NCAPG, and LCORL genes. The goal of the present study was to develop and examine additional markers in this region to optimize the ability to distinguish favorable alleles, with potential to identify functional variation. Results Animals from the original study were genotyped for 47 SNP within or near the gene boundaries of the three candidate genes. Sixteen markers in the NCAPG-LCORL locus displayed significant association with both ADFI and ADG even after stringent correction for multiple testing (P ≤ 005). These markers were evaluated for their effects on meat and carcass traits. The alleles associated with higher ADFI and ADG were also associated with higher hot carcass weight (HCW) and ribeye area (REA), and lower adjusted fat thickness (AFT). A reduced set of markers was genotyped on a separate, crossbred population including genetic contributions from 14 beef cattle breeds. Two of the markers located within the LCORL gene locus remained significant for ADG (P ≤ 0.04). Conclusions Several markers within the NCAPG-LCORL locus were significantly associated with feed intake and body weight gain phenotypes. These markers were also associated with HCW, REA and AFT suggesting that they are involved with lean growth and reduced fat deposition. Additionally, the two markers significant for ADG in the validation population of animals may be more robust for the prediction of ADG and possibly the correlated trait ADFI, across multiple breeds

  17. Polymorphism of MyoD1 and Myf6 genes and associations with carcass and meat quality traits in beef cattle.

    PubMed

    Du, X H; Gan, Q F; Yuan, Z R; Gao, X; Zhang, L P; Gao, H J; Li, J Y; Xu, S Z

    2013-01-01

    Myogenic determination factor 1 (MyoD1) and myogenic factor 6 (Myf6) genes belong to the myogenic differentiation (MyoD) gene family, which play key roles in growth and muscle development. The study aimed to investigate the effects of variants in cattle MyoD1 and Myf6 on carcass and meat traits. We screened single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of both genes in 8 cattle populations, including Simmental, Angus, Hereford, Charolais, Limousin, Qinchuan, Luxi, and Jinnan by sequencing. The G782A locus was identified in exon 1 of MyoD1 (MyoD1-BglI) as well as the T186C locus in exon 1 of Myf6 (Myf6-ApaLI). For the two SNPs, the A allele was significantly more frequent than the B allele in the populations tested. The χ(2) test showed that the MyoD1-BglI locus conformed to Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium in the 8 populations, as did the Myf6-ApaLI locus, with the exception of the Simmental population (P > 0.05). Association analysis revealed that the MyoD1-BglI locus was significantly associated with loin muscle area (LMA) (P < 0.05), and the Myf6-ApaLI locus was significantly associated with carcass length (CL) (P < 0.05). Animals with BB and AB genotypes for the MyoD1-BglI locus had larger LMAs compared to animals with AA genotype. Individuals with BB genotype had longer CLs compared to those with AA and AB genotypes. We conclude that the two SNPs might provide useful genetic markers, opening up new possibilities for cattle breeding and improvements in gene-assisted selection. PMID:24391012

  18. Association of a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) of calpain 1 (CAPN1) gene with meat tenderness of yak.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The association of a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) of calpain 1 (CAPN1) gene with shear force of 2.54 cm steaks from M. longissimus dorsi from Gannan yaks (Bos grunniens, n=181) was studied. Yaks were harvested at 2, 3, and 4 yr of age (n=51, 59, and 71, respectively), and samples of each yak...

  19. The 160th national meeting of the American Association for the Advancement of Science: Science and a changing world

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-01-01

    This is the Conference program for the American Association for the Advancement of Science. The overall topic is Science and A Changing World'. Major session areas covered including the following: Evaluating the environment: Where do we Stand ; Could we/should be engineer the Earth's Climate; Pacific Marine Science at Century's close; Predicting, Mitigating, and recovering from disasters; global change update 1994; sustainability from the ground up; energy policy research in Africa; defense conversion and technology transfer; arms control and international security.

  20. Acoustoconvection Drying of Meat

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhilin, A. A.; Fedorov, A. V.

    2016-03-01

    The dynamics of moisture extraction from meat samples by the acoustoconvection and thermoconvection methods has been investigated. To describe the dynamics of moisture extraction from meat, we propose a simple relaxation model with a relaxation time of 8-10 min in satisfactorily describing experimental data on acoustoconvection drying of meat. For thermoconvection drying the relaxation time is thereby 30 and 45 min for the longitudinal and transverse positions of fibers, respectively.

  1. Update on meat irradiation

    SciTech Connect

    Olson, D.G.

    1997-12-01

    The irradiation of meat and poultry in the United States is intended to eliminate pathogenic bacteria from raw product, preferably after packaging to prevent recontamination. Irradiation will also increase the shelf life of raw meat and poultry products approximately two to three times the normal shelf life. Current clearances in the United States are for poultry (fresh or frozen) at doses from 1.5 to 3.0 kGy and for fresh pork at doses from 0.3 to 1.0 kGy. A petition for the clearance of all red meat was submitted to the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) in July 1994. The petition is for clearances of fresh meat at doses from 1.5 to 4.5 kGy and for frozen meat at {approximately}2.5 to 7.5 kGy. Clearance for red meat is expected before the end of 1997. There are 28 countries that have food irradiation clearances, of which 18 countries have clearances for meat or poultry. However, there are no uniform categories or approved doses for meat and poultry among the countries that could hamper international trade of irradiated meat and poultry.

  2. Confronting the meat paradox in different cultural contexts: Reactions among Chinese and French participants.

    PubMed

    Tian, Qirui; Hilton, Denis; Becker, Maja

    2016-01-01

    As a well-known source of nutrition and pleasure, meat plays an important role in most people's diet. However, awareness of the "meat paradox"-the association of liking to eat meat but not wanting to kill animals-often implies the experience of cognitive dissonance. In two studies, focusing on meat production and meat consumption respectively, we examined whether participants used reduction of willingness to eat meat and reduction of mind attribution to food animals as strategies to reduce cognitive dissonance from the meat paradox in the Chinese and French cultural contexts. Focusing on meat production (slaughtering of an animal to produce meat; Study 1, n = 520), participants reported lower willingness to eat beef in a condition that emphasized the slaughter of a cow compared to a condition that presented a diagram of a cow as meat. In addition, French but not Chinese participants attributed less mind to cows when the relation between meat and its animal origin was made salient. Focusing on meat consumption (the transformation of meat into food; Study 2, n = 518), participants reported lower willingness to eat beef and attributed less mind to cows in a condition that emphasized the animal origin of meat compared to a condition that presented a recipe. These results suggest that the use of different strategies to resolve cognitive dissonance from the meat paradox depends on different contexts of the meat-animal link as well as on cultural context. PMID:26368579

  3. Teaching Science and Technology in the Context of Societal and Personal Issues. National Science Teachers Association Position Statement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Science Teachers Association (NJ1), 2010

    2010-01-01

    The National Science Teachers Association (NSTA) strongly promotes the education of a citizenry that is scientifically and technologically literate as defined in the National Science Education Standards (NRC 1996). This requires that individuals not only know, understand, and value scientific and technological concepts, processes, and outcomes,…

  4. Associate in science degree education programs: organization, structure, and curriculum.

    PubMed

    Galvin, William F

    2005-09-01

    After years of discussion, debate, and study, the respiratory care curriculum has evolved to a minimum of an associate degree for entry into practice. Although programs are at liberty to offer the entry-level or advanced level associate degree, most are at the advanced level. The most popular site for sponsorship of the associate degree in respiratory care is the community college. The basis for community college sponsorship seems to be its comprehensive curriculum, which focuses on a strong academic foundation in writing, communication, and the basic sciences as well as supporting a career-directed focus in respiratory care. Issues facing the community college are tied to literacy, outcomes, assessment, placement,cooperation with the community, partnerships with industry, and articulation arrangements with granting institutions granting baccalaureate degrees. Community colleges must produce a literate graduate capable of thriving in an information-saturated society. Assessment and placement will intensify as the laissez-faire attitudes toward attendance and allowing students to select courses without any accountability and evaluation of outcome become less acceptable. Students will be required to demonstrate steady progress toward established outcomes. Maintaining relations and cooperation with the local community and the health care industry will continue to be a prominent role for the community college. The challenge facing associate degree education in respiratory care at the community college level is the ability to continue to meet the needs of an expanding professional scope of practice and to provide a strong liberal arts or general education core curriculum. The needs for a more demanding and expanding respiratory care curriculum and for a rich general education core curriculum have led to increased interest in baccalaureate and graduate degree education. The value of associate degree education at the community college level is well established. It is

  5. Developing a heme iron database for meats according to meat type, cooking method and doneness level

    PubMed Central

    Cross, Amanda J.; Harnly, James M.; Ferrucci, Leah M.; Risch, Adam; Mayne, Susan T.; Sinha, Rashmi

    2012-01-01

    Background Animal studies have demonstrated that iron may be related to carcinogenesis, and human studies found that heme iron can increase the formation of N-nitroso compounds, which are known carcinogens. Objectives One of the postulated mechanisms linking red meat intake to cancer risk involves iron. Epidemiologic studies attempt to investigate the association between heme iron intake and cancer by applying a standard factor to total iron from meat. However, laboratory studies suggest that heme iron levels in meat vary according to cooking method and doneness level. We measured heme iron in meats cooked by different cooking methods to a range of doneness levels to use in conjunction with a food frequency questionnaire to estimate heme iron intake. Methods Composite meat samples were made to represent each meat type, cooking method and doneness level. Heme iron was measured using atomic absorption spectrometry and inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectrometry. Results Steak and hamburgers contained the highest levels of heme iron, pork and chicken thigh meat had slightly lower levels, and chicken breast meat had the lowest. Conclusions Although heme iron levels varied, there was no clear effect of cooking method or doneness level. We outline the methods used to create a heme iron database to be used in conjunction with food frequency questionnaires to estimate heme iron intake in relation to disease outcome. PMID:23459329

  6. Clostridium perfringens in Meat and Meat Products

    PubMed Central

    Hall, Herbert E.; Angelotti, Robert

    1965-01-01

    A total of 262 specimens of meat and meat dishes were examined for the presence of Clostridium perfringens. Of this total, 161 were raw, unprocessed beef, veal, lamb, pork, or chicken; 101 were processed meats and meat dishes. C. perfringens was isolated from 113 (43.1%) of these specimens. The highest percentage of contamination (82%) was found in veal cuts, and the lowest (4.7%) in sliced sandwich meats and spreads. Only 2 of the 113 isolates were shown to produce heat-resistant spores, which indicates a very low incidence (0.8%) of contamination. These findings indicate that outbreaks of C. perfringens food-borne disease in the Cincinnati area are caused principally by the contamination of the food with vegetative cells or spores of the organism after cooking. Studies of the effects of various holding temperatures on the growth of C. perfringens indicated that, in the range of 5 to 15 C, no multiplication would occur, but that viable cells would still be present at the end of a 5-day holding period. Extremely rapid growth occurred at temperatures around 45 C, and complete inhibition of growth was accomplished between 49 and 52 C. PMID:14325274

  7. Student Science Research Associates (SSRA) 1996 Research Journal

    SciTech Connect

    Knezovich, J.

    1996-12-01

    The following student projects are reported: SSRA water research projects, various effects on polliwogs` growth and development, effects of Willow Park Golf Course on nitrate and phosphate levels in San Leandro Creek, water quality evaluation using color infrared photography, biochemical analysis of aquatic insects, effects of miracid/calcium chloride/liquid plant food on stringless bush beans, effects of vegetable oil on bean growth, effect of river water on lima beans, effect of storm water runoff on pH and phosphate levels of Dry Creek, acid rain in Modesto, use of random amplified polymorphic DNA to study Egeria Densa, and effect of marination on formation of heterocyclic aromatic amines in cooked chicken meat.

  8. The 159th national meeting of the American Association for the advancement of science

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-01-01

    This volume is the program/abstracts for the 1993 national meeting of the American Association for the Advancement of Science. The meeting was held in Boston from 11-16 February 1993. Symposia dealt with works on the following topics; perspectives on human genetics; confronting AIDS; biology, cells bugs; medical research society; social psychology neuroscience; future chemistry, from carbon to silicon; measuring the matter energy of the universe; earth's ever-changing atmosphere; causing coping with environmental change; agricultural biotechnology, plant protection production; science corporate enterprise; examining reforming the economic system; science, ethics the law; communicating science to the public; information technology the changing face of science; mathematics, concepts computations; international cooperation human survival; science for everyone; science religion, examining both; anthropology, dynamics of human history; international science issues; improving formal science education; and science education reform in America. Separate abstracts have been prepared for articles from this volume.

  9. Riding in shopping carts and exposure to raw meat and poultry products: prevalence of, and factors associated with, this risk factor for salmonella and campylobacter infection in children younger than 3 years.

    PubMed

    Patrick, Mary E; Mahon, Barbara E; Zansky, Shelley M; Hurd, Sharon; Scallan, Elaine

    2010-06-01

    Riding in a shopping cart next to raw meat or poultry is a risk factor for Salmonella and Campylobacter infections in infants. To describe the frequency of, and factors associated with, this behavior, we surveyed parents of children aged younger than 3 years in Foodborne Disease Active Surveillance Network sites. We defined exposure as answering yes to one of a series of questions asking if packages of raw meat or poultry were near a child in a shopping cart, or if a child was in the cart basket at the same time as was raw meat or poultry. Among 1,273 respondents, 767 (60%) reported that their children visited a grocery store in the past week and rode in shopping carts. Among these children, 103 (13%) were exposed to raw products. Children who rode in the baskets were more likely to be exposed than were those who rode only in the seats (odds ratio [OR], 17.8; 95% confidence interval [CI], 11.0 to 28.9). In a multivariate model, riding in the basket (OR, 15.5; 95% CI, 9.2 to 26.1), income less than $55,000 (OR, 1.8; 95% CI, 1.0 to 3.1), and Hispanic ethnicity (OR, 2.3; 95% CI, 1.2 to 4.5) were associated with exposure. Our study shows that children can be exposed to raw meat and poultry products while riding in shopping carts. Parents should separate children from raw products and place children in the seats rather than in the baskets of the cart. Retailer use of leak-proof packaging, customer placement of product in a plastic bag and on the rack underneath the cart, use of hand sanitizers and wipes, and consumer education may also be helpful. PMID:20537266

  10. Science Education in the Rural United States. Implications for the Twenty-First Century. A Yearbook of the Association for the Education of Teachers in Science.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Otto, Paul B., Ed.

    This yearbook of the Association for the Education of Teachers in Science (AETS) is designed to give a perspective on rural science education. It is presented in a sequence which leads from the definition and philosophy of rural science education, to the status of rural science education, research implications, the integration of science within…

  11. Is Knowledge of Science Associated with Higher Skepticism of Pseudoscientific Claims?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Matthew; Pigliucci, Massimo

    2004-01-01

    The study conducted addresses issues associated with the relationships among science factual knowledge, conceptual understanding of science, and belief in pseudoscience by means of a 30-question survey. The survey consists of three types of questions asked of students enrolled in a science major and compares the responses to these obtained by…

  12. Physics Comes to Winnipeg: The 1909 Meeting of the British Association for the Advancement of Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klassen, Stephen; Dietrich, Sarah

    2010-01-01

    History of science can be used to bring scientific concepts to school science in a way that humanizes the protagonists and provides an appropriate context. The authors have researched the 1909 meeting of the British Association for the Advancement of Science (BAAS) in Winnipeg, a significant event in the city's history that has remained largely…

  13. Factors Associated with Middle and Secondary Students' Perceived Science Competence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beghetto, Ronald A.

    2007-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to gain a better understanding of students' perceived science competence by examining potentially related beliefs and perceptions in a diverse sample of middle and secondary students (N = 1289). Results of hierarchical regression analysis showed that students' perceived science competence was related to: (a)…

  14. Increased oxidative and nitrosative reactions during digestion could contribute to the association between well-done red meat consumption and colorectal cancer.

    PubMed

    Van Hecke, Thomas; Vossen, Els; Hemeryck, Lieselot Y; Vanden Bussche, Julie; Vanhaecke, Lynn; De Smet, Stefaan

    2015-11-15

    Uncured and nitrite-cured pork were subjected, raw, cooked (65 °C, 15 min) or overcooked (90 °C, 30 min), to an in vitro digestion model, which includes mouth, stomach, duodenum, and colon phases. Heating of uncured meat resulted in a pronounced increase in lipid and protein oxidation products throughout digestion. Nitrite-curing had an antioxidant effect during digestion, but this effect disappeared when the meat was overcooked, resulting in up to ninefold higher 4-hydroxy-2-nonenal concentrations compared with digested nitrite-cured raw and cooked pork. Colonic digesta contained significantly higher concentrations of the NOC-specific DNA adduct O(6)-carboxy-methylguanine when pork underwent a more intense heating procedure, independent of nitrite-curing, depending strongly on the fecal inoculum used. Since processed meats are usually nitrite-cured, the present study suggests that overcooking processed meat is likely to result in the formation of genotoxic compounds during digestion and should, therefore, be avoided. PMID:25976994

  15. Meat Products, Hydrodynamic Pressure Processing

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The hydrodynamic pressure process (HDP) has been shown to be very effective at improving meat tenderness in a variety of meat cuts. When compared to conventional aging for tenderization, HDP was more effective. The HDP process may offer the meat industry a new alternative for tenderizing meat in add...

  16. Red Meat and Processed Meat Consumption and Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma Risk: A Dose-response Meta-analysis of Observational Studies.

    PubMed

    Li, Fuqin; Duan, Fujiao; Zhao, Xia; Song, Chunhua; Cui, Shuli; Dai, Liping

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to clarify and quantify the potential dose-response association between the intake of total red and total processed meat and risk of nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC). Relevant studies were identified by searching PubMed, EMBASE, and Chinese databases (CNKI and Wanfang). The summary relative risk (RR) with 95% confidence interval (95%CI) was calculated. A total of 15 independent studies with 12,735 subjects were identified. Compared with the low-rank intake, the summary RR of NPC was 1.35 (95%CI, 1.21-1.51) for total red meat and 1.46 (95%CI, 1.34-1.64) for total processed meat. For the moderate-rank intake, the summary RR of NPC was 1.54 (95%CI, 1.36-1.79) for total red meat and 1.59 (95%CI, 1.3-1.90) for total processed meat. The summary RR for high-rank intake was 1.71 (95%CI, 1.14-2.55) for total red meat and 2.11 (95%CI, 1.31-3.42) for total processed meat. The combined estimates showed obvious evidence of statistically significant association between total red and total processed meat consumption dose and risk of NPC (Ptrend< 0.01). In conclusion, our data suggest that a high intake of total red or total processed meat is associated with a significantly increased risk of NPC. PMID:27367552

  17. The role of red and processed meat in colorectal cancer development: a perspective.

    PubMed

    Oostindjer, Marije; Alexander, Jan; Amdam, Gro V; Andersen, Grethe; Bryan, Nathan S; Chen, Duan; Corpet, Denis E; De Smet, Stefaan; Dragsted, Lars Ove; Haug, Anna; Karlsson, Anders H; Kleter, Gijs; de Kok, Theo M; Kulseng, Bård; Milkowski, Andrew L; Martin, Roy J; Pajari, Anne-Maria; Paulsen, Jan Erik; Pickova, Jana; Rudi, Knut; Sødring, Marianne; Weed, Douglas L; Egelandsdal, Bjørg

    2014-08-01

    This paper is based on a workshop held in Oslo, Norway in November 2013, in which experts discussed how to reach consensus on the healthiness of red and processed meat. Recent nutritional recommendations include reducing intake of red and processed meat to reduce cancer risk, in particular colorectal cancer (CRC). Epidemiological and mechanistic data on associations between red and processed meat intake and CRC are inconsistent and underlying mechanisms are unclear. There is a need for further studies on differences between white and red meat, between processed and whole red meat and between different types of processed meats, as potential health risks may not be the same for all products. Better biomarkers of meat intake and of cancer occurrence and updated food composition databases are required for future studies. Modifying meat composition via animal feeding and breeding, improving meat processing by alternative methods such as adding phytochemicals and improving our diets in general are strategies that need to be followed up. PMID:24769880

  18. Detection of horse meat contamination in raw and heat-processed meat products.

    PubMed

    Hsieh, Yun-Hwa P; Ofori, Jack A

    2014-12-31

    Europe's recent problems with the adulteration of beef products with horse meat highlight the need for a reliable method for detecting horse meat in food for human consumption. The objective of this study was therefore to develop a reliable monoclonal antibody (mAb) based enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for horse meat detection. Two mAbs, H3E3 (IgG2b) and H4E7 (IgG2a), were characterized as horse-selective, and competitive ELISAs (cELISAs) employing these mAbs were developed. The cELISAs were found to be capable of detecting levels as low as 1% of horse meat in raw, cooked, and autoclaved ground beef or pork, being useful analytical tools for addressing the health, economic, and ethical concerns associated with adulterating meat products with horse meat. However, due to cross-reaction with raw poultry meat, it is recommended that samples be heated (100 °C for 15 min) prior to analysis to eliminate possible false-positive results. PMID:25474205

  19. Meat, Poultry and Fish

    MedlinePlus

    ... Select meat substitutes such as dried beans, peas, lentils or tofu (soybean curd) in entrees, salads or ... one-cup serving of cooked beans, peas or lentils, or soybean curd (tofu) can replace a 2- ...

  20. Principles of Professionalism for Science Educators. National Science Teachers Association Position Statement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Science Teachers Association (NJ1), 2010

    2010-01-01

    Science educators play a central role in educating, inspiring, and guiding students to become responsible, scientifically literate citizens. Therefore, teachers of science must uphold the highest ethical standards of the profession to earn and maintain the respect, trust, and confidence of students, parents, school leaders, colleagues, and other…

  1. Cooling of cooked RTE meats and computer simulation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Clostridium perfringens is a spore-forming pathogen that causes foodborne outbreaks associated with cooked or partially cooked meat and poultry products regulated by USDA Food Safety and Inspection Service (FSIS). The spores, activated during cooking, may germinate, outgrow, and multiply in meat or...

  2. The National Association of Geology Teachers Earth Science Activities Book.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mayer, Victor J.

    1982-01-01

    Describes activities in the "Earth Science Activities" book (available from the author). Activities range from simple to complex, with detailed instructions/information for the teacher to conduct the activity as is or with modification to meet individual class/student needs. Includes sample activity: "Ashfall in Washington-Courtesy of Mount St.…

  3. Determination of fat content in NMR images of meat

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ballerini, Lucia

    2000-12-01

    In this paper we present an application to food science of image processing technique. We describe a method for determining fat content in beef meat. The industry of meat faces a permanent need for improved methods for meat quality evaluation. Researchers want improved techniques to deepen their understanding of meat features. Expectations of consumers for meat quality grow constantly, which induces the necessity of quality control. Recent advances in the area of computer and video processing have created new ways to monitor quality in the food industry. We investigate the use of a new technology to control the quality of food: NMR imaging. The inherent advantages of NMR images are many. Chief among these unprecedented contrasts between the various structures present in meat like muscle, fat, and connective tissue. Moreover, the three-dimensional nature of the NMR method allow us to analyze isolated cross-sectional slices of the meat and to measure the volumetric content of fat, not only the fat visible on the surface. We propose a segmentation algorithm for the detection of fat together with a filtering technique to remove intensity inhomogeneities in NMR images caused by non-uniformities of the magnetic field during acquisition. Measurements have been successfully correlated with chemical analysis and digital photography. Results show that the NMR technique is a promising non-invasive method to determine the fat content in meat.

  4. Emerging Profiles for Cultured Meat; Ethics through and as Design

    PubMed Central

    van der Weele, Cor; Driessen, Clemens

    2013-01-01

    Simple Summary The idea of cultured meat is to grow meat from animal cells with tissue engineering techniques. Cultured meat is an idea under investigation that will not be ready for the market for several years. It is also still open what it could or should be like. We argue that this openness offers the opportunity to explore different directions in which this idea could be developed. Feelings, critical thinking and the imagination all have important roles to play in this exploration. Abstract The development of cultured meat has gained urgency through the increasing problems associated with meat, but what it might become is still open in many respects. In existing debates, two main moral profiles can be distinguished. Vegetarians and vegans who embrace cultured meat emphasize how it could contribute to the diminishment of animal suffering and exploitation, while in a more mainstream profile cultured meat helps to keep meat eating sustainable and affordable. In this paper we argue that these profiles do not exhaust the options and that (gut) feelings as well as imagination are needed to explore possible future options. On the basis of workshops, we present a third moral profile, “the pig in the backyard”. Here cultured meat is imagined as an element of a hybrid community of humans and animals that would allow for both the consumption of animal protein and meaningful relations with domestic (farm) animals. Experience in the workshops and elsewhere also illustrates that thinking about cultured meat inspires new thoughts on “normal” meat. In short, the idea of cultured meat opens up new search space in various ways. We suggest that ethics can take an active part in these searches, by fostering a process that integrates (gut) feelings, imagination and rational thought and that expands the range of our moral identities. PMID:26479525

  5. Emerging Profiles for Cultured Meat; Ethics through and as Design.

    PubMed

    van der Weele, Cor; Driessen, Clemens

    2013-01-01

    The development of cultured meat has gained urgency through the increasing problems associated with meat, but what it might become is still open in many respects. In existing debates, two main moral profiles can be distinguished. Vegetarians and vegans who embrace cultured meat emphasize how it could contribute to the diminishment of animal suffering and exploitation, while in a more mainstream profile cultured meat helps to keep meat eating sustainable and affordable. In this paper we argue that these profiles do not exhaust the options and that (gut) feelings as well as imagination are needed to explore possible future options. On the basis of workshops, we present a third moral profile, "the pig in the backyard". Here cultured meat is imagined as an element of a hybrid community of humans and animals that would allow for both the consumption of animal protein and meaningful relations with domestic (farm) animals. Experience in the workshops and elsewhere also illustrates that thinking about cultured meat inspires new thoughts on "normal" meat. In short, the idea of cultured meat opens up new search space in various ways. We suggest that ethics can take an active part in these searches, by fostering a process that integrates (gut) feelings, imagination and rational thought and that expands the range of our moral identities. PMID:26479525

  6. Quebec Science Education: Which Directions? Proceedings of a Symposium Sponsored by the Science Council of Canada and the Association des Professeurs de Sciences du Quebec (March 1982). P82/2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Souque, Jean-Pascal, Ed.; Dufour, Paul, Ed.

    Proceedings are presented of a symposium on science education in Quebec, which was sponsored by the Science Council of Canada and the Association des Professeurs de Sciences du Quebec. Papers and authors addressing the background and present state of Quebec science education are as follows: "Science Teaching at the Secondary Level: An Evaluation"…

  7. Humanities and Social Sciences Books of Ten National Disciplinary Associations, 2000-2009

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wiberley, Stephen E., Jr.

    2016-01-01

    Books are the most important medium of communication in the humanities, a major medium in the social sciences, and a central component of academic library collections. This study examined humanities and social sciences books that won prizes from ten leading United States disciplinary associations between 2000 and 2009. The study extends earlier…

  8. The Association for Library and Information Science Education (ALISE): Past, Present, Future

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Julien, Heidi

    2007-01-01

    The Association for Library and Information Science Education (ALISE) is now over 90 years old. Recently recommitted to a focus on research in library and information science teaching and pedagogy, and support for educators in the field, ALISE serves its members with a range of publications, awards, and services. Membership is strong and…

  9. The Proceedings, Directory and Handbook of the National Association of Academies of Science 1983-84.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Majumdar, Shyamal K., Ed.

    Provided in this document are the proceedings of the 1983 annual meeting of the National Association of Academies of Sciences (NAAS), the NAAS handbook, and the NAAS directory. The proceedings also include papers presented at a symposium on the crisis in science and mathematics education, various NAAS reports, and abstracts of American Junior…

  10. Halal authenticity issues in meat and meat products.

    PubMed

    Nakyinsige, Khadijah; Man, Yaakob Bin Che; Sazili, Awis Qurni

    2012-07-01

    In the recent years, Muslims have become increasingly concerned about the meat they eat. Proper product description is very crucial for consumers to make informed choices and to ensure fair trade, particularly in the ever growing halal food market. Globally, Muslim consumers are concerned about a number of issues concerning meat and meat products such as pork substitution, undeclared blood plasma, use of prohibited ingredients, pork intestine casings and non-halal methods of slaughter. Analytical techniques which are appropriate and specific have been developed to deal with particular issues. The most suitable technique for any particular sample is often determined by the nature of the sample itself. This paper sets out to identify what makes meat halal, highlight the halal authenticity issues that occur in meat and meat products and provide an overview of the possible analytical methods for halal authentication of meat and meat products. PMID:22405913

  11. Tenderizing Meat with Explosives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gustavson, Paul K.; Lee, Richard J.; Chambers, George P.; Solomon, Morse B.; Berry, Brad W.

    2001-06-01

    Investigators at the Food Technology and Safety Laboratory have had success tenderizing meat by explosively shock loading samples submerged in water. This technique, referred to as the Hydrodynamic Pressure (HDP) Process, is being developed to improve the efficiency and reproducibility of the beef tenderization processing over conventional aging techniques. Once optimized, the process should overcome variability in tenderization currently plaguing the beef industry. Additional benefits include marketing lower quality grades of meat, which have not been commercially viable due to a low propensity to tenderization. The simplest and most successful arrangement of these tests has meat samples (50 to 75 mm thick) placed on a steel plate at the bottom of a plastic water vessel. Reported here are tests which were instrumented by Indian Head investigators. Carbon-composite resistor-gauges were used to quantify the shock profile delivered to the surface of the meat. PVDF and resistor gauges (used later in lieu of PVDF) provided data on the pressure-time history at the meat/steel interface. Resulting changes in tenderization were correlated with increasing shock duration, which were provided by various explosives.

  12. Growth, carcass and meat quality traits in beef from Angus, Hereford and cross-breed grazing steers, and their association with SNPs in genes related to fat deposition metabolism.

    PubMed

    Papaleo Mazzucco, J; Goszczynski, D E; Ripoli, M V; Melucci, L M; Pardo, A M; Colatto, E; Rogberg-Muñoz, A; Mezzadra, C A; Depetris, G J; Giovambattista, G; Villarreal, E L

    2016-04-01

    Grazing steers from Angus and Hereford breeds, their cross-breeds and a three-way cross-breed (Limousin × Angus-Hereford) were measured for growth, carcass and meat quality traits. Breed effects were studied, and the association of SNPs with fat deposition and fatty acid (FA) composition (leptin, melanocortin-4 receptor, stearoyl-CoA desaturase, FA synthase and thyroglobulin) was tested. Limousin cross-breed showed the greatest final body weight, ultrasound rib eye area, dressing percentage, carcass and leg length, and the lowest backfat thickness and intramuscular fat content. Genetic groups had similar pH, shear force, cooking loss, L* and b* and n-6:n-3 ratio. Meat from 1/2-Angus presented greater a* than Limousin cross-breed. Whereas Angus had the highest total SFA content, Hereford had the lowest total SFA and the highest total MUFA. Limousin cross-breed had greater content of several individual PUFAs, total PUFA, n-6 and n-3 FA than Angus and 1/2-Angus. Leptin and FA synthase were associated with some FAs, supporting their influence over fat metabolism for grazing animals. PMID:26771144

  13. Meat-cooking mutagens and risk of renal cell carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Daniel, C R; Schwartz, K L; Colt, J S; Dong, L M; Ruterbusch, J J; Purdue, M P; Cross, A J; Rothman, N; Davis, F G; Wacholder, S; Graubard, B I; Chow, W H; Sinha, R

    2011-01-01

    Background: High-temperature cooked meat contains two families of carcinogens, heterocyclic amines (HCAs) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Given the kidneys' role in metabolism and urinary excretion of these compounds, we investigated meat-derived mutagens, as well as meat intake and cooking methods, in a population-based case–control study conducted in metropolitan Detroit and Chicago. Methods: Newly diagnosed, histologically confirmed adenocarcinoma of the renal parenchyma (renal cell carcinoma (RCC)) cases (n=1192) were frequency matched on age, sex, and race to controls (n=1175). The interviewer-administered Diet History Questionnaire (DHQ) included queries for meat-cooking methods and doneness with photographic aids. Levels of meat mutagens were estimated using the DHQ in conjunction with the CHARRED database. Results: The risk of RCC increased with intake of barbecued meat (Ptrend=0.04) and the PAH, benzo(a)pyrene (BaP) (multivariable-adjusted odds ratio and 95% confidence interval, highest vs lowest quartile: 1.50 (1.14, 1.95), Ptrend=0.001). With increasing BaP intake, the risk of RCC was more than twofold in African Americans and current smokers (Pinteraction<0.05). We found no association for HCAs or overall meat intake. Conclusion: BaP intake, a PAH in barbecued meat, was positively associated with RCC. These biologically plausible findings advocate further epidemiological investigation into dietary intake of BaP and risk of RCC. PMID:21897389

  14. Retail Meat Cutting I. Apprentice Meat Cutter Related Training. Revised.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Dale H., Ed.

    Intended as a first-year curriculum for apprentice meat cutters, this text focuses on retail meat cutting. Topics covered in the 24 chapters are background and purpose of apprenticeship, job preparation, general layout of the meat department, operational procedures, beef structure and evaluation, retail cuts and cooking methods, beef forequarter:…

  15. Muscle Growth and Poultry Meat Quality Issues

    PubMed Central

    Petracci, Massimiliano; Cavani, Claudio

    2011-01-01

    Over the past 50 years the worldwide growing demand of poultry meat has resulted in pressure on breeders, nutritionists and growers to increase the growth rate of birds, feed efficiency, size of breast muscle and reduction in abdominal fatness. Moreover, the shift toward further processed products has emphasized the necessity for higher standards in poultry meat to improve sensory characteristics and functional properties. It is believed that genetic progress has put more stress on the growing bird and it has resulted in histological and biochemical modifications of the muscle tissue by impairing some meat quality traits. The most current poultry meat quality concerns are associated with deep pectoral muscle disease and white striping which impair product appearance, and increased occurrence of problems related with the meat’s poor ability to hold water during processing and storage (PSE-like condition) as well as poor toughness and cohesiveness related to immaturity of intramuscular connective tissue. This paper is aimed at making a general statement of recent studies focusing on the relationship between muscle growth and meat quality issues in poultry. PMID:22347614

  16. Red meat, processed meat and the risk of venous thromboembolism: friend or foe?

    PubMed

    Lippi, Giuseppe; Cervellin, Gianfranco; Mattiuzzi, Camilla

    2015-08-01

    Venous thromboembolism (VTE) is a highly prevalent condition worldwide, which can be triggered by a combination of inherited and acquired risk factors, including diet. Several lines of evidence suggest that consumption of red and processed meat is associated with a significant risk of colorectal cancer, cardiovascular disease and diabetes. Therefore, an electronic search was conducted to identify clinical studies investigating the potential association between the risk of venous thrombosis and consumption of red or processed meat. Seven articles were finally included in this review, 6 prospective studies and 1 case-control investigation. Taken together, the evidence of the current scientific literature suggests that whether or not a pathophysiological link may exist between red or processed meat consumption and venous thrombosis, the association is definitely weak, since it was found to be non-statistically significant in four prospective cohort studies, marginally significant in one prospective cohort study and highly significant in the remaining prospective cohort study. In the single case-control study, the risk was also found to be non-statistically significant. Although further studies will be needed to definitely establish the existence of a thrombotic risk associated with different subtypes of red or processed meat, it seems premature to conclude that a reduced consumption of red and processed meat lowers the risk of VTE. PMID:25962721

  17. Linkage Disequilibrium Mapping of Meat Quality QTL

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Previous studies based on linkage analysis have identified broad areas in the bovine genome associated with meat quality. Linkage disequilibrium (LD) analyses have the potential to identify narrower regions and point towards candidate genes. Tenderness and marbling were chosen to be evaluated in a ...

  18. Clostridium difficile in poultry and poultry meat

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The incidence and severity of disease associated with toxigenic Clostridium difficile have increased in hospitals in North America from the emergence of newer, more virulent strains. Toxigenic C. difficile has been isolated from food animals and retail meat with potential implications of transfer t...

  19. The Association of Academic Health Sciences Libraries' collaboration with the Association of American Medical Colleges, Medical Library Association, and other organizations

    PubMed Central

    Jenkins, Carol G.; Bader, Shelley A.

    2003-01-01

    The Association of Academic Health Sciences Libraries has made collaboration with other organizations a fundamental success strategy throughout its twenty-five year history. From the beginning its relationships with Association of American Medical Colleges and with the Medical Library Association have shaped its mission and influenced its success at promoting academic health sciences libraries' roles in their institutions. This article describes and evaluates those relationships. It also describes evolving relationships with other organizations including the National Library of Medicine and the Association of Research Libraries. PMID:12883582

  20. Association of a novel polymorphism in the bovine PPARGC1A gene with growth, slaughter and meat quality traits in Brangus steers.

    PubMed

    Soria, L A; Corva, P M; Branda Sica, A; Villarreal, E L; Melucci, L M; Mezzadra, C A; Papaleo Mazzucco, J; Fernández Macedo, G; Silvestro, C; Schor, A; Miquel, M C

    2009-12-01

    The PPARGC1A gene (peroxysome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma coactivator 1alpha gene) controls muscle fiber type and brown adipocyte differentiation; therefore, it is a candidate gene for beef quality traits (tenderness and fat content). Two SNPs (Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms) were identified within exon 8 by multiple alignment of DNA sequences obtained from 24 bulls: a transition G/A (SNP 1181) and a transversion A/T (SNP 1299). The SNP 1181 is a novel SNP, corresponding to a non-conservative substitution (AGT/AAT) that could be the cause of amino acid substitution ((364)Serine/(364)Asparagine). A Mismatch PCR method was designed to determine genotypes of 73 bulls and 268 steers for SNP 1181. Growth, slaughter and meat quality information were available for the group of steers. Allele A of SNP 1181 was not found in Angus. In 243 steers, no significant differences (P > 0.05) were found for either final live body weight, gain in backfat thickness in Spring, kidney fat weight, kidney fat percentage, Warner-Bratzler shear force at 7 days postmortem, intramuscular fat percentage or meat colour between genotype GG and AG. This SNP could be included in breed composition and population admixture analyses because there are marked differences in allelic frequencies between Bos taurus and Bos indicus breeds. PMID:19665052

  1. An examination of the association between demographic and educational factors and African American achievement in science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cottledge, Michael Christopher

    Objective of the Study: The objective of this research study was to investigate whether an association exists between teacher demographic factors (years of teaching experience and gender), 2 educational factors (certification type and certification pathway) and the percent passing rate of tenth grade African American male students on the 2010 science TAKS. Answers to the following questions were sought: 1. Is there an association between teacher demographic factors and the percent passing rate of their tenth grade African American male students on the 2010 science TAKS? 2. Is there an association between teacher educational factors and the percent passing rate of their tenth grade African American male students on the 2010 science TAKS? 3. Is there an association between teacher demographic factors, educational factors and the percent passing rate of their tenth grade African American male students on the 2010 science TAKS? Status of the Question: According to the Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS), science and engineering jobs in the U.S. have increased steadily over recent years and by the year 2016 the number of STEM (Science, Technology, Engineering and Math) jobs will have grown by more than 21 percent. This increase in science and engineering jobs will double the growth rate of all other workforce sectors combined. The BLS also reports that qualified minority applicants needed to fill these positions will be few and far between. African Americans, Latinos, and other minorities constitute 24 percent of the U.S. population but only 13 percent of college graduates and just 10 percent of people with college degrees who work in science and engineering (Education Trust, 2009). Drawing on the above information, I proposed the following hypotheses to the research questions: H01: There will be no significant statistical association between the demographic factors teacher gender and years of teaching experience and the percent passing rate of their tenth grade African

  2. The science of evaluation of adverse events associated with vaccination.

    PubMed

    Halsey, Neal A

    2002-07-01

    All vaccines cause some adverse events; serious adverse events are rare. Causal associations between a vaccine and an adverse event rarely can be determined by specific tests such as identifying a vaccine agent in the affected tissue of patients. In the absence of such data, epidemiologic studies can be used to determine if the risk of the disorder is increased in vaccinated compared to unvaccinated individuals. Common mistakes include assuming a causal relationship based on a temporal association only or a series of affected patients. Careful studies have demonstrated that many hypothesized causal associations between vaccines and adverse events were not substantiated. False assumptions regarding causality are likely to occur for illnesses without a carefully defined etiology or pathogenesis. PMID:12199617

  3. Adolescent meat intake and breast cancer risk.

    PubMed

    Farvid, Maryam S; Cho, Eunyoung; Chen, Wendy Y; Eliassen, A Heather; Willett, Walter C

    2015-04-15

    The breast is particularly vulnerable to carcinogenic influences during adolescence due to rapid proliferation of mammary cells and lack of terminal differentiation. We investigated consumption of adolescent red meat and other protein sources in relation to breast cancer risk in the Nurses' Health Study II cohort. We followed prospectively 44,231 women aged 33-52 years who, in 1998, completed a detailed questionnaire about diet during adolescence. Relative risks (RR) and 95% confidence intervals (95%CI) were estimated using Cox proportional hazard regression. We documented 1132 breast cancer cases during 13-year follow-up. In multivariable Cox regression models with major breast cancer risk factors adjustment, greater consumption of total red meat in adolescence was significantly associated with higher premenopausal breast cancer risk (highest vs. lowest quintiles, RR, 1.43; 95%CI, 1.05-1.94; Ptrend  = 0.007), but not postmenopausal breast cancer. Adolescent intake of poultry was associated with lower risk of breast cancer overall (RR, 0.76; 95%CI, 0.60-0.97; for each serving/day). Adolescent intakes of iron, heme iron, fish, eggs, legumes and nuts were not associated with breast cancer. Replacement of one serving/day of total red meat with one serving of combination of poultry, fish, legumes, and nuts was associated with a 15% lower risk of breast cancer overall (RR, 0.85; 95%CI, 0.74-0.96) and a 23% lower risk of premenopausal breast cancer (RR, 0.77; 95%CI, 0.64-0.92). In conclusion, higher consumption of red meat during adolescence was associated with premenopausal breast cancer. Substituting other dietary protein sources for red meat in adolescent diet may decrease premenopausal breast cancer risk. PMID:25220168

  4. Species determination - Can we detect and quantify meat adulteration?

    PubMed

    Ballin, Nicolai Z; Vogensen, Finn K; Karlsson, Anders H

    2009-10-01

    Proper labelling of meat products is important to help fair-trade, and to enable consumers to make informed choices. However, it has been shown that labelling of species, expressed as weight/weight (w/w), on meat product labels was incorrect in more than 20% of cases. Enforcement of labelling regulations requires reliable analytical methods. Analytical methods are often based on protein or DNA measurements, which are not directly comparable to labelled meat expressed as w/w. This review discusses a wide range of analytical methods with focus on their ability to quantify and their limits of detection (LOD). In particular, problems associated with a correlation from quantitative DNA based results to meat content (w/w) are discussed. The hope is to make researchers aware of the problems of expressing DNA results as meat content (w/w) in order to find better alternatives. One alternative is to express DNA results as genome/genome equivalents. PMID:20416768

  5. Meat and components of meat and the risk of bladder cancer in the NIH-AARP Diet and Health Study

    PubMed Central

    Ferrucci, Leah M.; Sinha, Rashmi; Ward, Mary H.; Graubard, Barry I.; Hollenbeck, Albert R.; Kilfoy, Briseis A.; Schatzkin, Arthur; Michaud, Dominique S.; Cross, Amanda J.

    2010-01-01

    Background Meat could be involved in bladder carcinogenesis via multiple potentially carcinogenic meat-related compounds related to cooking and processing, including nitrate, nitrite, heterocyclic amines (HCAs), and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. We comprehensively investigated the association between meat and meat components and bladder cancer. Methods During 7 years of follow-up, 854 transitional cell bladder cancer cases were identified among 300,933 men and women who completed a validated food frequency questionnaire in the large prospective NIH-AARP Diet and Health Study. We estimated intake of nitrate and nitrite from processed meat and HCAs and PAHs from cooked meat using quantitative databases of measured values. We calculated total dietary nitrate and nitrite based on literature values. Results The hazard ratios (HR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for red meat (HR for fifth compared to first quintile=1.22, 95% CI=0.96–1.54, p-trend=0.07) and the HCA 2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine (PhIP) (HR=1.19, 95% CI=0.95–1.48, p-trend=0.06) conferred a borderline statistically significant increased risk of bladder cancer. We observed positive associations in the top quintile for total dietary nitrite (HR=1.28, 95% CI=1.02–1.61, p-trend= 0.06) and nitrate plus nitrite intake from processed meat (HR=1.29 95% CI=1.00–1.67, p-trend= 0.11). Conclusions These findings provide modest support for a role for total dietary nitrite and nitrate plus nitrite from processed meat in bladder cancer. Our results also suggest a positive association between red meat and PhIP and bladder carcinogenesis. PMID:20681011

  6. Curriculum Study: Nursing Program for an Associate in Science Degree.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hall, Laura T.

    A description is provided of the associate degree nursing curriculum at a hypothetical community college located in a residential community in California. After providing background on the college and a rationale for the provision of nursing education at the institution, the goals and objectives of the college and its department of nursing are…

  7. Plant extracts as natural antioxidants in meat and meat products.

    PubMed

    Shah, Manzoor Ahmad; Bosco, Sowriappan John Don; Mir, Shabir Ahmad

    2014-09-01

    Antioxidants are used to minimize the oxidative changes in meat and meat products. Oxidative changes may have negative effects on the quality of meat and meat products, causing changes in their sensory and nutritional properties. Although synthetic antioxidants have already been used but in recent years, the demand for natural antioxidants has been increased mainly because of adverse effects of synthetic antioxidants. Thus most of the recent investigations have been directed towards the identification of natural antioxidants from various plant sources. Plant extracts have been prepared using different solvents and extraction methods. Grape seed, green tea, pine bark, rosemary, pomegranate, nettle and cinnamon have exhibited similar or better antioxidant properties compared to some synthetic ones. This review provides the recent information on plant extracts used as natural antioxidants in meat and meat products, specifically red meat. PMID:24824531

  8. Court Reporting Curriculum for an Associate in Applied Science Degree at Alvin Community College.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bethscheider, John; Knapp, Mary

    The court reporting curriculum at Alvin Community College, which leads to an associate of applied science degree, has been praised by the National Shorthand Reporters Association, which sets the standards for court reporting schools. The court reporter uses a method of taking notes called stenotypy which entails taking down verbatim everything…

  9. Associations of Middle School Student Science Achievement and Attitudes about Science with Student-Reported Frequency of Teacher Lecture Demonstrations and Student-Centered Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Odom, Arthur Louis; Bell, Clare Valerie

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the association of middle school student science achievement and attitudes about science with student-reported frequency of teacher lecture demonstrations and student-centered learning. The student sample was composed of 602 seventh- and eighth-grade students enrolled in middle school science. Multiple…

  10. Exogenous proteases for meat tenderization.

    PubMed

    Bekhit, Alaa A; Hopkins, David L; Geesink, Geert; Bekhit, Adnan A; Franks, Philip

    2014-01-01

    The use of exogenous proteases to improve meat tenderness has attracted much interest recently, with a view to consistent production of tender meat and added value to lower grade meat cuts. This review discusses the sources, characteristics, and use of exogenous proteases in meat tenderization to highlight the specificity of the proteases toward meat proteins and their impact on meat quality. Plant enzymes (such as papain, bromelain, and ficin) have been extensively investigated as meat tenderizers. New plant proteases (actinidin and zingibain) and microbial enzyme preparations have been of recent interest due to controlled meat tenderization and other advantages. Successful use of these enzymes in fresh meat requires their enzymatic kinetics and characteristics to be determined, together with an understanding of the impact of the surrounding environmental conditions of the meat (pH, temperature) on enzyme function. This enables the optimal conditions for tenderizing fresh meat to be established, and the elimination or reduction of any negative impacts on other quality attributes. PMID:24499119

  11. Replacement of Pork Meat with Pork Head Meat for Frankfurters.

    PubMed

    Choi, Yun-Sang; Hwang, Ko-Eun; Kim, Hyun-Wook; Song, Dong-Heon; Jeon, Ki-Hong; Park, Jong-Dae; Sung, Jung-Min; Kim, Young-Boong; Kim, Cheon-Jei

    2016-01-01

    The effect of reducing pork meat concentrations from 50% to 30% and replacing it with up to 20% pork head meat on chemical composition, cooking characteristics, physicochemical and textural properties, apparent viscosity, and sensory characteristics of frankfurters was determined. The highest moisture content in frankfurters was found in the control and T1 (frankfurter with 45% pork meat + 5% pork head). Protein and fat contents in frankfurters with pork head meat added were significantly (p<0.05) higher than those in the control. When the concentration of pork head meat was increased from 0% to 20%, cooking loss, total expressible fluid separation, fat separation, and pH of frankfurters were increased, while the lightness, redness, yellowness, and apparent viscosity of frankfurters were decreased. Ash contents, cohesiveness, color, and tenderness of sensory characteristics of frankfurters added with different amounts of pork meat or pork head meat were not significantly (p>0.05) different from those of the control or there treatments. Frankfurters in T4 (frankfurter with 30% pork meat + 20% pork head) had the lowest (p<0.05) hardness and gumminess. The hardness and gumminess of frankfurters in other treatments were not significantly different (p>0.05) from that in the control. Frankfurters with higher pork head meat concentrations had lower flavor, juiciness, and overall acceptability scores. Therefore, replacing pork meat with pork head meat in the formulation could successfully produce results similar to those of control frankfurters. The best results were obtained when 10% pork head meat was used to replace pork meat. PMID:27621683

  12. Replacement of Pork Meat with Pork Head Meat for Frankfurters

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Yun-Sang; Hwang, Ko-Eun; Kim, Hyun-Wook; Song, Dong-Heon; Jeon, Ki-Hong; Park, Jong-Dae; Sung, Jung-Min; Kim, Young-Boong; Kim, Cheon-Jei

    2016-01-01

    The effect of reducing pork meat concentrations from 50% to 30% and replacing it with up to 20% pork head meat on chemical composition, cooking characteristics, physicochemical and textural properties, apparent viscosity, and sensory characteristics of frankfurters was determined. The highest moisture content in frankfurters was found in the control and T1 (frankfurter with 45% pork meat + 5% pork head). Protein and fat contents in frankfurters with pork head meat added were significantly (p<0.05) higher than those in the control. When the concentration of pork head meat was increased from 0% to 20%, cooking loss, total expressible fluid separation, fat separation, and pH of frankfurters were increased, while the lightness, redness, yellowness, and apparent viscosity of frankfurters were decreased. Ash contents, cohesiveness, color, and tenderness of sensory characteristics of frankfurters added with different amounts of pork meat or pork head meat were not significantly (p>0.05) different from those of the control or there treatments. Frankfurters in T4 (frankfurter with 30% pork meat + 20% pork head) had the lowest (p<0.05) hardness and gumminess. The hardness and gumminess of frankfurters in other treatments were not significantly different (p>0.05) from that in the control. Frankfurters with higher pork head meat concentrations had lower flavor, juiciness, and overall acceptability scores. Therefore, replacing pork meat with pork head meat in the formulation could successfully produce results similar to those of control frankfurters. The best results were obtained when 10% pork head meat was used to replace pork meat. PMID:27621683

  13. Addressing the Process Improvement Science Knowledge and Skills of Program Directors and Associate Program Directors

    PubMed Central

    Gravdal, Judith A.; Hyziak, Pamela; Belmonte, Frank; Clemens, Mary Ann; Sulo, Suela

    2015-01-01

    Background Process improvement (PI) science is relatively new to healthcare and has only recently been introduced to medical education. Most residency faculty lack training or experience in PI science activities. We assessed the impact of PI science education on the knowledge and attitudes of a group of residency and fellowship program directors and associate program directors using their respective Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education annual program evaluations (APEs) as an experiential object. Methods For this pre/post study, 16 program directors and 7 associate program directors were surveyed before and after 4 didactic modules. The APEs for the 2 years prior to the intervention and in the fall after the intervention were analyzed. Mentoring in the use of these skills in the preparation of the APEs was provided. Results The participants demonstrated improved knowledge in some areas and increased awareness of deficits in other areas. APE quality did not show consistent improvement following the intervention. Conclusion The PI science knowledge and skill gaps of program directors and associate program directors are likely to impact the content and success of residency curricula. The designed PI science curriculum was slightly effective. Using the APE as the experiential object was convenient, but the APE was not the best project for a PI exercise. New, effective strategies and interventions to develop expertise in PI science are important as programs grapple with meeting new requirements, ensuring quality programs, and preparing residents and fellows for practice. PMID:25829878

  14. Human pathogens in marine mammal meat – a northern perspective.

    PubMed

    Tryland, M; Nesbakken, T; Robertson, L; Grahek-Ogden, D; Lunestad, B T

    2014-09-01

    Only a few countries worldwide hunt seals and whales commercially. In Norway, hooded and harp seals and minke whales are commercially harvested, and coastal seals (harbour and grey seals) are hunted as game. Marine mammal meat is sold to the public and thus included in general microbiological meat control regulations. Slaughtering and dressing of marine mammals are performed in the open air on deck, and many factors on board sealing or whaling vessels may affect meat quality, such as the ice used for cooling whale meat and the seawater used for cleaning, storage of whale meat in the open air until ambient temperature is reached, and the hygienic conditions of equipment, decks, and other surfaces. Based on existing reports, it appears that meat of seal and whale does not usually represent a microbiological hazard to consumers in Norway, because human disease has not been associated with consumption of such foods. However, as hygienic control on marine mammal meat is ad hoc, mainly based on spot-testing, and addresses very few human pathogens, this conclusion may be premature. Additionally, few data from surveys or systematic quality control screenings have been published. This review examines the occurrence of potential human pathogens in marine mammals, as well as critical points for contamination of meat during the slaughter, dressing, cooling, storage and processing of meat. Some zoonotic agents are of particular relevance as foodborne pathogens, such as Trichinella spp., Toxoplasma gondii, Salmonella and Leptospira spp. In addition, Mycoplasma spp. parapoxvirus and Mycobacterium spp. constitute occupational risks during handling of marine mammals and marine mammal products. Adequate training in hygienic procedures is necessary to minimize the risk of contamination on board, and acquiring further data is essential for obtaining a realistic assessment of the microbiological risk to humans from consuming marine mammal meat. PMID:24344685

  15. Meat intake and reproductive parameters among young men

    PubMed Central

    Afeiche, Myriam C; Williams, Paige L; Gaskins, Audrey J; Mendiola, Jaime; Jørgensen, Niels; Swan, Shanna H

    2014-01-01

    Background In the United States, anabolic sex steroids are administered to cattle for growth promotion. There is concern regarding the reproductive consequences of this practice for men who eat beef. We investigated whether meat consumption was associated with semen quality parameters and reproductive hormone levels in young men. Methods Semen samples were obtained from 189 men aged 18-22 years. Diet was assessed with a previously validated food frequency questionnaire. We used linear regression to analyze the cross-sectional associations of meat intake with semen quality parameters and reproductive hormones, while adjusting for potential confounders. Results There was an inverse relation between processed red meat intake and total sperm count. The adjusted relative differences in total sperm counts for men in increasing quartiles of processed meat intake were 0 (ref), −3 (95% confidence interval = −67 to 37), −14 (−82 to 28), and −78 (−202 to −5) million (test for trend, P = 0.01). This association was strongest among men with abstinence time less than 2 days and was driven by a strong inverse relation between processed red meat intake and ejaculate volume (test for trend, P =0.003). Conclusions In our population of young men, processed meat intake was associated with lower total sperm count. We cannot distinguish whether this association is due to residual confounding by abstinence time or represents a true biological effect. PMID:24681577

  16. An investigation of the quality of meat sold in Lesotho.

    PubMed

    Seeiso, T M; McCrindle, C M E

    2009-12-01

    Since the closure of the Lesotho abattoir in 2003, only imported meat can be legally sold. However, it was estimated in 2007 that 80% of the meat sold at butcheries comes from informal slaughter. The aim of this study was to investigate the situation. The number and location of informal butcheries in Lesotho (n = 143) were recorded and mapped using Geographical Information Systems. Observations (photographs) of informal slaughter indicated a lack of hygiene, unskilled slaughtermen and illegal disposal of offal with possible environmental pollution. In addition, a cross-sectional study was undertaken to determine the microbiological quality of meat from randomly selected carcasses (n = 237) of cattle, sheep and pigs from a sample of 44 butcheries, 4 of which were associated with registered supermarkets. As a control, samples for microbiological assay were taken from imported meat originating from carcasses (n = 20) slaughtered at a registered abattoir in South Africa. Of the 44 butcheries investigated only the 4 commercial butcheries associated with supermarkets sold imported meat only; 3 butcheries sold meat inspected at government slaughter slabs (n = 3), while the rest (n = 37) sold both imported and informally slaughtered meat. In terms of Lesotho legislation, informally slaughtered meat is only for home consumption. The bacteriological counts from all samples showed a total bacterial plate count exceeding 30 organisms per ml in contrast with the controls which all showed a count less than 5 colonies per ml. This was found for both imported and informally slaughtered meat sold in Lesotho. In addition, meat samples from butcheries showed the presence of the potential pathogens Salmonella (n = 2), Staphylococcus aureus (n = 12) and Escherichia coli (n = 15). During the study, anthrax was confirmed in 9 human patients, 5 of whom died, after consumption of informally slaughtered livestock. Although no cases of animal abuse were detected, it was considered that

  17. Spanish, French and British consumers' acceptability of Uruguayan beef, and consumers' beef choice associated with country of origin, finishing diet and meat price.

    PubMed

    Realini, C E; Font i Furnols, M; Sañudo, C; Montossi, F; Oliver, M A; Guerrero, L

    2013-09-01

    The effect of country of origin (local, Switzerland, Argentina, Uruguay), finishing diet (grass, grass plus concentrate, concentrate), and price (low, medium, high) on consumer's beef choice and segmentation was evaluated in Spain, France and United Kingdom. Sensory acceptability of Uruguayan beef from different production systems was also evaluated and contrasted with consumers' beef choices. Origin was the most important characteristic for the choice of beef with preference for meat produced locally. The second most important factor was animal feed followed by price with preference for beef from grass-fed animals and lowest price. The least preferred product was beef from Uruguay, concentrate-fed animals and highest price. Sensory data showed higher acceptability scores for Uruguayan beef from grass-fed animals with or without concentrate supplementation than animals fed concentrate only. Consumer segments with distinct preferences were identified. Foreign country promotion seems to be fundamental for marketing beef in Europe, as well as the development of different marketing strategies to satisfy each consumer segment. PMID:23644048

  18. International red meat trade.

    PubMed

    Brester, Gary W; Marsh, John M; Plain, Ronald L

    2003-07-01

    The maturation of the US beef and pork markets and increasing consumer demands for convenience, safety, and nutrition suggests that the beef and pork industries must focus on product development and promotion. New marketing arrangements are developing that help coordinate production with consumer demands. The relative high levels of incomes in the United States are likely to increase the demands for branded products rather than increase total per capita consumption. Foreign markets represent the greatest opportunity for increased demand for commodity beef and pork products. Increasing incomes in developing countries will likely allow consumers to increase consumption of animal-source proteins. Real prices of beef and pork have declined substantially because of sagging domestic demand and increasing farm-level production technologies. Increasing US beef and pork exports have obviated some of the price declines. Pork attained a net export position from a quantity perspective in 1995. The United States continues to be a net importer of beef on a quantity basis but is close to becoming a net exporter in terms of value. By-products continue to play a critical role in determining the red meat trade balance and producer prices. The United States, however, must continue to become cost, price, and quality competitive with other suppliers and must secure additional market access if it is to sustain recent trade trends. Several trade tensions remain in the red meat industry. For example, mandated COOL will undoubtedly have domestic and international effects on the beef and pork sectors. Domestically, uncertainty regarding consumer demand responses or quality perceptions regarding product origin, as well as added processor-retailer costs will be nontrivial. How these factors balance out in terms of benefits versus costs to the industry is uncertain. From an international perspective, some beef and pork export suppliers to the United States could view required labeling as a

  19. Efficient halal bleeding, animal handling, and welfare: A holistic approach for meat quality.

    PubMed

    Aghwan, Z A; Bello, A U; Abubakar, A A; Imlan, J C; Sazili, A Q

    2016-11-01

    Traditional halal slaughter and other forms of religious slaughter are still an issue of debate. Opposing arguments related to pre-slaughter handling, stress and pain associated with restraint, whether the incision is painful or not, and the onset of unconsciousness have been put forward, but no consensus has been achieved. There is a need to strike a balance between halal bleeding in the light of science and animal welfare. There is a paucity of scientific data with respect to animal welfare, particularly the use of restraining devices, animal handling, and efficient halal bleeding. However, this review found that competent handling of animals, proper use of restraining devices, and the efficient bleeding process that follows halal slaughter maintains meat eating quality. In conclusion, halal bleeding, when carried out in accordance with recommended animal welfare procedures, will not only maintain the quality and wholesomeness of meat but could also potentially reduce suffering and pain. Maintained meat quality increases consumer satisfaction and food safety. PMID:27468102

  20. Can you have your meat and eat it too? Conscientious omnivores, vegetarians, and adherence to diet.

    PubMed

    Rothgerber, Hank

    2015-01-01

    As criticisms of factory farming continue to mount, an increasing number of individuals have changed their existing dietary practices. Perhaps the two most important food movements reacting against industrial farming are (1) vegetarianism, the avoidance of animal flesh; and (2) conscientious omnivorism (CO), the consumption of meat or fish only when it satisfies certain ethical standards. While the former group has been well-studied in the social science literature, there have been few, if any, studies specifically examining those who identify themselves as ethical meat eaters. The present research sought to determine if one particular diet was more greatly adhered to by its followers. Results revealed that COs were less likely to perceive their diet as something that they absolutely needed to follow, reported violating their diet more, felt less guilty when doing so, believed less in animal rights, were less disgusted by factory-farmed meat, rated its sensory characteristics more favorably, and were lower in ingroup identification than vegetarians. Mediation analysis demonstrated that differences in the amount of violations and guilt associated with these violations could in part be traced to practical and psychological factors, making it more difficult to follow conscientious omnivorism. PMID:25453590

  1. Prevalence and populations of Listeria monocytogenes in meat products retailed in Sao Paulo, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Ristori, Christiane Asturiano; Rowlands, Ruth Estela Gravato; Martins, Cecília Geraldes; Barbosa, Maria Luisa; Yoshida, Júlia T U; Franco, Bernadette D G de Melo

    2014-12-01

    This study evaluated the prevalence of the populations and serotypes of Listeria monocytogenes in 552 refrigerated samples of ground beef, chicken leg, hot dog, and pork sausage collected in supermarkets in the city of Sao Paulo, SP, Brazil, between May 2008 and July 2009. The supermarkets were selected after stratification by geographical region and by random draw. Tests for presence and enumeration of L. monocytogenes were based on ISO 11290-1:1996/Amd.1:2004 and ISO 11290-2:1998 methods, respectively. Listeria spp. were detected in 469 (85.0%) of the studied meat products. The most frequently isolated species was L. innocua (64.1%), followed by L. monocytogenes (48.7%), L. welshimeri (13.4%), L. seeligeri (7.1%), L. ivanovii (0.2%), and L. grayi subspecies murrayi (0.2%). L. monocytogenes was detected in 269 (48.7%) samples, with highest prevalence in ground beef (59.4%) followed by chicken legs (58.0%), pork sausages (39.8%), and hot dogs (37.7%). The populations were <10(2) colony-forming units/g in the majority of samples (62.5%). Prevalence of serotypes varied according to the type of meat product. These data are relevant for estimating the risks of listeriosis associated with consumption of meat products in Sao Paulo, and for establishing science-based intervention strategies aimed at reducing these risks, especially for pregnant women and immunocompromised individuals. PMID:25407460

  2. Chemoreception scientists gather under the Florida sun: The 31st Annual Association for Chemoreception Sciences meeting.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Donald A; Baker, Harriet; Brunjes, Peter; Gilbertson, Timothy A; Hermer, Linda; Hill, David L; Matsunami, Hiroaki; Meredith, Michael; Mistretta, Charlotte M; Smeets, Monique A M; Stowers, Lisa; Zhuang, Hanyi

    2009-08-01

    The 31st Annual Association for Chemoreception Sciences (AChemS) met in Sarasota, Florida April 22-26, 2009, attracting approximately 600 registrants and nearly 400 abstracts. In addition to poster and platform presentations, the program offered symposia, special lectures, and various National Institutes of Health (NIH)-sponsored workshops, including one on computational approaches to olfaction. PMID:19712224

  3. Program Proposal: Certificates of Competence, Certificate of Achievement, Associate in Applied Science Degree in Sustainable Technology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pezzoli, Jean A.; Ainsworth, Don

    This document proposes a program in sustainable technology at Maui Community College (Hawaii). This new career program would be designed to provide four Certificates of Competence, a Certificate of Achievement, and an Associate in Applied Science degree. The primary objectives of the program are to meet student, county, and state needs for…

  4. Handbook for Program Developers of Associate of Applied Science and Business Degrees at Lima Technical College.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Casto, Robert A.

    Intended as a resource for program developers, this handbook illustrates the process of developing program proposals for the associate of applied science and business (AASB) degrees at Lima Technical College (LTC), in Ohio. Following an introduction, section 1 discusses the potential reasons for the addition of a program to the LTC curriculum.…

  5. Knowledge, Its Application, and Attitudes Associated with the Reading of Diverse Genres of Science Texts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nigro, Rogerio Goncalves; Trivelato, Silvia Frateschi

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to assess the knowledge, application of knowledge, and attitudes associated with the reading of different genres of expository science texts. We assigned approximately half of a sample consisting of 220 students 14-15 years of age, chosen at random, to read an excerpt from a popular scientific text, and the other…

  6. Guidelines for the Louisiana Community College Campus Design of Associate of Science in Teaching Degrees

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Louisiana Board of Regents, 2005

    2005-01-01

    All community colleges, four year institutions, and districts are invited by the Board of Regents (BoR), Louisiana Community and Technical College System (LCTCS), and Board of Elementary and Secondary Education (BESE) to form partnerships to design Associate of Science in Teaching Degree Programs for paraprofessionals and other educators…

  7. Meat processing and colon carcinogenesis: cooked, nitrite-treated, and oxidized high-heme cured meat promotes mucin-depleted foci in rats

    PubMed Central

    Santarelli, Raphaëlle L; Vendeuvre, Jean-Luc; Naud, Nathalie; Taché, Sylviane; Guéraud, Françoise; Viau, Michelle; Genot, Claude; Corpet, Denis E; Pierre, Fabrice H F

    2010-01-01

    Processed meat intake is associated with colorectal cancer risk, but no experimental study supports the epidemiologic evidence. To study the effect of meat processing on carcinogenesis promotion, we first did a 14-day study with 16 models of cured meat. Studied factors, in a 2 × 2 × 2 × 2 design, were muscle color (a proxy for heme level), processing temperature, added nitrite, and packaging. Fischer 344 rats were fed these 16 diets, and we evaluated fecal and urinary fat oxidation and cytotoxicity, three biomarkers of heme-induced carcinogenesis promotion. A principal component analysis allowed for selection of four cured meats for inclusion into a promotion study. These selected diets were given for 100 days to rats pretreated with 1,2-dimethylhydrazine. Colons were scored for preneoplastic lesions: aberrant crypt foci (ACF) and mucin-depleted foci (MDF). Cured meat diets significantly increased the number of ACF/colon compared with a no-meat control diet (P = 0.002). Only the cooked nitrite-treated and oxidized high heme meat significantly increased the fecal level of apparent total N-nitroso compounds (ATNC) and the number of MDF per colon compared with the no-meat control diet (P < 0.05). This nitrite-treated and oxidized cured meat specifically increased the MDF number compared with similar non nitrite-treated meat (P = 0.03) and with similar non oxidized meat (P = 0.004). Thus, a model cured meat, similar to ham stored aerobically, increased the number of preneoplastic lesions, which suggests colon carcinogenesis promotion. Nitrite treatment and oxidation increased this promoting effect, which was linked with increased fecal ATNC level. This study could lead to process modifications to make non promoting processed meat. PMID:20530708

  8. Historical geographies of provincial science: themes in the setting and reception of the British Association for the Advancement of Science in Britain and Ireland, 1831-c.1939.

    PubMed

    Withers, Charles; Higgitt, Rebekah; Finnegan, Diarmid

    2008-09-01

    The British Association for the Advancement of Science sought to promote the understanding of science in various ways, principally by having annual meetings in different towns and cities throughout Britain and Ireland (and, from 1884, in Canada, South Africa and Australia). This paper considers how far the location of its meetings in different urban settings influenced the nature and reception of the association's activities in promoting science, from its foundation in 1831 to the later 1930s. Several themes concerning the production and reception of science--promoting, practising, writing and receiving--are examined in different urban contexts. We consider the ways in which towns were promoted as venues for and centres of science. We consider the role of local field sites, leading local practitioners and provincial institutions for science in attracting the association to different urban locations. The paper pays attention to excursions and to the evolution and content of the BAAS meeting handbook as a 'geographical' guide to the significance of the regional setting and to appropriate scientific venues. The paper considers the reception of BAAS meetings and explores how far the association's intentions for the promotion of science varied by location and by section within the BAAS. In examining these themes--the geographical setting of the association's meetings, the reception of association science in local civic and intellectual context and the importance of place to an understanding of what the BAAS did and how it was received--the paper extends existing knowledge of the association and contributes to recent work within the history of science which has emphasized the 'local' nature of science's making and reception and the mobility of scientific knowledge. PMID:19244850

  9. Renewing a Scientific Society: The American Association for the Advancement of Science from World War II to 1970.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wolfle, Dael

    This book recounts the many challenges and successes achieved by the American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS) from World War II to 1970. Included are: (1) the development of the National Science Foundation; (2) Cold War concerns about the loyalty and freedom of scientists; (3) efforts to develop an effective science curriculum…

  10. The Meat and Protein Group. The Food Guide Pyramid.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frost, Helen

    This booklet for young children is part of a series that supports national science standards related to physical health and nutrition, describing and illustrating the importance of using the Food Guide Pyramid and eating from the meat and protein group. Colorful photographs support early readers in understanding the text. The repetition of words…

  11. Detection of IgG against Toxocara in Sera of Employees of Meat Industry

    PubMed Central

    Alvarado-Esquivel, Cosme; Hernández-Tinoco, Jesús; Sánchez-Anguiano, Luis Francisco; Ramos-Nevárez, Agar; Cerrillo-Soto, Sandra Margarita; Guido-Arreola, Carlos Alberto; Saenz-Soto, Leandro

    2015-01-01

    Contact with raw meat could represent a risk for Toxocara infection. We assessed the association of Toxocara infection with an occupation of meat worker though a case-control seroprevalence study of 124 meat workers and 248 subjects without this occupation. Sera of participants was analyzed for the presence of anti-Toxocara IgG antibodies. One (0.8%) of the 124 meat workers, and 5 (2.0%) of the 248 controls were positive for anti-Toxocara IgG antibodies (OR=0.39; 95% CI: 0.04-3.41; P=0.66). The seropositive meat worker was a male aged 28 years old, without vision impairment. None of the work characteristics i.e. frequency of contact with raw meat, use of safety practices, history of splashes at face with blood or raw meat, and injuries with sharp material at work was associated with Toxocara exposure. Seroprevalence of Toxocara infection was significantly higher (P=0.04) in meat workers with consumption of boar meat (1/6: 16.7%) than in those without this consumption (0/117: 0%). We conclude that meat workers do not have a higher risk for Toxocara infection than subjects without this occupation do. The 2% seroprevalence of Toxocara infection found in control subjects might suggest a low seroprevalence of this infection among people with other occupations in Durango City. However, additional case-control studies with larger sample sizes to confirm our results are needed. PMID:26508909

  12. Meat Science and Muscle Biology Symposium: Development of bacteriophage treatments to reduce Escherichia coli O157:H7 contamination of beef products and produce.

    PubMed

    Hong, Y; Pan, Y; Ebner, P D

    2014-04-01

    Escherichia coli O157:H7 remains a foodborne pathogen of concern with infections associated with products ranging from ground beef to produce to processed foods. We previously demonstrated that phage-based technologies could reduce foodborne pathogen colonization in live animals. Here, we examined if a 3-phage cocktail could reduce E. coli O157:H7 in experimentally contaminated ground beef, spinach, and cheese. The 3 phages were chosen from our E. coli O157:H7 phage library based on their distinct origins of isolation, lytic ranges, and rapid growth (40- to 50-min life cycle). Two phages belonged to the Myoviridae family and the other phage belonged to the Siphoviridae family. The phage cocktail was added to ground beef, spinach leaves, and cheese slices contaminated with E. coli O157:H7 (10(7) cfu) at a multiplicity of infection of 1. Phage treatment reduced (P < 0.05) the concentrations of E. coli O157:H7 by 1.97 log10 cfu/mL in ground beef when stored at room temperature (24 °C) for 24 h, 0.48 log10 cfu/mL at refrigeration (4 °C), and 0.56 log10 cfu/mL in undercooked condition (internal temperature of 46 °C). Likewise, phage treatment reduced (P < 0.05) E. coli O157:H7 by 3.28, 2.88, and 2.77 log10 cfu/mL in spinach when stored at room temperature for 24, 48, and 72 h, respectively. Phage treatment, however, did not reduce E. coli O157:H7 concentrations in contaminated cheese. Additionally, 3 phage-resistant E. coli O157:H7 strains (309-PR [phage resistant] 1, 309-PR4, and 502-PR5) were isolated and characterized to test if phage resistance could limit long-term use of phages as biocontrol agents. Growth kinetics and adsorption assays indicated that phage resistance in strains 309-PR4 and 502-PR5 was mediated, at least in part, by prevention of phage adsorption. Phage resistance in strain 309-PR1 was the result of limited phage proliferation. Phage resistance was stably maintained in vitro throughout a 4-d subculture period in the absence of phage. No

  13. SCIENCE FOR THE ACADEMICALLY TALENTED STUDENT IN THE SECONDARY SCHOOL, REPORT OF A CONFERENCE SPONSORED JOINTLY BY THE NATIONAL EDUCATION ASSOCIATION PROJECT ON THE ACADEMICALLY TALENTED STUDENT AND THE NATIONAL SCIENCE TEACHERS ASSOCIATION.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DONALDSON, ROBERT R.

    RESULTS OF A JOINT NATIONAL EDUCATION ASSOCIATION-NATIONAL SCIENCE TEACHERS ASSOCIATION CONFERENCE ON SCIENCE FOR ACADEMICALLY TALENTED STUDENTS ARE REPORTED. MAJOR TOPICS DISCUSSED ARE (1) THE IDENTIFICATION OF THE TALENTED STUDENT, (2) GUIDELINES FOR THE SELECTION OF COURSE CONTENT, (3) TEACHING METHODS, AND (4) DESIRABLE QUALITIES AND…

  14. Generation of large-scale maps of science and associated indicators.

    SciTech Connect

    Klavans, Richard; Boyack, Kevin W.

    2005-12-01

    Over the past several years, techniques have been developed for clustering very large segments of the technical literature using sources such as Thomson ISI's Science Citation Index. The primary objective of this work has been to develop indicators of potential impact at the paper level to enhance planning and evaluation of research. These indicators can also be aggregated at different levels to enable profiling of departments, institutions, agencies, etc. Results of this work are presented as maps of science and technology with various overlays corresponding to the indicators associated with a particular search or question.

  15. Residual Antibiotics Disrupt Meat Fermentation and Increase Risk of Infection

    PubMed Central

    Kjeldgaard, Jette; Cohn, Marianne T.; Casey, Pat G.; Hill, Colin; Ingmer, Hanne

    2012-01-01

    ABSTRACT Fermented sausages, although presumed safe for consumption, sometimes cause serious bacterial infections in humans that may be deadly. Not much is known about why and when this is the case. We tested the hypothesis that residual veterinary antibiotics in meat can disrupt the fermentation process, giving pathogenic bacteria a chance to survive and multiply. We found that six commercially available starter cultures were susceptible to commonly used antibiotics, namely, oxytetracycline, penicillin, and erythromycin. In meat, statutorily tolerable levels of oxytetracycline and erythromycin inhibited fermentation performance of three and five of the six starter cultures, respectively. In model sausages, the disruption of meat fermentation enhanced survival of the pathogens Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium compared to successful fermentations. Our work reveals an overlooked risk associated with the presence of veterinary drugs in meat. PMID:22930338

  16. The Oral History Program: III. Personal views of health sciences librarianship and the Medical Library Association.

    PubMed Central

    McKenzie, D; Pifalo, V

    1998-01-01

    The Medical Library Association Oral History Program uses accepted oral history techniques to collect and preserve interviews with members. The original taped interviews and transcripts are kept in the Medical Library Association archives and made available for research purposes; edited copies of the interviews are distributed through the National Network of Libraries of Medicine, and members are encouraged to borrow and read the histories. Summaries of forty-three interviews provide personal views on health sciences librarianship and the Medical Library Association. PMID:9803287

  17. The Oral History Program: I. Personal views of health sciences librarianship and the Medical Library Association.

    PubMed Central

    McKenzie, D; Pifalo, V

    1998-01-01

    The Medical Library Association Oral History Program uses accepted oral history techniques to collect and preserve interviews with members. The original taped interviews and transcripts are kept in the Medical Library Association archives and made available for research purposes; edited copies of the interviews are distributed through the National Network of Libraries of Medicine, and members are encouraged to borrow and read the histories. Summaries of forty-three interviews provide personal views on health sciences librarianship and the Medical Library Association. PMID:9578936

  18. The Oral History Program: II. Personal views of health sciences librarianship and the Medical Library Association.

    PubMed Central

    McKenzie, D; Pifalo, V

    1998-01-01

    The Medical Library Association Oral History Program uses accepted oral history techniques to collect and preserve interviews with members. The original taped interviews and transcripts are kept in the Medical Library Association archives and made available for research purposes; edited copies of the interviews are distributed through the National Network of Libraries of Medicine, and members are encouraged to borrow and read the histories. Summaries of forty-three interviews provide personal views on health sciences librarianship and the Medical Library Association. PMID:9681172

  19. Association, effects and validation of polymorphisms within the NCAPG - LCORL locus located on BTA6 with feed intake, gain, meat and carcass traits in beef cattle

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Background: In a previously reported genome-wide association study based on a high-density bovine SNP genotyping array, 8 SNP were nominally associated (Passociated (P

  20. Animal welfare and meat quality: the perspective of Uruguay, a "small" exporter country.

    PubMed

    Del Campo, M; Brito, G; Montossi, F; Soares de Lima, J M; San Julián, R

    2014-11-01

    Public sensitivity towards animal welfare has risen in recent years. Uruguay is a primary meat exporter. Therefore, it is compulsory not only to provide good quality and safe meat, but also to project a welfare friendly image. Uruguayan meat production systems are mainly based on rangeland pastures but, due to international meat prices and the opening of new markets, intensive fattening systems increased. These systems include a wide range of feeding alternatives between pasture and concentrate utilization, involving differences in terms of animal welfare, carcass and meat quality, that require to be studied. Accordingly, some husbandry practices associated mainly with extensive systems must be evaluated, as well as their applicability to international recommendations related to pre-slaughter handling which may not be suitable for local conditions. In the present paper we share scientific results related to the impact of different production systems, husbandry practices and pre-slaughter procedures associated to animal welfare and meat quality in Uruguayan conditions. PMID:25052465

  1. Meat consumption as a risk factor for type 2 diabetes.

    PubMed

    Barnard, Neal; Levin, Susan; Trapp, Caroline

    2014-01-01

    Disease risk factors identified in epidemiological studies serve as important public health tools, helping clinicians identify individuals who may benefit from more aggressive screening or risk-modification procedures, allowing policymakers to prioritize intervention programs, and encouraging at-risk individuals to modify behavior and improve their health. These factors have been based primarily on evidence from cross-sectional and prospective studies, as most do not lend themselves to randomized trials. While some risk factors are not modifiable, eating habits are subject to change through both individual action and broader policy initiatives. Meat consumption has been frequently investigated as a variable associated with diabetes risk, but it has not yet been described as a diabetes risk factor. In this article, we evaluate the evidence supporting the use of meat consumption as a clinically useful risk factor for type 2 diabetes, based on studies evaluating the risks associated with meat consumption as a categorical dietary characteristic (i.e., meat consumption versus no meat consumption), as a scalar variable (i.e., gradations of meat consumption), or as part of a broader dietary pattern. PMID:24566443

  2. Meat Consumption as a Risk Factor for Type 2 Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Barnard, Neal; Levin, Susan; Trapp, Caroline

    2014-01-01

    Disease risk factors identified in epidemiological studies serve as important public health tools, helping clinicians identify individuals who may benefit from more aggressive screening or risk-modification procedures, allowing policymakers to prioritize intervention programs, and encouraging at-risk individuals to modify behavior and improve their health. These factors have been based primarily on evidence from cross-sectional and prospective studies, as most do not lend themselves to randomized trials. While some risk factors are not modifiable, eating habits are subject to change through both individual action and broader policy initiatives. Meat consumption has been frequently investigated as a variable associated with diabetes risk, but it has not yet been described as a diabetes risk factor. In this article, we evaluate the evidence supporting the use of meat consumption as a clinically useful risk factor for type 2 diabetes, based on studies evaluating the risks associated with meat consumption as a categorical dietary characteristic (i.e., meat consumption versus no meat consumption), as a scalar variable (i.e., gradations of meat consumption), or as part of a broader dietary pattern. PMID:24566443

  3. Meat traditions. The co-evolution of humans and meat.

    PubMed

    Leroy, Frédéric; Praet, Istvan

    2015-07-01

    The debate on the future of meat centres on recent environmental, economical, ethical, and health issues, whereas historical dimensions are all too often overlooked. The fiery discussions are nevertheless affected by an underlying legacy of "meat traditions" and accompanying hunting, slaughtering, eating, and sharing activities, rituals, and rites. Eating meat is a biocultural activity. Therefore, a closer inspection of the evolutionary, collective, and semiotic aspects of meat in human societies is required. This study ventures such an exploration based on a heuristic model inspired by Maslow's pyramid of needs, distinguishing between physiological, security, community, value, and holistic levels. Besides the potential relevance of an innate craving, it is argued that meat has interfered with the development of fundamental human characteristics, both as a physical and conceptual resource. This relates, amongst others, to elements of gender differentiation, cooperation and reciprocity, social stratification and power, religion, cultural expression, and identity. As such, meat traditions provide a basis for evolutionary and long-term social processes, on which more recent and shallow courses of action are superposed, affecting contemporary behaviour. Several research questions were identified to further explore and anticipate the impact of meat on human populations and their societal and economic functioning. PMID:25794684

  4. Selection for genetic markers in beef cattle reveals complex associations of thyroglobulin and casein1-S1 with carcass and meat traits

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Genetic markers in casein (CSN1S1) and thyroglobulin (TG) genes have previously been associated with fat distribution in cattle. Determining the nature of these genetic associations (additive, recessive, or dominant) has been difficult because both markers have small minor allele frequencies in mos...

  5. 9 CFR 317.308 - Labeling of meat or meat food products with number of servings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Labeling of meat or meat food products... SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY... Nutrition Labeling § 317.308 Labeling of meat or meat food products with number of servings. The label...

  6. 9 CFR 317.308 - Labeling of meat or meat food products with number of servings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Labeling of meat or meat food products... SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY... Nutrition Labeling § 317.308 Labeling of meat or meat food products with number of servings. The label...

  7. 9 CFR 317.308 - Labeling of meat or meat food products with number of servings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Labeling of meat or meat food products... SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY... Nutrition Labeling § 317.308 Labeling of meat or meat food products with number of servings. The label...

  8. 9 CFR 317.308 - Labeling of meat or meat food products with number of servings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Labeling of meat or meat food products... SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY... Nutrition Labeling § 317.308 Labeling of meat or meat food products with number of servings. The label...

  9. 9 CFR 317.308 - Labeling of meat or meat food products with number of servings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Labeling of meat or meat food products... SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY... Nutrition Labeling § 317.308 Labeling of meat or meat food products with number of servings. The label...

  10. Establishing a Social Media Presence and Network for the Pennsylvania Earth Science Teachers Association (PAESTA)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guertin, L. A.; Merkel, C.

    2011-12-01

    In Spring 2011, the Pennsylvania Earth Science Teachers Association (PAESTA) became an official state chapter of the National Earth Science Teachers Association (NESTA). Established with funds from the National Science Foundation, PAESTA is focused on advancing, extending, improving, and coordinating all levels of Earth Science education in Pennsylvania. Our goal is to reach earth science educators across Pennsylvania and beyond who are not physically co-located. An early priority of this new organization was to establish a web presence (http://www.paesta.psu.edu/) and to build an online community to support PAESTA activities and members. PAESTA exists as a distributed group made up of educators across Pennsylvania. Many initial members were participants in summer Earth and space science workshops held at Penn State University, which has allowed for face-to-face connections and network building. PAESTA will hold sessions and a reception at the Pennsylvania Science Teachers Association annual conference. The work of the group also takes place virtually via the PAESTA organizational website, providing professional development opportunities and Earth Science related teaching resources and links. As PAESTA is still in the very early days of its formation, we are utilizing a variety of social media tools to disseminate information and to promote asynchronous discussions around Earth and space science topics and pedagogy. The site features discussion boards for members and non-members to post comments along a specific topic or theme. For example, each month the PAESTA site features an article from one of the National Science Teacher's Association (NSTA)'s journals and encourages teachers to discuss and apply the pedagogical approach or strategy from the article to their classroom situation. We send email blasts so that members learn about organizational news and professional development opportunities. We also leverage in-person training sessions and conference sessions

  11. Why It Is Hard to Find Genes Associated With Social Science Traits: Theoretical and Empirical Considerations

    PubMed Central

    Lee, James J.; Benjamin, Daniel J.; Beauchamp, Jonathan P.; Glaeser, Edward L.; Borst, Gregoire; Pinker, Steven; Laibson, David I.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives. We explain why traits of interest to behavioral scientists may have a genetic architecture featuring hundreds or thousands of loci with tiny individual effects rather than a few with large effects and why such an architecture makes it difficult to find robust associations between traits and genes. Methods. We conducted a genome-wide association study at 2 sites, Harvard University and Union College, measuring more than 100 physical and behavioral traits with a sample size typical of candidate gene studies. We evaluated predictions that alleles with large effect sizes would be rare and most traits of interest to social science are likely characterized by a lack of strong directional selection. We also carried out a theoretical analysis of the genetic architecture of traits based on R.A. Fisher’s geometric model of natural selection and empirical analyses of the effects of selection bias and phenotype measurement stability on the results of genetic association studies. Results. Although we replicated several known genetic associations with physical traits, we found only 2 associations with behavioral traits that met the nominal genome-wide significance threshold, indicating that physical and behavioral traits are mainly affected by numerous genes with small effects. Conclusions. The challenge for social science genomics is the likelihood that genes are connected to behavioral variation by lengthy, nonlinear, interactive causal chains, and unraveling these chains requires allying with personal genomics to take advantage of the potential for large sample sizes as well as continuing with traditional epidemiological studies. PMID:23927501

  12. The labile lipid fraction of meat: from perceived disease and waste to health and opportunity.

    PubMed

    Mapiye, C; Aldai, N; Turner, T D; Aalhus, J L; Rolland, D C; Kramer, J K G; Dugan, M E R

    2012-11-01

    The fatty acid composition of beef and pork has been stigmatized due to their relationships with several diseases from cardiovascular disease to cancer. Meat lipids are, however, one of the few components of meat that can be modified in content and composition, and can present opportunities for value added production and health promotion. Until regulations and policies are in place to define requirements for fatty acid enrichment, however, the process remains relatively academic. Once practical goals are in place for fatty acid enrichment in meat, both theory and practice need to converge for successful production of fatty acid enriched meat. The present review covers aspects of policy in Canada, and requirements for research networks to respond to theoretical and practical challenges associated with production of fatty acid enriched meat. Finally, needs for education and marketing are outlined which must be in place to truly realize a transition of meat lipids from perceived disease and waste to health and opportunity. PMID:22546816

  13. Isothiocyanates may chemically detoxify mutagenic amines formed in heat processed meat.

    PubMed

    Lewandowska, Anna; Przychodzeń, Witold; Kusznierewicz, Barbara; Kołodziejski, Dominik; Namieśnik, Jacek; Bartoszek, Agnieszka

    2014-08-15

    Meat consumption represents a dietary risk factor increasing the incidence of common cancers, probably due to carcinogenic amines (HAAs) formed upon meat heating. Interestingly, cancers whose incidence is increased by meat consumption, are decreased in populations consuming brassica vegetables regularly. This inverse correlation is attributed to brassica anticarcinogenic components, especially isothiocyanates (ITCs) that stimulate detoxification of food carcinogens. However, ITC reactivity towards amines generating stable thioureas, may also decrease mutagenicity of processed meat. We confirmed here that combining meat with cabbage (fresh or lyophilized), in proportions found in culinary recipes, limited by 17-20% formation of HAAs and significantly lowered mutagenic activity of fried burgers. Moreover, MeIQx mutagenicity was lowered in the presence of ITCs, as well as for synthetic ITC-MeIQx conjugates. This suggests that formation of thioureas could lead to chemical detoxification of food carcinogens, reducing the cancer risk associated with meat consumption. PMID:24679758

  14. Red and Processed Meat Consumption Increases Risk for Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Li; Dong, Jianming; Jiang, Shenghua; Shi, Wenyu; Xu, Xiaohong; Huang, Hongming; You, Xuefen; Liu, Hong

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The association between consumption of red and processed meat and non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) remains unclear. We performed a meta-analysis of the published observational studies to explore this relationship. We searched databases in MEDLINE and EMBASE to identify observational studies which evaluated the association between consumption of red and processed meat and risk of NHL. Quality of included studies was evaluated using Newcastle-Ottawa Quality Assessment Scale (NOS). Random-effects models were used to calculate summary relative risk (SRR) and the corresponding 95% confidence interval (CI). We identified a total of 16 case–control and 4 prospective cohort studies, including 15,189 subjects with NHL. The SRR of NHL comparing the highest and lowest categories were 1.32 (95% CI: 1.12–1.55) for red meat and 1.17 (95% CI: 1.07–1.29) for processed meat intake. Stratified analysis indicated that a statistically significant risk association between consumption of red and processed meat and NHL risk was observed in case–control studies, but not in cohort studies. The SRR was 1.11 (95% CI: 1.04–1.18) for per 100 g/day increment in red meat intake and 1.28 (95% CI: 1.08–1.53) for per 50 g/day increment in processed meat intake. There was evidence of a nonlinear association for intake of processed meat, but not for intake of red meat. Findings from our meta-analysis indicate that consumption of red and processed meat may be related to NHL risk. More prospective epidemiological studies that control for important confounders and focus on the NHL risk related with different levels of meat consumption are required to clarify this association. PMID:26559248

  15. Some Nutritional, Technological and Environmental Advances in the Use of Enzymes in Meat Products

    PubMed Central

    Marques, Anne y Castro; Maróstica, Mário Roberto; Pastore, Gláucia Maria

    2010-01-01

    The growing consumer demand for healthier products has stimulated the development of nutritionally enhanced meat products. However, this can result in undesirable sensory consequences to the product, such as texture alterations in low-salt and low-phosphate meat foods. Additionally, in the meat industry, economical aspects have stimulated researchers to use all the animal parts to maximize yields of marketable products. This paper aimed to show some advances in the use of enzymes in meat processing, particularly the application of the proteolytic enzymes transglutaminase and phytases, associated with nutritional, technological, and environmental improvements. PMID:21048865

  16. Excellence in Educating Teachers of Science. The 1993 Yearbook of the Association for the Education of Teachers of Science.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rubba, Peter A., Ed.; And Others

    This book addresses the question: What is being done to educate current and future teachers of science so that they will be successful in promoting meaningful learning of science? The authors of the 15 chapters in this yearbook explore various dimensions of the preparation and enhancement of teachers of science, including practical and…

  17. The impact of red and processed meat consumption on cancer and other health outcomes: Epidemiological evidences.

    PubMed

    Boada, Luis D; Henríquez-Hernández, L A; Luzardo, O P

    2016-06-01

    Meat is one of the staples of the human diet, which provides high-quality nutrients, but that also constitutes a relevant source of cholesterol and saturated fatty acids. Epidemiologic studies have linked consumption of red or processed meat with obesity, type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular diseases, and cancers. Most epidemiological studies suggest that a high intake of meat, especially processed meat, is associated with increased colorectal cancer risk. Potential reasons for the association between high meat intake and colorectal cancer risk include some chemicals naturally contained in meat, or generated by the processing and cooking. From the literature it can be concluded that there is enough epidemiological evidence linking processed meat intake and colorectal cancer risk, but there is limited evidence regarding unprocessed red meat intake and the disease. On the contrary, there is only limited evidence linking meat intake with other diseases such as cardiovascular disease, type 2 diabetes or other cancers. Nevertheless, the literature suggest that dietary intervention may be a promising approach for prevention of cancers of the colon, esophagus, liver, stomach and bladder, and type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease which still need to be confirmed by further well designed prospective studies and experimental research. PMID:27106137

  18. Convenient meat and meat products. Societal and technological issues.

    PubMed

    Leroy, Frédéric; Degreef, Filip

    2015-11-01

    In past and contemporary foodscapes, meat and meat products have not only been following convenience trends, they have been at the heart of them. Historically, the first substantial demands for meat convenience must have been for the outsourcing of hunting or domestication, as well as slaughtering activities. In its turn, this prompted concerns for shelf-life stabilisation and the development of preservation strategies, such as meat fermentation. Demands for ease of preparation and consumption can be traced back to Antiquity but have gained in importance over the centuries, especially with the emergence of novel socio-cultural expectations and (perceived) time scarcity. Amongst other trends, this has led to the creation of ready meals and meat snacks and the expansion of urban fast food cultures. Additionally, contemporary requirements focus on the reduction of mental investments, via the "convenient" concealment of slaughtering, the optimisation of nutritional qualities, and the instant incorporation of more intangible matters, such as variety, hedonistic qualities, reassurance, and identity. An overview is given of the technological issues related to the creation of meat convenience, in its broadest sense, along with their societal implications. PMID:25656303

  19. The Relationship between Students' Connections to Out-of-School Experiences and Factors Associated with Science Learning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tran, Natalie A.

    2011-08-01

    This study examined the relationship between students' out-of-school experiences and various factors associated with science learning. Participants were 1,014 students from two urban high schools (secondary schools). They completed a survey questionnaire and science assessment describing their science learning experiences across contexts and science understanding. Using multilevel statistical modelling, accounting for the multilevel structure of the data with students (Level 1) assigned to teachers (Level 2), the results indicated that controlling for student and classroom factors, students' ability to make connections between in-school and out-of-school science experiences was associated with positive learning outcomes such as achievement, interest in science, careers in science, self-efficacy, perseverance, and effort in learning science. Teacher practice connecting to students' out-of-school experiences was negatively associated with student achievement but has no association with other outcome measures. The mixed results found in this study alert us to issues and opportunities concerning the integration of students' out-of-school experiences to classroom instruction, and ultimately improving our understanding of science learning across contexts.

  20. Making Kew Observatory: the Royal Society, the British Association and the politics of early Victorian science.

    PubMed

    Macdonald, Lee T

    2015-09-01

    Built in 1769 as a private observatory for King George III, Kew Observatory was taken over in 1842 by the British Association for the Advancement of Science (BAAS). It was then quickly transformed into what some claimed to be a 'physical observatory' of the sort proposed by John Herschel - an observatory that gathered data in a wide range of physical sciences, including geomagnetism and meteorology, rather than just astronomy. Yet this article argues that the institution which emerged in the 1840s was different in many ways from that envisaged by Herschel. It uses a chronological framework to show how, at every stage, the geophysicist and Royal Artillery officer Edward Sabine manipulated the project towards his own agenda: an independent observatory through which he could control the geomagnetic and meteorological research, including the ongoing 'Magnetic Crusade'. The political machinations surrounding Kew Observatory, within the Royal Society and the BAAS, may help to illuminate the complex politics of science in early Victorian Britain, particularly the role of 'scientific servicemen' such as Sabine. Both the diversity of activities at Kew and the complexity of the observatory's origins make its study important in the context of the growing field of the 'observatory sciences'. PMID:26256312

  1. Control of Thermal Meat Processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Griffis, Carl L.; Osaili, Tareq M.

    The recent growth of the market for ready-to-eat (RTE) meat and poultry products has led to serious concern over foodborne illnesses due to the presence of pathogens, particularly Salmonella spp, Listeria monocytogenes and Escherichia coli O157:H7 in meat and poultry products. Emphasis has been placed on thermal processing since heat treatment is still considered the primary means of eliminating foodborne pathogens from raw meat and poultry products (Juneja, Eblen, & Ransom, 2001). Inadequate time/temperature exposure during cooking is a contributing factor in food poisoning outbreaks. Optimal heat treatment is required not only to destroy pathogenic microorganisms in meat and poultry products but also to maintain desirable food quality and product yield.

  2. Science.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roach, Linda E., Ed.

    This document contains the following papers on science instruction and technology: "A 3-D Journey in Space: A New Visual Cognitive Adventure" (Yoav Yair, Rachel Mintz, and Shai Litvak); "Using Collaborative Inquiry and Interactive Technologies in an Environmental Science Project for Middle School Teachers: A Description and Analysis" (Patricia…

  3. National Association of Geoscience Teachers (NAGT) support for the Next Generation Science Standards

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buhr Sullivan, S. M.; Awad, A. A.; Manduca, C. A.

    2014-12-01

    The Next Generation Science Standards (NGSS) represents the best opportunity for geosciences education since 1996, describing a vision of teaching excellence and placing Earth and space science on a par with other disciplines. However, significant, sustained support and relationship-building between disciplinary communities must be forthcoming in order to realize the potential. To realize the vision, teacher education, curricula, assessments, administrative support and workforce/college readiness expectations must be developed. The National Association of Geoscience Teachers (NAGT), a geoscience education professional society founded in 1938, is comprised of members across all educational contexts, including undergraduate faculty, pre-college teachers, informal educators, geoscience education researchers and teacher educators. NAGT support for NGSS includes an upcoming workshop in collaboration with the American Geosciences Institute, deep collections of relevant digital learning resources, pertinent interest groups within the membership, professional development workshops, and more. This presentation will describe implications of NGSS for the geoscience education community and highlight some opportunities for the path forward.

  4. The association between academic engagement and achievement in health sciences students

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Educational institutions play an important role in encouraging student engagement, being necessary to know how engaged are students at university and if this factor is involved in student success point and followed. To explore the association between academic engagement and achievement. Methods Cross-sectional study. The sample consisted of 304 students of Health Sciences. They were asked to fill out an on-line questionnaire. Academic achievements were calculated using three types of measurement. Results Positive correlations were found in all cases. Grade point average was the academic rate most strongly associated with engagement dimensions and this association is different for male and female students. The independent variables could explain between 18.9 and 23.9% of the variance (p < 0.05) in the population of university students being analyzed. Conclusions Engagement has been shown to be one of the many factors, which are positively involved, in the academic achievements of college students. PMID:23446005

  5. Genetics of hyperpigmentation associated with the Fibromelanosis gene (Fm) and analysis of growth and meat quality traits in crosses of native Indian Kadaknath chickens and non-indigenous breeds.

    PubMed

    Arora, G; Mishra, S K; Nautiyal, B; Pratap, S O; Gupta, A; Beura, C K; Singh, D P

    2011-12-01

    1. The study investigated the extent of hyperpigmentation (a trait fixed in native Indian Kadaknath chickens), bodyweight, carcase quality and leanness at 12 weeks of age in F(1) and back-crosses of Kadaknath with White Leghorn, White Plymouth Rock and Aseel Peela chickens. 2. The objective of the study was to determine if hyperpigmentation was affected by the major gene Fibromelanosis (Fm) and to evaluate the effects of different proportions of Kadaknath genes on growth and carcase quality. 3. The pigmentation pattern of skin indicated that Fm behaved as the primary locus affecting dermal-hyperpigmentation and that the sex-linked Id locus produced an epistatic effect. 4. The results suggested that variable allelic forms of Id were acting in different crosses, which resulted in variation in melanosis of the host. However, no conclusive pattern for shank pigmentation could be explained through genotyping of the Id and Fm loci. 5. Analysis of quantitative traits indicated the positive impact of a Kadaknath genomic proportion of 50% or more on meat texture and carcase leanness. Improvement in leanness occurred in White Rock crosses but not in White Leghorn and Aseel Peela crosses. 6. Thigh-meat texture was influenced more by enhanced Kadaknath genomic proportions than the breast-meat. It was concluded that introgression of Kadaknath genomic proportion beyond 50% in a cross with meat-type chickens, irrespective of the impact Fm, brought improvement in meat quality whereas no such advantage was obtained for growth traits. 7. The beneficial impact of the Kadaknath genome on meat quality calls for further studies to identify causative genes for their selective use to improve meat quality in Kadaknath crossbred chickens. PMID:22221233

  6. Natural antioxidants as food and feed additives to promote health benefits and quality of meat products: A review.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Jiang; Xiong, Youling L

    2016-10-01

    Fresh and processed meats offer numerous nutritional and health benefits and provide unique eating satisfaction in the lifestyle of the modern society. However, consumption of red meat including processed products is subjected to increasing scrutiny due to the health risks associated with cytotoxins that potentially could be generated during meat preparation. Evidence from recent studies suggests free radical pathways as a plausible mechanism for toxin formation, and antioxidants have shown promise to mitigate process-generated chemical hazards. The present review discusses the involvements of lipid and protein oxidation in meat quality, nutrition, safety, and organoleptic properties; animal production and meat processing strategies which incorporate natural antioxidants to enhance the nutritional and health benefits of meat; and the application of mixed or purified natural antioxidants to eliminate or minimize the formation of carcinogens for chemical safety of cooked and processed meats. PMID:27091079

  7. Processing of meats and cardiovascular risk: time to focus on preservatives.

    PubMed

    Micha, Renata; Michas, Georgios; Lajous, Martin; Mozaffarian, Dariush

    2013-01-01

    Dietary guidelines emphasize selecting lean (low-fat) meats to reduce saturated fat and cholesterol, but growing evidence suggests that health effects may relate to other ingredients, such as sodium, heme iron, or L-carnitine. Understanding how meats influence health, and on which nutrients this relationship depends, is essential to advise consumer choices, set guidelines, and inform food reformulations. A recent study published in BMC Medicine involving 448,568 participants in 10 European countries, provides important evidence in this regard. After multivariate adjustment, intake of unprocessed red meat was not significantly associated with total or cause-specific mortality; conversely, intake of processed meat was associated with a 30% higher rate of cardiovascular disease (CVD) (per 50 g/day, relative risk 1.30, 95% confidence interval 1.17 to 1.45) and also higher cancer mortality. These findings are consistent with our previous meta-analysis, based on smaller studies, showing strong associations of processed meats, but not unprocessed meats, with CVD. Preservatives are the notable difference; the calculated blood-pressure effects of sodium differences (around 400% higher in processed meats) explain most of the observed higher risk. Although unprocessed red meats seem to be relatively neutral for CVD, healthier choices are available, including fish, nuts, legumes, fruits, and vegetables. Public-health guidance should prioritize avoidance of processed meats, including the low-fat deli meats currently marketed as healthy choices, and the food industry should substantially reduce sodium and other preservatives in processed meats.See related research article here http://www.biomedcentral.com/1741-7015/11/63. PMID:23701737

  8. Proceedings of the Annual Conference of the Western Australian Science Education Association (23rd, Perth, Western Australia, November 13, 1998).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rennie, Leonie, Ed.

    These proceedings contain reviewed and edited papers from the 23rd annual meeting of the Western Australian Science Education Association (WASEA). Papers include: (1) Using Quantitative and Qualitative Approaches to Validate a Questionnaire to Describe Science Teacher Behavior in Taiwan and Australia (Darrell Fisher, David Henderson, and…

  9. Backgrounder. Rethinking Science and Society: Public Survey by EKOS Research Associates. Canadians See Clear-Cut Benefits to University Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Association of Universities and Colleges of Canada, 2004

    2004-01-01

    Between August and September 2004, EKOS Research Associates conducted the first round of a study entitled, Rethinking Science and Society. The aim of this study is to assess Canadians' attitudes toward science and research, particularly since research and innovation policies have become increasingly important for the federal government. The…

  10. A Test of the Association of Class Size to Students' Attitudes Toward Science. Research Paper No. 9.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ward, William H.

    Analysis of data, collected by the Minnesota Research and Evaluation Project during 1972, on high school biology, chemistry, and physics classes from 12 states in 3 regions of the United States showed no association between class size and student attitude toward science. Potential effects of teachers' attitudes toward science and students'…

  11. Attached to meat? (Un)Willingness and intentions to adopt a more plant-based diet.

    PubMed

    Graça, João; Calheiros, Maria Manuela; Oliveira, Abílio

    2015-12-01

    In response to calls to expand knowledge on consumer willingness to reduce meat consumption and to adopt a more plant-based diet, this work advances the construct of meat attachment and the Meat Attachment Questionnaire (MAQ). The MAQ is a new measure referring to a positive bond towards meat consumption. It was developed and validated through three sequential studies following from an in-depth approach to consumer representations of meat. The construct and initial pool of items were firstly developed drawing on qualitative data from 410 participants in a previous work on consumers' valuation of meat. Afterwards, 1023 participants completed these items and other measures, providing data to assess item selection, factor structure, reliability, convergent and concurrent validity, and predictive ability. Finally, a sample of 318 participants from a different cultural background completed the final version of the MAQ along with other measures to assess measurement invariance, reliability and predictive ability. Across samples, a four-factor solution (i.e., hedonism, affinity, entitlement, and dependence) with 16 items and a second-order global dimension of meat attachment fully met criteria for good model fit. The MAQ subscales and global scale were associated with attitudes towards meat, subjective norm, human supremacy beliefs, eating habits, and dietary identity. They also provided additional explanatory variance above and beyond the core TPB variables (i.e. attitudes, subjective norm and perceived behavioral control) in willingness and intentions concerning meat substitution. Overall, the findings point towards the relevance of the MAQ for the study of meat consumption and meat substitution, and lend support to the idea that holding a pattern of attachment towards meat may hinder a shift towards a more plant-based diet. PMID:26148456

  12. Meat Intake and Insulin Resistance in Women without Type 2 Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Tucker, Larry A.; LeCheminant, James D.; Bailey, Bruce W.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose. To examine the relationship between meat intake and insulin resistance (IR) in 292 nondiabetic women. Methods. IR was evaluated using the homeostasis model assessment (HOMA). Diet was assessed via 7-day weighed food records. Servings of very lean meat (VLM) and regular meat (meat) were indexed using the ADA Exchange Lists Program. Physical activity was assessed using accelerometers and body fat was measured using the Bod Pod. Results. Meat intake was directly related to HOMA (F = 7.4; P = 0.007). Women with moderate or high meat intakes had significantly higher HOMA levels than their counterparts. Adjusting for body fat weakened the relationship (F = 1.0; P = 0.3201). Odds ratio results showed that the low meat quartile had 67% lower odds of being IR (75th percentile) compared to their counterparts (OR = 0.33; 95% CI = 0.16–0.71). These findings changed little after adjusting for all covariates simultaneously (OR = 0.34; 95% CI = 0.14–0.83). Conversely, VLM intake was not related to HOMA, with or without the covariates. Conclusion. Moderate and high meat intakes are associated with increased insulin resistance in nondiabetic women. However, differences in body fat contribute significantly to the relationship. VLM is not predictive of IR. Prudence in the amount and type of meat consumed may be helpful in decreasing the likelihood of IR. PMID:26240831

  13. Meat consumption and cancer of the large bowel.

    PubMed

    Truswell, A S

    2002-03-01

    Since the major reviews on diet and cancer by the World Cancer Research Fund (WCRF) and by the British Department of Health's Committee on Medical Aspects of Food Policy (COMA) in 1997 and 1998, additional epidemiological studies relating (red) meat consumption and colorectal cancer have been published or found by search. These are collected here. Thirty adequate case-control studies have been published up to 1999 (from 16 different countries). Twenty of them found no significant association of (red) meat with colorectal cancer. Of the remaining 10 studies reporting an association, some obtained statistical significance only in rectal or colon cancers, another only in men, not women, or found a stronger association with pasta and rice, or used an inadequate food list in the food frequency questionnaire. Fifteen cohort studies have now been published. Only in three were significant associations of (red) meat found with colorectal cancer. Two of these positive studies were from the same group in the USA (relative risk 1.7). The results of the third positive study appear to conflict with data from part of the vegetarians follow up mortality study. Here, five groups of vegetarians (in three different countries) with socially matched controls were followed up (total 76 000 people). Mortality from colorectal cancer was not distinguishable between vegetarians and controls. While it is still possible that certain processed meats or sausages (with a variety of added ingredients) or meats cooked at very high temperature carry some risk, the relationship between meats in general and colorectal cancer now looks weaker than the 'probable' status it was judged to have by the WCRF in 1997. PMID:11965518

  14. Effect of lean red meat from lamb v. lean white meat from chicken on the serum lipid profile: a randomised, cross-over study in women.

    PubMed

    Mateo-Gallego, Rocio; Perez-Calahorra, Sofia; Cenarro, Ana; Bea, Ana M; Andres, Eva; Horno, Jaime; Ros, Emilio; Civeira, Fernando

    2012-05-01

    The main dietary guidelines recommend restricting total and saturated fat intake in the management of high blood cholesterol levels for cardiovascular risk. These recommendations are usually oversimplified by considering that all red meats should be limited and replaced by white meats. However, lean red meat can be as low in fat as white meat. We examined the effects of red meat (lean breed lamb) and lean white meat (chicken) intake on the lipid profile of a group of women with stable life conditions (nuns living in convents). An open-label, randomised, cross-over study was carried out in thirty-six nuns who consumed either lamb or chicken three times per week for 5-week periods with their usual diet. Clinical, dietary and biochemical variables were evaluated at baseline and the end of each diet period. A validated FFQ was used to assess nutrient intake and monitor compliance. The results showed neither between-diet differences in lipid responses nor differences from baseline in total cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol or TAG for any diet period. In conclusion, consumption of lean red meat (lamb) or lean white meat (chicken) as part of the usual diet is associated with a similar lipid response. These two foods can be exchanged in a healthy diet to increase palatability. PMID:21902857

  15. "A Place Where Living Things Affect and Depend on Each Other": Qualitative and Quantitative Outcomes Associated with Inclusive Science Teaching.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mastropieri, Margo A.; Scruggs, Thomas E.; Mantzicopoulos, Panayota; Sturgeon, Amy; Goodwin, Laura; Chung, SuHsiang

    1998-01-01

    Explores school factors associated with inclusive science instruction and evaluates the classroom achievement of students with disabilities with respect to nondisabled students in the same class. Contains 38 references. (DDR)

  16. Characterization of Virulence-Associated Genes, Antimicrobial Resistance Genes, and Class 1 Integrons in Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium Isolates from Chicken Meat and Humans in Egypt.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, Heba A; El-Hofy, Fatma I; Shafik, Saleh M; Abdelrahman, Mahmoud A; Elsaid, Gamilat A

    2016-06-01

    Foodborne pathogens are leading causes of illness especially in developing countries. The current study aimed to characterize virulence-associated genes and antimicrobial resistance in 30 Salmonella Typhimurium isolates of chicken and human origin at Mansoura, Egypt. The results showed that invA, avrA, mgtC, stn, and bcfC genes were identified in all the examined isolates, while 96.7% and 6.7% were positive for sopB and pef genes, respectively. The highest resistance frequencies of the isolates were to chloramphenicol and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (73.3%, each), followed by streptomycin (56.7%), tetracycline and ampicillin (53.3%, each), and gentamicin (30%). However, only 2.7% of the isolates were resistant to cefotaxime and ceftriaxone each. Different resistance-associated genes, including blaTEM, aadB, aadC, aadA1, aadA2, floR, tetA(A), tetA(B), and sul1, were identified in Salmonella Typhimurium isolates with the respective frequencies of 53.3%, 6.7%, 23.3%, 46.7%, 63.3%, 73.3%, 60%, 20%, and 96.7%. None of the isolates was positive for blaSHV, blaOXA, and blaCMY genes. The results showed that the intI1 gene was detected in 24 (80%) of the examined Salmonella Typhimurium isolates. Class 1 integrons were found in 19 (79.2%) isolates that were intI1 positive. Seven integron profiles (namely: P-I to P-VII) were identified with P-V (gene cassette dfrA15, aadA2), the most prevalent profile. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study to characterize the unusual gene cassette array dfrA12-OrfF-aadA27 from Salmonella Typhimurium isolates in Egypt. PMID:26977940

  17. High Seroprevalence of Leptospira Exposure in Meat Workers in Northern Mexico: A Case-Control Study

    PubMed Central

    Alvarado-Esquivel, Cosme; Hernandez-Tinoco, Jesus; Sanchez-Anguiano, Luis Francisco; Ramos-Nevarez, Agar; Cerrillo-Soto, Sandra Margarita; Saenz-Soto, Leandro; Martinez-Ramirez, Lucio

    2016-01-01

    Background The seroepidemiology of Leptospira infection in workers occupationally exposed to raw meat has been poorly studied. This work aimed to determine the association between Leptospira exposure and the occupation of meat worker, and to determine the seroprevalence association with socio-demographic, work, clinical and behavioral characteristics of the meat workers studied. Methods We performed a case-control study in 124 meat workers and 124 age- and gender-matched control subjects in Durango City, Mexico. Sera of cases and controls were analyzed for anti-Leptospira IgG antibodies using a commercially available enzyme immunoassay. Data of meat workers were obtained with the aid of a questionnaire. The association of Leptospira exposure with the characteristics of meat workers was analyzed by bivariate and multivariate analyses. Results Anti-Leptospira IgG antibodies were found in 22 (17.7%) of 124 meat workers and in eight (6.5%) of 124 controls (OR = 3.12; 95% CI: 1.33 - 7.33; P = 0.006). Seroprevalence of Leptospira infection was similar between male butchers (17.6%) and female butchers (18.2%) (P = 1.00). Multivariate analysis of socio-demographic, work and behavioral variables showed that Leptospira exposure was associated with duration in the activity, rural residence, and consumption of snake meat and unwashed raw fruits. Conclusions This is the first case-control study of the association of Leptospira exposure with the occupation of meat worker. Results indicate that meat workers represent a risk group for Leptospira exposure. Risk factors for Leptospira exposure found in this study may help in the design of optimal preventive measures against Leptospira infection. PMID:26858797

  18. Is the desire to eat familiar and unfamiliar meat products influenced by the emotions expressed on eaters' faces?

    PubMed

    Rousset, S; Schlich, P; Chatonnier, A; Barthomeuf, L; Droit-Volet, S

    2008-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to test if the social context represented by eaters' faces expressing emotions can modulate the desire to eat meat, especially for unfamiliar meat products. Forty-four young men and women were presented with two series of photographs. The first series (non-social context) was composed of eight meat pictures, four unfamiliar and four familiar. The second series (social context) consisted of the same pictures presented with eaters expressing three different emotions: disgust, pleasure or neutrality. For every picture, the participants were asked to estimate the intensity of their desire to eat the meat product viewed on the picture. Results showed that meat desire depended on interactions between product familiarity, social context and the participant's gender. In the non-social context, the men liked the familiar meat products more than the women, whereas their desire to eat unfamiliar meat products was similar. Compared to the non-social context, viewing another person eating with a neutral and a happy facial expression increased the desire to eat. Furthermore, the increase in the desire to eat meat associated with happy faces was greater for the unfamiliar than for the familiar meat products in men, and greater for the familiar than for the unfamiliar meats in women. In the presence of disgusted faces, the desire to eat meat remained constant for unfamiliar products in all participants whereas it only decreased for familiar products in men. PMID:17655970

  19. Eating like there's no tomorrow: Public awareness of the environmental impact of food and reluctance to eat less meat as part of a sustainable diet.

    PubMed

    Macdiarmid, Jennie I; Douglas, Flora; Campbell, Jonina

    2016-01-01

    Reducing meat consumption is central to many of the scientific debates on healthy, sustainable diets because of the high environmental impact of meat production. Missing from these debates are the public perspectives about eating less meat and consideration of cultural and social values associated with meat. The aim of this study was to explore public awareness of the environmental impact of food and their willingness to reduce meat consumption. Twelve focus groups and four individual interviews were conducted with adults from a range of socio-economic groups living in both rural and urban settings in Scotland. Public understanding of the link between food, environment and climate change was explored, with a focus on meat and attitudes towards reducing meat consumption. Data were transcribed and analysed thematically. Three dominant themes emerged: a lack of awareness of the association between meat consumption and climate change, perceptions of personal meat consumption playing a minimal role in the global context of climate change, and resistance to the idea of reducing personal meat consumption. People associated eating meat with pleasure, and described social, personal and cultural values around eating meat. Some people felt they did not need to eat less meat because they had already reduced their consumption or that they only ate small quantities. Scepticism of scientific evidence linking meat and climate change was common. Changing non-food related behaviours was viewed as more acceptable and a greater priority for climate change mitigation. The study highlights the role meat plays in the diet for many people, beyond nutritional needs. If healthy, sustainable dietary habits are to be achieved, cultural, social and personal values around eating meat must be integrated into the development of future dietary recommendations. PMID:26476397

  20. Cancers in Australia in 2010 attributable to the consumption of red and processed meat

    PubMed Central

    Nagle, Christina M; Wilson, Louise F; Hughes, Maria Celia B; Ibiebele, Torukiri I; Miura, Kyoko; Bain, Christopher J; Whiteman, David C; Webb, Penelope M

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To estimate the proportion and numbers of cancers in Australia in 2010 attributable to consuming red/processed meat. Methods We estimated the population attributable fraction (PAF) for cancers causally associated with red/processed meat consumption (colon, rectum) using standard formulae incorporating prevalence of consumption (1995 National Nutrition Survey), relative risks associated with consumption and cancer incidence. We also estimated the proportion change in cancer incidence (potential impact fraction [PIF]) that might have occurred under two hypothetical interventions whereby Australian adults reduced their consumption of red/processed meat from prevailing levels to ≤100 g or ≤65 g per day, respectively. Results An estimated 2,614 cases (18%) of colorectal cancer occurring in Australians in 2010 were attributable to red/processed meat consumption (16% of colon cancers; 23% of rectal cancers). We estimated that if all Australian adults had consumed ≤65 g/day or ≤100 g/day of red/processed meat, then the incidence of colorectal cancer would have been 5.4% (798 cancers) or 1.4% (204 cancers) lower, respectively. Conclusions About one in six colorectal cancers in Australians in 2010 were attributable to red/processed meat consumption. Implications Reducing red/processed meat intake may reduce colorectal cancer incidence, but must be balanced against nutritional benefits of modest lean meat consumption. PMID:26437727

  1. McGovern's Senate Select Committee on Nutrition and Human Needs Versus the: Meat Industry on the Diet-Heart Question (1976–1977)

    PubMed Central

    Oppenheimer, Gerald M.; Benrubi, I. Daniel

    2014-01-01

    For decades, public health advocates have confronted industry over dietary policy, their debates focusing on how to address evidentiary uncertainty. In 1977, enough consensus existed among epidemiologists that the Senate Select Committee on Nutrition and Human Need used the diet–heart association to perform an extraordinary act: advocate dietary goals for a healthier diet. During its hearings, the meat industry tested that consensus. In one year, the committee produced two editions of its Dietary Goals for the United States, the second containing a conciliatory statement about coronary heart disease and meat consumption. Critics have characterized the revision as a surrender to special interests. But the senators faced issues for which they were professionally unprepared: conflicts within science over the interpretation of data and notions of proof. Ultimately, it was lack of scientific consensus on these factors, not simply political acquiescence, that allowed special interests to secure changes in the guidelines. PMID:24228658

  2. Control of VTEC in Dutch livestock and meat production.

    PubMed

    Reinders, R D; Weber, M F; Lipman, L J; Verhoeff, J; Bijker, P G

    2001-05-21

    The Dutch government and the meat industry, recognising VTEC as having important public health, meat quality and economic implications, have taken a number of initiatives within the last 5 years to control VTEC in livestock and meat. These initiatives, brought together last year in a 'Masterplan VTEC', include short-, middle- and long-term priorities. Short-term priorities include advice on interventions in the cases of an outbreak of VTEC associated with a cattle herd, the implementation of handbooks for Good Manufacturing Practice (GMP) in slaughterhouses and deboning plants, and the execution of an action programme on zero-tolerance to faecal contamination of carcasses. Mid-term activities include surveillance of the occurrence of VTEC and other enteropathogens in livestock and meat, and the investigations of VTEC population dynamics in dairy farms, transportation and farm hygiene. In the longer term, this programme aims to produce a system of Integrated Quality Assurance, consolidating effective measures to control VTEC in Dutch livestock and meat, and integrating emerging means for control and prevention. PMID:11407551

  3. Role of mitochondria on muscle cell death and meat tenderization.

    PubMed

    Sierra, Verónica; Oliván, Mamen

    2013-05-01

    The possibility that mitochondria are involved in cellular dysfunction is particularly high in situations associated with increases in free radical activity, like hypoxia or ischemia; therefore its potential role in the muscle post-mortem metabolism is reviewed. In the dying muscle, different routes of cell death catabolism (apoptosis, autophagy) may occur having great influence on the process of conversion of muscle into meat. Mitochondria are the first and also one of the main organelles affected by post-mortem changes; therefore they are decisive in the subsequent cellular responses influencing the pathway to cell demise and thus, the final meat quality. Depending on the cell death programme followed by muscle cells after exsanguination, diverse proteases would be activated to a different extent, which is also reviewed in order to understand how they affect meat tenderization. This review also summarizes recent patents relating cell death processes and meat tenderness. Further research is encouraged as there is still a need of knowledge on cell death post-mortem processes to increase our understanding of the conversion of muscle into meat. PMID:23432120

  4. Halal and kosher slaughter methods and meat quality: a review.

    PubMed

    Farouk, M M; Al-Mazeedi, H M; Sabow, A B; Bekhit, A E D; Adeyemi, K D; Sazili, A Q; Ghani, A

    2014-11-01

    There are many slaughter procedures that religions and cultures use around the world. The two that are commercially relevant are the halal and kosher methods practiced by Muslims and Jews respectively. The global trade in red meat and poultry produced using these two methods is substantial, thus the importance of the quality of the meat produced using the methods. Halal and kosher slaughter per se should not affect meat quality more than their industrial equivalents, however, some of their associated pre- and post-slaughter processes do. For instance, the slow decline in blood pressure following a halal pre-slaughter head-only stun and neck cut causes blood splash (ecchymosis) in a range of muscles and organs of slaughtered livestock. Other quality concerns include bruising, hemorrhages, skin discoloration and broken bones particularly in poultry. In addition to these conventional quality issues, the "spiritual quality" of the meat can also be affected when the halal and kosher religious requirements are not fully met during the slaughter process. The nature, causes, importance and mitigations of these and other quality issues related to halal and kosher slaughtering and meat production using these methods are the subjects of this review. PMID:24973207

  5. Control of the risk of human toxoplasmosis transmitted by meat.

    PubMed

    Kijlstra, Aize; Jongert, Erik

    2008-10-01

    One-third of the human world population is infected with the protozoan parasite Toxoplasma gondii. Recent calculations of the disease burden of toxoplasmosis rank this foodborne disease at the same level as salmonellosis or campylobacteriosis. The high disease burden in combination with disappointing results of the currently available treatment options have led to a plea for more effective prevention. In this review we describe Toxoplasma as a hazard associated with the consumption of undercooked meat or meat products and provide an analysis of the various options to control the risk of human toxoplasmosis via this source. Monitoring and surveillance programs may be implemented for pre-harvest control of Toxoplasma infection of farm animals, with the reduction of environmental oocyst load as the most important milestone. Alternatively, Toxoplasma safe meat can be obtained through simple post-harvest decontamination procedures, whereby freezing the meat may currently be the best option, although new technologies using irradiation or high-pressure treatment may offer promising alternatives. Influence of culture, religion and food handling customs may predispose a certain type of meat as an important source of infection, indicating that prevention needs to be tailored according to social habits in different regions in the world. The rationale for more stringent control measures to prevent toxoplasmosis both from disease and economic points of view is emphasized. PMID:18694755

  6. Navigating the maize between red meat and oncomirs.

    PubMed

    Thompson, Patricia A

    2014-08-01

    High red meat consumption is associated with increased risk of colorectal cancer. Various mechanisms have been proposed, including mutagenesis, alterations of the gut microbiome, and effects on local immunity and inflammation. This lack of well-defined mechanistic explanations for diet and cancer associations coupled with our inability to derive causal inferences from population-based studies allows us to rationalize that burger we ate at lunch or that steak we ate at dinner. The preparation and consumption of red meat is a major social and dining pleasure in the Western culture, so there is resistance to concern ourselves with the cancer risk associated with red meat. In fact, advertisements do not add a rapid-fire statement that consumption of more than half a portion of red meat per day has been associated with increased risk of cardiovascular disease, diabetes, cancer, and even death, because these data are not from randomized controlled trials? Would we heed a warning if there was evidence that burgers and steaks induced the expression of small noncoding RNAs that inhibit the expression of tumor-suppressor genes in our enterocytes? What level of evidence is necessary to convince ourselves that a dietary exposure is sufficiently causal to put a warning label on it? How do we experimentally obtain such evidence? If we knew the mechanism, perhaps we could modify the risk sufficiently such that we can have our steak and eat it too-without the warnings. PMID:25092885

  7. Clostridium difficile in retail meat and processing plants in Texas

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The incidence and severity of disease associated with toxigenic Clostridium difficile (Cd) have increased in hospitals in North America from the emergence of newer, more virulent strains of Cd. Toxigenic Cd has been isolated from food animals and retail meat with potential implications of transfer ...

  8. 9 CFR 317.300 - Nutrition labeling of meat and meat food products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Nutrition labeling of meat and meat... AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION LABELING, MARKING DEVICES, AND CONTAINERS Nutrition Labeling § 317.300 Nutrition labeling of meat and meat food products. (a) Nutrition labeling must...

  9. 9 CFR 317.300 - Nutrition labeling of meat or meat food products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Nutrition labeling of meat or meat... AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION LABELING, MARKING DEVICES, AND CONTAINERS Nutrition Labeling § 317.300 Nutrition labeling of meat or meat food products. Link to an amendment published at...

  10. 9 CFR 317.300 - Nutrition labeling of meat and meat food products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Nutrition labeling of meat and meat... AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION LABELING, MARKING DEVICES, AND CONTAINERS Nutrition Labeling § 317.300 Nutrition labeling of meat and meat food products. (a) Nutrition labeling must...

  11. 9 CFR 317.300 - Nutrition labeling of meat or meat food products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Nutrition labeling of meat or meat... AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION LABELING, MARKING DEVICES, AND CONTAINERS Nutrition Labeling § 317.300 Nutrition labeling of meat or meat food products. (a) Nutrition labeling shall...

  12. 9 CFR 317.300 - Nutrition labeling of meat or meat food products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Nutrition labeling of meat or meat... AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION LABELING, MARKING DEVICES, AND CONTAINERS Nutrition Labeling § 317.300 Nutrition labeling of meat or meat food products. Link to an amendment published at...

  13. Polyvinyl chloride meat-wrapping film study. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Vandervort, R.

    1988-01-01

    As a result of worker complaints in the Baltimore, Maryland area, potential health hazards associated with the use of polyvinyl-chloride film for wrapping meat were reviewed. Fumes generated during the meat-wrapping process were causing concern among the workers as they experienced respiratory irritation and distress. It appeared that only some of the meat wrappers experienced difficulty, only some of the rolls of film-produced irritations in the affected workers, and affected workers had prior histories of respiratory difficulties. Fumes were generated during hot-wire film cutting. The amount of fume generated depended significantly on the care taken during the operation. If the dispensing machines were improperly adjusted, large amounts of fumes could be obtained during the cutting process. The author concludes that the amounts of these chemicals released during this operation does not constitute a health hazard to the employees. It may be necessary, however, to remove persons with prior respiratory irritation from this particular job location.

  14. Biosensor: an emerging safety tool for meat industry.

    PubMed

    Singh, Pradeep Kumar; Jairath, Gauri; Ahlawat, Satyavir Singh; Pathera, Ashok; Singh, Prashant

    2016-04-01

    The meat industry associated with the health hazards like deadly pathogens, veterinary drugs, pesticide residues, toxins and heavy metals is in need of a tool to tackle the awful situation and ensure safer product to consumer. The growth in the industry, global trade scenario, stringent laws and consumer awareness has placed an extra onus on the meat industry to meet out the expectations and demands. Biosensors are the latest tool of detection in the fast growing industries including the food industry. Hence an attempt is envisaged here to review the possibility of harnessing biosensors as tool of safety to safe guard the consumer health and address safety issues in reference to the common threats of concern in the meat industry. PMID:27413204

  15. Power ultrasound in meat processing.

    PubMed

    Alarcon-Rojo, A D; Janacua, H; Rodriguez, J C; Paniwnyk, L; Mason, T J

    2015-09-01

    Ultrasound has a wide range of applications in various agricultural sectors. In food processing, it is considered to be an emerging technology with the potential to speed up processes without damaging the quality of foodstuffs. Here we review the reports on the applications of ultrasound specifically with a view to its use in meat processing. Emphasis is placed on the effects on quality and technological properties such as texture, water retention, colour, curing, marinating, cooking yield, freezing, thawing and microbial inhibition. After the literature review it is concluded that ultrasound is a useful tool for the meat industry as it helps in tenderisation, accelerates maturation and mass transfer, reduces cooking energy, increases shelf life of meat without affecting other quality properties, improves functional properties of emulsified products, eases mould cleaning and improves the sterilisation of equipment surfaces. PMID:25974043

  16. Factors associated with staff development processes and the creation of innovative science courses in higher education

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hodges, Jeanelle Bland

    1999-11-01

    The purpose of the study was to determine factors associated with staff development processes and the creation of innovative science courses by higher education faculty who have participated in a model staff development project. The staff development program was designed for college faculty interested in creating interdisciplinary, constructivist-based science, mathematics, or engineering courses designed for non-majors. The program includes workshops on incorporating constructivist pedagogy, alternative assessment, and technology into interdisciplinary courses. Staff development interventions used in the program include grant opportunities, distribution of resource materials, and peer mentoring. University teams attending the workshops are comprised of faculty from the sciences, mathematics, or engineering, as well as education, and administration. A purposeful and convenient sample of three university teams were subjects for this qualitative study. Each team had attended a NASA Opportunities for Visionary Academics (NOVA) workshop, received funding for course development, and offered innovative courses. Five questions were addressed in this study: (a) What methods were used by faculty teams in planning the courses? (b) What changes occurred in existing science courses? (c) What factors affected the team collaboration process? (d) What personal characteristics of faculty members were important in successful course development? and (e) What barriers existed for faculty in the course development process? Data was collected at each site through individual faculty interviews (N = 11), student focus group interviews (N = 15), and classroom observations. Secondary data included original funding proposals. The NOVA staff development model incorporated effective K--12 interventions with higher education interventions. Analysis of data revealed that there were four factors of staff development processes that were most beneficial. First, the team collaborative processes

  17. Catherine Cesarsky Elected Foreign Associate of the US National Academy of Sciences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2005-04-01

    On April 20, 2004, the US National Academy of Sciences selected 72 new members and 18 foreign associates from 13 countries, including Dr. Cesarsky, in recognition of their distinguished and continuing achievements in original research. This brought the total number of active members to 1,949, among which 351 foreign associates. The US National Academy of Sciences (NAS) is a private, non-profit, self-perpetuating society of distinguished scholars engaged in scientific and engineering research, dedicated to the furtherance of science and technology and to their use for the general welfare. Upon the authority of the charter granted to it by the Congress in 1863, the Academy has a mandate that requires it to advise the federal government on scientific and technical matters. Election to the NAS is considered one of the highest honours that can be accorded a scientist or engineer. "It is a great honour. I am extremely happy about it," says Catherine Cesarsky. "It comes at a time when we are very engaged in a fruitful collaboration with our American partners for the construction of the Atacama Large Millimeter Array, certainly one of the largest ground-based astronomy projects of the next decade." Among its distinguished members, the National Academy includes 83 astronomers. Catherine Cesarsky was elected in recognition of her role as a pioneer of space infrared astronomy and a leader of European physics and astronomy. "She has made seminal contributions to the study of star formation in near and distant galaxies, the cosmic infrared background, and the confinement and acceleration of cosmic rays", states the nomination form. "The election of Catherine Cesarsky to the US National Academy of Sciences is most appropriate", declares Piet van der Kruit, President of ESO's Council. "She has many accomplishments of very high standing, not the least her leadership of the European Southern Observatory ESO, which under her directorship became the leading organisation worldwide in

  18. A prospective cohort study on the relation between meat consumption and the risk of colon cancer.

    PubMed

    Goldbohm, R A; van den Brandt, P A; van 't Veer, P; Brants, H A; Dorant, E; Sturmans, F; Hermus, R J

    1994-02-01

    The high incidence of colon cancer in affluent societies has often been attributed to a high fat diet and, more in particular, the consumption of meat. The association of the consumption of meat and the intake of fat with risk of colon cancer was investigated in a prospective cohort study on diet and cancer, which is being conducted in the Netherlands since 1986 among 120,852 men and women, aged 55-69. The analysis was based on 215 incident cases of colon cancer (105 men and 110 women) accumulated in 3.3 years of follow-up, excluding cases diagnosed in the first year of follow-up. Dietary habits were assessed at baseline with a 150-item semiquantitative food frequency questionnaire. No trends in relative rates of colon cancer were detected for intake of energy or for the energy-adjusted intake of fats, protein, fat from meat, and protein from meat. Consumption of total fresh meat, beef, pork, minced meat, chicken, and fish was not associated with risk of colon cancer either. Processed meats, however, were associated with an increased risk in men and women (relative rate, 1.17 per increment of 15 g/day; 95% confidence interval, 1.03-1.33). The increased risk appeared to be attributable to one of the five questionnaire items on processed meat, which comprised mainly sausages. This study does not support a role of fresh meat and dietary fat in the etiology of colon cancer in this population. As an exception, some processed meats may increase the risk, but the mechanism is not yet clear. PMID:8306333

  19. 9 CFR 319.304 - Meat stews.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Meat stews. 319.304 Section 319.304... ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION DEFINITIONS AND STANDARDS OF IDENTITY OR COMPOSITION Canned, Frozen, or Dehydrated Meat...

  20. 9 CFR 319.80 - Barbecued meats.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Barbecued meats. 319.80 Section 319.80... ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION DEFINITIONS AND STANDARDS OF IDENTITY OR COMPOSITION Cooked Meats § 319.80 Barbecued...

  1. 9 CFR 319.720 - Meat extract.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Meat extract. 319.720 Section 319.720... ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION DEFINITIONS AND STANDARDS OF IDENTITY OR COMPOSITION Meat Soups, Soup Mixes, Broths,...

  2. 9 CFR 319.260 - Luncheon meat.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Luncheon meat. 319.260 Section 319.260... ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION DEFINITIONS AND STANDARDS OF IDENTITY OR COMPOSITION Luncheon Meat, Loaves and Jellied...

  3. 9 CFR 319.261 - Meat loaf.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Meat loaf. 319.261 Section 319.261... ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION DEFINITIONS AND STANDARDS OF IDENTITY OR COMPOSITION Luncheon Meat, Loaves and Jellied...

  4. 9 CFR 319.80 - Barbecued meats.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Barbecued meats. 319.80 Section 319.80... ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION DEFINITIONS AND STANDARDS OF IDENTITY OR COMPOSITION Cooked Meats § 319.80 Barbecued...

  5. 9 CFR 319.720 - Meat extract.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Meat extract. 319.720 Section 319.720... ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION DEFINITIONS AND STANDARDS OF IDENTITY OR COMPOSITION Meat Soups, Soup Mixes, Broths,...

  6. 9 CFR 319.261 - Meat loaf.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Meat loaf. 319.261 Section 319.261... ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION DEFINITIONS AND STANDARDS OF IDENTITY OR COMPOSITION Luncheon Meat, Loaves and Jellied...

  7. 9 CFR 319.260 - Luncheon meat.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Luncheon meat. 319.260 Section 319.260... ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION DEFINITIONS AND STANDARDS OF IDENTITY OR COMPOSITION Luncheon Meat, Loaves and Jellied...

  8. 9 CFR 319.261 - Meat loaf.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Meat loaf. 319.261 Section 319.261... ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION DEFINITIONS AND STANDARDS OF IDENTITY OR COMPOSITION Luncheon Meat, Loaves and Jellied...

  9. 9 CFR 319.500 - Meat pies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Meat pies. 319.500 Section 319.500... ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION DEFINITIONS AND STANDARDS OF IDENTITY OR COMPOSITION Meat Food Entree Products, Pies,...

  10. 9 CFR 319.500 - Meat pies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Meat pies. 319.500 Section 319.500... ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION DEFINITIONS AND STANDARDS OF IDENTITY OR COMPOSITION Meat Food Entree Products, Pies,...

  11. 9 CFR 319.260 - Luncheon meat.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Luncheon meat. 319.260 Section 319.260... ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION DEFINITIONS AND STANDARDS OF IDENTITY OR COMPOSITION Luncheon Meat, Loaves and Jellied...

  12. 9 CFR 319.80 - Barbecued meats.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Barbecued meats. 319.80 Section 319.80... ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION DEFINITIONS AND STANDARDS OF IDENTITY OR COMPOSITION Cooked Meats § 319.80 Barbecued...

  13. 9 CFR 319.304 - Meat stews.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Meat stews. 319.304 Section 319.304... ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION DEFINITIONS AND STANDARDS OF IDENTITY OR COMPOSITION Canned, Frozen, or Dehydrated Meat...

  14. 9 CFR 319.80 - Barbecued meats.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Barbecued meats. 319.80 Section 319.80... ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION DEFINITIONS AND STANDARDS OF IDENTITY OR COMPOSITION Cooked Meats § 319.80 Barbecued...

  15. 9 CFR 319.261 - Meat loaf.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Meat loaf. 319.261 Section 319.261... ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION DEFINITIONS AND STANDARDS OF IDENTITY OR COMPOSITION Luncheon Meat, Loaves and Jellied...

  16. 9 CFR 319.500 - Meat pies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Meat pies. 319.500 Section 319.500... ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION DEFINITIONS AND STANDARDS OF IDENTITY OR COMPOSITION Meat Food Entree Products, Pies,...

  17. 9 CFR 319.304 - Meat stews.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Meat stews. 319.304 Section 319.304... ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION DEFINITIONS AND STANDARDS OF IDENTITY OR COMPOSITION Canned, Frozen, or Dehydrated Meat...

  18. 9 CFR 319.720 - Meat extract.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Meat extract. 319.720 Section 319.720... ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION DEFINITIONS AND STANDARDS OF IDENTITY OR COMPOSITION Meat Soups, Soup Mixes, Broths,...

  19. 9 CFR 319.80 - Barbecued meats.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Barbecued meats. 319.80 Section 319.80... ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION DEFINITIONS AND STANDARDS OF IDENTITY OR COMPOSITION Cooked Meats § 319.80 Barbecued...

  20. 9 CFR 319.304 - Meat stews.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Meat stews. 319.304 Section 319.304... ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION DEFINITIONS AND STANDARDS OF IDENTITY OR COMPOSITION Canned, Frozen, or Dehydrated Meat...

  1. 9 CFR 319.720 - Meat extract.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Meat extract. 319.720 Section 319.720... ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION DEFINITIONS AND STANDARDS OF IDENTITY OR COMPOSITION Meat Soups, Soup Mixes, Broths,...

  2. 9 CFR 319.261 - Meat loaf.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Meat loaf. 319.261 Section 319.261... ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION DEFINITIONS AND STANDARDS OF IDENTITY OR COMPOSITION Luncheon Meat, Loaves and Jellied...

  3. 9 CFR 319.260 - Luncheon meat.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Luncheon meat. 319.260 Section 319.260... ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION DEFINITIONS AND STANDARDS OF IDENTITY OR COMPOSITION Luncheon Meat, Loaves and Jellied...

  4. 9 CFR 319.720 - Meat extract.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Meat extract. 319.720 Section 319.720... ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION DEFINITIONS AND STANDARDS OF IDENTITY OR COMPOSITION Meat Soups, Soup Mixes, Broths,...

  5. 9 CFR 319.500 - Meat pies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Meat pies. 319.500 Section 319.500... ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION DEFINITIONS AND STANDARDS OF IDENTITY OR COMPOSITION Meat Food Entree Products, Pies,...

  6. 9 CFR 319.304 - Meat stews.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Meat stews. 319.304 Section 319.304... ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION DEFINITIONS AND STANDARDS OF IDENTITY OR COMPOSITION Canned, Frozen, or Dehydrated Meat...

  7. 9 CFR 319.500 - Meat pies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Meat pies. 319.500 Section 319.500... ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION DEFINITIONS AND STANDARDS OF IDENTITY OR COMPOSITION Meat Food Entree Products, Pies,...

  8. 9 CFR 319.260 - Luncheon meat.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Luncheon meat. 319.260 Section 319.260... ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION DEFINITIONS AND STANDARDS OF IDENTITY OR COMPOSITION Luncheon Meat, Loaves and Jellied...

  9. Radiation decontamination of meat lyophylized products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Migdał, W.; Owczarczyk, H. B.

    2002-03-01

    There is an increasing demand for a powder soups and sauces composed with lyophylizated meat. Technology of lyophylization is not always accompanied by thermal treatment of raw materials. That is the reason the meat lyophylization process does not ensure as good microbiological quality as is required. Degree of microbiological decontamination and organoleptic properties of lyophilized meat were investigated after radiation treatment.

  10. Chapter 3. Fresh Meat Texture and Tenderness

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This book chapter summarizes the current state of knowledge of meat tenderness and the antemortem and postmortem strategies that can be used to influence meat tenderness. Tenderness is critical to the consumer acceptance of meat products. Numerous antemortem and postmortem factors can impact tende...

  11. Processed Meat Ingredients: Past, Present and Future

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Ingredients were first utilized to preserve meat and improve its palatability which date back to when our ancestors used salt and fire to preserve meat. Since that time man has incorporated a wide variety of ingredients to develop unique meat products and find ways to extend the shelf life of these ...

  12. Differences in nutrient composition and choice of side dishes between red meat and fish dinners in Norwegian adults

    PubMed Central

    Myhre, Jannicke Borch; Løken, Elin Bjørge; Wandel, Margareta; Andersen, Lene Frost

    2016-01-01

    Background Food-based dietary guidelines often recommend increased consumption of fish and reduced intake of red and processed meat. However, little is known about how changing the main protein source from red meat to fish may influence the choice of side dishes. Objective To investigate whether side dish choices differed between red meat and fish dinners. Moreover, to compare intakes of macronutrients and selected micronutrients in red meat and fish dinners and to see whether whole-day intakes of these nutrients differed between days with red meat dinners and days with fish dinners. Design Data were collected in a cross-sectional nationwide Norwegian dietary survey using two non-consecutive telephone-administered 24-h recalls. The recalls were conducted approximately 4 weeks apart. In total, 2,277 dinners from 1,517 participants aged 18–70 were included in the analyses. Results Fish dinners were more likely to include potatoes and carrots than red meat dinners, whereas red meat dinners more often contained bread, tomato sauce, and cheese. Red meat dinners contained more energy and iron; had higher percentages of energy (E%) from fat, saturated fat, and monounsaturated fat; and a lower E% from protein and polyunsaturated fat than fish dinners. Fish dinners contained more vitamin D, β-carotene, and folate than red meat dinners. Similar differences were found when comparing whole-day intakes of the same nutrients on days with red meat versus fish dinners. Conclusion Fish dinners were accompanied by different side dishes than red meat dinners. With regard to nutrient content, fish dinners generally had a healthier profile than red meat dinners. However, iron intake was higher for red meat dinners. Information about associated foods will be useful both for developing public health guidelines and when studying associations between dietary factors and health outcomes. PMID:26781818

  13. The Association between Preservice Elementary Teacher Animal Attitude and Likelihood of Animal Incorporation in Future Science Curriculum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wagler, Ron

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the association between United States K-4 preservice teacher's attitudes toward specific animals and the likelihood that the preservice elementary teachers would incorporate these specific animals in their future science curriculum. A strong statistically significant association was found between the…

  14. Country, School and Students Factors Associated with Extreme Levels of Science Literacy Across 25 Countries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alivernini, F.; Manganelli, S.

    2015-08-01

    A huge gap in science literacy is between students who do not show the competencies that are necessary to participate effectively in life situations related to science and technology and students who have the skills which would give them the potential to create new technology. The objective of this paper is to identify, for 25 countries, distinct subgroups of students with characteristics that appear to be associated with this proficiency gap. Data were based on the answers of 46,131 PISA 2006 students with scores classified below level 2 or above level 4, as well as the answers of their principals to school questionnaire and the OECD indicators of the financial and human resources invested in education at the national level for secondary school. The dependent variable of the analysis was a dichotomous variable the values of which represent the two different groups of students. The independent variables were the OECD indicators, and the items and indices derived from the student and school questionnaires. The analysis was based on classification trees and the findings were replicated and extended by the means of a multilevel logistic regression model. The results show that very specific levels of teachers' salaries, parental pressure on schools, school size, awareness of environmental issues, science self-efficacy and socio-economic status have a very important role in predicting whether 15 year olds in OECD countries will belong to the lower or the highest proficiency groups as regards their aptitude in the context of life situations involving problems of a scientific nature.

  15. The rapid estimation of microbial contamination of raw meat by measurement of adenosine triphosphate (ATP).

    PubMed

    Stannard, C J; Wood, J M

    1983-12-01

    Bacteria were separated from raw meat homogenate by a simple three-stage process. Centrifugation (10 s at 2000 g) removed coarse particles; stirring with the cation exchange resin Bio-Rex 70 removed smaller particles and filtration through 0.22 micron membranes removed soluble materials. By this process 70-80% of the microbial populations of meat homogenates were consistently isolated on the filters. A linear relationship was found between log10 microbial ATP and log10 colony count of meat over the range 10(5)-10(9) cfu/g. The value of ATP/cfu for meat samples was within the range previously reported for pure cultures. These data indicated that ATP extracted from the filters originated from bacteria in the meat samples. Several samples can be analysed simultaneously in an elapsed time of 20-25 min. The variability associated with estimates of both colony counts and ATP levels has been determined. PMID:6662830

  16. The effect of quercetin dietary supplementation on meat oxidation processes and texture of fattening lambs.

    PubMed

    Andrés, S; Huerga, L; Mateo, J; Tejido, M L; Bodas, R; Morán, L; Prieto, N; Rotolo, L; Giráldez, F J

    2014-02-01

    Thirty two lambs were fed a total mixed ration (TMR) formulated either with palm oil (CTRL; 34 g palm oil kg(-1) TMR) or whole flaxseed (+FS, 85 g flaxseed kg(-1) TMR) alone or enriched with quercetin (+QCT, 34 g palm oil plus 2 g quercetin kg(-1) TMR; +FS+QCT, 85 g flaxseed plus 2 g quercetin kg(-1) TMR). Dietary flaxseed did not affect, in a significant manner, the lipid peroxidation of meat samples. Quercetin treatment reduced oxysterol content (P<0.05) after 7 days of refrigerated storage of fresh meat, but did not affect significantly (P>0.05) the level of lipid-derived volatiles in the headspace of the light-exposed stored cooked meat. Sensory evaluation showed flaxseed as being responsible for a negative effect on meat flavour, probably associated with a modification of the fatty acid profile whereas, unexpectedly, quercetin seemed to worsen meat tenderisation. PMID:24200574

  17. Relationship between gilt behavior and meat quality using principal component analysis.

    PubMed

    Ros-Freixedes, R; Sadler, L J; Onteru, S K; Smith, R M; Young, J M; Johnson, A K; Lonergan, S M; Huff-Lonergan, E; Dekkers, J C M; Rothschild, M F

    2014-01-01

    Pig on-farm behavior has important repercussions on pig welfare and performance, but generally its relationship with meat quality is not well understood. We used principal component analysis to determine the relationship between meat quality traits, feeding patterns, scale activity, and number of conflict-avoidance interactions. The first principal component indicated that gilts with greater daily feed intake stayed longer in the feeder and their meat had increased intramuscular fat (IMF), was lighter in color, and, in the second principal component, had better juiciness, tenderness, chewiness, and flavor. Meat from gilts with lower scale activity scores appeared to have more IMF but greater drip losses (DL). The third principal component suggested that dominant gilts could gain priority access to the feeder, eating more and growing fatter. In conclusion, except for the slight associations with IMF and DL, gilt scale activity and conflict-avoidance behaviors were not good indicators of final meat quality attributes. PMID:23921217

  18. Using Network Science to Evaluate Exercise-Associated Brain Changes in Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Burdette, Jonathan H.; Laurienti, Paul J.; Espeland, Mark A.; Morgan, Ashley; Telesford, Qawi; Vechlekar, Crystal D.; Hayasaka, Satoru; Jennings, Janine M.; Katula, Jeffrey A.; Kraft, Robert A.; Rejeski, W. Jack

    2010-01-01

    Literature has shown that exercise is beneficial for cognitive function in older adults and that aerobic fitness is associated with increased hippocampal tissue and blood volumes. The current study used novel network science methods to shed light on the neurophysiological implications of exercise-induced changes in the hippocampus of older adults. Participants represented a volunteer subgroup of older adults that were part of either the exercise training (ET) or healthy aging educational control (HAC) treatment arms from the Seniors Health and Activity Research Program Pilot (SHARP-P) trial. Following the 4-month interventions, MRI measures of resting brain blood flow and connectivity were performed. The ET group's hippocampal cerebral blood flow (CBF) exhibited statistically significant increases compared to the HAC group. Novel whole-brain network connectivity analyses showed greater connectivity in the hippocampi of the ET participants compared to HAC. Furthermore, the hippocampus was consistently shown to be within the same network neighborhood (module) as the anterior cingulate cortex only within the ET group. Thus, within the ET group, the hippocampus and anterior cingulate were highly interconnected and localized to the same network neighborhood. This project shows the power of network science to investigate potential mechanisms for exercise-induced benefits to the brain in older adults. We show a link between neurological network features and CBF, and it is possible that this alteration of functional brain networks may lead to the known improvement in cognitive function among older adults following exercise. PMID:20589103

  19. Knowledge, its Application, and Attitudes Associated with the Reading of Diverse Genres of Science Texts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gonçalves Nigro, Rogerio; Frateschi Trivelato, Silvia

    2012-11-01

    The purpose of this article is to assess the knowledge, application of knowledge, and attitudes associated with the reading of different genres of expository science texts. We assigned approximately half of a sample consisting of 220 students 14-15 years of age, chosen at random, to read an excerpt from a popular scientific text, and the other half to read an excerpt from a textbook addressing the same topic. Readers took knowledge and application tests immediately after the reading and again 15 days later. Students also took knowledge and reading proficiency pre-tests, and attitude tests related to the selected texts. Overall, girls scored higher than boys and readers of the popular scientific text scored higher than their colleagues who read the textbook excerpt. We noted interaction between 'reader gender' and 'genre of the text read' in terms of long-term learning based on the reading. Attitude regarding the text read appears as an important factor in explaining behavior of boys who read the popular scientific text. Surprisingly, knowledge and application test scores were not statistically different among girls with different degrees of reading proficiency who read the textbook excerpt. In addition, on the application tests, among the boys who read the popular scientific text, good readers scored lower than their colleagues who read the textbook excerpt. In our opinion, this study can serve to show that 'reading in science education' is not a trivial matter and we feel that the subject merits more in-depth investigation.

  20. National Association of Geoscience Teachers (NAGT) support for the Next Generation Science Standards (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buhr Sullivan, S. M.; Awad, A. A.; Manduca, C. A.

    2013-12-01

    The Next Generation Science Standards (NGSS) represents the best opportunity for geosciences education since 1996, describing a vision of teaching excellence and placing Earth and space science on a par with other disciplines. However, significant, sustained support and relationship-building between disciplinary communities must be forthcoming in order to realize the potential. To realize the vision, teacher education, curricula, assessments, administrative support and workforce/college readiness expectations must be developed. The National Association of Geoscience Teachers (NAGT), a geoscience education professional society founded in 1938, is comprised of members across all educational contexts, including undergraduate faculty, pre-college teachers, informal educators, geoscience education researchers and teacher educators. NAGT support for NGSS includes deep collections of relevant digital learning resources, professional development workshops, models of cross-discipline sustainability education at the undergraduate and teacher preparation levels, member voices in support of geoscience education, and reach into introductory courses and teacher preparation programs. This presentation will describe implications of NGSS for the geoscience education community and highlight some opportunities for the path forward.

  1. The Association of Academic Health Sciences Libraries Annual Statistics: a thematic history

    PubMed Central

    Shedlock, James; Byrd, Gary D.

    2003-01-01

    The Annual Statistics of Medical School Libraries in the United States and Canada (Annual Statistics) is the most recognizable achievement of the Association of Academic Health Sciences Libraries in its history to date. This article gives a thematic history of the Annual Statistics, emphasizing the leadership role of editors and Editorial Boards, the need for cooperation and membership support to produce comparable data useful for everyday management of academic medical center libraries and the use of technology as a tool for data gathering and publication. The Annual Statistics' origin is recalled, and survey features and content are related to the overall themes. The success of the Annual Statistics is evident in the leadership skills of the first editor, Richard Lyders, executive director of the Houston Academy of Medicine-Texas Medical Center Library. The history shows the development of a survey instrument that strives to produce reliable and valid data for a diverse group of libraries while reflecting the many complex changes in the library environment. The future of the Annual Statistics is assured by the anticipated changes facing academic health sciences libraries, namely the need to reflect the transition from a physical environment to an electronic operation. PMID:12883579

  2. The relationship between visitor characteristics and learning-associated behaviors in a science museum discovery space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lozowski Boisvert, Dorothy; Jochums Slez, Brenda

    As informal educational institutions, science museums must do more than entertain and amaze visitors. Museum educators must design exhibits that attract and hold the attention of visitors long enough so that the visitors become engaged with the exhibits and learn from them. In order for museum educators to develop such exhibits, more information is needed about the variables associated with learning in museums. This study contributes to the growing body of knowledge on informal education by examining the relationship between visitor characteristics and attraction, holding power, and visitor engagement.One hundred fifty-four visitors to a science museum discovery space were observed as they interacted freely with the exhibits. Trained volunteers recorded the subjects' movements including the exhibits at which they stopped (attraction), the amount of time spent at each exhibit (holding power), and behaviors indicative of subjects' engagement levels with the exhibits. Data indicated significant differences between age group and the holding power of exhibits. Though not significant statistically, a similar trend was noted between age group and attraction and visitor engagement level. No significant differences were found between gender or social grouping and attraction, holding power, or engagement levels.

  3. Recommendations for responsible monitoring and regulation of clinical software systems. American Medical Informatics Association, Computer-based Patient Record Institute, Medical Library Association, Association of Academic Health Science Libraries, American Health Information Management Association, American Nurses Association.

    PubMed

    Miller, R A; Gardner, R M

    1997-01-01

    In mid-1996, the FDA called for discussions on regulation of clinical software programs as medical devices. In response, a consortium of organizations dedicated to improving health care through information technology has developed recommendations for the responsible regulation and monitoring of clinical software systems by users, vendors, and regulatory agencies. Organizations assisting in development of recommendations, or endorsing the consortium position include the American Medical Informatics Association, the Computer-based Patient Record Institute, the Medical Library Association, the Association of Academic Health Sciences Libraries, the American Health Information Management Association, the American Nurses Association, the Center for Healthcare Information Management, and the American College of Physicians. The consortium proposes four categories of clinical system risks and four classes of measured monitoring and regulatory actions that can be applied strategically based on the level of risk in a given setting. The consortium recommends local oversight of clinical software systems, and adoption by healthcare information system developers of a code of good business practices. Budgetary and other constraints limit the type and number of systems that the FDA can regulate effectively. FDA regulation should exempt most clinical software systems and focus on those systems posing highest clinical risk, with limited opportunities for competent human intervention. PMID:9391932

  4. Science, religion and the geography of speech at the British Association: William Henry Dallinger (1839-1909) under the microscope.

    PubMed

    Toal, Ciaran

    2013-06-01

    Since its inception in 1831, the discussion of political and religious topics had been excluded from the meetings of the British Association for the Advancement of Science (BAAS) - it was a 'neutral' body. This strategy was designed to both unite men of science with differing religious views, and prevent the Association from becoming embroiled in theological disputes. Although not always successful, the dedication to neutrality remained throughout the BAAS's history and was an important organising principle. This paper investigates how the separation of scientific and religious knowledge played out in practice by examining the speech of William Henry Dallinger, the prominent English microscopical researcher and Methodist preacher. In 1884 Dallinger travelled to Montreal, Canada, to part in the BAAS's fifty-fourth meeting. While in the city he delivered three addresses: a guest lecture to the Association, a presentation to a local theological College and a sermon at Montreal's largest Methodist church. To the Association Dallinger presented his science without any religious commitments, yet in these other venues, and away from the Association's strictures on speech, he presented science and religion as harmonious and inexorably tied. This paper argues that where Dallinger spoke made a difference to what he said, and underlines the value of thinking 'geographically' about encounters between science and religion. PMID:23415742

  5. Meat, beyond the plate. Data-driven hypotheses for understanding consumer willingness to adopt a more plant-based diet.

    PubMed

    Graça, João; Oliveira, Abílio; Calheiros, Maria Manuela

    2015-07-01

    A shift towards reduced meat consumption and a more plant-based diet is endorsed to promote sustainability, improve public health, and minimize animal suffering. However, large segments of consumers do not seem willing to make such transition. While it may take a profound societal change to achieve significant progresses on this regard, there have been limited attempts to understand the psychosocial processes that may hinder or facilitate this shift. This study provides an in-depth exploration of how consumer representations of meat, the impact of meat, and rationales for changing or not habits relate with willingness to adopt a more plant-based diet. Multiple Correspondence Analysis was employed to examine participant responses (N = 410) to a set of open-ended questions, free word association tasks and closed questions. Three clusters with two hallmarks each were identified: (1) a pattern of disgust towards meat coupled with moral internalization; (2) a pattern of low affective connection towards meat and willingness to change habits; and (3) a pattern of attachment to meat and unwillingness to change habits. The findings raise two main propositions. The first is that an affective connection towards meat relates to the perception of the impacts of meat and to willingness to change consumption habits. The second proposition is that a set of rationales resembling moral disengagement mechanisms (e.g., pro-meat justifications; self-exonerations) arise when some consumers contemplate the consequences of meat production and consumption, and the possibility of changing habits. PMID:25747854

  6. Processed meat consumption and lung function: modification by antioxidants and smoking

    PubMed Central

    Okubo, Hitomi; Shaheen, Seif O; Ntani, Georgia; Jameson, Karen A; Syddall, Holly E; Sayer, Avan Aihie; Dennison, Elaine M; Cooper, Cyrus; Robinson, Sian M

    2013-01-01

    Unhealthy dietary patterns are associated with poorer lung function. It is not known whether this is due to low consumption of antioxidant-rich fruit and vegetables, or is a consequence of higher intakes of harmful dietary constituents such as processed meat. We examined the individual and combined associations of processed meat, fruit and vegetable consumption and dietary total antioxidant capacity (TAC) with lung function among 1551 men and 1391 women in the Hertfordshire Cohort Study, UK. Diet was assessed by food frequency questionnaire. After controlling for confounders, processed meat consumption was negatively associated with forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1), forced vital capacity (FVC) and FEV1/FVC in men and women, while fruit and vegetable consumption and dietary TAC were positively associated with FEV1 and FVC, but not FEV1/FVC. In men the negative association between processed meat consumption and FEV1 was more marked in those who had low fruit and vegetable consumption (Pinteraction=0.035), and low dietary TAC (Pinteraction=0.025). The deficit in FEV1/FVC associated with processed meat consumption was larger in men who smoked (Pinteraction=0.022). Higher processed meat consumption is associated with poorer lung function, especially in men who have lower fruit and vegetable consumption or dietary TAC, and among current smokers. PMID:24176995

  7. Fetal programming in meat production.

    PubMed

    Du, Min; Wang, Bo; Fu, Xing; Yang, Qiyuan; Zhu, Mei-Jun

    2015-11-01

    Nutrient fluctuations during the fetal stage affects fetal development, which has long-term impacts on the production efficiency and quality of meat. During the early development, a pool of mesenchymal progenitor cells proliferate and then diverge into either myogenic or adipogenic/fibrogenic lineages. Myogenic progenitor cells further develop into muscle fibers and satellite cells, while adipogenic/fibrogenic lineage cells develop into adipocytes, fibroblasts and resident fibro-adipogenic progenitor cells. Enhancing the proliferation and myogenic commitment of progenitor cells during fetal development enhances muscle growth and lean production in offspring. On the other hand, promoting the adipogenic differentiation of adipogenic/fibrogenic progenitor cells inside the muscle increases intramuscular adipocytes and reduces connective tissue, which improves meat marbling and tenderness. Available studies in mammalian livestock, including cattle, sheep and pigs, clearly show the link between maternal nutrition and the quantity and quality of meat production. Similarly, chicken muscle fibers develop before hatching and, thus, egg and yolk sizes and hatching temperature affect long-term growth performance and meat production of chicken. On the contrary, because fishes are able to generate new muscle fibers lifelong, the impact of early nutrition on fish growth performance is expected to be minor, which requires further studies. PMID:25953215

  8. Meat intake, cooking methods, dietary carcinogens, and colorectal cancer risk: findings from the Colorectal Cancer Family Registry.

    PubMed

    Joshi, Amit D; Kim, Andre; Lewinger, Juan Pablo; Ulrich, Cornelia M; Potter, John D; Cotterchio, Michelle; Le Marchand, Loic; Stern, Mariana C

    2015-06-01

    Diets high in red meat and processed meats are established colorectal cancer (CRC) risk factors. However, it is still not well understood what explains this association. We conducted comprehensive analyses of CRC risk and red meat and poultry intakes, taking into account cooking methods, level of doneness, estimated intakes of heterocyclic amines (HCAs) that accumulate during meat cooking, tumor location, and tumor mismatch repair proficiency (MMR) status. We analyzed food frequency and portion size data including a meat cooking module for 3364 CRC cases, 1806 unaffected siblings, 136 unaffected spouses, and 1620 unaffected population-based controls, recruited into the CRC Family Registry. Odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for nutrient density variables were estimated using generalized estimating equations. We found no evidence of an association between total nonprocessed red meat or total processed meat and CRC risk. Our main finding was a positive association with CRC for pan-fried beefsteak (P(trend) < 0.001), which was stronger among MMR deficient cases (heterogeneity P = 0.059). Other worth noting associations, of borderline statistical significance after multiple testing correction, were a positive association between diets high in oven-broiled short ribs or spareribs and CRC risk (P(trend) = 0.002), which was also stronger among MMR-deficient cases, and an inverse association with grilled hamburgers (P(trend) = 0.002). Our results support the role of specific meat types and cooking practices as possible sources of human carcinogens relevant for CRC risk. PMID:25846122

  9. Polymorphisms in xenobiotic metabolizing genes, intakes of heterocyclic amines and red meat, and postmenopausal breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Hae-Jeung; Wu, Kana; Cox, David G.; Hunter, David; Hankinson, Susan E.; Willett, Walter C.; Sinha, Rashmi; Cho, Eunyoung

    2013-01-01

    Heterocyclic amines (HCAs) are mutagenic compounds generated when meats are cooked at high temperature and for long duration. The findings from previous studies on the relation between HCAs and breast cancer are inconsistent, possibly due to genetic variations in the enzymes metabolizing HCAs. To evaluate whether the associations of intakes of estimated HCAs, meat-derived mutagenicity (MDM), and red meat with risk of postmenopausal breast cancer were modified by N-acetyltransferase 2 (NAT2) acetylator genotype or cytochrome P450 1A2 -164 A/C (CYP1A2) polymorphism, we conducted a nested case-control study with 579 cases and 981 controls within a prospective cohort, the Nurses’ Health Study (NHS). HCAs and MDM intakes were derived using a cooking method questionnaire administered in 1996. NAT2 acetylator genotype, the CYP1A2 polymorphism, and intakes of HCAs, MDM, and red meat were not associated with risk of postmenopausal breast cancer. There was also no interaction between NAT2 acetylator genotype or CYP1A2 polymorphism and HCAs and MDM and red meat intake in relation to breast cancer. These results do not support the hypothesis that genetic polymorphisms of xenobiotic enzymes involved in the metabolism of HCAs may modify the associations between intakes of red meat or meat-related mutagens and breast cancer risk. PMID:24099317

  10. Cured Meat Consumption, Lung Function, and Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease among United States Adults

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Rui; Paik, David C.; Hankinson, John L.; Barr, R. Graham

    2007-01-01

    Rationale: Cured meats are high in nitrites. Nitrites generate reactive nitrogen species that may cause nitrative and nitrosative damage to the lung resulting in emphysema. Objective: To test the hypothesis that frequent consumption of cured meats is associated with lower lung function and increased odds of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Methods: Cross-sectional study of 7,352 participants in the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 45 years of age or more, who had adequate measures of cured meat, fish, fruit, and vegetable intake, and spirometry. Results: After adjustment for age, smoking, and multiple other potential confounders, frequency of cured meat consumption was inversely associated with FEV1 and FEV1/FVC but not FVC. The adjusted differences in FEV1 between individuals who did not consume cured meats and those who consumed cured meats 1 to 2, 3 to 4, 5 to 13, and 14 or more times per month were −37.6, −11.5, −42.0, and −110 ml, respectively (p for trend < 0.001). Corresponding differences for FEV1/FVC were −0.91, −0.54, −1.13, and −2.13% (p for trend = 0.001). These associations were not modified by smoking status. The multivariate odds ratio for COPD (FEV1/FVC ⩽ 0.7 and FEV1 < 80% predicted) was 1.78 (95% confidence interval, 1.29–2.47) comparing the highest with the lowest category of cured meat consumption. The corresponding odds ratios for mild, moderate, and severe COPD were 1.11, 1.46, and 2.41, respectively. Conclusions: Frequent cured meat consumption was associated independently with an obstructive pattern of lung function and increased odds of COPD. Additional studies are required to determine if cured meat consumption is a causal risk factor for COPD. PMID:17255565

  11. Regulations on Meat Hygiene in the USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seward, Robert (Skip) A.

    Regulations on meat hygiene in the United States of America (US) stem from the Federal Meat Inspection Act (FMIA, 21 USC §§ 601 et. seq.), promulgated in 1906, that gives the US Secretary of Agriculture (the Secretary) the power to oversee the conversion of livestock into meat products. The FMIA is reviewed herein to provide a background for discussion on how the US Department of Agriculture (USDA) and its departments, particularly the Food Safety and Inspection Service (FSIS), control and regulate the meat industry. This chapter discusses regulations that pertain to meat, herein meant to mean beef, veal, and pork, and does not specifically address poultry, although the regulations for poultry slaughter and processing are in many ways similar to those for meat and meat food products.

  12. Effect of radiation processing on meat tenderisation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kanatt, Sweetie R.; Chawla, S. P.; Sharma, Arun

    2015-06-01

    The effect of radiation processing (0, 2.5, 5 and 10 kGy) on the tenderness of three types of popularly consumed meat in India namely chicken, lamb and buffalo was investigated. In irradiated meat samples dose dependant reduction in water holding capacity, cooking yield and shear force was observed. Reduction in shear force upon radiation processing was more pronounced in buffalo meat. Protein and collagen solubility as well as TCA soluble protein content increased on irradiation. Radiation processing of meat samples resulted in some change in colour of meat. Results suggested that irradiation leads to dose dependant tenderization of meat. Radiation processing of meat at a dose of 2.5 kGy improved its texture and had acceptable odour.

  13. Main Concerns of Pathogenic Microorganisms in Meat

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nørrung, Birgit; Andersen, Jens Kirk; Buncic, Sava

    Although various foods can serve as sources of foodborne illness, meat and meat products are important sources of human infections with a variety of foodborne pathogens, i.e. Salmonella spp., Campylobacter jejuni/coli, Yersinia enterocolitica, Verotoxigenic E. coli and, to some extent, Listeria monocytogenes. All these may be harboured in the gastrointestinal tract of food-producing animals. The most frequent chain of events leading to meat-borne illness involves food animals, which are healthy carriers of the pathogens that are subsequently transferred to humans through production, handling and consumption of meat and meat products. Occurrences of Salmonella spp., C. jejuni/coli, Y. enterocolitica and Verotoxigenic E. coli in fresh red meat vary relatively widely, although most often are between 1 and 10%, depending on a range of factors including the organism, geographical factors, farming and/or meat production practices.

  14. Tenacity of Alaria alata mesocercariae in homemade German meat products.

    PubMed

    González-Fuentes, Hiromi; Hamedy, Ahmad; von Borell, Eberhard; Luecker, Ernst; Riehn, Katharina

    2014-04-17

    A renewed interest in the pathogenic potential of Alaria alata mesocercariae emerged over the last 10years as a result of increased findings of this parasite in feral pigs during official examination for Trichinella spp. Cases of food associated human alariosis in North America suggest that a risk associated with the consumption of traditional raw cured products from infected wild boar meat cannot be neglected because the commonly applied preservation techniques may not necessarily kill the mesocercariae. In addition, changes in consumer behavior and new preparation methods for game meat (e.g. pink roasting and grilling) may increase the risk for food-associated parasitic infections. Thus, there is a strong need for the evaluation of the tenacity of A. alata mesocercariae against different physical and chemical influences as pertaining to common preservation and preparation techniques. Against this backdrop the aim of our work was a sound analysis of the survivability of A. alata mesocercariae during curing, fermentation, cold smoking and drying in raw cured meat products. Eighty three samples of traditional German meat products were prepared from naturally infected game meat and partly spiked with additional vital mesocercariae to achieve an adequate dose of infection. The resultant products were examined chronologically for dead and viable A. alata mesocercariae with the Alaria mesocercariae migration technique. After 24h of production, vital A. alata mesocercariae were still found in raw type sausages but no vital parasites were detected in the final products. Based on these results a possible risk for the consumer for an infection with A. alata mesocercariae through the consumption of contaminated raw cured products can be largely ruled out if the respective food technological procedures are carried out properly. However, a risk for the consumer cannot be excluded in cases of very early consumption of these products. PMID:24553052

  15. Methylmercury concentrations in broiler's meat and hen's meat and eggs

    SciTech Connect

    Kambamanoli-Dimou, A. ); Kilikidis, S.; Kamarianos, A. )

    1989-05-01

    The concentration of mercury in food has been considered to present the greatest toxicological danger to the average citizen. The presence of mercury in foods has been reported in several studies. Much of the research has been carried out on total mercury concentration in foods and not on methylmercury concentration and as it is known methylmercury is the most dangerous form of mercury. Methylmercury, which is highly resistant to biodegradation, can be synthesized from any other form of mercury in the aquatic biosphere, can be bioconcentrated in the aquatic food chain and through fish-meals can be transported and concentrated in animals and their products. Such food chains, together with the various terrestrial food chains would represent a serious risk for man. This study was undertaken to determine the methylmercury levels in broiler's meat, hen's meat and eggs.

  16. Arriving at a Scientific Consensus in the International Association of Hydrological Sciences(IAHS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takeuchi, K.; Rango, A.

    2001-12-01

    The International Association of Hydrological Sciences(IAHS) is the oldest and foremost international nongovernmental organization which deals with hydrology and water resources. It was established in 1922 with the aim of bringing together hydrologists from all countries to promote the hydrological sciences. International meetings are held once every two years, first, in concert with the General Assembly of the International Union of Geodesy and Geophysics(IUGG)(which is held every four years), the parent body of IAHS, and then in the midterm between IUGG General Assemblies in IAHS Scientific Assemblies. In addition, IAHS organizes and co-sponsors conferences, symposia, workshops, and courses, primarily through the efforts of its nine International Commissions on Remote Sensing(ICRS), Surface Water, Groundwater, Continental Erosion, Snow and Ice, Water Quality, Water Resources Systems, Atmosphere-Soil-Vegetation Relations, and Tracers. IAHS offers memberships to individuals for no annual fee. IAHS maintains close collaboration with UNESCO, WMO, and IAEA through their respective hydrology and water resources programs. IAHS recently decided that although its scientific meetings have been successful, some new additional activities were merited. In addition to holding international meetings, the IAHS Bureau decided that IAHS should become more proactive by focusing on critical worldwide water problems and developing research programs to address these problems. Particularly, IAHS needs to address global water issues through direct involvement in policy oriented activities such as those of the World Water Council and World Water Forum 3 as well as many ongoing UN and ICSU science programs. IAHS plans to take strong leadership in such programs by demonstrating scientific solutions of problems of hydrologic uncertainty and resulting improvements for water management. In order to focus our scientific activities and make the scientific potentials practical, IAHS followed a

  17. Learning Environment and Attitudes Associated with an Innovative Science Course Designed for Prospective Elementary Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin-Dunlop, Catherine; Fraser, Barry J.

    2008-01-01

    This study assessed the effectiveness of an innovative science course for improving prospective elementary teachers' perceptions of laboratory learning environments and attitudes towards science. The sample consisted of 27 classes with 525 female students in a large urban university. Changing students' ideas about science laboratory teaching and…

  18. Systematic Review: The Association and Impact of Financial Conflicts of Interest in Basic Science Research

    PubMed Central

    Bennett, Charles L.; Boyle, Simone N.; Kuykendal, Adam; Fisher, Matthew J.; Samaras, Athena T.; Barnato, Sara E.; Wagner, Robin L.; Goldstein, Carolyn E.; Tallman, Jacob; Munshi, Hidayatullah G.; Lai, Stephen Y.; Henke, Michael

    2009-01-01

    Background No prior study has evaluated financial relationships of investigators with pharmaceutical manufacturers for basic science. An example of the importance and impact of such relationships is in the evaluation of erythropoietin receptors’(EpoRs) effects on cancer cell lines, since studies have reported increased mortality when cancer patients receive erythropoiesis stimulating agents (ESAs). Purpose To assess the disclosed association that exist between pharmaceutical industry support and EpoRs effects on solid cancer cell lines. Data Sources MEDLINE and EMBASE (1988- July 2008) and two EpoR conferences sponsored by the National Institutes of Health. Study Selection All publications investigating EpoRs that met inclusion criteria were identified and included. Data Extraction Data were extracted on detection of EpoRs, presence of erythropoietin-induced signaling events, presence of erythropoietin-induced changes in cellular function, nature of qualitative conclusions, and sources of funding for all 74 studies. Data Synthesis In comparison to studies of academic investigators with no disclosed funding support from ESA manufacturers (n=64), the studies from academic investigators with funding support from ESA manufacturers (n= 7) and the laboratories directed by investigators employed by ESA manufacturers (n=3) were both less likely to identify: EpoR presence on solid tumor cells; erythropoietin-induced signaling events; erythropoietin-induced changes in cellular function; and less likely to conclude that their research had identified potentially harmful effects of erythropoietin on cancer cells. Additionally, presentations from industry-based investigator teams at NIH conferences were less likely to report EpoRs on cancer cell lines, downstream effects of erythropoietin, and cell proliferation and migration effects following EpoR administration. Conclusion Financial conflicts of interest impact the outcomes and presentation of basic science research data as

  19. The association between exaggeration in health related science news and academic press releases: retrospective observational study

    PubMed Central

    Vivian-Griffiths, Solveiga; Boivin, Jacky; Williams, Andy; Venetis, Christos A; Davies, Aimée; Ogden, Jack; Whelan, Leanne; Hughes, Bethan; Dalton, Bethan; Boy, Fred

    2014-01-01

    Objective To identify the source (press releases or news) of distortions, exaggerations, or changes to the main conclusions drawn from research that could potentially influence a reader’s health related behaviour. Design Retrospective quantitative content analysis. Setting Journal articles, press releases, and related news, with accompanying simulations. Sample Press releases (n=462) on biomedical and health related science issued by 20 leading UK universities in 2011, alongside their associated peer reviewed research papers and news stories (n=668). Main outcome measures Advice to readers to change behaviour, causal statements drawn from correlational research, and inference to humans from animal research that went beyond those in the associated peer reviewed papers. Results 40% (95% confidence interval 33% to 46%) of the press releases contained exaggerated advice, 33% (26% to 40%) contained exaggerated causal claims, and 36% (28% to 46%) contained exaggerated inference to humans from animal research. When press releases contained such exaggeration, 58% (95% confidence interval 48% to 68%), 81% (70% to 93%), and 86% (77% to 95%) of news stories, respectively, contained similar exaggeration, compared with exaggeration rates of 17% (10% to 24%), 18% (9% to 27%), and 10% (0% to 19%) in news when the press releases were not exaggerated. Odds ratios for each category of analysis were 6.5 (95% confidence interval 3.5 to 12), 20 (7.6 to 51), and 56 (15 to 211). At the same time, there was little evidence that exaggeration in press releases increased the uptake of news. Conclusions Exaggeration in news is strongly associated with exaggeration in press releases. Improving the accuracy of academic press releases could represent a key opportunity for reducing misleading health related news. PMID:25498121

  20. High processed meat consumption is a risk factor of type 2 diabetes in the ATBC study

    PubMed Central

    Männistö, Satu; Kontto, Jukka; Kataja-Tuomola, Merja; Albanes, Demetrius; Virtamo, Jarmo

    2012-01-01

    Relatively small lifestyle modifications related to weight reduction, physical activity and diet has been shown to decrease the risk of type 2 diabetes. Connected with diet, low consumption of meat has been suggested as a protective factor of diabetes. The aim was to examine the association between the consumption of total meat or the specific types of meat and risk of type 2 diabetes. The ATBC cohort included middle aged male smokers. During up to 12 years of follow-up, 1098 incident cases of diabetes were diagnosed from 24,845 participants through the nationwide register. Food consumption was assessed by a validated food frequency questionnaire. In the age and intervention group adjusted model, high total meat consumption was a risk factor of type 2 diabetes (relative risk (RR) 1.50, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.23, 1.82, highest vs. lowest quintile). The result was similar after adjustment for environmental factors and foods related to diabetes and meat consumption. The RR of type 2 diabetes was 1.37 for processed meat (95% CI: 1.11, 1.71) in the multivariate model. The results were explained more by intakes of sodium than intakes of saturated fatty acids, protein, cholesterol, heme iron, magnesium and nitrate, and were not modified by obesity. No association was found between red meat, poultry and the risk of type 2 diabetes. In conclusion, it may help to prevent the global epidemic of type 2 diabetes by reducing the consumption of processed meat. It seems that sodium of processed meat may explain the association. PMID:20187985

  1. Meat-Related Compounds and Colorectal Cancer Risk by Anatomical Subsite

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Paige E.; Lazarus, Philip; Lesko, Samuel M.; Cross, Amanda J.; Sinha, Rashmi; Laio, Jason; Zhu, Jay; Harper, Gregory; Muscat, Joshua E.; Hartman, Terryl J.

    2012-01-01

    Since meat may be involved in the etiology of colorectal cancer, associations between meat-related compounds were examined to elucidate underlying mechanisms in a population-based case-control study. Participants (989 cases/1,033 healthy controls) completed a food frequency questionnaire with a meat-specific module. Multivariable logistic regression was used to examine associations between meat variables and colorectal cancer; polytomous logistic regression was used for subsite-specific analyses. The following significant positive associations were observed for meat-related compounds: 2-amino-3,4,8-trimethylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoxaline (DiMeIQx) and colorectal, distal colon, and rectal tumors; 2-amino-3,8-dimethylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoxaline (MeIQx) and colorectal and colon cancer tumors; nitrites/nitrates and proximal colon cancer; 2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine (PhIP) and rectal cancer; and benzo[a]pyrene and rectal cancer (P-trends < 0.05 ). For analyses by meat type, cooking method, and doneness preference, positive associations between red processed meat and proximal colon cancer and pan-fried red meat and colorectal cancer were found (P-trends < 0.05). Inverse associations were observed between unprocessed poultry and colorectal, colon, proximal colon, and rectal tumors; grilled/barbequed poultry and proximal colon cancer; and well-done/charred poultry and colorectal, colon, and proximal colon tumors (P-trends < 0.05). HCAs, PAHs, nitrites, and nitrates may be involved in colorectal cancer etiology. Further examination into the unexpected inverse associations between poultry and colorectal cancer is warranted. PMID:23441608

  2. [Identification and prevention of meat poisoning].

    PubMed

    van Logtestijn, J G; Koolmees, P A; Mossel, D A

    1987-09-15

    In this contribution to a series 'Papers of Yesterday and Today' a retrospective review of developments in the identification and control of meat 'poisoning' defined as infections and intoxications following the ingestion of bacteriologically unsound meat and meat products is presented. Starting from two classical Dutch papers, viz. by H. J. H. Stempel (1891) and K. Hoefnagel (1899) illustrating the knowledge of meat 'poisoning' acquired in the nineties of the 19th century, developments in the field of bacteriological research on meats and the resulting efforts to manage meat 'poisoning' are summarised. Attention is paid to the role of Dutch veterinarians in investigations on the aetiology of meat infections resulting in the adoption of legal meat inspection in 1922 and the ensuing reduction in the occurrence of mass outbreaks of meat poisoning. However, despite marked improvement of the standard of hygiene in the food industry in general and expert monitoring of meat production lines by veterinarians in particular, infections and intoxications transmitted by meat and meat products are still quite prevalent. Essentially, their management can only be achieved by strict adherence to Good Manufacturing Practices (GMP) throughout animal husbandry, slaughter, distribution and storage, termed longitudinally integrated safety assurance. Professional monitoring by an up-to-date meat inspection system, however, continues to be indispensable in the prevention of food-borne infections and intoxications. Some recommendations are made for effective intervention in the infection cycle of food-transmitted pathogens originating from the high infection pressure on slaughter lines, resulting from contamination acquired at previous stages of the animal production chain. PMID:3672466

  3. Meat consumption and risk of primary hip and knee joint replacement due to osteoarthritis: a prospective cohort study

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background There is emerging evidence for a beneficial effect of meat consumption on the musculoskeletal system. However, whether it affects the risk of knee and hip osteoarthritis is unknown. We performed a prospective cohort study to examine the relationship between meat consumption and risk of primary hip and knee replacement for osteoarthritis. Methods Eligible 35,331 participants were selected from the Melbourne Collaborative Cohort Study recruited during 1990-1994. Consumption of fresh red meat, processed meat, chicken, and fish was assessed using a food frequency questionnaire. Primary hip and knee replacement for osteoarthritis during 2001-2005 was determined by linking the cohort records to the Australian National Joint Replacement Registry. Results There was a negative dose-response relationship between fresh red meat consumption and the risk of hip replacement (hazard ratio (HR) 0.94 per increase in intake of one time/week, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.89-0.98). In contrast, there was no association with knee replacement risk (HR 0.98, 95% CI 0.94-1.02). Consumption of processed meat, chicken and fish were not associated with risk of hip or knee replacement. Conclusion A high level consumption of fresh red meat was associated with a decreased risk of hip, but not knee, joint replacement for osteoarthritis. One possible mechanism to explain these differential associations may be via an effect of meat intake on bone strength and hip shape. Further confirmatory studies are warranted. PMID:21235820

  4. Color of Meat and Poultry

    MedlinePlus

    ... Administrative Forms Standard Forms Skip Navigation Z7_0Q0619C0JGR010IFST1G5B10H1 Web Content Viewer (JSR 286) Actions ${title} Loading... / Topics / ... The Color of Meat and Poultry Z7_0Q0619C0JGR010IFST1G5B10H3 Web Content Viewer (JSR 286) Actions ${title} Loading... Z7_ ...

  5. Meat Consumption and Risk of Oral Cavity and Oropharynx Cancer: A Meta-Analysis of Observational Studies

    PubMed Central

    Li, Xiao-yu; Bai, Bo

    2014-01-01

    Purpose High meat consumption, especially red and processed meat consumption is associated with an increased risk of several cancers, however, evidence for oral cavity and oropharynx cancer is limited. Thus, we performed this meta-analysis to determine the association between intakes of total meat, processed meat, red meat, and white meat, and the risk of oral cavity and oropharynx cancer. Methods Electronic search of Pubmed, Embase, and Cochrane Library Central database was conducted to select relevant studies. Fixed-effect and random-effect models were used to estimate summary relative risks (RR) and the corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Potential sources of heterogeneity were detected by meta-regression. Subgroup analyses and sensitivity analysis were also performed. Results 12 case–control studies and one cohort study were included in the analyses, including 501,730 subjects and 4,104 oral cavity and oropharynx cancer cases. Pooled results indicated that high consumption of total meat, red meat, and white meat were not significantly associated with increased risk of oral cavity and oropharynx cancer (RR = 1.14, 95% CI[0.78–1.68]; RR = 1.05, 95% CI[0.66, 1.66] and RR = 0.81, 95% CI[0.54, 1.22], respectively), while the high consumption of processed meat was significantly associated with a 91% increased risk of oral cavity and oropharynx cancer (RR = 1.91, 95% CI [1.19–3.06]). Sensitivity analysis indicated that no significant variation in combined RR by excluding any of the study, confirming the stability of present results. Conclusions The present meta-analysis suggested that high consumption of processed meat was significantly associated with an increased risk of oral cavity and oropharynx cancer, while there was no significantly association between total meat, red meat or white meat and the risk of oral cavity and oropharynx cancer. More prospective cohort studies are warranted to confirm these associations. PMID:24736706

  6. Red meat consumption and healthy ageing: A review.

    PubMed

    Kouvari, Matina; Tyrovolas, Stefanos; Panagiotakos, Demosthenes B

    2016-02-01

    According to World Health Organization older individuals is the fastest growing age-group around the globe, thanks to the tremendous improvements in medical and pharmaceutical therapies, as well as in quality of life. Unfortunately, this raise in life span is accompanied by significant increase in disease burden, and consequent economical costs. Lifestyle modifications and effective prevention strategies have shown considerable benefits as regards the development of age-oriented chronic diseases. Among lifestyle factors, nutrition is a key component for achieving good health. Nevertheless, this parameter has insufficiently been investigated in older people. This is a rather important scientific gap, considering the westernization of nutritional habits observed the last few decades, with high red meat consumption and its processed products being an indispensable part. Moreover, its adverse impact in cardiovascular disease and cancer has been extensively investigated, while in recent literature, interest has been remarkably oriented towards its subtypes (i.e., fresh and processed); however, outcomes as regards the older population are controversial with a variety of them proposing moderation of red meat mainly the processed type, whilst others recognizing fresh red meat, especially the lean type, an important source of high quality protein so as to manage muscle tissue loss, a common implication of advanced-age discount. The aim of the present review was to present an overview of studies which have investigated the association between red meat and its subtypes, with chronic diseases, in middle and advanced age individuals. PMID:26642896

  7. Changes in Study Strategies of Medical Students between Basic Science Courses and Clerkships Are Associated with Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ensminger, David C.; Hoyt, Amy E.; Chandrasekhar, Arcot J.; McNulty, John A.

    2013-01-01

    We tested the hypothesis that medical students change their study strategies when transitioning from basic science courses to clerkships, and that their study practices are associated with performance scores. Factor scores for three approaches to studying (construction, rote, and review) generated from student (n = 150) responses to a…

  8. Ladders to Success: Enhancing Transfer from Technical Associate in Science Degrees to Baccalaureates. AIR 1999 Annual Forum Paper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pitter, Gita Wijesinghe

    This paper describes the collaborative activities which have developed since 1998 Florida legislation that required stronger articulation between Associate in Science (AS) programs at state community colleges and baccalaureate programs at universities. Three major models of AS to baccalaureate articulation are evaluated: (1) a statewide career…

  9. Clarifying and Capturing "Trust" in Relation to Science Education: Dimensions of Trustworthiness within Schools and Associations with Equitable Student Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smetana, Lara K.; Wenner, Julianne; Settlage, John; McCoach, D. Betsy

    2016-01-01

    Science education reform may fall short of its potential to reduce educational disparities if the challenges are interpreted using strictly reductionist approaches. Taking a cue from school effectiveness research and reframing our approach using systems thinking, this study examined school-level variables associated with equitable science…

  10. Learning through Face-to-Face and Online Discussions: Associations between Students' Conceptions, Approaches and Academic Performance in Political Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bliuc, Ana-Maria; Ellis, Robert; Goodyear, Peter; Piggott, Leanne

    2010-01-01

    This paper reports on research investigating student experiences of learning through face-to-face and online discussions in a political science course in a large Australian university. Using methodologies from relational research into university student learning, the study investigates associations between key aspects of student learning focusing…

  11. When Is Homework Worth the Time?: Evaluating the Association between Homework and Achievement in High School Science and Math

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maltese, Adam V.; Tai, Robert H.; Fan, Xitao

    2012-01-01

    Even with the history of debate over the merits of homework, there are significant gaps in the research record regarding its benefit to students. The focus of this study is on the association between time spent on homework and academic performance in science and math by assessing survey and transcript data from two nationally representative…

  12. Program Review: A Longitudinal Study of Associate in Science Degree Programs, 1983-84 through 1988-89.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baldwin, Anne

    In 1989, a longitudinal study was conducted of Associate in Science (A.S.) degree programs at Miami-Dade Community College from 1983-84 through 1988-89. A.S. program review standards set by the State of Florida require that 70% of program graduates either have found employment utilizing their education or be in the process of continuing their…

  13. Effects of variation in porcine MYOD1 gene on muscle fiber characteristics, lean meat production, and meat quality traits.

    PubMed

    Lee, E A; Kim, J M; Lim, K S; Ryu, Y C; Jeon, W M; Hong, K C

    2012-09-01

    Three single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the porcine MYOD1 gene were used for association analysis and haplotype construction to evaluate the effects of their substitution. Four hundred and three pigs of Yorkshire and Berkshire breeds were used. The mRNA expression levels of MYOD1 were examined. The g.489C>T and g.1264C>A SNPs were significantly associated with several muscle fiber characteristics, the loin eye area, and lightness. Particularly, animals having hetero-genotypes of both sites showed good performance both in lean meat production and meat quality traits. The results of haplotype substitution were similar to the associations of individual SNPs. Moreover, the 2 SNPs had significant effects on mRNA expression. Therefore, the g.489C>T and g.1264C>A SNPs in MYOD1 may be meaningful DNA markers that can be used for improving important porcine economic traits. PMID:22554470

  14. Chinese ethnic meat products: Continuity and development.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Weicai; Wen, Wenting; Deng, Yue; Tian, Yuanyuan; Sun, Honghu; Sun, Qun

    2016-10-01

    With their distinctive sensory characterizations and unique processing technologies, Chinese ethnic meat products possess great potential for development and continuity in modern China's meat industry. Due to the greater demand for meat products and higher quality and safety concerns in economically fast growing China, the development and continuity of ethnic meat products face its own unique challenges. In this review, the classification of typical ethnic products and their characteristics, and the research progress on their quality and processing technologies are discussed. The application of innovative and green technologies to improve the safety and quality of ethnic meat products for greater industrialization and sustainable development is highlighted. Furthermore, the strategy for promoting the production of Chinese ethnic meat products during the next five years is presented. PMID:27091319

  15. The Ethics of Producing In Vitro Meat

    PubMed Central

    Schaefer, G Owen; Savulescu, Julian

    2014-01-01

    The prospect of consumable meat produced in a laboratory setting without the need to raise and slaughter animals is both realistic and exciting. Not only could such in vitro meat become popular due to potential cost savings, but it also avoids many of the ethical and environmental problems with traditional meat productions. However, as with any new technology, in vitro meat is likely to face some detractors. We examine in detail three potential objections: 1) in vitro meat is disrespectful, either to nature or to animals; 2) it will reduce the number of happy animals in the world; and 3) it will open the door to cannibalism. While each objection has some attraction, we ultimately find that all can be overcome. The upshot is that in vitro meat production is generally permissible and, especially for ethical vegetarians, worth promoting. PMID:25954058

  16. Prevalence of eae-positive, lactose non-fermenting Escherichia albertii from retail raw meat in China.

    PubMed

    Wang, H; Li, Q; Bai, X; Xu, Y; Zhao, A; Sun, H; Deng, J; Xiao, B; Liu, X; Sun, S; Zhou, Y; Wang, B; Fan, Z; Chen, X; Zhang, Z; Xu, J; Xiong, Y

    2016-01-01

    Escherichia albertii is a newly emerging enteric pathogen that has been associated with gastroenteritis in humans. Recently, E. albertii has also been detected in healthy and sick birds, animals, chicken meat and water. In the present study, the prevalence and characteristics of the eae-positive, lactose non-fermenting E. albertii strains in retail raw meat in China were evaluated. Thirty isolates of such strains of E. albertii were identified from 446 (6·73%) samples, including duck intestines (21·43%, 6/28), duck meat (9·52%, 2/21), chicken intestines (8·99%, 17/189), chicken meat (5·66%, 3/53), mutton meat (4·55%, 1/22) and pork meat (2·44%, 1/41). None was isolated from 92 samples of raw beef meat. Strains were identified as E. albertii by phenotypic properties, diagnostic PCR, sequence analysis of the 16S rRNA gene, and housekeeping genes. Five intimin subtypes were harboured by these strains. All strains possessed the II/III/V subtype group of the cdtB gene, with two strains carrying another copy of the I/IV subtype group. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis showed high genetic diversity of E. albertii in raw meats. Our findings indicate that E. albertii can contaminate various raw meats, posing a potential threat to public health. PMID:26004066

  17. Detection of Toxoplasma gondii DNA in horse meat from supermarkets in France and performance evaluation of two serological tests

    PubMed Central

    Aroussi, Abdelkrim; Vignoles, Philippe; Dalmay, François; Wimel, Laurence; Dardé, Marie-Laure; Mercier, Aurélien; Ajzenberg, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    In France, some cases of severe toxoplasmosis have been linked to the consumption of horse meat that had been imported from the American continent where atypical strains of Toxoplasma gondii are more common than in Europe. Many seroprevalence studies are presented in the literature but risk assessment of T. gondii infection after horse meat consumption is not possible in the absence of validated serological tests and the unknown correlation between detection of antibodies against T. gondii and presence of tissue cysts. We performed magnetic-capture polymerase chain reaction (MC-PCR) to detect T. gondii DNA in 231 horse meat samples purchased in supermarkets in France and evaluated the performance and level of agreement of the modified agglutination test (MAT) and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) in the meat juices. The serological tests lacked sensitivity, specificity, and agreement between them, and there was no correlation with the presence of T. gondii DNA in horse meat, raising concerns about the reliability of T. gondii seroprevalence data in horses from the literature. T. gondii DNA was detected in 43% of horse meat samples but the absence of strain isolation in mice following inoculation of more than 100 horse meat samples suggests a low distribution of cysts in skeletal muscles and a low risk of T. gondii infection associated with horse meat consumption. However, to avoid any risk of toxoplasmosis, thorough cooking of horse meat is recommended. PMID:25809058

  18. 9 CFR 311.38 - Meat and meat byproducts from livestock which have been exposed to radiation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Meat and meat byproducts from... MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION DISPOSAL OF DISEASED OR OTHERWISE ADULTERATED CARCASSES AND PARTS § 311.38 Meat and meat byproducts from livestock which have...

  19. 9 CFR 311.38 - Meat and meat byproducts from livestock which have been exposed to radiation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Meat and meat byproducts from... MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION DISPOSAL OF DISEASED OR OTHERWISE ADULTERATED CARCASSES AND PARTS § 311.38 Meat and meat byproducts from livestock which have...

  20. 9 CFR 311.38 - Meat and meat byproducts from livestock which have been exposed to radiation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Meat and meat byproducts from... MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION DISPOSAL OF DISEASED OR OTHERWISE ADULTERATED CARCASSES AND PARTS § 311.38 Meat and meat byproducts from livestock which have...

  1. 9 CFR 311.38 - Meat and meat byproducts from livestock which have been exposed to radiation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Meat and meat byproducts from... MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION DISPOSAL OF DISEASED OR OTHERWISE ADULTERATED CARCASSES AND PARTS § 311.38 Meat and meat byproducts from livestock which have...

  2. 9 CFR 311.38 - Meat and meat byproducts from livestock which have been exposed to radiation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Meat and meat byproducts from... MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION DISPOSAL OF DISEASED OR OTHERWISE ADULTERATED CARCASSES AND PARTS § 311.38 Meat and meat byproducts from livestock which have...

  3. Controlling Microbial Safety Challenges of Meat Using High Voltage Atmospheric Cold Plasma.

    PubMed

    Han, Lu; Ziuzina, Dana; Heslin, Caitlin; Boehm, Daniela; Patange, Apurva; Sango, David M; Valdramidis, Vasilis P; Cullen, Patrick J; Bourke, Paula

    2016-01-01

    Atmospheric cold plasma (ACP) is a non-thermal technology, effective against a wide range of pathogenic microorganisms. Inactivation efficacy results from plasma generated reactive species. These may interact with any organic components in a test matrix including the target microorganism, thus food components may exert a protective effect against the antimicrobial mode of action. The effect of an in-package high voltage ACP process applied in conjunction with common meat processing MAP gas compositions as well as bacteria type and meat model media composition have been investigated to determine the applicability of this technology for decontamination of safety challenges associated with meat products. E. coli, L. monocytogenes, and S. aureus in PBS were undetectable after 60 s of treatment at 80 kVRMS in air, while ACP treatment of the contaminated meat model required post-treatment refrigeration to retain antimicrobial effect. The nutritive components in the meat model exerted a protective effect during treatment, where 300 s ACP exposure yielded a maximum reduction of 1.5 log using a high oxygen atmosphere, whilst using air and high nitrogen atmospheres yielded lower antimicrobial efficacy. Furthermore, an ROS assay was performed to understand the protective effects observed using the meat model. This revealed that nutritive components inhibited penetration of ROS into bacterial cells. This knowledge can assist the optimization of meat decontamination using ACP technology where interactions with all components of the food matrix require evaluation. PMID:27446018

  4. Controlling Microbial Safety Challenges of Meat Using High Voltage Atmospheric Cold Plasma

    PubMed Central

    Han, Lu; Ziuzina, Dana; Heslin, Caitlin; Boehm, Daniela; Patange, Apurva; Sango, David M.; Valdramidis, Vasilis P.; Cullen, Patrick J.; Bourke, Paula

    2016-01-01

    Atmospheric cold plasma (ACP) is a non-thermal technology, effective against a wide range of pathogenic microorganisms. Inactivation efficacy results from plasma generated reactive species. These may interact with any organic components in a test matrix including the target microorganism, thus food components may exert a protective effect against the antimicrobial mode of action. The effect of an in-package high voltage ACP process applied in conjunction with common meat processing MAP gas compositions as well as bacteria type and meat model media composition have been investigated to determine the applicability of this technology for decontamination of safety challenges associated with meat products. E. coli, L. monocytogenes, and S. aureus in PBS were undetectable after 60 s of treatment at 80 kVRMS in air, while ACP treatment of the contaminated meat model required post-treatment refrigeration to retain antimicrobial effect. The nutritive components in the meat model exerted a protective effect during treatment, where 300 s ACP exposure yielded a maximum reduction of 1.5 log using a high oxygen atmosphere, whilst using air and high nitrogen atmospheres yielded lower antimicrobial efficacy. Furthermore, an ROS assay was performed to understand the protective effects observed using the meat model. This revealed that nutritive components inhibited penetration of ROS into bacterial cells. This knowledge can assist the optimization of meat decontamination using ACP technology where interactions with all components of the food matrix require evaluation. PMID:27446018

  5. National Association for Research in Science Teaching Annual Meeting, Abstracts of Presented Papers (59th, San Francisco, California, March 28-31, 1986).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blosser, Patricia E., Ed.; Helgeson, Stanley L., Ed.

    Abstracts of most of the papers, symposia, and poster sessions presented at the 59th conference of the National Association for Research in Science Teaching (NARST) are provided. Subject areas addressed include: instructional practices in secondary school science; research on computers in science learning; teacher's professional knowledge and…

  6. National Association for Research in Science Teaching Annual Conference, Abstracts of Presented Papers (61st, Lake of the Ozarks, MO, April 10-13, 1988).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blosser, Patricia E., Ed.; Helgeson, Stanley L., Ed.

    This document contains the abstracts of most of the papers, symposia and poster sessions presented at the 61st Annual Conference of the National Association for Research in Science Teaching (NARST). Subject areas addressed include: teacher preparation, science, technology and society; classroom research; elementary science; process skills;…

  7. 9 CFR 319.761 - Potted meat food product and deviled meat food product.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Potted meat food product and deviled meat food product. 319.761 Section 319.761 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND...

  8. 9 CFR 319.761 - Potted meat food product and deviled meat food product.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Potted meat food product and deviled meat food product. 319.761 Section 319.761 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND...

  9. 9 CFR 319.311 - Chow mein vegetables with meat, and chop suey vegetables with meat.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Chow mein vegetables with meat, and chop suey vegetables with meat. 319.311 Section 319.311 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND...

  10. 9 CFR 319.311 - Chow mein vegetables with meat, and chop suey vegetables with meat.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Chow mein vegetables with meat, and chop suey vegetables with meat. 319.311 Section 319.311 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND...

  11. 9 CFR 319.311 - Chow mein vegetables with meat, and chop suey vegetables with meat.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Chow mein vegetables with meat, and chop suey vegetables with meat. 319.311 Section 319.311 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND...

  12. 9 CFR 319.311 - Chow mein vegetables with meat, and chop suey vegetables with meat.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Chow mein vegetables with meat, and chop suey vegetables with meat. 319.311 Section 319.311 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND...

  13. 9 CFR 319.311 - Chow mein vegetables with meat, and chop suey vegetables with meat.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Chow mein vegetables with meat, and chop suey vegetables with meat. 319.311 Section 319.311 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND...

  14. 9 CFR 319.761 - Potted meat food product and deviled meat food product.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Potted meat food product and deviled meat food product. 319.761 Section 319.761 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND...

  15. 9 CFR 319.761 - Potted meat food product and deviled meat food product.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Potted meat food product and deviled meat food product. 319.761 Section 319.761 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND...

  16. 9 CFR 319.761 - Potted meat food product and deviled meat food product.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Potted meat food product and deviled meat food product. 319.761 Section 319.761 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND...

  17. 19 CFR 4.72 - Inspection of meat, meat-food products, and inedible fats.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ..., Meat and Poultry Inspection (9 CFR part 322). If such certificate has been obtained but is unavailable... 19 Customs Duties 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Inspection of meat, meat-food products, and... SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY VESSELS IN FOREIGN AND DOMESTIC TRADES Foreign Clearances §...

  18. 19 CFR 4.72 - Inspection of meat, meat-food products, and inedible fats.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ..., Meat and Poultry Inspection (9 CFR part 322). If such certificate has been obtained but is unavailable... 19 Customs Duties 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Inspection of meat, meat-food products, and... SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY VESSELS IN FOREIGN AND DOMESTIC TRADES Foreign Clearances §...

  19. 19 CFR 4.72 - Inspection of meat, meat-food products, and inedible fats.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ..., Meat and Poultry Inspection (9 CFR part 322). If such certificate has been obtained but is unavailable... 19 Customs Duties 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Inspection of meat, meat-food products, and... SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY VESSELS IN FOREIGN AND DOMESTIC TRADES Foreign Clearances §...

  20. 19 CFR 4.72 - Inspection of meat, meat-food products, and inedible fats.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ..., Meat and Poultry Inspection (9 CFR part 322). If such certificate has been obtained but is unavailable... 19 Customs Duties 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Inspection of meat, meat-food products, and... SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY VESSELS IN FOREIGN AND DOMESTIC TRADES Foreign Clearances §...

  1. 19 CFR 4.72 - Inspection of meat, meat-food products, and inedible fats.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ..., Meat and Poultry Inspection (9 CFR part 322). If such certificate has been obtained but is unavailable... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Inspection of meat, meat-food products, and... SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY VESSELS IN FOREIGN AND DOMESTIC TRADES Foreign Clearances §...

  2. Examination of the Nonlinear Dynamic Systems Associated with Science Student Cognition While Engaging in Science Information Processing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lamb, Richard; Cavagnetto, Andy; Akmal, Tariq

    2016-01-01

    A critical problem with the examination of learning in education is that there is an underlying assumption that the dynamic systems associated with student information processing can be measured using static linear assessments. This static linear approach does not provide sufficient ability to characterize learning. Much of the modern research…

  3. Country, School and Students Factors Associated with Extreme Levels of Science Literacy across 25 Countries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alivernini, F.; Manganelli, S.

    2015-01-01

    A huge gap in science literacy is between students who do not show the competencies that are necessary to participate effectively in life situations related to science and technology and students who have the skills which would give them the potential to create new technology. The objective of this paper is to identify, for 25 countries, distinct…

  4. Directory of Human Sciences Research Organizations and Professional Associations in South Africa. Second Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van der Berg, Henda, Ed.; Prinsloo, Roelf, Ed.; Pienaar, Drienie, Ed.

    This directory is intended to be a comprehensive reference source for identifying research organizations and institutions, and for promoting research cooperation and facilitating networking. This second edition provides a broad background to the development of the human sciences as well as an overview of existing and emerging science and…

  5. Learning Interference and Imagery Considerations Associated with Science Diagrams and Prose Media.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holliday, William G.

    It was hypothesized that distinct conceptual relationships are better displayed in a unitary complex science diagram relative to a text description. A second hypothesis stated that the placement of a textual description adjacent to a unitary complex science diagram generally will divert the learners' attention to the theoretically less effective…

  6. An Analysis of Interactions and Outcomes Associated with an Online Professional Development Course for Science Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Randle, David Edward

    2013-01-01

    This mixed-methods study examined the interactions and learning outcomes of science teachers in an online graduate-level course on evolutionary biology intended to improve their content knowledge and science lesson planning. Discussion posts made by the teachers in this seven-week course were analyzed for cognitive presence using the Community of…

  7. Family Factors Associated with Sixth-Grade Adolescents' Math and Science Career Interests

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Turner, Sherri L.; Steward, Jason C.; Lapan, Richard T.

    2004-01-01

    This study tested a causal model, based on social cognitive career theory (SCCT; R. W. Lent, S. D. Brown, & G. Hackett, 1994, 2000), of math and science career interests among 6th-grade adolescents (N = 318). Consistent with SCCT, it was found that career gender-typing, mother's and father's support for pursuing math and science careers, as well…

  8. Effect of dietary meat and fish on endogenous nitrosation, inflammation and genotoxicity of faecal water.

    PubMed

    Joosen, Annemiek M C P; Lecommandeur, Emmanuelle; Kuhnle, Gunter G C; Aspinall, Sue M; Kap, Lisanne; Rodwell, Sheila A

    2010-05-01

    N-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids have been associated with reduced colon tumorigenesis. However, their association with colorectal cancer incidence is not conclusive. We investigated the influence of isocaloric replacement of red meat with fatty fish on endogenous nitrosation, inflammation and genotoxicity of faecal water in apparently healthy human volunteers on controlled diets. Fourteen volunteers consumed a high red meat, a combined red meat/fish and a high fish diet for 8 days each. Faecal homogenates were analysed for haem, nitroso compounds (NOC) and calprotectin and associated supernatants for genotoxicity. Both faecal NOC and haem excretion decreased with more fish and less meat in the diet. Nitrosyl iron (FeNO) was the main contributor to total NOC on all diets. The proportion of other NOC increased with more fish and less meat in the diet (P = 0.01), resulting in a non-statistically significant decrease in the proportion of FeNO on the fish diet. There was no statistically significant difference in faecal calprotectin (P = 0.54) and faecal water-induced DNA strand breaks and oxidized purines and pyrimidines between the diets (P > 0.36). Increasing fish intake and reducing the intake of red meat does not seem to have an effect on inflammation and faecal water-induced (oxidative) DNA damage; however, it does reduce the formation of mutagenic and potentially carcinogenic NOC and may as such beneficially affect colorectal risk. PMID:20106932

  9. Biochemistry of postmortem muscle - lessons on mechanisms of meat tenderization.

    PubMed

    Huff Lonergan, Elisabeth; Zhang, Wangang; Lonergan, Steven M

    2010-09-01

    associated with the thick and thin filaments may allow lateral movement or breaks to occur within the sarcomeres of postmortem aged samples. Titin, nebulin, and troponin-T, by their ability to directly interact with, or modulate the interaction between, major proteins of the thick and thin filaments and (or) the Z-line, play key roles in muscle cell integrity. Disruption of these proteins, especially titin and nebulin, could initiate further physicochemical and structural changes that result in myofibril fragmentation and loss of muscle cell integrity, and ultimately in tenderization of the muscle. In order to make real progress in this area, the scientific community must have a global appreciation of how both the structural proteins and the key proteases are influenced by the vast changes that occur during the conversion of muscle to meat. PMID:20566247

  10. Effect of processed and red meat on endogenous nitrosation and DNA damage.

    PubMed

    Joosen, Annemiek M C P; Kuhnle, Gunter G C; Aspinall, Sue M; Barrow, Timothy M; Lecommandeur, Emmanuelle; Azqueta, Amaya; Collins, Andrew R; Bingham, Sheila A

    2009-08-01

    Haem in red meat (RM) stimulates the endogenous production of mutagenic nitroso compounds (NOC). Processed (nitrite-preserved red) meat additionally contains high concentrations of preformed NOC. In two studies, of a fresh RM versus a vegetarian (VEG) diet (six males and six females) and of a nitrite-preserved red meat (PM) versus a VEG diet (5 males and 11 females), we investigated whether processing of meat might increase colorectal cancer risk by stimulating nitrosation and DNA damage. Meat diets contained 420 g (males) or 366 g (females) meat/per day. Faecal homogenates from day 10 onwards were analysed for haem and NOC and associated supernatants for genotoxicity. Means are adjusted for differences in male to female ratios between studies. Faecal NOC concentrations on VEG diets were low (2.6 and 3.5 mmol/g) but significantly higher on meat diets (PM 175 +/- 19 nmol/g versus RM 185 +/- 22 nmol/g; P = 0.75). The RM diet resulted in a larger proportion of nitrosyl iron (RM 78% versus PM 54%; P < 0.0001) and less nitrosothiols (RM 12% versus PM 19%; P < 0.01) and other NOC (RM 10% versus PM 27%; P < 0.0001). There was no statistically significant difference in DNA breaks induced by faecal water (FW) following PM and RM diets (P = 0.80). However, PM resulted in higher levels of oxidized pyrimidines (P < 0.05). Surprisingly, VEG diets resulted in significantly more FW-induced DNA strand breaks than the meat diets (P < 0.05), which needs to be clarified in further studies. Meats cured with nitrite have the same effect as fresh RM on endogenous nitrosation but show increased FW-induced oxidative DNA damage. PMID:19498009

  11. Vegetarianism, low meat consumption and the risk of colorectal cancer in a population based cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Gilsing, Anne M. J.; Schouten, Leo J.; Goldbohm, R. Alexandra; Dagnelie, Pieter C.; van den Brandt, Piet A.; Weijenberg, Matty P.

    2015-01-01

    To study how a vegetarian or low meat diet influences the risk of colorectal cancer compared to a high meat diet, and to assess the explanatory role of factors associated with these diets. In the Netherlands Cohort Study – Meat Investigation Cohort (NLCS-MIC) (cohort of 10,210 individuals including 1040 self-defined vegetarians), subjects completed a baseline questionnaire in 1986, based on which they were classified into vegetarians (n = 635), pescetarians (n = 360), 1 day/week- (n = 1259), 2–5 day/week- (n = 2703), and 6-7 day/week meat consumers (n = 5253). After 20.3 years of follow-up, 437 colorectal cancer cases (307 colon, 92 rectal) were available. A non-significantly decreased risk of CRC for vegetarians, pescetarians, and 1 day/week compared to 6-7 day/week meat consumers was observed (age/sex adjusted Hazard Ratios (HR): 0.73(0.47–1.13), 0.80(0.47–1.39), and 0.72(0.52–1.00), respectively). Most of the differences in HR between these groups could be explained by intake of dietary fiber and soy products. Other (non-)dietary factors characteristic for a vegetarian or low meat diet had negligible individual effects, but attenuated the HRs towards the null when combined. Vegetarians, pescetarians, and 1 day/week meat eaters showed a non-significantly decreased risk of colorectal cancer compared to 6-7 day/week meat consumers, mainly due to differences in dietary pattern other than meat intake. PMID:26316135

  12. Vegetarianism, low meat consumption and the risk of colorectal cancer in a population based cohort study.

    PubMed

    Gilsing, Anne M J; Schouten, Leo J; Goldbohm, R Alexandra; Dagnelie, Pieter C; van den Brandt, Piet A; Weijenberg, Matty P

    2015-01-01

    To study how a vegetarian or low meat diet influences the risk of colorectal cancer compared to a high meat diet, and to assess the explanatory role of factors associated with these diets. In the Netherlands Cohort Study - Meat Investigation Cohort (NLCS-MIC) (cohort of 10,210 individuals including 1040 self-defined vegetarians), subjects completed a baseline questionnaire in 1986, based on which they were classified into vegetarians (n = 635), pescetarians (n = 360), 1 day/week- (n = 1259), 2-5 day/week- (n = 2703), and 6-7 day/week meat consumers (n = 5253). After 20.3 years of follow-up, 437 colorectal cancer cases (307 colon, 92 rectal) were available. A non-significantly decreased risk of CRC for vegetarians, pescetarians, and 1 day/week compared to 6-7 day/week meat consumers was observed (age/sex adjusted Hazard Ratios (HR): 0.73(0.47-1.13), 0.80(0.47-1.39), and 0.72(0.52-1.00), respectively). Most of the differences in HR between these groups could be explained by intake of dietary fiber and soy products. Other (non-)dietary factors characteristic for a vegetarian or low meat diet had negligible individual effects, but attenuated the HRs towards the null when combined. Vegetarians, pescetarians, and 1 day/week meat eaters showed a non-significantly decreased risk of colorectal cancer compared to 6-7 day/week meat consumers, mainly due to differences in dietary pattern other than meat intake. PMID:26316135

  13. Novel trends in development of dietary fiber rich meat products-a critical review.

    PubMed

    Mehta, Nitin; Ahlawat, S S; Sharma, D P; Dabur, R S

    2015-02-01

    Meat and meat products are generally recognized as good sources of high biological value proteins, fat-soluble vitamins, minerals, trace elements and bioactive compounds. Changes in socioeconomic factors in recent years have increased the consumer's preference for ready to eat foods including meat products. The processing of meat and meat products leads to generation of many functional compounds beneficial to human health but most of those foods are rich in fat, added salts but deficient in complex carbohydrates like dietary fiber and pose a health hazard that somehow is proved to be a predisposing factor for cardiovascular diseases, colon cancer, obesity including diabetes mellitus. With increasing consciousness among consumers about their nutrition and well being, there is a growing concern over nutritional diseases of affluence. Therefore an increase in dietary fiber inclusion in daily diet has been recommended. For adults, the recommended acceptable intakes of dietary fiber are 28-36 g/day, 70-80 % of which must be insoluble fiber. The insoluble fraction of dietary fiber has been related to intestinal regulation whereas soluble fiber is associated with decrease in cholesterol level and absorption of intestinal glucose. So incorporation of dietary fibers from different sources in meat products would help to enhance their desirability. Dietary fiber sources are generally agricultural byproducts that are comparatively cheap and incorporation in meat products reduces its overall cost. Whole grains and cereal brans are the rich source of insoluble fiber and pectins, gums, starch and other storage polysaccharides have high content of the soluble fraction. With this background, the effect of various dietary fibers on the quality attributes of meat and meat products with its physiological role has been reviewed here. PMID:25694673

  14. A survey of commercially available broilers marketed as organic, free-range, and conventional broilers for cooked meat yields, meat composition, and relative value.

    PubMed

    Husak, R L; Sebranek, J G; Bregendahl, K

    2008-11-01

    The objective of this survey was to investigate qualitative and quantitative properties of meat from organic, free-range, and conventional broilers as currently provided to consumers. Fifteen broilers from 4 suppliers of each type were evaluated for raw meat yield, cooked meat yield, proximate composition, pH, color, lipid oxidation, fatty acid composition, and sensory attributes. Organic broilers yielded more dark (thigh) meat (P < 0.05) than free-range or conventional, when compared on a raw-meat basis, but conventional and free-range broilers yielded more (P < 0.05) cooked light (breast) meat than organic. Protein content of organic breast and thigh meat was greater (P < 0.05) than conventional in the raw and the cooked meat comparisons. The pH of breast meat from organic broilers was higher (P < 0.05) than free-range or conventional. Organic breast and thigh meat was less yellow (P < 0.05) than free-range or conventional. Fatty acid analysis showed that organic breasts and thighs were lower (P < 0.05) in saturated and monounsaturated fatty acids and higher (P < 0.05) in polyunsaturated fatty acids than free-range and conventional broilers. Shear force measurements were less (P < 0.05) for both breast and thigh meat from conventional broilers relative to free-range and organic broilers. Sensory panel results indicated that thighs from conventional broilers were more tender (P < 0.05) and less chewy (P < 0.05) than thighs from free-range and organic broilers, whereas other sensory properties did not differ. At the time of the study, March through May of 2006, the average retail prices for US broilers were USD 3.19, USD 2.78, and USD 1.29 per pound (USD 7.03, USD 6.13, and USD 2.84/kg) for organic, free-range, and conventional, respectively. Whereas a difference in the fatty acid composition was the largest difference observed between retail broilers in this survey, it is important to note that diets and production environments within the study were not controlled

  15. Roles of the International Council for Laboratory Animal Science (ICLAS) and International Association of Colleges of Laboratory Animal Medicine (IACLAM) in the Global Organization and Support of 3Rs Advances in Laboratory Animal Science

    PubMed Central

    Turner, Patricia V; Pekow, Cynthia; Clark, Judy MacArthur; Vergara, Patri; Bayne, Kathryn; White, William J; Kurosawa, Tsutomu Miki; Seok, Seung-Hyeok; Baneux, Philippe

    2015-01-01

    Practical implementation of the 3Rs at national and regional levels around the world requires long-term commitment, backing, and coordinated efforts by international associations for laboratory animal medicine and science, including the International Association of Colleges of Laboratory Animal Medicine (IACLAM) and the International Council for Laboratory Animal Science (ICLAS). Together these organizations support the efforts of regional organization and communities of laboratory animal science professionals as well as the development of local associations and professional colleges that promote the training and continuing education of research facility personnel and veterinary specialists. The recent formation of a World Organization for Animal Health (OIE) Collaborating Center for Laboratory Animal Science and Welfare emphasizes the need for research into initiatives promoting laboratory animal welfare, particularly in emerging economies and regions with nascent associations of laboratory animal science. PMID:25836964

  16. Roles of the International Council for Laboratory Animal Science (ICLAS) and International Association of Colleges of Laboratory Animal Medicine (IACLAM) in the Global Organization and Support of 3Rs Advances in Laboratory Animal Science.

    PubMed

    Turner, Patricia V; Pekow, Cynthia; Clark, Judy MacArthur; Vergara, Patri; Bayne, Kathryn; White, William J; Kurosawa, Tsutomu Miki; Seok, Seung-Hyeok; Baneux, Philippe

    2015-03-01

    Practical implementation of the 3Rs at national and regional levels around the world requires long-term commitment, backing, and coordinated efforts by international associations for laboratory animal medicine and science, including the International Association of Colleges of Laboratory Animal Medicine (IACLAM) and the International Council for Laboratory Animal Science (ICLAS). Together these organizations support the efforts of regional organization and communities of laboratory animal science professionals as well as the development of local associations and professional colleges that promote the training and continuing education of research facility personnel and veterinary specialists. The recent formation of a World Organization for Animal Health (OIE) Collaborating Center for Laboratory Animal Science and Welfare emphasizes the need for research into initiatives promoting laboratory animal welfare, particularly in emerging economies and regions with nascent associations of laboratory animal science. PMID:25836964

  17. Meat consumption and mortality - results from the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Recently, some US cohorts have shown a moderate association between red and processed meat consumption and mortality supporting the results of previous studies among vegetarians. The aim of this study was to examine the association of red meat, processed meat, and poultry consumption with the risk of early death in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC). Methods Included in the analysis were 448,568 men and women without prevalent cancer, stroke, or myocardial infarction, and with complete information on diet, smoking, physical activity and body mass index, who were between 35 and 69 years old at baseline. Cox proportional hazards regression was used to examine the association of meat consumption with all-cause and cause-specific mortality. Results As of June 2009, 26,344 deaths were observed. After multivariate adjustment, a high consumption of red meat was related to higher all-cause mortality (hazard ratio (HR) = 1.14, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.01 to 1.28, 160+ versus 10 to 19.9 g/day), and the association was stronger for processed meat (HR = 1.44, 95% CI 1.24 to 1.66, 160+ versus 10 to 19.9 g/day). After correction for measurement error, higher all-cause mortality remained significant only for processed meat (HR = 1.18, 95% CI 1.11 to 1.25, per 50 g/d). We estimated that 3.3% (95% CI 1.5% to 5.0%) of deaths could be prevented if all participants had a processed meat consumption of less than 20 g/day. Significant associations with processed meat intake were observed for cardiovascular diseases, cancer, and 'other causes of death'. The consumption of poultry was not related to all-cause mortality. Conclusions The results of our analysis support a moderate positive association between processed meat consumption and mortality, in particular due to cardiovascular diseases, but also to cancer. PMID:23497300

  18. The occurrence of semicarbazide in the meat and shell of Bangladeshi fresh-water shrimp.

    PubMed

    McCracken, Robert; Hanna, Bob; Ennis, David; Cantley, Lynne; Faulkner, Dermot; Kennedy, D Glenn

    2013-02-15

    There is evidence that semicarbazide (SEM), a marker for the banned nitrofuran nitrofurazone, can arise from other, unrelated sources. Recently, Belgium rejected 54 consignments of Bangladeshi freshwater shrimp (Macrobrachium rosenbergii), following a laboratory decision to test meat and exoskeleton combined. To study the possible natural occurrence of SEM in wild shrimp, samples were collected and analysed from 29 sites across Bangladesh. SEM (<1.0 μg/kg) was detected in ∼65% of meat samples. However, SEM concentrations were approximately 100 times higher in the exoskeleton, and were unrelated to sampling location, strongly suggesting natural occurrence. In meat, most SEM was surface-associated. When the shrimp was shelled, some of the epidermal layer (which synthesises new exoskeleton) remained with the shell and some remained with the meat--leading to differing levels of natural SEM on the shrimp surface. This has implications for the use of SEM and the analytical strategy used to control nitrofuran use. PMID:23194563

  19. Quantification of peptides released during in vitro digestion of cooked meat.

    PubMed

    Sayd, T; Chambon, C; Santé-Lhoutellier, V

    2016-04-15

    We aimed to identify and quantify the peptides generated during in vitro digestion of cooked meat by liquid chromatography coupled with high resolution mass spectrometer. A total of 940 non-redundant peptides in the gastric compartment and 989 non-redundant peptides in the intestinal compartment were quantified and identified. Among the 71 different proteins identified, 43 meat proteins were found in the two digestive compartments, 20 proteins were specific to the gastric compartment and 8 proteins to the intestinal compartment. In terms of estimation, the proteins involved in muscle contraction and structure were preferentially enzymatically hydrolyzed in the small intestine. The effect of cooking provided different but less clear patterns of digestion. To the best of our knowledge, this constitutes the highest number of peptides identified in beef meat digests and provides a comprehensive database for meat protein digestion associated with cooking conditions. Such quantitative and qualitative differences may have important nutritional consequences. PMID:26675873

  20. Is red meat required for the prevention of iron deficiency among children and adolescents?

    PubMed

    Savva, Savvas C; Kafatos, Anthony

    2014-01-01

    Iron deficiency remains the most common nutritional deficiency worldwide despite the fact that global prevention is a high priority. Recent guidelines suggest intake of red meat both in infants and toddlers to prevent iron deficiency. However frequent consumption of red and processed meat may be associated with an increased risk for cancer, cardiovascular disease and diabetes. Evidence also suggests that even in vegetarian diets or diets with little consumption of white or red meat, iron status may not be adversely affected. The Eastern Orthodox Christian Church dietary recommendations which is a type of periodic vegetarian diet, has proved beneficial for the prevention of iron deficiency and avoidance of excess iron intake. This paper aims to provide examples of meals for children and adolescents that may be sufficient to meet age specific iron requirements without consumption of red meat beyond the recommended consumption which is once or twice per month. PMID:25088337

  1. Trends in health sciences library and information science research: an analysis of research publications in the Bulletin of the Medical Library Association and Journal of the Medical Library Association from 1991 to 2007*

    PubMed Central

    Gore, Sally A.; Nordberg, Judith M.; Palmer, Lisa A.

    2009-01-01

    Objective: This study analyzed trends in research activity as represented in the published research in the leading peer-reviewed professional journal for health sciences librarianship. Methodology: Research articles were identified from the Bulletin of the Medical Library Association and Journal of the Medical Library Association (1991–2007). Using content analysis and bibliometric techniques, data were collected for each article on the (1) subject, (2) research method, (3) analytical technique used, (4) number of authors, (5) number of citations, (6) first author affiliation, and (7) funding source. The results were compared to a previous study, covering the period 1966 to 1990, to identify changes over time. Results: Of the 930 articles examined, 474 (51%) were identified as research articles. Survey (n = 174, 37.1%) was the most common methodology employed, quantitative descriptive statistics (n = 298, 63.5%) the most used analytical technique, and applied topics (n = 332, 70%) the most common type of subject studied. The majority of first authors were associated with an academic health sciences library (n = 264, 55.7%). Only 27.4% (n = 130) of studies identified a funding source. Conclusion: This study's findings demonstrate that progress is being made in health sciences librarianship research. There is, however, room for improvement in terms of research methodologies used, proportion of applied versus theoretical research, and elimination of barriers to conducting research for practicing librarians. PMID:19626146

  2. Poultry breast meat attributes and marination performance

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The relationship between intrinsic meat attributes (pH, color, weight, and postmortem age) and marination performance (marinade uptake and retention, and final product yield) were investigated in poultry meat using broiler breast fillets (pectoralis major) as a model. Results showed that marinade up...

  3. Meat Cutting Classes--Popular with Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mostad, James; Carpentier, Dale

    1976-01-01

    Presents a session by session description of a "meats" class, which is offered to high school students (9-week period) and adults (8-week period). The classes cover identification of cuts (beef, sheep, hogs, and veal; grades and grading of live animals and carcasses; economics of butchering and cutting your own meat; actual slaughtering; and the…

  4. Meat and Poultry Processing. Teacher Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oklahoma State Dept. of Vocational and Technical Education, Stillwater. Curriculum and Instructional Materials Center.

    This curriculum guide contains instructional materials for a program that provides students with job skills in meat and poultry processing. The curriculum consists of 10 units that cover the following material: orientation to meat and poultry processing; maintaining plant facilities; equipment and equipment maintenance; purchasing livestock for…

  5. Science Insights: News and Commentary from the National Association of Scholars. Volume 7, Issue 7

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Association of Scholars, 2004

    2004-01-01

    This issue of Science Insights contains the following sections: (1) State Standards in Education, (2) Fingerprints (3), Indoctrination at Indiana University, (4) Tuskegee Experiments, and (5) Latest Update on Kennewick Man.

  6. The Netherlands Cohort Study – Meat Investigation Cohort; a population-based cohort over-represented with vegetarians, pescetarians and low meat consumers

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Vegetarian diets have been associated with lower risk of chronic disease, but little is known about the health effects of low meat diets and the reliability of self-reported vegetarian status. We aimed to establish an analytical cohort over-represented with vegetarians, pescetarians and 1 day/week meat consumers, and to describe their lifestyle and dietary characteristics. In addition, we were able to compare self-reported vegetarians with vegetarians whose status has been confirmed by their response on the extensive food frequency questionnaire (FFQ). Study methods Embedded within the Netherlands Cohort Study (n = 120,852; including 1150 self-reported vegetarians), the NLCS-Meat Investigation Cohort (NLCS-MIC) was defined by combining all FFQ-confirmed-vegetarians (n = 702), pescetarians (n = 394), and 1 day/week meat consumers (n = 1,396) from the total cohort with a random sample of 2–5 days/week- and 6–7 days/week meat consumers (n = 2,965 and 5,648, respectively). Results Vegetarians, pescetarians, and 1 day/week meat consumers had more favorable dietary intakes (e.g. higher fiber/vegetables) and lifestyle characteristics (e.g. lower smoking rates) compared to regular meat consumers in both sexes. Vegetarians adhered to their diet longer than pescetarians and 1 day/week meat consumers. 75% of vegetarians with a prevalent cancer at baseline had changed to this diet after diagnosis. 50% of self-reported vegetarians reported meat or fish consumption on the FFQ. Although the misclassification that occurred in terms of diet and lifestyle when merely relying on self-reporting was relatively small, the impact on associations with disease risk remains to be studied. Conclusion We established an analytical cohort over-represented with persons at the lower end of the meat consumption spectrum which should facilitate prospective studies of major cancers and causes of death using ≥20.3 years of follow-up. PMID:24289207

  7. Association between Organizational Commitment and Personality Traits of Faculty Members of Ahvaz Jundishapur University of Medical Sciences

    PubMed Central

    Khiavi, Farzad Faraji; Dashti, Rezvan; Mokhtari, Saeedeh

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Individual characteristics are important factors influencing organizational commitment. Also, committed human resources can lead organizations to performance improvement as well as personal and organizational achievements. This research aimed to determine the association between organizational commitment and personality traits among faculty members of Ahvaz Jundishapur University of Medical Sciences. Methods the research population of this cross-sectional study was the faculty members of Ahvaz Jundishapur University of Medical Sciences (Ahvaz, Iran). The sample size was determined to be 83. Data collection instruments were the Allen and Meyer questionnaire for organizational commitment and Neo for characteristics’ features. The data were analyzed through Pearson’s product-moment correlation and the independent samples t-test, ANOVA, and simple linear regression analysis (SLR) by SPSS. Results Continuance commitment showed a significant positive association with neuroticism, extroversion, agreeableness, and conscientiousness. Normative commitment showed a significant positive association with conscientiousness and a negative association with extroversion (p = 0.001). Openness had a positive association with affective commitment. Openness and agreeableness, among the five characteristics’ features, had the most effect on organizational commitment, as indicated by simple linear regression analysis. Conclusion Faculty members’ characteristics showed a significant association with their organizational commitment. Determining appropriate characteristic criteria for faculty members may lead to employing committed personnel to accomplish the University’s objectives and tasks. PMID:27123222

  8. Differences in sociocultural environment perceptions associated with gender in science classrooms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jegede, Olugbemiro J.; Akinsola Okebukola, Peter

    An amount-of-learning outcome variable has been attributed to the environment in which teaching and learning are conducted. Studies carried out so far have, however, not focused on the sociocultural aspect of the classroom environment, which has been theorized to have potential influence on students' learning. The intent of this study was to examine the influence of five aspects of the sociocultural environment in science classes with particular reference to how these are perceived by boys and girls. The 30-item Socio-Cultural Environment Scale (SCES) developed by Jegede and Okebukola (1988) was used to collect data from 707 Nigerian secondary school students in Classes Four and Five (Grades 10 and 11, respectively). Authoritarianism, goal structure, African worldview, societal expectation, and sacredness of science were the five subscales studied. Sex differences were recorded in the societal expectation subscale. Most of the female subjects are of the opinion that society has a negative or low regard for their ability to do science and this has an effect on their motivation to undertake science-based careers. The reverse is true for boys. This perception is in agreement with the literature on sex differences in science education and highlights the social pressure that brings about subject preferences. The implications of these findings for science teaching and further research are highlighted.

  9. SEARCH FOR GRAVITATIONAL WAVES ASSOCIATED WITH GAMMA-RAY BURSTS DURING LIGO SCIENCE RUN 6 AND VIRGO SCIENCE RUNS 2 AND 3

    SciTech Connect

    Abadie, J.; Abbott, B. P.; Abbott, R.; Adhikari, R. X.; Ajith, P.; Anderson, S. B.; Arai, K.; Abbott, T. D.; Abernathy, M.; Accadia, T.; Adams, C.; Affeldt, C.; Allen, B.; Agathos, M.; Agatsuma, K.; Ceron, E. Amador; Anderson, W. G.; Amariutei, D.; Arain, M. A.; Collaboration: LIGO Scientific Collaboration; Virgo Collaboration; and others

    2012-11-20

    We present the results of a search for gravitational waves associated with 154 gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) that were detected by satellite-based gamma-ray experiments in 2009-2010, during the sixth LIGO science run and the second and third Virgo science runs. We perform two distinct searches: a modeled search for coalescences of either two neutron stars or a neutron star and black hole, and a search for generic, unmodeled gravitational-wave bursts. We find no evidence for gravitational-wave counterparts, either with any individual GRB in this sample or with the population as a whole. For all GRBs we place lower bounds on the distance to the progenitor, under the optimistic assumption of a gravitational-wave emission energy of 10{sup -2} M {sub Sun} c {sup 2} at 150 Hz, with a median limit of 17 Mpc. For short-hard GRBs we place exclusion distances on binary neutron star and neutron-star-black-hole progenitors, using astrophysically motivated priors on the source parameters, with median values of 16 Mpc and 28 Mpc, respectively. These distance limits, while significantly larger than for a search that is not aided by GRB satellite observations, are not large enough to expect a coincidence with a GRB. However, projecting these exclusions to the sensitivities of Advanced LIGO and Virgo, which should begin operation in 2015, we find that the detection of gravitational waves associated with GRBs will become quite possible.

  10. Search for Gravitational Waves Associated with Gamma-Ray Bursts during LIGO Science Run 6 and Virgo Science Runs 2 and 3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abadie, J.; Abbott, B. P.; Abbott, R.; Abbott, T. D.; Abernathy, M.; Accadia, T.; Acernese, F.; Adams, C.; Adhikari, R. X.; Affeldt, C.; Agathos, M.; Agatsuma, K.; Ajith, P.; Allen, B.; Amador Ceron, E.; Amariutei, D.; Anderson, S. B.; Anderson, W. G.; Arai, K.; Arain, M. A.; Araya, M. C.; Aston, S. M.; Astone, P.; Atkinson, D.; Aufmuth, P.; Aulbert, C.; Aylott, B. E.; Babak, S.; Baker, P.; Ballardin, G.; Ballmer, S.; Barayoga, J. C. B.; Barker, D.; Barone, F.; Barr, B.; Barsotti, L.; Barsuglia, M.; Barton, M. A.; Bartos, I.; Bassiri, R.; Bastarrika, M.; Basti, A.; Batch, J.; Bauchrowitz, J.; Bauer, Th. S.; Bebronne, M.; Beck, D.; Behnke, B.; Bejger, M.; Beker, M. G.; Bell, A. S.; Belopolski, I.; Benacquista, M.; Berliner, J. M.; Bertolini, A.; Betzwieser, J.; Beveridge, N.; Beyersdorf, P. T.; Bilenko, I. A.; Billingsley, G.; Birch, J.; Biswas, R.; Bitossi, M.; Bizouard, M. A.; Black, E.; Blackburn, J. K.; Blackburn, L.; Blair, D.; Bland, B.; Blom, M.; Bock, O.; Bodiya, T. P.; Bogan, C.; Bondarescu, R.; Bondu, F.; Bonelli, L.; Bonnand, R.; Bork, R.; Born, M.; Boschi, V.; Bose, S.; Bosi, L.; Bouhou, B.; Braccini, S.; Bradaschia, C.; Brady, P. R.; Braginsky, V. B.; Branchesi, M.; Brau, J. E.; Breyer, J.; Briant, T.; Bridges, D. O.; Brillet, A.; Brinkmann, M.; Brisson, V.; Britzger, M.; Brooks, A. F.; Brown, D. A.; Bulik, T.; Bulten, H. J.; Buonanno, A.; Burguet-Castell, J.; Buskulic, D.; Buy, C.; Byer, R. L.; Cadonati, L.; Calloni, E.; Camp, J. B.; Campsie, P.; Cannizzo, J.; Cannon, K.; Canuel, B.; Cao, J.; Capano, C. D.; Carbognani, F.; Carbone, L.; Caride, S.; Caudill, S.; Cavaglià, M.; Cavalier, F.; Cavalieri, R.; Cella, G.; Cepeda, C.; Cesarini, E.; Chaibi, O.; Chalermsongsak, T.; Charlton, P.; Chassande-Mottin, E.; Chelkowski, S.; Chen, W.; Chen, X.; Chen, Y.; Chincarini, A.; Chiummo, A.; Cho, H. S.; Chow, J.; Christensen, N.; Chua, S. S. Y.; Chung, C. T. Y.; Chung, S.; Ciani, G.; Clara, F.; Clark, D. E.; Clark, J.; Clayton, J. H.; Cleva, F.; Coccia, E.; Cohadon, P.-F.; Colacino, C. N.; Colas, J.; Colla, A.; Colombini, M.; Conte, A.; Conte, R.; Cook, D.; Corbitt, T. R.; Cordier, M.; Cornish, N.; Corsi, A.; Costa, C. A.; Coughlin, M.; Coulon, J.-P.; Couvares, P.; Coward, D. M.; Cowart, M.; Coyne, D. C.; Creighton, J. D. E.; Creighton, T. D.; Cruise, A. M.; Cumming, A.; Cunningham, L.; Cuoco, E.; Cutler, R. M.; Dahl, K.; Danilishin, S. L.; Dannenberg, R.; D'Antonio, S.; Danzmann, K.; Dattilo, V.; Daudert, B.; Daveloza, H.; Davier, M.; Daw, E. J.; Day, R.; Dayanga, T.; De Rosa, R.; DeBra, D.; Debreczeni, G.; Degallaix, J.; Del Pozzo, W.; del Prete, M.; Dent, T.; Dergachev, V.; DeRosa, R.; DeSalvo, R.; Dhurandhar, S.; Di Fiore, L.; Di Lieto, A.; Di Palma, I.; Emilio, M. Di Paolo; Di Virgilio, A.; Díaz, M.; Dietz, A.; Donovan, F.; Dooley, K. L.; Drago, M.; Drever, R. W. P.; Driggers, J. C.; Du, Z.; Dumas, J.-C.; Dwyer, S.; Eberle, T.; Edgar, M.; Edwards, M.; Effler, A.; Ehrens, P.; Endrőczi, G.; Engel, R.; Etzel, T.; Evans, K.; Evans, M.; Evans, T.; Factourovich, M.; Fafone, V.; Fairhurst, S.; Fan, Y.; Farr, B. F.; Fazi, D.; Fehrmann, H.; Feldbaum, D.; Feroz, F.; Ferrante, I.; Fidecaro, F.; Finn, L. S.; Fiori, I.; Fisher, R. P.; Flaminio, R.; Flanigan, M.; Foley, S.; Forsi, E.; Forte, L. A.; Fotopoulos, N.; Fournier, J.-D.; Franc, J.; Franco, S.; Frasca, S.; Frasconi, F.; Frede, M.; Frei, M.; Frei, Z.; Freise, A.; Frey, R.; Fricke, T. T.; Friedrich, D.; Fritschel, P.; Frolov, V. V.; Fujimoto, M.-K.; Fulda, P. J.; Fyffe, M.; Gair, J.; Galimberti, M.; Gammaitoni, L.; Garcia, J.; Garufi, F.; Gáspár, M. E.; Gehrels, N.; Gemme, G.; Geng, R.; Genin, E.; Gennai, A.; Gergely, L. Á.; Ghosh, S.; Giaime, J. A.; Giampanis, S.; Giardina, K. D.; Giazotto, A.; Gil-Casanova, S.; Gill, C.; Gleason, J.; Goetz, E.; Goggin, L. M.; González, G.; Gorodetsky, M. L.; Goßler, S.; Gouaty, R.; Graef, C.; Graff, P. B.; Granata, M.; Grant, A.; Gras, S.; Gray, C.; Gray, N.; Greenhalgh, R. J. S.; Gretarsson, A. M.; Greverie, C.; Grosso, R.; Grote, H.; Grunewald, S.; Guidi, G. M.; Guido, C.; Gupta, R.; Gustafson, E. K.; Gustafson, R.; Ha, T.; Hallam, J. M.; Hammer, D.; Hammond, G.; Hanks, J.; Hanna, C.; Hanson, J.; Hardt, A.; Harms, J.; Harry, G. M.; Harry, I. W.; Harstad, E. D.; Hartman, M. T.; Haughian, K.; Hayama, K.; Hayau, J.-F.; Heefner, J.; Heidmann, A.; Heintze, M. C.; Heitmann, H.; Hello, P.; Hendry, M. A.; Heng, I. S.; Heptonstall, A. W.; Herrera, V.; Hewitson, M.; Hild, S.; Hoak, D.; Hodge, K. A.; Holt, K.; Holtrop, M.; Hong, T.; Hooper, S.; Hosken, D. J.; Hough, J.; Howell, E. J.; Hughey, B.; Husa, S.; Huttner, S. H.; Huynh-Dinh, T.; Ingram, D. R.; Inta, R.; Isogai, T.; Ivanov, A.; Izumi, K.; Jacobson, M.; James, E.; Jang, Y. J.; Jaranowski, P.; Jesse, E.; Johnson, W. W.; Jones, D. I.; Jones, G.; Jones, R.; Jonker, R. J. G.; Ju, L.; Kalmus, P.; Kalogera, V.; Kandhasamy, S.; Kang, G.; Kanner, J. B.; Kasturi, R.; Katsavounidis, E.; Katzman, W.; Kaufer, H.; Kawabe, K.; Kawamura, S.; Kawazoe, F.; Kelley, D.; Kells, W.; Keppel, D. G.; Keresztes, Z.; Khalaidovski, A.; Khalili, F. Y.; Khazanov, E. A.; Kim, B. K.; Kim, C.; Kim, H.; Kim, K.; Kim, N.; Kim, Y. M.; King, P. J.; Kinzel, D. L.; Kissel, J. S.; Klimenko, S.; Kokeyama, K.; Kondrashov, V.; Koranda, S.; Korth, W. Z.; Kowalska, I.; Kozak, D.; Kranz, O.; Kringel, V.; Krishnamurthy, S.; Krishnan, B.; Królak, A.; Kuehn, G.; Kumar, P.; Kumar, R.; Kwee, P.; Lam, P. K.; Landry, M.; Lantz, B.; Lastzka, N.; Lawrie, C.; Lazzarini, A.; Leaci, P.; Lee, C. H.; Lee, H. K.; Lee, H. M.; Leong, J. R.; Leonor, I.; Leroy, N.; Letendre, N.; Li, J.; Li, T. G. F.; Liguori, N.; Lindquist, P. E.; Liu, Y.; Liu, Z.; Lockerbie, N. A.; Lodhia, D.; Lorenzini, M.; Loriette, V.; Lormand, M.; Losurdo, G.; Lough, J.; Luan, J.; Lubinski, M.; Lück, H.; Lundgren, A. P.; Macdonald, E.; Machenschalk, B.; MacInnis, M.; Macleod, D. M.; Mageswaran, M.; Mailand, K.; Majorana, E.; Maksimovic, I.; Malvezzi, V.; Man, N.; Mandel, I.; Mandic, V.; Mantovani, M.; Marandi, A.; Marchesoni, F.; Marion, F.; Márka, S.; Márka, Z.; Markosyan, A.; Maros, E.; Marque, J.; Martelli, F.; Martin, I. W.; Martin, R. M.; Marx, J. N.; Mason, K.; Masserot, A.; Matichard, F.; Matone, L.; Matzner, R. A.; Mavalvala, N.; Mazzolo, G.; McCarthy, R.; McClelland, D. E.; McGuire, S. C.; McIntyre, G.; McIver, J.; McKechan, D. J. A.; McWilliams, S.; Meadors, G. D.; Mehmet, M.; Meier, T.; Melatos, A.; Melissinos, A. C.; Mendell, G.; Mercer, R. A.; Meshkov, S.; Messenger, C.; Meyer, M. S.; Miao, H.; Michel, C.; Milano, L.; Miller, J.; Minenkov, Y.; Mitrofanov, V. P.; Mitselmakher, G.; Mittleman, R.; Miyakawa, O.; Moe, B.; Mohan, M.; Mohanty, S. D.; Mohapatra, S. R. P.; Moraru, D.; Moreno, G.; Morgado, N.; Morgia, A.; Mori, T.; Morriss, S. R.; Mosca, S.; Mossavi, K.; Mours, B.; Mow-Lowry, C. M.; Mueller, C. L.; Mueller, G.; Mukherjee, S.; Mullavey, A.; Müller-Ebhardt, H.; Munch, J.; Murphy, D.; Murray, P. G.; Mytidis, A.; Nash, T.; Naticchioni, L.; Necula, V.; Nelson, J.; Neri, I.; Newton, G.; Nguyen, T.; Nishizawa, A.; Nitz, A.; Nocera, F.; Nolting, D.; Normandin, M. E.; Nuttall, L.; Ochsner, E.; O'Dell, J.; Oelker, E.; Ogin, G. H.; Oh, J. J.; Oh, S. H.; O'Reilly, B.; O'Shaughnessy, R.; Osthelder, C.; Ott, C. D.; Ottaway, D. J.; Ottens, R. S.; Overmier, H.; Owen, B. J.; Page, A.; Palladino, L.; Palomba, C.; Pan, Y.; Pankow, C.; Paoletti, F.; Paoletti, R.; Papa, M. A.; Parisi, M.; Pasqualetti, A.; Passaquieti, R.; Passuello, D.; Patel, P.; Pedraza, M.; Peiris, P.; Pekowsky, L.; Penn, S.; Perreca, A.; Persichetti, G.; Phelps, M.; Pichot, M.; Pickenpack, M.; Piergiovanni, F.; Pietka, M.; Pinard, L.; Pinto, I. M.; Pitkin, M.; Pletsch, H. J.; Plissi, M. V.; Poggiani, R.; Pöld, J.; Postiglione, F.; Prato, M.; Predoi, V.; Prestegard, T.; Price, L. R.; Prijatelj, M.; Principe, M.; Privitera, S.; Prix, R.; Prodi, G. A.; Prokhorov, L. G.; Puncken, O.; Punturo, M.; Puppo, P.; Quetschke, V.; Quitzow-James, R.; Raab, F. J.; Rabeling, D. S.; Rácz, I.; Radkins, H.; Raffai, P.; Rakhmanov, M.; Rankins, B.; Rapagnani, P.; Raymond, V.; Re, V.; Redwine, K.; Reed, C. M.; Reed, T.; Regimbau, T.; Reid, S.; Reitze, D. H.; Ricci, F.; Riesen, R.; Riles, K.; Robertson, N. A.; Robinet, F.; Robinson, C.; Robinson, E. L.; Rocchi, A.; Roddy, S.; Rodriguez, C.; Rodruck, M.; Rolland, L.; Rollins, J. G.; Romano, J. D.; Romano, R.; Romie, J. H.; Rosińska, D.; Röver, C.; Rowan, S.; Rüdiger, A.; Ruggi, P.; Ryan, K.; Sainathan, P.; Salemi, F.; Sammut, L.; Sandberg, V.; Sannibale, V.; Santamaría, L.; Santiago-Prieto, I.; Santostasi, G.; Sassolas, B.; Sathyaprakash, B. S.; Sato, S.; Saulson, P. R.; Savage, R. L.; Schilling, R.; Schnabel, R.; Schofield, R. M. S.; Schreiber, E.; Schulz, B.; Schutz, B. F.; Schwinberg, P.; Scott, J.; Scott, S. M.; Seifert, F.; Sellers, D.; Sentenac, D.; Sergeev, A.; Shaddock, D. A.; Shaltev, M.; Shapiro, B.; Shawhan, P.; Shoemaker, D. H.; Sibley, A.; Siemens, X.; Sigg, D.; Singer, A.; Singer, L.; Sintes, A. M.; Skelton, G. R.; Slagmolen, B. J. J.; Slutsky, J.; Smith, J. R.; Smith, M. R.; Smith, R. J. E.; Smith-Lefebvre, N. D.; Somiya, K.; Sorazu, B.; Soto, J.; Speirits, F. C.; Sperandio, L.; Stefszky, M.; Stein, A. J.; Stein, L. C.; Steinert, E.; Steinlechner, J.; Steinlechner, S.; Steplewski, S.; Stochino, A.; Stone, R.; Strain, K. A.; Strigin, S. E.; Stroeer, A. S.; Sturani, R.; Stuver, A. L.; Summerscales, T. Z.; Sung, M.; Susmithan, S.; Sutton, P. J.; Swinkels, B.; Tacca, M.; Taffarello, L.; Talukder, D.; Tanner, D. B.; Tarabrin, S. P.; Taylor, J. R.; Taylor, R.; ter Braack, A. P. M.; Thomas, P.; Thorne, K. A.; Thorne, K. S.; Thrane, E.; Thüring, A.; Tokmakov, K. V.; Tomlinson, C.; Toncelli, A.; Tonelli, M.; Torre, O.; Torres, C.; Torrie, C. I.; Tournefier, E.; Tucker, E.; Travasso, F.; Traylor, G.; Tseng, K.; Ugolini, D.; Vahlbruch, H.; Vajente, G.; van den Brand, J. F. J.; Van Den Broeck, C.; van der Putten, S.; van Veggel, A. A.; Vass, S.; Vasuth, M.; Vaulin, R.; Vavoulidis, M.; Vecchio, A.; Vedovato, G.; Veitch, J.; Veitch, P. J.; Veltkamp, C.; Verkindt, D.; Vetrano, F.; Viceré, A.; Villar, A. E.; Vinet, J.-Y.; Vitale, S.; Vocca, H.; Vorvick, C.; Vyatchanin, S. P.; Wade, A.; Wade, L.; Wade, M.; Waldman, S. J.; Wallace, L.; Wan, Y.; Wang, M.; Wang, X.; Wang, Z.; Wanner, A.; Ward, R. L.; Was, M.; Weinert, M.; Weinstein, A. J.; Weiss, R.; Wen, L.; Wessels, P.; West, M.; Westphal, T.; Wette, K.; Whelan, J. T.; Whitcomb, S. E.; White, D. J.; Whiting, B. F.; Wilkinson, C.; Willems, P. A.; Williams, L.; Williams, R.; Willke, B.; Winkelmann, L.; Winkler, W.; Wipf, C. C.; Wiseman, A. G.; Wittel, H.; Woan, G.; Wooley, R.; Worden, J.; Yakushin, I.; Yamamoto, H.; Yamamoto, K.; Yancey, C. C.; Yang, H.; Yeaton-Massey, D.; Yoshida, S.; Yu, P.; Yvert, M.; Zadrożny, A.; Zanolin, M.; Zendri, J.-P.; Zhang, F.; Zhang, L.; Zhang, W.; Zhao, C.; Zotov, N.; Zucker, M. E.; Zweizig, J.; LIGO Scientific Collaboration; Virgo Collaboration; Briggs, M. S.; Connaughton, V.; Hurley, K. C.; Jenke, P. A.; von Kienlin, A.; Rau, A.; Zhang, X.-L.

    2012-11-01

    We present the results of a search for gravitational waves associated with 154 gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) that were detected by satellite-based gamma-ray experiments in 2009-2010, during the sixth LIGO science run and the second and third Virgo science runs. We perform two distinct searches: a modeled search for coalescences of either two neutron stars or a neutron star and black hole, and a search for generic, unmodeled gravitational-wave bursts. We find no evidence for gravitational-wave counterparts, either with any individual GRB in this sample or with the population as a whole. For all GRBs we place lower bounds on the distance to the progenitor, under the optimistic assumption of a gravitational-wave emission energy of 10-2 M ⊙ c 2 at 150 Hz, with a median limit of 17 Mpc. For short-hard GRBs we place exclusion distances on binary neutron star and neutron-star-black-hole progenitors, using astrophysically motivated priors on the source parameters, with median values of 16 Mpc and 28 Mpc, respectively. These distance limits, while significantly larger than for a search that is not aided by GRB satellite observations, are not large enough to expect a coincidence with a GRB. However, projecting these exclusions to the sensitivities of Advanced LIGO and Virgo, which should begin operation in 2015, we find that the detection of gravitational waves associated with GRBs will become quite possible.

  11. Red meat intake, NAT2, and risk of colorectal cancer: A pooled analysis of 11 studies

    PubMed Central

    Ananthakrishnan, Ashwin N.; Du, Mengmeng; Berndt, Sonja I.; Brenner, Hermann; Caan, Bette J.; Casey, Graham; Chang-Claude, Jenny; Duggan, David; Fuchs, Charles S.; Gallinger, Steven; Giovannucci, Edward L.; Harrison, Tabitha A.; Hayes, Richard B.; Hoffmeister, Michael; Hopper, John L.; Hou, Lifang; Hsu, Li; Jenkins, Mark A.; Kraft, Peter; Ma, Jing; Nan, Hongmei; Newcomb, Polly A.; Ogino, Shuji; Potter, John D.; Seminara, Daniela; Slattery, Martha L.; Thornquist, Mark; White, Emily; Wu, Kana; Peters, Ulrike; Chan, Andrew T.

    2014-01-01

    Background Red meat intake has been associated with risk of colorectal cancer (CRC), potentially mediated through heterocyclic amines. The metabolic efficiency of N-acetyltransferase 2 (NAT2) required for the metabolic activation of such amines is influenced by genetic variation. The interaction between red meat intake, NAT2 genotype, and CRC has been inconsistently reported. Methods We used pooled individual-level data from the Colon Cancer Family Registry (CCFR) and the Genetics and Epidemiology of Colorectal Cancer Consortium (GECCO). Red meat intake was collected by each study. We inferred NAT2 phenotype based on polymorphism at rs1495741, highly predictive of enzyme activity. Interaction was assessed using multiplicative interaction terms in multivariate-adjusted models. Results From 11 studies, 8,290 CRC cases and 9,115 controls were included. The highest quartile of red meat intake was associated with increased risk of CRC compared to the lowest quartile (OR 1.41, 95%CI 1.29 – 1.55). However, a significant association was observed only for studies with retrospective diet data, not for studies with diet prospectively assessed before cancer diagnosis. Combining all studies, high red meat intake was similarly associated with CRC in those with a rapid/intermediate NAT2 genotype (OR 1.38, 95%CI 1.20 – 1.59) as with a slow genotype (OR 1.43, 95%CI 1.28 – 1.61) (p- interaction=0.9). Conclusion We found that high red meat intake was associated with increased risk of CRC only from retrospective case-control studies and not modified by NAT2 enzyme activity. Impact Our results suggest no interaction between NAT2 genotype and red-meat intake in mediating risk of CRC. PMID:25342387

  12. Assuring eating quality of meat.

    PubMed

    Dalen, G A

    1996-01-01

    The way of assuring quality has changed over the years, from inspection of end product to quality management systems and on-line process control. The latter concepts have had a great impact in many industries during the last decades. But the concept of Total Quality is continuos improvement so it is time to take advantage of the next generation of quality assurance tools: Quality by Design. This is the most powerful instrument in quality assurance today. Quality by design has been used with outstanding results in many industries as the automobile and the electronics industry. Maybe the meat industry will be the next? To succeed, the "eating quality attributes" that are most important to the customer must be brought into focus. The challenge to the meat research scientist is to design products and processes that take care of customer needs despite variation in the raw material and the consumer's rough handling. The Quality Management Standards are helpful in conducting the design and production process, but to focus on the right aspects, there also are need for suitable methods as Quality Function Deployment. Customer needs change and new research changes old 'truths'. This require an organisation, a quality system and a culture which can handle rapid changes and a diversity of customer needs. PMID:22060638

  13. Inclusion of red meat in healthful dietary patterns.

    PubMed

    McNeill, Shalene H

    2014-11-01

    Dietary patterns are an important concept in dietary recommendations. The Western pattern is most commonly defined as a diet characterized by high intakes of refined grains, sugar and red meat, and has been shown to be associated with increased risks for certain types of cancer, coronary heart disease, diabetes, and obesity. However, isolating the independent effects of individual foods on health outcomes is central to helping individuals choose foods to build healthier dietary patterns to which they can adhere. Red meat is a popular source of high quality protein and provides a variety of essential nutrients that improve overall diet quality. It is also a source of saturated fatty acids, which observational evidence suggests are associated with heart disease, although recent data challenge this. Several studies have shown that lean red meat can be successfully included in recommended heart-healthy dietary patterns without detriment to blood lipids. Furthermore, increased dietary protein has been shown to promote healthy body weight and composition, in part by increasing satiety, and to improve vitality and stamina. PMID:25034452

  14. Meat Consumption and Risk of Developing Type 2 Diabetes in the SUN Project: A Highly Educated Middle-Class Population

    PubMed Central

    Mari-Sanchis, A.; Gea, A.; Basterra-Gortari, F. J.; Martinez-Gonzalez, M. A.; Beunza, J. J.; Bes-Rastrollo, M.

    2016-01-01

    Background Meat consumption has been consistently associated with the risk of diabetes in different populations. The aim of our study was to investigate the incidence of type 2 diabetes according to baseline total meat consumption in a longitudinal assessment of a middle-aged Mediterranean population. Methods We followed 18,527 participants (mean age: 38 years, 61% women) in the SUN Project, an open-enrolment cohort of a highly educated population of middle-class Spanish graduate students. All participants were initially free of diabetes. Diet was assessed at baseline using a semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire of 136-items previously validated. Incident diabetes was defined according to the American Diabetes Association’s criteria. Results We identified 146 incident cases of diabetes after a maximum of 14 years of follow-up period (mean: 8.7 years). In the fully adjusted model, the consumption of ≥3 servings/day of all types of meat was significantly associated with a higher risk of diabetes (HR: 1.85; 95% CI: 1.03–3.31; p for trend = 0.031) in comparison with the reference category (<2 servings/day). When we separated processed from non-processed meat, we observed a non-significant higher risk associated with greater consumption of processed meat and a non-significant lower risk associated with non-processed meat consumption (p for trend = 0.123 and 0.487, respectively). No significant difference was found between the two types of meat (p = 0.594). Conclusions Our results suggest that meat consumption, especially processed meat, was associated with a higher risk of developing diabetes in our young Mediterranean cohort. PMID:27437689

  15. Teacher communication behavior and its association with students' cognitive and attitudinal outcomes in science in Taiwan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    She, Hsiao-Ching; Fisher, Darrell

    2002-01-01

    In the study described in this article a questionnaire was employed that can be used to assess students' and teachers' perceptions of science teachers' interpersonal communication behaviors in their classroom learning environments. The Teacher Communication Behavior Questionnaire (TCBQ) has five scales: Challenging, Encouragement and Praise, Non-Verbal Support, Understanding and Friendly, and Controlling. The TCBQ was used with a large sample of secondary science students in Taiwan, which provided additional validation data for the TCBQ for use in Taiwan and cross-validation data for its use in English-speaking countries. Girls perceived their teachers as more understanding and friendly than did boys, and teachers in biological science classrooms exhibited more favorable behavior toward their students than did those in physical science classrooms. Differences were also noted between the perceptions of the students and their teachers. Positive relationships were found between students' perceptions of their teachers' communication behaviors and their attitudes toward science. Students' cognitive achievement scores were higher when students perceived their teacher as using more challenging questions, as giving more nonverbal support, and as being more understanding and friendly. The development of both teacher and student versions of the TCBQ enhances the possibility of the use of the instrument by teachers.

  16. Incidence of Salmonellae in Meat and Meat Products

    PubMed Central

    Weissman, M. A.; Carpenter, J. A.

    1969-01-01

    Standard enrichment, plating, and biochemical techniques were used to assess the incidence of Salmonella species on beef and pork carcasses and processed meat products. The incidence of Salmonella in pork carcasses was 56% and in beef carcasses, 74%. These figures are about the same as previously reported for pork but much higher than previously reported for beef carcasses; however, they represent only three to five abattoirs in Georgia and do not necessarily represent contamination levels throughout the country. Examination of carcasses by area did not indicate greater incidence of Salmonella in any one area. Two areas suggested for representative sampling are the cervical and anal areas of the carcass. Of the sausage samples examined, 38% of the fresh pork sausage, 9% of the smoked pork sausage, and 1 sample (souse) of 16 samples of miscellaneous sausage products were contaminated. Examination of subsamples indicated that Salmonella, when present in sausage products, could be found in any section of the entire sample. PMID:5797942

  17. Advances in ingredient and processing systems for meat and meat products.

    PubMed

    Weiss, Jochen; Gibis, Monika; Schuh, Valerie; Salminen, Hanna

    2010-09-01

    Changes in consumer demand of meat products as well as increased global competition are causing an unprecedented spur in processing and ingredient system developments within the meat manufacturing sector. Consumers demand healthier meat products that are low in salt, fat, cholesterol, nitrites and calories in general and contain in addition health-promoting bioactive components such as for example carotenoids, unsaturated fatty acids, sterols, and fibers. On the other hand, consumers expect these novel meat products with altered formulations to taste, look and smell the same way as their traditionally formulated and processed counterparts. At the same time, competition is forcing the meat processing industry to use the increasingly expensive raw material "meat" more efficiently and produce products at lower costs. With these changes in mind, this article presents a review of novel ingredient systems and processing approaches that are emerging to create high quality, affordable meat products not only in batch mode but also in large-scale continuous processes. Fat replacers, fat profile modification and cholesterol reduction techniques, new texture modifiers and alternative antioxidant and antimicrobial systems are being discussed. Modern processing equipment to establish continuously operating product manufacturing lines and that allow new meat product structures to be created and novel ingredients to be effectively utilized including vacuum fillers, grinders and fine dispersers, and slicers is reviewed in the context of structure creation in meat products. Finally, trends in future developments of ingredient and processing systems for meat products are highlighted. PMID:20619800

  18. Research gaps in evaluating the relationship of meat and health.

    PubMed

    Klurfeld, David M

    2015-11-01

    Humans evolved as omnivores and it has been proposed that cooking meat allowed for evolution of larger brains that has led to our success as a species. Meat is one of the most nutrient dense foods, providing high-quality protein, heme iron, zinc, and vitamins B6 and B12. Despite these advantages, epidemiologic studies have linked consumption of red or processed meat with obesity, type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular diseases, and cancers of multiple organs. Most observational studies report small, increased relative risks. However, there are many limitations of such studies including inability to accurately estimate intake, lack of prespecified hypotheses, multiple comparisons, and confounding from many factors - including body weight, fruit/vegetable intake, physical activity, smoking, and alcohol - that correlate significantly either positively or negatively with meat intake and limit the reliability of conclusions from these studies. The observational studies are heterogeneous and do not fulfill many of the points proposed by AB Hill in 1965 for inferring causality; his most important factor was strength of the association which in dietary studies is usually <1.5 but is not considered adequate in virtually all other areas of epidemiology outside nutrition. Accepting small, statistically significant risks as "real" from observational associations, the field of nutrition has a long list of failures including beta-carotene and lung cancer, low-fat diets and breast cancer or heart disease that have not been confirmed in randomized trials. Moderate intake of a variety of foods that are enjoyed by people remains the best dietary advice. PMID:26043666

  19. Large prospective investigation of meat intake, related mutagens, and risk of renal cell carcinoma1234

    PubMed Central

    Daniel, Carrie R; Cross, Amanda J; Graubard, Barry I; Park, Yikyung; Ward, Mary H; Rothman, Nathaniel; Hollenbeck, Albert R; Chow, Wong-Ho; Sinha, Rashmi

    2012-01-01

    Background: The evidence for meat intake and renal cell carcinoma (RCC) risk is inconsistent. Mutagens related to meat cooking and processing, and variation by RCC subtype may be important to consider. Objective: In a large US cohort, we prospectively investigated intake of meat and meat-related compounds in relation to risk of RCC, as well as clear cell and papillary RCC histologic subtypes. Design: Study participants (492,186) completed a detailed dietary assessment linked to a database of heme iron, heterocyclic amines (HCA), polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), nitrate, and nitrite concentrations in cooked and processed meats. Over 9 (mean) y of follow-up, we identified 1814 cases of RCC (498 clear cell and 115 papillary adenocarcinomas). HRs and 95% CIs were estimated within quintiles by using multivariable Cox proportional hazards regression. Results: Red meat intake [62.7 g (quintile 5) compared with 9.8 g (quintile 1) per 1000 kcal (median)] was associated with a tendency toward an increased risk of RCC [HR: 1.19; 95% CI: 1.01, 1.40; P-trend = 0.06] and a 2-fold increased risk of papillary RCC [P-trend = 0.002]. Intakes of benzo(a)pyrene (BaP), a marker of PAHs, and 2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenyl-imidazo[4,5-b]pyridine (PhIP), an HCA, were associated with a significant 20–30% elevated risk of RCC and a 2-fold increased risk of papillary RCC. No associations were observed for the clear cell subtype. Conclusions: Red meat intake may increase the risk of RCC through mechanisms related to the cooking compounds BaP and PhIP. Our findings for RCC appeared to be driven by strong associations with the rarer papillary histologic variant. This study is registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT00340015. PMID:22170360

  20. Issues and recommendations associated with distributed computation and data management systems for the space sciences

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1986-01-01

    The primary purpose of the report is to explore management approaches and technology developments for computation and data management systems designed to meet future needs in the space sciences.The report builds on work presented in previous reports on solar-terrestrial and planetary reports, broadening the outlook to all of the space sciences, and considering policy issues aspects related to coordiantion between data centers, missions, and ongoing research activities, because it is perceived that the rapid growth of data and the wide geographic distribution of relevant facilities will present especially troublesome problems for data archiving, distribution, and analysis.

  1. ["TECHNIKA I NAUKA" ["SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY"] (1958-)--MAGAZINE OF THE ASSOCIATION OF POLISH ENGINEERS IN GREAT BRITAIN].

    PubMed

    Chwastyk-Kowalczyk, Jolanta

    2015-01-01

    This article presents the history of establishment, functioning and the role of "Science and Technology"--quarterly of the Association of Polish Engineers in Great Britain--in shaping Polish technical thought in the environment of Polish engineers and technicians living in exile. The analysis of the content of the journal published in London in the years 1958-2008 made it evident that this official scientific organ of Polish technical intelligentsia edited in 500 copies reaches members of engineering, technical and scientific milieu across many continents. Despite the fact that Polish language dominates in the articles and thanks to the interdisciplinary character of their content - science and technology, biology, the humanities, sociology and others--the journal makes it possible for the reader to participate in an intellectual adventure. "Science and Technology" was created in 1958 on the initiative of Eng. Prof. Roman Wajda in Great Britain, with support of other Polish technical associations abroad, and embraced the achievements and organisational life of the Polish technical milieu dispersed around the world. On the basis of the London Society's archive materials and old annual volumes of the journal, the author listed editors-in-chief, composition of editorial committees, collaborators, determined editing costs, changeable periodicity, successive print shops, seats of editorial office that always followed the Association in Great Britain. She also showed the effort of a handful of members of editorial committees, working on a voluntary basis to obtain materials for the journal; the role of the journal linking Polish engineers and technicians in exile and its function as a link with the Country, as well as its role in the sphere of information and propaganda. Finally, the author made an analysis of the journal's content, focusing on categories of articles published in "Science and Technology" in the years 1958-2008. Methods used by the author in the article

  2. Research in Science Education, Volume 5. Proceedings of the Annual Conference of the Australian Science Education Research Association (6th, Flinders University, Bedford Park, South Australia, May 19-21, 1975).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lucas, A. M., Ed.; Power, Colin, N., Ed.

    This volume contains papers presented at the sixth Annual Conference of the Australian Science Education Research Association (ASERA) held at Flinders University in May, 1975. Paper topics include: pupil learning and classroom climate, teacher structuring behavior, the Australian Science Education Project (ASEP), cognitive preference and…

  3. Research in Science Education, Volume 6. Proceedings of the Annual Conference of the Australian Science Education Research Association (7th, The University of Newcastle, New South Wales, May 17-19, 1976).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maddock, M. N., Ed.; Power, Colin N., Ed.

    This volume contains papers presented at the seventh Annual Conference of the Australian Science Education Research Association held at the University of Newcastle in May, 1976. Paper topics include: undergraduate research experience for future teachers, programmable calculator effects on attitude towards physics, development of science concepts…

  4. Double Muscling in Cattle: Genes, Husbandry, Carcasses and Meat

    PubMed Central

    Fiems, Leo O.

    2012-01-01

    dystocia, resulting in a lower robustness. Their feed intake capacity is reduced, necessitating a diet with a greater nutrient density. The modified myofiber type is responsible for a lower capillary density, and it induces a more glycolytic metabolism. There are associated changes for the living animal and post-mortem metabolism alterations, requiring appropriate slaughter conditions to maintain a high meat quality. Intramuscular fat content is low, and it is characterized by more unsaturated fatty acids, providing healthier meat for the consumer. It may not always be easy to find a balance between the different disciplines underlying the livestock husbandry of DM animals to realize a good performance and health and meat quality. PMID:26487034

  5. Patents for stretching and shaping meats.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Johanne M; Hopkins, David L

    2011-05-01

    Attempts over the years to speed up the slaughter and processing of meat have been limited by the impact on important meat quality traits, such as tenderness. A number of methods and equipment have been developed for stretching and/or shaping to enhance the tenderness of meat, reducing the need for long term storage and ageing of meat. The more successful methods and equipment to improve the tenderness of meat - Tenderstretch (pelvic suspension), Tendercut (skeletal separation), SmartStretch™/Smartshape™ and Tenderbound (Pi-Vac Elasto-Pack system) are the subject of this review. Minimal research has been performed to compare these methods of tenderising meat. Tenderstretch and Tendercut are relatively easy to implement and require no specialised equipment, but they are relatively inflexible and only impact on a small number of muscles. The adoption of Tenderstretch has also been limited by increased resource requirements (chiller space and labour). SmartStretch™/Smartshape™ and Tenderbound, which wrap hot-boned pre-rigor muscles to prevent muscle contraction and shortening during rigor, are systems that do require specialised equipment. The major advantage of these systems is that they are very flexible and can be applied to any target muscle. Further research needs to be undertaken to compare these methods to better facilitate their commercial adoption. The article presents some promising patents on stretching and shaping meats. PMID:21428872

  6. Oxidative stability of fermented meat products.

    PubMed

    Wójciak, Karolina M; Dolatowski, Zbigniew J

    2012-04-01

    Meat and meat products, which form a major part of our diet, are very susceptible to quality changes resulting from oxidative processes. Quality of fermented food products depends on the course of various physicochemical and biochemical processes. Oxidation of meat components in raw ripening products may be the result of enzymatic changes occurring as a result of activity of enzymes originating in tissues and microorganisms, as well as lipid peroxidation by free radicals. Primary and secondary products of lipid oxidation are extremely reactive and react with other components of meat, changing their physical and chemical properties. Oxidised proteins take on a yellowish, red through brown hue. Products of lipid and protein degradation create a specific flavour and aroma ; furthermore, toxic substances (such as biogenic amines or new substances) are formed as a result of interactions between meat components, e.g. protein-lipid or protein-protein combinations, as well as transverse bonds in protein structures. Oxidation of meat components in raw ripening products is a particularly difficult process. On the one hand it is essential, since the enzymatic and non-enzymatic lipid oxidation creates flavour and aroma compounds characteristic for ripening products; on the other hand excessive amounts or transformations of those compounds may cause the fermented meat product to become a risk to health. PMID:22493153

  7. 9 CFR 319.307 - Spaghetti sauce with meat.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Spaghetti sauce with meat. 319.307... AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY... Dehydrated Meat Food Products § 319.307 Spaghetti sauce with meat. “Spaghetti Sauce with Meat” shall...

  8. 9 CFR 319.307 - Spaghetti sauce with meat.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Spaghetti sauce with meat. 319.307... AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY... Dehydrated Meat Food Products § 319.307 Spaghetti sauce with meat. “Spaghetti Sauce with Meat” shall...

  9. 9 CFR 319.307 - Spaghetti sauce with meat.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Spaghetti sauce with meat. 319.307... AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY... Dehydrated Meat Food Products § 319.307 Spaghetti sauce with meat. “Spaghetti Sauce with Meat” shall...

  10. 9 CFR 319.881 - Liver meat food products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Liver meat food products. 319.881... AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY... Liver meat food products. Meat food products characterized and labeled as liver products such as...

  11. 9 CFR 319.881 - Liver meat food products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Liver meat food products. 319.881... AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY... Liver meat food products. Meat food products characterized and labeled as liver products such as...

  12. 9 CFR 319.307 - Spaghetti sauce with meat.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Spaghetti sauce with meat. 319.307... AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY... Dehydrated Meat Food Products § 319.307 Spaghetti sauce with meat. “Spaghetti Sauce with Meat” shall...

  13. 9 CFR 319.307 - Spaghetti sauce with meat.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Spaghetti sauce with meat. 319.307... AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY... Dehydrated Meat Food Products § 319.307 Spaghetti sauce with meat. “Spaghetti Sauce with Meat” shall...

  14. 9 CFR 319.881 - Liver meat food products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Liver meat food products. 319.881... AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY... Liver meat food products. Meat food products characterized and labeled as liver products such as...

  15. 9 CFR 319.881 - Liver meat food products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Liver meat food products. 319.881... AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY... Liver meat food products. Meat food products characterized and labeled as liver products such as...

  16. 9 CFR 319.881 - Liver meat food products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Liver meat food products. 319.881... AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY... Liver meat food products. Meat food products characterized and labeled as liver products such as...

  17. Consumption of lead-shot cervid meat and blood lead concentrations in a group of adult Norwegians.

    PubMed

    Meltzer, H M; Dahl, H; Brantsæter, A L; Birgisdottir, B E; Knutsen, H K; Bernhoft, A; Oftedal, B; Lande, U S; Alexander, J; Haugen, M; Ydersbond, T A

    2013-11-01

    Several recent investigations have reported high concentrations of lead in samples of minced cervid meat. This paper describes findings from a Norwegian study performed in 2012 among 147 adults with a wide range of cervid game consumption. The main aim was to assess whether high consumption of lead-shot cervid meat is associated with increased concentration of lead in blood. A second aim was to investigate to what extent factors apart from game consumption explain observed variability in blood lead levels. Median (5 and 95 percentile) blood concentration of lead was 16.6 µg/L (7.5 and 39 µg/L). An optimal multivariate linear regression model for log-transformed blood lead indicated that cervid game meat consumption once a month or more was associated with approximately 31% increase in blood lead concentrations. The increase seemed to be mostly associated with consumption of minced cervid meat, particularly purchased minced meat. However, many participants with high and long-lasting game meat intake had low blood lead concentrations. Cervid meat together with number of bullet shots per year, years with game consumption, self-assembly of bullets, wine consumption and smoking jointly accounted for approximately 25% of the variation in blood lead concentrations, while age and sex accounted for 27% of the variance. Blood lead concentrations increased approximately 18% per decade of age, and men had on average 30% higher blood lead concentrations than women. Hunters who assembled their own ammunition had 52% higher blood lead concentrations than persons not making ammunition. In conjunction with minced cervid meat, wine intake was significantly associated with increased blood lead. Our results indicate that hunting practices such as use of lead-based ammunition, self-assembling of lead containing bullets and inclusion of lead-contaminated meat for mincing to a large extent determine the exposure to lead from cervid game consumption. PMID:24119336

  18. Isolation and molecular identification of Vibrio spp. by sequencing of 16S rDNA from seafood, meat and meat products in Libya

    PubMed Central

    Azwai, S.M.; Alfallani, E.A.; Abolghait, S.K.; Garbaj, A.M.; Naas, H.T.; Moawad, A.A.; Gammoudi, F.T.; Rayes, H.M.; Barbieri, I.; Eldaghayes, I.M.

    2016-01-01

    The genus Vibrio includes several food-borne pathogens that cause a spectrum of clinical conditions including septicemia, cholera and milder forms of gastroenteritis. Several Vibrio spp. are commonly associated with food-borne transmission including Vibrio cholerae, Vibrio parahemolyticus, and Vibrio vulnificus. Microbiological analysis for enumeration and isolation of Vibrio spp. were carried out for a total of 93 samples of seafood, meat and meat products from different geographic localities in Libya (Tripoli, Regdalin, Janzour and Tobruk). Vibrio spp. were detected by conventional cultural and molecular method using PCR and sequencing of 16S rDNA. Out of the 93 cultured samples only 48 (51.6%) yielded colonies on Thiosulfate Citrate Bile Salt agar (TCBS) with culture characteristics of Vibrio spp. More than half (n=27) of processed seafood samples (n=46) yielded colonies on TCBS, while only 44.6 % of samples of meat and meat products showed colonies on TCBS. Among cultured seafood samples, the highest bacterial count was recorded in clam with a count of 3.8 ×104 CFU\\g. Chicken burger samples showed the highest bacterial count with 6.5 ×104 CFU\\g. Molecular analysis of the isolates obtained in this study, showed that 11 samples out of 48 (22.9%) were Vibrio spp. Vibrio parahemolyticus was isolated from camel meat for the first time. This study is an initial step to provide a baseline for future molecular research targeting Vibrio spp. foodborne illnesses. This data will be used to provide information on the magnitude of such pathogens in Libyan seafood, meat and meat products. PMID:27004169

  19. Isolation and molecular identification of Vibrio spp. by sequencing of 16S rDNA from seafood, meat and meat products in Libya.

    PubMed

    Azwai, S M; Alfallani, E A; Abolghait, S K; Garbaj, A M; Naas, H T; Moawad, A A; Gammoudi, F T; Rayes, H M; Barbieri, I; Eldaghayes, I M

    2016-01-01

    The genus Vibrio includes several food-borne pathogens that cause a spectrum of clinical conditions including septicemia, cholera and milder forms of gastroenteritis. Several Vibrio spp. are commonly associated with food-borne transmission including Vibrio cholerae, Vibrio parahemolyticus, and Vibrio vulnificus. Microbiological analysis for enumeration and isolation of Vibrio spp. were carried out for a total of 93 samples of seafood, meat and meat products from different geographic localities in Libya (Tripoli, Regdalin, Janzour and Tobruk). Vibrio spp. were detected by conventional cultural and molecular method using PCR and sequencing of 16S rDNA. Out of the 93 cultured samples only 48 (51.6%) yielded colonies on Thiosulfate Citrate Bile Salt agar (TCBS) with culture characteristics of Vibrio spp. More than half (n=27) of processed seafood samples (n=46) yielded colonies on TCBS, while only 44.6 % of samples of meat and meat products showed colonies on TCBS. Among cultured seafood samples, the highest bacterial count was recorded in clam with a count of 3.8 ×10(4) CFU\\g. Chicken burger samples showed the highest bacterial count with 6.5 ×10(4) CFU\\g. Molecular analysis of the isolates obtained in this study, showed that 11 samples out of 48 (22.9%) were Vibrio spp. Vibrio parahemolyticus was isolated from camel meat for the first time. This study is an initial step to provide a baseline for future molecular research targeting Vibrio spp. foodborne illnesses. This data will be used to provide information on the magnitude of such pathogens in Libyan seafood, meat and meat products. PMID:27004169

  20. The Relationship between Exhibit Characteristics and Learning-Associated Behaviors in a Science Museum Discovery Space.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boisvert, Dorothy Lozowski; Slez, Brenda Jochums

    1995-01-01

    Observed visitors (n=154) to a science museum discovery space as they interacted freely with the exhibits. Reports that attraction levels were highest for exhibits with concrete presentations, holding power was highest for exhibits with high interaction and concrete presentation, and engagement levels were highest for high interaction exhibits.…

  1. The Relationship between Visitor Characteristics and Learning-Associated Behaviors in a Science Museum Discovery Space.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boisvert, D. L.; Slez, B. J.

    1994-01-01

    An analysis of interactions between 154 visitors to a science museum revealed significant differences between age group and the holding power of exhibits. No significant differences were found for gender or social grouping and attraction, holding power, and engagement levels. (PR)

  2. A Novel Lecture Series and Associated Outreach Program in the Environmental and Natural Sciences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Banner, Jay L.; Guda, Nelson; James, Eric W.; Stern, Libby A.; Zavala, Brian; Gordon, Jessica D.

    2008-01-01

    To address the low priority given to university-level outreach, the authors created an outreach program that makes it easy for scientists to connect with the public, while at the same time providing effective transfer of scientific research results to the public and the K-12 community. The result is a program called the Hot Science--Cool Talks…

  3. Dealing with Data: Science Librarians' Participation in Data Management at Association of Research Libraries Institutions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Antell, Karen; Foote, Jody Bales; Turner, Jaymie; Shults, Brian

    2014-01-01

    As long as empirical research has existed, researchers have been doing "data management" in one form or another. However, funding agency mandates for doing formal data management are relatively recent, and academic libraries' involvement has been concentrated mainly in the last few years. The National Science Foundation implemented a new…

  4. Classroom Environment and Student Outcomes Associated with Using Anthropometry Activities in High School Science.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lightburn, Millard E.; Fraser, Barry J.

    The study involved implementing and evaluating activities that actively engage students in the process of gathering, processing and analyzing data derived from human body measurements, with students using their prior knowledge acquired in science, mathematics, and computer classes to interpret this information. In the classroom activities…

  5. Social Science Theory and Research on Participation and Voluntary Associations: A Bibliographic Essay.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steinberg, Lois Saxelby

    This literature review is intended for policymakers and researchers concerned with citizen participation in the educational decision-making process. The study examines (1) the functions of interest groups in social science analysis of the political process; (2) the dominant theories employed in social research on interest group processes; (3) the…

  6. On Tomorrow: Gregory J.E. Rawlins, Associate Professor of Computer Science, Indiana University.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    TECHNOS, 1999

    1999-01-01

    This interview with Gregory Rawlins, a computer science professor and author, discusses future possibilities in computing and the control of technology. Highlights include issues concerned with electronic publishing; machine intelligence; power and control; and the personalization of information on the Internet. (LRW)

  7. Tick-induced allergies: mammalian meat allergy, tick anaphylaxis and their significance

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Serious tick-induced allergies comprise mammalian meat allergy following tick bites and tick anaphylaxis. Mammalian meat allergy is an emergent allergy, increasingly prevalent in tick-endemic areas of Australia and the United States, occurring worldwide where ticks are endemic. Sensitisation to galactose-α-1,3-galactose (α-Gal) has been shown to be the mechanism of allergic reaction in mammalian meat allergy following tick bite. Whilst other carbohydrate allergens have been identified, this allergen is unique amongst carbohydrate food allergens in provoking anaphylaxis. Treatment of mammalian meat anaphylaxis involves avoidance of mammalian meat and mammalian derived products in those who also react to gelatine and mammalian milks. Before initiating treatment with certain therapeutic agents (e.g., cetuximab, gelatine-containing substances), a careful assessment of the risk of anaphylaxis, including serological analysis for α-Gal specific-IgE, should be undertaken in any individual who works, lives, volunteers or recreates in a tick endemic area. Prevention of tick bites may ameliorate mammalian meat allergy. Tick anaphylaxis is rare in countries other than Australia. Tick anaphylaxis is secondarily preventable by prevention and appropriate management of tick bites. Analysis of tick removal techniques in tick anaphylaxis sufferers offers insights into primary prevention of both tick and mammalian meat anaphylaxis. Recognition of the association between mammalian meat allergy and tick bites has established a novel cause and effect relationship between an environmental exposure and subsequent development of a food allergy, directing us towards examining environmental exposures as provoking factors pivotal to the development of other food allergies and refocusing our attention upon causation of allergy in general. PMID:25653915

  8. Health sciences librarians' awareness and assessment of the Medical Library Association Code of Ethics for Health Sciences Librarianship: the results of a membership survey

    PubMed Central

    Byrd, Gary D.; Devine, Patricia J.; Corcoran, Kate E.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: The Medical Library Association (MLA) Board of Directors and president charged an Ethical Awareness Task Force and recommended a survey to determine MLA members' awareness of and opinions about the current Code of Ethics for Health Sciences Librarianship. Methods: The task force and MLA staff crafted a survey to determine: (1) awareness of the MLA code and its provisions, (2) use of the MLA code to resolve professional ethical issues, (3) consultation of other ethical codes or guides, (4) views regarding the relative importance of the eleven MLA code statements, (5) challenges experienced in following any MLA code provisions, and (6) ethical problems not clearly addressed by the code. Results: Over 500 members responded (similar to previous MLA surveys), and while most were aware of the code, over 30% could not remember when they had last read or thought about it, and nearly half had also referred to other codes or guidelines. The large majority thought that: (1) all code statements were equally important, (2) none were particularly difficult or challenging to follow, and (3) the code covered every ethical challenge encountered in their professional work. Implications: Comments provided by respondents who disagreed with the majority views suggest that the MLA code could usefully include a supplementary guide with practical advice on how to reason through a number of ethically challenging situations that are typically encountered by health sciences librarians. PMID:25349544

  9. Microbiological Spoilage of Meat and Poultry Products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cerveny, John; Meyer, Joseph D.; Hall, Paul A.

    Humankind has consumed animal protein since the dawn of its existence. The archaeological record shows evidence of animal protein consumption as early as 12,500 BC (Mann, 2005). Raw meat and poultry are highly perishable commodities subject to various types of spoilage depending on handling and storage conditions. Because of this high potential for spoilage, the historical record reveals that early civilizations used techniques such as salting, smoking, and drying to preserve meat (Mack, 2001; Bailey, 1986). Today, more than ever, because of the globalization of the food supply, and increasing demands from exacting consumers, the control of meat and poultry spoilage is essential.

  10. Red and Processed Meat Consumption Increases Risk for Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma: A PRISMA-Compliant Meta-Analysis of Observational Studies.

    PubMed

    Yang, Li; Dong, Jianming; Jiang, Shenghua; Shi, Wenyu; Xu, Xiaohong; Huang, Hongming; You, Xuefen; Liu, Hong

    2015-11-01

    The association between consumption of red and processed meat and non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) remains unclear. We performed a meta-analysis of the published observational studies to explore this relationship.We searched databases in MEDLINE and EMBASE to identify observational studies which evaluated the association between consumption of red and processed meat and risk of NHL. Quality of included studies was evaluated using Newcastle-Ottawa Quality Assessment Scale (NOS). Random-effects models were used to calculate summary relative risk (SRR) and the corresponding 95% confidence interval (CI).We identified a total of 16 case-control and 4 prospective cohort studies, including 15,189 subjects with NHL. The SRR of NHL comparing the highest and lowest categories were 1.32 (95% CI: 1.12-1.55) for red meat and 1.17 (95% CI: 1.07-1.29) for processed meat intake. Stratified analysis indicated that a statistically significant risk association between consumption of red and processed meat and NHL risk was observed in case-control studies, but not in cohort studies. The SRR was 1.11 (95% CI: 1.04-1.18) for per 100 g/day increment in red meat intake and 1.28 (95% CI: 1.08-1.53) for per 50 g/day increment in processed meat intake. There was evidence of a nonlinear association for intake of processed meat, but not for intake of red meat.Findings from our meta-analysis indicate that consumption of red and processed meat may be related to NHL risk. More prospective epidemiological studies that control for important confounders and focus on the NHL risk related with different levels of meat consumption are required to clarify this association. PMID:26559248

  11. The future of meat: a qualitative analysis of cultured meat media coverage.

    PubMed

    Goodwin, J N; Shoulders, C W

    2013-11-01

    This study sought to explore the informational themes and information sources cited by the media to cover stories of cultured meat in both the United States and the European Union. The results indicated that cultured meat news articles in both the United States and the European Union commonly discuss cultured meat in terms of benefits, history, process, time, livestock production problems, and skepticism. Additionally, the information sources commonly cited in the articles included cultured meat researchers, sources from academia, People for the Ethical Treatment of Animals (PETA), New Harvest, Winston Churchill, restaurant owners/chefs, and sources from the opposing countries (e.g. US use some EU sources and vice versa). The implications of this study will allow meat scientists to understand how the media is influencing consumers' perceptions about the topic, and also allow them to strategize how to shape future communication about cultured meat. PMID:23793078

  12. Postharvest intervention technologies for safety enhancement of meat and meat based products; a critical review.

    PubMed

    Sohaib, Muhammad; Anjum, Faqir Muhammad; Arshad, Muhammad Sajid; Rahman, Ubaid Ur

    2016-01-01

    Globally, the demand for safe, healthy and nutritious meat and allied products possesses improved taste with extended shelf life is mounting. Microbial safety is among the imperative challenges that prevails in meat products because they provide an ideal medium for the growth of microorganisms particularly pathogenic bacteria. The incidence of these microbes can result quality deterioration of products leading towards food borne diseases when consumed by peoples. Several preservation technologies like chemical and biological interventions are effective to retard or inactivate the growth of micro-organisms most commonly related to food-borne diseases. Despite these, innovative approaches like hydrostatic pressure processing, active packaging, pulse electric field, hurdle approach and use of natural antimicrobials can be deployed to enhance the safety of meat and meat products. The objective of review is to describe the current approaches and developing technologies for enhancing safety of meat and allied meat products. PMID:26787929

  13. International note: what factors are associated with reading, mathematics, and science literacy of Indian adolescents? A multilevel examination.

    PubMed

    Areepattamannil, Shaljan

    2014-06-01

    A sample of 15-year-olds in India took part in the Program for International Student Assessment (PISA) for the first time in 2010. The PISA reading, mathematics, and science literacy scores of Indian adolescents were considerably lower than their counterparts in most PISA participating countries. In order to explore potential reasons for this, the present study, therefore, drawing on data from the fourth cycle of PISA and employing multilevel modeling, examined the relations of student- and school-level factors to reading, mathematics, and science literacy among 4826 15-year-old students from 213 schools in India. Gender, metacognitive learning strategies, students' positive attitudes toward school, and students' positive perceptions of classroom climate were found to be significantly associated with Indian adolescents' performance on the PISA assessment. PMID:24793383

  14. Measurement of dynamic variations of polarized light in processed meat due to aging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abubaker, Hamed M.; Tománek, Pavel; Grmela, Lubomír

    2011-05-01

    The propagation of laser light in biological tissues is of growing importance in many medical and food applications. This problem is seriously studied in live science. The biological tissues consist of cells which dimensions are bigger than wavelength of visible light and display large compositional variations, inhomogeneities, and anisotropic structures. Therefore a Mie scattering of transmitted or backscattered light occurs and different polarization states arise. The changes of polarization state due to the multiple scattering of light in the biological cellular tissues also allow measure the freshness of processed victuals. The transmitted and backscattered laser light exhibits multiple scattering on the thin slice of sample. The phenomenon is different if the cellular tissues are living or dead. In the case of meat, there are temporal and dynamic changes not only as a result of chemical process, but also geometric deformations due to the water evaporation from intracellular and extracellular sites. The polarization measurement shows the changes in polarization orientation due to the muscle orientation and meat aging. Two types of measurements were provided: a) Measurement of polarized light reflected and twice transmitted forward and backward through the biological tissue samples - meat slice attached on sample holder mirror. b) Measurement of polarized light transmitted through the biological tissue sample. The relationship between polarization changes and meat freshness, and a dynamic temporal behavior of polarization states in the aged meat is reported.

  15. Tohoku Earthquake-associated Marine Sciences: the research project for the Great East Japan Earthquake on March 11, 2011

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kitazato, Hiroshi; Kijima, Akihiro; Kogure, Kazuhiro; Hara, Motoyuki; Nagata, Toshi; Fujikura, Kasunori; Sonoda, Akira

    2015-04-01

    At 2:46 pm on March 11, 2011, a huge earthquake (M 9.0) occurred off the Pacific coast of Tohoku Region, Japan. The subsequent Tsunamis hit the coasts and seriously damaged fishing villages and towns in the area. Tohoku Region faces Northwestern Pacific where is one of the most productive oceans on the Earth. Then, what happened to the marine ecosystems in the Tohoku Region? What happened to the fishery bioresources? What is the mechanism to sustain high productivity in the Region? Is the ecosystem restoring after 4 years? What is required for the recovery of fisheries in the area? In order to answer these questions, the 10 years research project, TEAMS (Tohoku Ecosystem-Associated Marine Sciences) was launched in January 2012 funded by MEXT (Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology, Japan) to conduct comprehensive research on the area. Tohoku University (TU), Atmosphere and Ocean Research Institute, the University of Tokyo (AORIUT), Japan Agency for Marine-Earth Science and Technology (JAMSTEC), and 25 other institutions are conducting research for this project in close association with local government and fishery people. Currently, approximately 400 people (200 scientists, 160 students and others) covering physical, chemical, biological, and geological sciences including modeling take part in the project from all over Japan. MEXT also supports TEAMS by constructing R/V Shinsei Maru in 2013 for the oceanic investigations in the region. In this report, the overview of the ecosystem before and after the disaster, major findings and challenges of TEAMS will be described.

  16. Bacteriocins from lactic acid bacteria and their applications in meat and meat products.

    PubMed

    Woraprayote, Weerapong; Malila, Yuwares; Sorapukdee, Supaluk; Swetwiwathana, Adisorn; Benjakul, Soottawat; Visessanguan, Wonnop

    2016-10-01

    Meat and meat products have always been an important part of human diet, and contain valuable nutrients for growth and health. Nevertheless, they are perishable and susceptible to microbial contamination, leading to an increased health risk for consumers as well as to the economic loss in meat industry. The utilization of bacteriocins produced by lactic acid bacteria (LAB) as a natural preservative has received a considerable attention. Inoculation of bacteriocin-producing LAB cell as starter or protective cultures is suitable for fermented meats, whilst the direct addition of bacteriocin as food additive is more preferable when live cells of LAB could not produce bacteriocin in the real meat system. The incorporation of bacteriocins in packaging is another way to improve meat safety to avoid direct addition of bacteriocin to meat. Utilization of bacteriocins can effectively contribute to food safety, especially when integrated into hurdle concepts. In this review, LAB bacteriocins and their applications in meat and meat products are revisited. The molecular structure and characteristics of bacteriocins recently discovered, as well as exemplary properties are also discussed. PMID:27118166

  17. Red meat and colon cancer: should we become vegetarians, or can we make meat safer?

    PubMed

    Corpet, Denis E

    2011-11-01

    The effect of meat consumption on cancer risk is a controversial issue. However, recent meta-analyses show that high consumers of cured meats and red meat are at increased risk of colorectal cancer. This increase is significant but modest (20-30%). Current WCRF-AICR recommendations are to eat no more than 500 g per week of red meat, and to avoid processed meat. Moreover, our studies show that beef meat and cured pork meat promote colon carcinogenesis in rats. The major promoter in meat is heme iron, via N-nitrosation or fat peroxidation. Dietary additives can suppress the toxic effects of heme iron. For instance, promotion of colon carcinogenesis in rats by cooked, nitrite-treated and oxidized high-heme cured meat was suppressed by dietary calcium and by α-tocopherol, and a study in volunteers supported these protective effects in humans. These additives, and others still under study, could provide an acceptable way to prevent colorectal cancer. PMID:21558046

  18. Gender differences associated with enrollment in the Texas Academy of Mathematics and Science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burns, Robert Thomas

    This study sought to determine if different factors had influenced females and males to select engineering/science-related studies at the Texas Academy of Mathematics and Science (TAMS). The data were collected in the fall semester in 1997 at TAMS located on the University of North Texas campus from a survey of factors reported in the literature that had influenced students to enroll in engineering/science-related curriculum. Of the 380 TAMS students enrolled fall semester, 303 or 85% participated in the study. Those who participated included 135 or 45% females and 168 or 55% males. A dichotomous discriminant function analysis to identify relationships between the criterion variable (gender) and the predictor variable (factors) was used. The analysis of variance (ANOVA) was used to identify any significant predictor (factor) when the criterion was gender. Analysis of the data indicated no difference between females and males concerning factors that influenced them to enroll in TAMS. Neither discriminant function analysis nor the regression analysis using weighted least squares could significantly establish any relationship that could predict a student to be female or male with respect to factors that influenced them to enroll in TAMS. The factors were ranked utilizing the Thurstone equal appearing intervals scale for both females and males. Both females and males in TAMS ranked extrinsic interest including job opportunity, salary, and promotion, as the most important factor. The least important factor for both females and males was family encouragement. The findings indicate that TAMS students based their enrollment decision on factors independent of those suggested in the literature as applying to males and females. This may have resulted from the fact that these students are a unique population biased toward valuing a math/science curriculum.

  19. Meat consumption, animal products, and the risk of bladder cancer: a case-control study in Uruguayan men.

    PubMed

    Ronco, Alvaro Luis; Mendilaharsu, Maria; Boffetta, Paolo; Deneo-Pellegrini, Hugo; De Stefani, Eduardo

    2014-01-01

    In the time period 1996-2004, all incident cases of bladder cancer were included in a case-control study in order to study the role of meat consumption and product animals in the etiology of urothelial cancer. The study included 225 cases and 1,510 hospitalized controls with non-neoplastic conditions, not related to smoking and alcohol drinking. Relative risks, approximated by the odds ratios, were calculated in order to clarify the effect of meat consumption in the etiology of urothelial cancer. Total meat consumption (OR 1.47, 95% CI 1.02-2.11), total processed meat (OR 1.57, 95% CI 1.08-2.27), frankfurters (hot dogs) (OR 2.03, 95% CI 1.28-3.21), ham (OR 1.79, 95% CI 1.21-2.67) and salted meat (OR 2.73, 95% CI 1.78-4.18) were positively associated with risk of bladder cancer. Animal products, like cheese, whole milk, and total eggs were also associated with bladder cancer risk (OR for eggs 4.05, 95% CI 2.68-6.12). In conclusion, total meat, processed meat, and eggs could play an important role in the etiology of bladder cancer in Uruguay. PMID:25081704

  20. Correlation between Antioxidant Enzyme Activity, Free Iron Content and Lipid Oxidation in Four Lines of Korean Native Chicken Meat

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Hye-Kyung; Cho, Chang-Yeon; Lee, Cheol-Koo

    2016-01-01

    This study was conducted to observe the association between antioxidant enzyme activity, free iron content and lipid oxidation of Korean native chicken (KNC) meat during refrigerated storage. Four lines of KNC (Yeonsan ogye, Hyunin black, Hoengseong yakdak and Hwangbong) were raised under similar conditions. A total of 16 roosters were randomly sampled and slaughtered at the age of 12 mon. The breast and thigh meats were stored aerobically for 10 d at 4℃. Although thigh meat had higher antioxidant enzyme activity, it was more susceptible to lipid oxidation and released more iron during storage than breast meat. Aerobic refrigerated storage for 10 d significantly decreased the activity of antioxidant enzymes and increased the amount of free iron and malondialdehyde. The activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) were negatively correlated with lipid oxidation, whereas that of catalase was not. The amount of free iron was positively associated with lipid oxidation. We concluded that chicken line did not affect strongly on antioxidant enzyme activity and lipid oxidation in breast meat of KNC. However, the thigh meat of Hwangbong and Hyunin black had higher SOD and GSH-Px activity, respectively, and lower malondialdehyde contents than that of other chickens. SOD, GSH-Px and free iron play significant roles in meat lipid oxidation during refrigerated storage. PMID:27499663

  1. Correlation between Antioxidant Enzyme Activity, Free Iron Content and Lipid Oxidation in Four Lines of Korean Native Chicken Meat.

    PubMed

    Utama, Dicky Tri; Lee, Seung Gyu; Baek, Ki Ho; Kim, Hye-Kyung; Cho, Chang-Yeon; Lee, Cheol-Koo; Lee, Sung Ki

    2016-01-01

    This study was conducted to observe the association between antioxidant enzyme activity, free iron content and lipid oxidation of Korean native chicken (KNC) meat during refrigerated storage. Four lines of KNC (Yeonsan ogye, Hyunin black, Hoengseong yakdak and Hwangbong) were raised under similar conditions. A total of 16 roosters were randomly sampled and slaughtered at the age of 12 mon. The breast and thigh meats were stored aerobically for 10 d at 4℃. Although thigh meat had higher antioxidant enzyme activity, it was more susceptible to lipid oxidation and released more iron during storage than breast meat. Aerobic refrigerated storage for 10 d significantly decreased the activity of antioxidant enzymes and increased the amount of free iron and malondialdehyde. The activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) were negatively correlated with lipid oxidation, whereas that of catalase was not. The amount of free iron was positively associated with lipid oxidation. We concluded that chicken line did not affect strongly on antioxidant enzyme activity and lipid oxidation in breast meat of KNC. However, the thigh meat of Hwangbong and Hyunin black had higher SOD and GSH-Px activity, respectively, and lower malondialdehyde contents than that of other chickens. SOD, GSH-Px and free iron play significant roles in meat lipid oxidation during refrigerated storage. PMID:27499663

  2. Natural History Traits Associated with Detecting Mortality Within Residential Bird Communities: Can Citizen Science Provide Insights?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cooper, Caren Beth; Loyd, Kerrie Anne Therese; Murante, Tessa; Savoca, Matthew; Dickinson, Janis

    2012-07-01

    Cat predation of birds in residential landscapes is ephemeral, unpredictable, and spatially dispersed, and thus requires many person-hours to observe. We sought to identify whether specific behaviors, traits, or feeding ecologies of birds contribute to their probability of cat-caused mortality around residences across temperate North America. In addressing this question, we evaluated citizen science data with respect to peer-reviewed species accounts (Birds of North America, BNA). Using information on cat predation from the BNA, we found that species that glean their prey from the ground or breed in nest boxes were three times more likely to be depredated by cats, while birds that hawk were over two times less likely to become cat prey than would be predicted by random chance. Data from citizen science sources also showed that birds using nest boxes had increased susceptibility to cat predation, as did those that use feeders and that glean from foliage. We caution that observations of predation by citizen science volunteers may be biased towards detection at feeders. Future research should focus on developing volunteer survey techniques for improving estimates of bird mortality rates and sources.

  3. Natural history traits associated with detecting mortality within residential bird communities: can citizen science provide insights?

    PubMed

    Cooper, Caren Beth; Loyd, Kerrie Anne Therese; Murante, Tessa; Savoca, Matthew; Dickinson, Janis

    2012-07-01

    Cat predation of birds in residential landscapes is ephemeral, unpredictable, and spatially dispersed, and thus requires many person-hours to observe. We sought to identify whether specific behaviors, traits, or feeding ecologies of birds contribute to their probability of cat-caused mortality around residences across temperate North America. In addressing this question, we evaluated citizen science data with respect to peer-reviewed species accounts (Birds of North America, BNA). Using information on cat predation from the BNA, we found that species that glean their prey from the ground or breed in nest boxes were three times more likely to be depredated by cats, while birds that hawk were over two times less likely to become cat prey than would be predicted by random chance. Data from citizen science sources also showed that birds using nest boxes had increased susceptibility to cat predation, as did those that use feeders and that glean from foliage. We caution that observations of predation by citizen science volunteers may be biased towards detection at feeders. Future research should focus on developing volunteer survey techniques for improving estimates of bird mortality rates and sources. PMID:22569705

  4. Meat intake, cooking methods, dietary carcinogens, and colorectal cancer risk: findings from the Colorectal Cancer Family Registry

    PubMed Central

    Joshi, Amit D; Kim, Andre; Lewinger, Juan Pablo; Ulrich, Cornelia M; Potter, John D; Cotterchio, Michelle; Le Marchand, Loic; Stern, Mariana C

    2015-01-01

    Diets high in red meat and processed meats are established colorectal cancer (CRC) risk factors. However, it is still not well understood what explains this association. We conducted comprehensive analyses of CRC risk and red meat and poultry intakes, taking into account cooking methods, level of doneness, estimated intakes of heterocyclic amines (HCAs) that accumulate during meat cooking, tumor location, and tumor mismatch repair proficiency (MMR) status. We analyzed food frequency and portion size data including a meat cooking module for 3364 CRC cases, 1806 unaffected siblings, 136 unaffected spouses, and 1620 unaffected population-based controls, recruited into the CRC Family Registry. Odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for nutrient density variables were estimated using generalized estimating equations. We found no evidence of an association between total nonprocessed red meat or total processed meat and CRC risk. Our main finding was a positive association with CRC for pan-fried beefsteak (Ptrend < 0.001), which was stronger among MMR deficient cases (heterogeneity P = 0.059). Other worth noting associations, of borderline statistical significance after multiple testing correction, were a positive association between diets high in oven-broiled short ribs or spareribs and CRC risk (Ptrend = 0.002), which was also stronger among MMR-deficient cases, and an inverse association with grilled hamburgers (Ptrend = 0.002). Our results support the role of specific meat types and cooking practices as possible sources of human carcinogens relevant for CRC risk. PMID:25846122

  5. Science for the Masses: A Public Lecture Series and Associated Course for K-12 Educators at the University of Arizona

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mangin, K.; Wilch, M. H.; Thompson, R. M.; Ruiz, J.

    2008-12-01

    The College of Science at the University of Arizona in Tucson offers a series of free public lectures each year centered on a science theme of high general interest. Themes have been Evolution (2006), Global Climate Change (2007), and Edges of Life (2008). Speakers are UA faculty members. We have seen an overwhelming response from the public to each lecture series, with a typical audience size of 800-1200. Features that make the lecture series successful are careful choice of the themes, previews of lecture drafts by a panel, and the participation of a graphic design firm in the planning process, from the series title to the design of posters, bookmarks, and postcards used to advertise the series. This model could be successfully transferred to many universities. We offer a course for K-12 grade teachers in association with each lecture series. Teachers attend each public lecture, and participate in inquiry-based classroom activities and discussions of papers related to lecture topics. After each lecture, the speaker answers questions from the public, and then accompanies the teachers to a classroom to hold a private question and answer session lasting 45 minutes. The course and lecture series has been influential in changing attitudes about the nature of science research among teacher participants. In 2006, evolution was the lecture series topic, a science concept whose foundation in authentic science research has been difficult to communicate to the general public. Pre- and post- questionnaires on attitudes towards the science of evolution administered to the teacher participants showed a dramatic increase after the course in their view of the robustness of the theory of evolution, its testable nature, the amount of data supporting the theory, and its degree of consensus among scientists. A pre-course survey of the background of teachers in the course, mostly biology teachers, showed a need for more formal instruction in evolution: 76 percent had no formal course

  6. [Meat and human health: excess and errors].

    PubMed

    Lecerf, Jean-Michel

    2011-11-01

    Many studies have examined the influence of meat consumption on human health. Meat eaters have a higher body mass index and more weight gain than vegetarians. The risk of type 2 diabetes has also been linked to high meat consumption. However, the statistical correlations with these metabolic disorders are weak. There is inconsistent evidence of a higher cardiovascular risk. A link between high meat consumption and cancer, particularly colorectal cancer, has been observed in nearly all epidemiological studies. Some studies have also shown a link with breast, prostate and lung cancer. The mode of cooking could be partly En 2 responsible for this effect, due for example to heterocyclic aromatic amines production euro during grilling and intensive cooking. Advice is given. PMID:22844742

  7. Postmortem Biochemistry of Meat and Fish.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hultin, Herbert O.

    1984-01-01

    Discusses structural and chemical features of muscle tissue. Emphasizes chemical and physical changes which occur during processing and storage and how these changes affect the eating quality of meat and fish. (JN)

  8. Natural antioxidants in meat and poultry products.

    PubMed

    Karre, Liz; Lopez, Keyla; Getty, Kelly J K

    2013-06-01

    In response to recent claims that synthetic antioxidants have the potential to cause toxicological effects and consumers' increased interest in purchasing natural products, the meat and poultry industry has been seeking sources of natural antioxidants. Due to their high phenolic compound content, fruits and other plant materials provide a good alternative to conventional antioxidants. Plum, grape seed extract, cranberry, pomegranate, bearberry, pine bark extract, rosemary, oregano, and other spices functions as antioxidants in meat and poultry products. Pomegranate, pine bark extract, cinnamon, and cloves have exhibited stronger antioxidant properties than some synthetic options. Plum products, grape seed extract, pine bark extract, rosemary, and some spices all have been shown to affect the color of finished meat or poultry products; however, in some products such as pork sausage or uncured meats, an increase in red color may be desired. When selecting a natural antioxidant, sensory and quality impact on the product should be considered to achieve desired traits. PMID:23501254

  9. Proceedings of the Annual International Conference of the Association for the Education of Teachers in Science (Charlotte, North Carolina, January 10-13, 2002).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rubba, Peter A., Ed.; Rye, James A., Ed.; DiBiase, Warren J., Ed.; Crawford, Barbara A., Ed.

    This document contains the proceedings of the 2002 Annual International Conference of the Association for the Education of Teachers in Science which was held in Charlotte, North Carolina, January 10-13, 2002. Papers include: (1) "Teaching Science Methods Courses with Web-Enhanced Activities" (Alec M. Bodzin); (2) "How Is Your Lawnmower Working?…

  10. Proceedings of the Annual Meeting of the Association for the Education of Teachers in Science (Akron, OH, January 6-9, 2000).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rubba, Peter A., Ed.; Rye, James A., Ed.; Keig, Patricia F., Ed.; DiBiase, Warren J., Ed.

    Papers from the proceedings of the 2000 Annual Meeting of the Association for the Education of Teachers in Science (AETS) include: (1) "A Quantitative Examination of Teacher Self Efficacy and Knowledge of the Anture of Science" (Chun, Sajin and Oliver, J. Steve); (2) "Investigating Preservice Elementary Teachers' Self-Efficacy Relative to Self…

  11. Do Gender-Science Stereotypes Predict Science Identification and Science Career Aspirations among Undergraduate Science Majors?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cundiff, Jessica L.; Vescio, Theresa K.; Loken, Eric; Lo, Lawrence

    2013-01-01

    The present research examined whether gender-science stereotypes were associated with science identification and, in turn, science career aspirations among women and men undergraduate science majors. More than 1,700 students enrolled in introductory science courses completed measures of gender-science stereotypes (implicit associations and…

  12. Cultured meat: every village its own factory?

    PubMed

    van der Weele, Cor; Tramper, Johannes

    2014-06-01

    Rising global demand for meat will result in increased environmental pollution, energy consumption, and animal suffering. Cultured meat, produced in an animal-cell cultivation process, is a technically feasible alternative lacking these disadvantages, provided that an animal-component-free growth medium can be developed. Small-scale production looks particularly promising, not only technologically but also for societal acceptance. Economic feasibility, however, emerges as the real obstacle. PMID:24856100

  13. Photopyroelectric measurement of thermal diffusivity of meat

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dadarlat, D.; Frandas, A.; Surducan, V.; Nagy, G.; Bicanic, D.

    1999-03-01

    The thermal diffusivity of various meat samples (pork, fish), and its temperature dependence, in the -5 to +70 °C temperature range, was measured using the photopyroelectric calorimetry in the back configuration (with thermally thick sample and sensor, and optically opaque sample). An almost temperature independent behavior of the thermal diffusivity, for temperatures higher than melting point of ice was confirmed. The results can be used to optimize the meat sterilisation process.

  14. Factors influencing internal color of cooked meats.

    PubMed

    Suman, Surendranath P; Nair, Mahesh N; Joseph, Poulson; Hunt, Melvin C

    2016-10-01

    This manuscript overviews the pertinent research on internal color of uncured cooked meats, biochemical processes involved in meat cookery, and fundamental mechanisms governing myoglobin thermal stability. Heat-induced denaturation of myoglobin, responsible for the characteristic dull-brown color of cooked meats, is influenced by a multitude of endogenous (i.e., pH, muscle source, species, redox state) and exogenous (i.e., packaging, ingredients, storage) factors. The interactions between these factors critically influence the internal cooked color and can confuse the consumers, who often perceive cooked color to be a reliable indicator for doneness and safety. While certain phenomena in cooked meat color are cosmetic in nature, others can mislead consumers and result in foodborne illnesses. Research in meat color suggests that processing technologies and cooking practices in industry as well as households influence the internal cooked color. Additionally, the guidelines of many international public health and regulatory authorities recommend using meat thermometers to determine safe cooking endpoint temperature and to ensure product safety. PMID:27131513

  15. Lead exposure through consumption of big game meat in Quebec, Canada: risk assessment and perception.

    PubMed

    Fachehoun, Richard Coovi; Lévesque, Benoit; Dumas, Pierre; St-Louis, Antoine; Dubé, Marjolaine; Ayotte, Pierre

    2015-01-01

    Game meat from animals killed by lead ammunition may expose consumers to lead. We assessed the risk related to lead intake from meat consumption of white-tailed deer and moose killed by lead ammunition and documented the perception of hunters and butchers regarding this potential contamination. Information on cervid meat consumption and risk perception were collected using a mailed self-administrated questionnaire which was addressed to a random sample of Quebec hunters. In parallel, 72 samples of white-tailed deer (n = 35) and moose (n = 37) meats were collected from voluntary hunters and analysed for lead content using inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry. A risk assessment for people consuming lead shot game meat was performed using Monte Carlo simulations. Mean lead levels in white-tailed deer and moose killed by lead ammunition were 0.28 and 0.17 mg kg(-1) respectively. Risk assessment based on declared cervid meat consumption revealed that 1.7% of the surveyed hunters would exceed the dose associated with a 1 mmHg increase in systolic blood pressure (SBP). For consumers of moose meat once, twice or three times a week, simulations predicted that 0.5%, 0.9% and 1.5% of adults would be exposed to a dose associated with a 1 mmHg increase in SBP, whereas 0.9%, 1.9% and 3.3% of children would be exposed to a dose associated with 1 point intelligence quotient (IQ) decrease, respectively. For consumers of deer meat once, twice or three times a week, the proportions were 1.6%, 2.9% and 4% for adults and 2.9%, 5.8% and 7.7% for children, respectively. The consumption of meat from cervids killed with lead ammunition may increase lead exposure and its associated health risks. It would be important to inform the population, particularly hunters, about this potential risk and promote the use of lead-free ammunition. PMID:26161681

  16. Substitutions of red meat, poultry and fish and risk of myocardial infarction.

    PubMed

    Würtz, Anne M L; Hansen, Mette D; Tjønneland, Anne; Rimm, Eric B; Schmidt, Erik B; Overvad, Kim; Jakobsen, Marianne U

    2016-05-01

    Red meat has been suggested to be adversely associated with risk of myocardial infarction (MI), but previous studies have rarely taken replacement foods into consideration. We aimed to investigate optimal substitutions between and within the food groups of red meat, poultry and fish for MI prevention. We followed up 55 171 women and men aged 50-64 years with no known history of MI at recruitment. Diet was assessed by a validated 192-item FFQ at baseline. Adjusted Cox proportional hazard models were used to calculate hazard ratios (HR) and 95 % CI for specified food substitutions of 150 g/week. During a median follow-up time of 13·6 years, we identified 656 female and 1694 male cases. Among women, the HR for replacing red meat with fatty fish was 0·76 (95 % CI 0·64, 0·89), whereas the HR for replacing red meat with lean fish was 1·00 (95 % CI 0·89, 1·14). Similarly, replacing poultry with fatty but not lean fish was inversely associated with MI: the HR was 0·81 (95 % CI 0·67, 0·98) for fatty fish and was 1·08 (95 % CI 0·92, 1·27) for lean fish. The HR for replacing lean with fatty fish was 0·75 (95 % CI 0·60, 0·94). Replacing processed with unprocessed red meat was not associated with MI. Among men, a similar pattern was found, although the associations were not statistically significant. This study suggests that replacing red meat, poultry or lean fish with fatty fish is associated with a lower risk of MI. PMID:26949151

  17. An analysis of interactions and outcomes associated with an online professional development course for science teachers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Randle, David Edward

    This mixed-methods study examined the interactions and learning outcomes of science teachers in an online graduate-level course on evolutionary biology intended to improve their content knowledge and science lesson planning. Discussion posts made by the teachers in this seven-week course were analyzed for cognitive presence using the Community of Inquiry framework. Compared to other studies examining cognitive presence, high levels of Integration level cognitive activity were observed (47% of total posts). This was most likely due to the design of the discussion prompts and expectations used to frame student participation. The questions were open-ended, and students were expected to use reference materials to construct their responses. During the course, 395 student posts contained statements that could be coded for scientific accuracy. Of these, 85% were coded as scientifically accurate. This reinforces reports from previous literature that the online environment is conducive to reflective and careful contributions by participants. As the course progressed, the number of faculty posts per discussion declined, while the number of student posts remained relatively constant. Student-to-student posts increased in frequency as faculty participation dropped. The number of student posts increased towards the end of each two-week discussion period, however the frequencies of posts with scientifically accurate statements and Integration level cognitive activity remained relatively constant over this same period. The increase in total posts was due to the increase in other types of communication in the discussions. Case study analysis was used to examine patterns of online behavior in three participants who achieved different course grades. A low-performing student had a pattern of intermittent activity, made low numbers of posts in each discussion, and had low percentages of posts that contained scientific statements or indicators of Integration level cognitive activity

  18. Development and quality evaluation of dehydrated chicken meat rings using spent hen meat and different extenders.

    PubMed

    Mishra, Bidyut Prava; Chauhan, Geeta; Mendiratta, S K; Sharma, B D; Desai, B A; Rath, P K

    2015-04-01

    It is recommended that for effective utilization of spent hen meat, it should be converted into value added or shelf stable meat products. Since we are lacking in cold chain facilities, therefore there is imperative need to develop shelf stable meat products. The present study was envisaged with the objective to develop dehydrated chicken meat rings utilizing spent hen meat with different extenders. A basic formulation and processing conditions were standardized for dehydrated chicken meat rings. Extenders such as rice flour, barnyard millet flour and texturized soy granule powder at 5, 10 and 15 % levels were incorporated separately replacing the lean meat in pre standardized dehydrated chicken meat ring formulation. On the basis of physico-chemical properties and sensory scores optimum level of incorporation was adjudged as 10 %, 10 % and 5 % for rice flour, barnyard millet flour and texturized soy granule powder respectively. Products with optimum level of extenders were analysed for physico-chemical and sensory attributes. It was found that a good quality dehydrated chicken meat rings can be prepared by utilizing spent hen meat at 90 % level, potato starch 3 % and refined wheat flour 7 % along with spices, condiments, common salt and STPP. Addition of an optimum level of different extenders such as rice flour (10 %), barnyard millet flour (10 %) and TSGP (5 %) separately replacing lean meat in the formulation can give acceptable quality of the product. Rice flour was found to be the best among the three extenders studied as per the sensory evaluation. PMID:25829592

  19. Red meat enhances the colonic formation of the DNA adduct O6-carboxymethyl guanine: implications for colorectal cancer risk.

    PubMed

    Lewin, Michelle H; Bailey, Nina; Bandaletova, Tanya; Bowman, Richard; Cross, Amanda J; Pollock, Jim; Shuker, David E G; Bingham, Sheila A

    2006-02-01

    Red meat is associated with increased risk of colorectal cancer and increases the endogenous formation of N-nitrosocompounds (NOC). To investigate the genotoxic effects of NOC arising from red meat consumption, human volunteers were fed high (420 g) red meat, vegetarian, and high red meat, high-fiber diets for 15 days in a randomized crossover design while living in a volunteer suite, where food was carefully controlled and all specimens were collected. In 21 volunteers, there was a consistent and significant (P < 0.0001) increase in endogenous formation of NOC with the red meat diet compared with the vegetarian diet as measured by apparent total NOC (ATNC) in feces. In colonic exfoliated cells, the percentage staining positive for the NOC-specific DNA adduct, O(6)-carboxymethyl guanine (O(6)CMG) was significantly (P < 0.001) higher on the high red meat diet. In 13 volunteers, levels were intermediate on the high-fiber, high red meat diet. Fecal ATNC were positively correlated with the percentage of cells staining positive for O(6)CMG (r(2) = 0.56, P = 0.011). The presence of O(6)CMG was also shown in intact small intestine from rats treated with the N-nitrosopeptide N-acetyl-N'-prolyl-N'-nitrosoglycine and in HT-29 cells treated with diazoacetate. This study has shown that fecal NOC arising from red meat include direct acting diazopeptides or N-nitrosopeptides able to form alkylating DNA adducts in the colon. As these O(6)CMG adducts are not repaired, and if other related adducts are formed and not repaired, this may explain the association of red meat with colorectal cancer. PMID:16452248

  20. The challenges associated with developing science-based landscape scale management plans

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Szaro, R.C.; Boyce, D.A., Jr.; Puchlerz, T.

    2005-01-01

    Planning activities over large landscapes poses a complex of challenges when trying to balance the implementation of a conservation strategy while still allowing for a variety of consumptive and nonconsumptive uses. We examine a case in southeast Alaska to illustrate the breadth of these challenges and an approach to developing a science-based resource plan. Not only was the planning area, the Tongass National Forest, USA, exceptionally large (approximately 17 million acres or 6.9 million ha), but it also is primarily an island archipelago environment. The water system surrounding and going through much of the forest provides access to facilitate the movement of people, animals, and plants but at the same time functions as a barrier to others. This largest temperate rainforest in the world is an exceptional example of the complexity of managing at such a scale but also illustrates the role of science in the planning process. As we enter the 21st century, the list of questions needing scientific investigation has not only changed dramatically, but the character of the questions also has changed. Questions are contentious, cover broad scales in space and time, and are highly complex and interdependent. The provision of unbiased and objective information to all stakeholders is an important step in informed decision-making.