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Sample records for mechanical pulp washing

  1. Immune defense mechanisms of the dental pulp.

    PubMed

    Jontell, M; Okiji, T; Dahlgren, U; Bergenholtz, G

    1998-01-01

    Defense reactions of the dentin/pulp complex involve a variety of biological systems, in which the immune system plays a pivotal role. The knowledge of the organization and function of pulpal immunocompetent cells has been sparse, but in recent years a significant body of information of immune mechanisms in general has provided a footing for substantial new knowledge of the immune mechanisms of the dental pulp. The identification of pulpal dendritic cells (DCs) has generated research activities which have led to a concept of how an antigenic challenge may evoke a pulpal inflammatory response. Although DCs are not able to identify foreign antigens specifically, they provide necessary signals to activate T-lymphocytes which in turn will orchestrate other immunocompetent cells to mount the local immune defense of the dental pulp. The purpose of this review is to accent the organization and function of pulpal DCs and other tissue and cellular components and to provide a basis for how they may interact to instigate pulpal defense mechanisms. PMID:9603235

  2. Mechanical behaviors of molded pulp material

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ji, Hongwei; Wang, Huaiwen; Chen, Jinlong

    2008-11-01

    Many mechanical phenomena of interest for web-like materials, such as molded pulp, take place at the micro-scale. A SEM (scanning electron microscope) with SHIMADZU electrohydraulic servo experimental system was employed to study the micro-scale mechanical behavior of molded pulp materials. Uniaxial tension tests of molded pulp specimens were carried out, resulting in the stress-strain curves. Experimental results indicated that the material is not only elasticplastic, but also emplastic. The surface morphology evolution of the tensile specimen was visually monitored during the process of loading, and some SEM micrographs were captured under different load levels. Full-field deformations over an area of 190x170 μm2 were obtained using the digital image correlation method. The higher strains occurred at the fibre fines zone or around voids whereas the lower strains were obviously found at long fibres, demonstrating that the strain distribution is obviously uneven. The reason may be due to the random orientation and the fraction of the fibres, and the presence of impurities and voids as well.

  3. 40 CFR 430.70 - Applicability; description of the mechanical pulp subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... mechanical pulp subcategory. 430.70 Section 430.70 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Mechanical Pulp Subcategory § 430.70 Applicability; description of the mechanical pulp subcategory. The... groundwood chemi-mechanical mills; the production of pulp and paper at groundwood mills through...

  4. Dental Pulp Defence and Repair Mechanisms in Dental Caries

    PubMed Central

    Farges, Jean-Christophe; Alliot-Licht, Brigitte; Renard, Emmanuelle; Ducret, Maxime; Gaudin, Alexis; Smith, Anthony J.; Cooper, Paul R.

    2015-01-01

    Dental caries is a chronic infectious disease resulting from the penetration of oral bacteria into the enamel and dentin. Microorganisms subsequently trigger inflammatory responses in the dental pulp. These events can lead to pulp healing if the infection is not too severe following the removal of diseased enamel and dentin tissues and clinical restoration of the tooth. However, chronic inflammation often persists in the pulp despite treatment, inducing permanent loss of normal tissue and reducing innate repair capacities. For complete tooth healing the formation of a reactionary/reparative dentin barrier to distance and protect the pulp from infectious agents and restorative materials is required. Clinical and in vitro experimental data clearly indicate that dentin barrier formation only occurs when pulp inflammation and infection are minimised, thus enabling reestablishment of tissue homeostasis and health. Therefore, promoting the resolution of pulp inflammation may provide a valuable therapeutic opportunity to ensure the sustainability of dental treatments. This paper focusses on key cellular and molecular mechanisms involved in pulp responses to bacteria and in the pulpal transition between caries-induced inflammation and dentinogenic-based repair. We report, using selected examples, different strategies potentially used by odontoblasts and specialized immune cells to combat dentin-invading bacteria in vivo. PMID:26538821

  5. High-energy electron irradiation of annual plants (bagasse) for an efficient production of chemi-mechanical pulp fibers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pathak, Shailesh; Ray, A. K.; Großmann, Harald; Kleinert, Rene

    2015-12-01

    The paper industry is one of the largest consumers of energy and energy consumption has been increased several times in last few decades. Bagasse chemical pulping has very low yield about 45-55% and also generates high pollution load in the effluent as compared to mechanical pulping, g. Thermo-mechanical pulp (TMP). On the other hand,-->e.g. thermo-mechanical pulp (TMP). On the other hand, the specific energy consumption is very high for TMP pulps. ETMP (Energy efficient Thermo-Mechanical Pulping) or ECTMP (Energy efficient Chemi-Thermo Mechanical Pulping) is an innovative idea for reducing the energy demand in TMP refining. In the present investigation, energy efficient mechanical pulping potential of bagasse was studied using TMP, CTMP and ECTMP pulping methodology with electron irradiation pretreatment. It is evident from the results that more than 50% energy saving potential of irradiation pre-treatment was achieved.

  6. Mechanical properties of new dental pulp-capping materials.

    PubMed

    Nielsen, Matthew J; Casey, Jeffery A; VanderWeele, Richard A; Vandewalle, Kraig S

    2016-01-01

    The mechanical properties of pulp-capping materials may affect their resistance to fracture during placement of a final restorative material or while supporting an overlying restoration over time. The purpose of this study was to compare the compressive strength, flexural strength, and flexural modulus of 2 new pulp-capping materials (TheraCal LC and Biodentine), mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA), and calcium hydroxide over time. Specimens were created in molds and tested to failure in a universal testing machine after 15 minutes, 3 hours, and 24 hours. The MTA specimens did not set at 15 minutes. At all time periods, TheraCal LC had the greatest compressive and flexural strengths. After 3 and 24 hours, Biodentine had the greatest flexural modulus. TheraCal LC had greater early strength to potentially resist fracture during immediate placement of a final restorative material. Biodentine had greater stiffness after 3 hours to potentially provide better support of an overlying restoration under function over time. PMID:26742167

  7. Ultrasonic and mechanical soil washing processes for the remediation of heavy-metal-contaminated soil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Seulgi; Lee, Wontae; Son, Younggyu

    2016-07-01

    Ultrasonic/mechanical soil washing process was investigated and compared with ultrasonic process and mechanical process using a relatively large lab-scale sonoreactor. It was found that higher removal efficiencies were observed in the combined processes for 0.1 and 0.3 M HCl washing liquids. It was due to the combination effects of macroscale removal for the overall range of slurry by mechanical mixing and microscale removal for the limited zone of slurry by cavitational actions.

  8. Characterisation of mechanical pulp fines from alkaline peroxide pulping of EFB

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kamaludin, Nurul Hasanah; Ghazali, Arniza; Daud, Wan Rosli Wan

    2012-09-01

    EFB (empty fruit bunch) was subjected to alkaline peroxide pulping for generation of fibrous mass as raw material for the making of pulp-based products. During refining, co-produced fines were collected by fractionation on square-mesh screens of 200-, 250-, 300- and 400- mesh sizes, placed at the refining discharge by order of increasing mesh. Each set of the produced paper was incorporated with 12% fines for microscopic analysis. It appears that sheared vessel elements and fibrils were predominant and they make up the mass rendering collapsibility of cell wall for good product formation. The study acknowledged the form of fines functioning as natural filler in pulp network and worthy of utilization for reduction of total suspended solid.

  9. Draft standards and guidelines for the land application of mechanical pulp mill sludge to agricultural land

    SciTech Connect

    1998-09-01

    Mechanical pulp mill sludge consists primarily of water, wood fiber, biomass, and residual chemicals. Research has shown that application of sludge to land improves the nutrient status and physical properties of soil, resulting in enhanced plant growth. This report presents guidelines for operations involving the application of mechanical pulp mill sludge on agricultural land in Alberta. It lists the regulatory requirements for sludge generators, restrictions on land application, and record-keeping and reporting requirements; provides general information on sludge properties and parameters of interest, suitability of receiving soils and areas, and sludge application rates and frequencies. Research studies conducted in Alberta on the benefits of land application of mechanical pulp mill sludge are also summarized.

  10. Evaluation of management techniques to conserve water in a mechanical head wash blood removal system.

    PubMed

    Galloway, H O; Deotte, R E; Lawrence, T E

    2013-11-01

    This research objectively evaluated methods to conserve water in a mechanical beef head wash system. Digital images of pre-wash and post-wash beef heads were analyzed to quantify the percentage change in red saturation of the image, which was used as an objective measure of cleanliness. Three types of nozzles (fan, three-hole, venturi) and three water pressures (344, 516, 689kPa) were evaluated in a two-way treatment structure. An interaction (P=0.07) was observed between water pressure and nozzle type; the change in red saturation increased as pressure decreased for fan and three-hole nozzles which contrasted with venturi nozzles. The fan nozzle×516kPa pressure treatment used 25L of water per head washed and was used to evaluate the effect of three water temperatures (15, 38, 57°C). Water temperature did not impact (P=0.21) change in red saturation. Reducing water wastage and minimizing the use of heated water could have positive economic benefits to the beef processor. PMID:23793094

  11. Aquifer washing by micellar solutions: 2. DNAPL recovery mechanisms for an optimized alcohol surfactant solvent solution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martel, Richard; Lefebvre, René; Gélinas, Pierre J.

    1998-03-01

    A large sand column experiment is used to illustrate the principles of complex organic contaminants (DNAPL) recovery by a chemical solution containing an alcohol ( n-butanol), a surfactant (Hostapur SAS), and two solvents ( d-limonene and toluene). The washing solution is pushed by viscous polymer solutions to keep the displacement stable. The main NAPL recovery mechanisms identified are: (1) immiscible displacement by oil saturation increase (oil swelling), oil viscosity reduction, interfacial tension lowering, and relative permeability increase; (2) miscible NAPL displacement by solubilization. Most of the NAPL was recovered in a Winsor, type II system ahead of the washing solution. The 0.8 pore volume (PV) of alcohol-surfactant-solvent solution injected recovered more than 89% of the initial residual DNAPL saturation (0.195). Winsor system types were determined by visual observation of phases and confirmed by electrical resistivity measurements of phases and water content measurements in the oleic phase. Viscosity and density lowering of the oleic phase was made using solvents and alcohol transfer from the washing solution. Small sand column tests are performed to check different rinsing strategies used to minimize washing solution residual ingredients which can be trapped in sediments. An alcohol/surfactant rinsing solution without solvent, injected behind the washing solution, minimizes solvent trapping in sediments. More than five pore volumes of polymer solution and water must be injected after the rinsing solution to decrease alcohol and SAS concentrations in sediments to an acceptable level. To obtain reasonable trapped surfactant concentrations in sediments, the displacement front between the rinsing solution and the subsequent the following polymer solution has to be stable.

  12. Comprehensive analysis of individual pulp fiber bonds quantifies the mechanisms of fiber bonding in paper.

    PubMed

    Hirn, Ulrich; Schennach, Robert

    2015-01-01

    The process of papermaking requires substantial amounts of energy and wood consumption, which contributes to larger environmental costs. In order to optimize the production of papermaking to suit its many applications in material science and engineering, a quantitative understanding of bonding forces between the individual pulp fibers is of importance. Here we show the first approach to quantify the bonding energies contributed by the individual bonding mechanisms. We calculated the impact of the following mechanisms necessary for paper formation: mechanical interlocking, interdiffusion, capillary bridges, hydrogen bonding, Van der Waals forces, and Coulomb forces on the bonding energy. Experimental results quantify the area in molecular contact necessary for bonding. Atomic force microscopy experiments derive the impact of mechanical interlocking. Capillary bridges also contribute to the bond. A model based on the crystal structure of cellulose leads to values for the chemical bonds. In contrast to general believe which favors hydrogen bonding Van der Waals bonds play the most important role according to our model. Comparison with experimentally derived bond energies support the presented model. This study characterizes bond formation between pulp fibers leading to insight that could be potentially used to optimize the papermaking process, while reducing energy and wood consumption. PMID:26000898

  13. Comprehensive analysis of individual pulp fiber bonds quantifies the mechanisms of fiber bonding in paper

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hirn, Ulrich; Schennach, Robert

    2015-05-01

    The process of papermaking requires substantial amounts of energy and wood consumption, which contributes to larger environmental costs. In order to optimize the production of papermaking to suit its many applications in material science and engineering, a quantitative understanding of bonding forces between the individual pulp fibers is of importance. Here we show the first approach to quantify the bonding energies contributed by the individual bonding mechanisms. We calculated the impact of the following mechanisms necessary for paper formation: mechanical interlocking, interdiffusion, capillary bridges, hydrogen bonding, Van der Waals forces, and Coulomb forces on the bonding energy. Experimental results quantify the area in molecular contact necessary for bonding. Atomic force microscopy experiments derive the impact of mechanical interlocking. Capillary bridges also contribute to the bond. A model based on the crystal structure of cellulose leads to values for the chemical bonds. In contrast to general believe which favors hydrogen bonding Van der Waals bonds play the most important role according to our model. Comparison with experimentally derived bond energies support the presented model. This study characterizes bond formation between pulp fibers leading to insight that could be potentially used to optimize the papermaking process, while reducing energy and wood consumption.

  14. Refining of Polysulfide Pulps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Copur, Yalcin

    This study compares the modified kraft process, polysulfide pulping, one of the methods to obtain higher pulp yield, with conventional kraft method. More specifically, the study focuses on the refining effects of polysulfide pulp, which is an area with limited literature. Physical, mechanical and chemical properties of kraft and polysulfide pulps (4% elemental sulfur addition to cooking digester) cooked under the same conditions were studied as regards to their behavior under various PFI refining (0, 3000, 6000, 9000 revs.). Polysulfide (PS) pulping, compared to the kraft method, resulted in higher pulp yield and higher pulp kappa number. Polysulfide also gave pulp having higher tensile and burst index. However, the strength of polysulfide pulp, tear index at a constant tensile index, was found to be 15% lower as compared to the kraft pulp. Refining studies showed that moisture holding ability of chemical pulps mostly depends on the chemical nature of the pulp. Refining effects such as fibrillation and fine content did not have a significant effect on the hygroscopic behavior of chemical pulp.

  15. An integrated acoustic and dielectrophoretic particle manipulation in a microfluidic device for particle wash and separation fabricated by mechanical machining.

    PubMed

    Çetin, Barbaros; Özer, Mehmet Bülent; Çağatay, Erdem; Büyükkoçak, Süleyman

    2016-01-01

    In this study, acoustophoresis and dielectrophoresis are utilized in an integrated manner to combine the two different operations on a single polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) chip in sequential manner, namely, particle wash (buffer exchange) and particle separation. In the washing step, particles are washed with buffer solution with low conductivity for dielectrophoretic based separation to avoid the adverse effects of Joule heating. Acoustic waves generated by piezoelectric material are utilized for washing, which creates standing waves along the whole width of the channel. Coupled electro-mechanical acoustic 3D multi-physics analysis showed that the position and orientation of the piezoelectric actuators are critical for successful operation. A unique mold is designed for the precise alignment of the piezoelectric materials and 3D side-wall electrodes for a highly reproducible fabrication. To achieve the throughput matching of acoustophoresis and dielectrophoresis in the integration, 3D side-wall electrodes are used. The integrated device is fabricated by PDMS molding. The mold of the integrated device is fabricated using high-precision mechanical machining. With a unique mold design, the placements of the two piezoelectric materials and the 3D sidewall electrodes are accomplished during the molding process. It is shown that the proposed device can handle the wash and dielectrophoretic separation successfully. PMID:26865905

  16. Morphological and mechanical effects of extended beating on EFB pulp web

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zukeri, Mohd Ridzuan Hafiz Mohd; Ghazali, Arniza; Lazin, Mohd Azli Khairil Mat

    2012-09-01

    The pulp extracted from the alkaline peroxide pulping (APP) of EFB was beaten from 500 revolutions to 10000 revolutions using PFI mill to investigate the morphological changes undergone by the pulp and the resultant effect on paper sheet properties. As a result of beating, pulp elements were observed as intensely fibrillated, reducing the amounts of fibre bundles and thus, reducing interruption in the inter-fiber bonding. To a defined extent, beating was also seen as unwinding the structure of vessel element to a single strand of loose spiral body. These fibrillated vessel elements of APP pulp from EFB, plus the fines element germinating from further segmentation of the vessels, were the factors contributing to the overall strength improvement of the produced EFB pulp network. The applied increment in beating revolution had apparently widened the known broad spectrum quality of APP pulp from EFB. This demonstrates EFB potential for application in specialty paper production.

  17. Surface and thermal enhancement of the cellulosic component of thermo mechanical pulp using a rapid method: Iodomethane modification.

    PubMed

    George, Michael; Mussone, Paolo G; Bressler, David C

    2016-05-20

    The feasibility of employing chemical methods for enhancement of cellulose-based materials is dependent on the availability, price, and green index of the modifying agent. This study details the use of iodomethane, an inexpensive organo halide, to increase the hydrophobicity of thermo mechanical (TMP) samples, which renders them better structural elements for composite materials. For this system, we studied the influence of various concentration of iodomethane, concentration of caustic, and reaction time. Infrared spectroscopy suggested reaction of the organo halide with the hydroxyl groups of cellulose and lignin components of TMP. Pulp samples treated for 4 h or at low caustic concentration showed the least improvements plausibly due to pulp degradation or poor pulp swelling, respectively. On the other hand, pulp treated at 3 h using high concentrations of caustic were characterized with surfaces that were more hydrophobic. Thus, this study outlines a fast and organic solvent-free (clean up) method that can be used to enhance pulp samples for composite applications. PMID:26917403

  18. Green composites of poly(lactic acid) and sugar beet pulp. II. Structural and mechanical property analysis.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Poly(lactic acid) and sugar beet pulp were compounded by twin-screw extrusion and injection molded into composite forms. Specific mechanical energy decreased with the addition of SBP during processing. PLA-SBP composites retained more tensile strength than expected based on the Nicolais-Narkis mod...

  19. SOIL WASHING TREATMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    Soil washing is a water-based process for mechanically scrubbing soils ex-situ to remove undesirable contaminants. he process removes contaminants from soils in one of two ways: by dissolving or suspending them in the wash solution (which is later treated by conventional wastewat...

  20. Hand Washing

    MedlinePlus

    ... dirty little secrets: Students don't wash their hands often or well. In one study, only 58% of female and 48% of male middle- and high-school students washed their hands after using the bathroom. Yuck! previous continue How ...

  1. Pollution prevention for the kraft pulp and paper industry

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-09-01

    The document is an annotated bibliography of publications related to pollution prevention in the Kraft segment of the pulp and paper industry. It is organized by process area as follows: chip preparation, chemical pulping, pulp washing, bleaching, chemical recovery, recausticizing, power generation, wastewater treatment, papermaking, and general plant. The document contains 269 citations.

  2. Final Technical Report Steam Cycle Washer for Unbleached Pulp

    SciTech Connect

    Starkey, Yvonne; Salminen, Reijo; Karlsnes, Andy

    2008-09-22

    Project Abstract for “Steam Cycle Washer for Unbleached Pulp” When completed, the patented SC Washer will provide an innovative, energy efficient demonstration project to wash unbleached pulp using a pressure vessel charged with steam. The Port Townsend Paper Corporation’s pulp mill in Port Townsend, WA was initially selected as the host site for conducting the demonstration of the SCW. Due to 2006 and 2007 delays in the project caused by issues with 21st Century Pulp & Paper, the developer of the SCW, and the 2007 bankruptcy proceedings and subsequent restructuring at Port Townsend Paper, the mill can no longer serve as a host site. An alternate host site is now being sought to complete the commercial demonstration of the Steam Cycle Washer for Unbleached Pulp. Additionally, estimated costs to complete the project have more than doubled since the initial estimates for the project were completed in 2002. Additional grant funding from DOE was sought and in July, 2008 the additional DOE funds were procured under a new DOE award, DE-PS36-08GO98014 issued to INL. Once the new host site is secured the completion of the project will begin under the management of INL. Future progress reports and milestone tracking will be completed under requirements of new DOE Award Number DE-PS36-08GO98014. The following are excerpts from the project Peer Review completed in 2006. They describe the project in some detail. Additional information can be found by reviewing DOE Award Number: DE-PS36-08GO98014. 5. Statement of Problem and Technical Barriers: The chemical pulping industry is one of the major users of fresh water in the United States. On average the industry uses over 80 tons of water to produce one ton of pulp, some states use up to 50% more (Washington 120 and Wisconsin 140). In order to process one ton of pulp using 80 tons of process water, a large amount of: • energy is used in process heat and • power is required for pumping the large volume of pulp slurries

  3. Hand washing.

    PubMed

    2016-07-01

    A surgery matron has writt en a hand hygiene promotional video rap to encourage staff, patients and visitors to wash their hands. Vicky Cartwright from University Hospitals of Leicester NHS Trust rewrote the lyrics to 1990s hit rap, Ice Ice Baby. PMID:27380706

  4. Standards and guidelines for the land application of mechanical pulp mill sludge to agricultural land

    SciTech Connect

    1999-11-01

    These standards and guidelines are intended for operations involving the application of pulp mill sludge on agricultural land in Alberta, with the rationale that the applied material is a good soil amendment. The objectives of the standards and guidelines are to ensure that the land application is conducted in a manner that protects human health and the environment, and to guide sludge generators and users by outlining the basis for application reviews and approval requirements pursuant to the Environmental Protection and Enhancement Act. The standards and guidelines cover such matters as definitions, sludge assessments, record keeping and reporting, soil suitability, and land application methods and procedures. The document also includes a summary of research studies and related reports on the benefits of sludge utilization on land.

  5. Efficacy of electrolyzed water and an acidic formulation compared with regularly used chemical sanitizers for tableware sanitization during mechanical and manual ware-washing protocols.

    PubMed

    Handojo, Aldo; Lee, Jaesung; Hipp, Joel; Pascall, Melvin A

    2009-06-01

    This study investigated residual bacteria and different food types left on tableware items after various washing and sanitization protocols. Escherichia coli K-12 and Staphylococcus epidermidis were inoculated into whole milk and soft cream cheese. The milk was used to contaminate regular drinking glasses and the cheese was used to contaminate plates and silverware. These tableware items were washed in manual (43 degrees C) and mechanical (49 degrees C) washers and sanitized with different sanitizers (24 degrees C) for 5 s. Quaternary ammonium compound, sodium hypochlorite, peroxyacetic acid, neutral electrolyzed water (NEW), and a combination of citric acid with sodium dodecylbenzene sulfonate (acidic formulation) were used as the chemical sanitizers. Tap water was used as a control. Results showed that at least 5-log reductions in both bacterial numbers were achieved for all sanitizers in both types of washers, except for the control. With mechanical dishwashing, the NEW and acidic formulation treatments reduced bacterial populations by >6.9 and >6.0 log CFU per tableware item, respectively. With the manual operation, bacterial numbers were reduced by >5.4 and >6.0 log CFU per tableware item, respectively. This study revealed that NEW and the acidic formulation are as effective as the other chemical sanitizers for food contact surface sanitization in manual and mechanical ware washing. PMID:19610348

  6. Ultrasonic washing of textiles.

    PubMed

    Choi, Junhee; Kim, Tae-Hong; Kim, Ho-Young; Kim, Wonjung

    2016-03-01

    We present the results of experimental investigation of ultrasonic washing of textiles. The results demonstrate that cavitation bubbles oscillating in acoustic fields are capable of removing soils from textiles. Since the washing performance is mitigated in a large washing bath when using an ultrasonic transducer, we propose a novel washing scheme by combining the ultrasonic vibration with a conventional washing method utilizing kinetic energy of textiles. It is shown that the hybrid washing scheme achieves a markedly enhanced performance up to 15% in comparison with the conventional washing machine. This work can contribute to developing a novel laundry machine with reduced washing time and waste water. PMID:26215790

  7. Alkaline pulping of some eucalypts from Sudan.

    PubMed

    Khristova, P; Kordsachia, O; Patt, R; Dafaalla, S

    2006-03-01

    Four eucalypts (Eucalyptus camaldulensis, Eucalyptus microtheca, Eucalyptus tereticornis and Eucalyptus citriodora) grown in Sudan were examined for their suitability for pulping and papermaking with different alkaline methods. Their physical, morphological and chemical characteristics are reported. The pulping trials with E. citriodora and E. tereticornis were carried out using the kraft-AQ, soda-AQ, modified AS/AQ (ASA), ASAM and kraft methods. For the other two species, only the ASAM and the kraft process were applied. ASAM pulping gave the best results in terms of yield, degree of delignification, mechanical and optical pulp properties. The best pulps, obtained in kraft and ASAM cooking of E. citriodora, were bleached to 88% ISO brightness in a totally chlorine free bleaching sequence (OQ1O/PQ2P). The bleached pulps, especially the ASAM pulp, showed good papermaking properties and would be suitable for manufacture of writing and printing grades of paper. PMID:15935655

  8. Sequential push-pull pumping mechanism for washing and evacuation of an immunoassay reaction chamber on a microfluidic CD platform.

    PubMed

    Thio, Tzer Hwai Gilbert; Ibrahim, Fatimah; Al-Faqheri, Wisam; Soin, Norhayati; Kahar Bador, Maria; Madou, Marc

    2015-01-01

    A centrifugal compact disc (CD) microfluidic platform with reservoirs, micro-channels, and valves can be employed for implementing a complete immunoassay. Detection or biosensor chambers are either coated for immuno-interaction or a biosensor chip is inserted in them. On microfluidic CDs featuring such multi-step chemical/biological processes, the biosensor chamber must be repeatedly filled with fluids such as enzymes solutions, buffers, and washing solutions. After each filling step, the biosensor chamber needs to be evacuated by a passive siphoning process to prepare it for the next step in the assay. However, rotational speed dependency and limited space on a CD are two big obstacles to performing such repetitive filling and siphoning steps. In this work, a unique thermo-pneumatic (TP) Push-Pull pumping method is employed to provide a superior alternative biosensor chamber filling and evacuation technique. The proposed technique is demonstrated on two CD designs. The first design features a simple two-step microfluidic process to demonstrate the evacuation technique, while the second design shows the filling and evacuation technique with an example sequence for an actual immunoassay. In addition, the performance of the filling and evacuation technique as a washing step is also evaluated quantitatively and compared to the conventional manual bench top washing method. The two designs and the performance evaluation demonstrate that the technique is simple to implement, reliable, easy to control, and allows for repeated push-pulls and thus filling and emptying of the biosensor chamber. Furthermore, by addressing the issue of rotational speed dependency and limited space concerns in implementing repetitive filling and evacuation steps, this newly introduced technique increases the flexibility of the microfluidic CD platform to perform multi-step biological and chemical processes. PMID:25853411

  9. Sequential Push-Pull Pumping Mechanism for Washing and Evacuation of an Immunoassay Reaction Chamber on a Microfluidic CD Platform

    PubMed Central

    Thio, Tzer Hwai Gilbert; Ibrahim, Fatimah; Al-Faqheri, Wisam; Soin, Norhayati; Kahar Bador, Maria; Madou, Marc

    2015-01-01

    A centrifugal compact disc (CD) microfluidic platform with reservoirs, micro-channels, and valves can be employed for implementing a complete immunoassay. Detection or biosensor chambers are either coated for immuno-interaction or a biosensor chip is inserted in them. On microfluidic CDs featuring such multi-step chemical/biological processes, the biosensor chamber must be repeatedly filled with fluids such as enzymes solutions, buffers, and washing solutions. After each filling step, the biosensor chamber needs to be evacuated by a passive siphoning process to prepare it for the next step in the assay. However, rotational speed dependency and limited space on a CD are two big obstacles to performing such repetitive filling and siphoning steps. In this work, a unique thermo-pneumatic (TP) Push-Pull pumping method is employed to provide a superior alternative biosensor chamber filling and evacuation technique. The proposed technique is demonstrated on two CD designs. The first design features a simple two-step microfluidic process to demonstrate the evacuation technique, while the second design shows the filling and evacuation technique with an example sequence for an actual immunoassay. In addition, the performance of the filling and evacuation technique as a washing step is also evaluated quantitatively and compared to the conventional manual bench top washing method. The two designs and the performance evaluation demonstrate that the technique is simple to implement, reliable, easy to control, and allows for repeated push-pulls and thus filling and emptying of the biosensor chamber. Furthermore, by addressing the issue of rotational speed dependency and limited space concerns in implementing repetitive filling and evacuation steps, this newly introduced technique increases the flexibility of the microfluidic CD platform to perform multi-step biological and chemical processes. PMID:25853411

  10. Designing and testing regenerative pulp treatment strategies: modeling the transdentinal transport mechanisms

    PubMed Central

    Passos, Agathoklis D.; Mouza, Aikaterini A.; Paras, Spiros V.; Gogos, Christos; Tziafas, Dimitrios

    2015-01-01

    The need for simulation models to thoroughly test the inflammatory effects of dental materials and dentinogenic effects of specific signaling molecules has been well recognized in current dental research. The development of a model that simulates the transdentinal flow and the mass transfer mechanisms is of prime importance in terms of achieving the objectives of developing more effective treatment modalities in restorative dentistry. The present protocol study is part of an ongoing investigation on the development of a methodology that can calculate the transport rate of selected molecules inside a typical dentinal tubule. The transport rate of biological molecules has been investigated using a validated CFD code. In that framework we propose a simple algorithm that, given the type of molecules of the therapeutic agent and the maximum acceptable time for the drug concentration to attain a required value at the pulpal side of the tubules, can estimate the initial concentration to be imposed. PMID:26441676

  11. Pulp Regeneration: Current Approaches and Future Challenges

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Jingwen; Yuan, Guohua; Chen, Zhi

    2016-01-01

    Regenerative endodontics aims to replace inflamed/necrotic pulp tissues with regenerated pulp-like tissues to revitalize teeth and improve life quality. Pulp revascularization case reports, which showed successful clinical and radiographic outcomes, indicated the possible clinical application of pulp regeneration via cell homing strategy. From a clinical point of view, functional pulp-like tissues should be regenerated with the characterization of vascularization, re-innervation, and dentin deposition with a regulated rate similar to that of normal pulp. Efficient root canal disinfection and proper size of the apical foramen are the two requisite preconditions for pulp regeneration. Progress has been made on pulp regeneration via cell homing strategies. This review focused on the requisite preconditions and cell homing strategies for pulp regeneration. In addition to the traditionally used mechanical preparation and irrigation, antibiotics, irrigation assisted with EndoVac apical negative-pressure system, and ultrasonic and laser irradiation are now being used in root canal disinfection. In addition, pulp-like tissues could be formed with the apical foramen less than 1 mm, although more studies are needed to determine the appropriate size. Moreover, signaling molecules including stromal cell derived factor (SDF-1α), basic Fibroblast Growth Factor (bFGF), Platelet Derived Growth Factor (PDGF), stem cell factor (SCF), and Granulocyte Colony-Stimulating Factor (G-CSF) were used to achieve pulp-like tissue formation via a cell homing strategy. Studies on the cell sources of pulp regeneration might give some indications on the signaling molecular selection. The active recruitment of endogenous cells into root canals to regenerate pulp-like tissues is a novel concept that may offer an unprecedented opportunity for the near-term clinical translation of current biology-based therapies for dental pulp regeneration. PMID:27014076

  12. Nasal Wash Treatment

    MedlinePlus

    ... Make the nasal wash solution. Do not use tap water for the nasal wash (unless boiled or filtered ... water. You may use: Distilled water Sterilized water Tap water that has been boiled for 1 minute (at ...

  13. Saline nasal washes

    MedlinePlus

    Salt water washes; Nasal irrigation; Nasal lavage; Sinusitis - nasal wash ... by mixing: 3 teaspoons (tsp) canning or pickling salt (no iodine) 1 tsp baking soda 1 cup warm distilled, filtered, or boiled water To use the wash: Fill the device with ...

  14. Strength loss in kraft pulping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iribarne, Jose

    Unbleached kraft pulps from two U.S. mills were 21% and 26% weaker than comparable laboratory pulps from the same chip sources, when assessed as the tear index at a tensile index of 70 kN.m/kg. The phenomena involved were clarified by characterizing the differences between the mill and laboratory pulps in terms of fundamental fiber properties. All of the strength loss could be explained by a reduction in intrinsic fiber strength of 9% to 11%, as estimated from wet zero-span tensile tests and fiber length distributions. Most of the effects of different fiber shape and length were isolated by PFI mill refining and decrilling, respectively. The higher fiber coarseness of mill pulps was a factor in their maximum density and bond strength, but changes in these variables were analogous to those of laboratory pups due to similar swelling. Specific bond strength, determined from a wet pressing experiment, was similar in mill and laboratory pulps. Neither carbohydrate composition nor crystalline structure, assessed through x-ray diffraction analysis, were significant factors in the observed fiber strength differences. The mill pulps were not more heterogeneous than the laboratory pulps, within the resolution of a fractionation experiment. The number of weak points in each pulp was assessed through analysis of the amount of fiber cutting during PFI mill refining and treatments with potassium superoxide or cellulase. The results suggested that the chemistry of kraft pulping preferentially weaken short, slender fibers, while mechanical stresses during the hot discharge of batch digesters mainly affect long, thick fibers. The greater number of weak points in the long-fiber fractions of mill pulps is probably associated with their lower wet zero-span tensile indices. Automated optical detection of major singularities with a prototype instrument suggested that only the weak points induced by mechanical stress could be detected by local variations in birefringence. In contrast

  15. Late Washing efficiency

    SciTech Connect

    Morrissey, M.F.

    1992-08-31

    Interim Waste Technology has demonstrated the Late Washing concept on the Experimental Laboratory Filter (ELF) at TNX. In two tests, washing reduced the [NO{sub 2}{sup {minus}}] from 0.08 M to approximately 0.01 M on slurries with 2 year equivalent radiation exposures and 9.5 wt. % solids. For both washes, the [NO{sub 2}{sup {minus}}] decreased at rates near theoretical for a constant volume stirred vessel, indicating approximately l00% washing efficiency. Permeate flux was greater than 0.05 gpm/ft{sup 2} for both washes at a transmembrane pressure of 50 psi and flow velocity of 9 ft/sec.

  16. EPIDEMIOLOGICAL STUDY OF 'KLEBSIELLA PNEUMONIAE' AMONG PULP AND PAPER MILL WORKERS

    EPA Science Inventory

    This one-year study measured fecal coliform and Klebsiella bacteria densities in several of Wisconsin's pulp and paper mill processing wash waters, treated waters, and waters receiving pulp and paper mill effluent discharge. The isolation of fecal coliform bacteria ranged from as...

  17. Wash water recovery system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Deckman, G.; Rousseau, J. (Editor)

    1973-01-01

    The Wash Water Recovery System (WWRS) is intended for use in processing shower bath water onboard a spacecraft. The WWRS utilizes flash evaporation, vapor compression, and pyrolytic reaction to process the wash water to allow recovery of potable water. Wash water flashing and foaming characteristics, are evaluated physical properties, of concentrated wash water are determined, and a long term feasibility study on the system is performed. In addition, a computer analysis of the system and a detail design of a 10 lb/hr vortex-type water vapor compressor were completed. The computer analysis also sized remaining system components on the basis of the new vortex compressor design.

  18. Influence of rice straw cooking conditions in the soda-ethanol-water pulping on the mechanical properties of produced paper sheets.

    PubMed

    Navaee-Ardeh, S; Mohammadi-Rovshandeh, J; Pourjoozi, M

    2004-03-01

    A normalized design was used to examine the influence of independent variables (alcohol concentration, cooking time and temperature) in the catalytic soda-ethanol pulping of rice straw on various mechanical properties (breaking length, burst, tear index and folding endurance) of paper sheets obtained from each pulping process. An equation of each dependent variable as a function of cooking variables (independent variables) was obtained by multiple non-linear regression using the least square method by MATLAB software for developing of empirical models. The ranges of alcohol concentration, cooking time and temperature were 40-65% (w/w), 150-180 min and 195-210 degrees C, respectively. Three-dimensional graphs of dependent variables were also plotted versus independent variables. The optimum values of breaking length, burst and tear index and folding endurance were 4683.7 (m), 30.99 (kN/g), 376.93 (mN m2/g) and 27.31, respectively. However, short cooking time (150 min), high ethanol concentration (65%) and high temperature (210 degrees C) could be used to produce papers with suitable burst and tear index. However, for papers with best breaking length and folding endurance low temperature (195 degrees C) was desirable. Differences between optimum values of dependent variables obtained by normalized design and experimental data were less than 20%. PMID:14643987

  19. Heat Transfer and Fluid Mechanics Institute, Meeting, 26th, Washington State University, Pullman, Wash., June 26-28, 1978, Proceedings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crowe, C. T. (Editor); Grosshandler, W. L.

    1978-01-01

    Papers are presented on the heat transfer and fluid mechanics in energy systems including diesel combustion analysis using rapid sampling and the numerical simulation of thermal response of architectural structures. Experiments associated with hypersonic boundary layers, the prediction of nozzle-wall pressure distribution, and the effects of nozzle geometry on an axisymmetric thrust augmentor are outlined. Predictions are made of film thickness on a roll-metering device and the thermal characteristics of multiple-surface submerged condenser modules are described. Numerical studies are made of the interaction between natural and forced convection in a complex geometry and of pressure drop and holdup in two-phase stratified flow. A numerical solution is given for viscous flows at high Reynolds numbers and for compressible boundary layer flows near separation or reattachment. The structure and transport properties in turbulent shear flows are reviewed along with the spectra of Reynolds stresses in a developing pipe flow.

  20. 3. VIEW LOOKING NORTH AT CHINA WASH FLUME SHOWING WASH ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. VIEW LOOKING NORTH AT CHINA WASH FLUME SHOWING WASH - San Carlos Irrigation Project, China Wash Flume, Main (Florence-Case Grande) Canal at Station 137+00, T4S, R10E, S14, Coolidge, Pinal County, AZ

  1. Influence of different types of pulp treatment during isolation in the obtention of human dental pulp stem cells

    PubMed Central

    Viña-Almunia, Jose; Borras, Consuelo; Gambini, Juan; El Alamy, Marya; Viña, Jose

    2016-01-01

    Background Different methods have been used in order to isolate dental pulp stem cells. The aim of this study was to study the effect of different types of pulp treatment during isolation, under 3% O2 conditions, in the time needed and the efficacy for obtaining dental pulp stem cells. Material and Methods One hundred and twenty dental pulps were used to isolate dental pulp stem cells treating the pulp tissue during isolation using 9 different methods, using digestive, disgregation, or mechanical agents, or combining them. The cells were positive for CD133, Oct4, Nestin, Stro-1, CD34 markers, and negative for the hematopoietic cell marker CD-45, thus confirming the presence of mesenchymal stem cells. The efficacy of dental pulp stem cells obtention and the minimum time needed to obtain such cells comparing the 9 different methods was analyzed. Results Dental pulp stem cells were obtained from 97 of the 120 pulps used in the study, i.e. 80.8% of the cases. They were obtained with all the methods used except with mechanical fragmentation of the pulp, where no enzymatic digestion was performed. The minimum time needed to isolate dental pulp stem cells was 8 hours, digesting with 2mg/ml EDTA for 10 minutes, 4mg/ml of type I collagenase, 4mg/ml of type II dispase for 40 minutes, 13ng/ml of thermolysine for 40 minutes and sonicating the culture for one minute. Conclusions Dental pulp stem cells were obtained in 97 cases from a series of 120 pulps. The time for obtaining dental pulp stem cells was reduced maximally, without compromising the obtention of the cells, by combining digestive, disgregation, and mechanical agents. Key words:Dental pulp stem cells, mesenchymal stem cells, isolation method. PMID:26946201

  2. Biomechanical pulping: A mill-scale evaluation

    SciTech Connect

    Akhtar, M.; Scott, G.M.; Swaney, R.E.; Shipley, D.F.

    1999-07-01

    Mechanical pulping process is electrical energy intensive and results in low paper strength. Biomechanical pulping, defined as the fungal treatment of lignocellulosic materials prior to mechanical pulping, has shown at least 30% savings in electrical energy consumption, and significant improvements in paper strength properties compared to the control at a laboratory scale. In an effort to scale-up biomechanical pulping to an industrial level, fifty tons of spruce wood chips were inoculated with the best biopulping fungus in a continuous operation and stored in the form of an outdoor chip pile for two weeks. The pile was ventilated with conditioned air to maintain the optimum growth temperature and moisture throughout the pile. The control and fungus-treated chips were refined through a thermomechanical pulp mill (TMP) producing lightweight coated paper. The fungal pretreatment saved 33% electrical energy and improved paper strength properties significantly compared to the control. Since biofibers were stronger than the conventional TMP fibers, the authors were able to reduce the amount of bleached softwood kraft pulp by at least 5% in the final product. Fungal pretreatment reduced brightness, but brightness was restored to the level of bleached control with 60% more hydrogen peroxide. The economics of biomechanical pulping look attractive.

  3. Mechanical Property Characterization of Plasticized Sugar Beet Pulp and Poly(lactic acid) Green Composites using Acoustic Emission and Confocal Microscopy.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sorbitol and glycerol were used to plasticize sugar beet pulp-poly (lactic acid) green composites. The plasticizer was incorporated into sugar beet pulp (SBP)at 0, 10, 20, 30 and 40% w/w at low temperature and shear and then compounded with PLA using twin-screw extrusion and injection molding. The...

  4. Pulp stem cells: implication in reparative dentin formation.

    PubMed

    Dimitrova-Nakov, Sasha; Baudry, Anne; Harichane, Yassine; Kellermann, Odile; Goldberg, Michel

    2014-04-01

    Many dental pulp stem cells are neural crest derivatives essential for lifelong maintenance of tooth functions and homeostasis as well as tooth repair. These cells may be directly implicated in the healing process or indirectly involved in cell-to-cell diffusion of paracrine messages to resident (pulpoblasts) or nonresident cells (migrating mesenchymal cells). The identity of the pulp progenitors and the mechanisms sustaining their regenerative capacity remain largely unknown. Taking advantage of the A4 cell line, a multipotent stem cell derived from the molar pulp of mouse embryo, we investigated the capacity of these pulp-derived precursors to induce in vivo the formation of a reparative dentin-like structure upon implantation within the pulp of a rodent incisor or a first maxillary molar after surgical exposure. One month after the pulp injury alone, a nonmineralized fibrous matrix filled the mesial part of the coronal pulp chamber. Upon A4 cell implantation, a mineralized osteodentin was formed in the implantation site without affecting the structure and vitality of the residual pulp in the central and distal parts of the pulp chamber. These results show that dental pulp stem cells can induce the formation of reparative dentin and therefore constitute a useful tool for pulp therapies. Finally, reparative dentin was also built up when A4 progenitors were performed by alginate beads, suggesting that alginate is a suitable carrier for cell implantation in teeth. PMID:24698687

  5. Pulp and paper mills

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-10-14

    The various hazards present in the many steps used in the production of products from pulp and paper mills were reviewed and discussed. The biological effects of 43 chemical, physical and dust hazards were detailed in the report. Dust hazards included exposures to wood dust, mold and bagasse dusts and fibrogenic dusts. Physical hazards included high heat and humidity, and noise. Raw materials and chemical intermediates discussed included calcium-oxide (1305788), magnesium-oxide (1309484), pulping liquors, sodium-hydroxide (1310732), sulfate, sulfites, sulfides, sulfur (7704349) and sulfuric-acid (7664939). Pulp bleaching agents were discussed along with papermaking additives, contaminants and/or byproducts, and pulping or combustion effluents. Sampling and analytical techniques for physical and chemical hazards were discussed. Engineering controls for hazards in pulp and paper mills were reviewed. OSHA regulations governing pulp and paper mills were evaluated.

  6. Laccase-Catalyzed Surface Modification of Thermo-Mechanical Pulp (TMP) for the Production of Wood Fiber Insulation Boards Using Industrial Process Water

    PubMed Central

    Schubert, Mark; Ruedin, Pascal; Civardi, Chiara; Richter, Michael; Hach, André; Christen, Herbert

    2015-01-01

    Low-density wood fiber insulation boards are traditionally manufactured in a wet process using a closed water circuit (process water). The water of these industrial processes contains natural phenolic extractives, aside from small amounts of admixtures (e.g., binders and paraffin). The suitability of two fungal laccases and one bacterial laccase was determined by biochemical characterization considering stability and substrate spectra. In a series of laboratory scale experiments, the selected commercial laccase from Myceliophtora thermophila was used to catalyze the surface modification of thermo-mechanical pulp (TMP) using process water. The laccase catalyzed the covalent binding of the phenolic compounds of the process water onto the wood fiber surface and led to change of the surface chemistry directly via crosslinking of lignin moieties. Although a complete substitution of the binder was not accomplished by laccase, the combined use of laccase and latex significantly improved the mechanical strength properties of wood fiber boards. The enzymatically-treated TMP showed better interactions with the synthetic binder, as shown by FTIR-analysis. Moreover, the enzyme is extensively stable in the process water and the approach requires no fresh water as well as no cost-intensive mediator. By applying a second-order polynomial model in combination with the genetic algorithm (GA), the required amount of laccase and synthetic latex could be optimized enabling the reduction of the binder by 40%. PMID:26046652

  7. Laccase-Catalyzed Surface Modification of Thermo-Mechanical Pulp (TMP) for the Production of Wood Fiber Insulation Boards Using Industrial Process Water.

    PubMed

    Schubert, Mark; Ruedin, Pascal; Civardi, Chiara; Richter, Michael; Hach, André; Christen, Herbert

    2015-01-01

    Low-density wood fiber insulation boards are traditionally manufactured in a wet process using a closed water circuit (process water). The water of these industrial processes contains natural phenolic extractives, aside from small amounts of admixtures (e.g., binders and paraffin). The suitability of two fungal laccases and one bacterial laccase was determined by biochemical characterization considering stability and substrate spectra. In a series of laboratory scale experiments, the selected commercial laccase from Myceliophtora thermophila was used to catalyze the surface modification of thermo-mechanical pulp (TMP) using process water. The laccase catalyzed the covalent binding of the phenolic compounds of the process water onto the wood fiber surface and led to change of the surface chemistry directly via crosslinking of lignin moieties. Although a complete substitution of the binder was not accomplished by laccase, the combined use of laccase and latex significantly improved the mechanical strength properties of wood fiber boards. The enzymatically-treated TMP showed better interactions with the synthetic binder, as shown by FTIR-analysis. Moreover, the enzyme is extensively stable in the process water and the approach requires no fresh water as well as no cost-intensive mediator. By applying a second-order polynomial model in combination with the genetic algorithm (GA), the required amount of laccase and synthetic latex could be optimized enabling the reduction of the binder by 40%. PMID:26046652

  8. Evaluating pulp stiffness from fibre bundles by ultrasound

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karppinen, Timo; Montonen, Risto; Määttänen, Marjo; Ekman, Axel; Myllys, Markko; Timonen, Jussi; Hæggström, Edward

    2012-06-01

    A non-destructive ultrasonic tester was developed to measure the stiffness of pulp bundles. The mechanical properties of pulp are important when estimating the behaviour of paper under stress. Currently available pulp tests are tedious and alter the fibres structurally and mechanically. The developed tester employs (933 ± 15) kHz tweezer-like ultrasonic transducers and time-of-flight measurement through (9.0 ± 2.5) mm long and (0.8 ± 0.1) mm thick fibre bundles kept at (19.1 ± 0.4) °C and (62 ± 1)% RH. We determined the stiffness of soft wood pulps produced by three kraft pulping modifications: standard kraft pulp, (5.2 ± 0.4) GPa, prehydrolysis kraft pulp, (4.3 ± 0.4) GPa, and alkali extracted prehydrolysis kraft pulp, (3.3 ± 0.4) GPa. Prehydrolysis and alkali extraction processes mainly lowered the hemicellulose content of the pulps, which essentially decreased the fibre-wall stiffness hence impairing the stiffness of the fibre networks. Our results indicate that the method allows ranking of pulps according to their stiffness determined from bundle-like samples taken at an early phase of the papermaking process.

  9. Solvent wash solution

    DOEpatents

    Neace, J.C.

    1984-03-13

    A process is claimed for removing diluent degradation products from a solvent extraction solution, which has been used to recover uranium and plutonium from spent nuclear fuel. A wash solution and the solvent extraction solution are combined. The wash solution contains (a) water and (b) up to about, and including, 50 vol % of at least one-polar water-miscible organic solvent based on the total volume of the water and the highly-polar organic solvent. The wash solution also preferably contains at least one inorganic salt. The diluent degradation products dissolve in the highly-polar organic solvent and the organic solvent extraction solvent do not dissolve in the highly-polar organic solvent. The highly-polar organic solvent and the extraction solvent are separated.

  10. Solvent wash solution

    DOEpatents

    Neace, James C.

    1986-01-01

    Process for removing diluent degradation products from a solvent extraction solution, which has been used to recover uranium and plutonium from spent nuclear fuel. A wash solution and the solvent extraction solution are combined. The wash solution contains (a) water and (b) up to about, and including, 50 volume percent of at least one-polar water-miscible organic solvent based on the total volume of the water and the highly-polar organic solvent. The wash solution also preferably contains at least one inorganic salt. The diluent degradation products dissolve in the highly-polar organic solvent and the organic solvent extraction solvent do not dissolve in the highly-polar organic solvent. The highly-polar organic solvent and the extraction solvent are separated.

  11. Chemical Surface Washing Agents for Oil Spills: Update State-of-the-Art on Mechanisms of Action and Evaluation of Two Laboratory Effectiveness Tests.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Chemical surface washing agents are formulations designed to help release stranded oil from shoreline substrates.The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), in response to the Oil Pollution Act of 1990, Initiated study of these cleaning agents. The project summarized here had...

  12. Soil washing technology evaluation

    SciTech Connect

    Suer, A.

    1995-04-01

    Environmental Restoration Engineering (ERE) continues to review innovative, efficient, and cost effective technologies for SRS soil and/or groundwater remediation. As part of this effort, this technical evaluation provides review and the latest information on the technology for SRS soil remediation. Additional technology evaluation reports will be issued periodically to update these reports. The purpose of this report is to review the soil washing technology and its potential application to SRS soil remediation. To assess whether the Soil Washing technology is a viable option for SRS soil remediation, it is necessary to review the technology/process, technology advantages/limitations, performance, applications, and cost analysis.

  13. Pilot scale fermentation of Jerusalem artichoke tuber pulp mashes

    SciTech Connect

    Ziobro, G.C.; Williams, L.A.

    1983-01-01

    Processing and fermentation of Jerusalem artichoke (Helianthus tuberosus L.) tuber pulp mashes were successfully carried out at pilot scales of 60 gallons and 1000 gallons. Whole tubers were pulped mechanically into a thick mash and fermented, using commercially available Saccharomyces cerevisiae and selected strains of Kluyveromyces fragilis. EtOH fermentation yields ranging from 50-70% of theoretical maximum were obtained in 3-4 days. Several problems regarding the processing and direct fermentation of tuber pulp mashes are discussed.

  14. Domestic wash water reclamation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hall, J. B., Jr.; Batten, C. E.; Wilkins, J. R.

    1974-01-01

    System consists of filtration unit, reverse-osmosis module, tanks, pumps, plumbing, and various gauges, meters, and valves. After water is used in washing machine or shower, it is collected in holding tank. Water is pumped through series of five particulate filters. Pressure tank supplies processed water to commode water closet.

  15. Wash Your Hands

    MedlinePlus

    ... do if you don't have soap and clean, running water? Washing hands with soap and water is the ... specific questions. More Information CDC's Handwashing Work Handwashing: Clean Hands Save Lives Hand Hygiene in Healthcare Settings Water-related Hygiene Hand Hygiene to Help Prevent Flu ...

  16. Soil washing treatability study

    SciTech Connect

    Krstich, M.

    1995-12-01

    Soil washing was identified as a viable treatment process option for remediating soil at the FEMP Environmental Management Project (FEMP). Little information relative to the specific application and potential effectiveness of the soil washing process exists that applies to the types of soil at the FEMP. To properly evaluate this process option in conjunction with the ongoing FEMP Remedial Investigation/Feasibility Study (RI/FS), a treatability testing program was necessary to provide a foundation for a detailed technical evaluation of the viability of the process. In August 1991, efforts were initiated to develop a work plan and experimental design for investigating the effectiveness of soil washing on FEMP soil. In August 1992, the final Treatability Study Work Plan for Operable Unit 5: Soil Washing (DOE 1992) was issued. This document shall be referenced throughout the remainder of this report as the Treatability Study Work Plan (TSWP). The purpose of this treatability study was to generate data to support initial screening and the detailed analysis of alternatives for the Operable Unit 5 FS.

  17. Pulp Fibroblasts Control Nerve Regeneration through Complement Activation.

    PubMed

    Chmilewsky, F; About, I; Chung, S-H

    2016-07-01

    Dentin-pulp regeneration is closely linked to the presence of nerve fibers in the pulp and to the healing mechanism by sprouting of the nerve fiber's terminal branches beneath the carious injury site. However, little is known about the initial mechanisms regulating this process in carious teeth. It has been recently demonstrated that the complement system activation, which is one of the first immune responses, contributes to tissue regeneration through the local production of anaphylatoxins such as C5a. While few pulp fibroblasts in intact teeth and in untreated fibroblast cultures express the C5a receptor (C5aR), here we show that all dental pulp fibroblasts, localized beneath the carious injury site, do express this receptor. This observation is consistent with our in vitro results, which showed expression of C5aR in lipoteichoic acid-stimulated pulp fibroblasts. The interaction of C5a, produced after complement synthesis and activation from pulp fibroblasts, with the C5aR of these cells mediated the local brain-derived neurotropic factor (BDNF) secretion. Overall, this activation guided the neuronal growth toward the lipoteichoic acid-stimulated fibroblasts. Thus, our findings highlight a new mechanism in one of the initial steps of the dentin-pulp regeneration process, linking pulp fibroblasts to the nerve sprouting through the complement system activation. This may provide a useful future therapeutic tool in targeting the fibroblasts in the dentin-pulp regeneration process. PMID:27053117

  18. Washing Out the Competition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    AJT Associates, Inc. (AJT) worked with NASA to develop a revolutionary ozone-based laundry system. AJT's TecH2Ozone(R) wash system presents its customers with an energy-efficient, cost-effective, and environmentally safe way to perform commercial laundering. TecH2Ozone significantly reduces the amount of water and chemical used as compared to traditional commercial laundry systems. This reduction has resulted in lower cost and shorter wash cycles. And due to the reduced use of chemicals, a significant portion of the rinse water is recycled back into the system for reuse. TecH2Ozone customers, such as hotels and other large commercial laundry facilities, have felt the benefits of this equipment. Because of the reduced cycle times, fewer washers are needed and there is a notable increase in the cleanliness of the laundry. The reduction in chemical residues is a boon to customers with allergies and those prone to skin irritation from chemicals retained in regular laundry. AJT Associates, Inc. (AJT) worked with NASA to develop a revolutionary ozone-based laundry system. AJT's TecH2Ozone(R) wash system presents its customers with an energy-efficient, cost-effective, and environmentally safe way to perform commercial laundering.

  19. Interaction of Substrate Mechanics with Dental Pulp Stem Cells (DPSCs) differentiation to generate a scaffold for Bone regeneration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rafailovich, Miriam; Bhatnagar, Divya; Bherwani, Aneel; Simon, Marcia

    2012-02-01

    This work investigates the interaction of the substrate mechanics with the differentiation in the absence of chemical induction and only resulting from the stimuli of the substrate mechanics and chemistry. We chose enzymatically cross-linked gelatin hydrogels substrates of different stiffness varying from 8KPa to 100Pa. DPSCs were cultured and differentiated on the substrates for 7, 14 and 21 days with and without dexamethasone induction media. SEM and EDX analysis after 21 days indicate that cells produced a sheet of biomineralized deposits, several tenths of mm thick on the hard substrate irrespective of chemical induction. Modulli of the cells was independent of the induction and stiffness of the hydrogels. RT-PCR assays indicated that cells expressed more osteocalcin when cultured in non-induction media and harder substrate. The shape of the deposits was more uniform and in close packing on the harder substrate with a higher Ca:P ratio. On soft substrate the deposits were more flat with less Ca:P ratio. Further experiments indicated that conformational change due to the crosslinking of gelatin could be the reason for biomineralization.

  20. In vitro antibacterial activity of different pulp capping materials

    PubMed Central

    Beltrami, Riccardo; Colombo, Marco; Ceci, Matteo; Dagna, Alberto; Chiesa, Marco

    2015-01-01

    Background Direct pulp capping involves the application of a dental material to seal communications between the exposed pulp and the oral cavity (mechanical and carious pulp exposures) in an attempt to act as a barrier, protect the dental pulp complex and preserve its vitality. The aim of this study was to evaluate and compare, by the agar disc diffusion test, the antimicrobial activity of six different pulp-capping materials: Dycal (Dentsply), Calcicur (Voco), Calcimol LC (Voco), TheraCal LC (Bisco), MTA Angelus (Angelus), Biodentine (Septodont). Material and Methods Streptococcus salivarius, Streptococcus sanguis and Streptococcus mutans strains were selected to evaluate the antimicrobial activity by the agar disc diffusion test of different pulp capping materials. Paper disks were impregnated whit each pulp capping materials and placed onto culture agar-plates pre-adsorbed with bacterial cells and further incubated for 24 h at 37°C. The growth inhibition zones around each pulp capping materials were recorded and compared for each bacterial strain. Results For the investigation of the antibacterial properties the ANOVA showed the presence of significant differences among the various materials. Tukey test showed that MTA-based materials induced lower growth inhibition zones. Conclusions MTA-based products show a discrete antibacterial activity varying from calcium hydroxide-based materials which present an higher antibacterial activity. Key words:Agar disc diffusion test, antimicrobial activity, calcium hydroxide, MTA, pulp capping materials. PMID:26644833

  1. DENTAL PULP TISSUE ENGINEERING

    PubMed Central

    Demarco, FF; Conde, MCM; Cavalcanti, B; Casagrande, L; Sakai, V; Nör, JE

    2013-01-01

    Dental pulp is a highly specialized mesenchymal tissue, which have a restrict regeneration capacity due to anatomical arrangement and post-mitotic nature of odontoblastic cells. Entire pulp amputation followed by pulp-space disinfection and filling with an artificial material cause loss of a significant amount of dentin leaving as life-lasting sequelae a non-vital and weakened tooth. However, regenerative endodontics is an emerging field of modern tissue engineering that demonstrated promising results using stem cells associated with scaffolds and responsive molecules. Thereby, this article will review the most recent endeavors to regenerate pulp tissue based on tissue engineering principles and providing insightful information to readers about the different aspects enrolled in tissue engineering. Here, we speculate that the search for the ideal combination of cells, scaffolds, and morphogenic factors for dental pulp tissue engineering may be extended over future years and result in significant advances in other areas of dental and craniofacial research. The finds collected in our review showed that we are now at a stage in which engineering a complex tissue, such as the dental pulp, is no longer an unachievable and the next decade will certainly be an exciting time for dental and craniofacial research. PMID:21519641

  2. Washing of waste prior to landfilling.

    PubMed

    Cossu, Raffaello; Lai, Tiziana

    2012-05-01

    The main impact produced by landfills is represented by the release of leachate emissions. Waste washing treatment has been investigated to evaluate its efficiency in reducing the waste leaching fraction prior to landfilling. The results of laboratory-scale washing tests applied to several significant residues from integrated management of solid waste are presented in this study, specifically: non-recyclable plastics from source separation, mechanical-biological treated municipal solid waste and a special waste, automotive shredded residues. Results obtained demonstrate that washing treatment contributes towards combating the environmental impacts of raw wastes. Accordingly, a leachate production model was applied, leading to the consideration that the concentrations of chemical oxygen demand (COD) and total Kjeldahl nitrogen (TKN), parameters of fundamental importance in the characterization of landfill leachate, from a landfill containing washed wastes, are comparable to those that would only be reached between 90 and 220years later in the presence of raw wastes. The findings obtained demonstrated that washing of waste may represent an effective means of reducing the leachable fraction resulting in a consequent decrease in landfill emissions. Further studies on pilot scale are needed to assess the potential for full-scale application of this treatment. PMID:22245736

  3. Soil washing of fluorine contaminated soil using various washing solutions.

    PubMed

    Moon, Deok Hyun; Jo, Raehyun; Koutsospyros, Agamemnon; Cheong, Kyung Hoon; Park, Jeong-Hun

    2015-03-01

    Bench-scale soil washing experiments were conducted to remove fluoride from contaminated soils. Five washing solutions including hydrochloric acid (HCl), nitric acid (HNO3), sodium hydroxide (NaOH), sulfuric acid (H2SO4) and tartaric acid (C4H6O6) were tested. The concentration of the washing solutions used ranged from 0.1 to 3 M with a liquid to solid ratio of 10. The soil washing results showed that the most effective washing solution for the removal of fluoride from contaminated soils was HCl. The highest fluoride removal results of approximately 97 % from the contaminated soil were obtained using 3 M HCl. The fluoride removal efficiency of the washing solution increases in the following order: C4H6O6 < NaOH < H2SO4 < HNO3 < HCl. PMID:25552323

  4. Dental Pulp Testing: A Review

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Eugene; Abbott, Paul V.

    2009-01-01

    Dental pulp testing is a useful and essential diagnostic aid in endodontics. Pulp sensibility tests include thermal and electric tests, which extrapolate pulp health from sensory response. Whilst pulp sensibility tests are the most commonly used in clinical practice, they are not without limitations and shortcomings. Pulp vitality tests attempt to examine the presence of pulp blood flow, as this is viewed as a better measure of true health than sensibility. Laser Doppler flowmetry and pulse oximetry are examples of vitality tests. Whilst the prospect is promising, there are still many practical issues that need to be addressed before vitality tests can replace sensibility tests as the standard clinical pulp diagnostic test. With all pulp tests, the results need to be carefully interpreted and closely scrutinised as false results can lead to misdiagnosis which can then lead to incorrect, inappropriate, or unnecessary treatment. PMID:20339575

  5. Application of enzyme for improvement of Acacia APMP pulping and refining of mixed pulp for printing papermaking in Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Dien, Le Quang; Hoang, Phan Huy; Tu, Do Thanh

    2014-02-01

    This study assesses the influence of commercial enzyme (FibreZyme LBR) treatment applied to APMP pulp and to the mixture of 55% Acacia CTMP75 pulp, 30% soft-wood bleached chemical pulp (LBKP 90 from Chile) and 15% hard-wood bleached chemical pulp (NPKP 90 from Indonesia). The treatment was conducted at different temperatures, reaction times and enzyme dosages. The APMP and mixed pulp treated with the enzyme showed a significant decrease of refining time to achieve the same refining degree (Schopper-Riegler freeness, °SR) and better mechanical-physical properties due to the development of fibrillation. The fibre morphology difference between before and after treatment was revealed by the microscopic observations performed by a scanning electron microscope (SEM). The SEM analysis showed that the surface of the enzyme-treated fibre had some swelling and fibrillar phenomenon that lead to strong paper properties such as tear index, tensile index and burst index. PMID:24222497

  6. Biobleaching of banana fibre pulp using Bacillus subtilis C O1 xylanase produced from wheat bran under solid-state cultivation.

    PubMed

    Manimaran, A; Vatsala, T M

    2007-11-01

    A cellulase-free xylanase produced by Bacillus subtilis C 01 from wheat bran under solid-state cultivation was tested for its efficacy in biobleaching of raw banana fibre and banana pulp obtained through a mechanical pulping process. Banana pulp samples treated with crude xylanase (450 nkat g(-1) pulp) resulted in a 19.6% increase in the brightness as compared to untreated pulp. The presence of chromophores, hydrophobic compounds and an increased reducing sugar (10.79 mg g(-1) pulp) quantity in the bleached solution after enzymatic treatment indicated the removal of materials that were absorbed at 237 nm from the banana pulp. PMID:17712584

  7. The behavior of silver nanotextiles during washing.

    PubMed

    Geranio, L; Heuberger, M; Nowack, B

    2009-11-01

    The widespread use of silver nanoparticles (Ag-NPs) in commercial products, especially textiles, will likely result in an unknown spread of Ag into the environment. The quantification and characterization of the Ag released from nano-Ag-products is an important parameter needed to predict the effect of Ag-NPs on the environment. The aim of this study was to determine the amount and the form of Ag released during washing from nine fabrics with different ways of silver incorporation into or onto the fibers. The effect of pH, surfactants, and oxidizing agents was evaluated. The results show that little dissolution of Ag-NPs occurs under conditions relevant to washing (pH 10) with dissolved concentrations 10 times lower than at pH 7. However, bleaching agents such as hydrogen peroxide or peracetic acid (formed by the perborate/TAED system) can greatly accelerate the dissolution of Ag. The amount and form of Ag released from the fabrics as ionic and particulate Ag depended on the type of Ag-incorporation into the textile. The percentage of the total silver emitted during one washing of the textiles varied considerably among products (from less than 1 to 45%). In the washing machine the majority of the Ag (at least 50% but mostly >75%) was released in the size fraction >450 nm, indicating the dominant role of mechanical stress. A conventional silver textile did not show any significant difference in the size distribution of the released silver compared to many of the textiles containing nano-Ag. These results have important implications for the risk assessment of Ag-textiles and also for environmental fate studies of nano-Ag, because they show that under conditions relevant to washing, primarily coarse Ag-containing particles are released. PMID:19924931

  8. Contaminant resorption during soil washing

    SciTech Connect

    Gombert, D.

    1993-10-01

    To evaluate the applicability of soil washing to a specific site requires some basic research in how contaminants are bound. Much can be learned from sequential extraction methodology based on micronutrient bioavailability studies wherein the soil matrix is chemically dissected to selectively remove particular fixation mechanisms independently. This procedure uses a series of progressively more aggressive solvents to dissolve the principle phases that make up a soil, however, the published studies do not appear to consider the potential for a contaminant released from one type of site to resorb on another site during an extraction. This physical model assumes no ion exchange or adsorption at sites either previously occupied by other ions, or exposed by the dissolution. Therefore, to make engineering use of the sequential extraction data, the release of contamination must be evaluated relative to the effects of resorption. Time release studies were conducted to determine the optimum duration for extraction to maximize complete destruction of the target matrix fraction while minimizing contaminant resorption. Tests with and without a potassium brine present to inhibit cesium resorption indicated extraction efficiency could be enhanced by as much as a factor of ten using the brine.

  9. Dental pulp stem cells

    PubMed Central

    Ashri, Nahid Y.; Ajlan, Sumaiah A.; Aldahmash, Abdullah M.

    2015-01-01

    Inflammatory periodontal disease is a major cause of loss of tooth-supporting structures. Novel approaches for regeneration of periodontal apparatus is an area of intensive research. Periodontal tissue engineering implies the use of appropriate regenerative cells, delivered through a suitable scaffold, and guided through signaling molecules. Dental pulp stem cells have been used in an increasing number of studies in dental tissue engineering. Those cells show mesenchymal (stromal) stem cell-like properties including self-renewal and multilineage differentiation potentials, aside from their relative accessibility and pleasant handling properties. The purpose of this article is to review the biological principles of periodontal tissue engineering, along with the challenges facing the development of a consistent and clinically relevant tissue regeneration platform. This article includes an updated review on dental pulp stem cells and their applications in periodontal regeneration, in combination with different scaffolds and growth factors. PMID:26620980

  10. 21 CFR 872.1720 - Pulp tester.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... DENTAL DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 872.1720 Pulp tester. (a) Identification. A pulp tester is an AC or... current transmitted by an electrode to stimulate the nerve tissue in the dental pulp. (b)...

  11. 21 CFR 872.1720 - Pulp tester.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... DENTAL DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 872.1720 Pulp tester. (a) Identification. A pulp tester is an AC or... current transmitted by an electrode to stimulate the nerve tissue in the dental pulp. (b)...

  12. 21 CFR 872.1720 - Pulp tester.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... DENTAL DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 872.1720 Pulp tester. (a) Identification. A pulp tester is an AC or... current transmitted by an electrode to stimulate the nerve tissue in the dental pulp. (b)...

  13. Biotechnology in the pulp and paper industry; A review

    SciTech Connect

    Trotter, P.C. )

    1990-05-01

    This paper reviews biotechnology in the pulp and paper industry. As to biopulping and biobleaching, little effort is being devoted to improving strength properties of pulps. However, positive results have been reported in improving tensile properties by treating mechanical pulps with white-rot organisms and in enzymatic beating of chemical pulps with hemicellulase enzymes. Papermaking is another seemingly overlooked area, although biological systems and processes have been used in the past and ought to be important still. On the other hand, waste treatment has been a stronghold of biotechnology within the industry for years. New possibilities may emerge via biotechnology for removing color and AOX from bleach plant effluents. New research on the use of white-rot organisms and soil bacteria to detoxify chlorinated organics in soils and groundwater may yield technologies that the industry can apply.

  14. 27 CFR 19.310 - Wash water.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Wash water. 19.310 Section 19.310 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF... Byproducts § 19.310 Wash water. Water used in washing chemicals to remove spirits may be run into a wash...

  15. 27 CFR 19.328 - Wash water.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Wash water. 19.328 Section... THE TREASURY LIQUORS DISTILLED SPIRITS PLANTS Production Chemical By-Products § 19.328 Wash water. Water used in washing chemicals to remove spirits therefrom may be run into a wash tank or a...

  16. 27 CFR 19.310 - Wash water.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Wash water. 19.310 Section 19.310 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF... Byproducts § 19.310 Wash water. Water used in washing chemicals to remove spirits may be run into a wash...

  17. 27 CFR 19.310 - Wash water.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Wash water. 19.310 Section 19.310 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF... Byproducts § 19.310 Wash water. Water used in washing chemicals to remove spirits may be run into a wash...

  18. 27 CFR 19.310 - Wash water.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Wash water. 19.310 Section 19.310 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF... Byproducts § 19.310 Wash water. Water used in washing chemicals to remove spirits may be run into a wash...

  19. Improving the performance of enzymes in hydrolysis of high solids paper pulp derived from MSW

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The research aimed to improve the overall conversion efficiency of the CTec® family of enzymes by identifying factors that lead to inhibition and seeking methods to overcome these through process modification and manipulation. The starting material was pulp derived from municipal solid waste and processed in an industrial-scale washing plant. Results Analysis of the pulp by acid hydrolysis showed a ratio of 55 : 12 : 6 : 24 : 3 of glucan : xylan : araban/galactan/mannan : lignin : ash. At high total solids content (>18.5% TS) single-stage enzyme hydrolysis gave a maximum glucan conversion of 68%. It was found that two-stage hydrolysis could give higher conversion if sugar inhibition was removed by an intermediate fermentation step between hydrolysis stages. This, however, was not as effective as direct removal of the sugar products, including xylose, by washing of the residual pulp at pH 5. This improved the water availability and allowed reactivation of the pulp-bound enzymes. Inhibition of enzyme activity could further be alleviated by replenishment of β-glucosidase which was shown to be removed during the wash step. Conclusions The two-stage hydrolysis process developed could give an overall glucan conversion of 88%, with an average glucose concentration close to 8% in 4 days, thus providing an ideal starting point for ethanol fermentation with a likely yield of 4 wt%. This is a significant improvement over a single-step process. This hydrolysis configuration also provides the potential to recover the sugars associated with residual solids which are diluted when washing hydrolysed pulp. PMID:23885832

  20. Enhanced sludge washing evaluation plan

    SciTech Connect

    Jensen, R.D.

    1994-09-01

    The Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) Program mission is to store, treat, and immobilize highly radioactive Hanford Site waste (current and future tank waste and the strontium/cesium capsules) in an environmentally sound, safe, and cost-effective manner. The scope of the TWRS Waste Pretreatment Program is to treat tank waste and separate that waste into HLW and LLW fractions and provide additional treatment as required to feed LLW and HLW immobilization facilities. Enhanced sludge washing was chosen as the baseline process for separating Hanford tank waste sludge. Section 1.0 briefly discusses the purpose of the evaluation plan and provides the background that led to the choice of enhanced sludge washing as the baseline process. Section 2.0 provides a brief summary of the evaluation plan details. Section 3.0 discusses, in some detail, the technical work planned to support the evaluation of enhanced sludge washing. Section 4.0 briefly discusses the potential important of policy issues to the evaluation. Section 5.0 discusses the methodology to be used in the evaluation process. Section 6.0 summarizes the milestones that have been defined to complete the enhanced sludge washing evaluation and provides a summary schedule to evaluate the performance of enhanced sludge washing. References are identified in Section 7.0, and additional schedule and milestone information is provided in the appendices.

  1. Durability of pulp fiber-cement composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohr, Benjamin J.

    Wood pulp fibers are a unique reinforcing material as they are non-hazardous, renewable, and readily available at relatively low cost compared to other commercially available fibers. Today, pulp fiber-cement composites can be found in products such as extruded non-pressure pipes and non-structural building materials, mainly thin-sheet products. Although natural fibers have been used historically to reinforce various building materials, little scientific effort has been devoted to the examination of natural fibers to reinforce engineering materials until recently. The need for this type of fundamental research has been emphasized by widespread awareness of moisture-related failures of some engineered materials; these failures have led to the filing of national- and state-level class action lawsuits against several manufacturers. Thus, if pulp fiber-cement composites are to be used for exterior structural applications, the effects of cyclical wet/dry (rain/heat) exposure on performance must be known. Pulp fiber-cement composites have been tested in flexure to examine the progression of strength and toughness degradation. Based on scanning electron microscopy (SEM), environmental scanning electron microscopy (ESEM), energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS), a three-part model describing the mechanisms of progressive degradation has been proposed: (1) initial fiber-cement/fiber interlayer debonding, (2) reprecipitation of crystalline and amorphous ettringite within the void space at the former fiber-cement interface, and (3) fiber embrittlement due to reprecipitation of calcium hydroxide filling the spaces within the fiber cell wall structure. Finally, as a means to mitigate kraft pulp fiber-cement composite degradation, the effects of partial portland cement replacement with various supplementary cementitious materials (SCMs) has been investigated for their effect on mitigating kraft pulp fiber-cement composite mechanical property degradation (i.e., strength and toughness

  2. Avoiding total reduced sulfur (TRS) emissions from sodium sulfite pulping recovery processes

    SciTech Connect

    Norman, J.C.; Sell, N.J. ); Ciriacks, J.C. )

    1990-06-01

    This paper reports that one of the current trends in paper-making with cellulose pulping is the use of high-yield processes. With yields greater than 65%, these processes include mechanical pulps (groundwood and thermomechanical pulps or TMP), and semichemical types (chemi-TMP or CTMP). Groundwood and TMP make up about 10% of North American pulp production. Semichemical pulp makes up about 7% and is mostly used for corrugating medium. High-yield pulping for linerboard, particularly using the alkaline sulfite process, is also likely to be used in the future. High-yield pulping is based primarily on the sulfite process using mostly sodium-based chemicals. A disadvantage of this process is the unavailability of a recovery system for the inorganic pulping chemicals. Generally, mills have not accepted any particular recovery system for this process. For this and other reasons, sulfite processes constitute only 3-4% of the total North American pulp production. If high-yield processes continue to increase in popularity, a sodium sulfite chemical recovery system will be needed. A number of chemical recovery systems have been developed in the past 30 years for sodium-based sulfite pulping processes, with most of the mills successfully using this process located in Scandinavia.

  3. Is Pulp Inflammation a Prerequisite for Pulp Healing and Regeneration?

    PubMed Central

    Goldberg, Michel; Njeh, Akram; Uzunoglu, Emel

    2015-01-01

    The importance of inflammation has been underestimated in pulpal healing, and in the past, it has been considered only as an undesirable effect. Associated with moderate inflammation, necrosis includes pyroptosis, apoptosis, and nemosis. There are now evidences that inflammation is a prerequisite for pulp healing, with series of events ahead of regeneration. Immunocompetent cells are recruited in the apical part. They slide along the root and migrate toward the crown. Due to the high alkalinity of the capping agent, pulp cells display mild inflammation, proliferate, and increase in number and size and initiate mineralization. Pulp fibroblasts become odontoblast-like cells producing type I collagen, alkaline phosphatase, and SPARC/osteonectin. Molecules of the SIBLING family, matrix metalloproteinases, and vascular and nerve mediators are also implicated in the formation of a reparative dentinal bridge, osteo/orthodentin closing the pulp exposure. Beneath a calciotraumatic line, a thin layer identified as reactionary dentin underlines the periphery of the pulp chamber. Inflammatory and/or noninflammatory processes contribute to produce a reparative dentinal bridge closing the pulp exposure, with minute canaliculi and large tunnel defects. Depending on the form and severity of the inflammatory and noninflammatory processes, and according to the capping agent, pulp reactions are induced specifically. PMID:26538825

  4. The Anti-Inflammatory Effect of Human Telomerase-Derived Peptide on P. gingivalis Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Inflammatory Cytokine Production and Its Mechanism in Human Dental Pulp Cells.

    PubMed

    Ko, Yoo-Jin; Kwon, Kil-Young; Kum, Kee-Yeon; Lee, Woo-Cheol; Baek, Seung-Ho; Kang, Mo K; Shon, Won-Jun

    2015-01-01

    Porphyromonas gingivalis is considered with inducing pulpal inflammation and has lipopolysaccharide (LPS) as an inflammatory stimulator. GV1001 peptide has anticancer and anti-inflammation activity due to inhibiting activation of signaling molecules after penetration into the various types of cells. Therefore, this study examined inhibitory effect of GV1001 on dental pulp cells (hDPCs) stimulated by P. gingivalis LPS. The intracellular distribution of GV1001 was analyzed by confocal microscopy. Real-time RT-PCR was performed to determine the expression levels of TNF-α and IL-6 cytokines. The role of signaling by MAP kinases (ERK and p38) was explored using Western blot analysis. The effect of GV1001 peptide on hDPCs viability was measured by MTT assay. GV1001 was predominantly located in hDPC cytoplasm. The peptide inhibited P. gingivalis LPS-induced TNF-α and IL-6 production in hDPCs without significant cytotoxicity. Furthermore, GV1001 treatment markedly inhibited the phosphorylation of MAP kinases (ERK and p38) in LPS-stimulated hDPCs. GV1001 may prevent P. gingivalis LPS-induced inflammation of apical tissue. Also, these findings provide mechanistic insight into how GV1001 peptide causes anti-inflammatory actions in LPS-stimulated pulpitis without significantly affecting cell viability. PMID:26604431

  5. The Anti-Inflammatory Effect of Human Telomerase-Derived Peptide on P. gingivalis Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Inflammatory Cytokine Production and Its Mechanism in Human Dental Pulp Cells

    PubMed Central

    Ko, Yoo-Jin; Kwon, Kil-Young; Kum, Kee-Yeon; Lee, Woo-Cheol; Baek, Seung-Ho; Kang, Mo K.; Shon, Won-Jun

    2015-01-01

    Porphyromonas gingivalis is considered with inducing pulpal inflammation and has lipopolysaccharide (LPS) as an inflammatory stimulator. GV1001 peptide has anticancer and anti-inflammation activity due to inhibiting activation of signaling molecules after penetration into the various types of cells. Therefore, this study examined inhibitory effect of GV1001 on dental pulp cells (hDPCs) stimulated by P. gingivalis LPS. The intracellular distribution of GV1001 was analyzed by confocal microscopy. Real-time RT-PCR was performed to determine the expression levels of TNF-α and IL-6 cytokines. The role of signaling by MAP kinases (ERK and p38) was explored using Western blot analysis. The effect of GV1001 peptide on hDPCs viability was measured by MTT assay. GV1001 was predominantly located in hDPC cytoplasm. The peptide inhibited P. gingivalis LPS-induced TNF-α and IL-6 production in hDPCs without significant cytotoxicity. Furthermore, GV1001 treatment markedly inhibited the phosphorylation of MAP kinases (ERK and p38) in LPS-stimulated hDPCs. GV1001 may prevent P. gingivalis LPS-induced inflammation of apical tissue. Also, these findings provide mechanistic insight into how GV1001 peptide causes anti-inflammatory actions in LPS-stimulated pulpitis without significantly affecting cell viability. PMID:26604431

  6. Possibility of Using Wood Pulp in the Preparation of Cement Composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kidalova, Lucia; Stevulova, Nadezda; Geffert, Anton

    2014-06-01

    Sustainable building materials are based on the use of renewable materials instead of non-renewable. Large group of renewable materials composes of plant fibres having high tensile strength are used as fillers into building material with reinforcement function of composite. This study aimed to establish the mechanical and physical properties of cement composites with organic fillers, such as wood pulp. Wood pulp cellulose is very interesting material as reinforcement in cement which contributes to a reduction of pollutants. Varying the producing technology (wood pulp and cement ratio in mixture) it is possible to obtain composites with density from 940 to 1260 kgm-3 and with compressive strength from 1.02 to 5.44 MPa after 28 days of hardening. Based on the experimental results, cement composites with using unbleached wood pulp reach higher values than composites based on bleached wood pulp. Volume ratio of unbleached wood pulp in composites influences water absorbability of cement composites

  7. High Speed Photography Of Wood Pulping In A Disc Refiner

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Atack, D.; Clayton, D. L.; Quinn, A. E.; Stationwala, M. I.

    1985-02-01

    Some of the mechanisms involved in the reduction of wood chips to papermaking pulp in a commercial disc refiner have been determined by high speed photography. Flow patterns of pulp through the refiner, including an unexpected recirculation pattern, have been recorded. Cine-photography was also employed to show how wood chips are transported by a ribbon screw feeder into the refiner. Some aspects of photographing in a hostile environment are described. The following salient observations have been made during these studies. Chips and dilution water fall to the base of the feeder housing and are fed along it to the refiner eye, where the chips are reduced to coarse pulp. This coarse pulp proceeds through the breaker bars into the refining zone. Some pulp in the inner part of the refining zone flows back to the breaker bars along grooves of the stationary plates, giving rise to considerable recirculation. Pulp in the outer part of the refining zone moves radially outwards. For a short fraction of its passage through the refiner, most of the fibrous material is constrained to move in the direction of rotation of the moving plates. Some of this material is stapled momentarily in a tangential orientation across the bars of both sets of plates. The immobilized fibres are then subjected to the refining action between the relatively moving bars before being disgorged into the adjacent grooves.

  8. 21 CFR 872.1720 - Pulp tester.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... DENTAL DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 872.1720 Pulp tester. (a) Identification. A pulp tester is an AC or... current transmitted by an electrode to stimulate the nerve tissue in the dental pulp. (b) Classification... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Pulp tester. 872.1720 Section 872.1720 Food...

  9. Control of the accumulation of non-process elements and organic compounds in pulp mills with bleach filtrate reuse. Quarterly report, October--December 1996

    SciTech Connect

    Frederick, W.J.; Laver, M.L.; Rorrer, G.L.

    1996-12-31

    A portion of each filtrate sample was freeze-dried and the resulting solids were analyzed for ash content. Adsorption experiments with calcium and barium were carried at 70{degrees}C in a temperature controlled incubator under continuous mixing in order to simulate the environment experienced by brownstock as it moves through the Q stage. In the calcium experiments, it was difficult to accurately determine the calcium adsorbed on the pulp by measuring the depletion of calcium in the aqueous phase. Consequently, the technique was modified. In the modified technique, the calcium-adsorbed pulp is acid washed again to release the calcium. The calcium concentration in the washings is measured, and the calcium adsorbed on the pulp is estimated by material balance. Measurement of calcium adsorption on the brownstock pulp fibers from the L-P/Samoa mill have been obtained.

  10. A Window-Washing Challenge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roman, Harry T.

    2010-01-01

    Skyscrapers sure do have a lot of windows, and these windows are cleaned and checked regularly. All this takes time, money, and puts workers at potential risk. Might there be a better way to do it? In this article, the author discusses a window-washing challenge and describes how students can tackle this task, pick up the challenge, and creatively…

  11. A basket for washing benthological samples

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Selgeby, James H.

    1971-01-01

    Since benthological samples collected with dredges are usually too large to be preserved in toto, a washing method must be employed to reduce the sample volume without losing or damaging the organisms. Traditionally, the sample is washed in a sieve until the volume is small enough for convenient handling or preservation. Most washing procedures are time-consuming and laborious. To save time in washing samples, a washing 'basket' was designed which accomadates a Ponar dredge. The only additional equipment needed to employ the washing basket effectively is a pump that delivers about 8 gallons of water per minute.

  12. POZONE technology to bleach pulp

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, H.; Shi, Y.; Le, L.; Wang, S.M.; Wei, J.; Chang, S.G.

    1997-09-01

    Currently, there has been a move in the pulp and paper industry to reduce or eliminate chlorine-based bleaching due to environmental concerns. The POZONE process, a chemical means of ozone production, has been used to bleach wood pulp. The brightness, Kappa number, and viscosity of wood pulp subjected to POZONE treatment have been determined. Brightness increases of up to 44 points and Kappa number decreases of as much as 22 points have been achieved. Promise for effective industrial application has been demonstrated.

  13. Canola straw chemimechanical pulping for pulp and paper production.

    PubMed

    Hosseinpour, Reza; Fatehi, Pedram; Latibari, Ahmad Jahan; Ni, Yonghao; Javad Sepiddehdam, S

    2010-06-01

    Non-wood is one of the most important raw materials for pulp and paper production in several countries due to its abundance and cost-effectiveness. However, the pulping and papermaking characteristics of canola straw have rarely been investigated. The objective of this work was to determine the potential application of canola straw in the chemimechanical pulping (CMP) process. At first, the chemical composition and characteristics of canola straw were assessed and compared with those of other non-woods. Then, the CMP pulping of canola straw was conducted using different dosages of sodium sulfite and sodium hydroxide. The results showed that, by applying a mild chemical pretreatment, i.e., 4-12% (wt.) NaOH and 8-12% (wt.) Na(2)SO(3), in the CMP pulping of canola straw, the pulp brightness reached almost 40%ISO, and the strength properties were comparable to those of bagasse CMP and of wheat straw CMP. The impact of post-refining on the properties of canola straw CMP was also discussed in this work. PMID:20144862

  14. Autophagy in SDF-1α-mediated DPSC migration and pulp regeneration.

    PubMed

    Yang, Jing-Wen; Zhang, Yu-Feng; Wan, Chun-Yan; Sun, Zhe-Yi; Nie, Shuai; Jian, Shu-Juan; Zhang, Lu; Song, Guang-Tai; Chen, Zhi

    2015-03-01

    Critical morphological requirements for pulp regeneration are tissues replete with vascularisation, neuron formation, and dentin deposition. Autophagy was recently shown to be related to angiogenesis, neural differentiation, and osteogenesis. The present study aimed to investigate the involvement of autophagy in stromal cell-derived factor-1α (SDF-1α)-mediated dental pulp stem cell (DPSC) migration and pulp regeneration, and identify its presence during pulp revascularisation of pulpectomised dog teeth with complete apical closure. In vitro studies showed that SDF-1α enhanced DPSCs migration and optimised focal adhesion formation and stress fibre assembly, which were accompanied by autophagy. Moreover, autophagy inhibitors significantly suppressed, whereas autophagy activator substantially augmented SDF-1α-stimulated DPSCs migration. Furthermore, after ectopic transplantation of tooth fragment/silk fibroin scaffold with DPSCs into nude mice, pulp-like tissues with vascularity, well-organised fibrous matrix formation, and new dentin deposition along the dentinal wall were generated in SDF-1α-loaded samples accompanied by autophagy. More importantly, in a pulp revascularisation model in situ, SDF-1α-loaded silk fibroin scaffolds improved the de novo ingrowth of pulp-like tissues in pulpectomised mature dog teeth, which correlated with the punctuated LC3 and Atg5 expressions, indicating autophagy. Our findings provide novel insights into the pulp regeneration mechanism, and SDF-1α shows promise for future clinical application in pulp revascularisation. PMID:25617122

  15. Biological pretreatment for thermomechanical (TMP) and chemithermomechanical (CTMP) pulping processes

    SciTech Connect

    Myers, G.C.; Akhtar, M.; Lentz, M.

    1996-10-01

    Treatment of wood chips with lignin-degrading fungi prior to preparing a refiner mechanical pulp (RMP) has substantially reduced energy consumption and increased paper strength properties. This study reports on thermomechanical (TMP) and chemithermo-mechanical pulping (CTMP) of fungus treated wood chips. Loblolly pine chips were innoculated with Ceriporiopsis subvermispora, strain L14807 SS-3, and incubated two weeks in a chip silo. A pressurized 305 mm diameter disk refiner was used to prepare TMP and CTMP`s from fungal treated and non-treated wood chips. Two procedures were used to prepare the CTMP`s, injecting a sodium hydroxide and hydrogen peroxide solution into the pressurized refiner, and impregnating the wood chips with a sodium sulfite solution. Energy consumption during pulp preparation and handsheet strength and optical properties will be presented and discussed.

  16. 21 CFR 1250.87 - Wash water.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Wash water. 1250.87 Section 1250.87 Food and Drugs... Sanitation Facilities and Conditions on Vessels § 1250.87 Wash water. Where systems installed on vessels for wash water, as defined in § 1250.3(n), do not comply with the requirements of a potable water...

  17. 21 CFR 1250.87 - Wash water.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Wash water. 1250.87 Section 1250.87 Food and Drugs... Sanitation Facilities and Conditions on Vessels § 1250.87 Wash water. Where systems installed on vessels for wash water, as defined in § 1250.3(n), do not comply with the requirements of a potable water...

  18. 21 CFR 1250.87 - Wash water.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Wash water. 1250.87 Section 1250.87 Food and Drugs... Sanitation Facilities and Conditions on Vessels § 1250.87 Wash water. Where systems installed on vessels for wash water, as defined in § 1250.3(n), do not comply with the requirements of a potable water...

  19. 21 CFR 1250.87 - Wash water.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Wash water. 1250.87 Section 1250.87 Food and Drugs... Sanitation Facilities and Conditions on Vessels § 1250.87 Wash water. Where systems installed on vessels for wash water, as defined in § 1250.3(n), do not comply with the requirements of a potable water...

  20. 21 CFR 1250.87 - Wash water.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Wash water. 1250.87 Section 1250.87 Food and Drugs... Sanitation Facilities and Conditions on Vessels § 1250.87 Wash water. Where systems installed on vessels for wash water, as defined in § 1250.3(n), do not comply with the requirements of a potable water...

  1. SITE TECHNOLOGY CAPSULE: BIOGENESIS SOIL WASHING TECHNOLOGY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Soil washing technologies are designed to transfer contaminants from soil to a liquid phase. The BloGenesis™ soil washing technology uses a proprietary surfactant solution to transfer organic contaminants from soil to wastewater. The surfactant used in the soil washing process wa...

  2. 7 CFR 58.429 - Washing machine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Washing machine. 58.429 Section 58.429 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards....429 Washing machine. When used, the washing machine for cheese cloths and bandages shall be...

  3. 7 CFR 58.429 - Washing machine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Washing machine. 58.429 Section 58.429 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards....429 Washing machine. When used, the washing machine for cheese cloths and bandages shall be...

  4. 7 CFR 58.429 - Washing machine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Washing machine. 58.429 Section 58.429 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards....429 Washing machine. When used, the washing machine for cheese cloths and bandages shall be...

  5. 7 CFR 58.429 - Washing machine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Washing machine. 58.429 Section 58.429 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards....429 Washing machine. When used, the washing machine for cheese cloths and bandages shall be...

  6. 7 CFR 58.429 - Washing machine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Washing machine. 58.429 Section 58.429 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards....429 Washing machine. When used, the washing machine for cheese cloths and bandages shall be...

  7. Alternative Antimicrobial Commercial Egg Washing Procedures

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Commercial table eggs are washed prior to packaging. Standard wash procedures use an alkaline pH and warm water. If a cool water method could be developed that would still provide a microbiologically safe egg, the industry may save energy costs associated with water heating. Four wash procedures ...

  8. WASH has a critical role in NK cell cytotoxicity through Lck-mediated phosphorylation.

    PubMed

    Huang, L; Zhu, P; Xia, P; Fan, Z

    2016-01-01

    Natural killer (NK) cells are important effector cells of the innate immune system to kill certain virus-infected and transformed cells. Wiskott-Aldrich Syndrome protein (WASP) and SCAR homolog (WASH) has been identified as a member of WASP family proteins implicated in regulating the cytoskeletal reorganization, yet little is known about its function in lymphocytes. Here we demonstrate that WASH is crucial for NK cell cytotoxicity. WASH was found to colocalize with lytic granules upon NK cell activation. Knockdown of WASH expression substantially inhibited polarization and release of lytic granules to the immune synapse, resulting in the impairment of NK cell cytotoxicity. More importantly, our data also define a previously unappreciated mechanism for WASH function, in which Src family kinase Lck can interact with WASH and induce WASH phosphorylation. Mutation of tyrosine residue Y141, identified here as the major site of WASH phosphorylation, partially blocked WASH tyrosine phosphorylation and NK cell cytotoxicity. Taken together, these observations suggest that WASH has a pivotal role for regulation of NK cell cytotoxicity through Lck-mediated Y141 tyrosine phosphorylation. PMID:27441653

  9. Dissolving pulp from jute stick.

    PubMed

    Matin, Mhafuza; Rahaman, M Mostafizur; Nayeem, Jannatun; Sarkar, Mamon; Jahan, M Sarwar

    2015-01-22

    Jute stick is woody portion of jute plant, which remain as leftover after extracting bast fibre. Presently, it is being used for fencing in the rural area. In this investigation, biorefinery concept was initiated in producing dissolving pulp from jute stick by pre-hydrolysis kraft process. At 170°C for 1h of pre-hydrolysis, 70% of hemicelluloses was dissolved with negligible loss of α-cellulose. At this condition, 75% of dissolved sugars in the pre-hydrolysis liquor were in the oligomeric form. The pre-hydrolysed jute stick was subsequently pulped by kraft process with the variation of active alkali. The pulp yield was 36.2% with kappa number 18.5 at the conditions of 16% active alkali for 2h of cooking at 170°C. Final pulp was produced with 92% α-cellulose and 89% brightness after D0EpD1EpD1 bleaching. The produced dissolving pulp can be used in rayon production. PMID:25439866

  10. 49 CFR 230.60 - Time of washing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Time of washing. 230.60 Section 230.60... Washing Boilers § 230.60 Time of washing. (a) Frequency of washing. All boilers shall thoroughly be washed... inspection. The date of the boiler wash shall be noted on the FRA Form No. 1 or FRA Form No. 3. (See...

  11. New restoration and direct pulp capping systems using adhesive composite resin.

    PubMed

    Kashiwada, T; Takagi, M

    1991-12-01

    There have been many arguments on the irritating mechanisms of the composite resin on the dental pulp. While the direct irritative effect of the resin has been preferred, some authors considered that the marginal microleakage and the resulting bacterial infection play a more important role in inducing the complicating pulp irritation. We developed a new filling technique, called the direct inlay restoration method, which could prevent the marginal leakage associated with the polymerization shrinkage of the adhesive composite resin. In this study, we tried to apply our method clinically. None of the 440 cases which were filled with the adhesive composite resin and 60 cases out of 64 cases in which the pulps were directly capped with the adhesive composite resin developed any signs and symptoms of pulp irritation. The other 4 cases developed signs of pulp irritation. Two of those 4 cases were pulpectomized due to spontaneous pain and the other 2 cases turned out to be well after re-restoration. With the informed consent of the patients, the direct pulp capping using the adhesive composite resin was experimentally performed on 6 caries-free 3rd molars and the histopathological examination of these capped molars revealed that neither significant degenerative nor inflammatory changes were brought about in the dental pulp. These clinical and histopathological observation suggest that the dental pulp irritation after resin filling is not induced by the composite resin itself. PMID:1764760

  12. Bathing or washing babies after birth?

    PubMed

    Henningsson, A; Nyström, B; Tunnell, R

    One group of healthy full-term newborn babies was washed after birth and another was bathed to remove vernix caseosa and clean the skin. Few infections, none of them serious, occurred in either group. Bacterial colonisation of the umbilical cord on the third day of life was similar in both groups. The rectal temperature fell further and more infants cried during washing than during bathing. Thus bathing the baby after birth makes it calmer, quieter, and more comfortable than washing and causes less heat-loss. Clinical signs of infection and bacterial colonisation rates are no higher after bathing than after washing. PMID:6118769

  13. Wash water waste pretreatment system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1977-01-01

    Investigations were completed on wash waters based on each candidate personal cleansing agent. Evaluations of coagulants, antifoam agents, and the effect of promising antifoams on the chemical precipitation were included. Based on these evaluations two candidate soaps as well as their companion antifoam agents were selected for further work. Operating parameters included the effect of soap concentration, ferric chloride concentration, duration of mixing, and pore size of depth filters on the degree of soap removal. The effect of pressure on water flow through filter cartridges and on the rate of decline of water flow was also investigated. The culmination of the program was the recommendation of a pretreatment concept based on chemical precipitation followed by pressure filtration.

  14. Deinked pulp manufacturers make a midwest market

    SciTech Connect

    White, K.M. ); Meade, K.

    1993-09-01

    Deinked pulp manufacturers, a burgeoning trend in recycling, are opening up the market for office waste paper in the Midwest. Great Lakes Pulp and Fibre, Inc., (Menominee, Michigan), a new paper group formed by industry veterans, is planning a major deinked pulp mill in Michigan's Upper Peninsula that will recycle large amounts of office waste paper. The mill will have the capacity to process nearly 275,000 tons per year (tpy)-673 tpd-of mixed office paper into 182,000 tpd of sheet-dried, deinked pulp. That pulp would be sold to nearby fine paper manufacturers that want to have recycled content without adding their own deinking.

  15. Effects of dental trauma on the pulp.

    PubMed

    Love, R M

    1997-05-01

    Infection of the root canal system following dental trauma induces pulp and periapical disease and prevents healing of previously healthy pulp. A clinical goal in treating trauma is the maintenance of pulp vitality, and clinicians should be aware of factors that influence pulp healing. The learning objective of this article is to review the factors and techniques that influence pulp vitality and examine the influence pulp has on the healing of adjacent tissues. The potential routes for bacterial infection of the root canal system are discussed, with the clinical crown as the primary portal of entry. Uncomplicated and complicated crown fractures, as well as the crown-root and root fractures, are reviewed. Complications in pulp healing include canal obliteration, disturbed root development, apexogenesis, apexification, and the various forms of resorption. PMID:9550069

  16. Effect of organosolv and soda pulping processes on the metals content of non-woody pulps.

    PubMed

    González, M; Cantón, L; Rodríguez, A; Labidi, J

    2008-09-01

    In this work the effect of different pulping processes (ethyleneglycol, diethyleneglycol, ethanolamine and soda) of tow abounded raw materials (empty fruit bunches - EFB and rice straw) on the ash, silicates and metals (Fe, Zn, Cu, Pb, Mn, Ni and Cd) content of the obtained pulps have been studied. Results showed that pulps obtained by diethyleneglycol pulping process presented lower metals content (756 microg/g and 501 microg/g for EFB and rice straw pulp, respectively) than soda pulps (984 microg/g and 889 microg/g). Ethanolamine pulps presented values of holocellulose (74% and 77% for EFB and rice straw pulp, respectively), alpha-cellulose (74% and 69%), kappa number (18.7 and 18.5) and viscosity (612 and 90 6ml/g) similar to those of soda pulp, and lower lignin contents (11% and 12%). PMID:18226892

  17. Melatonin attenuates inflammation of acute pulpitis subjected to dental pulp injury

    PubMed Central

    Li, Ji-Guo; Lin, Jia-Ji; Wang, Zhao-Ling; Cai, Wen-Ke; Wang, Pei-Na; Jia, Qian; Zhang, An-Sheng; Wu, Gao-Yi; Zhu, Guo-Xiong; Ni, Long-Xing

    2015-01-01

    Acute pulpitis (AP), one of the most common diseases in the endodontics, usually causes severe pain to the patients, which makes the search for therapeutic target of AP essential in clinic. Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) signaling is widely involved in the mechanism of pulp inflammation, while melatonin has been reported to have an inhibition for a various kinds of inflammation. We hereby studied whether melatonin can regulate the expression of TLR4/NF-ĸB signaling in the pulp tissue of AP and in human dental pulp cells (HDPCs). Two left dental pulps of the adult rat were drilled open to establish the AP model, and the serum levels of melatonin and pro-inflammatory cytokines, including interleukin 1β (IL-1β), interleukin 18 (IL-18) and tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α), were assessed at 1, 3 and 5 d post injury. At the same time points, the expression of TLR4 signaling in the pulp was explored by quantitative real-time PCR and immunohistochemistry. The AP rats were administered an abdominal injection of melatonin to assess whether melatonin rescued AP and TLR4/NF-ĸB signaling. Dental pulp injury led to an approximately five-day period acute pulp inflammation and necrosis in the pulp and a significant up-regulation of IL-1β, IL-18 and TNF-α in the serum. ELISA results showed that the level of melatonin in the serum decreased due to AP, while an abdominal injection of melatonin suppressed the increase in serum cytokines and the percentage of necrosis at the 5 d of the injured pulp. Consistent with the inflammation in AP rats, TLR4, NF-ĸB, TNF-α and IL-1β in the pulp were increased post AP compared with the baseline expression. And melatonin showed an inhibition on TLR4/NF-ĸB signaling as well as IL-1β and TNF-α production in the pulp of AP rats. Furthermore, melatonin could also regulate the expression of TLR4/NF-ĸB signaling in LPS-stimulated HDPCs. These data suggested that dental pulp injury induced AP and reduced the serum level of melatonin and that

  18. Pulp reaction to vital bleaching.

    PubMed

    Fugaro, Jessica O; Nordahl, Inger; Fugaro, Orlando J; Matis, Bruce A; Mjör, Ivar A

    2004-01-01

    This study evaluated the histological changes in dental pulp after nightguard vital bleaching with 10% carbamide peroxide gel. Fifteen patients between 12 and 26 years of age with caries-free first premolars scheduled for orthodontic extraction were treated with 10% Opalescence (Ultradent Products, Inc). Tooth #5 had four days of bleaching, tooth #12 was treated for two weeks, tooth #21 was bleached for two weeks followed by two weeks without treatment and tooth #28, serving as the control, was without treatment. All teeth were extracted at the same time. Immediately after extraction, 4 mm of the most apical portion of the root was sectioned off and each specimen was placed in a vial containing 10% neutral buffered formalin. The samples were prepared for histological evaluation at the Scandinavian Institute of Dental Materials (NIOM) and microscopically examined independently at both NIOM and Indiana University School of Dentistry (IUSD). Pulp reactions were semi-quantitatively graded as none, slight, moderate and severe. Slight pulpal changes were detected in 16 of the 45 bleached teeth. Neither moderate nor severe reactions were observed. The findings indicate that the slight histological changes sometimes observed after bleaching tend to resolve within two weeks post-treatment. Statistical differences existed only between the untreated control and the four-day (p=0.0109) and two-week (p=0.0045) treatment groups. The findings from this study demonstrated that nightguard vital bleaching procedures using 10% carbamide peroxide might cause initial mild, localized pulp reactions. However, the minor histological changes observed did not affect the overall health of the pulp tissue and were reversible within two weeks post-treatment. Therefore, two weeks of treatment with 10% carbamide peroxide used for nightguard vital bleaching is considered safe for dental pulp. PMID:15279473

  19. EFRT M-12 Issue Resolution: Solids Washing

    SciTech Connect

    Baldwin, David L.; Schonewill, Philip P.; Toth, James J.; Huckaby, James L.; Eslinger, Paul W.; Hanson, Brady D.; Kurath, Dean E.; Minette, Michael J.

    2009-08-14

    Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) has been tasked by Bechtel National Inc. (BNI) on the River Protection Project-Hanford Tank Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (RPP-WTP) project to perform research and development activities to resolve technical issues identified for the Pretreatment Facility (PTF). The Pretreatment Engineering Platform (PEP) was designed, constructed, and operated as part of a plan to respond to issue M12, “Undemonstrated Leaching Processes.” The PEP is a 1/4.5-scale test platform designed to simulate the WTP pretreatment caustic leaching, oxidative leaching, ultrafiltration solids concentration, and slurry washing processes. The PEP replicates the WTP leaching processes using prototypic equipment and control strategies. Two operating scenarios were evaluated for the ultrafiltration process (UFP) and leaching operations. The first scenario has caustic leaching performed in the UFP-VSL-T01A/B ultrafiltration feed vessels, identified as Integrated Test A. The second scenario has caustic leaching conducted in the UFP-VSL-T02A ultrafiltration feed preparation vessel, identified as Integrated Test B. Washing operations in PEP Integrated Tests A and B were conducted successfully as per the approved run sheets. However, various minor instrumental problems occurred, and some of the process conditions specified in the run sheet were not met during the wash operations, such as filter-loop flow-rate targets not being met. Five analytes were selected based on full solubility and monitored in the post-caustic-leach wash as successful indicators of washing efficiency. These were aluminum, sulfate, nitrate, nitrite, and free hydroxide. Other analytes, including sodium, oxalate, phosphate, and total dissolved solids, showed indications of changing solubility; therefore, they were unsuitable for monitoring washing efficiency. In the post-oxidative-leach wash, two analytes with full solubility were selected as suitable indicators of washing

  20. SOLVENT WASHING OF PCP CONTAMINATED SOILS WITH ANAEROBIC TREATMENT OF WASH FLUIDS

    EPA Science Inventory

    A solvent washing procedure for the removal of pentachlorophenol (PCP) from contaminated soils is presented. his procedure can be used in both in-situ and above ground soil washing applications. he in-situ solvent washing (flushing) of soil was simulated by continuously flushing ...

  1. WASH SOLVENT REUSE IN PAINT PRODUCTION

    EPA Science Inventory

    This project evaluated solvent used to clean paint manufacture equipment for its utility in production of subsequent batches of solvent-borne paint. eusing wash solvent would reduce the amount of solvent disposed of as waste. he evaluation of this wash-solvent recovery technology...

  2. Inhibition Of Washed Sludge With Sodium Nitrite

    SciTech Connect

    Congdon, J. W.; Lozier, J. S.

    2012-09-25

    This report describes the results of electrochemical tests used to determine the relationship between the concentration of the aggressive anions in washed sludge and the minimum effective inhibitor concentration. Sodium nitrate was added as the inhibitor because of its compatibility with the DWPF process. A minimum of 0.05M nitrite is required to inhibit the washed sludge simulant solution used in this study. When the worst case compositions and safety margins are considered, it is expected that a minimum operating limit of nearly 0.1M nitrite will be specified. The validity of this limit is dependent on the accuracy of the concentrations and solubility splits previously reported. Sodium nitrite additions to obtain 0.1M nitrite concentrations in washed sludge will necessitate the additional washing of washed precipitate in order to decrease its sodium nitrite inhibitor requirements sufficiently to remain below the sodium limits in the feed to the DWPF. Nitrite will be the controlling anion in "fresh" washed sludge unless the soluble chloride concentration is about ten times higher than predicted by the solubility splits. Inhibition of "aged" washed sludge will not be a problem unless significant chloride dissolution occurs during storage. It will be very important tomonitor the composition of washed sludge during processing and storage.

  3. Determination of methanol in pulp washing filtrates by desiccated full evaporation headspace gas chromatography.

    PubMed

    Hu, Hui-Chao; Chai, Xin-Sheng

    2012-01-27

    This paper reports on a desiccated full evaporation headspace gas chromatographic (FE HS-GC) technique for determination of the methanol content in dilute mill effluents. Anhydrous K(2)CO(3) was selected as the preferred salt for eliminating the water in the sample in the headspace sample vial. The results showed that the addition of 12 g K(2)CO(3) made it possible to introduce a larger sample size (up to 1 mL) into the FE HS-GC measurement, thereby increasing the sensitivity of the technique. At the given equilibration temperature (105°C), a near-complete mass transfer of methanol from the liquid phase to vapor phase (headspace) was achieved within 10 min. Replicate samples showed that the relative standard deviation of the method was less than 1.5%. Further, the limit of quantification (LOQ) was 0.12 μg and the recovery ranged from 95 to 104%. The present method greatly improves the methanol detection sensitivity in the FE HS-GC method and has the added advantage of being simple, rapid and accurate. PMID:22209356

  4. New Approaches in Vital Pulp Therapy in Permanent Teeth

    PubMed Central

    Ghoddusi, Jamileh; Forghani, Maryam; Parisay, Iman

    2014-01-01

    Vitality of dental pulp is essential for long-term tooth survival. The aim of vital pulp therapy is to maintain healthy pulp tissue by eliminating bacteria from the dentin-pulp complex. There are several different treatment options for vital pulp therapy in extensively decayed or traumatized teeth. Pulp capping or pulpotomy procedures rely upon an accurate assessment of the pulp status, and careful management of the remaining pulp tissue. The purpose of this review is to provide an overview of new approaches in vital pulp therapy in permanent teeth. PMID:24396371

  5. Viability and functional integrity of washed platelets.

    PubMed

    Pineda, A A; Zylstra, V W; Clare, D E; Dewanjee, M K; Forstrom, L A

    1989-01-01

    The viability and functional integrity of saline- and ACD-saline-washed platelets were compared with those of unwashed platelets. After template bleeding time (TBT) was measured, 15 healthy volunteers underwent plateletpheresis and ingested 600 mg of aspirin. Autologous 111In-labeled platelets were transfused: unwashed (n = 5), washed with 0.9 percent saline solution (SS) (n = 5), and washed with a buffered 12.6 percent solution of ACD-A in 0.9 percent saline solution (n = 5). After transfusion, we measured TBT at 1, 4, and 24 hours; platelet survival at 10 minutes and 1, 4, and 24 hours and daily for 6 days; and the percentage of uptake in liver and spleen by quantitative whole-body radionuclide scintigraphy at 24 and 190 hours. We found that saline washing affected platelet recovery, 23.47 +/- 12 percent (p less than 0.001) as compared to 52.43 +/- 17 percent (p less than 0.002) for ACD-saline and 73.17 +/- 8 percent for control; that saline washing resulted in a greater liver uptake than control and ACD-saline-washed platelets (31.9 +/- 8% [p less than 0.001] vs 17.7 +/- 4.1 and 19.3 +/- 2.1% [p greater than 0.1], respectively); that, unlike control and ACD-saline-washed platelets, saline-washed platelets did not shorten bleeding time; and that neither type of washing affected survival. Although ACD-saline washing affects recovery, it also results in intact function, normal survival, higher recovery than SS platelets, and no significant liver uptake. PMID:2749876

  6. Viability and functional integrity of washed platelets

    SciTech Connect

    Pineda, A.A.; Zylstra, V.W.; Clare, D.E.; Dewanjee, M.K.; Forstrom, L.A.

    1989-07-01

    The viability and functional integrity of saline- and ACD-saline-washed platelets were compared with those of unwashed platelets. After template bleeding time (TBT) was measured, 15 healthy volunteers underwent plateletpheresis and ingested 600 mg of aspirin. Autologous /sup 111/In-labeled platelets were transfused: unwashed (n = 5), washed with 0.9 percent saline solution (SS) (n = 5), and washed with a buffered 12.6 percent solution of ACD-A in 0.9 percent saline solution (n = 5). After transfusion, we measured TBT at 1, 4, and 24 hours; platelet survival at 10 minutes and 1, 4, and 24 hours and daily for 6 days; and the percentage of uptake in liver and spleen by quantitative whole-body radionuclide scintigraphy at 24 and 190 hours. We found that saline washing affected platelet recovery, 23.47 +/- 12 percent (p less than 0.001) as compared to 52.43 +/- 17 percent (p less than 0.002) for ACD-saline and 73.17 +/- 8 percent for control; that saline washing resulted in a greater liver uptake than control and ACD-saline-washed platelets (31.9 +/- 8% (p less than 0.001) vs 17.7 +/- 4.1 and 19.3 +/- 2.1% (p greater than 0.1), respectively); that, unlike control and ACD-saline-washed platelets, saline-washed platelets did not shorten bleeding time; and that neither type of washing affected survival. Although ACD-saline washing affects recovery, it also results in intact function, normal survival, higher recovery than SS platelets, and no significant liver uptake.

  7. Tunnel defects in dentin bridges: their formation following direct pulp capping.

    PubMed

    Cox, C F; Sübay, R K; Ostro, E; Suzuki, S; Suzuki, S H

    1996-01-01

    This study was conducted to observe the formation and nature of tunnel defects in dentin bridges, assess the nature of the associated soft tissue elements, and note the relationship of pulp inflammation and necrosis associated with these defects. A total of 235 teeth with class 5 cavity preparation exposures were randomly distributed throughout the dentitions of 14 adult rhesus monkeys. Each pulp was exposed and left open to the oral microflora at one of four time intervals, flushed with saline, debrided, capped with one of two hard-set calcium hydroxide medicaments [Ca(OH)2 (Dycal or Life)] and restored with a dispersed-phase amalgam alloy. Observation times were 14 days, 5 weeks, and 1 and 2 years. A total of 192 dentin bridges formed against the Ca(OH)2 medicaments Life or Dycal in 235 pulp-capped teeth. Considering all four capping periods, 89% of all dentin bridges contained tunnel defects (172 of 192). Forty-one percent (78) of the 192 dentin bridges were associated with recurring pulp inflammation or necrosis and were always associated with the presence of inflammatory cells and stained bacterial profiles. This study demonstrates that a statistically significant number of dentin bridges contain multiple tunnel defects, most of which appear to remain patent. These patent tunnels fail to provide a hermetic seal to the underlying pulp against recurring infection due to microleakage. Most Ca(OH)2 medicaments have been reported to disintegrate and wash out after 6 months, leaving a void underneath the restoration and thereby a pathway for bacterial infection. This study reemphasizes the need to employ biologically relevant measures that will provide a long-term clinical seal against microleakage following direct pulp capping with Ca(OH)2 medicaments alone. PMID:8957909

  8. Effect of biological treatment on pulp mill effluent chemical characteristics

    SciTech Connect

    LaFleur, L.E.; Bousquet, T.E.; Cook, D.L.

    1995-12-31

    In the last 20 years, detailed characterizations of pulping and bleaching wastewaters have been performed identifying a large variety of chemical by-products. However, formation in the process does not translate into discharge into the environment. Pulp and paper mills in the US almost uniformly practice biological treatment. Although initially implemented for BOD removal, biological treatment is also responsible for removing or reducing many classes of compounds. This paper will briefly review the literature related to the characterization of process versus biologically treated wastewaters. Data on specific removal efficiencies for these compounds will be summarized and discussed. mechanisms of removal (such as biological degradation or transformation, sorption or volatilization) for selected compounds will be discussed. Examples of mass emission rates for volatiles, resin and fatty ,acids, plant sterols, mono-terpenes (and related compounds), chlorinated and non-chlorinated phenolics and other cellulose degradation products will be presented. Factors influencing the discharge rates such as pulping and bleaching practices, geographical location of the mills and wood species being pulped will be discussed.

  9. [Functional morphology of pulp tissue].

    PubMed

    Heine, H; Schaeg, G; Türk, R

    1989-01-01

    As compared with mesenchyme no genuine defense cells are developed in the tissue of the dental pulp and the nervous tissue. This is a further hint for the common development from ectoderm. The three dimensional meshwork of pulpa fibroblasts ("mesectoderm") is structured by elongated cell processes connected with each other by a variety of special cell junctions ("electronic cell coupling"). Metabolites from the microcirculation and neuropeptides from vegetative axons influence the activity of fibroblasts synthetizing groundsubstance. The meshwork of the groundsubstance has exclusion effects concerning molecules with a distinct molecular weight and charge. Thus a primitive defense system is established. With this the role of a newly described cell type of the dental pulp, the "lymphocytic pericyte" is discussed. Because of the poor capacity of the pulpa tissue for immunological reactions pathologically disorders may easily become chronically spreading their antigenic components throughout the body. PMID:2800671

  10. Copper-zinc superoxide dismutase activity in dental pulp after dental preparation.

    PubMed

    Varvara, G; Pinchi, V; Caputi, S; D'Arcangelo, C; Scarano, A; Sinjari, B; Murmura, G

    2012-01-01

    The superoxide dismutases (SODs) are the major enzymatic defence mechanism against toxic reactive oxygen species generated during normal oxidative metabolism and during the respiratory burst associated with inflammation. To further clarify the potential role of copper-zinc (Cu/Zn)-SOD during inflammation of pulp tissue in humans, the aim was to determine whether significant changes in Cu/Zn-SOD activity occur in healthy dental pulp after dental preparation. The condition of the pulp was assessed using clinical and radiographic evaluation. Thirty systemically healthy patients were the source of the pulp tissue, which was collected by longitudinally grooving and splitting teeth that were matched between the control dental pulp and the prepared tooth (test) dental pulp. Cu/Zn-SOD activity was determined through spectrophotometric methods, with Mann-Whitney tests used to assess the significance of the differences between the groups. The Cu/Zn-SOD activity was 168.2+/-46.4 mU.mg−1 total protein (range: 96-212 mU.mg−1) in the control group, and 328.2+/-84.2 mU.mg−1 total protein (range: 280-420 mU.mg−1) in the test group. The difference between the groups was statistically significant, at P <0.001. These results demonstrate a potential role for Cu/Zn-SOD during dental pulp inflammation in humans after dental preparation. PMID:23241127

  11. Bauxite washing for the removal of clay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahmad, Ishaq; Hartge, Ernst-Ulrich; Werther, Joachim; Wischnewski, Reiner

    2014-11-01

    Clay impurities associated with bauxite negatively affect the Bayer process for alumina production. These impurities should be removed as far as possible by a beneficiation technique before the ore is used as feed for the Bayer process. In this current investigation, bauxite washing was conducted in the laboratory. Bauxite washing is a physical process that causes the disintegration and deagglomeration of the clay matrix, and bauxite is liberated from the clay (mainly rich in silica). Subsequently, separation occurs with the assistance of wet screening at a predetermined cut size. Three techniques were investigated in the laboratory: drum washing, water-jet washing, and ultrasonic washing. Various operating parameters were investigated for drum washing and water-jet washing, including materials retention time, drum rotation speed, solid concentration, water-jet spray duration, pressure, and height. We concluded that the retention time of bauxite inside the drum at a solid concentration of 55wt% and a drum rotation speed of 31 r/min is the dominant parameter for the removal of clay from the bauxite surface.

  12. Alternative Antimicrobial Commercial Egg Washing Procedures.

    PubMed

    Hudson, Lauren K; Harrison, Mark A; Berrang, Mark E; Jones, Deana R

    2016-07-01

    Commercial table eggs are washed prior to packaging. Standard wash procedures use an alkaline pH and warm water. If a cool water method could be developed that would still provide a microbiologically safe egg, the industry may save energy costs associated with water heating. Four wash procedures were evaluated for Salmonella reduction: pH 11 at 48.9°C (industry standard), pH 11 at ambient temperature (∼20°C), pH 6 at 48.9°C, and pH 6 at ambient temperature. Alkaline washes contained potassium hydroxide-based detergent, while pH 6 washes contained approximately 200 ppm of chlorine and a proprietary chlorine stabilizer (T-128). When eggs were inoculated by immersion in a cell suspension of Salmonella Enteritidis and Salmonella Typhimurium, all treatments resulted in a slight and similar reduction of Salmonella numbers (approximately 0.77 log CFU/ml of shell emulsion reduction). When eggs were inoculated by droplet on the shell surface, Salmonella counts were reduced by approximately 5 log CFU when washed with chlorine plus the chlorine stabilizer at both temperatures and with the alkaline wash at the high temperature. The reductions in Salmonella by these treatments were not significantly (P > 0.05) different from each other but were significantly (P < 0.05) more than the reduction observed for the 20°C alkaline treatment and 20°C control water treatments. Ambient temperature acidic washes reduced Salmonella contamination to the same degree as the standard pH 11 warm water wash and may be a viable option to reduce cost, increase shelf life, and slow pathogen growth in and on shell eggs. PMID:27357042

  13. Biocrude production by activated sludge microbial cultures using pulp and paper wastewaters as fermentation substrate.

    PubMed

    Upadhyaya, Kamal Lamichhane; Mondala, Andro; Hernandez, Rafael; French, Todd; Green, Magan; McFarland, Linda; Holmes, William

    2013-01-01

    Municipal wastewater activated sludge contains a mixed microbial community, which can be manipulated to produce biocrude, a lipid feedstock for biodiesel production. In this study, the potential of biocrude production by activated sludge microorganisms grown in three different types of pulp and paper mill wastewaters was investigated. A 20% (v/v) activated sludge was inoculated into pulp and paper wastewater, supplemented with glucose (60 g/L) and nutrients (nitrogen and phosphorus) to obtain a high carbon to nitrogen ratio (70:1). The culture was incubated aerobically for seven days. The results showed that the activated sludge microorganisms were able to grow and accumulate lipids when cultivated in amended wastewaters. Microorganisms growing in anaerobic settling pond effluent water showed the highest lipid accumulation of up to 40.6% cell dry weight (CDW) after five days of cultivation compared with pulp wash wastewater (PuWW) (11.7% CDW) and mixed wastewater (MWW) (8.2% CDW) after seven days of cultivation. The lipids mostly contained C16-C18 fatty acids groups with oleic acid and palmitic acid being the dominant fatty acids. The maximum biodiesel yield was about 6-8% CDW for all the wastewaters. The results showed the potential of utilizing pulp and paper mill effluents and other waste streams, such as activated sludge for the sustainable production of lipids for biofuel production. PMID:24350471

  14. Promotion of Dental Pulp Cell Migration and Pulp Repair by a Bioceramic Putty Involving FGFR-mediated Signaling Pathways.

    PubMed

    Zhang, J; Zhu, L X; Cheng, X; Lin, Y; Yan, P; Peng, B

    2015-06-01

    Mineral trioxide aggregate is the currently recommended material of choice for clinical pulp repair despite several disadvantages, including handling inconvenience. Little is known about the signaling mechanisms involved in bioceramic-mediated dental pulp repair-particularly, dental pulp cell (DPC) migration. This study evaluated the effects of iRoot BP Plus, a novel ready-to-use nanoparticulate bioceramic putty, on DPC migration in vitro and pulp repair in vivo, focusing on possible involvement of fibroblast growth factor receptor (FGFR)-related signaling, including mitogen-activated protein kinase and Akt pathways. Treatment with iRoot BP Plus extracts enhanced horizontal and vertical migration of DPCs, which was comparable with the effects induced by mineral trioxide aggregate extracts. The DPCs exposed to iRoot BP Plus extracts demonstrated no evident apoptosis. Importantly, treatment with iRoot BP Plus extracts resulted in rapid activation of FGFR, p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase, extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) 1/2, c-Jun-N-terminal kinase (JNK), and Akt signaling in DPCs. Confocal immunofluorescence staining revealed that iRoot BP Plus stimulated focal adhesion formation and stress fiber assembly in DPCs, in addition to upregulating the expression of focal adhesion molecules, including p-focal adhesion kinase, p-paxillin, and vinculin. Moreover, activation of FGFR, ERK, JNK, and Akt were found to mediate the upregulated expression of focal adhesion molecules, stress fiber assembly, and enhanced DPC migration induced by iRoot BP Plus. Consistent with the in vitro results, we observed induction of homogeneous dentin bridge formation and expression of p-focal adhesion kinase, p-FGFR, p-ERK 1/2, p-JNK, and p-Akt near injury sites by iRoot BP Plus in an in vivo pulp repair model. These data demonstrate that iRoot BP Plus can promote DPC migration and pulp repair involving the FGFR-mediated ERK 1/2, JNK, and Akt pathways. These findings provide

  15. Development assessment of wash water reclamation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Putnam, D. F.

    1976-01-01

    An analytical study assessment of state-of-the-art wash water reclamation technology is presented. It covers all non-phase-change unit operations, unit processes and subsystems currently under development by NASA. Each approach to wash water reclamation is described in detail. Performance data are given together with the projected weights and sizes of key components and subsystems. It is concluded that a simple multifiltration subsystem composed of surface-type cartridge filters, carbon adsorption and ion exchange resins is the most attractive approach for spacecraft wash water reclamation in earth orbital missions of up to 10 years in duration.

  16. Wash water solids removal system study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1974-01-01

    During wash water purification, surfactants tend to precipitate and foul the RO membranes, causing water flux decline and loss of salt rejection. The use of 165 to 190 ppm ferric chloride and optionally 0.25 to 1.0 ppm polymeric flocculate precipitates 92 to 96 percent of the surfactant from an Olive Leaf Soap based wash water. Crossflow filtration and pressure filtration yield good soap rejection at high water flux rates. Post-treatment of the chemically pretreated and filtered wash water with activated charcoal removes the residual soap down to an undetectable level.

  17. TANK 7 CHARACTERIZATION AND WASHING STUDIES

    SciTech Connect

    Lambert, D.; Pareizs, J.; Click, D.

    2010-02-04

    A 3-L PUREX sludge sample from Tank 7 was characterized and then processed through a series of inhibited water washes to remove oxalate, sodium, and other soluble ions. Current plans use Tank 7 as one of the feed sources for Sludge Batch 7 (SB7). Tank 7 is high in oxalate due to the oxalic acid cleaning of the sludge heels from Tanks 5 and 6 and subsequent transfer to Tank 7. Ten decant and nine wash cycles were performed over a 47 day period at ambient temperature. Initially, seven decants and seven washes were completed based on preliminary estimates of the number of wash cycles required to remove the oxalate in the sludge. After reviewing the composition data, SRNL recommended the completion of 2 or 3 more decant/wash cycles to ensure all of the sodium oxalate had redissolved. In the first 7 washes, the slurry oxalate concentration was 12,300 mg/kg (69.6% oxalate removal compared to 96.1% removal of the other soluble ions). After all ten decants were complete, the slurry oxalate concentration was 3,080 mg/kg (89.2% oxalate removal compared to 99.0% of the other soluble ions). The rate of dissolution of oxalate increased significantly with subsequent washes until all of the sodium oxalate had been redissolved after seven decant/wash cycles. The measured oxalate concentrations agreed very well with LWO predictions for washing of the Tank 7 sample. Highlights of the analysis and washing of the Tank 7 sample include: (1) Sodium oxalate was detected in the as-received filtered solids. 95% of the oxalate was insoluble (undissolved) in the as-received slurry. (2) No sodium oxalate was detected in the post-wash filtered solids. (3) Sodium oxalate is the last soluble species that redissolves during washing with inhibited water. In order to significantly reduce the sodium oxalate concentration, the sludge must be highly washed, leaving the other soluble anions and cations (including sodium) very low in concentration. (4) The post-wash slurry had 1% of the soluble anions

  18. Wash water waste pretreatment system study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    The use of real wash water had no adverse effect on soap removal when an Olive Leaf soap based system was used; 96 percent of the soap was removed using ferric chloride. Numerous chemical agents were evaluated as antifoams for synthetic wash water. Wash water surfactants used included Olive Leaf Soap, Ivory Soap, Neutrogena and Neutrogena Rain Bath Gel, Alipal CO-436, Aerosol 18, Miranol JEM, Palmeto, and Aerosol MA-80. For each type of soapy wash water evaluated, at least one antifoam capable of causing nonpersistent foam was identified. In general, the silicones and the heavy metal ions (i.e., ferric, aluminum, etc.) were the most effective antifoams. Required dosage was in the range of 50 to 200 ppm.

  19. Anaerobic treatment of pulp and paper mill effluents--status quo and new developments.

    PubMed

    Habets, Leo; Driessen, Willie

    2007-01-01

    Since the early 1980s, anaerobic treatment of industrial effluents has found widespread application in the pulp and paper industry. Over 200 installations are treating a large variety of different pulp and paper mill effluents. Amongst various anaerobic systems the UASB and IC are the most applied anaerobic reactor systems. Anaerobic treatment is well feasible for effluents originated from recycle paper mills, mechanical pulping (peroxide bleached), semi-chemical pulping and sulphite and kraft evaporator condensates. The advantages of anaerobic pre-treatment are (1) net production of renewable energy (biogas), (2) minimized bio-solids production, (3) minimal footprint and (4) reduced emission of greenhouse gases. Via in-line application of anaerobic treatment in closed circuits (paper kidney technology) further savings on cost of fresh water intake and effluent discharge levies are generated. PMID:17486855

  20. Effects of ripening on rheological properties of avocado pulp (Persea americana mill. Cv. Hass)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Osorio, F.; Roman, A.; Ortiz, J.

    2015-04-01

    Avocado (Persea americana Mill) Hass variety is the most planted in Chile with a greater trade prospect. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of maturity on rheological properties of Chilean Avocado Hass pulp. Fresh unripe avocados were washed and peeled, cut and stored at 3 different times; a portion was treated at 5°C and the other was treated at 20°C until it reached 2 lb puncture pressure. During maturation changes would develop due to temperature and time, with internal cellular structure changes. Preliminary results of the rheological characteristics of avocado puree show a Bingham plastic behavior.

  1. Pulping: Energy consumption and conservation. (Latest citations from the Paper and Board, Printing, and Packaging Industries Research Associations database). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-04-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning energy saving processes, machinery, and plants applicable to the pulping industry. Topics include water removal and wet pressing, small power steam and electricity generation, mathematical modeling for determining energy consumption, mechanical pulping energy reduction techniques, fiber pretreatment, cooking methods and equipment, and heat recovery processes. Energy efficient pulp mill operation management is included. (Contains a minimum of 156 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  2. [Endodontic treatment of primary teeth. Pulp exposure and pulp necrosis].

    PubMed

    Gruythuysen, R J M

    2005-11-01

    With management of the deep caries in primary teeth we have to take account into the coping strategies of the patient and the state of the development of the dentition. That's why in most cases a root canal treatment of primary incisors or even a pulpotomy is not indicated. Often Intellectual Decision Not To Restore is a good alternative for treatment of deep caries in primary incisors. In deep caries lesions of primary canines and molars preferably minimal invasive techniques as indirect pulp capping are performed. In case of a exposure, the dentist can choose between several types of treatment. Improved techniques have lead to clinical satisfying results of the calcium hydroxide pulpotomy. A partial pulpotomy is if possible the treatment of choice. A resin modified glass ionomer cement is used to cover the pulp wound because it has good sealing properties and it is easy to handle. To limit the burden in young children a root canal treatment in primary teeth is seldom indicated. Overfilling with calcium hydroxide in root canal treatment of primary teeth never causes problems. PMID:16320568

  3. 21 CFR 186.1673 - Pulp.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Pulp. 186.1673 Section 186.1673 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) INDIRECT FOOD SUBSTANCES AFFIRMED AS GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Listing of Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 186.1673 Pulp....

  4. Pulp and Paper Industry Effluent Management.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gove, George W.

    1978-01-01

    Presents a literature review of wastes from pulp and paper industry, covering publications of 1976-77. This review focuses on: (1) receiving water, toxicity, and effluent characterization; (2) pulping liquor disposal and recovery; and (3) physicochemical and biological treatment. A list of 238 references is also presented. (HM)

  5. Changes are in Store for Pulping Technology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Environmental Science and Technology, 1975

    1975-01-01

    The pulp and paper industry are being forced by economic considerations and air pollution regulations to consider alternatives to the use of sulfur systems, be they kraft, acid or neutral sulfite. To meet environmental requirements and combat erosion of profits, modernized non-sulfur pulping methods will increasingly appear on the scene. (BT)

  6. 21 CFR 186.1673 - Pulp.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Pulp. 186.1673 Section 186.1673 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) INDIRECT FOOD SUBSTANCES AFFIRMED AS GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Listing of Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 186.1673 Pulp....

  7. Cortical representation area of human dental pulp.

    PubMed

    Kubo, K; Shibukawa, Y; Shintani, M; Suzuki, T; Ichinohe, T; Kaneko, Y

    2008-04-01

    To elucidate the dental pulp-representing area in the human primary somatosensory cortex and the presence of A-beta fibers in dental pulp, we recorded somatosensory-evoked magnetic fields from the cortex in seven healthy persons using magnetoencephalography. Following non-painful electrical stimulation of the right maxillary first premolar dental pulp, short latency (27 ms) cortical responses on the magnetic waveforms were observed. However, no response was seen when stimulation was applied to pulpless teeth, such as devitalized teeth. The current source generating the early component of the magnetic fields was located anterior-inferiorly compared with the locations for the hand area in the primary somatosensory cortex. These results demonstrate the dental pulp representation area in the primary somatosensory cortex, and that it receives input from intradental A-beta neurons, providing a detailed organizational map of the orofacial area, by adding dental pulp to the classic "sensory homunculus". PMID:18362319

  8. Actin polymerization driven by WASH causes V-ATPase retrieval and vesicle neutralization before exocytosis

    PubMed Central

    Carnell, Michael; Zech, Tobias; Calaminus, Simon D.; Ura, Seiji; Hagedorn, Monica; Johnston, Simon A.; May, Robin C.; Soldati, Thierry; Machesky, Laura M.

    2011-01-01

    WASP and SCAR homologue (WASH) is a recently identified and evolutionarily conserved regulator of actin polymerization. In this paper, we show that WASH coats mature Dictyostelium discoideum lysosomes and is essential for exocytosis of indigestible material. A related process, the expulsion of the lethal endosomal pathogen Cryptococcus neoformans from mammalian macrophages, also uses WASH-coated vesicles, and cells expressing dominant negative WASH mutants inefficiently expel C. neoformans. D. discoideum WASH causes filamentous actin (F-actin) patches to form on lysosomes, leading to the removal of vacuolar adenosine triphosphatase (V-ATPase) and the neutralization of lysosomes to form postlysosomes. Without WASH, no patches or coats are formed, neutral postlysosomes are not seen, and indigestible material such as dextran is not exocytosed. Similar results occur when actin polymerization is blocked with latrunculin. V-ATPases are known to bind avidly to F-actin. Our data imply a new mechanism, actin-mediated sorting, in which WASH and the Arp2/3 complex polymerize actin on vesicles to drive the separation and recycling of proteins such as the V-ATPase. PMID:21606208

  9. Hand washing promotion for preventing diarrhoea

    PubMed Central

    Ejemot-Nwadiaro, Regina I; Ehiri, John E; Arikpo, Dachi; Meremikwu, Martin M; Critchley, Julia A

    2015-01-01

    Background Diarrhoea accounts for 1.8 million deaths in children in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). One of the identified strategies to prevent diarrhoea is hand washing. Objectives To assess the effects of hand washing promotion interventions on diarrhoeal episodes in children and adults. Search methods We searched the Cochrane Infectious Diseases Group Specialized Register (27 May 2015); CENTRAL (published in the Cochrane Library 2015, Issue 5); MEDLINE (1966 to 27 May 2015); EMBASE (1974 to 27 May 2015); LILACS (1982 to 27 May 2015); PsycINFO (1967 to 27 May 2015); Science Citation Index and Social Science Citation Index (1981 to 27 May 2015); ERIC (1966 to 27 May 2015); SPECTR (2000 to 27 May 2015); Bibliomap (1990 to 27 May 2015); RoRe, The Grey Literature (2002 to 27 May 2015); World Health Organization (WHO) International Clinical Trial Registry Platform (ICTRP), metaRegister of Controlled Trials (mRCT), and reference lists of articles up to 27 May 2015. We also contacted researchers and organizations in the field. Selection criteria Individually randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and cluster-RCTs that compared the effects of hand washing interventions on diarrhoea episodes in children and adults with no intervention. Data collection and analysis Three review authors independently assessed trial eligibility, extracted data, and assessed risk of bias. We stratified the analyses for child day-care centres or schools, community, and hospital-based settings. Where appropriate, incidence rate ratios (IRR) were pooled using the generic inverse variance method and random-effects model with 95% confidence intervals (CIs). We used the GRADE approach to assess the quality of evidence. Main results We included 22 RCTs: 12 trials from child day-care centres or schools in mainly high-income countries (54,006 participants), nine community-based trials in LMICs (15,303 participants), and one hospital-based trial among people with acquired immune deficiency

  10. 30 CFR 206.459 - Allocation of washed coal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Allocation of washed coal. 206.459 Section 206... MANAGEMENT PRODUCT VALUATION Indian Coal § 206.459 Allocation of washed coal. (a) When coal is subjected to washing, the washed coal must be allocated to the leases from which it was extracted. (b) When the...

  11. 30 CFR 1206.459 - Allocation of washed coal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Allocation of washed coal. 1206.459 Section... RESOURCES REVENUE PRODUCT VALUATION Indian Coal § 1206.459 Allocation of washed coal. (a) When coal is subjected to washing, the washed coal must be allocated to the leases from which it was extracted. (b)...

  12. 30 CFR 1206.260 - Allocation of washed coal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Allocation of washed coal. 1206.260 Section... INTERIOR Natural Resources Revenue PRODUCT VALUATION Federal Coal § 1206.260 Allocation of washed coal. (a) When coal is subjected to washing, the washed coal must be allocated to the leases from which it...

  13. 30 CFR 1206.459 - Allocation of washed coal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Allocation of washed coal. 1206.459 Section... INTERIOR Natural Resources Revenue PRODUCT VALUATION Indian Coal § 1206.459 Allocation of washed coal. (a) When coal is subjected to washing, the washed coal must be allocated to the leases from which it...

  14. 30 CFR 1206.260 - Allocation of washed coal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Allocation of washed coal. 1206.260 Section... RESOURCES REVENUE PRODUCT VALUATION Federal Coal § 1206.260 Allocation of washed coal. (a) When coal is subjected to washing, the washed coal must be allocated to the leases from which it was extracted. (b)...

  15. 30 CFR 1206.260 - Allocation of washed coal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Allocation of washed coal. 1206.260 Section... RESOURCES REVENUE PRODUCT VALUATION Federal Coal § 1206.260 Allocation of washed coal. (a) When coal is subjected to washing, the washed coal must be allocated to the leases from which it was extracted. (b)...

  16. 30 CFR 1206.459 - Allocation of washed coal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Allocation of washed coal. 1206.459 Section... RESOURCES REVENUE PRODUCT VALUATION Indian Coal § 1206.459 Allocation of washed coal. (a) When coal is subjected to washing, the washed coal must be allocated to the leases from which it was extracted. (b)...

  17. 30 CFR 206.260 - Allocation of washed coal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Allocation of washed coal. 206.260 Section 206... MANAGEMENT PRODUCT VALUATION Federal Coal § 206.260 Allocation of washed coal. (a) When coal is subjected to washing, the washed coal must be allocated to the leases from which it was extracted. (b) When the...

  18. 30 CFR 1206.260 - Allocation of washed coal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Allocation of washed coal. 1206.260 Section... RESOURCES REVENUE PRODUCT VALUATION Federal Coal § 1206.260 Allocation of washed coal. (a) When coal is subjected to washing, the washed coal must be allocated to the leases from which it was extracted. (b)...

  19. 30 CFR 1206.459 - Allocation of washed coal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Allocation of washed coal. 1206.459 Section... RESOURCES REVENUE PRODUCT VALUATION Indian Coal § 1206.459 Allocation of washed coal. (a) When coal is subjected to washing, the washed coal must be allocated to the leases from which it was extracted. (b)...

  20. 21 CFR 133.137 - Washed curd cheese for manufacturing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Washed curd cheese for manufacturing. 133.137... Standardized Cheese and Related Products § 133.137 Washed curd cheese for manufacturing. Washed curd cheese for manufacturing conforms to the definition and standard of identity prescribed for washed curd cheese by §...

  1. 21 CFR 133.137 - Washed curd cheese for manufacturing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Washed curd cheese for manufacturing. 133.137... Standardized Cheese and Related Products § 133.137 Washed curd cheese for manufacturing. Washed curd cheese for manufacturing conforms to the definition and standard of identity prescribed for washed curd cheese by §...

  2. 21 CFR 133.137 - Washed curd cheese for manufacturing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Washed curd cheese for manufacturing. 133.137... Standardized Cheese and Related Products § 133.137 Washed curd cheese for manufacturing. Washed curd cheese for manufacturing conforms to the definition and standard of identity prescribed for washed curd cheese by §...

  3. 21 CFR 133.137 - Washed curd cheese for manufacturing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Washed curd cheese for manufacturing. 133.137... Standardized Cheese and Related Products § 133.137 Washed curd cheese for manufacturing. Washed curd cheese for manufacturing conforms to the definition and standard of identity prescribed for washed curd cheese by §...

  4. 21 CFR 133.137 - Washed curd cheese for manufacturing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Washed curd cheese for manufacturing. 133.137... Standardized Cheese and Related Products § 133.137 Washed curd cheese for manufacturing. Washed curd cheese for manufacturing conforms to the definition and standard of identity prescribed for washed curd cheese by §...

  5. Technical bases DWPF Late Washing Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Fish, D.L.; Landon, L.F.

    1992-08-10

    A task force recommended that the technical feasibility of a Late Wash' facility be assessed [1]. In this facility, each batch of tetraphenylborate slurry from Tank 49 would be given a final wash to reduce the concentrations of nitrite and radiolysis products to acceptable levels. Laboratory-scale studies have demonstrated that d the nitrite content of the slurry fed to DWPF is reduced to 0.01 M or less (and at least a 4X reduction in concentration of the soluble species is attained), (1) the need for HAN during hydrolysis is eliminated (eliminating the production of ammonium ion during hydrolysis), (2) hydrolysis may be done with a catalyst concentration that will not exceed the copper solubility in glass and (3) the non-polar organic production during hydrolysis is significantly reduced. The first phase of an aggressive research and development program has been completed and all test results obtained to date support the technical feasibility of Late Washing. Paralleling this research and development effort is an aggressive design study directed by DWPF to scope and cost retrofitting the Auxiliary Pump Pit (APP) to enable performing a final wash of each batch of precipitate slurry before R is transferred into the DWPF Soft Processing Cell (SPC). An initial technical bases for the Late Wash Facility was transmitted to DWPF on June 15, 1992. Research and development activities are continuing directed principally at optimization of the cross-f low fitter decontamination methodology and pilot-scale validation of the recommended benzene stripping metodology.

  6. Waste washing pre-treatment of municipal and special waste.

    PubMed

    Cossu, Raffaello; Lai, Tiziana; Pivnenko, Kostyantyn

    2012-03-15

    Long-term pollution potential in landfills is mainly related to the quality of leachate. Waste can be conveniently treated prior to landfilling with an aim to minimizing future emissions. Washing of waste represents a feasible pre-treatment method focused on controlling the leachable fraction of residues and relevant impact. In this study, non-recyclable plastics originating from source segregation, mechanical-biological treated municipal solid waste (MSW), bottom ash from MSW incineration and automotive shredder residues (ASR) were treated and the removal efficiency of washing pre-treatment prior to landfilling was evaluated. Column tests were performed to simulate the behaviour of waste in landfill under aerobic and anaerobic conditions. The findings obtained revealed how waste washing treatment (WWT) allowed the leachability of contaminants from waste to be reduced. Removal rates exceeding 65% were obtained for dissolved organic carbon (DOC), chemical oxygen demand (COD) and Total Kjeldahl Nitrogen (TKN). A percentage decrease of approximately 60% was reached for the leachable fraction of chlorides, sulphates, fluoride and metals, as proved by a reduction in electric conductivity values (70%). PMID:21968117

  7. Evaluation of soil washing for radiologically contaminated soils

    SciTech Connect

    Gombert, D. II

    1994-03-01

    Soil washing has been applied internationally to decontaminate soils due to the widespread increase in environmental awareness manifested in the United States by promulgation of the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation and Liability Act, yet we continue to lack understanding on why the technique works in one application and not in another. A soil washing process typically integrates a variety of modules, each designed to decontaminate the matrix by destroying a particular phase or segregating a particle size fraction in which the contaminants are concentrated. The more known about how the contaminants are fixed, the more likely the process will succeed. Much can be learned from bioavailability studies on heavy metals in soils. Sequential extraction experiments designed to destroy one fixation mechanism at a time can be used to determine how contaminants are bound. This knowledge provides a technical basis for designing a processing strategy to efficiently decontaminate soil while creating a minimum of secondary wastes. In this study, a soil from the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory was physically and chemically characterized, then sequentially extracted to determine if soil washing could be effectively used to remove cesium, cobalt and chromium.

  8. Recovery of MSWI and soil washing residues as concrete aggregates.

    PubMed

    Sorlini, Sabrina; Abbà, Alessandro; Collivignarelli, Carlo

    2011-02-01

    The aim of the present work was to study if municipal solid waste incinerator (MSWI) residues and aggregates derived from contaminated soil washing could be used as alternative aggregates for concrete production. Initially, chemical, physical and geometric characteristics (according to UNI EN 12620) of municipal solid waste incineration bottom ashes and some contaminated soils were evaluated; moreover, the pollutants release was evaluated by means of leaching tests. The results showed that the reuse of pre-treated MSWI bottom ash and washed soil is possible, either from technical or environmental point of view, while it is not possible for the raw wastes. Then, the natural aggregate was partially and totally replaced with these recycled aggregates for the production of concrete mixtures that were characterized by conventional mechanical and leaching tests. Good results were obtained using the same dosage of a high resistance cement (42.5R calcareous Portland cement instead of 32.5R); the concrete mixture containing 400 kg/m(3) of washed bottom ash and high resistance cement was classified as structural concrete (C25/30 class). Regarding the pollutants leaching, all concrete mixtures respected the limit values according to the Italian regulation. PMID:20537523

  9. Sedimentary rocks in our mouth: dental pulp stones made by nanobacteria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ciftcioglu, Neva; Ciftcioglu, Vefa; Vali, Hojatollah; Turcott, Eduardo; Kajander, E. Olavi

    1998-07-01

    The mechanisms of dental pulp stone formation are still largely unknown. Pulp stones are mainly composed of carbonate apatite. Only few experimental reports have elucidated the potential of some selected bacteria to produce apatite under in vitro conditions using special calcification media. The tested stone forming bacteria were, in fact, often better known for their cariogenic potential. Our preliminary work with 18 dental pulp stones from Turkey, selected only by severity of the stone formation, indicated the presence of nanobacterial antigens in the demineralized stones. Furthermore, high incidence of kidney stones and gall stones in the patient group and in their parents was found. This raises the implication that nanobacteria may enter the body also via oral route, in addition to the parenteral and transplacental routes. The role of nanobacteria in dental pulp stone formation was further studied by following nanobacterial colonization and mineral formation on human tooth in vitro. Two molar teeth, one having pulp stone and one without, were vertically cut into two pieces, sterilized by autoclaving and incubated with or without nanobacteria in DMEM. Electron microscopic observations indicate that nanobacteria can cause apatite stone formation on tooth surface. The sever from of dental pulp stone formation might be associated with nanobacteria. This form of dental disease results in loss of teeth due to osteolytic processes. This addresses the necessity for a study on unconventional mineral-forming bacteria as a cause for human diseases.

  10. Effect of depth beating on the fiber properties and enzymatic saccharification efficiency of softwood kraft pulp.

    PubMed

    Gao, Wenhua; Xiang, Zhouyang; Chen, Kefu; Yang, Rendang; Yang, Fei

    2015-01-01

    Commercial bleached softwood kraft pulp was mechanically fibrillated by a PFI-mill with beating revolution from 5000 to 30,000 r. The extent of fibrillating on the pulp was evaluated by beating degree, fiber morphological properties (fiber length, width, coarseness and curls index), water retention value (WRV) and physical properties of paper made from the pulp. Depth beating process significantly affected the pulp fibrillations as showed by the decreased fiber length and width as well as the SEM analysis, but the effects were limited after beating revolution of 15,000. Depth beating process also improved the total internal pore and inter-fibril surface areas as shown by the increased WRV values. Substrate enzymatic digestibility (SED) of beaten pulp at 5000 revolutions could reach 95% at cellulase loading of 15 FPU/g of glucan. After the enzymatic hydrolysis, the size of the pulp residues was reduced to micro-scale, and a relative uniform size distribution of the residues appeared at 10,000 r beating revolution. PMID:25965499

  11. Lead removal via soil washing and leaching

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, H. K.; Man, X. D.; Walsh, D. E.

    2001-12-01

    A soil washing and leaching process was tested for removing lead from soils. A soil-washing circuit, including size and gravity separations, was employed to remove the coarse metallic lead particles, while the leaching was applied to remove fine metallic lead particles and other lead species. The soil-washing tests proved that the metallic lead particles larger than 0.15 mm (100 mesh) could be effectively removed. The sodium-chloride-based leaching solution with ferric chloride or sodium hypochlorite as oxidants was adopted in the leaching. The leaching experimental results indicated that under the pH of 2 and Eh of 1,300 mV, the metallic lead particles smaller than 0.15 mm and other lead species can be dissolved in the leaching solution within 60 minutes.

  12. Wash solvent reuse in paint production

    SciTech Connect

    Parsons, A.B.; Heater, K.J.; Olfenbuttel, R.F.

    1994-04-01

    The project evaluated solvent used to clean paint manufacture equipment for its utility in production of subsequent batches of solvent-borne paint. Reusing wash solvent would reduce the amount of solvent disposed of as waste. The evaluation of this wash-solvent recovery technology was conducted by Battelle Memorial Institute for the Pollution Prevention Research Branch of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. The evaluation was conducted with the cooperation and assistance of Vanex Color, Inc. The product quality, waste reduction/pollution prevention, and economic impacts of this technology change, as it has been implemented by Vanex, were examined. Two batches of a solvent-borne alkyd house paint were prepared at Vanex--one batch made with 100%-new solvent and the other with 30%-wash solvent--and sampled for laboratory analysis at Battelle.

  13. The microbial challenge to pulp regeneration.

    PubMed

    Fouad, A F

    2011-07-01

    Pulp regeneration is considered in cases where the dental pulp has been destroyed because of microbial irritation. Diverse oral and food-borne micro-organisms are able to invade the pulp space, form biofilm on canal walls, and infiltrate dentinal tubules. Prior to pulp regeneration procedures, the pulp space and dentinal walls need to be sufficiently disinfected to allow for and promote regeneration. The necessary level of disinfection is likely higher than that accepted for traditional endodontic therapy, because in traditional techniques the mere lowering of bacterial loads and prevention of bacterial access to periapical tissues is conducive to healing. Moreover, several of the non-specific antimicrobials used in traditional endodontic therapy may cause significant changes in remaining dentin that interfere with its inherent potential to mediate regeneration. Non-specific antimicrobials also suppress all microbial taxa, which may allow residual virulent micro-organisms to preferentially repopulate the pulp space. Therefore, it is important for endodontic pathogens to be studied by molecular methods that allow for a broad depth of coverage. It is then essential to determine the most effective protocols to disinfect the pulp space, with minimal disruption of remaining dentin. These protocols include the topical use of effective antibiotics, including newer agents that have demonstrated efficacy against endodontic pathogens. PMID:21677080

  14. A Review on Vital Pulp Therapy in Primary Teeth

    PubMed Central

    Parisay, Iman; Ghoddusi, Jamileh; Forghani, Maryam

    2015-01-01

    Maintaining deciduous teeth in function until their natural exfoliation is absolutely necessary. Vital pulp therapy (VPT) is a way of saving deciduous teeth. The most important factors in success of VPT are the early diagnosis of pulp and periradicular status, preservation of the pulp vitality and proper vascularization of the pulp. Development of new biomaterials with suitable biocompatibility and seal has changed the attitudes towards preserving the reversible pulp in cariously exposed teeth. Before exposure and irreversible involvement of the pulp, indirect pulp capping (IPC) is the treatment of choice, but after the spread of inflammation within the pulp chamber and establishment of irreversible pulpitis, removal of inflamed pulp tissue is recommended. In this review, new concepts in preservation of the healthy pulp tissue in deciduous teeth and induction of the reparative dentin formation with new biomaterials instead of devitalization and the consequent destruction of vital tissues are discussed. PMID:25598803

  15. A review on vital pulp therapy in primary teeth.

    PubMed

    Parisay, Iman; Ghoddusi, Jamileh; Forghani, Maryam

    2015-01-01

    Maintaining deciduous teeth in function until their natural exfoliation is absolutely necessary. Vital pulp therapy (VPT) is a way of saving deciduous teeth. The most important factors in success of VPT are the early diagnosis of pulp and periradicular status, preservation of the pulp vitality and proper vascularization of the pulp. Development of new biomaterials with suitable biocompatibility and seal has changed the attitudes towards preserving the reversible pulp in cariously exposed teeth. Before exposure and irreversible involvement of the pulp, indirect pulp capping (IPC) is the treatment of choice, but after the spread of inflammation within the pulp chamber and establishment of irreversible pulpitis, removal of inflamed pulp tissue is recommended. In this review, new concepts in preservation of the healthy pulp tissue in deciduous teeth and induction of the reparative dentin formation with new biomaterials instead of devitalization and the consequent destruction of vital tissues are discussed. PMID:25598803

  16. Vital Pulp Therapy—Current Progress of Dental Pulp Regeneration and Revascularization

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Weibo; Yelick, Pamela C.

    2010-01-01

    Pulp vitality is extremely important for the tooth viability, since it provides nutrition and acts as biosensor to detect pathogenic stimuli. In the dental clinic, most dental pulp infections are irreversible due to its anatomical position and organization. It is difficult for the body to eliminate the infection, which subsequently persists and worsens. The widely used strategy currently in the clinic is to partly or fully remove the contaminated pulp tissue, and fill and seal the void space with synthetic material. Over time, the pulpless tooth, now lacking proper blood supply and nervous system, becomes more vulnerable to injury. Recently, potential for successful pulp regeneration and revascularization therapies is increasing due to accumulated knowledge of stem cells, especially dental pulp stem cells. This paper will review current progress and feasible strategies for dental pulp regeneration and revascularization. PMID:20454445

  17. A Diagnostic Aid To Pulp Production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kowalski, Allan; Lebensold, Julian M.

    1989-03-01

    Pitch deposits in the production of pulp from wood are a very significant problem in the pulp and paper industry. Conservative estimates place the annual cost at around $30 million a year. At the present time problems in this domain are handled by human experts, whose time might otherwise be available for research. Development of an expert system in this area would be expected to have several beneficial effects. Quantitatively, it will decrease down time, thus allowing for greater production, and qualitatively it will decrease the occurrence of contamination in the final pulp.

  18. Recent Advances in Pulp Capping Materials: An Overview

    PubMed Central

    Qureshi, Asma; E., Soujanya; Nandakumar; Pratapkumar; Sambashivarao

    2014-01-01

    Emphasis has shifted from the “doomed” organ concept of an exposed pulp to one of hope and recovery. The era of vital-pulp therapy has been greatly enhanced with the introduction of various pulp capping materials. The aim of this article is to summarize and discuss about the various and newer pulp capping materials used for protection of the dentin-pulp complex. PMID:24596805

  19. Morphological degradation of human hair cuticle due to simulated sunlight irradiation and washing.

    PubMed

    Richena, M; Rezende, C A

    2016-08-01

    damages, resulting in a more pronounced cuticle extraction (≈1-4 cuticle cells after a 600h irradiation and a 60 times washing). This irradiation dose corresponds to ca. 2months of sunlight exposure (considering 5h/day) in Campinas-SP, Brazil, during the day period of maximum irradiation intensity. The combined action of irradiation and washing can be explained by the creation of fragile photodegraded spots in the endocuticle and in the CMC, where the mechanical stress associated to the washing steps are more prone to induce rupture. PMID:27318298

  20. Expression of Vesicular Glutamate Transporters VGLUT1 and VGLUT2 in the Rat Dental Pulp and Trigeminal Ganglion following Inflammation

    PubMed Central

    Hong, Jae Hyun; Kim, Yun Sook; Choi, So Young; Kim, Tae Heon; Cho, Yi Sul; Bae, Yong Chul

    2014-01-01

    Background There is increasing evidence that peripheral glutamate signaling mechanism is involved in the nociceptive transmission during pathological conditions. However, little is known about the glutamate signaling mechanism and related specific type of vesicular glutamate transporter (VGLUT) in the dental pulp following inflammation. To address this issue, we investigated expression and protein levels of VGLUT1 and VGLUT2 in the dental pulp and trigeminal ganglion (TG) following complete Freund’s adjuvant (CFA) application to the rat dental pulp by light microscopic immunohistochemistry and Western blot analysis. Results The density of VGLUT2− immunopositive (+) axons in the dental pulp and the number of VGLUT2+ soma in the TG increased significantly in the CFA-treated group, compared to control group. The protein levels of VGLUT2 in the dental pulp and TG were also significantly higher in the CFA-treated group than control group by Western blot analysis. The density of VGLUT1+ axons in the dental pulp and soma in the TG remained unchanged in the CFA-treated group. Conclusions These findings suggest that glutamate signaling that is mediated by VGLUT2 in the pulpal axons may be enhanced in the inflamed dental pulp, which may contribute to pulpal axon sensitization leading to hyperalgesia following inflammation. PMID:25290694

  1. What Happens at a Car Wash?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gallick, Barbara; Lee, Lisa

    2010-01-01

    A class of 3- to 5-year-old children in a child care center in the midwestern United States chose to study a car wash as a group project. This article discusses how the project evolved, describes the three phases of the project, and provides the teachers' reflections on the project. Photos taken during the project and children's sketches are…

  2. An Alternative Antimicrobial Commercial Egg Washing Procedure

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Presently, commercial eggs are washed with water containing an alkali detergent at approximately pH 11 followed by a chlorine rinse. At this pH, it is likely that there is little, if any, free chlorine in the final rinse to act as an antimicrobial against pathogens like Salmonella. Using a chlorine ...

  3. EVALUATION OF THE BIOGENESIS SOIL WASHING TECHNOLOGY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The BioGenesis Enterprises, Inc. (BioGenesis) soil washing technology was demonstrated as part of the US Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) Superfund Innovative Technology Evaluation (SITE) program in November 1992. The demonstration was conducted over three days at a petrol...

  4. DEMONSTRATION BULLETIN: SOIL WASHING SYSTEM - BIOTROL, INC.

    EPA Science Inventory

    The three component technologies of the BioTrol Soil Washing System (BSWS). Tested in the SITE demonstration were a Soil Washer (SW), and Aqueous Treatment System (ATS), and a Slurry Bio-Reactor (SBR). The Soil Washer operates on the principle that a significant fraction of the...

  5. Washing of the AW-101 entrained solids

    SciTech Connect

    GJ Lumetta

    2000-03-31

    BNFL Inc. (BNFL) is under contract with the US Department of Energy, River Protection Project (DOE-RPP) to design, construct, and operate facilities for treating wastes stored in the single-shell and double-shell tanks at the Hanford Site, Richland, Washington. The DOE-BNFL RPP contract identifies two feeds to the waste treatment plant: (1) primarily liquid low-activity waste (LAW) consisting of less than 2 wt% entrained solids and (2) high-level waste (HLW) consisting of 10 to 200 g/L solids slurry. This report describes the results of a test conducted by Battelle to assess the effects of inhibited water washing on the composition of the entrained solids in the diluted AW-101 low-activity waste (LAW) sample. The objective of this work was to gather data on the solubility of the AW-101 entrained solids in 0.01 M NaOH, so that BNFL can evaluate whether these solids require caustic leaching. The work was conducted according to test plan BNFL-TP-29953-9, Rev. 0, LAW Entrained Solids Water Wash and Caustic Leach Testing. The test went according to plan, with no deviations from the test plan. Based on the results of the 0.01 M NaOH washing, a decision was made by BNFL to not proceed with the caustic leaching test. The composition of the washed solids was such that caustic leaching would not result in significant reduction in the immobilized HLW volume.

  6. SOIL-WASHING TECHNOLOGY AND PRACTICE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Soil washing in the United States has been studied and evaluated with increasing thoroughness during the last 15 to 20 years. It is now entering a phase of actual use and acceptance as its applicability and economics become clearer. This paper reviews the principles behind soil...

  7. DEMONSTRATION BULLETIN: BIOGENESIS SOIL WASHING TECHNOLOGY - BIOGENESIS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The BioGenesisSM soil washing technology was developed by BioGenesis Enterprises, Inc. to remove organic compounds from soil. The technology uses a proprietary solution (BioGenesisSM cleaner) to transfer organic compounds from the soil matrix to a liquid phase. BioGenesis claims...

  8. Prototype wash water renovation system integration with government-furnished wash fixture

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1984-01-01

    The requirements of a significant quantity of proposed life sciences experiments in Shuttle payloads for available wash water to support cleansing operations has provided the incentive to develop a technique for wash water renovation. A prototype wash water waste renovation system which has the capability to process the waste water and return it to a state adequate for reuse in a typical cleansing fixture designed to support life science experiments was investigated. The resulting technology is to support other developments efforts pertaining to water reclamation by serving as a pretreatment step for subsequent reclamation procedures.

  9. Indirect pulp therapy and stepwise excavation.

    PubMed

    Bjørndal, Lars

    2008-01-01

    Various treatment concepts have been suggested to solve the deep carious lesion dilemma. Recent systematic reviews are presented. Their conclusions are based on very few studies, and the main message is that optimal randomized clinical studies are lacking. Observational studies on indirect pulp treatment and stepwise excavation demonstrate that these treatments avoid pulp exposures, but it cannot be said which approach is best. A less invasive modified stepwise excavation approach is described, focusing on changing on active lesion into on arrested lesion even without performing an excavation close to the pulp. In Denmark and Sweden a randomized clinical multi-center trial is currently taking place, the Caries and Pulp (CAP) trial. This trial is investigating the effects of stepwise excavation over 2 visits versus 1 complete excavation of deep caries in permanent teeth. Guidelines for treatment are presented. PMID:18615988

  10. Indirect pulp therapy and stepwise excavation.

    PubMed

    Bjørndal, Lars

    2008-07-01

    Various treatment concepts have been suggested to solve the deep carious lesion dilemma. Recent systematic reviews are presented. Their conclusions are based on very few studies, and the main message is that optimal randomized clinical studies are lacking. Observational studies on indirect pulp treatment and stepwise excavation demonstrate that these treatments avoid pulp exposures, but it cannot be said which approach is best. A less invasive modified stepwise excavation approach is described, focusing on changing an active lesion into an arrested lesion even without performing an excavation close to the pulp. In Denmark and Sweden a randomized clinical multi-center trial is currently taking place, the Caries and Pulp (CAP) trial. This trial is investigating the effects of stepwise excavation over 2 visits versus 1 complete excavation of deep caries in permanent teeth. Guidelines for treatment are presented. PMID:18565369

  11. ADVANCED FILTRATION OF PULP MILL WASTES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Laboratory and pilot plants studies of reverse osmosis (hyperfiltration) and ultrafiltration of pulp mill wastes were performed by International Paper Company and Oak Ridge National Laboratory (subcontractor). Decker filtrates were treated with dynamically formed reverse osmosis ...

  12. Pulp and paper program fact sheets

    SciTech Connect

    1995-07-01

    Summaries are presented of Argonne technology transfer research projects in: sustainable forest management, environmental performance, energy performance, improved capital effectiveness, recycling, and sensors and controls. Applications in paper/pulp industry, other industries, etc. are covered.

  13. A Novel Glycinate-based Body Wash

    PubMed Central

    Regan, Jamie; Ananthapadmanabhan, K.P.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To assess the properties of a novel body wash containing the mild surfactant glycinate. Design: Biochemical and clinical assays. Setting: Research laboratories and clinical sites in the United States and Canada. Participants: Women 18 to 65 years of age (cleansing efficacy); male and female subjects 26 to 63 years of age with mild or moderate dryness and erythema (leg-controlled application test); subjects 5 to 65 years of age with mild-to-moderate eczema (eczema compatibility); and women 18 to 64 years of age (home use). Measurements: Assessments across studies included colorimetric dye exclusion to assess skin damage potential (corneosurfametry), efficacy of cosmetic product removal from skin, change from baseline in visual dryness, change from baseline in Eczema Area and Severity Index, and self-perceived eczema attributes and self-reported product preference. Results: The glycinate-based cleanser demonstrated mildness to skin components when evaluated in a corneosurfametry assay. Short-term use under exaggerated wash conditions in subjects with dryness scores <3 and erythema scores <2 (both on a 0-6 scale) indicated an initial reduction in visual dryness. In subjects with eczema, normal use resulted in significant improvements (p<0.05) at Week 4 compared with baseline in skin dryness (change from baseline = −0.73), rash (−0.56), itch (−0.927), tightness (−0.585), and all eczema (−0.756). The glycinate-based body wash removed 56 percent of a long-lasting cosmetic foundation from skin compared with less than 30 percent removed by two competitive products tested. The glycinate-based body wash was preferred over a competitive mild cleansing product overall. Conclusion: The patented glycinate-containing body wash demonstrated better product mildness and patient-preferred attributes and clinical benefits. PMID:23882306

  14. Trafficking defects in WASH-knockout fibroblasts originate from collapsed endosomal and lysosomal networks.

    PubMed

    Gomez, Timothy S; Gorman, Jacquelyn A; de Narvajas, Amaia Artal-Martinez; Koenig, Alexander O; Billadeau, Daniel D

    2012-08-01

    The Arp2/3-activator Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome protein and Scar homologue (WASH) is suggested to regulate actin-dependent membrane scission during endosomal sorting, but its cellular roles have not been fully elucidated. To investigate WASH function, we generated tamoxifen-inducible WASH-knockout mouse embryonic fibroblasts (WASHout MEFs). Of interest, although EEA1(+) endosomes were enlarged, collapsed, and devoid of filamentous-actin and Arp2/3 in WASHout MEFs, we did not observe elongated membrane tubules emanating from these disorganized endomembranes. However, collapsed WASHout endosomes harbored segregated subdomains, containing either retromer cargo recognition complex-associated proteins or EEA1. In addition, we observed global collapse of LAMP1(+) lysosomes, with some lysosomal membrane domains associated with endosomes. Both epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and transferrin receptor (TfnR) exhibited changes in steady-state cellular localization. EGFR was directed to the lysosomal compartment and exhibited reduced basal levels in WASHout MEFs. However, although TfnR was accumulated with collapsed endosomes, it recycled normally. Moreover, EGF stimulation led to efficient EGFR degradation within enlarged lysosomal structures. These results are consistent with the idea that discrete receptors differentially traffic via WASH-dependent and WASH-independent mechanisms and demonstrate that WASH-mediated F-actin is requisite for the integrity of both endosomal and lysosomal networks in mammalian cells. PMID:22718907

  15. Investigation into the durability of washed rice straw for equine bedding and the repetitive use of washing water.

    PubMed

    Kurosawa, Akira; Endo, Daisuke; Ikeda, Shuhei; Sukemori, Seizi

    2011-04-01

    The present experiment investigated durability during the repetitive use of washed rice straw, as bedding material, and washing water as a model study. Residual nitrogen levels, elasticity, and water suction rates for washed rice straw-adhered urea were measured. In addition, outflow levels of nitrogen and mineral ions (Na(+), NO(2)(-) + NO(3)(-), SO(4)(2-), PO(4)(3-), Cl(-)) for washing water were measured to determine durability. Nitrogen levels of rice straw significantly (P<0.05) decreased after two washings. There was no significant change in elasticity of repetitively used rice straw. Suction rates of rice straw after the second and third washings increased significantly (P<0.05) compared to the first time. With regard to the number of washings, the mineral ion outflow level in the washing water for nitrogen, Na(+), NO(2)(-) + NO(3)(-) and PO(4)(3-) after each washing was not significant. However, nitrogen outflow level tended to decrease after the third washing. SO(4)(-) and Cl(-) did significantly decrease (P<0.05) with the number of washings. In this study, it was considered that rice straw and washing water could be used repetitively three times. Furthermore, in order to maintain effluent standards, washing water from the first washing needs to be processed in a septic tank. PMID:21729215

  16. La3+ Alters the Response Properties of Neurons in the Mouse Primary Somatosensory Cortex to Low-Temperature Noxious Stimulation of the Dental Pulp

    PubMed Central

    Jin, Yanjiao

    2015-01-01

    Although dental pain is a serious health issue with high incidence among the human population, its cellular and molecular mechanisms are still unclear. Transient receptor potential (TRP) channels are assumed to be involved in the generation of dental pain. However, most of the studies were conducted with molecular biological or histological methods. In vivo functional studies on the role of TRP channels in the mechanisms of dental pain are lacking. This study uses in vivo cellular electrophysiological and neuropharmacological method to directly disclose the effect of LaCl3, a broad spectrum TRP channel blocker, on the response properties of neurons in the mouse primary somatosensory cortex to low-temperature noxious stimulation of the dental pulp. It was found that LaCl3 suppresses the high-firing-rate responses of all nociceptive neurons to noxious low-temperature stimulation and also inhibits the spontaneous activities in some nonnociceptive neurons. The effect of LaCl3 is reversible. Furthermore, this effect is persistent and stable unless LaCl3 is washed out. Washout of LaCl3 quickly revitalized the responsiveness of neurons to low-temperature noxious stimulation. This study adds direct evidence for the hypothesis that TRP channels are involved in the generation of dental pain and sensation. Blockade of TRP channels may provide a novel therapeutic treatment for dental pain. PMID:26604777

  17. Potential of hot water extraction of birch wood to produce high-purity dissolving pulp after alkaline pulping.

    PubMed

    Borrega, Marc; Tolonen, Lasse K; Bardot, Fanny; Testova, Lidia; Sixta, Herbert

    2013-05-01

    The potential of hot water extraction of birch wood to produce highly purified dissolving pulp in a subsequent soda-anthraquinone pulping process was evaluated. After intermediate extraction intensities, pulps with low xylan content (3-5%) and high cellulose yield were successfully produced. Increasing extraction intensity further decreased the xylan content in pulp. However, below a xylan content of 3%, the cellulose yield dramatically decreased. This is believed to be due to cleavage of glycosidic bonds in cellulose during severe hot water extractions, followed by peeling reactions during alkaline pulping. Addition of sodium borohydride as well as increased anthraquinone concentration in the pulping liquor increased the cellulose yield, but had no clear effects on pulp purity and viscosity. The low intrinsic viscosity of pulps produced after severe extraction intensities and soda-anthraquinone pulping corresponded to the viscosity at the leveling-off degree of polymerization, suggesting that nearly all amorphous cellulose had been degraded. PMID:23260272

  18. BLAISDELL SLOW SAND FILTER WASHING MACHINE. VIEW LOOKING SOUTHWEST. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    BLAISDELL SLOW SAND FILTER WASHING MACHINE. VIEW LOOKING SOUTHWEST. - Yuma Main Street Water Treatment Plant, Blaisdell Slow Sand Filter Washing Machine, Jones Street at foot of Main Street, Yuma, Yuma County, AZ

  19. 21 CFR 211.52 - Washing and toilet facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... § 211.52 Washing and toilet facilities. Adequate washing facilities shall be provided, including hot and cold water, soap or detergent, air driers or single-service towels, and clean toilet facilities...

  20. 21 CFR 211.52 - Washing and toilet facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... § 211.52 Washing and toilet facilities. Adequate washing facilities shall be provided, including hot and cold water, soap or detergent, air driers or single-service towels, and clean toilet facilities...

  1. 6. GENE WASH DAM, LOOKING NORTHWEST. SURVEY REFLECTOR IN FOREGROUND ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. GENE WASH DAM, LOOKING NORTHWEST. SURVEY REFLECTOR IN FOREGROUND FOR MONITORING MOVEMENT OF DAM AND EARTH. - Gene Wash Reservoir & Dam, 2 miles west of Parker Dam, Parker Dam, San Bernardino County, CA

  2. 4. AERIAL VIEW OF GENE WASH RESERVOIR AND GENE CAMP ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. AERIAL VIEW OF GENE WASH RESERVOIR AND GENE CAMP LOOKING SOUTHWEST. DAM AND SPILLWAY VISIBLE IN BOTTOM OF PHOTO. - Gene Wash Reservoir & Dam, 2 miles west of Parker Dam, Parker Dam, San Bernardino County, CA

  3. Combined effects of mineral trioxide aggregate and human placental extract on rat pulp tissue and growth, differentiation and angiogenesis in human dental pulp cells.

    PubMed

    Chang, Seok-Woo; Kim, Ji-Youn; Kim, Mi-Joo; Kim, Ga-Hyun; Yi, Jin-Kyu; Lee, Deok-Won; Kum, Kee-Yeon; Kim, Eun-Cheol

    2016-05-01

    Objective The aim of this study was to evaluate the combined effects of mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA) and human placental extract (HPE) on cell growth, differentiation and in vitro angiogenesis of human dental pulp cells (HDPCs) and to identify underlying signal transduction mechanisms. In vivo dental pulp responses in rats for a pulp-capping agent were examined. Materials and methods MTS assay. ALP activity test, alizarin red S staining and RT-PCR for marker genes were carried out to evaluate cell growth and differentiation. HUVEC migration, mRNA expression and capillary tube formation were measured to evaluate angiogenesis. Signal transduction was analysed using Western blotting and confocal microscopy. The pulps of rat maxillary first molars were exposed and capped with either MTA or MTA plus HPE. Histologic observation and scoring were performed. Results Compared to treatment of HDPCs with either HPE or MTA alone, the combination of HPE and MTA increased cell growth, ALP activity, mineralized nodules and expression of marker mRNAs. Combination HPE and MTA increased migration, capillary tube formation and angiogenic gene expression compared with MTA alone. Activation of Akt, mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR), p38, JNK and ERK MAPK, Akt, and NF-κB were significantly increased by combining HPE and MTA compared with MTA alone. Pulp capping with MTA plus HPE in rats showed superior dentin bridge formation, odontoblastic layers and dentinal tubules and lower inflammatory cell response, compared to the MTA alone group. Conclusions This study demonstrates for the first time that the use of MTA with HPE promotes cell growth, differentiation and angiogenesis in HDPCs, which were associated with mTOR, MAPK and NF-κB pathways. Direct pulp capping with HPE plus MTA showed superior results when compared with MTA alone. Thus, the combination of MTA and HPE may be useful for regenerative endodontics. PMID:26807656

  4. Washing scaling of GeneChip microarray expression

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Post-hybridization washing is an essential part of microarray experiments. Both the quality of the experimental washing protocol and adequate consideration of washing in intensity calibration ultimately affect the quality of the expression estimates extracted from the microarray intensities. Results We conducted experiments on GeneChip microarrays with altered protocols for washing, scanning and staining to study the probe-level intensity changes as a function of the number of washing cycles. For calibration and analysis of the intensity data we make use of the 'hook' method which allows intensity contributions due to non-specific and specific hybridization of perfect match (PM) and mismatch (MM) probes to be disentangled in a sequence specific manner. On average, washing according to the standard protocol removes about 90% of the non-specific background and about 30-50% and less than 10% of the specific targets from the MM and PM, respectively. Analysis of the washing kinetics shows that the signal-to-noise ratio doubles roughly every ten stringent washing cycles. Washing can be characterized by time-dependent rate constants which reflect the heterogeneous character of target binding to microarray probes. We propose an empirical washing function which estimates the survival of probe bound targets. It depends on the intensity contribution due to specific and non-specific hybridization per probe which can be estimated for each probe using existing methods. The washing function allows probe intensities to be calibrated for the effect of washing. On a relative scale, proper calibration for washing markedly increases expression measures, especially in the limit of small and large values. Conclusions Washing is among the factors which potentially distort expression measures. The proposed first-order correction method allows direct implementation in existing calibration algorithms for microarray data. We provide an experimental 'washing data set' which might

  5. Washing of the AN-107 entrained solids

    SciTech Connect

    GJ Lumetta; FV Hoopes

    2000-03-31

    This report describes the results of a test conducted by Battelle to assess the effects of inhibited water washing on the composition of the entrained solids in the diluted AN-107 low-activity waste (LAW) sample. The objective of this work was to gather data on the solubility of the AN-107 entrained solids in 0.01 M NaOH, so that BNFL can evaluate whether these solids require caustic leaching.

  6. Ceramic wash-coat for catalyst support

    DOEpatents

    Kulkarni, Anand A.; Subramanian, Ramesh; Sabol, Stephen M.

    2012-08-14

    A wash-coat (16) for use as a support for an active catalyst species (18) and a catalytic combustor component (10) incorporating such wash-coat. The wash-coat is a solid solution of alumina or alumina-based material (Al.sub.2O.sub.3-0-3 wt % La.sub.2O.sub.3) and a further oxide exhibiting a coefficient of thermal expansion that is lower than that exhibited by alumina. The further oxide may be silicon dioxide (2-30 wt % SiO.sub.2), zirconia silicate (2-30 wt % ZrSiO.sub.4), neodymium oxide (0-4 wt %), titania (Al.sub.2O.sub.3-3-40% TiO.sub.2) or alumina-based magnesium aluminate spinel (Al.sub.2O.sub.3-25 wt % MgO) in various embodiments. The active catalyst species may be palladium and a second metal in a concentration of 10-50% of the concentration of the palladium.

  7. Bacterial Exchange in Household Washing Machines

    PubMed Central

    Callewaert, Chris; Van Nevel, Sam; Kerckhof, Frederiek-Maarten; Granitsiotis, Michael S.; Boon, Nico

    2015-01-01

    Household washing machines (WMs) launder soiled clothes and textiles, but do not sterilize them. We investigated the microbial exchange occurring in five household WMs. Samples from a new cotton T-shirt were laundered together with a normal laundry load. Analyses were performed on the influent water and the ingoing cotton samples, as well as the greywater and the washed cotton samples. The number of living bacteria was generally not lower in the WM effluent water as compared to the influent water. The laundering process caused a microbial exchange of influent water bacteria, skin-, and clothes-related bacteria and biofilm-related bacteria in the WM. A variety of biofilm-producing bacteria were enriched in the effluent after laundering, although their presence in the cotton sample was low. Nearly all bacterial genera detected on the initial cotton sample were still present in the washed cotton samples. A selection for typical skin- and clothes-related microbial species occurred in the cotton samples after laundering. Accordingly, malodour-causing microbial species might be further distributed to other clothes. The bacteria on the ingoing textiles contributed for a large part to the microbiome found in the textiles after laundering. PMID:26696989

  8. Irreversible Wash Aid Additive for Cesium Mitigation: WARRP Demonstration

    SciTech Connect

    Kaminski, Michael

    2015-01-01

    This activity demonstrated, on a practical scale, the primary unit operations for building a containment structure for radioactive wash waters, washing down a hypothetically radioactively contaminated vehicle, collecting the hypothetically radioactive slurry waste water, filtering the hypothetically radioactive wash waters, disassembling the containment, and transporting the materials for final disposition.

  9. 33 CFR 157.124 - COW tank washing machines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false COW tank washing machines. 157... OIL IN BULK Crude Oil Washing (COW) System on Tank Vessels Design, Equipment, and Installation § 157.124 COW tank washing machines. (a) COW machines must be permanently mounted in each cargo tank....

  10. 33 CFR 157.124 - COW tank washing machines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false COW tank washing machines. 157... OIL IN BULK Crude Oil Washing (COW) System on Tank Vessels Design, Equipment, and Installation § 157.124 COW tank washing machines. (a) COW machines must be permanently mounted in each cargo tank....

  11. 33 CFR 157.124 - COW tank washing machines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false COW tank washing machines. 157... OIL IN BULK Crude Oil Washing (COW) System on Tank Vessels Design, Equipment, and Installation § 157.124 COW tank washing machines. (a) COW machines must be permanently mounted in each cargo tank....

  12. 33 CFR 157.124 - COW tank washing machines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false COW tank washing machines. 157... OIL IN BULK Crude Oil Washing (COW) System on Tank Vessels Design, Equipment, and Installation § 157.124 COW tank washing machines. (a) COW machines must be permanently mounted in each cargo tank....

  13. 33 CFR 157.124 - COW tank washing machines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false COW tank washing machines. 157... OIL IN BULK Crude Oil Washing (COW) System on Tank Vessels Design, Equipment, and Installation § 157.124 COW tank washing machines. (a) COW machines must be permanently mounted in each cargo tank....

  14. An Overview of Pathogen Recognition Receptors for Innate Immunity in Dental Pulp

    PubMed Central

    Jang, Ji-Hyun; Shin, Hee Woong; Lee, Jung Min; Lee, Hyeon-Woo; Kim, Eun-Cheol; Park, Sang Hyuk

    2015-01-01

    Pathogen recognition receptors (PRRs) are a class of germ line-encoded receptors that recognize pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs). The activation of PRRs is crucial for the initiation of innate immunity, which plays a key role in first-line defense until more specific adaptive immunity is developed. PRRs differ in the signaling cascades and host responses activated by their engagement and in their tissue distribution. Currently identified PRR families are the Toll-like receptors (TLRs), the C-type lectin receptors (CLRs), the nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain-like receptors (NLRs), the retinoic acid-inducible gene-I-like receptors (RLRs), and the AIM2-like receptor (ALR). The environment of the dental pulp is substantially different from that of other tissues of the body. Dental pulp resides in a low compliance root canal system that limits the expansion of pulpal tissues during inflammatory processes. An understanding of the PRRs in dental pulp is important for immunomodulation and hence for developing therapeutic targets in the field of endodontics. Here we comprehensively review recent finding on the PRRs and the mechanisms by which innate immunity is activated. We focus on the PRRs expressed on dental pulp and periapical tissues and their role in dental pulp inflammation. PMID:26576076

  15. A hyaluronan-based scaffold for the in vitro construction of dental pulp-like tissue.

    PubMed

    Ferroni, Letizia; Gardin, Chiara; Sivolella, Stefano; Brunello, Giulia; Berengo, Mario; Piattelli, Adriano; Bressan, Eriberto; Zavan, Barbara

    2015-01-01

    Dental pulp tissue supports the vitality of the tooth, but it is particularly vulnerable to external insults, such as mechanical trauma, chemical irritation or microbial invasion, which can lead to tissue necrosis. In the present work, we present an endodontic regeneration method based on the use of a tridimensional (3D) hyaluronan scaffold and human dental pulp stem cells (DPSCs) to produce a functional dental pulp-like tissue in vitro. An enriched population of DPSCs was seeded onto hyaluronan-based non-woven meshes in the presence of differentiation factors to induce the commitment of stem cells to neuronal, glial, endothelial and osteogenic phenotypes. In vitro experiments, among which were gene expression profiling and immunofluorescence (IF) staining, proved the commitment of DPSCs to the main components of dental pulp tissue. In particular, the hyaluronan-DPSCs construct showed a dental pulp-like morphology consisting of several specialized cells growing inside the hyaluronan fibers. Furthermore, these constructs were implanted into rat calvarial critical-size defects. Histological analyses and gene expression profiling performed on hyaluronan-DPSCs grafts showed the regeneration of osteodentin-like tissue. Altogether, these data suggest the regenerative potential of the hyaluronan-DPSC engineered tissue. PMID:25739081

  16. Microbial and enzymatic control of pitch in the pulp and paper industry.

    PubMed

    Gutiérrez, Ana; del Río, José C; Martínez, Angel T

    2009-04-01

    Pitch control is an important aspect in pulp and paper manufacture, and the first example where microbial biotechnology provided successful solutions in this industrial sector. Triglycerides cause deposits in softwood mechanical pulping, and both microbial and enzymatic products have been commercialized to be applied on wood and pulp, respectively. The former are based on colorless strains of sapstain fungi. The latter are improved lipases, including thermostable variants from directed evolution. These enzymes are among the additives of choice in pulping of high-resin-content softwoods. However, lipases are not useful when pitch originates from other lipids, such as steroids and terpenes, and the sapstain inocula are also only partially effective. In the search for stronger biocatalysts to degrade recalcitrant lipids, the potential of white-rot fungi and their enzymes has been demonstrated. When inocula of these fungi are used, wood treatment must be controlled to avoid cellulose degradation. However, the efficiency and selectivity of the laccase-mediator system permits its integration as an additional bleaching stage. A double benefit can be obtained from these treatments since pitch is controlled at the same time that residual lignin is removed facilitating the implementation of totally chlorine free pulp bleaching. PMID:19242691

  17. A Hyaluronan-Based Scaffold for the in Vitro Construction of Dental Pulp-Like Tissue

    PubMed Central

    Ferroni, Letizia; Gardin, Chiara; Sivolella, Stefano; Brunello, Giulia; Berengo, Mario; Piattelli, Adriano; Bressan, Eriberto; Zavan, Barbara

    2015-01-01

    Dental pulp tissue supports the vitality of the tooth, but it is particularly vulnerable to external insults, such as mechanical trauma, chemical irritation or microbial invasion, which can lead to tissue necrosis. In the present work, we present an endodontic regeneration method based on the use of a tridimensional (3D) hyaluronan scaffold and human dental pulp stem cells (DPSCs) to produce a functional dental pulp-like tissue in vitro. An enriched population of DPSCs was seeded onto hyaluronan-based non-woven meshes in the presence of differentiation factors to induce the commitment of stem cells to neuronal, glial, endothelial and osteogenic phenotypes. In vitro experiments, among which were gene expression profiling and immunofluorescence (IF) staining, proved the commitment of DPSCs to the main components of dental pulp tissue. In particular, the hyaluronan-DPSCs construct showed a dental pulp-like morphology consisting of several specialized cells growing inside the hyaluronan fibers. Furthermore, these constructs were implanted into rat calvarial critical-size defects. Histological analyses and gene expression profiling performed on hyaluronan-DPSCs grafts showed the regeneration of osteodentin-like tissue. Altogether, these data suggest the regenerative potential of the hyaluronan-DPSC engineered tissue. PMID:25739081

  18. Fresh produce washing aid, T-128, enhances inactivation of salmonella and pseudomonas biofilms on stainless steel in chlorinated wash solutions

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The efficacy of chlorine wash solutions, with/without the washing aid, T-128, on inactivation of Salmonella and Pseudomonas populations in biofilms on stainless steel coupons was evaluated under conditions of increasing organic matter loads in the wash water. Biofilms were formed statically on stai...

  19. POST BIOLOGICAL SOLIDS CHARACTERIZATION AND REMOVAL FROM PULP MILL EFFLUENTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The study characterized the post biological solids in pulp and paper mill secondary effluent and evaluated various suspended solids removal techniques. Characterization was performed on samples from 9 mills, representing various locations, pulping processes and treatment system t...

  20. Utility of the TBARS assay in detecting oxidative stress in white sucker (Catostomus commersoni) populations exposed to pulp mill effluent.

    PubMed

    Oakes, Ken D; Van Der Kraak, Glen J

    2003-05-29

    Recent evidence indicates that contaminant-stimulated free radical production and resulting oxidative damage may be an important mechanism of toxicity in organisms exposed to water-borne contaminants. This study tested the hypothesis that increases in oxidative stress and associated biochemical alterations would be present in white sucker (Catostomus commersoni) living in an environment receiving pulp mill effluent. Consistent increases in liver TBARS and frequent increases in gonadal TBARS were observed immediately downstream of the pulp mill effluent discharge; observable effects were attenuated with distance until they were not significantly different from reference values. Increases detected with the TBARS assay were commensurate with increases detected using the lipid hydroperoxides assay, a mechanistically independent technique. Fish exposed to pulp mill effluent also exhibited significant increases in hepatic free iron and ascorbic acid and a reduced free radical scavenging capacity in the livers of fish downstream of the effluent discharge relative to reference fish. Increases in oxidative stress are not necessarily dependent on increases in lipid substrate or related to reductions in ascorbic acid. TBARS values similar to those observed in fish resident below pulp mill effluent discharges were observed in white sucker 2 h after intraperitoneal injection using 15 mg/kg body weight ferric nitrilotriacetate (Fe(3+) NTA) as a positive control. This study indicates oxidative stress could be a mechanism of toxicity in fish exposed to pulp mill effluent and demonstrates the utility of TBARS in delineating zones of exposure to pulp mill effluent. PMID:12758008

  1. Face washing promotion for preventing active trachoma

    PubMed Central

    Ejere, Henry OD; Alhassan, Mahmoud B; Rabiu, Mansur

    2015-01-01

    Background Trachoma remains a major cause of avoidable blindness among underprivileged populations in many developing countries. It is estimated that about 146 million people have active trachoma and nearly six million people are blind due to complications associated with repeat infections. Objectives The objective of this review was to assess the effects of face washing promotion for the prevention of active trachoma in endemic communities. Search methods We searched CENTRAL (which contains the Cochrane Eyes and Vision Group Trials Register) (2015, Issue 1), Ovid MEDLINE, Ovid MEDLINE In-Process and Other Non-Indexed Citations, Ovid MEDLINE Daily, Ovid OLDMEDLINE (January 1946 to January 2015), EMBASE (January 1980 to January 2015), PubMed (January 1948 to January 2015), Latin American and Caribbean Health Sciences Literature Database (LILACS) (January 1982 to January 2015), the metaRegister of Controlled Trials (mRCT) (www.controlled-trials.com) (accessed 10 January 2014), ClinicalTrials.gov (www.clinicaltrials.gov) and the World Health Organization (WHO) International Clinical Trials Registry Platform (ICTRP) (www.who.int/ictrp/search/en). We did not use any date or language restrictions in the electronic searches for trials. We last searched the electronic databases on 26 January 2015. To identify further relevant trials we checked the reference lists of the included trials. Also, we used the Science Citation Index to search for references to publications that cited the trials included in the review. We contacted investigators and experts in the field to identify additional trials. Selection criteria We included randomized controlled trials (RCTs) or quasi-RCTs that compared face washing with no treatment or face washing combined with antibiotics against antibiotics alone. Trial participants were residents of endemic trachoma communities. Data collection and analysis Two review authors independently extracted data and assessed trial quality. We contacted trial

  2. Environmental control for pulp and paper mills

    SciTech Connect

    Edde, H.

    1984-01-01

    The purpose of this book is to provide the pulp and paper industry engineering community with a new source of information for use in the planning, design and operation of present and future environmental control facilities. New pollution control methods are described, and the applications of new techniques for more effectively removing a broad spectrum of contaminants from air and water discharges are discussed. The information will also be useful as text material for students in pulp and paper technology and industrial waste engineering. The book contains two parts; the first describes water and solid waste pollution control for the pulp and paper industry, while the second presents air pollution control. A condensed table of contents listing chapter titles and selected subtitles is also given.

  3. Biocompatibility of a new pulp capping cement

    PubMed Central

    Poggio, Claudio; Ceci, Matteo; Beltrami, Riccardo; Dagna, Alberto; Colombo, Marco; Chiesa, Marco

    2014-01-01

    Summary Aim The aim of the present study was to evaluate the biocompatibility of a new pulp capping material (Biodentine, Septodont) compared with reference pulp capping materials: Dycal (Dentsply), ProRoot MTA (Dentsply) and MTA-Angelus (Angelus) by using murine odontoblast cell line and Alamar blue and MTT cytotoxicity tests. Methods The citocompatibility of murine odontoblasts cells (MDPC-23) were evaluated at different times using a 24 Transwell culture plate by Alamar blue test and MTT assay. Results The results were significantly different among the pulp capping materials tested. Biocompatibility was significant different among materials with different composition. Conclusions Biodentine and MTA-based products show lower cytotoxicity varying from calcium hydroxide-based material which present higher citotoxicity. PMID:25002921

  4. Standing surface acoustic wave (SSAW)-based cell washing

    PubMed Central

    Li, Sixing; Ding, Xiaoyun; Mao, Zhangming; Chen, Yuchao; Nama, Nitesh; Guo, Feng; Li, Peng; Wang, Lin; Cameron, Craig E.; Huang, Tony Jun

    2014-01-01

    Cell/bead washing is an indispensable sample preparation procedure used in various cell studies and analytical processes. In this article, we report a standing surface acoustic wave (SSAW)-based microfluidic device for cell and bead washing in a continuous flow. In our approach, the acoustic radiation force generated in a SSAW field is utilized to actively extract cells or beads from their original medium. A unique configuration of tilted-angle standing surface acoustic wave (taSSAW) is employed in our device, enabling us to wash beads with >98% recovery rate and >97% washing efficiency. We also demonstrate the functionality of our device by preparing high-purity (>97%) white blood cells from lysed blood samples through cell washing. Our SSAW-based cell/bead washing device has the advantages of label-free manipulation, simplicity, high biocompatibility, high recovery rate, and high washing efficiency. It can be useful for many lab-on-a-chip applications. PMID:25372273

  5. 21 CFR 872.1730 - Electrode gel for pulp testers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 872.1730 Electrode gel for pulp testers. (a) Identification. An electrode gel for pulp testers is a device intended to be applied to the surface of a tooth... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Electrode gel for pulp testers. 872.1730...

  6. 21 CFR 872.1730 - Electrode gel for pulp testers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 872.1730 Electrode gel for pulp testers. (a) Identification. An electrode gel for pulp testers is a device intended to be applied to the surface of a tooth... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Electrode gel for pulp testers. 872.1730...

  7. TANK 4 CHARACTERIZATION, SETTLING, AND WASHING STUDIES

    SciTech Connect

    Bannochie, C.; Pareizs, J.; Click, D.; Zamecnik, J.

    2009-09-29

    A sample of PUREX sludge from Tank 4 was characterized, and subsequently combined with a Tank 51 sample (Tank 51-E1) received following Al dissolution, but prior to a supernate decant by the Tank Farm, to perform a settling and washing study to support Sludge Batch 6 preparation. The sludge source for the majority of the Tank 51-E1 sample is Tank 12 HM sludge. The Tank 51-E1 sample was decanted by SRNL prior to use in the settling and washing study. The Tank 4 sample was analyzed for chemical composition including noble metals. The characterization of the Tank 51-E1 sample, used here in combination with the Tank 4 sample, was reported previously. SRNL analyses on Tank 4 were requested by Liquid Waste Engineering (LWE) via Technical Task Request (TTR) HLE-TTR-2009-103. The sample preparation work is governed by Task Technical and Quality Assurance Plan (TTQAP), and analyses were controlled by an Analytical Study Plan and modifications received via customer communications. Additional scope included a request for a settling study of decanted Tank 51-E1 and a blend of decanted Tank 51-E1 and Tank 4, as well as a washing study to look into the fate of undissolved sulfur observed during the Tank 4 characterization. The chemistry of the Tank 4 sample was modeled with OLI Systems, Inc. StreamAnalyzer to determine the likelihood that sulfate could exist in this sample as insoluble Burkeite (2Na{sub 2}SO{sub 4} {center_dot} Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3}). The OLI model was also used to predict the composition of the blended tank materials for the washing study. The following conclusions were drawn from the Tank 4 analytical results reported here: (1) Any projected blend of Tank 4 and the current Tank 51 contents will produce a SB6 composition that is lower in Ca and U than the current SB5 composition being processed by DWPF. (2) Unwashed Tank 4 has a relatively large initial S concentration of 3.68 wt% on a total solids basis, and approximately 10% of the total S is present as an

  8. Washed cell salvage in surgical patients

    PubMed Central

    Meybohm, Patrick; Choorapoikayil, Suma; Wessels, Anke; Herrmann, Eva; Zacharowski, Kai; Spahn, Donat R.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background: Cell salvage is commonly used as part of a blood conservation strategy. However concerns among clinicians exist about the efficacy of transfusion of washed cell salvage. Methods: We performed a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials in which patients, scheduled for all types of surgery, were randomized to washed cell salvage or to a control group with no cell salvage. Data were independently extracted, risk ratio (RR), and weighted mean differences (WMD) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated. Data were pooled using a random effects model. The primary endpoint was the number of patients exposed to allogeneic red blood cell (RBC) transfusion. Results: Out of 1140 search results, a total of 47 trials were included. Overall, the use of washed cell salvage reduced the rate of exposure to allogeneic RBC transfusion by a relative 39% (RR = 0.61; 95% CI 0.57 to 0.65; P < 0.001), resulting in an average saving of 0.20 units of allogeneic RBC per patient (weighted mean differences [WMD] = −0.20; 95% CI −0.22 to −0.18; P < 0.001), reduced risk of infection by 28% (RR = 0.72; 95% CI 0.54 to 0.97; P = 0.03), reduced length of hospital stay by 2.31 days (WMD = −2.31; 95% CI −2.50 to −2.11; P < 0.001), but did not significantly affect risk of mortality (RR = 0.92; 95% CI 0.63 to 1.34; P = 0.66). No statistical difference could be observed in the number of patients exposed to re-operation, plasma, platelets, or rate of myocardial infarction and stroke. Conclusions: Washed cell salvage is efficacious in reducing the need for allogeneic RBC transfusion and risk of infection in surgery. PMID:27495095

  9. Kinetics of liquid-solid reactions in naphthenic acid conversion and Kraft pulping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Ling

    Two liquid-solid reactions, in which the morphology of the solid changes as the reactions proceeds, were examined. One is the NA conversion in oil by decarboxylation on metal oxides and carbonates, and the other is the Kraft pulping in which lignin removal by delignification reaction. In the study of the NA conversion, CaO was chosen as the catalyst for the kinetic study from the tested catalysts based on NA conversion. Two reaction mixtures, carrier oil plus commercial naphthenic acids and heavy vacuum gas oil (HVGO) from Athabasca bitumen, were applied in the kinetic study. The influence of TAN, temperature, and catalyst loading on the NA conversion and decarboxylation were studied systematically. The results showed that the removal rate of TAN and the decarboxylation of NA were both independent of the concentration of NA over the range studied, and significantly dependent on reaction temperature. The data from analyzing the spent catalyst demonstrated that calcium naphthenate was an intermediate of the decarboxylation reaction of NA, and the decomposition of calcium naphthenate was a rate-determining step. In the study on the delignification of the Kraft pulping, a new mechanism was proposed for the heterogeneous delignification reaction during the Kraft pulping process. In particular, the chemical reaction mechanism took into account the heterogeneous nature of Kraft pulping. Lignin reacted in parallel with sodium hydroxide and sodium sulfide. The mechanism consists of three key kinetic steps: (1) adsorption of hydroxide and hydrosulfide ions on lignin; (2) surface reaction on the solid surface to produce degraded lignin products; and (3) desorption of degradation products from the solid surface. The most important step for the delignification process is the surface reaction, rather than the reactions occurring in the liquid phase. A kinetic model has, thus, been developed based on the proposed mechanism. The derived kinetic model showed that the mechanism

  10. A field-based approach for assessing the impact of paper pulp mill effluent on the metbolite profile of fathead minnows (Pimephales promelas)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Although evidence indicates that exposure to effluent from paper pulp mills (PME) can alter the body condition, secondary sexual characteristics, and reproductive success of aquatic organisms, there is currently little understanding of the biochemical mechanisms for these effects...

  11. Immunocytochemical investigation of neurovascular relationships in human tooth pulp

    PubMed Central

    Rodd, Helen D; Boissonade, Fiona M

    2003-01-01

    This study sought to explore the anatomical relationships between peptidergic nerves and blood vessels within human primary and permanent teeth. Extracted primary and permanent molars (n = 120) were split longitudinally, placed in Zamboni's fixative and the coronal pulps were processed for indirect immunofluorescence. Ten-micrometre-thick serial frozen pulp sections were triple-labelled using combinations of the following antisera: (1) protein gene-product 9.5 (PGP 9.5), a general neuronal marker; (2) one of the neuropeptides, calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP), substance P (SP), vasoactive intestinal polypeptide (VIP) or neuropeptide Y (NPY); and (iii) the lectin Ulex europeus, a label for vascular endothelium. The mid-coronal pulp region was examined, using fluorescence microscopy, to determine the proportion of blood vessels showing a positive innervation (recorded when PGP 9.5-labelled nerves appeared to intersect the vessel wall). In addition, the percentage of these vascular-related nerves expressing each of the above neuropeptides was recorded. Overall, 20% of pulpal blood vessels appeared to have a positive innervation. In the main these were thick-walled arterioles. Capillaries, venules and lymphatics were mostly devoid of an associated innervation. Ninety-two per cent of vascular-related nerves expressed CGRP, 87% expressed SP, 15% expressed VIP and 80% expressed NPY. There were no significant differences in overall innervation or peptide-related innervation between primary and permanent teeth (P < 0.05, anova, indicating that pulpal blood flow is likely to be subject to similar neurological control mechanisms in both dentitions. PMID:12647869

  12. Development of a Pulp Process Treating Contaminated HEPA Filters (III)

    SciTech Connect

    Hu, J. S.; Ramer, J.; Argyle, M. D.; Demmer, R. L.

    2002-02-28

    The Pulp Process (PP) Treatment option was conceived as a replacement for the current Filter Leaching System (FLS). The FLS has operated at the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center of the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory since 1995 to treat radioactive, mixed waste HEPA filters. In recent years, the FLS has exhibited difficulty in removing mercury from the HEPA filters as the concentration of mercury in the spent HEPA filters has increased. The FLS leaches and washes the whole filter without any preparation or modification. The filter media and the trapped calcine particles are confined in a heavy filter housing that contributes to poor mixing zones around the edges of the filter, low media permeability, channeling of the liquid through cracks and tears in the filter media, and liquid retention between leach and rinse cycles. In the PP, the filter media and the trapped calcine particles are separated from the filter housing and treated as a pulp, taking advantage of improved contact with the leach solution that cannot be achieved when the media is still in the HEPA filter housing. In addition to removing the mercury more effectively, the PP generates less volume of liquid waste, requires a shorter leach cycle time, and possesses the versatility for treating filters of different sizes. A series of tests have been performed in the laboratory to demonstrate the advantages of the PP concept. These tests compare the PP with the FLS under controlled conditions that simulate the current operating parameters. A prior study using blended feed, a mixture of shredded clean HEPA filter media and non-radioactive calcine particles, indicated that the PP would significantly increases the calcine dissolution percentages. In this study, hazardous-metal contaminated HEPA filter media was studied. The results of side-by-side tests indicated that the PP increased the mercury removal percentage by 80% and might be a solution to the mercury removal

  13. Microwave Measurements of Low Pulp Concentration in Papermaking Process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakayama, Shigeru

    1994-06-01

    A method of microwave measurements of low pulp concentrations in the papermaking process is developed using a coaxial cavity resonator with an inner slot antenna. We measure the attenuation of the resonant peak of the cavity resonator which is related to the pulp concentration. The pulp concentration up to 10.1% is measured, and then the linear relationship between the attenuation and low pulp concentrations down to 0.6% is determined. By this method, a low pulp concentration can be measured within the standard deviation of 0.03% by linear approximation.

  14. CYTOTOXICITY AND BIOCOMPATIBILITY OF DIRECT AND INDIRECT PULP CAPPING MATERIALS

    PubMed Central

    Modena, Karin Cristina da Silva; Casas-Apayco, Leslie Caroll; Atta, Maria Teresa; Costa, Carlos Alberto de Souza; Hebling, Josimeri; Sipert, Carla Renata; Navarro, Maria Fidela de Lima; Santos, Carlos Ferreira

    2009-01-01

    There are several studies about the cytotoxic effects of dental materials in contact with the pulp tissue, such as calcium hydroxide (CH), adhesive systems, resin composite and glass ionomer cements. The aim of this review article was to summarize and discuss the cytotoxicity and biocompatibility of materials used for protection of the dentin-pulp complex, some components of resin composites and adhesive systems when placed in direct or indirect contact with the pulp tissue. A large number of dental materials present cytotoxic effects when applied close or directly to the pulp, and the only material that seems to stimulate early pulp repair and dentin hard tissue barrier formation is CH. PMID:20027424

  15. Method for rapidly determining a pulp kappa number using spectrophotometry

    DOEpatents

    Chai, Xin-Sheng; Zhu, Jun Yong

    2002-01-01

    A system and method for rapidly determining the pulp kappa number through direct measurement of the potassium permanganate concentration in a pulp-permanganate solution using spectrophotometry. Specifically, the present invention uses strong acidification to carry out the pulp-permanganate oxidation reaction in the pulp-permanganate solution to prevent the precipitation of manganese dioxide (MnO.sub.2). Consequently, spectral interference from the precipitated MnO.sub.2 is eliminated and the oxidation reaction becomes dominant. The spectral intensity of the oxidation reaction is then analyzed to determine the pulp kappa number.

  16. [Washing copper (II)-contaminated soil using surfactant solutions].

    PubMed

    Zhao, Bao-wei; Wu, Yong-qi; Ma, Chan-Yuan; Zhu, Rui-jia

    2009-10-15

    The batch equilibrium washing of copper (II) in the soil matrix by anionic surfactant, sodium dodecylbenzyl sulfonate (SDBS), nonionic surfactant, octylphenoxypolyethoxyethanol (TX100), and their mixture (SDBS-TX100), was studied and compared. The influences of surfactant concentrations, washing time, pH values of solutions, ratios of soil to water and inorganic salts on washing efficiency were investigated. It was shown that the washing efficiency differed with the kinds of surfactants. Given the initial surfactant concentrations, the washing of copper (II) by single SDBS was greater than those by single TX100 and the mixed SDBS-TX100. The washing efficiency by 6 000 mg x L(-1) of SDBS was up to 46.3%, which was 5.8, 10.8, 10.8 and 19.3 times as those by SDBS-TX100 (3:1), SDBS-TX100 (1:1), SDBS-TX100 (1:3) and single TX100 respectively. When the ratio of soil to water was 1 to 10 and washing time reached 24 h, the washing efficiency achieved the maximum. pH values of solutions had obvious effect on the washing of copper (II). The washing efficiency of copper decreased sharply with the increase of pH. At the high acidity (pH = 1.50), the washing efficiency of copper (II) was up to 95%. The smaller the ratios of soil to water were, the higher the washing efficiencies would be. The existence of inorganic salts with the certain concentrations, such as Na+, Ca2+ and Mg2+, could not influence the washing capacity of surfactants, but the excessive Mg2+ (more than 500 mg x L(-1)) could resulted in the precipitation of SDBS. The results will make an implication for surfactant-enhanced remediation of soils contaminated with heavy metals. PMID:19968132

  17. Enhanced salmonella reduction on tomatoes washed in chlorinated water with wash aid T-128

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Chlorine is widely used by the fresh and fresh-cut produce industries to reduce microbial populations and to prevent potential pathogen cross contamination during produce washing. However, the organic materials released from produce quickly react with chlorine and degrade its efficacy for pathogen i...

  18. Novel Pulping Technology: Directed Green Liquor Utilization (D-GLU) Pulping

    SciTech Connect

    Lucian A. Lucia

    2005-11-15

    The general objectives of this new project are the same as those described in the original proposal. Conventional kraft pulping technologies will be modified for significant improvements in pulp production, such as strength, bleachability, and yield by using green liquor, a naturally high, kraft mill-derived sulfidity source. Although split white liquor sulfidity and other high sulfidity procedures have the promise of addressing several of the latter important economic needs of pulp mills, they require considerable engineering/capital retrofits, redesigned production methods, and thus add to overall mill expenditures. Green liquor use, however, possesses the required high sulfidity to obtain in general the benefits attributable to higher sulfidity cooking, without the required capital constraints for implementation. Before introduction of green liquor in our industrial operations, a stronger understanding of its fundamental chemical interaction with the lignin and carbohydrates in US hardwood and softwoods must be obtained. In addition, its effect on bleachability, enhancement of pulp properties, and influence on the overall energy and recovery of the mill requires further exploration before the process witnesses widespread mill use in North America. Thus, proof of principle will be accomplished in this work and the consequent effect of green liquor and other high sulfide sources on the pulping and bleaching operations will be explored for US kraft mills. The first year of this project will generate the pertinent information to validate its ability for implementation in US pulping operations, whereas year two will continue this work while proceeding to analyze pulp bleachability and final pulp/paper properties and develop a general economic and feasibility analysis for its eventual implementation in North America.

  19. Washing of cut persimmon with thyme or lemon essential oils.

    PubMed

    Almela, Celia; Castelló, María L; Tarrazó, José; Ortolá, María D

    2014-12-01

    The aim of this study was to develop a minimally processed persimmon product by applying different concentrations of thyme essential oil or lemon essential oil on the product in order to increase its shelf life. Essential oils were applied on cut persimmon in a preliminary stage of immersion, and the samples were then stored at 4 ℃ for seven days. Moisture content, soluble solids content, antioxidant capacity, total phenols, pH, optical and mechanical properties and microbiology counts were periodically analysed. Noteworthy was that the application of thyme essential oil in the washing stage improved the preservation of the fruits' colour. All samples would be considered safe according to microbiology requirements and based on the period of study, regardless of the type of essential oil applied. PMID:23897978

  20. Development of hemicelluloses biorefineries for integration into kraft pulp mills

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ajao, Olumoye Abiodun

    The development and wide spread acceptance of production facilities for biofuels, biochemicals and biomaterials is an important condition for reducing reliance on limited fossil resources and transitioning towards a global biobased economy. Pulp and paper mills in North America are confronted with high energy prices, high production costs and intense competition from emerging economies and low demand for traditional products. Integrated forest biorefineries (IFBR) have been proposed as a mean to diversify their product streams, increase their revenue and become more sustainable. This is feasible because they have access to forest biomass, an established feedstock supply chain and wood processing experience. In addition, the integration of a biorefinery process that can share existing infrastructure and utilities on the site of pulp mill would significantly lower investment cost and associated risks. Kraft pulping mills are promising receptor processes for a biorefinery because they either possess a prehydrolysis step for extracting hemicelluloses sugars prior to wood pulping or it can be added by retrofit. The extracted hemicelluloses could be subsequently transformed into a wide range of value added products for the receptor mill. To successfully implement hemicelluloses biorefinery, novel processes that are technically and economically feasible are required. It is necessary to identify products that would be profitable, develop processes that are energy efficient and the receptor mill should be able to supply the energy, chemicals and material demands of the biorefinery unit. The objective of this thesis is to develop energy efficient and economically viable hemicelluloses biorefineries for integration into a Kraft pulping process. A dissolving pulp mill was the reference case study. The transformation of hemicellulosic sugars via a chemical and biochemical conversion pathway, with furfural and ethanol as representative products for each pathway was studied. In

  1. Archaea prevalence in inflamed pulp tissues

    PubMed Central

    Efenberger, Magdalena; Agier, Justyna; Pawłowska, Elżbieta

    2015-01-01

    Archaea have been detected in several ecological niches of the human body such as the large intestine, skin, vagina as well as the oral cavity. At present, archaea are recognized as nonpathogenic microorganisms. However, some data indicate that they may be involved in the etiopathogenesis of several diseases, including intestinal diseases as well as oral diseases: periodontitis, peri-implantitis and endodontitis. In this study, on the basis of 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis, we examined whether archaea might be present in inflamed pulp tissues and contribute to the development of endodontic infection. In comparison, we also determined selected bacterial species associated with endodontitis. We detected archaea in 85% of infected endodontic samples. In addition, Prevotella intermedia, Porphyromonas gingivalis, Tannerella forsythia and Treponema denticola were present in inflamed pulp tissue samples and Treponema denticola occurred with the highest frequency (70%). Further analysis revealed the presence of methanogenic archaea in analyzed samples. Direct sequencing of archaeal 16S rRNA gene PCR products indicated the occurrence of methanogenic archaea in inflamed pulp tissues; phylogenetically most similar were Methanobrevibacter oralis and Methanobrevibacter smithii. Therefore, our results show that methanogenic archaea are present in inflamed pulp tissues and may participate in the development of endodontic infection. PMID:26557034

  2. 21 CFR 872.1720 - Pulp tester.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Pulp tester. 872.1720 Section 872.1720 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES... battery powered device intended to evaluate the pulpal vitality of teeth by employing high...

  3. Manganese Peroxidase, Produced by Trametes versicolor during Pulp Bleaching, Demethylates and Delignifies Kraft Pulp

    PubMed Central

    Paice, M. G.; Reid, I. D.; Bourbonnais, R.; Archibald, F. S.; Jurasek, L.

    1993-01-01

    Previous work has shown that Trametes (Coriolus) versicolor bleaches kraft pulp brownstock with the concomitant release of methanol. In this work, the fungus is shown to produce both laccase and manganese peroxidase (MnP) but not lignin peroxidase during pulp bleaching. MnP production was enhanced by the presence of pulp and/or Mn(II) ions. The maximum level of secreted MnP was coincident with the maximum rate of fungal bleaching. Culture filtrates isolated from bleaching cultures produced Mn(II)- and hydrogen peroxide-dependent pulp demethylation and delignification. Laccase and MnP were separated by ion-exchange chromatography. Purified MnP alone produced most of the demethylation and delignification exhibited by the culture filtrates. On the basis of the methanol released and the total and phenolic methoxyl contents of the pulp, it appears that MnP shows a preference for the oxidation of phenolic lignin substructures. The extensive increase in brightness observed in the fungus-treated pulp was not found with MnP alone. Therefore, either the MnP effect must be optimized or other enzymes or compounds from the fungus are also required for brightening. Images PMID:16348850

  4. The relationship between pulp calcifications and salivary gland calcifications

    PubMed Central

    Kaswan, Sumita; Maheshwari, Sneha; Rahman, Farzan; Khandelwal, Suneet

    2014-01-01

    Aim: Pulp stones are discrete calcified bodies found in the dental pulp. Sialolithasis is the most common salivary gland disease. The aim of the present study was to determine the relationship between the pulp stones and salivary gland stones. Material and Methods: 196 patients were randomly selected from the out patient department for the study. The periapical radiographs for all patients were evaluated for the presence or absence of the narrowing of dental pulp chambers and pulp canals. The intra oral occlusal radiographs were also evaluated to determine the presence or absence of salivary stones. The results were compared and analyzed using the Chi-square test (p<0.001). Results: Salivary gland calcifications were detected in 5 patients. 191 patients had pulp narrowing and 118 patients had pulp stones. There was no statistical correlation between pulp narrowing and salivary stones (p>0.001) and also between pulp stones and salivary gland stones (p>0.001). Conclusions: However, the incidental findings of salivary gland stones on intra oral occlusal radiographs can provide useful information in the early diagnosis of the condition, but in the present study no significant relationship was found between the presence of pulp stones and salivary gland stones. Key words:Pulp stone, salivary gland stone, periapical radiograph, occlusal radiograph. PMID:25674311

  5. Potassium hydroxide pulping of rice straw in biorefinery initiatives.

    PubMed

    Jahan, M Sarwar; Haris, Fahmida; Rahman, M Mostafizur; Samaddar, Purabi Rani; Sutradhar, Shrikanta

    2016-11-01

    Rice straw is supposed to be one of the most important lignocellulosic raw materials for pulp mill in Asian countries. The major problem in rice straw pulping is silica. The present research is focused on the separation of silica from the black liquor of rice straw pulping by potassium hydroxide (KOH) and pulp evaluation. Optimum KOH pulping conditions of rice straw were alkali charge 12% as NaOH, cooking temperature 150°C for 2h and material to liquor ratio, 1:6. At this condition pulp yield was 42.4% with kappa number 10.3. KOH pulp bleached to 85% brightness by D0EpD1 bleaching sequences with ClO2 consumption of 25kg/ton of pulp. Silica and lignin were separated from the black liquor of KOH pulping. The amount of recovered silica, lignin and hemicelluloses were 10.4%, 8.4% and 13.0%. The papermaking properties of KOH pulp from rice straw were slightly better than those of corresponding NaOH pulp. PMID:27518034

  6. Pulp and dentin tissue engineering and regeneration: current progress

    PubMed Central

    Huang, George TJ

    2009-01-01

    Dental pulp tissue is vulnerable to infection. Entire pulp amputation followed by pulp-space disinfection and filling with an artificial rubber-like material is employed to treat the infection – commonly known as root-canal therapy. Regeneration of pulp tissue has been difficult as the tissue is encased in dentin without collateral blood supply except from the root apical end. However, with the advent of the concept of modern tissue engineering and the discovery of dental stem cells, regeneration of pulp and dentin has been tested. This article will review the early attempts to regenerate pulp tissue and the current endeavor of pulp and dentin tissue engineering, and regeneration. The prospective outcome of the current advancement in this line of research will be discussed. PMID:19761395

  7. Pulp and dentin tissue engineering and regeneration: current progress.

    PubMed

    Huang, George T J

    2009-09-01

    Dental pulp tissue is vulnerable to infection. Entire pulp amputation followed by pulp-space disinfection and filling with an artificial rubber-like material is employed to treat the infection - commonly known as root-canal therapy. Regeneration of pulp tissue has been difficult as the tissue is encased in dentin without collateral blood supply except from the root apical end. However, with the advent of the concept of modern tissue engineering and the discovery of dental stem cells, regeneration of pulp and dentin has been tested. This article will review the early attempts to regenerate pulp tissue and the current endeavor of pulp and dentin tissue engineering, and regeneration. The prospective outcome of the current advancement in this line of research will be discussed. PMID:19761395

  8. Proteomic Analysis of Mesenchymal Stem Cells from Normal and Deep Carious Dental Pulp

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Jie; Yan, Wenjuan; Liu, Ying; Xu, Shuaimei; Wu, Buling

    2014-01-01

    Dental pulp stem cells (DPSCs), precursor cells of odontoblasts, are ideal seed cells for tooth tissue engineering and regeneration. Our previous study has demonstrated that stem cells exist in dental pulp with deep caries and are called carious dental pulp stem cells (CDPSCs). The results indicated that CDPSCs had a higher proliferative and stronger osteogenic differentiation potential than DPSCs. However, the molecular mechanisms responsible for the biological differences between DPSCs and CDPSCs are poorly understood. The aim of this study was to define the molecular features of DPSCs and CDPSCs by comparing the proteomic profiles using two-dimensional fluorescence difference gel electrophoresis (2-D DIGE) in combination with matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS). Our results revealed that there were 18 protein spots differentially expressed between DPSCs and CDPSCs in a narrow pH range of 4 to 7. These differently expressed proteins are mostly involved in the regulation of cell proliferation, differentiation, cell cytoskeleton and motility. In addition, our results suggested that CDPSCs had a higher expression of antioxidative proteins that might protect CDPSCs from oxidative stress. This study explores some potential proteins responsible for the biological differences between DPSCs and CDPSCs and expands our understanding on the molecular mechanisms of mineralization of DPSCs in the formation of the dentin-pulp complex. PMID:24809979

  9. Salmonella population rebound and its prevention on spray washed and non-washed jalapeño peppers and roma tomatoes in humid storage.

    PubMed

    Pao, Steven; Long, Wilbert; Kim, Chyer; Rafie, A Reza

    2012-04-01

    The potential of Salmonella population to rebound on non-washed and washed roma tomatoes and jalapeño peppers in humid storage at 4°C, 10°C, 15°C, 21°C, or 35°C for ≤12 days was investigated. The initial inoculation levels of Salmonella on peppers and tomatoes were 5.6 and 5.2 log CFU/cm(2), respectively. Air-drying of fruit surfaces resulted in contamination levels of 3.9 and 3.7 log CFU/cm(2) on inoculated peppers and tomatoes, respectively. At 21°C and 35°C, the levels of air-dried Salmonella inoculums on produce surfaces increased ≥2 log cycles, with the most rapid growth in the first 3 days. Mechanical washing on rollers (rinsing; R-treatment) or revolving brushes (rinsing and brushing; RB-treatment) with water decreased Salmonella counts by ≥2.5 log CFU/cm(2) on both peppers and tomatoes. After R- or RB-treatment, peppers stored at 21°C and 35°C permitted residual Salmonella (≤1.4 log CFU/cm(2)) to grow to 2.6-3.9 log CFU/cm(2). During storage, residual Salmonella (≤1.0 log CFU/cm(2)) on washed tomatoes increased to 3.1 log CFU/cm(2) at 35°C following R-treatment and 3.8 log CFU/cm(2) at 21°C following RB-treatment. Cold storage at 4°C and 10°C effectively prevented the proliferation of Salmonella on both washed and non-washed produce. The current study on jalapeño peppers and roma tomatoes demonstrated that Salmonella population can rebound on produce in humid storage before or after washing. The finding highlights the benefit of uninterrupted cold storage for safer produce operations. PMID:22394024

  10. 38. PHOTOCOPY OF ARCHITECTURAL WASH DRAWING OF CANNELTON MILL 'designed ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    38. PHOTOCOPY OF ARCHITECTURAL WASH DRAWING OF CANNELTON MILL 'designed by Tefft' COURTESY JOHN HAY LIBRARY, BROWN UNIVERSITY - Cannelton Cotton Mill, Front & Fourth Streets, Cannelton, Perry County, IN

  11. Landscape of WASH-relevant Training for Humanitarian Emergencies

    PubMed Central

    Dorea, Caetano

    2015-01-01

    Background: Both employed humanitarian personnel as well as those seeking to start a career as an aid worker are often provided with or seek training on the theme of humanitarian water, sanitation, and hygiene (WASH). The objective of this study was to conduct a landscaping exercise of the available WASH-relevant training for humanitarian emergencies. Methods: An open internet search was performed with specific terms related to humanitarian WASH. Retained search results included those training opportunities (including past ones) that were themed around or with a mentioned relevance to humanitarian WASH. Results and Discussion: A total of 42 training courses relevant to humanitarian emergency WASH were retained. In addition to the more generic/introductory trainings, some provided thematic variations such as coordination of WASH responses, project management, risk reduction, information, education and communication (IEC), and complex emergencies. Timely topics such as urban WASH, Ebola, and WASH innovations were also observed indicating the responsiveness of the training providers to the changing needs of humanitarian WASH response programmes. This survey also revealed a large variety in terms of target audience, duration, fees, location, and language of courses. There was no centralised listing of courses available on the Internet. Limitations of this exercise were also discussed. PMID:26064781

  12. EFRT M-12 Issue Resolution: Solids Washing

    SciTech Connect

    Baldwin, David L.; Schonewill, Philip P.; Toth, James J.; Huckaby, James L.; Eslinger, Paul W.; Hanson, Brady D.; Kurath, Dean E.; Minette, Michael J.

    2010-01-01

    Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) was tasked by Bechtel National Inc. (BNI) on the River Protection Project-Hanford Tank Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (RPP-WTP) project to perform research and development activities to resolve technical issues identified for the Pretreatment Facility (PTF). The Pretreatment Engineering Platform (PEP) was designed, constructed, and operated as part of a plan to respond to issue M12, “Undemonstrated Leaching Processes” of the External Flowsheet Review Team (EFRT) issue response plan.( ) The PEP is a 1/4.5-scale test platform designed to simulate the WTP pretreatment caustic leaching, oxidative leaching, ultrafiltration solids concentration, and slurry washing processes. The PEP replicates the WTP leaching processes using prototypic equipment and control strategies. The PEP also includes non-prototypic ancillary equipment to support the core processing.

  13. Comparative alkali washing of simulated radioactive sludge

    SciTech Connect

    Fugate, G.A.; Ensor, D.D.; Egan, B.Z.

    1996-10-01

    The treatment of large volumes of radioactive sludge generated from uranium and plutonium recovery processes is a pressing problem in the environmental restoration currently planned at various U.S. Department of Energy sites. This sludge, commonly stored in underground tanks, is mainly in the form of metal oxides or precipitated metal hydroxides and the bulk of this material is nonradioactive. One method being developed to pretreat this waste takes advantage of the amphoteric character of aluminum and other nonradioactive elements. Previous studies have reported on the dissolution of eleven elements from simulated sludge using NaOH solutions up to 6M. This work provides a comparative study using KOH. The effectiveness of the alkali washing as a treatment method to reduce the bulk of radioactive sludge requiring long term isolation will be discussed.

  14. Effects of Kraft Pulp and Lignin on Trametes versicolor Carbon Metabolism

    PubMed Central

    Roy, Brian P.; Archibald, Frederick

    1993-01-01

    The white rot basidiomycete Trametes (Coriolus) versicolor can substantially increase the brightness and decrease the lignin content of washed, unbleached hardwood kraft pulp (HWKP). Monokaryotic strain 52J was used to study how HWKP and the lignin in HWKP affect the carbon metabolism and secretions of T. versicolor. Earlier work indicated that a biobleaching culture supernatant contained all components necessary for HWKP biobleaching and delignification, but the supernatant needed frequent contact with the fungus to maintain these activities. Thus, labile small fungal metabolites may be the vital biobleaching system components renewed or replaced by the fungus. Nearly all of the CO2 evolved by HWKP-containing cultures came from the added glucose, indicating that HWKP is not an important source of carbon or energy during biobleaching. Carbon dioxide appeared somewhat earlier in the absence of HWKP, but the culture partial O2 pressure was little affected by the presence of pulp. The presence of HWKP in a culture markedly increased the culture's production of a number of acidic metabolites, including 2-phenyllactate, oxalate, adipate, glyoxylate, fumarate, mandelate, and glycolate. Although the total concentration of these pulp-induced metabolites was only 4.3 mM, these compounds functioned as effective manganese-complexing agents for the manganese peroxidase-mediated oxidation of phenol red, propelling the reaction at 2.4 times the rate of 50 mM sodium malonate, the standard chelator-buffer. The presence of HWKP in a culture also markedly stimulated fungal secretion of the enzymes manganese peroxidase, cellulase, and cellobiose-quinone oxidoreductase, but not laccase (phenol oxidase) or lignin peroxidase. PMID:16348963

  15. Pulp Stone, Haemodialysis, End-stage Renal Disease, Carotid Atherosclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Patil, Santosh; Sinha, Nidhi

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: The aim of this study was to determine the relationship between the presence of pulp calcification and carotid artery calcification on the dental panoramic radiographs in End Stage Renal Disease (ESRD) patients who were on haemodialysis. Methods: A total of 112 End Stage Renal Disease (ESRD) patients on who were haemodialysis participated in this study. The periapical and the panoramic radiographs for all the patients were evaluated for the presence or absence of the narrowing of the dental pulps and for pulp stones in the pulp chambers and the pulp canals. The panoramic radiographs were also evaluated to determine the carotid calcification. Results: Carotid calcifications were detected in none of the patients. 84 (74.99%) patients had dental pulp narrowing, and 38 (33.92%) patients had pulp stones. There was no statistical correlation between pulp narrowing and Carotid Artery Calcification (CAC) in the haemodialysis patient group. There was also no statistical correlation between pulp stones and CAC in the haemodialysis patients. Conclusion: However, the incidental finding of CAC on a panoramic radiograph can provide life-saving information for the vascular disease patients, but in the present study, no significant relationship was found between the presence of the pulpal calcification and CAC in the ESRD patients who were on haemodialysis. Therefore, the presence of pulp calcification does not seem to serve as a diagnostic marker for carotid atherosclerosis. PMID:23905147

  16. An alternative paper based tissue washing method for mass spectrometry imaging: localized washing and fragile tissue analysis.

    PubMed

    van Hove, Erika R Amstalden; Smith, Donald F; Fornai, Lara; Glunde, Kristine; Heeren, Ron M A

    2011-10-01

    Surface treatment of biological tissue sections improves detection of peptides and proteins for mass spectrometry imaging. However, liquid surface treatments can result in diffusion of surface analytes and fragile tissue sections can be easily damaged by typical washing solvents. Here, we present a new surface washing procedure for mass spectrometry imaging. This procedure uses solvent wetted fiber-free paper to enable local washing of tissue sections for mass spectrometry imaging and tissue profiling experiments. In addition, the method allows fragile tissues that cannot be treated by conventional washing techniques to be analyzed by mass spectrometry imaging. PMID:21952901

  17. Sludge pretreatment chemistry evaluation: Enhanced sludge washing separation factors

    SciTech Connect

    Colton, N.G.

    1995-03-01

    This report presents the work conducted in Fiscal Year 1994 by the Sludge Pretreatment Chemistry Evaluation Subtask for the Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) Tank Waste Treatment Science Task. The main purpose of this task, is to provide the technical basis and scientific understanding to support TWRS baseline decisions and actions, such as the development of an enhanced sludge washing process to reduce the volume of waste that will require high-level waste (HLW) vitrification. One objective within the Sludge Pretreatment Chemistry Evaluation Subtask was to establish wash factors for various SST (single-shell tank) sludges. First, analytical data were compiled from existing tank waste characterization reports. These data were summarized on tank-specific worksheets that provided a uniform format for reviewing and comparing data, as well as the means to verify whether the data set for each tank was complete. Worksheets were completed for 27 SST wastes. The analytical water wash data provided tank-specific information about the fraction of each component that dissolves with water, i.e., an estimate of tank-specific wash factors for evaluating tank-by-tank processing. These wash data were then used collectively to evaluate some of the wash factors that are assumed for the overall SST waste inventory; specifically, wash factors for elements that would be found primarily in sludges. The final step in this study was to incorporate the characterization and wash factor data into a spreadsheet that provides insight into the effect of enhanced sludge washing on individual tank sludges as well as for groups of sludges that may be representative of different waste types. Spreadsheet results include the estimated mass and percentage of each element that would be removed with washing and leaching. Furthermore, estimated compositions are given of the final wash and leach streams and residual solids, in terms of both concentration and dry weight percent.

  18. Prototype wash water renovation system integration with goverment-furnished wash fixture

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1983-01-01

    A total renovation concept for removing objectionable materials from spacecraft wash water to make the water reusable was developed. This concept included ferric chloride pretreatment to coagulate suspended solids such as soap and lint, pressure filtration, and carbon adsorption and ion exchange to remove trace dissolved organics and inorganic salts. A breadboard model which was developed to demonstrate the design adequacy of the various system components and the limits on system capacities and efficiencies.

  19. In Vivo Experiments with Dental Pulp Stem Cells for Pulp-Dentin Complex Regeneration

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Sunil; Shin, Su-Jung; Song, Yunjung; Kim, Euiseong

    2015-01-01

    In recent years, many studies have examined the pulp-dentin complex regeneration with DPSCs. While it is important to perform research on cells, scaffolds, and growth factors, it is also critical to develop animal models for preclinical trials. The development of a reproducible animal model of transplantation is essential for obtaining precise and accurate data in vivo. The efficacy of pulp regeneration should be assessed qualitatively and quantitatively using animal models. This review article sought to introduce in vivo experiments that have evaluated the potential of dental pulp stem cells for pulp-dentin complex regeneration. According to a review of various researches about DPSCs, the majority of studies have used subcutaneous mouse and dog teeth for animal models. There is no way to know which animal model will reproduce the clinical environment. If an animal model is developed which is easier to use and is useful in more situations than the currently popular models, it will be a substantial aid to studies examining pulp-dentin complex regeneration. PMID:26688616

  20. Use of cellulases and recombinant cellulose binding domains for refining TCF kraft pulp.

    PubMed

    Cadena, Edith M; Chriac, A Iulia; Pastor, F I Javier; Diaz, Pilar; Vidal, Teresa; Torres, Antonio L

    2010-01-01

    The modular endoglucanase Cel9B from Paenibacillus barcinonensis is a highly efficient biocatalyst, which expedites pulp refining and reduces the associated energy costs as a result. In this work, we set out to identify the specific structural domain or domains responsible for the action of this enzyme on cellulose fibre surfaces with a view to facilitating the development of new cellulases for optimum biorefining. Using the recombinant enzymes GH9-CBD3c, Fn3-CBD3b, and CBD3b, which are truncated forms of Cel9B, allowed us to assess the individual effects of the catalytic, cellulose binding, and fibronectin-like domains of the enzyme on the refining of TCF kraft pulp from Eucalyptus globulus. Based on the physico-mechanical properties obtained, the truncated form containing the catalytic domain (GH9-CBD3c) has a strong effect on fibre morphology. Comparing its effect with that of the whole cellulase (Cel9B) revealed that the truncated enzyme contributes to increasing paper strength through improved tensile strength and burst strength and also that the truncated form is more effective than the whole enzyme in improving tear resistance. Therefore, the catalytic domain of Cel9B has biorefining action on pulp. Although cellulose binding domains (CBDs) are less efficient toward pulp refining, evidence obtained in this work suggests that CBD3b alters fibre surfaces and influences paper properties as a result. PMID:20730755

  1. Age-dependent decline in dental pulp regeneration after pulpectomy in dogs.

    PubMed

    Iohara, Koichiro; Murakami, Masashi; Nakata, Kazuhiko; Nakashima, Misako

    2014-04-01

    The age-associated decline in the regenerative abilities of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) may be due to age-related changes in reduction in number, intrinsic properties of MSCs and extrinsic factors of the extracellular environment (the stem cell niche). The effect of age on the efficacy of MSC transplantation on regeneration, however, has not been clearly demonstrated due to variable methods of isolation of MSCs and variations in stem cell populations. In this study, dental pulp stem cell (DPSC) subsets were isolated from young and aged dog teeth based on their migratory response to granulocyte-colony stimulating factor (G-CSF) (MDPSCs). In order to study the age-associated changes, their biological properties and stability were compared and the regenerative potential was examined in a pulpectomized tooth model in aged dogs. MDPSCs from aged dogs were efficiently enriched in stem cells, expressing trophic factors with high proliferation, migration and anti-apoptotic effects as in MDPSCs from young dogs. However, pulp regeneration was retarded 120 days after autologous transplantation of aged MDPSCs. We further demonstrated that isolated periodontal ligament stem cells (PDLSCs) from aged dogs, representative of migrating stem cells from outside of the tooth compartment to regenerate pulp tissue, had lower proliferation, migration and anti-apoptotic abilities. These results therefore provide a better understanding of the mechanisms involved in the age-dependent decline in pulp regeneration, which are attributed to a decrease in the regenerative potential of resident stem cells. PMID:24468330

  2. Effects of pulp capping materials on fracture resistance of Class II composite restorations

    PubMed Central

    Kucukyilmaz, Ebru; Yasa, Bilal; Akcay, Merve; Savas, Selcuk; Kavrik, Fevzi

    2015-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of cavity design and the type of pulp capping materials on the fracture resistance of Class II composite restorations. Materials and Methods: Sixty freshly extracted, sound molar teeth were selected for the study. A dovetail cavity on the mesio-occlusal and a slot cavity on disto-occlusal surfaces of each tooth were prepared, and the teeth were divided 4 groups which one of them as a control group. The pulp capping materials (TheraCal LC, Calcimol LC, Dycal) applied on pulpo-axial wall of each cavity, and the restoration was completed with composite resin. The teeth were subjected to a compressive load in a universal mechanical testing machine. The surfaces of the tooth and restoration were examined under a stereomicroscope. The data were analyzed using factorial analysis of variance and Tukey's test. Results: For pulp capping materials, the highest fracture load (931.15 ± 203.81 N) and the lowest fracture load (832.28 ± 245.75 N) were calculated for Control and Dycal group, respectively. However, there were no statistically significant differences among all groups (P > 0.05). The fracture load of the dovetail groups was significantly higher than those of the slot cavity groups (P < 0.05). Conclusion: Dovetail cavity design shows better fracture resistance in Class II composite restorations, independent of used or not used pulp capping materials. PMID:26038653

  3. Fate of Residual Lignin during Delignification of Kraft Pulp by Trametes versicolor

    PubMed Central

    Reid, Ian D.

    1998-01-01

    The fungus Trametes versicolor can delignify and brighten kraft pulps. To better understand the mechanism of this biological bleaching and the by-products formed, I traced the transformation of pulp lignin during treatment with the fungus. Hardwood and softwood kraft pulps containing 14C-labelled residual lignin were prepared by laboratory pulping of lignin-labelled aspen and spruce wood and then incubated with T. versicolor. After initially polymerizing the lignin, the fungus depolymerized it to alkali-extractable forms and then to soluble forms. Most of the labelled carbon accumulated in the water-soluble pool. The extractable and soluble products were oligomeric; single-ring aromatic products were not detected. The mineralization of the lignin carbon to CO2 varied between experiments, up to 22% in the most vigorous cultures. The activities of the known enzymes laccase and manganese peroxidase did not account for all of the lignin degradation that took place in the T. versicolor cultures. This fungus may produce additional enzymes that could be useful in enzyme bleaching systems. PMID:9603823

  4. Stage-specific effects of FGF2 on the differentiation of dental pulp cells

    PubMed Central

    Sagomonyants, Karen; Mina, Mina

    2015-01-01

    Dentinogenesis is a complex and multistep process, which is regulated by various growth factors, including members of the Fibroblast Growth Factor (FGF) family. Both positive and negative effects of FGFs on dentinogenesis have been reported but the underlying mechanisms of these conflicting results are still unclear. To gain better insight into the role of FGF2 in dentinogenesis, we used dental pulp cells from various transgenic mice, in which fluorescent protein expression identifies cells at different stages of odontoblast differentiation. Our results showed that continuous exposure of pulp cells to FGF2 inhibited mineralization and revealed both stimulatory and inhibitory effects of FGF2 on expression of markers of dentinogenesis and various transgenes. During the proliferation phase of in vitro growth FGF2 increased expression of markers of dentinogenesis and the percentages of DMP1-GFP+ functional odontoblasts and DSPP-Cerulean+ odontoblasts. Additional exposure to FGF2 during the differentiation/mineralization phase of in vitro growth decreased the extent of mineralization, expression of markers of dentinogenesis, and expression of DMP1-GFP and DSPP-Cerulean transgenes. Recovery experiments showed that the inhibitory effects of FGF2 on dentinogenesis were related to the blocking of differentiation of cells into mature odontoblasts. These observations together showed stage-specific effects of FGF2 on dentinogenesis by dental pulp cells and provide critical information for the development of improved treatments for vital pulp therapy and dentin regeneration. PMID:25823776

  5. Aspartate aminotransferase activity in the pulp of teeth treated for 6 months with fixed orthodontic appliances

    PubMed Central

    Latkauskiene, Dalia; Racinskaite, Vilma; Skucaite, Neringa; Machiulskiene, Vita

    2015-01-01

    Objective To measure aspartate aminotransferase (AST) activity in the pulp of teeth treated with fixed appliances for 6 months, and compare it with AST activity measured in untreated teeth. Methods The study sample consisted of 16 healthy subjects (mean age 25.7 ± 4.3 years) who required the extraction of maxillary premolars for orthodontic reasons. Of these, 6 individuals had a total of 11 sound teeth extracted without any orthodontic treatment (the control group), and 10 individuals had a total of 20 sound teeth extracted after 6 months of orthodontic alignment (the experimental group). Dental pulp samples were extracted from all control and experimental teeth, and the AST activity exhibited by these samples was determined spectrophotometrically at 20℃. Results Mean AST values were 25.29 × 10-5 U/mg (standard deviation [SD] 9.95) in the control group and 27.54 × 10-5 U/mg (SD 31.81) in the experimental group. The difference between these means was not statistically significantly (p = 0.778), and the distribution of the AST values was also similar in both groups. Conclusions No statistically significant increase in AST activity in the pulp of mechanically loaded teeth was detected after 6 months of orthodontic alignment, as compared to that of teeth extracted from individuals who had not undergone orthodontic treatment. This suggests that time-related regenerative processes occur in the dental pulp. PMID:26445721

  6. Review on recent developments on pulp and paper mill wastewater treatment.

    PubMed

    Kamali, Mohammadreza; Khodaparast, Zahra

    2015-04-01

    Economic benefits of the pulp and paper industry have led it to be one of the most important industrial sections in the world. Nevertheless, in recent years, pulp and paper mills are facing challenges with the energy efficiency mechanisms and management of the resulting pollutants, considering the environmental feedbacks and ongoing legal requirements. This study reviews and discusses the recent developments of affordable methods dealing with pulp and paper mill wastewaters. To this end, the current state of the various processes used for pulp and paper production from virgin or recovered fibers has been briefly reviewed. Also, the relevant contaminants have been investigated, considering the used raw materials and applied techniques as the subject for further discussion about the relevant suitable wastewater treatment methods. The results of the present study indicated that adopting the integrated methods, alongside a combination of biological (e.g., anaerobic digestion) and physicochemical (e.g., novel Fenton reactions) treatment methods, can be environmentally and economically preferable to minimize environmental contaminants and energy recycling. PMID:24953005

  7. Activation of the NLRP3/caspase-1 inflammasome in human dental pulp tissue and human dental pulp fibroblasts.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Wenkai; Lv, Haipeng; Wang, Haijing; Wang, Diya; Sun, Shukai; Jia, Qian; Wang, Peina; Song, Bing; Ni, Longxing

    2015-08-01

    The NLRP3/caspase-1 inflammasome pathway plays an important role in cellular immune defence against bacterial infection; however, its function in human dental pulp tissue and human dental pulp fibroblasts remains poorly understood. We demonstrate that NLRP3 protein expression occurs to a greater extent in pulp tissue with irreversible pulpitis than in normal pulp tissue and in tissue with reversible pulpitis. Caspase-1 is present in its active (cleaved) form only in pulp tissue with irreversible pulpitis. NLRP3 and caspase-1 are expressed in the odontoblast layers in normal human dental pulp tissue, whereas in inflamed pulp tissue, the odontoblast layers are disrupted and dental pulp cells are positive for NLRP3 and caspase-1. Additionally, we investigate the role of the NLRP3/caspase-1 inflammasome pathway in human dental pulp fibroblasts and show that ATP activates the P2X7 receptor on the cell membrane triggering K(+) efflux and inducing the gradual recruitment of the membrane pore pannexin-1. Extracellular lipopolysaccharide is able to penetrate the cytosol and activate NLRP3. Furthermore, the low intracellular K(+) concentration in the cytosol triggers reactive oxygen species generation, which also induces the NLRP3 inflammasome. Thus, the NLRP3/caspase-1 pathway has a biological role in the innate immune response mounted by human dental pulp fibroblasts. PMID:25684031

  8. Expression of high mobility group box 1 in inflamed dental pulp and its chemotactic effect on dental pulp cells

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Xufang; Jiang, Hongwei; Gong, Qimei; Fan, Chen; Huang, Yihua; Ling, Junqi

    2014-08-08

    Highlights: • HMGB1 translocated from nucleus to cytoplasm during dental pulp inflammation. • HMGB1and its receptor RAGE were up-regulated in hDPCs under LPS stimulation. • HMGB1 enhanced hDPCs migration and induces cytoskeleton reorganization. • HMGB1 may play a critical role in dental pulp repair during inflamed state. - Abstract: High mobility group box 1 protein (HMGB1) is a chromatin protein which can be released extracellularly, eliciting a pro-inflammatory response and promoting tissue repair process. This study aimed to examine the expression and distribution of HMGB1 and its receptor RAGE in inflamed dental pulp tissues, and to assess its effects on proliferation, migration and cytoskeleton of cultured human dental pulp cells (DPCs). Our data demonstrated that cytoplasmic expression of HMGB1 was observed in inflamed pulp tissues, while HMGB1 expression was confined in the nuclei in healthy dental pulp. The mRNA expression of HMGB1 and RAGE were significantly increased in inflamed pulps. In in vitro cultured DPCs, expression of HMGB1 in both protein and mRNA level was up-regulated after treated with lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Exogenous HMGB1 enhanced DPCs migration in a dose-dependent manner and induced the reorganization of f-actin in DPCs. Our results suggests that HMGB1 are not only involved in the process of dental pulp inflammation, but also play an important role in the recruitment of dental pulp stem cells, promoting pulp repair and regeneration.

  9. Current trends in primary tooth pulp therapy.

    PubMed

    Haney, Kevin L

    2007-10-01

    Pulp therapy in the primary dentition remains a technique generating a tremendous amount of study. Formocresol has been and continues to be the most commonly used intrapulpal medicament despite its known ability to escape the microcirculation of the pulp. Ferric sulfate has gained significant favor as a result of formocresol's disadvantages, though at the cost of requiring a much more acute awareness of the potential for remaining disease and its ability to mask that process. Mineral trioxide aggregate perhaps offers the best immediate alternative to either of the above though at this time it is still cost-prohibitive in a practice that actively treats many children. And, as MTA has no fixative properties of its own, accurately analyzing the extent of the pulpal disease becomes even more critical to the overall success of the procedure. As with other techniques in dentistry, the debate is sure to continue for severl years to come. PMID:18019933

  10. Tissue Engineering Considerations in Dental Pulp Regeneration

    PubMed Central

    Nosrat, Ali; Kim, Jong Ryul; Verma, Prashant; S. Chand, Priya

    2014-01-01

    Regenerative endodontic procedure is introduced as a biologically based treatment for immature teeth with pulp necrosis. Successful clinical and radiographic outcomes following regenerative procedures have been reported in landmark case reports. Retrospective studies have shown that this conservative treatment allows for continued root development and increases success and survival rate of the treated teeth compared to other treatment options. Although the goal of treatment is regeneration of a functional pulp tissue, histological analyses show a different outcome. Developing predictable protocols would require the use of key elements for tissue engineering: stem cells, bioactive scaffolds, and growth factors. In this study we will review the evidence based steps and outcomes of regenerative endodontics. PMID:24396373

  11. Optical determination of dental pulp vitality.

    PubMed

    Schmitt, J M; Webber, R L; Walker, E C

    1991-04-01

    In this preliminary study, we explored the feasibility of employing photoplethysmography and pulse oximetry to assess the status of the blood circulation in the dental pulp. A simple photometer that measures diffuse light transmission at 575 nm was built to record tooth plethysmograms, and the ability to distinguish vital from surgically devitalized teeth of a dog using plethysmography was demonstrated. As an extension of the photoplethysmographic technique, red-infrared pulse oximetry applied to the measurement of the oxygen saturation (SO2) of blood in the pulp was also examined using an in vitro test setup. Results suggest that the measurement of relative SO2 changes is feasible, but standard dual-wavelength pulse oximetry does not enable determination of SO2 independent of tooth geometry and sensor placement. PMID:1855796

  12. Hydrothermal carbonization of pulp mill streams.

    PubMed

    Wikberg, Hanne; Ohra-Aho, Taina; Honkanen, Mari; Kanerva, Heimo; Harlin, Ali; Vippola, Minnamari; Laine, Christiane

    2016-07-01

    The progress of the conversion, the yield, the structure and the morphology of the produced carbonaceous materials as a function of time were systematically studied with pyrolysis-GC/FID and FESEM microscope. The conversion of galactoglucomannan, bleached kraft pulp and TEMPO oxidized cellulose nanofibrils followed the reaction route of glucose being slower though with fibrous material, higher molar mass and viscosity. The conversion of kraft lignin was minor following completely different reaction route. Carbonaceous particles of different shape and size were produced with yields between 23% and 73% after 4h with being higher for lignin than carbohydrates. According to the results, potential pulp mill streams represent lignocellulosic resources for generation of carbonaceous materials. PMID:27107340

  13. Novel fiber optic dental pulp vitalometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Makiniemi, Matti; Kopola, Harri K.; Oikarinen, Kyosti; Herrala, Esko

    1995-02-01

    Since the diagnosis of the intradental blood supply is difficult in dental trauma, we have designed and built a new dental pulp vitalometer based on optical reflectance measurement and exploiting the different absorption spectra of haemoglobins. The device comprises light transmitters, a receiver, electronics and a PC. Pulsed light is transmitted along the fiber optic probe, which illuminates the tooth being tested. The same probe collects the reflected light from the tooth pulp and transfers the light to the receiver. The received signal is divided into AC and DC components and a data acquisition card reads these signals, performs an A/D conversion and writes the results in a text file. A reference plethysmogram signal from a finger is used to help in processing the measured dental signal. The computer program calculates an estimate for the oxygen saturation.

  14. Does removal of the original pulp tissue before autotransplantation influence ingrowth of new tissue in the pulp chamber?

    PubMed

    Laureys, Wim G M; Dermaut, Luc R; Cuvelier, Claude A; De Pauw, Guy A M

    2010-10-01

    In an attempt to extend the indication area for autotransplantation of vital teeth, two possibilities can be proposed: (i) The enlargement of the apical foramen, with the aim to facilitate revascularization and ingrowth of new tissue. The ingrowth of tissue will eliminate the need for endodontic treatment when mature teeth are transplanted and (ii) the cryopreservation of teeth in case they cannot be transplanted immediately to the receptor site. Teeth with an ideal stage of root formation can be cryopreserved to perform transplantation later. Although pulpcell cultures survive crypreservation in vitro, the pulp tissue cannot survive the cryopreservation procedures when it is kept inside the pulpchamber. Therefore, the pulp tissue has to be removed before cryopreservation. It has been demonstrated that revascularization and ingrowth of new tissue can occur in an empty pulp chamber (1). The aim of this study was to find out if revascularization and ingrowth of new pulp tissue is influenced by removal of the original pulp tissue before autotransplantation. Twenty nine single-rooted teeth from three adult beagle dogs were transplanted after resection of the root tip. One group of teeth (n = 14) had the pulp tissue removed before transplantation. The other group (n = 15) had the original pulp left in situ. The transplanted teeth were histologically analysed 90 days post-transplantation. In the group with the tissue left in situ, 12 teeth (80%) showed a pulp chamber totally filled or at least 1/3 to 2/3 filled with viable tissue. In the group with the pulp tissue removed, 11 teeth (79%) had no or little vital tissue in the pulp chamber. The necrotic masses that develop in the original pulp tissue immediately after transplantation are a possible stimulating factor in the repair process of the pulp. As a conclusion, it can be stated that in case of autotransplantation of teeth, it is advisable to leave the pulp tissue in situ to stimulate the revascularization and

  15. Effects of Shampoo and Water Washing on Hair Cortisol Concentrations

    PubMed Central

    Hamel, Amanda F.; Meyer, Jerrold S.; Henchey, Elizabeth; Dettmer, Amanda M.; Suomi, Stephen J.; Novak, Melinda A.

    2010-01-01

    Background Measurement of cortisol in hair is an emerging biomarker for chronic stress in human and nonhuman primates. Currently unknown, however, is the extent of potential cortisol loss from hair that has been repeatedly exposed to shampoo and/or water. Methods Pooled hair samples from 20 rhesus monkeys were subjected to five treatment conditions: 10, 20, or 30 shampoo washes, 20 water-only washes, or a no-wash control. For each wash, hair was exposed to a dilute shampoo solution or tap water for 45 s, rinsed 4 times with tap water, and rapidly dried. Samples were then processed for cortisol extraction and analysis using previously published methods. Results Hair cortisol levels were significantly reduced by washing, with an inverse relationship between number of shampoo washes and the cortisol concentration. This effect was mainly due to water exposure, as cortisol levels following 20 water-only washes were similar to those following 20 shampoo treatments. Conclusions Repeated exposure to water with or without shampoo appears to leach cortisol from hair, yielding values that underestimate the amount of chronic hormone deposition within the shaft. Collecting samples proximal to the scalp and obtaining hair washing frequency data may be valuable when conducting human hair cortisol studies. PMID:21034727

  16. 1. VIEW LOOKING WEST AT CHINA WASH FLUME ON MAIN ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. VIEW LOOKING WEST AT CHINA WASH FLUME ON MAIN CANAL. - San Carlos Irrigation Project, China Wash Flume, Main (Florence-Case Grande) Canal at Station 137+00, T4S, R10E, S14, Coolidge, Pinal County, AZ

  17. 2. VIEW LOOKING NORTHWEST AT CHINA WASH FLUME ON MAIN ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. VIEW LOOKING NORTHWEST AT CHINA WASH FLUME ON MAIN CANAL - San Carlos Irrigation Project, China Wash Flume, Main (Florence-Case Grande) Canal at Station 137+00, T4S, R10E, S14, Coolidge, Pinal County, AZ

  18. 30 CFR 206.258 - Washing allowances-general.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ..., plus interest determined in accordance with 30 CFR 218.202, or shall be entitled to a credit without... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Washing allowances-general. 206.258 Section 206... MANAGEMENT PRODUCT VALUATION Federal Coal § 206.258 Washing allowances—general. (a) For ad valorem...

  19. 30 CFR 206.457 - Washing allowances-general.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ..., plus interest determined in accordance with 30 CFR 218.202, or shall be entitled to a credit, without... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Washing allowances-general. 206.457 Section 206... MANAGEMENT PRODUCT VALUATION Indian Coal § 206.457 Washing allowances—general. (a) For ad valorem...

  20. Egg wash wastewater: Estrogenic risk or environmental asset?

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Commercial production of eggs and egg products requires the washing of eggs to remove urinary / fecal material and broken egg residue. In the case of one Ohio farming facility, 1.6 million birds produce 1.4 million eggs per day, using ~50mL of wash water / egg or ~ 70,000 liters per day. The aqueo...

  1. BLAISDELL SLOW SAND FILTER WASHING MACHINE. VIEW LOOKING WEST. THE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    BLAISDELL SLOW SAND FILTER WASHING MACHINE. VIEW LOOKING WEST. THE NONHISTORIC CHEMICAL BUILDING IS SEEN IN THE BACKGROUND. - Yuma Main Street Water Treatment Plant, Blaisdell Slow Sand Filter Washing Machine, Jones Street at foot of Main Street, Yuma, Yuma County, AZ

  2. BLAISDELL SLOW SAND FILTER WASHING MACHINE. VIEW LOOKING NORTHWEST. PIPING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    BLAISDELL SLOW SAND FILTER WASHING MACHINE. VIEW LOOKING NORTHWEST. PIPING IN FOREGROUND IS NOT RELATED TO THE MACHINE. THE NORTHEAST CORNER OF SETTLING RESERVOIR NO. 3 IS SEEN AT THE LOWER LEFT. - Yuma Main Street Water Treatment Plant, Blaisdell Slow Sand Filter Washing Machine, Jones Street at foot of Main Street, Yuma, Yuma County, AZ

  3. EPA site demonstration of the Biotrol Soil Washing Process

    SciTech Connect

    Stinson, M.K.; Skovronek, H.S.; Ellis, W.D.

    1992-01-01

    A pilot-scale soil washing process, patented by BioTrol, was demonstrated on soil that was contaminated by wood treating waste. The BioTrol Soil Washing was demonstrated in a treatment train sequence with two other pilot-scale units of BioTrol technologies for treatment of waste streams from the soil washer. The three technologies of the treatment train were: The BioTrol Soil Washer (BSW), the BioTrol Aqueous Treatment System (BATS), and the Slurry Bioreactor (SBR). The BioTrol processes were evaluated on pentachlorophenol (PCP) and polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), which were the primary soil contaminants at the site. The sandy site soil, consisting of less than 10% of fines, was well suited for treatment by soil washing. The BSW successfully separated the feed soil (100% by weight) into 83% of washed soil, 10% of woody residues, and 7% of fines. The soil washer achieved up to 89% removal of PCP and PAHs, based on the difference between their levels in the feed soil and in the washed soil. The BATS degraded up to 94% of PCP in the process water from soil washing. The SBR achieved over 90% removals of PCP and 70-90% removals of PAHs, respectively from the soil washing. Cost of a commercial-scale soil washing, assuming use of all three technologies, was estimated to be $168 per ton of treated soil.

  4. EPA SITE DEMONSTRATION OF THE BIOTROL SOIL WASHING PROCESS

    EPA Science Inventory

    A pilot-scale soil washing process, patented by BioTrol, Inc., was demonstrate on soil contaminated by wood treating waste, primarily pentachlorophenol (PCP) and creosote-derived polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Although soil washing was the main object of this demonstra...

  5. 2. VIEW OF WASH TANKS Skins are brought in through ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. VIEW OF WASH TANKS Skins are brought in through hatches, seen on rear wall, and washed of blood and flesh in redwood tanks, with wooden grates to hold skins down in water. Superstructure and screening on tanks are a later alteration, unrelated to this process. - Sealing Plant, St. George Island, Pribilof Islands, Saint George, Aleutians West Census Area, AK

  6. Wash room, bunkhouse, first floor interior. This room is a ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Wash room, bunkhouse, first floor interior. This room is a screened porch with the original sinks extant. Light and ventilation was borrowed from the wash room into the toilets and bathing rooms. - Sespe Ranch, Bunkhouse, 2896 Telegraph Road, Fillmore, Ventura County, CA

  7. 7 CFR 2902.51 - Parts wash solutions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Parts wash solutions. 2902.51 Section 2902.51 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) OFFICE OF ENERGY POLICY AND NEW USES... Items § 2902.51 Parts wash solutions. (a) Definition. Products that are designed to clean parts...

  8. 7 CFR 2902.51 - Parts wash solutions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Parts wash solutions. 2902.51 Section 2902.51 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) OFFICE OF ENERGY POLICY AND NEW USES... Items § 2902.51 Parts wash solutions. (a) Definition. Products that are designed to clean parts...

  9. 33 CFR 162.230 - Columbia River, Wash.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... regulation in this section shall be enforced by the Chief, Power Field Division, Columbia Basin Project, U.S... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Columbia River, Wash. 162.230...) PORTS AND WATERWAYS SAFETY INLAND WATERWAYS NAVIGATION REGULATIONS § 162.230 Columbia River, Wash....

  10. 33 CFR 162.230 - Columbia River, Wash.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... regulation in this section shall be enforced by the Chief, Power Field Division, Columbia Basin Project, U.S... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Columbia River, Wash. 162.230...) PORTS AND WATERWAYS SAFETY INLAND WATERWAYS NAVIGATION REGULATIONS § 162.230 Columbia River, Wash....

  11. 33 CFR 162.230 - Columbia River, Wash.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... regulation in this section shall be enforced by the Chief, Power Field Division, Columbia Basin Project, U.S... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Columbia River, Wash. 162.230...) PORTS AND WATERWAYS SAFETY INLAND WATERWAYS NAVIGATION REGULATIONS § 162.230 Columbia River, Wash....

  12. 33 CFR 162.230 - Columbia River, Wash.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Columbia River, Wash. 162.230 Section 162.230 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) PORTS AND WATERWAYS SAFETY INLAND WATERWAYS NAVIGATION REGULATIONS § 162.230 Columbia River, Wash. (a) Grand Coulee Dam discharge...

  13. 30 CFR 1206.458 - Determination of washing allowances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Determination of washing allowances. 1206.458 Section 1206.458 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF NATURAL RESOURCES REVENUE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR NATURAL RESOURCES REVENUE PRODUCT VALUATION Indian Coal § 1206.458 Determination of washing allowances. (a) Arm's-length contracts. (1) For...

  14. 30 CFR 1206.259 - Determination of washing allowances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Determination of washing allowances. 1206.259 Section 1206.259 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF NATURAL RESOURCES REVENUE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR NATURAL RESOURCES REVENUE PRODUCT VALUATION Federal Coal § 1206.259 Determination of washing allowances. (a) Arm's-length contracts. (1) For...

  15. 30 CFR 1206.259 - Determination of washing allowances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Section 1206.259 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF NATURAL RESOURCES REVENUE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR NATURAL... equivalent. Washing allowances shall be expressed as a cost per ton of coal washed. (b) Non-arm's-length or no contract. (1) If a lessee has a non-arm's-length contract or has no contract, including...

  16. Behavior of Shiga toxigenic Escherichia coli relevant to lettuce washing processes and consideration of factors for evaluating washing process surrogates.

    PubMed

    Deng, Kaiping; Wang, Xue; Yen, Li-Han; Ding, Hongliu; Tortorello, Mary Lou

    2014-11-01

    Postharvest processes for fresh produce commonly include washing in water containing antimicrobial chemicals, such as chlorine; however, if the antimicrobials are not present in sufficient levels, washing can promote the spread of contamination that might be present. To understand cross-contamination risk during washing, we tested a collection of Shiga toxigenic Escherichia coli (STEC), including O157:H7 and other non-O157 strains, for certain traits during washing of fresh-cut lettuce, i.e., sensitivity to sublethal chlorine levels and ability to cross-contaminate (detach from and attach to) lettuce in the presence of sublethal chlorine levels. Nonpathogenic E. coli Nissle 1917 (EcN) and Pediococcus pentosaceus lactic acid bacterial species (LAB) were included as potential washing process validation surrogates. As measured by extension of the lag phase of growth in media containing 0.15 ppm of chlorine, chlorine sensitivity varied among the STECs. Cross-contamination was assessed by evaluating transfer of bacteria from inoculated to uninoculated leaves during washing. Without chlorine, similar transfer to wash water and uninoculated leaves was shown. In 1 ppm of chlorine, cross-contamination was not detected with most strains, except for the substantial transfer by a STEC O111 strain and EcN in some replicates. Strain O111 and EcN showed less inactivation in 0.25 ppm of chlorine water compared with O157 (P < 0.05). LAB showed similar transfer and similar chlorine inactivation to O157. Considering together the sublethal chlorine sensitivity and detachment/attachment traits, neither EcN nor LAB displayed optimal characteristics as washing process surrogates for the STEC strains, although further evaluation is needed. This work demonstrated a range of behaviors of STEC strains during lettuce washing and may be helpful in hazard characterization, identifying factors to consider for evaluating washing process efficacy, and identifying phenotypic traits to select

  17. Optical measurement of pulp quantity in a rotating disc refiner

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alahautala, Taito; Lassila, Erkki; Hernberg, Rolf; Härkönen, Esko; Vuorio, Petteri

    2004-11-01

    An optical method based on light extinction was used in measuring pulp quantity in the plate gap of a 10 MW thermomechanical pulping refiner for the first time. The relationship between pulp quantity and light extinction was determined by empirical laboratory experiments. The empirical relationship was then applied to interpret the image data obtained from field measurements. The results show the local distribution of pulp in the refiner plate gap for different rotor plate positions and refiner operation points. The maximum relative uncertainty in the measured pulp quantity was 50%. Relative pulp distributions were measured at higher accuracy. The measurements have influenced the development of a laser-based optical diagnostic method that can be applied to the quantitative visualization of technically demanding industrial processes.

  18. Factors affecting the corrosivity of pulping liquors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hazlewood, Patrick Evan

    Increased equipment failures and the resultant increase in unplanned downtime as the result of process optimization programs continue to plague pulp mills. The failures are a result of a lack of understanding of corrosion in the different pulping liquors, specifically the parameters responsible for its adjustment such as the role and identification of inorganic and organic species. The current work investigates the role of inorganic species, namely sodium hydroxide and sodium sulfide, on liquor corrosivity at a range of process conditions beyond those currently experienced in literature. The role of sulfur species, in the activation of corrosion and the ability of hydroxide to passivate carbon steel A516-Gr70, is evaluated with gravimetric and electrochemical methods. The impact of wood chip weathering on process corrosion was also evaluated. Results were used to identify black liquor components, depending on the wood species, which play a significant role in the activation and inhibition of corrosion for carbon steel A516-Gr70 process equipment. Further, the effect of black liquor oxidation on liquor corrosivity was evaluated. Corrosion and stress corrosion cracking performance of selected materials provided information on classes of materials that may be reliably used in aggressive pulping environments.

  19. Metabolism of Red Beet Slices I. Effects of Washing 1

    PubMed Central

    Reed, D. J.; Kolattukudy, P. E.

    1966-01-01

    The changes in relative participation of pathways of glucose catabolism in red beet slices during washing have been examined using specifically 14C labeled glucoses. Washing of these slices brings about an increase in participation of the pentose phosphate pathway. The composition of the washing medium influences slightly the extent of change in pathway participation. The activity level of certain enzymes participating in the initial stages of glucose catabolism has been measured in fresh and washed beet slices. Fresh slices which barely metabolized gluconate were found to have very little 6-phosphogluconate dehydrogenase activity. Washing brings about a dramatic increase in 6-phosphogluconate dehydrogenase activity and this increase was accompanied by a marked increase in the ability of the slices to metabolize gluconate. In red beet slices the TPNH generated via pentose phosphate pathway appears to be utilized for biosynthetic reductions rather than as respiratory substrate. PMID:16656302

  20. Acid hydrolysis of cellulosic fibres: Comparison of bleached kraft pulp, dissolving pulps and cotton textile cellulose.

    PubMed

    Palme, Anna; Theliander, Hans; Brelid, Harald

    2016-01-20

    The behaviour of different cellulosic fibres during acid hydrolysis has been investigated and the levelling-off degree of polymerisation (LODP) has been determined. The study included a bleached kraft pulp (both never-dried and once-dried) and two dissolving pulps (once-dried). Additionally, cotton cellulose from new cotton sheets and sheets discarded after long-time use was studied. Experimental results from the investigation, together with results found in literature, imply that ultrastructural differences between different fibres affect their susceptibility towards acid hydrolysis. Drying of a bleached kraft pulp was found to enhance the rate of acid hydrolysis and also result in a decrease in LODP. This implies that the susceptibility of cellulosic fibres towards acid hydrolysis is affected by drying-induced stresses in the cellulose chains. In cotton cellulose, it was found that use and laundering gave a substantial loss in the degree of polymerisation (DP), but that the LODP was only marginally affected. PMID:26572472

  1. Integrated control of emission reductions, energy-saving, and cost-benefit using a multi-objective optimization technique in the pulp and paper industry.

    PubMed

    Wen, Zongguo; Xu, Chang; Zhang, Xueying

    2015-03-17

    Reduction of water pollutant emissions and energy consumption is regarded as a key environmental objective for the pulp and paper industry. The paper develops a bottom-up model called the Industrial Water Pollutant Control and Technology Policy (IWPCTP) based on an industrial technology simulation system and multiconstraint technological optimization. Five policy scenarios covering the business as usual (BAU) scenario, the structural adjustment (SA) scenario, the cleaner technology promotion (CT) scenario, the end-treatment of pollutants (EOP) scenario, and the coupling measures (CM) scenario have been set to describe future policy measures related to the development of the pulp and paper industry from 2010-2020. The outcome of this study indicates that the energy saving amount under the CT scenario is the largest, while that under the SA scenario is the smallest. Under the CT scenario, savings by 2020 include 70 kt/year of chemical oxygen demand (COD) emission reductions and savings of 7443 kt of standard coal, 539.7 ton/year of ammonia nitrogen (NH4-N) emission reductions, and savings of 7444 kt of standard coal. Taking emission reductions, energy savings, and cost-benefit into consideration, cleaner technologies like highly efficient pulp washing, dry and wet feedstock preparation, and horizontal continuous cooking, medium and high consistency pulping and wood dry feedstock preparation are recommended. PMID:25692210

  2. Bioceramic Materials and the Changing Concepts in Vital Pulp Therapy.

    PubMed

    Cao, Yangpei; Bogen, George; Lim, Jung; Shon, Won-Jun; Kang, Mo K

    2016-05-01

    Vital pulp therapy (VPT) is devised to preserve and maintain vitality of pulpally involved teeth challenged by a variety of intraoral conditions. Notable progress has been made in this field due to a better understanding of pulp physiology, improved clinical protocols and advanced bioceramic materials paired with adhesive technology. With focused case selection, conservative VPT can provide reliable treatment options for permanent teeth diagnosed with normal pulps or reversible pulpitis. PMID:27290822

  3. The ups and downs of the pulp and paper industry

    SciTech Connect

    McKenna, J.C.

    1998-12-31

    The ``Up`s and Down`s of the Pulp and Paper Industry`` deals with the design, fabrication, and installation elements of upflow and downflow bleach (retention) towers utilized in the Pulp and Paper industry. Fabrication processes for the shop and field components of these systems are reviewed. In addition, an overview of the advantages of Fiberglass Reinforced Plastics (FRP), considering the changing chemistries for pulp bleaching is presented, and a number of case histories are reviewed.

  4. Enzymatic treatments of pulp using laccase and hydrophobic compounds.

    PubMed

    Garcia-Ubasart, Jordi; Esteban, Alberto; Vila, Carlos; Roncero, M Blanca; Colom, Josep F; Vidal, Teresa

    2011-02-01

    The aim of this work was to develop an innovative method for the internal sizing of paper by use of laccase and hydrophobic compounds. Nine different products containing hydrophobic moieties were tested in combination with laccase derived from Trametes villosa on Eucalyptus globulus kraft pulp in order to assess their internal sizing capability. The strongest internal sizing effect was obtained with lauryl gallate (LG). Heat treatment of the handsheets was found to increase the resistance to water absorption of internally sized samples significantly. Tests were conducted under variable operating conditions, including enzyme and reactant doses and treatment time. In addition to altering the water absorption rate, internal sizing with the laccase-LG treatments was found to affect the mechanical and optical properties of the handsheets. As shown in this work, treatments based on laccase and a hydrophobic compound (particularly lauryl gallate), can provide a new, effective biotechnological method for the internal sizing of paper. PMID:21050744

  5. Seabuckthorn Pulp Oil Protects against Myocardial Ischemia–Reperfusion Injury in Rats through Activation of Akt/eNOS

    PubMed Central

    Suchal, Kapil; Bhatia, Jagriti; Malik, Salma; Malhotra, Rajiv Kumar; Gamad, Nanda; Goyal, Sameer; Nag, Tapas C.; Arya, Dharamvir S.; Ojha, Shreesh

    2016-01-01

    Seabuckthorn (SBT) pulp oil obtained from the fruits of seabuckthorn [Hippophae rhamnoides L. (Elaeagnaceae)] has been used traditionally for its medicinal and nutritional properties. However, its role in ischemia–reperfusion (IR) injury of myocardium in rats has not been elucidated so far. The present study reports the cardioprotective effect of SBT pulp oil in IR-induced model of myocardial infarction in rats and underlying mechanism mediating activation of Akt/eNOS signaling pathway. Male albino Wistar rats were orally administered SBT pulp oil (5, 10, and 20 ml/kg/day) or saline for 30 days. On the day 31, ischemia was induced by one-stage ligation of left anterior descending coronary artery for 45 min followed by reperfusion for 60 min. SBT pulp oil pretreatment at the dose of 20 ml/kg observed to stabilize cardiac function and myocardial antioxidants such as glutathione, superoxide dismutase, catalase, and inhibited lipid peroxidation evidenced by reduced malondialdehyde levels as compared to IR-control group. SBT pulp oil also improved hemodynamic and contractile function and decreased tumor necrosis factor and activities of myocyte injury marker enzymes; lactate dehydrogenase and creatine kinase-MB. Additionally, a remarkable rise in expression of pAkt–eNOS, Bcl-2 and decline in expression of IKKβ/NF-κB and Bax was observed in the myocardium. The histopathological and ultrastructural salvage of cardiomyocytes further supports the cardioprotective effect of SBT pulp oil. Based on findings, it can be concluded that SBT pulp oil protects against myocardial IR injury mediating favorable modulation of Akt-eNOS and IKKβ/NF-κB expression. PMID:27445803

  6. Seabuckthorn Pulp Oil Protects against Myocardial Ischemia-Reperfusion Injury in Rats through Activation of Akt/eNOS.

    PubMed

    Suchal, Kapil; Bhatia, Jagriti; Malik, Salma; Malhotra, Rajiv Kumar; Gamad, Nanda; Goyal, Sameer; Nag, Tapas C; Arya, Dharamvir S; Ojha, Shreesh

    2016-01-01

    Seabuckthorn (SBT) pulp oil obtained from the fruits of seabuckthorn [Hippophae rhamnoides L. (Elaeagnaceae)] has been used traditionally for its medicinal and nutritional properties. However, its role in ischemia-reperfusion (IR) injury of myocardium in rats has not been elucidated so far. The present study reports the cardioprotective effect of SBT pulp oil in IR-induced model of myocardial infarction in rats and underlying mechanism mediating activation of Akt/eNOS signaling pathway. Male albino Wistar rats were orally administered SBT pulp oil (5, 10, and 20 ml/kg/day) or saline for 30 days. On the day 31, ischemia was induced by one-stage ligation of left anterior descending coronary artery for 45 min followed by reperfusion for 60 min. SBT pulp oil pretreatment at the dose of 20 ml/kg observed to stabilize cardiac function and myocardial antioxidants such as glutathione, superoxide dismutase, catalase, and inhibited lipid peroxidation evidenced by reduced malondialdehyde levels as compared to IR-control group. SBT pulp oil also improved hemodynamic and contractile function and decreased tumor necrosis factor and activities of myocyte injury marker enzymes; lactate dehydrogenase and creatine kinase-MB. Additionally, a remarkable rise in expression of pAkt-eNOS, Bcl-2 and decline in expression of IKKβ/NF-κB and Bax was observed in the myocardium. The histopathological and ultrastructural salvage of cardiomyocytes further supports the cardioprotective effect of SBT pulp oil. Based on findings, it can be concluded that SBT pulp oil protects against myocardial IR injury mediating favorable modulation of Akt-eNOS and IKKβ/NF-κB expression. PMID:27445803

  7. A mathematical model for pathogen cross-contamination dynamics during produce wash.

    PubMed

    Munther, Daniel; Luo, Yaguang; Wu, Jianhong; Magpantay, Felicia M G; Srinivasan, Parthasarathy

    2015-10-01

    One of the main challenges for the fresh-food produce industry is to ensure that the produce is free from harmful pathogens. A potential area of risk is due to cross-contamination in a sanitizing chlorine wash-cycle, where the same water is used to wash contaminated as well as non-contaminated produce. However, this is also an area where effective intervention strategies are possible, provided we have a good understanding of the mechanism of cross-contamination. Based on recent experimental work by Luo, Y. et al. A pilot plant scale evaluation of a new process aid for enhancing chlorine efficacy against pathogen survival and cross-contamination during produce wash, International Journal of Food Microbiology, 158 (2012), 133-139, we have built mathematical models that allow us to quantify the amount of cross-contamination of Escherichia coli O157:H7 from spinach to lettuce, and assessed the efficacy of the associated wash-cycle protocols. PMID:26187834

  8. Wash Solution Bath Life Extension for the Space Shuttle Rocket Motor Aqueous Cleaning System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Saunders, Chad; Evans, Kurt; Sagers, Neil

    1999-01-01

    A spray-in-air aqueous cleaning system, which replaced 1,1,1 trichloroethane (TCA) vapor degreasing, is used for critical cleaning of Space Shuttle Redesigned Solid Rocket Motor (RSRM) metal parts. Small-scale testing demonstrated that the alkaline-based wash solution possesses adequate soil loading and cleaning properties. However, full-scale testing exhibited unexpected depletion of some primary components of the wash solution. Specifically, there was a significant decrease in the concentration of sodium metasilicate which forced change-out of the wash solution after eight days. Extension of wash solution bath life was necessary to ease the burden of frequent change-out on manufacturing. A laboratory study supports a depletion mechanism that is initiated by the hydrolysis of sodium tripolyphosphate (STPP) lowering the pH of the solution. The decrease in pH causes polymerization and subsequent precipitation of sodium metasilicate (SM). Further investigation showed that maintaining the pH was the key to preventing the precipitation of the sodium metasilicate. Implementation to the full scale operation demonstrated that periodic additions of potassium hydroxide (KOH) extended the useful bath life to more than four months.

  9. Remediation of Nitrobenzene Contaminated Soil by Combining Surfactant Enhanced Soil Washing and Effluent Oxidation with Persulfate

    PubMed Central

    Yan, Jingchun; Gao, Weiguo; Qian, Linbo; Han, Lu; Chen, Yun; Chen, Mengfang

    2015-01-01

    The combination of surfactant enhanced soil washing and degradation of nitrobenzene (NB) in effluent with persulfate was investigated to remediate NB contaminated soil. Aqueous solution of sodium dodecylbenzenesulfonate (SDBS, 24.0 mmol L-1) was used at a given mass ratio of solution to soil (20:1) to extract NB contaminated soil (47.3 mg kg-1), resulting in NB desorption removal efficient of 76.8%. The washing effluent was treated in Fe2+/persulfate and Fe2+/H2O2 systems successively. The degradation removal of NB was 97.9%, being much higher than that of SDBS (51.6%) with addition of 40.0 mmol L-1 Fe2+ and 40.0 mmol L-1 persulfate after 15 min reaction. The preferential degradation was related to the lone pair electron of generated SO4•−, which preferably removes electrons from aromatic parts of NB over long alkyl chains of SDBS through hydrogen abstraction reactions. No preferential degradation was observed in •OH based oxidation because of its hydrogen abstraction or addition mechanism. The sustained SDBS could be reused for washing the contaminated soil. The combination of the effective surfactant-enhanced washing and the preferential degradation of NB with Fe2+/persulfate provide a useful option to remediate NB contaminated soil. PMID:26266532

  10. Wash tool for well having perforated casing

    SciTech Connect

    Burroughs, T.C.

    1989-03-28

    A tool is described for washing a perforation zone in an earth formation adjacent a perforated casing in a bore hole of a well comprising: a tubular mandrel having an axial flow passage therethrough and adapted to be connected at its upper end to a drill string for receiving pressurized fluid therefrom; an elastomeric tubular packer on each mandrel end section in face to face contact with the outer peripheral surface of the mandrel and defining upper and lower packers; means on the mandrel for securing the upper and lower ends on each of the elastomeric packers in fixed position on the mandrel; a fluid passage through the mandrel wall from the axial flow passage to each of the packers to provide fluid from the mandrel bore to the area between the outer surface of the mandrel and the inner surface of the packers; a second fluid passage in the intermediate section extending through the mandrel wall form the axial flow passage at location between the packers of supplying fluid to the perforation zone adjacent the casing; and means for blocking fluid flow through the second fluid passage at the predetermined fluid pressure, the means being actuated at a second higher predetermined fluid pressure in the mandrel bore to permit fluid flow through the second fluid passage means and the perforated casing to the perforation zone outside the casing. Also described is a method of circulating fluid in a well having a perforated casing at a predetermined depth in the perforation zone.

  11. Histopathology of the pulp in primary incisors with deep dentinal caries.

    PubMed

    Eidelman, E; Ulmanksy, M; Michaeli, Y

    1992-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the histological appearance of the pulp of human primary incisors extracted because of deep, unrestorable caries, and to determine how clinical pulp exposures affected the histological status of the pulp compared to nonexposures. Caries was removed carefully from all teeth after fixation; 24 incisors had pulp exposures, and 29 teeth had no pulp exposures. Histological examination showed normal pulps in 69% of the teeth without pulp exposures, compared to 33% of teeth with exposed pulps (P < 0.05). Microabscesses were observed in 33% of cases with pulp exposures, compared to 10% of cases without pulp exposures. In this study, 46 of 53 pulps remained vital in spite of the multiple and deep carious lesions. Teeth without pulp exposures were diagnosed in the treatable category in 20 of 26 cases. PMID:1303544

  12. Eggshell bacterial contamination of non-washed and washed eggs from caged and cage-free hens

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This study was conducted to evaluate the microbiology of non-washed and washed table eggs obtained from caged and cage-free laying hens housed on either all shavings or all wire slat environments. Both Hy-Line W-37 white and Hy-Line brown strains were used. On each of four replication sample days ...

  13. Eggshell bacterial levels of non-washed and washed eggs from caged and cage-free hens

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The bacteria levels of non-washed and washed eggs obtained from caged and cage-free laying hens housed on either all shavings or all wire slat floors were determined. On eight sample days (from 22 to 52 weeks at 4 week intervals), 20 eggs were collected from each pen (n=120/sample day). Ten eggs p...

  14. Association between dental pulp stones and calcifying nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Jinfeng; Yang, Fang; Zhang, Wei; Gong, Qimei; Du, Yu; Ling, Junqi

    2011-01-01

    The etiology of dental pulp stones, one type of extraskeletal calcification disease, remains elusive to date. Calcifying nanoparticles (CNPs), formerly referred to as nanobacteria, were reported to be one etiological factor in a number of extraskeletal calcification diseases. We hypothesized that CNPs are involved in the calcification of the dental pulp tissue, and therefore investigated the link between CNPs and dental pulp stones. Sixty-five freshly collected dental pulp stones, each from a different patient, were analyzed. Thirteen of the pulp stones were examined for the existence of CNPs in situ by immunohistochemical staining (IHS), indirect immunofluorescence staining (IIFS), and transmission electron microscope (TEM). The remaining 52 pulp stones were used for isolation and cultivation of CNPs; the cultured CNPs were identified and confirmed via their shape and growth characteristics. Among the dental pulp stones examined in situ, 84.6% of the tissue samples staines positive for CNPs antigen by IHS; the corresponding rate by IIFS was 92.3 %. In 88.2% of the cultured samples, CNPs were isolated and cultivated successfully. The CNPs were visible under TEM as 200-400 nm diameter spherical particles surrounded by a compact crust. CNPs could be detected and isolated from a high percentage of dental pulp stones, suggesting that CNPs might play an important role in the calcification of dental pulp. PMID:21289988

  15. LPS induces pulp progenitor cell recruitment via complement activation.

    PubMed

    Chmilewsky, F; Jeanneau, C; Laurent, P; About, I

    2015-01-01

    Complement system, a major component of the natural immunity, has been recently identified as an important mediator of the dentin-pulp regeneration process through STRO-1 pulp cell recruitment by the C5a active fragment. Moreover, it has been shown recently that under stimulation with lipoteichoic acid, a complex component of the Gram-positive bacteria cell wall, human pulp fibroblasts are able to synthesize all proteins required for complement activation. However, Gram-negative bacteria, which are also involved in tooth decay, are known as powerful activators of complement system and inflammation. Here, we investigated the role of Gram-negative bacteria-induced complement activation on the pulp progenitor cell recruitment using lipopolysaccharide (LPS), a major component of all Gram-negative bacteria. Our results show that incubating pulp fibroblasts with LPS induced membrane attack complex formation and C5a release in serum-free fibroblast cultures. The produced C5a binds to the pulp progenitor cells' membrane and induces their migration toward the LPS stimulation chamber, as revealed by the dynamic transwell migration assays. The inhibition of this migration by the C5aR-specific antagonist W54011 indicates that the pulp progenitor migration is mediated by the interaction between C5a and C5aR. Our findings demonstrate, for the first time, a direct interaction between the recruitment of progenitor pulp cells and the activation of complement system generated by pulp fibroblast stimulation with LPS. PMID:25359783

  16. Simultaneous bench scale production of dissolving grade pulp and valuable hemicelluloses from softwood kraft pulp by ionic liquid extraction.

    PubMed

    Laine, Christiane; Asikainen, Sari; Talja, Riku; Stépán, Agnes; Sixta, Herbert; Harlin, Ali

    2016-01-20

    Ionic liquid extraction of wood pulp has been highlighted as a highly potential new process for dissolving pulp production. Coproduction with a polymeric hemicellulose fraction was demonstrated in bench scale from softwood kraft pulp using extraction with the ionic liquid 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium acetate (EMIM OAc) and water. In total, the recovered pulp and hemicellulose fraction together yielded 95.5 wt.% of the pulp input. The extracted pulp had a remarkably high purity with an R18-value of 97.8%. The hemicellulose fraction consisted of galactoglucomannan, arabinoxylan and some cellulose and was precipitated from the ionic liquid-water mixture. After hydroxypropylation of the hemicellulose fraction, films were prepared and barrier and strength properties were compared to films from other polysaccharides. Reduced oxygen and water vapor permeation and good strength properties were demonstrated when compared to corresponding films from hydroxypropylated xylan from cold caustic extraction. The films have potential for applications in food packaging and edible films. PMID:26572370

  17. Enhanced Dentinogenesis of Pulp Progenitors by Early Exposure to FGF2.

    PubMed

    Sagomonyants, K; Kalajzic, I; Maye, P; Mina, M

    2015-11-01

    Members of the fibroblast growth factor (FGF) family play essential and important roles in primary and reparative dentinogenesis. Although there appears to be a general agreement on the effects of FGF signaling on the proliferation of pulp cells, there are conflicting results regarding its effects on odontoblast differentiation. We recently examined the effects of continuous exposure of dental pulp cells to FGF2 and showed that the effects of FGF2 on differentiation of progenitor cells into odontoblasts were stage specific and dependent on the stage of cell maturity. The purpose of this study was to gain further insight into cellular and molecular mechanisms regulating the stimulatory effects of FGF2 on odontoblast differentiation. To do so, we examined the effects of early and limited exposure of pulp cells from a series of green fluorescent protein (GFP) reporter transgenic mice that display stage-specific activation of transgenes during odontoblast differentiation to FGF2. Our results showed that early and limited exposure of pulp cells to FGF2 did not have significant effects on the extent of mineralization but induced significant increases in the expression of Dmp1 and Dspp and the number of DMP1-GFP(+) and DSPP-Cerulean(+) odontoblasts. Our results also showed that the stimulatory effects of FGF2 on odontoblast differentiation were mediated through FGFR/MEK/Erk1/2 signaling, increases in Bmp2, and activation of the BMP/BMPR signaling pathway. These observations show that early and limited exposure of pulp cells to FGF2 alone promotes odontoblast differentiation and provides critical insight for applications of FGF2 in dentin regeneration. PMID:26276371

  18. Room environment influence on eggshell bacterial levels of non-washed and washed eggs from caged and cage-free laying hens

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The bacteria levels of non-washed and washed eggs obtained from caged and cage-free hens housed in either wire slats or shaving-covered pens were determined. On eight days (from 22 to 52 wk), 20 eggs were collected from each pen. Ten eggs/pen were washed with a commercial egg washing solution, whi...

  19. Healing process of dog dental pulp after pulpotomy and pulp covering with mineral trioxide aggregate or Portland cement.

    PubMed

    Holland, R; de Souza, V; Murata, S S; Nery, M J; Bernabé, P F; Otoboni Filho, J A; Dezan Júnior, E

    2001-01-01

    Considering several reports about the similarity between the chemical compositions of the mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA) and Portland cement (PC), the subject of this investigation was to analyze the behavior of dog dental pulp after pulpotomy and direct pulp protection with these materials. After pulpotomy, the pulp stumps of 26 roots of dog teeth were protected with MTA or PC. Sixty days after treatment, the animal was sacrificed and the specimens removed and prepared for histomorphological analysis. There was a complete tubular hard tissue bridge in almost all specimens. In conclusion, MTA and PC show similar comparative results when used in direct pulp protection after pulpotomy. PMID:11445912

  20. Washing of soils spiked with various pollutants by surfactant solutions

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, G.C.C.; Chang, J.H.

    1995-12-31

    In this study, the batch-type of washing with surfactant solutions was employed for the treatment of soils artificially contaminated with various volatile organic compounds (VOCs), polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), and heavy metals. 15 industrial grade surfactants were tested. Washing was conducing by adding surfactant solution to the soils and mixing for one hour, then centrifuging it and analyzing the supernatant. Deionized water was used for soil washing for comparison. Results indicated that deionized water performed as well as Surfactant No. 1 in washing VOC-contaminated soils. Therefore, it is concluded that the VOCs tested can be easily washed from soils by rain water. In washing PAH-contaminated soils, nonionic surfactants performed better than anionic surfactants in terms of removal efficiency. The amphoteric surfactant performed worst in washing PAH-contaminated soils. Generally, surfactants are useful in removing cadmium from soils, but are not useful for the removal of lead and copper. Amphoteric, anionic, and low pH cationic surfactants were the most effective of those tested. For PAH/heavy metals-contaminated soils, removal efficiencies were lower than that of soils containing a single contaminant.

  1. Evaluation of the antihypertensive properties of yellow passion fruit pulp (Passiflora edulis Sims f. flavicarpa Deg.) in spontaneously hypertensive rats.

    PubMed

    Konta, Eliziane Mieko; Almeida, Mara Ribeiro; do Amaral, Cátia Lira; Darin, Joana Darc Castania; de Rosso, Veridiana V; Mercadante, Adriana Zerlotti; Antunes, Lusânia Maria Greggi; Bianchi, Maria Lourdes Pires

    2014-01-01

    Various species of the genus Passiflora have been extensively used in traditional medicine as sedatives, anxiolytics, diuretics and analgesics. In the present study, after the identification and quantification of phytochemical compounds from yellow passion fruit pulp by liquid chromatography-photodiode array-mass spectrometry (HPLC-PDA-MS/MS), its antihypertensive effect was investigated on spontaneously hypertensive rats. Additionally, the renal function, evaluated by kidney/body weight, serum creatinine, proteinuria, urinary flow, reduced glutathione (GSH) levels and thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARS) and mutagenicity in bone marrow cells were assessed to evaluate the safety of passion fruit consumption. Yellow passion fruit pulp (5, 6 or 8 g/kg b.w.) was administered by gavage once a day for 5 consecutive days. HLPC-PDA-MS/MS analysis revealed that yellow passion fruit pulp contains phenolic compounds, ascorbic acid, carotenoids and flavonoids. The highest dose of passion fruit pulp significantly reduced the systolic blood pressure, increased the GSH levels and decreased TBARS. There were no changes in renal function parameters or the frequency of micronuclei in bone marrow cells. In conclusion, the antihypertensive effect of yellow passion fruit pulp, at least in part, might be due to the enhancement of the antioxidant status. The exact mechanisms responsible by this effect need further investigation. PMID:23436457

  2. Hand washing frequencies and procedures used in retail food services.

    PubMed

    Strohbehn, Catherine; Sneed, Jeannie; Paez, Paola; Meyer, Janell

    2008-08-01

    Transmission of viruses, bacteria, and parasites to food by way of improperly washed hands is a major contributing factor in the spread of foodborne illnesses. Field observers have assessed compliance with hand washing regulations, yet few studies have included consideration of frequency and methods used by sectors of the food service industry or have included benchmarks for hand washing. Five 3-h observation periods of employee (n = 80) hand washing behaviors during menu production, service, and cleaning were conducted in 16 food service operations for a total of 240 h of direct observation. Four operations from each of four sectors of the retail food service industry participated in the study: assisted living for the elderly, childcare, restaurants, and schools. A validated observation form, based on 2005 Food Code guidelines, was used by two trained researchers. Researchers noted when hands should have been washed, when hands were washed, and how hands were washed. Overall compliance with Food Code recommendations for frequency during production, service, and cleaning phases ranged from 5% in restaurants to 33% in assisted living facilities. Procedural compliance rates also were low. Proposed benchmarks for the number of times hand washing should occur by each employee for each sector of food service during each phase of operation are seven times per hour for assisted living, nine times per hour for childcare, 29 times per hour for restaurants, and 11 times per hour for schools. These benchmarks are high, especially for restaurant employees. Implementation would mean lost productivity and potential for dermatitis; thus, active managerial control over work assignments is needed. These benchmarks can be used for training and to guide employee hand washing behaviors. PMID:18724759

  3. Immersion freezing of birch pollen washing water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Augustin, S.; Wex, H.; Niedermeier, D.; Pummer, B.; Grothe, H.; Hartmann, S.; Tomsche, L.; Clauss, T.; Voigtländer, J.; Ignatius, K.; Stratmann, F.

    2013-11-01

    Birch pollen grains are known to be ice nucleating active biological particles. The ice nucleating activity has previously been tracked down to biological macromolecules that can be easily extracted from the pollen grains in water. In the present study, we investigated the immersion freezing behavior of these ice nucleating active (INA) macromolecules. Therefore we measured the frozen fractions of particles generated from birch pollen washing water as a function of temperature at the Leipzig Aerosol Cloud Interaction Simulator (LACIS). Two different birch pollen samples were considered, with one originating from Sweden and one from the Czech Republic. For the Czech and Swedish birch pollen samples, freezing was observed to start at -19 and -17 °C, respectively. The fraction of frozen droplets increased for both samples down to -24 °C. Further cooling did not increase the frozen fractions any more. Instead, a plateau formed at frozen fractions below 1. This fact could be used to determine the amount of INA macromolecules in the droplets examined here, which in turn allowed for the determination of nucleation rates for single INA macromolecules. The main differences between the Swedish birch pollen and the Czech birch pollen were obvious in the temperature range between -17 and -24 °C. In this range, a second plateau region could be seen for Swedish birch pollen. As we assume INA macromolecules to be the reason for the ice nucleation, we concluded that birch pollen is able to produce at least two different types of INA macromolecules. We were able to derive parameterizations for the heterogeneous nucleation rates for both INA macromolecule types, using two different methods: a simple exponential fit and the Soccer ball model. With these parameterization methods we were able to describe the ice nucleation behavior of single INA macromolecules from both the Czech and the Swedish birch pollen.

  4. Pulping effluents: Biological treatment. (Latest citations from the Paper and Board, Printing, and Packaging Industries Research Associations database). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-12-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning effluent and wastewater biological treatment and disposal in the pulping industry. Effluent toxicity; treatment plant management, treatment systems, and equipment design; combined mechanical and biological treatment processes; biological degradation treatment in chemical pulp mills; and the handling and disposal of solid wastes are among the topics discussed. Also examined are performance evaluations of biological treatment processes in domestic and foreign plants in full scale operation and pilot programs. (Contains a minimum of 168 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  5. Effects of soap-water wash on human epidermal penetration.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Hanjiang; Jung, Eui-Chang; Phuong, Christina; Hui, Xiaoying; Maibach, Howard

    2016-08-01

    Skin decontamination is a primary interventional method used to decrease dermal absorption of hazardous contaminants, including chemical warfare agents, pesticides and industrial pollutants. Soap and water wash, the most common and readily available decontamination system, may enhance percutaneous absorption through the "wash-in effect." To understand better the effect of soap-water wash on percutaneous penetration, and provide insight to improving skin decontamination methods, in vitro human epidermal penetration rates of four C(14) -labeled model chemicals (hydroquinone, clonidine, benzoic acid and paraoxon) were assayed using flow-through diffusion cells. Stratum corneum (SC) absorption rates of these chemicals at various hydration levels (0-295% of the dry SC weights) were determined and compared with the results of the epidermal penetration study to clarify the effect of SC hydration on skin permeability. Results showed accelerated penetration curves of benzoic acid and paraoxon after surface wash at 30 min postdosing. Thirty minutes after washing (60 min postdosing), penetration rates of hydroquinone and benzoic acid decreased due to reduced amounts of chemical on the skin surface and in the SC. At the end of the experiment (90 min postdosing), a soap-water wash resulted in lower hydroquinone penetration, greater paraoxon penetration and similar levels of benzoic acid and clonidine penetration compared to penetration levels in the non-wash groups. The observed wash-in effect agrees with the enhancement effect of SC hydration on the SC chemical absorption rate. These results suggest SC hydration derived from surface wash to be one cause of the wash-in effect. Further, the occurrence of a wash-in effect is dependent on chemical identity and elapsed time between exposure and onset of decontamination. By reducing chemical residue quantity on skin surface and in the SC reservoir, the soap-water wash may decrease the total quantity of chemical absorbed in the

  6. Experimental study of the constituents of space wash water

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Putnam, D. F.; Colombo, G. V.

    1975-01-01

    This report presents experimental data, obtained under controlled conditions, which quantify the various constituents of human origin that may be expected in space wash water. The experiments were conducted with a simulated crew of two male and two female subjects. The data show that the expected wash water contaminants originating from human secretions are substantially lower than theoretical projections indicated. The data presented are immediately useful and may have considerable impact on the tradeoff comparisons among various unit processes and systems under consideration by NASA for recycling space wash water.

  7. Hygiene for the newborn--to bath or to wash?

    PubMed Central

    Hylén, A. M.; Karlsson, E.; Svanberg, L.; Walder, M.

    1983-01-01

    Appropriate skin care of newborns is performed partly to prevent infection but also for aesthetic and cleansing purposes. Skin care should involve cleansing with a non-toxic, non-abrasive neutral material. This study compared the relative risks and benefits of washing versus bathing with regard to bacterial colonization rate, clinical infection rate, body temperature and crying. The results confirm our clinical impression that bathing and washing routines do not differ with regard to signs of infection or other clinical complications. However, the washing routine does increase the babies heat loss and make them less comfortable. PMID:6663065

  8. Adult human dental pulp stem cells promote blood-brain barrier permeability through vascular endothelial growth factor-a expression.

    PubMed

    Winderlich, Joshua N; Kremer, Karlea L; Koblar, Simon A

    2016-06-01

    Stem cell therapy is a promising new treatment option for stroke. Intravascular administration of stem cells is a valid approach as stem cells have been shown to transmigrate the blood-brain barrier. The mechanism that causes this effect has not yet been elucidated. We hypothesized that stem cells would mediate localized discontinuities in the blood-brain barrier, which would allow passage into the brain parenchyma. Here, we demonstrate that adult human dental pulp stem cells express a soluble factor that increases permeability across an in vitro model of the blood-brain barrier. This effect was shown to be the result of vascular endothelial growth factor-a. The effect could be amplified by exposing dental pulp stem cell to stromal-derived factor 1, which stimulates vascular endothelial growth factor-a expression. These findings support the use of dental pulp stem cell in therapy for stroke. PMID:26661186

  9. Problems in Pulps: A Study of Special Collections in Pulp Magazines.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tuttle, George

    Heads of special collections of pulp magazines, the medium for popular fiction prior to the introduction of mass market paperbacks in 1939, were surveyed to help analyze and address the problems facing these collections. A survey mailed to special collections administrators gathered background information from the four largest collections…

  10. Reinforcing and Toughening Effects of Bamboo Pulp Fiber on Poly(3-hydroxybutyrate-co-3-hydroxyvalerate) Fiber Composites.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Poly(3-hydroxybutyrate-co-3-hydroxyvalerate) (PHBV)/bamboo pulp fiber composites were melt-compounded and injection-molded. Tensile, impact and dynamic mechanical properties of the composites were studied. In contrast to many other short natural fiber reinforced biocomposites which demonstrate decre...

  11. Percutaneous penetration and pharmacodynamics: Wash-in and wash-off of sunscreen and insect repellent.

    PubMed

    Rodriguez, Jocelyn; Maibach, Howard I

    2016-01-01

    Increased awareness of skin cancer and mosquito-transmitted diseases has increased use of insect repellents and sunscreens. The challenge in setting recommendations for use and reapplication, especially when used concomitantly, lies in finding the balance between applying a durable product effective in withstanding natural and physical factors such as water, sweat, temperature and abrasion, while limiting percutaneous absorption and decreasing risk of potential dermal and systemic toxicity. Inorganic sunscreens show no or little percutaneous absorption or toxic effects in comparison to organic sunscreens, which show varying levels of dermal penetration and cutaneous adverse effects. An alternative to N,N-diethyl-m-toluamide (DEET), the traditional gold standard compound in insect repellents, picaridin appears as efficacious, has lower risk of toxicity, and when used simultaneously with sunscreen may decrease percutaneous absorption of both compounds. Conversely, combined use of DEET and sunscreen results in significantly higher absorption of both compounds. It is important to increase consumer awareness of "washing in" of various compounds leading to increased risk of toxicity, as well as differences in reapplication need due to "washing off" caused by water, sweat and abrasion. Although much remains to be studied, to maximize efficacy and decrease toxicity, contemporary research tools, including dermatopharmokinetics, should aid these prospective advances. PMID:26811157

  12. Angiogenic Properties of Human Dental Pulp Stem Cells

    PubMed Central

    Bronckaers, Annelies; Hilkens, Petra; Fanton, Yanick; Struys, Tom; Gervois, Pascal; Politis, Constantinus; Martens, Wendy; Lambrichts, Ivo

    2013-01-01

    Angiogenesis, the formation of capillaries from pre-existing blood vessels, is a key process in tissue engineering. If blood supply cannot be established rapidly, there is insufficient oxygen and nutrient transport and necrosis of the implanted tissue will occur. Recent studies indicate that the human dental pulp contains precursor cells, named dental pulp stem cells (hDPSC) that show self-renewal and multilineage differentiation capacity. Since these cells can be easily isolated, cultured and cryopreserved, they represent an attractive stem cell source for tissue engineering. Until now, only little is known about the angiogenic abilities and mechanisms of the hDPSC. In this study, the angiogenic profile of both cell lysates and conditioned medium of hDPSC was determined by means of an antibody array. Numerous pro-and anti-angiogenic factors such as vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), monocyte chemotactic protein-1 (MCP-1), plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) and endostatin were found both at the mRNA and protein level. hDPSC had no influence on the proliferation of the human microvascular endothelial cells (HMEC-1), but were able to significantly induce HMEC-1 migration in vitro. Addition of the PI3K-inhibitor LY294002 and the MEK-inhibitor U0126 to the HMEC-1 inhibited this effect, suggesting that both Akt and ERK pathways are involved in hDPSC-mediated HMEC-1 migration. Antibodies against VEGF also abolished the chemotactic actions of hDPSC. Furthermore, in the chicken chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) assay, hDPSC were able to significantly induce blood vessel formation. In conclusion, hDPSC have the ability to induce angiogenesis, meaning that this stem cell population has a great clinical potential, not only for tissue engineering but also for the treatment of chronic wounds, stroke and myocardial infarctions. PMID:23951091

  13. Angiogenic properties of human dental pulp stem cells.

    PubMed

    Bronckaers, Annelies; Hilkens, Petra; Fanton, Yanick; Struys, Tom; Gervois, Pascal; Politis, Constantinus; Martens, Wendy; Lambrichts, Ivo

    2013-01-01

    Angiogenesis, the formation of capillaries from pre-existing blood vessels, is a key process in tissue engineering. If blood supply cannot be established rapidly, there is insufficient oxygen and nutrient transport and necrosis of the implanted tissue will occur. Recent studies indicate that the human dental pulp contains precursor cells, named dental pulp stem cells (hDPSC) that show self-renewal and multilineage differentiation capacity. Since these cells can be easily isolated, cultured and cryopreserved, they represent an attractive stem cell source for tissue engineering. Until now, only little is known about the angiogenic abilities and mechanisms of the hDPSC. In this study, the angiogenic profile of both cell lysates and conditioned medium of hDPSC was determined by means of an antibody array. Numerous pro-and anti-angiogenic factors such as vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), monocyte chemotactic protein-1 (MCP-1), plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) and endostatin were found both at the mRNA and protein level. hDPSC had no influence on the proliferation of the human microvascular endothelial cells (HMEC-1), but were able to significantly induce HMEC-1 migration in vitro. Addition of the PI3K-inhibitor LY294002 and the MEK-inhibitor U0126 to the HMEC-1 inhibited this effect, suggesting that both Akt and ERK pathways are involved in hDPSC-mediated HMEC-1 migration. Antibodies against VEGF also abolished the chemotactic actions of hDPSC. Furthermore, in the chicken chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) assay, hDPSC were able to significantly induce blood vessel formation. In conclusion, hDPSC have the ability to induce angiogenesis, meaning that this stem cell population has a great clinical potential, not only for tissue engineering but also for the treatment of chronic wounds, stroke and myocardial infarctions. PMID:23951091

  14. Aetiology, classification and pathogenesis of pulp and periapical disease.

    PubMed

    López-Marcos, Joaquín F

    2004-01-01

    At present, the majority of the treatments that are performed in the clinic are due to disease entities involving the dental pulp and periapex. Dental pulp is a richly vascularized and innervated tissue, enclosed by surrounding tissues that are incapable of expanding, such as dentin. It has terminal blood flow and small-gauge circulatory access the periapex. All of these characteristics severely constrain the defensive capacity of the pulp tissue when faced with the different aggressions it may be subjected to. Pulp tissue can also be affected by a retrograde infection, arising from the secondary canaliculi, from the periodontal ligament or from the apex during the course of periodontitis. Due to the fact that periapical disease is almost inevitably preceded by pulp disease, we shall begin by describing the causes of pulp disease and will then proceed to a discussion of the causes of periapical disease. The course of illness and classification of these pathological entities will depend on the aetiology involved. We will analyse pulp necrosis and pulp degeneration that are capable of triggering reversible apical periodontitis or irreversible apical periodontitis. PMID:15580137

  15. Influence of moderate to severe chronic periodontitis on dental pulp

    PubMed Central

    Fatemi, K; Disfani, R; Zare, R; Moeintaghavi, A; Ali, Saadat A.; Boostani, H. R

    2012-01-01

    Background: The relationship between periodontal disease and dental pulp changes is controversial and has been debated for many years. This human study was performed to evaluate the possible effects of moderate to advanced periodontal disease on the different aspect of dental pulp structure. Materials and Methods: Twenty hopeless permanent teeth were extracted from systemically healthy adults because of moderate to advanced chronic periodontitis, with a bone loss of >6 mm and a mobility of grade 2 or 3. Upon extraction, the apical 2 to 3 mm of the roots were immediately sectioned. Four to five sections were mounted on each slide, and every third slide was stained with hematoxylin and eosin. The specimens were histologically processed and examined by an oral pathologist. Results: Non-inflamed pulp, with partial or complete necrosis in some sections and several non-necrotic sections, was found in only 6.3% of teeth. Most teeth (58.3%) displayed edematous pulps. Slightly fibrotic pulps were seen in 52.1% of sections. Odontoblastic integrity was seen in 31.3% of teeth. Most teeth (77.1%) displayed no pulp stones. In 43.8% of teeth, the pulp vessels displayed dilatation. Conclusions: Moderate to advanced periodontal disease can affect the dental pulp. Careful consideration of diagnostic and treatment planing in patients with endodontic-periodontal involvement is therefore recommended. PMID:23493524

  16. TOXICITY OF PULP AND PAPER MILL EFFLUENT, A LITERATURE REVIEW

    EPA Science Inventory

    The review of pulp and paper mill effluents considers the need for additional toxicity data to insure effective effluent regulation. Effluent characteristics and problems of toxicity testing particular to pulp and paper mill effluents are discussed; however, the emphasis is on to...

  17. Corvidae feather pulp and West Nile virus detection

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Docherty, D.E.; Romaine Long, R.; Griffin, Katie M.; Saito, E.K.

    2004-01-01

    We evaluated cloacal swab, vascular pulp of flight feather, and kidney and spleen pool samples from carcasses of members of the family Corvidae as sources of West Nile virus (WNV). The cloacal swab, kidney and spleen pool, and feather pulp were the source of WNV in 38%, 43%, and 77%, respectively, of the carcasses.

  18. Axonal Degeneration in Dental Pulp Precedes Human Primary Teeth Exfoliation.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, K; Lovera, M; Schmachtenberg, O; Couve, E

    2015-10-01

    The dental pulp in human primary teeth is densely innervated by a plethora of nerve endings at the coronal pulp-dentin interface. This study analyzed how the physiological root resorption (PRR) process affects dental pulp innervation before exfoliation of primary teeth. Forty-four primary canine teeth, classified into 3 defined PRR stages (early, middle, and advanced) were fixed and demineralized. Longitudinal cryosections of each tooth were stained for immunohistochemical and quantitative analysis of dental pulp nerve fibers and associated components with confocal and electron microscopy. During PRR, axonal degeneration was prominent and progressive in a Wallerian-like scheme, comprising nerve fiber bundles and nerve endings within the coronal and root pulp. Neurofilament fragmentation increased significantly during PRR progression and was accompanied by myelin degradation and a progressive loss of myelinated axons. Myelin sheath degradation involved activation of autophagic activity by Schwann cells to remove myelin debris. These cells expressed a sequence of responses comprising dedifferentiation, proliferative activity, GAP-43 overexpression, and Büngner band formation. During the advanced PRR stage, increased immune cell recruitment within the dental pulp and major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II upregulation by Schwann cells characterized an inflammatory condition associated with the denervation process in preexfoliative primary teeth. The ensuing loss of dental pulp axons is likely to be responsible for the progressive reduction of sensory function of the dental pulp during preexfoliative stages. PMID:26149320

  19. 21 CFR 872.1730 - Electrode gel for pulp testers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Electrode gel for pulp testers. 872.1730 Section 872.1730 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 872.1730 Electrode gel for pulp testers....

  20. 21 CFR 872.1730 - Electrode gel for pulp testers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Electrode gel for pulp testers. 872.1730 Section 872.1730 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 872.1730 Electrode gel for pulp testers....

  1. 21 CFR 872.1730 - Electrode gel for pulp testers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Electrode gel for pulp testers. 872.1730 Section 872.1730 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 872.1730 Electrode gel for pulp testers....

  2. 29 CFR 1910.261 - Pulp, paper, and paperboard mills.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 5 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Pulp, paper, and paperboard mills. 1910.261 Section 1910.261 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS Special Industries § 1910.261 Pulp, paper, and paperboard mills. (a) General...

  3. A Radiographic Correlation between Renal and Pulp Stones

    PubMed Central

    Ertas, E Tarim; Inci, M; Demirtas, A; Ertas, H; Yengil, E; Sisman, Y; Gokce, C

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Aim: The purpose of this study was to determine the correlation between pulp stones and renal stones. This study also aimed to report associations between the presence of pulp stone and gender, age, tooth type, dental arches and sides. Patients and Methods: Data were collected through examination of bitewing radiographs of 116 kidney stone patients and a similar number of age-matched controls, referred to the Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Radiology, Faculty of Dentistry, Erciyes University. Two oral radiologists examined the radiographs to identify pulp stones. The Chi-squared and Mann Whitney U tests were used to investigate the correlations between the presence of pulp chamber calcification and age, gender, dental status and kidney stone. Results: Pulp chamber opacities were detected in 199 (19.3%) out of the 1031 examined teeth, and in 84 (72.4%) out of the 116 kidney stone patients. There was no statistically significant difference between the study and control group (p = 0.882). The occurrence of pulp stones was significantly higher in molars than premolars and similar prevalences were found between dental arches and sides. Conclusion: In this study, no correlation was found between the presence of pulp stones and kidney stones in the investigated group. Therefore, the presence of pulp stones does not seem to be correlated with that of kidney stones. PMID:25803378

  4. Tablet fluoridation influences the calcification of primary tooth pulp.

    PubMed

    Holtgrave, E A; Hopfenmüller, W; Ammar, S

    2001-01-01

    This study was conducted to determine the influence of long-term tablet fluoridation on primary pulp calcification by light microscopy. Twenty-four caries-free primary molars (after continuous postpartally initiated 1- to 10-year tablet fluoridation) were compared to 17 primary molars of children without fluoride prophylaxis. Pulp calcification in children with tablet fluoridation was significantly more frequent and more pronounced than in untreated children (p = 0.001). Besides the known pulp stones, the prophylaxis group evidenced a special form of calcification consisting of fibrodentin-like hard tissue not observed in the untreated children. These hard tissue bodies developed "intramurally" on the pulp floor and the inside of the dental roots with an irregular extramural spread into the coronal and radicular pulp by displacement and fibrotization of the pulp tissue. Moreover, some of the teeth had more or less extensive areas of interglobular dentin. The affected teeth were ankylosed in the area of the bi- and trifurcation and on the inside of the roots and were thus infra-occluded. Although the duration of tablet fluoridation has no statistically significant influence on pulp calcification, there is a correlation between extensive pulp calcification, postnatally initiated fluoride prophylaxis and the infraocclusion of primary molars. PMID:11227204

  5. Roles of electricity: Pulp and papermaking

    SciTech Connect

    Burwell, C.C.; Mills, M.; McCarthy, D.

    1986-09-01

    The report begins with a brief description of the industry. The pulp and paper business, while seemingly homogeneous, is enormously variable in detail. In this brief analysis, the reader is provided with an overview of the subject - a view of the forest, so to speak, not of the trees - sufficient to grasp the forces causing change in the industry. It will be seen that these changes, in general, are dictating an increasing dependence on electricity. The focus of this analysis has been to shed light on the increasing role for electricity in the age-old process of papermaking.

  6. Washing of Rocky Flats Combustible Residues (Conducted March - May 1995)

    SciTech Connect

    Mary E. Barr; Ann R. Schake; David A. Romero; Gordon D. Jarvinen

    1999-03-01

    The scope of this project is to determine the feasibility of washing plutonium-containing combustible residues using ultrasonic disruption as a method for dislodging particulate. Removal of plutonium particulate and, to a lesser extent, solubilized plutonium from the organic substrate should substantially reduce potential fire, explosion or radioactive release hazards due to radiolytic hydrogen generation or high flammability. Tests were conducted on polypropylene filters which were used as pre-filters in the rich-residue ion-exchange process at the Los Alamos Plutonium Facility. These filters are similar to the Ful-Flo{reg_sign} cartridges used at Rocky Flats that make up a substantial fraction of the combustible residues with the highest hazard rating. Batch experiments were run on crushed filter material in order to determine the amount of Pu removed by stirring, stirring and sonication, and stirring and sonication with the introduction of Pu-chelating water-soluble polymers or surfactants. Significantly more Pu is removed using sonication and sonication with chelators than is removed with mechanical stirring alone.

  7. PARTS WASHING ALTERNATIVES STUDY - UNITED STATES COAST GUARD

    EPA Science Inventory

    This report has been written to assist the United States Coast Guard (USCG) industrial managers in determining the most cost effective and environmentally acceptable parts washing alternatives for their specific applications. An; evaluation was conducted on four different cleane...

  8. Washing off intensification of cotton and wool fabrics by ultrasounds.

    PubMed

    Peila, R; Actis Grande, G; Giansetti, M; Rehman, S; Sicardi, S; Rovero, G

    2015-03-01

    Wet textile washing processes were set up for wool and cotton fabrics to evaluate the potential of ultrasound transducers (US) in improving dirt removal. The samples were contaminated with an emulsion of carbon soot in vegetable oil and aged for three hours in fan oven. Before washing, the fabrics were soaked for 3 min in a standard detergent solution and subsequently washed in a water bath. The dirt removal was evaluated through colorimetric measurements. The total color differences ΔE of the samples were measured with respect to an uncontaminated fabric, before and after each washing cycle. The percentage of ΔE variation obtained was calculated and correlated to the dirt removal. The results showed that the US transducers enhanced the dirt removal and temperature was the parameter most influencing the US efficiency on the cleaning process. Better results were obtained at a lower process temperature. PMID:25258212

  9. Control of helminth contamination of raw vegetables by washing.

    PubMed

    Avcioğlu, Hamza; Soykan, Emel; Tarakci, Umit

    2011-02-01

    This study was conducted to determine the control of helminth egg contamination of raw vegetables by washing. A total of 199 unwashed and 199 washed lettuce, parsley, carrots, dill, rocket, and green-peppers, provided by a catering service in Bursa, Turkey, between March and June 2009, were subjected to helminth egg count under light microscopy. Helminth eggs were detected in six (3.0%) unwashed samples and not in any washed samples (p<0.01). Ascaris lumbricoides and Toxocara spp. were detected in four (2.0%) and two (1.0%) unwashed vegetables, respectively, mostly among leafy vegetables such as lettuce and parsley. Our data confirm that washing procedures before consumption of raw vegetables regardless of the providers' sanitation should be performed to avoid transmission of helminths. PMID:20569015

  10. 38. Photocopy of ink and wash rendering by N. G. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    38. Photocopy of ink and wash rendering by N. G. Starkwether in collection of Mr. & Mrs. Richard T. Pratt, Camden REAR ELEVATION OF W. C. PRATT'S COUNTRY SEAT - Camden, Rappahannock River, Port Royal, Caroline County, VA

  11. 37. Photocopy of ink and wash rendering by N. G. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    37. Photocopy of ink and wash rendering by N. G. Starkwether in collection of Mr. & Mrs. Richard T. Pratt, Camden SIDE ELEVATION OF ITALIAN VILLA FOR W. C. PRATT, ESQr - Camden, Rappahannock River, Port Royal, Caroline County, VA

  12. 6. VIEW OF THREE BEARS LAKE, SHOWING WASHED UP 12' ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. VIEW OF THREE BEARS LAKE, SHOWING WASHED UP 12' x 12' DAM SUPPORT TIMBERS, LOOKING NORTHEAST FROM SOUTH SIDE OF LAKE - Three Bears Lake & Dams, North of Marias Pass, East Glacier Park, Glacier County, MT

  13. 7. CLOSEUP VIEW OF WASHED UP 12' x 12' DAM ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. CLOSE-UP VIEW OF WASHED UP 12' x 12' DAM SUPPORT TIMBERS, THREE BEARS LAKE, LOOKING NORTHEAST FROM SOUTH SIDE OF LAKE - Three Bears Lake & Dams, North of Marias Pass, East Glacier Park, Glacier County, MT

  14. SOIL WASHING TREATABILITY TESTS FOR PESTICIDE- CONTAMINATED SOIL

    EPA Science Inventory

    The 1987 Sand Creek Operable Unit 5 record of decision (ROD) identified soil washing as the selected technology to remediate soils contaminated with high levels of organochlorine pesticides, herbicides, and metals. Initial treatability tests conducted to assess the applicability...

  15. Documentation of a decision framework to support enhanced sludge washing

    SciTech Connect

    Brothers, A.J.

    1995-12-31

    This document describes a proposed decision model that, if developed to its fullest, can provide a wide range of analysis options and insights to pretreatment/sludge washing alternatives. A recent decision has been made to terminate this work

  16. View of Steel Flume Bridge #2 crossing over wash. Looking ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View of Steel Flume Bridge #2 crossing over wash. Looking downstream, southwest - Childs-Irving Hydroelectric Project, Childs System, Flume Bridge No. 2, Forest Service Road 708/502, Camp Verde, Yavapai County, AZ

  17. Bioherbicidal activity from washed spores of Myrothecium verrucaria.

    PubMed

    Weaver, Mark A; Boyette, C Douglas; Hoagland, Robert E

    2012-05-01

    The fungal plant pathogen, Myrothecium verrucaria, is highly virulent to several important weed species and has potential utility as a bioherbicide. However the production of macrocyclic trichothecene mycotoxins by this fungus presents significant safety concerns. It was discovered that trichothecenes are removed from M. verrucaria spores by repeated washes with water. These washed spores retained bioherbicidal efficacy against kudzu when tested in field trials and on sicklepod when tested under greenhouse conditions. Changes in the growth medium combined with washing spores with water resulted in greater than 95% reduction in roridin A and verrucarin A. Washing spores reduced trichothecene concentrations in spore preparations with no significant effect on plant biomass reduction, thus demonstrating the possibility of M. verrucaria formulations with improved safety to researchers, producers and applicators. PMID:22806015

  18. 7. PRESSURE CONDUIT ACROSS SCHOOL HOUSE WASH ON THE POWER ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. PRESSURE CONDUIT ACROSS SCHOOL HOUSE WASH ON THE POWER CANAL Photographer: Walter J. Lubken, February 21, 1906 - Roosevelt Power Canal & Diversion Dam, Parallels Salt River, Roosevelt, Gila County, AZ

  19. Appraisal of guidelines for pre-operative body wash.

    PubMed

    Edström, Elisabet; Westerberg, Lisa; Henricson, Maria

    The pre-operative body wash is a strategy for reducing post-operative infection. However, there is a lack of knowledge about its importance. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the quality of guidelines for the pre-operative body wash using the AGREE instrument--35 guidelines containing instructions for the pre-operative body wash or preparation were included. The AGREE instrument was employed to establish a quality assessment framework that facilitated a comparison of the guidelines. The results were based on the six domains of the AGREE instrument, all of which were found to have low adherence. Descriptive statistics were used to present the assessment score. The AGREE instrument is useful for evaluating the quality of clinical guidelines. The development of evidence-based guidelines must include clinical activities. Further research is required to clarify the pre-operative body wash process and how it should be performed to reduce post-operative infection. PMID:25426523

  20. Why Is Hand Washing So Important? (For Parents)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Family Campylobacter Infections Hand, Foot, and Mouth Disease MRSA Food Poisoning Diarrhea Tips From School Nurses on ... Hands Without Spreading Germs? Hand Washing Staph Infections MRSA Flu Facts Why Should I Care About Germs? ...

  1. Aspartate aminotransferase activity in human healthy and inflamed dental pulps.

    PubMed

    Spoto, G; Fioroni, M; Rubini, C; Tripodi, D; Perinetti, G; Piattelli, A

    2001-06-01

    Aspartate aminotransferase (AST) seems to be an important mediator of inflammatory processes. Its role in the progression and detection of inflammatory periodontal disease has been increasingly recognized in recent years. In the present study AST activity was analyzed in normal healthy human dental pulps, in reversible pulpitis, and in irreversible pulpitis. Enzymatic AST activity showed that the control values for the healthy pulps were 4.8 +/- 0.7 units/mg of pulp tissue. In reversible pulpitis specimens the AST activity increased to 7.98 +/- 2.1 units/mg of pulp tissue. In irreversible pulpitis specimens the values decreased to 2.28 +/- 1.7 units/mg of pulp tissue. Differences between the groups (control versus reversible pulpitis and reversible pulpitis versus irreversible pulpitis) were statistically significant (p = 0.0015). These results could point to a role of AST in the early events that lead to development of pulpal inflammation. PMID:11487132

  2. Alkaline phosphatase activity in normal and inflamed dental pulps.

    PubMed

    Spoto, G; Fioroni, M; Rubini, C; Tripodi, D; Di Stilio, M; Piattelli, A

    2001-03-01

    Alkaline phosphatase (ALP) seems to be important in the formation of mineralized tissues. High levels of ALP have been demonstrated in dental pulp cells. In the present study ALP activity was analyzed in normal healthy human dental pulps, in reversible pulpitis, and in irreversible pulpitis. Enzymatic ALP control values for the normal healthy pulps were 110.96+/-20.93. In the reversible pulpitis specimens the ALP activity increased almost eight times to 853.6+/-148.27. In the irreversible pulpitis specimens the values decreased sharply to 137.15+/-21.28 and were roughly equivalent to those seen in normal healthy pulps. The differences between the groups (control vs. reversible pulpitis and reversible pulpitis vs. irreversible pulpitis) were statistically significant. These results could point to a role of ALP in the initial pulp response after injury. PMID:11487147

  3. Nemesia Root Hair Response to Paper Pulp Substrate for Micropropagation

    PubMed Central

    Labrousse, Pascal; Delmail, David; Decou, Raphaël; Carlué, Michel; Lhernould, Sabine; Krausz, Pierre

    2012-01-01

    Agar substrates for in vitro culture are well adapted to plant micropropagation, but not to plant rooting and acclimatization. Conversely, paper-pulp-based substrates appear as potentially well adapted for in vitro culture and functional root production. To reinforce this hypothesis, this study compares in vitro development of nemesia on several substrates. Strong differences between nemesia roots growing in agar or in paper-pulp substrates were evidenced through scanning electron microscopy. Roots developed in agar have shorter hairs, larger rhizodermal cells, and less organized root caps than those growing on paper pulp. In conclusion, it should be noted that in this study, in vitro microporous substrates such as paper pulp lead to the production of similar root hairs to those found in greenhouse peat substrates. Consequently, if agar could be used for micropropagation, rooting, and plant acclimatization, enhancement could be achieved if rooting stage was performed on micro-porous substrates such as paper pulp. PMID:22312323

  4. Synthesis of SiC nanorods from bleached wood pulp

    SciTech Connect

    Shin, Yongsoon; Wang, Chong M.; Samuels, William D.; Exarhos, Gregory J.

    2007-05-01

    Unbleached and bleached soft wood pulps have been used as templates and carbon precursors to produce SiC nanorods. Hydrolyzed tetraethylorthosilicate (TEOS), Silicic acid was infiltrated into the pulps followed by a carbothermal reduction to form SiC nanorods at 1400oC in Ar. Residual carbon formed along with SiC was removed by gasification at 700oC in air. The SiC materials prepared from unbleached pulp were non-uniform SiC with a thick SiO2 coating, while the SiC nanorods prepared from the bleached pulp were uniform and straight with dimensions of 250 nm in diameter and 5.0 mm long. The formation of uniform camelback structure of SiC in the reaction between silica and bleached pulp is attributed to more silica deposited in the amorphous region of cellulose.

  5. Biodentine pulpotomy several days after pulp exposure: Four case reports

    PubMed Central

    Borkar, Swati A.; Ataide, Ida

    2015-01-01

    Conventionally, few-days-old pulp exposures have been treated with root canal treatment. We report four cases of traumatized, fully matured, maxillary permanent central incisors, which have been treated by Biodentine pulpotomy several days after traumatic pulp exposure. Biodentine pulpotomy consisted of pulp tissue removal to a depth of 2 mm, then capping the pulpal wound with Biodentine, followed by immediate restoration. The teeth were assessed clinically through pulpal sensitivity tests and radiographically for periapical healing. At each recall (24 hours, 1 week, 30 days, 3, 6, 12, and 18 months), no spontaneous pain was observed; the pulp showed signs of vitality and absence of periapical radiolucency after 18 months. Biodentine pulpotomy is recommended as a treatment option for cases of vital pulp exposure in permanent incisors due to trauma. PMID:25657533

  6. Biodentine pulpotomy several days after pulp exposure: Four case reports.

    PubMed

    Borkar, Swati A; Ataide, Ida

    2015-01-01

    Conventionally, few-days-old pulp exposures have been treated with root canal treatment. We report four cases of traumatized, fully matured, maxillary permanent central incisors, which have been treated by Biodentine pulpotomy several days after traumatic pulp exposure. Biodentine pulpotomy consisted of pulp tissue removal to a depth of 2 mm, then capping the pulpal wound with Biodentine, followed by immediate restoration. The teeth were assessed clinically through pulpal sensitivity tests and radiographically for periapical healing. At each recall (24 hours, 1 week, 30 days, 3, 6, 12, and 18 months), no spontaneous pain was observed; the pulp showed signs of vitality and absence of periapical radiolucency after 18 months. Biodentine pulpotomy is recommended as a treatment option for cases of vital pulp exposure in permanent incisors due to trauma. PMID:25657533

  7. BLAISDELL SLOW SAND FILTER WASHING MACHINE. VIEW LOOKING SOUTH. THE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    BLAISDELL SLOW SAND FILTER WASHING MACHINE. VIEW LOOKING SOUTH. THE OUTSIDE FACE OF THE NORTH WALL OF SETTLING RESERVOIR NO. 3 IS SEEN AT THE RIGHT. THE SETTLING RESERVOIR IS ELEVATED ABOVE THE FILTERING RESERVOIR TO ACHIEVE GRAVITY WATER FLOW FROM THE SETTLING RESERVOIR INTO THE FILTERING RESERVOIR. - Yuma Main Street Water Treatment Plant, Blaisdell Slow Sand Filter Washing Machine, Jones Street at foot of Main Street, Yuma, Yuma County, AZ

  8. Can Pulp Fibroblasts Kill Cariogenic Bacteria? Role of Complement Activation.

    PubMed

    Jeanneau, C; Rufas, P; Rombouts, C; Giraud, T; Dejou, J; About, I

    2015-12-01

    Complement system activation has been shown to be involved in inflammation and regeneration processes that can be observed within the dental pulp after moderate carious decay. Studies simulating carious injuries in vitro have shown that when human pulp fibroblasts are stimulated by lipoteichoic acid (LTA), they synthetize all complement components. Complement activation leads to the formation of the membrane attack complex (MAC), which is known for its bacterial lytic effect. This work was designed to find out whether human pulp fibroblasts can kill Streptococcus mutans and Streptococcus sanguinis via complement activation. First, histological staining of carious tooth sections showed that the presence of S. mutans correlated with an intense MAC staining. Next, to simulate bacterial infection in vitro, human pulp fibroblasts were incubated in serum-free medium with LTA. Quantification by an enzymatic assay showed a significant increase of MAC formation on bacteria grown in this LTA-conditioned medium. To determine whether the MAC produced by pulp fibroblasts was functional, bacteria sensitivity to LTA-conditioned medium was evaluated using agar well diffusion assay and succinyl dehydrogenase (3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide [MTT]) assay. Both assays showed that S. mutans and S. sanguinis were sensitive to LTA-conditioned medium. Finally, to evaluate whether MAC formation on cariogenic bacteria, by pulp fibroblasts, can be directly induced by the presence of these bacteria, a specific coculture model of human pulp fibroblasts and bacteria was developed. Immunofluorescence revealed an intense MAC labeling on bacteria after direct contact with pulp fibroblasts. The observed MAC formation and its lethal effects were significantly reduced when CD59, an inhibitor of MAC formation, was added. Our findings demonstrate that the MAC produced by LTA-stimulated pulp fibroblasts is functional and can kill S. mutans and S. sanguinis. Taken together

  9. Expression of high mobility group box 1 in inflamed dental pulp and its chemotactic effect on dental pulp cells.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xufang; Jiang, Hongwei; Gong, Qimei; Fan, Chen; Huang, Yihua; Ling, Junqi

    2014-08-01

    High mobility group box 1 protein (HMGB1) is a chromatin protein which can be released extracellularly, eliciting a pro-inflammatory response and promoting tissue repair process. This study aimed to examine the expression and distribution of HMGB1 and its receptor RAGE in inflamed dental pulp tissues, and to assess its effects on proliferation, migration and cytoskeleton of cultured human dental pulp cells (DPCs). Our data demonstrated that cytoplasmic expression of HMGB1 was observed in inflamed pulp tissues, while HMGB1 expression was confined in the nuclei in healthy dental pulp. The mRNA expression of HMGB1 and RAGE were significantly increased in inflamed pulps. In in vitro cultured DPCs, expression of HMGB1 in both protein and mRNA level was up-regulated after treated with lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Exogenous HMGB1 enhanced DPCs migration in a dose-dependent manner and induced the reorganization of f-actin in DPCs. Our results suggests that HMGB1 are not only involved in the process of dental pulp inflammation, but also play an important role in the recruitment of dental pulp stem cells, promoting pulp repair and regeneration. PMID:25019990

  10. Immunotoxicity of washing soda in a freshwater sponge of India.

    PubMed

    Mukherjee, Soumalya; Ray, Mitali; Ray, Sajal

    2015-03-01

    The natural habitat of sponge, Eunapius carteri faces an ecotoxicological threat of contamination by washing soda, a common household cleaning agent of India. Washing soda is chemically known as sodium carbonate and is reported to be toxic to aquatic organisms. Domestic effluent, drain water and various human activities in ponds and lakes have been identified as the major routes of washing soda contamination of water. Phagocytosis and generation of cytotoxic molecules are important immunological responses offered by the cells of sponges against environmental toxins and pathogens. Present study involves estimation of phagocytic response and generation of cytotoxic molecules like superoxide anion, nitric oxide and phenoloxidase in E. carteri under the environmentally realistic concentrations of washing soda. Sodium carbonate exposure resulted in a significant decrease in the phagocytic response of sponge cells under 4, 8, 16 mg/l of the toxin for 96h and all experimental concentrations of the toxin for 192h. Washing soda exposure yielded an initial increase in the generation of the superoxide anion and nitric oxide followed by a significant decrease in generation of these cytotoxic agents. Sponge cell generated a high degree of phenoloxidase activity under the experimental exposure of 2, 4, 8, 16 mg/l of sodium carbonate for 96 and 192 h. Washing soda induced alteration of phagocytic and cytotoxic responses of E. carteri was indicative to an undesirable shift in their immune status leading to the possible crises of survival and propagation of sponges in their natural habitat. PMID:25497767

  11. Alkaline polyol pulping and enzymatic hydrolysis of hardwood: effect of pulping severity and pulp composition on cellulase activity and overall sugar yield.

    PubMed

    Hundt, Martin; Schnitzlein, Klaus; Schnitzlein, Michael G

    2013-05-01

    The saccharification of beech wood using alkaline polyol pulping (AlkaPolP) and enzymatic hydrolysis was investigated. It will be demonstrated that the AlkaPolP process yields high quality pulps which can easily be hydrolyzed by cellulases. In order to find optimum reaction conditions chips of Fagus sylvatica were pretreated by alkaline glycerol at temperatures between 190 and 230 °C for 15, 20, and 25 min. The impacts of temperature and time were expressed using a severity factor R0. The dependencies of the conversion during enzymatic hydrolysis on severity, pulp yield, delignification and pulp composition are shown. In further experiments it was investigated if the sugar yields can be increased by the application of ultrasound or surfactants before enzyme addition. Up to 95% of the initial cellulose in wood were converted into glucose using cellulases from Trichoderma reesei and β-glucosidase from Aspergillus niger. PMID:23570715

  12. Cationic polyacrylamide enhancing cellulase treatment efficiency of hardwood kraft-based dissolving pulp.

    PubMed

    Wang, Qiang; Liu, Shanshan; Yang, Guihua; Chen, Jiachuan; Ni, Yonghao

    2015-05-01

    Cellulase treatment for decreasing viscosity and increasing Fock reactivity of dissolving pulp is a promising approach to reduce the use of toxic chemicals, such as hypochlorite in the dissolving pulp manufacturing process in the industry. Improving the cellulase treatment efficiency during the process is of practical interest. In the present study, the concept of using cationic polyacrylamide (CPAM) to enhance the cellulase treatment efficiency was demonstrated. This was mainly attributed to the increased cellulase adsorption onto cellulose fibers based on the patching/bridging mechanism. Results showed that the cellulase adsorption was increased by about 20% with the addition of 250 ppm of CPAM under the same conditions as those of the control. It was found that the viscosity decrease and Fock reactivity increase for the cellulase treatment was enhanced from using CPAM. The CPAM-assisted cellulase treatment concept may provide a practical alternative to the present hypochlorite-based technology for viscosity control in the industry. PMID:25710682

  13. Dynamic hydrostatic pressure promotes differentiation of human dental pulp stem cells.

    PubMed

    Yu, V; Damek-Poprawa, M; Nicoll, S B; Akintoye, S O

    2009-09-01

    The masticatory apparatus absorbs high occlusal forces, but uncontrolled parafunctional or orthodontic forces damage periodontal ligament (PDL), cause pulpal calcification, pulp necrosis and tooth loss. Morphology and functional differentiation of connective tissue cells can be controlled by mechanical stimuli but effects of uncontrolled forces on intra-pulpal homeostasis and ability of dental pulp stem cells (DPSCs) to withstand direct external forces are unclear. Using dynamic hydrostatic pressure (HSP), we tested the hypothesis that direct HSP disrupts DPSC survival and odontogenic differentiation. DPSCs from four teenage patients were subjected to HSP followed by assessment of cell adhesion, survival and recovery capacity based on odontogenic differentiation, mineralization and responsiveness to bone morphogenetic protein-2 (BMP-2). HSP down-regulated DPSC adhesion and survival but promoted differentiation by increasing mineralization, in vivo hard tissue regeneration and BMP-2 responsiveness despite reduced cell numbers. HSP-treated DPSCs displayed enhanced odontogenic differentiation, an indication of favorable recovery from HSP-induced cellular stress. PMID:19555657

  14. Dynamic Hydrostatic Pressure Promotes Differentiation of Human Dental Pulp Stem Cells

    PubMed Central

    Yu, V; Damek-Poprawa, M.; Nicoll, S. B.; Akintoye, S.O.

    2009-01-01

    The masticatory apparatus absorbs high occlusal forces, but uncontrolled parafunctional or orthodontic forces damage periodontal ligament (PDL), cause pulpal calcification, pulp necrosis and tooth loss. Morphology and functional differentiation of connective tissue cells can be controlled by mechanical stimuli but effects of uncontrolled forces on intra-pulpal homeostasis and ability of dental pulp stem cells (DPSCs) to withstand direct external forces are unclear. Using dynamic hydrostatic pressure (HSP), we tested the hypothesis that direct HSP disrupts DPSC survival and odontogenic differentiation. DPSCs from four teenage patients were subjected to HSP followed by assessment of cell adhesion, survival and recovery capacity based on odontogenic differentiation, mineralization and responsiveness to bone morphogenetic protein-2 (BMP-2). HSP down-regulated DPSC adhesion and survival but promoted differentiation by increasing mineralization, in vivo hard tissue regeneration and BMP-2 responsiveness despite reduced cell numbers. HSP-treated DPSCs displayed enhanced odontogenic differentiation, an indication of favorable recovery from HSP-induced cellular stress. PMID:19555657

  15. Refractory organic pollutants and toxicity in pulp and paper mill wastewaters.

    PubMed

    Lindholm-Lehto, Petra C; Knuutinen, Juha S; Ahkola, Heidi S J; Herve, Sirpa H

    2015-05-01

    This review describes medium and high molecular weight organic material found in wastewaters from pulp and paper industry. The aim is to review the versatile pollutants and the analysis methods for their determination. Among other pollutants, biocides, extractives, and lignin-derived compounds are major contributors to harmful effects, such as toxicity, of industrial wastewaters. Toxicity of wastewaters from pulp and paper mills is briefly evaluated including the methods for toxicity analyses. Traditionally, wastewater purification includes mechanical treatment followed by chemical and/or biological treatment processes. A variety of methods are available for the purification of industrial wastewaters, including aerobic and anaerobic processes. However, some fractions of organic material, such as lignin and its derivatives, are difficult to degrade. Therefore, novel chemical methods, including electrochemical and oxidation processes, have been developed for separate use or in combination with biological treatment processes. PMID:25647495

  16. Investigating Solutions to Wind Washing Issues in Two-Story Florida Homes, Phase 2

    SciTech Connect

    Withers, C.; Kono, J.

    2015-04-01

    This report provides results from a second-phase research study of a phenomenon generally referred to as wind washing. Wind washing is the movement of unconditioned air around or through building thermal barriers in such a way as to diminish or nullify the intended thermal performance. In some cases, thermal and air barriers are installed very poorly or not at all, and air can readily move from unconditioned attic spaces into quasi-conditioned interstitial spaces. This study focused on the impact of poorly sealed and insulated floor cavities adjacent to attic spaces in Florida homes. In these cases, unconditioned attic air can be transferred into floor cavities through pathways driven by natural factors such as wind, or by thermal differences between the floor cavity and the attic. Air can also be driven into a floor cavity through mechanical forces imposed by return duct leakage in the floor cavity.

  17. Development And Testing Of A New Protocol For Evaluating The Effectiveness Of Oil Spill Surface Washing Agents

    EPA Science Inventory

    As defined by the National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan (NCP), a surface washing agent (SWA) is a product that removes oil from solid surfaces, such as beaches, rocks, and concrete, through a detergency mechanism and that does not involve dispersing or ...

  18. A Novel Combinatorial Therapy With Pulp Stem Cells and Granulocyte Colony-Stimulating Factor for Total Pulp Regeneration

    PubMed Central

    Iohara, Koichiro; Murakami, Masashi; Takeuchi, Norio; Osako, Yohei; Ito, Masataka; Ishizaka, Ryo; Utunomiya, Shinji; Nakamura, Hiroshi; Matsushita, Kenji

    2013-01-01

    Treatment of deep caries with pulpitis is a major challenge in dentistry. Stem cell therapy represents a potential strategy to regenerate the dentin-pulp complex, enabling conservation and restoration of teeth. The objective of this study was to assess the efficacy and safety of pulp stem cell transplantation as a prelude for the impending clinical trials. Clinical-grade pulp stem cells were isolated and expanded according to good manufacturing practice conditions. The absence of contamination, abnormalities/aberrations in karyotype, and tumor formation after transplantation in an immunodeficient mouse ensured excellent quality control. After autologous transplantation of pulp stem cells with granulocyte-colony stimulating factor (G-CSF) in a dog pulpectomized tooth, regenerated pulp tissue including vasculature and innervation completely filled in the root canal, and regenerated dentin was formed in the coronal part and prevented microleakage up to day 180. Transplantation of pulp stem cells with G-CSF yielded a significantly larger amount of regenerated dentin-pulp complex compared with transplantation of G-CSF or stem cells alone. Also noteworthy was the reduction in the number of inflammatory cells and apoptotic cells and the significant increase in neurite outgrowth compared with results without G-CSF. The transplanted stem cells expressed angiogenic/neurotrophic factors. It is significant that G-CSF together with conditioned medium of pulp stem cells stimulated cell migration and neurite outgrowth, prevented cell death, and promoted immunosuppression in vitro. Furthermore, there was no evidence of toxicity or adverse events. In conclusion, the combinatorial trophic effects of pulp stem cells and G-CSF are of immediate utility for pulp/dentin regeneration, demonstrating the prerequisites of safety and efficacy critical for clinical applications. PMID:23761108

  19. Mill Integration-Pulping, Stream Reforming and Direct Causticization for Black Liquor Recovery

    SciTech Connect

    Adriaan van Heiningen

    2007-06-30

    the conversion of Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3} to (high sodium) titanates during gasification of black liquor in the presence of (low sodium) titanates or TiO{sub 2} (Task 2). MTCI/ThermoChem tested the performance and operability of the combined technology of steam reforming and direct causticization in their Process Development Unit (PDU) (Task 3). The specific objectives were: (1) to investigate how split sulfidity and polysulfide (+ AQ) pulping can be used to increase pulp fiber yield and properties compared to conventional kraft pulping; (2) to determine the economics of black liquor gasification combined with these pulping technologies in comparison with conventional kraft pulping and black liquor recovery; (3) to determine the effect of operating conditions on the kinetics of the titanate-based direct causticization reaction during black liquor gasification at relatively low temperatures ({le} 750 C); (4) to determine the mechanism of particle agglomeration during gasification of black liquor in the presence of titanates at relatively low temperatures ({le} 750 C); and (5) to verify performance and operability of the combined technology of steam reforming and direct causticization of black liquor in a pilot scale fluidized bed test facility.

  20. Hand Washing Induces a Clean Slate Effect in Moral Judgments: A Pupillometry and Eye-Tracking Study

    PubMed Central

    Kaspar, Kai; Krapp, Vanessa; König, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Physical cleansing is commonly understood to protect us against physical contamination. However, recent studies showed additional effects on moral judgments. Under the heading of the “Macbeth effect” direct links between bodily cleansing and one’s own moral purity have been demonstrated. Here we investigate (1) how moral judgments develop over time and how they are altered by hand washing, (2) whether changes in moral judgments can be explained by altered information sampling from the environment, and (3) whether hand washing affects emotional arousal. Using a pre-post control group design, we found that morality ratings of morally good and bad scenes acquired more extreme values in the control group over time, an effect that was fully counteracted by intermediate hand washing. This result supports the notion of a clean slate effect by hand washing. Thereby, eye-tracking data did not uncover differences in eye movement behavior that may explain differences in moral judgments. Thus, the clean slate effect is not due to altered information sampling from the environment. Finally, compared to the control group, pupil diameter decreased after hand washing, thus demonstrating a direct physiological effect. The results shed light on the physiological mechanisms behind this type of embodiment phenomenon. PMID:25994083

  1. Hand washing induces a clean slate effect in moral judgments: a pupillometry and eye-tracking study.

    PubMed

    Kaspar, Kai; Krapp, Vanessa; König, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Physical cleansing is commonly understood to protect us against physical contamination. However, recent studies showed additional effects on moral judgments. Under the heading of the "Macbeth effect" direct links between bodily cleansing and one's own moral purity have been demonstrated. Here we investigate (1) how moral judgments develop over time and how they are altered by hand washing, (2) whether changes in moral judgments can be explained by altered information sampling from the environment, and (3) whether hand washing affects emotional arousal. Using a pre-post control group design, we found that morality ratings of morally good and bad scenes acquired more extreme values in the control group over time, an effect that was fully counteracted by intermediate hand washing. This result supports the notion of a clean slate effect by hand washing. Thereby, eye-tracking data did not uncover differences in eye movement behavior that may explain differences in moral judgments. Thus, the clean slate effect is not due to altered information sampling from the environment. Finally, compared to the control group, pupil diameter decreased after hand washing, thus demonstrating a direct physiological effect. The results shed light on the physiological mechanisms behind this type of embodiment phenomenon. PMID:25994083

  2. Evaluation of soil-washing technology: Results of bench-scale experiments on petroleum-fuels contaminated soils

    SciTech Connect

    Loden, M.E.

    1991-06-01

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency through its Risk Reduction Engineering Laboratory's Releases Control Branch has undertaken research and development efforts to address the problem of leaking underground storage tanks (USTs). Under this effort, EPA is currently evaluating soil washing technology for cleaning up soil contaminated by the release of petroleum products from leaking underground storage tanks. Soil washing is a dynamic physical process which remediates contaminated soil via two mechanisms--particle separation and dissolution of the contaminants into the washwater. As a result of the washing process, a significant fraction of the contaminated soil is cleaned and can be returned into the original excavation or used as cleaned secondary fill or aggregate material. Since the contaminants are more concentrated in the fine soil fractions, their separation and removal from the bulk soil increases the overall effectiveness of the process. Subsequent treatment will be required for the spent washwaters and the fine soil fractions. The soil washing program evaluated the effectiveness of soil washing technology in removing petroleum products (unleaded gasoline, diesel/home heating fuel, and waste crankcase oil) from an EPA-developed Synthetic Soil Matrix (SSM) and from actual site soils. Operating parameters such as contact time, washwater volume, rinsewater volume, washwater temperature, and effectiveness of additives were investigated.

  3. 40 CFR 430.80 - Applicability; description of the non-wood chemical pulp subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...-wood chemical pulp subcategory. 430.80 Section 430.80 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... CATEGORY Non-Wood Chemical Pulp Subcategory § 430.80 Applicability; description of the non-wood chemical... production of pulp and paper at non-wood chemical pulp mills. This subcategory includes, but is not...

  4. 40 CFR 430.80 - Applicability; description of the non-wood chemical pulp subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...-wood chemical pulp subcategory. 430.80 Section 430.80 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... CATEGORY Non-Wood Chemical Pulp Subcategory § 430.80 Applicability; description of the non-wood chemical... production of pulp and paper at non-wood chemical pulp mills. This subcategory includes, but is not...

  5. In Vivo Biochemical and Gene Expression Analyses of the Antioxidant Activities and Hypocholesterolaemic Properties of Tamarindus indica Fruit Pulp Extract

    PubMed Central

    Lim, Chor Yin; Mat Junit, Sarni; Abdulla, Mahmood Ameen; Abdul Aziz, Azlina

    2013-01-01

    Background Tamarindus indica (T. indica) is a medicinal plant with many biological activities including anti-diabetic, hypolipidaemic and anti-bacterial activities. A recent study demonstrated the hypolipidaemic effect of T. indica fruit pulp in hamsters. However, the biochemical and molecular mechanisms responsible for these effects have not been fully elucidated. Hence, the aims of this study were to evaluate the antioxidant activities and potential hypocholesterolaemic properties of T. indica, using in vitro and in vivo approaches. Methodology/Principal Findings The in vitro study demonstrated that T. indica fruit pulp had significant amount of phenolic (244.9±10.1 mg GAE/extract) and flavonoid (93.9±2.6 mg RE/g extract) content and possessed antioxidant activities. In the in vivo study, hamsters fed with high-cholesterol diet for ten weeks showed elevated serum triglyceride, total cholesterol, HDL-C and LDL-C levels. Administration of T. indica fruit pulp to hypercholesterolaemic hamsters significantly lowered serum triglyceride, total cholesterol and LDL-C levels but had no effect on the HDL-C level. The lipid-lowering effect was accompanied with significant increase in the expression of Apo A1, Abcg5 and LDL receptor genes and significant decrease in the expression of HMG-CoA reductase and Mtp genes. Administration of T. indica fruit pulp to hypercholesterolaemic hamsters also protected against oxidative damage by increasing hepatic antioxidant enzymes, antioxidant activities and preventing hepatic lipid peroxidation. Conclusion/Significance It is postulated that tamarind fruit pulp exerts its hypocholesterolaemic effect by increasing cholesterol efflux, enhancing LDL-C uptake and clearance, suppressing triglyceride accumulation and inhibiting cholesterol biosynthesis. T. indica fruit pulp has potential antioxidative effects and is potentially protective against diet-induced hypercholesterolaemia. PMID:23894592

  6. Development of hemicelluloses biorefineries for integration into kraft pulp mills

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ajao, Olumoye Abiodun

    The development and wide spread acceptance of production facilities for biofuels, biochemicals and biomaterials is an important condition for reducing reliance on limited fossil resources and transitioning towards a global biobased economy. Pulp and paper mills in North America are confronted with high energy prices, high production costs and intense competition from emerging economies and low demand for traditional products. Integrated forest biorefineries (IFBR) have been proposed as a mean to diversify their product streams, increase their revenue and become more sustainable. This is feasible because they have access to forest biomass, an established feedstock supply chain and wood processing experience. In addition, the integration of a biorefinery process that can share existing infrastructure and utilities on the site of pulp mill would significantly lower investment cost and associated risks. Kraft pulping mills are promising receptor processes for a biorefinery because they either possess a prehydrolysis step for extracting hemicelluloses sugars prior to wood pulping or it can be added by retrofit. The extracted hemicelluloses could be subsequently transformed into a wide range of value added products for the receptor mill. To successfully implement hemicelluloses biorefinery, novel processes that are technically and economically feasible are required. It is necessary to identify products that would be profitable, develop processes that are energy efficient and the receptor mill should be able to supply the energy, chemicals and material demands of the biorefinery unit. The objective of this thesis is to develop energy efficient and economically viable hemicelluloses biorefineries for integration into a Kraft pulping process. A dissolving pulp mill was the reference case study. The transformation of hemicellulosic sugars via a chemical and biochemical conversion pathway, with furfural and ethanol as representative products for each pathway was studied. In

  7. Pollution prevention in the pulp and paper industry

    SciTech Connect

    Jenkins, P.G.

    1995-09-01

    Probably no other industry has made as much progress as the kraft pulp and paper industry in reclaiming waste products. About half of the wood used in making pulp is cellulose; the reclamation of the other ingredients in the wood constitutes a continuing evolution of pollution prevention and economic success. The by-products of chemical pulping include turpentine used in the paint industry, lignosulfonates used as surfactants and dispersants, ``tall oil`` used in chemical manufacturing, yeast, vanillin, acetic acid, activated carbon, and alcohol. Sulfamic turpentine recovered in the kraft process is used to manufacture pine oil, dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO), and other useful chemical products. In addition, the noncellulose portion of the wood is used to provide energy for the pulping process through the combustion of concentrated black liquor. Over 75% of the pulp produced in the US is manufactured using the kraft process. Because of the predominance of the kraft process, the remainder of this section will address pollution prevention methods for kraft pulp and paper mills. Some of these techniques may be applicable or adaptable to other pulping processes, especially sulfite mills. The major steps in the kraft process are described, followed by a discussion of major wastestreams, and proven pollution prevention methods for each of these steps.

  8. Scaffolds to Control Inflammation and Facilitate Dental Pulp Regeneration

    PubMed Central

    Colombo, John S.; Moore, Amanda N.; Hartgerink, Jeffrey D.; D’Souza, Rena N.

    2014-01-01

    In dentistry, the maintenance of a vital dental pulp is of paramount importance, as teeth devitalized by root canal treatment may become more brittle and prone to structural failure over time. Advanced carious lesions can irreversibly damage the dental pulp by propagating a sustained inflammatory response throughout the tissue. While the inflammatory response initially drives tissue repair, sustained inflammation has an enormously destructive effect on the vital pulp, eventually leading to total necrosis of the tissue and necessitating its removal. The implications of tooth devitalization have driven significant interest in the development of bioactive materials that facilitate the regeneration of damaged pulp tissues by harnessing the capacity of the dental pulp for self-repair. In considering the process by which pulpitis drives tissue destruction, it is clear that an important step in supporting the regeneration of pulpal tissues is the attenuation of inflammation. Macrophages, key mediators of the immune response, may play a critical role in the resolution of pulpitis due to their ability to switch to a pro-resolution phenotype. This process can be driven by the resolvins, a family of molecules derived from fatty acids that show great promise as therapeutic agents. In this review, we outline the importance of preserving the capacity of the dental pulp to self-repair through the rapid attenuation of inflammation. Potential treatment modalities, such as shifting macrophages to a pro-resolving phenotype with resolvins are described, and a range of materials known to support the regeneration of dental pulp are presented. PMID:24698696

  9. Scaffolds to control inflammation and facilitate dental pulp regeneration.

    PubMed

    Colombo, John S; Moore, Amanda N; Hartgerink, Jeffrey D; D'Souza, Rena N

    2014-04-01

    In dentistry, the maintenance of a vital dental pulp is of paramount importance because teeth devitalized by root canal treatment may become more brittle and prone to structural failure over time. Advanced carious lesions can irreversibly damage the dental pulp by propagating a sustained inflammatory response throughout the tissue. Although the inflammatory response initially drives tissue repair, sustained inflammation has an enormously destructive effect on the vital pulp, eventually leading to total necrosis of the tissue and necessitating its removal. The implications of tooth devitalization have driven significant interest in the development of bioactive materials that facilitate the regeneration of damaged pulp tissues by harnessing the capacity of the dental pulp for self-repair. In considering the process by which pulpitis drives tissue destruction, it is clear that an important step in supporting the regeneration of pulpal tissues is the attenuation of inflammation. Macrophages, key mediators of the immune response, may play a critical role in the resolution of pulpitis because of their ability to switch to a proresolution phenotype. This process can be driven by the resolvins, a family of molecules derived from fatty acids that show great promise as therapeutic agents. In this review, we outline the importance of preserving the capacity of the dental pulp to self-repair through the rapid attenuation of inflammation. Potential treatment modalities, such as shifting macrophages to a proresolving phenotype with resolvins are described, and a range of materials known to support the regeneration of dental pulp are presented. PMID:24698696

  10. Wood pulp characterization by a novel photoacoustic sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niemi, Jan; Löfqvist, Torbjörn

    2012-08-01

    In this paper we introduce a novel photoacoustic sensing technique that captures a photoacoustic signal excited by a laser light pulse after the light has propagated through a turbid medium. Simultaneously, the ultrasonic sound wave is captured after it has propagated through the same turbid medium. By combining the two signals, more information on the investigated medium can be obtained. Applications can be found in the pulp and paper industry where monitoring wood pulp compositions is of interest. Depending on its origin, pulp suspension contains different compositions of fibres and fibre fragments (fines). Poor control of the pulp composition leads to an unstable process that compromises the production, quality and energy efficiency in the pulp mill. The result shows the feasibility of the photoacoustic sensor in monitoring the mass fractions of fibres and fines in a pulp suspension. The first received echo, corresponding to the light interaction with the sample, showed a stronger correlation to the fines mass fraction compared to fibre mass fraction. The second echo, corresponding to the sound wave interaction with the sample, showed a much stronger correlation to fibre mass fraction than to fines mass fraction. Hence, it is proposed that by combining these two echoes, more information about the pulp suspension could be extracted than from any other sensor built on a single sensing principle.

  11. Agricultural fibres for pulp and paper manufacture in developed countries

    SciTech Connect

    Wong, A.

    1995-11-01

    Agricultural fibres are routinely used for the manufacture of paper products in developing countries. The agriculture (non-wood) pulp industry accounts more than 50% of the national pulp production in China and in India. In contrast, paper manufacturers of the developed countries have relied largely on wood pulp fibres since the 1950`s. During the past 3 decades, the global wood pulp production capacities has expanded substantially. There is a renewed interest to use agriculture-based fibres in place of wood, for the production of pulp and paper in developing countries. The alternative is driven, in part, by the growing shortage of commercial wood supply as caused by the over-cutting of the standing forest and the accelerated re-allocation of forest land for ecological and recreational uses. Although the shortage of wood supply can be alleviated partially by the adoption of higher-yield wood pulping technologies and by the increased use of waste paper. But ultimately, these remedial steps will be inadequate to meet the growing demand for paper products. There are several important factors which affect the use of agricultural fibres for pulp and paper manufacture in developed countries. For some on-purpose fibre crops, continued farm subsidy and repeal of certain sections of the Narcotics Act would be required. Agri-pulp production from agricultural cropping residues appears to be the most practical economic means to supplement the fibre needs of the paper industry. In the social context, agri-pulp implementation in North America would also provide lower taxes that would be accrued from the elimination of substantial annual subsidies to grain farmers from the government.

  12. Soda-anthraquinone pulping of palm oil empty fruit bunches and beating of the resulting pulp.

    PubMed

    Jiménez, L; Serrano, L; Rodríguez, A; Sánchez, R

    2009-02-01

    The influence of soda-anthraquinone pulping variables (temperature, time and soda concentration) and beating (number of PFI beating revolution) of palm oil empty fruit bunches (EFB) on the resulting paper sheets was studied, with a view to identifying the optimum operating conditions. Equations were derived that reproduced the properties of the paper sheets with errors less than 10-12% in 90-95% of cases. An optimum compromise was found as regards operating conditions (15% soda, 170 degrees C, 70 min and 2400 number of PFI beating revolutions) that provided paper properties departing by less than 12% from their optimum values (59.63 Nm/g tensile index, 4.48% stretch, 4.17 kN/g burst index and 7.20 m Nm(2)/g tear index), and a beating grade of 47.5 degrees SR, acceptable to obtain paper sheets. Because these conditions involve a lower soda, temperature, time and beating than those required to maximize the studied paper properties, they can save chemical reagents, energy and immobilized capital for industrial facilities. On the other hand, the stretch properties of these pulp beaten are higher than those of others non-wood pulps, as wheat straw and olive wood. PMID:18815028

  13. Nestin expressions of exposed pulp after direct pulp capping by calcium hydroxide and platelet rich plasma

    PubMed Central

    Puspita, Sartika; Utoro, Totok; Haniastuti, Tetiana

    2016-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate nestin expression of pulp tissue following direct pulp capping with platelet-rich plasma (PRP). Materials and Methods: The thirty sound teeth from Sprague-Dawley rats were used and divided into two groups: Groups 1, teeth were capped with calcium hydroxide/Ca(OH)2 (n = 15) and Group 2 with PRP (n = 15). After 1st, 7th, and 21st days, respectively, 5 teeth each group (American Dental Association 41) were processed for light microscopic examination. Expressions of nestin were assessed by immunohistochemical techniques. Results: Nestin expression of Ca(OH)2 on the distance place of exposure at 1st and 7th days were 80% and at 21st day were 60%. Nestin expression of PRP on the distance place at 1st day was 80%, 7th 100%, and 21st day was 80%. At day 21 observation, Kruskal–Wallis test shows nestin expression was increased significantly in PRP groups (P < 0.05), but it was not increase significantly compare with Ca(OH)2. Conclusion: PRP had ability as a direct pulp capping material to induce nestin expression. PMID:27403050

  14. Formation of carbonyl groups on cellulose during ozone treatment of pulp: consequences for pulp bleaching.

    PubMed

    Pouyet, Frédéric; Chirat, Christine; Potthast, Antje; Lachenal, Dominique

    2014-08-30

    The formation of carbonyl groups during the ozone treatment (Z) of eucalyptus (Eucalyptus grandis and Eucalyptus urophylla hybrid) kraft pulps and their behaviors during subsequent alkaline stages were investigated by the CCOA method with carbazole-9-carboxylic acid [2-(2-aminooxethoxy)-ethoxy] amide (CCOA) as the carbonyl-selective fluorescence label. Several pulp samples with or without lignin and hexenuronic acids (hexA) were used to elucidate the effects of these components when present in unbleached kraft pulp. Both hexA and lignin increased the formation of carbonyl groups on cellulose and hemicellulose during ozonation. It was concluded that radicals are likely formed when ozone reacts with either lignin or hexA. These carbonyl groups were involved in cellulose depolymerization during subsequent alkaline extraction stages with sodium hydroxide (E) and alkaline hydrogen peroxide (P, in ZEP or ZP). Their numbers decreased after E but increased during P when H2O2 was not stabilized enough. Several ways to minimize the occurrence of carbonyl group formation are suggested. PMID:24815405

  15. Modifications of the dental pulp in marginal periodontitis. Electronomicroscopical contributions.

    PubMed

    Deva, V; Vătăman, Maria; Manolea, H

    2006-01-01

    Histological studies on teeth with marginal periodontitis, but without cavity lesions have shown a frequent apparition of modifications in the pulp tissue structure. In this study, by using the electron microscopy method, we have shown a series of interesting aspects of the intimate modifications that appear on the level of all components of the pulp tissue. The observations show that the degree of affecting can be correlated to the type of marginal periodontitis, and at the same time they contribute to a right evaluation of the defensive abilities of the pulp of the teeth with marginal periodontitis. PMID:16838061

  16. Method and apparatus for assaying wood pulp fibers

    DOEpatents

    Gustafson, Richard; Callis, James B.; Mathews, Jeffrey D.; Robinson, John; Bruckner, Carsten A.; Suvamakich, Kuntinee

    2009-05-26

    Paper pulp is added to a stain solution. The stain solution and pulp fibers are mixed to form a slurry. Samples are removed from the slurry and are admixed with dilution water and a bleach. Then, the fibers are moved into a flow cell where they are subjected to a light source adapted to stimulate fluorescence from the stained pulp fiber. Before the fiber slurry enters the flow cell it is mixed with a dilution water of bleach to reduce background fluorescence. The fluorescent light is collimated and directed through a dichroic filter onto a fluorescence splitting dichroic filter.

  17. 40 CFR 447.10 - Applicability; description of the oil-base solvent wash ink subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...-base solvent wash ink subcategory. 447.10 Section 447.10 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL...-Base Solvent Wash Ink Subcategory § 447.10 Applicability; description of the oil-base solvent wash ink...-base ink where the tank washing system uses solvents. When a plant is subject to effluent...

  18. Treatment of car wash wastewater by UF membranes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Istirokhatun, Titik; Destianti, Puti; Hargianintya, Adenira; Oktiawan, Wiharyanto; Susanto, Heru

    2015-12-01

    The existence of car wash service facilitates car owners to remove dirt and grime from their vehicles. However, the dirt washed off vehicles as well as the cleaning materials themselves may be harmful to the environment if they are not properly managed and discharged. Many technologies have been proposed to treat car wash wastewater such as coagulation flocculation, tricking filter and flocculation-flotation. Nevertheless, these technologies have low efficiency to eliminate oil and small organic compounds. Ultrafiltration (UF) membranes were used in this study to treat car wash wastewater. This study investigated the performance of UF membranes under various pressures to remove COD, oil and grease, and also turbidity from car wash waste water. The membrane performance was examined by investigation of permeate flux and membrane rejection. The results meet the standard of environmental regulation and it is possible to be reused. The highest rejection was shown by PES10 (polyethersulfone 10 kDa) in 1 bar operation with complete rejection for both turbidity and oil and grace and 95% rejection for COD.

  19. Treatment of tunnel wash water and implications for its disposal.

    PubMed

    Hallberg, M; Renman, G; Byman, L; Svenstam, G; Norling, M

    2014-01-01

    The use of road tunnels in urban areas creates water pollution problems, since the tunnels must be frequently cleaned for traffic safety reasons. The washing generates extensive volumes of highly polluted water, for example, more than fivefold higher concentrations of suspended solids compared to highway runoff. The pollutants in the wash water have an affinity for particulate material, so sedimentation should be a viable treatment option. In this study, 12 in situ sedimentation trials were carried out on tunnel wash water, with and without addition of chemical flocculent. Initial suspended solids concentration ranged from 804 to 9,690 mg/L. With sedimentation times of less than 24 hours and use of a chemical flocculent, it was possible to reach low concentrations of suspended solids (<15 mg/L), PAH (<0.1 μg/L), As (<1.0 μg/L), Cd (<0.05 μg/L), Hg (<0.02 μg/L), Fe (<200 μg/L), Ni (<8 μg/L), Pb (<0.5 μg/L), Zn (<60 μg/L) and Cr (<8 μg/L). Acute Microtox(®) toxicity, mainly attributed to detergents used for the tunnel wash, decreased significantly at low suspended solids concentrations after sedimentation using a flocculent. The tunnel wash water did not inhibit nitrification. The treated water should be suitable for discharge into recipient waters or a wastewater treatment plant. PMID:24845317

  20. Technical bases DWPF Late Washing Facility. Revision 1

    SciTech Connect

    Fish, D.L.; Landon, L.F.

    1992-08-10

    A task force recommended that the technical feasibility of a ``Late Wash` facility be assessed [1]. In this facility, each batch of tetraphenylborate slurry from Tank 49 would be given a final wash to reduce the concentrations of nitrite and radiolysis products to acceptable levels. Laboratory-scale studies have demonstrated that d the nitrite content of the slurry fed to DWPF is reduced to 0.01 M or less (and at least a 4X reduction in concentration of the soluble species is attained), (1) the need for HAN during hydrolysis is eliminated (eliminating the production of ammonium ion during hydrolysis), (2) hydrolysis may be done with a catalyst concentration that will not exceed the copper solubility in glass and (3) the non-polar organic production during hydrolysis is significantly reduced. The first phase of an aggressive research and development program has been completed and all test results obtained to date support the technical feasibility of Late Washing. Paralleling this research and development effort is an aggressive design study directed by DWPF to scope and cost retrofitting the Auxiliary Pump Pit (APP) to enable performing a final wash of each batch of precipitate slurry before R is transferred into the DWPF Soft Processing Cell (SPC). An initial technical bases for the Late Wash Facility was transmitted to DWPF on June 15, 1992. Research and development activities are continuing directed principally at optimization of the cross-f low fitter decontamination methodology and pilot-scale validation of the recommended benzene stripping metodology.

  1. The pulp switch flap: an option for the treatment of loss of the dominant half of the digital pulp.

    PubMed

    Silva, J Braga; Pires, F K S; Teixeira, L F

    2013-11-01

    The fingertip has an important role in bi-digital pinch quality, and pulp loss is common and difficult to solve. The pulp switch consists of a pulp island flap with a homodigital neurovascular pedicle, vascularized by the palmar digital artery of the non-dominant pulp transposed to the dominant pulp side. We report the results in 16 patients treated for loss of the dominant half of a digital pulp from January 2000 to December 2008. On review after a minimum of 6 (range 6-18) months, the Weber's test demonstrated an average of 8 mm in static 2 point discrimination test for all digits, except the ring finger. In the monofilament Semmes-Weinstein test, we obtained a score of 3.61 for the thumb and little fingers, and 4.31 for the other fingers. We did not find partial or total necrosis of the flap. The pulp switch flap gave satisfactory functional results for viability, sensitivity, and digital mobility providing a sensate bi-digital pinch with acceptable aesthetic results in a single surgical procedure. PMID:23592535

  2. Preventing Strength Loss of Unbleached Kraft Pulp

    SciTech Connect

    Martin Hubbe; Richard Venditti; John Heitmann

    2003-04-16

    Kraft pulp fibers lose inter-fiber bonding ability when they are dried during the manufacture of paper. Adverse environmental consequences of this loss include (a) limitations on the number of times that kraft fibers can be recycled, (b) reduced paper strength, sometimes making it necessary to use heavier paper or paperboard to meet product strength requirements, increasing the usage of raw materials, (c) decreased rates of paper production in cases where the fiber furnish has been over-refined in an attempt to regain inter-fiber bonding ability. The present study is the first of its type to focus on unbleached kraft fibers, which are a main ingredient of linerboard for corrugated containers. About 90 million tons of unbleached kraft fiber are used worldwide every year for this purpose.

  3. Low Odor, High Yield Kraft Pulping

    SciTech Connect

    W.T. McKean

    2000-12-15

    In laboratory cooks pure oxygen was profiled into the circulation line of a batch digester during two periods of the cooking cycle: The first injection occurred during the heating steps for the purpose of in-situ generation of polysulfide. This chip treatment was studied to explore stabilization against alkaline induced carbohydrate peeling and to increase pulp yield. Under optimum conditions small amounts of polysulfide were produced with yield increase of about 0.5% These increases fell below earlier reports suggesting that unknown differences in liquor composition may influence the relative amounts of polysulfide and thiosulfate generated during the oxidation. Consequently, further studies are required to understand the factors that influence the ratios of those two sulfur species.

  4. Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome proteins in the nucleus: aWASH with possibilities

    PubMed Central

    Verboon, Jeffrey M; Sugumar, Bina; Parkhurst, Susan M

    2015-01-01

    Actin and proteins that regulate its dynamics or interactions have well-established roles in the cytoplasm where they function as key components of the cytoskeleton to control diverse processes, including cellular infrastructure, cellular motility, cell signaling, and vesicle transport. Recent work has also uncovered roles for actin and its regulatory proteins in the nucleus, primarily in mechanisms governing gene expression. The Wiskott Aldrich Syndrome (WAS) family of proteins, comprising the WASP/N-WASP, SCAR/WAVE, WHAMM/JMY/WHAMY, and WASH subfamilies, function in the cytoplasm where they activate the Arp2/3 complex to form branched actin filaments. WAS proteins are present in the nucleus and have been implicated as transcriptional regulators. We found that Drosophila Wash, in addition to transcriptional effects, is involved in global nuclear architecture. Here we summarize the regulation and function of nuclear WAS proteins, and highlight how our work with Wash expands the possibilities for the functions of these proteins in the nucleus. PMID:26305109

  5. Natural attenuation of NDMA precursors in an urban, wastewater-dominated wash.

    PubMed

    Woods, Gwen C; Dickenson, Eric R V

    2016-02-01

    N-Nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA) is a disinfection by-product (DBP) that is potentially carcinogenic and has been found to occur in drinking water treatment systems impacted with treated wastewater. A major gap in NDMA research is an understanding of the persistence of wastewater-derived precursors within the natural environment. This research sought to fill this knowledge gap by surveying NDMA precursors across the length of a wastewater effluent-dominated wash. Significant precursor reduction (17%) was found to occur from introduction into the wash to a point 9 h downstream. This reduction translates into a half-life of roughly 32 h for bulk NDMA precursors. Further laboratory experiments examining rates of photolysis, biodegradation and loss to sediments, illustrated that both photolytic and biological degradation were effective removal mechanisms for NDMA precursors. Loss to sediments that were acquired from the wash did not appear to reduce NDMA precursors in the water column, although a control conducted with DI water provided evidence that significant NDMA precursors could be released from autoclaved sediments (suggesting that sorption does occur). Microbial experiments revealed that microbes associated with sediments were much more effective at degrading precursors than microbes within the water column. Overall, this study demonstrated that natural processes are capable of attenuating NDMA precursors relatively quickly within the environment, and that utilities might benefit from maximizing source water residency time in the environment, prior to introduction into treatment plants. PMID:26706247

  6. Superoxide dismutase activity in healthy and inflamed pulp tissues of permanent teeth in children.

    PubMed

    Tulunoglu, O; Alacam, A; Bastug, M; Yavuzer, S

    1998-01-01

    The free radicals play an important role in the tissue damage. Oxygen-derived free radicals are controlled by various cellular defense mechanisms consisting of enzymatic such as superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathion peroxidase and nonenzymatic scavenger components. Superoxide dismutase (SOD) is responsible for the dismutation of the superoxide radicals into hydrogen peroxide and molecular oxygen. In this study, pulp samples extirpated from the teeth of the 27 children between 10-15 ages which diagnosed to be healthy, reversible pulpitis or symptomatic irreversible pulpitis were evaluated for the activity of superoxide dismutase enzyme. There were statistically significant differences between healthy and reversible pulpitis, and between reversible and symptomatic irreversible pulpitis groups. The SOD activity of the reversible pulpitis group were significantly lower than the irreversible pulpitis and healthy pulp groups. The evaluation of the data revealed that the quantity of SOD as a vitality protector enzyme is low at the beginning of the inflammation as a consequence of rapidly depletion and/or destruction of this enzyme, but as the inflammation proceeds the pulp tissue showed adaptation to this situation. PMID:9796506

  7. Modulation of Dental Pulp Stem Cell Odontogenesis in a Tunable PEG-Fibrinogen Hydrogel System

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Qiqi; Pandya, Mirali; Rufaihah, Abdul Jalil; Rosa, Vinicius; Tong, Huei Jinn; Seliktar, Dror; Toh, Wei Seong

    2015-01-01

    Injectable hydrogels have the great potential for clinical translation of dental pulp regeneration. A recently developed PEG-fibrinogen (PF) hydrogel, which comprises a bioactive fibrinogen backbone conjugated to polyethylene glycol (PEG) side chains, can be cross-linked after injection by photopolymerization. The objective of this study was to investigate the use of this hydrogel, which allows tuning of its mechanical properties, as a scaffold for dental pulp tissue engineering. The cross-linking degree of PF hydrogels could be controlled by varying the amounts of PEG-diacrylate (PEG-DA) cross-linker. PF hydrogels are generally cytocompatible with the encapsulated dental pulp stem cells (DPSCs), yielding >85% cell viability in all hydrogels. It was found that the cell morphology of encapsulated DPSCs, odontogenic gene expression, and mineralization were strongly modulated by the hydrogel cross-linking degree and matrix stiffness. Notably, DPSCs cultured within the highest cross-linked hydrogel remained mostly rounded in aggregates and demonstrated the greatest enhancement in odontogenic gene expression. Consistently, the highest degree of mineralization was observed in the highest cross-linked hydrogel. Collectively, our results indicate that PF hydrogels can be used as a scaffold for DPSCs and offers the possibility of influencing DPSCs in ways that may be beneficial for applications in regenerative endodontics. PMID:26124841

  8. Possibilities for increasing the power generation with biomass in pulp and paper mills

    SciTech Connect

    Nousianinen, I.K.

    1995-11-01

    Even today the share of wood derived fuels in the Finnish energy supply is significant and it is higher than in any other industrialized western country. The energy content of wood derived fuels used in 1993 was equivalent to 4.36 million toe. The wood raw material used in pulp and paper mills is harvested by log-length method, in which the trees are delimbed and bucked to timber assortments at the stump prior to subsequent transport to the road side. The long-distance transport to the mills is performed by truck-trailers. Debarking takes place in debarking drums, after which the bark-free stemwood is chipped to clean chips for pulping. The bark is removed from any drum, shredded, mechanically dried and conveyed to the power plant for energy production. In order to increase the amount of wood fuel in proportion to raw wood material various integrated harvesting methods are being developed. On the other hand, the pulp and paper mills are seen as a significant potential sector for increasing the use of wood fuel in energy production. Forest management in Finland is characterized by two or three selective thinnings during rotation period. Integrated harvesting methods can be applied to the first thinnings and to the spruce-dominant regeneration fellings. The annual potential of wood fuel production with integrated harvesting methods is in the first thinnings 0.9-1.2 million toe and in the spruce-dominant regeneration fellings 0.6-0.8 million toe. The increased amount of wood fuel allows mills either to decrease the amount of purchased fuel or with new power plant technologies the amount of purchased power. In the typical pulp and paper mills the energy content of additional wood fuel produced with integrated harvesting methods can be 50-60 MW. By pressurized gasification of bark and additional wood fuel, by integrated methods and from other mills, the power generation can be increased with 70-90 MW.

  9. Arsine Poisoning in a Slag-Washing Plant

    PubMed Central

    Kipling, M. D.; Fothergill, R.

    1964-01-01

    An investigation was carried out in an aluminium recovery works after the simultaneous occurrence of haemolytic anaemia in two workers in the slag disposal plant. The first worker was admitted to hospital suffering from nausea, backache, and haematuria. Jaundice developed on the next day. His urine contained protein, urobilin, haemoglobin, and methaemoglobin but no red cells. During the course of his illness the haemoglobin was reduced to 6·8 g./100 ml. There was no abnormality of the blood film and red cell fragility was normal. A fellow worker was affected at the same time and was treated at home for the same symptoms. Examination five days later showed a haemoglobin level similar to that of the first worker. He had suffered the same symptoms eight years previously, and at this time another worker had suffered from jaundice at home and a third had been investigated for neurological symptoms. Ten years previously another worker had been admitted to hospital with anaemia, jaundice, and haemoglobinuria. At this works scrap aluminium is melted with sodium chloride and fluorspar as a flux. The slag from the furnace is later broken up and dissolved in a rotating drum by a stream of water. The soluble portion is carried into a lagoon, whilst the 3% aluminium is retained in the drum and discharged weekly. Two men are employed at a time and another six have been employed in the past 10 years. Five parts per million of arsine were found to be present in the atmosphere during slag washing, but higher levels would have occurred on the occasions when slag from the making of an aluminium copper alloy from copper with an arsenic content was similarly treated. The mechanism of arsenic production is discussed and the literature on the role of aluminium reviewed. PMID:14106139

  10. Gravity and magnetic study of Yucca Wash, southwest Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    Langenheim, V.E.; Ponce, D.A.; Oliver, H.W.; Sikora, R.F.

    1993-12-31

    Gravity and ground magnetic data were collected along five traverses across and one traverse along Yucca Wash in the southwest quadrant of the Nevada Test Site. Two additional ground magnetic profiles were collected approximately 100 m to either side of the longitudinal profile. These data do not indicate major vertical offsets greater than 100 m using a density contrast of 0.2 to 0.3 g/cm{sup 3} along the proposed Yucca Wash fault. A broad magnetic high coincides with the location of the hydrologic gradient. Density profiling, a technique used to determine the average density of small topographic features, suggests that the density of near-surface material in the vicinity of Yucca Wash is about 2.0 g/cm{sup 3}.

  11. Soil washing results for mixed waste pond soils at Hanford

    SciTech Connect

    Gerber, M.A.

    1991-09-01

    Soil washing technology was assessed as a means for remediating soil contaminated with mixed wastes primarily composed of heavy metals and radionuclides. The soils at the US Department of Energy's Hanford Site are considered suitable for soil washing because of their relatively low quantities of silt and clay. However, in a limited number of soil washing experiments using soils from different locations in the north pond of the 300 Area, the degree of decontamination achieved for the coarse fraction of the soil varied considerably. Part of this variation appears to be due to the presence of a discrete layer of contaminated sediment found in some of the samples. 7 refs., 2 figs., 4 tabs.

  12. Washing and caustic leaching of Hanford Tank C-106 sludge

    SciTech Connect

    Lumetta, G.J.; Wagner, M.J.; Hoopes, F.V.; Steele, R.T.

    1996-10-01

    This report describes the results of a laboratory-scale washing and caustic leaching test performed on sludge from Hanford Tank C-106. The purpose of this test was to determine the behavior of important sludge components when subjected to washing with dilute or concentrated sodium hydroxide solutions. The results of this laboratory-scale test were used to support the design of a bench-scale washing and leaching process used to prepare several hundred grams of high-level waste solids for vitrification tests to be done by private contractors. The laboratory-scale test was conducted at Pacific Northwest Laboratory in FY 1996 as part of the Hanford privatization effort. The work was funded by the US Department of Energy through the Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS; EM-30).

  13. Electrical Switchability and Dry-Wash Durability of Conductive Textiles

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Bangting; Zhang, Bowu; Wu, Jingxia; Wang, Ziqiang; Ma, Hongjuan; Yu, Ming; Li, Linfan; Li, Jingye

    2015-01-01

    There is growing interest in the area of conductive textiles in the scientific and industrial community. Herein, we successfully prepared a conductive textile via covalently grafting polyaniline (PANI) onto cotton by a multi-step treatment process. The conductivity of the resultant fabric could be tuned by immersing in water having different pH values. The conductive and insulating properties of the textile could be conveniently switched by alternately immersing in acidic and alkaline bath solutions. Most importantly, the resultant conductive fabrics were able to withstand 40 simulated dry-wash cycles, with almost no decay in the electrical conductivity, indicating their excellent dry-wash durability. The present strategy for fabricating conductive fabrics with excellent switchability of electrical properties and dry-wash durability is expected to provide inspiration for the production of multifunctional conductive textiles for use in hash or sensitive conditions. PMID:26066704

  14. Synergetic effect of a novel wash aid, T-128, in improving chlorine efficacy against bacterial pathogens in wash solution containing high organic loads

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Chlorine is widely used as a sanitizer in commercial fresh-cut wash water for produce processing of bagged leafy greens. However, free chlorine depletion occurs rapidly when high organic content loads are introduced directly into the wash solution as part of the washing operation process. This chl...

  15. Effects of laccase-natural mediator systems on kenaf pulp.

    PubMed

    Andreu, Glòria; Vidal, Teresa

    2011-05-01

    This paper reports the first application of laccase-mediator systems (LMS) to kenaf pulp. Five natural phenolic compounds (acetosyringone, syringaldehyde, p-coumaric acid, vanillin and acetovanillone) were used as mediators in combination with laccase in an L stage in order to elucidate their effect on delignification. After LMS treatment, pulp samples were subjected to two alkaline treatments (an E or P stage). The results obtained were compared with those provided by the laccase-1-hydroxybenzotriazole (HBT) system. All natural mediators increased kappa number, decreased brightness and changed optical properties of the pulp after the L stage, suggesting that natural mediators tend to couple to fibers during a laccase-mediator treatment. The greatest delignification and bleaching effects after the P stage were obtained with syringaldehyde and acetosyringone, providing an effective means for delignifying kenaf, whereas those based on the other three could be used to functionalize kenaf with a view to obtaining pulp with novel properties. PMID:21444198

  16. Antifungal activity of fruit pulp extract from Bromelia pinguin.

    PubMed

    Camacho-Hernández, I L; Chávez-Velázquez, J A; Uribe-Beltrán, M J; Ríos-Morgan, A; Delgado-Vargas, F

    2002-08-01

    The methanol extract of the fruit pulp of Bromelia pinguin was evaluated for its antifungal activity. The extract showed a significant activity against some Trichophyton strains, although Candida strains were generally insensitive. PMID:12165338

  17. 'KLEBSIELLA' DENSITIES IN WATERS RECEIVING WOOD PULP EFFLUENTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Surface waters receiving pulp mill effluents were examined for the presence of total coliforms, fecal coliforms, and Salmonella species. Fecal coliforms were biochemically identified as belonging to the Escherichia, Klebsiella or Enterobacter genera. Sixty percent of the isolates...

  18. 100 Area soil washing bench-scale test procedures

    SciTech Connect

    Freeman, H.D.; Gerber, M.A.; Mattigod, S.V.; Serne, R.J.

    1993-03-01

    This document describes methodologies and procedures for conducting soil washing treatability tests in accordance with the 100 Area Soil Washing Treatability Test Plan (DOE-RL 1992, Draft A). The objective of this treatability study is to evaluate the use of physical separation systems and chemical extraction methods as a means of separating chemically and radioactively contaminated soil fractions from uncontaminated soil fractions. These data will be primarily used for determining feasibility of the individual unit operations and defining the requirements for a system, or systems, for pilot-scale testing.

  19. BLAISDELL SLOW SAND FILTER WASHING MACHINE. VIEW LOOKING SOUTH. THE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    BLAISDELL SLOW SAND FILTER WASHING MACHINE. VIEW LOOKING SOUTH. THE SUCTION (INTAKE) HOSE IS SEEN AT THE LEFT RESTING ON THE FILTER BED SURFACE; THE DISCHARGE HOSE IS AT THE RIGHT, RUNNING FROM THE BOTTOM OF THE CENTRAL VERTICAL AXLE TO THE CENTRIFUGAL PUMP. FROM THE PUMP WATER IS DISCHARGED THROUGH THE HORIZONTAL PIPE LOCATED UNDER THE EDGE OF PLATFORM DECK INTO THE WASTE-WATER TROUGH (NOT SEEN IN THIS VIEW). - Yuma Main Street Water Treatment Plant, Blaisdell Slow Sand Filter Washing Machine, Jones Street at foot of Main Street, Yuma, Yuma County, AZ

  20. BLAISDELL SLOW SAND FILTER WASHING MACHINE. VIEW LOOKING SOUTHEAST. THE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    BLAISDELL SLOW SAND FILTER WASHING MACHINE. VIEW LOOKING SOUTHEAST. THE ELECTRIC TROLLEY IS SEEN AT THE LEFT. THE BULKHEAD SEEN AT THE LOWER RIGHT IS NOT PART OF THE MACHINE; IT WAS INSTALLED TO RETAIN THE FILTER SAND AFTER THE MACHINE WAS NO LONGER USED. THE NORTHWEST CORNER OF SETTLING RESERVOIR NO. 4 IS SEEN IN THE DISTANCE BELOW THE RIGHT SIDE OF THE TROLLEY. - Yuma Main Street Water Treatment Plant, Blaisdell Slow Sand Filter Washing Machine, Jones Street at foot of Main Street, Yuma, Yuma County, AZ

  1. Pulp-dentin Regeneration: Current State and Future Prospects.

    PubMed

    Cao, Y; Song, M; Kim, E; Shon, W; Chugal, N; Bogen, G; Lin, L; Kim, R H; Park, N-H; Kang, M K

    2015-11-01

    The goal of regenerative endodontics is to reinstate normal pulp function in necrotic and infected teeth that would result in reestablishment of protective functions, including innate pulp immunity, pulp repair through mineralization, and pulp sensibility. In the unique microenvironment of the dental pulp, the triad of tissue engineering would require infection control, biomaterials, and stem cells. Although revascularization is successful in resolving apical periodontitis, multiple studies suggest that it alone does not support pulp-dentin regeneration. More recently, cell-based approaches in endodontic regeneration based on pulpal mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have demonstrated promising results in terms of pulp-dentin regeneration in vivo through autologous transplantation. Although pulpal regeneration requires the cell-based approach, several challenges in clinical translation must be overcome-including aging-associated phenotypic changes in pulpal MSCs, availability of tissue sources, and safety and regulation involved with expansion of MSCs in laboratories. Allotransplantation of MSCs may alleviate some of these obstacles, although the long-term stability of MSCs and efficacy in pulp-dentin regeneration demand further investigation. For an alternative source of MSCs, our laboratory developed induced MSCs (iMSCs) from primary human keratinocytes through epithelial-mesenchymal transition by modulating the epithelial plasticity genes. Initially, we showed that overexpression of ΔNp63α, a major isoform of the p63 gene, led to epithelial-mesenchymal transition and acquisition of stem characteristics. More recently, iMSCs were generated by transient knockdown of all p63 isoforms through siRNA, further simplifying the protocol and resolving the potential safety issues of viral vectors. These cells may be useful for patients who lack tissue sources for endogenous MSCs. Further research will elucidate the level of potency of these iMSCs and assess their

  2. Toll-like receptor 4 signaling in trigeminal ganglion neurons contributes tongue-referred pain associated with tooth pulp inflammation

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The purpose of the present study is to evaluate the mechanisms underlying tongue-referred pain associated with tooth pulp inflammation. Method Using mechanical and temperature stimulation following dental surgery, we have demonstrated that dental inflammation and hyperalgesia correlates with increased immunohistochemical staining of neurons for TLR4 and HSP70. Results Mechanical or heat hyperalgesia significantly enhanced in the ipsilateral tongue at 1 to 9 days after complete Freund’s adjuvant (CFA) application to the left lower molar tooth pulp compared with that of sham-treated or vehicle-applied rats. The number of fluorogold (FG)-labeled TLR4-immunoreactive (IR) cells was significantly larger in CFA-applied rats compared with sham-treated or vehicle-applied rats to the molar tooth. The number of heat shock protein (Hsp) 70-IR neurons in trigeminal ganglion (TG) was significantly increased on day 3 after CFA application compared with sham-treated or vehicle-applied rats to the molar tooth. About 9.2% of TG neurons were labeled with DiI applied to the molar tooth and FG injected into the tongue, and 15.4% of TG neurons were labeled with FG injected into the tongue and Alexa-labeled Hsp70-IR applied to the tooth. Three days after Hsp70 or lipopolysaccharide (LPS) application to the tooth in naive rats, mechanical or heat hyperalgesia was significantly enhanced compared with that of saline-applied rats. Following successive LPS-RS, an antagonist of TLR4, administration to the TG for 3 days, the enhanced mechanical or heat hyperalgesia was significantly reversed compared with that of saline-injected rats. Noxious mechanical responses of TG neurons innervating the tongue were significantly higher in CFA-applied rats compare with sham rats to the tooth. Hsp70 mRNA levels of the tooth pulp and TG were not different between CFA-applied rats and sham rats. Conclusions The present findings indicate that Hsp70 transported from the tooth pulp to TG neurons

  3. Record of Hybridization Preserved in Zircon, Aztec Wash Pluton, NV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bromley, S. A.; Miller, C. F.; Claiborne, L. L.; Wooden, J. L.; Mazdab, F. K.

    2007-12-01

    The mid-Miocene Aztec Wash pluton comprises a smaller granite zone and a larger, highly heterogeneous zone in which evidence for interaction between basaltic and granitic magmas is ubiquitous. Granitic rocks in both zones show textural and compositional evidence for crystal accumulation and melt fractionation. In the heterogeneous zone, basalts have chilled, crenulate margins against granitic rocks, and there is widespread evidence for mechanical contamination of each lithology (coarse resorbed alkali feldspar in fine-grained mafic rock; mafic enclaves in granite). "Grey rocks" of intermediate composition are exposed on dm to 100's of m-scale as enclaves, pods, and initially subhorizontal sheets. They are variable texturally, but most are dominantly fine- grained and equigranular. Textures of grey rocks are consistent with rapid solidification from melt-rich magma, and, in combination with isotopic compositions intermediate between felsic and mafic rocks of the pluton, suggest an origin by near-complete homogenization of a hybrid melt (Bleick et al. 2005; Ericksen 2005). The elemental chemistry of zircon preserves information about the evolving magmatic environment in which it was hosted (Claiborne et al., 2006). Owing to its slow dissolution rate, it has the potential to survive periods of undersaturation with only partial resorption. Thus, it may record drastic shifts in T and melt chemistry that would accompany mafic-felsic hybridization. We are investigating zircon zoning patterns by cathodoluminescence (CL) and elemental compositions by SHRIMP-RG to evaluate the record of processes that they preserve. Temperatures of zircon growth are estimated using Ti-in-zircon thermometry (Watson et al. 2006), assuming a(TiO2) of ca. 0.7 (sphene +/-ilmenite are ubiquitous). Zircons from the granite zone yield estimated T's of 700-860 C, whereas those from grey rocks range from 710- 910 C. While both granite and grey zircon populations show dramatic T variations among and

  4. Biotechnological potential of coffee pulp and coffee husk for bioprocesses.

    PubMed

    Pandey; Soccol; Nigam; Brand; Mohan; Roussos

    2000-10-01

    Advances in industrial biotechnology offer potential opportunities for economic utilization of agro-industrial residues such as coffee pulp and coffee husk. Coffee pulp or husk is a fibrous mucilagenous material (sub-product) obtained during the processing of coffee cherries by wet or dry process, respectively. Coffee pulp/husk contains some amount of caffeine and tannins, which makes it toxic in nature, resulting the disposal problem. However, it is rich in organic nature, which makes it an ideal substrate for microbial processes for the production of value-added products. Several solutions and alternative uses of the coffee pulp and husk have been attempted. These include as fertilizers, livestock feed, compost, etc. However, these applications utilize only a fraction of available quantity and are not technically very efficient. Attempts have been made to detoxify it for improved application as feed, and to produce several products such as enzymes, organic acids, flavour and aroma compounds, and mushrooms, etc. from coffee pulp/husk. Solid state fermentation has been mostly employed for bioconversion processes. Factorial design experiments offer useful information for the process optimization. This paper reviews the developments on processes and products developed for the value-addition of coffee pulp/husk through the biotechnological means. PMID:10959086

  5. Binding and desulfurization characteristics of pulp black liquor in biocoalbriquettes.

    PubMed

    Kim, Heejoon; Lu, Guoqing; Li, Tianji; Sadakata, Masayoshi

    2002-04-01

    To control pollutant emissions from coal combustion in some developing countries, biocoalbriquette, an artificially produced solid fuel, was developed. Both the breaking strength and production costs of the biocoalbriquette have become essentially the most important factors in popularizing it in these countries. To increase the breaking strength and decrease the production costs, it is proposed in this study to use pulp black liquor, a byproduct from the pulp production industry, as a binder. The influences of pulp black liquor on the briquetting and combustion characteristics were investigated. Furthermore, the desulfurization characteristics of pulp black liquor were also evaluated through combustion experiments. The study results show that the briquetting pressure has a limited effect on the breaking strength. An increase in the briquetting pressure yields greater breaking strength of up to the 50 MPa. Above 50 MPa, the breaking strength changes very little with the briquetting pressure. The use of pulp black liquor has had a greater effect on increasing the breaking strength than on changing the briquetting pressure and also on improving the combustion characteristics of the biocoalbriquette. On the other hand, pulp black liquor has some desulfurization capabilities. When used as a binder, it not only increases the breaking strength and decreases the necessary briquetting pressure, but it also improves some characteristics of the combustion and reduces the pollutants emission. PMID:11999073

  6. Biosolids recycling at a pulp and paper mill

    SciTech Connect

    Gratton, P.F.; Montgomery, K.L.; Page, S.H.

    1997-12-31

    The Bio Gro Division of Wheelabrator Water Technologies Inc. has traditionally been involved in recycling biosolids from domestic wastewater treatment plants. The biosolids, or primarily organic residuals that result from the treatment of wastewater, have long been used in agriculture as a soil conditioner, fertilizer, organic lime material and also for other soil fertility practices. It has long been known that residuals from certain industrial wastewater processes are very high in nutrients and organic matter which can also be successfully used in agricultural activities. One of these industrial biosolids with well-documented agricultural value is the organic residual from the treatment of wastewater from pulp and paper mills. Most pulp and paper producers in the US recognize the value of pulp and paper biosolids as a material that can fertilize their own tree stands or can be used in normal agricultural practices. In 1995, Bio Gro entered into a contract with a two large pulp and paper mills in Maine for the management of its pulp and paper biosolids. Bio Gro was responsible for implementing the beneficial use options for a mixture of primary and secondary biosolids from the wastewater treatment process which was combined with combustion ash from the facility`s power generation facilities. The contract included the layout of spreading areas, mixing of the residuals and spreading the material on the sites. This paper will explain the process that Bio Gro employed to manage the pulp and paper biosolids generated at the mill.

  7. Indirect pulp therapy: an alternative to pulpotomy in primary teeth.

    PubMed

    Seale, N Sue

    2010-11-01

    Preservation of the primary teeth until their normal exfoliation is essential for normal oral function and facial growth of the child. To that end, treatment of primary teeth with large carious lesions approximating the pulp should be aimed at preserving the tooth. Currently, the pulpotomy is the most frequently used pulp treatment for cariously involved primary teeth. The purpose of this manuscript is to describe the use of an alternative to the pulpotomy, indirect pulp therapy (IPT), for the treatment of vital, primary teeth with carious involvement approaching the pulp. Accurate diagnosis of the vitality status of the pulp is critical to the success of IPT and involves careful radiographic and clinical assessment of the teeth to be sure they are healthy or at worst, reversibly inflamed. The indications for IPT are the same as for pulpotomy. The technique involves one appointment, requires that some carious dentin be left to avoid pulp exposure and requires the placement of a biologically sealing base and sealing final restoration. Teeth treated with IPT have success rates at least as good as those treated with pulpotomies, and IPT offers an acceptable alternative to pulpotomy as a treatment for vital, asymptomatic, cariously involved primary teeth. PMID:21309277

  8. Visibility of dental pulp spaces in dental ultrasound.

    PubMed

    Szopinski, K T; Regulski, P

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the feasibility of dental ultrasound with conventional sonographic equipment. The teeth of three adult volunteers who had cone beam CT examinations performed previously with clinical indications and one extracted tooth were examined using linear and compact (hockey stick) sonographic probes. The sonographic images were compared with cone beam CT images reconstructed accordingly. Dental pulp spaces were demonstrated in all teeth not covered with prosthetic crowns. The dentin and pulp were best visualized at the level of the neck of the teeth. The dentin was hypoechoic, and the superficial layer comprising the cementum and the pulp spaces were hyperechoic. Dental ultrasound is feasible with general purpose sonographic machines. The buccal surfaces of all teeth are accessible with a compact (hockey stick) probe. Visualization and differentiation of dental pulp spaces, dentin and the superficial layer comprising cementum is possible in the portions of teeth not covered by the alveolar bone or prosthetic crowns. The dental pulp spaces are best seen at the level of the tooth neck. Pulp and endodontic fillings can be distinguished on ultrasound. PMID:24170803

  9. Biological evaluation of nanosilver incorporated cellulose pulp for hygiene products.

    PubMed

    Kavitha Sankar, P C; Ramakrishnan, Reshmi; Rosemary, M J

    2016-04-01

    Cellulose pulp has a visible market share in personal hygiene products such as sanitary napkins and baby diapers. However it offers good surface for growth of microorganisms. Huge amount of research is going on in developing hygiene products that do not initiate microbial growth. The objective of the present work is to produce antibacterial cellulose pulp by depositing silver nanopowder on the cellulose fiber. The silver nanoparticles used were of less than 100 nm in size and were characterised using transmission electron microscopy and X-ray powder diffraction studies. Antibacterial activity of the functionalized cellulose pulp was proved by JIS L 1902 method. The in-vitro cytotoxicity, in-vivo vaginal irritation and intracutaneous reactivity studies were done with silver nanopowder incorporated cellulose pulp for introducing a new value added product to the market. Cytotoxicity evaluation suggested that the silver nanoparticle incorporated cellulose pulp is non-cytotoxic. No irritation and skin sensitization were identified in animals tested with specific extracts prepared from the test material in the in-vivo experiments. The results indicated that the silver nanopowder incorporated cellulose pulp meets the requirements of the standard practices recommended for evaluating the biological reactivity and has good biocompatibility, hence can be classified as a safe hygiene product. PMID:26838891

  10. Application and evaluation of the washing effect in the collector well using pilot plant with washing device

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cho, K. H.; Kim, B. J.; Choi, N. C.; Lee, S. J.; Lee, B. H.

    2012-04-01

    Riverbed/bank filtration (RBF) is a natural process used as a first step in drinking water treatment. RBF systems consist of well fields that draw water from an aquifer that is hydraulically connected to surface waters. The benefits of RBF are multiple and include a reduction of turbidity, total coliform, microbial contaminants natural organic matter, and organic contaminants. Some of the disadvantages of RBF include the difficulty of preventing river water from infiltrating the aquifer in in-stances of severe river contamination, the geochemical reaction of the infiltrate with aquifer materials that may raise the aqueous concentrations of Fe2+, Mn2+, As, NH4+, CH4, Ca2+ and HCO3- , and clogging of the riverbed. For example, has demonstrated that riverbed clogging may decrease the specific capacity of RBF wells (flow reduction in the collector well etc.). The objective of this study is to optimization and evaluation the washing effect on various nozzle type and intervals, soil retention rate in the collector well using pilot plant with washing device for prevention flow reduction in the collector well. The Pilot plant experiments were conducted under various conditions; two kinds nozzle type (spray nozzle of circle type (single - Full Cone, multi - Hollow Cone) and spray nozzle of fan shape type (Veejet)), two different nozzle intervals (200 mm, 400mm) and a various soil retention rate in the collector well (10 ~ 40%). The results of experiment showed that in the nozzle type case, the washing effect of the veeject nozzle was more effective than other (Full Cone, Hollow Cone) nozzle through spray results (range, strength and height). In the nozzle interval conditions, washing effect is 200 mm better than 400 mm through spray distance and soil height. The washing efficiency in the collector well increased on soil retention rate decreased and the nozzle injection pressure increased using washing device

  11. Ethanol determination in frozen fruit pulps: an application of quantitative nuclear magnetic resonance.

    PubMed

    da Silva Nunes, Wilian; de Oliveira, Caroline Silva; Alcantara, Glaucia Braz

    2016-04-01

    This study reports the chemical composition of five types of industrial frozen fruit pulps (acerola, cashew, grape, passion fruit and pineapple fruit pulps) and compares them with homemade pulps at two different stages of ripening. The fruit pulps were characterized by analyzing their metabolic profiles and determining their ethanol content using quantitative Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (qNMR). In addition, principal component analysis (PCA) was applied to extract more information from the NMR data. We detected ethanol in all industrial and homemade pulps; and acetic acid in cashew, grape and passion fruit industrial and homemade pulps. The ethanol content in some industrial pulps is above the level recommended by regulatory agencies and is near the levels of some post-ripened homemade pulps. This study demonstrates that qNMR can be used to rapidly detect ethanol content in frozen fruit pulps and food derivatives. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:26578064

  12. Preparation of clinker from paper pulp industry wastes.

    PubMed

    Buruberri, Leire H; Seabra, M P; Labrincha, J A

    2015-04-01

    The production of paper pulp by the Kraft method generates considerable amounts of wastes. Namely, lime mud generated in the recovery circuit of chemical reagents, biological sludge from the wastewater treatment of wood digestion process and fly ash collected in the fluidized bed combustor used to generate electricity from biomass burning. The final destination of such wastes is an important concern, since environmental regulations are becoming stricter regarding their landfill. Driven by this fact, industries are looking for more sustainable solutions, such as the recycling in distinct products. This work tested these wastes as secondary raw materials to produce clinker/cement that was then experienced in mortar formulations. The first step involved the residues detailed characterization and a generated amounts survey. Then, specific but simple steps were suggested, aiming to facilitate transport and manipulation. Distinct blends were prepared and fired in order to get belitic and Portland clinkers. The Portland clinkers were processed at lower temperatures than the normally used in the industry due to the presence of mineralizing impurities in some wastes. Belite-based cements were used to produce mortars that developed satisfactory mechanical strength and did not reveal signs of deterioration or durability weaknesses. PMID:25590818

  13. Effect of Residual Lignin Type and Amount on Bleaching of Kraft Pulp by Trametes versicolor

    PubMed Central

    Reid, Ian D.; Paice, Michael G.

    1994-01-01

    The white rot fungus Trametes (Coriolus) versicolor can delignify and brighten unbleached hardwood kraft pulp within a few days, but softwood kraft pulps require longer treatment. To determine the contributions of higher residual lignin contents (kappa numbers) and structural differences in lignins to the recalcitrance of softwood kraft pulps to biobleaching, we tested softwood and hardwood pulps cooked to the same kappa numbers, 26 and 12. A low-lignin-content (overcooked) softwood pulp resisted delignification by T. versicolor, but a high-lignin-content (lightly cooked) hardwood pulp was delignified at the same rate as a normal softwood pulp. Thus, the longer time taken by T. versicolor to brighten softwood kraft pulp than hardwood pulp results from the higher residual lignin content of the softwood pulp; possible differences in the structures of the residual lignins are important only when the lignin becomes highly condensed. Under the conditions used in this study, when an improved fungal inoculum was used, six different softwood pulps were all substantially brightened by T. versicolor. Softwood pulps whose lignin contents were decreased by extended modified continuous cooking or oxygen delignification to kappa numbers as low as 15 were delignified by T. versicolor at the same rate as normal softwood pulp. More intensive O2 delignification, like overcooking, decreased the susceptibility of the residual lignin in the pulps to degradation by T. versicolor. PMID:16349246

  14. Soil washing: A preliminary assessment of its applicability to Hanford

    SciTech Connect

    Gerber, M A; Freeman, H D; Baker, E G; Riemath, W F

    1991-09-01

    Soil washing is being considered for treating soils at the US Department of Energy's (DOE) Hanford Site. As a result of over 50 years of operations to produce plutonium for the US Department of Defense and research for DOE, soils in areas within the Site are contaminated with hazardous wastes and radionuclides. In the soil washing process, contaminated soil is mixed with a liquid and then physically and/or chemically treated to dissolve the contaminants into solution and/or concentrate them in a small fraction of the soil. The purpose of this procedure is to separate the contaminants from the bulk of the soil. The key to successful application is to match the types of contaminants and soil characteristics with physical-chemical methods that perform well under the existing conditions. The applicability of soil washing to Hanford Site contaminated soils must take into account both the characteristics of the oil and the type of contamination. Hanford soils typically contain up to 90% sand, gravel, and cobbles, which generally are favorable characteristics for soil washing. For example, in soil samples from the north pond in the 300 Area, 80% to 90% of the soil particles were larger than 250 {mu}m. The principal contaminants in the soil are radionuclides, heavy metals, and nitrate and sulfate salts. For most of the sites, organic contaminants are either not present or are found in very low concentration. 28 refs., 5 figs., 10 tabs.

  15. 30 CFR 206.259 - Determination of washing allowances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ..., subject to monitoring, review, audit, and possible future adjustment. The lessee shall have the burden of... as a separate line entry on the Form MMS-4430. (2) In conducting reviews and audits, MMS will examine... monitoring, review, audit, and possible future adjustment. The lessee must claim a washing allowance...

  16. Late wash cross-flow filter organic balance

    SciTech Connect

    Baich, M.A.

    1992-11-16

    A recent DOE-Savannah River review of the results and data from the Late Washing Crossflow Fitter assessment identified the fate of biphenyl as a concern in the Late Washing material balance. The concern arose because after the late washing operation only about 40% of the biphenyl remained in the irradiated precipitate and analyses of the spent wash water stream did not account for the missing biphenyl [2]. This document summarizes the results of subsequent filtration studies on the behavior and fate of all known organic precipitate feed components including biphenyl. The study employed a statistically designed material balance across a laboratory crossflow fitter. Data from two separate experiments are presented here. Results of the first study indicated no statistically significant loss of biphenyl, diphenylmercury, 0-terphenyl, diphenylamine, or aniline. Results did indicate minor losses of phenylboric acid, M-terphenyl, P-terphenyl, and a significant production of phenol, believed to be due to the way in which the experiment was performed. A second experiment demonstrated no statistically significant lose of any of the organic compounds.

  17. 36. Photocopy of detail of ink and wash rendering by ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    36. Photocopy of detail of ink and wash rendering by N. G. Starkwether in collection of Mr. & Mrs. Richard T. Pratt, Camden ELEVATIONS OF ITALIAN VILLA FOR WILLIAM C. PRATT - CAMDEN PLACE - DRIVE FRONT - Camden, Rappahannock River, Port Royal, Caroline County, VA

  18. 35. Photocopy of detail of ink and wash rendering by ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    35. Photocopy of detail of ink and wash rendering by N. G. Starkwether in collection of Mr. & Mrs. Richard T. Pratt, Camden ELEVATIONS OF ITALIAN VILLA FOR WILLIAM C. PRATT - CAMDEN PLACE - RIVER FRONT - Camden, Rappahannock River, Port Royal, Caroline County, VA

  19. 62. May 1985. NORTH END OF WASH HOUSE (Negative slightly ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    62. May 1985. NORTH END OF WASH HOUSE (Negative slightly reticulated. Tree behind fence is common fig, Ficus carica.) - Borough House, West Side State Route 261, about .1 mile south side of junction with old Garners Ferry Road, Stateburg, Sumter County, SC

  20. Ultrasonic system for continuous washing of textiles in liquid layers.

    PubMed

    Gallego-Juarez, Juan A; Riera, Enrique; Acosta, Victor; Rodríguez, Germán; Blanco, Alfonso

    2010-01-01

    The use of ultrasonic energy for washing of textiles has been tried several times without achieving practical development. In fact, the softness of the fibres makes the cavitation to produce small erosion effect and the reticulate structure of the fabric favours the formation of air bubble layers which obstruct wave penetration. In addition, a high proportion of water with respect to the wash load and a certain water degassing is required to assure efficiency and homogeneity in the wash performance. Such requirements have hindered the commercial development of the ultrasonic washing machines for domestic purposes. For specific industrial applications, a great part of these limitations may be overcome. This article deals with a new process in which the fabric is exposed to the ultrasonic field in a flat format. Such process has been implemented at laboratory and at semi-industrial stage by using specially designed power ultrasonic transducers with rectangular plate radiators. The cleaning effect is produced by the intense cavitation field generated by the plate radiator within a thin layer of liquid where the fabric is introduced. The homogeneity of such effect is achieved by the successive exposure of all the fabric areas to the intense acoustic field. In this paper the structure and performance of the developed system are shown. PMID:19574081

  1. Ink and Wash Painting for Children with Visual Impairment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shih, Chih-Ming; Chao, Hsin-Yi

    2010-01-01

    Five children with visual impairments received instruction in drawing, using ink and wash painting and calligraphy techniques. A special system developed by a blind Taiwanese Chinese calligrapher, Tsann-Cherng Liaw, was used to help the children orient and refine their work. Children's performance on simple drawing tasks was compared before and…

  2. Efficacy of Post-Wash Shell Egg Sanitizers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Chlorine (Cl) solutions of 100-200 ppm are the standard by which post-wash shell egg sanitizers are measured. Any facility that packages eggs with the USDA grade shields must use a comparable sanitizer. While chlorine solutions are inexpensive, non-corrosive, and safe to handle, they are not very ...

  3. WASHING STUDIES FOR PCP AND CREOSOTE-CONTAMINATED SOIL

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Environmental Protection Agency has conducted a series of bench-scale and pilot-scale studies to evaluate the feasibility of washing pentachlorophenol (PCP) and creosote from the soil at an abandoned wood-treatment Superfund site in Pensacola, FL. The high sand content and lo...

  4. Accidental entrapment of cats in front-loading washing machines

    PubMed Central

    Stewart, Sarah A.; Gaunt, Matthew C.; Taylor, Susan M.; Snead, Elizabeth C.R.

    2010-01-01

    Two clinical cases of accidental entrapment of cats in front-loading washing machines are described. One cat died the day after presentation as a result of aspiration pneumonia and head trauma, despite supportive care. The second cat survived with supportive treatment, but developed dermatologic complications 10 d later. PMID:21119868

  5. Decay kinetics of free chlorine in fresh produce wash system

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Chlorinated water wash is a critical step employed in the production of fresh-cut produce. The efficacy of chlorinated water was affected largely by the concentration of active chlorine ingredients, which degrades due to the presence of microorganisms, as well as inorganic and organic matters. It is...

  6. View of gantry crane (manufactured by Ederer Corporation, Seattle, Wash., ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View of gantry crane (manufactured by Ederer Corporation, Seattle, Wash., 1971) for Powerhouse No. 3, looking north. - Columbia Basin Project, Grand Coulee Dam & Franklin D. Roosevelt Lake, Across Columbia River, Southeast of Town of Grand Coulee, Grand Coulee, Grant County, WA

  7. 1. GENERAL VIEW FROM BONY PILE LOOKING SOUTH. WASH HOUSE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. GENERAL VIEW FROM BONY PILE LOOKING SOUTH. WASH HOUSE IN LEFT BACKGROUND. TIPPLE AND CLEANING PLANT TO RIGHT. IN CENTER IS A TANK USED FOR TREATING MINE REFUSE AND ACID RUNOFF. - Eureka No. 40, Tipple & Cleaning Plant, East of State Route 56, north of Little Paint Creek, Scalp Level, Cambria County, PA

  8. MAGNETITE RECOVERY IN COAL WASHING BY HIGH GRADIENT MAGNETIC SEPARATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report describes a demonstration of the successful recovery of magnetite from mixtures of magnetite and coal, like those found in a coal-washing circuit, by High Gradient Magnetic Separation. The demonstration was part of a research program at Francis Bitter National Magnet L...

  9. Cadmium Removal from Rice by Separating and Washing Protein Isolate.

    PubMed

    Huo, Yinqiang; Du, Hongying; Xue, Bingying; Niu, Meng; Zhao, Siming

    2016-06-01

    In this study detoxification of 3 Chinese Cd-contaminated cultivars (Jinyou463, Yuchi, and Xiangzaoxian 32) of rice was explored. By separation with an alkaline method, Cd concentrations of the starch isolates were decreased from 0.2769, 0.4037, and 0.5156 mg/kg in starting milled rice to 0.1056, 0.1585, and 0.1923 mg/kg, respectively. However, the Cd concentrations reached up to 2.5905, 3.1628, and 4.8593 mg/kg in the protein isolates, respectively. Therefore, 10 common acids in food industry were investigated to remove Cd from protein isolate by washing process. The optimal washing conditions were 0.5 M citric acid, acid to rice protein isolate ratio of 6:1 v/w, shaking time of 1 h at room temperature. The rice protein isolate showed a significant decrease in Cd concentration and the removal efficiency was more than 95% after 2 washings at optimized conditions. Rice proteins were not degraded at all and had very little loss during citric acid washing process. The study presents a promising way of depurating Cd-contaminated rice, and meanwhile it reduces the risk of heavy metal causing food safety issues effectively. PMID:27159878

  10. Conservation of water for washing beef heads at harvest

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective of this research was to develop methods to conserve water necessary to cleanse beef heads prior to USDA–FSIS inspection. This was to be accomplished by establishing a baseline for the minimum amount of water necessary to adequately wash a head and application of image analysis to provi...

  11. DEMONSTRATION BULLETIN: SOIL/SEDIMENT WASHING SYSTEM BERGMANN USA

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Bergmann USA Soil/Sediment Washing System is a waste minimization technique designed to separate or "partition" soils and sediments by grain size and density. In this water-based volume reduction process, hazardous contaminants are concentrated into a small residual portion...

  12. Conservation of water for washing beef heads at harvest.

    PubMed

    DeOtte, R E; Spivey, K S; Galloway, H O; Lawrence, T E

    2010-03-01

    The objective of this research was to develop methods to conserve water necessary to cleanse beef heads prior to USDA-FSIS inspection. This was to be accomplished by establishing a baseline for the minimum amount of water necessary to adequately wash a head and application of image analysis to provide an objective measure of head cleaning. Twenty-one beef heads were manually washed during the harvest process. An average 18.75 L (2.49 SD) and a maximum of 23.88 L were required to cleanse the heads to USDA-FSIS standards. Digital images were captured before and after manual washing then evaluated for percentage red saturation using commercially available image analysis software. A decaying exponential curve extracted from these data indicated that as wash water increased beyond 20 L the impact on red saturation decreased. At 4 sigma from the mean of 18.75 L, red saturation is 16.0 percent, at which logistic regression analysis indicates 99.994 percent of heads would be accepted for inspection, or less than 1 head in 15,000 would be rejected. Reducing to 3 sigma would increase red saturation to 27.6 percent, for which 99.730 percent of heads likely would be accepted (less than 1 in 370 would be rejected). PMID:20374798

  13. 21 CFR 211.52 - Washing and toilet facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Washing and toilet facilities. 211.52 Section 211.52 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) DRUGS: GENERAL CURRENT GOOD MANUFACTURING PRACTICE FOR FINISHED PHARMACEUTICALS Buildings and...

  14. 21 CFR 211.52 - Washing and toilet facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Washing and toilet facilities. 211.52 Section 211.52 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) DRUGS: GENERAL CURRENT GOOD MANUFACTURING PRACTICE FOR FINISHED PHARMACEUTICALS Buildings and...

  15. 21 CFR 211.52 - Washing and toilet facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Washing and toilet facilities. 211.52 Section 211.52 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) DRUGS: GENERAL CURRENT GOOD MANUFACTURING PRACTICE FOR FINISHED PHARMACEUTICALS Buildings and...

  16. 30 CFR 1206.458 - Determination of washing allowances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Section 1206.458 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF NATURAL RESOURCES REVENUE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR NATURAL.... (b) Non-arm's-length or no contract. (1) If a lessee has a non-arm's-length contract or has no... will be based upon the lessee's reasonable actual costs. All washing allowances deducted under a...

  17. Understanding wash efficiency and chloride transfer in copper solvent extraction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burkhardt, D. J.

    2003-07-01

    Carryover of entrained aqueous from primary leaching operations into copper electrowinning electrolytes introduces impurities that can affect cathode quality and cause corrosion. As a result, more operations are introducing wash stages in their solvent extraction circuits in an attempt to dilute these entrainments with high-quality water.

  18. IDENTIFICATION OF ENTEROBACTERICEAE FROM WASHED AND UNWASHED COMMERCIAL SHELL EGGS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Recently, little attention has been given to the microbiology of commercial processed eggs. Therefore, to evaluate the effect of processing on the safety and quality of retail shell eggs, a storage study was conducted with unwashed and commercially washed eggs. For each of three repetitions, shell...

  19. Dry Kraft Pulping at Ambient Pressure for Cost Effective Energy Saving and Pollution Deduction

    SciTech Connect

    Yulin Deng; Art Ragauskas

    2012-08-28

    Sponsored by the DOE Industrial Energy Efficiency Grand Challenge program, our research team at the Georgia Institute of Technology conducted laboratory studies and confirmed the concept of making wood pulp using a dry pulping technology. This technology is a new process different from any prior pulping technology used in Kraft and CTMP pulping. Three different kinds of dry pulping methods were investigated. (a) Dry Pulping at Atmospheric Pressure: The first one is to dry and bake the pretreated woodchips in a conventional oven at atmospheric pressure without the use of a catalyst. (b) Dry Pulping at Reduced Pressure: The second method is to dry the pretreated woodchips first in a vacuum oven in the presence of anthraquinone (AQ) as a pulping catalyst, followed by baking at elevated temperature. (c) Liquid Free Chemical Pulping, LFCP. The third method is to first remove the free water of pretreated woodchips, followed by dry pulping using a conventional Kraft pulping digester with AQ and triton as additives. Method one: Experimental results indicated that Dry Pulping at Atmospheric Pressure could produce pulp with higher brightness and lower bulk than conventional Kraft pulp. However, tensile strength of the acquired pulp is much lower than traditional Kraft pulp, and their Kappa number and energy consumption are higher than conventional Kraft pulp. By fully analyzing the results, we concluded that wood fibers might be damaged during the drying process at elevated temperature. The main reason for wood fiber damage is that a long drying time was used during evaporation of water from the woodchips. This resulted in an un-uniform reaction condition on the woodchips: the outside layer of the woodchips was over reacted while inside the woodchips did not reacted at all. To solve this problem, dry pulping at reduced pressure was investigated. Method two: To achieve uniform reaction throughout the entire reaction system, the water inside the pretreated woodchips was

  20. Innovations in papermaking: an LCA of printing and writing paper from conventional and high yield pulp.

    PubMed

    Manda, B M Krishna; Blok, Kornelis; Patel, Martin K

    2012-11-15

    Pulp and paper industry is facing challenges such as resource scarcity and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. The objective of this research is to investigate whether the use of new coatings (micro or nano TiO(2)) and different pulp types could bring savings in wood, energy, GHG emissions and other environmental impacts in comparison with conventional printing and writing paper. We studied three types of pulp, namely i) unbleached virgin kraft pulp, ii) recovered fiber, and iii) high yield virgin chemithermo-mechanical pulp (CTMP). A life cycle assessment (LCA) was conducted from cradle to grave. Applying attributional modeling, we found that wood savings amount to 60% for the nanoparticle coated recovered fiber paper and 35% for the micro TiO(2) coated CTMP paper. According to the ReCiPe single score impact assessment method, the new product configurations allow the reduction of the environmental impacts by 10-35% compared to conventional kraft paper. Applying consequential modeling, we found larger energy and GHG emission savings compared to attributional modeling because the saved wood is used for producing energy, thereby replacing fossil fuels. The nanoparticle coated recovered fiber paper offered savings of non-renewable energy use (NREU) by 100% (13GJ/ton paper) and GHG emission reduction by 75% (0.6 tonCO(2)eq./ton paper). Micro TiO(2) coated CTMP paper offered NREU savings by 25% (3GJ/ton paper) and savings of GHG emissions by 10% (0.1 tonCO(2)eq./ton paper). The taking into account of all environmental impacts with the ReCiPe single score method leads to comparable results as that of attributional modeling. We conclude that the nanoparticle coated recovered fiber paper offered the highest savings and lowest environmental impacts. However, human toxicity and ecotoxicity impacts of the nanoparticles were not included in this analysis and need further research. If this leads to the conclusion that the toxicity impacts of the nanoparticles are serious, then the

  1. Environmental Impacts Of Zirab Coal Washing Plant, Mazandaran, Iran

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moore, F.; Esmaeili, A.

    2009-04-01

    Extraction and beneficiation operations associated with coal mining increase the rate of chemical reaction of waste material to air and water media. Zirab coal washing plant is located on the bank of the Cherat stream in Mazandaran province, Iran. coal Mined from central Alborz coalfield mines is not suitable for use in Iranian Steel Corporation. Hence, coal ash content is reduced by physical and chemical processes in this plant. These processes leave a large quantity of liquid and solid wastes that accumulate in waste dump and tailing dam. sediment and water samples taken from Sheshrudbar and Cherat streams and also from Talar river show high concentration of Cd, Mo and As in water samples of coal washing plant and the associated drainage. Eh-pH diagrams revealed the chemical species of elements in water. The enrichment factor and geoaccumulation index show that Cd, Hg, Mo and V are enriched in bottom sediments of the coal washing plant and decrease with increasing distance from the plant. Sequential extraction analysis Results of three sediment samples of Cherat stream show that silicate bound is the major phase in samples taken before and after the plant, but adjacent to the plant, organic bound is dominant. The high concentration of Cd and Mo in the water soluble phase, is noticeable and may result in high mobility and bioavailability of these elements. Mann-Whitney and Wilcoxon tests on six samples, before and after the coal washing plant support the obtained results. Keywords: Zirab; coal washing plant; Sequential extraction analysis; Mann-whitney; Wilcoxon; Enrichment factor; Geoaccumulation index.

  2. Hand Washing Among School Children in Bogotá, Colombia

    PubMed Central

    Lopez-Quintero, Catalina; Freeman, Paul

    2009-01-01

    Objectives. We assessed hand-washing behaviors and intentions among school children in Bogotá, Colombia, to help identify and overcome barriers to proper hygiene practices. Methods. Data on hand-washing behavior and intentions and individual and contextual factors were collected from 2042 sixth- through eighth-grade students in 25 schools in Bogotá via anonymous questionnaires. A member of the school administration or teaching staff completed a questionnaire about the school environment. Site inspections of bathroom facilities were conducted. Results. Only 33.6% of the sample reported always or very often washing hands with soap and clean water before eating and after using the toilet. About 7% of students reported regular access to soap and clean water at school. A high level of perceived control was the strongest predictor of positive hand-washing intentions (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 6.0; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 4.8, 7.5). Students with proper hand-washing behavior were less likely to report previous-month gastrointestinal symptoms (OR = 0.8; 95% CI = 0.6, 0.9) or previous-year school absenteeism (OR = 0.7; 95% CI = 0.6, 0.9). Conclusions. Scarcity of adequate facilities in most schools in Bogotá prevents children from adopting proper hygienic behavior and thwarts health promotion efforts. The current renovation program of public schools in Bogotá provides a unique opportunity to meet the challenges of providing a supportive environment for adoption of healthy behaviors. PMID:19008513

  3. Multivariate statistical analyses of groundwater surrounding Forty mile wash

    SciTech Connect

    Woocay, A.; Walton, J.C.

    2007-07-01

    Groundwater chemistry data from 211 sampling locations in the vicinity of Yucca Mountain, Nevada are analyzed using multivariate statistical methods in order to better understand groundwater chemical evolution, ascertain potential flow paths and determine hydrochemical facies. Correspondence analysis of the major ion chemistry is used to define relationships between and among major ions and sampling locations. A k-means cluster analysis is used to determine hydrochemical facies based on correspondence analysis dimensions. The derived dimensions and hydrochemical facies are presented as bi-plots and overlaid on a digital elevation model of the region giving a visual picture of potential interactions and flow paths. A distinct signature of the groundwater chemistry along the extended flow path of Fortymile Wash can be observed along with some potential interaction at possible fault lines near Highway I-95. The signature from Fortymile Wash is believed to represent the relict of water that infiltrated during past pluvial periods when the amount of runoff in the wash was significantly larger than during the current drier period. This hypothesis appears to be supported by hydrogen-2 and oxygen-18 data which indicate that younger groundwater is found in the upper part of the wash near Yucca Mountain and older groundwater is found in the lower region of the wash near Amargosa River. The range of the hydrogen-2 data corresponds to precipitation in a period of relatively cold climate and has a similar spatial signature to the oxygen-18 data. If the hypothesis that current groundwater chemistry primarily reflects past focused infiltration of surface runoff rather than regional groundwater migration is correct, then saturated zone transport from Yucca Mountain may be much slower than is currently anticipated. (authors)

  4. Fungal secretomes enhance sugar beet pulp hydrolysis

    PubMed Central

    Kracher, Daniel; Oros, Damir; Yao, Wanying; Preims, Marita; Rezic, Iva; Haltrich, Dietmar; Rezic, Tonci; Ludwig, Roland

    2014-01-01

    The recalcitrance of lignocellulose makes enzymatic hydrolysis of plant biomass for the production of second generation biofuels a major challenge. This work investigates an efficient and economic approach for the enzymatic hydrolysis of sugar beet pulp (SBP), which is a difficult to degrade, hemicellulose-rich by-product of the table sugar industry. Three fungal strains were grown on different substrates and the production of various extracellular hydrolytic and oxidative enzymes involved in pectin, hemicellulose, and cellulose breakdown were monitored. In a second step, the ability of the culture supernatants to hydrolyze thermally pretreated SBP was tested in batch experiments. The supernatant of Sclerotium rolfsii, a soil-borne facultative plant pathogen, was found to have the highest hydrolytic activity on SBP and was selected for further hydrolyzation experiments. A low enzyme load of 0.2 mg g–1 protein from the culture supernatant was sufficient to hydrolyze a large fraction of the pectin and hemicelluloses present in SBP. The addition of Trichoderma reesei cellulase (1–17.5 mg g–1 SBP) resulted in almost complete hydrolyzation of cellulose. It was found that the combination of pectinolytic, hemicellulolytic, and cellulolytic activities works synergistically on the complex SBP composite, and a combination of these hydrolytic enzymes is required to achieve a high degree of enzymatic SBP hydrolysis with a low enzyme load. PMID:24677771

  5. Fungal secretomes enhance sugar beet pulp hydrolysis.

    PubMed

    Kracher, Daniel; Oros, Damir; Yao, Wanying; Preims, Marita; Rezic, Iva; Haltrich, Dietmar; Rezic, Tonci; Ludwig, Roland

    2014-04-01

    The recalcitrance of lignocellulose makes enzymatic hydrolysis of plant biomass for the production of second generation biofuels a major challenge. This work investigates an efficient and economic approach for the enzymatic hydrolysis of sugar beet pulp (SBP), which is a difficult to degrade, hemicellulose-rich by-product of the table sugar industry. Three fungal strains were grown on different substrates and the production of various extracellular hydrolytic and oxidative enzymes involved in pectin, hemicellulose, and cellulose breakdown were monitored. In a second step, the ability of the culture supernatants to hydrolyze thermally pretreated SBP was tested in batch experiments. The supernatant of Sclerotium rolfsii, a soil-borne facultative plant pathogen, was found to have the highest hydrolytic activity on SBP and was selected for further hydrolyzation experiments. A low enzyme load of 0.2 mg g(-1) protein from the culture supernatant was sufficient to hydrolyze a large fraction of the pectin and hemicelluloses present in SBP. The addition of Trichoderma reesei cellulase (1-17.5 mg g(-1) SBP) resulted in almost complete hydrolyzation of cellulose. It was found that the combination of pectinolytic, hemicellulolytic, and cellulolytic activities works synergistically on the complex SBP composite, and a combination of these hydrolytic enzymes is required to achieve a high degree of enzymatic SBP hydrolysis with a low enzyme load. PMID:24677771

  6. Yield Improvement and Energy Savings Uing Phosphonates as Additives in Kraft pulping

    SciTech Connect

    Ulrike W. Tschirner; Timothy Smith

    2007-03-31

    Project Objective: Develop a commercially viable modification to the Kraft process resulting in energy savings, increased yield and improved bleachability. Evaluate the feasibility of this technology across a spectrum of wood species used in North America. Develop detailed fundamental understanding of the mechanism by which phosphonates improve KAPPA number and yield. Evaluate the North American market potential for the use of phosphonates in the Kraft pulping process. Examine determinants of customer perceived value and explore organizational and operational factors influencing attitudes and behaviors. Provide an economic feasibility assessment for the supply chain, both suppliers (chemical supply companies) and buyers (Kraft mills). Provide background to most effectively transfer this new technology to commercial mills.

  7. The enzymatic hydrolysis of pretreated pulp fibers predominantly involves “peeling/erosion” modes of action

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background There is still considerable debate regarding the actual mechanism by which a “cellulase mixture” deconstructs cellulosic materials, with accessibility to the substrate at the microscopic level being one of the major restrictions that limits fast, complete cellulose hydrolysis. In the work reported here we tried to determine the predominant mode of action, at the fiber level, of how a cellulase mixture deconstructs pretreated softwood and hardwood pulp fibers. Quantitative changes in the pulp fibers derived from different pretreated biomass substrates were monitored throughout the course of enzymatic hydrolysis to see if the dominant mechanisms involved either the fragmentation/cutting of longer fibers to shorter fibers or their “peeling/delamination/erosion,” or if both cutting and peeling mechanisms occurred simultaneously. Results Regardless of the source of biomass, the type of pretreatment and the chemical composition of the substrate, under typical hydrolysis conditions (50°C, pH 4.8, mixing) longer pulp fibers (fiber length >200 μm) were rapidly broken down until a relatively constant fiber length of 130 to 160 μm was reached. In contrast, shorter fibers with an initial average fiber length of 130 to 160 μm showed no significant change in length despite their substantial hydrolysis. The fragmentation/cutting mode of deconstruction was only observed on longer fibers at early stages of hydrolysis. Although the fiber fragmentation mode of deconstruction was not greatly influenced by enzyme loading, it was significantly inhibited by glucose and was mainly observed during initial mixing of the enzyme and substrate. In contrast, significant changes in the fiber width occurred throughout the course of hydrolysis for all of the substrates, suggesting that fiber width may limit the rate and extent of cellulose hydrolysis. Conclusion It appears that, at the fiber level, pretreated pulp fibers are hydrolyzed through a two-step mode of action

  8. Differential transcriptional regulation of L-ascorbic acid content in peel and pulp of citrus fruits during development and maturation.

    PubMed

    Alós, Enriqueta; Rodrigo, María J; Zacarías, Lorenzo

    2014-05-01

    Citrus fruits are an important source of ascorbic acid (AsA) for human nutrition, but the main pathways involved in its biosynthesis and their regulation are still not fully characterized. To study the transcriptional regulation of AsA accumulation, expression levels of 13 genes involved in AsA biosynthesis, 5 in recycling and 5 in degradation were analyzed in peel and pulp of fruit of two varieties with different AsA concentration: Navel orange (Citrus sinensis) and Satsuma mandarin (Citrus unshiu). AsA accumulation in peel and pulp correlated with the transcriptional profiling of the L-galactose pathway genes, and the myo-inositol pathway appeared to be also relevant in the peel of immature-green orange. Differences in AsA content between varieties were associated with differential gene expression of GDP-mannose pyrophosphorylase (GMP), GDP-L-galactose phosphorylase (GGP) and L-galactose-1-phosphate phosphatase (GPP), myo-inositol oxygenase in peel, and GGP and GPP in pulp. Relative expressions of monodehydroascorbate reductase 3 (MDHAR3) and dehydroascorbate reductase1 (DHAR1) correlated with AsA accumulation during development and ripening in peel and pulp, respectively, and were more highly expressed in the variety with higher AsA contents. Collectively, results indicated a differential regulation of AsA concentration in peel and pulp of citrus fruits that may change during the different stages of fruit development. The L-galactose pathway appears to be predominant in both tissues, but AsA concentration is regulated by complex mechanisms in which degradation and recycling also play important roles. PMID:24567029

  9. Nano-Hydroxyapatite and Calcium-Enriched Mixture for Pulp Capping of Sound Primary Teeth: A Randomized Clinical Trial

    PubMed Central

    Haghgoo, Roza; Asgary, Saeed; Mashhadi Abbas, Fatemeh; Montazeri Hedeshi, Roshanak

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Nano-hydroxyapatite (NHA) has been used for regeneration of osseous defects. Calcium-enriched mixture (CEM) cement is also used for various dental treatments. This trial compared the efficacy of NHA and CEM cement for direct pulp capping (DPC) of sound primary teeth. Methods and Materials: In this randomized clinical trial with split-mouth design, after attaining informed consent, 20 sound primary canines scheduled for orthodontic extraction, were selected. After mechanical pulp exposure, the exposed site was capped with either NHA or CEM cement and then immediately restored with glass-ionomer and resin composite. The teeth were extracted after two months and examined histologically. Parameters of hard tissue bridge (HTB) formation, its type and quality as well as pulpal inflammation scores were compared between the two experimental groups. The data were analyzed using the Mann Whitney U and Fisher’s exact test. The level of significance was set at 0.001. Results: All CEM specimens showed inflammation score of 0 (less than 10%). However, in NHA group, inflammation scores of 0 (less than 10%), 1 (10%-30%) and 2 (30%-50%) were observed in 2 (20%), 4 (40%) and 4 (40%) specimens, respectively (P<0.001). HTB was formed in all CEM specimens while it was developed in 2 specimens of NHA (20%; P<0.001). All CEM specimens showed normal pulp; only two cases in NHA group (20%) demonstrated uninflamed normal pulp. Conclusion: CEM cement was superior to NHA as a DPC agent in terms of HTB formation and pulp inflammation scores. It is a suitable material for the DPC of primary teeth. PMID:25834594

  10. Efficacies of Sodium Hypochlorite and Quaternary Ammonium Sanitizers for Reduction of Norovirus and Selected Bacteria during Ware-Washing Operations

    PubMed Central

    Feliciano, Lizanel; Li, Jianrong; Lee, Jaesung; Pascall, Melvin A.

    2012-01-01

    Cross-contamination of ready-to-eat (RTE) foods with pathogens on contaminated tableware and food preparation utensils is an important factor associated with foodborne illnesses. To prevent this, restaurants and food service establishments are required to achieve a minimum microbial reduction of 5 logs from these surfaces. This study evaluated the sanitization efficacies of ware-washing protocols (manual and mechanical) used in restaurants to clean tableware items. Ceramic plates, drinking glasses and stainless steel forks were used as the food contact surfaces. These were contaminated with cream cheese and reduced-fat milk inoculated with murine norovirus (MNV-1), Escherichia coli K-12 and Listeria innocua. The sanitizing solutions tested were sodium hypochlorite (chlorine), quaternary ammonium (QAC) and tap water (control). During the study, the survivability and response to the experimental conditions of the bacterial species was compared with that of MNV-1. The results showed that current ware-washing protocols used to remove bacteria from tableware items were not sufficient to achieve a 5 log reduction in MNV-1 titer. After washing, a maximum of 3 log reduction in the virus were obtained. It was concluded that MNV-1 appeared to be more resistant to both the washing process and the sanitizers when compared with E. coli K-12 and L. innocua. PMID:23227163

  11. Effective anaesthesia of the acutely inflamed pulp: part 1. The acutely inflamed pulp.

    PubMed

    Virdee, S S; Seymour, D; Bhakta, S

    2015-10-23

    Achieving profound pulpal anaesthesia in a mandibular molar diagnosed with irreversible pulpitis can be argued to be the most testing of dental anaesthetic challenges. This can be attributed to the technical complexities of conventional techniques and the presence of pulp pathosis. Reasons for why the latter influences the ability to attain pulpal anaesthesia is not yet fully understood, but its frequent occurrence is well documented. In light of overcoming this it has become common practice to prescribe antibiotics, refer onto secondary care or to even commence treatment without appropriately anaesthetising the tooth. Therefore, this two part series aims to help practitioners attain clinically acceptable pulpal anaesthesia in the most testing of scenarios; the acutely inflamed mandibular molar. They should then be able to apply these same principles to other teeth presenting with similar symptoms. This section outlines the clinical presentation and pathophysiology associated with an acutely inflamed pulp, defines what it is to attain pulpal anaesthesia and critically analyses theories as to why these teeth are up to eight times more difficult to anaesthetise than their healthy counterparts. PMID:26494344

  12. Unraveling the Complexity in the Aging of Nanoenhanced Textiles: A Comprehensive Sequential Study on the Effects of Sunlight and Washing on Silver Nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Mitrano, Denise M; Lombi, Enzo; Dasilva, Yadira Arroyo Rojas; Nowack, Bernd

    2016-06-01

    The scientific understanding of nanoparticle (NP) release and transformations they undergo during the product life cycle is hampered by the narrow scope of many research endeavors in terms of both breadth of variables and completeness of analytical characterization. We conducted a comprehensive suite of studies to reveal overarching mechanisms and parameters for nanosilver transformations either still adhered to the fabric or when released after washing. Laboratory prepared nanoenhanced fabrics were investigated: three Ag variants and one Au used as an unreactive reference to separate mechanical from chemical releases. Sequential combinations of sunlight irradiation and/or washing in seven different detergent formulations was followed by NP characterization divided into two groups: (1) dissolved and particulate matter in the wash solutions and (2) the fraction that remained on the fabric. Analytical techniques included spICP-MS, XANES, TEM, SEM, and total metals analysis of fabric digests and wash water filtrates. Sunlight irradiation stabilizes metallic Ag upon washing. Detergents containing oxidizing agents assisted with Ag particle release but not Au NPs, inferring additional chemical mechanisms. While particle size played some role, the NP capping agent/fabric binder combination was a key factor in release. When particles were released, little alteration in size was observed. The use of well-controlled fabrics, unreactive reference materials, and a life-cycle based experimental regime are paramount to understanding changes in Ag speciation and release upon use of nanoenhanced textiles. PMID:27128769

  13. Elucidating the cellular actions of demineralised dentine matrix extract on a clonal dental pulp stem cell population in orchestrating dental tissue repair

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Chi P; Colombo, John S; Ayre, Wayne Nishio; Sloan, Alastair J

    2015-01-01

    Bioactive growth factors identified within the extracellular matrix of dentine have been proposed roles in regulating the naturally inherent regenerative dentine formation seen in teeth in response to trauma and infection, which may also be harnessed for novel clinical treatments in augmenting mineralised tissue repair. This study examined the specific biological action of demineralised dentine matrix extract on a clonal population of dental pulp stem cells in stimulating the prerequisite stages of wound healing associated with mineralised tissue repair. A clonal dental pulp stem cell population with sustained proliferative capacity and multi-potentiality towards osteogenic, adipogenic and chondrogenic lineages was isolated from the pulp of human third molars. Dentine was collected from human healthy teeth, powdered and treated with ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid to obtain a solubilised DDM protein extract. The influence of DDM on the DPSC clonal population was assessed in vitro. Exposure of cells to proteolytically degraded DDM or unsupplemented media served as controls. Compared to controls, DDM stimulated cell expansion, reduced apoptotic marker caspase 3, increased cell survival marker Akt1 and enhanced mineralised matrix deposition as determined by mineral deposition and increased expression of bone-related markers, alkaline phosphatase and osteopontin. Dental pulp stem cells successfully migrated into collagen gels supplemented with demineralised dentine matrix, with cells remaining viable and expanding in numbers over a 3-day period. Collectively, the results provide evidence that soluble proteins extracted from dentine matrix are able to exert a direct biological effect on dental pulp stem cells in promoting mineralised tissue repair mechanisms. PMID:26019808

  14. Exploring the effects of treatments with carbohydrases to obtain a high-cellulose content pulp from a non-wood alkaline pulp.

    PubMed

    Beltramino, Facundo; Valls, Cristina; Vidal, Teresa; Roncero, M Blanca

    2015-11-20

    In this work, treatments with a xylanase (X) and carbohydrases mixture (Cx) were applied on a TCF bleached sisal pulp in order to obtain high-cellulose content fibers applicable on a wide range of uses. A limit of ≈12% w/w final content in hemicelluloses was found regardless of the enzymatic treatment assessed. An extraction with 4% and 9% w/v NaOH was performed for further hemicelluloses removal. We found that NaOH dose could be strongly reduced if combined with Cx or Cx+X treatments. Also, if necessary, a stronger reduction could be obtained with 9% w/v NaOH, which was found to be boosted in a 14% if performed after a treatment with Cx. An end-product with a low content in xylans (≈2.9% w/w) and in HexA (5.8μmol/odp) was obtained. Pulp Fock solubility was also increased (≈30%) by enzymatic treatments. HPLC analysis of effluents provided useful information of enzymatic catalytic mechanisms. PMID:26344285

  15. Ultrasonic Sensor to Characterize Wood Pulp During Refining

    SciTech Connect

    Greenwood, Margaret S.; Panetta, Paul D.; Bond, Leonard J.; McCaw, M. W.

    2006-12-22

    A novel sensor concept has been developed for measuring the consistency, the degree of refining, the water retention value (WRV), and the consistency of wood pulp during the refining process. The measurement time is less than 5 minutes and the sensor can operate in a slip-stream of the process line or as an at-line instrument. The consistency is obtained from a calibration, in which the attenuation of ultrasound through the pulp suspension is measured as a function of the solids weight percentage. The degree of refining and the WRV are determined from settling measurements. The settling of a pulp suspension (consistency less than 0.5 Wt%) is observed, after the mixer that keeps the pulp uniformly distributed is turned off. The attenuation of ultrasound as a function of time is recorded and these data show a peak, after a certain delay, defined as the “peak time.” The degree of refining increases with the peak time, as demonstrated by measuring pulp samples with different degrees of refining. The WRV can be determined using the relative peak time, defined as the ratio T2/T1, where T1 is an initial value of the peak time and T2 is the value after additional refining. This method offers an additional WRV test for the industry, because the freeness test is not specific for the WRV.

  16. Bacteriological analysis of necrotic pulp and fistulae in primary teeth

    PubMed Central

    FABRIS, Antônio Scalco; NAKANO, Viviane; AVILA-CAMPOS, Mario Júlio

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Primary teeth work as guides for the eruption of permanent dentition, contribute for the development of the jaws, chewing process, preparing food for digestion, and nutrient assimilation. Treatment of pulp necrosis in primary teeth is complex due to anatomical and physiological characteristics and high number of bacterial species present in endodontic infections. The bacterial presence alone or in association in necrotic pulp and fistula samples from primary teeth of boys and girls was evaluated. Material and Methods Necrotic pulp (103) and fistula (7) samples from deciduous teeth with deep caries of 110 children were evaluated. Bacterial morphotypes and species from all clinical samples were determined. Results A predominance of gram-positive cocci (81.8%) and gram-negative coccobacilli (49.1%) was observed. In 88 out of 103 pulp samples, a high prevalence of Enterococcus spp. (50%), Porphyromonas gingivalis (49%), Fusobacterium nucleatum (25%) and Prevotella nigrescens (11.4%) was observed. Porphyromonas gingivalis was detected in three out of seven fistula samples, Enterococcus spp. in two out of seven samples, and F. nucleatum, P. nigrescens and D. pneumosintes in one out of seven samples. Conclusions Our results show that Enterococcus spp. and P. gingivalis were prevalent in necrotic pulp from deciduous teeth in boys from 2 to 5 years old, and that care of the oral cavity of children up to five years of age is important. PMID:24676582

  17. The pulp capping procedure in primary teeth "revisited".

    PubMed

    Kopel, H M

    1997-01-01

    The purpose of this review is to "revisit" an earlier paper (1992) on the subject of direct pulp capping in primary teeth and bring some new considerations for the procedure by the use of dentin bonding adhesives. It has come to be recognized that the customary employment of calcium hydroxide for this therapy has some shortcomings that reduce the prognosis for a favorable outcome. For at least a decade, many investigations have found that postoperative sensitivity, thermal stimuli, pulp inflammation and pathosis can be attributed not to the composition of various dental materials and their insertion techniques, but to microleakage with subsequent bacterial invasion at the enamel/restoration and the dentin/pulp interfaces. It is imperative, as pointed out, that there be an impervious resinous bond between the dentin and the dentinopulpal complex which can be achieved by the use of dentinal adhesive agents to eliminate microleakage outward movement of pulpal fluids. Various steps in the bonding technique for the treatment of deep dentin caries and/or a pulp exposure has raised some concerns for their effect on the pulp. This review discusses these concerns, which can lead to the conclusion that the use of dentinal bonding adhesives is a safe and biologically feasible procedure, whether it be in permanent or primary teeth. PMID:9391709

  18. Pulp tissue in sex determination: A fluorescent microscopic study

    PubMed Central

    Nayar, Amit; Singh, Harkanwal Preet; Leekha, Swati

    2014-01-01

    Aims: To determine and compare the reliability of pulp tissue in determination of sex and to analyze whether caries have any effect on fluorescent body test. Materials and Methods: This study was carried on 50 maxillary and mandibular teeth (25 male teeth and 25 female teeth), which were indicated for extraction. The teeth are categorized into 5 groups, 10 each (5 from males and 5 from females) on the basis of caries progression. The pulp cells are stained with quinacrine hydrochloride and observed with fluorescent microscope for fluorescent body. Gender is determined by identification of Y chromosome fluorescence in dental pulp. Results: Fluorescent bodies were found to be more in sound teeth in males as the caries increase the mean percentage of fluorescent bodies observed decreases in males. We also observed the fluorescent spots in females, and the value of the spot increases in female as the caries progresses, thereby giving false positive results in females. Conclusion: Sex determination by fluorescent staining of the Y chromosome is a reliable technique in teeth with healthy pulps or caries with enamel or up to half way of dentin. Teeth with caries involving pulp cannot be used for sex determination. PMID:25125912

  19. Characterization of active paper packaging incorporated with ginger pulp oleoresin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wiastuti, T.; Khasanah, L. U.; Atmaka Kawiji, W.; Manuhara, G. J.; Utami, R.

    2016-02-01

    Utilization of ginger pulp waste from herbal medicine and instant drinks industry in Indonesia currently used for fertilizer and fuel, whereas the ginger pulp still contains high oleoresin. Active paper packaging were developed incorporated with ginger pulp oleoresin (0%, 2%, 4%, and 6% w/w). Physical (thickness, tensile strength, and folding endurance, moisture content), sensory characteristics and antimicrobial activity of the active paper were evaluated. Selected active paper then were chemically characterized (functional groups). The additional of ginger pulp oleoresin levels are reduced tensile strength, folding endurance and sensory characteristic (color, texture and overall) and increased antimicrobial activity. Due to physical, sensory characteristic and antimicrobial activity, active paper with 2% ginger pulp oleoresin incorporation was selected. Characteristics of selected paper were 9.93% of water content; 0.81 mm of thickness; 0.54 N / mm of tensile strength; 0.30 of folding endurance; 8.43 mm inhibits the growth of Pseudomonas fluorescence and 27.86 mm inhibits the growth of Aspergillus niger (antimicrobial activity) and neutral preference response for sensory properties. For chemical characteristic, selected paper had OH functional group of ginger in 3422.83 cm-1 of wave number and indicated contain red ginger active compounds.

  20. Histochemistry of nerve fibres double labelled with anti-TRPV2 antibodies and sensory nerve marker AM1-43 in the dental pulp of rat molars.

    PubMed

    Nishikawa, Sumio

    2008-09-01

    AM1-43 can label sensory nerve fibres and sensory neurons. Permeation of non-selective cation channels of the nerve cell membrane is suggested to be the mechanism responsible for labelling. To identify these channels, two candidates, TRPV1 and TRPV2 were examined by immunocytochemistry in the dental pulp and trigeminal ganglion of rats injected with AM1-43. A part of AM1-43-labelled nerve fibres was also positive for anti-TRPV2 antibody but negative for anti-TRPV1 antibody in the dental pulp. In the trigeminal ganglion, a part of the neuron showed both bright AM1-43 labelling and anti-TRPV2 immunolabelling, but neurons double labelled with AM1-43 and TRPV1 were rare. These results suggest that TRPV2 channels, but not TRPV1 channels, contribute to the fluorescent labelling of AM1-43 in the dental pulp. PMID:18405879

  1. Chemical composition and pulping of date palm rachis and Posidonia oceanica--a comparison with other wood and non-wood fibre sources.

    PubMed

    Khiari, R; Mhenni, M F; Belgacem, M N; Mauret, E

    2010-01-01

    In the present paper, the valorisation of two residues: Posidonia oceanica and date palm rachis was investigated. First, their chemical composition was studied and showed that they present amounts of holocellulose, lignin and cellulose similar to those encountered in softwood and hardwood. Extractives in different solvents and ash contents are relatively high. Moreover, ash composition assessment showed that silicon is the major component (17.7%) for P. oceanica. The high ash quantity and the low DP (about 370) may be considered as serious disadvantages of P. oceanica, in the pulping and papermaking context. Oppositely, the properties of rachis date palm and those of the ensuing pulp, obtained from a classical soda-anthraquinone cooking, demonstrated the suitability of this agricultural by-product for papermaking. Preliminary tests conducted on unrefined pulp suspensions and handsheets from date palm rachis in terms of freeness, Water Retention Value and mechanical properties allowed confirming the good quality of date palm rachis fibres. PMID:19766481

  2. Highly Energy Efficient Directed Green Liquor Utilization (D-GLU) Pulping

    SciTech Connect

    2007-07-01

    This factsheet describes a project that seeks to develop feasible chemical modifications during kraft pulping operations to obtain significant energy and product benefits for U.S. kraft pulp and paper mills.

  3. Apparatus for washing particulate material. [Removal of silicone oil from microspheres by trichloroethylene

    DOEpatents

    Rivera, A.L.; Fowler, V.L.; Justice, G.V.

    1983-12-29

    Transport of nuclear fuel microspheres through a wash liquid is facilitated by feeding a slurry containing the microspheres into the wash liquid via a column having a vibrating tubular screen located under its lower end.

  4. Wood Pulp Digetster Wall Corrosion Investigation

    SciTech Connect

    Giles, GE

    2003-09-18

    The modeling of the flow in a wood pulp digester is but one component of the investigation of the corrosion of digesters. This report describes the development of a Near-Wall-Model (NWM) that is intended to couple with a CFD model that determines the flow, heat, and chemical species transport and reaction within the bulk flow of a digester. Lubrication theory approximations were chosen from which to develop a model that could determine the flow conditions within a thin layer near the vessel wall using information from the interior conditions provided by a CFD calculation of the complete digester. The other conditions will be determined by coupled solutions of the wood chip, heat, and chemical species transport and chemical reactions. The NWM was to couple with a digester performance code in an iterative fashion to provide more detailed information about the conditions within the NW region. Process Simulations, Ltd (PSL) is developing the digester performance code. This more detailed (and perhaps more accurate) information from the NWM was to provide an estimate of the conditions that could aggravate the corrosion at the wall. It is intended that this combined tool (NWM-PSL) could be used to understand conditions at/near the wall in order to develop methods to reduce the corrosion. However, development and testing of the NWM flow model took longer than anticipated and the other developments (energy and species transport, chemical reactions and linking with the PSL code) were not completed. The development and testing of the NWM are described in this report. In addition, the investigation of the potential effects of a clear layer (layer reduced in concentration of wood chips) near the wall is reported in Appendix D. The existence of a clear layer was found to enhance the flow near the wall.

  5. Study of Soil Washing for Remediation of Pb and Zn Contaminated Coastal Landfill

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, S.; Kim, S.; Lee, M.

    2013-12-01

    As a result of analyzing the pre-treatment process of Pb, Zn in contaminated coastal landfill soil presented by Korean Soil Analysis Method, the each concentration was presented 577.00mg/kg, 3894.34mg/kg. This soil was critically contaminated with Pb and Zn because it was exceeded the Standard of soil contamination(2area: Pb-400mg/kg, Zn-600mg/kg). Soil remediation efficiency of the soil washing process for the removal of Pb and Zn was determined to be consistent with the results. The batch experiment on the several washing solutions(HCl, HNO3), washing solutions concentrations(0.1-0.8M) and the ratio of soil vs. solution for soil washing(1:3, 1:5 and 1:10) was performed. The results of experiments, washing time was appropriate in 30 minutes. The removal efficiency of soil washing increased as the ratio of soil vs. washing solution increased. But, in the case of heavy metals, the soil vs. solution for soil washing was determined as the optimal ratio of 1 : 5. Five consecutive soil washing with 0.5M of HCl and HNO3 solutions were performed. Results of experiments, in case of Pb was removed by target removal efficiency from soil on the twice washing. With in case of Zn was over on the first washing by target removal efficiency, but suggesting that twice consecutive soil washing is desirable as stability at field. Results of consecutive soil washing experiments, the removal efficiency maintained lower than 10 % after the 4th washing. From the results, demanding consecutive washing is not recommended. Results about the heavy metal contaminated soil washing experiments of the coastal landfill, in the case of HCl with more than 0.5 M of solution was performed at 1:5 of soil ratio vs. solution, 30 minutes of washing time and 2-3 consecutive soil washing. And in the case of HNO3 with 0.8 M of solution was performed various ratios of soil vs. washing solution, suggesting that 2-3 consecutive soil washing was reached to Pb and Zn target removal efficiency. Key words

  6. Particle size separation via soil washing to obtain volume reduction.

    PubMed

    Anderson, R; Rasor, E; Van Ryn, F

    1999-04-23

    A pilot-plant study was performed using a soil washing pilot plant originally designed by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) to demonstrate scale-up and potential full-scale remediation. This pilot plant named VORCE (Volume Reduction/Chemical Extraction) was modified to meet the specific requirements for treatment of the Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program (FUSRAP) and a Department of Energy site soils. After a series of tests on clean soils to develop operating parameters and system performance, the machine was used to treat soils, one contaminated with Thorium-232 and the other with Cesium-137. All indicate that soil washing is very promising for volume reduction treatment. In addition, cost data was generated and is given herein. PMID:10379032

  7. Detergent formulations for wool domestic washings containing immobilized enzymes.

    PubMed

    Vasconcelos, Andreia; Silva, Carla J S M; Schroeder, Marc; Guebitz, Georg M; Cavaco-Paulo, Artur

    2006-05-01

    The stability of immobilized and native Esperase, a commercial serine protease, was studied by incubating the enzymes in four formulations containing the same amount of anionic and non-ionic surfactants. The results show that the activity of the immobilized enzyme is not affected by the presence of detergents while the native enzyme lost 50% of activity after 20 min of incubation in these four formulations. The washing performance of the detergents prepared with the immobilized Esperase was studied on cotton and wool fabric samples stained with human blood and egg yolk, using as control the detergent containing native Esperase. The best stain removal for cotton samples stained with human blood was achieved using the detergent with immobilized Esperase. Several physical tests confirmed that wool keratin was not degraded by the immobilized Esperase, validating the ability to use formulated detergents containing this immobilized enzyme for safe wool domestic washing. PMID:16791727

  8. COMPILATION OF LABORATORY SCALE ALUMINUM WASH AND LEACH REPORT RESULTS

    SciTech Connect

    HARRINGTON SJ

    2011-01-06

    This report compiles and analyzes all known wash and caustic leach laboratory studies. As further data is produced, this report will be updated. Included are aluminum mineralogical analysis results as well as a summation of the wash and leach procedures and results. Of the 177 underground storage tanks at Hanford, information was only available for five individual double-shell tanks, forty-one individual single-shell tanks (e.g. thirty-nine 100 series and two 200 series tanks), and twelve grouped tank wastes. Seven of the individual single-shell tank studies provided data for the percent of aluminum removal as a function of time for various caustic concentrations and leaching temperatures. It was determined that in most cases increased leaching temperature, caustic concentration, and leaching time leads to increased dissolution of leachable aluminum solids.

  9. A Wash-Free Homogeneous Colorimetric Immunoassay Method

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Huiqiao; Rong, Pengfei; Jia, Hongwei; Yang, Jie; Dong, Bo; Dong, Qiong; Yang, Cejun; Hu, Pengzhi; Wang, Wei; Liu, Haitao; Liu, Dingbin

    2016-01-01

    Rapid and convenient biosensing platforms could be beneficial to timely diagnosis and treatment of diseases in virtually any care settings. Sandwich immunoassays, the most commonly used methods for protein detection, often rely on expensive tags such as enzyme and tedious wash and incubation procedures operated by skilled labor. In this report, we revolutionized traditional sandwich immunoassays by providing a wash-free homogeneous colorimetric immunoassay method without requirement of any separation steps. The proposed strategy was realized by controlling the growth of gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) to mediate the interparticle spacing in the protein-AuNP oligomers. We have demonstrated the successful in vitro detection of cancer biomarker in serum samples from patients with high clinical sensitivity and specificity. PMID:26722373

  10. Reactivation of a commercial diesel oxidation catalyst by acid washing.

    PubMed

    Galisteo, Francisco Cabello; Mariscal, Rafael; Granados, Manuel López; Fierro, José Luis García; Brettes, Pilar; Salas, Oscar

    2005-05-15

    The catalytic activity of samples taken from an oxidation catalyst mounted on diesel-driven automobiles and aged under road conditions was recovered to a significant extent by washing with a dilute solution of citric acid. The characterization of samples arising from a fresh, a vehicle-aged, and a regenerated catalyst was carried out by scanning electron microscopy (SEM-EDS), X-ray diffraction (XRD), and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). Relatively high levels of S and P, in the form of aluminum sulfate and phosphate, respectively, together with contaminant Si were detected in the used catalyst. Washing of the vehicle-aged catalytic oxidation converter revealed high efficiency in the extraction of the main contaminants detected (S and P) by this nondestructive methodology. The results of the experiments reported here should encourage the development of a technology based on this reactivation procedure for the rejuvenation of the catalytic device mounted on diesel exhaust pipes. PMID:15952394

  11. Research on the properties of dope-dyed bamboo pulp staple fibers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Y. J.

    2016-07-01

    In order to understand the properties of the dope-dyed bamboo pulp staple fibers, the moisture regains, tensile properties, friction properties and electrical conductivity of them and the white bamboo pulp fiber were tested, compared and analyzed. The results show that the moisture regains of the dope-dyed bamboo pulp fibers are smaller than the white bamboo pulp fiber's, whereas their friction coefficients, breaking strengths and elongations and mass ratio resistances are a bit larger.

  12. 33 CFR 157.162 - Crude oil washing during a voyage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Crude oil washing during a voyage... OIL IN BULK Crude Oil Washing (COW) System on Tank Vessels Cow Operations § 157.162 Crude oil washing... § 157.10c(b)(2) shall ensure that each cargo tank that is crude oil washed during a voyage other than...

  13. 33 CFR 157.162 - Crude oil washing during a voyage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Crude oil washing during a voyage... OIL IN BULK Crude Oil Washing (COW) System on Tank Vessels Cow Operations § 157.162 Crude oil washing... § 157.10c(b)(2) shall ensure that each cargo tank that is crude oil washed during a voyage other than...

  14. Inactivation of viruses using novel protein A wash buffers.

    PubMed

    Bolton, Glen R; Selvitelli, Keith R; Iliescu, Ionela; Cecchini, Douglas J

    2015-01-01

    Low pH viral inactivation is typically performed in the eluate pool following the protein A capture step during the manufacturing of monoclonal antibodies and Fc-fusion proteins. However, exposure to low pH has the potential to alter protein quality. To avoid these difficulties, novel wash buffers capable of inactivating viruses while antibodies or Fc-fusion proteins were bound to protein A or mixed mode resins were developed. By equilibrating the column in high salt buffer (2 M ammonium sulfate or 3 M sodium chloride) after loading, the hydrophobic interactions between antibodies and protein A ligands were increased enough to prevent elution at pH 3. The ammonium sulfate was also found to cause binding of an antibody to a mixed mode cation exchange and a mixed mode anion exchange resin at pH values that caused elution in conventional cation and anion exchange resins (pH 3.5 for Capto Adhere and pH 8.0 for Capto MMC), indicating that retention was due to enhanced hydrophobic interactions. The potential of the 2 M ammonium sulfate pH 3 buffer, a 1 M arginine buffer, and a buffer containing the detergent LDAO to inactivate XMuLV virus when used as protein A wash buffers with a 1 hour contact time were studied. The high salt and detergent containing wash buffers provided about five logs of removal, determined using PCR, and complete combined removal and inactivation (> 6 logs), determined by measuring infectivity. The novel protein A washes could provide more rapid, automated viral inactivation steps with lower pool conductivities. PMID:25482293

  15. Magnet options for sensors for the pulp and paper industry

    SciTech Connect

    Green, M.A.; Barale, P.J.; Fong, C.G.; Luft, P.A.; Reimer, J.A.; Yahnke, M.S.

    2001-05-05

    The Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) has been developing sensors for the pulp and paper industry that uses a magnetic field. The applications for magnetic sensors that have studied include (1) sensors for the measurement of the water and ice content of wood chips entering the pulping mill, (2) sensors for measuring the water content and other constituents of the black liquor leaving the paper digester, and (3) sensors for measuring paper thickness and water content as the paper is being processed. These tasks can be done using nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR). The magnetic field used for doing the NMR can come from either permanent magnets or superconducting magnets. The choice of the magnet is dependent on a number of factors, which include the size of the sample and field strength needed to do the sensing task at hand. This paper describes some superconducting magnet options that can be used in the pulp and paper industry.

  16. Soda pulp and fuel gases synthesis from Hesperaloe funifera.

    PubMed

    Sánchez, Rafael; Rodríguez, Alejandro; Requejo, Ana; Ferrer, Ana; Navarro, Enrique

    2010-09-01

    The main objective of this work is to evaluate the suitability of Hesperaloe funifera which is an alternative raw material, for pulping with soda-anthraquinone to produce pulp and paper. It was studied the influence of operational variables (temperature (155-185 degrees C), cooking time (20-60 min) and soda concentration (5-15%), with a constant addition of 1% of anthraquinone and a liquid/solid ratio of 8, in soda-anthraquinone cooking of H. funifera on pulps and paper sheets properties obtained. Finally, the cooking liquors were acidified to separate solid fractions that were subjected to pyrolysis and gasification in order to obtain synthesis and fuel gases. H. funifera contains little lignin and abundant alpha-cellulose; this, together with the morphological characteristics of its fibers, makes it a potentially highly useful papermaking raw material. PMID:20430614

  17. Electron treatment of wood pulp for the viscose process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stepanik, T. M.; Ewing, D. E.; Whitehouse, R.

    2000-03-01

    Electron processing is currently being evaluated by several viscose producers for integration into their process. The viscose industry converts dissolving wood pulp into products such as staple fibre, filament, cord, film, packaging, and non-edible sausage casings. These materials are used in the clothing, drapery, hygiene, automobile, food, and packaging industries. Viscose producers are facing increasingly high production costs and stringent environmental regulations that have forced some plants to close. Electron treatment of wood pulp can significantly reduce the amounts of chemicals used for producing viscose and the production of hazardous pollutants. Acsion Industries has worked with companies worldwide to demonstrate the benefits of using electron treated pulp for producing viscose (rayon). This paper describes the viscose process, the benefits of using electron treatment in the viscose process, and Acsion's efforts in developing this technology.

  18. Current fungal biotechnologies: Guidelines useful for pulping and bleaching

    SciTech Connect

    Kirk, T.K.

    1996-10-01

    This symposium deals with the potential use of fungi in pulping wood and bleaching pulp. The fungi useful in this regard are higher basidiomycetes, which are nature`s major degraders of lignin. Their ligninolytic enzyme systems were discovered 14 years ago, and have been studied intensely since then. However, neither these enzymes nor the fungi themselves have been harnessed commercially in biotechnological processes-with the exception that some of the fungi are grown as food. Using the fungi in pulp manufacturing processes, therefore, must be approached without the benefit of direct guidelines, which increases the uncertainty and risk. It is instructive, therefore, to review current commercial fungal-based bio-technologies, components of which provide information useful to the development and evaluation of proposed processes. This paper will briefly review existing types of biotechnical processes that are based on filamentous fungi, and discuss how that information is being used to guide development of new processes for biopulping and biobleaching.

  19. Biocomposition and reaction of pulp tissues to restorative treatments.

    PubMed

    Cox, C F; Hafez, A A

    2001-01-01

    Dentistry has experienced exponential growth in the biologic and physiologic knowledge of enamel, dentin, and pulp tissues. In one decade, material development has exceeded clinical testing limits, allowing their arrival to the commercial market without proper validation. This article clarifies the enigma of acid etching; explaining and clarifying the diverse opinions and issues of material toxicity between in vitro and in vivo usage test perspectives. This article also demystifies the biology of pulp healing regarding calcium hydroxide and adhesive systems to promote dentin bridge formation. Lastly, this article provides biologically lucid pulp exposure treatment regimens with agents such as NaOCl, allowing clinicians to increase their long-term clinical success. PMID:11210698

  20. [Utilization of organic resources in paper pulp waste liquid].

    PubMed

    Lin, Qiaojia; Liu, Jinghong; Yang, Guidi; Huang, Biao

    2005-04-01

    In this paper, one hundred percent of condensed sulfate paper pulp waste liquid was used as the raw material of adhesive, and the activation of its lignin as well as the improving effects of phenol formaldehyde resin and polyfunctional aqueous polymer isocyanate (PAPI) were studied. The results showed that adding formaldehyde to the waste liquid could increase the reactivity of contained lignin, and adding 30% phenol formaldehyde resin or 20% PAPI could make the waste liquid in place of pure phenol formaldehyde resin for producing class I plywood. Furthermore, the cost could be reduced by 55.5% and 49.0%, respectively, in comparing with pure phenol formaldehyde resin. This approach fully used the organic resources in paper pulp waste liquid, reduced environment pollution at the same time, and had unexceptionable economic, social and ecological benefits. The feasibility of preparing adhesives from paper pulp waste liquid was also analyzed by infrared spectrum. PMID:16011170