Science.gov

Sample records for mechanical ventilator care

  1. Respiratory Care year in review 2012: invasive mechanical ventilation, noninvasive ventilation, and cystic fibrosis.

    PubMed

    Kallet, Richard H; Volsko, Teresa A; Hess, Dean R

    2013-04-01

    For the busy clinician, educator, or manager, it is becoming an increasing challenge to filter the literature to what is relevant to one's practice and then update one's practice based on the current evidence. The purpose of this paper is to review the recent literature related to invasive mechanical ventilation, noninvasive ventilation, and cystic fibrosis. These topics were chosen and reviewed in a manner that is most likely to have interest to the readers of Respiratory Care. PMID:23564873

  2. Mechanical Ventilation

    MedlinePLUS

    ... cared for in a hospital’s intensive care unit (ICU). People who need a ventilator for a longer time may be in a regular unit of a hospital, a rehabilitation facility, or cared for at home. Why are ...

  3. Characteristics of Mechanical Ventilation Employed in Intensive Care Units: A Multicenter Survey of Hospitals

    PubMed Central

    Oh, Bum Jin; Kim, Young Sam; Kang, Eun Hae; Kim, Chang Ho; Park, Yong Bum; Han, Min Soo; Shin, Cheungsoo

    2008-01-01

    A 1D point-prevalence study was performed to describe the characteristics of conventional mechanical ventilation in intensive care units (ICUs). In addition, a survey was conducted to determine the characteristics of ICUs. A prospective, multicenter study was performed in ICUs at 24 university hospitals. The study population consisted of 223 patients who were receiving mechanical ventilation or had been weaned off mechanical ventilation within the past 24 hr. Common indications for the initiation of mechanical ventilation included acute respiratory failure (66%), acute exacerbation of chronic respiratory failure (15%) (including tuberculosis-destroyed lung [5%]), coma (13%), and neuromuscular disorders (6%). Mechanical ventilation was delivered via an endotracheal tube in 68% of the patients, tracheostomy in 28% and facial mask with noninvasive ventilation (NIV) in 4%. NIV was used in 2 centers. In patients who had undergone tracheostomy, the procedure had been performed 16.98.1 days after intubation. Intensivists treated 29% of the patients. A need for additional educational programs regarding clinical practice in the ICU was expressed by 62% of the staff and 42% of the nurses. Tuberculosis-destroyed lung is a common indication for mechanical ventilation in acute exacerbation of chronic respiratory failure, and noninvasive ventilation was used in a limited number of ICUs. PMID:19119434

  4. Respiratory Care year in review 2013: airway management, noninvasive monitoring, and invasive mechanical ventilation.

    PubMed

    Durbin, Charles G; Blanch, Llus; Fan, Eddy; Hess, Dean R

    2014-04-01

    Fundamental to respiratory care practice are airway management, noninvasive monitoring, and invasive mechanical ventilation. The purpose of this paper is to review the recent literature related to these topics in a manner that is most likely to have interest to the readers of Respiratory Care. PMID:24713763

  5. Role of oral care to prevent VAP in mechanically ventilated Intensive Care Unit patients

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, A; Gupta, A; Singh, TK; Saxsena, A

    2016-01-01

    Ventilator associated pneumonia (VAP) is the most common nosocomial infection in Intensive Care Unit. One major factor causing VAP is the aspiration of oral colonization because of poor oral care practices. We feel the role of simple measure like oral care is neglected, despite the ample evidence of it being instrumental in preventing VAP. PMID:26955317

  6. Weaning from mechanical ventilation.

    PubMed

    Eskandar, Nizar; Apostolakos, Michael J

    2007-04-01

    Approximately 20% of all mechanically ventilated patients fail their first attempt to wean. Prolonged mechanical ventilation increases morbidity, mortality, and costs. No single weaning parameter predicts patient ability to wean. Weaning studies suggest that daily trials of spontaneous breathing for appropriate patients assured by standing protocol and driven by respiratory care practitioners and/or nurses improve the weaning process and patient outcome. PMID:17368170

  7. Swallowing rehabilitation of dysphagic tracheostomized patients under mechanical ventilation in intensive care units: a feasibility study

    PubMed Central

    Rodrigues, Katia Alonso; Machado, Flávia Ribeiro; Chiari, Brasília Maria; Rosseti, Heloísa Baccaro; Lorenzon, Paula; Gonçalves, Maria Inês Rebelo

    2015-01-01

    Objective The aim of the present study was to assess the feasibility of the early implementation of a swallowing rehabilitation program in tracheostomized patients under mechanical ventilation with dysphagia. Methods This prospective study was conducted in the intensive care units of a university hospital. We included hemodynamically stable patients under mechanical ventilation for at least 48 hours following 48 hours of tracheostomy and with an appropriate level of consciousness. The exclusion criteria were previous surgery in the oral cavity, pharynx, larynx and/or esophagus, the presence of degenerative diseases or a past history of oropharyngeal dysphagia. All patients were submitted to a swallowing rehabilitation program. An oropharyngeal structural score, a swallowing functional score and an otorhinolaryngological structural and functional score were determined before and after swallowing therapy. Results We included 14 patients. The mean duration of the rehabilitation program was 12.4 ± 9.4 days, with 5.0 ± 5.2 days under mechanical ventilation. Eleven patients could receive oral feeding while still in the intensive care unit after 4 (2 - 13) days of therapy. All scores significantly improved after therapy. Conclusion In this small group of patients, we demonstrated that the early implementation of a swallowing rehabilitation program is feasible even in patients under mechanical ventilation. PMID:25909315

  8. Development and Validation of a Quality of Life Questionnaire for Mechanically Ventilated Intensive Care Unit Patients

    PubMed Central

    Pandian, Vinciya; Thompson, Carol B.; Feller-Kopman, David J.; Mirski, Marek A.

    2014-01-01

    Objective To develop and validate a new instrument for measuring health-related quality of life in mechanically ventilated patients in the intensive care unit (ICU). Design Expert panel consensus and a prospective longitudinal survey. Setting Urban, academic, tertiary care medical center. Patients One hundred and fifteen awake, mechanically ventilated, ICU patients who either received a tracheostomy or remained endotracheally intubated. Interventions A new quality of life instrument was developed and validated by using pilot study data; informal interviews of patients, families, and nurses; expert panel consensus; and item analyses. The new instrument was used to measure quality of life at three time points (5 days, 10 days, and 15 days post-intubation). Measurements and Main Results A new 12-item quality of life questionnaire for mechanically ventilated patients was developed. Patients responses to the quality of life questionnaire revealed moderate to high correlations with EuroQol-5D scores (r = ?0.4 to ?0.9) and the EuroQol Visual Analog Scale (r = 0.6 to 0.9) across the three times, and a moderate correlation with the Sequential Organ Failure Assessment tool (r = 0.5) at 10 days post-intubation. Cronbachs alpha ranged from 0.80 to 0.94 across the three times. The quality of life instrument was responsive to changes in treatment modalities (tracheostomy vs. no tracheostomy; and early vs. late tracheostomy demarcated by 10 days of intubation). Exploratory factor analysis revealed that this instrument was unidimensional in nature. Conclusions The new quality of life questionnaire is valid and can reliably measure QOL in mechanically ventilated ICU patients. It may provide clinicians with an accurate assessment of patients quality of life and facilitate optimal decision-making regarding patients ICU plan of care. PMID:25072754

  9. Infraclavicular axillary vein cannulation using ultrasound in a mechanically ventilated general intensive care population.

    PubMed

    Glen, H; Lang, I; Christie, L

    2015-09-01

    Central venous catheter (CVC) insertion is commonly undertaken in the ICU. The use of ultrasound (US) to facilitate CVC insertion is standard and is supported by guidelines. Because the subclavian vein cannot be insonated where it underlies the clavicle, its use as a CVC site is now less common. The axillary vein, however, can be seen on US just distal to the subclavian vein and placement of a CVC at this site gives a result which is functionally indistinguishable from a subclavian CVC. We evaluated placement of US-guided axillary CVCs in mechanically ventilated intensive care patients. Data were collected for 125 consecutive US-guided axillary CVC procedures in ventilated patients in an adult intensive care setting. All lines were inserted using real-time US guidance with an out-of-plane technique. One hundred and twenty-five procedures occurred in 119 patients. Successful line placement was achieved in 117 out of 125 (94%) procedures. Complications included four procedures that required repeating due to catheter malposition and one arterial puncture. The median number of attempts per procedure was one (IQR 1 to 2). Thirty-nine (31%) patients had a body mass index of 30 or above, 43 (34%) patients had a coagulopathy and 70 (56%) patients had significant ventilator dependence (FiO2 of 0.5 or above, or positive end expiratory pressure 10 cmH20 or above). The technique of US-guided axillary CVC access can be undertaken successfully in ventilated intensive care patients, even in challenging circumstances. Taken together with existing work on the utility and safety of this technique, we suggest that it be adopted more widely in the intensive care population. PMID:26310415

  10. [Assessment of Wiki technology: a tool for accessing information on mechanical ventilation in intensive care].

    PubMed

    Barra, Daniela Couto Carvalho; Dal Sasso, Grace Teresinha Marcon; Martins, Cleusa Rios; Barbosa, Sayonara de Ftima Faria

    2012-01-01

    The development and application of information technology influence all areas of knowledge, enabling new ways of learning. The Wiki is a tool of information and communication technology provided by the Web 2.0 that can be exploited and used in teaching, learning, care and research in nursing education. Thus, this quantitative study is a descriptive and exploratory objective was to evaluate the nursing students with the criteria of Ergonomics and Usability of the tool Wiki as a technology to access information on nursing care in mechanical ventilation in the Intensive Care Unit. The tool was evaluated as "excellent" in the criteria for Ergonomics and Usability, and is considered a new emerging technology suitable for educational use. PMID:23032338

  11. Weaning from mechanical ventilation.

    PubMed

    Epstein, Scott K

    2002-04-01

    Invasive mechanical ventilation can be lifesaving for patients with acute respiratory failure, but numerous complications have been identified. Therefore, once clinical improvement has occurred, emphasis is placed on quickly weaning (ie, liberating) the patient from mechanical ventilation. Weaning can be subdivided into 2 components: readiness testing and progressive withdrawal. Traditionally, both clinical factors and weaning predictors have been used to assess readiness for spontaneous breathing trials, which can be carried out using a T-piece or a low level of ventilatory support. The role of weaning predictors is under investigation, and their role in clinical decision making remains poorly defined. Recent insights into the pathophysiology of weaning failure have provided a framework for identifying potentially correctable limiting factors. Randomized controlled trials suggest that several approaches to progressive withdrawal may be acceptable, though only a minority of patients require progressive withdrawal. Emerging evidence indicates that protocol-directed weaning, driven by respiratory therapists and intensive care nurses, can improve outcome. PMID:11929617

  12. Can routine oral care with antiseptics prevent ventilator-associated pneumonia in patients receiving mechanical ventilation? An update meta-analysis from 17 randomized controlled trials

    PubMed Central

    Li, Longti; Ai, Zhibing; Li, Longzhu; Zheng, Xuesong; Jie, Luo

    2015-01-01

    Background: Whether oral antiseptics could reduce the risk of ventilator associated pneumonia (VAP) in patients receiving mechanical ventilation remains controversial. We performed a meta-analysis to assess the effect of oral care with antiseptics on the prevalence of ventilator associated pneumonia in adult critically ill patients. Methods: A comprehensive search of PubMed, Embase and Web of Science were performed to identity relevant studies. Eligible studies were randomized controlled trials of mechanically ventilated adult patients receiving oral care with antiseptics. The quality of included studies was assessed by the Jadad score. Relative risks (RRs), weighted mean differences (WMDs), and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated and pooled using a fixed-effects model or random-effects model. Heterogeneity among the studies was assessed with I 2 test. Results: 17 studies with a total number of 4249 met the inclusion criteria. Of the 17 studies, 14 assessed the effect of chlorhexidine, and 3 investigated the effect of povidone-iodine. Overall, oral care with antiseptics significantly reduced the prevalence of VAP (RR=0.72, 95% CI: 0.57, 0.92; P=0.008). The use of chlorhexidine was shown to be effective (RR=0.73, 95% CI: 0.57, 0.93; P=0.012), whereas this effect was not observed in povidone-iodine (RR=0.51, 95% CI: 0.09, 2.82; P=0.438). Subgroup analyses showed that oral antiseptics were most marked in cardiac surgery patients (RR=0.54, 95% CI: 0.39, 0.74; P=0.00). Patients with oral antiseptics did not have a reduction in intensive care unit (ICU) mortality (RR=1.11, 95% CI: 0.95, 1.29; P=0.201), length of ICU stay (WMD=-0.10 days, 95% CI: -0.25, 0.05; P=0.188), or duration of mechanical ventilation (WMD=-0.05 days, 95% CI: -0.14, 0.04; P=0.260). Conclusion: Oral care with antiseptics significantly reduced the prevalence of VAP. Chlorhexidine application prevented the occurrence of VAP in mechanically ventilated patients but povidone-iodine did not. Further large-scale, well-designed randomized controlled trials are needed to identify the findings and determine the effect of povidone-iodine application. PMID:25932093

  13. Mechanical ventilation in rural ICUs

    PubMed Central

    Fieselmann, John F; Bock, M Jeanne; Hendryx, Michael S; Wakefield, Douglas; Helms, Charles M; Bentler, Suzanne E

    1999-01-01

    Background: In recent years, rural hospitals have expanded their scope of specialized services, which has led to the development and staffing of rural intensive care units (ICUs). There is little information about the breadth, quality or outcomes of these services. This is particularly true for specialized ICU services such as mechanical ventilation, where little, if any, information exists specifically for rural hospitals. The long-term objectives of this project were to evaluate the quality of medical care provided to mechanically ventilated patients in rural ICUs and to improve patient care through an educational intervention. This paper reports baseline data on patient and hospital characteristics for both rural and rural referral hospitals. Results: Twenty Iowa hospitals were evaluated. Data collected on 224 patients demonstrated a mean age of 70 years and a mean ICU admission Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation (APACHE) II score of 22, with an associated 36% mortality. Mean length of ICU stay was 10 days, with 7.7 ventilated days. Significant differences were found in both institutional and patient variables between rural referral hospitals and rural hospitals with more limited resources. A subgroup of patients with diagnoses associated with complex ventilation had higher mortality rates than patients without these conditions. Patients who developed nosocomial events had longer mean ventilator and ICU days than patients without nosocomial events. This study also found ICU practices that frequently fell outside the guidelines recommended by a task force describing minimum standards of care for critically ill patients with acute respiratory failure on mechanical ventilation. Conclusions: Despite distinct differences in the available resources between rural referral and rural hospitals, overall mortality rates of ventilated patients are similar. Considering the higher mortality rates observed in patients with complicated medical conditions requiring complex ventilation management, the data may suggest that this subgroup could benefit from treatment at a tertiary center with greater resources and technology. PMID:11056720

  14. Derivation and validation of a search algorithm to retrospectively identify mechanical ventilation initiation in the intensive care unit

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The development and validation of automated electronic medical record (EMR) search strategies are important for establishing the timing of mechanical ventilation initiation in the intensive care unit (ICU). Thus, we sought to develop and validate an automated EMR search algorithm (strategy) for time zero, the moment of mechanical ventilation initiation in the critically ill patient. Methods The EMR search algorithm was developed on the basis of several mechanical ventilation parameters, with the final parameter being positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP), and was applied to a comprehensive institutional EMR database. The search algorithm was derived from a secondary retrospective analysis of a subset of 450 patients from a cohort of 2,684 patients admitted to a medical ICU and a surgical ICU from January 1, 2010, through December 31, 2011. It was then validated in an independent subset of 450 patients from the same period. The overall percent of agreement between our search algorithm and a comprehensive manual medical record review in the derivation and validation subsets, using peak inspiratory pressure (PIP) as the reference standard, was compared to assess timing of mechanical ventilation initiation. Results In the derivation subset, the automated electronic search strategy achieved an 87% (??=?0.87) perfect agreement, with 94% agreement to within one minute. In validating this search algorithm, perfect agreement was found in 92% (??=?0.92) of patients, with 99% agreement occurring within one minute. Conclusions The use of an electronic search strategy resulted in highly accurate extraction of mechanical ventilation initiation in the ICU. The search algorithm of mechanical ventilation initiation is highly efficient and reliable and can facilitate both clinical research and patient care management in a timely manner. PMID:24965680

  15. Mechanical ventilation in patients in the intensive care unit of a general university hospital in southern Brazil: an epidemiological study

    PubMed Central

    Fialkow, Léa; Farenzena, Maurício; Wawrzeniak, Iuri Christmann; Brauner, Janete Salles; Vieira, Sílvia Regina Rios; Vigo, Alvaro; Bozzetti, Mary Clarisse

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To determine the characteristics, the frequency and the mortality rates of patients needing mechanical ventilation and to identify the risk factors associated with mortality in the intensive care unit (ICU) of a general university hospital in southern Brazil. METHOD: Prospective cohort study in patients admitted to the ICU who needed mechanical ventilation for at least 24 hours between March 2004 and April 2007. RESULTS: A total of 1,115 patients admitted to the ICU needed mechanical ventilation. The mortality rate was 51%. The mean age (± standard deviation) was 57±18 years, and the mean Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation II (APACHE II) score was 22.6±8.3. The variables independently associated with mortality were (i) conditions present at the beginning of mechanical ventilation, age (hazard ratio: 1.01; p<0.001); the APACHE II score (hazard ratio: 1.01; p<0.005); acute lung injury/acute respiratory distress syndrome (hazard ratio: 1.38; p=0.009), sepsis (hazard ratio: 1.33; p=0.003), chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (hazard ratio: 0.58; p=0.042), and pneumonia (hazard ratio: 0.78; p=0.013) as causes of mechanical ventilation; and renal (hazard ratio: 1.29; p=0.011) and neurological (hazard ratio: 1.25; p=0.024) failure, and (ii) conditions occurring during the course of mechanical ventilation, acute lung injuri/acute respiratory distress syndrome (hazard ratio: 1.31; p<0.010); sepsis (hazard ratio: 1.53; p<0.001); and renal (hazard ratio: 1.75; p<0.001), cardiovascular (hazard ratio: 1.32; p≤0.009), and hepatic (hazard ratio: 1.67; p≤0.001) failure. CONCLUSIONS: This large cohort study provides a comprehensive profile of mechanical ventilation patients in South America. The mortality rate of patients who required mechanical ventilation was higher, which may have been related to the severity of illness of the patients admitted to our ICU. Risk factors for hospital mortality included conditions present at the start of mechanical ventilation conditions that occurred during mechanical support.

  16. [Ventilation in special situations. Neonatal mechanical ventilation].

    PubMed

    Bonillo Perales, A; Gonzlez-Ripoll Garzn, M; Lorente Acosta, M J; Dez-Delgado Rubio, J

    2003-10-01

    Severe respiratory failure is a common problem in premature neonates. We review the various ventilation modes available in the neonatal intensive care unit, as well as their indications, settings, and complications. PMID:14649225

  17. Humidification policies for mechanically ventilated intensive care patients and prevention of ventilator-associated pneumonia: a systematic review of randomized controlled trials.

    PubMed

    Nil-Weise, B S; Wille, J C; van den Broek, P J

    2007-04-01

    The Dutch Working Party on Infection Prevention (WIP) aimed to determine whether certain humidification policies are better than others in terms of prevention of ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) in mechanically ventilated intensive care unit (ICU) patients. Publications were retrieved by a systematic search of Medline and the Cochrane Library up to February 2006. All (quasi-) randomized trials and systematic reviews/meta-analyses comparing humidification methods in ventilated ICU patients were selected. Two reviewers independently assessed trial quality and extracted data. If the data was incomplete, clarification was sought from original authors and used to calculate the relative risk of VAP. Data for VAP were combined in the analysis, where appropriate, using a random-effects model. Ten trials were included in the review. In general, the quality of the trials and the way they were reported were unsatisfactory. The results did not show any benefit from specific humidification techniques in terms of reducing VAP. WIP do not recommend either passive or active humidifiers to prevent VAP, nor the type of passive humidifiers to be used. Regarding active humidification, WIP recommends using heated wire circuits. This is due to the theoretical consideration that less condensate reduces colonization and subsequent risk of spread throughout an ICU when condensate is removed. PMID:17320243

  18. Mathematical modelling of ventilation mechanics.

    PubMed

    Morgenstern, U; Kaiser, S

    1995-05-01

    Routine application of 'rule of thumb' parameter sets in clinical practice pushes model visions to the background, including the complete framework of assumptions, simplifications, suppositions and conditions. But: models can be very strong tool, when applied selectively--that means, with a clear idea of destination, definition, parameter selection and verification. This article discusses universal issues of modelling--based on ventilation mechanics models in intensive care medicine. PMID:8847466

  19. Incidence and Risk Factors for Delirium among Mechanically Ventilated Patients in an African Intensive Care Setting: An Observational Multicenter Study

    PubMed Central

    Nakibuuka, Jane; Ssemogerere, Lameck; Sendikadiwa, Charles; Obua, Daniel; Kizito, Samuel; Tumukunde, Janat; Wabule, Agnes; Nakasujja, Noeline

    2015-01-01

    Aim. Delirium is common among mechanically ventilated patients in the intensive care unit (ICU). There are little data regarding delirium among mechanically ventilated patients in Africa. We sought to determine the burden of delirium and associated factors in Uganda. Methods. We conducted a multicenter prospective study among mechanically ventilated patients in Uganda. Eligible patients were screened daily for delirium using the confusional assessment method (CAM-ICU). Comparisons were made using t-test, chi-squares, and Fisher's exact test. Predictors were assessed using logistic regression. The level of statistical significance was set at P < 0.05. Results. Of 160 patients, 81 (51%) had delirium. Median time to onset of delirium was 3.7 days. At bivariate analysis, history of mental illness, sedation, multiorgan dysfunction, neurosurgery, tachypnea, low mean arterial pressure, oliguria, fevers, metabolic acidosis, respiratory acidosis, anaemia, physical restraints, marital status, and endotracheal tube use were significant predictors. At multivariable analysis, having a history of mental illness, sedation, respiratory acidosis, higher PEEP, endotracheal tubes, and anaemia predicted delirium. Conclusion. The prevalence of delirium in a young African population is lower than expected considering the high mortality. A history of mental illness, anaemia, sedation, endotracheal tube use, and respiratory acidosis were factors associated with delirium. PMID:25945257

  20. Risk Factors for Mechanical Ventilation in Patients with Scrub Typhus Admitted to Intensive Care Unit at a University Hospital

    PubMed Central

    Moon, Kyoung Min; Rim, Ch'ang Bum; Lee, Jun Ho; Kang, Min Seok; Kim, Ji Hye; Kim, Sang Il; Jung, Sun Young; Cho, Yongseon

    2016-01-01

    Background The purpose of this study was to evaluate the risk factors for mechanical ventilation in the patients with scrub typhus admitted to intensive care unit (ICU) at a university hospital. Methods We retrospectively selected and analyzed clinical data from the medical records of 70 patients (32 men, 38 women) admitted to the ICU with scrub typhus between 2004 and 2014. The patients had a meanstandard deviation age of 71.211.1 years and were evaluated in two groups: those who had been treated with mechanical ventilation (the MV group, n=19) and those who had not (the non-MV group, n=51). Mean ages of the MV group and the non-MV group were 71.28.3 years and 71.211.1 years, respectively. Results Significant differences between the two groups were observed with respect to acute respiratory failure (p=0.008), Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation (APACHE) II score (p=0.015), Sequential Organ Failure Assessment (SOFA) score (p=0.013), death (p=0.014), and ICU duration (p<0.01). Multivariate analysis indicated that the following factors were significantly associated with mechanical ventilation: acute respiratory failure (p=0.011), SOFA score (p=0.005), APACHE II score (p=0.011), platelet count (p=0.009), and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) (p=0.011). Conclusion Thus, five factors-acute respiratory failure, SOFA score, APACHE II score, platelet count, and LDH-can be the meaningful indicators for mechanical ventilation for the patients with scrub typhus admitted to ICU. PMID:26770232

  1. Weaning from long-term mechanical ventilation.

    PubMed

    Scalise, P J; Votto, J J

    2005-01-01

    As many as 5% of patients who need mechanical ventilation will require prolonged mechanical ventilation (PMV). The cost of their care and its associated morbidity is alarming; however, good outcomes can be achieved when their care is specialized and delivered in a programmatic manner. In this article, we review some of the common and potentially reversible reasons why patients fail successfully liberation from mechanical ventilation. We examine the outcomes of patients requiring PMV and present evidence that supports the development of specialized units where patients can be cohorted and may produce better outcomes than would be likely if these patients remained in the ICU. PMID:16279157

  2. Early Hyperglycemia in Pediatric Traumatic Brain Injury Predicts for Mortality, Prolonged Duration of Mechanical Ventilation, and Intensive Care Stay

    PubMed Central

    Chong, Shu-Ling; Harjanto, Sumitro; Testoni, Daniela; Ng, Zhi Min; Low, Chyi Yeu David; Lee, Khai Pin; Lee, Jan Hau

    2015-01-01

    We aim to study the association between hyperglycemia and in-hospital outcomes among children with moderate and severe traumatic brain injury (TBI). This retrospective cohort study was conducted in a tertiary pediatric hospital between 2003 and 2013. All patients < 16 years old who presented to the Emergency Department within 24 hours of head injury with a Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) ≤ 13 were included. Our outcomes of interest were death, 14 ventilation-free, 14 pediatric intensive care unit- (PICU-) free, and 28 hospital-free days. Hyperglycemia was defined as glucose > 200 mg/dL (11.1 mmol/L). Among the 44 patients analyzed, the median age was 8.6 years (interquartile range (IQR) 5.0–11.0). Median GCS and pediatric trauma scores were 7 (IQR 4–10) and 4 (IQR 3–6), respectively. Initial hyperglycemia was associated with death (37% in the hyperglycemia group versus 8% in the normoglycemia group, p = 0.019), reduced median PICU-free days (6 days versus 11 days, p = 0.006), and reduced median ventilation-free days (8 days versus 12 days, p = 0.008). This association was however not significant in the stratified analysis of patients with GCS ≤ 8. Conclusion. Our findings demonstrate that early hyperglycemia is associated with increased mortality, prolonged duration of mechanical ventilation, and PICU stay in children with TBI. PMID:26074963

  3. [Mechanical ventilation in pediatrics (III). Weaning, complications and other types of ventilation. High-frequency ventilation].

    PubMed

    Martinn-Torres, F; Ibarra de la Rosa, I; Fernndez Sanmartn, M; Garca Menor, E; Marinn Snchez, J M

    2003-08-01

    In the era of lung-protective ventilation strategies, high frequency oscillatory ventilation (HFOV) has attracted renewed interest and its use has dramatically increased in neonatal and pediatric intensive care units. HFOV is able to reduce ventilator-induced lung injury by limiting the incidence of volutrauma, atelectrauma, barotrauma and biotrauma. During HFOV, adequate oxygenation and ventilation is achieved by using low tidal volumes and small pressure swings at supraphysiologic frequencies. Unlike other high-frequency ventilation modes, HFOV has an active expiration phase. HFOV constitutes a safe and successful ventilation mode for managing pediatric patients with respiratory insufficiency refractory to optimized conventional mechanical ventilation and provides better results when initiated early. However, the elective use of HFOV requires further studies to identify its benefits over conventional modes of mechanical ventilation and to support its routine use as a first line therapy. In the present article, the Respiratory Working Group of the Spanish Society Pediatric Critical Care reviews the main issues in the pediatric application of HFOV. In addition, a general practical protocol and specific management strategies, as well as the monitoring, patient care and other special features of the use of HFOV in the pediatric setting, are discussed. PMID:14562843

  4. A new system for understanding modes of mechanical ventilation.

    PubMed

    Chatburn, R L; Primiano, F P

    2001-06-01

    Numerous ventilation modes and ventilation options have become available as new mechanical ventilators have reached the market. Ventilator manufacturers have no standardized terminology for ventilator modes and ventilation options, and ventilator operator's manuals do not help the clinician compare the modes of ventilators from different manufacturers. This article proposes a standardized system for classifying ventilation modes, based on general engineering principles and a small set of explicit definitions. Though there may be resistance by ventilator manufacturers to a standardized system of ventilation terminology, clinicians and health care equipment purchasers should adopt such a system in the interest of clear communication--the lack of which prevents clinicians from fully understanding the therapies they administer and could compromise the quality of patient care. PMID:11353550

  5. Mechanical ventilation in vascular coma patients.

    PubMed

    Hardavella, Georgia; Stefanache, Felicia; Ianovici, N

    2005-01-01

    Vascular coma is one of the leading complications in patients suffering cerebrovascular accidents and it is therefore entirely appropriate that we should consider what critical care has to offer in this devastating disease process. Vascular coma patients need ventilatory assistance; Intubation and mechanical ventilation represent a life saving intervention. As critical care is subjected to progressive changes, careful definition of the role of mechanical ventilation, its types, and the ability of such a form of life sustaining support to affect patient outcome in multi-sided directions is mandatory. PMID:16610173

  6. Characteristics and outcome of mechanically ventilated patients with 2009 H1N1 influenza in Bosnia and Herzegovina and Serbia: impact of newly established multidisciplinary intensive care units

    PubMed Central

    Koji?i?, Marija; Kova?evi?, Pedja; Bajramovi?, Nermina; Batranovi?, Uro; Vidovi?, Jadranka; Aganovi?, Kenana; Gavrilovi?, Srdjan; Zlojutro, Biljana; Thiery, Guillaume

    2012-01-01

    Aim To describe characteristics and outcome of mechanically ventilated patients admitted to three newly established intensive care units (ICU) in Bosnia-Herzegovina and Serbia for 2009 H1N1 influenza infection. Methods The retrospective observational study included all mechanically ventilated adult patients of three university-affiliated hospitals between November 1, 2009 and March 1 2010 who had 2009 H1N1 influenza infection confirmed by real-time reverse transcriptase-polymerase-chain-reaction (RT-PCR) from nasopharyngeal swab specimens and respiratory secretions. Results The study included 50 patients, 31 male (62%), aged 43??13 years. Median time from hospital to ICU admission was 1 day (range 1-2). Sixteen patients (30%) presented with one or more chronic medical condition: 8 (16%) with chronic lung disease, 5 (10%) with chronic heart failure, and 3 (6%) with diabetes mellitus. Thirty-two (64%) were obese. Forty-eight patients (96%) experienced acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), 28 (56%) septic shock, and 27 (54%) multiorgan failure. Forty-five patients (90%) were intubated and mechanically ventilated, 5 received non-invasive mechanical ventilation, 7 (14%) high-frequency oscillatory ventilation, and 7 (14%) renal replacement therapy. The median duration of mechanical ventilation was 7 (4-14) days. Hospital mortality was 52%. PMID:23275328

  7. Emergency Department Treatment of the Mechanically Ventilated Patient.

    PubMed

    Spiegel, Rory; Mallemat, Haney

    2016-02-01

    Mechanical ventilation has a long and storied history, but until recently the process required little from the emergency physician. In the modern emergency department, critically ill patients spend a longer period under the care of the emergency physician, requiring a greater understanding of ventilator management. This article serves as an introduction to mechanical ventilation and a user-friendly bedside guide. PMID:26614242

  8. Establishment of a prospective cohort of mechanically ventilated patients in five intensive care units in Lima, Peru: protocol and organisational characteristics of participating centres

    PubMed Central

    Denney, Joshua A; Capanni, Francesca; Herrera, Phabiola; Dulanto, Augusto; Roldan, Rollin; Paz, Enrique; Jaymez, Amador A; Chirinos, Eduardo E; Portugal, Jose; Quispe, Rocio; Brower, Roy G; Checkley, William

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Mechanical ventilation is a cornerstone in the management of critically ill patients worldwide; however, less is known about the clinical management of mechanically ventilated patients in low and middle income countries where limitation of resources including equipment, staff and access to medical information may play an important role in defining patient-centred outcomes. We present the design of a prospective, longitudinal study of mechanically ventilated patients in Peru that aims to describe a large cohort of mechanically ventilated patients and identify practices that, if modified, could result in improved patient-centred outcomes and lower costs. Methods and analysis Five Peruvian intensive care units (ICUs) and the Medical ICU at the Johns Hopkins Hospital were selected for this study. Eligible patients were those who underwent at least 24?h of invasive mechanical ventilation within the first 48?h of admission into the ICU. Information on ventilator settings, clinical management and treatment were collected daily for up to 28?days or until the patient was discharged from the unit. Vital status was assessed at 90?days post enrolment. A subset of participants who survived until hospital discharge were asked to participate in an ancillary study to assess vital status, and physical and mental health at 6, 12, 24 and 60?months after hospitalisation, Primary outcomes include 90-day mortality, time on mechanical ventilation, hospital and ICU lengths of stay, and prevalence of acute respiratory distress syndrome. In subsequent analyses, we aim to identify interventions and standardised care strategies that can be tailored to resource-limited settings and that result in improved patient-centred outcomes and lower costs. Ethics and dissemination We obtained ethics approval from each of the four participating hospitals in Lima, Peru, and at the Johns Hopkins School of Medicine, Baltimore, USA. Results will be disseminated as several separate publications in different international journals. PMID:25596196

  9. The Outcomes and Prognostic Factors of the Very Elderly Requiring Prolonged Mechanical Ventilation in a Single Respiratory Care Center

    PubMed Central

    Lai, Chih-Cheng; Ko, Shian-Chin; Chen, Chin-Ming; Weng, Shih-Feng; Tseng, Kuei-Ling; Cheng, Kuo-Chen

    2016-01-01

    Abstract This study investigated the outcomes and the prognostic factors among the very elderly (patients ≥80 years old) requiring prolonged mechanical ventilation (PMV). Between 2006 and 2014, all of the very elderly patients of age 80 or more transferred to respiratory care center (RCC) of a tertiary medical center were retrospectively identified, and only patients who used mechanical ventilation (MV) for >3 weeks were included in this study. A total of 510 very elderly patients undergoing PMV were identified. The mean age of the patients was 84.3 ± 3.3 years, and it ranged from 80 to 96 years. Male comprised most of the patients (n = 269, 52.7%), and most of the patients were transferred to RCC from medical ICU (n = 357, 70.0%). The APACHE II scores on RCC admission was 17.6 ± 6.0. At least 1 comorbidity was found in 419 (82.2%) patients. No significant differences of gender, disease severity, diagnosis, dialysis, laboratory examinations, comorbidities, and outcome were found between octogenarians (aged 80–89) and nonagenarians (aged ≥ 90). The overall in-hospital mortality rate was 21.8%. In the multivariate analysis, patients who had APACHE II score ≥ 15(odds ratio [OR], 2.30, 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.36–3.90), or albumin ≤ 2 g/dL (OR, 3.92, 95% CI, 2.17–7.01) were more likely to have significant in-hospital mortality (P < 0.05). The in-hospital mortality rate of the very elderly PMV patients in our RCC is 21.8%, and poor outcomes in this specific population were found to be associated with a higher APACHE II score and lower albumin level. PMID:26765452

  10. [Recommendations for invasive home mechanical ventilation].

    PubMed

    Randerath, W J; Kamps, N; Brambring, J; Gerhard, F; Lorenz, J; Rudolf, F; Rosseau, S; Scheumann, A; Vollmer, V; Windisch, W

    2011-02-01

    Due to chronic respiratory failure, a proportion of patients require long-term home ventilation therapy. The treating doctors, nurses and therapists, as well as employees of the health insurance provider, all require specialized knowledge in order to establish and monitor home ventilation. The following document represents a consensus formed by the participating specialist societies, the health insurers and their medical advisory services. The recommendations for accomplishing home mechanical ventilation are based on the "S2 Guidelines for Non-Invasive and Invasive Mechanical Ventilation for Treatment of Chronic Respiratory Failure", and provide advice about the necessary qualifications of medical and nursing practitioners working in specialised ventilation centres or in the home setting. Management of transfer, which comprises the medical, technical and organisational requirements for releasing the patient from hospital care, is of paramount importance. In outpatient care, the requirements for the recruitment of resources, monitoring of procedures, adjustment of ventilation, and frequency of check-ups are each addressed. The recommendations are supplemented by appendices which include patient transfer forms, checklists for the supply of basic resources for home ventilation, as well as a template for the letter of discharge from hospital. PMID:21294061

  11. Inhalation therapy in mechanical ventilation

    PubMed Central

    Maccari, Juara Gasparetto; Teixeira, Cassiano; Gazzana, Marcelo Basso; Savi, Augusto; Dexheimer-Neto, Felippe Leopoldo; Knorst, Marli Maria

    2015-01-01

    Patients with obstructive lung disease often require ventilatory support via invasive or noninvasive mechanical ventilation, depending on the severity of the exacerbation. The use of inhaled bronchodilators can significantly reduce airway resistance, contributing to the improvement of respiratory mechanics and patient-ventilator synchrony. Although various studies have been published on this topic, little is known about the effectiveness of the bronchodilators routinely prescribed for patients on mechanical ventilation or about the deposition of those drugs throughout the lungs. The inhaled bronchodilators most commonly used in ICUs are beta adrenergic agonists and anticholinergics. Various factors might influence the effect of bronchodilators, including ventilation mode, position of the spacer in the circuit, tube size, formulation, drug dose, severity of the disease, and patient-ventilator synchrony. Knowledge of the pharmacological properties of bronchodilators and the appropriate techniques for their administration is fundamental to optimizing the treatment of these patients. PMID:26578139

  12. Inhalation therapy in mechanical ventilation.

    PubMed

    Maccari, Juara Gasparetto; Teixeira, Cassiano; Gazzana, Marcelo Basso; Savi, Augusto; Dexheimer-Neto, Felippe Leopoldo; Knorst, Marli Maria

    2015-10-01

    Patients with obstructive lung disease often require ventilatory support via invasive or noninvasive mechanical ventilation, depending on the severity of the exacerbation. The use of inhaled bronchodilators can significantly reduce airway resistance, contributing to the improvement of respiratory mechanics and patient-ventilator synchrony. Although various studies have been published on this topic, little is known about the effectiveness of the bronchodilators routinely prescribed for patients on mechanical ventilation or about the deposition of those drugs throughout the lungs. The inhaled bronchodilators most commonly used in ICUs are beta adrenergic agonists and anticholinergics. Various factors might influence the effect of bronchodilators, including ventilation mode, position of the spacer in the circuit, tube size, formulation, drug dose, severity of the disease, and patient-ventilator synchrony. Knowledge of the pharmacological properties of bronchodilators and the appropriate techniques for their administration is fundamental to optimizing the treatment of these patients. PMID:26578139

  13. History of Mechanical Ventilation. From Vesalius to Ventilator-induced Lung Injury.

    PubMed

    Slutsky, Arthur S

    2015-05-15

    Mechanical ventilation is a life-saving therapy that catalyzed the development of modern intensive care units. The origins of modern mechanical ventilation can be traced back about five centuries to the seminal work of Andreas Vesalius. This article is a short history of mechanical ventilation, tracing its origins over the centuries to the present day. One of the great advances in ventilatory support over the past few decades has been the development of lung-protective ventilatory strategies, based on our understanding of the iatrogenic consequences of mechanical ventilation such as ventilator-induced lung injury. These strategies have markedly improved clinical outcomes in patients with respiratory failure. PMID:25844759

  14. Comparison Between Dexmedetomidine and Propofol with Validation of Bispectral Index For Sedation in Mechanically Ventilated Intensive Care Patients

    PubMed Central

    Rai, Pyush; Kamal, Manoj; Singariya, Geeta; Singhal, Madhu; Gupta, Priyanka; Trivedi, Tanuja; Chouhan, Dilip Singh

    2015-01-01

    Background and Aim Sedation plays a pivotal role in the care of the critically ill patient. It is equally important to assess depth of sedation. The present study had been designed to compare dexmedetomidine and propofol for sedation in mechanically ventilated intensive care patients. It also intended to verify the clinical validity, reliability and applicability of objective assessment tool bispectral index (BIS) for monitoring sedation and observe for correlation with the commonly used subjective scale, Ramsay sedation score (RSS). Materials and Methods This prospective randomized study was carried out in 60 haemodynamically stable patients, aged between 18 to 80 years, requiring sedation and mechanical ventilation. These were divided equally into two groups. Group A received dexmedetomidine loading dose (1μg/kg) over 10 min followed by maintenance infusion of 0.5μg/kg/hr (0.2-0.7 μg/kg/hr). Group B received propofol loading dose (1mg/kg) over 5 min followed by infusion of 2mg/kg/hr (1-3mg/kg/hr). All patients received fentanyl 1 μg/kg prior to the study drugs. Vital parameters and sedation levels (using RSS and BIS) were monitored for the study period of 12 hours with level 4 or 5 of RSS as target for sedation. Ramsay score was compared with the average of BIS values. Statistical analysis was done using SPSS VERSION 17 software. Results The study revealed statistically significant lower heart rates during sedation in dexmedetomidine group whereas fall in mean arterial pressure (MAP) following loading dose in propofol group. Patients sedated with dexmedetomidine were easily arousable. Need for rescue drug for achieving the desired RSS as well as incidence of bradycardia was more in dexmedetomidine group than other. Good correlation exists between Ramsay score and BIS values. Conclusion Dexmedetomidine reduces heart rate while propofol transiently affects MAP. However, adequate sedation is achieved with both the drugs. The data obtained from the study validate BIS monitoring for ICU sedation. PMID:26393184

  15. Impact of enhanced ventilator care bundle checklist on nursing documentation in an intensive care unit.

    PubMed

    Malouf-Todaro, Nabia; Barker, James; Jupiter, Daniel; Tipton, Phyllis Hart; Peace, Jane

    2013-01-01

    Ventilator-associated pneumonia is a hospital-acquired infection that may develop in patients 48 hours after mechanical ventilation. The project goal was to determine whether a ventilator-associated pneumonia care bundle checklist embedded into an existing electronic health record would increase completeness of nursing documentation in an intensive care unit setting. With the embedded checklist, there were significant improvements in nursing documentation and a decreased incidence of ventilator-associated pneumonia. PMID:23291742

  16. Secretion management in the mechanically ventilated patient.

    PubMed

    Branson, Richard D

    2007-10-01

    Secretion management in the mechanically ventilated patient includes routine methods for maintaining mucociliary function, as well as techniques for secretion removal. Humidification, mobilization of the patient, and airway suctioning are all routine procedures for managing secretions in the ventilated patient. Early ambulation of the post-surgical patient and routine turning of the ventilated patient are common secretion-management techniques that have little supporting evidence of efficacy. Humidification is a standard of care and a requisite for secretion management. Both active and passive humidification can be used. The humidifier selected and the level of humidification required depend on the patient's condition and the expected duration of intubation. In patients with thick, copious secretions, heated humidification is superior to a heat and moisture exchanger. Airway suctioning is the most important secretion removal technique. Open-circuit and closed-circuit suctioning have similar efficacy. Instilling saline prior to suctioning, to thin the secretions or stimulate a cough, is not supported by the literature. Adequate humidification and as-needed suctioning are the foundation of secretion management in the mechanically ventilated patient. Intermittent therapy for secretion removal includes techniques either to simulate a cough, to mechanically loosen secretions, or both. Patient positioning for secretion drainage is also widely used. Percussion and postural drainage have been widely employed for mechanically ventilated patients but have not been shown to reduce ventilator-associated pneumonia or atelectasis. Manual hyperinflation and insufflation-exsufflation, which attempt to improve secretion removal by simulating a cough, have been described in mechanically ventilated patients, but neither has been studied sufficiently to support routine use. Continuous lateral rotation with a specialized bed reduces atelectasis in some patients, but has not been shown to improve secretion removal. Intrapulmonary percussive ventilation combines percussion with hyperinflation and a simulated cough, but the evidence for intrapulmonary percussive ventilation in mechanically ventilated patients is insufficient to support routine use. Secretion management in the mechanically ventilated patient consists of appropriate humidification and as-needed airway suctioning. Intermittent techniques may play a role when secretion retention persists despite adequate humidification and suctioning. The technique selected should remedy the suspected etiology of the secretion retention (eg, insufflation-exsufflation for impaired cough). Further research into secretion management in the mechanically ventilated patient is needed. PMID:17894902

  17. Current issues in home mechanical ventilation.

    PubMed

    Lewarski, Joseph S; Gay, Peter C

    2007-08-01

    As modern health care continues to evolve, we expect and are seeing that more sophisticated medical care will be provided outside the traditional acute care environments. Advances in home medical technology, economic pressures, health-care consumerism, and societal changes are all factors playing a role in this evolution. Medically fragile and technology-dependent individuals who were once limited to care in acute and subacute institutional settings are now frequently cared for at home, most often by their immediate family members. Mechanical ventilation has found its way into the patient's home such that physicians and other providers must be prepared for the challenges associated with managing the conditions of complex, ventilator-dependent individuals outside of the walls, controls, and safety of the institutional setting. With little published science and recognized standards of practice, there are fewer rules to guide clinicians through this process. Experience has shown, however, that successful home management of ventilator-dependent individuals can be traced to a smooth and collaborative discharge from the hospital to home. Reimbursement and coverage issues must also be well understood to avoid the aggravation of denials and challenges for necessary equipment and assistance. Once home, a streamlined, patient-centered process supported by effective communication between all care providers can result in a safe and appropriate long-term home ventilation success story. PMID:17699139

  18. Unplanned Extubation in Patients with Mechanical Ventilation: Experience in the Medical Intensive Care Unit of a Single Tertiary Hospital

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Tae Won; Hong, Jeong Woo; Yoo, Jung-Wan; Ju, Sunmi; Lee, Seung Hun; Lee, Seung Jun; Cho, Yu Ji; Jeong, Yi Yeong; Lee, Jong Deog

    2015-01-01

    Background Potentially harmful unplanned extubation (UE) may occur in patients on mechanical ventilation (MV) in an intensive care unit (ICU) setting. This study aimed to evaluate the clinical characteristics of UE and its impact on clinical outcomes in patients with MV in a medical ICU (MICU). Methods We retrospectively evaluated MICU data prospectively collected between December 2011 and May 2014. Results A total of 468 patients were admitted to the MICU, of whom 450 were on MV. Of the patients on MV, 30 (6.7%) experienced UE; 13 (43.3%) required reintubation after UE, whereas 17 (56.7%) did not require reintubation. Patients who required reintubation had a significantly longer MV duration and ICU stay than did those not requiring reintubation (19.415.1 days vs. 5.95.9 days days and 18.114.2 days vs. 7.16.5 days, respectively; p<0.05). In addition, mortality rate was significantly higher among patients requiring reintubation than among those not requiring reintubation (54.5% vs. 5.9%; p=0.007). These two groups of patients exhibited no significant differences, within 2 hours after UE, in the fraction of inspired oxygen, blood pressure, heart rate, respiratory rate, and pH. Conclusion Although reintubation may not always be required in patients with UE, it is associated with a poor outcome after UE. PMID:26508920

  19. [Monitoring of patients receiving mechanical ventilation].

    PubMed

    Storre, J H; Dellweg, D

    2014-08-01

    Patients undergoing mechanical ventilation are usually treated in the intensive care unit. Monitoring of these patients is challenging for all members of the medical staff. Understanding the aetiology of respiratory failure as well as the pathophysiological principles is essential for appropriate monitoring and treatment. Besides observation of clinical signs, different monitoring methods have become available including invasive and non-invasive diagnostic tools. Furthermore, knowledge about oxygen supply and oxygen consumption as well as respiratory muscle capacities and workload is important. The current article presents an overview of these issues and evaluates different diagnostic tools to monitor ventilator-dependent patients. PMID:25006972

  20. Anxiety and Agitation in Mechanically Ventilated Patients

    PubMed Central

    Tate, Judith Ann; Dabbs, Annette Devito; Hoffman, Leslie; Milbrandt, Eric; Happ, Mary Beth

    2013-01-01

    During an ethnography conducted in an intensive care unit (ICU), we found that anxiety and agitation occurred frequently, and were important considerations in the care of 30 patients weaning from prolonged mechanical ventilation. We conducted a secondary analysis to (a) describe characteristics of anxiety and agitation experienced by mechanically ventilated patients; (b) explore how clinicians recognize and interpret anxiety and agitation and (c) describe strategies and interventions used to manage anxiety and agitation with mechanically ventilated patients. We constructed the Anxiety-Agitation in Mechanical Ventilation Model to illustrate the multidimensional features of symptom recognition and management. Patients ability to interact with the environment served as a basis for identification and management of anxiety or agitation. Clinicians attributions about anxiety or agitation and knowing the patient contributed to their assessment of patient responses. Clinicians chose strategies to overcome either the stimulus or patients appraisal of risk of the stimulus. This article contributes to the body of knowledge about symptom recognition and management in the ICU by providing a comprehensive model to guide future research and practice. PMID:21908706

  1. Effect of using Richmond Agitation Sedation Scale on duration of mechanical ventilation, type and dosage of sedation on hospitalized patients in intensive care units

    PubMed Central

    Yousefi, Hojatollah; Toghyani, Farzaneh; Yazdannik, Ahmad Reza; Fazel, Kamran

    2015-01-01

    Background: Mechanical ventilation is one of the supporting treatments that are used for different reasons. To reduce patients inconvenience caused due to using tracheal tube and ventilator, sedation is routinely used. Using scales for the sedation, for example, Richmond Agitation Sedation Scale (RASS), may reduce dose of sedation and length of mechanical ventilation. Materials and Methods: This study is a randomized clinical trial on 64 patients selected from three intensive care units (ICUs) in Isfahan, Iran. Through random allocation, 32 patients were assigned to each of the study and control groups. In the control group, patients level of consciousness and the amount of drug consumption in every shift, based on physician order, were recorded. In the study group, RASS score was recorded every hour and sedation was administered based on that. The purpose of the study was to investigate of application of RASS for drug consumption until weaning of the patient from the ventilator. Independent t-test with significance level of 0.05 was used. Results: Results showed no significant difference in the mean consumption of midazolam and morphine after intervention, but there was a significant difference in fentanyl (P = 0.03) consumption (379 ?g in the control group vs 75 ?g in the study group) between groups after the intervention. The mean duration of being connected to the ventilator was significantly less in the study group (P = 0.03). Conclusions: Application of RASS by nurses leads to a decrease in sedation consumption, connection to ventilator, and length of stay in the hospital. PMID:26793256

  2. Adapting the ABCDEF Bundle to Meet the Needs of Patients Requiring Prolonged Mechanical Ventilation in the Long-Term Acute Care Hospital Setting: Historical Perspectives and Practical Implications.

    PubMed

    Balas, Michele C; Devlin, John W; Verceles, Avelino C; Morris, Peter; Ely, E Wesley

    2016-02-01

    When robust clinical trials are lacking, clinicians are often forced to extrapolate safe and effective evidence-based interventions from one patient care setting to another. This article is about such an extrapolation from the intensive care unit (ICU) to the long-term acute care hospital (LTACH) setting. Chronic critical illness is an emerging, disabling, costly, and yet relatively silent epidemic that is central to both of these settings. The number of chronically critically ill patients requiring prolonged mechanical ventilation is expected to reach unprecedented levels over the next decade. Despite the prevalence, numerous distressing symptoms, and exceptionally poor outcomes associated with chronic critical illness, to date there is very limited scientific evidence available to guide the care and management of this exceptionally vulnerable population, particularly in LTACHs. Recent studies conducted in the traditional ICU setting suggest interprofessional, multicomponent strategies aimed at effectively assessing, preventing, and managing pain, agitation, delirium, and weakness, such as the ABCDEF bundle, may play an important role in the recovery of the chronically critically ill. This article reviews what is known about the chronically critically ill, provide readers with some important historical perspectives on the ABCDEF bundle, and address some controversies and practical implications of adopting the ABCDEF bundle into the everyday care of patients requiring prolonged mechanical ventilation in the LTACH setting. We believe developing new and better ways of addressing both the science and organizational aspects of managing the common and distressing symptoms associated with chronic critical illness and prolonged mechanical ventilation will ultimately improve the quality of life for the many patients and families admitted to LTACHs annually. PMID:26820279

  3. Rehabilitation during mechanical ventilation: Review of the recent literature.

    PubMed

    Ntoumenopoulos, George

    2015-06-01

    Mechanically ventilated patients are at increased risk of developing physical and psychological complications that are associated with prolonged weaning from mechanical ventilation, increased morbidity and mortality. These complications include intensive care unit acquired weakness, delirium and a loss of physical function that may persist well beyond ICU and hospital discharge. Factors such as the requirement for intubation and mechanical ventilation, sedation, systemic inflammation and immobility are associated with the development of these physical and psychological complications. Implementation of rehabilitation in mechanically ventilated patients has been demonstrated to be both safe and feasible and provide benefits in terms of physical and psychological function and assist with weaning from mechanical ventilation. The recent relevant literature on the role of rehabilitation interventions in the mechanically ventilated patient will be discussed. PMID:26026495

  4. Sedation, Sleep Promotion, and Delirium Screening Practices in the Care of Mechanically Ventilated Children: A Wake-up Call for the Pediatric Critical Care Community

    PubMed Central

    Yaster, Myron; Punjabi, Naresh M.

    2014-01-01

    Objective To examine pediatric intensivist sedation management, sleep promotion, and delirium screening practices for intubated and mechanically ventilated children. Design An international, online survey of questions regarding sedative and analgesic medication choices and availability, sedation protocols, sleep optimization, and delirium recognition and treatment. Setting Member societies of the World Federation of Pediatric Intensive and Critical Care Societies were asked to send the survey to their mailing lists; responses were collected from July 2012 to January 2013. Interventions Survey Measurements and Main Results The survey was completed by 341 respondents, the majority of whom were from North America (70%). Twenty-seven percent of respondents reported having written sedation protocols. Most respondents worked in pediatric intensive care units (PICUs) with sedation scoring systems (70%), although only 42% of those with access to scoring systems reported routine daily use for goal-directed sedation management. The State Behavioral Scale was the most commonly used scoring system in North America (22%), with the COMFORT score more prevalent in all other countries (39%). The most commonly used sedation regimen for intubated children was a combination of opioid and benzodiazepine (72%). Most intensivists chose fentanyl as their first-line opioid (66%) and midazolam as their first-line benzodiazepine (86%), and prefer to administer these medications as continuous infusions. Propofol and dexmedetomidine were the most commonly restricted medications in PICUs internationally. Use of earplugs, eye masks, noise reduction, and lighting optimization for sleep promotion was uncommon. Delirium screening was not practiced in 71% of respondent’s PICUs, and only 2% reported routine screening at least twice a day. Conclusions The results highlight the heterogeneity in sedation practices among intensivists who care for critically ill children, as well as a paucity of sleep promotion and delirium screening in PICUs worldwide. PMID:24717461

  5. Capnography/Capnometry during mechanical ventilation: 2011.

    PubMed

    Walsh, Brian K; Crotwell, David N; Restrepo, Ruben D

    2011-04-01

    We searched the MEDLINE, CINAHL, and Cochrane Library databases for articles published between January 1990 and November 2010. The update of this clinical practice guideline is based on 234 clinical studies and systematic reviews, 19 review articles that investigated capnography/capnometry during mechanical ventilation, and the 2010 American Heart Association Guidelines for Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation and Emergency Cardiovascular Care. The following recommendations are made following the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development, and Evaluation (GRADE) scoring system: (1) Continuous-waveform capnography is recommended, in addition to clinical assessment to confirm and monitor correct placement of an endotracheal tube. (2) If waveform capnography is not available, a non-waveform exhaled CO(2) monitor, in addition to clinical assessment, is suggested as the initial method for confirming correct tube placement in a patient in cardiac arrest. (3) End-tidal CO(2) (P(ETCO(2))) is suggested to guide ventilator management. (4) Continuous capnometry during transport of the mechanically ventilated patients is suggested. (5) Capnography is suggested to identify abnormalities of exhaled air flow. (6) Volumetric capnography is suggested to assess CO(2) elimination and the ratio of dead-space volume to tidal volume (V(D)/V(T)) to optimize mechanical ventilation. (7) Quantitative waveform capnography is suggested in intubated patients to monitor cardiopulmonary quality, optimize chest compressions, and detect return of spontaneous circulation during chest compressions or when rhythm check reveals an organized rhythm. PMID:21255512

  6. Not-So-Trivial Pursuit: Mechanical Ventilation Risk Reduction

    PubMed Central

    Grap, Mary Jo

    2013-01-01

    As many as half of critically ill patients require mechanical ventilation. In this article, a program of research focused on reduction of risk associated with mechanical ventilation is reviewed. Airway management practices can have profound effects on outcomes in these patients. How patients are suctioned, types of processes used, effects of suctioning in patients with lung injury, and open versus closed suctioning systems all have been examined to determine best practices. Pneumonia is a common complication of mechanical ventilation (ventilator-associated pneumonia), and use of higher backrest elevations reduces risk of pneumonia, although compliance with such recommendations varies. The studies reviewed here describe backrest elevation practices, factors that affect backrest elevation, and the effect of backrest elevation on ventilator-associated pneumonia. Oral care strategies also have been investigated to determine their effect on ventilator-associated pneumonia. Oral care practices are reported to hold a low care priority, vary widely across care providers, and differ in intubated versus nonintubated patients. However, in several studies, oral applications of chlorhexidine have reduced the occurrence of ventilator-associated pneumonia. Although ventilator patients require sedation, sedation is associated with significant risks. The overall goals of sedation are to provide physiological stability, to maintain ventilator synchrony, and to ensure patients' comfort–although methods to evaluate achievement of these goals are limited. Reducing risks associated with mechanical ventilation in critically ill patients is a complex and interdisciplinary process. Our understanding of the risks associated with mechanical ventilation is constantly changing, but care of these patients must be based on the best evidence. PMID:19556408

  7. Ventilator-associated lung injury during assisted mechanical ventilation.

    PubMed

    Saddy, Felipe; Sutherasan, Yuda; Rocco, Patricia R M; Pelosi, Paolo

    2014-08-01

    Assisted mechanical ventilation (MV) may be a favorable alternative to controlled MV at the early phase of acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), since it requires less sedation, no paralysis and is associated with less hemodynamic deterioration, better distal organ perfusion, and lung protection, thus reducing the risk of ventilator-associated lung injury (VALI). In the present review, we discuss VALI in relation to assisted MV strategies, such as volume assist-control ventilation, pressure assist-control ventilation, pressure support ventilation (PSV), airway pressure release ventilation (APRV), APRV with PSV, proportional assist ventilation (PAV), noisy ventilation, and neurally adjusted ventilatory assistance (NAVA). In summary, we suggest that assisted MV can be used in ARDS patients in the following situations: (1) Pao(2)/Fio(2) >150?mm Hg and positive end-expiratory pressure???5 cm H(2)O and (2) with modalities of pressure-targeted and time-cycled breaths including more or less spontaneous or supported breaths (A-PCV [assisted pressure-controlled ventilation] or APRV). Furthermore, during assisted MV, the following parameters should be monitored: inspiratory drive, transpulmonary pressure, and tidal volume (6 mL/kg). Further studies are required to determine the impact of novel modalities of assisted ventilation such as PAV, noisy pressure support, and NAVA on VALI. PMID:25105820

  8. Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis Patients' Perspectives on Use of Mechanical Ventilation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Jenny M.; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Interviewed 13 amyotrophic lateral sclerosis patients. All believed that they alone should make decision regarding use of mechanical ventilation. Factors they considered important were quality of life, severity of disability, availability of ventilation by means of nasal mask, possible admission to long-term care facility, ability to discontinue…

  9. Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis Patients' Perspectives on Use of Mechanical Ventilation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Jenny M.; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Interviewed 13 amyotrophic lateral sclerosis patients. All believed that they alone should make decision regarding use of mechanical ventilation. Factors they considered important were quality of life, severity of disability, availability of ventilation by means of nasal mask, possible admission to long-term care facility, ability to discontinue

  10. Humidification during Mechanical Ventilation in the Adult Patient

    PubMed Central

    Al Ashry, Haitham S.; Modrykamien, Ariel M.

    2014-01-01

    Humidification of inhaled gases has been standard of care in mechanical ventilation for a long period of time. More than a century ago, a variety of reports described important airway damage by applying dry gases during artificial ventilation. Consequently, respiratory care providers have been utilizing external humidifiers to compensate for the lack of natural humidification mechanisms when the upper airway is bypassed. Particularly, active and passive humidification devices have rapidly evolved. Sophisticated systems composed of reservoirs, wires, heating devices, and other elements have become part of our usual armamentarium in the intensive care unit. Therefore, basic knowledge of the mechanisms of action of each of these devices, as well as their advantages and disadvantages, becomes a necessity for the respiratory care and intensive care practitioner. In this paper, we review current methods of airway humidification during invasive mechanical ventilation of adult patients. We describe a variety of devices and describe the eventual applications according to specific clinical conditions. PMID:25089275

  11. Humidification during mechanical ventilation in the adult patient.

    PubMed

    Al Ashry, Haitham S; Modrykamien, Ariel M

    2014-01-01

    Humidification of inhaled gases has been standard of care in mechanical ventilation for a long period of time. More than a century ago, a variety of reports described important airway damage by applying dry gases during artificial ventilation. Consequently, respiratory care providers have been utilizing external humidifiers to compensate for the lack of natural humidification mechanisms when the upper airway is bypassed. Particularly, active and passive humidification devices have rapidly evolved. Sophisticated systems composed of reservoirs, wires, heating devices, and other elements have become part of our usual armamentarium in the intensive care unit. Therefore, basic knowledge of the mechanisms of action of each of these devices, as well as their advantages and disadvantages, becomes a necessity for the respiratory care and intensive care practitioner. In this paper, we review current methods of airway humidification during invasive mechanical ventilation of adult patients. We describe a variety of devices and describe the eventual applications according to specific clinical conditions. PMID:25089275

  12. Therapeutic suggestion helps to cut back on drug intake for mechanically ventilated patients in intensive care unit

    PubMed Central

    Fritz, Gbor; Varga, Katalin

    2013-01-01

    Research was conducted on ventilated patients treated in an intensive care unit (ICU) under identical circumstances; patients were divided into two groups (subsequently proved statistically identical as to age and Simplified Acute Physiology Score II [SAPS II]). One group was treated with positive suggestions for 1520 min a day based on a predetermined scheme, but tailored to the individual patient, while the control group received no auxiliary psychological treatment. Our goal was to test the effects of positive communication in this special clinical situation. In this section of the research, the subsequent data collection was aimed to reveal whether any change in drug need could be demonstrated upon the influence of suggestions as compared to the control group. Owing to the strict recruitment criteria, a relatively small sample (suggestion group n = 15, control group n = 10) was available during the approximately nine-month period of research. As an outcome of suggestions, there was a significant drop in benzodiazepine (p < 0.005), opioid (p < 0.001), and the ?2-agonist (p < 0.05) intake. All this justifies the presence of therapeutic suggestions among the therapies used in ICUs. However, repeating the trial on a larger sample of patients would be recommended. PMID:24381732

  13. Ventilator-associated pneumonia bundle: reconstruction for best care.

    PubMed

    Munro, Nancy; Ruggiero, Margaret

    2014-01-01

    The ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) bundle is a focus of many health care institutions. Many hospitals are conducting process-improvement projects in an attempt to improve VAP rates by implementing the bundle. However, this bundle is controversial in the literature, because the evidence supporting the VAP interventions is weak. In addition, definitions used for surveillance are interpreted differently than definitions used for clinical diagnosis. The variance in definitions has led to lower reported VAP rates, which may not be accurate. Because of the variance in definitions, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention developed a ventilator-associated event algorithm. Health care institutions are under pressure to reduce the VAP infection rate, but correctly identifying VAP can be very challenging. This article reviews the current evidence related to VAP and provides insight into implementing a suggested revision of the care of patients being treated with mechanical ventilation. PMID:24752029

  14. The basis and basics of mechanical ventilation.

    PubMed

    Bone, R C; Eubanks, D H

    1991-06-01

    The development of mechanical ventilators and the procedures for their application began with the simple foot pump developed by Fell O'Dwyer in 1888. Ventilators have progressed through three generations, beginning with intermittent positive pressure breathing units such as the Bird and Bennett device in the 1960s. These were followed by second-generation units--represented by the Bennett MA-2 ventilator--in the 1970s, and the third-generation microprocessor-controlled units of today. During this evolutionary process clinicians recognized Types I and II respiratory failure as being indicators for mechanical ventilatory support. More recently investigators have expanded, clarified, and clinically applied the physiology of the work of breathing (described by Julius Comroe and other pioneers) to muscle fatigue, requiring ventilatory support. A ventilator classification system can help the clinician understand how ventilators function and under what conditions they may fail to operate as desired. Pressure-support ventilation is an example of how industry has responded to a clinical need--that is, to unload the work of breathing. All positive pressure ventilators generate tidal volumes by using power sources such as medical gas cylinders, air compressors, electrically driven turbines, or piston driven motors. Positive end-expiratory pressures, synchronized intermittent mandatory ventilation, pressure support ventilation, pressure release ventilation, and mandatory minute ventilation, are examples of the special functions available on modern ventilators. Modern third-generation ventilators use microprocessors to control operational functions and monitors. Because these units have incorporated the experience learned from earlier ventilators, it is imperative that clinicians understand basic ventilator operation and application in order to most effectively prescribe and assess their use. PMID:2036934

  15. The art and science of caring for ventilator-assisted patients: learning from our clinical practice.

    PubMed

    Knebel, A; Strider, V C; Wood, C

    1994-12-01

    This case study describes the causes of respiratory failure, modes of ventilation, durable power of attorney, dyspnea, sedation, and chemical paralysis. Such issues as nursing interventions to care for ventilated patients, weaning from mechanical ventilation, ethical principles, and terminal weaning are also explored. PMID:7766355

  16. Echocardiography in a Patient on Mechanical Ventilation.

    PubMed

    Sachdeva, Ankush

    2015-07-01

    Cardiopulmonary interactions or effects of spontaneous and mechanical ventilation (MV) were first documented in the year 1733. Stephen Hales showed that the blood pressure of healthy individual fell during spontaneous inspiration and he later went on to discover the ventilator. A year later Kussmaul described pulsus paradoxus (inspiratory absence of radial pulse) in patients with tubercular pericarditis. Echocardiography can help to diagnose a wide variety of cardiovascular diseases and can guide therapeutic decisions in patients on mechanical ventilation. PMID:26731826

  17. Communicating While Receiving Mechanical Ventilation: Texting With a Smartphone.

    PubMed

    Shiber, Joseph; Thomas, Ayesha; Northcutt, Ashley

    2016-03-01

    Two young adults with severe facial injuries were receiving care in the trauma/surgical intensive care unit at a tertiary care, level I trauma center in the southeastern United States. Both patients were able to communicate by texting on their cellphones to family members, friends, and caregivers in the intensive care unit. Patients who are awake and already have experience texting with a smartphone or other electronic handheld device may be able to communicate well while receiving mechanical ventilation. PMID:26932926

  18. The reality of patients requiring prolonged mechanical ventilation: a multicenter study

    PubMed Central

    Loss, Sérgio Henrique; de Oliveira, Roselaine Pinheiro; Maccari, Juçara Gasparetto; Savi, Augusto; Boniatti, Marcio Manozzo; Hetzel, Márcio Pereira; Dallegrave, Daniele Munaretto; Balzano, Patrícia de Campos; Oliveira, Eubrando Silvestre; Höher, Jorge Amilton; Torelly, André Peretti; Teixeira, Cassiano

    2015-01-01

    Objective The number of patients who require prolonged mechanical ventilation increased during the last decade, which generated a large population of chronically ill patients. This study established the incidence of prolonged mechanical ventilation in four intensive care units and reported different characteristics, hospital outcomes, and the impact of costs and services of prolonged mechanical ventilation patients (mechanical ventilation dependency ≥ 21 days) compared with non-prolonged mechanical ventilation patients (mechanical ventilation dependency < 21 days). Methods This study was a multicenter cohort study of all patients who were admitted to four intensive care units. The main outcome measures were length of stay in the intensive care unit, hospital, complications during intensive care unit stay, and intensive care unit and hospital mortality. Results There were 5,287 admissions to the intensive care units during study period. Some of these patients (41.5%) needed ventilatory support (n = 2,197), and 218 of the patients met criteria for prolonged mechanical ventilation (9.9%). Some complications developed during intensive care unit stay, such as muscle weakness, pressure ulcers, bacterial nosocomial sepsis, candidemia, pulmonary embolism, and hyperactive delirium, were associated with a significantly higher risk of prolonged mechanical ventilation. Prolonged mechanical ventilation patients had a significant increase in intensive care unit mortality (absolute difference = 14.2%, p < 0.001) and hospital mortality (absolute difference = 19.1%, p < 0.001). The prolonged mechanical ventilation group spent more days in the hospital after intensive care unit discharge (26.9 ± 29.3 versus 10.3 ± 20.4 days, p < 0.001) with higher costs. Conclusion The classification of chronically critically ill patients according to the definition of prolonged mechanical ventilation adopted by our study (mechanical ventilation dependency ≥ 21 days) identified patients with a high risk for complications during intensive care unit stay, longer intensive care unit and hospital stays, high death rates, and higher costs. PMID:25909310

  19. Telemedicine enabled remote critical care ventilator.

    PubMed

    Seifert, Gregory J; Hedin, Daniel S; Dahlstrom, Robert J; Havey, Gary D

    2010-01-01

    Following a critical illness, technology-dependent children on chronic ventilator support require specialized care to facilitate recovery and rehabilitation that minimally impedes social and psychological development. Intervention strategies have been confounded by the need for frequent assessment via physical exam in a relatively immobile patient population. The availability of technology that enables effective, timely, and reliable information transfer between the homecare providers and the attending pulmonologist is likely to decrease the need for transport and hospitalization, and provide a dramatically increased level of comfort for care givers in the home and ultimately the children. A Pulmonetic Systems LTV 1200 ventilator was enabled with a wireless cellular interface to make its settings and performance data real-time accessible over a secure wireless Internet connection. A complete web-browser ventilator interface program was specified, coded, and tested. The live web interface was used to support a formal survey of pediatric pulmonologists to help gauge the potential medical utility of the new remote interface to the ventilator. The survey results were overwhelmingly supportive of the concept, and the pulmonologists listed many varied ways that the data could have utility in their patient populations. PMID:21096563

  20. Mechanical Ventilation in the Respiratory Distress Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Murdock, A. I.; Linsao, L.; Reid, M. McC.; Sutton, M. D.; Tilak, K. S.; Ulan, O. A.; Swyer, P. R.

    1970-01-01

    A controlled study of mechanical ventilation has been performed in infants with respiratory distress syndrome. 168 infants in respiratory failure were ventilated and 53 similar infants were not. Artificial mechanical ventilation improved survival in infants weighing more than 2000 g. from 15% to 43% (4/27 vs. 29/67, p < 0025). Infants who weighed more than 1500 g. and developed respiratory failure at less than 38 hours of age had an improved survival (16/31) on ventilatory treatment, as compared with infants more than 1500 g. ventilated at more than 38 hours of age (24/78) (p < 005). Artificial ventilation improved Pao2, Paco2, and [H+]a within one hour, but it was only the change in [H+]a in infants more than 2000 g. which was of prognostic significance. Survival rates were similar for each of the three types of respirator used. PMID:4920541

  1. Healthcare Technology Management (HTM) of mechanical ventilators by clinical engineers.

    PubMed

    Yoshioka, Jun; Nakane, Masaki; Kawamae, Kaneyuki

    2014-01-01

    Mechanical ventilator failures expose patients to unacceptable risks, and maintaining mechanical ventilator safety is an important issue. We examined the usefulness of maintaining mechanical ventilators by clinical engineers (CEs) using a specialized calibrator. These evaluations and the ability to make in-house repairs proved useful for obviating the need to rent ventilators which, in turn, might prove faulty themselves. The CEs' involvement in maintaining mechanical ventilators is desirable, ensures prompt service, and, most importantly, enhances safe management of mechanical ventilators. PMID:25520839

  2. Assessment of respiratory output in mechanically ventilated patients.

    PubMed

    Laghi, Franco

    2005-06-01

    Mechanically ventilated patients are subject to few pathophysiologic disturbances that have such intuitive importance as abnormal function of the respiratory output. Abnormal function of the respiratory output plays a fundamental role in all aspects of mechanical ventilation: in determining which patients require mechanical ventilation, in determining the interaction between a patient and the ventilator, and in determining when a patient can tolerate discontinuation of mechanical ventilation. Monitoring indexes such as the rate of rise in electrical activity of the diaphragm, Po.1, (dP/dt)max, and Pmus, has provided insight into the performance of the respiratory centers in critically ill patients, but these methods require considerable refinement. A large body of research on measurements of energy expenditure of the respiratory muscles, such as pressure-time product, and measurements of inspiratory effort, such as the tension-time index, is currently accumulating. Several challenges, however, lay ahead regarding these indices. First, there is the need to identify the correct level of pressure generation and respiratory muscle effort that should be attained in the day-to-day management of mechanically ventilated patients. The correct titration of ventilator setting should not cause iatrogenic muscle damage because the support is excessive or insufficient. One of the challenges in reaching this goal is that for the same patient, different underlying pathologic conditions (eg, sepsis or ventilator-associated muscle injury) may require different levels of support. Second, many of the measurements of pressure generation and effort have been confined to the research laboratory. Modifications of the technology to achieve accurate measurements in the intensive care unit-outside of the research laboratory--are needed. To facilitate individual titration of ventilator settings, the new technologies must provide easier access to quantification of drive, pressure output, and effort. Finally, more research is needed to define the effect of monitoring respiratory output on patient outcome and containment of costs. PMID:15936689

  3. New modes of assisted mechanical ventilation.

    PubMed

    Suarez-Sipmann, F

    2014-05-01

    Recent major advances in mechanical ventilation have resulted in new exciting modes of assisted ventilation. Compared to traditional ventilation modes such as assisted-controlled ventilation or pressure support ventilation, these new modes offer a number of physiological advantages derived from the improved patient control over the ventilator. By implementing advanced closed-loop control systems and using information on lung mechanics, respiratory muscle function and respiratory drive, these modes are specifically designed to improve patient-ventilator synchrony and reduce the work of breathing. Depending on their specific operational characteristics, these modes can assist spontaneous breathing efforts synchronically in time and magnitude, adapt to changing patient demands, implement automated weaning protocols, and introduce a more physiological variability in the breathing pattern. Clinicians have now the possibility to individualize and optimize ventilatory assistance during the complex transition from fully controlled to spontaneous assisted ventilation. The growing evidence of the physiological and clinical benefits of these new modes is favoring their progressive introduction into clinical practice. Future clinical trials should improve our understanding of these modes and help determine whether the claimed benefits result in better outcomes. PMID:24507472

  4. Care of the ventilator circuit and its relation to ventilator-associated pneumonia.

    PubMed

    Hess, Dean R; Kallstrom, Thomas J; Mottram, Carl D; Myers, Timothy R; Sorenson, Helen M; Vines, David L

    2003-09-01

    Ventilator circuits should not be changed routinely for infection control purposes. The maximum duration of time that circuits can be used safely is unknown. Evidence is lacking related to ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) and issues of heated versus unheated circuits, type of heated humidifier, method for filling the humidifier, and technique for clearing condensate from the ventilator circuit. Although the available evidence suggests a lower VAP rate with passive humidification than with active humidification, other issues related to the use of passive humidifiers (resistance, dead space volume, airway occlusion risk) preclude a recommendation for the general use of passive humidifiers. Passive humidifiers do not need to be changed daily for reasons on infection control or technical performance. They can be safely used for at least 48 hours, and with some patient populations some devices may be able to be used for periods of up to 1 week. The use of closed suction catheters should be considered part of VAP prevention strategy, and they do not need to be changed daily for infection control purposes. The maximum duration of time that closed suction catheters can be used safely is unknown. Clinicians caring for mechanically ventilated patients should be aware of risk factors for VAP (eg, nebulizer therapy, manual ventilation, and patient transport). PMID:14513820

  5. Optimizing Communication in Mechanically Ventilated Patients

    PubMed Central

    Pandian, Vinciya; Smith, Christine P.; Cole, Therese Kling; Bhatti, Nasir I.; Mirski, Marek A.; Yarmus, Lonny B.; Feller-Kopman, David J.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose To describe the types of talking tracheostomy tubes available, present four case studies of critically ill patients who used a specialized tracheostomy tube to improve speech, discuss their advantages and disadvantages, propose patient selection criteria, and provide practical recommendations for medical care providers. Methods Retrospective chart review of patients who underwent tracheostomy in 2010. Results Of the 220 patients who received a tracheostomy in 2010, 164 (74.55%) received a percutaneous tracheostomy and 56 (25.45%) received an open tracheostomy. Among the percutaneous tracheostomy patients, speech-language pathologists were consulted on 113 patients, 74 of whom were on a ventilator. Four of these 74 patients received a talking tracheostomy tube, and all four were able to speak successfully while on the mechanical ventilator even though they were unable to tolerate cuff deflation. Conclusions Talking tracheostomy tubes allow patients who are unable to tolerate-cuff deflation to achieve phonation. Our experience with talking tracheostomy tubes suggests that clinicians should consider their use for patients who cannot tolerate cuff deflation. PMID:25429193

  6. Simulations for Mechanical Ventilation in Children: Review and Future Prospects

    PubMed Central

    Flechelles, Olivier; Ho, Annie; Hernert, Patrice; Emeriaud, Guillaume; Zaglam, Nesrine; Cheriet, Farida; Jouvet, Philippe A.

    2013-01-01

    Mechanical ventilation is a very effective therapy, but with many complications. Simulators are used in many fields, including medicine, to enhance safety issues. In the intensive care unit, they are used for teaching cardiorespiratory physiology and ventilation, for testing ventilator performance, for forecasting the effect of ventilatory support, and to determine optimal ventilatory management. They are also used in research and development of clinical decision support systems (CDSSs) and explicit computerized protocols in closed loop. For all those reasons, cardiorespiratory simulators are one of the tools that help to decrease mechanical ventilation duration and complications. This paper describes the different types of simulators described in the literature for physiologic simulation and modeling of the respiratory system, including a new simulator (SimulResp), and proposes a validation process for these simulators. PMID:23533735

  7. Preemptive mechanical ventilation can block progressive acute lung injury.

    PubMed

    Sadowitz, Benjamin; Jain, Sumeet; Kollisch-Singule, Michaela; Satalin, Joshua; Andrews, Penny; Habashi, Nader; Gatto, Louis A; Nieman, Gary

    2016-02-01

    Mortality from acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) remains unacceptable, approaching 45% in certain high-risk patient populations. Treating fulminant ARDS is currently relegated to supportive care measures only. Thus, the best treatment for ARDS may lie with preventing this syndrome from ever occurring. Clinical studies were examined to determine why ARDS has remained resistant to treatment over the past several decades. In addition, both basic science and clinical studies were examined to determine the impact that early, protective mechanical ventilation may have on preventing the development of ARDS in at-risk patients. Fulminant ARDS is highly resistant to both pharmacologic treatment and methods of mechanical ventilation. However, ARDS is a progressive disease with an early treatment window that can be exploited. In particular, protective mechanical ventilation initiated before the onset of lung injury can prevent the progression to ARDS. Airway pressure release ventilation (APRV) is a novel mechanical ventilation strategy for delivering a protective breath that has been shown to block progressive acute lung injury (ALI) and prevent ALI from progressing to ARDS. ARDS mortality currently remains as high as 45% in some studies. As ARDS is a progressive disease, the key to treatment lies with preventing the disease from ever occurring while it remains subclinical. Early protective mechanical ventilation with APRV appears to offer substantial benefit in this regard and may be the prophylactic treatment of choice for preventing ARDS. PMID:26855896

  8. Preemptive mechanical ventilation can block progressive acute lung injury

    PubMed Central

    Sadowitz, Benjamin; Jain, Sumeet; Kollisch-Singule, Michaela; Satalin, Joshua; Andrews, Penny; Habashi, Nader; Gatto, Louis A; Nieman, Gary

    2016-01-01

    Mortality from acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) remains unacceptable, approaching 45% in certain high-risk patient populations. Treating fulminant ARDS is currently relegated to supportive care measures only. Thus, the best treatment for ARDS may lie with preventing this syndrome from ever occurring. Clinical studies were examined to determine why ARDS has remained resistant to treatment over the past several decades. In addition, both basic science and clinical studies were examined to determine the impact that early, protective mechanical ventilation may have on preventing the development of ARDS in at-risk patients. Fulminant ARDS is highly resistant to both pharmacologic treatment and methods of mechanical ventilation. However, ARDS is a progressive disease with an early treatment window that can be exploited. In particular, protective mechanical ventilation initiated before the onset of lung injury can prevent the progression to ARDS. Airway pressure release ventilation (APRV) is a novel mechanical ventilation strategy for delivering a protective breath that has been shown to block progressive acute lung injury (ALI) and prevent ALI from progressing to ARDS. ARDS mortality currently remains as high as 45% in some studies. As ARDS is a progressive disease, the key to treatment lies with preventing the disease from ever occurring while it remains subclinical. Early protective mechanical ventilation with APRV appears to offer substantial benefit in this regard and may be the prophylactic treatment of choice for preventing ARDS. PMID:26855896

  9. Humidification of inspired gases during mechanical ventilation.

    PubMed

    Gross, J L; Park, G R

    2012-04-01

    Humidification of inspired gas is mandatory for all mechanically ventilated patients to prevent secretion retention, tracheal tube blockage and adverse changes occurring to the respiratory tract epithelium. However, the debate over "ideal" humidification continues. Several devices are available that include active and passive heat and moisture exchangers and hot water humidifiers Each have their advantages and disadvantages in mechanically ventilated patients. This review explores each device in turn and defines their role in clinical practice. PMID:22269929

  10. Neonatal mechanical ventilation: Indications and outcome

    PubMed Central

    Iqbal, Qazi; Younus, Mir M.; Ahmed, Asif; Ahmad, Ikhlas; Iqbal, Javed; Charoo, Bashir A.; Ali, S Wajid

    2015-01-01

    Background and Aims: Decreasing mortality in sick and ventilated neonates is an endeavor of all neonatologists. To reduce the high mortality in this group of neonates, identification of risk factors is important. This study was undertaken to find out the indications of ventilation and complications in ventilated neonates and also study possible predictors of outcome. Subjects: Age <1-month; mechanically ventilated; not having suspected metabolic disorders or congenital anomalies; excluding postoperative patients. Methods: Neonates consecutively put on mechanical ventilation during the study period (October 2011 to November 2013) enrolled. Primary disease of the neonates along with complications present listed. Clinical and laboratory parameters analyzed to find the predictors of mortality. Results: Total 300 neonates were ventilated. 52% were male. Mean age, weight, and gestational age were 21 62 h, 2320 846.2 g, and 35.2 4.9 weeks, respectively. 130 (43%) neonates died. Respiratory distress syndrome (RDS) (31.1%), sepsis (22.7%), and birth asphyxia (18%) were the most common indications for ventilation. Mortality in ventilated patients with sepsis, pneumonia, RDS or birth asphyxia was 64.7%, 60%, 44.6%, and 33.3%, respectively. Weight <2500 g, gestation <34 weeks, initial pH <7.1, presence of sepsis, apnea, shock, pulmonary hemorrhage, hypoglycemia, neutropenia, and thrombocytopenia were significantly associated with mortality (P < 0.05). Resuscitation at birth, seizures, intra ventricular hemorrhage, pneumothorax, ventilator-associated pneumonia, PO2, or PCO2 did not have a significant association with mortality. On logistic regression, gestation <34 weeks, initial pH <7.1, pulmonary hemorrhage, or shock were independently significant predictors of mortality. Conclusions: Weight <2500 g, gestation <34 weeks, initial arterial pH <7.1, shock, pulmonary hemorrhage, apnea, hypoglycemia, neutropenia, and thrombocytopenia were significant predictors of mortality in ventilated neonates. PMID:26430338

  11. Inhalation therapy in patients receiving mechanical ventilation: an update.

    PubMed

    Ari, Arzu; Fink, James B; Dhand, Rajiv

    2012-12-01

    Incremental gains in understanding the influence of various factors on aerosol delivery in concert with technological advancements over the past 2 decades have fueled an ever burgeoning literature on aerosol therapy during mechanical ventilation. In-line use of pressurized metered-dose inhalers (pMDIs) and nebulizers is influenced by a host of factors, some of which are unique to ventilator-supported patients. This article reviews the impact of various factors on aerosol delivery with pMDIs and nebulizers, and elucidates the correlation between in-vitro estimates and in-vivo measurement of aerosol deposition in the lung. Aerosolized bronchodilator therapy with pMDIs and nebulizers is commonly employed in intensive care units (ICUs), and bronchodilators are among the most frequently used therapies in mechanically ventilated patients. The use of inhaled bronchodilators is not restricted to mechanically ventilated patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and asthma, as they are routinely employed in other ventilator-dependent patients without confirmed airflow obstruction. The efficacy and safety of bronchodilator therapy has generated a great deal of interest in employing other inhaled therapies, such as surfactant, antibiotics, prostacyclins, diuretics, anticoagulants and mucoactive agents, among others, in attempts to improve outcomes in critically ill ICU patients receiving mechanical ventilation. PMID:22856594

  12. 46 CFR 154.1205 - Mechanical ventilation system: Standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Mechanical ventilation system: Standards. 154.1205... Equipment Cargo Area: Mechanical Ventilation System 154.1205 Mechanical ventilation system: Standards. (a) Each exhaust type mechanical ventilation system required under 154.1200 (a) must have ducts...

  13. 46 CFR 154.1205 - Mechanical ventilation system: Standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Mechanical ventilation system: Standards. 154.1205... Equipment Cargo Area: Mechanical Ventilation System 154.1205 Mechanical ventilation system: Standards. (a) Each exhaust type mechanical ventilation system required under 154.1200 (a) must have ducts...

  14. 46 CFR 154.1200 - Mechanical ventilation system: General.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Mechanical ventilation system: General. 154.1200 Section... Equipment Cargo Area: Mechanical Ventilation System 154.1200 Mechanical ventilation system: General. (a... cargo handling equipment must have a fixed, exhaust-type mechanical ventilation system. (b)...

  15. 46 CFR 154.1205 - Mechanical ventilation system: Standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Mechanical ventilation system: Standards. 154.1205... Equipment Cargo Area: Mechanical Ventilation System 154.1205 Mechanical ventilation system: Standards. (a) Each exhaust type mechanical ventilation system required under 154.1200 (a) must have ducts...

  16. 46 CFR 154.1200 - Mechanical ventilation system: General.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Mechanical ventilation system: General. 154.1200 Section... Equipment Cargo Area: Mechanical Ventilation System 154.1200 Mechanical ventilation system: General. (a... cargo handling equipment must have a fixed, exhaust-type mechanical ventilation system. (b)...

  17. 46 CFR 154.1200 - Mechanical ventilation system: General.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Mechanical ventilation system: General. 154.1200 Section... Equipment Cargo Area: Mechanical Ventilation System 154.1200 Mechanical ventilation system: General. (a... cargo handling equipment must have a fixed, exhaust-type mechanical ventilation system. (b)...

  18. 46 CFR 154.1205 - Mechanical ventilation system: Standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Mechanical ventilation system: Standards. 154.1205... Equipment Cargo Area: Mechanical Ventilation System 154.1205 Mechanical ventilation system: Standards. (a) Each exhaust type mechanical ventilation system required under 154.1200 (a) must have ducts...

  19. 46 CFR 154.1200 - Mechanical ventilation system: General.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Mechanical ventilation system: General. 154.1200 Section... Equipment Cargo Area: Mechanical Ventilation System 154.1200 Mechanical ventilation system: General. (a... cargo handling equipment must have a fixed, exhaust-type mechanical ventilation system. (b)...

  20. 46 CFR 154.1205 - Mechanical ventilation system: Standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Mechanical ventilation system: Standards. 154.1205... Equipment Cargo Area: Mechanical Ventilation System 154.1205 Mechanical ventilation system: Standards. (a) Each exhaust type mechanical ventilation system required under 154.1200 (a) must have ducts...

  1. 46 CFR 154.1200 - Mechanical ventilation system: General.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Mechanical ventilation system: General. 154.1200 Section... Equipment Cargo Area: Mechanical Ventilation System 154.1200 Mechanical ventilation system: General. (a... cargo handling equipment must have a fixed, exhaust-type mechanical ventilation system. (b)...

  2. [THE EFFICACY AND SAFETY OF DEXMEDETOMIDINE FOR SEDATION OF PATIENTS DURING PROLONGED MECHANICAL VENTILATION IN INTENSIVE CARE UNITS (RUSSIAN MULTICENTER STUDY RESULTS)].

    PubMed

    Nikoda, V V; Gritsan, A I; Eremenko, A A; Zabolotskikh, I B; Kirov, M Yu; Lebedinsky, K M; Levit, A L

    2015-01-01

    A multicenter prospective study investigated the efficacy and safety dexmedetomidine of sedation in 103 patients during long-term (> 12 h) mechanical ventilation and in cases of delirium. Protocol of sedation included intravenous infusions of dexmedetomidine 1.4/kg/h and administering of analgesic drugs, and if necessary--sedative drugs (propofol, midazolam). Group 1 included 69 patients in whom dexmedetomidine sedation was performed for prolonged mechanical ventilation. Group 2 consisted of 34 patients in whom dexmedetomidine was used due to development of delirious state. Dexmedetomi- dine was used as an infusion of 0.7 mg/kg for 1 hour with further correction of dosage. We recorded a level of sedation by RASS, the need for the appointment of other drugs with sedative effects, the duration of mechanical ventilation, length of ICU stay. The infusion of dexmedetomidine can provide a target level of sedation for RASS from 0 to -3 at 80-90% of patients with surgical and therapeutic profile who underwent prolonged mechanical ventilation. The frequency of adverse events appeared due to the development of bradycardia, hypotension. In the use of dexmedetomidine bolus injection should be avoided. PMID:26852580

  3. Brazilian recommendations of mechanical ventilation 2013. Part I

    PubMed Central

    Barbas, Carmen Sílvia Valente; Ísola, Alexandre Marini; Farias, Augusto Manoel de Carvalho; Cavalcanti, Alexandre Biasi; Gama, Ana Maria Casati; Duarte, Antonio Carlos Magalhães; Vianna, Arthur; Serpa, Ary; Bravim, Bruno de Arruda; Pinheiro, Bruno do Valle; Mazza, Bruno Franco; de Carvalho, Carlos Roberto Ribeiro; Toufen, Carlos; David, Cid Marcos Nascimento; Taniguchi, Corine; Mazza, Débora Dutra da Silveira; Dragosavac, Desanka; Toledo, Diogo Oliveira; Costa, Eduardo Leite; Caser, Eliana Bernardete; Silva, Eliezer; Amorim, Fabio Ferreira; Saddy, Felipe; Galas, Filomena Regina Barbosa Gomes; Silva, Gisele Sampaio; de Matos, Gustavo Faissol Janot; Emmerich, João Claudio; Valiatti, Jorge Luis dos Santos; Teles, José Mario Meira; Victorino, Josué Almeida; Ferreira, Juliana Carvalho; Prodomo, Luciana Passuello do Vale; Hajjar, Ludhmila Abrahão; Martins, Luiz Cláudio; Malbouisson, Luiz Marcelo Sá; Vargas, Mara Ambrosina de Oliveira; Reis, Marco Antonio Soares; Amato, Marcelo Brito Passos; Holanda, Marcelo Alcântara; Park, Marcelo; Jacomelli, Marcia; Tavares, Marcos; Damasceno, Marta Cristina Paulette; Assunção, Murillo Santucci César; Damasceno, Moyzes Pinto Coelho Duarte; Youssef, Nazah Cherif Mohamad; Teixeira, Paulo José Zimmermann; Caruso, Pedro; Duarte, Péricles Almeida Delfino; Messeder, Octavio; Eid, Raquel Caserta; Rodrigues, Ricardo Goulart; de Jesus, Rodrigo Francisco; Kairalla, Ronaldo Adib; Justino, Sandra; Nemer, Sérgio Nogueira; Romero, Simone Barbosa; Amado, Verônica Moreira

    2014-01-01

    Perspectives on invasive and noninvasive ventilatory support for critically ill patients are evolving, as much evidence indicates that ventilation may have positive effects on patient survival and the quality of the care provided in intensive care units in Brazil. For those reasons, the Brazilian Association of Intensive Care Medicine (Associação de Medicina Intensiva Brasileira - AMIB) and the Brazilian Thoracic Society (Sociedade Brasileira de Pneumologia e Tisiologia - SBPT), represented by the Mechanical Ventilation Committee and the Commission of Intensive Therapy, respectively, decided to review the literature and draft recommendations for mechanical ventilation with the goal of creating a document for bedside guidance as to the best practices on mechanical ventilation available to their members. The document was based on the available evidence regarding 29 subtopics selected as the most relevant for the subject of interest. The project was developed in several stages, during which the selected topics were distributed among experts recommended by both societies with recent publications on the subject of interest and/or significant teaching and research activity in the field of mechanical ventilation in Brazil. The experts were divided into pairs that were charged with performing a thorough review of the international literature on each topic. All the experts met at the Forum on Mechanical Ventilation, which was held at the headquarters of AMIB in São Paulo on August 3 and 4, 2013, to collaboratively draft the final text corresponding to each sub-topic, which was presented to, appraised, discussed and approved in a plenary session that included all 58 participants and aimed to create the final document. PMID:25028944

  4. Brazilian recommendations of mechanical ventilation 2013. Part I

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Perspectives on invasive and noninvasive ventilatory support for critically ill patients are evolving, as much evidence indicates that ventilation may have positive effects on patient survival and the quality of the care provided in intensive care units in Brazil. For those reasons, the Brazilian Association of Intensive Care Medicine (Associação de Medicina Intensiva Brasileira - AMIB) and the Brazilian Thoracic Society (Sociedade Brasileira de Pneumologia e Tisiologia - SBPT), represented by the Mechanical Ventilation Committee and the Commission of Intensive Therapy, respectively, decided to review the literature and draft recommendations for mechanical ventilation with the goal of creating a document for bedside guidance as to the best practices on mechanical ventilation available to their members. The document was based on the available evidence regarding 29 subtopics selected as the most relevant for the subject of interest. The project was developed in several stages, during which the selected topics were distributed among experts recommended by both societies with recent publications on the subject of interest and/or significant teaching and research activity in the field of mechanical ventilation in Brazil. The experts were divided into pairs that were charged with performing a thorough review of the international literature on each topic. All the experts met at the Forum on Mechanical Ventilation, which was held at the headquarters of AMIB in São Paulo on August 3 and 4, 2013, to collaboratively draft the final text corresponding to each sub-topic, which was presented to, appraised, discussed and approved in a plenary session that included all 58 participants and aimed to create the final document. PMID:25210957

  5. Brazilian recommendations of mechanical ventilation 2013. Part 2

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Perspectives on invasive and noninvasive ventilatory support for critically ill patients are evolving, as much evidence indicates that ventilation may have positive effects on patient survival and the quality of the care provided in intensive care units in Brazil. For those reasons, the Brazilian Association of Intensive Care Medicine (Associação de Medicina Intensiva Brasileira - AMIB) and the Brazilian Thoracic Society (Sociedade Brasileira de Pneumologia e Tisiologia - SBPT), represented by the Mechanical Ventilation Committee and the Commission of Intensive Therapy, respectively, decided to review the literature and draft recommendations for mechanical ventilation with the goal of creating a document for bedside guidance as to the best practices on mechanical ventilation available to their members. The document was based on the available evidence regarding 29 subtopics selected as the most relevant for the subject of interest. The project was developed in several stages, during which the selected topics were distributed among experts recommended by both societies with recent publications on the subject of interest and/or significant teaching and research activity in the field of mechanical ventilation in Brazil. The experts were divided into pairs that were charged with performing a thorough review of the international literature on each topic. All the experts met at the Forum on Mechanical Ventilation, which was held at the headquarters of AMIB in São Paulo on August 3 and 4, 2013, to collaboratively draft the final text corresponding to each sub-topic, which was presented to, appraised, discussed and approved in a plenary session that included all 58 participants and aimed to create the final document. PMID:25410835

  6. Brazilian recommendations of mechanical ventilation 2013. Part 2

    PubMed Central

    Barbas, Carmen Sílvia Valente; Ísola, Alexandre Marini; Farias, Augusto Manoel de Carvalho; Cavalcanti, Alexandre Biasi; Gama, Ana Maria Casati; Duarte, Antonio Carlos Magalhães; Vianna, Arthur; Serpa Neto, Ary; Bravim, Bruno de Arruda; Pinheiro, Bruno do Valle; Mazza, Bruno Franco; de Carvalho, Carlos Roberto Ribeiro; Toufen Júnior, Carlos; David, Cid Marcos Nascimento; Taniguchi, Corine; Mazza, Débora Dutra da Silveira; Dragosavac, Desanka; Toledo, Diogo Oliveira; Costa, Eduardo Leite; Caser, Eliana Bernadete; Silva, Eliezer; Amorim, Fabio Ferreira; Saddy, Felipe; Galas, Filomena Regina Barbosa Gomes; Silva, Gisele Sampaio; de Matos, Gustavo Faissol Janot; Emmerich, João Claudio; Valiatti, Jorge Luis dos Santos; Teles, José Mario Meira; Victorino, Josué Almeida; Ferreira, Juliana Carvalho; Prodomo, Luciana Passuello do Vale; Hajjar, Ludhmila Abrahão; Martins, Luiz Claudio; Malbouisson, Luis Marcelo Sá; Vargas, Mara Ambrosina de Oliveira; Reis, Marco Antonio Soares; Amato, Marcelo Brito Passos; Holanda, Marcelo Alcântara; Park, Marcelo; Jacomelli, Marcia; Tavares, Marcos; Damasceno, Marta Cristina Paulette; Assunção, Murillo Santucci César; Damasceno, Moyzes Pinto Coelho Duarte; Youssef, Nazah Cherif Mohamed; Teixeira, Paulo José Zimmermann; Caruso, Pedro; Duarte, Péricles Almeida Delfino; Messeder, Octavio; Eid, Raquel Caserta; Rodrigues, Ricardo Goulart; de Jesus, Rodrigo Francisco; Kairalla, Ronaldo Adib; Justino, Sandra; Nemer, Sergio Nogueira; Romero, Simone Barbosa; Amado, Verônica Moreira

    2014-01-01

    Perspectives on invasive and noninvasive ventilatory support for critically ill patients are evolving, as much evidence indicates that ventilation may have positive effects on patient survival and the quality of the care provided in intensive care units in Brazil. For those reasons, the Brazilian Association of Intensive Care Medicine (Associação de Medicina Intensiva Brasileira - AMIB) and the Brazilian Thoracic Society (Sociedade Brasileira de Pneumologia e Tisiologia - SBPT), represented by the Mechanical Ventilation Committee and the Commission of Intensive Therapy, respectively, decided to review the literature and draft recommendations for mechanical ventilation with the goal of creating a document for bedside guidance as to the best practices on mechanical ventilation available to their members. The document was based on the available evidence regarding 29 subtopics selected as the most relevant for the subject of interest. The project was developed in several stages, during which the selected topics were distributed among experts recommended by both societies with recent publications on the subject of interest and/or significant teaching and research activity in the field of mechanical ventilation in Brazil. The experts were divided into pairs that were charged with performing a thorough review of the international literature on each topic. All the experts met at the Forum on Mechanical Ventilation, which was held at the headquarters of AMIB in São Paulo on August 3 and 4, 2013, to collaboratively draft the final text corresponding to each sub-topic, which was presented to, appraised, discussed and approved in a plenary session that included all 58 participants and aimed to create the final document. PMID:25295817

  7. Case-Mix, Care Processes, and Outcomes in Medically-Ill Patients Receiving Mechanical Ventilation in a Low-Resource Setting from Southern India: A Prospective Clinical Case Series

    PubMed Central

    Karthikeyan, Balasubramanian; Kadhiravan, Tamilarasu; Deepanjali, Surendran; Swaminathan, Rathinam Palamalai

    2015-01-01

    Background Mechanical ventilation is a resource intensive organ support treatment, and historical studies from low-resource settings had reported a high mortality. We aimed to study the outcomes in patients receiving mechanical ventilation in a contemporary low-resource setting. Methods We prospectively studied the characteristics and outcomes (disease-related, mechanical ventilation-related, and process of care-related) in 237 adults mechanically ventilated for a medical illness at a teaching hospital in southern India during February 2011 to August 2012. Vital status of patients discharged from hospital was ascertained on Day 90 or later. Results Mean age of the patients was 40 17 years; 140 (51%) were men. Poisoning and envenomation accounted for 98 (41%) of 237 admissions. In total, 87 (37%) patients died in-hospital; 16 (7%) died after discharge; 115 (49%) were alive at 90-day assessment; and 19 (8%) were lost to follow-up. Weaning was attempted in 171 (72%) patients; most patients (78 of 99 [79%]) failing the first attempt could be weaned off. Prolonged mechanical ventilation was required in 20 (8%) patients. Adherence to head-end elevation and deep vein thrombosis prophylaxis were 164 (69%) and 147 (62%) respectively. Risk of nosocomial infections particularly ventilator-associated pneumonia was high (57.2 per 1,000 ventilator-days). Higher APACHE II score quartiles (adjusted HR [95% CI] quartile 2, 2.65 [1.195.89]; quartile 3, 2.98 [1.247.15]; quartile 4, 5.78 [2.4513.60]), and new-onset organ failure (2.98 [1.944.56]) were independently associated with the risk of death. Patients with poisoning had higher risk of reintubation (43% vs. 20%; P = 0.001) and ventilator-associated pneumonia (75% vs. 53%; P = 0.001). But, their mortality was significantly lower compared to the rest (24% vs. 44%; P = 0.002). Conclusions The case-mix considerably differs from other settings. Mortality in this low-resource setting is similar to high-resource settings. But, further improvements in care processes and prevention of nosocomial infections are required. PMID:26262995

  8. Flow measurement in mechanical ventilation: a review.

    PubMed

    Schena, Emiliano; Massaroni, Carlo; Saccomandi, Paola; Cecchini, Stefano

    2015-03-01

    Accurate monitoring of flow rate and volume exchanges is essential to minimize ventilator-induced lung injury. Mechanical ventilators employ flowmeters to estimate the amount of gases delivered to patients and use the flow signal as a feedback to adjust the desired amount of gas to be delivered. Since flowmeters play a crucial role in this field, they are required to fulfill strict criteria in terms of dynamic and static characteristics. Therefore, mechanical ventilators are equipped with only the following kinds of flowmeters: linear pneumotachographs, fixed and variable orifice meters, hot wire anemometers, and ultrasonic flowmeters. This paper provides an overview of these sensors. Their working principles are described together with their relevant advantages and disadvantages. Furthermore, the most promising emerging approaches for flowmeters design (i.e., fiber optic technology and three dimensional micro-fabrication) are briefly reviewed showing their potential for this application. PMID:25659299

  9. Interfaces and humidification for noninvasive mechanical ventilation.

    PubMed

    Nava, Stefano; Navalesi, Paolo; Gregoretti, Cesare

    2009-01-01

    During noninvasive ventilation (NIV) for acute respiratory failure, the patient's comfort may be less important than the efficacy of the treatment. However, mask fit and care are needed to prevent skin damage and air leaks that can dramatically reduce patient tolerance and the efficacy of NIV. Choice of interface is a major determinant of NIV success or failure. The number and types of NIV interface has increased and new types are in development. Oronasal mask is the most commonly used interface in acute respiratory failure, followed by nasal mask, helmet, and mouthpiece. There is no perfect NIV interface, and interface choice requires careful evaluation of the patient's characteristics, ventilation modes, and type of acute respiratory failure. Every effort should be made to minimize air leaks, maximize patient comfort, and optimize patient-ventilator interaction. Technological issues to consider when choosing the NIV interface include dead space (dynamic, apparatus, and physiologic), the site and type of exhalation port, and the functioning of the ventilator algorithm with different masks. Heating and humidification may be needed to prevent adverse effects from cool dry gas. Heated humidifier provides better CO(2) clearance and lower work of breathing than does heat-and-moisture exchanger, because heated humidifier adds less dead space. PMID:19111108

  10. Prolonged propofol infusion for mechanically ventilated children.

    PubMed

    Sasabuchi, Y; Yasunaga, H; Matsui, H; Lefor, A K; Fushimi, K

    2016-04-01

    We retrospectively analysed 30-day mortality and duration of intubation for 8016 children ventilated for three or more days, sedated with midazolam (n = 7716) or propofol (n = 300). We matched the propensity scores of 263 pairs of children. The propensity-matched 30-day mortality (95% CI) was similar: 17/263 (6.5%) with midazolam vs. 24/263 (9.1%) with propofol, p = 0.26. Weaning from mechanical ventilation of children sedated with midazolam was slower than weaning of children sedated with propofol, subhazard ratio (95% CI) 1.43 (1.18-1.73), p < 0.001. PMID:26874247

  11. Sedation and analgesia in the mechanically ventilated patient.

    PubMed

    Patel, Shruti B; Kress, John P

    2012-03-01

    Sedation and analgesia are important components of care for the mechanically ventilated patient in the intensive care unit (ICU). An understanding of commonly used medications is essential to formulate a sedation plan for individual patients. The specific physiological changes that a critically ill patient undergoes can have direct effects on the pharmacology of drugs, potentially leading to interpatient differences in response. Objective assessments of pain, sedation, and agitation have been validated for use in the ICU for assessment and titration of medications. An evidence-based strategy for administering these drugs can lead to improvements in short- and long-term outcomes for patients. In this article, we review advances in the field of ICU sedation to provide an up-to-date perspective on management of the mechanically ventilated ICU patient. PMID:22016443

  12. A pressure-limited critical care ventilator.

    PubMed

    Morris, A H; Myers, T

    1987-03-01

    We developed a new pressure-limited ventilator system by modifying the Bird #7001M ventilator. Our aims were to free ICU floor space by wall-mounting the ventilator, and to employ a pressure-limited, gas-powered ventilator similar to our transport ventilator to aid in the training of members of our transport team. The system provides a peak pressure of 150 cm H2O and a peak flow of 208 L/min. When coupled with heated pneumatic nebulizers, it quietly provides a maximum gas flow of 208 L/min with nebulized water at 37 degrees C. We successfully used this system for over 4 years to provide a wide range of ventilatory support and oxygen therapy. PMID:10315728

  13. [Invasive mechanical ventilation: Update for the pediatrician].

    PubMed

    Donoso, Alejandro; Arriagada, Daniela; Daz, Franco; Cruces, Pablo

    2013-10-01

    In this review, we collect the fundamental concepts of the use of invasive mechanical ventilation (MV) in children, particularly in acute respiratory failure. MV is a common practice in the ICU and must be understood as a therapeutic intervention to replace the work of breathing while restores the balance between ventilatory demand and the patient's ability to sustain it. It is essential for the clinician to recognize that the goal of mechanical ventilatory support is not to normalize the patient's blood gases but providing a reasonable gas exchange; the benefts are obtained if the safety thresholds are not exceeded. Thus, this strategy has become the only tool available to limit the development of ventilator-induced lung injury (VILI). PMID:24092031

  14. Mechanical Ventilation Boot Camp: A Simulation-Based Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    Yee, Jennifer; Fuenning, Charles; George, Richard; Hejal, Rana; Haines, Nhi; Dunn, Diane; Gothard, M. David; Ahmed, Rami A.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives. Management of mechanically ventilated patients may pose a challenge to novice residents, many of which may not have received formal dedicated critical care instruction prior to starting their residency training. There is a paucity of data regarding simulation and mechanical ventilation training in the medical education literature. The purpose of this study was to develop a curriculum to educate first-year residents on addressing and troubleshooting ventilator alarms. Methods. Prospective evaluation was conducted of seventeen residents undergoing a twelve-hour three-day curriculum. Residents were assessed using a predetermined critical action checklist for each case, as well as pre- and postcurriculum multiple-choice cognitive knowledge questionnaires and confidence surveys. Results. Significant improvements in cognitive knowledge, critical actions, and self-reported confidence were demonstrated. The mean change in test score from before to after intervention was +26.8%, and a median score increase of 25% was noted. The ARDS and the mucus plugging cases had statistically significant improvements in critical actions, p < 0.001. A mean increase in self-reported confidence was realized (1.55 to 3.64), p = 0.049. Conclusions. A three-day simulation curriculum for residents was effective in increasing competency, knowledge, and confidence with ventilator management. PMID:26949545

  15. A nurse's guide to common mechanical ventilation techniques and modes used in infants. Nursing implications.

    PubMed

    Snow, Timothy M; Brandon, Debra H

    2007-02-01

    The need for conventional mechanical ventilation (CMV) is a common one in the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU). The goals of CMV are to facilitate adequate gas exchange, minimize the risk of lung injury/damage, decrease the patient's work of breathing, and optimize the patient's comfort. Although time-cycled, pressure-limited ventilation remains the most common CMV modality, volume-cycled ventilation, assist-control ventilation, pressure-support ventilation, and pressure-control ventilation are sometimes used in the NICU. Pressure-regulated volume control, volume-guaranteed ventilation, volume-assured pressure-support ventilation, and proportional-assist ventilation are emerging hybrid modes of CMV. Although CMV is frequently life saving, it can cause complications if improperly used. Nurses are responsible for the ongoing assessment and care of infants undergoing CMV and are becoming frequently more involved in the weaning process of CMV. This article provides an overview of conventional ventilation, with a focus on common modalities, and ventilation-related nursing interventions. PMID:17536329

  16. Impact of Sedation on Cognitive Function in Mechanically Ventilated Patients.

    PubMed

    Porhomayon, Jahan; El-Solh, Ali A; Adlparvar, Ghazaleh; Jaoude, Philippe; Nader, Nader D

    2016-02-01

    The practice of sedation dosing strategy in mechanically ventilated patient has a profound effect on cognitive function. We conducted a comprehensive review of outcome of sedation on mental health function in critically ill patients on mechanical ventilation in the intensive care unit (ICU). We specifically evaluated current sedative dosing strategy and the development of delirium, post-traumatic stress disorders (PTSDs) and agitation. Based on this review, heavy dosing sedation strategy with benzodiazepines contributes to cognitive dysfunction. However, outcome for mental health dysfunction is mixed in regard to newer sedatives agents such as dexmedetomidine and propofol. Moreover, studies that examine the impact of sedatives for persistence of PTSD/delirium and its long-term cognitive and functional outcomes for post-ICU patients are frequently underpowered. Most studies suffer from low sample sizes and methodological variations. Therefore, larger randomized controlled trials are needed to properly assess the impact of sedation dosing strategy on cognitive function. PMID:26559680

  17. Mechanical ventilation in ARDS: a state-of-the-art review.

    PubMed

    Girard, Timothy D; Bernard, Gordon R

    2007-03-01

    Mechanical ventilation is an essential component of the care of patients with ARDS, and a large number of randomized controlled clinical trials have now been conducted evaluating the efficacy and safety of various methods of mechanical ventilation for the treatment of ARDS. Low tidal volume ventilation (mechanical ventilation that, to date, has been shown to improve survival. High positive end-expiratory pressure, alveolar recruitment maneuvers, and prone positioning may each be useful as rescue therapy in a patient with severe hypoxemia, but these methods of ventilation do not improve survival for the wide population of patients with ARDS. Although not specific to the treatment of ARDS, protocol-driven weaning that utilizes a daily spontaneous breathing trial and ventilation in the semirecumbent position have proven benefits and should be used in the management of ARDS patients. PMID:17356115

  18. Patient experiences during awake mechanical ventilation

    PubMed Central

    Prime, Danille; Arkless, Paul; Fine, Jonathan; Winter, Stephen; Wakefield, Dorothy B.; Scatena, Robyn

    2016-01-01

    Background Sedation practices in an ICU have shifted significantly in the past 20 years toward the use of minimizing sedation in mechanically ventilated patients. While minimizing sedation is clearly in the best interest of patients, data are lacking about how this approach affects patients’ experiences. Methods We interviewed mechanically ventilated patients receiving minimal sedation, over a 6-month period in an ICU, in order to explore their emotional, comfort, and communication experiences. Their responses were compared with the responses of their available family members regarding their attitudes and perceptions of the patients’ experiences. Results Seventy-five percent of the patients agreed or strongly agreed that they experienced pain, and 50% agreed or strongly agreed that they were comfortable. Half of the patients agreed or strongly agreed that they preferred to be kept awake. Five patients (31%) indicated that they were frustrated while 17 relatives (89%) agreed or strongly agreed that the patients were frustrated. When controlling for age and gender of respondents, family members perceived higher levels of patient pain (least square [LS] mean [95% CI]: 4.2 [3.7, 4.7] vs. 3.1 [2.5, 3.8]; p=0.022), frustration (LS mean [95% CI]: 4.2 [3.7, 4.6] vs. 3.2 [2.6, 3.9]; p=0.031), and adequate communication with nurses and doctors (LS mean [95% CI]: 3.9 [3.5, 4.4] vs. 3.1 [2.4, 3.7]; p=0.046) than the patients themselves. Conclusion Patients tolerated minimal sedation without significant frustration while mechanically ventilated despite experiencing discomfort. Patient and family member perceptions of the patient experience may differ, especially in regards to pain and frustration. The use of a communication tool can facilitate understanding of patient experiences and preferences. PMID:26908386

  19. Two Cases of Pneumatoceles in Mechanically Ventilated Infants

    PubMed Central

    Al-Ghafri, Mohammed; Al-Hanshi, Said; Al-Ismaily, Suad

    2015-01-01

    Pulmonary pneumatocele is a thin-walled, gas-filled space within the lung that usually occurs in association with bacterial pneumonia and is usually transient. The majority of pneumatoceles resolve spontaneously without active intervention, but in some cases they might lead to pneumothorax with subsequent hemodynamic instability. We report two cases presented to the pediatric intensive care unit at the Royal Hospital, Oman with pneumatoceles. The first was a 14-day-old baby who underwent surgical repair of total anomalous pulmonary venous connection (TAPVC) requiring extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) support following surgery. He was initially on conventional mechanical ventilation. Seven days after the surgery, he started to develop bilateral pneumatoceles. The pneumatoceles were not regressing and they did not respond to three weeks of conservative management with high-frequency oscillation ventilation (HFOV). He failed four attempts of weaning from HFOV to conventional ventilation. Each time he was developing tachypnea and carbon dioxide retention. Percutaneous intercostal chest drain (ICD) insertion was needed to evacuate one large pneumatocele. Subsequently, he improved and we were able to wean and extubate him. The second case was a two-month-old male admitted with severe respiratory distress secondary to respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) pneumonitis. After intubation, he required a high conventional ventilation setting and within 24 hours he was on HFOV. Conservative management with HFOV was sufficient to treat the pneumatoceles and no further intervention was needed. Our cases demonstrate two different approaches in the management of pneumatoceles in mechanically ventilated children. Each approach was case dependent and could not be used interchangeably. PMID:26366266

  20. The influence of music during mechanical ventilation and weaning from mechanical ventilation: A review.

    PubMed

    Hetland, Breanna; Lindquist, Ruth; Chlan, Linda L

    2015-01-01

    Mechanical ventilation (MV) causes many distressing symptoms. Weaning, the gradual decrease in ventilator assistance leading to termination of MV, increases respiratory effort, which may exacerbate symptoms and prolong MV. Music, a non-pharmacological intervention without side effects may benefit patients during weaning from mechanical ventilatory support. A narrative review of OVID Medline, PsychINFO, and CINAHL databases was conducted to examine the evidence for the use of music intervention in MV and MV weaning. Music intervention had a positive impact on ventilated patients; 16 quantitative and 2 qualitative studies were identified. Quantitative studies included randomized clinical trials (10), case controls (3), pilot studies (2) and a feasibility study. Evidence supports music as an effective intervention that can lesson symptoms related to MV and promote effective weaning. It has potential to reduce costs and increase patient satisfaction. However, more studies are needed to establish its use during MV weaning. PMID:26227333

  1. Update in Mechanical Ventilation, Sedation, and Outcomes 2014.

    PubMed

    Goligher, Ewan C; Doufl, Ghislaine; Fan, Eddy

    2015-06-15

    Novel approaches to the management of acute respiratory distress syndrome include strategies to enhance alveolar liquid clearance, promote epithelial cell growth and recovery after acute lung injury, and individualize ventilator care on the basis of physiological responses. The use of extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) is growing rapidly, and centers providing ECMO must strive to meet stringent quality standards such as those set out by the ECMONet working group. Prognostic tools such as the RESP score can assist clinicians in predicting outcomes for patients with severe acute respiratory failure but do not predict whether ECMO will enhance survival. Evidence continues to grow that novel modes of mechanical ventilation such as neurally adjusted ventilatory assist are feasible and improve patient physiology and patient-ventilator interaction; data on clinical outcomes are limited but supportive. Critical illness causes long-term psychological and function sequelae: the risk of a new psychiatric diagnosis and severe physical impairment is significantly increased in the months after discharge from the intensive care unit. These long-term effects might be amenable to changes in sedation practice and increased early mobilization. Daily sedation discontinuation enhances the validity of routine delirium assessment. Many critically ill patients merit assessment by palliative care clinicians; the demand for palliative care services among critically ill patients is expected to grow. Future trials to test therapies for critical illness must ensure that study designs are adequately powered to detect benefit using realistic event rates. Integrating "big data" approaches into treatment decisions and trial designs offers a potential means of individualizing care to enhance outcomes for critically ill patients. PMID:26075422

  2. [The application of n-acetylcysteine as an antioxidant and mucolytic in mechanical ventilation in intensive care patients. A prospective, randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind study].

    PubMed

    Konrad, F; Schoenberg, M H; Wiedmann, H; Kilian, J; Georgieff, M

    1995-09-01

    Oxygen radicals and oxygen radial mediators are thought to be important components in the development of acute lung injury, sepsis, and multiple organ failure. Injured patients, patients with pulmonary diseases, and multiple trauma patients also showed an elevated lipid peroxidation, indicating increased oxidant stress. N-Acetylcysteine (NAC) has been used as an antioxidant in a wide variety of experiments. NAC has been suggested to act by raising concentrations of cysteine, and hence glutathione, and by scavenging of oxidant species [1, 11, 17, 29]. The present study was designed to investigate whether the application of NAC in intubated patients has an effect on concentrations of reduced glutathione in plasma and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BAL) and on the lipid peroxidation products malondialdehyde and conjugated dienes. Because NAC has been widely used as a mucolytic drug for the treatment of lung diseases, the influence on tracheobronchial mucus was studied, too. METHODS. In a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study, a total of 38 long-term ventilated patients of a surgical intensive care unit were investigated. Patients were treated for 5 days with either 3 g NAC/day or placebo. The plasma concentration of reduced glutathione, malondialdehyde, and conjugated dienes were measured on admission and on the 3rd and 5th days of treatment [8, 34, 48]. Additionally, the numbers of tracheobronchial suctionings were registered and chest radiographs were evaluated. A fibre-bronchoscopy was performed on admission and on the 3rd day of treatment. The amount and viscidity of tracheobronchial secretions were examined semiquantitatively, and glutathione levels were measured in the unconcentrated BAL. The study was approved by the ethics committee of the University of Ulm. RESULTS. The two groups were comparable with respect to age, sex, APACHE II score and diagnosis (Table 1). We found no significant differences in reduced glutathione levels in the plasma or in the BAL (Figs. 1, 2). Plasma concentrations of malondialdehyde were similar (Fig. 3). Only the levels of conjugated dienes were significantly higher on the 5th treatment day in the placebo group (Fig. 4). The organ function of the lung (FiO2, PEEP, PaO2), liver (SGOT, bilirubin), and kidney (creatinine) and coagulation parameters (PTT, prothrombin time, platelet count) were similar in the two groups during the time of investigation. We observed no clinically relevant differences in the tracheobronchial mucus (Table 2). CONCLUSION. The present data do not support routine use of NAC in ventilated patients, either as an antioxidant or as a mucolytic agent. Intravenous administration of 3 g NAC/day had no clinically relevant effect on glutathione levels, lipid peroxidation products, tracheobronchial mucus, and clinical condition. PMID:7485927

  3. Mechanical ventilation: past lessons and the near future

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    The ability to compensate for life-threatening failure of respiratory function is perhaps the signature technology of intensive care medicine. Unchanging needs for providing effective life-support with minimized risk and optimized comfort have been, are now, and will be the principal objectives of providing mechanical ventilation. Important lessons acquired over nearly half-a-century of ICU care have brought us closer to meeting them, as technological advances in instrumentation now effectively put this hard-won knowledge into action. Rising demand in the face of economic constraints is likely to drive future innovations focused on reducing the need for user input, automating multi-element protocols, and carefully monitoring the patient for progress and complications. PMID:23514222

  4. Automatic detection of AutoPEEP during controlled mechanical ventilation

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Dynamic hyperinflation, hereafter called AutoPEEP (auto-positive end expiratory pressure) with some slight language abuse, is a frequent deleterious phenomenon in patients undergoing mechanical ventilation. Although not readily quantifiable, AutoPEEP can be recognized on the expiratory portion of the flow waveform. If expiratory flow does not return to zero before the next inspiration, AutoPEEP is present. This simple detection however requires the eye of an expert clinician at the patient’s bedside. An automatic detection of AutoPEEP should be helpful to optimize care. Methods In this paper, a platform for automatic detection of AutoPEEP based on the flow signal available on most of recent mechanical ventilators is introduced. The detection algorithms are developed on the basis of robust non-parametric hypothesis testings that require no prior information on the signal distribution. In particular, two detectors are proposed: one is based on SNT (Signal Norm Testing) and the other is an extension of SNT in the sequential framework. The performance assessment was carried out on a respiratory system analog and ex-vivo on various retrospectively acquired patient curves. Results The experiment results have shown that the proposed algorithm provides relevant AutoPEEP detection on both simulated and real data. The analysis of clinical data has shown that the proposed detectors can be used to automatically detect AutoPEEP with an accuracy of 93% and a recall (sensitivity) of 90%. Conclusions The proposed platform provides an automatic early detection of AutoPEEP. Such functionality can be integrated in the currently used mechanical ventilator for continuous monitoring of the patient-ventilator interface and, therefore, alleviate the clinician task. PMID:22715924

  5. Exercise oscillatory ventilation: Mechanisms and prognostic significance

    PubMed Central

    Dhakal, Bishnu P; Lewis, Gregory D

    2016-01-01

    Alteration in breathing patterns characterized by cyclic variation of ventilation during rest and during exercise has been recognized in patients with advanced heart failure (HF) for nearly two centuries. Periodic breathing (PB) during exercise is known as exercise oscillatory ventilation (EOV) and is characterized by the periods of hyperpnea and hypopnea without interposed apnea. EOV is a non-invasive parameter detected during submaximal cardiopulmonary exercise testing. Presence of EOV during exercise in HF patients indicates significant impairment in resting and exercise hemodynamic parameters. EOV is also an independent risk factor for poor prognosis in HF patients both with reduced and preserved ejection fraction irrespective of other gas exchange variables. Circulatory delay, increased chemosensitivity, pulmonary congestion and increased ergoreflex signaling have been proposed as the mechanisms underlying the generation of EOV in HF patients. There is no proven treatment of EOV but its reversal has been noted with phosphodiesterase inhibitors, exercise training and acetazolamide in relatively small studies. In this review, we discuss the mechanistic basis of PB during exercise and the clinical implications of recognizing PB patterns in patients with HF.

  6. Impact of the ventilator bundle on ventilator-associated pneumonia in intensive care unit

    PubMed Central

    Pogorzelska, Monika; Stone, Patricia W.; Furuya, E. Yoko; Perencevich, Eli N.; Larson, Elaine L.; Goldmann, Donald; Dick, Andrew

    2011-01-01

    Objectives The ventilator bundle is being promoted to prevent adverse events in ventilated patients including ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP). We aimed to: (i) examine adoption of the ventilator bundle elements; (ii) determine effectiveness of individual elements and setting characteristics in reducing VAP; (iii) determine effectiveness of two infection-specific elements on reducing VAP; and, (iv) assess crossover effects of complying with VAP elements on central line-associated bloodstream infections. Design Cross-sectional survey. Setting Four hundred and fifteen ICUs from 250 US hospitals. Participants Managers/directors of infection prevention and control departments. Interventions Adoption and compliance with ventilator bundle elements. Main Outcome Measures VAP rates. Results The mean VAP rate was 2.7/1000 ventilator days. Two-thirds (n = 284) reported presence of the full ventilator bundle policy. However, only 66% (n = 188/284) monitored implementation; of those, 39% (n = 73/188) reported high compliance. Only when an intensive care unit (ICU) had a policy, monitored compliance and achieved high compliance were VAP rates lower. Compliance with individual elements or just one of two infection-related element had no impact on VAP (? = ?0.79, P= 0.15). There was an association between complying with two infection elements and lower rates (? = ?1.81, P< 0.01). There were no crossover effects. Presence of a full-time hospital epidemiologist (HE) was significantly associated with lower VAP rates (? = ?3.62, P< 0.01). Conclusions The ventilator bundle was frequently present but not well implemented. Individual elements did not appear effective; strict compliance with infection elements was needed. Efforts to prevent VAP may be successful in settings of high levels of compliance with all infection-specific elements and in settings with full-time HEs. PMID:21821603

  7. Knowledge of Pediatric Critical Care Nurses Regarding Evidence Based Guidelines for Prevention of Ventilator Associated Pneumonia (VAP)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ahmed, Gehan EL Nabawy; Abosamra, Omyma Mostafa

    2015-01-01

    Ventilator associated pneumonia (VAP) is a costly, preventable, and often fatal consequence of medical therapy that increases hospital and intensive care stays in mechanically ventilated patients. The prevention of VAP is primarily the responsibility of the bedside nurse whose knowledge, beliefs, and practices influence the health outcome of ICU…

  8. Preventing Airborne Disease Transmission: Review of Methods for Ventilation Design in Health Care Facilities

    PubMed Central

    Aliabadi, Amir A.; Rogak, Steven N.; Bartlett, Karen H.; Green, Sheldon I.

    2011-01-01

    Health care facility ventilation design greatly affects disease transmission by aerosols. The desire to control infection in hospitals and at the same time to reduce their carbon footprint motivates the use of unconventional solutions for building design and associated control measures. This paper considers indoor sources and types of infectious aerosols, and pathogen viability and infectivity behaviors in response to environmental conditions. Aerosol dispersion, heat and mass transfer, deposition in the respiratory tract, and infection mechanisms are discussed, with an emphasis on experimental and modeling approaches. Key building design parameters are described that include types of ventilation systems (mixing, displacement, natural and hybrid), air exchange rate, temperature and relative humidity, air flow distribution structure, occupancy, engineered disinfection of air (filtration and UV radiation), and architectural programming (source and activity management) for health care facilities. The paper describes major findings and suggests future research needs in methods for ventilation design of health care facilities to prevent airborne infection risk. PMID:22162813

  9. Estimates of the demand for mechanical ventilation in the United States during an influenza pandemic.

    PubMed

    Meltzer, Martin I; Patel, Anita; Ajao, Adebola; Nystrom, Scott V; Koonin, Lisa M

    2015-05-01

    An outbreak in China in April 2013 of human illnesses due to avian influenza A(H7N9) virus provided reason for US public health officials to revisit existing national pandemic response plans. We built a spreadsheet model to examine the potential demand for invasive mechanical ventilation (excluding "rescue therapy" ventilation). We considered scenarios of either 20% or 30% gross influenza clinical attack rate (CAR), with a "low severity" scenario with case fatality rates (CFR) of 0.05%-0.1%, or a "high severity" scenario (CFR: 0.25%-0.5%). We used rates-of-influenza-related illness to calculate the numbers of potential clinical cases, hospitalizations, admissions to intensive care units, and need for mechanical ventilation. We assumed 10 days ventilator use per ventilated patient, 13% of total ventilator demand will occur at peak, and a 33.7% weighted average mortality risk while on a ventilator. At peak, for a 20% CAR, low severity scenario, an additional 7000 to 11,000 ventilators will be needed, averting a pandemic total of 35,000 to 55,000 deaths. A 30% CAR, high severity scenario, will need approximately 35,000 to 60,500 additional ventilators, averting a pandemic total 178,000 to 308,000 deaths. Estimates of deaths averted may not be realized because successful ventilation also depends on sufficient numbers of suitably trained staff, needed supplies (eg, drugs, reliable oxygen sources, suction apparatus, circuits, and monitoring equipment) and timely ability to match access to ventilators with critically ill cases. There is a clear challenge to plan and prepare to meet demands for mechanical ventilators for a future severe pandemic. PMID:25878301

  10. Causes of failure of noninvasive mechanical ventilation.

    PubMed

    Nava, Stefano; Ceriana, Piero

    2004-03-01

    With selected patients noninvasive positive-pressure ventilation (NPPV) can obviate endotracheal intubation and thus avoid the airway trauma and infection associated with intubation. With patients who can cooperate, NPPV is the first-line treatment for mild-to-severe acute hypercapnic respiratory failure. NPPV is also used for hypercapnic ventilatory failure and to assist weaning from mechanical ventilation, by allowing earlier extubation. Some patients do not obtain adequate ventilation with NPPV and therefore require intubation. Also, some patients will initially benefit from NPPV (for one-to-several days) but will then deteriorate and require intubation. It is not always apparent which patients will initially benefit from NPPV, so researchers have been looking for variables that predict NPPV success/failure. The reported NPPV failure rate is 5-40%, so the necessary staff and equipment for prompt intubation should be readily available. Absolute contraindications to NPPV are: cardiac or respiratory arrest; nonrespiratory organ failure (eg, severe encephalopathy, severe gastrointestinal bleeding, hemodynamic instability with or without unstable cardiac angina); facial surgery or trauma; upper-airway obstruction; inability to protect the airway and/or high risk of aspiration; and inability to clear secretions. The NPPV training and experience of the clinician team partly determines whether the patient will succeed with NPPV or, instead, require intubation. Greater clinician-team NPPV experience and expertise are associated with a higher percentage of patients succeeding on NPPV and with NPPV success with sicker patients (than will succeed with a less-experienced clinician team). With patients suffering hypercapnic respiratory failure the best NPPV success/failure predictor is the degree of acidosis/acidemia (pH and P(aCO(2)) at admission and after 1 hour on NPPV), whereas mental status and severity of illness are less reliable predictors. With patients suffering hypoxic respiratory failure the likelihood of NPPV success seems to be related to the underlying disease rather than to the degree of hypoxia. For example, the presence of acute respiratory distress syndrome or community-acquired pneumonia portends NPPV failure, as does lack of oxygenation improvement after an hour on NPPV. All the proposed NPPV success/failure predictors should be used cautiously and need further study. We predict that further study and team experience will improve the NPPV success rate and allow successful NPPV-treatment of sicker patients. PMID:14982651

  11. Humidification during invasive and noninvasive mechanical ventilation: 2012.

    PubMed

    Restrepo, Ruben D; Walsh, Brian K

    2012-05-01

    We searched the MEDLINE, CINAHL, and Cochrane Library databases for articles published between January 1990 and December 2011. The update of this clinical practice guideline is based on 184 clinical trials and systematic reviews, and 10 articles investigating humidification during invasive and noninvasive mechanical ventilation. The following recommendations are made following the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development, and Evaluation (GRADE) scoring system: 1. Humidification is recommended on every patient receiving invasive mechanical ventilation. 2. Active humidification is suggested for noninvasive mechanical ventilation, as it may improve adherence and comfort. 3. When providing active humidification to patients who are invasively ventilated, it is suggested that the device provide a humidity level between 33 mg H(2)O/L and 44 mg H(2)O/L and gas temperature between 34C and 41C at the circuit Y-piece, with a relative humidity of 100%. 4. When providing passive humidification to patients undergoing invasive mechanical ventilation, it is suggested that the HME provide a minimum of 30 mg H(2)O/L. 5. Passive humidification is not recommended for noninvasive mechanical ventilation. 6. When providing humidification to patients with low tidal volumes, such as when lung-protective ventilation strategies are used, HMEs are not recommended because they contribute additional dead space, which can increase the ventilation requirement and P(aCO(2)). 7. It is suggested that HMEs are not used as a prevention strategy for ventilator-associated pneumonia. PMID:22546299

  12. Very Low Birth Weight Infant Necessitating Nissen Fundoplication for Weaning off the Mechanical Ventilator

    PubMed Central

    Kksal, Nilgn; zkan, Hilal; Do?an, Pelin; Ba?c?, Onur; Do?ruyol, Hasan; Grp?nar, Arif

    2014-01-01

    Gastro-esophageal reflux (GER) is one of the common problems of neonatal intensive care units. Although this condition does not always need to be treated, it occasionally causes clinically serious consequences. Initial management is medical; however, in some cases surgery might be required. A premature neonate with birth weight of 1370 grams was managed in our ICU. The patient was mechanical ventilator dependent due to GER. The patient needed Nissen fundoplication for successfully weaning off the ventilator. PMID:25057468

  13. Murine mechanical ventilation stimulates alveolar epithelial cell proliferation.

    PubMed

    Chess, Patricia Rose; Benson, Randi Potter; Maniscalco, William M; Wright, Terry W; O'Reilly, Michael A; Johnston, Carl J

    2010-08-01

    High tidal volume mechanical ventilation can cause inflammation and lung damage. Mechanical strain is also necessary for normal lung growth. The current work was performed to determine if mechanical ventilation with clinically utilized tidal volumes stimulates a proliferative response in the lung. Six- to 8-week-old C57/Bl6 mice, anesthetized with ketamine/xylozine, were ventilated for 6 hours with 10 mL/kg tidal volume, positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) 3cm H(2)O. Pulmonary function testing demonstrated decreased compliance within 3 hours of ventilation. Assessment of bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) demonstrated no significant increase in lactate dehydrogenase, total lavagable cell number, or total protein after ventilation. There was evidence of inflammation in the lungs of ventilated mice, with an increased percentage of lymphocytes and neutrophils in BAL, and an increase in macrophage inflammatory protein (MIP)-2 and interleukin (IL)-1beta message in lung tissue. Immunohistochemistry of inflation-fixed lungs demonstrated increased alveolar cell proliferation, as measured by both proliferating cell nuclear antigen and Ki67 staining. Dual staining confirmed that proliferating cells labeled with proSP-B, demonstrating that ventilation induces proliferation of alveolar type II cells. Ventilation did not increase apoptosis in alveolar type II cells, as measured by TUNEL staining. Ventilation at low tidal volumes leads to a mild inflammatory response and alveolar epithelial cell proliferation. PMID:20653468

  14. Noninvasive Mechanical Ventilation in Acute Respiratory Failure Patients: A Respiratory Therapist Perspective.

    PubMed

    Hidalgo, V; Giugliano-Jaramillo, C; Prez, R; Cerpa, F; Budini, H; Cceres, D; Gutirrez, T; Molina, J; Keymer, J; Romero-Dapueto, C

    2015-01-01

    Physiotherapist in Chile and Respiratory Therapist worldwide are the professionals who are experts in respiratory care, in mechanical ventilation (MV), pathophysiology and connection and disconnection criteria. They should be experts in every aspect of the acute respiratory failure and its management, they and are the ones who in medical units are able to resolve doubts about ventilation and the setting of the ventilator. Noninvasive mechanical ventilation should be the first-line of treatment in acute respiratory failure, and the standard of care in severe exacerbations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, acute cardiogenic pulmonary edema, and in immunosuppressed patients with high levels of evidence that support the work of physiotherapist. Exist other considerations where most of the time, physicians and other professionals in the critical units do not take into account when checking the patient ventilator synchrony, such as the appropriate patient selection, ventilator selection, mask selection, mode selection, and the selection of a trained team in NIMV. The physiotherapist needs to evaluate bedside; if patients are properly connected to the ventilator and in a synchronously manner. In Chile, since 2004, the physioterapist are included in the guidelines as a professional resource in the ICU organization, with the same skills and obligations as those described in the literature for respiratory therapists. PMID:26312104

  15. Noninvasive Mechanical Ventilation in Acute Respiratory Failure Patients: A Respiratory Therapist Perspective

    PubMed Central

    Hidalgo, V; Giugliano-Jaramillo, C; Pérez, R; Cerpa, F; Budini, H; Cáceres, D; Gutiérrez, T; Molina, J; Keymer, J; Romero-Dapueto, C

    2015-01-01

    Physiotherapist in Chile and Respiratory Therapist worldwide are the professionals who are experts in respiratory care, in mechanical ventilation (MV), pathophysiology and connection and disconnection criteria. They should be experts in every aspect of the acute respiratory failure and its management, they and are the ones who in medical units are able to resolve doubts about ventilation and the setting of the ventilator. Noninvasive mechanical ventilation should be the first-line of treatment in acute respiratory failure, and the standard of care in severe exacerbations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, acute cardiogenic pulmonary edema, and in immunosuppressed patients with high levels of evidence that support the work of physiotherapist. Exist other considerations where most of the time, physicians and other professionals in the critical units do not take into account when checking the patient ventilator synchrony, such as the appropriate patient selection, ventilator selection, mask selection, mode selection, and the selection of a trained team in NIMV. The physiotherapist needs to evaluate bedside; if patients are properly connected to the ventilator and in a synchronously manner. In Chile, since 2004, the physioterapist are included in the guidelines as a professional resource in the ICU organization, with the same skills and obligations as those described in the literature for respiratory therapists. PMID:26312104

  16. Mechanical ventilation for a child with quadriplegia.

    PubMed

    Novotny, William E; Perkin, Ronald M; Mukherjee, Debjani; Lantos, John D

    2014-09-01

    Parents generally have the right to make medical decisions for their children. This right can be challenged when the parents' decision seems to go against the child's interests. The toughest such decisions are for a child who will survive with physical and neurocognitive impairments. We discuss a case of a 5-year-old boy who suffered a spinal injury as a result of a motor vehicle accident and whose father requests discontinuation of life support. Many experts recommend a "trial of therapy" to clarify both prognosis and quality of life. The key ethical question, then, is not whether to postpone a decision to forego mechanical ventilation. Instead, the key question is how long to wait. Parents should be allowed time to see what life will be like for themselves and for their child. Most of the time, life turns out better than they might have imagined. Comments are provided by 2 pediatric intensivists, Drs William Novotny and Ronald Perkin of East Carolina University, and by a specialist in rehabilitation, Dr Debjani Mukherjee of the Rehabilitation Institute of Chicago. PMID:25136041

  17. Ketamine for continuous sedation of mechanically ventilated patients

    PubMed Central

    Umunna, Ben-Paul; Tekwani, Karis; Barounis, Dave; Kettaneh, Nick; Kulstad, Erik

    2015-01-01

    Context: Long-term sedation with midazolam or propofol has been demonstrated to have serious adverse side effects, such as toxic accumulation or propofol infusion syndrome. Ketamine remains a viable alternative for continuous sedation as it is inexpensive and widely available, however, there are few analyses regarding its safety in this clinical setting. Objective: To review the data related to safety and efficacy of ketamine as a potential sedative agent in mechanically ventilated patients admitted to the intensive care unit (ICU). Materials and Methods: This was a single-center retrospective study from September 2011 to March 2012 of patients who required sedation for greater than 24 hours, in whom ketamine was selected as the primary sedative agent. All patients greater than 18 years of age, regardless of admitting diagnosis, were eligible for inclusion. Patients that received ketamine for continuous infusion but died prior to receiving it for 24 hours were not included. Results: Thirty patients received ketamine for continuous sedation. In four patients, ketamine was switched to another sedative agent due to possible adverse side effects. Of these, two patients had tachydysrhythmias, both with new onset atrial fibrillation and two patients had agitation believed to be caused by ketamine. The adverse event rate in our patient population was 13% (4/30). Conclusions: Among ICU patients receiving prolonged mechanical ventilation, the use of ketamine appeared to have a frequency of adverse events similar to more common sedative agents, like propofol and benzodiazepines. PMID:25709246

  18. Control of Breathing During Mechanical Ventilation: Who Is the Boss?

    PubMed Central

    Williams, Kathleen; Hinojosa-Kurtzberg, Marina; Parthasarathy, Sairam

    2011-01-01

    Over the past decade, concepts of control of breathing have increasingly moved from being theoretical concepts to real world applied science. The purpose of this review is to examine the basics of control of breathing, discuss the bidirectional relationship between control of breathing and mechanical ventilation, and critically assess the application of this knowledge at the patients bedside. The principles of control of breathing remain under-represented in the training curriculum of respiratory therapists and pulmonologists, whereas the day-to-day bedside application of the principles of control of breathing continues to suffer from a lack of outcomes-based research in the intensive care unit. In contrast, the bedside application of the principles of control of breathing to ambulatory subjects with sleep-disordered breathing has out-stripped that in critically ill patients. The evolution of newer technologies, faster real-time computing abilities, and miniaturization of ventilator technology can bring the concepts of control of breathing to the bedside and benefit the critically ill patient. However, market forces, lack of scientific data, lack of research funding, and regulatory obstacles need to be surmounted. PMID:21333174

  19. Effects of mechanical ventilation on control of breathing.

    PubMed

    Georgopoulos, D B; Anastasaki, M; Katsanoulas, K

    1997-06-01

    During spontaneous breathing, respiratory muscle pressure (Pmus) waveform is determined by a complex system consisting of a motor arm, a control centre and various feedback mechanisms that convey information to the control centre. In mechanically ventilated patients, the pressure delivered by the ventilator (Paw) is incorporated into the system that controls breathing and may alter Pmus, which in turn modifies the Paw waveform. Thus, the response of the patient's respiratory effort to Paw and the response of Paw to patient effort constitute the two components of the control of breathing during mechanical ventilation. The response of Paw to patient effort depends on: 1) the mode of ventilatory support; 2) the mechanics of the respiratory system; and 3) the characteristics of the patient's respiratory effort. On the other hand, the response of patient effort to Paw is mediated through four feedback systems: 1) mechanical; 2) chemical; 3) reflex; and 4) behavioural. It follows that in mechanically ventilated patients the ventilatory output is determined by the interaction between the function of the ventilator and the patient's breathing control system. This interaction should be taken into account in the management of mechanically ventilated patients. PMID:9270253

  20. A care bundle approach for prevention of ventilator-associated pneumonia.

    PubMed

    Rello, J; Afonso, E; Lisboa, T; Ricart, M; Balsera, B; Rovira, A; Valles, J; Diaz, E

    2013-04-01

    Implementation of care bundles for prevention of ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) and its impact on patient outcomes requires validation with long-term follow-up. A collaborative multi-centre cohort study was conducted in five Spanish adult intensive-care units. A care bundle approach based on five measures was implemented after a 3-month baseline period, and compliance, VAP rates, intensive-care unit length of stay (ICU LOS) and duration of mechanical ventilation were prospectively recorded for 16 months. There were 149 patients in the baseline period and 885 after the intervention. Compliance with all measures after intervention was <30% (264/885). In spite of this, VAP incidence decreased from 15.5% (23/149) to 11.7% (104/885), after the intervention (p <0.05). This reduction was significantly associated with hand hygiene (OR = 0.35), intra-cuff pressure control (OR = 0.21), oral hygiene (OR = 0.23) and sedation control (OR = 0.51). Use of the care bundle was associated with an incidence risk ratio of VAP of 0.78 (95% CI 0.15-0.99). We documented a reduction of median ICU LOS (from 10 to 6 days) and duration of mechanical ventilation (from 8 to 4 days) for patients with full bundle compliance (intervention period). Efforts on VAP prevention and outcome improvement should focus on achieving higher compliance in hand and oral hygiene, sedation protocols and intracuff pressure control. PMID:22439889

  1. Predictors of extubation failure and reintubation in newborn infants subjected to mechanical ventilation

    PubMed Central

    Costa, Ana Cristina de Oliveira; Schettino, Renata de Carvalho; Ferreira, Sandra Clecncio

    2014-01-01

    Objective To identify risk factors for extubation failure and reintubation in newborn infants subjected to mechanical ventilation and to establish whether ventilation parameters and blood gas analysis behave as predictors of those outcomes. Methods Prospective study conducted at a neonatal intensive care unit from May to November 2011. A total of 176 infants of both genders subjected to mechanical ventilation were assessed after extubation. Extubation failure was defined as the need to resume mechanical ventilation within less than 72 hours. Reintubation was defined as the need to reintubate the infants any time after the first 72 hours. Results Based on the univariate analysis, the variables gestational age <28 weeks, birth weight <1,000g and low Apgar scores were associated with extubation failure and reintubation. Based on the multivariate analysis, the variables length of mechanical ventilation (days), potential of hydrogen (pH) and partial pressure of oxygen (pO2) remained associated with extubation failure, and the five-minute Apgar score and age at extubation were associated with reintubation. Conclusion Low five-minute Apgar scores, age at extubation, length of mechanical ventilation, acid-base disorders and hyperoxia exhibited associations with the investigated outcomes of extubation failure and reintubation. PMID:24770689

  2. Particle Size Concentration Distribution and Influences on Exhaled Breath Particles in Mechanically Ventilated Patients

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Yi-Fang; Huang, Sheng-Hsiu; Wang, Yu-Ling; Chen, Chun-Wan

    2014-01-01

    Humans produce exhaled breath particles (EBPs) during various breath activities, such as normal breathing, coughing, talking, and sneezing. Airborne transmission risk exists when EBPs have attached pathogens. Until recently, few investigations had evaluated the size and concentration distributions of EBPs from mechanically ventilated patients with different ventilation mode settings. This study thus broke new ground by not only evaluating the size concentration distributions of EBPs in mechanically ventilated patients, but also investigating the relationship between EBP level and positive expiratory end airway pressure (PEEP), tidal volume, and pneumonia. This investigation recruited mechanically ventilated patients, with and without pneumonia, aged 20 years old and above, from the respiratory intensive care unit of a medical center. Concentration distributions of EBPs from mechanically ventilated patients were analyzed with an optical particle analyzer. This study finds that EBP concentrations from mechanically ventilated patients during normal breathing were in the range 0.47–2,554.04 particles/breath (0.001–4.644 particles/mL). EBP concentrations did not differ significantly between the volume control and pressure control modes of the ventilation settings in the mechanically ventilated patients. The patient EBPs were sized below 5 µm, and 80% of them ranged from 0.3 to 1.0 µm. The EBPs concentrations in patients with high PEEP (> 5 cmH2O) clearly exceeded those in patients with low PEEP (≤ 5 cmH2O). Additionally, a significant negative association existed between pneumonia duration and EBPs concentration. However, tidal volume was not related to EBPs concentration. PMID:24475230

  3. Sedation and weaning from mechanical ventilation: time for best practice to catch up with new realities?

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Delivery of sedation in anticipation of weaning of adult patients from prolonged mechanical ventilation is an arena of critical care medicine where opinion-based practice is currently hard to avoid because robust evidence is lacking. We offer some views on this subject, hoping to stimulate debate among colleagues. PMID:25473522

  4. Numerical investigation of pulmonary drug delivery under mechanical ventilation conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Banerjee, Arindam; van Rhein, Timothy

    2012-11-01

    The effects of mechanical ventilation waveform on fluid flow and particle deposition were studied in a computer model of the human airways. The frequency with which aerosolized drugs are delivered to mechanically ventilated patients demonstrates the importance of understanding the effects of ventilation parameters. This study focuses specifically on the effects of mechanical ventilation waveforms using a computer model of the airways of patient undergoing mechanical ventilation treatment from the endotracheal tube to generation G7. Waveforms were modeled as those commonly used by commercial mechanical ventilators. Turbulence was modeled with LES. User defined particle force models were used to model the drag force with the Cunningham correction factor, the Saffman lift force, and Brownian motion force. The endotracheal tube (ETT) was found to be an important geometric feature, causing a fluid jet towards the right main bronchus, increased turbulence, and a recirculation zone in the right main bronchus. In addition to the enhanced deposition seen at the carinas of the airway bifurcations, enhanced deposition was also seen in the right main bronchus due to impaction and turbulent dispersion resulting from the fluid structures created by the ETT. Authors acknowledge financial support through University of Missouri Research Board Award.

  5. Improved control of gas humidity in neonatal intensive care ventilators.

    PubMed

    Drew, T; Vardy, A

    1998-08-01

    Difficulties experienced by nursing staff in controlling humidity in neonatal intensive care ventilators are shown to originate in the use of a single control, namely a heater, to condition two parameters, namely temperature and humidity, at the inlet to the inspiratory tube. It is shown that better control can be achieved by separating the gas flow through the humidifier into two streams, only one of which is humidified. It is proposed that the temperature along most of the inspiratory tube should be maintained about 3-5 degrees C higher than the target delivery temperature. This eliminates the risk of condensation in the tube, a second commonly occurring problem in existing systems. It is shown why the control of ventilator systems should be based on absolute humidity, not relative humidity, even though the latter may be preferred for monitoring purposes. PMID:9735894

  6. Determinants of ventilator associated pneumonia and its impact on prognosis: A tertiary care experience

    PubMed Central

    Saravu, Kavitha; Preethi, V.; Kumar, Rishikesh; Guddattu, Vasudev; Shastry, Ananthakrishna Barkur; Mukhopadhyay, Chiranjay

    2013-01-01

    Background: Ventilator associated pneumonia (VAP) is a major cause of poor outcome among patients in the intensive care units (ICU) world-wide. We sought to determine the factors associated with development of VAP and its prognosis among patients admitted to different ICUs of a Tertiary Care Hospital in India. Methodology: We did a matched case control study during October 2009 to May 2011 among patients, ?18 years with mechanical ventilation. Patients who developed pneumonia after 48 h of ventilation were selected in the case group and those who did not develop pneumonia constituted the control group. Patients history, clinical and laboratory findings were recorded and analyzed. Results: There were 52 patients included in each group. Among cases, early onset ventilator associated pneumonia (EVAP) occurred in 27 (51.9%) and late onset ventilator associated pneumonia (LVAP) in 25 (48.1%). Drug resistant organisms contributed to 76.9% of VAP. Bacteremia (P = 0.002), prior use of steroid/immunosuppressant (P = 0.004) and re-intubations (P = 0.021) were associated with the occurrence of VAP. The association of Acinetobacter (P = 0.025) and Pseudomonas (P = 0.047) for LVAP was found to be statistically significant. Duration of mechanical ventilation (P = 0.001), ICU stay (P = 0.049) and requirement for tracheostomy (P = 0.043) were significantly higher in VAP. Among each case and control groups, 19 (36.5%) expired. Conclusion: We found a higher proportion of LVAP compared with EVAP and a higher proportion of drug resistant organisms among LVAP, especially Pseudomonas and Acinetobacter. Drug resistant Pseudomonas was associated with higher mortality. PMID:24501484

  7. Noninvasive ventilation as a weaning strategy for mechanical ventilation in adults with respiratory failure: a Cochrane systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Burns, Karen E.A.; Meade, Maureen O.; Premji, Azra; Adhikari, Neill K.J.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Noninvasive ventilation has been studied as a means of reducing complications among patients being weaned from invasive mechanical ventilation. We sought to summarize evidence comparing noninvasive and invasive weaning and their effects on mortality. Methods: We identified relevant randomized and quasirandomized trials through searches of databases, conference proceedings and grey literature. We included trials comparing extubation and immediate application of noninvasive ventilation with continued invasive weaning in adults on mechanical ventilation. Two reviewers each independently screened citations, assessed trial quality and abstracted data. Our primary outcome was mortality. Results: We identified 16 trials involving 994 participants, most of whom had chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Compared with invasive weaning, noninvasive weaning significantly reduced mortality (risk ratio [RR] 0.53, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.36 to 0.80), weaning failures (RR 0.63, 95% CI 0.42 to 0.96), ventilator-associated pneumonia (RR 0.25, 95% CI 0.15 to 0.43), length of stay in the intensive care unit (mean difference [MD] −5.59 d, 95% CI −7.90 to −3.28) and in hospital (MD −6.04 d, 95% CI −9.22 to −2.87), and total duration of mechanical ventilation (MD −5.64 d, 95% CI −9.50 to −1.77). Noninvasive weaning had no significant effect on the duration of ventilation related to weaning, but significantly reduced rates of tracheostomy (RR 0.19, 95% CI 0.08 to 0.47) and reintubation (RR 0.65, 95% CI 0.44 to 0.97). Mortality benefits were significantly greater in trials enrolling patients with COPD than in trials enrolling mixed patient populations (RR 0.36 [95% CI 0.24 to 0.56] v. RR 0.81 [95% CI 0.47 to 1.40]). Interpretation: Noninvasive weaning reduces rates of death and pneumonia without increasing the risk of weaning failure or reintubation. In subgroup analyses, mortality benefits were significantly greater in patients with COPD. PMID:24324020

  8. Actual performance of mechanical ventilators in ICU: a multicentric quality control study

    PubMed Central

    Govoni, Leonardo; Dellaca, Raffaele L; Peuelas, Oscar; Bellani, Giacomo; Artigas, Antonio; Ferrer, Miquel; Navajas, Daniel; Pedotti, Antonio; Farr, Ramon

    2012-01-01

    Even if the performance of a given ventilator has been evaluated in the laboratory under very well controlled conditions, inappropriate maintenance and lack of long-term stability and accuracy of the ventilator sensors may lead to ventilation errors in actual clinical practice. The aim of this study was to evaluate the actual performances of ventilators during clinical routines. A resistance (7.69 cmH2O/L/s) elastance (100 mL/cmH2O) test lung equipped with pressure, flow, and oxygen concentration sensors was connected to the Y-piece of all the mechanical ventilators available for patients in four intensive care units (ICUs; n = 66). Ventilators were set to volume-controlled ventilation with tidal volume = 600 mL, respiratory rate = 20 breaths/minute, positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) = 8 cmH2O, and oxygen fraction = 0.5. The signals from the sensors were recorded to compute the ventilation parameters. The average standard deviation and range (minmax) of the ventilatory parameters were the following: inspired tidal volume = 607 36 (530723) mL, expired tidal volume = 608 36 (530728) mL, peak pressure = 20.8 2.3 (17.225.9) cmH2O, respiratory rate = 20.09 0.35 (19.521.6) breaths/minute, PEEP = 8.43 0.57 (7.2610.8) cmH2O, oxygen fraction = 0.49 0.014 (0.410.53). The more error-prone parameters were the ones related to the measure of flow. In several cases, the actual delivered mechanical ventilation was considerably different from the set one, suggesting the need for improving quality control procedures for these machines. PMID:23293543

  9. Assessment of the effect of continuous sedation with mechanical ventilation on adrenal insufficiency in patients with traumatic brain injury.

    PubMed

    Li, Min; Zhang, Ying; Wu, Kang-Song; Hu, Ying-Hong

    2016-03-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the effect of continuous propofol sedation plus prolonged mechanical ventilation on adrenal insufficiency (AI) in patients with traumatic brain injury (TBI). Eighty-five adult patients diagnosed with moderate TBI (Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) score 9-13) from October 2011 to October 2012 were included in this prospective study. The patients comprised three groups: no mechanical ventilation and sedation (n=27), mechanical ventilation alone (n=24) and mechanical ventilation plus sedation (n=34). The low-dose short Synacthen test was performed at 8:00 on the first, third, and fifth days after TBI. Logistic regression analysis was performed to identify factors affecting the use of mechanical ventilation and sedation, and the incidence of AI. On the fifth day after injury, the mean baseline cortisol and simulated cortisol levels were significantly lower in the mechanical ventilation plus sedation group compared with the other two groups. Multivariate regression analysis showed that the Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation (APACHE) score was independently associated with treatment with mechanical ventilation and sedation compared to mechanical ventilation alone. Furthermore, hypoxemia on admission and shock were associated with the development of AI. The findings showed that sedation is associated with an increased incidence of AI. Patients with TBI who are treated with continuous sedation should be monitored for AI carefully. PMID:26912007

  10. Ventilation in day care centers and sick leave among nursery children.

    PubMed

    Kolarik, B; Andersen, Z Jovanovic; Ibfelt, T; Engelund, E Hoj; Møller, E; Bräuner, E Vaclavik

    2016-04-01

    Several studies have reported poor indoor air quality (IAQ) in day care centers (DCCs), and other studies have shown that children attending them have an increased risk of respiratory and gastrointestinal infections. The aim of this study was to investigate whether there is an association between ventilation in DCCs and sick leave among nursery children. Data on child sick leave within an 11-week period were obtained for 635 children attending 20 DCCs. Ventilation measurements included three proxies of ventilation: air exchange rate (ACR) measured with the decay method, ACR measured by the perfluorocarbon tracer gas (PFT) method, and CO2 concentration measured over a 1-week period. All but two DCCs had balanced mechanical ventilation system, which could explain the low CO2 levels measured. The mean concentration of CO2 was 643 ppm, exceeding 1000 ppm in only one DCC. A statistically significant inverse relationship between the number of sick days and ACR measured with the decay method was found for crude and adjusted analysis, with a 12% decrease in number of sick days per hour increase in ACR measured with the decay method. This study suggests a relationship between sick leave among nursery children and ventilation in DCCs, as measured with the decay method. PMID:25789698

  11. Chest wall mechanics during pressure support ventilation

    PubMed Central

    Aliverti, Andrea; Carlesso, Eleonora; Dellac, Raffaele; Pelosi, Paolo; Chiumello, Davide; Pedotti, Antonio; Gattinoni, Luciano

    2006-01-01

    Introduction During pressure support ventilation (PSV) a part of the breathing pattern is controlled by the patient, and synchronization of respiratory muscle action and the resulting chest wall kinematics is a valid indicator of the patient's adaptation to the ventilator. The aim of the present study was to analyze the effects of different PSV settings on ventilatory pattern, total and compartmental chest wall kinematics and dynamics, muscle pressures and work of breathing in patients with acute lung injury. Method In nine patients four different levels of PSV (5, 10, 15 and 25 cmH2O) were randomly applied with the same level of positive end-expiratory pressure (10 cmH2O). Flow, airway opening, and oesophageal and gastric pressures were measured, and volume variations for the entire chest wall, the ribcage and abdominal compartments were recorded by opto-electronic plethysmography. The pressure and the work generated by the diaphragm, rib cage and abdominal muscles were determined using dynamic pressure-volume loops in the various phases of each respiratory cycle: pre-triggering, post-triggering with the patient's effort combining with the action of the ventilator, pressurization and expiration. The complete breathing pattern was measured and correlated with chest wall kinematics and dynamics. Results At the various levels of pressure support applied, minute ventilation was constant, with large variations in breathing frequency/ tidal volume ratio. At pressure support levels below 15 cmH2O the following increased: the pressure developed by the inspiratory muscles, the contribution of the rib cage compartment to the total tidal volume, the phase shift between rib cage and abdominal compartments, the post-inspiratory action of the inspiratory rib cage muscles, and the expiratory muscle activity. Conclusion During PSV, the ventilatory pattern is very different at different levels of pressure support; in patients with acute lung injury pressure support greater than 10 cmH2O permits homogeneous recruitment of respiratory muscles, with resulting synchronous thoraco-abdominal expansion. PMID:16584534

  12. 42 CFR 440.185 - Respiratory care for ventilator-dependent individuals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Respiratory care for ventilator-dependent... Definitions 440.185 Respiratory care for ventilator-dependent individuals. (a) Respiratory care for... plan, provided on a part-time basis in the beneficiary's home by a respiratory therapist or...

  13. 42 CFR 440.185 - Respiratory care for ventilator-dependent individuals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Respiratory care for ventilator-dependent... Definitions 440.185 Respiratory care for ventilator-dependent individuals. (a) Respiratory care for... plan, provided on a part-time basis in the recipient's home by a respiratory therapist or other...

  14. 42 CFR 440.185 - Respiratory care for ventilator-dependent individuals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Respiratory care for ventilator-dependent... Definitions 440.185 Respiratory care for ventilator-dependent individuals. (a) Respiratory care for... plan, provided on a part-time basis in the beneficiary's home by a respiratory therapist or...

  15. 42 CFR 440.185 - Respiratory care for ventilator-dependent individuals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Respiratory care for ventilator-dependent... Definitions 440.185 Respiratory care for ventilator-dependent individuals. (a) Respiratory care for... plan, provided on a part-time basis in the beneficiary's home by a respiratory therapist or...

  16. The use of the bispectral index in the detection of pain in mechanically ventilated adults in the intensive care unit: A review of the literature

    PubMed Central

    Coleman, Robin Marie; Tousignant-Laflamme, Yannick; Ouellet, Paul; Parenteau-Goudreault, lizabeth; Cogan, Jennifer; Bourgault, Patricia

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Pain assessment is an immense challenge for clinicians, especially in the context of the intensive care unit, where the patient is often unable to communicate verbally. Several methods of pain assessment have been proposed to assess pain in this environment. These include both behavioural observation scales and evaluation of physiological measurements such as heart rate and blood pressure. Although numerous validation studies pertaining to behavioural observation scales have been published, several limitations associated with using these measures for pain assessment remain. Over the past few years, researchers have been interested in the use of the bispectral index monitoring system as a proxy for the evaluation of encephalography readings to assess the level of anesthesia and, potentially, analgesia. OBJECTIVES: To synthesize the main studies exploring the use of the bispectral index monitoring system for pain assessment, to guide future research in adults under sedation in the intensive care unit. METHOD: The EMBASE, Medline, CINAHL and PsycINFO databases were searched for studies published between 1996 and 2013 that evaluated the use of the bispectral index in assessing pain. RESULTS: Most studies conclude that nociceptive stimulation causes a significant increase in the bispectral index and revealed the importance of controlling certain confounding variables such as the level of sedation. DISCUSSION: Further studies are needed to clearly demonstrate the relationship between nociceptive stimuli and the bispectral index, as well as the specificity of the bispectral index in detecting pain. PMID:25050877

  17. A multicenter randomized trial of computer-driven protocolized weaning from mechanical ventilation

    PubMed Central

    Lellouche, François; Mancebo, Jordi; Jolliet, Philippe; Roeseler, Jean; Schortgen, Fréderique; Dojat, Michel; Cabello, Belen; Bouadma, Lila; Rodriguez, Pablo; Maggiore, Salvatore; Reynaert, Marc; Mersmann, Stefan; Brochard, Laurent

    2006-01-01

    Rationale and objectives Duration of weaning from mechanical ventilation may be reduced by the use of a systematic approach. We assessed whether a closed-loop knowledge-based algorithm introduced in a ventilator to act as a computer-driven weaning protocol can improve patient outcomes as compared to usual care. Methods and measurements We conducted a multicenter randomized controlled study with concealed allocation to compare usual care for weaning to computer-driven weaning. The computerized protocol included an automatic gradual reduction in pressure support, automatic performance of spontaneous breathing trials (SBT), and generation of an incentive message when a SBT was successfully passed. One hundred forty-four patients were enrolled before weaning initiation. They were randomly allocated to computer-driven weaning or to physician-controlled weaning according to local guidelines. Weaning duration until successful extubation and total duration of ventilation were the primary endpoints. Main results Weaning duration was reduced in the computer-driven group from a median of 5 to 3 days (P=0.01) and total duration of mechanical ventilation from 12 to 7.5 days (P=0.003). Reintubation rate did not differ (23 vs 16 %, P=0.40). Computer-driven weaning also decreased median intensive-care-unit stay duration from 15.5 to 12 days (P=0.02) and caused no adverse events. The amount of sedation did not differ between groups. In the usual care group compliance to recommended modes and to SBT was estimated respectively at 96% and 51%. Conclusions The specific computer-driven system used in this study can reduce mechanical ventilation duration and intensive-care-unit length of stay, as compared to physician-controlled weaning process. PMID:16840741

  18. Our paper 20 years later: how has withdrawal from mechanical ventilation changed?

    PubMed

    Frutos-Vivar, Fernando; Esteban, Andrs

    2014-10-01

    Withdrawal from mechanical ventilation (or weaning) is one of the most common procedures in intensive care units. Almost 20 years ago, we published one of the seminal papers on weaning in which we showed that the best method for withdrawal from mechanical ventilation in difficult-to-wean patients was a once-daily spontaneous breathing trial with a T-piece. Progress has not stood still, and in the intervening years up to the present several other studies, by our group and others, have shaped weaning into an evidence-based technique. The results of these studies have been applied progressively to routine clinical practice. Currently, withdrawal from mechanical ventilation can be summarized as the evaluation of extubation readiness based on the patient's performance during a spontaneous breathing trial. This trial can be performed with a T-piece, which is the most common approach, or with continuous positive airway pressure or low levels of pressure support. Most patients can be disconnected after passing the first spontaneous breathing trial. In patients who fail the first attempt at withdrawal, the use of a once-daily spontaneous breathing trial or a gradual reduction in pressure support are the preferred weaning methods. However, new applications of standard techniques, such as noninvasive positive pressure ventilation, or new methods of mechanical ventilation, such as automatic tube compensation, automated closed-loop systems, and automated knowledge-based weaning systems, can play a role in the management of the patients with difficult or prolonged weaning. PMID:25053247

  19. The Effects of Guided Imagery on Patients Being Weaned from Mechanical Ventilation

    PubMed Central

    Spiva, LeeAnna; Hart, Patricia L.; Gallagher, Erin; McVay, Frank; Garcia, Melida; Malley, Karen; Kadner, Marsha; Segars, Angela; Brakovich, Betsy; Horton, Sonja Y.; Smith, Novlette

    2015-01-01

    The study purpose was to assess the effects of guided imagery on sedation levels, sedative and analgesic volume consumption, and physiological responses of patients being weaned from mechanical ventilation. Forty-two patients were selected from two community acute care hospitals. One hospital served as the comparison group and provided routine care (no intervention) while the other hospital provided the guided imagery intervention. The intervention included two sessions, each lasting 60 minutes, offered during morning weaning trials from mechanical ventilation. Measurements were recorded in groups at baseline and 30- and 60-minute intervals and included vital signs and Richmond Agitation-Sedation Scale (RASS) score. Sedative and analgesic medication volume consumption were recorded 24 hours prior to and after the intervention. The guided imagery group had significantly improved RASS scores and reduced sedative and analgesic volume consumption. During the second session, oxygen saturation levels significantly improved compared to the comparison group. Guided imagery group had 4.88 less days requiring mechanical ventilation and 1.4 reduction in hospital length of stay compared to the comparison group. Guided imagery may be complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) intervention to provide during mechanical ventilation weaning trials. PMID:26640501

  20. [Acute respiratory distress syndrome, mechanical ventilation and right ventricular function].

    PubMed

    Gordo-Vidal, F; Enciso-Calderón, V

    2012-03-01

    Mechanical ventilation in acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) implies an increase in alveolar and transpulmonary pressure, giving rise to major alterations in pulmonary circulation and causing right ventricular functional overload that can lead to ventricular failure and thus to acute cor pulmonale. The condition is echocardiographically characterized by dilatation of the right ventricle and paradoxical movement of the interventricular septum, with the added alteration of left ventricular systolic function. It is important to take lung mechanical and hemodynamic monitoring into account when defining the ventilation strategy in such patients, optimizing lung recruitment without producing pulmonary over-distension phenomena that may lead to greater deterioration of right ventricle function. This approach is known as a right ventricle protective ventilation strategy. PMID:21999947

  1. Exhaled breath condensate collection in the mechanically ventilated patient.

    PubMed

    Carter, Stewart R; Davis, Christopher S; Kovacs, Elizabeth J

    2012-05-01

    Collection of exhaled breath condensate (EBC) is a non-invasive means of sampling the airway-lining fluid of the lungs. EBC contains numerous measurable mediators, whose analysis could change the management of patients with certain pulmonary diseases. While initially popularized in investigations involving spontaneously breathing patients, an increasing number of studies have been performed using EBC in association with mechanical ventilation. Collection of EBC in mechanically ventilated patients follows basic principles of condensation, but is influenced by multiple factors. Effective collection requires selection of a collection device, adequate minute ventilation, low cooling temperatures, and sampling times of greater than 10 min. Condensate can be contaminated by saliva, which needs to be filtered. Dilution of samples occurs secondary to distilled water in vapors and humidification in the ventilator circuit. Dilution factors may need to be employed when investigating non-volatile biomarkers. Storage and analysis should occur promptly at -70 °C to -80 °C to prevent rapid degradation of samples. The purpose of this review is to examine and describe methodologies and problems of EBC collection in mechanically ventilated patients. A straightforward and safe framework has been established to investigate disease processes in this population, yet technical aspects of EBC collection still exist that prevent clinical practicality of this technology. These include a lack of standardization of procedure and analysis of biomarkers, and of normal reference ranges for mediators in healthy individuals. Once these procedural aspects have been addressed, EBC could serve as a non-invasive alternative to invasive evaluation of lungs in mechanically ventilated patients. PMID:22398157

  2. Exhaled Breath Condensate Collection in the Mechanically Ventilated Patient

    PubMed Central

    Carter, Stewart R; Davis, Christopher S; Kovacs, Elizabeth J

    2012-01-01

    Collection of exhaled breath condensate (EBC) is a non-invasive means of sampling the airway-lining fluid of the lungs. EBC contains numerous measurable mediators, whose analysis could change the management of patients with certain pulmonary diseases. While initially popularized in investigations involving spontaneously breathing patients, an increasing number of studies have been performed using EBC in association with mechanical ventilation. Collection of EBC in mechanically ventilated patients follows basic principles of condensation, but is influenced by multiple factors. Effective collection requires selection of a collection device, adequate minute ventilation, low cooling temperatures, and sampling times of greater than ten minutes. Condensate can be contaminated by saliva, which needs to be filtered. Dilution of samples occurs secondary to distilled water in vapors and humidification in the ventilator circuit. Dilution factors may need to be employed when investigating non-volatile biomarkers. Storage and analysis should occur promptly at −70° C to −80° C to prevent rapid degradation of samples. The purpose of this review is to examine and describe methodologies and problems of EBC collection in mechanically ventilated patients. A straightforward and safe framework has been established to investigate disease processes in this population, yet technical aspects of EBC collection still exist that prevent clinical practicality of this technology. These include a lack of standardization of procedure and analysis of biomarkers, and of normal reference ranges for mediators in healthy individuals. Once these procedural aspects have been addressed, EBC could serve as a non-invasive alternative to invasive evaluation of lungs in mechanically ventilated patients. PMID:22398157

  3. Does intermittent mandatory ventilation correct respiratory alkalosis in patients receiving assisted mechanical ventilation?

    PubMed

    Hudson, L D; Hurlow, R S; Craig, K C; Pierson, D J

    1985-11-01

    One of the claimed advantages of intermittent mandatory ventilation (IMV) over assisted mechanical ventilation (AMV) (assist-control) is the avoidance or correction of acute respiratory alkalosis, ostensibly by allowing patients to achieve normal alveolar ventilation (VA) and PaCO2 through the function of an intact ventilatory drive. However, although respiratory alkalosis in patients being hyperventilated with controlled mechanical ventilation (CMV) can be corrected by a change to IMV, CMV is seldom appropriate for patients with acute respiratory failure, and whether IMV affects respiratory alkalosis in patients triggering the ventilator in the AMV mode has not previously been tested. We studied 26 patients with acute respiratory alkalosis (pH greater than or equal to 7.48) while receiving AMV. Measurements of arterial blood gases and CO2 production (VCO2), and calculation of VA, were performed after 30 min of AMV, repeated after 30 min of IMV at a mandatory rate one half the previous AMV rate, and then repeated again 30 min after a return to the original AMV settings. Mean arterial pH decreased slightly from 7.51 during AMV to 7.48 during IMV, and returned to 7.51 on resumption of AMV (p less than 0.05 for both changes); corresponding mean values for PaCO2 were 28.6, 29.7, and 27.5 mmHg, respectively. These changes were related to an increase in VCO2 during IMV as compared with AMV (p less than 0.05), without a significant alteration in VA. When the mandatory rate was further reduced during IMV from one half to one fourth the prior, triggered AMV rate in 10 patients, no additional reduction in pH occurred.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:3933391

  4. Multicenter Evaluation of a Novel Surveillance Paradigm for Complications of Mechanical Ventilation

    PubMed Central

    Klompas, Michael; Khan, Yosef; Kleinman, Kenneth; Evans, R. Scott; Lloyd, James F.; Stevenson, Kurt; Samore, Matthew; Platt, Richard

    2011-01-01

    Background Ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) surveillance is time consuming, subjective, inaccurate, and inconsistently predicts outcomes. Shifting surveillance from pneumonia in particular to complications in general might circumvent the VAP definition's subjectivity and inaccuracy, facilitate electronic assessment, make interfacility comparisons more meaningful, and encourage broader prevention strategies. We therefore evaluated a novel surveillance paradigm for ventilator-associated complications (VAC) defined by sustained increases in patients' ventilator settings after a period of stable or decreasing support. Methods We assessed 600 mechanically ventilated medical and surgical patients from three hospitals. Each hospital contributed 100 randomly selected patients ventilated 27 days and 100 patients ventilated >7 days. All patients were independently assessed for VAP and for VAC. We compared incidence-density, duration of mechanical ventilation, intensive care and hospital lengths of stay, hospital mortality, and time required for surveillance for VAP and for VAC. A subset of patients with VAP and VAC were independently reviewed by a physician to determine possible etiology. Results Of 597 evaluable patients, 9.3% had VAP (8.8 per 1,000 ventilator days) and 23% had VAC (21.2 per 1,000 ventilator days). Compared to matched controls, both VAP and VAC prolonged days to extubation (5.8, 95% CI 4.28.0 and 6.0, 95% CI 5.17.1 respectively), days to intensive care discharge (5.7, 95% CI 4.27.7 and 5.0, 95% CI 4.15.9), and days to hospital discharge (4.7, 95% CI 2.67.5 and 3.0, 95% CI 2.14.0). VAC was associated with increased mortality (OR 2.0, 95% CI 1.33.2) but VAP was not (OR 1.1, 95% CI 0.52.4). VAC assessment was faster (mean 1.8 versus 39 minutes per patient). Both VAP and VAC events were predominantly attributable to pneumonia, pulmonary edema, ARDS, and atelectasis. Conclusions Screening ventilator settings for VAC captures a similar set of complications to traditional VAP surveillance but is faster, more objective, and a superior predictor of outcomes. PMID:21445364

  5. The effect of dexmedetomidine on agitation during weaning of mechanical ventilation in critically ill patients.

    PubMed

    Shehabi, Y; Nakae, H; Hammond, N; Bass, F; Nicholson, L; Chen, J

    2010-01-01

    Ventilated patients receiving opioids and/or benzodiazepines are at high risk of developing agitation, particularly upon weaning towards extubation. This is often associated with an increased intubation time and length of stay in the intensive care unit and may cause long-term morbidity. Anxiety, fear and agitation are amongst the most common non-pulmonary causes of failure to liberate from mechanical ventilation. This prospective, open-label observational study examined 28 ventilated adult patients in the intensive care unit (30 episodes) requiring opioids and/or sedatives for >24 hours, who developed agitation and/or delirium upon weaning from sedation and failed to achieve successful extubation with conventional management. Patients were ventilated for a median (interquartile range) of 115 [87 to 263] hours prior to enrolment. Dexmedetomidine infusion was commenced at 0.4 microg/kg/hour for two hours, after which concurrent sedative therapy was preferentially weaned and titrated to obtain target Motor Activity Assessment Score score of 2 to 4. The median (range) maximum dose and infusion time of dexmedetomidine was 0.7 microg/kg/hour (0.4 to 1.0) and 62 hours (24 to 252) respectively. The number of episodes at target Motor Activity Assessment Score score at zero, six and 12 hours after commencement of dexmedetomidine were 7/30 (23.3%), 28/30 (93.3%) and 26/30 (86.7%), respectively (P < 0.001 for 6 and 12 vs. 0 hours). Excluding unrelated clinical deterioration, 22 episodes (73.3%) achieved successful weaning from ventilation with a median (interquartile range) ventilation time of 70 (28 to 96) hours after dexmedetomidine infusion. Dexmedetomidine achieved rapid resolution of agitation and facilitated ventilatory weaning after failure of conventional therapy. Its role as first-line therapy in ventilated, agitated patients warrants further investigation. PMID:20191782

  6. Education alone is not enough in ventilator associated pneumonia care bundle compliance

    PubMed Central

    Hamishehkar, Hadi; Vahidinezhad, Mahdi; Mashayekhi, Simin Ozar; Asgharian, Parina; Hassankhani, Hadi; Mahmoodpoor, Ata

    2014-01-01

    Objective: Ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) described as a secondary and preventable consequence in mechanically ventilated patients, emerges 48 h or more after patients intubation. Considering the high morbidity and mortality rate of VAP and the fact that VAP is preventable, it seemed necessary to evaluate care bundle compliance rate and effect of education on its improvement. Methods: This observational study was conducted on 10 Intensive Care Units (ICUs) of four university affiliated hospitals in three steps. In the first step, VAP care bundle compliance including head of bed (HOB) elevation, endotracheal cuff pressure (ETCP), mouthwash time, utilizing close suction systems, subglottic secretion drainage, type of suction package, and hand wash before suctioning was evaluated. In the second and third steps, ICU staffs were trained and its effect on VAP care bundle compliance was investigated. Finally, an inquiry from nurses was conducted to evaluate the obtained results. Findings: A total of 552 checklists consisting of 294 observations in the pre-education group and 258 observations in the posteducation group were filled. Mean VAP care bundle compliance in pre-education and posteducation stages was 36.5% and 41.2%, respectively (P > 0.05). Except for patients' mouth washing, there were no improvement in HOB elevation (>30), hand washing and ETCP after education. Based on the results of questionnaire received from nurses at the end of study, more than 90% of nurses believed that lack of rigid monitoring of VAP care bundle is a main reason of low adherence for VAP care bundle compliance. Conclusion: The adherence to VAP care bundle was inappropriate. Education seems to be ineffective on improving VAP care bundle compliance. Frequent recall of the necessity of the VAP care bundle and the continuous supervision of ICU staffs is highly recommended. PMID:25114937

  7. Computational tool for modeling and simulation of mechanically ventilated patients.

    PubMed

    Serna, Leidy Y; Hernandez, Alher M; Mananas, Miguel A

    2010-01-01

    The mechanical ventilator settings in patients with respiratory diseases like chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) during episodes of acute respiratory failure (ARF) is not a simple task that in most cases is successful based on the experience of physicians. This paper describes an interactive tool based in mathematical models, developed to make easier the study of the interaction between a mechanical ventilator and a patient. It describes all stages of system development, including simulated ventilatory modes, the pathologies of interest and interaction between the user and the system through a graphical interface developed in Matlab and Simulink. The developed computational tool allows the study of most widely used ventilatory modes and its advantages in the treatment of different kind of patients. The graphical interface displays all variables and parameters in the common way of last generation mechanical ventilators do and it is totally interactive, making possible its use by clinical personal, hiding the complexity of implemented mathematical models to the user. The evaluation in different clinical simulated scenes adjusts properly with recent findings in mechanical ventilation scientific literature. PMID:21096101

  8. The predicting ability of serum potassium to assess the duration of mechanical ventilation in critically ill patients

    PubMed Central

    Javdan, Zahra; Talakoub, Reihanak; Honarmand, Azim; Golparvar, Mohammad; Farsani, Enayatolah Yadollahi

    2015-01-01

    Background: No previous study has been done to evaluate the admission serum potassium level as a predictor of morbidity or need for mechanical ventilation. The aim of this study is to determine the predictive ability of serum potassium on admission, in critically ill trauma patients, and to evaluate the relation of the potassium level to organ failure, length of stay, ventilator need, and duration of mechanical ventilation. Materials and Methods: A prospective, observational study was done on 100 patients >16 years old, admitted to the Medical-Surgical Intensive Care Units (ICU), for over one year. Patients were classified into Group A: Patients who required equal or less than five days of mechanical ventilation and Group B: Patients who required more than five days of mechanical ventilation. The total serum potassium concentrations were measured and the Sequential Organ Failure Assessment (SOFA) score was recorded at the time of admission to the ICU, when connected to the ventilator, and then at the time of weaning from the ventilator. Results: There was no significant difference between the Serum K concentrations between the two groups, on admission. However, there were significant difference between the Serum K concentrations at times of receiving and weaning from mechanical ventilation (MV) between the two groups. We found the best cut-off point of 3.45 for serum potassium concentration, to predict the need for longer duration of MV. Conclusion: Development of hypokalemia during an ICU stay is associated with the need for mechanical ventilation. Monitoring of the serum potassium levels may be a good prognostic factor for the requirement of mechanical ventilation. PMID:26322281

  9. Mechanical Ventilation as a Therapeutic Tool to Reduce ARDS Incidence.

    PubMed

    Nieman, Gary F; Gatto, Louis A; Bates, Jason H T; Habashi, Nader M

    2015-12-01

    Trauma, hemorrhagic shock, or sepsis can incite systemic inflammatory response syndrome, which can result in early acute lung injury (EALI). As EALI advances, improperly set mechanical ventilation (MV) can amplify early injury into a secondary ventilator-induced lung injury that invariably develops into overt ARDS. Once established, ARDS is refractory to most therapeutic strategies, which have not been able to lower ARDS mortality below the current unacceptably high 40%. Low tidal volume ventilation is one of the few treatments shown to have a moderate positive impact on ARDS survival, presumably by reducing ventilator-induced lung injury. Thus, there is a compelling case to be made that the focus of ARDS management should switch from treatment once this syndrome has become established to the application of preventative measures while patients are still in the EALI stage. Indeed, studies have shown that ARDS incidence is markedly reduced when conventional MV is applied preemptively using a combination of low tidal volume and positive end-expiratory pressure in both patients in the ICU and in surgical patients at high risk for developing ARDS. Furthermore, there is evidence from animal models and high-risk trauma patients that superior prevention of ARDS can be achieved using preemptive airway pressure release ventilation with a very brief duration of pressure release. Preventing rather than treating ARDS may be the way forward in dealing with this recalcitrant condition and would represent a paradigm shift in the way that MV is currently practiced. PMID:26135199

  10. Aerosol deposition in mechanically ventilated patients. Optimizing nebulizer delivery.

    PubMed

    O'Riordan, T G; Palmer, L B; Smaldone, G C

    1994-01-01

    Previous studies have suggested that nebulizers are inefficient in delivering aerosolized medication to the lung in patients supported by mechanical ventilation. In a recent bench study, we characterized factors that may affect aerosol delivery, i.e., nebulizer type, ventilator settings (duty cycle), volume fill, and humidification as well as technical factors affecting measurement of deposition (e.g., radiolabeled compounds). Utilizing the predictions from our bench data, the present study was designed to assess nebulized aerosol delivery to ventilated patients under optimal conditions. Seven patients who were receiving mechanical ventilation (Bear II) via tracheostomy tube (TT) were studied. The humidifier was turned off. The test aerosol, a saline solution labeled with 99mTechnetium bound to human serum albumin (99mTc-HSA), was administered via a jet nebulizer (AeroTech II, 1.1 +/- 1.8 microns [mass median aerodynamic diameter, MMAD, geometric standard deviation, sigma g]), which was incorporated into the ventilator circuit and run to dryness. Inhaled and deposited radioactivity were measured by a mass balance/filter technique. TT versus lung deposition were quantified by removal of the inner cannula and direct measurement of TT deposition in a well counter. Inspiratory versus expiratory components of TT deposition were separated via bench techniques for each TT tube and breathing pattern. The regional distribution of deposited radioactivity was confirmed by gamma camera scans before and after TT removal. Measured radioactivity at each site was expressed as a percentage of nebulizer charge (i.e., the quantity of radioactivity originally placed in the nebulizer). On average, 30.6 +/- 6.3% (SD) of the charge was inhaled by the ventilated patients. Mean deposition in the TT during inspiration was 2.6 +/- 0.5%.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:8111585

  11. A model of neonatal tidal liquid ventilation mechanics.

    PubMed

    Costantino, M L; Fiore, G B

    2001-09-01

    Tidal liquid ventilation (TLV) with perfluorocarbons (PFC) has been proposed to treat surfactant-deficient lungs of preterm neonates, since it may prevent pulmonary instability by abating saccular surface tension. With a previous model describing gas exchange, we showed that ventilator settings are crucial for CO(2) scavenging during neonatal TLV. The present work is focused on some mechanical aspects of neonatal TLV that were hardly studied, i.e. the distribution of mechanical loads in the lungs, which is expected to differ substantially from gas ventilation. A new computational model is presented, describing pulmonary PFC hydrodynamics, where viscous losses, kinetic energy changes and lung compliance are accounted for. The model was implemented in a software package (LVMech) aimed at calculating pressures (and approximately estimate shear stresses) within the bronchial tree at different ventilator regimes. Simulations were run taking the previous model's outcomes into account. Results show that the pressure decrease due to high saccular compliance may compensate for the increased pressure drops due to PFC viscosity, and keep airway pressure low. Saccules are exposed to pressures remarkably different from those at the airway opening; during expiration negative pressures, which may cause airway collapse, are moderate and appear in the upper airways only. Delivering the fluid with a slightly smoothed square flow wave is convenient with respect to a sine wave. The use of LVMech allows to familiarize with LV treatment management taking the lungs' mechanical load into account, consistently with a proper respiratory support. PMID:11574253

  12. A Survey of Mechanical Ventilator Practices Across Burn Centers in North America.

    PubMed

    Chung, Kevin K; Rhie, Ryan Y; Lundy, Jonathan B; Cartotto, Robert; Henderson, Elizabeth; Pressman, Melissa A; Joe, Victor C; Aden, James K; Driscoll, Ian R; Faucher, Lee D; McDermid, Robert C; Mlcak, Ronald P; Hickerson, William L; Jeng, James C

    2016-01-01

    Burn injury introduces unique clinical challenges that make it difficult to extrapolate mechanical ventilator (MV) practices designed for the management of general critical care patients to the burn population. We hypothesize that no consensus exists among North American burn centers with regard to optimal ventilator practices. The purpose of this study is to examine various MV practice patterns in the burn population and to identify potential opportunities for future research. A researcher designed, 24-item survey was sent electronically to 129 burn centers. The χ, Fisher's exact, and Cochran-Mantel-Haenszel tests were used to determine if there were significant differences in practice patterns. We analyzed 46 questionnaires for a 36% response rate. More than 95% of the burn centers reported greater than 100 annual admissions. Pressure support and volume assist control were the most common initial MV modes used with or without inhalation injury. In the setting of Berlin defined mild acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), ARDSNet protocol and optimal positive end-expiratory pressure were the top ventilator choices, along with fluid restriction/diuresis as a nonventilator adjunct. For severe ARDS, airway pressure release ventilation and neuromuscular blockade were the most popular. The most frequently reported time frame for mechanical ventilation before tracheostomy was 2 weeks (25 of 45, 55%); however, all respondents reported in the affirmative that there are certain clinical situations where early tracheostomy is warranted. Wide variations in clinical practice exist among North American burn centers. No single ventilator mode or adjunct prevails in the management of burn patients regardless of pulmonary insult. Movement toward American Burn Association-supported, multicenter studies to determine best practices and guidelines for ventilator management in burn patients is prudent in light of these findings. PMID:26135527

  13. Treatment of ventilator-associated pneumonia and ventilator-associated tracheobronchitis in the intensive care unit

    PubMed Central

    Al-Omari, Awad; Mohammed, Masood; Alhazzani, Waleed; Al-Dorzi, Hasan M.; Belal, Mohammed S.; Albshabshe, Ali O.; Al-Subaie, Maha F.; Arabi, Yaseen M.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: To assess current practices of different healthcare providers for treating extensively drug-resistant (XDR) Acinetobacter baumannii (AB) infections in tertiary-care centers in Saudi Arabia. Methods: This cross-sectional study was performed in tertiary-care centers of Saudi Arabia between March and June 2014. A questionnaire consisting of 3 parts (respondent characteristics; case scenarios on ventilator-associated pneumonia [VAP] and tracheobronchitis [VAT], and antibiotic choices in each scenario) was developed and sent electronically to participants in 34 centers across Saudi Arabia. Results: One-hundred and eighty-three respondents completed the survey. Most of the respondents (54.6%) preferred to use colistin-based combination therapy to treat VAP caused by XDR AB, and 62.8% chose to continue treatment for 2 weeks. Most of the participants (80%) chose to treat VAT caused by XDR AB with intravenous antibiotics. A significant percentage of intensive care unit (ICU) fellows (41.3%) and clinical pharmacists (35%) opted for 2 million units (mu) of colistin every 8 hours without a loading dose, whereas 60% of infectious disease consultants, 45.8% of ICU consultants, and 44.4% of infectious disease fellows preferred a 9 mu loading dose followed by 9 mu daily in divided doses. The responses for the scenarios were different among healthcare providers (p<0.0001). Conclusion: Most of the respondents in our survey preferred to use colistin-based combination therapy and intravenous antibiotics to treat VAP and VAT caused by XDR AB. However, colistin dose and duration varied among the healthcare providers. PMID:26620988

  14. Automated mechanical ventilation: adapting decision making to different disease states.

    PubMed

    Lozano-Zahonero, S; Gottlieb, D; Haberthr, C; Guttmann, J; Mller, K

    2011-03-01

    The purpose of the present study is to introduce a novel methodology for adapting and upgrading decision-making strategies concerning mechanical ventilation with respect to different disease states into our fuzzy-based expert system, AUTOPILOT-BT. The special features are: (1) Extraction of clinical knowledge in analogy to the daily routine. (2) An automated process to obtain the required information and to create fuzzy sets. (3) The controller employs the derived fuzzy rules to achieve the desired ventilation status. For demonstration this study focuses exclusively on the control of arterial CO(2) partial pressure (p(a)CO(2)). Clinical knowledge from 61 anesthesiologists was acquired using a questionnaire from which different disease-specific fuzzy sets were generated to control p(a)CO(2). For both, patients with healthy lung and with acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) the fuzzy sets show different shapes. The fuzzy set "normal", i.e., "target p(a)CO(2) area", ranges from 35 to 39mmHg for healthy lungs and from 39 to 43mmHg for ARDS lungs. With the new fuzzy sets our AUTOPILOT-BT reaches the target p(a)CO(2) within maximal three consecutive changes of ventilator settings. Thus, clinical knowledge can be extended, updated, and the resulting mechanical ventilation therapies can be individually adapted, analyzed, and evaluated. PMID:21069471

  15. Mechanical ventilation in mass casualty scenarios. Augmenting staff: project XTREME.

    PubMed

    Hanley, Michael E; Bogdan, Gregory M

    2008-02-01

    Disaster preparedness typically includes plans that address the need for surge capacity to manage mass-casualty events. A major concern of disaster preparedness in respiratory therapy focuses on responding to a sudden increase in the volume of patients who require mechanical ventilation. Plans for such disasters must include contingencies to address surge capacity in ventilator inventories and the respiratory therapy staff who will manage the ventilators. Tactics to address these situations include efforts to lower demand by transferring patients to other institutions as well as efforts to augment staffing levels. Staff can be augmented by mobilization of deployable teams of volunteers from outside the region and through exploitation of local resources. The latter includes strategies to recruit local respiratory therapists who are currently in either non-clinical or non-hospital-based positions and policies that optimize existing respiratory therapy resources within an institution by canceling elective surgeries, altering shift structure, and postponing vacations. An alternative approach would employ non-respiratory-therapy staff to assist in the management of patients with respiratory failure. Project XTREME (Cross-Training Respiratory Extenders for Medical Emergencies) is a cross-training program developed to facilitate training of non-respiratory-therapy health professionals to assist in the management of patients who require mechanical ventilation. It includes an interactive digital video disc as well as a competency validation laboratory and is designed to be performed at the time of an emergency. Pilot testing of the program suggests it is effective. PMID:18218149

  16. [Non-invasive home mechanical ventilation: qualification, initiation, and monitoring].

    PubMed

    Kampelmacher, Mike J

    2012-01-01

    Following the introduction of non-invasive positive pressure ventilation (NPPV), the number of patients using home mechanical ventilation has increased substantially and continues to rise worldwide. This is primarily explained by both the effectiveness and comfort that are offered by NPPV in most patients, and particularly in patients with chest wall and neuromuscular diseases. For clinically stable patients the qualification for NPPV largely depends on the presence of complaints or signs of (nocturnal) hypoventilation with accompanying hypercapnia. For patients who are referred by an ICU there are additional prerequisites. In any case, the aims of NPPV should be met and NPPV should be effective. The initiation of NPPV, whether in the clinic or not, should always be tailored to the individual patient. Based on effectiveness, safety, and comfort, the best ventilator has to be chosen. Although with modern interfaces NPPV may be provided continuously, for continuing NPPV over the years, adding manual and/or mechanical cough augmentation techniques is usually mandatory. To control the ongoing effectiveness of NPPV regular monitoring of the patient is essential, and nowadays transcutaneous measurement of CO2 seems the most reliable and appropriate technique. For trend analysis, downloaded data of modern ventilators may be helpful as well. The ultimate goal of NPPV, to prevent tracheotomy, can only be reached if the patient has continuous access to a centre with expertise in cough augmentation techniques and both nocturnal and diurnal NPPV. PMID:22926911

  17. Complementary home mechanical ventilation techniques. SEPAR Year 2014.

    PubMed

    Chiner, Eusebi; Sancho-Chust, Jos N; Landete, Pedro; Senent, Cristina; Gmez-Merino, Elia

    2014-12-01

    This is a review of the different complementary techniques that are useful for optimizing home mechanical ventilation (HMV). Airway clearance is very important in patients with HMV and many patients, particularly those with reduced peak cough flow, require airway clearance (manual or assisted) or assisted cough techniques (manual or mechanical) and suctioning procedures, in addition to ventilation. In the case of invasive HMV, good tracheostomy cannula management is essential for success. HMV patients may have sleep disturbances that must be taken into account. Sleep studies including complete polysomnography or respiratory polygraphy are helpful for identifying patient-ventilator asynchrony. Other techniques, such as bronchoscopy or nutritional support, may be required in patients on HMV, particularly if percutaneous gastrostomy is required. Information on treatment efficacy can be obtained from HMV monitoring, using methods such as pulse oximetry, capnography or the internal programs of the ventilators themselves. Finally, the importance of the patient's subjective perception is reviewed, as this may potentially affect the success of the HMV. PMID:25138799

  18. Adverse events during rotary-wing transport of mechanically ventilated patients: a retrospective cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Seymour, Christopher W; Kahn, Jeremy M; Schwab, C William; Fuchs, Barry D

    2008-01-01

    Introduction Patients triaged to tertiary care centers frequently undergo rotary-wing transport and may be exposed to additional risk for adverse events. The incidence of physiologic adverse events and their predisposing factors in mechanically ventilated patients undergoing aeromedical transport are unknown. Methods We performed a retrospective review of flight records of all interfacility, rotary-wing transports to a tertiary care, university hospital during 2001 to 2003. All patients receiving mechanical ventilation via endotracheal tube or tracheostomy were included; trauma, scene flights, and fixed transports were excluded. Data were abstracted from patient flight and hospital records. Adverse events were classified as either major (death, arrest, pneumothorax, or seizure) or minor (physiologic decompensation, new arrhythmia, or requirement for new sedation/paralysis). Bivariate associations between hospital and flight characteristics and the presence of adverse events were examined. Results Six hundred eighty-two interfacility flights occurred during the period of review, with 191 patients receiving mechanical ventilation. Fifty-eight different hospitals transferred patients, with diagnoses that were primarily cardiopulmonary (45%) and neurologic (37%). Median flight distance and time were 42 (31 to 83) km and 13 (8 to 22) minutes, respectively. No major adverse events occurred during flight. Forty patients (22%) experienced a minor physiologic adverse event. Vasopressor requirement prior to flight and flight distance were associated with the presence of adverse events in-flight (P < 0.05). Patient demographics, time of day, season, transferring hospital characteristics, and ventilator settings before and during flight were not associated with adverse events. Conclusion Major adverse events are rare during interfacility, rotary-wing transfer of critically ill, mechanically ventilated patients. Patients transferred over a longer distance or transferred on vasopressors may be at greater risk for minor adverse events during flight. PMID:18498659

  19. Ventilation distribution and chest wall mechanics in microgravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Paiva, M.; Wantier, M.; Verbanck, S.; Engel, L. A.; Prisk, G. K.; Guy, H. J. B.; West, J. B.

    1997-01-01

    The effect of gravity on lung ventilation distribution and the mechanisms of the chest wall were investigated. The following tests were performed with the respiratory monitoring system of the Anthorack, flown onboard Spacelab D2 mission: single breath washout (SBW), multiple breath washout (MBW) and argon rebreathing (ARB). In order to study chest wall mechanisms in microgravity, a respiratory inductive plethysmograph was used. The SBW tests did not reach statistical significance, while the ARB tests showed that gravity independent inhomogeneity of specific ventilation is larger than gravity dependent inhomogeneity. In which concerns the chest wall mechanisms, the analysis on the four astronauts during the normal respirations of the relaxation maneuver showed a 40 percent increase on the abdominal contribution to respiration.

  20. [Lung-brain interaction in the mechanically ventilated patient].

    PubMed

    Lpez-Aguilar, J; Fernndez-Gonzalo, M S; Turon, M; Qulez, M E; Gmez-Simn, V; Jdar, M M; Blanch, L

    2013-10-01

    Patients with acute lung injury or acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) admitted to the ICU present neuropsychological alterations, which in most cases extend beyond the acute phase and have an important adverse effect upon quality of life. The aim of this review is to deepen in the analysis of the complex interaction between lung and brain in critically ill patients subjected to mechanical ventilation. This update first describes the neuropsychological alterations occurring both during the acute phase of ICU stay and at discharge, followed by an analysis of lung-brain interactions during mechanical ventilation, and finally explores the etiology and mechanisms leading to the neurological disorders observed in these patients. The management of critical patients requires an integral approach focused on minimizing the deleterious effects over the short, middle or long term. PMID:23260265

  1. Mechanical exsufflation, noninvasive ventilation, and new strategies for pulmonary rehabilitation and sleep disordered breathing.

    PubMed Central

    Bach, J. R.

    1992-01-01

    Manual and mechanical exsufflation are important but underutilized ways to clear airway secretions. These methods are especially useful when used in concert with noninvasive intermittent positive airway pressure ventilatory assistance to facilitate extubation and ventilator weaning. This can be used as much as 24 hours a day as an alternative to tracheostomy ventilation or body ventilator use for patients with paralytic restrictive ventilatory insufficiency. These techniques expedite community management of ventilator assisted individuals by avoiding tracheostomy and need for invasive suctioning and ongoing wound care. For these techniques to be effective and to prevent further suppression of ventilatory drive, supplemental oxygen administration must be avoided unless pO2 is less than 60 mm Hg despite normalization of pCO2. Custom molded interfaces for the delivery of noninvasive intermittent positive airway pressure ventilatory assistance can also be used to facilitate the delivery of variable inspiratory expiratory positive airway pressure for patients with obstructive sleep apnea. Noninvasive intermittent positive airway pressure ventilatory assistance or body ventilator use can rest the respiratory muscles of patients with advanced chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. This and pulmonary rehabilitation programs geared to exercise reconditioning are therapeutic options that significantly improve the quality of life of these patients. For both paralytic restrictive and obstructive pulmonary patients, these techniques decrease cost and frequency of hospitalizations. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 PMID:1586868

  2. Mechanical exsufflation, noninvasive ventilation, and new strategies for pulmonary rehabilitation and sleep disordered breathing.

    PubMed

    Bach, J R

    1992-01-01

    Manual and mechanical exsufflation are important but underutilized ways to clear airway secretions. These methods are especially useful when used in concert with noninvasive intermittent positive airway pressure ventilatory assistance to facilitate extubation and ventilator weaning. This can be used as much as 24 hours a day as an alternative to tracheostomy ventilation or body ventilator use for patients with paralytic restrictive ventilatory insufficiency. These techniques expedite community management of ventilator assisted individuals by avoiding tracheostomy and need for invasive suctioning and ongoing wound care. For these techniques to be effective and to prevent further suppression of ventilatory drive, supplemental oxygen administration must be avoided unless pO2 is less than 60 mm Hg despite normalization of pCO2. Custom molded interfaces for the delivery of noninvasive intermittent positive airway pressure ventilatory assistance can also be used to facilitate the delivery of variable inspiratory expiratory positive airway pressure for patients with obstructive sleep apnea. Noninvasive intermittent positive airway pressure ventilatory assistance or body ventilator use can rest the respiratory muscles of patients with advanced chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. This and pulmonary rehabilitation programs geared to exercise reconditioning are therapeutic options that significantly improve the quality of life of these patients. For both paralytic restrictive and obstructive pulmonary patients, these techniques decrease cost and frequency of hospitalizations. PMID:1586868

  3. An evidence-based recommendation on bed head elevation for mechanically ventilated patients

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Introduction A semi-upright position in ventilated patients is recommended to prevent ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) and is one of the components in the Ventilator Bundle of the Institute for Health Care Improvement. This recommendation, however, is not an evidence-based one. Methods A systematic review on the benefits and disadvantages of semi-upright position in ventilated patients was done according to PRISMA guidelines. Then a European expert panel developed a recommendation based on the results of the systematic review and considerations beyond the scientific evidence in a three-round electronic Delphi procedure. Results Three trials (337 patients) were included in the review. The results showed that it was uncertain whether a 45° bed head elevation was effective or harmful with regard to the occurrence of clinically suspected VAP, microbiologically confirmed VAP, decubitus and mortality, and that it was unknown whether 45° elevation for 24 hours a day increased the risk for thromboembolism or hemodynamic instability. A group of 22 experts recommended elevating the head of the bed of mechanically ventilated patients to a 20 to 45° position and preferably to a ≥30° position as long as it does not pose risks or conflicts with other nursing tasks, medical interventions or patients' wishes. Conclusions Although the review failed to prove clinical benefits of bed head elevation, experts prefer this position in ventilated patients. They made clear that the position of a ventilated patient in bed depended on many determinants. Therefore, given the scientific uncertainty about the benefits and harms of a semi-upright position, this position could only be recommended as the preferred position with the necessary restrictions. PMID:21481251

  4. Ventilation.

    PubMed

    Turner, W A; Bearg, D W; Brennan, T

    1995-01-01

    This chapter begins with an overview of the history of ventilation guidelines, which has led to the guidelines that are in effect today. Of particular interest is the most recent return in the past 5 years to ventilation rates that more closely reflect a mean or average of the range of guidelines that have existed over the past century. OSHA's and the EPA's recognition of the need to operate ventilation systems in buildings in an accountable manner is also of note. Of even more interest is the resurgence of the concept of minimum mixing and once-through ventilation air that has been pursued in parts of Northern Europe for the past 10 years, and in a school that is being designed with this concept in New Hampshire. In addition, the design concept of equipping office buildings with low pressure drop high efficiency particle filtration to remove fine particles from all of the air that is supplied to the occupants is being used increasingly in the U.S. This chapter also presents an overview of the various types of ventilation systems found in homes and commercial office buildings and the common indoor air quality problems that may be associated with them. It also offers an overview of common HVAC evaluation techniques that can be used to determine if a ventilation system is performing in a manner that makes sense for the use of the space and the needs of the occupants. Are the occupants receiving a reasonable supply of outdoor air? Is the air that they receive of reasonable quality? Are obvious pollutants being exhausted? Ventilation systems have become extremely complex and more difficult to run and maintain over the past 40 years. This trend will continue to drive the need for professionally maintained HVAC equipment that is serviced and run by individuals who are accountable for the quality of the air that the system delivers. PMID:7792680

  5. NanoClusters Enhance Drug Delivery in Mechanical Ventilation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pornputtapitak, Warangkana

    The overall goal of this thesis was to develop a dry powder delivery system for patients on mechanical ventilation. The studies were divided into two parts: the formulation development and the device design. The pulmonary system is an attractive route for drug delivery since the lungs have a large accessible surface area for treatment or drug absorption. For ventilated patients, inhaled drugs have to successfully navigate ventilator tubing and an endotracheal tube. Agglomerates of drug nanoparticles (also known as 'NanoClusters') are fine dry powder aerosols that were hypothesized to enable drug delivery through ventilator circuits. This Thesis systematically investigated formulations of NanoClusters and their aerosol performance in a conventional inhaler and a device designed for use during mechanical ventilation. These engineered powders of budesonide (NC-Bud) were delivered via a MonodoseRTM inhaler or a novel device through commercial endotracheal tubes, and analyzed by cascade impaction. NC-Bud had a higher efficiency of aerosol delivery compared to micronized stock budesonide. The delivery efficiency was independent of ventilator parameters such as inspiration patterns, inspiration volumes, and inspiration flow rates. A novel device designed to fit directly to the ventilator and endotracheal tubing connections and the MonodoseRTM inhaler showed the same efficiency of drug delivery. The new device combined with NanoCluster formulation technology, therefore, allowed convenient and efficient drug delivery through endotracheal tubes. Furthermore, itraconazole (ITZ), a triazole antifungal agent, was formulated as a NanoCluster powder via milling (top-down process) or precipitation (bottom-up process) without using any excipients. ITZ NanoClusters prepared by wet milling showed better aerosol performance compared to micronized stock ITZ and ITZ NanoClusters prepared by precipitation. ITZ NanoClusters prepared by precipitation methods also showed an amorphous state while milled ITZ NanoClusters maintained the crystalline character. Overall, NanoClusters prepared by various processes represent a potential engineered drug particle approach for inhalation therapy since they provide effective aerosol properties and stability due to the crystalline state of the drug powders. Future work will continue to explore formulation and delivery performance in vitro and in vivo..

  6. A novel simulator for mechanical ventilation in newborns: MEchatronic REspiratory System SImulator for Neonatal Applications.

    PubMed

    Baldoli, Ilaria; Cuttano, Armando; Scaramuzzo, Rosa T; Tognarelli, Selene; Ciantelli, Massimiliano; Cecchi, Francesca; Gentile, Marzia; Sigali, Emilio; Laschi, Cecilia; Ghirri, Paolo; Menciassi, Arianna; Dario, Paolo; Boldrini, Antonio

    2015-08-01

    Respiratory problems are among the main causes of mortality for preterm newborns with pulmonary diseases; mechanical ventilation provides standard care, but long-term complications are still largely reported. In this framework, continuous medical education is mandatory to correctly manage assistance devices. However, commercially available neonatal respiratory simulators are rarely suitable for representing anatomical and physiological conditions; a step toward high-fidelity simulation, therefore, is essential for nurses and neonatologists to acquire the practice needed without any risk. An innovative multi-compartmental infant respirator simulator based on a five-lobe model was developed to reproduce different physio-pathological conditions in infants and to simulate many different kinds of clinical scenarios. The work consisted of three phases: (1) a theoretical study and modeling phase, (2) a prototyping phase, and (3) testing of the simulation software during training courses. The neonatal pulmonary simulator produced allows the replication and evaluation of different mechanical ventilation modalities in infants suffering from many different kinds of respiratory physio-pathological conditions. In particular, the system provides variable compliances for each lobe in an independent manner and different resistance levels for the airway branches; moreover, it allows the trainer to simulate both autonomous and mechanically assisted respiratory cycles in newborns. The developed and tested simulator is a significant contribution to the field of medical simulation in neonatology, as it makes it possible to choose the best ventilation strategy and to perform fully aware management of ventilation parameters. PMID:26238790

  7. NATURAL HISTORY OF DENTAL PLAQUE ACCUMULATION IN MECHANICALLY VENTILATED ADULTS: A DESCRIPTIVE CORRELATIONAL STUDY

    PubMed Central

    Jones, Deborah J.; Munro, Cindy L.; Grap, Mary Jo

    2011-01-01

    Summary Objective The purpose of this study was to describe the pattern of dental plaque accumulation in mechanically ventilated adults. Accumulation of dental plaque and bacterial colonization of the oropharynx is associated with a number of systemic diseases including ventilator associated pneumonia. Research Methodology/Design Data were collected from mechanically ventilated critically ill adults (n=137), enrolled within 24 hours of intubation. Dental plaque, counts of decayed, missing and filled teeth and systemic antibiotic use was assessed on study days 1, 3, 5 and 7. Dental plaque averages per study day, tooth type and tooth location were analyzed. Setting Medical Respiratory, Surgical Trauma and Neuroscience ICUs of a large tertiary care center in the southeast United States. Results Plaque: All surfaces > 60% plaque coverage from day 1 to day 7; Molars and Premolars contained greatest plaque average >70%. Systemic antibiotic use on day 1 had no significant effect on plaque accumulation on day 3 (p=0.73). Conclusions Patients arrive in critical care units with preexisting oral hygiene issues. Dental plaque tends to accumulate in the posterior teeth (molars and premolars) that may be hard for nurses to visualize and reach; this problem may be exacerbated by endotracheal tubes and other equipment. Knowing accumulation trends of plaque will guide the development of effective oral care protocols. PMID:22014582

  8. Early Rehabilitation Therapy Is Beneficial for Patients With Prolonged Mechanical Ventilation After Coronary Artery Bypass Surgery.

    PubMed

    Dong, Zehua; Yu, Bangxu; Zhang, Quanfang; Pei, Haitao; Xing, Jinyan; Fang, Wei; Sun, Yunbo; Song, Zhen

    2016-03-22

    We investigated the effects of early rehabilitation therapy on prolonged mechanically ventilated patients after coronary artery bypass surgery (CABG).A total of 106 patients who underwent CABG between June 2012 and May 2015 were enrolled and randomly assigned into an early rehabilitation group (53 cases) and a control group (53 cases). The rehabilitation therapy consisted of 6 steps including head up, transferring from supination to sitting, sitting on the edge of bed, sitting in a chair, transferring from sitting to standing, and walking along a bed. The patients received rehabilitation therapy in the intensive care unit (ICU) after CABG in the early rehabilitation group. The control group patients received rehabilitation therapy after leaving the ICU.The results showed that the early rehabilitation therapy could significantly decrease the duration of mechanical ventilation (early rehabilitation group: 8.1 ± 3.3 days; control group: 13.9 ± 4.1 days, P < 0.01), hospital stay (early rehabilitation group: 22.0 ± 3.8 days; control group: 29.1 ± 4.6 days, P < 0.01), and ICU stay (early rehabilitation group: 11.7 ± 3.2 days; control group: 18.3 ± 4.2 days, P < 0.01) for patients requiring more than 72 hours prolonged mechanical ventilation. The results of Kaplan-Meier analysis showed that the proportions of patients remaining on mechanical ventilation in the early rehabilitation group were larger than that in the control group after 7 days of rehabilitation therapy (logrank test: P < 0.01).The results provide evidence for supporting the application of early rehabilitation therapy in patients requiring prolonged mechanical ventilation after CABG. PMID:26973269

  9. A Prognostic Model for One-year Mortality in Patients Requiring Prolonged Mechanical Ventilation

    PubMed Central

    Carson, Shannon S.; Garrett, Joanne; Hanson, Laura C.; Lanier, Joyce; Govert, Joe; Brake, Mary C.; Landucci, Dante L.; Cox, Christopher E.; Carey, Timothy S.

    2009-01-01

    Objective A measure that identifies patients who are at high risk of mortality after prolonged ventilation will help physicians communicate prognosis to patients or surrogate decision-makers. Our objective was to develop and validate a prognostic model for 1-year mortality in patients ventilated for 21 days or more. Design Prospective cohort study. Setting University-based tertiary care hospital Patients 300 consecutive medical, surgical, and trauma patients requiring mechanical ventilation for at least 21 days were prospectively enrolled. Measurements and Main Results Predictive variables were measured on day 21 of ventilation for the first 200 patients and entered into logistic regression models with 1-year and 3-month mortality as outcomes. Final models were validated using data from 100 subsequent patients. One-year mortality was 51% in the development set and 58% in the validation set. Independent predictors of mortality included requirement for vasopressors, hemodialysis, platelet count ?150 109/L, and age ?50. Areas under the ROC curve for the development model and validation model were 0.82 (se 0.03) and 0.82 (se 0.05) respectively. The model had sensitivity of 0.42 (se 0.12) and specificity of 0.99 (se 0.01) for identifying patients who had ?90% risk of death at 1 year. Observed mortality was highly consistent with both 3- and 12-month predicted mortality. These four predictive variables can be used in a simple prognostic score that clearly identifies low risk patients (no risk factors, 15% mortality) and high risk patients (3 or 4 risk factors, 97% mortality). Conclusions Simple clinical variables measured on day 21 of mechanical ventilation can identify patients at highest and lowest risk of death from prolonged ventilation. PMID:18552692

  10. Hypervirulent Klebsiella pneumoniae induced ventilator-associated pneumonia in mechanically ventilated patients in China.

    PubMed

    Yan, Q; Zhou, M; Zou, M; Liu, W-E

    2016-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the clinical characteristics of hypervirulent K. pneumoniae (hvKP) induced ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) and the microbiological characteristics and epidemiology of the hvKP strains. A retrospective study of 49 mechanically ventilated patients with K. pneumoniae induced VAP was conducted at a university hospital in China from January 2014 to December 2014. Clinical characteristics and K. pneumoniae antimicrobial susceptibility and biofilm formation were analyzed. Genes of capsular serotypes K1, K2, K5, K20, K54 and K57 and virulence factors plasmid rmpA(p-rmpA), iroB, iucA, mrkD, entB, iutA, ybtS, kfu and allS were also evaluated. Multilocus sequence typing (MLST) and random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) analyses were used to study the clonal relationship of the K. pneumoniae strains. Strains possessed p-rmpA and iroB and iucA were defined as hvKP. Of 49 patients, 14 patients (28.6 %) were infected by hvKP. Antimicrobial resistant rate was significantly higher in cKP than that in hvKP. One ST29 K54 extended-spectrum-beta-lactamase (ESBL) producing hvKP strain was detected. The prevalence of K1 and K2 in hvKP was 42.9 % and 21.4 %, respectively. The incidences of K1, K2, K20, p-rmpA, iroB, iucA, iutA, Kfu and alls were significantly higher in hvKP than those in cKP. ST23 was dominant among hvKP strains, and all the ST23 strains had identical RAPD pattern. hvKP has become a common pathogen of VAP in mechanically ventilated patients in China. Clinicians should increase awareness of hvKP induced VAP and enhance epidemiologic surveillance. PMID:26753990

  11. Changes in respiratory mechanics during respiratory physiotherapy in mechanically ventilated patients

    PubMed Central

    Moreira, Fernanda Callefe; Teixeira, Cassiano; Savi, Augusto; Xavier, Rogrio

    2015-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the changes in ventilatory mechanics and hemodynamics that occur in patients dependent on mechanical ventilation who are subjected to a standard respiratory therapy protocol. Methods This experimental and prospective study was performed in two intensive care units, in which patients dependent on mechanical ventilation for more than 48 hours were consecutively enrolled and subjected to an established respiratory physiotherapy protocol. Ventilatory variables (dynamic lung compliance, respiratory system resistance, tidal volume, peak inspiratory pressure, respiratory rate, and oxygen saturation) and hemodynamic variables (heart rate) were measured one hour before (T-1), immediately after (T0) and one hour after (T+1) applying the respiratory physiotherapy protocol. Results During the period of data collection, 104 patients were included in the study. Regarding the ventilatory variables, an increase in dynamic lung compliance (T-1 = 52.3 16.1mL/cmH2O versus T0 = 65.1 19.1mL/cmH2O; p < 0.001), tidal volume (T-1 = 550 134mL versus T0 = 698 155mL; p < 0.001), and peripheral oxygen saturation (T-1 = 96.5 2.29% versus T0 = 98.2 1.62%; p < 0.001) were observed, in addition to a reduction of respiratory system resistance (T-1 = 14.2 4.63cmH2O/L/s versus T0 = 11.0 3.43cmH2O/L/s; p < 0.001), after applying the respiratory physiotherapy protocol. All changes were present in the assessment performed one hour (T+1) after the application of the respiratory physiotherapy protocol. Regarding the hemodynamic variables, an immediate increase in the heart rate after application of the protocol was observed, but that increase was not maintained (T-1 = 88.9 18.7 bpm versus T0 = 93.7 19.2bpm versus T+1 = 88.5 17.1bpm; p < 0.001). Conclusion Respiratory therapy leads to immediate changes in the lung mechanics and hemodynamics of mechanical ventilation-dependent patients, and ventilatory changes are likely to remain for at least one hour. PMID:26340156

  12. Tilt Table Practice Improved Ventilation in a Patient with Prolonged Artificial Ventilation Support in Intensive Care Unit

    PubMed Central

    Hashim, Asiah M; Joseph, Leonard H; Embong, Juleida; Kasim, Zalila; Mohan, Vikram

    2012-01-01

    Patients who are on prolonged ventilator support in critical care unit present wide variety of complications, which range from reduction in oxygen uptake to various musculoskeletal impairments. Early mobilization and rehabilitation are encouraged to manage these complications effectively. Use of tilt table to motivate early mobilization in the intensive care unit for ventilator practices is not a usual practice. However, this new technique has attracted involvements of clinicians and therapists for its therapeutic benefits to the patient. Herein we describe a case of a seventy eight-year-old male patient who suffered Motor car accident, and was on ventilator support in intensive care unit for more than one month. He underwent treatment using a tilt table protocol with other routine treatment, which benefited him based on clinical as well as physiological variables. For practitioners in intensive care units, this report may offer perceptivity into the alternate practice of early mobilization using tilt table, and for investigators it may promote interest for further studies. PMID:23115431

  13. Prevention of ventilator-associated pneumonia in the intensive care unit: A review of the clinically relevant recent advancements

    PubMed Central

    Keyt, Holly; Faverio, Paola; Restrepo, Marcos I.

    2014-01-01

    Ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) is one of the most commonly encountered hospital-acquired infections in intensive care units and is associated with significant morbidity and high costs of care. The pathophysiology, epidemiology, treatment and prevention of VAP have been extensively studied for decades, but a clear prevention strategy has not yet emerged. In this article we will review recent literature pertaining to evidence-based VAP-prevention strategies that have resulted in clinically relevant outcomes. A multidisciplinary strategy for prevention of VAP is recommended. Those interventions that have been shown to have a clinical impact include the following: (i) Non-invasive positive pressure ventilation for able patients, especially in immunocompromised patients, with acute exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease or pulmonary oedema, (ii) Sedation and weaning protocols for those patients who do require mechanical ventilation, (iii) Mechanical ventilation protocols including head of bed elevation above 30 degrees and oral care, and (iv) Removal of subglottic secretions. Other interventions, such as selective digestive tract decontamination, selective oropharyngeal decontamination and antimicrobial-coated endotracheal tubes, have been tested in different studies. However, the evidence for the efficacy of these measures to reduce VAP rates is not strong enough to recommend their use in clinical practice. In numerous studies, the implementation of VAP prevention bundles to clinical practice was associated with a significant reduction in VAP rates. Future research that considers clinical outcomes as primary endpoints will hopefully result in more detailed prevention strategies. PMID:25109715

  14. The Use of Noninvasive Ventilation Outside the Intensive Care Unit: A Clinical Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Romano, A; Salvati, A; Romano, R; Mastroberardino, M

    2013-01-01

    Noninvasive Ventilation (NIV) is one of the best weapon at our disposal to treat respiratory failure. The early use of NIV out of the Intensive Care Unit can improve patients outcome. A 58-year-old man affected by severe bilateral pneumonia caused by Legionella Pneumophila was treated with Noninvasive Ventilation in extra Intensive Care Unit until the evidence of a marked improvement of clinical and radiological state. PMID:23905082

  15. Optimization of respiratory muscle relaxation during mechanical ventilation.

    PubMed

    Ward, M E; Corbeil, C; Gibbons, W; Newman, S; Macklem, P T

    1988-07-01

    The authors calculated the active work of inspiration (Wp) and the inspiratory muscle pressure-time product (integral of Pmus.dt) in seven patients undergoing mechanical ventilation (MV). This was done by comparing the areas under the inflation pressure-volume and inflation pressure-time curves generated when the patient was contributing to the work of ventilation with those following sedation, when inspiratory muscle activity was absent (defined as absence of diaphragmatic EMG activity and of palpable accessory muscle contraction). Inspiratory muscle inactivity could be predicted by the observation of a smooth rise in inflation pressure that was highly reproducible from breath to breath. Relaxation was present without sedation during MV in the control mode with inspiratory flow rates above 65 1/min. In the assist mode (AMV), both Wp and integral of Pmus.dt were significantly (P less than 0.05) greater than in the control (CMV) mode. Reducing trigger sensitivity during AMV further increased Wp and integral of Pmus.dt (P less than 0.05). During AMV and CMV Wp and integral of Pmus.dt decreased with increasing rate of inspiratory flow delivered by the ventilator. With AMV at low trigger sensitivity and low flow rates, Wp approached 65% of the total inspiratory work. The authors conclude that inspiratory muscle activity can be substantial during MV, particularly during AMV at low trigger sensitivity and flow. Monitoring of inflation pressure is a simple means of determining the degree of inspiratory muscle rest during MV. PMID:3389564

  16. Transient-state mechanisms of wind-induced burrow ventilation.

    PubMed

    Turner, J Scott; Pinshow, Berry

    2015-01-15

    Burrows are common animal habitations, yet living in a burrow presents physiological challenges for its inhabitants because the burrow isolates them from sources and sinks for oxygen, carbon dioxide, water vapor and ammonia. Conventionally, the isolation is thought to be overcome by either diffusion gas exchange within the burrow or some means of capturing wind energy to power steady or quasi-steady bulk flows of air through it. Both are examples of what may be called 'DC' models, namely steady to quasi-steady flows powered by steady to quasi-steady winds. Natural winds, however, are neither steady nor quasi-steady, but are turbulent, with a considerable portion of the energy contained in so-called 'AC' (i.e. unsteady) components, where wind velocity varies chaotically and energy to power gas exchange is stored in some form. Existing DC models of burrow gas exchange do not account for this potentially significant source of energy for ventilation. We present evidence that at least two AC mechanisms operate to ventilate both single-opening burrows (of the Cape skink, Trachylepis capensis) and double-opening model burrows (of Sundevall's jird, Meriones crassus). We propose that consideration of the physiological ecology and evolution of the burrowing habit has been blinkered by the long neglect of AC ventilation. PMID:25609780

  17. Outcomes of Morbidly Obese Patients Receiving Invasive Mechanical Ventilation

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Gagan; Majumdar, Tilottama; Jacobs, Elizabeth R.; Danesh, Valerie; Dagar, Gaurav; Deshmukh, Abhishek; Taneja, Amit

    2013-01-01

    Background: Critically ill, morbidly obese patients (BMI ≥ 40 kg/m2) are at high risk of respiratory failure requiring invasive mechanical ventilation (IMV). It is not clear if outcomes of critically ill, obese patients are affected by obesity. Due to limited cardiopulmonary reserve, they may have poor outcomes. However, literature to this effect is limited and conflicted. Methods: We used the Nationwide Inpatient Sample from 2004 to 2008 to examine the outcomes of morbidly obese people receiving IMV and compared them to nonobese people. We identified hospitalizations requiring IMV and morbid obesity using International Classification of Diseases, 9th Revision, Clinical Modification codes. Primary outcomes studied were inhospital mortality, rates of prolonged mechanical ventilation (≥ 96 h), and tracheostomy. Multivariable logistic regression was used to adjust for potential confounding variables. We also examined outcomes stratified by number of organs failing. Results: Of all hospitalized, morbidly obese people, 2.9% underwent IMV. Mean age, comorbidity score, and severity of illness were lower in morbidly obese people. The adjusted mortality was not significantly different in morbidly obese people (OR 0.89; 95% CI, 0.74-1.06). When stratified by severity of disease, there was a stepwise increase in risk for mortality among morbidly obese people relative to nonobese people (range: OR, 0.77; 95% CI, 0.58-1.01 for only respiratory failure, to OR, 4.14; 95% CI, 1.11-15.3 for four or more organs failing). Rates of prolonged mechanical ventilation were similar, but rate of tracheostomy (OR 2.19; 95% CI, 1.77-2.69) was significantly higher in patients who were morbidly obese. Conclusions: Morbidly obese people undergoing IMV have a similar risk for death as nonobese people if only respiratory failure is present. When more organs fail, morbidly obese people have increased risk for mortality compared with nonobese people. PMID:23349057

  18. Delirium in intensive care unit patients under noninvasive ventilation: a multinational survey

    PubMed Central

    Tanaka, Lilian Maria Sobreira; Salluh, Jorge Ibrain Figueira; Dal-Pizzol, Felipe; Barreto, Bruna Brando; Zantieff, Ricardo; Tobar, Eduardo; Esquinas, Antonio; Quarantini, Lucas de Castro; Gusmao-Flores, Dimitri

    2015-01-01

    Objective To conduct a multinational survey of intensive care unit professionals to determine the practices on delirium assessment and management, in addition to their perceptions and attitudes toward the evaluation and impact of delirium in patients requiring noninvasive ventilation. Methods An electronic questionnaire was created to evaluate the profiles of the respondents and their related intensive care units, the systematic delirium assessment and management and the respondents' perceptions and attitudes regarding delirium in patients requiring noninvasive ventilation. The questionnaire was distributed to the cooperative network for research of the Associao de Medicina Intensiva Brasileira (AMIB-Net) mailing list and to researchers in different centers in Latin America and Europe. Results Four hundred thirty-six questionnaires were available for analysis; the majority of the questionnaires were from Brazil (61.9%), followed by Turkey (8.7%) and Italy (4.8%). Approximately 61% of the respondents reported no delirium assessment in the intensive care unit, and 31% evaluated delirium in patients under noninvasive ventilation. The Confusion Assessment Method for the intensive care unit was the most reported validated diagnostic tool (66.9%). Concerning the indication of noninvasive ventilation in patients already presenting with delirium, 16.3% of respondents never allow the use of noninvasive ventilation in this clinical context. Conclusion This survey provides data that strongly reemphasizes poor efforts toward delirium assessment and management in the intensive care unit setting, especially regarding patients requiring noninvasive ventilation. PMID:26761474

  19. Adjunct therapies during mechanical ventilation: airway clearance techniques, therapeutic aerosols, and gases.

    PubMed

    Kallet, Richard H

    2013-06-01

    Mechanically ventilated patients in respiratory failure often require adjunct therapies to address special needs such as inhaled drug delivery to alleviate airway obstruction, treat pulmonary infection, or stabilize gas exchange, or therapies that enhance pulmonary hygiene. These therapies generally are supportive in nature rather than curative. Currently, most lack high-level evidence supporting their routine use. This overview describes the rationale and examines the evidence supporting adjunctive therapies during mechanical ventilation. Both mechanistic and clinical research suggests that intrapulmonary percussive ventilation may enhance pulmonary secretion mobilization and might reverse atelectasis. However, its impact on outcomes such ICU stay is uncertain. The most crucial issue is whether aerosolized antibiotics should be used to treat ventilator-associated pneumonia, particularly when caused by multi-drug resistant pathogens. There is encouraging evidence from several studies supporting its use, at least in individual cases of pneumonia non-responsive to systemic antibiotic therapy. Inhaled pulmonary vasodilators provide at least short-term improvement in oxygenation and may be useful in stabilizing pulmonary gas exchange in complex management situations. Small uncontrolled studies suggest aerosolized heparin with N-acetylcysteine might break down pulmonary casts and relieve airway obstruction in patients with severe inhalation injury. Similar low-level evidence suggests that heliox is effective in reducing airway pressure and improving ventilation in various forms of lower airway obstruction. These therapies generally are supportive and may facilitate patient management. However, because they have not been shown to improve patient outcomes, it behooves clinicians to use these therapies parsimoniously and to monitor their effectiveness carefully. PMID:23709200

  20. Low-frequency respiratory mechanics using ventilator-driven forced oscillations.

    PubMed

    Lutchen, K R; Kaczka, D W; Suki, B; Barnas, G; Cevenini, G; Barbini, P

    1993-12-01

    We evaluated the potential for using a fast Fourier transform (FFT) analysis applied to a standard ventilator waveform to estimate (< 2 Hz) frequency dependence of respiratory or lung resistance (R) and elastance (E). In four healthy humans we measured pressure and flow at the airway opening while applying sine wave forcing from 0.2 to 0.6 Hz at two tidal volumes (VT; 250 and 500 ml). We then applied a step inspiratory ventilator flow wave with relaxed expiration at the same VT and only 0.2 Hz. Step waveform data were also acquired from nine mechanically ventilated patients under intensive care unit conditions. Finally, we simultaneously measured total respiratory (rs), lung (L), and chest wall (cw) impedance data from two dogs (0.156-2 Hz) before and after severe pulmonary edema. Rrs and Ers were estimated by the FFT approach. Humans displayed a small frequency dependence in Rrs and Ers from 0.2 to 0.6 Hz, and both Rrs and Ers decreased at the higher VT. The spectral estimates of Rrs and Ers with the step ventilator wave were often qualitatively comparable to sine wave results below 0.6 Hz but became extremely erratic above the third harmonic. Conversely, in dogs the step wave produced reliable and stable estimates up to 2 Hz in all conditions. Nevertheless, Ecw and Ers still displayed clear and correlated oscillations with increasing frequency, whereas EL showed none. This suggests that nonlinear processes, most likely at the chest wall, contribute to periodic-like fluctuations in respiratory mechanical properties when estimated by applying FFT to a step ventilator wave. Moreover, in humans, but not dogs, a ventilator flow cycle contains insufficient signal energy beyond the third harmonic. We show that the amount of energy available at higher frequencies is largely governed by the mechanical time constant contributing to passive expiratory flow. In dogs the shorter time constant contributes to increased energy. In essence, the frequency content of the flow is subject dependent, and this is not a desirable situation for controlling the quality of the impedance spectra available from a standard ventilator wave. PMID:8125874

  1. Mechanical Ventilation Weaning in Inclusion Body Myositis: Feasibility of Isokinetic Inspiratory Muscle Training as an Adjunct Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Campos, Josu Felipe; Daher, Leandro Possidente; Ventura, Alex; do Prado, Pollyana Zamborlini; Brasil, Daniele; Mendona, Debora; Lugon, Jocemir Ronaldo

    2014-01-01

    Inclusion body myositis is a rare myopathy associated with a high rate of respiratory complications. This condition usually requires prolonged mechanical ventilation and prolonged intensive care stay. The unsuccessful weaning is mainly related to respiratory muscle weakness that does not promptly respond to immunosuppressive therapy. We are reporting a case of a patient in whom the use of an inspiratory muscle-training program which started after a two-week period of mechanical ventilation was associated with a successful weaning in one week and hospital discharge after 2 subsequent weeks. PMID:25147743

  2. Optimal Delivery of Aerosols to Infants During Mechanical Ventilation

    PubMed Central

    Azimi, Mandana; Hindle, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Purpose: The objective of this study was to determine optimal aerosol delivery conditions for a full-term (3.6?kg) infant receiving invasive mechanical ventilation by evaluating the effects of aerosol particle size, a new wye connector, and timing of aerosol delivery. Methods: In vitro experiments used a vibrating mesh nebulizer and evaluated drug deposition fraction and emitted dose through ventilation circuits containing either a commercial (CM) or new streamlined (SL) wye connector and 3-mm endotracheal tube (ETT) for aerosols with mass median aerodynamic diameters of 880?nm, 1.78??m, and 4.9??m. The aerosol was released into the circuit either over the full inhalation cycle (T1 delivery) or over the first half of inhalation (T2 delivery). Validated computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations and whole-lung model predictions were used to assess lung deposition and exhaled dose during cyclic ventilation. Results: In vitro experiments at a steady-state tracheal flow rate of 5?L/min resulted in 8090% transmission of the 880-nm and 1.78-?m aerosols from the ETT. Based on CFD simulations with cyclic ventilation, the SL wye design reduced depositional losses in the wye by a factor of approximately 24 and improved lung delivery efficiencies by a factor of approximately 2 compared with the CM device. Delivery of the aerosol over the first half of the inspiratory cycle (T2) reduced exhaled dose from the ventilation circuit by a factor of 4 compared with T1 delivery. Optimal lung deposition was achieved with the SL wye connector and T2 delivery, resulting in 45% and 60% lung deposition for optimal polydisperse (?1.78??m) and monodisperse (?2.5??m) particle sizes, respectively. Conclusions: Optimization of selected factors and use of a new SL wye connector can substantially increase the lung delivery efficiency of medical aerosols to infants from current values of <110% to a range of 4560%. PMID:24299500

  3. Clinical presentations as predictors of prolonged mechanical ventilation in Guillain-Barr syndrome in an institution with limited medical resources

    PubMed Central

    Toamad, Umarudee; Kongkamol, Chanon; Setthawatcharawanich, Suwanna; Limapichat, Kitti; Phabphal, Kanitpong; Sathirapanya, Pornchai

    2015-01-01

    INTRODUCTION Severe Guillain-Barr syndrome (GBS) causes ventilatory insufficiency and the need for prolonged artificial ventilation. Under circumstances where medical care for patients with severe GBS is required in a resource-limited institution, identifying initial clinical presentations in GBS patients that can predict respiratory insufficiency and the need for prolonged mechanical ventilation (> 15 days) may be helpful for advanced care planning. METHODS The medical records of patients diagnosed with GBS in a tertiary care and medical teaching hospital from January 2001 to December 2010 were retrospectively reviewed. The demographic data and clinical presentations of the patients were summarised using descriptive statistics. Clinical predictors of respiratory insufficiency and the need for prolonged mechanical ventilation (> 15 days) were identified using univariate logistic regression analysis. RESULTS A total of 55 patients with GBS were included in this study. Mechanical ventilation was needed in 28 (50.9%) patients. Significant clinical predictors for respiratory insufficiency were bulbar muscle weakness (odds ratio [OR] 5.08, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.3121.60, p = 0.007) and time to peak limb weakness ? 5 days (OR 0.75, 95% CI 0.620.91, p < 0.001). Bulbar muscle weakness (p = 0.006) and time to peak limb weakness ? 5 days (p < 0.001) were also found to be significantly associated with the need for prolonged mechanical ventilation (> 15 days). CONCLUSION Bulbar weakness and time to peak limb weakness ? 5 days were able to predict respiratory insufficiency and the need for prolonged mechanical ventilation in patients with GBS. PMID:26512148

  4. Effects of Acute Administration of Corticosteroids during Mechanical Ventilation on Rat Diaphragm

    PubMed Central

    Maes, Karen; Testelmans, Dries; Cadot, Pascal; DeRuisseau, Keith; Powers, Scott K.; Decramer, Marc; Gayan-Ramirez, Ghislaine

    2008-01-01

    Rationale: Mechanical ventilation is known to induce ventilator-induced diaphragm dysfunction. Patients submitted to mechanical ventilation often receive massive doses of corticosteroids that may cause further deterioration of diaphragm function. Objectives: To examine whether the combination of 24 hours of controlled mechanical ventilation with corticosteroid administration would exacerbate ventilator-induced diaphragm dysfunction. Methods: Rats were randomly assigned to a group submitted to 24 hours of controlled mechanical ventilation receiving an intramuscular injection of saline or 80 mg/kg methylprednisolone, a group submitted to 24 hours of spontaneous breathing receiving saline, or methylprednisolone and a control group. Measurements and Main Results: The diaphragm forcefrequency curve was shifted downward in the mechanical ventilation group, but this deleterious effect was prevented when corticosteroids were administered. Diaphragm cross-sectional area of type I fibers was similarly decreased in both mechanical ventilation groups while atrophy of type IIx/b fibers was attenuated after corticosteroid administration. The mechanical ventilation-induced reduction in diaphragm MyoD and myogenin protein expression was attenuated after corticosteroids. Plasma cytokine levels were unchanged while diaphragm lipid hydroperoxides were similarly increased in both mechanical ventilation groups. Diaphragmatic calpain activity was significantly increased in the mechanical ventilation group, but calpain activation was abated with corticosteroid administration. Inverse correlations were found between calpain activity and diaphragm force. Conclusions: A single high dose of methylprednisolone combined with controlled mechanical ventilation protected diaphragm function from the deleterious effects of controlled mechanical ventilation. Inhibition of the calpain system is most likely the mechanism by which corticosteroids induce this protective effect. PMID:18849500

  5. Impact of tongue biofilm removal on mechanically ventilated patients

    PubMed Central

    Santos, Paulo Sérgio da Silva; Mariano, Marcelo; Kallas, Monira Samaan; Vilela, Maria Carolina Nunes

    2013-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the effectiveness of a tongue cleaner in the removal of tongue biofilm in mechanically ventilated patients. Methods Tongue biofilm and tracheal secretion samples were collected from a total of 50 patients: 27 in the study group (SG) who were intubated or tracheostomized under assisted ventilation and treated with the tongue cleaner and 23 in the control group (CG) who did not undergo tongue cleaning. Oral and tracheal secretion cultures of the SG (initially and after 5 days) and the CG (at a single time-point) were performed to evaluate the changes in bacterial flora. Results The median age of the SG patients was 77 years (45-99 years), and that of the CG patients was 79 years (21-94 years). The length of hospital stay ranged from 17-1,370 days for the SG with a median stay of 425 days and from 4-240 days for the CG with a median stay of 120 days. No significant differences were found when the dental plaque indexes were compared between the SG and the CG. There was no correlation between the index and the length of hospital stay. The same bacterial flora was found in the dental plaque of 9 of the 27 SG patients before and after the tongue scraper was used for 5 days compared with the CG (p=0.683). Overall, 7 of the 27 SG patients had positive bacterial cultures for the same strains in both tongue biofilm and tracheal secretions compared with the CG (p=0.003). Significant similarities in strain resistance and susceptibility of the assessed microorganisms were observed between oral and tracheal microflora in 6/23 cases in the CG (p=0.006). Conclusion The use of a tongue cleaner is effective at reducing tongue biofilm in patients on mechanical ventilation and facilitates oral hygiene interventions performed by caregivers. Clinical Trials Registry NCT01294943 PMID:23887759

  6. Acute left ventricular dysfunction during unsuccessful weaning from mechanical ventilation.

    PubMed

    Lemaire, F; Teboul, J L; Cinotti, L; Giotto, G; Abrouk, F; Steg, G; Macquin-Mavier, I; Zapol, W M

    1988-08-01

    The authors studied the hemodynamic effects of rapidly weaning from mechanical ventilation (MV) 15 patients with severe chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and cardiovascular disease who were recovering from acute cardiopulmonary decompensation. In each patient, 10 min of spontaneous ventilation (SV) with supplemental oxygen resulted in reducing the mean esophageal pressure (X +/- SD, + 5 +/- 3 to -2 +/- 2.5 mmHg, P less than .01) and increasing cardiac index (CI) 3.2 +/- 0.9 to 4.3 +/- 1.3 1/min/M2, P less than .001), systemic blood pressure (BP 77 +/- 12 to 90 +/- 11 mmHg, P less than .001), heart rate (HR 97 +/- 12 to 112 +/- 16 beats/min, P less than .001), and, most importantly, transmural pulmonary artery occlusion pressure markedly increased (PAOPtm 8 +/- 5 to 25 +/- 13 mmHg, P less than .001), mandating a reinstitution of MV. In four patients with left ventricular (LV) catheters, the PAOP correlated with the LV end-diastolic pressure during both MV and SV. Gated blood pool imaging showed SV increased the LV end-diastolic volume index (65 +/- 24 to 83 +/- 32/M2, P less than .002) with LV ejection fraction unchanged. Patients were treated for a mean of 10 days with diuretics, resulting in a reduction of blood volume (4.55 +/- 0.9 1 to 3.56 +/- 0.55 1) and body weight (-5 kg, P less than .001). Subsequently, nine of the 15 patients were weaned successfully from mechanical ventilation with unchanged PAOP. PMID:3044189

  7. Influence of different degrees of head elevation on respiratory mechanics in mechanically ventilated patients

    PubMed Central

    Martinez, Bruno Prata; Marques, Thaís Improta; Santos, Daniel Reis; Salgado, Vanessa Silva; Nepomuceno Júnior, Balbino Rivail; Alves, Giovani Assunção de Azevedo; Gomes Neto, Mansueto; Forgiarini Junior, Luiz Alberto

    2015-01-01

    Objective The positioning of a patient in bed may directly affect their respiratory mechanics. The objective of this study was to evaluate the respiratory mechanics of mechanically ventilated patients positioned with different head angles hospitalized in an intensive care unit. Methods This was a prospective physiological study in which static and dynamic compliance, resistive airway pressure, and peripheral oxygen saturation were measured with the head at four different positions (0° = P1, 30° = P2, 45° = P3, and 60° = P4). Repeated-measures analysis of variance (ANOVA) with a Bonferroni post-test and Friedman analysis were used to compare the values obtained at the different positions. Results A comparison of the 35 evaluated patients revealed that the resistive airway pressure values in the 0° position were higher than those obtained when patients were positioned at greater angles. The elastic pressure analysis revealed that the 60° position produced the highest value relative to the other positions. Regarding static compliance, a reduction in values was observed from the 0° position to the 60° position. The dynamic compliance analysis revealed that the 30° angle produced the greatest value compared to the other positions. The peripheral oxygen saturation showed little variation, with the highest value obtained at the 0° position. Conclusion The highest dynamic compliance value was observed at the 30° position, and the highest oxygenation value was observed at the 0° position. PMID:26761472

  8. Closure mechanisms of ventilated supercavities under steady and unsteady flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karn, Ashish; De, Rohan; Hong, Jiarong; Arndt, Roger E. A.

    2015-12-01

    The present work reports some interesting experimental results for ventilated supercavitation in steady and unsteady flows. First, a variety of closure modes obtained as a result of systematic variation in Froude number and air entrainment, are reported. The closure mechanisms were found to differ from the standard criterion reported in the literature. Further, the occurrence of a variety of stable and unstable closure mechanisms were discovered that have not been reported in the literature. Next, a hypothesis is presented to explain the cause behind these different closure mechanisms. The proposed hypothesis is then validated by synchronized high-speed imaging and pressure measurements inside and outside of the supercavity. These measurements show that the supercavity closure is a function of instantaneous cavitation number under unsteady flow conditions. (Research sponsored by Office of Naval Research, USA)

  9. Mechanical ventilation, diaphragm weakness and weaning: A rehabilitation perspective

    PubMed Central

    Martin, A Daniel; Smith, Barbara; Gabrielli, Andrea

    2013-01-01

    Most patients are easily liberated from mechanical ventilation (MV) following resolution of respiratory failure and a successful trial of spontaneous breathing, but about 25% of patients experience difficult weaning. MV use leads to cellular changes and weakness, which has been linked to weaning difficulties and has been labeled ventilator induced diaphragm dysfunction (VIDD). Aggravating factors in human studies with prolonged weaning include malnutrition, chronic electrolyte abnormalities, hyperglycemia, excessive resistive and elastic loads, corticosteroids, muscle relaxant exposure, sepsis and compromised cardiac function. Numerous animal studies have investigated the effects of MV on diaphragm function. Virtually all of these studies have concluded that MV use rapidly leads to VIDD and have identified cellular and molecular mechanisms of VIDD. Molecular and functional studies on the effects of MV on the human diaphragm have largely confirmed the animal results and identified potential treatment strategies. Only recently have potential VIDD treatments been tested in humans, including pharmacologic interventions and diaphragm training. A limited number of human studies have found that specific diaphragm training can increase respiratory muscle strength in FTW patients and facilitate weaning, but larger, multicenter trials are needed. PMID:23692928

  10. Respirator triggering of electron-beam computed tomography (EBCT): differences in dynamic changes between augmented ventilation and controlled mechanical ventilation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Recheis, Wolfgang A.; Kleinsasser, Axel; Schuster, Antonius H.; Loeckinger, Alexander; Frede, Thomas; Springer, Peter; Hoermann, Christoph; zur Nedden, Dieter

    2000-04-01

    The purpose was to evaluate differences in dynamic changes of the lung aeration (air-tissue ratio) between augmented modes of ventilation (AMV) and controlled mechanical ventilation (CMV) in normal subjects. 4 volunteers, ventilated with the different respirator protocols via face mask, were scanned using the EBCT in the 50 ms mode. A software analyzed the respirator's digitized pressure and volume signals of two subsequent ventilation phases. Using these values it was possible to calculate the onset of inspiration or expiration of the next respiratory phase. The calculated starting point was then used to trigger the EBCT. The dynamic changes of air- tissue ratios were evaluated in three separate regions: a ventral, an intermediate and a dorsal area. AMV results in increase of air-tissue ratio in the dorsal lung area due to the active contraction of the diaphragm, whereas CMV results in a more pronounced increase in air-tissue ratio of the ventral lung area. This study gives further insight into the dynamic changes of the lung's biomechanics by comparing augmented ventilation and controlled mechanical ventilation in the healthy proband.

  11. Measurement of lung function using Electrical Impedance Tomography (EIT) during mechanical ventilation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nebuya, Satoru; Koike, Tomotaka; Imai, Hiroshi; Noshiro, Makoto; Brown, Brian H.; Soma, Kazui

    2010-04-01

    The consistency of regional lung density measurements as estimated by Electrical Impedance Tomography (EIT), in eleven patients supported by a mechanical ventilator, was validated to verify the feasibility of its use in intensive care medicine. There were significant differences in regional lung densities between the normal lung and diseased lungs associated with pneumonia, atelectasis and pleural effusion (Steel-Dwass test, p < 0.05). Temporal changes in regional lung density of patients with atelectasis were observed to be in good agreement with the results of clinical diagnosis. These results indicate that it is feasible to obtain a quantitative value for regional lung density using EIT.

  12. Update on clinical trials in home mechanical ventilation.

    PubMed

    Hodgson, Luke E; Murphy, Patrick B

    2016-02-01

    Home mechanical ventilation (HMV) is an increasingly common intervention and is initiated for a range of pathological processes, including neuromuscular disease (NMD), chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and obesity related respiratory failure. There have been important recent data published in this area, which helps to guide practice by indicating which populations may benefit from this intervention and the optimum method of setting up and controlling sleep disordered breathing. Recent superficially conflicting data has been published regarding HMV in COPD, with a trial in post-exacerbation patients suggesting no benefit, but in stable chronic hypercapnic patients suggesting a clear and sustained mortality benefit. The two studies are critiqued and the potential reasons for the differing results are discussed. Early and small trial data is frequently contradicted with larger randomised controlled trials and this has been the case with diaphragm pacing being shown to be potentially harmful in the latest data, confirming the importance of non-invasive ventilation (NIV) in NMD such as motor neurone disease. Advances in ventilator technology have so far appeared quicker than the clinical data to support their use; although small and often unblinded, the current data suggests equivalence to standard modes of NIV, but with potential comfort benefits that may enhance adherence. The indications for NIV have expanded since its inception, with an effort to treat sleep disordered breathing as a result of chronic heart failure (HF). The SERVE-HF trial has recently demonstrated no clear advantage to this technology and furthermore detected a potentially deleterious effect, with a worsening of all cause and cardiovascular mortality in the treated group compared to controls. The review serves to provide the reader with a critical review of recent advances in the field of sleep disordered breathing and HMV. PMID:26904266

  13. Update on clinical trials in home mechanical ventilation

    PubMed Central

    Hodgson, Luke E.

    2016-01-01

    Home mechanical ventilation (HMV) is an increasingly common intervention and is initiated for a range of pathological processes, including neuromuscular disease (NMD), chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and obesity related respiratory failure. There have been important recent data published in this area, which helps to guide practice by indicating which populations may benefit from this intervention and the optimum method of setting up and controlling sleep disordered breathing. Recent superficially conflicting data has been published regarding HMV in COPD, with a trial in post-exacerbation patients suggesting no benefit, but in stable chronic hypercapnic patients suggesting a clear and sustained mortality benefit. The two studies are critiqued and the potential reasons for the differing results are discussed. Early and small trial data is frequently contradicted with larger randomised controlled trials and this has been the case with diaphragm pacing being shown to be potentially harmful in the latest data, confirming the importance of non-invasive ventilation (NIV) in NMD such as motor neurone disease. Advances in ventilator technology have so far appeared quicker than the clinical data to support their use; although small and often unblinded, the current data suggests equivalence to standard modes of NIV, but with potential comfort benefits that may enhance adherence. The indications for NIV have expanded since its inception, with an effort to treat sleep disordered breathing as a result of chronic heart failure (HF). The SERVE-HF trial has recently demonstrated no clear advantage to this technology and furthermore detected a potentially deleterious effect, with a worsening of all cause and cardiovascular mortality in the treated group compared to controls. The review serves to provide the reader with a critical review of recent advances in the field of sleep disordered breathing and HMV. PMID:26904266

  14. [Pneumomediastinum: an aspect of pulmonary barotrauma during mechanical ventilation of acute respiratory distress syndrome].

    PubMed

    Aissaoui, Y; En-Nafaa, I; Chkoura, K; Boughalem, M; Kamili, N Drissi

    2014-06-01

    Mechanical ventilation is a fundamental treatment of acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). Despite compliance with the recommendations of protective mechanical ventilation, it can results in serious complications including the pulmonary barotrauma. This is often manifested by a pneumothorax. This observation describes an unusual aspect of barotrauma which is pneumomediastinum. The authors also point out the role of chest imaging in the management of mechanical ventilation during ARDS. PMID:24646783

  15. Pathophysiological Basis of Acute Respiratory Failure on Non-Invasive Mechanical Ventilation.

    PubMed

    Romero-Dapueto, C; Budini, H; Cerpa, F; Caceres, D; Hidalgo, V; Gutirrez, T; Keymer, J; Prez, R; Molina, J; Giugliano-Jaramillo, C

    2015-01-01

    Noninvasive mechanical ventilation (NIMV) was created for patients who needed noninvasive ventilator support, this procedure decreases the complications associated with the use of endotracheal intubation (ETT). The application of NIMV has acquired major relevance in the last few years in the management of acute respiratory failure (ARF), in patients with hypoxemic and hypercapnic failure. The main advantage of NIMV as compared to invasive mechanical ventilation (IMV) is that it can be used earlier outside intensive care units (ICUs). The evidence strongly supports its use in patients with COPD exacerbation, support in weaning process in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) patients, patients with acute cardiogenic pulmonary edema (ACPE), and Immunosuppressed patients. On the other hand, there is poor evidence that supports the use of NIMV in other pathologies such as pneumonia, acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), and during procedures as bronchoscopy, where its use is still controversial because the results of these studies are inconclusive against the decrease in the rate of intubation or mortality. PMID:26312101

  16. Pathophysiological Basis of Acute Respiratory Failure on Non-Invasive Mechanical Ventilation

    PubMed Central

    Romero-Dapueto, C; Budini, H; Cerpa, F; Caceres, D; Hidalgo, V; Gutiérrez, T; Keymer, J; Pérez, R; Molina, J; Giugliano-Jaramillo, C

    2015-01-01

    Noninvasive mechanical ventilation (NIMV) was created for patients who needed noninvasive ventilator support, this procedure decreases the complications associated with the use of endotracheal intubation (ETT). The application of NIMV has acquired major relevance in the last few years in the management of acute respiratory failure (ARF), in patients with hypoxemic and hypercapnic failure. The main advantage of NIMV as compared to invasive mechanical ventilation (IMV) is that it can be used earlier outside intensive care units (ICUs). The evidence strongly supports its use in patients with COPD exacerbation, support in weaning process in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) patients, patients with acute cardiogenic pulmonary edema (ACPE), and Immunosuppressed patients. On the other hand, there is poor evidence that supports the use of NIMV in other pathologies such as pneumonia, acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), and during procedures as bronchoscopy, where its use is still controversial because the results of these studies are inconclusive against the decrease in the rate of intubation or mortality. PMID:26312101

  17. Comparison between a clinical diagnosis method and the surveillance technique of the Center for Disease Control and Prevention for identification of mechanical ventilator-associated pneumonia

    PubMed Central

    Waltrick, Renata; Possamai, Dimitri Sauter; de Aguiar, Fernanda Perito; Dadam, Micheli; de Souza, Valmir Joo; Ramos, Lucas Rocker; Laurett, Renata da Silva; Fujiwara, Knia; Caldeira, Milton; Koenig, lvaro; Westphal, Glauco Adrieno

    2015-01-01

    Objective >To evaluate the agreement between a new epidemiological surveillance method of the Center for Disease Control and Prevention and the clinical pulmonary infection score for mechanical ventilator-associated pneumonia detection. Methods This was a prospective cohort study that evaluated patients in the intensive care units of two hospitals who were intubated for more than 48 hours between August 2013 and June 2014. Patients were evaluated daily by physical therapist using the clinical pulmonary infection score. A nurse independently applied the new surveillance method proposed by the Center for Disease Control and Prevention. The diagnostic agreement between the methods was evaluated. A clinical pulmonary infection score of ? 7 indicated a clinical diagnosis of mechanical ventilator-associated pneumonia, and the association of a clinical pulmonary infection score ? 7 with an isolated semiquantitative culture consisting of ? 104 colony-forming units indicated a definitive diagnosis. Results Of the 801 patients admitted to the intensive care units, 198 required mechanical ventilation. Of these, 168 were intubated for more than 48 hours. A total of 18 (10.7%) cases of mechanical ventilation-associated infectious conditions were identified, 14 (8.3%) of which exhibited possible or probable mechanical ventilatorassociated pneumonia, which represented 35% (14/38) of mechanical ventilator-associated pneumonia cases. The Center for Disease Control and Prevention method identified cases of mechanical ventilator-associated pneumonia with a sensitivity of 0.37, specificity of 1.0, positive predictive value of 1.0, and negative predictive value of 0.84. The differences resulted in discrepancies in the mechanical ventilator-associated pneumonia incidence density (CDC, 5.2/1000 days of mechanical ventilation; clinical pulmonary infection score ? 7, 13.1/1000 days of mechanical ventilation). Conclusion The Center for Disease Control and Prevention method failed to detect mechanical ventilatorassociated pneumonia cases and may not be satisfactory as a surveillance method. PMID:26465248

  18. Indoor Environmental Quality in Mechanically Ventilated, Energy-Efficient Buildings vs. Conventional Buildings

    PubMed Central

    Wallner, Peter; Munoz, Ute; Tappler, Peter; Wanka, Anna; Kundi, Michael; Shelton, Janie F.; Hutter, Hans-Peter

    2015-01-01

    Energy-efficient buildings need mechanical ventilation. However, there are concerns that inadequate mechanical ventilation may lead to impaired indoor air quality. Using a semi-experimental field study, we investigated if exposure of occupants of two types of buildings (mechanical vs. natural ventilation) differs with regard to indoor air pollutants and climate factors. We investigated living and bedrooms in 123 buildings (62 highly energy-efficient and 61 conventional buildings) built in the years 2010 to 2012 in Austria (mainly Vienna and Lower Austria). Measurements of indoor parameters (climate, chemical pollutants and biological contaminants) were conducted twice. In total, more than 3000 measurements were performed. Almost all indoor air quality and room climate parameters showed significantly better results in mechanically ventilated homes compared to those relying on ventilation from open windows and/or doors. This study does not support the hypothesis that occupants in mechanically ventilated low energy houses are exposed to lower indoor air quality. PMID:26561823

  19. Indoor Environmental Quality in Mechanically Ventilated, Energy-Efficient Buildings vs. Conventional Buildings.

    PubMed

    Wallner, Peter; Munoz, Ute; Tappler, Peter; Wanka, Anna; Kundi, Michael; Shelton, Janie F; Hutter, Hans-Peter

    2015-01-01

    Energy-efficient buildings need mechanical ventilation. However, there are concerns that inadequate mechanical ventilation may lead to impaired indoor air quality. Using a semi-experimental field study, we investigated if exposure of occupants of two types of buildings (mechanical vs. natural ventilation) differs with regard to indoor air pollutants and climate factors. We investigated living and bedrooms in 123 buildings (62 highly energy-efficient and 61 conventional buildings) built in the years 2010 to 2012 in Austria (mainly Vienna and Lower Austria). Measurements of indoor parameters (climate, chemical pollutants and biological contaminants) were conducted twice. In total, more than 3000 measurements were performed. Almost all indoor air quality and room climate parameters showed significantly better results in mechanically ventilated homes compared to those relying on ventilation from open windows and/or doors. This study does not support the hypothesis that occupants in mechanically ventilated low energy houses are exposed to lower indoor air quality. PMID:26561823

  20. Superbugs causing ventilator associated pneumonia in a tertiary care hospital and the return of pre-antibiotic era!

    PubMed

    Qureshi, S; Agrawal, C; Madan, M; Pandey, A; Chauhan, H

    2015-01-01

    The rise in super bugs causing Ventilator-Associated Pneumonia (VAP) is a major cause of mortality and morbidity despite recent advances in management owing to the looming 'antibiotic apocalypse'. The aetiology and susceptibility pattern of the VAP isolates varies with patient population, type of intensive care unit (ICU) and is an urgent diagnostic challenge. The present study carried out for a period of one year in a tertiary care hospital, enrolled patients on mechanical ventilation (MV) for ?48 hrs. Endotracheal aspirates (ETA) from suspected VAP patients were processed by semi quantitative method. Staphylococus aureus, members of Enterobacteriaceae were more common in early onset VAP (EOVAP), while Nonfermenting Gram negative bacilli (NFGNB) were significantly associated with late onset VAP (LOVAP). Most of the isolates were multi drug resistant (MDR) super bugs. With limited treatment options left for this crisis situation like the pre-antibiotic era; it is an alarm for rational antibiotic therapy usage and intensive education programs. PMID:25865985

  1. Pneumonia in patients who require prolonged mechanical ventilation.

    PubMed

    Rumbak, Mark J

    2005-02-01

    Nosocomial pneumonia is the most important infectious disease in patients who require prolonged mechanical ventilation. Understanding of the etiology helps to prevent ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP). VAP can develop in four ways: by aspiration, inhalation, hematogenous spread and by contiguous spread. The two most common are aspiration from the oropharyngeal region and inhalation, usually from manipulation of tubing or infected equipment. VAP is prevented by hand-washing, keeping the head of the bed at 45 and, in some cases, by treating the surface bacteria which usually cause VAP. Sputum can be used for the diagnosis of VAP in most of these patients instead of invasive bronchoscopy. However, if the patients are critically ill, then bronchoscopy is used. Treatment in these patients depends on the bacteria. Pseudomonas is treated by two drugs (beta-lactam plus a quinolone or aminoglycoside), Acinetobacteria by ampicillin/sulbactam or carbapenam, extended-spectrum beta-lactam-producing bacteria by carbapenums, and Staphylococcus by vancomycin or linezolid. PMID:15715988

  2. Plasma cell-free DNA in patients needing mechanical ventilation

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Introduction Concentrations of plasma cell-free DNA are increased in various diseases and have shown some prognostic value in many patient groups, including critically ill patients. Pathophysiological processes behind the need for mechanical ventilation and the treatment itself could raise plasma levels of cell-free DNA. We evaluated levels of plasma cell-free DNA and their prognostic value in patients needing mechanical ventilation. Methods We studied prospectively 580 mechanically ventilated critically ill patients. Blood samples were taken at study admission (Day 0) and on Day 2. Plasma cell-free DNA concentrations were measured by real-time quantitative PCR assay for the ?-globin gene and are expressed as genome equivalents (GE)/ml. Results Median (interquartile range, IQR) plasma cell-free DNA concentration was 11,853 GE/ml (5,304 to 24,620 GE/mL) at study admission, and 11,610 GE/mL (6,411 to 21,558 GE/mL) on Day 2. Concentrations at admission were significantly higher in 90-day non-survivors than survivors, 16,936 GE/mL (7,262 to 46,866 GE/mL) versus 10,026 GE/mL (4,870 to 19,820 GE/mL), P < 0.001. In a multivariate logistic regression analysis plasma cell-free DNA concentration over 16,000 GE/ml remained an independent predictor of 90-day mortality (adjusted odds ratio 2.16, 95% confidence interval CI 1.37 to 3.40). Positive likelihood ratio of plasma cell-free DNA at admission for the prediction of 90-day mortality was 1.72 (95% CI 1.40 to 2.11). Conclusions Plasma levels of cell-free DNA were significantly higher in non-survivors than survivors. Plasma DNA level at baseline was an independent predictor of 90-day mortality. However, its clinical benefit as a prognostic marker seems to be limited. PMID:21838858

  3. [Non-invasive mechanical ventilation in the pre- and intraoperative period and difficult airway].

    PubMed

    Esquinas, A M; Jover, J L; beda, A; Belda, F J

    2015-11-01

    Non-invasive mechanical ventilation is a method of ventilatory assistance aimed at increasing alveolar ventilation, thus achieving, in selected subjects, the avoidance of endotracheal intubation and invasive mechanical ventilation, with the consequent improvement in survival. There has been a systematic review and study of the technical, clinical experiences, and recommendations concerning the application of non-invasive mechanical ventilation in the pre- and intraoperative period. The use of prophylactic non-invasive mechanical ventilation before surgery that involves significant alterations in the ventilatory function may decrease the incidence of postoperative respiratory complications. Its intraoperative use will mainly depend on the type of surgery, type of anaesthetic technique, and the clinical status of the patient. Its use allows greater anaesthetic depth without deterioration of oxygenation and ventilation of patients. PMID:25702198

  4. The growing role of noninvasive ventilation in patients requiring prolonged mechanical ventilation.

    PubMed

    Hess, Dean R

    2012-06-01

    For many patients with chronic respiratory failure requiring ventilator support, noninvasive ventilation (NIV) is preferable to invasive support by tracheostomy. Currently available evidence does not support the use of nocturnal NIV in unselected patients with stable COPD. Several European studies have reported benefit for high intensity NIV, in which setting of inspiratory pressure and respiratory rate are selected to achieve normocapnia. There have also been studies reporting benefit for the use of NIV as an adjunct to exercise training. NIV may be useful as an adjunct to airway clearance techniques in patients with cystic fibrosis. Accumulating evidence supports the use of NIV in patients with obesity hypoventilation syndrome. There is considerable observational evidence supporting the use of NIV in patients with chronic respiratory failure related to neuromuscular disease, and one randomized controlled trial reported that the use of NIV was life-prolonging in patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. A variety of interfaces can be used to provide NIV in patients with stable chronic respiratory failure. The mouthpiece is an interface that is unique in this patient population, and has been used with success in patients with neuromuscular disease. Bi-level pressure ventilators are commonly used for NIV, although there are now a new generation of intermediate ventilators that are portable, have a long battery life, and can be used for NIV and invasive applications. Pressure support ventilation, pressure controlled ventilation, and volume controlled ventilation have been used successfully for chronic applications of NIV. New modes have recently become available, but their benefits await evidence to support their widespread use. The success of NIV in a given patient population depends on selection of an appropriate patient, selection of an appropriate interface, selection of an appropriate ventilator and ventilator settings, the skills of the clinician, the motivation of the patient, and the support of the family. PMID:22663966

  5. Outbreak of Bacillus cereus Infections in a Neonatal Intensive Care Unit Traced to Balloons Used in Manual Ventilation

    PubMed Central

    Van Der Zwet, Wil C.; Parlevliet, Gerard A.; Savelkoul, Paul H.; Stoof, Jeroen; Kaiser, Annie M.; Van Furth, A. Marceline; Vandenbroucke-Grauls, Christina M.

    2000-01-01

    In 1998, an outbreak of systemic infections caused by Bacillus cereus occurred in the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit of the University Hospital Vrije Universiteit, Amsterdam, The Netherlands. Three neonates developed sepsis with positive blood cultures. One neonate died, and the other two neonates recovered. An environmental survey, a prospective surveillance study of neonates, and a case control study were performed, in combination with molecular typing, in order to identify potential sources and transmission routes of infection. Genotypic fingerprinting by amplified-fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) showed that the three infections were caused by a single clonal type of B. cereus. The same strain was found in trachea aspirate specimens of 35 other neonates. The case control study showed mechanical ventilation with a Sensormedics ventilation machine to be a risk factor for colonization and/or infection (odds ratio, 9.8; 95% confidence interval, 1.1 to 88.2). Prospective surveillance showed that colonization with B. cereus occurred exclusively in the respiratory tract of mechanically ventilated neonates. The epidemic strain of B. cereus was found on the hands of nursing staff and in balloons used for manual ventilation. Sterilization of these balloons ended the outbreak. We conclude that B. cereus can cause outbreaks of severe opportunistic infection in neonates. Typing by AFLP proved very useful in the identification of the outbreak and in the analysis of strains recovered from the environment to trace the cause of the epidemic. PMID:11060080

  6. Use of capnography for assessment of the adequacy of alveolar ventilation during weaning from mechanical ventilation.

    PubMed

    Morley, T F; Giaimo, J; Maroszan, E; Bermingham, J; Gordon, R; Griesback, R; Zappasodi, S J; Giudice, J C

    1993-08-01

    A prospective study was conducted to determine the reliability of noninvasive end-tidal CO2 (PETCO2) monitoring as a reflection of arterial CO2 tension (PaCO2) during weaning from mechanical ventilation (MV). Simultaneous PaCO2 and PETCO2 determinations were compared during MV and again during a spontaneous breathing trial just before returning the patient to MV. Three groups of patients recovering from acute respiratory failure were evaluated. Group 1 consisted of 16 patients (28 observations) without parenchymal lung disease. Group 2 consisted of 22 patients (31 observations) with alveolar filling diseases. Group 3 was composed of 13 patients (22 observations) with emphysema. Significant Pearson correlation coefficients were demonstrated between PaCO2 and PETCO2 during both MV and spontaneous breathing in all three groups. Significant correlation was also demonstrated between the change in PaCO2 and the change in PETCO2 associated with weaning for each group; however, the degree of correlation varied between groups. Our data suggest that capnography offers a reasonable estimate of PaCO2 and changes in PaCO2 during weaning in patients without parenchymal lung disease. However, PETCO2 is less sensitive to changes in PaCO2 for patients with parenchymal lung disease, particularly patients with emphysema. Interpretation of capnographic data requires a full understanding of its limitations. An approach to capnographic monitoring during weaning is discussed. PMID:8342896

  7. A bench study of intensive-care-unit ventilators: new versus old and turbine-based versus compressed gas-based ventilators

    PubMed Central

    Thille, Arnaud W.; Lyazidi, Aissam; Richard, Jean-Christophe M.; Galia, Fabrice; Brochard, Laurent

    2009-01-01

    Objective To compare 13 commercially available, new-generation, intensive-care-unit (ICU) ventilators regarding trigger function, pressurization capacity during pressure-support ventilation (PSV), accuracy of pressure measurements and expiratory resistance. Design and Setting Bench study at a research laboratory in a university hospital. Material Four turbine-based ventilators and nine conventional servo-valve compressed-gas ventilators were tested using a two-compartment lung model. Results Three levels of effort were simulated. Each ventilator was evaluated at four PSV levels (5, 10, 15, and 20 cm H2O), with and without positive end-expiratory pressure (5 cm H2O, Trigger function was assessed as the time from effort onset to detectable pressurization. Pressurization capacity was evaluated using the airway pressure-time product computed as the net area under the pressure-time curve over the first 0.3 s after inspiratory effort onset. Expiratory resistance was evaluated by measuring trapped volume in controlled ventilation. Significant differences were found across the ventilators, with a range of triggering-delay from 42 ms to 88 ms for all conditions averaged (P<.001). Under difficult conditions, the triggering delay was longer than 100 ms and the pressurization was poor with five ventilators at PSV5 and three at PSV10, suggesting an inability to unload patients effort. On average, turbine-based ventilators performed better than conventional ventilators, which showed no improvement compared to a 2000 bench comparison. Conclusion Technical performances of trigger function, pressurization capacity and expiratory resistance vary considerably across new-generation ICU ventilators. ICU ventilators seem to have reached a technical ceiling in recent years, and some ventilators still perform inadequately. PMID:19352622

  8. Stable Small Animal Mechanical Ventilation for Dynamic Lung Imaging to Support Computational Fluid Dynamics Models

    SciTech Connect

    Jacob, Rick E.; Lamm, W. J.

    2011-11-08

    Pulmonary computational fluid dynamics models require 3D images to be acquired over multiple points in the dynamic breathing cycle, with no breath holds or changes in ventilatory mechanics. With small animals, these requirements result in long imaging times ({approx}90 minutes), over which lung mechanics, such as compliance, can gradually change if not carefully monitored and controlled. These changes, caused by derecruitment of parenchymal tissue, are manifested as an upward drift in peak inspiratory pressure or by changes in the pressure waveform and/or lung volume over the course of the experiment. We demonstrate highly repeatable mechanical ventilation in anesthetized rats over a long duration for pulmonary CT imaging throughout the dynamic breathing cycle. We describe significant updates to a basic commercial ventilator that was acquired for these experiments. Key to achieving consistent results was the implementation of periodic deep breaths, or sighs, of extended duration to maintain lung recruitment. In addition, continuous monitoring of breath-to-breath pressure and volume waveforms and long-term trends in peak inspiratory pressure and flow provide diagnostics of changes in breathing mechanics.

  9. Perceptions of Patients and Families who Received a Music Intervention During Mechanical Ventilation

    PubMed Central

    Chlan, Linda; Staugaitis, Abbey

    2015-01-01

    The intensive care unit (ICU) is a technologically-driven environment where critically ill patients and their families have significant physical and emotional experiences. Mechanically ventilated (MV) patients can experience significant distress from anxiety and pain. Music listening is one integrative intervention that has been shown to reduce anxiety as well as other symptoms that contribute to distress in MV patients. This is a report of MV patient and family experiences from a larger research study whose aim was to evaluate levels of anxiety and sedative exposure with use of a patient-directed music intervention. Understanding perceptions of MV patients and families regarding the effectiveness of music listening will guide improvement of their care. PMID:26301046

  10. The comparison of manual and LabVIEW-based fuzzy control on mechanical ventilation.

    PubMed

    Guler, Hasan; Ata, Fikret

    2014-09-01

    The aim of this article is to develop a knowledge-based therapy for management of rats with respiratory distress. A mechanical ventilator was designed to achieve this aim. The designed ventilator is called an intelligent mechanical ventilator since fuzzy logic was used to control the pneumatic equipment according to the rat's status. LabVIEW software was used to control all equipments in the ventilator prototype and to monitor respiratory variables in the experiment. The designed ventilator can be controlled both manually and by fuzzy logic. Eight female Wistar-Albino rats were used to test the designed ventilator and to show the effectiveness of fuzzy control over manual control on pressure control ventilation mode. The anesthetized rats were first ventilated for 20 min manually. After that time, they were ventilated for 20 min by fuzzy logic. Student's t-test for p?ventilator and developed knowledge-based therapy support artificial respiration of living things successfully. PMID:25205667

  11. Chronic ventilator dependence in elderly patients.

    PubMed

    Kleinhenz, M E; Lewis, C Y

    2000-11-01

    Long-term ventilator dependence is the need for mechanical ventilation for more than 6 h/d for more than 21 days. Long-term ventilator dependence complicates 9% to 20% of the episodes of mechanical ventilation treated in the intensive care units of acute care hospitals; it is associated with an average mortality rate of 40%. Unlike acute respiratory failure, the risk for which does not increase with age, long-term ventilator dependence falls disproportionately to patients aged 70 years or older. During the past 2 decades, a profusion of care sites for patients with long-term ventilator dependence has evolved, largely as the product of the prospective payment system for health services introduced by the Health Care Financing Administration in 1983. The outcome of long-term ventilator dependence in elderly patients across this health care continuum is addressed. PMID:10984753

  12. Anaesthesia ventilators.

    PubMed

    Jain, Rajnish K; Swaminathan, Srinivasan

    2013-09-01

    Anaesthesia ventilators are an integral part of all modern anaesthesia workstations. Automatic ventilators in the operating rooms, which were very simple with few modes of ventilation when introduced, have become very sophisticated with many advanced ventilation modes. Several systems of classification of anaesthesia ventilators exist based upon various parameters. Modern anaesthesia ventilators have either a double circuit, bellow design or a single circuit piston configuration. In the bellows ventilators, ascending bellows design is safer than descending bellows. Piston ventilators have the advantage of delivering accurate tidal volume. They work with electricity as their driving force and do not require a driving gas. To enable improved patient safety, several modifications were done in circle system with the different types of anaesthesia ventilators. Fresh gas decoupling is a modification done in piston ventilators and in descending bellows ventilator to reduce th incidence of ventilator induced volutrauma. In addition to the conventional volume control mode, modern anaesthesia ventilators also provide newer modes of ventilation such as synchronised intermittent mandatory ventilation, pressure-control ventilation and pressure-support ventilation (PSV). PSV mode is particularly useful for patients maintained on spontaneous respiration with laryngeal mask airway. Along with the innumerable benefits provided by these machines, there are various inherent hazards associated with the use of the ventilators in the operating room. To use these workstations safely, it is important for every Anaesthesiologist to have a basic understanding of the mechanics of these ventilators and breathing circuits. PMID:24249886

  13. AT1 receptor blocker losartan protects against mechanical ventilation-induced diaphragmatic dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Kwon, Oh Sung; Smuder, Ashley J; Wiggs, Michael P; Hall, Stephanie E; Sollanek, Kurt J; Morton, Aaron B; Talbert, Erin E; Toklu, Hale Z; Tumer, Nihal; Powers, Scott K

    2015-11-15

    Mechanical ventilation is a life-saving intervention for patients in respiratory failure. Unfortunately, prolonged ventilator support results in diaphragmatic atrophy and contractile dysfunction leading to diaphragm weakness, which is predicted to contribute to problems in weaning patients from the ventilator. While it is established that ventilator-induced oxidative stress is required for the development of ventilator-induced diaphragm weakness, the signaling pathway(s) that trigger oxidant production remain unknown. However, recent evidence reveals that increased plasma levels of angiotensin II (ANG II) result in oxidative stress and atrophy in limb skeletal muscles. Using a well-established animal model of mechanical ventilation, we tested the hypothesis that increased circulating levels of ANG II are required for both ventilator-induced diaphragmatic oxidative stress and diaphragm weakness. Cause and effect was determined by administering an angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor (enalapril) to prevent ventilator-induced increases in plasma ANG II levels, and the ANG II type 1 receptor antagonist (losartan) was provided to prevent the activation of ANG II type 1 receptors. Enalapril prevented the increase in plasma ANG II levels but did not protect against ventilator-induced diaphragmatic oxidative stress or diaphragm weakness. In contrast, losartan attenuated both ventilator-induced oxidative stress and diaphragm weakness. These findings indicate that circulating ANG II is not essential for the development of ventilator-induced diaphragm weakness but that activation of ANG II type 1 receptors appears to be a requirement for ventilator-induced diaphragm weakness. Importantly, these experiments provide the first evidence that the Food and Drug Administration-approved drug losartan may have clinical benefits to protect against ventilator-induced diaphragm weakness in humans. PMID:26359481

  14. Too Much Oxygen: Hyperoxia and Oxygen Management in Mechanically Ventilated Patients.

    PubMed

    Pannu, Sonal R

    2016-02-01

    Hyperoxia, or excess oxygen supplementation, prevails in the intensive care unit (ICU) without a beneficial effect and, in some instances, may cause harm. Recent interest and surge in clinical studies in mechanically ventilated critically ill patients has brought this to the attention of clinicians and researchers. Hyperoxia can cause alveolar injury, pulmonary edema, and subsequent systemic inflammatory response and is known to augment ventilator-associated lung injury. Liberal oxygenation practices are also associated with increased mortality in subsets of critically ill patients with post-cardiac arrest, stroke, and traumatic brain injury. Most clinicians agree that oxygen titration should be done and, with appropriate safeguards, lower oxygenation targets may be acceptable and possibly beneficial in many critically ill patients. However, this problem is often overlooked. The use of periodic reminders and decision support may facilitate implementation of more precise oxygen titration at the bedside of critically ill patients. For implementing practice change, studies involving education and guidance of all health care staff involved in oxygen management are critical. PMID:26820270

  15. Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease and Ventilator-Associated Pneumonia: An Analysis and Literature Review Into the Intensive Care Unit Exacerbation Progression and Acute Pulmonary Management.

    PubMed

    Toney, Brandon Swain; Lynch-Smith, Donna

    2016-01-01

    The occurrence of ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) infections in mechanically ventilated patients has significantly affected how medical providers manage the severe acute pulmonary pathology in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and implement medical interventions to prevent infectious transmission to these patients in the intensive care unit. Severe COPD is present in more than 65 million people worldwide, thereby placing these individuals at an increased risk of intensive care unit admission and VAP contraction. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease is well known as a risk factor for developing VAP and is related to adverse risk factors such as developing multiple drug-resistant bacteria. Evidence shows that COPD immunosuppression continues to be associated with pulmonary infection, but multiple modalities are available to combat and treat acute exacerbations before decompensation begins, thereby preventing prolonged endotracheal mechanical ventilation. PMID:26627066

  16. Liquid ventilation.

    PubMed

    Sarkar, Suman; Paswan, Anil; Prakas, S

    2014-01-01

    Human have lungs to breathe air and they have no gills to breath liquids like fish. When the surface tension at the air-liquid interface of the lung increases as in acute lung injury, scientists started to think about filling the lung with fluid instead of air to reduce the surface tension and facilitate ventilation. Liquid ventilation (LV) is a technique of mechanical ventilation in which the lungs are insufflated with an oxygenated perfluorochemical liquid rather than an oxygen-containing gas mixture. The use of perfluorochemicals, rather than nitrogen as the inert carrier of oxygen and carbon dioxide offers a number of advantages for the treatment of acute lung injury. In addition, there are non-respiratory applications with expanding potential including pulmonary drug delivery and radiographic imaging. It is well-known that respiratory diseases are one of the most common causes of morbidity and mortality in intensive care unit. During the past few years several new modalities of treatment have been introduced. One of them and probably the most fascinating, is of LV. Partial LV, on which much of the existing research has concentrated, requires partial filling of lungs with perfluorocarbons (PFC's) and ventilation with gas tidal volumes using conventional mechanical ventilators. Various physico-chemical properties of PFC's make them the ideal media. It results in a dramatic improvement in lung compliance and oxygenation and decline in mean airway pressure and oxygen requirements. No long-term side-effect reported. PMID:25886321

  17. Shortening the length of stay and mechanical ventilation time by using positive suggestions via MP3 players for ventilated patients

    PubMed Central

    Diószeghy, Csaba; Fritúz, Gábor; Gál, János; Varga, Katalin

    2014-01-01

    Long stay in intensive care unit (ICU) and prolonged ventilation are deleterious for subsequent quality of life and surcharge financial capacity. We have already demonstrated the beneficial effects of using suggestive communication on recovery time during intensive care. The aim of our present study was to prove the same effects with standardized positive suggestive message delivered by an MP3 player. Patients ventilated in ICU were randomized into a control group receiving standard ICU treatment and two groups with a standardized pre-recorded material delivered via headphones: a suggestive message about safety, self-control, and recovery for the study group and a relaxing music for the music group. Groups were similar in terms of age, gender, and mortality, but the SAPS II scores were higher in the study group than that in the controls (57.8 ± 23.6 vs. 30.1 ± 15.5 and 33.7 ± 17.4). Our post-hoc analysis results showed that the length of ICU stay (134.2 ± 73.3 vs. 314.2 ± 178.4 h) and the time spent on ventilator (85.2 ± 34.9 vs. 232.0 ± 165.6 h) were significantly shorter in the study group compared to the unified control. The advantage of the structured positive suggestive message was proven against both music and control groups. PMID:24672669

  18. A regional weaning center for patients requiring mechanical ventilation: an 18-month experience.

    PubMed

    Scalise, P J; Gerardi, D A; Wollschlager, C M; Votto, J J

    1997-07-01

    This report reviews the outcomes of patients on mechanical ventilation admitted to a new regional weaning center. We reviewed the records of 47 patients admitted to the weaning center over an 18-month period. All patients had a tracheostomy, were ventilator dependent, and considered difficult to wean by their referring physician. The mean days of ventilator dependence prior to transfer to our facility was 86 days, with a range of 21 to 332 days. Patients were admitted to a 12-bed weaning unit at our chronic disease and rehabilitation hospital and assessed by a multi-disciplinary team of physicians, nurses, and therapists. Thirty patients were successfully weaned from prolonged mechanical ventilation and subsequently discharged from our unit. These data indicate that the majority of difficult to wean patients admitted to our regional weaning center were successfully liberated from prolonged mechanical ventilation. PMID:9270183

  19. Recombinant Human Deoxyribonuclease Improves Atelectasis in Mechanically Ventilated Children with Cardiac Disease

    PubMed Central

    Prodhan, P; Greenberg, B; Bhutta, AT; Hyde, C; Vankatesan, A; Imamura, M; Jaquiss, RDB; Dyamenahalli, U

    2010-01-01

    Objective To investigate if a mucolytic agent, recombinant human deoxyribonuclease (rhDNase), improves atelectasis in children with cardiac illness requiring mechanical ventilation. Design A retrospective cohort study on consecutive patients receiving short-term (? 14 days) rhDNase therapy for atelectasis in the cardiac intensive care unit from January 2005 through February 2007 was carried out. Data relating to patient characteristics, gas exchange, ventilatory parameters and chest radiographs was collected and analyzed. The effectiveness of rhDNase therapy in the presence of neutrophils and/ or bacteria in the pre-rhDNase therapy tracheal aspirates was also investigated. Results rhDNase was effective in significantly improving established atelectasis without any major changes in gas exchange and ventilatory parameters. Therapeutic effect of rhDNase is most effective in ameliorating atelectasis in the lungs within 10 doses. rhDNase was more effective in improving chest radiographic atelectasis score in patients who had > moderate amounts PMN (p value= 0.0008), or bacteria (p value=0.007) or both (p value =0.004) present in their pre-rhDNase therapy trachea aspirate. No adverse effects were seen with rhDNase administration in the study cohort. Conclusions rhDNase can be safely and effectively used to improve atelectasis in mechanically ventilated children with cardiac disease especially in the presence of bacteria and/ or moderate amounts of PMN in the pre-rhDNase therapy tracheal aspirate. PMID:19489944

  20. Simulation in computer of the mechanical ventilator Servo 900C made by Siemens Elema.

    PubMed

    Santana, M A; Martnez, F J; Fundora, H A

    1995-01-01

    In our country, Intensive Care Units (ICU) for both adults and children include medical equipment of high technology that saves the lives of patients in critical condition. Many of these patients for different pathologies need the use of a mechanical ventilator which keeps the patient's respiration and allows the medical staff to assist them with other means. In practice, there are a lot of different situations that the medical staff have to face and make adequate decisions that will help save the patients' lives. In this case, the mechanical ventilator must be used, requiring a great deal of experience acquired along many years of work. The mechanical ventilator SERVO 900C made by Siemens Elema is available in all ICUs; this equipment is used for the treatment of more critical patients due to his reliability and technical features. Based on this fact, a simulator was designed to help train the less experienced staff in the use of the ventilator and to allow them to face real case simulations, making decisions that will be adequate or wrong with no risk to the patient's life. In this way, they would acquire the necessary knowledge on how to use the equipment in real-life situations. The created system displays the control panel of the ventilator allowing the user to interact. The control panel includes both analogical and digital devices that show different parameters and also the gases mixer which is connected to the equipment. During the work, the user can access a calculator to facilitate the adjustment of some parameters in case any calculation is needed. The system is divided into modules. The module "Exercises" permits you to choose one out of a set and solve it by means of the adjustment of the controls; this answer is analyzed and warning messages are displayed in case a control has been set incorrectly. The aim of these exercises is that the users learn how to handle the equipment by parts and are conceived for a sequence of question-answer. The module "Problems" describes the condition of a given patient which must be treated with the ventilator. The user will then simulate his performance in the adjustment of it. The sequence question-answer will change dynamically according to the evolution previously previewed for the patient by the professor. The simulator has a set of acoustic and visual alarms which are activated during the occurrence of different anomalies. These alarms work according to the professor's will at the moment of planning the lesson. The module "Information" gives the user the possibility of consulting topics about the equipment such as: functions, patient's safety, installation, clinical judgment and location of failures. In the last module "Options" the user defines the files (exercises or problems) he is going to use as well as the directory of work and the initialization file. The system uses pull-down menus, providing a context-sensitive on screen help with information about the function of each control and how to handle it. For the preparation of the files of exercises and problems only Servo editor can be used; this editor works independently from the simulator. The system requires a PC IBM Compatible with 640 kb RAM, MS-DOS operating system, and VGA color display. We consider that with the implementation this system the user can gain experience and knowledge about the use of the ventilator before he faces real situations. PMID:8591557

  1. Respiratory muscle dysfunction: a multicausal entity in the critically ill patient undergoing mechanical ventilation.

    TOXLINE Toxicology Bibliographic Information

    Díaz MC; Ospina-Tascón GA; Salazar C BC

    2014-02-01

    Respiratory muscle dysfunction, particularly of the diaphragm, may play a key role in the pathophysiological mechanisms that lead to difficulty in weaning patients from mechanical ventilation. The limited mobility of critically ill patients, and of the diaphragm in particular when prolonged mechanical ventilation support is required, promotes the early onset of respiratory muscle dysfunction, but this can also be caused or exacerbated by other factors that are common in these patients, such as sepsis, malnutrition, advanced age, duration and type of ventilation, and use of certain medications, such as steroids and neuromuscular blocking agents. In this review we will study in depth this multicausal origin, in which a common mechanism is altered protein metabolism, according to the findings reported in various models. The understanding of this multicausality produced by the same pathophysiological mechanism could facilitate the management and monitoring of patients undergoing mechanical ventilation.

  2. Respiratory muscle dysfunction: a multicausal entity in the critically ill patient undergoing mechanical ventilation.

    PubMed

    Díaz, Magda C; Ospina-Tascón, Gustavo A; Salazar C, Blanca C

    2014-02-01

    Respiratory muscle dysfunction, particularly of the diaphragm, may play a key role in the pathophysiological mechanisms that lead to difficulty in weaning patients from mechanical ventilation. The limited mobility of critically ill patients, and of the diaphragm in particular when prolonged mechanical ventilation support is required, promotes the early onset of respiratory muscle dysfunction, but this can also be caused or exacerbated by other factors that are common in these patients, such as sepsis, malnutrition, advanced age, duration and type of ventilation, and use of certain medications, such as steroids and neuromuscular blocking agents. In this review we will study in depth this multicausal origin, in which a common mechanism is altered protein metabolism, according to the findings reported in various models. The understanding of this multicausality produced by the same pathophysiological mechanism could facilitate the management and monitoring of patients undergoing mechanical ventilation. PMID:23669061

  3. Long Term Non-Invasive Ventilation in Children: Impact on Survival and Transition to Adult Care

    PubMed Central

    Chatwin, Michelle; Tan, Hui-Leng; Bush, Andrew; Rosenthal, Mark; Simonds, Anita Kay

    2015-01-01

    Background The number of children receiving domiciliary ventilatory support has grown over the last few decades driven largely by the introduction and widening applications of non-invasive ventilation. Ventilatory support may be used with the intention of increasing survival, or to facilitate discharge home and/or to palliate symptoms. However, the outcome of this intervention and the number of children transitioning to adult care as a consequence of longer survival is not yet clear. Methods In this retrospective cohort study, we analysed the outcome in children (<17 years) started on home NIV at Royal Brompton Hospital over an 18 year period 1993-2011. The aim was to establish for different diagnostic groups: survival rate, likelihood of early death depending on diagnosis or discontinuation of ventilation, and the proportion transitioning to adult care. Results 496 children were commenced on home non invasive ventilation; follow-up data were available in 449 (91%). Fifty six per cent (n=254) had neuromuscular disease. Ventilation was started at a median age (IQR) 10 (3-15) years. Thirteen percent (n=59) were less than 1 year old. Forty percent (n=181) have transitioned to adult care. Twenty four percent (n=109) of patients have died, and nine percent (n=42) were able to discontinue ventilatory support. Conclusion Long term ventilation is associated with an increase in survival in a range of conditions leading to ventilatory failure in children, resulting in increasing numbers surviving to adulthood. This has significant implications for planning transition and adult care facilities. PMID:25933065

  4. Ventilator-Associated Pneumonia in Patients Admitted to Intensive Care Units, Using Open or Closed Endotracheal Suctioning

    PubMed Central

    Hamishekar, Hadi; Shadvar, Kamran; Taghizadeh, Majid; Golzari, Samad EJ; Mojtahedzadeh, Mojtaba; Soleimanpour, Hassan; Mahmoodpoor, Ata

    2014-01-01

    Background: Critically ill patients under mechanical ventilation require frequent suctioning of airway secretion. Closed suction permits suctioning without disconnection from ventilator; so it might decrease hypoxemia and infection rate. Objectives: This study aimed to evaluate the effect of closed tracheal suction system (CTSS) versus open tracheal suction system (OTSS). Patients and Methods: This is a prospective randomized study, which was carried on 100 patients in surgical Intensive Care Unit requiring mechanical ventilation for more than 48 hours from June 2012 to November 2013. In two groups, suction was performed based on the patients' need as well as physician's or nurses' decision on tracheal secretions. Patients randomly allocated into two groups (50 patients each): CTSS group and OTSS group. Patients were monitored for developing ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) during the study. Throat samples were taken on admission and two times per week from each patient. Tracheal samples were performed during endotracheal intubation, two times per week during mechanical ventilation and during extubation. Results: Drainage of subglottic secretions decreased the incidence of VAP (P < 0.05). Also type of the pharmacologic medicine for stress ulcer prophylaxis has significant effect on VAP incidence. Among the patients in OTSS and CTSS groups, 20% and 12% developed VAP, respectively. Use of CTSS compared with OTSS did not show statistically significant effect on VAP incidence in multivariate analysis; however, OR (odds ratio) tended to identify OTSS as an exposure factor for the development of VAP (OR = 1.92; CI = 0.45-8.30; = 0.38) compared with the CTSS. Higher levels of APACHE II score, sinusitis and tracheostomy put the patients at the risk of VAP. However, using heat and moisture exchanger (HME) instead of humidifier decreased this risk. Conclusions: Based on the results obtained from our study, impact of suctioning is similar between CTSS and OTSS regarding the occurrence of VAP. It seems that physicians must consider many factors such as duration of mechanical ventilation, comorbidities, oxygenation parameters, number of required suctioning, and the cost prior to using each type of tracheal suction system. PMID:25729677

  5. High levels of B-type natriuretic peptide predict weaning failure from mechanical ventilation in adult patients after cardiac surgery

    PubMed Central

    Lara, Thiago Martins; Hajjar, Ludhmila Abrahao; de Almeida, Juliano Pinheiro; Fukushima, Julia Tizue; Barbas, Carmem Silvia Valente; Rodrigues, Adriano Rogerio Baldacin; Nozawa, Emilia; Feltrim, Maria Ignes Zanetti; Almeida, Elisangela; Coimbra, Vera; Osawa, Eduardo; de Moraes Ianotti, Rafael; Leme, Alcino Costa; Jatene, Fabio Biscegli; Auler-Jr., Jose Otavio Costa; Galas, Filomena Regina Barbosa Gomes

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The failure to wean from mechanical ventilation is related to worse outcomes after cardiac surgery. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether the serum level of B-type natriuretic peptide is a predictor of weaning failure from mechanical ventilation after cardiac surgery. METHODS: We conducted a prospective, observational cohort study of 101 patients who underwent on-pump coronary artery bypass grafting. B-type natriuretic peptide was measured postoperatively after intensive care unit admission and at the end of a 60-min spontaneous breathing test. The demographic data, hemodynamic and respiratory parameters, fluid balance, need for vasopressor or inotropic support, and length of the intensive care unit and hospital stays were recorded. Weaning failure was considered as either the inability to sustain spontaneous breathing after 60 min or the need for reintubation within 48 h. RESULTS: Of the 101 patients studied, 12 patients failed the weaning trial. There were no differences between the groups in the baseline or intraoperative characteristics, including left ventricular function, EuroSCORE and lengths of the cardiac procedure and cardiopulmonary bypass. The B-type natriuretic peptide levels were significantly higher at intensive care unit admission and at the end of the breathing test in the patients with weaning failure compared with the patients who were successfully weaned. In a multivariate model, a high B-type natriuretic peptide level at the end of a spontaneous breathing trial was the only independent predictor of weaning failure from mechanical ventilation. CONCLUSIONS: A high B-type natriuretic peptide level is a predictive factor for the failure to wean from mechanical ventilation after cardiac surgery. These findings suggest that optimizing ventricular function should be a goal during the perioperative period. PMID:23420154

  6. Sequential invasive-noninvasive mechanical ventilation weaning strategy for patients after tracheostomy

    PubMed Central

    Pu, Xue-xue; Wang, Jiong; Yan, Xue-bo; Jiang, Xue-qin

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Because the continuity and integrity of the trachea are likely damaged to some extent after tracheostomy, the implementation of sequential ventilation has certain difficulties, and sequential invasive-noninvasive ventilation on patients after tracheostomy is less common in practice. The present study aimed to investigate the feasibility of invasive-noninvasive sequential weaning strategy in patients after tracheostomy. METHODS: Fifty patients including 24 patients with withdrawal of mechanical ventilation (conventional group) and 26 patients with sequential invasive-noninvasive weaning by directly plugging of tracheostomy (sequential group) were analyzed retrospectively after appearance of pulmonary infection control (PIC) window. The analysis of arterial blood gases, ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) incidence, the total duration of mechanical ventilation, the success rate of weaning and total cost of hospitalization were compared between the two groups. RESULTS: Arterial blood gas analysis showed that the sequential weaning group was better than the conventional weaning group 1 and 24 hours after invasive ventilation. The VAP incidence was lowered, the duration of mechanical ventilation shortened, the success rate of weaning increased, and the total cost of hospitalization decreased. CONCLUSION: Sequential invasive-noninvasive ventilator weaning is feasible in patients after tracheostomy. PMID:26401180

  7. [High frequency jet ventilation combined with conventional mechanical ventilation in the treatment of adult respiratory distress syndrome].

    PubMed

    Roustan, J P

    1995-01-01

    Better understanding of the physiopathology of ventilatory mechanisms associated with ARDS and the recent re-evaluation of the iatrogenic potential of mechanical ventilation (MV) brings us closer to the best suited ventilatory mode for these patients. In severely ill ARDS patients, only a small lung volume is ventilated, and remains available for the totality of the gas exchanges (baby lung concept). The goal of MV is to restore and maintain an optimal exchange volume while limiting mechanical agression of the lung tissue. Analysis of the ARDS related pressure-volume relationship (P/V) is helpful in specifying the tolerable limits of the ventilatory pressure regimen. The lower limit (end expiratory pressure) must be kept above the lower inflexion point of the curve, in order to increase the ventilated lung volume and avoid distal airway collapse. Under this limit, gas exchanges are altered by the shunt effect, and shear stress lesions result from the repeated opening and closing of the distal airways. The upper limit (end inspiratory pressure) must be situated below the upper inflexion point of the curve, in order to avoid lesions resulting from surdistension of the alveolocapillary membranes and barotraumatisms. The only way to position MV in such a narrow pressure window, is to greatly reduce the tidal volume (VT). Though CO2 retention would inevitably occur under conventional MV conditions, high frequency ventilation (HFV) seems better adapted to these theoreotical objectives; small VT's are injected under a limited amplitude pressure regimen and a satisfactory CO2 clearance is maintained. This ventilatory mode, existing since more than 15 years, has recently benefited from many technical improvements as well as the concept of oscillating the ventilation around a selected mean pressure in the central region of the P/V curve. In the past, HFV was applied using low pressure regimens, situated below the lower inflexion point of the curve. The resulting failures are, a posteriori, explained by insufficient lung volumes, unable to maintain adequate gas exchanges. Current work is aimed at re-evaluating HFV, using higher mean airway pressure levels. Combined HFV is another advance towards the theoretical goal of restoring and maintaining optimally ventilated lung volumes. Though HFV alone can maintain lung volumes oscillating around a mean value, it cannot re-expand atelectatic areas. The small VT's used are insufficient to overcome these area's elevated opening pressures. Volume recruitment by periodic hyperinflations, or sighs, though generally considered useless in conventional MV, have been shown to be of great benefit in HFV.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS) PMID:7486298

  8. Transpulmonary pressure monitoring during mechanical ventilation: a bench-to-bedside review.

    PubMed

    Mietto, Cristina; Malbrain, Manu L N G; Chiumello, Davide

    2015-01-01

    Different ventilation strategies have been suggested in the past in patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). Airway pressure monitoring alone is inadequate to assure optimal ventilatory support in ARDS patients. The assessment of transpulmonary pressure (PTP) can help clinicians to tailor mechanical ventilation to the individual patient needs. Transpulmonary pressure monitoring, defined as airway pressure (Paw) minus intrathoracic pressure (ITP), provides essential information about chest wall mechanics and its effects on the respiratory system and lung mechanics. The positioning of an esophageal catheter is required to measure the esophageal pressure (Peso), which is clinically used as a surrogate for ITP or pleural pressure (Ppl), and calculates the transpulmonary pressure. The benefits of such a ventilation approach are avoiding excessive lung stress and individualizing the positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) setting. The aim is to prevent over-distention of alveoli and the cyclic recruitment/derecruitment or shear stress of lung parenchyma, mechanisms associated with ventilator-induced lung injury (VILI). Knowledge of the real lung distending pressure, i.e. the transpulmonary pressure, has shown to be useful in both controlled and assisted mechanical ventilation. In the latter ventilator modes, Peso measurement allows one to assess a patient's respiratory effort, patient-ventilator asynchrony, intrinsic PEEP and the calculation of work of breathing. Conditions that have an impact on Peso, such as abdominal hypertension, will also be discussed briefly. PMID:26575165

  9. A randomized trial of chlorhexidine gluconate on oral bacterial pathogens in mechanically ventilated patients

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Introduction Dental plaque biofilms are colonized by respiratory pathogens in mechanically-ventilated intensive care unit patients. Thus, improvements in oral hygiene in these patients may prevent ventilator-associated pneumonia. The goal of this study was to determine the minimum frequency (once or twice a day) for 0.12% chlorhexidine gluconate application necessary to reduce oral colonization by pathogens in 175 intubated patients in a trauma intensive care unit. Methods A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial tested oral topical 0.12% chlorhexidine gluconate or placebo (vehicle alone), applied once or twice a day by staff nurses. Quantitation of colonization of the oral cavity by respiratory pathogens (teeth/denture/buccal mucosa) was measured. Results Subjects were recruited from 1 March, 2004 until 30 November, 2007. While 175 subjects were randomized, microbiologic baseline data was available for 146 subjects, with 115 subjects having full outcome assessment after at least 48 hours. Chlorhexidine reduced the number of Staphylococcus aureus, but not the total number of enterics, Pseudomonas or Acinetobacter in the dental plaque of test subjects. A non-significant reduction in pneumonia rate was noted in groups treated with chlorhexidine compared with the placebo group (OR = 0.54, 95% CI: 0.23 to 1.25, P = 0.15). No evidence for resistance to chlorhexidine was noted, and no adverse events were observed. No differences were noted in microbiologic or clinical outcomes between treatment arms. Conclusions While decontamination of the oral cavity with chlorhexidine did not reduce the total number of potential respiratory pathogens, it did reduce the number of S. aureus in dental plaque of trauma intensive care patients. Trial Registration clinicaltrials.gov NCT00123123. PMID:19765321

  10. Effect of technique and timing of tracheostomy in patients with acute traumatic spinal cord injury undergoing mechanical ventilation

    PubMed Central

    Ganuza, Javier Romero; Forcada, Angel Garcia; Gambarrutta, Claudia; De La Lastra Buigues, Elena Diez; Gonzalez, Victoria Eugenia Merlo; Fuentes, Ftima Paz; Luciani, Alejandro A.

    2011-01-01

    Objective To assess the effect of timing and techniques of tracheostomy on morbidity, mortality, and the burden of resources in patients with acute traumatic spinal cord injuries (SCIs) undergoing mechanical ventilation. Design Review of a prospectively collected database. Setting Intensive and intermediate care units of a monographic hospital for the treatment of SCI. Participants Consecutive patients admitted to the intensive care unit (ICU) during their first inpatient rehabilitation for cervical and thoracic traumatic SCI. A total of 323 patients were included: 297 required mechanical ventilation and 215 underwent tracheostomy. Outcome measures Demographic data, data relevant to the patients neurological injuries (level and grade of spinal cord damage), tracheostomy technique and timing, duration of mechanical ventilation, length of stay at ICU, incidence of pneumonia, incidence of perioperative and early postoperative complications, and mortality. Results Early tracheostomy (<7 days after orotracheal intubation) tracheostomy was performed in 101 patients (47%) and late (?7 days) in 114 (53%). Surgical tracheostomy was employed in 119 cases (55%) and percutaneous tracheostomy in 96 (45%). There were 61 complications in 53 patients related to all tracheostomy procedures. Two were qualified as serious (tracheoesophageal fistula and mediastinal abscess). Other complications were mild. Bleeding was moderate in one case (late, percutaneous tracheostomy). Postoperative infection rate was low. Mortality of all causes was also low. Conclusion Early tracheostomy may have favorable effects in patients with acute traumatic SC. Both techniques, percutaneous and surgical tracheostomy, can be performed safely in the ICU. PMID:21528630

  11. Perioperative risk factors for prolonged mechanical ventilation after liver transplantation due to acute liver failure

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Serin; Jung, Hyun Sik; Choi, Jong Ho; Lee, Jaemin; Hong, Sang Hyun; Lee, Sung Hyun

    2013-01-01

    Background Acute liver failure (ALF) is a rapidly progressing and fatal disease for which liver transplantation (LT) is the only treatment. Posttransplant mechanical ventilation tends to be more prolonged in patients with ALF than in other LT patients. The present study examined the clinical effects of prolonged posttransplant mechanical ventilation (PMV), and identified risk factors for PMV following LT for ALF. Methods We reviewed data of patients undergoing LT for ALF between January 2005 and June 2011. After grouping patients according to administration of PMV (≥ 24 h), donor and recipient perioperative variables were compared between the groups with and without PMV. Potentially significant factors (P < 0.1) from the univariate intergroup comparison were entered into a multivariate logistic regression to establish a predictive model for PMV. Results Twenty-four (25.3%) of 95 patients with ALF who received PMV had a higher mortality rate (29.2% vs 11.3%, P = 0.038) and longer intensive care unit stay (12.9 ± 10.4 vs 7.1 ± 2.7 days, P = 0.012) than patients without PMV. The intergroup comparisons revealed worse preoperative hepatic conditions, more supportive therapy, and more intraoperative fluctuations in vital signs and less urine output in the with- compared with the without-PMV group. The multivariate analysis revealed that preoperative hepatic encephalopathy (≥ grade III), intraoperative blood pressure fluctuation, and oliguria (< 0.5 ml/kg/h) were independent risk factors for PMV. Conclusions PMV was associated with deleterious outcomes. Besides care for known risk factors including hepatic encephalopathy, meticulous attention to managing intraoperative hemodynamic circulatory status is required to avoid PMV and improve the posttransplant prognosis in ALF patients. PMID:24101957

  12. Myocardial perfusion as assessed by thallium-201 scintigraphy during the discontinuation of mechanical ventilation in ventilator-dependent patients

    SciTech Connect

    Hurford, W.E.; Lynch, K.E.; Strauss, H.W.; Lowenstein, E.; Zapol, W.M. )

    1991-06-01

    Patients who cannot be separated from mechanical ventilation (MV) after an episode of acute respiratory failure often have coexisting coronary artery disease. The authors hypothesized that increased left ventricular (LV) wall stress during periods of spontaneous ventilation (SV) could alter myocardial perfusion in these patients. Using thallium-201 (201TI) myocardial scintigraphy, the authors studied the occurrence of myocardial perfusion abnormalities during periods of SV in 15 MV-dependent patients (nine women, six men; aged 71 {plus minus} 7 yr, mean {plus minus} SD). Fourteen of these patients were studied once with 201TI myocardial scintigraphy during intermittent mechanical ventilation (IMV) and again on another day, after at least 10 min of SV through a T-piece. One patient was studied during SV only. Thirteen of 14 of the patients (93%) studied during MV had abnormal patterns of initial myocardial 201TI uptake, but only 1 patient demonstrated redistribution of 201TI on delayed images. The remainder of the abnormalities observed during MV were fixed defects. SV produced significant alterations of myocardial 201TI distribution or transient LV dilation, or both, in 7 of the 15 patients (47%). Four patients demonstrated new regional decreases of LV myocardial thallium concentration with redistribution of the isotope on delayed images. The patient studied only during SV also had myocardial 201TI defects with redistribution. Five patients (3 also having areas of 201TI redistribution) had transient LV dilation during SV.

  13. Mechanical ventilation and sepsis impair protein metabolism in the diaphragm of neonatal pigs

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Mechanical ventilation (MV) impairs diaphragmatic function and diminishes the ability to wean from ventilatory support in adult humans. In normal neonatal pigs, animals that are highly anabolic, endotoxin (LPS) infusion induces sepsis, reduces peripheral skeletal muscle protein synthesis rates, but ...

  14. MEASUREMENT OF AMMONIA EMISSIONS FROM MECHANICALLY VENTILATED POULTRY HOUSES USING MULTIPATH TUNABLE DIODE LASER SPECTROSCOPY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Ammonia emissions from mechanically ventilated poultry operations are an important environmental concern. Open Path Tunable Diode Laser Absorption Spectroscopy has emerged as a robust real-time method for gas phase measurement of ammonia concentrations in agricultural settings. ...

  15. Time course analysis of mechanical ventilation-induced diaphragm contractile muscle dysfunction in the rat

    PubMed Central

    Corpeno, R; Dworkin, B; Cacciani, N; Salah, H; Bergman, H-M; Ravara, B; Vitadello, M; Gorza, L; Gustafson, A-M; Hedström, Y; Petersson, J; Feng, H-Z; Jin, J-P; Iwamoto, H; Yagi, N; Artemenko, K; Bergquist, J; Larsson, L

    2014-01-01

    Controlled mechanical ventilation (CMV) plays a key role in triggering the impaired diaphragm muscle function and the concomitant delayed weaning from the respirator in critically ill intensive care unit (ICU) patients. To date, experimental and clinical studies have primarily focused on early effects on the diaphragm by CMV, or at specific time points. To improve our understanding of the mechanisms underlying the impaired diaphragm muscle function in response to mechanical ventilation, we have performed time-resolved analyses between 6 h and 14 days using an experimental rat ICU model allowing detailed studies of the diaphragm in response to long-term CMV. A rapid and early decline in maximum muscle fibre force and preceding muscle fibre atrophy was observed in the diaphragm in response to CMV, resulting in an 85% reduction in residual diaphragm fibre function after 9–14 days of CMV. A modest loss of contractile proteins was observed and linked to an early activation of the ubiquitin proteasome pathway, myosin:actin ratios were not affected and the transcriptional regulation of myosin isoforms did not show any dramatic changes during the observation period. Furthermore, small angle X-ray diffraction analyses demonstrate that myosin can bind to actin in an ATP-dependent manner even after 9–14 days of exposure to CMV. Thus, quantitative changes in muscle fibre size and contractile proteins are not the dominating factors underlying the dramatic decline in diaphragm muscle function in response to CMV, in contrast to earlier observations in limb muscles. The observed early loss of subsarcolemmal neuronal nitric oxide synthase activity, onset of oxidative stress, intracellular lipid accumulation and post-translational protein modifications strongly argue for significant qualitative changes in contractile proteins causing the severely impaired residual function in diaphragm fibres after long-term mechanical ventilation. For the first time, the present study demonstrates novel changes in the diaphragm structure/function and underlying mechanisms at the gene, protein and cellular levels in response to CMV at a high temporal resolution ranging from 6 h to 14 days. PMID:25015920

  16. Impact of Residential Mechanical Ventilation on Energy Cost and Humidity Control

    SciTech Connect

    Martin, Eric

    2014-01-01

    Optimizing whole house mechanical ventilation as part of the Building Ameerica program's systems engineered approach to constructing housing has been an important subject of the program's research. Ventilation in residential buildings is one component of an effective, comprehensive strategy for creation and maintenance of a comfortable and healthy indoor air environment. The study described in this report is based on building energy modeling with an important focus on the indoor humidity impacts of ventilation. The modeling tools used were EnergyPlus version 7.1 (E+) and EnergyGauge USA (EGUSA). Twelve U.S. cities and five climate zones were represented. A total of 864 simulations (2*2*3*3*12= 864) were run using two building archetypes, two building leakage rates, two building orientations, three ventilation systems, three ventilation rates, and twelve climates.

  17. Impact of Residential Mechanical Ventilation on Energy Cost and Humidity Control

    SciTech Connect

    Martin, E.

    2014-01-01

    The DOE Building America program has been conducting research leading to cost effective high performance homes since the early 1990's. Optimizing whole house mechanical ventilation as part of the program's systems engineered approach to constructing housing has been an important subject of the program's research. Ventilation in residential buildings is one component of an effective, comprehensive strategy for creation and maintenance of a comfortable and healthy indoor air environment. The study described in this white paper is based on building energy modeling with an important focus on the indoor humidity impacts of ventilation. The modeling tools used were EnergyPlus version 7.1 (E+) and EnergyGauge USA (EGUSA). Twelve U.S. cities and five climate zones were represented. A total of 864 simulations (2*2*3*3*12= 864) were run using two building archetypes, two building leakage rates, two building orientations, three ventilation systems, three ventilation rates, and twelve climates.

  18. Optimal ventilation of the anesthetized pediatric patient.

    PubMed

    Feldman, Jeffrey M

    2015-01-01

    Mechanical ventilation of the pediatric patient is challenging because small changes in delivered volume can be a significant fraction of the intended tidal volume. Anesthesia ventilators have traditionally been poorly suited to delivering small tidal volumes accurately, and pressure-controlled ventilation has become used commonly when caring for pediatric patients. Modern anesthesia ventilators are designed to deliver small volumes accurately to the patient's airway by compensating for the compliance of the breathing system and delivering tidal volume independent of fresh gas flow. These technology advances provide the opportunity to implement a lung-protective ventilation strategy in the operating room based upon control of tidal volume. This review will describe the capabilities of the modern anesthesia ventilator and the current understanding of lung-protective ventilation. An optimal approach to mechanical ventilation for the pediatric patient is described, emphasizing the importance of using bedside monitors to optimize the ventilation strategy for the individual patient. PMID:25625261

  19. Assisted Ventilation.

    PubMed

    Dries, David J

    2016-01-01

    Controlled Mechanical Ventilation may be essential in the setting of severe respiratory failure but consequences to the patient including increased use of sedation and neuromuscular blockade may contribute to delirium, atelectasis, and diaphragm dysfunction. Assisted ventilation allows spontaneous breathing activity to restore physiological displacement of the diaphragm and recruit better perfused lung regions. Pressure Support Ventilation is the most frequently used mode of assisted mechanical ventilation. However, this mode continues to provide a monotonous pattern of support for respiration which is normally a dynamic process. Noisy Pressure Support Ventilation where tidal volume is varied randomly by the ventilator may improve ventilation and perfusion matching but the degree of support is still determined by the ventilator. Two more recent modes of ventilation, Proportional Assist Ventilation and Neurally Adjusted Ventilatory Assist (NAVA), allow patient determination of the pattern and depth of ventilation. Proposed advantages of Proportional Assist Ventilation and NAVA include decrease in patient ventilator asynchrony and improved adaptation of ventilator support to changing patient demand. Work of breathing can be normalized with these modes as well. To date, however, a clear pattern of clinical benefit has not been demonstrated. Existing challenges for both of the newer assist modes include monitoring patients with dynamic hyperinflation (auto-positive end expiratory pressure), obstructive lung disease, and air leaks in the ventilator system. NAVA is dependent on consistent transduction of diaphragm activity by an electrode system placed in the esophagus. Longevity of effective support with this technique is unclear. PMID:25501776

  20. Effect of early mobilization on discharge disposition of mechanically ventilated patients

    PubMed Central

    Ota, Hideki; Kawai, Hideki; Sato, Makoto; Ito, Kazuaki; Fujishima, Satoshi; Suzuki, Hiroko

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to clarify the benefits of early mobilization for mechanically ventilated patients for their survival to discharge to home from the hospital. [Subjects and Methods] Medical records were retrospectively analyzed of patients who satisfied the following criteria: age ? 18?years; performance status 02 and independent living at their home before admission; mechanical ventilation for more than 48 h; and survival after mechanical ventilation. Mechanically ventilated patients in the early mobilization (EM) group (n = 48) received mobilization therapy, limb exercise and chest physiotherapy, whereas those in the control group (n = 60) received bed rest alone. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses were performed to identify clinical variables associated with discharge disposition. [Results] Early mobilization was a positive independent factor and the presence of neurological deficits was a negative factor contributing to discharge to home. Among patients surviving mechanical ventilation without neurological deficits, the rate of discharge to home was significantly higher among patients in the EM group that in the control group (76% vs. 40%). [Conclusion] Early mobilization can improve the rate of discharge to home of patients requiring mechanical ventilation because of non-neurological deficits. PMID:25931747

  1. Measured Air Distribution Effectiveness for Residential Mechanical Ventilation Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Sherman, Max; Sherman, Max H.; Walker, Iain S.

    2008-05-01

    The purpose of ventilation is dilute or remove indoor contaminants that an occupant is exposed to. In a multi-zone environment such as a house, there will be different dilution rates and different source strengths in every zone. Most US homes have central HVAC systems, which tend to mix the air thus the indoor conditions between zones. Different types of ventilation systems will provide different amounts of exposure depending on the effectiveness of their air distribution systems and the location of sources and occupants. This paper will report on field measurements using a unique multi-tracer measurement system that has the capacity to measure not only the flow of outdoor air to each zone, but zone-to-zone transport. The paper will derive seven different metrics for the evaluation of air distribution. Measured data from two homes with different levels of natural infiltration will be used to evaluate these metrics for three different ASHRAE Standard 62.2 compliant ventilation systems. Such information can be used to determine the effectiveness of different systems so that appropriate adjustments can be made in residential ventilation standards such as ASHRAE Standard 62.2.

  2. Infiltration Effects on Residential Pollutant Concentrations for Continuous and Intermittent Mechanical Ventilation Approaches

    SciTech Connect

    Sherman, Max; Logue, Jennifer; Singer, Brett

    2010-06-01

    The prevailing residential ventilation standard in North America, American Society of Heating, Refrigerating and Air-Conditioning Engineers (ASHRAE) Standard 62.2, specifies volumetric airflow requirements as a function of the overall size of the home and the number of bedrooms, assumes a fixed, minimal amount of infiltration, and requires mechanical ventilation to achieve the remainder. The standard allows for infiltration credits and intermittent ventilation patterns that can be shown to provide comparable performance. Whole-house ventilation methods have a substantial effect on time-varying indoor pollutant concentrations. If alternatives specified by Standard 62.2, such as intermittent ventilation, are used, short-term pollutant concentrations could exceed acute health standards even if chronic health standards are met.The authors present a methodology for comparing ASHRAE- and non-ASHRAE-specified ventilation scenarios on relative indoor pollutant concentrations. We use numerical modeling to compare the maximum time-averaged concentrations for acute exposure relevant (1-hour, 8-hour, 24-hour ) and chronic exposure relevant (1-year) time periods for four different ventilation scenarios in six climates with a range of normalized leakage values. The results suggest that long-term concentrations are the most important metric for assessing the effectiveness of whole-house ventilation systems in meeting exposure standards and that, if chronic health exposure standards are met, acute standards will also be met.

  3. Influence of Positive End-Expiratory Pressure on Myocardial Strain Assessed by Speckle Tracking Echocardiography in Mechanically Ventilated Patients

    PubMed Central

    Faltoni, Agnese; Cameli, Matteo; Muzzi, Luigi; Lisi, Matteo; Cubattoli, Lucia; Cecchini, Sofia; Mondillo, Sergio; Biagioli, Bonizella

    2013-01-01

    Purpose. The effects of mechanical ventilation (MV) on speckle tracking echocardiography- (STE-)derived variables are not elucidated. The aim of the study was to evaluate the effects of positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) ventilation on 4-chamber longitudinal strain (LS) analysis by STE. Methods. We studied 20 patients admitted to a mixed intensive care unit who required intubation for MV and PEEP titration due to hypoxia. STE was performed at three times: (T1) PEEP = 5?cmH2O; (T2) PEEP = 10?cmH2O; and (T3) PEEP = 15?cmH2O. STE analysis was performed offline using a dedicated software (XStrain MyLab 70 Xvision, Esaote). Results. Left peak atrial-longitudinal strain (LS) was significantly reduced from T1 to T2 and from T2 to T3 (P < 0.05). Right peak atrial-LS and right ventricular-LS showed a significant reduction only at T3 (P < 0.05). Left ventricular-LS did not change significantly during titration of PEEP. Cardiac chambers' volumes showed a significant reduction at higher levels of PEEP (P < 0.05). Conclusions. We demonstrated for the first time that incremental PEEP affects myocardial strain values obtained with STE in intubated critically ill patients. Whenever performing STE in mechanically ventilated patients, care must be taken when PEEP is higher than 10?cmH2O to avoid misinterpreting data and making erroneous decisions. PMID:24066303

  4. Total Liquid Ventilation Provides Superior Respiratory Support to Conventional Mechanical Ventilation in a Large Animal Model of Severe Respiratory Failure

    PubMed Central

    Pohlmann, Joshua R; Brant, David O; Daul, Morgan A; Reoma, Junewai L; Kim, Anne C; Osterholzer, Kathryn R; Johnson, Kent J; Bartlett, Robert H; Cook, Keith E; Hirschl, Ronald B

    2011-01-01

    Total liquid ventilation (TLV) has the potential to provide respiratory support superior to conventional mechanical ventilation (CMV) in the acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). However, laboratory studies are limited to trials in small animals for no longer than 4 hours. The objective of this study was to compare TLV and CMV in a large animal model of ARDS for 24 hours. Ten sheep weighing 53 4 (SD) kg were anesthetized and ventilated with 100% oxygen. Oleic acid was injected into the pulmonary circulation until PaO2:FiO2 ? 60 mmHg, followed by transition to a protective CMV protocol (n=5) or TLV (n=5) for 24 hours. Pathophysiology was recorded and the lungs were harvested for histological analysis. Animals treated with CMV became progressively hypoxic and hypercarbic despite maximum ventilatory support. Sheep treated with TLV maintained normal blood gases with statistically greater PO2 (p<10?9) and lower PCO2 (p < 10?3) than the CMV group. Survival at 24 hours in the TLV and CMV groups were 100% and 40% respectively (p< 0.05). Thus, TLV provided gas exchange superior to CMV in this laboratory model of severe ARDS. PMID:21084968

  5. Comparison of Chemical and Mechanical Prophylaxis of Venous Thromboembolism in Nonsurgical Mechanically Ventilated Patients

    PubMed Central

    Gaspard, Dany; Vito, Karen; Schorr, Christa; Hunter, Krystal; Gerber, David

    2015-01-01

    Background. Thromboembolic events are major causes of morbidity, and prevention is important. We aimed to compare chemical prophylaxis (CP) and mechanical prophylaxis (MP) as methods of prevention in nonsurgical patients on mechanical ventilation. Methods. We performed a retrospective study of adult patients admitted to the Cooper University Hospital ICU between 2002 and 2010. Patients on one modality of prophylaxis throughout their stay were included. The CP group comprised 329 patients and the MP group 419 patients. The primary outcome was incidence of thromboembolic events. Results. Acuity measured by APACHE II score was comparable between the two groups (p = 0.215). Univariate analysis showed 1 DVT/no PEs in the CP group and 12 DVTs/1 PE in the MP group (p = 0.005). Overall mortality was 34.3% and 50.6%, respectively. ICU LOS was similar. Hospital LOS was shorter in the MP group. Multivariate analysis showed a significantly higher incidence of events in the MP prophylaxis group (odds ratio 9.9). After excluding patients admitted for bleeding in both groups, repeat analysis showed again increased events in the MP group (odds ratio 2.9) but this result did not reach statistical significance. Conclusion. Chemical methods for DVT/PE prophylaxis seem superior to mechanical prophylaxis in nonsurgical patients on mechanical ventilation and should be used when possible. PMID:26682067

  6. Effects of respiratory-therapist driven protocols on house-staff knowledge and education of mechanical ventilation.

    PubMed

    Chia, Jessica Y; Clay, Alison S

    2008-06-01

    High practice variability in critical care medicine contributes to medical errors and the high cost of ICU care. Clinical guidelines and protocol-based strategies can reduce the variation and cost of ICU medicine, increase adherence to evidence-based interventions, and reduce error, thereby improving the morbidity and mortality of critically ill patients. There are various barriers to guideline adherence, and protocols often are more successful when implemented by nonphysicians. However, this has potential consequences for house-staff knowledge and education. This article discusses the implications of mechanical ventilation protocols on patient care and medical education, and this article offers suggestions for synchronizing the processes for improving patient care to improve medical education. PMID:18440439

  7. Usefulness of open lung biopsy in mechanically ventilated patients with undiagnosed diffuse pulmonary infiltrates: influence of comorbidities and organ dysfunction

    PubMed Central

    Lim, Seong Yong; Suh, Gee Young; Choi, Jae Chol; Koh, Won Jung; Lim, Si Young; Han, Joungho; Lee, Kyung Soo; Shim, Young Mog; Chung, Man Pyo; Kim, Hojoong; Kwon, O Jung

    2007-01-01

    Background The purpose of this study was to evaluate the clinical usefulness of open lung biopsy (OLB) in patients undergoing mechanical ventilation for diffuse pulmonary infiltrates of unknown etiology. Methods This was a 10-year retrospective study in a 10-bed medical intensive care unit. The medical records of 36 ventilator-dependent patients who underwent OLB for the diagnosis of unknown pulmonary infiltrates from 1994 to 2004 were reviewed retrospectively. Data analyzed included demographic data, Charlson agecomorbidity score, number of organ dysfunctions, Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation (APACHE) II, Simplified Acute Physiology Score (SAPS) II, Sequential Organ Failure Assessment (SOFA) score, ventilation variables, and radiological patterns. Diagnostic yield, effect on subsequent treatment changes, and complications of OLB were also assessed. Results A specific clinico-pathologic diagnosis was obtained for 31 patients (86%). The most common diagnoses were interstitial pneumonia (n = 17, including 8 acute interstitial pneumonia) and viral pneumonia (n = 4). Therapeutic modifications were made in 64% of patients. Patients who received OLB less than 1 week after initiation of mechanical ventilation were more likely to survive (63% versus 11%; P = 0.018). There were no major complications associated with the procedure. Factors independently associated with survival were the Charlson age-comorbidity score, number of organ dysfunction and the PaO2/FiO2 ratio on the day of the OLB. Conclusion OLB can provide a specific diagnosis in many ventilator-dependent patients with undiagnosed pulmonary infiltrate. Early OLB seems to be useful in critically ill patients with isolated respiratory failure. PMID:17725820

  8. Early sedation and clinical outcomes of mechanically ventilated patients: a prospective multicenter cohort study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Sedation overuse is frequent and possibly associated with poor outcomes in the intensive care unit (ICU) patients. However, the association of early oversedation with clinical outcomes has not been thoroughly evaluated. The aim of this study was to assess the association of early sedation strategies with outcomes of critically ill adult patients under mechanical ventilation (MV). Methods A secondary analysis of a multicenter prospective cohort conducted in 45 Brazilian ICUs, including adult patients requiring ventilatory support and sedation in the first 48hours of ICU admissions, was performed. Sedation depth was evaluated after 48hours of MV. Multivariate analysis was used to identify variables associated with hospital mortality. Results A total of 322 patients were evaluated. Overall, ICU and hospital mortality rates were 30.4% and 38.8%, respectively. Deep sedation was observed in 113 patients (35.1%). Longer duration of ventilatory support was observed (7 (4 to 10) versus 5 (3 to 9) days, P?=?0.041) and more tracheostomies were performed in the deep sedation group (38.9% versus 22%, P?=?0.001) despite similar PaO2/FiO2 ratios and acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) severity. In a multivariate analysis, age (Odds Ratio (OR) 1.02; 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.00 to 1.03), Charlson Comorbidity Index >2 (OR 2.06; 95% CI, 1.44 to 2.94), Simplified Acute Physiology Score 3 (SAPS 3) score (OR 1.02; CI 95%, 1.00 to 1.04), severe ARDS (OR 1.44; CI 95%, 1.09 to 1.91) and deep sedation (OR 2.36; CI 95%, 1.31 to 4.25) were independently associated with increased hospital mortality. Conclusions Early deep sedation is associated with adverse outcomes and constitutes an independent predictor of hospital mortality in mechanically ventilated patients. PMID:25047960

  9. Development and Validation of a Mortality Prediction Model for Patients Receiving 14 Days of Mechanical Ventilation

    PubMed Central

    Hough, Catherine L.; Caldwell, Ellen S.; Cox, Christopher E; Douglas, Ivor S.; Kahn, Jeremy M.; White, Douglas. B.; Seeley, Eric J.; Bangdiwala, Shrikant. I.; Rubenfeld, Gordon D.; Angus, Derek C.; Carson, Shannon S.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives The existing risk prediction model for patients requiring prolonged mechanical ventilation is not applicable until after 21 days of mechanical ventilation. We sought to develop and validate a mortality prediction model for patients earlier in the ICU course using data from day 14 of mechanical ventilation. Study Design Multi-center retrospective cohort study. Patients Adult patients receiving at least 14 days of mechanical ventilation at 5 medical centers (development cohort) or enrolled in the ARDS Network FACTT trial (validation cohort). Measurements and Main Results Predictor variables were measured on day 14 of mechanical ventilation in the development cohort and included in a logistic regression model with one-year mortality as the outcome. Variables were sequentially eliminated to develop the ProVent 14 model. This model was then generated in the validation cohort. A simplified prognostic scoring rule (ProVent 14 Score) using categorical variables was created in the development cohort and then tested in the validation cohort. Model discrimination was assessed by the area under the receiver-operator characteristic curve (AUC). 491 patients and 245 patients were included in the development and validation cohorts, respectively. The most parsimonious model included age, platelet count, requirement for vasopressors, requirement for hemodialysis, and non-trauma admission. The AUC for the ProVent 14 model using continuous variables was 0.80 (95% CI, 0.76–0.83) in the development cohort and 0.78 (95% CI, 0.72–0.83) in the validation cohort. The ProVent 14 Score categorized age at 50 and 65 years old, and categorized platelet count at 100 × 109/L, and had similar discrimination as the ProVent 14 model in both cohorts. Conclusion Using clinical variables available on day 14 of mechanical ventilation, the ProVent14 model can identify patients receiving prolonged mechanical ventilation with a high risk of mortality within one year. PMID:26247337

  10. The rapid shallow breathing index as a predictor of successful mechanical ventilation weaning: clinical utility when calculated from ventilator data

    PubMed Central

    de Souza, Leonardo Cordeiro; Lugon, Jocemir Ronaldo

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE: The use of the rapid shallow breathing index (RSBI) is recommended in ICUs, where it is used as a predictor of mechanical ventilation (MV) weaning success. The aim of this study was to compare the performance of the RSBI calculated by the traditional method (described in 1991) with that of the RSBI calculated directly from MV parameters. METHODS: This was a prospective observational study involving patients who had been on MV for more than 24 h and were candidates for weaning. The RSBI was obtained by the same examiner using the two different methods (employing a spirometer and the parameters from the ventilator display) at random. In comparing the values obtained with the two methods, we used the Mann-Whitney test, Pearson's linear correlation test, and Bland-Altman plots. The performance of the methods was compared by evaluation of the areas under the ROC curves. RESULTS: Of the 109 selected patients (60 males; mean age, 62 ± 20 years), 65 were successfully weaned, and 36 died. There were statistically significant differences between the two methods for respiratory rate, tidal volume, and RSBI (p < 0.001 for all). However, when the two methods were compared, the concordance and the intra-observer variation coefficient were 0.94 (0.92-0.96) and 11.16%, respectively. The area under the ROC curve was similar for both methods (0.81 ± 0.04 vs. 0.82 ± 0.04; p = 0.935), which is relevant in the context of this study. CONCLUSIONS: The satisfactory performance of the RSBI as a predictor of weaning success, regardless of the method employed, demonstrates the utility of the method using the mechanical ventilator. PMID:26785962

  11. The use of 2% chlorhexidine gel and toothbrushing for oral hygiene of patients receiving mechanical ventilation: effects on ventilator-associated pneumonia

    PubMed Central

    Meinberg, Maria Cristina de Avila; Cheade, Maria de Fátima Meinberg; Miranda, Amanda Lucia Dias; Fachini, Marcela Mascaro; Lobo, Suzana Margareth

    2012-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the effects of oral chlorhexidine hygiene with toothbrushing on the rate of ventilator-associated pneumonia in a mixed population of critically ill patients under prolonged mechanical ventilation. Methods Prospective, randomized, and placebo-controlled pilot study. Patients who were receiving mechanical ventilation, had been admitted less than 24 hours prior, and were anticipated to require mechanical ventilation for more than 72 hours were included in the study. The patients were randomly divided into one of the following groups: chlorhexidine hygiene with toothbrushing or a placebo group (gel with the same color and consistency and toothbrushing). Results The planned interim analysis was conducted using 52 patients, and the study was terminated prematurely. In total, 28 patients were included in the chlorhexidine / toothbrushing group, and 24 patients were included in the placebo group. Ventilator-associated pneumonia occurred in 45.8% of the placebo group and in 64.3% of the chlorhexidine hygiene with toothbrushing group (RR=1.4; 95% CI=0.83-2.34; p=0.29). Conclusion Because the study was terminated due to futility, it was not possible to evaluate the impact of oral hygiene using 2% chlorhexidine and toothbrushing on the incidence of ventilator-associated pneumonia in this heterogeneous population of critical patients receiving long-term mechanical ventilation, and no beneficial effect was observed for this intervention. PMID:23917935

  12. Sildenafil to facilitate weaning from inhaled nitric oxide and mechanical ventilation in a patient with severe secondary pulmonary hypertension and a patent foramen ovale.

    PubMed

    Elias, Shlomo; Sviri, Sigal; Orenbuch-Harroch, Efrat; Fellig, Yakov; Ben-Yehuda, Arie; Fridlender, Zvi G; Gilon, Dan; Bayya, Abed

    2011-10-01

    We describe the case of a woman who presented to the intensive care unit with acute respiratory failure that required mechanical ventilation. She had severe pulmonary hypertension secondary to interstitial lung disease, and her history included sarcoidosis and tuberculosis. She was dependent on inhaled nitric oxide (INO) to maintain safe arterial oxygen saturation and could not be weaned from mechanical ventilation. Echocardiography revealed a patent foramen ovale with substantial right-to-left shunt, which probably contributed to her hypoxemia. Sildenafil enabled weaning from INO and substantially reduced the flow through the patent foramen ovale. She was successfully extubated and discharged home. To our knowledge, this is the first report of weaning from INO and mechanical ventilation in a patient with both severe secondary pulmonary hypertension and a right-to-left shunt through a patent foramen ovale. PMID:21513610

  13. Pulmonary blood flow distribution in sheep: effects of anesthesia, mechanical ventilation, and change in posture

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walther, S. M.; Domino, K. B.; Glenny, R. W.; Hlastala, M. P.

    1997-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Recent studies providing high-resolution images of pulmonary perfusion have questioned the classical zone model of pulmonary perfusion. Hence the present work was undertaken to provide detailed maps of regional pulmonary perfusion to examine the influence of anesthesia, mechanical ventilation, and posture. METHODS: Pulmonary perfusion was analyzed with intravenous fluorescent microspheres (15 microm) in six sheep studied in four conditions: prone and awake, prone with pentobarbital-anesthesia and breathing spontaneously, prone with anesthesia and mechanical ventilation, and supine with anesthesia and mechanical ventilation. Lungs were air dried at total lung capacity and sectioned into approximately 1,100 pieces (about 2 cm3) per animal. The pieces were weighed and assigned spatial coordinates. Fluorescence was read on a spectrophotometer, and signals were corrected for piece weight and normalized to mean flow. Pulmonary blood flow heterogeneity was assessed using the coefficient of variation of flow data. RESULTS: Pentobarbital anesthesia and mechanical ventilation did not influence perfusion heterogeneity, but heterogeneity increased when the animals were in the supine posture (P < 0.01). Gravitational flow gradients were absent in the prone position but present in the supine (P < 0.001 compared with zero). Pulmonary perfusion was distributed with a hilar-to-peripheral gradient in animals breathing spontaneously (P < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: The influence of pentobarbital anesthesia and mechanical ventilation on pulmonary perfusion heterogeneity is small compared with the effect of changes in posture. Analysis of flow gradients indicate that gravity plays a small role in determining pulmonary blood flow distribution.

  14. Assessment of Indoor Air Quality Benefits and Energy Costs of Mechanical Ventilation

    SciTech Connect

    Logue, J.M.; Price, P.N.; Sherman, M.H.; Singer, B.C.

    2011-07-01

    Intake of chemical air pollutants in residences represents an important and substantial health hazard. Sealing homes to reduce air infiltration can save space conditioning energy, but can also increase indoor pollutant concentrations. Mechanical ventilation ensures a minimum amount of outdoor airflow that helps reduce concentrations of indoor emitted pollutants while requiring some energy for fan(s) and thermal conditioning of the added airflow. This work demonstrates a physics based, data driven modeling framework for comparing the costs and benefits of whole-house mechanical ventilation and applied the framework to new California homes. The results indicate that, on a population basis, the health benefits from reduced exposure to indoor pollutants in New California homes are worth the energy costs of adding mechanical ventilation as specified by ASHRAE Standard 62.2.This study determines the health burden for a subset of pollutants in indoor air and the costs and benefits of ASHRAE's mechanical ventilation standard (62.2) for new California homes. Results indicate that, on a population basis, the health benefits of new home mechanical ventilation justify the energy costs.

  15. Strategies for weaning from mechanical ventilation: a state of the art review.

    PubMed

    Rose, Louise

    2015-08-01

    Identification and adoption of strategies to promote timely and successful weaning from mechanical ventilation remain a research and quality improvement priority. The most important steps in the weaning process to prevent unnecessary prolongation of mechanical ventilation are timely recognition of both readiness to wean and readiness to extubate. Strategies shown to be effective in promoting timely weaning include weaning protocols and use of spontaneous breathing trials. This review explores various other strategies that also may promote timely and successful weaning including bundling of spontaneous breathing trials with sedation and delirium monitoring/management as well as early mobility, the use of automated weaning systems and modes that improve patient-ventilator interaction, mechanical insufflation-exsufflation as a weaning adjunct, early extubation to non-invasive ventilation and high flow humidified oxygen. As most critically ill patients requiring mechanical ventilation will tolerate extubation with minimal weaning, identification of strategies to improve management of those patients experiencing difficult and prolonged weaning should be a priority for clinical practice, quality improvement initiatives and weaning research. PMID:26209016

  16. Music preferences of mechanically ventilated patients participating in a randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Heiderscheit, Annie; Breckenridge, Stephanie J.; Chlan, Linda L.; Savik, Kay

    2014-01-01

    Mechanical ventilation (MV) is a life-saving measure and supportive modality utilized to treat patients experiencing respiratory failure. Patients experience pain, discomfort, and anxiety as a result of being mechanically ventilated. Music listening is a non-pharmacological intervention used to manage these psychophysiological symptoms associated with mechanical ventilation. The purpose of this secondary analysis was to examine music preferences of 107 MV patients enrolled in a randomized clinical trial that implemented a patient-directed music listening protocol to help manage the psychophysiological symptom of anxiety. Music data presented includes the music genres and instrumentation patients identified as their preferred music. Genres preferred include: classical, jazz, rock, country, and oldies. Instrumentation preferred include: piano, voice, guitar, music with nature sounds, and orchestral music. Analysis of three patients’ preferred music received throughout the course of the study is illustrated to demonstrate the complexity of assessing MV patients and the need for an ongoing assessment process. PMID:25574992

  17. Chest compression with a higher level of pressure support ventilation: effects on secretion removal, hemodynamics, and respiratory mechanics in patients on mechanical ventilation*

    PubMed Central

    Naue, Wagner da Silva; Forgiarini, Luiz Alberto; Dias, Alexandre Simões; Vieira, Silvia Regina Rios

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine the efficacy of chest compression accompanied by a 10-cmH2O increase in baseline inspiratory pressure on pressure support ventilation, in comparison with that of aspiration alone, in removing secretions, normalizing hemodynamics, and improving respiratory mechanics in patients on mechanical ventilation. METHODS: This was a randomized crossover clinical trial involving patients on mechanical ventilation for more than 48 h in the ICU of the Porto Alegre Hospital de Clínicas, in the city of Porto Alegre, Brazil. Patients were randomized to receive aspiration alone (control group) or compression accompanied by a 10-cmH2O increase in baseline inspiratory pressure on pressure support ventilation (intervention group). We measured hemodynamic parameters, respiratory mechanics parameters, and the amount of secretions collected. RESULTS: We included 34 patients. The mean age was 64.2 ± 14.6 years. In comparison with the control group, the intervention group showed a higher median amount of secretions collected (1.9 g vs. 2.3 g; p = 0.004), a greater increase in mean expiratory tidal volume (16 ± 69 mL vs. 56 ± 69 mL; p = 0.018), and a greater increase in mean dynamic compliance (0.1 ± 4.9 cmH2O vs. 2.8 ± 4.5 cmH2O; p = 0.005). CONCLUSIONS: In this sample, chest compression accompanied by an increase in pressure support significantly increased the amount of secretions removed, the expiratory tidal volume, and dynamic compliance. (ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier:NCT01155648 [http://www.clinicaltrials.gov/]) PMID:24626270

  18. Endotracheal tube resistance and inertance in a model of mechanical ventilation of newborns and small infants-the impact of ventilator settings on tracheal pressure swings.

    PubMed

    Hentschel, Roland; Buntzel, Julia; Guttmann, Josef; Schumann, Stefan

    2011-09-01

    Resistive properties of endotracheal tubes (ETTs) are particularly relevant in newborns and small infants who are generally ventilated through ETTs with a small inner diameter. The ventilation rate is also high and the inspiratory time (ti) is short. These conditions effectuate high airway flows with excessive flow acceleration, so airway resistance and inertance play an important role. We carried out a model study to investigate the impact of varying ETT size, lung compliance and ventilator settings, such as peak inspiratory pressure (PIP), positive end expiratory pressure (PEEP) and inspiratory time (ti) on the pressure-flow characteristics with respect to the resistive and inertive properties of the ETT. Pressure at the Y piece was compared to direct measurement of intratracheal pressure (P(trach)) at the tip of the ETT, and pressure drop (?P(ETT)) was calculated. Applying published tube coefficients (Rohrer's constants and inertance), P(trach) was calculated from ventilator readings and compared to measured P(trach) using the root-mean-square error. The most relevant for ?P(ETT) was the ETT size, followed by (in descending order) PIP, compliance, ti and PEEP, with gas flow velocity being the principle in common for all these parameters. Depending on the ventilator settings ?P(ETT) exceeded 8 mbar in the smallest 2.0 mm ETT. Consideration of inertance as an additional effect in this setting yielded a better agreement of calculated versus measured P(trach) than Rohrer's constants alone. We speculate that exact tracheal pressure tracings calculated from ventilator readings by applying Rohrer's equation and the inertance determination to small size ETTs would be helpful. As an integral part of ventilator software this would (1) allow an estimate of work of breathing and implementation of an automatic tube compensation, and (2) be important for gentle ventilation in respiratory care, especially of small infants, since it enables the physician to estimate consequences of altered ventilator settings at the tracheal level. PMID:21799238

  19. Analysis of risk factors for ventilator-associated pneumonia in a multidisciplinary intensive care unit.

    PubMed

    Sofianou, D C; Constandinidis, T C; Yannacou, M; Anastasiou, H; Sofianos, E

    2000-06-01

    A prospective study was conducted to determine the incidence, risk factors and pathogens of ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) in 198 patients requiring mechanical ventilation for more than 48 hours. VAP occurred in 67 (33.8%) patients. Risk factors associated with VAP were admission APACHE II score >20 (odds ratio [OR] 4.77, 95% confidence interval [CI] 2.04-11.27, P<0.001), mechanical ventilation > 10 days (OR 44.4, 95% CI 2.16-26.7, P< 0.0001), ICU length of stay >10 days (OR 9.4, 95% CI 3.55-25.65, P< 0.0001), and admission PaO2/FiO2 ratio <200mmHg (OR 3.4, 95% CI 1.00-11.41, P<0.05). Logistic regression analysis showed a relationship between VAP and length of stay in ICU, duration of fever and presence of catheter-related infection. The pathogens isolated were predominantly gram-negative bacteria (83.2%), with a high proportion of Acinetobacter spp. (35%) resistant to commonly used antimicrobial agents. The mortality rate was not influenced by VAP. PMID:10947222

  20. Comparison of Dexmedetomidine, Propofol and Midazolam for Short-Term Sedation in Postoperatively Mechanically Ventilated Neurosurgical Patients

    PubMed Central

    Agrawal, Sanjay; Kumar, Sanjay; Mishra, Abhishek; Sharma, Sunil; Kumar, Raj

    2014-01-01

    Background: Effective management of analgesia and sedation in the intensive care unit depends on the needs of the patient, subjective and/or objective measurement and drug titration to achieve specific endpoints. Aim: The present study compared the efficacy of dexmedetomidine, propofol and midazolam for sedation in neurosurgical patients for postoperative mechanical ventilation. Materials and Methods: Ninety patients aged 20-65 years, ASA physical status I to III, undergoing neurosurgery and requiring postoperative ventilation were included. The patients were randomly divided into three groups of 30 each. Group D received dexmedetomidine 1 mcg/kg over 15 minutes as a loading dose, followed by 0.4-0.7 mcg/kg/h. Group P received propofol 1 mg/kg over 15 minutes as a loading dose, followed by 1-3 mg/kg/h. Group M received midazolam 0.04 mg/kg over 15 minutes as a loading dose, followed by 0.08 mg/kg/h. Measurements: Heart rate, mean arterial pressure, sedation level, fentanyl requirement, ventilation and extubation time were recorded. Results: Adequate sedation level was achieved with all three agents. Dexmedetomidine group required less fentanyl for postoperative analgesia. In group D there was a decrease in HR after dexmedetomidine infusion (p<0.05), but there was no significant difference in HR between group P and group M. After administration of study drug there was a significant decrease in MAP comparison to baseline value in all groups at all time intervals (p<0.05), except postextubation period (p>0.05). Extubation time was lowest in group P (p<0.05). Conclusion: Dexmedetomidine is safer and equally effective agent compared to propofol and midazolam for sedation of neurosurgical mechanically ventilated patients with good hemodynamic stability and extubation time as rapid as propofol. Dexmedetomidine also reduced postoperative fentanyl requirements. PMID:25386451

  1. Linking Ventilation Heterogeneity Quantified via Hyperpolarized 3He MRI to Dynamic Lung Mechanics and Airway Hyperresponsiveness

    PubMed Central

    Lui, Justin K.; Parameswaran, Harikrishnan; Albert, Mitchell S.; Lutchen, Kenneth R.

    2015-01-01

    Advancements in hyperpolarized helium-3 MRI (HP 3He-MRI) have introduced the ability to render and quantify ventilation patterns throughout the anatomic regions of the lung. The goal of this study was to establish how ventilation heterogeneity relates to the dynamic changes in mechanical lung function and airway hyperresponsiveness in asthmatic subjects. In four healthy and nine mild-to-moderate asthmatic subjects, we measured dynamic lung resistance and lung elastance from 0.1 to 8 Hz via a broadband ventilation waveform technique. We quantified ventilation heterogeneity using a recently developed coefficient of variation method from HP 3He-MRI imaging. Dynamic lung mechanics and imaging were performed at baseline, post-challenge, and after a series of five deep inspirations. AHR was measured via the concentration of agonist that elicits a 20% decrease in the subjects forced expiratory volume in one second compared to baseline (PC20) dose. The ventilation coefficient of variation was correlated to low-frequency lung resistance (R = 0.647, P < 0.0001), the difference between high and low frequency lung resistance (R = 0.668, P < 0.0001), and low-frequency lung elastance (R = 0.547, P = 0.0003). In asthmatic subjects with PC20 values <25 mg/mL, the coefficient of variation at baseline exhibited a strong negative trend (R = -0.798, P = 0.02) to PC20 dose. Our findings were consistent with the notion of peripheral rather than central involvement of ventilation heterogeneity. Also, the degree of AHR appears to be dependent on the degree to which baseline airway constriction creates baseline ventilation heterogeneity. HP 3He-MRI imaging may be a powerful predictor of the degree of AHR and in tracking the efficacy of therapy. PMID:26569412

  2. Gorham syndrome with postoperative respiratory failure and requiring prolonged mechanical ventilation.

    PubMed

    Huang, Shiang-Yu; Lee, Ying-Min; Tzeng, Shiau-Tzu; Su, Chiu-Ping; Huang, Shiu-Feng; Wu, Yao-Kuang; Lan, Chou-Chin

    2013-11-01

    Gorham syndrome is a rare disease that presents as progressive osteolysis, and may affect any part of the skeleton. The pathologic process involves the replacement of normal bone by aggressively expanding but non-neoplastic vascular tissue, resulting in massive osteolysis of the adjacent bone. If the spine and ribs are affected, the subsequent kyphosis and chest wall deformity may cause severe restrictive ventilatory impairment. We report a 34-year-old male with Gorham syndrome presenting as progressive kyphosis, severe back pain, unstable gait, and exertional dyspnea. Pulmonary function testing revealed severe restrictive ventilatory impairment. He underwent spinal surgery but could not be extubated after surgery. Postoperative left lower lung pneumonia and respiratory failure required prolonged mechanical ventilation. After a weaning program of pressure support ventilation and T-piece spontaneous breathing trials, he was successfully weaned from mechanical ventilation. PMID:23550170

  3. Abdominal Muscle Activity during Mechanical Ventilation Increases Lung Injury in Severe Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Xianming; Wu, Weiliang; Zhu, Yongcheng; Jiang, Ying; Du, Juan; Chen, Rongchang

    2016-01-01

    Objective It has proved that muscle paralysis was more protective for injured lung in severe acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), but the precise mechanism is not clear. The purpose of this study was to test the hypothesis that abdominal muscle activity during mechanically ventilation increases lung injury in severe ARDS. Methods Eighteen male Beagles were studied under mechanical ventilation with anesthesia. Severe ARDS was induced by repetitive oleic acid infusion. After lung injury, Beagles were randomly assigned into spontaneous breathing group (BIPAPSB) and abdominal muscle paralysis group (BIPAPAP). All groups were ventilated with BIPAP model for 8h, and the high pressure titrated to reached a tidal volume of 6ml/kg, the low pressure was set at 10 cmH2O, with I:E ratio 1:1, and respiratory rate adjusted to a PaCO2 of 35–60 mmHg. Six Beagles without ventilator support comprised the control group. Respiratory variables, end-expiratory volume (EELV) and gas exchange were assessed during mechanical ventilation. The levels of Interleukin (IL)-6, IL-8 in lung tissue and plasma were measured by qRT-PCR and ELISA respectively. Lung injury scores were determined at end of the experiment. Results For the comparable ventilator setting, as compared with BIPAPSB group, the BIPAPAP group presented higher EELV (427±47 vs. 366±38 ml) and oxygenation index (293±36 vs. 226±31 mmHg), lower levels of IL-6(216.6±48.0 vs. 297.5±71.2 pg/ml) and IL-8(246.8±78.2 vs. 357.5±69.3 pg/ml) in plasma, and lower express levels of IL-6 mRNA (15.0±3.8 vs. 21.2±3.7) and IL-8 mRNA (18.9±6.8 vs. 29.5±7.9) in lung tissues. In addition, less lung histopathology injury were revealed in the BIPAPAP group (22.5±2.0 vs. 25.2±2.1). Conclusion Abdominal muscle activity during mechanically ventilation is one of the injurious factors in severe ARDS, so abdominal muscle paralysis might be an effective strategy to minimize ventilator-induce lung injury. PMID:26745868

  4. Soluble urokinase-type plasminogen activator receptor levels in patients with burn injuries and inhalation trauma requiring mechanical ventilation: an observational cohort study

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Introduction Soluble urokinase-type plasminogen activator receptor (suPAR) has been proposed as a biologic marker of fibrinolysis and inflammation. The aim of this study was to investigate the diagnostic and prognostic value of systemic and pulmonary levels of suPAR in burn patients with inhalation trauma who need mechanical ventilation. Methods suPAR was measured in plasma and nondirected lung-lavage fluid of mechanically ventilated burn patients with inhalation trauma. The samples were obtained on the day of inhalation trauma and on alternate days thereafter until patients were completely weaned from the mechanical ventilator. Mechanically ventilated patients without burns and without pulmonary disease served as controls. Results Systemic levels of suPAR in burn patients with inhalation trauma were not different from those in control patients. On admission and follow up, pulmonary levels of suPAR in patients with inhalation trauma were significantly higher compared with controls. Pulmonary levels of suPAR highly correlated with pulmonary levels of interleukin 6, a marker of inflammation, and thrombin-antithrombin complexes, markers of coagulation, but not plasminogen activator activity, a marker of fibrinolysis. Systemic levels of suPAR were predictive of the duration of mechanical ventilation and length of intensive care unit (ICU) stay. Duration of mechanical ventilation and length of ICU stay were significantly longer in burn-injury patients with systemic suPAR levels > 9.5 ng/ml. Conclusions Pulmonary levels of suPAR are elevated in burn patients with inhalation trauma, and they correlate with pulmonary inflammation and coagulation. Although pulmonary levels of suPAR may have diagnostic value in burn-injury patients, systemic levels of suPAR have prognostic value. PMID:22085408

  5. Impact of Ventilatory Modes on the Breathing Variability in Mechanically Ventilated Infants

    PubMed Central

    Baudin, Florent; Wu, Hau-Tieng; Bordessoule, Alice; Beck, Jennifer; Jouvet, Philippe; Frasch, Martin G.; Emeriaud, Guillaume

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: Reduction of breathing variability is associated with adverse outcome. During mechanical ventilation, the variability of ventilatory pressure is dependent on the ventilatory mode. During neurally adjusted ventilatory assist (NAVA), the support is proportional to electrical activity of the diaphragm (EAdi), which reflects the respiratory center output. The variability of EAdi is, therefore, translated into a similar variability in pressures. Contrastingly, conventional ventilatory modes deliver less variable pressures. The impact of the mode on the patient’s own respiratory drive is less clear. This study aims to compare the impact of NAVA, pressure-controlled ventilation (PCV), and pressure support ventilation (PSV) on the respiratory drive patterns in infants. We hypothesized that on NAVA, EAdi variability resembles most of the endogenous respiratory drive pattern seen in a control group. Methods: Electrical activity of the diaphragm was continuously recorded in 10 infants ventilated successively on NAVA (5 h), PCV (30 min), and PSV (30 min). During the last 10 min of each period, the EAdi variability pattern was assessed using non-rhythmic to rhythmic (NRR) index. These variability profiles were compared to the pattern of a control group of 11 spontaneously breathing and non-intubated infants. Results: In control infants, NRR was higher as compared to mechanically ventilated infants (p < 0.001), and NRR pattern was relatively stable over time. While the temporal stability of NRR was similar in NAVA and controls, the NRR profile was less stable during PCV. PSV exhibited an intermediary pattern. Perspectives: Mechanical ventilation impacts the breathing variability in infants. NAVA produces EAdi pattern resembling most that of control infants. NRR can be used to characterize respiratory variability in infants. Larger prospective studies are necessary to understand the differential impact of the ventilatory modes on the cardio-respiratory variability and to study their impact on clinical outcomes. PMID:25505779

  6. Interaction among humoral and neurogenic mechanisms in ventilation control during exercise.

    PubMed

    Ursino, Mauro; Magosso, Elisa

    2004-09-01

    The control of ventilation during exercise is analyzed by a mathematical model. It represents a significant improvement of our previous work, including the effect of potassium on peripheral chemoreceptors, a fast and a slow neurogenic component, and a more accurate description of blood flow control. Moreover, the feedforward contributions (potassium and neurogenic) have been incorporated within a larger model of feedback ventilatory control by central and peripheral chemoreceptors to O2 and CO2 changes, and the interaction among the different mechanisms in ventilation control have been analyzed during moderate (100 W) and severe (300 W) exercise. Results suggest that ventilatory changes during exercise can be mostly ascribed to feedforward neurogenic mechanisms, which ensure quite constant levels of arterial oxygen and CO2 pressure, thus avoiding the involvement of feedback mechanisms. Potassium plays a mild role in ventilation control during steady-state conditions. However, it may have a role in the transient phase after the onset of severe exercise, allowing a faster attainment of the final steady-state ventilation level. In agreement with the physiological literature, the model evidences the presence of three distinct kinetic components in V(E), which ensue from the temporal superimposition (sometimes antagonistic sometimes synergistic) among the several incorporated mechanisms. PMID:15493515

  7. Mechanical ventilation induces myokine expression and catabolism in peripheral skeletal muscle in pigs

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Endotoxin (LPS)-induced sepsis increases circulating cytokines which have been associated with skeletal muscle catabolism. During critical illness, it has been postulated that muscle wasting associated with mechanical ventilation (MV) occurs due to inactivity. We hypothesize that MV and sepsis promo...

  8. Mechanical ventilation and sepsis induce skeletal muscle catabolism in neonatal pigs

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Reduced rates of skeletal muscle accretion are a prominent feature of the metabolic response to sepsis in infants and children. Septic neonates often require medical support with mechanical ventilation (MV). The combined effects of MV and sepsis in muscle have not been examined in neonates, in whom ...

  9. Mechanical ventilation alone, and in the presence sepsis, induces peripheral skeletal muscle catabolism in neonatal pigs

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Reduced rates of skeletal muscle accretion are a prominent feature of the metabolic response to sepsis in infants and children. Septic neonates often require medical support with mechanical ventilation (MV). The combined effects of MV and sepsis in muscle have not been examined in neonates, in whom ...

  10. Noninvasive Estimation of Respiratory Mechanics in Spontaneously Breathing Ventilated Patients: A Constrained Optimization Approach.

    PubMed

    Vicario, Francesco; Albanese, Antonio; Karamolegkos, Nikolaos; Wang, Dong; Seiver, Adam; Chbat, Nicolas W

    2016-04-01

    This paper presents a method for breath-by-breath noninvasive estimation of respiratory resistance and elastance in mechanically ventilated patients. For passive patients, well-established approaches exist. However, when patients are breathing spontaneously, taking into account the diaphragmatic effort in the estimation process is still an open challenge. Mechanical ventilators require maneuvers to obtain reliable estimates for respiratory mechanics parameters. Such maneuvers interfere with the desired ventilation pattern to be delivered to the patient. Alternatively, invasive procedures are needed. The method presented in this paper is a noninvasive way requiring only measurements of airway pressure and flow that are routinely available for ventilated patients. It is based on a first-order single-compartment model of the respiratory system, from which a cost function is constructed as the sum of squared errors between model-based airway pressure predictions and actual measurements. Physiological considerations are translated into mathematical constraints that restrict the space of feasible solutions and make the resulting optimization problem strictly convex. Existing quadratic programming techniques are used to efficiently find the minimizing solution, which yields an estimate of the respiratory system resistance and elastance. The method is illustrated via numerical examples and experimental data from animal tests. Results show that taking into account the patient effort consistently improves the estimation of respiratory mechanics. The method is suitable for real-time patient monitoring, providing clinicians with noninvasive measurements that could be used for diagnosis and therapy optimization. PMID:26302508

  11. Factors Associated with Swallowing Assessment after Oral Endotracheal Intubation and Mechanical Ventilation for Acute Lung Injury

    PubMed Central

    Brodsky, Martin B.; Gonzlez-Fernndez, Marls; Mendez-Tellez, Pedro A.; Shanholtz, Carl; Palmer, Jeffrey B.

    2014-01-01

    Rationale: Endotracheal intubation is associated with postextubation swallowing dysfunction, but no guidelines exist for postextubation swallowing assessments. Objectives: We evaluated the prevalence, patient demographic and clinical factors, and intensive care unit (ICU) and hospital organizational factors associated with swallowing assessment after oral endotracheal intubation and mechanical ventilation in patients with acute lung injury (ALI). Methods: We performed a secondary analysis of a prospective cohort study in which investigators evaluated 178 eligible patients with ALI who were mechanically ventilated via oral endotracheal tube. The patients were recruited from 13 ICUs at four teaching hospitals in Baltimore, Maryland. Patient demographic and clinical factors, types of ICU, and hospital study sites were evaluated for their association with completion of a swallowing assessment both in the ICU and after the ICU stay before hospital discharge. Factors significantly associated with a swallow assessment were evaluated in a multivariable logistic regression model. Measurements and Main Results: Before hospital discharge, 79 (44%) patients completed a swallowing assessment, among whom 59 (75%) had their assessments initiated in ICU and 20 (25%) had their assessments initiated on the hospital ward. Female sex (odds ratio [OR]?=?2.01; 95% confidence interval [95% CI]?=?1.033.97), orotracheal intubation duration (OR?=?1.13 per day; 95% CI?=?1.051.22), and hospital study site (Site 3: OR?=?2.41; 95% CI?=?1.005.78) were independently associated with swallowing assessment. Although Site 3 had a twofold increase in swallowing assessments in the ICU, there was no significant difference between hospitals in the frequency of swallowing assessments completed after ICU discharge (P?=?0.287) or in the proportion of patients who failed a swallowing assessment conducted in the ICU (P?=?0.468) or on the ward (P?=?0.746). Conclusions: In this multisite prospective study, female sex, intubation duration, and hospital site were associated with postextubation swallowing assessment. These results demonstrate variability in practice patterns between institutions and highlight the need to determine the appropriate timing and indications for swallowing assessment and to more fully understand swallowing dysfunction after intubation. PMID:25387319

  12. Mechanical Ventilation for ARDS Patients For a Better Understanding of the 2012 Surviving Sepsis Campaign Guidelines

    PubMed Central

    Takeuchi, Muneyuki; Tachibana, Kazuya

    2015-01-01

    The mortality rate among patients suffering acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) remains high despite implementation at clinical centers of the lung protective ventilatory strategies recommended by the International Guidelines for Management of Severe Sepsis and Septic Shock, 2012. This suggests that such strategies are still sub-optimal for some ARDS patients. For these patients, tailored use of ventilator settings should be considered, including: further reduction of tidal volumes, administration of neuromuscular blocking agents if the patients spontaneous breathing is incompatible with mechanical ventilation, and adjusting positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) settings based on transpulmonary pressure levels. PMID:25567337

  13. Mechanical ventilation of a patient with decreased lung compliance and tracheal dilatation.

    PubMed

    Jaeger, J M; Wells, N C; Kirby, R R; Blanch, P B

    1992-01-01

    Tracheal injury resulting from tracheal intubation is common. Injuries vary in type and severity, from mucosal sloughing to tracheal stenosis and fistula formation. We report a patient with poor lung compliance and massive tracheal dilatation as a result of prolonged mechanical ventilation with high inflation pressure despite the use of a high-volume, low-pressure cuff. To reduce the tracheal dilatation but maintain adequate ventilation and continuous positive airway pressure, we substituted a longer double-cuff tracheotomy appliance and used an automatic intermittent cuff inflator. The problems related to the design of modern tracheal tube cuffs are discussed. PMID:1562339

  14. [Non-invasive mechanical ventilation in postoperative patients. A clinical review].

    PubMed

    Esquinas, A M; Jover, J L; beda, A; Belda, F J

    2015-11-01

    Non-invasive ventilation (NIV) is a method of ventilatory support that is increasing in importance day by day in the management of postoperative respiratory failure. Its role in the prevention and treatment of atelectasis is particularly important in the in the period after thoracic and abdominal surgeries. Similarly, in the transplanted patient, NIV can shorten the time of invasive mechanical ventilation, reducing the risk of infectious complications in these high-risk patients. It has been performed A systematic review of the literature has been performed, including examining the technical, clinical experiences and recommendations concerning the application of NIV in the postoperative period. PMID:25892605

  15. Influence of hyperoxia and mechanical ventilation in lung inflammation and diaphragm function in aged versus adult rats.

    PubMed

    Andrade, P V; dos Santos, J M; Silva, H C A; Wilbert, D D; Cavassani, S S; Oliveira-Jnior, I S

    2014-04-01

    Although assist ventilation with FIO2 0.21 is the preferable mode of ventilation in the intensive care unit, sometimes controlled ventilation with hyperoxia is needed. But the impact of this setting has not been extensively studied in elderly subjects. We hypothesized that a high fraction of inspired oxygen (FiO(2)) and controlled mechanical ventilation (CMV) is associated with greater deleterious effects in old compared to adult subjects. Adult and old rats were submitted to CMV with low tidal volume (6 ml/kg) and FiO(2) 1 during 3 or 6 h. Arterial blood gas samples were measured at 0, 60 and 180 min (four groups: old and adult rats, 3 or 6 h of CMV), and additionally at 360 min (two groups: old and adult rats, 6 h of CMV). Furthermore, total protein content (TPC) and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-?) in bronchoalveolar lavage were assessed; lung tissue was used for malondialdehyde and histological analyses, and the diaphragm for measurement of contractile function. Arterial blood gas analysis showed an initial (60 min) greater PaO(2) in elderly versus adult animals; after that time, elderly animals had lowers pH and PaO(2), and greater PaCO(2). After 3 h of CMV, TPC and TNF-? levels were higher in the old compared with the adult group (P?

  16. Long-term outcome in patients with Guillain-Barr syndrome requiring mechanical ventilation.

    PubMed

    Witsch, J; Galldiks, N; Bender, A; Kollmar, R; Bsel, J; Hobohm, C; Gnther, A; Schirotzek, I; Fuchs, K; Jttler, E

    2013-05-01

    We aimed to determine long-term disability and quality of life in patients with Guillain-Barr syndrome (GBS) who required mechanical ventilation (MV) in the acute phase. Our retrospective cohort study included 110 GBS patients admitted to an intensive care unit and requiring MV (01/1999-08/2010) in nine German tertiary academic medical centers. Outcome was determined 1 year or longer after hospital admission using the GBS disability scale, Barthel index (BI), EuroQuol-5D (EQ-5D) and Fatigue Severity Scale. Linear/multivariate regression analysis was used to analyze predicting factors for outcome. Mean time to follow up was 52.6 months. Hospital mortality was 5.5 % and long-term mortality 13.6 %. Overall 53.8 % had a favorable outcome (GBS disability score 0-1) and 73.7 % of survivors had no or mild disability (BI 90-100). In the five dimensions of the EQ-5D "mobility", "self-care", "usual activities", "pain" and "anxiety/depression" no impairments were stated by 50.6, 58.4, 36.4, 36.4 and 50.6 % of patients, respectively. A severe fatigue syndrome was present in 30.4 % of patients. Outcome was statistically significantly correlated with age, type of therapy and number of immunoglobulin courses. In GBS-patients requiring MV in the acute phase in-hospital, and long-term mortality are lower than that in previous studies, while long-term quality of life is compromised in a large fraction of patients, foremost by immobility and chronic pain. Efforts towards improved treatment approaches should address autonomic dysfunction to further reduce hospital mortality while improved rehabilitation concepts might ameliorate long-term disability. PMID:23299621

  17. Impact of mechanical ventilation on the pathophysiology of progressive acute lung injury.

    PubMed

    Nieman, Gary F; Gatto, Louis A; Habashi, Nader M

    2015-12-01

    The earliest description of what is now known as the acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) was a highly lethal double pneumonia. Ashbaugh and colleagues (Ashbaugh DG, Bigelow DB, Petty TL, Levine BE Lancet 2: 319-323, 1967) correctly identified the disease as ARDS in 1967. Their initial study showing the positive effect of mechanical ventilation with positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) on ARDS mortality was dampened when it was discovered that improperly used mechanical ventilation can cause a secondary ventilator-induced lung injury (VILI), thereby greatly exacerbating ARDS mortality. This Synthesis Report will review the pathophysiology of ARDS and VILI from a mechanical stress-strain perspective. Although inflammation is also an important component of VILI pathology, it is secondary to the mechanical damage caused by excessive strain. The mechanical breath will be deconstructed to show that multiple parameters that comprise the breath-airway pressure, flows, volumes, and the duration during which they are applied to each breath-are critical to lung injury and protection. Specifically, the mechanisms by which a properly set mechanical breath can reduce the development of excessive fluid flux and pulmonary edema, which are a hallmark of ARDS pathology, are reviewed. Using our knowledge of how multiple parameters in the mechanical breath affect lung physiology, the optimal combination of pressures, volumes, flows, and durations that should offer maximum lung protection are postulated. PMID:26472873

  18. Comparison of jet and ultrasonic nebulizer pulmonary aerosol deposition during mechanical ventilation.

    PubMed

    Harvey, C J; O'Doherty, M J; Page, C J; Thomas, S H; Nunan, T O; Treacher, D F

    1997-04-01

    Increased delivery of aerosol to a model lung (attached to a mechanical ventilator) has been demonstrated with an ultrasonic nebulizer as compared to a jet nebulizer. This study examined whether the increased aerosol deposition with an ultrasonic nebulizer could also be demonstrated in vivo. Seven patients (6 male and 1 female) were studied during mechanical ventilalion (Siemens Servo 900C, Middlesex, UK) after open heart surgery. Two studies were performed in each patient. In the first study, aerosol was delivered via a Siemens Servo 945 nebulizer system (high setting) driving a System 22 Acorn jet nebulizer (Medic-Aid, Sussex, UK) containing 3 mL (99m)technetium-labelled human serum albumin (99mTc-HSA) (50 microg; activity 74 MBq). In the second study, a DP100 ultrasonic nebulizer (DP Medical, Meylan, France) containing 12 mL 99mTc-HSA (50 microg; activity 185 MBq) was used. Pulmonary deposition was quantified using a gamma camera. The humidification of the circuit and the ventilator settings were kept constant according to the patient's clinical requirements. The total lung aerosol deposition (mean+/-SD), as a percentage of initial nebulizer activity, was greater using the ultrasonic nebulizer than using the jet nebulizer (53+/-1.4 vs 2.3+/-0.9%; p<0.002). The ultrasonic nebulizer was also associated with a reduction in the time required to complete nebulization (9 vs 21 min, respectively) (p<0.0001). Use of the DP100 ultrasonic nebulizer more than doubled lung deposition compared with the System 22 jet nebulizers in mechanically-ventilated patients. Their efficiency, speed of drug delivery, and compatibility with mechanical ventilator circuits make ultrasonic nebulizers potentially attractive for use during mechanical ventilation. PMID:9150333

  19. Higher Pulmonary Dead Space May Predict Prolonged Mechanical Ventilation After Cardiac Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Ong, Thida; Stuart-Killion, Regan B.; Daniel, Brian M.; Presnell, Laura B.; Zhuo, Hanjing; Matthay, Michael A.; Liu, Kathleen D.

    2009-01-01

    Summary Children undergoing congenital heart surgery are at risk for prolonged mechanical ventilation and length of hospital stay. We investigated the prognostic value of pulmonary dead space fraction as a non-invasive, physiologic marker in this population. In a prospective, cross-sectional study, we measured pulmonary dead space fraction in 52 intubated, pediatric patients within 24 hr postoperative from congenital heart surgery. Measurements were obtained with a bedside, non-invasive cardiac output (NICO) monitor (Respironics Novametrix, Inc., Wallingford, CT). Median pulmonary dead space fraction was 0.46 (2575% IQR 0.340.55). Pulmonary dead space fraction significantly correlated with duration of mechanical ventilation and length of hospital stay in the entire cohort (rs=0.51, P=0.0002; rs=0.51, P=0.0002) and in the subset of patients without residual intracardiac shunting (rs=0.45, P=0.008; rs=0.49, P=0.004). In a multivariable logistic regression model, pulmonary dead space fraction remained an independent predictor for prolonged mechanical ventilation in the presence of cardiopulmonary bypass time and ratio of the partial pressure of arterial oxygen to the fraction of inspired oxygen (OR 2.2; 95% CI 1.144.38; P=0.02). The area under the receiver operator characteristic curve for this model was 0.91. Elevated pulmonary dead space fraction is associated with prolonged mechanical ventilation and hospital stay in pediatric patients who undergo surgery for congenital heart disease and has additive predictive value in identifying those at risk for longer duration of mechanical ventilation. Pulmonary dead space may be a useful prognostic tool for clinicians in patients who undergo congenital heart surgery. PMID:19382217

  20. Sustained Inflation at Birth Did Not Alter Lung Injury from Mechanical Ventilation in Surfactant-Treated Fetal Lambs

    PubMed Central

    Hillman, Noah H.; Kemp, Matthew W.; Miura, Yuichiro; Kallapur, Suhas G.; Jobe, Alan H.

    2014-01-01

    Background Sustained inflations (SI) are used with the initiation of ventilation at birth to rapidly recruit functional residual capacity and may decrease lung injury and the need for mechanical ventilation in preterm infants. However, a 20 second SI in surfactant-deficient preterm lambs caused an acute phase injury response without decreasing lung injury from subsequent mechanical ventilation. Hypothesis A 20 second SI at birth will decrease lung injury from mechanical ventilation in surfactant-treated preterm fetal lambs. Methods The head and chest of fetal sheep at 1261 day GA were exteriorized, with tracheostomy and removal of fetal lung fluid prior to treatment with surfactant (300 mg in 15 ml saline). Fetal lambs were randomized to one of four 15 minute interventions: 1) PEEP 8 cmH2O; 2) 20 sec SI at 40 cmH2O, then PEEP 8 cmH2O; 3) mechanical ventilation with 7 ml/kg tidal volume; or 4) 20 sec SI then mechanical ventilation at 7 ml/kg. Fetal lambs remained on placental support for the intervention and for 30 min after the intervention. Results SI recruited a mean volume of 6.80.8 mL/kg. SI did not alter respiratory physiology during mechanical ventilation. Heat shock protein (HSP) 70, HSP60, and total protein in lung fluid similarly increased in both ventilation groups. Modest pro-inflammatory cytokine and acute phase responses, with or without SI, were similar with ventilation. SI alone did not increase markers of injury. Conclusion In surfactant treated fetal lambs, a 20 sec SI did not alter ventilation physiology or markers of lung injury from mechanical ventilation. PMID:25419969

  1. Parameters affecting the tidal volume during expiratory abdominal compression in patients with prolonged tracheostomy mechanical ventilation

    PubMed Central

    Morino, Akira; Shida, Masahiro; Tanaka, Masashi; Sato, Kimihiro; Seko, Toshiaki; Ito, Shunsuke; Ogawa, Shunichi; Takahashi, Naoaki

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] The aim of this study was to clarify physical parameters affecting the tidal volume during expiratory abdominal compression in patients with prolonged tracheostomy mechanical ventilation. [Methods] Eighteen patients with prolonged mechanical ventilation were included in this study. Expiratory abdominal compression was performed on patients lying in a supine position. The abdomen above the navel was vertically compressed in synchronization with expiration and released with inspiration. We measured the tidal volume during expiratory abdominal compression. [Results] The mean tidal volume during expiratory abdominal compression was higher than that at rest (430.6 127.1?mL vs. 344.0 94.3?mL). The tidal volume during expiratory abdominal compression was correlated with weight, days of ventilator support, dynamic compliance and abdominal expansion. Stepwise multiple regression analysis revealed that weight (? = 0.499), dynamic compliance (? = 0.387), and abdominal expansion (? = 0.365) were factors contributing to the tidal volume during expiratory abdominal compression. [Conclusion] Expiratory abdominal compression increased the tidal volume in patients with prolonged tracheostomy mechanical ventilation. The tidal volume during expiratory abdominal compression was influenced by each of the pulmonary conditions and the physical characteristics. PMID:26311947

  2. Alterations in expression of elastogenic and angiogenic genes by different conditions of mechanical ventilation in newborn rat lung.

    PubMed

    Kroon, Andreas A; Wang, Jinxia; Post, Martin

    2015-04-01

    Mechanical ventilation is an important risk factor for development of bronchopulmonary dysplasia. Here we investigated the effects of different tidal volumes (VT) and duration of ventilation on expression of genes involved in alveolarization [tropoelastin (Eln), lysyloxidase-like 1 (Loxl1), fibulin5 (Fbln5), and tenascin-C (Tnc)] and angiogenesis [platelet derived growth factors (Pdgf) and vascular endothelial growth factors (Vegf) and their receptors] in 8-day-old rats. First, pups were ventilated for 8 h with low (LVT: 3.5 ml/kg), moderate (MVT: 8.5 ml/kg), or high (HVT: 25 ml/kg) tidal volumes. LVT and MVT decreased Tnc expression, whereas HVT increased expression of all three elastogenic genes and Tnc. PDGF ?-receptor mRNA was increased in all ventilation groups, while Pdgfb expression was decreased after MVT and HVT ventilation. Only HVT ventilation upregulated Vegf expression. Independent of VT, ventilation upregulated Vegfr1 expression, while MVT and HVT downregulated Vegfr2 expression. Next, we evaluated duration (0-24 h) of MVT ventilation on gene expression. Although expression of all elastogenic genes peaked at 12 h of ventilation, only Fbln5 was negatively affected at 24 h. Tnc expression decreased with duration of ventilation. Changes in expression of Pdgfr and Vegfr were maximal at 8 h of ventilation. Disturbed elastin fiber deposition and decrease in small vessel density was only observed after 24 h. Thus, an imbalance between Fbln5 and Eln expression may trigger dysregulated elastin fiber deposition during the first 24 h of mechanical ventilation. Furthermore, ventilation-induced alterations in Pdgf and Vegf receptor expression are tidal volume dependent and may affect pulmonary vessel formation. PMID:25617376

  3. The effect of open and closed endotracheal tube suctioning system on respiratory parameters of infants undergoing mechanical ventilation

    PubMed Central

    Taheri, Parvin; Asgari, Narges; Mohammadizadeh, Majid; Golchin, Mehri

    2012-01-01

    Aims: Mechanical ventilation is used for some infants in neonatal intensive care units (NICU) due to many physiological and clinical causes. Since these patients have endotracheal tubes, cleaning and keeping the airways open through suctioning should be done to increase oxygenation. This study aimed to evaluate effect of open and closed suctioning methods on respiratory parameters of infants undergoing mechanical ventilation. Materials and Methods: In this crossover clinical trial, 44 infants were selected among those undergone mechanical ventilation in NICU of Isfahan's Al-Zahra Hospital using convenience sampling method. The subjects were randomly divided into two groups. In the first group, open suctioning was carried out and after three hours of cleaning, closed suctioning was done. In the second group, closed suctioning was firstly done and following three hours of cleaning, open suctioning was implemented. Respiratory rate (RR) and percentage of arterial blood oxygen saturation was measured before, during and after each type of suctioning. Data were analyzed using repeated measures ANOVA and independent student's t-test. Findings: There was a significant difference between mean respiratory rate and arterial blood oxygen saturation in infants before, during and after the closed and open suctioning. The percentage of arterial blood oxygen saturation had a significant reduction in open method compared to closed method during suctioning and immediately after it. RR three minutes after suctioning showed a significant reduction in both steps in open method compared to closed method. Conclusions: Close method caused fewer changes in hemodynamic status of infants. Therefore, in order to prevent respiratory complications in infants, nurses are recommended to perform the endotracheal tube suctioning by closed method. PMID:23493041

  4. Ventilator associated pneumonia

    PubMed Central

    Hunter, J D

    2006-01-01

    Hospital acquired or nosocomial infections continue to be an important cause of morbidity and mortality. The critically ill patient is at particular risk of developing intensive care unit acquired infection, with the lungs being especially vulnerable. Nosocomial bacterial pneumonia occurring after two days of mechanical ventilation is referred to as ventilator associated pneumonia, and is the most common nosocomial infection seen in the intensive care unit. Intubation of the trachea and mechanical ventilation is associated with a 7?fold to 21?fold increase in the incidence of pneumonia and up to 28% of patients receiving mechanical ventilation will develop this complication. Its development is associated with an attributable increase in morbidity and mortality. The establishment of an accurate diagnosis of ventilator associated pneumonia remains problematic and as yet there is still no accepted gold standard for diagnosis. The responsible pathogens vary according to case mix, local resistance patterns, and methodology of sampling. However, there is general agreement that rapid initiation of appropriate antimicrobial therapy improves outcome. PMID:16517798

  5. Predictors and course of elective long-term mechanical ventilation: A prospective study of ALS patients.

    PubMed

    Rabkin, Judith G; Albert, Steven M; Tider, Toby; Del Bene, Maura L; O'Sullivan, Ita; Rowland, Lewis P; Mitsumoto, Hiroshi

    2006-06-01

    We sought to characterize ALS patients who opt for tracheostomy and long-term mechanical ventilation (LTMV) and compare them with respect to medical, psychiatric, and psychosocial measures to patients who declined tracheostomy and died. We studied 72 ALS patients who were identified as hospice-eligible. They were assessed monthly until the endpoint of death or tracheostomy. LTMV patients continued to be followed for up to 55 months. The spouse or other caregiver was similarly interviewed and followed. Medical and psychiatric evaluations were conducted, in addition to self-reported depressive symptoms, future orientation, attitudes about hastened death, religious beliefs, and quality of life. Global cognitive capacity was assessed by caregivers. Fourteen patients chose LTMV; 58 died without LTMV. At study entry, those who later chose LTMV were younger, more had young children, had more education, and higher household incomes on average. Although their physical conditions were similar, they reported higher levels of optimism including belief in imminent cure, and more positive appraisals of their ability to function in daily life, their physical health and overall life satisfaction. At study entry, none who later chose LTMV were clinically depressed, compared to 26% of those who later refused LTMV, and their mean scores on the Beck Depression Inventory were in the "not depressed" range while the mean for patients who later died was in the "probable depression" range. Fourteen percent of patients who later chose LTMV were reported by caregivers to have had at least mild cognitive problems, compared to 49% of those who later died. After an average of 33 months on LTMV, only about half retained high levels of optimism and enjoyment of daily life, independent of residence (home vs. facility). Two patients expressed interest in hastening death but none had asked to terminate ventilation despite disease progression. However, half identified future circumstances that would render life intolerable. At last contact with caregivers, only one LTMV patient was reported to have major cognitive impairment. While reporting substantial emotional burden after LTMV, most but not all spousal caregivers continued to express satisfaction with care-giving. Our findings suggest that the choice of LTMV was not about desperation (although it may involve unrealistic expectations of cure by some), ignorance, or inability to make wishes clear during a chaotic dying period. Rather, LTMV choice was consistent with a sustained sense that life was worth living in any way possible, at least for some time and within certain boundaries. ALS clinicians will need to recognize this motivation and provide appropriate clinical education to both patient and family. PMID:16753972

  6. Microbial composition and antibiotic resistance of biofilms recovered from endotracheal tubes of mechanically ventilated patients.

    PubMed

    Vandecandelaere, Ilse; Coenye, Tom

    2015-01-01

    In critically ill patients, breathing is impaired and mechanical ventilation, using an endotracheal tube (ET) connected to a ventilator, is necessary. Although mechanical ventilation is a life-saving procedure, it is not without risk. Because of several reasons, a biofilm often forms at the distal end of the ET and this biofilm is a persistent source of bacteria which can infect the lungs, causing ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP). There is a link between the microbial flora of ET biofilms and the microorganisms involved in the onset of VAP. Culture dependent and independent techniques were already used to identify the microbial flora of ET biofilms and also, the antibiotic resistance of microorganisms obtained from ET biofilms was determined. The ESKAPE pathogens play a dominant role in the onset of VAP and these organisms were frequently identified in ET biofilms. Also, antibiotic resistant microorganisms were frequently present in ET biofilms. Members of the normal oral flora were also identified in ET biofilms but it is thought that these organisms initiate ET biofilm formation and are not directly involved in the development of VAP. PMID:25366226

  7. [Weaning from invasive mechanical ventilation in pediatric patients (excluding premature neonates)].

    PubMed

    Leclerc, F; Noizet, O; Botte, A; Binoche, A; Chaari, W; Sadik, A; Riou, Y

    2010-04-01

    The process of weaning from mechanical ventilation (WMV) is the same in children as in adults. In the pediatric literature, weaning failure rate ranges from 1.4 to 34%. So far, no indices of weaning success have been demonstrated to be sufficiently accurate. The criteria for assessing readiness to wean, which must be screened daily, have neither been validated nor adapted to the pediatric population. The spontaneous breathing test (SBT), the reference screening test for weaning, precedes extubation; it can be achieved with pressure support ventilation or spontaneous breathing (T piece or canopy or flow-inflating bag). A standardized weaning protocol (which can be computer driven) was used in only three pediatric studies and the impact on shortening the duration of mechanical ventilation has not yet been demonstrated. It should be paired with a sedative interruption protocol. Weaning criteria, SBT criteria, and/or protocol tolerance are guides, but clinicians must individualize decisions to use these criteria. The use of noninvasive ventilation is increasing and its place in weaning protocols for children needs to be determined; it might modify the definitions of weaning failure and weaning success in the future. PMID:20219332

  8. Interactive effects of mechanical ventilation, inhaled nitric oxide and oxidative stress in acute lung injury.

    PubMed

    Ronchi, Carlos Fernando; Ferreira, Ana Lucia Anjos; Campos, Fabio Joly; Kurokawa, Cilmery Suemi; Carpi, Mario Ferreira; Moraes, Marcos Aurlio; Bonatto, Rossano Cesar; Yeum, Kyung-Jin; Fioretto, Jose Roberto

    2014-01-01

    To compare conventional mechanical ventilation (CMV) and high-frequency oscillatory ventilation (HFOV), with/without inhaled nitric oxide (iNO), for oxygenation, inflammation, antioxidant/oxidative stress status, and DNA damage in a model of acute lung injury (ALI). Lung injury was induced by tracheal infusion of warm saline. Rabbits were ventilated at [Formula: see text] 1.0 and randomly assigned to one of five groups. Overall antioxidant defense/oxidative stress was assessed by total antioxidant performance assay, and DNA damage by comet assay. Ventilatory and hemodynamic parameters were recorded every 30min for 4h. ALI groups showed worse oxygenation than controls after lung injury. After 4h of mechanical ventilation, HFOV groups presented significant improvements in oxygenation. HFOV with and without iNO, and CMV with iNO showed significantly increased antioxidant defense and reduced DNA damage than CMV without iNO. Inhaled nitric oxide did not beneficially affect HFOV in relation to antioxidant defense/oxidative stress and pulmonary DNA damage. Overall, lung injury was reduced using HFOV or CMV with iNO. PMID:24148688

  9. The flow-pressure plot: a new look on the patient-ventilator interaction in neonatal care.

    PubMed

    Devlieger, Hugo; Bayet, Thierry; Lombet, Jacques; Naudé, Stéphane; Eugène, Christian

    2002-12-01

    Most modern neonatal ventilators have now a built-in flow sensor and, as a spin-off of their mechanical action, provide some information about lung function characteristics as compliance and resistance after computation of the flow and pressure signals. Additionally, respiratory graphics as volume-pressure and flow-volume plots can be displayed. In clinical practice, however, they are rarely used to refine the ventilator setting. A nonconventional flow-pressure plot is presented in this article, constructed from the volume or flow, and pressure outputs of a Babylog 8000 (Dräger, Lübeck, Germany). This flow-pressure diagram appears to be useful in the real-time computation of respiratory mechanics based on the Rahn's law of respiratory motion. Its major advantage, however, is the easy pattern recognition of subtle changes in infant-ventilator interaction, ie, excessive triggering, fighting against the ventilator, augmented breath, tube subobstruction. It may be useful to add the flow-pressure plot to the classical respiratory graphics allowing to monitor mechanical ventilation more accurately and to fine tune the ventilator setting accordingly. PMID:12537314

  10. Breath analysis for in vivo detection of pathogens related to ventilator-associated pneumonia in intensive care patients: a prospective pilot study.

    PubMed

    Filipiak, Wojciech; Beer, Ronny; Sponring, Andreas; Filipiak, Anna; Ager, Clemens; Schiefecker, Alois; Lanthaler, Simon; Helbok, Raimund; Nagl, Markus; Troppmair, Jakob; Amann, Anton

    2015-03-01

    Existing methods for the early detection of infections in mechanically ventilated (MV) patients at intensive care units (ICUs) are unsatisfactory. Here we present an exploratory study assessing the feasibility of breath VOC analyses for the non-invasive detection of pathogens in the lower respiratory tract of ventilated patients. An open uncontrolled clinical pilot study was performed by enrolling 28 mechanically ventilated (MV) patients with severe intracranial disease, being at risk for the development of or already with confirmed ventilation-associated pneumonia (VAP). The recently developed sampling technique enabled the collection of breath gas with a maximized contribution of alveolar air directly from the respiratory circuit under continuous capnography control, adsorptive preconcentration and final analysis by means of gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS).VAP was confirmed in 22/28 preselected patients (78%). The most common microorganisms were Staphylococcus aureus (5/22 VAP patients), Escherichia coli (5/22 VAP patients) and Candida spp. (5/22 VAP patients). 12/32 metabolites released by S. aureus in our previous in vitro studies were also detected in the end-tidal air of VAP patients infected with this pathogen. A similar overlap was seen in Candida albicans infections (8/29 VOCs). Moreover, the concentration profile of selected compounds correlated with the course of the infection.This prospective pilot study provides proof of the concept that the appearance and the concentration profile of pathogen-derived metabolites (elucidated from in vitro experiments) in the breath of ventilated patients during clinically confirmed VAP correlates with the presence of a particular pathogen. PMID:25557917

  11. Neurodevelopmental Outcomes of Extremely Low Birth Weight Infants Ventilated With Continuous Positive Airway Pressure vs. Mechanical Ventilation

    PubMed Central

    Thomas, Cameron W.; Meinzen-Derr, Jareen; Hoath, Steven B.; Narendran, Vivek

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To compare continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) vs. traditional mechanical ventilation (MV) at 24 h of age as predictors of neurodevelopmental (ND) outcomes in extremely low birth weight (ELBW) infants at 18-22 mo corrected gestational age (CGA). METHODS Infants ? 1000g birth weight born from January 2000 through December 2006 at two hospitals at the Cincinnati site of the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development Neonatal Research Network were evaluated comparing CPAP (N = 198) vs. MV (N = 109). Primary outcomes included the Bayley Score of Infant Development Version II (BSID-II), presence of deafness, blindness, cerebral palsy, bronchopulmonary dysplasia and death. RESULTS Ventilatory groups were similar in gender, rates of preterm prolonged rupture of membranes, antepartum hemorrhage, use of antenatal antibiotics, steroids, and tocolytics. Infants receiving CPAP weighed more, were older, were more likely to be non-Caucasian and from a singleton pregnancy. Infants receiving CPAP had better BSID-II scores, and lower rates of BPD and death. CONCLUSIONS After adjusting for acuity differences, ventilatory strategy at 24 h of age independently predicts long-term neurodevelopmental outcome in ELBW infants. PMID:21853318

  12. Analysis of the mechanisms of expiratory asynchrony in pressure support ventilation: a mathematical approach.

    PubMed

    Yamada, Y; Du, H L

    2000-06-01

    A mathematical model was developed to analyze the mechanisms of expiratory asynchrony during pressure support ventilation (PSV). Solving the model revealed several results. 1) Ratio of the flow at the end of patient neural inspiration to peak inspiratory flow (VTI/V(peak)) during PSV is determined by the ratio of time constant of the respiratory system (tau) to patient neural inspiratory time (TI) and the ratio of the set pressure support (Pps) level to maximal inspiratory muscle pressure (Pmus max). 2) VTI/V(peak) is affected more by tau/TI than by Pps/Pmus max. VTI/V(peak) increases in a sigmoidal relationship to tau/TI. An increase in Pps/Pmus max slightly shifts the VTI/V(peak)-tau/TI curve to the right, i.e., VTI/V(peak) becomes lower as Pps/Pmus max increases at the same tau/TI. 3) Under the selected adult respiratory mechanics, VTI/V(peak) ranges from 1 to 85% and has an excellent linear correlation with tau/TI. 4) In mechanical ventilators, single fixed levels of the flow termination criterion will always have chances of both synchronized termination and asynchronized termination, depending on patient mechanics. An increase in tau/TI causes more delayed and less premature termination opportunities. An increase in Pps/Pmus max narrows the synchronized zone, making inspiratory termination predisposed to be in asynchrony. Increasing the expiratory trigger sensitivity of a ventilator shifts the synchronized zone to the right, causing less delayed and more premature termination. Automation of expiratory trigger sensitivity in future mechanical ventilators may also be possible. In conclusion, our model provides a useful tool to analyze the mechanisms of expiratory asynchrony in PSV. PMID:10846029

  13. A technique for the administration of ribavirin to mechanically ventilated infants with severe respiratory syncytial virus infection.

    PubMed

    Frankel, L R; Wilson, C W; Demers, R R; Parker, J R; Lewiston, N J; Stevenson, D K; Smith, D W

    1987-11-01

    Fifteen infants with respiratory syncytial virus pulmonary infection admitted to our pediatric ICU from December 1, 1985 through April 30, 1986, required mechanical ventilation. These patients were placed on an open trial of ribavirin therapy. We describe a technique for the safe delivery of aerosolized ribavirin to these infants while on the ventilator. The agent was delivered for 16 h/day for 7 days. Modifications of the ventilator circuit were needed to prevent the condensation of the drug in the ventilator tubing and to allow for the safe and effective operation of the ventilator. A common ventilator strategy was used for all patients. The highest positive inspiratory pressure generated was 42 +/- 9.5 (SD) cm H2O, the highest PEEP was 5.9 +/- 3.2 cm H2O, the duration of ventilation was 10.7 +/- 8.5 days, and exposure to fraction of inspired oxygen was greater than or equal to 0.6 for 55.3 h. Ribavirin levels were measurable in two patients, thereby demonstrating that the drug was in fact delivered and absorbed. Our preliminary results demonstrate that ribavirin can be delivered to the patients with respiratory syncytial viral infections who require mechanical ventilation; however, further studies are indicated to evaluate the efficacy and dose responsiveness, alterations in pulmonary dynamics, and safety of ribavirin in delivery to infants requiring ventilation. PMID:3677748

  14. Correlation between central venous pressure and peripheral venous pressure with passive leg raise in patients on mechanical ventilation

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Dharmendra; Ahmed, Syed Moied; Ali, Shahna; Ray, Utpal; Varshney, Ankur; Doley, Kashmiri

    2015-01-01

    Background: Central venous pressure (CVP) assesses the volume status of patients. However, this technique is not without complications. We, therefore, measured peripheral venous pressure (PVP) to see whether it can replace CVP. Aims: To evaluate the correlation and agreement between CVP and PVP after passive leg raise (PLR) in critically ill patients on mechanical ventilation. Setting and Design: Prospective observational study in Intensive Care Unit. Methods: Fifty critically ill patients on mechanical ventilation were included in the study. CVP and PVP measurements were taken using a water column manometer. Measurements were taken in the supine position and subsequently after a PLR of 45. Statistical Analysis: Pearson's correlation and BlandAltman's analysis. Results: This study showed a fair correlation between CVP and PVP after a PLR of 45 (correlation coefficient, r = 0.479; P = 0.0004) when the CVP was <10 cmH2O. However, the correlation was good when the CVP was >10 cmH2O. BlandAltman analysis showed 95% limits of agreement to be ?2.9129.472. Conclusion: PVP can replace CVP for guiding fluid therapy in critically ill patients. PMID:26730115

  15. Classification of patients undergoing weaning from mechanical ventilation using the coherence between heart rate variability and respiratory flow signal.

    PubMed

    Arcentales, A; Caminal, P; Diaz, I; Benito, S; Giraldo, B F

    2015-07-01

    Weaning from mechanical ventilation is still one of the most challenging problems in intensive care. Unnecessary delays in discontinuation and weaning trials that are undertaken too early are both undesirable. This study investigated the contribution of spectral signals of heart rate variability (HRV) and respiratory flow, and their coherence to classifying patients on weaning process from mechanical ventilation. A total of 121 candidates for weaning, undergoing spontaneous breathing tests, were analyzed: 73 were successfully weaned (GSucc), 33 failed to maintain spontaneous breathing so were reconnected (GFail), and 15 were extubated after the test but reintubated within 48 h (GRein). The power spectral density and magnitude squared coherence (MSC) of HRV and respiratory flow signals were estimated. Dimensionality reduction was performed using principal component analysis (PCA) and sequential floating feature selection. The patients were classified using a fuzzy K-nearest neighbour method. PCA of the MSC gave the best classification with the highest accuracy of 92% classifying GSucc versus GFail patients, and 86% classifying GSucc versus GRein patients. PCA of the respiratory flow signal gave the best classification between GFail and GRein patients (79% accuracy). These classifiers showed a good balance between sensitivity and specificity. Besides, the spectral coherence between HRV and the respiratory flow signal, in patients on weaning trial process, can contribute to the extubation decision. PMID:26020593

  16. Home Mechanical Ventilation in Childhood-Onset Hereditary Neuromuscular Diseases: 13 Years Experience at a Single Center in Korea

    PubMed Central

    Han, Young Joo; Park, June Dong; Lee, Bongjin; Choi, Yu Hyeon; Suh, Dong In; Lim, Byung Chan; Chae, Jong-Hee

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Children with hereditary neuromuscular diseases (NMDs) are at a high risk of morbidity and mortality related to respiratory failure. The use of home mechanical ventilation (HMV) has saved the lives of many children with NMD but, due to a lack of studies, dependable guidelines are not available. We drew upon our experience to compare the various underlying NMDs and to evaluate HMV with regard to respiratory morbidity, the proper indications and timing for its use, and to develop a policy to improve the quality of home noninvasive ventilation (NIV). Methods We retrospectively analyzed the medical records of 57 children with childhood-onset hereditary NMDs in whom HMV was initiated between January 2000 and May 2013 at Seoul National University Children's Hospital. The degree of respiratory morbidity was estimated by the frequency and duration of hospitalizations caused by respiratory distress. Results The most common NMD was spinal muscular atrophy (SMA, n = 33). Emergent mechanical ventilation was initiated in 44% of the patients before the confirmed diagnosis, and the indicators of pre-HMV respiratory morbidity (e.g., extubation trials, hypoxia, hospitalizations, and intensive care unit stay) were greater in these patients than in others. The proportion of post-HMV hospitalizations (range, 0.00?0.52; median, 0.01) was lower than that of pre-HMV hospitalizations (0.02?1.00; 0.99) (P < 0.001). Eight patients were able to maintain home NIV. The main causes of NIV failure were air leakage and a large amount of airway secretions. Conclusions The application of HMV helped reduce respiratory morbidity in children with childhood-onset hereditary NMD. Patients with SMA type I can benefit from an early diagnosis and the timely application of HMV. The choice between invasive and noninvasive HMV should be based on the patients age and NIV trial tolerance. Systematic follow-up guidelines provided by a multidisciplinary team are needed. PMID:25822836

  17. [Research on modeling and simulation of the system of position transformation mechanical ventilation].

    PubMed

    Xu, Ji-ping; Liu, Zai-wen; Wang, Xiao-yi

    2009-11-01

    The principle of Position Transformation Mechanical Ventilation (PTMV) was introduced briefly, and the mechanical structure and the intelligent control algorithm were studied. According to the principle and function requirement of PTMV, the mechanical structure of slip pole driven rocking chair(SPDRC) was proposed, the dynamics model of SPDRC was established, and the auto disturbance rejection controller was designed. The integrated model of control system was structured by using ADAMS and MATLAB, and the model validation and simulation were implemented. The simulation results indicate that the mechanical structure is feasible and the control process of ADRC is precise and steady. PMID:20352909

  18. Characterisation of aerobic bacteria isolated from endotracheal aspirate in adult patients suspected ventilator associated pneumonia in a tertiary care center in Mangalore

    PubMed Central

    Jakribettu, Ramakrishna Pai; Boloor, Rekha

    2012-01-01

    Background and Objectives: Despite advances in antimicrobial therapy, better supportive care modalities and use of a wide range of preventive measures, ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) continues to be an important cause of morbidity and mortality in intensive care unit (ICU). VAP requires a rapid diagnosis and initiation of appropriate antibiotic treatment, to prevent mortality and morbidity. Inappropriate and inadequate antibiotic treatment causes emergence of drug resistance in pathogens and poor prognosis in patients. Early detection of pathogens causing VAP helps to control their spread by administration of suitable antibiotics and proper infection control measures. The study was conducted to know the pathogens causing VAP in Fr. Muller Medical College Hospital, Mangalore, and their susceptibility pattern. Methods: A total of 100 patients, on mechanical ventilation for more than 48 h, who were suspected to have VAP were included in the study between December 2008 and November 2009. Their endotracheal aspirates (ETAs) were collected and processed. From 100 ETA, 138 isolates of count > 105 CFU/ mL were characterized and antibiogram was determined using standard antibiotics regime. Results: Incidence of VAP was found to be 44.2% among the mechanically ventilated patients. Klebsiella pneumoniae (34%) was the most common pathogen isolated, followed by Pseudomonas aeruginosa (20%). Among them, most of the K. pneumoniae and P. aeruginosa isolates were resistant to penicillins, cephalosporins, fluoroquinolones was observed but were sensitive to piperacillin/tazobactum, cefaperazone/sulbactum, and carbapenems. All isolates were sensitive to amikacin. Interpretation and Conclusion: The present study shows prevalence of multidrug-resistant organisms in the study region. Klebsiella species was the most common pathogen isolated in ETA. Acinetobacter species were the most resistant pathogens prevailing in our ICU setup, leading to the increased mortality in the ventilated patients. Patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease is the most common predisposing factor for VAP in the study group. PMID:22754435

  19. Invasive Mechanical Ventilation in California Over 20002009: Implications for Emergency Medicine

    PubMed Central

    Mudumbai, Seshadri C.; Barr, Juli; Scott, Jennifer; Mariano, Edward R.; Bertaccini, Edward; Nguyen, Hieu; Memtsoudis, Stavros G.; Cason, Brian; Phibbs, Ciaran S.; Wagner, Todd

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Patients who require invasive mechanical ventilation (IMV) often represent a sequence of care between the emergency department (ED) and intensive care unit (ICU). Despite being the most populous state, little information exists to define patterns of IMV use within the state of California. Methods We examined data from the masked Patient Discharge Database of Californias Office of Statewide Health Planning and Development from 20002009. Adult patients who received IMV during their stay were identified using the International Classification of Diseases 9th Revision and Clinical Modification procedure codes (96.70, 96.71, 96.72). Patients were divided into age strata (1834yr, 3564yr, and >65yr). Using descriptive statistics and regression analyses, for IMV discharges during the study period, we quantified the number of ED vs. non-ED based admissions; changes in patient characteristics and clinical outcome; evaluated the marginal costs for IMV; determined predictors for prolonged acute mechanical ventilation (PAMV, i.e. IMV>96hr); and projected the number of IMV discharges and ED-based admissions by year 2020. Results There were 696,634 IMV discharges available for analysis. From 20002009, IMV discharges increased by 2.8%/year: n=60,933 (293/100,000 persons) in 2000 to n=79,868 (328/100,000 persons) in 2009. While ED-based admissions grew by 3.8%/year, non-ED-based admissions remained stable (0%). During 20002009, fastest growth was noted for 1) the 3564 year age strata; 2) Hispanics; 3) patients with non-Medicare public insurance; and 4) patients requiring PAMV. Average total patient cost-adjusted charges per hospital discharge increased by 29% from 2000 (from $42,528 to $60,215 in 2014 dollars) along with increases in the number of patients discharged to home and skilled nursing facilities. Higher marginal costs were noted for younger patients (ages 1834yr), non-whites, and publicly insured patients. Some of the strongest predictors for PAMV were age 3564 years (OR=1.12; 95% CI [1.091.14], p<0.05); non-Whites; and non-Medicare public insurance. Our models suggest that by 2020, IMV discharges will grow to n=153,153 (377 IMV discharges/100,000 persons) with 99,095 admitted through the ED. Conclusion Based on sustained growth over the past decade, by the year 2020, we project a further increase to 153,153 IMV discharges with 99,095 admitted through the ED. Given limited ICU bed capacities, ongoing increases in the number and type of IMV patients have the potential to adversely affect California EDs that often admit patients to ICUs. PMID:26587094

  20. Non-invasive mechanical ventilation and mortality in elderly immunocompromised patients hospitalized with pneumonia: a retrospective cohort study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Mortality after pneumonia in immunocompromised patients is higher than for immunocompetent patients. The use of non-invasive mechanical ventilation for patients with severe pneumonia may provide beneficial outcomes while circumventing potential complications associated with invasive mechanical ventilation. The aim of our study was to determine if the use of non-invasive mechanical ventilation in elderly immunocompromised patients with pneumonia is associated with higher all-cause mortality. Methods In this retrospective cohort study, data were obtained from the Department of Veterans Affairs administrative databases. We included veterans age ?65years who were immunocompromised and hospitalized due to pneumonia. Multilevel logistic regression analysis was used to determine the relationship between the use of invasive versus non-invasive mechanical ventilation and 30-day and 90-day mortality. Results Of 1,946 patients in our cohort, 717 received non-invasive mechanical ventilation and 1,229 received invasive mechanical ventilation. There was no significant association between all-cause 30-day mortality and non-invasive versus invasive mechanical ventilation in our adjusted model (odds ratio (OR) 0.85, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.66-1.10). However, those patients who received non-invasive mechanical ventilation had decreased 90-day mortality (OR 0.66, 95% CI 0.52-0.84). Additionally, receipt of guideline-concordant antibiotics in our immunocompromised cohort was significantly associated with decreased odds of 30-day mortality (OR 0.31, 95% CI 0.24-0.39) and 90-day mortality (OR 0.41, 95% CI 0.31-0.53). Conclusions Our findings suggest that physicians should consider the use of non-invasive mechanical ventilation, when appropriate, for elderly immunocompromised patients hospitalized with pneumonia. PMID:24468062

  1. Assessment of Critical Care Providers Application of Preventive Measures for Ventilator-Associated Pneumonia in Intensive Care Units

    PubMed Central

    Amiri-Abchuyeh, Maryam; Gholipour-Baradari, Afshin; Yazdani-Cherati, Jamshid; Nikkhah, Attieh

    2015-01-01

    Background The implementation of guidelines for the prevention of Ventilator-associated pneumonia has been shown to have a significant effect in reducing the incidence of VAP. Objective The aim of the present study was to evaluate the implementation of the preventive strategies for VAP in ICUs of university hospitals of Sari, Iran. Materials and Methods This cross-sectional study was carried out in 600 beds/day in the ICUs of university hospitals of Sari from April to June 2012. Sampling was done by availability technique in patients receiving mechanical ventilation in the ICU. The implementation of the preventive measures was assessed by a standard checklist with previously approved validity and reliability. Results The percentage of implementing each of the measures was as follows: sterile suction, 88.44%; semi-recumbent position, 76.8%; oral hygiene, 58.45%; using heat and moisture exchanges (HMEs), 58%; controlling cuff pressure, 46.8%; hand hygiene, 32.8%; using anti-coagulants, 26.8% and physiotherapy, 25.5%. Closed suction system, continuous drainage of subglottic secretions and kinetic beds were not used at all. Conclusion The overall mean percentage of implementing preventive measures was low and required designing integrated guidelines by considering the conditions of the ICUs in each country, as well as educating and encouraging the staffs to use the recommended guidelines. PMID:26435967

  2. A Comparative Data-Based Modeling Study on Respiratory CO2 Gas Exchange during Mechanical Ventilation

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Chang-Sei; Ansermino, J. Mark; Hahn, Jin-Oh

    2016-01-01

    The goal of this study is to derive a minimally complex but credible model of respiratory CO2 gas exchange that may be used in systematic design and pilot testing of closed-loop end-tidal CO2 controllers in mechanical ventilation. We first derived a candidate model that captures the essential mechanisms involved in the respiratory CO2 gas exchange process. Then, we simplified the candidate model to derive two lower-order candidate models. We compared these candidate models for predictive capability and reliability using experimental data collected from 25 pediatric subjects undergoing dynamically varying mechanical ventilation during surgical procedures. A two-compartment model equipped with transport delay to account for CO2 delivery between the lungs and the tissues showed modest but statistically significant improvement in predictive capability over the same model without transport delay. Aggregating the lungs and the tissues into a single compartment further degraded the predictive fidelity of the model. In addition, the model equipped with transport delay demonstrated superior reliability to the one without transport delay. Further, the respiratory parameters derived from the model equipped with transport delay, but not the one without transport delay, were physiologically plausible. The results suggest that gas transport between the lungs and the tissues must be taken into account to accurately reproduce the respiratory CO2 gas exchange process under conditions of wide-ranging and dynamically varying mechanical ventilation conditions. PMID:26870728

  3. Legal Mechanisms Supporting Accountable Care Principles

    PubMed Central

    Ramanathan, Tara

    2016-01-01

    Public health and private providers and facilities may shape the future of the US health system by engaging in new ways to deliver care to patients. “Accountable care” contracts allow private health care and public health providers and facilities to collaboratively serve defined populations. Accountable care frameworks emphasize health care quality and cost savings, among other goals. In this article, I explore the legal context for accountable care, including the mechanisms by which providers, facilities, and public health coordinate activities, avoid inefficiencies, and improve health outcomes. I highlight ongoing evaluations of the impact of accountable care on public health outcomes. PMID:25211740

  4. AUTOPILOT-BT: a system for knowledge and model based mechanical ventilation.

    PubMed

    Lozano, S; Mller, K; Brendle, A; Gottlieb, D; Schumann, S; Stahl, C A; Guttmann, J

    2008-01-01

    A closed-loop system (AUTOPILOT-BT) for the control of mechanical ventilation was designed to: 1) autonomously achieve goals specified by the clinician, 2) optimize the ventilator settings with respect to the underlying disease and 3) automatically adapt to the individual properties and specific disease status of the patient. The current realization focuses on arterial oxygen saturation (SpO(2)), end-tidal CO(2) pressure (P(et)CO(2)), and positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) maximizing respiratory system compliance (C(rs)). The "AUTOPILOT-BT" incorporates two different knowledge sources: a fuzzy logic control reflecting expert knowledge and a mathematical model based system that provides individualized patient specific information. A first evaluation test with respect to desired end-tidal-CO(2)-level was accomplished using an experimental setup to simulate three different metabolic CO(2) production rates by means of a physical lung simulator. The outcome of ventilator settings made by the "AUTOPILOT-BT" system was compared to those produced by clinicians. The model based control system proved to be superior to the clinicians as well as to a pure fuzzy logic based control with respect to precision and required settling time into the optimal ventilation state. PMID:18334783

  5. Characteristics and outcome of patients with difficult weaning from mechanical ventilation: an 18 years experience of a respiratory intermediate unit attached to a pulmonary department

    PubMed Central

    Tsara, V; Moisiadis, N; Antoniadou, M; Serasli, E

    2015-01-01

    Background: Respiratory dysfunction often persists in post intensive care unit (ICU) patients and intermediate care facilities have been established to ensure the continuous of appropriate care. Methods: The data of patients with difficult weaning from mechanical ventilation admitted to a respiratory intermediate unit (RIU) attached to a pulmonary department of a General Hospital, were retrospectively analyzed. Clinical characteristics, weaning from mechanical ventilation and tracheostomy, ICU readmission and RIU mortality were examined over a period of 18 years (1993- 2010) that was randomly divided into three six-year-periods. Results: A total of 548 patients (age 56.717.9 years) [mean standard deviation (SD)], of whom 80% with tracheostomy in place and 37.6% with pressure ulcers, were examined. The ICU stay was 30.124.7 days (mean SD) and increased over time (p<0.05). Patients baseline disorders were: chronic respiratory disease (41.3%), chronic cardiovascular diseases (10.6%), neuromuscular disease (22.8%) and miscellaneous (25.3%). The length of RIU stay (22.819.5 days) was constant over the examined periods but an increase in age and maintenance of tracheostomy were observed; 80% of patients were liberated from mechanical ventilation and 58.5% from tracheostomy, whereas the RIU mortality was 15%. Conclusion: In their vast majority patients with chronic respiratory failure, who were admitted to RIU,were weaned from mechanical ventilation, although in a substantial percentage the maintenance of tracheostomy was mandatory after discharge. Hippokratia 2015, 19 (1): 37-40. PMID:26435645

  6. Propofol for benzodiazepine-refractory alcohol withdrawal in a non-mechanically ventilated patient.

    PubMed

    Hughes, Darrel W; Vanwert, Elizabeth; Lepori, Lauren; Adams, Bruce D

    2014-01-01

    Long-term alcohol use confers neurochemical changes in response to alcohol's exogenous inhibitory effects. Downregulation and decreased sensitivity of ?-aminobutyric acid receptors render benzodiazepines less effective at controlling psychomotor agitation. Propofol has been reported to have successfully relieved alcohol withdrawal syndrome (AWS) symptoms in part because of activation of ?-aminobutyric acid channels in combination with antagonism of excitatory amino acids such as N-methyl-D-aspartate. Successful use of propofol in refractory AWS in patients with endotracheal intubation and mechanical ventilation has been reported. We present a case of resolution of AWS symptoms in a benzodiazepine-refractory, nonintubated, non-mechanically ventilated alcohol withdrawal patient with low-dose, continuous-infusion propofol. PMID:24075805

  7. Experiences of exclusion when living on a ventilator: reflections based on the application of Julia Kristeva's philosophy to caring science.

    PubMed

    Lindahl, Berit

    2011-01-01

    The research presented in this work represents reflections in the light of Julia Kristeva's philosophy concerning empirical data drawn from research describing the everyday life of people dependent on ventilators. It also presents a qualitative and narrative methodological approach from a person-centred perspective. Most research on home ventilator treatment is biomedical. There are a few published studies describing the situation of people living at home on a ventilator but no previous publications have used the thoughts in Kristeva's philosophy applied to this topic from a caring science perspective. The paper also addresses what a life at home on a ventilator may be like and will hopefully add some new aspects to the discussion of philosophical issues in nursing and the very essence of care. Kristeva's philosophy embraces phenomena such as language, abjection, body, and love, allowing her writings to make a fruitful contribution to nursing philosophy in that they strengthen, expand, and deepen a caring perspective. Moreover, her writings about revolt having the power to create hope add an interesting aspect to the work of earlier philosophers and nursing theorists. PMID:21143574

  8. Intrapulmonary haematoma complicating mechanical ventilation in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

    PubMed

    Bonmarchand, G; Lefebvre, E; Lerebours-Pigeonnière, G; Genevois, A; Massari, P; Leroy, J

    1988-01-01

    Intrapulmonary haematomas occurred during mechanical ventilation of two patients with advanced chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and bullous dystrophy. In both cases, the haematomas were revealed by blood-stained aspirates, a fall in haemoglobin level, and the appearance of radiological opacities. Haematoma occurrence in the area of a bulla which recently has rapidly increased in size, suggests that the haematoma is due to the rupture of stretched vessels embedded in the wall of the bulla. PMID:3379188

  9. Prospective Multicenter Study of Children With Bronchiolitis Requiring Mechanical Ventilation

    PubMed Central

    Piedra, Pedro A.; Stevenson, Michelle D.; Sullivan, Ashley F.; Forgey, Tate F.; Clark, Sunday; Espinola, Janice A.; Camargo, Carlos A.

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To identify factors associated with continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) and/or intubation for children with bronchiolitis. METHODS: We performed a 16-center, prospective cohort study of hospitalized children aged <2 years with bronchiolitis. For 3 consecutive years from November 1 until March 31, beginning in 2007, researchers collected clinical data and a nasopharyngeal aspirate from study participants. We oversampled children from the ICU. Samples of nasopharyngeal aspirate were tested by polymerase chain reaction for 18 pathogens. RESULTS: There were 161 children who required CPAP and/or intubation. The median age of the overall cohort was 4 months; 59% were male; 61% white, 24% black, and 36% Hispanic. In the multivariable model predicting CPAP/intubation, the significant factors were: age <2 months (odds ratio [OR] 4.3; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.7–11.5), maternal smoking during pregnancy (OR 1.4; 95% CI 1.1–1.9), birth weight <5 pounds (OR 1.7; 95% CI 1.0–2.6), breathing difficulty began <1 day before admission (OR 1.6; 95% CI 1.2–2.1), presence of apnea (OR 4.8; 95% CI 2.5–8.5), inadequate oral intake (OR 2.5; 95% CI 1.3–4.3), severe retractions (OR 11.1; 95% CI 2.4–33.0), and room air oxygen saturation <85% (OR 3.3; 95% CI 2.0–4.8). The optimism-corrected c-statistic for the final model was 0.80. CONCLUSIONS: In this multicenter study of children hospitalized with bronchiolitis, we identified several demographic, historical, and clinical factors that predicted the use of CPAP and/or intubation, including children born to mothers who smoked during pregnancy. We also identified a novel subgroup of children who required mechanical respiratory support <1 day after respiratory symptoms began. PMID:22869823

  10. Comparison of motor development of low birth weight (LBW) infants with and without using mechanical ventilation and normal birth weight infants

    PubMed Central

    Nazi, Sepideh; Aliabadi, Faranak

    2015-01-01

    Background: To determine whether using mechanical ventilation in neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) influences motor development of low birth weight (LBW) infants and to compare their motor development with normal birth weight (NBW) infants at the age of 8 to 12 months using Peabody Developmental Motor Scale 2 (PDMS-2). Methods: This cross sectional study was conducted on 70 LBW infants in two groups, mechanical ventilation (MV) group, n=35 and without mechanical ventilation (WMV) group, n=35 and 40 healthy NBW infants matched with LBW group for age. Motor quotients were determined using PDMS-2 and compared in all groups using ANOVA statistical method and SPSS version 17. Results: Comparison of the mean developmental motor quotient (DMQ) of both MV and WMV groups showed significant differences with NBW group (p< 0.05). Also, significant difference was found between the gross DMQ of MV group and WMV group (p< 0.05). Moreover, in MV group, both gross and fine motor quotients were considered as below average (16.12%). In WMV group, the gross motor quotient was considered as average (49.51%) and the fine motor quotient was considered as below average (16.12%). Conclusion: It seems that LBW infants have poor fine motor outcomes. The gross motor outcomes, on the other hand, will be significantly more influenced by using mechanical ventilation. In addition, more differences seem to be related to lower birth weight. Very Low Birth Weight (VLBW) infants are more prone to developmental difficulties than LBW infants with the history of using mechanical ventilation especially in fine motor development. PMID:26913264

  11. Comparing the effect of open and closed endotracheal suctioning on pain and oxygenation in post CABG patients under mechanical ventilation

    PubMed Central

    Mohammadpour, Ali; Amini, Shahram; Shakeri, Mohammad Taghi; Mirzaei, Sahereh

    2015-01-01

    Background: The aim of this study was to compare changes in pain, oxygenation, and ventilation following endotracheal suctioning with open and closed suctioning systems in post coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) patients. Materials and Methods: 130 post CABG mechanically ventilated patients were randomly allocated to undergo either open (n = 75) or closed (n = 55) endotracheal suctioning for 15 s. The patients received 100% oxygen for 1 min before and after suctioning. Pain score using critical-care pain objective tool (CPOT) was compared during suctioning between the two groups. Arterial oxygen pressure (PaO2), PaO2 to fraction of inspired oxygen (FiO2) (PF) ratio, and arterial carbon dioxide pressure (PaCO2) were compared at baseline and 5 min after suctioning. Peripheral oxygen saturation (SpO2) was compared at baseline, during suctioning, and at 1 min interval after suctioning for 5 min between the two groups. Results: The patients were the same with regard to CPOT scores, i.e. 3.21 (1.89) and 2.94 (1.56) in the open and closed suctioning systems, respectively. SpO2 did not change significantly between the two groups. Changes in PaO2 and PF ratio was more significant in the open than in the closed system (P = 0.007). Patients in the open group had a higher PaCO2 than those in the closed group, i.e. 40.54 (6.56) versus 38.02 (6.10), and the P value was 0.027. Conclusions: Our study revealed that patients’ pain and SpO2 changes are similar following endotracheal suctioning in both suctioning systems. However, oxygenation and ventilation are better preserved with closed suctioning system. PMID:25878695

  12. Simulation of swallowing dysfunction and mechanical ventilation after a Montgomery T-tube insertion.

    PubMed

    Trabelsi, O; Malv, M; Mena Tobar, A; Doblar, M

    2015-01-01

    The Montgomery T-tube is used as a combined tracheal stent and airway after laryngotracheoplasty, to keep the lumen open and prevent mucosal laceration from scarring. It is valuable in the management of upper and mid-tracheal lesions, while invaluable in long and multisegmental stenting lesions. Numerical simulations based on real-patient-tracheal geometry, experimental tissue characterization, and previous numerical estimation of the physiological swallowing force are performed to estimate the consequences of Montgomery T-tube implantation on swallowing and assisted ventilation: structural analysis of swallowing is performed to evaluate patient swallowing capacity, and computational fluid dynamics simulation is carried out to analyze related mechanical ventilation. With an inserted Montgomery T-tube, vertical displacement (Z-axis) reaches 8.01 mm, whereas in the Y-axis, it reaches 6.63 mm. The maximal principal stress obtained during swallowing was 1.6 MPa surrounding the hole and in the upper contact with the tracheal wall. Fluid flow simulation of the mechanical ventilation revealed positive pressure for both inhalation and exhalation, being higher for inspiration. The muscular deflections, considerable during normal breathing, are nonphysiological, and this aspect results in a constant overload of the tracheal muscle. During swallowing, the trachea ascends producing a nonhomogeneous elongation. This movement can be compromised when prosthesis is inserted, which explains the high incidence of glottis close inefficiency. Fluid simulations showed that nonphysiological pressure is established inside the trachea due to mechanical ventilation. This may lead to an overload of the tracheal muscle, explaining several related problems as muscle thinning or decrease in contractile function. PMID:24963870

  13. Kinetic profiling of in vivo lung cellular inflammatory responses to mechanical ventilation

    PubMed Central

    Woods, Samantha J.; Waite, Alicia A. C.; O'Dea, Kieran P.; Halford, Paul; Takata, Masao

    2015-01-01

    Mechanical ventilation, through overdistension of the lung, induces substantial inflammation that is thought to increase mortality among critically ill patients. The mechanotransduction processes involved in converting lung distension into inflammation during this ventilator-induced lung injury (VILI) remain unclear, although many cell types have been shown to be involved in its pathogenesis. This study aimed to identify the profile of in vivo lung cellular activation that occurs during the initiation of VILI. This was achieved using a flow cytometry-based method to quantify the phosphorylation of several markers (p38, ERK1/2, MAPK-activated protein kinase 2, and NF-?B) of inflammatory pathway activation within individual cell types. Anesthetized C57BL/6 mice were ventilated with low (7 ml/kg), intermediate (30 ml/kg), or high (40 ml/kg) tidal volumes for 1, 5, or 15 min followed by immediate fixing and processing of the lungs. Surprisingly, the pulmonary endothelium was the cell type most responsive to in vivo high-tidal-volume ventilation, demonstrating activation within just 1 min, followed by the alveolar epithelium. Alveolar macrophages were the slowest to respond, although they still demonstrated activation within 5 min. This order of activation was specific to VILI, since intratracheal lipopolysaccharide induced a very different pattern. These results suggest that alveolar macrophages may become activated via a secondary mechanism that occurs subsequent to activation of the parenchyma and that the lung cellular activation mechanism may be different between VILI and lipopolysaccharide. Our data also demonstrate that even very short periods of high stretch can promote inflammatory activation, and, importantly, this injury may be immediately manifested within the pulmonary vasculature. PMID:25770178

  14. Neurally adjusted ventilatory assist: a ventilation tool or a ventilation toy?

    PubMed

    Verbrugghe, Walter; Jorens, Philippe G

    2011-03-01

    Mechanical ventilation has, since its introduction into clinical practice, undergone a major evolution from controlled ventilation to various modes of assisted ventilation. Neurally adjusted ventilatory assist (NAVA) is the newest development. The implementation of NAVA requires the introduction of a catheter to measure the electrical activity of the diaphragm (EA(di)). NAVA relies, opposite to conventional assisted ventilation modes, on the EA(di) to trigger the ventilator breath and to adjust the ventilatory assist to the neural drive. The amplitude of the ventilator assist is determined by the instantaneous EA(di) and the NAVA level set by the clinician. The NAVA level amplifies the EA(di) signal and determines instantaneous ventilator assist on a breath-to-breath basis. Experimental and clinical data suggest superior patient-ventilator synchrony with NAVA. Patient-ventilator asynchrony is present in 25% of mechanically ventilated patients in the intensive care unit and may contribute to patient discomfort, sleep fragmentation, higher use of sedation, development of delirium, ventilator-induced lung injury, prolonged mechanical ventilation, and ultimately mortality. With NAVA, the reliance on the EA(di) signal, together with an intact ventilatory drive and intact breathing reflexes, allows integration of the ventilator in the neuro-ventilatory coupling on a higher level than conventional ventilation modes. The simple monitoring of the EA(di) signal alone may provide the clinician with important information to guide ventilator management, especially during the weaning process. Although, until now, little evidence proves the superiority of NAVA on clinically relevant end points, it seems evident that patient populations (eg, COPD and small children) with major patient-ventilator asynchrony may benefit from this new ventilatory tool. PMID:21255496

  15. [Collateral ventilation].

    PubMed

    Voshaar, Th H

    2008-06-01

    The phenomenon of collateral ventilation is defined as ventilation of alveolar structures through passages or channels that bypass the normal airways. Such bypassing structures can be interalveolar, bronchiole-alveolar, interbronchiole, and interlobar. Collateral ventilation structures seem to be prominent in human lungs with trapped air and emphysema. In healthy human lungs normally no relevant collateral ventilation can be detected. In emphysematic lungs the ventilation through collateral channels can probably improve gas exchange mechanisms. The phenomenon of collateral ventilation explains several clinical observations in human lungs such as the absence of atalectasis following complete bronchial obstruction, e. g. after foreign body aspiration or tumour. The various results after bronchoscopic implantation of one-way endobronchial valves as a new technique for treating emphysema can also be explained by collateral ventilation. Understanding collateral ventilation is of high importance for clinicians, those working in the field of physiology of emphysema in human lungs and may be central to planning new bronchoscopic techniques for treating emphysema. The paper offers an overview of history, physiology and the relevance for lung volume reduction methods. Moreover, a new imaging technique to demonstrate collateral ventilation in vivo is described. PMID:18535980

  16. A Simple Blood-Saving Bundle Reduces Diagnostic Blood Loss and the Transfusion Rate in Mechanically Ventilated Patients

    PubMed Central

    Riessen, Reimer; Behmenburg, Melanie; Blumenstock, Gunnar; Guenon, Doris; Enkel, Sigrid; Schfer, Richard; Haap, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Aim of this study was to reduce blood loss caused by diagnostic blood sampling and to minimize the development of anemia in a high-risk group of mechanically ventilated medical intensive care patients. We therefore implemented a blood-saving bundle (BSB) combining a closed-loop arterial blood sampling system, smaller sampling tubes, reduced frequency of blood drawings, and reduced sample numbers. Methods The study included all patients from our medical ICU who were ventilated for more than 72 hours. Exclusion criteria were: acute or chronic anemia on admission, bleeding episode(s) during the ICU stay, or end-of-life therapy. The BSB was introduced in 2009 with training and educational support. Patients treated in 2008, before the introduction of the BSB, served as a control group (n = 41, 617 observation days), and were compared with patients treated in 2010 after the introduction of the BSB (BSB group, n = 50, 559 observation days). Primary endpoints were blood loss per day, and development of anemia. Secondary endpoints were numbers of blood transfusions, number of days on mechanical ventilation, and length of the ICU stay. Results Mean blood loss per ICU day was decreased from 43.3 ml (95% CI: 41.2 to 45.3 ml) in the controls to 15.0 ml (14.3 to 15.7 ml) in the BSB group (P < 0.001). The introduction of a closed-loop arterial blood sampling system was the major contributor to this effect. Mean hemoglobin concentrations showed no significant differences in both groups during the ICU stay. Hemoglobin values <9 g/dl, however, were recorded in 21.2% of observation days in the controls versus 15.4% in the BSB group (P = 0.01). Units of transfused red blood cells per 100 observation days decreased from 7 to 2.3 (P < 0.001). The mean number of ventilation days was 7.1 days (6.1 to 8.3 days) in the controls and 7.5 days (6.6 to 8.5 days) in the BSB group (P = NS). In total, patients in the BSB group stayed in ICU for a mean of 9.9 days (8.6 to 11.3 days), compared to a mean ICU stay of 13.0 days (10.9 to 15.4 days) in the control group (P = 0.014). Due to the longitudinal study design, however, we cannot exclude uncontrolled confounders affecting the transfusion frequency and mean ICU stay. Conclusion Our BSB could be easily implemented and was able to reduce diagnostic blood loss. PMID:26421920

  17. Mechanical ventilation alone, and in the presence of sepsis, impair protein metabolism in the diaphragm of neonatal pigs

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Mechanical ventilation (MV) impairs diaphragmatic function and diminishes the ability to wean from ventilatory support in adult humans. In normal neonatal pigs, animals that are highly anabolic, endotoxin (LPS) infusion induces sepsis, reduces peripheral skeletal muscle protein synthesis rates, but ...

  18. Mechanical ventilation and intra-abdominal hypertension: 'Beyond Good and Evil'

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Intra-abdominal hypertension is frequent in surgical and medical critically ill patients. Intra-abdominal hypertension has a serious impact on the function of respiratory as well as peripheral organs. In the presence of alveolar capillary damage, which occurs in acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), intra-abdominal hypertension promotes lung injury as well as edema, impedes the pulmonary lymphatic drainage, and increases intra-thoracic pressures, leading to atelectasis, airway closure, and deterioration of respiratory mechanics and gas exchange. The optimal setting of mechanical ventilation and its impact on respiratory function and hemodynamics in ARDS associated with intra-abdominal hypertension are far from being assessed. We suggest that the optimal ventilator management of patients with ARDS and intra-abdominal hypertension would include the following: (a) intra-abdominal, esophageal pressure, and hemodynamic monitoring; (b) ventilation setting with protective tidal volume, recruitment maneuver, and level of positive end-expiratory pressure set according to the 'best' compliance of the respiratory system or the lung; (c) deep sedation with or without neuromuscular paralysis in severe ARDS; and (d) open abdomen in selected patients with severe abdominal compartment syndrome. PMID:23256904

  19. Measurement of fractional order model parameters of respiratory mechanical impedance in total liquid ventilation.

    PubMed

    Beaulieu, Alexandre; Boss, Dominick; Micheau, Philippe; Avoine, Olivier; Praud, Jean-Paul; Walti, Herv

    2012-02-01

    This study presents a methodology for applying the forced-oscillation technique in total liquid ventilation. It mainly consists of applying sinusoidal volumetric excitation to the respiratory system, and determining the transfer function between the delivered flow rate and resulting airway pressure. The investigated frequency range was f ? [0.05, 4] Hz at a constant flow amplitude of 7.5 mL/s. The five parameters of a fractional order lung model, the existing "5-parameter constant-phase model," were identified based on measured impedance spectra. The identification method was validated in silico on computer-generated datasets and the overall process was validated in vitro on a simplified single-compartment mechanical lung model. In vivo data on ten newborn lambs suggested the appropriateness of a fractional-order compliance term to the mechanical impedance to describe the low-frequency behavior of the lung, but did not demonstrate the relevance of a fractional-order inertance term. Typical respiratory system frequency response is presented together with statistical data of the measured in vivo impedance model parameters. This information will be useful for both the design of a robust pressure controller for total liquid ventilators and the monitoring of the patient's respiratory parameters during total liquid ventilation treatment. PMID:21947517

  20. Candidemia in the critically ill: initial therapy and outcome in mechanically ventilated patients

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Mortality among critically ill patients with candidemia is very high. We sought to determine whether the choice of initial antifungal therapy is associated with survival among these patients, using need for mechanical ventilatory support as a marker of critical illness. Methods Cohort analysis of outcomes among mechanically ventilated patients with candidemia from the 24 North American academic medical centers contributing to the Prospective Antifungal Therapy (PATH) Alliance registry. Patients were included if they received either fluconazole or an echinocandin as initial monotherapy. Results Of 5272 patients in the PATH registry at the time of data abstraction, 1014 were ventilated and concomitantly had candidemia, with 689 eligible for analysis. 28-day survival was higher among the 374 patients treated initially with fluconazole than among the 315 treated with an echinocandin (66% versus 51%, P?ventilated patients with candidemia, those receiving fluconazole as initial monotherapy were significantly more likely to survive than those treated with an echinocandin. This difference persisted after adjustment for non-treatment factors. PMID:24172136

  1. Microbial Profile of Early and Late Onset Ventilator Associated Pneumonia in The Intensive Care Unit of A Tertiary Care Hospital in Bangalore, India

    PubMed Central

    Golia, Saroj; K.T., Sangeetha; C.L., Vasudha

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: Ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP), an important form of hospital-acquired pneumonia (HAP), specifically refers to pneumonia developing in a patient on mechanical ventilator for more than 48 h after intubation or tracheostomy. Despite the advancements in antimicrobial regimes, VAP continues to be an important cause of morbidity and mortality. VAP requires a rapid diagnosis and initiation of appropriate antibiotic treatment, as there is adverse effect of inadequate antibiotic treatment on patients prognosis and the emergence of multidrug-resistant (MDR) pathogens. Aims: The present study was undertaken to assess the etiological agents of early-onset and late-onset VAP and to know their sensitivity pattern. Material and Methods: VAP data over a period of 12 months (February 2012 -February 2013) in a tertiary care ICU was retrospectively analysed. The patients were stratified by age, sex, duration of VAP (Early/Late onset) and the identified pathogens with their sensitivity pattern. Results: Incidence of VAP was found to be 35.14%, out of which 44.23% had early-onset (<4 days MV) VAP and 55.77% had late-onset (>4 days MV) VAP. The most common organisms isolated in early onset and late onset VAP was Pseudomonas aeruginosa, E.coli and Acinetobacter baumanii. All enterobacteriaceal isolates were extended spectrum beta lactamase (ESBL) producing organisms and all Staphylococcus aureus isolates except one were methicillin resistant. The incidence of Multidrug resistant (MDR) Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Acinetobacter were 40% and 37.5% respectively. Conclusion: Due to the increasing incidence of multidrug-resistant organisms in our ICU, early and correct diagnosis of VAP is an urgent challenge for an optimal antibiotic treatment and cure. Hence, knowing the local microbial flora causing VAP and effective infection control practices are essential to improve clinical outcomes. PMID:24392373

  2. Respiratory Mechanics and Plasma Levels of Tumor Necrosis Factor Alpha and Interleukin 6 Are Affected by Gas Humidification during Mechanical Ventilation in Dogs

    PubMed Central

    Hernndez-Jimnez, Claudia; Garca-Torrentera, Rogelio; Olmos-Ziga, J. Ral; Jasso-Victoria, Rogelio; Gaxiola-Gaxiola, Miguel O.; Baltazares-Lipp, Matilde; Gutirrez-Gonzlez, Luis H.

    2014-01-01

    The use of dry gases during mechanical ventilation has been associated with the risk of serious airway complications. The goal of the present study was to quantify the plasma levels of TNF-alpha and IL-6 and to determine the radiological, hemodynamic, gasometric, and microscopic changes in lung mechanics in dogs subjected to short-term mechanical ventilation with and without humidification of the inhaled gas. The experiment was conducted for 24 hours in 10 dogs divided into two groups: Group I (n?=?5), mechanical ventilation with dry oxygen dispensation, and Group II (n?=?5), mechanical ventilation with oxygen dispensation using a moisture chamber. Variance analysis was used. No changes in physiological, hemodynamic, or gasometric, and radiographic constants were observed. Plasma TNF-alpha levels increased in group I, reaching a maximum 24 hours after mechanical ventilation was initiated (ANOVA p?=?0.77). This increase was correlated to changes in mechanical ventilation. Plasma IL-6 levels decreased at 12 hours and increased again towards the end of the study (ANOVA p>0.05). Both groups exhibited a decrease in lung compliance and functional residual capacity values, but this was more pronounced in group I. Pplat increased in group I (ANOVA p?=?0.02). Inhalation of dry gas caused histological lesions in the entire respiratory tract, including pulmonary parenchyma, to a greater extent than humidified gas. Humidification of inspired gases can attenuate damage associated with mechanical ventilation. PMID:25036811

  3. Recurrence plots and Shannon entropy for a dynamical analysis of asynchronisms in noninvasive mechanical ventilation.

    PubMed

    Rabarimanantsoa, H; Achour, L; Letellier, C; Cuvelier, A; Muir, J-F

    2007-03-01

    Recurrence plots were introduced to quantify the recurrence properties of chaotic dynamics. Hereafter, the recurrence quantification analysis was introduced to transform graphical interpretations into statistical analysis. In this spirit, a new definition for the Shannon entropy was recently introduced in order to have a measure correlated with the largest Lyapunov exponent. Recurrence plots and this Shannon entropy are thus used for the analysis of the dynamics underlying patient assisted with a mechanical noninvasive ventilation. The quality of the assistance strongly depends on the quality of the interactions between the patient and his ventilator which are crucial for tolerance and acceptability. Recurrence plots provide a global view of these interactions and the Shannon entropy is shown to be a measure of the rate of asynchronisms as well as the breathing rhythm. PMID:17411251

  4. Exhaled nitric oxide and carbon monoxide in mechanically ventilated brain-injured patients.

    PubMed

    Korovesi, I; Kotanidou, A; Papadomichelakis, E; Livaditi, O; Sotiropoulou, C; Koutsoukou, A; Marczin, N; Orfanos, S E

    2016-01-01

    The inflammatory influence and biological markers of prolonged mechanical-ventilation in uninjured human lungs remains controversial. We investigated exhaled nitric oxide (NO) and carbon monoxide (CO) in mechanically-ventilated, brain-injured patients in the absence of lung injury or sepsis at two different levels of positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP). Exhaled NO and CO were assessed in 27 patients, without lung injury or sepsis, who were ventilated with 8ml kg(-1) tidal volumes under zero end-expiratory pressure (ZEEP group, n  =  12) or 8 cm H2O PEEP (PEEP group, n  =  15). Exhaled NO and CO was analysed on days 1, 3 and 5 of mechanical ventilation and correlated with previously reported markers of inflammation and gas exchange. Exhaled NO was higher on day 3 and 5 in both patient groups compared to day 1: (PEEP group: 5.8 (4.4-9.7) versus 11.7 (6.9-13.9) versus 10.7 (5.6-16.6) ppb (p  <  0.05); ZEEP group: 5.3 (3.8-8.8) versus 9.8 (5.3-12.4) versus 9.6 (6.2-13.5) ppb NO peak levels for days 1, 3 and 5, respectively, p  <  0.05). Exhaled CO remained stable on day 3 but significantly decreased by day 5 in the ZEEP group only (6.3 (4.3-9.0) versus 8.1 (5.8-12.1) ppm CO peak levels for day 5 versus 1, p  <  0.05). The change scores for peak exhaled CO over day 1 and 5 showed significant correlations with arterial blood pH and plasma TNF levels (r s  =  0.49, p  =  0.02 and r s  =  -0.51 p  =  0.02, respectively). Exhaled NO correlated with blood pH in the ZEEP group and with plasma levels of IL-6 in the PEEP group. We observed differential changes in exhaled NO and CO in mechanically-ventilated patients even in the absence of manifest lung injury or sepsis. These may suggest subtle pulmonary inflammation and support application of real time breath analysis for molecular monitoring in critically ill patients. PMID:26934167

  5. A survey on oral care practices for ventilator-assisted patients in intensive care units in 3A hospitals of mainland China.

    PubMed

    Qu, Xing; Xie, Huixu; Zhang, Qi; Zhou, Xuedong; Shi, Zongdao

    2015-12-01

    Oral hygiene is a critical element of patient care, particularly among patients who need ventilator-assisted equipment. The objective of this study was to explore the current status of oral care practices, attitudes, education and knowledge among intensive care unit (ICU) nurses caring for ventilator-assisted patients in 3A hospitals in mainland China. To achieve this aim, an 18-item self-assessment questionnaire was mailed to head ICU nurses in 189 Grade 3A hospitals. Additional data were collected through in-person interviews at 38 ICUs throughout Sichuan, Shanxi, Jiangsu provinces, as well as Chongqing and Beijing. We found that most ICUs conducted oral examinations at patient admission, and that this care was largely provided by nurses. The most common oral care methods were foam swabs and mouth rinse containing antibiotics or disinfectants. Although the majority of ICUs provided continuing training for oral care, and most training was conducted by head nurses, the content and scope of training were not consistent among the hospitals in the study. The most popular sources of oral care knowledge were academic journals, Internet and professional books. Overall, it is clear that an evidence-based oral care standard manual is urgently needed for oral practice in ICUs in mainland China. PMID:24689526

  6. Prevention of ventilator-associated pneumonia.

    PubMed

    Lau, Arthur C W; So, H M; Tang, S L; Yeung, Alwin; Lam, S M; Yan, W W

    2015-02-01

    Ventilator-associated pneumonia is the commonest, yet mostly preventable, infection in mechanically ventilated patients. Successful control of ventilator-associated pneumonia can save hospitalisation cost, and is possible by using a multidisciplinary clinical and administrative approach. The ventilator-associated pneumonia rate should be expressed as the number of ventilator-associated pneumonia days per 1000 ventilator days to take into account the device-utilisation duration for meaningful comparison. Various strategies address the issue, including general infection control measures, body positioning, intubation and mechanical ventilation, oral and gastro-intestinal tract, endotracheal tube, airway pressure, cuff pressure, selective digestive and/or oropharyngeal decontamination, and probiotic or early antibiotic treatment, as well as overall administration at a policy level. The rationale and controversy of these approaches are discussed in this article. The authors suggest that all units treating mechanically ventilated patients should have a ventilator-associated pneumonia prevention protocol in place, and ventilator-associated pneumonia should be seriously considered as a key performance indicator in local intensive care units. PMID:25593193

  7. Noninvasive Mechanical Ventilation Improves Breathing-Swallowing Interaction of Ventilator Dependent Neuromuscular Patients: A Prospective Crossover Study

    PubMed Central

    Garguilo, Marine; Lejaille, Michèle; Vaugier, Isabelle; Orlikowski, David; Terzi, Nicolas; Lofaso, Frédéric; Prigent, Hélène

    2016-01-01

    Background Respiratory involvement in neuromuscular disorders may contribute to impaired breathing-swallowing interactions, swallowing disorders and malnutrition. We investigated whether the use of non-invasive ventilation (NIV) controlled by the patient could improve swallowing performances in a population of neuromuscular patients requiring daytime NIV. Methods Ten neuromuscular patients with severe respiratory failure requiring extensive NIV use were studied while swallowing without and with NIV (while ventilated with a modified ventilator allowing the patient to withhold ventilation as desired). Breathing-swallowing interactions were investigated by chin electromyography, cervical piezoelectric sensor, nasal flow recording and inductive plethysmography. Two water-bolus sizes (5 and 10ml) and a textured yogurt bolus were tested in a random order. Results NIV use significantly improved swallowing fragmentation (defined as the number of respiratory interruption of the swallowing of a single bolus) (p = 0.003) and breathing-swallowing synchronization (with a significant increase of swallows followed by an expiration) (p <0.0001). Patient exhibited piecemeal swallowing which was not influenced by NIV use (p = 0.07). NIV use also significantly reduced dyspnea during swallowing (p = 0.04) while preserving swallowing comfort, regardless of bolus type. Conclusion The use of patient controlled NIV improves swallowing parameters in patients with severe neuromuscular respiratory failure requiring daytime NIV, without impairing swallowing comfort. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01519388 PMID:26938617

  8. The surgical repair of benign tracheo-oesophageal/pharyngeal fistula in patients on mechanical ventilation for severe neurological injuries†.

    PubMed

    Daddi, Niccolò; Tassi, Valentina; Belloni, Gian Piero; Mattioli, Sandro

    2016-04-01

    Acquired benign tracheo-oesophageal or pharyngeal fistulas (TO/PF) in neurological patients who cannot be weaned from mechanical ventilation represent a highly demanding clinical problem. We report on 3 patients on intermittent or continuous mechanical ventilation who successfully underwent tracheal resection and direct repair of the digestive fistula. Postoperative mechanical ventilation was provided through a modified silicone Safe-T-Tube, with which the cranial branch can be occluded with an internal inflatable balloon, inserted through tracheostomy performed at or below the level of the cricoid-tracheal suture line. Since the T prosthesis does not have an external cuff in the distal branch, a trans-tracheal open ventilation (TOV) technique was adopted. All patients, after a period that ranged from 21 h to 38 days from surgery, were restored to spontaneous breath; tracheal and oesophageal sutures healed normally. PMID:26306514

  9. Mortality Prediction in Patients Undergoing Non-Invasive Ventilation in Intermediate Care

    PubMed Central

    Martinez-Urbistondo, Diego; Alegre, Flix; Carmona-Torre, Francisco; Huerta, Ana; Fernandez-Ros, Nerea; Landecho, Manuel Fortn; Garca-Mouriz, Alberto; Nez-Crdoba, Jorge M.; Garca, Nicols; Quiroga, Jorge; Lucena, Juan Felipe

    2015-01-01

    Background Intermediate Care Units (ImCU) have become an alternative scenario to perform Non-Invasive Ventilation (NIV). The limited number of prognostic studies in this population support the need of mortality prediction evaluation in this context. Objective The objective of this study is to analyze the performance of Simplified Acute Physiology Score (SAPS) II and 3 in patients undergoing NIV in an ImCU. Additionally, we searched for new variables that could be useful to customize these scores, in order to improve mortality prediction. Design Cohort study with prospectively collected data from all patients admitted to a single center ImCU who received NIV. The SAPS II and 3 scores with their respective predicted mortality rates were calculated. Discrimination and calibration were evaluated by calculating the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) and with the Hosmer-Lemeshow goodness of fit test for the models, respectively. Binary logistic regression was used to identify new variables to customize the scores for mortality prediction in this setting. Patients The study included 241 patients consecutively admitted to an ImCU staffed by hospitalists from April 2006 to December 2013. Key Results The observed in-hospital mortality was 32.4% resulting in a Standardized Mortality Ratio (SMR) of 1.35 for SAPS II and 0.68 for SAPS 3. Mortality discrimination based on the AUC was 0.73 for SAPS II and 0.69 for SAPS 3. Customized models including immunosuppression, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), acute pulmonary edema (APE), lactic acid, pCO2 and haemoglobin levels showed better discrimination than old scores with similar calibration power. Conclusions These results suggest that SAPS II and 3 should be customized with additional patient-risk factors to improve mortality prediction in patients undergoing NIV in intermediate care. PMID:26436420

  10. A micromechanical model for estimating alveolar wall strain in mechanically ventilated edematous lungs.

    PubMed

    Chen, Zheng-long; Chen, Ya-zhu; Hu, Zhao-yan

    2014-09-15

    To elucidate the micromechanics of pulmonary edema has been a significant medical concern, which is beneficial to better guide ventilator settings in clinical practice. In this paper, we present an adjoining two-alveoli model to quantitatively estimate strain and stress of alveolar walls in mechanically ventilated edematous lungs. The model takes into account the geometry of the alveolus, the effect of surface tension, the length-tension properties of parenchyma tissue, and the change in thickness of the alveolar wall. On the one hand, our model supports experimental findings (Perlman CE, Lederer DJ, Bhattacharya J. Am J Respir Cell Mol Biol 44: 34-39, 2011) that the presence of a liquid-filled alveolus protrudes into the neighboring air-filled alveolus with the shared septal strain amounting to a maximum value of 1.374 (corresponding to the maximum stress of 5.12 kPa) even at functional residual capacity; on the other hand, it further shows that the pattern of alveolar expansion appears heterogeneous or homogeneous, strongly depending on differences in air-liquid interface tension on alveolar segments. The proposed model is a preliminary step toward picturing a global topographical distribution of stress and strain on the scale of the lung as a whole to prevent ventilator-induced lung injury. PMID:24947025

  11. Sulfide toxicity: Mechanical ventilation and hypotension determine survival rate and brain necrosis

    SciTech Connect

    Baldelli, R.J.; Green, F.H.Y.; Auer, R.N. )

    1993-09-01

    Occupational exposure to hydrogen sulfide is one of the leading causes of sudden death in the workplace, especially in the oil and gas industry. High-dose exposure causes immediate neurogenic apnea and death; lower doses cause [open quotes]knockdown[close quotes] (transient loss of consciousness, with apnea). Because permanent neurological sequelae have been reported, the authors sought to determine whether sulfide can directly kill central nervous system neurons. Ventilated and unventilated rats were studied to allow administration of higher doses of sulfide and to facilitate physiological monitoring. It was extremely difficult to produce cerebral necrosis with sulfide. Only one of eight surviving unventilated rats given high-dose sulfide (a dose that was lethal in [ge]50% of animals) showed cerebral necrosis. Mechanical ventilation shifted the dose that was lethal in 50% of the animals to 190 mg/kg from 94 mg/kg in the unventilated rats. Sulfide was found to potently depress blood pressure. Cerebral necrosis was absent in the ventilated rats (n = 11), except in one rat that showed profound and sustained hypotension to [le]35 Torr. Electroencephalogram activity ceased during exposure but recovered when the animals regained consciousness. The authors conclude that very-high-dose sulfide is incapable of producing cerebral necrosis by a direct histotoxic effect. 32 refs., 5 figs.

  12. Performances of heated humidifiers in mechanical ventilation: a preliminary intra-breath analysis.

    PubMed

    Schena, E; Quaranta, A; Saccomandi, P; Silvestri, S

    2013-01-01

    A correct humidification of gases delivered to mechanically ventilated patients is essential to avoid some complications. Heated Humidifiers (HHs) are widely used in long lasting ventilation to treat gases delivered to patients. Their performances depend on some parameters, such as environmental conditions and ventilatory settings. The aim of this work is to experimentally assess the influence of minute volume (MV), respiratory frequency (f) and the ratio between duration of inspiration and expiration (I:E) on HHs performances in terms of relative humidity (RH) at the humidification chamber outlet. The main novelty of this work is the assessment of RH oscillations during artificial ventilation. Results show marked oscillations of RH during a single breath (ripple of 20% in the worst case); oscillations decrease if f and I:E increase, on the other hand they increase with MV. Since the variation of gas temperature during a respiratory act can be neglected, the RH oscillations are related to the vapour content in the delivered gases. These results further support the hypothesis which asserts that HHs performances could be improved by using a control strategy taking into account ventilatory settings. PMID:24109842

  13. Finite element analysis of the mechanical behavior of preterm lamb tracheal bifurcation during total liquid ventilation.

    PubMed

    Bagnoli, Paola; Acocella, Fabio; Di Giancamillo, Mauro; Fumero, Roberto; Costantino, Maria Laura

    2013-02-01

    Knowledge of the mechanical behavior of immature airways is crucial to understand the effects exerted by ventilation treatments, namely by Total Liquid Ventilation (TLV). A computational approach was adopted to investigate preterm airways in the range of pressure applied during TLV. A 3D finite-element model of the tracheal bifurcation was developed. Structural analyses were performed using ABAQUS/Standard to evaluate airway deformation during TLV. The model consists of 7 rings, each composed of 3 tissues (cartilage, smooth muscle, connective tissue) modeled as hyperelastic materials. Biomechanical experimental tests were performed on lamb tracheae to obtain the stress-strain relationship for each tissue. Pressure load was applied on the internal surface of the model, reproducing the airway pressure tracing acquired during a TLV breath ending with a tracheal collapse phenomenon. Model reliability was verified by comparing the model outcomes to computer tomography scan images acquired during animal TLV trials. The simulations show progressive lumen narrowing during expiration, at increasing negative pressure until the occurrence of collapse; however not inducing complete airway occlusion. A reliable model was obtained to help setting ventilation parameters during TLV. PMID:23177086

  14. Transmural pressure in rat initial subpleural lymphatics during spontaneous or mechanical ventilation.

    PubMed

    Moriondo, Andrea; Mukenge, Sylvain; Negrini, Daniela

    2005-07-01

    The role played by the mechanical tissue stress in supporting lymph formation and propulsion in thoracic tissues was studied in deeply anesthetized rats (n = 13) during spontaneous breathing or mechanical ventilation. After arterial and venous catheterization and insertion of an intratracheal cannula, fluorescent dextrans were injected intrapleurally to serve as lymphatic markers. After 2 h, the fluorescent intercostal lymphatics were identified, and the hydraulic pressure in lymphatic vessels (P lymph) and adjacent interstitial space (P int) was measured using micropuncture. During spontaneous breathing, end-expiratory P lymph and corresponding P int were -2.5 +/- 1.1 (SE) and 3.1 +/- 0.7 mmHg (P < 0.01), which dropped to -21.1 +/- 1.3 and -12.2 +/- 1.3 mmHg, respectively, at end inspiration. During mechanical ventilation with air at zero end-expiratory alveolar pressure, P lymph and P int were essentially unchanged at end expiration, but, at variance with spontaneous breathing, they increased at end inspiration to 28.1 +/- 7.9 and 28.2 +/- 6.3 mmHg, respectively. The hydraulic transmural pressure gradient (DeltaP tm = P lymph - P int) was in favor of lymph formation throughout the whole respiratory cycle (DeltaP tm = -6.8 +/- 1.2 mmHg) during spontaneous breathing but not during mechanical ventilation (DeltaP tm = -1.1 +/- 1.8 mmHg). Therefore, data suggest that local tissue stress associated with the active contraction of respiratory muscles is required to support an efficient lymphatic drainage from the thoracic tissues. PMID:15833809

  15. Incidence of multidrug-resistant organisms causing ventilator-associated pneumonia in a tertiary care hospital: A nine months' prospective study

    PubMed Central

    Dey, Arindam; Bairy, Indira

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) is an important intensive care unit (ICU) infection in mechanically ventilated patients. VAP occurs approximately in 9-27% of all intubated patients. Due to the increasing incidence of multidrug-resistant organisms in ICUs, early and correct diagnosis of VAP is an urgent challenge for an optimal antibiotic treatment. AIM OF THE STUDY: The aim of the study was to assess the incidence of VAP caused by multidrug-resistant organisms in the multidisciplinary intensive care unit (MICU) of our tertiary care 1,400-bedded hospital. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This prospective study was done in the period from December 2005 to August 2006, enrolling patients undergoing mechanical ventilation (MV) for >48 h. Endotracheal aspirates (ETA) were collected from patients with suspected VAP, and quantitative cultures were performed on all samples. VAP was diagnosed by the growth of pathogenic organism ?105 cfu/ml. RESULTS: Incidence of VAP was found to be 45.4% among the mechanically ventilated patients, out of which 47.7% had early-onset (<5 days MV) VAP and 52.3% had late-onset (>5 days MV) VAP. Multiresistant bacteria, mainly Acinetobacter spp. (47.9%) and Pseudomonas aeruginosa (27%), were the most commonly isolated pathogens in both types of VAP. Most of the isolates of Escherichia coli (80%) and Klebsiella pneumoniae (100%) produced extended-spectrum beta lactamases (ESBLs). As many as 30.43% isolates of Acinetobacter spp. showed production of AmpC beta lactamases among all types of isolates. Metallo-beta lactamases (MBLs) were produced by 50% of Pseudomonas aeruginosa and 21.74% of Acinetobacter spp. CONCLUSION: High incidence (45.4%) of VAP and the potential multidrug-resistant organisms are the real threat in our MICU. This study highlighted high incidence of VAP in our setup, emphasizing injudicious use of antimicrobial therapy. Combined approaches of rotational antibiotic therapy and education programs might be beneficial to fight against these MDR pathogens and will also help to decrease the incidence of VAP. PMID:19727346

  16. [Impact of combined anesthesia using isoflurane on the development of adaptation mechanisms on changing ventilation conditions in thoracic surgery].

    PubMed

    Vyzhigina, M A; Riabova, O S; Kulagina, T Iu; Zhukova, S G; Parshin, V D; Sandrikov, V A; Buniatian, A A

    2006-01-01

    The paper deals with the effect of isoflurane (IF) as a component of combined anesthesia during thoracic interventions in the lateral position on the development of adaptation mechanisms to a change in artificial ventilation (AV) modes--from ventilation of both lungs to that of one lung (unilateral ventilation, ULV), long exposure to ULV and to a change from ULV to ventilation of both lungs. Eighteen patients at a high operation-anesthetic risk were examined. Measurements were made in 6 steps, including conditions in AV, exposure to ULV for 15-30, 55-60, and 80-120 minutes, AV after 20-min exposure to ULV, and at the end of surgery in the supine position. While analyzing the results, the authors made an important observation that IF has a property of preventing capillary formation in the ventilated portions, without impairing the mechanism of pulmonary hypoxic vasoconstriction in the area of atelectized alveoles. This contributed to the optimization of a ventilation-perfusion relationship and creates conditions for adequate oxygenation. The use of IF as a component of combined anesthesia during thoracic operations associated with a need for artificial unilateral ventilation in patients at a high operation-anesthetic risk created conditions for optimizing gas exchange and blood circulation at all stages of an operation and anesthesia. PMID:17184063

  17. Incidence of ventilator-associated pneumonia in Australasian intensive care units: use of a consensus-developed clinical surveillance checklist in a multisite prospective audit

    PubMed Central

    Elliott, Doug; Elliott, Rosalind; Burrell, Anthony; Harrigan, Peter; Murgo, Margherita; Rolls, Kaye; Sibbritt, David

    2015-01-01

    Objectives With disagreements on diagnostic criteria for ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) hampering efforts to monitor incidence and implement preventative strategies, the study objectives were to develop a checklist for clinical surveillance of VAP, and conduct an audit in Australian/New Zealand intensive care units (ICUs) using the checklist. Setting Online survey software was used for checklist development. The prospective audit using the checklist was conducted in 10 ICUs in Australia and New Zealand. Participants Checklist development was conducted with members of a bi-national professional society for critical care physicians using a modified Delphi technique and survey. A 30-day audit of adult patients mechanically ventilated for >72 h. Primary and secondary outcome measures Presence of items on the screening checklist; physician diagnosis of VAP, clinical characteristics, investigations, treatments and patient outcome. Results A VAP checklist was developed with five items: decreasing gas exchange, sputum changes, chest X-ray infiltrates, inflammatory response, microbial growth. Of the 169 participants, 17% (n=29) demonstrated characteristics of VAP using the checklist. A similar proportion had an independent physician diagnosis (n=30), but in a different patient subset (only 17% of cases were identified by both methods). The VAP rate per 1000 mechanical ventilator days for the checklist and clinician diagnosis was 25.9 and 26.7, respectively. The item ‘inflammatory response’ was most associated with the first episode of physician-diagnosed VAP. Conclusions VAP rates using the checklist and physician diagnosis were similar to ranges reported internationally and in Australia. Of note, different patients were identified with VAP by the checklist and physicians. While the checklist items may assist in identifying patients at risk of developing VAP, and demonstrates synergy with the recently developed Centers for Disease Control (CDC) guidelines, decision-making processes by physicians when diagnosing VAP requires further exploration. PMID:26515685

  18. Temporal Disorganization of Circadian Rhythmicity and Sleep-Wake Regulation in Mechanically Ventilated Patients Receiving Continuous Intravenous Sedation

    PubMed Central

    Gehlbach, Brian K.; Chapotot, Florian; Leproult, Rachel; Whitmore, Harry; Poston, Jason; Pohlman, Mark; Miller, Annette; Pohlman, Anne S.; Nedeltcheva, Arlet; Jacobsen, John H.; Hall, Jesse B.; Van Cauter, Eve

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: Sleep is regulated by circadian and homeostatic processes and is highly organized temporally. Our study was designed to determine whether this organization is preserved in patients receiving mechanical ventilation (MV) and intravenous sedation. Design: Observational study. Setting: Academic medical intensive care unit. Patients: Critically ill patients receiving MV and intravenous sedation. Methods: Continuous polysomnography (PSG) was initiated an average of 2.0 (1.0, 3.0) days after ICU admission and continued ? 36 h or until the patient was extubated. Sleep staging and power spectral analysis were performed using standard approaches. We also calculated the electroencephalography spectral edge frequency 95% (SEF95), a parameter that is normally higher during wakefulness than during sleep. Circadian rhythmicity was assessed in 16 subjects through the measurement of aMT6s in urine samples collected hourly for 24-48 hours. Light intensity at the head of the bed was measured continuously. Measurements and Results: We analyzed 819.7 h of PSG recordings from 21 subjects. REM sleep was identified in only 2/21 subjects. Slow wave activity lacked the normal diurnal and ultradian periodicity and homeostatic decline found in healthy adults. In nearly all patients, SEF95 was consistently low without evidence of diurnal rhythmicity (median 6.3 [5.3, 7.8] Hz, n = 18). A circadian rhythm of aMT6s excretion was present in most (13/16, 81.3%) patients, but only 4 subjects had normal timing. Comparison of the SEF95 during the melatonin-based biological night and day revealed no difference between the 2 periods (P = 0.64). Conclusions: The circadian rhythms and PSG of patients receiving mechanical ventilation and intravenous sedation exhibit pronounced temporal disorganization. The finding that most subjects exhibited preserved, but phase delayed, excretion of aMT6s suggests that the circadian pacemaker of such patients may be free-running. Clinical Trial Information: Clinicaltrials.gov NCT01276652. Citation: Gehlbach BK; Chapotot F; Leproult R; Whitmore H; Poston J; Pohlman M; Miller A; Pohlman AS; Nedeltcheva A; Jacobsen JH; Hall JB; Van Cauter E. Temporal disorganization of circadian rhythmicity and sleep-wake regulation in mechanically ventilated patients receiving continuous intravenous sedation. SLEEP 2012;35(8):1105-1114. PMID:22851806

  19. A Randomized Placebo-controlled Trial of Clonidine Impact on Sedation of Mechanically Ventilated ICU Patients

    PubMed Central

    Farasatinasab, Maryam; Kouchek, Mehran; Sistanizad, Mohammad; Goharani, Reza; Miri, Mirmohammad; Solouki, Mehrdad; Ghaeli, Padideh; Mokhtari, Majid

    2015-01-01

    Clonidine has sedative and analgesic properties. Randomized studies examining these properties in mechanically ventilated ICU patients are scarce. This study was designed to assess the impact of clonidine on sedative agent use in mechanically ventilated patients. In a prospective, randomized, double blind, placebo-controlled study in a general ICU of a university medical center in Tehran, Iran, 40 patients, over 18 years on mechanical ventilation for 3 days or more randomized into 2 equal groups of clonidine and placebo. Clonidine arm received usual sedation and enteral clonidine 0.1 mg TID and escalated to 0.2 mg TID on the second day if hemodynamics remained stable. Ramsay Sedation Score was used to assess sedation. Opioids and midazolam were used in all patients. 10 patients in clonidine and 3 in placebo arms had history of drug abuse (P = 0.018). The mean of sedatives used in the clonidine/placebo arms (mg/day) were; MED (Morphine Equivalent Dose) 91.4 97.9/112.1 98.8 P=0.39, midazolam 7.1 7.9/8.3 9.2 P=0.66 and propofol 535.8 866.7/139.1 359.9 P=0.125. After adjusting for addiction and propofol, clonidine reduced MED use by 79.6 mg/day (P=0.005) and midazolam by 5.41 mg/day (P = 0.05). Opioids and midazolam need reduced by clonidine co-administration regardless of history of drug abuse. Acceptable side effect profile and the lower cost of clonidine could make it an attractive adjunct to sedative agents in ICU. PMID:25561923

  20. Indications for manual lung hyperinflation (MHI) in the mechanically ventilated patient with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

    PubMed

    Ntoumenopoulos, G

    2005-01-01

    Manual lung hyperinflation (MHI) can enhance secretion clearance, improve total lung/thorax compliance and assist in the resolution of acute atelectasis. To enhance secretion clearance in the intubated patient, the evidence highlights the need to maximize expiratory flow. Chronic pulmonary diseases such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) have often been cited as potential precautions and/or contra-indications to the use of manual lung hyperinflation (MHI). There is an absence of evidence on the effects of MHI in the patient with COPD. Research on the effects of mechanical ventilation in the patient with COPD provides a useful clinical examination of the effect of positive pressure on cardiac and pulmonary function. The potential effects of MHI in the COPD patient group were extrapolated on the basis of the MHI and mechanical ventilation literature. There is the potential for MHI to have both detrimental and beneficial effects on cardiac and pulmonary function in patients with COPD. The potential detrimental effects of MHI may include either, increased intrinsic peep through inadequate time for expiration by the breath delivery rate, tidal volume delivered or through the removal of applied external PEEP thereby causing more dynamic airway compression compromising downward expiratory flow, which may also retard bronchial mucus transport. MHI may also increase right ventricular after load through raised intrathoracic pressures with lung hyperinflation, and may therefore impair right ventricular function in patients with evidence of cor pulmonale. There is the potential for beneficial effects from MHI in the intubated COPD patient group (i.e., secretion clearance), but further research is required, especially on the effect of MHI on inspiratory and expiratory flow rate profiles in this patient group. The more controlled delivery of lung hyperinflation through the use of the mechanical ventilator may be a more optimal means of providing lung hyperinflation and should be further investigated. PMID:16541603

  1. Improvements in Pulmonary and General Critical Care Reduces Mortality following Ventilator-Associated Pneumonia

    PubMed Central

    Rosenberger, Laura H.; Hranjec, Tjasa; McLeod, Matthew D.; Politano, Amani D.; Guidry, Christopher A.; Davies, Stephen; Sawyer, Robert G.

    2012-01-01

    Background Ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) is the most common hospital-acquired infection in the intensive care unit with substantial subsequent mortality. The mortality following VAP declined in the 1980s and 1990s. Experts suggest little progress has been made in outcomes from VAP since several novel interventions have failed. We nonetheless hypothesized that mortality following VAP has continued to decrease due to advances in pulmonary critical care. Methods We identified all adult patients with CDC-defined, ICU-acquired VAP between January 1st, 1997 and December 31st, 2008 from a prospectively-collected database. Results A total of 793 cases of VAP occurred in the study period. Cases were divided into four time periods (1997-1999, 2000-2002, 2003-2005, 2006-2008) to compare outcomes over time. APACHE II scores were stable, while mortality was significantly lower in period 4 when compared to periods 1 and 2 (p = 0.004 and 0.009, respectively). A logistic regression model predicting death (c-statistic = 0.871) revealed age (OR 1.03, 95% CI 1.02-1.05), APACHE II score (1.09, 1.05-1.14), white blood cell count (1.03, 1.00-1.06), transplant recipient (3.45, 1.40-8.53), transfusions (3.25, 1.37-7.68), and pulmonary disease (3.01, 1.67-5.45) were independent predictors of death, as was the presence of trauma (0.10, 0.06-0.18), chronic steroid therapy (0.39, 0.17-0.91), and patient length of stay (0.99, 0.98-0.99) with odds ratios less than 1.0. Additionally, those patients treated in period 1 (2.23, 1.16-4.29) or period 2 (2.13, 1.12-4.06) had twice the risk of death following an episode of VAP when compared to those treated in the most recent time period. Conclusions We have shown mortality following an episode of VAP continues to decrease over time and attribute this to advancements in pulmonary and general critical care rather than any specific interventions. PMID:23354252

  2. Outcomes of a ventilator-associated pneumonia bundle on rates of ventilator-associated pneumonia and other health care-associated infections in a long-term acute care hospital setting.

    PubMed

    Sulis, Carol A; Walkey, Allan J; Abadi, Yafet; Campbell Reardon, Christine; Joyce-Brady, Martin

    2014-05-01

    Long-term trends in ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) rates, and other health care-associated infections, were examined prior to, during, and after introduction of a VAP bundle in a long-term acute care hospital setting. VAP incidence rate declined in a step-wise fashion and reached a null value. Incidence rates of bacteremia from any cause declined in a similar fashion. The incidence rates of vancomycin-resistant enterococci and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus colonization or infection rates also decreased, but that of Clostridium difficile infection did not. VAP in the long-term acute care hospital setting can be controlled over time with implementation of Centers for Disease Control and Prevention-based VAP bundle. This outcome also may decrease certain other health care-associated infections. PMID:24773791

  3. Impact of daily bathing with chlorhexidine gluconate on ventilator associated pneumonia in intensive care units: a meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Wensen; Cao, Quan; Li, Songqin; Li, Huifen

    2015-01-01

    Objective Ventilator associated pneumonia (VAP) is the most important nosocomial infection in intensive care units (ICUs). Our objective was to assess whether daily bathing with chlorhexidine gluconate (CHG) would significantly result in the reduction of VAP. Materials and methods Meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and quasi-experimental studies were conducted. The setting are medical, surgical, trauma, and combined medical-surgical ICUs. The patients are adult. We searched electronic search engine (PubMed), Embase and the Cochrane Central Register database for all published studies related to the application of daily CHG bathing with VAP risk. Results In all, six articles reporting a total of 27,638 ventilator-days met the inclusion criteria; 132 patients in the CHG arm developed a VAP (13,349 ventilator-days), compared with 188 patients in the control arm (14,289 ventilator-days). Daily bathing with CHG was significantly associated with decreased incidence risk of VAP [relative risk (RR): 0.73, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.57-0.92, I2=0%]. In the subgroup analysis, we found that daily bathing with 2% CHG impregnated cloths or wipes would reduce the incidence risk of VAP among before-and-after studies (pooled RR: 0.73, 95% CI: 0.57-0.93). Conclusions The application of daily bathing with CHG would decrease incidence risk of VAP, which would be an important complementary intervention to barrier precautions. PMID:25973242

  4. Details behind the dots: How different intensive care units used common and contrasting methods to prevent ventilator associated pneumonia

    PubMed Central

    Daniel, Malcolm; Booth, Malcolm; Ellis, Kirsteen; Maher, Shaun; Longmate, Andrew

    2015-01-01

    Care bundles promote delivery of effective care and improve patient outcomes. The understanding of how to improve delivery of care bundles is incomplete. The Scottish Patient Safety Programme is a national collaborative with the aim of improving the delivery of care to patients in acute hospitals in Scotland. Critical care is one of five workstreams in the programme. A programme goal is to reduce incidence of ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) to zero or 300 calendar days between events through use of a VAP Prevention bundle. We studied two ICUs participating in this programme. Each ICU had established infection surveillance system prior to the programme starting. Both units had an appreciable incidence of VAP. Initial VAP prevention bundle adherence was low in each ICU (35% and 41%). Comparing time periods before and after 80% bundle VAP prevention bundle adherence was achieved showed a similar reduction in VAP incidence (from 6.9 to 1.0, and from 7.8 to 1.4/1000 ventilation days). When compared each ICU used common and contrasting approaches to accomplish this improvement. We describe the five improvement knowledge systems used to improve bundle adherence to bundle elements in each hospital. The insights gained from these front-line clinical teams can be used as a template for improvement efforts in a variety of other healthcare settings. PMID:26734371

  5. Mechanical ventilation causes pulmonary mitochondrial dysfunction and delayed alveolarization in neonatal mice.

    PubMed

    Ratner, Veniamin; Sosunov, Sergey A; Niatsetskaya, Zoya V; Utkina-Sosunova, Irina V; Ten, Vadim S

    2013-12-01

    Hyperoxia inhibits pulmonary bioenergetics, causing delayed alveolarization in mice. We hypothesized that mechanical ventilation (MV) also causes a failure of bioenergetics to support alveolarization. To test this hypothesis, neonatal mice were ventilated with room air for 8 hours (prolonged) or for 2 hours (brief) with 15 ?l/g (aggressive) tidal volume (Tv), or for 8 hours with 8 ?l/g (gentle) Tv. After 24 hours or 10 days of recovery, lung mitochondria were examined for adenosine diphosphate (ADP)-phosphorylating respiration, using complex I (C-I)-dependent, complex II (C-II)-dependent, or cytochrome C oxidase (C-IV)-dependent substrates, ATP production rate, and the activity of C-I and C-II. A separate cohort of mice was exposed to 2,4-dinitrophenol (DNP), a known uncoupler of oxidative phosphorylation. At 10 days of recovery, pulmonary alveolarization and the expression of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) were assessed. Sham-operated littermates were used as control mice. At 24 hours after aggressive MV, mitochondrial ATP production rates and the activity of C-I and C-II were significantly decreased compared with control mice. However, at 10 days of recovery, only mice exposed to prolonged-aggressive MV continued to exhibit significantly depressed mitochondrial respiration. This was associated with significantly poorer alveolarization and VEGF expression. In contrast, mice exposed to brief-aggressive or prolonged-gentle MV exhibited restored mitochondrial ADP-phosphorylation, normal alveolarization and pulmonary VEGF content. Exposure to DNP fully replicated the phenotype consistent with alveolar developmental arrest. Our data suggest that the failure of bioenergetics to support normal lung development caused by aggressive and prolonged ventilation should be considered a fundamental mechanism for the development of bronchopulmonary dysplasia in premature neonates. PMID:23980609

  6. Response of respiratory motor output to varying pressure in mechanically ventilated patients.

    PubMed

    Xirouhaki, N; Kondili, E; Mitrouska, I; Siafakas, N; Georgopoulos, D

    1999-09-01

    It has been shown in mechanically ventilated patients that pressure support (PS) unloads the respiratory muscles in a graded fashion depending on the PS level. The downregulation of respiratory muscles could be mediated through chemical or load-related reflex feedback. To test this hypothesis, 8 patients with acute lung injury mechanically ventilated on PS mode (baseline PS) were studied. In Protocol A, PS was randomly decreased or increased by at least 5 cmH2O for two breaths. During this time, which is shorter than circulation delay, only changes in load-related reflex feedback were operating. Sixty trials where PS increased (high PS) for two breaths and 62 trials where PS decreased (low PS), also for two breaths were analysed. Thereafter, the patients were assigned randomly to baseline, low or high PS and ventilated in each level for 30 min (Protocol B). The last 2 min of each period were analysed. Respiratory motor output was assessed by total pressure generated by the respiratory muscles (Pmus), computed from oesophageal pressure (Poes). In Protocol A, alteration in PS caused significant changes in tidal volume (VT) without any effect on Pmus waveform except for neural expiratory time (ntE). ntE increased significantly with increasing PS. In Protocol B, Pmus was significantly down-regulated with increasing PS. Carbon dioxide tension in arterial blood (Pa,CO2) measured at the end of each period increased with decreasing PS. There was not any further alteration in ntE beyond that observed in Protocol A. These results indicate that the effect of load-related reflex on respiratory motor output is limited to timing. The downregulation of pressure generated by the respiratory muscles with steady-state increase in pressure support is due to a slow feedback system, which is probably chemical in nature. PMID:10543268

  7. Central Nervous System Depressants Poisoning and Ventilator Associated Pneumonia: An Underrated Risk Factor at the Toxicological Intensive Care Unit

    PubMed Central

    Hashemian, Morteza; Talaie, Haleh; Akbarpour, Samaneh; Mahdavinejad, Arezou; Mozafari, Naser

    2016-01-01

    Background: Ventilator-Associated Pneumonia (VAP) is the main cause of nosocomial infection at intensive care units (ICUs), which causes high mortality and morbidity. Objectives: The objective of the present survey was to identify the VAP risk and prognostic factors among poisoned patients, who were admitted to the toxicological ICU (TICU), especially central nervous system (CNS) depressants due to their prevalence and importance. Patients and Methods: A case-control study was conducted at the Loghman Hakim hospital between March 2013 and March 2014. Among 300 poisoned patients with mechanical ventilator ≥ 48 hours, 150 patients, who had developed microbiologically-confirmed VAP were considered as the VAP group and 150 without VAP were defined as the control group. The following data were collected; age, gender, type of poisoning, glasgow coma score, Acute physiology and chronic health evaluation (APACHE) II score, length of hospital stay, previous antibiotic use, microbial culture of the trachea, body temperature, leukocyte count, and patients’ outcome. Based on the type of poisoning, patients were divided into three groups including: opioid, CNS depressants and others. All data were expressed as means (SD) for continuous variables and frequencies for categorical variables. Logistic regression was used to determine the relationship between risk factors and VAP. Results: The mean age of the patients was 33.9 ± 14.3 years. The probable VAP incidence and mortality were 22% and 18.6%, respectively. The rate of CNS depressant versus opioid use (odds ratio, 3.74; P < 0.027), APACHE II (odds ratio, 1.28; P < 0.000) and length of hospital stay (odds ratio, 2.15; P < 0.000) were the independent risk factors for VAP. While, the APACHE II score (odds ratio, 1.12; P < 0.044) and length of hospital stay (odds ratio, 2.15; P < 0.000) were the independent predictors of VAP mortality among these patients. The most common microorganisms in VAP cases were Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and Acinetobacter sp. (56.7% and 12.7%, respectively). Conclusions: Central nervous system depressant was an important risk factor for VAP among poisoned patients. Hypoventilation due to CNS depression can lead to VAP. The APACHE II and length of hospital stay were shown as independent predictors of VAP and mortality among these patients. PMID:26889400

  8. [Mechanical ventilation in an anesthetic circle system using the lowest tidal volume--studies of 3 anesthesia ventilators in a lung model and an animal experiment].

    PubMed

    Fsel, T; Schirmer, U; Wick, C; Pfenninger, E; Siegler, W; Altemeyer, K H

    1991-11-01

    No anesthesia ventilator attached to a circle system is manufactured for use in neonates. However, a small bellows can be supplied for the following anesthesia ventilators: Spiromat NS 656 (NS), Ventilog 2 (V2) and AV1 (Draeger Co.) We investigated the minimal tidal volume delivered by each of the three ventilators. In addition, we tested the performance of the AV1 in neonatal piglets for manual and controlled ventilation, and in decreased lung compliance. MATERIALS AND METHODS. All circuits were equipped with one CO2 canister (750 ml) and the low-compliance tubes of the "Ulmer Kinder Set" (Ruesch Co.) The circuits were connected to a lung model consisting of a glass cylinder filled with copper wool with a compliance of 3.0 ml/mbar. By using calibrated glass syringes we created a pressure-volume correlation for the entire system, i.e., the lung model, the anesthesia circuit and the ventilator, which was linear for each of the three ventilators. The pressure was measured in the test lung. The pressure increase caused by the tidal volume therefore reflected the actual tidal volume delivered, which was calculated using the pressure-volume correlation. Tidal volumes were determined for varying the fresh gas flow (FGF), the respiratory rate (RR), which was varied between 20 and 60/min and the I:E ratio (IE), which was varied between 1:1 and 1:2. Six newborn piglets aged 2-12 h and with body weight 1000-1300 g were anesthetized, tracheotomized and ventilated with an oxygen-nitrous oxide mixture (FIO2 0.25). The manual ventilation lasted 30 min (period 1) and was followed by mechanical ventilation for 60 min (period 2). Thereafter, a left pneumothorax with constant pressure of 20 mbar and then 40 mbar for 15 min each was created (period 3). A fall in blood pressure was treated with 10 ml colloids in five of the six animals. During the experiment arterial blood pressure in the carotid artery, mean airway pressure at the distal end of the tracheal tube and end-tidal CO2 were continuously recorded. Arterial blood gases were analyzed at the end of each period. RESULTS. The tidal volumes delivered with an identical position of the bellows varied in ventilators NS and V2 with changes in FGF, RR and IE. Decrease in FGF, higher RR and longer expiration resulted in a decrease in the tidal volume. The "smallest" tidal volume delivered by NS varied from 50 ml (FGF 2 l/min, RR 60, IE 1:2) to 188 ml (FGF 4 l/min, RR 20, IE 1:1) and from 11 ml (FGF 2 l/min, RR 60, IE 1:2) to 110 (FGF 4 l/min, RR 20, IE 1:1) in the V2. The AV1 showed a minimal tidal volume of about 5 ml, and no changes in tidal volume attributable to alterations in FGF, RR or IE could be observed. No problems occurred during manual or mechanical ventilation in the piglets. With the experimental decrease in lung compliance no increase in airway pressure was noted, but an increase in arterial pCO2 by 8 mmHg (mean) reflects hypoventilation that was not corrected by the ventilator. DISCUSSION. We believe that the changes in tidal volume in ventilators NS and V2 are caused by adding FGF to the volume delivered by the below during inspiration. Because of the unpredictability of the tidal volumes, these ventilators are not suitable for the use in neonates. The AV1 has a very low systemic compliance which makes it suitable for use in neonatal anesthesia. However, a decrease in lung compliance is not compensated by an increase in airway pressure and leads to hypoventilation. When small tidal volumes are used in patients with low lung compliance, it does not act as expected of a volume-cycled ventilator. PMID:1755533

  9. Independent living with Duchenne muscular dystrophy and home mechanical ventilation in areas of Japan with insufficient national welfare services

    PubMed Central

    Yamaguchi, Miku; Suzuki, Machiko

    2013-01-01

    In Japan, there is no national 24-hour home care system for people with severe impairments. Despite this fact, a small number of people with Duchenne muscular dystrophy on home mechanical ventilation pursue independent living. Therefore, our aim was to better understand the process by which these individuals arrived at this goal for independence (i.e., choosing to live at home in Japan instead of in special sanatoriums that provide sufficient support and care). Twenty-one participants were interviewed in 2011 and 2013. The interviews were recorded, transcribed, and analysed following a grounded theory approach. These individuals placed particular emphasis on their personal choice regarding where and how they live as well as on whom they depend. Therefore, the core element underlying participants goals for independent living was self-reliant independency. To improve their social inclusion, the strategies used by the participants to retain their autonomy in an underdeveloped Japanese welfare system by establishing relationships with people in their communities can prevent them from experiencing social isolation. This could serve as an example to their counterparts in other countries. PMID:23981723

  10. Mobility interventions to improve outcomes in patients undergoing prolonged mechanical ventilation: a review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Choi, JiYeon; Tasota, Frederick J; Hoffman, Leslie A

    2008-07-01

    Survivors of critical illness often undergo an extended recovery trajectory. Reduced functional ability is one of several adverse outcomes of prolonged bed rest and mechanical ventilation during critical illness. Skeletal muscle weakness is known to be one of the major phenomena that account for reduced functional ability. Although skeletal muscle weakness is evident after prolonged mechanical ventilation (PMV), few studies have tested the benefits of various types of mobility interventions in this population. The purpose of this article is to review the published research on improving mobility outcomes in patients undergoing PMV. For this review, published studies were retrieved from MEDLINE, PubMed, CINAHL, and the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews from January 1990 to July 2007. A total of 10 relevant articles were selected that examined the effect of whole body physical therapy, electrical stimulation (ES), arm exercise, and inspiratory muscle training (IMT). Overall, there is support for the ability of mobility interventions to improve outcomes in patients on PMV but limited evidence of how to best accomplish this goal. Generating more data from multicenter studies and randomized controlled trials is recommended. PMID:18647758

  11. The mechanism of olfactory organ ventilation in Periophthalmus barbarus (Gobiidae, Oxudercinae).

    PubMed

    Kuciel, Michał

    2013-03-01

    Periophthalmus barbarus Linnaeus, 1766 has many adaptations for amphibious life as a consequence of tidal zone occupation. One of them is the ability to keep a little amount of water and air in mouth while on land or in hypoxic water, correlated with closing a gill lid for gas exchange improvement. It causes that mechanisms of olfactory organ ventilation described in other species of actinopterygians (compression of accessory nasal sac(s) by the skull and jaw elements while mouth and gill lid moving) are not in operation. There is a specific mechanism of olfactory organ ventilation independent on jaw and skull elements movements. Compression of accessory nasal sacs is possible by a0 contraction and it is a movement effect on bones combined by ligaments. This process can be observed on P. barbarus as lifting the rostral part of the head. ELECTRONIC SUPPLEMENTARY MATERIAL: The online version of this article (doi:10.1007/s00435-012-0167-y) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users. PMID:23420290

  12. [Measurement of functional residual capacity by nitrogen washout during mechanical ventilation].

    PubMed

    Nomura, T; Saito, Y; Ogawa, H; Akata, N; Nishino, Y; Kosaka, Y

    1998-02-01

    A medical gas analyzer AMIS 2000 SP, which is a mass spectrometer, incorporating a fractional residual capacity (FRC) measuring program based on a nitrogen washout method, has been introduced recently. The purpose of this study was to assess the reliability and the reproductivity of the FRC measuring system in a clinical situation. FRC was measured by this system connected to a ventilator (Bennet 7200ae). Our study examined; 1) the accuracy of the measurement using a syringe. 2) the difference in two consecutive measurements in the same subject during mechanical ventilation, and 3) the correlation between the measured and the predicted value calculated with Gorldman's formula in 18 subjects during ventilation. The first study has showed an excellent correlation (y = 0.953x + 0.092, r = 0.996, P < 0.001) or y = 0.909x + 0.132 (r = 0.999, P < 0.001) with a tidal volume of 400 ml or 500 ml, respectively) between the measured value and the syringe capacity. Reproductivity was proved by the linear regression (y = 0.977x + 0.024, r = 0.998, P < 0.001) between the two consecutive measurements. A good correlation was shown between the measured values and the predicted values (y = 0.656x - 0.415, r = 0.849, P < 0.0001). These results showed good reliability and reproductivity of our FRC measuring system. It is concluded that the FRC measurements using AMIS2000SP system can be used in clinical respiratory managements in ICU. PMID:9513330

  13. Bedside estimation of the inspiratory work of breathing during mechanical ventilation.

    PubMed

    Marini, J J; Rodriguez, R M; Lamb, V

    1986-01-01

    The work of chest inflation, WI, is a primary determinant of the need for ventilatory support and an integrative index of elastic and resistive impedance. Although the mechanical work performed by a ventilator in moving gas into the passive chest (WI = integral of PV dt) can be determined by measuring the area enclosed by a display of airway pressure (P) against delivered volume (V), the instrumentation required is not routinely available at the bedside. Under conditions of constant flow, however, inspiratory time represents an analog of delivered volume, and airway pressure can be recorded easily by equipment normally employed to monitor pulmonary vascular pressures. We reasoned that the area beneath the airway pressure vs time tracing should accurately reflect WI for unassisted breaths delivered by the ventilator at constant flow. We computed estimates of WI from simultaneous pressure-volume (PV) and pressure-time (PT) plots during square-wave inflation in 20 acutely ill patients. Ventilator settings were varied over the usual clinical range for tidal volume (10 to 15 ml/kg) and inspiratory flow (40 to 80 L/min). PV and PT estimates agreed closely; across the four setting combinations tested, the difference between PV and PT estimates averaged 2.4 +/- 5.6 percent (means +/- SD, r = 0.99). Furthermore, the reproducible geometric configuration of the curves generated allowed accurate estimation of WI from routine beside observations of tidal volume and peak dynamic and static inflation pressures, without the need for specialized equipment or area measurement. Such simplified estimates could serve in clinical practice to gauge the ventilatory workload and to monitor changes in respiratory impedance. PMID:3940790

  14. Mechanical ventilation reduces rat diaphragm blood flow and impairs O2 delivery and uptake

    PubMed Central

    Davis, Robert T.; Bruells, Christian S.; Stabley, John N.; McCullough, Danielle J.; Powers, Scott K.; Behnke, Bradley J.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives Although mechanical ventilation (MV) is a life-saving intervention in patients suffering from respiratory failure, prolonged MV is often associated with numerous complications including problematic weaning. In contracting skeletal muscle, inadequate O2 supply can limit oxidative phosphorylation resulting in muscular fatigue. However, whether prolonged MV results in decreased diaphragmatic blood and induces an O2 supply-demand imbalance in the diaphragm remains unknown. Design We tested the hypothesis that prolonged controlled MV results in a time-dependent reduction in rat diaphragmatic blood flow and microvascular PO2 and that prolonged MV would diminish the diaphragms ability to increase blood flow in response to muscular contractions. Measurements and Main Results Compared to 30 min of MV, 6 hrs of MV resulted in a 75% reduction in diaphragm blood flow (via radiolabeled microspheres), which did not occur in the intercostal muscle or high-oxidative hindlimb muscle (e.g., soleus). There was also a time-dependent decline in diaphragm microvascular PO2 (via phosphorescence quenching). Further, when contrasted to 30 min of MV, 6 hrs of MV significantly compromised the diaphragms ability to increase blood flow during electrically-induced contractions which resulted in a ~80% reduction in diaphragm O2 uptake. In contrast, 6 hrs of spontaneous breathing in anesthetized animals did not alter diaphragm blood flow or the ability to augment flow during electrically-induced contractions. Conclusions These new and important findings reveal that prolonged MV results in a time-dependent decrease in the ability of the diaphragm to augment blood flow to match O2 demand in response to contractile activity and could be a key contributing factor to difficult weaning. Although additional experiments are required to confirm, it is tempting to speculate that this ventilator-induced decline in diaphragmatic oxygenation could promote a hypoxia-induced generation of reactive oxygen species in diaphragm muscle fibers and contribute to ventilator-induced diaphragmatic atrophy and contractile dysfunction. PMID:22846782

  15. Clinical review: Helmet and non-invasive mechanical ventilation in critically ill patients

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Non-invasive mechanical ventilation (NIV) has proved to be an excellent technique in selected critically ill patients with different forms of acute respiratory failure. However, NIV can fail on account of the severity of the disease and technical problems, particularly at the interface. The helmet could be an alternative interface compared to face mask to improve NIV success. We performed a clinical review to investigate the main physiological and clinical studies assessing the efficacy and related issues of NIV delivered with a helmet. A computerized search strategy of MEDLINE/PubMed (January 2000 to May 2012) and EMBASE (January 2000 to May 2012) was conducted limiting the search to retrospective, prospective, nonrandomized and randomized trials. We analyzed 152 studies from which 33 were selected, 12 physiological and 21 clinical (879 patients). The physiological studies showed that NIV with helmet could predispose to CO2 rebreathing and increase the patients' ventilator asynchrony. The main indications for NIV were acute cardiogenic pulmonary edema, hypoxemic acute respiratory failure (community-acquired pneumonia, postoperative and immunocompromised patients) and hypercapnic acute respiratory failure. In 9 of the 21 studies the helmet was compared to a face mask during either continous positive airway pressure or pressure support ventilation. In eight studies oxygenation was similar in the two groups, while the intubation rate was similar in four and lower in three studies for the helmet group compared to face mask group. The outcome was similar in six studies. The tolerance was better with the helmet in six of the studies. Although these data are limited, NIV delivered by helmet could be a safe alternative to the face mask in patients with acute respiratory failure. PMID:23680299

  16. Mechanical ventilation in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and bronchial asthma

    PubMed Central

    Ahmed, Syed Moied; Athar, Manazir

    2015-01-01

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and bronchial asthma often complicate the surgical patients, leading to post-operative morbidity and mortality. Many authors have tried to predict post-operative pulmonary complications but not specifically in COPD. The aim of this review is to provide recent evidence-based guidelines regarding predictors and ventilatory strategies for mechanical ventilation in COPD and bronchial asthma patients. Using Google search for indexing databases, a search for articles published was performed using various combinations of the following search terms: ‘Predictors’; ‘mechanical ventilation’; COPD’; ‘COPD’; ‘bronchial asthma’; ‘recent strategies’. Additional sources were also identified by exploring the primary reference list. PMID:26556918

  17. Cardiorespiratory Mechanical Simulator for In Vitro Testing of Impedance Minute Ventilation Sensors in Cardiac Pacemakers.

    PubMed

    Marcelli, Emanuela; Cercenelli, Laura

    2016-01-01

    We developed a cardiorespiratory mechanical simulator (CRMS), a system able to reproduce both the cardiac and respiratory movements, intended to be used for in vitro testing of impedance minute ventilation (iMV) sensors in cardiac pacemakers. The simulator consists of two actuators anchored to a human thorax model and a software interface to control the actuators and to acquire/process impedance signals. The actuators can be driven separately or simultaneously to reproduce the cardiac longitudinal shortening at a programmable heart rate and the diaphragm displacement at a programmable respiratory rate (RR). A standard bipolar pacing lead moving with the actuators and a pacemaker case fixed to the thorax model have been used to measure impedance (Z) variations during the simulated cardiorespiratory movements. The software is able to discriminate the low-frequency component because of respiration (ZR) from the high-frequency ripple because of cardiac effect (ZC). Impedance minute ventilation is continuously calculated from ZR and RR. From preliminary tests, the CRMS proved to be a reliable simulator for in vitro evaluation of iMV sensors. Respiration impedance recordings collected during cardiorespiratory movements reproduced by the CRMS were comparable in morphology and amplitude with in vivo assessments of transthoracic impedance variations. PMID:26501915

  18. A novel preterm respiratory mechanics active simulator to test the performances of neonatal pulmonary ventilators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cappa, Paolo; Sciuto, Salvatore Andrea; Silvestri, Sergio

    2002-06-01

    A patient active simulator is proposed which is capable of reproducing values of the parameters of pulmonary mechanics of healthy newborns and preterm pathological infants. The implemented prototype is able to: (a) let the operator choose the respiratory pattern, times of apnea, episodes of cough, sobs, etc., (b) continuously regulate and control the parameters characterizing the pulmonary system; and, finally, (c) reproduce the attempt of breathing of a preterm infant. Taking into account both the limitation due to the chosen application field and the preliminary autocalibration phase automatically carried out by the proposed device, accuracy and reliability on the order of 1% is estimated. The previously indicated value has to be considered satisfactory in light of the field of application and the small values of the simulated parameters. Finally, the achieved metrological characteristics allow the described neonatal simulator to be adopted as a reference device to test performances of neonatal ventilators and, more specifically, to measure the time elapsed between the occurrence of a potentially dangerous condition to the patient and the activation of the corresponding alarm of the tested ventilator.

  19. Test-retest reliability of expiratory abdominal compression with a handheld dynamometer in patients with prolonged mechanical ventilation

    PubMed Central

    Morino, Akira; Shida, Masahiro; Tanaka, Masashi; Sato, Kimihiro; Seko, Toshiaki; Ito, Shunsuke; Ogawa, Shunichi; Takahashi, Naoaki

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] The present study aimed to examine the test-retest reliability of expiratory abdominal compression with a handheld dynamometer in patients with prolonged mechanical ventilation. [Subjects and Methods] We recruited 18 patients with prolonged mechanical ventilation. All patients had impaired consciousness. The mode of the ventilator was synchronized intermittent mandatory ventilation. The abdomen above the navel was vertically compressed using a handheld dynamometer in synchronization with expiration. Expiratory abdominal compression was performed two times. We measured the tidal volume during expiratory abdominal compression. There was an interval of 5 minutes between the first and second measurements. Intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) and Bland-Altman analysis were performed to examine the test-retest reliability of expiratory abdominal compression with a handheld dynamometer. [Results] The test-retest reliability of expiratory abdominal compression was excellent (ICC(1, 1): 0.987). Bland-Altman analysis showed that there was no fixed bias and no proportional bias. [Conclusion] The findings of this study suggest that expiratory abdominal compression with a handheld dynamometer is reliable and useful for patients with respiratory failure and prolonged mechanical ventilation. PMID:26311946

  20. Brachial artery peak velocity variation to predict fluid responsiveness in mechanically ventilated patients

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Introduction Although several parameters have been proposed to predict the hemodynamic response to fluid expansion in critically ill patients, most of them are invasive or require the use of special monitoring devices. The aim of this study is to determine whether noninvasive evaluation of respiratory variation of brachial artery peak velocity flow measured using Doppler ultrasound could predict fluid responsiveness in mechanically ventilated patients. Methods We conducted a prospective clinical research in a 17-bed multidisciplinary ICU and included 38 mechanically ventilated patients for whom fluid administration was planned due to the presence of acute circulatory failure. Volume expansion (VE) was performed with 500 mL of a synthetic colloid. Patients were classified as responders if stroke volume index (SVi) increased ? 15% after VE. The respiratory variation in Vpeakbrach (?Vpeakbrach) was calculated as the difference between maximum and minimum values of Vpeakbrach over a single respiratory cycle, divided by the mean of the two values and expressed as a percentage. Radial arterial pressure variation (?PPrad) and stroke volume variation measured using the FloTrac/Vigileo system (?SVVigileo), were also calculated. Results VE increased SVi by ? 15% in 19 patients (responders). At baseline, ?Vpeakbrach, ?PPrad and ?SVVigileo were significantly higher in responder than nonresponder patients [14 vs 8%; 18 vs. 5%; 13 vs 8%; P < 0.0001, respectively). A ?Vpeakbrach value >10% predicted fluid responsiveness with a sensitivity of 74% and a specificity of 95%. A ?PPrad value >10% and a ?SVVigileo >11% predicted volume responsiveness with a sensitivity of 95% and 79%, and a specificity of 95% and 89%, respectively. Conclusions Respiratory variations in brachial artery peak velocity could be a feasible tool for the noninvasive assessment of fluid responsiveness in patients with mechanical ventilatory support and acute circulatory failure. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov ID: NCT00890071 PMID:19728876

  1. A case of tracheal agenesis surviving without mechanical ventilation after external esophageal stenting.

    PubMed

    Watanabe, Takashi; Okuyama, Hiroomi; Kubota, Akio; Kawahara, Hisayoshi; Hasegawa, Toshimichi; Ueno, Takehisa; Saka, Ryuta; Morishita, Yuji

    2008-10-01

    Tracheal agenesis is a rare and usually lethal congenital malformation of the forgut. Although some infants can be resuscitated with an intra-esophageal intubation temporarily, long-term airway management is difficult because of the collapsing airway. We report a long-term survivor with tracheal agenesis in whom a Gortex external esophageal stent using radial traction sutures was applied to prevent the esophagus from collapsing. The patient was discharged from our hospital without mechanical ventilation or oxygen inhalation at 10 months of age. Our procedure has a potential to establish a long-term steady airway in patients with tracheal agenesis. The detail of the procedure is presented and the related literature is reviewed. PMID:18926230

  2. A novel fuzzy logic inference system for decision support in weaning from mechanical ventilation.

    PubMed

    Kilic, Yusuf Alper; Kilic, Ilke

    2010-12-01

    Weaning from mechanical ventilation represents one of the most challenging issues in management of critically ill patients. Currently used weaning predictors ignore many important dimensions of weaning outcome and have not been uniformly successful. A fuzzy logic inference system that uses nine variables, and five rule blocks within two layers, has been designed and implemented over mathematical simulations and random clinical scenarios, to compare its behavior and performance in predicting expert opinion with those for rapid shallow breathing index (RSBI), pressure time index and Jabour' weaning index. RSBI has failed to predict expert opinion in 52% of scenarios. Fuzzy logic inference system has shown the best discriminative power (ROC: 0.9288), and RSBI the worst (ROC: 0.6556) in predicting expert opinion. Fuzzy logic provides an approach which can handle multi-attribute decision making, and is a very powerful tool to overcome the weaknesses of currently used weaning predictors. PMID:20703599

  3. 42 CFR 440.185 - Respiratory care for ventilator-dependent individuals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL ASSISTANCE PROGRAMS SERVICES: GENERAL PROVISIONS... ventilator-dependent individuals means services that are not otherwise available under the State's Medicaid plan, provided on a part-time basis in the recipient's home by a respiratory therapist or other...

  4. Mechanical Ventilation Injury and Repair in Extremely and Very Preterm Lungs

    PubMed Central

    Brew, Nadine; Hooper, Stuart B.; Zahra, Valerie; Wallace, Megan; Harding, Richard

    2013-01-01

    Background Extremely preterm infants often receive mechanical ventilation (MV), which can contribute to bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD). However, the effects of MV alone on the extremely preterm lung and the lungs capacity for repair are poorly understood. Aim To characterise lung injury induced by MV alone, and mechanisms of injury and repair, in extremely preterm lungs and to compare them with very preterm lungs. Methods Extremely preterm lambs (0.75 of term) were transiently exposed by hysterotomy and underwent 2 h of injurious MV. Lungs were collected 24 h and at 15 d after MV. Immunohistochemistry and morphometry were used to characterise injury and repair processes. qRT-PCR was performed on extremely and very preterm (0.85 of term) lungs 24 h after MV to assess molecular injury and repair responses. Results 24 h after MV at 0.75 of term, lung parenchyma and bronchioles were severely injured; tissue space and myofibroblast density were increased, collagen and elastin fibres were deformed and secondary crest density was reduced. Bronchioles contained debris and their epithelium was injured and thickened. 24 h after MV at 0.75 and 0.85 of term, mRNA expression of potential mediators of lung repair were significantly increased. By 15 days after MV, most lung injury had resolved without treatment. Conclusions Extremely immature lungs, particularly bronchioles, are severely injured by 2 h of MV. In the absence of continued ventilation these injured lungs are capable of repair. At 24 h after MV, genes associated with injurious MV are unaltered, while potential repair genes are activated in both extremely and very preterm lungs. PMID:23704953

  5. Mechanical Ventilation and Clinical Outcomes in Patients with Acute Myocardial Infarction: A Retrospective Observational Study

    PubMed Central

    Pesaro, Antonio Eduardo P.; Katz, Marcelo; Katz, Jason N.; Barbas, Carmen Sílvia Valente; Makdisse, Marcia R.; Correa, Alessandra G.; Franken, Marcelo; Pereira, Carolina; Serrano, Carlos V.; Lopes, Renato D.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Patients with acute myocardial infarction (AMI) and respiratory impairment may be treated with either invasive or non-invasive mechanical ventilation (MV). However, there has been little testing of non-invasive MV in the setting of AMI. Our objective was to evaluate the incidence and associated clinical outcomes of patients with AMI who were treated with non-invasive or invasive MV. Methods This was a retrospective observational study in which consecutive patients with AMI (n = 1610) were enrolled. The association between exclusively non-invasive MV, invasive MV and outcomes was assessed by multivariable models. Results Mechanical ventilation was used in 293 patients (54% invasive and 46% exclusively non-invasive). In-hospital mortality rates for patients without MV, with exclusively non-invasive MV, and with invasive MV were 4.0%, 8.8%, and 39.5%, respectively (P<0.001). The median lengths of hospital stay were 6 (5.8–6.2), 13 (11.2–4.7), and 28 (18.0–37.9) days, respectively (P<0.001). Exclusively non-invasive MV was not associated with in-hospital death (adjusted HR = 0.90, 95% CI 0.40–1.99, P = 0.79). Invasive MV was strongly associated with a higher risk of in-hospital death (adjusted HR = 3.07, 95% CI 1.79–5.26, P<0.001). Conclusions In AMI setting, 18% of the patients required MV. Almost half of these patients were treated with exclusively non-invasive strategies with a favorable prognosis, while patients who needed to be treated invasively had a three-fold increase in the risk of death. Future prospective randomized trials are needed to compare the effectiveness of invasive and non-invasive MV for the initial approach of respiratory failure in AMI patients. PMID:26977804

  6. Peptide growth factors in tracheal aspirates of mechanically ventilated preterm neonates.

    PubMed

    Ambalavanan, Namasivayam; Novak, Zuzana E

    2003-02-01

    Basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF or FGF-2), vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), and endothelin-1 (ET-1) are peptide growth factors (PGF) mediating normal lung development, maturation, injury, and repair. These PGF may therefore be involved in the pathogenesis of bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD). We hypothesized that elevated levels of these PGF in tracheal aspirates would be associated with a) BPD and/or death; b) markers of cell injury and apoptosis; and c) chorioamnionitis, a risk factor for BPD. Tracheal aspirates collected in 29 preterm (<34 wk gestation, 500-2000 g birth weight), mechanically ventilated infants on d 1 of life were assayed for PGF and histone-associated DNA fragments by ELISA and for LDH by enzyme assay. Clinical and pathologic examination was performed for chorioamnionitis. BPD was defined as oxygen requirement/mechanical ventilation at 28 d postnatal age. The birth weight (mean +/- SE) was 1009 +/- 85 g and median gestational age was 26 wk (range, 22-33). Eighteen infants died or developed BPD. bFGF levels were elevated in infants who died or developed BPD [median (25%,75%) level of 36 (23, 44) pg/mL versus 14 (6, 30) in the survivors without BPD, p = 0.01]. bFGF levels correlated with apoptosis (r = 0.73, p < 0.001) and LDH levels (r = 0.59, p < 0.001). VEGF and ET-1 levels were not associated with apoptosis or with BPD/death. PGF levels were not associated with chorioamnionitis. We conclude that elevated bFGF levels in the preterm trachea correlate with BPD/death and markers of cell injury and apoptosis but not with chorioamnionitis. We speculate that bFGF may play a role in the development of BPD. PMID:12538781

  7. [The clinical and microbiological comparison of the use of heated humidifiers and heat and moisture exchanger filters with Booster in mechanically ventilated patients].

    PubMed

    Nadir Ozi?, Trkan; Ozcan Kanat, Derya; O?uzlgen, Ipek Kivilcim; Aydo?du, Mge; Hizel, Kenan; Grsel, Gl

    2009-01-01

    Ventilator associated pneumonia (VAP) is the most frequent nosocomial infection in intensive care units that is associated with prolonged mechanical ventilation, hospitalization and increased health-care costs. Various humidifiers can be used for humidification during mechanical ventilation. Many studies were conducted to identify the effects of two different humidifiers, i.e. heated humidifiers and heat and moisture exchanger filters (HME), on VAP development; and HME filters were found to decrease the VAP frequency. In this study we aimed to compare the efficacy and safety of heated humidifiers and HME-Booster. Heated humidifier with conventional microbiologic filter (CMF-HH) or HME-Booster were used in randomization to 41 mechanically ventilated patients of our intensive care unit, and patients were divided into two groups as group 1 receiving CMF-HH (20 patients) and group 2 (21 patients) receiving HME-Booster. Daily secretion scores, endotracheal tube occlusion due to secretions, VAP development rate for the assessment of microbiological safety of humidifiers and differences in PETCO(2) and PaCO(2) values for the assessment of their effect on arterial blood gas were recorded prospectively. The measurement of PETCO(2) and PaCO(2) values were performed with the presence of humidifiers and after removing them in both groups. In both groups with the removal of CMF-HH and HME-Booster, a decrease in PETCO(2) value was identified, but the decrease in group 2 was statistically significant (p= 0.016). The decrease in PaCO(2) after removal of humidifiers was greater in group 2 than in group 1, but the difference was not significant (p> 0.05).The rate of VAP and endotracheal tube occlusion was not significantly different between the groups. The mean secretion score was lower in group 1 (p= 0.041). In conclusion, although both humidifiers have similar microbiological effects, heated humidifiers could be preferred particularly for the patients with an underlying chronic lung disease due to its positive effects on PETCO(2) values and secretion scores. PMID:19787464

  8. Automated detection of patient-ventilator asynchrony: new tool or new toy?

    PubMed

    Piquilloud, Lise; Jolliet, Philippe; Revelly, Jean-Pierre

    2013-01-01

    Although severe patient-ventilator asynchrony is frequent during invasive and non-invasive mechanical ventilation, diagnosing such asynchronies usually requires the presence at the bedside of an experienced clinician to assess the tracings displayed on the ventilator screen, thus explaining why evaluating patient-ventilator interaction remains a challenge in daily clinical practice. In the previous issue of Critical Care, Sinderby and colleagues present a new automated method to detect, quantify, and display patient-ventilator interaction. In this validation study, the automatic method is as efficient as experts in mechanical ventilation. This promising system could help clinicians extend their knowledge about patient-ventilator interaction and further improve assisted mechanical ventilation. PMID:24252458

  9. Ventilation and ventilators.

    PubMed

    Hayes, B

    1982-01-01

    The history of ventilation is reviewed briefly and recent developments in techniques of ventilation are discussed. Operating features of ventilators have changed in the past few years, partly as the result of clinical progress; yet, technology appears to have outstripped the clinician's ability to harness it most effectively. Clinical discipline and training of medical staff in the use of ventilators could be improved. The future is promising if clinician and designer can work together closely. Ergonomics of ventilators and their controls and the provision of alarms need special attention. Microprocessors are likely to feature prominently in the next generation of designs. PMID:6754938

  10. The effects of pleural fluid drainage on respiratory function in mechanically ventilated patients after cardiac surgery

    PubMed Central

    Brims, Fraser J H; Davies, Michael G; Elia, Andy; Griffiths, Mark J D

    2015-01-01

    Background Pleural effusions occur commonly after cardiac surgery and the effects of drainage on gas exchange in this population are not well established. We examined pulmonary function indices following drainage of pleural effusions in cardiac surgery patients. Methods We performed a retrospective study examining the effects of pleural fluid drainage on the lung function indices of patients recovering from cardiac surgery requiring mechanical ventilation for more than 7?days. We specifically analysed patients who had pleural fluid removed via an intercostal tube (ICT: drain group) compared with those of a control group (no effusion, no ICT). Results In the drain group, 52 ICTs were sited in 45 patients. The mean (SD) volume of fluid drained was 1180 (634) mL. Indices of oxygenation were significantly worse in the drain group compared with controls prior to drainage. The arterial oxygen tension (PaO2)/fractional inspired oxygen (FiO2) (P/F) ratio improved on day 1 after ICT placement (mean (SD), day 0: 31.01 (8.92) vs 37.18 (10.7); p<0.05) and both the P/F ratio and oxygenation index (OI: kPa/cm?H2O=PaO2/mean airway pressureFiO2) demonstrated sustained improvement to day 5 (P/F day 5: 39.85 (12.8); OI day 0: 2.88 (1.10) vs day 5: 4.06 (1.73); both p<0.01). The drain group patients were more likely to have an improved mode of ventilation on day 1 compared with controls (p=0.028). Conclusions Pleural effusion after cardiac surgery may impair oxygenation. Drainage of pleural fluid is associated with a rapid and sustained improvement in oxygenation. PMID:26339492

  11. Heterogeneity of cerebral vasoreactivity in preterm infants supported by mechanical ventilation

    SciTech Connect

    Pryds, O.; Greisen, G.; Lou, H.; Friis-Hansen, B. )

    1989-10-01

    The reaction of cerebral blood flow to acute changes in arterial carbon dioxide pressure (PaCO2) and mean arterial blood pressure was determined in 57 preterm infants supported by mechanical ventilation (mean gestational age 30.1 weeks) during the first 48 hours of life. All infants had normal brain sonograms at the time of the investigation. In each infant, global cerebral blood flow was determined by xenon-133 clearance two to five times within a few hours at different levels of PaCO2. Changes in PaCO2 followed adjustments of the ventilator settings. Arterial oxygen pressure was intended to be kept constant, and mean arterial blood pressure fluctuated spontaneously between measurements. The data were analyzed by stepwise multiple regression, with changes in global cerebral blood flow, PaCO2, mean arterial blood pressure, and postnatal age or intracranial hemorrhage used as variables. In infants with persistently normal brain sonograms, the global cerebral blood flow-carbon dioxide reactivity was markedly lower during the first day of life (mean 11.2% to 11.8%/kPa PaCO2) compared with the second day of life (mean 32.6/kPa PaCO2), and pressure-flow autoregulation was preserved. Similarly, global cerebral blood flow-carbon dioxide reactivity and pressure-flow autoregulation were present in infants in whom mild intracranial hemorrhage developed after the study. In contrast, global cerebral blood flow reactivity to changes in PaCO2 and mean arterial blood pressure was absent in infants in whom ultrasonographic signs of severe intracranial hemorrhage subsequently developed. These infants also had about 20% lower global cerebral blood flow before hemorrhage, in comparison with infants whose sonograms were normal, a finding that suggests functional disturbances of cerebral blood flow regulation.

  12. [The effectiveness of music therapy in reducing physiological and psychological anxiety in mechanically ventilated patients].

    PubMed

    Wu, Shiau-Jiun; Chou, Fan-Hao

    2008-10-01

    Anxiety, a common reaction in patients receiving ventilation therapy, often impacts negatively on patient recovery. Music therapy, a non-invasion intervention, is readily accepted by patients and has been used to relieve patient anxiety with encouraging results. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effectiveness of music therapy on reducing anxiety in patients on mechanical ventilators. An experimental design was used and all cases were collected from a medical center in southern Taiwan. While the experimental group patients took a 30-minute music therapy session, control group patients were asked to rest. Both facility anxiety and anxiety visual scales were used as research tools, with other non-invasive medical instruments employed to measure heartbeat and breathing, blood pressure and blood oxygen saturation in both patient groups. When compared with the control group, patients in the experimental group showed significant improvement in sense of anxiety (Brief Anxiety Scale, BAS, t(29) = -4.80, p < .001; Visual Analogue Anxiety Scales, VAAS, t(29) = -3.38, p = .002), diastolic pressure (t(29) = -2.74, p = .002), mean arterial pressure(t(29) = -2.26, p = .031) and breathing rate (t(29) = -4.84, p < .001). In analyzing data from the two groups, we found that the sense of anxiety (BAS, t(58) = -3.21, p = .002; VAAS, t(58) = -2.90, p = .005) and breathing rate (t(58) = -3.20, p = .002) in the experimental group decreased significantly following music therapy. Study results are hoped to serve as an important reference for clinical nursing staff. Also, it is hoped that the music therapy method may help facilitate achievement of broader humanized nursing goals. PMID:18836973

  13. Replacement of fentanyl infusion by enteral methadone decreases the weaning time from mechanical ventilation: a randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Introduction Patients undergoing mechanical ventilation (MV) are frequently administered prolonged and/or high doses of opioids which when removed can cause a withdrawal syndrome and difficulty in weaning from MV. We tested the hypothesis that the introduction of enteral methadone during weaning from sedation and analgesia in critically ill adult patients on MV would decrease the weaning time from MV. Methods A double-blind randomized controlled trial was conducted in the adult intensive care units (ICUs) of four general hospitals in Brazil. The 75 patients, who met the criteria for weaning from MV and had been using fentanyl for more than five consecutive days, were randomized to the methadone (MG) or control group (CG). Within the first 24 hours after study enrollment, both groups received 80% of the original dose of fentanyl, the MG received enteral methadone and the CG received an enteral placebo. After the first 24 hours, the MG received an intravenous (IV) saline solution (placebo), while the CG received IV fentanyl. For both groups, the IV solution was reduced by 20% every 24 hours. The groups were compared by evaluating the MV weaning time and the duration of MV, as well as the ICU stay and the hospital stay. Results Of the 75 patients randomized, seven were excluded and 68 were analyzed: 37 from the MG and 31 from the CG. There was a higher probability of early extubation in the MG, but the difference was not significant (hazard ratio: 1.52 (95% confidence interval (CI) 0.87 to 2.64; P = 0.11). The probability of successful weaning by the fifth day was significantly higher in the MG (hazard ratio: 2.64 (95% CI: 1.22 to 5.69; P < 0.02). Among the 54 patients who were successfully weaned (29 from the MG and 25 from the CG), the MV weaning time was significantly lower in the MG (hazard ratio: 2.06; 95% CI 1.17 to 3.63; P < 0.004). Conclusions The introduction of enteral methadone during weaning from sedation and analgesia in mechanically ventilated patients resulted in a decrease in the weaning time from MV. PMID:22420584

  14. Mechanical ventilation for ARDS patients--for a better understanding of the 2012 Surviving Sepsis Campaign Guidelines.

    PubMed

    Takeuchi, Muneyuki; Tachibana, Kazuya

    2015-01-01

    The mortality rate among patients suffering acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) remains high despite implementation at clinical centers of the lung protective ventilatory strategies recommended by the International Guidelines for Management of Severe Sepsis and Septic Shock, 2012. This suggests that such strategies are still sub-optimal for some ARDS patients. For these patients, tailored use of ventilator settings should be considered, including: further reduction of tidal volumes, administration of neuromuscular blocking agents if the patient's spontaneous breathing is incompatible with mechanical ventilation, and adjusting positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) settings based on transpulmonary pressure levels. PMID:25567337

  15. What happens to patients with COPD with long-term oxygen treatment who receive mechanical ventilation for COPD exacerbation? A 1-year retrospective follow-up study.

    PubMed

    Hajizadeh, Negin; Goldfeld, Keith; Crothers, Kristina

    2015-03-01

    We performed a retrospective cohort study of patients with chronic obstructive lung disease (COPD) on long-term oxygen treatment (LTOT) who received invasive mechanical ventilation for COPD exacerbation. Of the 4791 patients, 23% died in the hospital, and 45% died in the subsequent 12 months. 67% of patients were readmitted at least once in the subsequent 12 months, and 26.8% were discharged to a nursing home or skilled nursing facility within 30 days. We conclude that these patients have high mortality rates, both in-hospital and in the 12 months postdischarge. If patients survive, many will be readmitted to the hospital and discharged to nursing home. These potential outcomes may support informed critical care decision making and more preference congruent care. PMID:24826845

  16. Intraoperative protective mechanical ventilation for prevention of postoperative pulmonary complications: a comprehensive review of the role of tidal volume, positive end-expiratory pressure, and lung recruitment maneuvers.

    PubMed

    Güldner, Andreas; Kiss, Thomas; Serpa Neto, Ary; Hemmes, Sabrine N T; Canet, Jaume; Spieth, Peter M; Rocco, Patricia R M; Schultz, Marcus J; Pelosi, Paolo; Gama de Abreu, Marcelo

    2015-09-01

    Postoperative pulmonary complications are associated with increased morbidity, length of hospital stay, and mortality after major surgery. Intraoperative lung-protective mechanical ventilation has the potential to reduce the incidence of postoperative pulmonary complications. This review discusses the relevant literature on definition and methods to predict the occurrence of postoperative pulmonary complication, the pathophysiology of ventilator-induced lung injury with emphasis on the noninjured lung, and protective ventilation strategies, including the respective roles of tidal volumes, positive end-expiratory pressure, and recruitment maneuvers. The authors propose an algorithm for protective intraoperative mechanical ventilation based on evidence from recent randomized controlled trials. PMID:26120769

  17. PET(CO2) measurement and feature extraction of capnogram signals for extubation outcomes from mechanical ventilation.

    PubMed

    Rasera, Carmen C; Gewehr, Pedro M; Domingues, Adriana Maria T

    2015-02-01

    Capnography is a continuous and noninvasive method for carbon dioxide (CO2) measurement, and it has become the standard of care for basic respiratory monitoring for intubated patients in the intensive care unit. In addition, it has been used to adjust ventilatory parameters during mechanical ventilation (MV). However, a substantial debate remains as to whether capnography is useful during the process of weaning and extubation from MV during the postoperative period. Thus, the main objective of this study was to present a new use for time-based capnography data by measuring the end-tidal CO2 pressure ([Formula: see text]), partial pressure of arterial CO2 ([Formula: see text]) and feature extraction of capnogram signals before extubation from MV to evaluate the capnography as a predictor of outcome extubation in infants after cardiac surgery. Altogether, 82 measurements were analysed, 71.9% patients were successfully extubated, and 28.1% met the criteria for extubation failure within 48?h. The ROC-AUC analysis for quantitative measure of the capnogram showed significant differences (p < 0.001) for: expiratory time (0.873), slope of phase III (0.866), slope ratio (0.923) and ascending angle (0.897). In addition, the analysis of [Formula: see text] (0.895) and [Formula: see text] (0.924) obtained 30?min before extubation showed significant differences between groups. The [Formula: see text] mean value for success and failure extubation group was 39.04?mmHg and 46.27?mmHg, respectively. It was also observed that high CO2 values in patients who had returned MV was 82.8? ?21?mmHg at the time of extubation failure. Thus, [Formula: see text] measurements and analysis of features extracted from a capnogram can differentiate extubation outcomes in infant patients under MV, thereby reducing the physiologic instability caused by failure in this process. PMID:25582400

  18. Respiratory complications in the postanesthesia care unit: A review of pathophysiological mechanisms

    PubMed Central

    Karcz, Marcin; Papadakos, Peter J

    2013-01-01

    General anesthesia and mechanical ventilation impair pulmonary function, even in normal individuals, and result in decreased oxygenation in the postanesthesia period. They also cause a reduction in functional residual capacity of up to 50% of the preanesthesia value. It has been shown that pulmonary atelectasis is a common finding in anesthetized individuals because it occurs in 85% to 90% of healthy adults. Furthermore, there is substantial evidence that atelectasis, in combination with alveolar hypoventilation and ventilation-perfusion mismatch, is the core mechanism responsible for postoperative hypoxemic events in the majority of patients in the postanesthesia care unit (PACU). Many concomitant factors also must be considered, such as respiratory depression from the type and anatomical site of surgery altering lung mechanics, the consequences of hemodynamic impairment and the residual effects of anesthetic drugs, most notably residual neuromuscular blockade. The appropriate use of anesthetic and analgesic techniques, when combined with meticulous postoperative care, clearly influences pulmonary outcomes in the PACU. The present review emphasizes the major pathophysiological mechanisms and treatment strategies of critical respiratory events in the PACU to provide health care workers with the knowledge needed to prevent such potentially adverse outcomes from occurring. PMID:26078599

  19. Measurement of condensed water mass during mechanical ventilation with heated wire humidifiers: experiments with and without pre-warming.

    PubMed

    Schena, E; Saccomandi, P; Giorgino, M; Silvestri, S

    2014-01-01

    Heated wire humidifiers (HWHs) are employed in mechanical ventilation with the objective of heating and humidifying the gases delivered to the mechanical ventilator. They use a control based on the adjustment of gas temperature at the chamber outlet. The condensation occurring within the breathing circuit is one of the most important concerns related to this control strategy. In the present study we focused on the measurement of the condensation amount within the breathing circuit during the employment of a commercial HWH (MR850, Fisher & Paykel). The measurement of the condensed vapor mass, performed during 7 h of ventilation, provides more objective information than the visual-based scale used in literature. Moreover, two solutions were proposed to minimize the condensation in the breathing circuit tract downward the heated chamber: i) a flexible insulating pipe was used to cover the mentioned breathing circuit tract, and ii) the air delivered by ventilator was heated before it passes through the chamber at different inlet temperature Ti obtained by employing pre-warming. To assess the improvement obtained by these two solutions, experiments have been carried out with and without their employment at two minute volumes. Results show that: i) insulation and pre-warming allows minimizing the condensation (e.g., at 8 Lmin(-1) the mass of condensation after 7 h of ventilation decreases from 9.3 g to 2.5 g by using insulation and T(i)=27 C); ii) the condensation mass decreases with T(i) (e.g., at 8 Lmin(-1) the mass condensation was 2.5 g at T(i)= 27 C and 1.1 g at T(i)= 30 C); and iii) the amount of condensation linearly increases with time of ventilation. PMID:25570407

  20. A comparison of ventilator-associated pneumonia rates determined by different scoring systems in four intensive care units in the North West of England.

    PubMed

    Wallace, F A; Alexander, P D G; Spencer, C; Naisbitt, J; Moore, J A; McGrath, B A

    2015-11-01

    Ventilator-associated pneumonia is a common healthcare-associated infection with significant mortality, morbidity and healthcare cost, and rates have been proposed as a potential quality indicator. We examined ventilator-associated pneumonia rates as determined by different diagnostic scoring systems across four adult intensive care units in the North West of England. We also collected clinical opinions as to whether patients had ventilator-associated pneumonia, and whether patients were receiving antibiotics as treatment. Pooled ventilator-associated pneumonia rates were 36.3, 22.2, 15.2 and 1.1 per 1000 ventilator-bed days depending on the scoring system used. There was significant within-unit heterogeneity for ventilator-associated pneumonia rates calculated by the various scoring systems (all p < 0.001). Clinical opinion and antibiotic use did not correlate well with the scoring systems (k = 0.23 and k = 0.17, respectively). We therefore question whether the ventilator-associated pneumonia rate as measured by existing tools is either useful or desirable as a quality indicator. PMID:26348646

  1. A study on circadian rhythm disorder of rat lung tissue caused by mechanical ventilation induced lung injury.

    PubMed

    Li, Huan; Wang, Chunxiao; Hu, Jiaqi; Tan, Junyuan

    2014-02-01

    Ventilator-induced lung injury (VILI), the most serious complication of mechanical ventilation therapy, is an excessive inflammatory response in lung tissue characterized by infiltration of inflammatory cells and overproduction of inflammatory mediators. The pathogenesis of VILI is very complex. It is becoming increasingly evident that disruption of circadian rhythm affects the immune response. Whether the pathogenesis of VILI is associated with circadian rhythm disruption has not been reported. In this study, we establish VILI model in SD rat by performing an endotracheal intubation and placing the rat on a mechanical ventilator (tidal volume of 40 ml/kg or 10 ml/kg without positive end-expiratory pressure). To examine the effect of VILI on clock gene expression, real-time quantitative PCR was performed to measure bmal1, clock, per2 and Rev-erb? mRNA expression. We found that Rev-erb? mRNA was significantly decreased in high tide volume mechanical ventilation group compared with spontaneous group, the same as REV-ERB? protein product which was tested by Western blot approach. Stimulation of REV-ERB? activity by SR9009 greatly diminished VILI-induced lung edema, inflammatory cell infiltration and the production of the pro-inflammatory cytokine TNF-?. Collectively, our findings are the first to show that REV-ERB? plays an important role in VILI and inflammation, and circadian rhythm disorder in inflammation response may be a novel pathogenesis of VILI. PMID:24355794

  2. Patient-directed music therapy reduces anxiety and sedation exposure in mechanically-ventilated patients: a research critique.

    PubMed

    Gullick, Janice G; Kwan, Xiu Xian

    2015-05-01

    This research appraisal, guided by the CASP Randomised Controlled Trial Checklist, critiques a randomised, controlled trial of patient-directed music therapy compared to either noise-cancelling headphones or usual care. This study recruited 373 alert, mechanically-ventilated patients across five intensive care units in the United States. The Music Assessment Tool, administered by a music therapist, facilitated music selection by participants in the intervention group. Anxiety was measured using the VAS-A scale. Sedation exposure was measured by both sedation frequency and by sedation intensity using a daily sedation intensity score. Context for the data was supported by an environmental scan form recording unit activity and by written comments from nurses about the patient's responses to the protocol. Patient-directed music therapy allowed a significant reduction in sedation frequency compared to noise-cancelling headphones and usual care participants. Patient-directed music therapy led to significantly lower anxiety and sedation intensity compared to usual care, but not compared to noise-cancelling headphones. This is a robust study with clear aims and a detailed description of research methods and follow-up. While no participants were lost to follow-up, not all were included in the analysis: 37% did not have the minimum of two anxiety assessments for comparison and 23% were not included in sedation analysis. While some participants utilised the intervention or active control for many hours-per-day, half the music therapy participants listened for 12min or less per day and half of the noise-cancelling headphone participants did not appear to use them. While the results suggest that patient-directed music therapy and noise-cancelling headphones may be useful and cost-effective interventions that lead to an overall improvement in anxiety and sedation exposure, these may appeal to a subset of ICU patients. The self-directed use of music therapy and noise-cancelling headphones means these findings may not transfer to sedated or cognitively-impaired patients. PMID:25818065

  3. Blood markers of oxidative stress predict weaning failure from mechanical ventilation

    PubMed Central

    Verona, Clber; Hackenhaar, Fernanda S; Teixeira, Cassiano; Medeiros, Tssia M; Alabarse, Paulo V; Salomon, Tiago B; Shller, rtur K; Maccari, Juara G; Condessa, Robledo Leal; Oliveira, Roselaine P; Rios Vieira, Silvia R; Benfato, Mara S

    2015-01-01

    Patients undergoing mechanical ventilation (MV) often experience respiratory muscle dysfunction, which complicates the weaning process. There is no simple means to predict or diagnose respiratory muscle dysfunction because diagnosis depends on measurements in muscle diaphragmatic fibre. As oxidative stress is a key mechanism contributing to MV-induced respiratory muscle dysfunction, the aim of this study was to determine if differences in blood measures of oxidative stress in patients who had success and failure in a spontaneous breathing trial (SBT) could be used to predict the outcome of MV. This was a prospective analysis of MV-dependent patients (?72hrs; n=34) undergoing a standard weaning protocol. Clinical, laboratory and oxidative stress analyses were performed. Measurements were made on blood samples taken at three time-points: immediately before the trial, 30min. into the trial in weaning success (WS) patients, or immediately before return to MV in weaning failure (WF) patients, and 6hrs after the trial. We found that blood measures of oxidative stress distinguished patients who would experience WF from patients who would experience WS. Before SBT, WF patients presented higher oxidative damage in lipids and higher antioxidant levels and decreased nitric oxide concentrations. The observed differences in measures between WF and WS patients persisted throughout and after the weaning trial. In conclusion, WF may be predicted based on higher malondialdehyde, higher vitamin C and lower nitric oxide concentration in plasma. PMID:25854285

  4. Blood markers of oxidative stress predict weaning failure from mechanical ventilation.

    PubMed

    Verona, Clber; Hackenhaar, Fernanda S; Teixeira, Cassiano; Medeiros, Tssia M; Alabarse, Paulo V; Salomon, Tiago B; Shller, rtur K; Maccari, Juara G; Condessa, Robledo Leal; Oliveira, Roselaine P; Rios Vieira, Silvia R; Benfato, Mara S

    2015-06-01

    Patients undergoing mechanical ventilation (MV) often experience respiratory muscle dysfunction, which complicates the weaning process. There is no simple means to predict or diagnose respiratory muscle dysfunction because diagnosis depends on measurements in muscle diaphragmatic fibre. As oxidative stress is a key mechanism contributing to MV-induced respiratory muscle dysfunction, the aim of this study was to determine if differences in blood measures of oxidative stress in patients who had success and failure in a spontaneous breathing trial (SBT) could be used to predict the outcome of MV. This was a prospective analysis of MV-dependent patients (?72hrs; n=34) undergoing a standard weaning protocol. Clinical, laboratory and oxidative stress analyses were performed. Measurements were made on blood samples taken at three time-points: immediately before the trial, 30min. into the trial in weaning success (WS) patients, or immediately before return to MV in weaning failure (WF) patients, and 6hrs after the trial. We found that blood measures of oxidative stress distinguished patients who would experience WF from patients who would experience WS. Before SBT, WF patients presented higher oxidative damage in lipids and higher antioxidant levels and decreased nitric oxide concentrations. The observed differences in measures between WF and WS patients persisted throughout and after the weaning trial. In conclusion, WF may be predicted based on higher malondialdehyde, higher vitamin C and lower nitric oxide concentration in plasma. PMID:25854285

  5. System identification and closed-loop control of end-tidal CO2 in mechanically ventilated patients.

    PubMed

    Hahn, Jin-Oh; Dumont, Guy A; Anersmino, J Mark

    2012-11-01

    This paper presents a systematic approach to system identification and closed-loop control of end-tidal carbon dioxide partial pressure (PETCO2) in mechanically ventilated patients. An empirical model consisting of a linear dynamic system followed by an affine transform is proposed to derive a low-order and high-fidelity representation that can reproduce the positive and inversely proportional dynamic input-output relationship between PETCO2 and minute ventilation (MV) in mechanically ventilated patients. The predictive capability of the empirical model was evaluated using experimental respiratory data collected from eighteen mechanically ventilated human subjects. The model predicted PETCO2 response accurately with a root-mean-squared error (RMSE) of 0.22+/-0.16 mmHg and a coefficient of determination (r2) of 0.81+/-0.18 (mean+/-SD) when a second-order rational transfer function was used as its linear dynamic component. Using the proposed model, a closedloop control method for PETCO2 based on a proportionalintegral (PI) compensator was proposed by systematic analysis of the system root locus. For the eighteen mechanically ventilated patient models identified, the PI compensator exhibited acceptable closed-loop response with a settling time of 1.27+/- 0.20 min and a negligible overshoot (0.51+/-1.17%), in addition to zero steady-state PETCO2 set point tracking. The physiologic implication of the proposed empirical model was analyzed by comparing it with the traditional multi-compartmental model widely used in pharmacological modeling. PMID:22711777

  6. An air flow sensor for neonatal mechanical ventilation applications based on a novel fiber-optic sensing technique

    SciTech Connect

    Battista, L.; Sciuto, S. A.; Scorza, A.

    2013-03-15

    In this work, a simple and low-cost air flow sensor, based on a novel fiber-optic sensing technique has been developed for monitoring air flows rates supplied by a neonatal ventilator to support infants in intensive care units. The device is based on a fiber optic sensing technique allowing (a) the immunity to light intensity variations independent by measurand and (b) the reduction of typical shortcomings affecting all biomedical fields (electromagnetic interference and patient electrical safety). The sensing principle is based on the measurement of transversal displacement of an emitting fiber-optic cantilever due to action of air flow acting on it; the fiber tip displacement is measured by means of a photodiode linear array, placed in front of the entrance face of the emitting optical fiber in order to detect its light intensity profile. As the measurement system is based on a detection of the illumination pattern, and not on an intensity modulation technique, it results less sensitive to light intensity fluctuation independent by measurand than intensity-based sensors. The considered technique is here adopted in order to develop two different configurations for an air flow sensor suitable for the measurement of air flow rates typically occurring during mechanical ventilation of newborns: a mono-directional and a bi-directional transducer have been proposed. A mathematical model for the air flow sensor is here proposed and a static calibration of two different arrangements has been performed: a measurement range up to 3.00 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -4} m{sup 3}/s (18.0 l/min) for the mono-directional sensor and a measurement range of {+-}3.00 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -4} m{sup 3}/s ({+-}18.0 l/min) for the bi-directional sensor are experimentally evaluated, according to the air flow rates normally encountered during tidal breathing of infants with a mass lower than 10 kg. Experimental data of static calibration result in accordance with the proposed theoretical model: for the mono-directional configuration, the coefficient of determination r{sup 2} is equal to 0.997; for the bi-directional configuration, the coefficient of determination r{sup 2} is equal to 0.990 for positive flows (inspiration) and 0.988 for negative flows (expiration). Measurement uncertainty {delta}Q of air flow rate has been evaluated by means of the propagation of distributions and the percentage error in the arrangement of bi-directional sensor ranges from a minimum of about 0.5% at -18.0 l/min to a maximum of about 9% at -12.0 l/min.

  7. An air flow sensor for neonatal mechanical ventilation applications based on a novel fiber-optic sensing technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Battista, L.; Sciuto, S. A.; Scorza, A.

    2013-03-01

    In this work, a simple and low-cost air flow sensor, based on a novel fiber-optic sensing technique has been developed for monitoring air flows rates supplied by a neonatal ventilator to support infants in intensive care units. The device is based on a fiber optic sensing technique allowing (a) the immunity to light intensity variations independent by measurand and (b) the reduction of typical shortcomings affecting all biomedical fields (electromagnetic interference and patient electrical safety). The sensing principle is based on the measurement of transversal displacement of an emitting fiber-optic cantilever due to action of air flow acting on it; the fiber tip displacement is measured by means of a photodiode linear array, placed in front of the entrance face of the emitting optical fiber in order to detect its light intensity profile. As the measurement system is based on a detection of the illumination pattern, and not on an intensity modulation technique, it results less sensitive to light intensity fluctuation independent by measurand than intensity-based sensors. The considered technique is here adopted in order to develop two different configurations for an air flow sensor suitable for the measurement of air flow rates typically occurring during mechanical ventilation of newborns: a mono-directional and a bi-directional transducer have been proposed. A mathematical model for the air flow sensor is here proposed and a static calibration of two different arrangements has been performed: a measurement range up to 3.00 × 10-4 m3/s (18.0 l/min) for the mono-directional sensor and a measurement range of ±3.00 × 10-4 m3/s (±18.0 l/min) for the bi-directional sensor are experimentally evaluated, according to the air flow rates normally encountered during tidal breathing of infants with a mass lower than 10 kg. Experimental data of static calibration result in accordance with the proposed theoretical model: for the mono-directional configuration, the coefficient of determination r2 is equal to 0.997; for the bi-directional configuration, the coefficient of determination r2 is equal to 0.990 for positive flows (inspiration) and 0.988 for negative flows (expiration). Measurement uncertainty δQ of air flow rate has been evaluated by means of the propagation of distributions and the percentage error in the arrangement of bi-directional sensor ranges from a minimum of about 0.5% at -18.0 l/min to a maximum of about 9% at -12.0 l/min.

  8. A mobile care system with alert mechanism.

    PubMed

    Lee, Ren-Guey; Chen, Kuei-Chien; Hsiao, Chun-Chieh; Tseng, Chwan-Lu

    2007-09-01

    Hypertension and arrhythmia are chronic diseases, which can be effectively prevented and controlled only if the physiological parameters of the patient are constantly monitored, along with the full support of the health education and professional medical care. In this paper, a role-based intelligent mobile care system with alert mechanism in chronic care environment is proposed and implemented. The roles in our system include patients, physicians, nurses, and healthcare providers. Each of the roles represents a person that uses a mobile device such as a mobile phone to communicate with the server setup in the care center such that he or she can go around without restrictions. For commercial mobile phones with Bluetooth communication capability attached to chronic patients, we have developed physiological signal recognition algorithms that were implemented and built-in in the mobile phone without affecting its original communication functions. It is thus possible to integrate several front-end mobile care devices with Bluetooth communication capability to extract patients' various physiological parameters [such as blood pressure, pulse, saturation of haemoglobin (SpO2), and electrocardiogram (ECG)], to monitor multiple physiological signals without space limit, and to upload important or abnormal physiological information to healthcare center for storage and analysis or transmit the information to physicians and healthcare providers for further processing. Thus, the physiological signal extraction devices only have to deal with signal extraction and wireless transmission. Since they do not have to do signal processing, their form factor can be further reduced to reach the goal of microminiaturization and power saving. An alert management mechanism has been included in back-end healthcare center to initiate various strategies for automatic emergency alerts after receiving emergency messages or after automatically recognizing emergency messages. Within the time intervals in system setting, according to the medical history of a specific patient, our prototype system can inform various healthcare providers in sequence to provide healthcare service with their reply to ensure the accuracy of alert information and the completeness of early warning notification to further improve the healthcare quality. In the end, with the testing results and performance evaluation of our implemented system prototype, we conclude that it is possible to set up a complete intelligent healt care chain with mobile monitoring and healthcare service via the assistance of our system. PMID:17912967

  9. Effect Of Pressure Support Versus Unassisted Breathing Through A Tracheostomy Collar On Weaning Duration In Patients Requiring Prolonged Mechanical Ventilation: A Randomized Trial

    PubMed Central

    Jubran, Amal; Grant, Brydon J.B.; Duffner, Lisa A.; Collins, Eileen G.; Lanuza, Dorothy M.; Hoffman, Leslie A.; Tobin, Martin J.

    2013-01-01

    Context Patients requiring prolonged mechanical ventilation (more than 21 days) are commonly weaned at long-term acute care hospitals (LTACHs). The most effective method of weaning such patients has not been investigated. Objective To compare weaning duration with pressure support versus unassisted breathing through a tracheostomy (trach collar) in patients transferred to a LTACH for weaning from prolonged ventilation. Design, Settings, and Participants Between 2000 and 2010, a randomized study was conducted in tracheotomized patients transferred to a single LTACH for weaning from prolonged ventilation. Of 500 patients who underwent a five-day screening procedure, 316 failed and were randomly assigned to wean with pressure support (n=155) or a trach collar (n=161). Six- and twelve-month survival was also determined. Main outcome measure Primary outcome was weaning duration. Secondary outcome was survival at six and twelve months after enrollment. Results Of 316 patients, four were withdrawn and not included in analysis. Of 152 patients in the pressure-support arm, 68 (44.7%) were weaned; 22 (14.5%) died. Of 160 patients in the trach-collar arm, 85 (53.1%) were weaned; 16 (10.0%) died. Median weaning time was shorter with trach collar than with pressure support: 15 [interquartile range, 825] versus 19 [1231] days, p=0.004. The hazard ratio (HR) for successful weaning rate was higher with trach collar than with pressure support (HR, 1.43; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.031.98, p<0.03) after adjusting for baseline clinical covariates. Trach collar achieved faster weaning than did pressure support among subjects who failed the screening procedure at 12120 hours (HR, 3.33; 95% CI, 1.447.70, p<0.01), whereas weaning time was equivalent with the two methods in patients who failed the screening procedure within 012 hours. Mortality was equivalent in the pressure-support and trach-collar arms at six months (55.9% versus 51.3%; 4.7 difference, 95% CI ?6.4 to 15.7%) and twelve months (66.4% versus 60.0%; 6.5 difference, 95% CI ?4.2 to 17.1 %). Conclusion Among patients requiring prolonged mechanical ventilation and treated at a single long-term care facility, unassisted breathing through a tracheostomy, compared with pressure support, resulted in shorter median weaning time, although weaning mode had no effect on survival at 6 and 12 months. PMID:23340588

  10. Effects of intravenous furosemide on mucociliary transport and rheological properties of patients under mechanical ventilation

    PubMed Central

    Kondo, Cludia Seiko; Macchionne, Maringela; Nakagawa, Naomi Kondo; de Carvalho, Carlos Roberto Ribeiro; King, Malcolm; Saldiva, Paulo Hilrio Nascimento; Lorenzi-Filho, Geraldo

    2002-01-01

    The use of intravenous (IV) furosemide is common practice in patients under mechanical ventilation (MV), but its effects on respiratory mucus are largely unknown. Furosemide can affect respiratory mucus either directly through inhibition of the NaK(Cl)2 co-transporter on the basolateral surface of airway epithelium or indirectly through increased diuresis and dehydration. We investigated the physical properties and transportability of respiratory mucus obtained from 26 patients under MV distributed in two groups, furosemide (n = 12) and control (n = 14). Mucus collection was done at 0, 1, 2, 3 and 4 hours. The rheological properties of mucus were studied with a microrheometer, and in vitro mucociliary transport (MCT) (frog palate), contact angle (CA) and cough clearance (CC) (simulated cough machine) were measured. After the administration of furosemide, MCT decreased by 17 19%, 24 11%, 18 16% and 18 13% at 1, 2, 3 and 4 hours respectively, P < 0.001 compared with control. In contrast, no significant changes were observed in the control group. The remaining parameters did not change significantly in either group. Our results support the hypothesis that IV furosemide might acutely impair MCT in patients under MV. PMID:11940271

  11. Early and simple detection of diastolic dysfunction during weaning from mechanical ventilation.

    PubMed

    Voga, Gorazd

    2012-01-01

    Weaning from mechanical ventilation imposes additional work on the cardiovascular system and can provoke or unmask left ventricular diastolic dysfunction with consecutive pulmonary edema or systolic dysfunction with inadequate increase of cardiac output and unsuccessful weaning. Echocardiography, which is increasingly used for hemodynamic assessment of critically ill patients, allows differentiation between systolic and diastolic failure. For various reasons, transthoracic echocardiographic assessment was limited to patients with good echo visibility and to those with sinus rhythm without excessive tachycardia. In these patients, often selected after unsuccessful weaning, echocardiographic findings were predictive for weaning failure of cardiac origin. In some studies, patients with various degrees of systolic dysfunction were included, making evaluation of the diastolic dysfunction to the weaning failure even more difficult. The recent study by Moschietto and coworkers included unselected patients and used very simple diastolic variables for assessment of diastolic function. They also included patients with atrial fibrillation and repeated echocardiographic examination only 10 minutes after starting a spontaneous breathing trial. The main finding was that weaning failure was not associated with systolic dysfunction but with diastolic dysfunction. By measuring simple and robust parameters for detection of diastolic dysfunction, the study was able to predict weaning failure in patients with sinus rhythm and atrial fibrillation as early as 10 minutes after beginning a spontaneous breathing trial. Further studies are necessary to determine whether appropriate treatment tailored according to the echocardiographic findings will result in successful weaning. PMID:22770365

  12. Functional genomic insights into acute lung injury: role of ventilators and mechanical stress.

    PubMed

    Nonas, Stephanie A; Finigan, James H; Gao, Li; Garcia, Joe G N

    2005-01-01

    Acute lung injury (ALI) is a complex and devastating illness, often occurring in the setting of sepsis and trauma. Despite recent advances in the understanding and treatment of ALI, pathogenic mechanisms and genetic modifiers in ALI remain incompletely understood. Furthermore, there has been increasing interest in the identification of genetic variations that contribute to ALI susceptibility and severity in order to gain unique insights into ALI pathogenesis and to design novel treatment strategies. However, the sporadic nature of ALI and the lack of family-based cohort studies preclude conventional genomic approaches such as linkage mapping (or "positional cloning"). We have used a "candidate gene approach" with extensive gene expression profiling studies in animal (rat, murine, canine) and human models of ALI to identify potential ALI candidate genes associated with sepsis and ventilator-associated lung injury. These studies, when combined with innovative in silico bioinformatics approaches, revealed both novel (pre--B-cell colony enhancing factor, myosin light chain kinase) and previously identified (interleukin 6, macrophage migration inhibitory factor) gene candidates. Subsequent single nucleotide polymorphism discovery and genotyping studies revealed polymorphisms that demonstrate an influence on ALI susceptibility in patients. These studies indicate that the candidate gene approach is a robust strategy to provide novel insights into the genetic basis of ALI, and the identification of potentially novel therapeutic targets. PMID:16222036

  13. House-dust mite exposure reduction in specially designed, mechanically ventilated "healthy" homes.

    PubMed

    Harving, H; Korsgaard, J; Dahl, R

    1994-10-01

    Exposure to house-dust mites (Dermatophagoides spp.) was investigated in 30 asthmatic patients before and after moving to homes with mechanical ventilation systems. Median house-dust mite concentration was 110 mites per gram of mattress dust at the initial investigation and 20 mites per gram at the first follow-up after a mean of 4.7 months in the new homes. This was lower (P < 0.05) than counts in a control group of 23 asthmatic patients that had unchanged counts. At a second follow-up, after 15.0 months, mite counts in the study group were further reduced (P < 0.01) from initial values. Among 16 patients, with initial mite counts above the recommended threshold limit value (TLV) of 100 mites per gram of dust, the mite counts fell, in most cases, below this TLV. Air-exchange rates increased (P < 0.001) from a median value of 0.40 air changes per hour (ach) to 1.52 ach at the second follow-up investigation. Furthermore, a reduction (P < 0.01) was found in indoor absolute air humidity, with a median value of 5.6 g of water/kg. No such changes were found in the control group. The present study indicates that reduction of air humidity through an increased supply of fresh air may significantly diminish and, in some cases, even eliminate house-dust mites in homes. PMID:7695059

  14. Mechanical ventilation triggers abnormal mitochondrial dynamics and morphology in the diaphragm.

    PubMed

    Picard, Martin; Azuelos, Ilan; Jung, Boris; Giordano, Christian; Matecki, Stefan; Hussain, Sabah; White, Kathryn; Li, Tong; Liang, Feng; Benedetti, Andrea; Gentil, Benoit J; Burelle, Yan; Petrof, Basil J

    2015-05-01

    The diaphragm is a unique skeletal muscle designed to be rhythmically active throughout life, such that its sustained inactivation by the medical intervention of mechanical ventilation (MV) represents an unanticipated physiological state in evolutionary terms. Within a short period after initiating MV, the diaphragm develops muscle atrophy, damage, and diminished strength, and many of these features appear to arise from mitochondrial dysfunction. Notably, in response to metabolic perturbations, mitochondria fuse, divide, and interact with neighboring organelles to remodel their shape and functional properties-a process collectively known as mitochondrial dynamics. Using a quantitative electron microscopy approach, here we show that diaphragm contractile inactivity induced by 6 h of MV in mice leads to fragmentation of intermyofibrillar (IMF) but not subsarcolemmal (SS) mitochondria. Furthermore, physical interactions between adjacent organellar membranes were less abundant in IMF mitochondria during MV. The profusion proteins Mfn2 and OPA1 were unchanged, whereas abundance and activation status of the profission protein Drp1 were increased in the diaphragm following MV. Overall, our results suggest that mitochondrial morphological abnormalities characterized by excessive fission-fragmentation represent early events during MV, which could potentially contribute to the rapid onset of mitochondrial dysfunction, maladaptive signaling, and associated contractile dysfunction of the diaphragm. PMID:25767033

  15. Effects of age on the synergistic interactions between lipopolysaccharide and mechanical ventilation in mice.

    PubMed

    Smith, Lincoln S; Gharib, Sina A; Frevert, Charles W; Martin, Thomas R

    2010-10-01

    Children have a lower incidence and mortality from acute lung injury (ALI) than adults, and infections are the most common event associated with ALI. To study the effects of age on susceptibility to ALI, we investigated the responses to microbial products combined with mechanical ventilation (MV) in juvenile (21-d-old) and adult (16-wk-old) mice. Juvenile and adult C57BL/6 mice were treated with inhaled Escherichia coli 0111:B4 lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and MV using tidal volume = 15 ml/kg. Comparison groups included mice treated with LPS or MV alone and untreated age-matched control mice. In adult animals treated for 3 hours, LPS plus MV caused synergistic increases in neutrophils (P < 0.01) and IgM in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (P = 0.03) and IL-1β in whole lung homogenates (P < 0.01) as compared with either modality alone. Although juvenile and adult mice had similar responses to LPS or MV alone, the synergistic interactions between LPS and MV did not occur in juvenile mice. Computational analysis of gene expression array data suggest that the acquisition of synergy with increasing age results, in part, from the loss of antiapoptotic responses and the acquisition of proinflammatory responses to the combination of LPS and MV. These data suggest that the synergistic inflammatory and injury responses to inhaled LPS combined with MV are acquired with age as a result of coordinated changes in gene expression of inflammatory, apoptotic, and TGF-β pathways. PMID:19901347

  16. Home mechanical ventilation in the aftermath of the Hanshin-Awaji earthquake disaster.

    PubMed

    Shimada, S; Funato, M

    1995-12-01

    Children who were dependent upon home mechanical ventilation (HMV), suffered in various ways from the disastrous Hanshin-Awaji earthquake disaster. The earthquake abruptly cut the supplies of water, gas and electricity, causing intense anxiety for those families. Through loss of the respirator function, some of them experienced an unexpected catastrophe. In the disaster area, there were children who were dependent upon HMV (19 cases) and children who were preparing for HMV in hospitals (nine cases). Information was gathered from questionnaires about the disaster, communication and correspondence with families. None of the 28 cases died or were injured. Nineteen cases had a variety of problems. In eight cases, respiratory support problems were acute. Nevertheless, all of them survived the crisis successfully even in the midst of such a catastrophic situation. An organization of HMV children's families, called the Baku-Baku Club, helped families with HMV problems by supplying water, food, oxygen and compressed air cylinders among other things. Additional outside batteries for portable respirators are essential equipment for HMV, especially for emergencies. A manual for clarifying the system for support in the Baku-Baku Club and a registration system for public medical service should be established in preparation for such a crisis. PMID:8775564

  17. Unaffected contractility of diaphragm muscle fibers in humans on mechanical ventilation

    PubMed Central

    Hooijman, Pleuni E.; Paul, Marinus A.; Stienen, Ger J. M.; Beishuizen, Albertus; Van Hees, Hieronymus W. H.; Singhal, Sunil; Bashir, Muhammad; Budak, Murat T.; Morgen, Jacqueline; Barsotti, Robert J.; Levine, Sanford

    2014-01-01

    Several studies have indicated that diaphragm dysfunction develops in patients on mechanical ventilation (MV). Here, we tested the hypothesis that the contractility of sarcomeres, i.e., the smallest contractile unit in muscle, is affected in humans on MV. To this end, we compared diaphragm muscle fibers of nine brain-dead organ donors (cases) that had been on MV for 26 5 h with diaphragm muscle fibers from nine patients (controls) undergoing surgery for lung cancer that had been on MV for less than 2 h. In each diaphragm specimen we determined 1) muscle fiber cross-sectional area in cryosections by immunohistochemical methods and 2) the contractile performance of permeabilized single muscle fibers by means of maximum specific force, kinetics of cross-bridge cycling by rate of tension redevelopment, myosin heavy chain content and concentration, and calcium sensitivity of force of slow-twitch and fast-twitch muscle fibers. In case subjects, we noted no statistically significant decrease in outcomes compared with controls in slow-twitch or fast-twitch muscle fibers. These observations indicate that 26 h of MV of humans is not invariably associated with changes in the contractile performance of sarcomeres in the diaphragm. PMID:25038190

  18. Air Distribution Effectiveness for Residential Mechanical Ventilation: Simulation and Comparison of Normalized Exposures

    SciTech Connect

    Petithuguenin, T.D.P.; Sherman, M.H.

    2009-05-01

    The purpose of ventilation is to dilute indoor contaminants that an occupant is exposed to. Even when providing the same nominal rate of outdoor air, different ventilation systems may distribute air in different ways, affecting occupants' exposure to household contaminants. Exposure ultimately depends on the home being considered, on source disposition and strength, on occupants' behavior, on the ventilation strategy, and on operation of forced air heating and cooling systems. In any multi-zone environment dilution rates and source strengths may be different in every zone and change in time, resulting in exposure being tied to occupancy patterns.This paper will report on simulations that compare ventilation systems by assessing their impact on exposure by examining common house geometries, contaminant generation profiles, and occupancy scenarios. These simulations take into account the unsteady, occupancy-tied aspect of ventilation such as bathroom and kitchen exhaust fans. As most US homes have central HVAC systems, the simulation results will be used to make appropriate recommendations and adjustments for distribution and mixing to residential ventilation standards such as ASHRAE Standard 62.2.This paper will report on work being done to model multizone airflow systems that are unsteady and elaborate the concept of distribution matrix. It will examine several metrics for evaluating the effect of air distribution on exposure to pollutants, based on previous work by Sherman et al. (2006).

  19. Analysis of mechanical ventilation and lipopolysaccharide?induced acute lung injury using DNA microarray analysis.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yuqing; Zhou, Xin; Rong, Ling

    2015-06-01

    Gene expression profiles of samples taken from patients with acute lung injury (ALI) induced by mechanical ventilation (MV) and lipopolysaccharide (LPS) were analyzed in order to identify key genes, and explore the underlying mechanisms. The GSE2411 microarray data set was downloaded from the Gene Expression Omnibus. This data set contained microarray data from 24 mouse lung samples, which were equally divided into four groups: Control group, MV group, LPS group and MV+LPS group. Differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were identified in the MV, LPS and MV+LPS groups, as compared with the control group, using packages of R software. Hierarchical clustering and between?group comparisons were performed for each group of DEGs. Overrepresented biological processes were revealed by functional enrichment analysis using the Database for Annotation, Visualization and Integrated Discovery. Unique DEGs in the LPS and MV+LPS groups were selected, and pathway enrichment analyses were performed using the Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes Orthology Based Annotation system. A total of 32, 264 and 685 DEGs were identified in the MV, LPS and MV+LPS groups, respectively. The MV+LPS group had more DEGs, as compared with the other two treatment groups. Genes associated with the immune and inflammatory responses were significantly overrepresented in both the LPS and MV+LPS groups, suggesting that LPS dominated the progression of ALI. Unique DEGs in the LPS and MV+LPS groups were associated with cytokine?cytokine receptor interaction. The Janus kinase?signal transducer and activator of transcription signaling pathway was shown to be enriched in the LPS+MV?unique DEGs. The results of the present study demonstrated that MV could exaggerate the transcriptional response of the lungs to LPS. Numerous key genes were identified, which may advance knowledge regarding the pathogenesis of ALI. PMID:25672411

  20. Analysis of mechanical ventilation and lipopolysaccharide-induced acute lung injury using DNA microarray analysis

    PubMed Central

    CHEN, YUQING; ZHOU, XIN; RONG, LING

    2015-01-01

    Gene expression profiles of samples taken from patients with acute lung injury (ALI) induced by mechanical ventilation (MV) and lipopolysaccharide (LPS) were analyzed in order to identify key genes, and explore the underlying mechanisms. The GSE2411 microarray data set was downloaded from the Gene Expression Omnibus. This data set contained microarray data from 24 mouse lung samples, which were equally divided into four groups: Control group, MV group, LPS group and MV+LPS group. Differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were identified in the MV, LPS and MV+LPS groups, as compared with the control group, using packages of R software. Hierarchical clustering and between-group comparisons were performed for each group of DEGs. Overrepresented biological processes were revealed by functional enrichment analysis using the Database for Annotation, Visualization and Integrated Discovery. Unique DEGs in the LPS and MV+LPS groups were selected, and pathway enrichment analyses were performed using the Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes Orthology Based Annotation system. A total of 32, 264 and 685 DEGs were identified in the MV, LPS and MV+LPS groups, respectively. The MV+LPS group had more DEGs, as compared with the other two treatment groups. Genes associated with the immune and inflammatory responses were significantly overrepresented in both the LPS and MV+LPS groups, suggesting that LPS dominated the progression of ALI. Unique DEGs in the LPS and MV+LPS groups were associated with cytokine-cytokine receptor interaction. The Janus kinase-signal transducer and activator of transcription signaling pathway was shown to be enriched in the LPS+MV-unique DEGs. The results of the present study demonstrated that MV could exaggerate the transcriptional response of the lungs to LPS. Numerous key genes were identified, which may advance knowledge regarding the pathogenesis of ALI. PMID:25672411

  1. Mechanical ventilation modulates Toll-like receptors 2, 4, and 9 on alveolar macrophages in a ventilator-induced lung injury model

    PubMed Central

    Dai, Huijun; Lin, Fei; Ge, Wanyun; Li, Wei; He, Sheng

    2015-01-01

    Objective To investigate the role of Toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2), TLR4, TLR9 and myeloid differentiation factor 88 (MyD88) on alveolar macrophages in ventilator-induced lung injury (VILI). Methods Male, adult pathogen-free Sprague-Dawley rats weighing 300-350 g were used in this study. Animals were tracheotomized and allowed to breathe spontaneously for 4 h or mechanically ventilated for 4 h with low or high tidal volume (7 or 40 mL/kg). TLR2, TLR4, and TLR9, MyD-88 and NF-?? of alveolar macrophages expression under the different ventilation conditions were detected. Pulmonary permeability, lung inflammatory, IL-6 and IL-1? were assessed as well. Results Rats subjected to high tidal volume showed significantly greater pulmonary permeability and lung inflammatory than the control rats. Alveolar macrophages from rats subjected to high tidal volume also showed significantly higher protein expression of TLR2 (0.590.049 vs. 0.350.036 and 0.360.031, both P<0.001), TLR4 (0.8450.0395 vs. 0.4010.026 and 0.4030.020, both P<0.001), TLR9 (0.7270.074 vs. 0.3830.039 and 0.3670.043, both P<0.001), MyD-88 (1.010.060 vs. 0.4850.045 and 0.5070.046, both P<0.001) and NF-?? (0.7760.067 vs. 0.4480.043 and 0.4810.047, both P<0.001), as well as significantly higher concentrations of IL-6 (7.320.24 vs. 2.420.13 and 2.440.32, both P<0.001) and IL-1? (139.959.37 vs. 53.635.26 and 53.556.63, both P<0.001) than the control and low tidal volume group. Conclusions The overexpression of TLR2, TLR4, and TLR9 on alveolar macrophages and release of pro-inflammatory cytokines play a role in VILI. PMID:25973227

  2. Clinical review: Long-term noninvasive ventilation

    PubMed Central

    Robert, Dominique; Argaud, Laurent

    2007-01-01

    Noninvasive positive ventilation has undergone a remarkable evolution over the past decades and is assuming an important role in the management of both acute and chronic respiratory failure. Long-term ventilatory support should be considered a standard of care to treat selected patients following an intensive care unit (ICU) stay. In this setting, appropriate use of noninvasive ventilation can be expected to improve patient outcomes, reduce ICU admission, enhance patient comfort, and increase the efficiency of health care resource utilization. Current literature indicates that noninvasive ventilation improves and stabilizes the clinical course of many patients with chronic ventilatory failure. Noninvasive ventilation also permits long-term mechanical ventilation to be an acceptable option for patients who otherwise would not have been treated if tracheostomy were the only alternative. Nevertheless, these results appear to be better in patients with neuromuscular/-parietal disorders than in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. This clinical review will address the use of noninvasive ventilation (not including continuous positive airway pressure) mainly in diseases responsible for chronic hypoventilation (that is, restrictive disorders, including neuromuscular disease and lung disease) and incidentally in others such as obstructive sleep apnea or problems of central drive. PMID:17419882

  3. Successful weaning from mechanical ventilation in a patient with surfactant protein C deficiency presenting with severe neonatal respiratory distress

    PubMed Central

    van Hoorn, Jeroen; Brouwers, Arno; Griese, Matthias; Kramer, Boris

    2014-01-01

    The clinical course and treatment in the first 2.5 years of life of a term-born girl with a severe onset of respiratory symptoms in the neonatal period caused by a p.Cys121Phe/C121F mutation in the gene of surfactant protein C (SFTPC) is described. During the first 9 months of life, she was mechanically ventilated. With methylprednisolone pulse therapy and oral prednisolone, she could eventually gradually be weaned from mechanical ventilation. At the age of 2.5 years, she is in a good clinical condition without any respiratory support and has a normal nutritional status and neurodevelopment. This clinical course with neonatal onset of respiratory insufficiency is remarkable since most patients with SFTPC mutations present with milder respiratory symptoms in the first years of life. PMID:24648475

  4. A simplified model for estimating population-scale energy impacts of building envelope air-tightening and mechanical ventilation retrofits

    SciTech Connect

    Logue, J. M.; Turner, W. J.N.; Walker, I. S.; Singer, B. C.

    2015-07-01

    Changing the air exchange rate of a home (the sum of the infiltration and mechanical ventilation airflow rates) affects the annual thermal conditioning energy. Large-scale changes to air exchange rates of the housing stock can significantly alter the residential sector’s energy consumption. However, the complexity of existing residential energy models is a barrier to the accurate quantification of the impact of policy changes on a state or national level.

  5. Mechanotransduction by GEF-H1 as a novel mechanism of ventilator-induced vascular endothelial permeability

    PubMed Central

    Fu, Panfeng; Xing, Junjie; Yakubov, Bakhtiyor; Cokic, Ivan; Birukov, Konstantin G.

    2010-01-01

    Pathological lung overdistention associated with mechanical ventilation at high tidal volumes (ventilator-induced lung injury; VILI) compromises endothelial cell (EC) barrier leading to development of pulmonary edema and increased morbidity and mortality. We have previously shown involvement of microtubule (MT)-associated Rho-specific guanine nucleotide exchange factor GEF-H1 in the agonist-induced regulation of EC permeability. Using an in vitro model of human pulmonary EC exposed to VILI-relevant magnitude of cyclic stretch (18% CS) we tested a hypothesis that CS-induced alterations in MT dynamics contribute to the activation of Rho-dependent signaling via GEF-H1 and mediate early EC response to pathological mechanical stretch. Acute CS (30 min) induced disassembly of MT network, cell reorientation, and activation of Rho pathway, which was prevented by MT stabilizer taxol. siRNA-based GEF-H1 knockdown suppressed CS-induced disassembly of MT network, abolished Rho signaling, and attenuated CS-induced stress fiber formation and EC realignment compared with nonspecific RNA controls. Depletion of GEF-H1 in the murine two-hit model of VILI attenuated vascular leak induced by lung ventilation at high tidal volume and thrombin-derived peptide TRAP6. These data show for the first time the critical involvement of microtubules and microtubule-associated GEF-H1 in lung vascular endothelial barrier dysfunction induced by pathological mechanical strain. PMID:20348280

  6. Upper extremity muscle tone and response of tidal volume during manually assisted breathing for patients requiring prolonged mechanical ventilation

    PubMed Central

    Morino, Akira; Shida, Masahiro; Tanaka, Masashi; Sato, Kimihiro; Seko, Toshiaki; Ito, Shunsuke; Ogawa, Shunichi; Yokoi, Yuka; Takahashi, Naoaki

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] The aim of the present study was to examine, in patients requiring prolonged mechanical ventilation, if the response of tidal volume during manually assisted breathing is dependent upon both upper extremity muscle tone and the pressure intensity of manually assisted breathing. [Subjects] We recruited 13 patients on prolonged mechanical ventilation, and assessed their upper extremity muscle tone using the modified Ashworth scale (MAS). The subjects were assigned to either the low MAS group (MAS≤2, n=7) or the high MAS group (MAS≥3, n=6). [Methods] The manually assisted breathing technique was applied at a pressure of 2 kgf and 4 kgf. A split-plot ANOVA was performed to compare the tidal volume of each pressure during manually assisted breathing between the low and the high MAS groups. [Results] Statistical analysis showed there were main effects of the upper extremity muscle tone and the pressure intensity of the manually assisted breathing technique. There was no interaction between these factors. [Conclusion] Our findings reveal that the tidal volume during the manually assisted breathing technique for patients with prolonged mechanical ventilation depends upon the patient’s upper extremity muscle tone and the pressure intensity. PMID:26357431

  7. Blockage of the Ryanodine Receptor via Azumolene Does Not Prevent Mechanical Ventilation-Induced Diaphragm Atrophy

    PubMed Central

    Talbert, Erin E.; Smuder, Ashley J.; Kwon, Oh Sung; Sollanek, Kurt J.; Wiggs, Michael P.; Powers, Scott K.

    2016-01-01

    Mechanical ventilation (MV) is a life-saving intervention for patients in respiratory failure. However, prolonged MV causes the rapid development of diaphragm muscle atrophy, and diaphragmatic weakness may contribute to difficult weaning from MV. Therefore, developing a therapeutic countermeasure to protect against MV-induced diaphragmatic atrophy is important. MV-induced diaphragm atrophy is due, at least in part, to increased production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) from diaphragm mitochondria and the activation of key muscle proteases (i.e., calpain and caspase-3). In this regard, leakage of calcium through the ryanodine receptor (RyR1) in diaphragm muscle fibers during MV could result in increased mitochondrial ROS emission, protease activation, and diaphragm atrophy. Therefore, these experiments tested the hypothesis that a pharmacological blockade of the RyR1 in diaphragm fibers with azumolene (AZ) would prevent MV-induced increases in mitochondrial ROS production, protease activation, and diaphragmatic atrophy. Adult female Sprague-Dawley rats underwent 12 hours of full-support MV while receiving either AZ or vehicle. At the end of the experiment, mitochondrial ROS emission, protease activation, and fiber cross-sectional area were determined in diaphragm muscle fibers. Decreases in muscle force production following MV indicate that the diaphragm took up a sufficient quantity of AZ to block calcium release through the RyR1. However, our findings reveal that AZ treatment did not prevent the MV-induced increase in mitochondrial ROS emission or protease activation in the diaphragm. Importantly, AZ treatment did not prevent MV-induced diaphragm fiber atrophy. Thus, pharmacological inhibition of the RyR1 in diaphragm muscle fibers is not sufficient to prevent MV-induced diaphragm atrophy. PMID:26849371

  8. Lung matrix and vascular remodeling in mechanically ventilated elastin haploinsufficient newborn mice

    PubMed Central

    Hilgendorff, Anne; Parai, Kakoli; Ertsey, Robert; Navarro, Edwin; Jain, Noopur; Carandang, Francis; Peterson, Joanna; Mokres, Lucia; Milla, Carlos; Preuss, Stefanie; Alcazar, Miguel Alejandre; Khan, Suleman; Masumi, Juliet; Ferreira-Tojais, Nancy; Mujahid, Sana; Starcher, Barry; Rabinovitch, Marlene

    2014-01-01

    Elastin plays a pivotal role in lung development. We therefore queried if elastin haploinsufficient newborn mice (Eln+/?) would exhibit abnormal lung structure and function related to modified extracellular matrix (ECM) composition. Because mechanical ventilation (MV) has been linked to dysregulated elastic fiber formation in the newborn lung, we also asked if elastin haploinsufficiency would accentuate lung growth arrest seen after prolonged MV of neonatal mice. We studied 5-day-old wild-type (Eln+/+) and Eln+/? littermates at baseline and after MV with air for 824 h. Lungs of unventilated Eln+/? mice contained ?50% less elastin and ?100% more collagen-1 and lysyl oxidase compared with Eln+/+ pups. Eln+/? lungs contained fewer capillaries than Eln+/+ lungs, without discernible differences in alveolar structure. In response to MV, lung tropoelastin and elastase activity increased in Eln+/+ neonates, whereas tropoelastin decreased and elastase activity was unchanged in Eln+/? mice. Fibrillin-1 protein increased in lungs of both groups during MV, more in Eln+/? than in Eln+/+ pups. In both groups, MV caused capillary loss, with larger and fewer alveoli compared with unventilated controls. Respiratory system elastance, which was less in unventilated Eln+/? compared with Eln+/+ mice, was similar in both groups after MV. These results suggest that elastin haploinsufficiency adversely impacts pulmonary angiogenesis and that MV dysregulates elastic fiber integrity, with further loss of lung capillaries, lung growth arrest, and impaired respiratory function in both Eln+/+ and Eln+/? mice. Paucity of lung capillaries in Eln+/? newborns might help explain subsequent development of pulmonary hypertension previously reported in adult Eln+/? mice. PMID:25539853

  9. Lung matrix and vascular remodeling in mechanically ventilated elastin haploinsufficient newborn mice.

    PubMed

    Hilgendorff, Anne; Parai, Kakoli; Ertsey, Robert; Navarro, Edwin; Jain, Noopur; Carandang, Francis; Peterson, Joanna; Mokres, Lucia; Milla, Carlos; Preuss, Stefanie; Alcazar, Miguel Alejandre; Khan, Suleman; Masumi, Juliet; Ferreira-Tojais, Nancy; Mujahid, Sana; Starcher, Barry; Rabinovitch, Marlene; Bland, Richard

    2015-03-01

    Elastin plays a pivotal role in lung development. We therefore queried if elastin haploinsufficient newborn mice (Eln(+/-)) would exhibit abnormal lung structure and function related to modified extracellular matrix (ECM) composition. Because mechanical ventilation (MV) has been linked to dysregulated elastic fiber formation in the newborn lung, we also asked if elastin haploinsufficiency would accentuate lung growth arrest seen after prolonged MV of neonatal mice. We studied 5-day-old wild-type (Eln(+/+)) and Eln(+/-) littermates at baseline and after MV with air for 8-24 h. Lungs of unventilated Eln(+/-) mice contained ?50% less elastin and ?100% more collagen-1 and lysyl oxidase compared with Eln(+/+) pups. Eln(+/-) lungs contained fewer capillaries than Eln(+/+) lungs, without discernible differences in alveolar structure. In response to MV, lung tropoelastin and elastase activity increased in Eln(+/+) neonates, whereas tropoelastin decreased and elastase activity was unchanged in Eln(+/-) mice. Fibrillin-1 protein increased in lungs of both groups during MV, more in Eln(+/-) than in Eln(+/+) pups. In both groups, MV caused capillary loss, with larger and fewer alveoli compared with unventilated controls. Respiratory system elastance, which was less in unventilated Eln(+/-) compared with Eln(+/+) mice, was similar in both groups after MV. These results suggest that elastin haploinsufficiency adversely impacts pulmonary angiogenesis and that MV dysregulates elastic fiber integrity, with further loss of lung capillaries, lung growth arrest, and impaired respiratory function in both Eln(+/+) and Eln(+/-) mice. Paucity of lung capillaries in Eln(+/-) newborns might help explain subsequent development of pulmonary hypertension previously reported in adult Eln(+/-) mice. PMID:25539853

  10. Quantification of indoor VOCs in twenty mechanically ventilated buildings in Hong Kong

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chao, Christopher Y.; Chan, George Y.

    Information of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in buildings in Hong Kong is relatively scared compared to other countries. Information of how much VOC accumulation comes from occupants themselves, from building materials and other outdoor sources are scarce even on a global basis. This study aimed at collecting information of the levels of individual VOCs using US-EPA Method TO-14. Twenty building premises including offices and public places such as customer service centers, shopping centers, etc. were studied. Samples were taken during the time slots when the mechanical ventilation system was operating. The 43 VOCs were grouped into three categories, i.e. aromatic hydrocarbons, chlorinated hydrocarbons and organohalogen. The most dominant VOCs found in the indoor samples were benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, xylenes (BETX), chloroform and trichloroethylene as 100% of the samples were found to contain these VOCs. Besides, more than 75% of the samples were found to contain 1,3,5-trimethylbenzene, methylchloride and dichloromethane. The wt% of chlorinated hydrocarbons (48%) and the wt% of aromatic hydrocarbons (38%) only differed by about 10% in the office sector. Organohalogen (14%) contributed to the smallest fraction of the total on all the premises in the office sector on weight basis. A completely different distribution pattern was found in the non-office sector. The most abundant class of VOCs in terms of weight was aromatic hydrocarbons (80%). The second abundant class of VOCs was chlorinated hydrocarbons (14%) and was much less than the level of aromatic hydrocarbons in terms of weight. Organohalogen (6%) contributed to the smallest fraction of the total on all the premises in the non-office sector on weight basis.

  11. Elevations in plasma ADH levels during PEEP ventilation in the dog: mechanisms involved.

    PubMed

    Bark, H; Le Roith, D; Nyska, M; Glick, S M

    1980-12-01

    In an attempt to define more precisely the various mechanisms involved in antidiuretic hormone (ADH) release during positive end-expiratory pressure ventilation (PEEP), experiments were performed on seven groups of dogs. PEEP-10 and PEEP-15 cmH2O caused significant elevations of plasma ADH from basal values of 24.9 +/- 5.2 pg/ml (mean +/- SE) to 64.6 +/- 14.2 and 106.0 +/- 20.6, respectively (P < 0.02, P < 0.005). The ADH levels returned to basal values after cessation of PEEP. This rise in ADH levels was prevented by an infusion of dextran prior to PEEP. The fall in blood pressure and cardiac output that occurred during PEEP was also prevented by the dextran infusion. Changes in ADH levels were unrelated to lung volume, left transmural pressure, and serum osmolality. Bilateral vagotomy and carotid sinus denervation was followed by an attenuated rise in ADH levels in terms of the percent rise above base line, but it did not significantly alter the absolute rise in ADH during PEEP. ADH levels were, however, reduced significantly by decreasing intracranial pressure by the removal of cerebrospinal fluid during PEEP. Propranolol administration prior to PEEP completely blocked plasma renin activity. Although the peak ADH levels were unaffected by propranolol, the rise was delayed. The results obtained indicate that a number of physiological factors may affect plasma ADH levels during PEEP. These include the carotid body and aortic arch baroreceptors as wells as sensors of intracranial pressure. PMID:6160773

  12. 47 CFR 54.602 - Health care support mechanism.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Health care support mechanism. 54.602 Section... (CONTINUED) UNIVERSAL SERVICE Universal Service Support for Health Care Providers Defined Terms and Eligibility § 54.602 Health care support mechanism. (a) Telecommunications Program. Rural health...

  13. Timing of Low Tidal Volume Ventilation and Intensive Care Unit Mortality in Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome. A Prospective Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Ting; Dinglas, Victor D.; Mendez-Tellez, Pedro A.; Shanholtz, Carl; Sevransky, Jonathan E.; Brower, Roy G.; Pronovost, Peter J.; Colantuoni, Elizabeth

    2015-01-01

    Rationale: Reducing tidal volume decreases mortality in acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). However, the effect of the timing of low tidal volume ventilation is not well understood. Objectives: To evaluate the association of intensive care unit (ICU) mortality with initial tidal volume and with tidal volume change over time. Methods: Multivariable, time-varying Cox regression analysis of a multisite, prospective study of 482 patients with ARDS with 11,558 twice-daily tidal volume assessments (evaluated in milliliter per kilogram of predicted body weight [PBW]) and daily assessment of other mortality predictors. Measurements and Main Results: An increase of 1 ml/kg PBW in initial tidal volume was associated with a 23% increase in ICU mortality risk (adjusted hazard ratio, 1.23; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.061.44; P?=?0.008). Moreover, a 1 ml/kg PBW increase in subsequent tidal volumes compared with the initial tidal volume was associated with a 15% increase in mortality risk (adjusted hazard ratio, 1.15; 95% CI, 1.021.29; P?=?0.019). Compared with a prototypical patient receiving 8 days with a tidal volume of 6 ml/kg PBW, the absolute increase in ICU mortality (95% CI) of receiving 10 and 8 ml/kg PBW, respectively, across all 8 days was 7.2% (3.013.0%) and 2.7% (1.24.6%). In scenarios with variation in tidal volume over the 8-day period, mortality was higher when a larger volume was used earlier. Conclusions: Higher tidal volumes shortly after ARDS onset were associated with a greater risk of ICU mortality compared with subsequent tidal volumes. Timely recognition of ARDS and adherence to low tidal volume ventilation is important for reducing mortality. Clinical trial registered with www.clinicaltrials.gov (NCT 00300248). PMID:25478681

  14. 15. NAVFAC Drawing 1,174,312(463AM4)(1970), 'Alterations for Laboratory FacilityHood VentilationMechanical' ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    15. NAVFAC Drawing 1,174,312(463A-M-4)(1970), 'Alterations for Laboratory Facility-Hood Ventilation-Mechanical' - Mare Island Naval Shipyard, Battery Test Office & Storage Facility, California Avenue & E Street, Vallejo, Solano County, CA

  15. Development of an Outdoor Temperature Based Control Algorithm for Residential Mechanical Ventilation Control

    SciTech Connect

    Less, Brennan; Walker, Iain; Tang, Yihuan

    2014-08-01

    The Incremental Ventilation Energy (IVE) model developed in this study combines the output of simple air exchange models with a limited set of housing characteristics to estimate the associated change in energy demand of homes. The IVE model was designed specifically to enable modellers to use existing databases of housing characteristics to determine the impact of ventilation policy change on a population scale. The IVE model estimates of energy change when applied to US homes with limited parameterisation are shown to be comparable to the estimates of a well-validated, complex residential energy model.

  16. Comparison of objective methods to classify the pattern of respiratory sinus arrhythmia during mechanical ventilation and paced spontaneous breathing.

    PubMed

    Carvalho, N C; Beda, A; de Abreu, M G; Spieth, P M; Granja-Filho, P; Jandre, F C; Giannella-Neto, A

    2009-11-01

    Respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA) is a fluctuation of heart period that occurs during a respiratory cycle. It has been suggested that inspiratory heart period acceleration and expiratory deceleration during spontaneous ventilation (henceforth named positive RSA) improve the efficiency of gas exchange compared to the absence or the inversion of such a pattern (negative RSA). During mechanical ventilation (MV), for which maximizing the efficiency of gas exchange is of critical importance, the pattern of RSA is still the object of debate. In order to gain a better insight into this matter, we compared five different methods of RSA classification using the data of five mechanically ventilated piglets. The comparison was repeated using the data of 15 volunteers undergoing a protocol of paced spontaneous breathing, which is expected to result in a positive RSA pattern. The results showed that the agreement between the employed methods is limited, suggesting that the lack of a consensus about the RSA pattern during MV is, at least in part, of methodological origin. However, independently of the method used, the pattern of RSA within the respiratory cycle was not consistent among the subjects and conditions of MV considered. Also, the outcomes showed that even during paced spontaneous breathing a negative RSA pattern might be present, when a low respiratory frequency is imposed. PMID:19779224

  17. The ventilator circuit and ventilator-associated pneumonia.

    PubMed

    Branson, Richard D

    2005-06-01

    Historically, the relationship between the ventilator circuit and pulmonary infection was accepted as fact, without any scientific evidence. Hence the term, "ventilator"-associated pneumonia. Recent evidence, however, has demonstrated that the major sources of pneumonia in the ventilated patient are colonization of the gastrointestinal tract, with subsequent aspiration around the endotracheal tube cuff, and contamination by caregivers. In recent years, the relationship of respiratory care equipment to ventilator-associated pneumonia has been studied carefully. A number of clinical trials have demonstrated that routine changing of the ventilator circuit fails to impact the incidence of pneumonia in the ventilated patient. Additional studies evaluating the type of humidification device, type of suctioning device, and frequency of change of the devices have resulted in conflicting evidence. This paper reviews the role of the humidifier, ventilator circuit, and airway suctioning equipment on the pathogenesis and prevention of ventilator-associated pneumonia. PMID:15913468

  18. 77 FR 42185 - Rural Health Care Support Mechanism

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-18

    ... COMMISSION 47 CFR Part 54 Rural Health Care Support Mechanism AGENCY: Federal Communications Commission... support on a limited, interim, fiscally responsible basis for specific Rural Health Care Pilot Program... will preserve transitioning Pilot Program participants' connectivity and the resulting health...

  19. Effect of salmeterol/fluticasone combination on the dynamic changes of lung mechanics in mechanically ventilated COPD patients: a prospective pilot study

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Wei-Chih; Chen, Hung-Hsing; Chiang, Chi-Huei; Lee, Yu-Chin; Yang, Kuang-Yao

    2016-01-01

    Background The combined therapy of inhaled corticosteroids and long-acting beta-2 agonists for mechanically ventilated patients with COPD has never been explored. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate their dynamic effects on lung mechanics and gas exchange. Materials and methods Ten mechanically ventilated patients with resolution of the causes of acute exacerbations of COPD were included. Four puffs of salmeterol 25 μg/fluticasone 125 μg combination therapy were administered. Lung mechanics, including maximum resistance of the respiratory system (Rrs), end-inspiratory static compliance, peak inspiratory pressure (PIP), plateau pressure, and mean airway pressure along with gas exchange function were measured and analyzed. Results Salmeterol/fluticasone produced a significant improvement in Rrs and PIP after 30 minutes. With regard to changes in baseline values, salmeterol/fluticasone inhalation had a greater effect on PIP than Rrs. However, the therapeutic effects seemed to lose significance after 3 hours of inhaled corticosteroid/long-acting beta-2 agonist administration. Conclusion The combination of salmeterol/fluticasone-inhaled therapy in mechanically ventilated patients with COPD had a significant benefit in reducing Rrs and PIP. PMID:26869782

  20. Variable lung protective mechanical ventilation decreases incidence of postoperative delirium and cognitive dysfunction during open abdominal surgery

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Ruichun; Chen, Junping; Wu, Guorong

    2015-01-01

    Background: Postoperative cognitive dysfunction (POCD) is a subtle impairment of cognitive abilities and can manifest on different neuropsychological features in the early postoperative period. It has been proved that the use of mechanical ventilation (MV) increased the development of delirium and POCD. However, the impact of variable and conventional lung protective mechanical ventilation on the incidence of POCD still remains unknown, which was the aim of this study. Methods: 162 patients scheduled to undergo elective gastrointestinal tumor resection via laparotomy in Ningbo No. 2 hospital with expected duration >2 h from June, 2013 to June, 2015 were enrolled in this study. Patients included were divided into two groups according to the scheme of lung protective MV, variable ventilation group (VV group, n=79) and conventional ventilation group (CV group, n=83) by randomization performed by random block randomization. The plasma levels of inflammatory cytokines, characteristics of the surgical procedure, incidence of delirium and POCD were collected and compared. Results: Postoperative delirium was detected in 36 of 162 patients (22.2%) and 12 patients of these (16.5%) belonged to the VV group while 24 patients (28.9%) were in the CV group (P=0.036). POCD on the seventh postoperative day in CV group (26/83, 31.3%) was increased in comparison with the VV group (14/79, 17.7%) with significant statistical difference (P=0.045). The levels of inflammatory cytokines were all significantly higher in CV group than those in VV group on the 1st postoperative day (P<0.05). On 7th postoperative day, the levels of IL-6 and TNF-? in CV group remained much higher compared with VV group (P<0.05). Conclusions: Variable vs conventional lung protective MV decreased the incidence of postoperative delirium and POCD by reducing the systemic proinflammatory response.

  1. Noninvasive mechanical ventilation in the postoperative cardiac surgery period: update of the literature.

    PubMed

    Ferreira, Lucas Lima; Souza, Naiara Maria de; Vitor, Ana Laura Ricci; Bernardo, Aline Fernanda Barbosa; Valenti, Vitor Engrcia; Vanderlei, Luiz Carlos Marques

    2012-01-01

    This study aimed to update knowledge regarding to noninvasive ventilation (NVI) on postoperative of cardiac surgery in addition at investigating if exists superiority of any modalities NVI in relation to the others. The literature review was performed on the period between 2006 and 2011, on PubMed, SciELO and Lilacs databases crossing the keywords: artificial respiration, continuous positive airway pressure, intermittent positive-pressure ventilation, cardiac surgery and their corresponding in English. Based on the criteria adopted, nine articles were selected being six of them use NVI, through the modalities such as continuous positive airway pressure, positive pressure with bilevel pressure and intermittent positive-pressure ventilation in postoperative of cardiac surgery; only three of them performed comparisons between different modalities. The NVI modalities that were described on the literature had showed satisfactory results. A few studies compare different NVI modalities; however some of them showed superiority in relation to the others, such as the intermittent positive-pressure ventilation to threat hypoxemia and to positive pressure with bilevel pressure to increase oxygenation, respiratory rate and heart rate in these patients, when compared with other modalities. PMID:23288187

  2. Safe mechanical ventilation in patients without acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS).

    PubMed

    Pannu, S R; Hubmayr, R D

    2015-09-01

    Insights into the pathogenesis of lung deformation injury inspired a benchmark clinical trial, which demonstrated that reducing tidal volumes compared to previous norms was associated with improved patient survival in acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). Since many critically ill patients without ARDS possess ventilator associated lung injury (VALI) risk factors, there is no need to expose them to tidal volumes that are larger than would be needed to achieve acceptable blood gas tensions. In the following perspective we will argue that lung protection from deformation injury should guide ventilator management in all patients, irrespective of the presence of ARDS. That is not to say that all lung diseases share the same VALI risk, but we contend that adopting a low tidal ventilation strategy is a simple and safe starting point in most instances. We will review studies in the medical and surgical literature that have addressed "lung protective ventilation" in patients without ARDS and summarize them with a focus on tidal volume, positive end expiratory pressure and oxygen supplementation settings. In addition, we will briefly discuss under what circumstance one might consider deviating from a conventional approach. PMID:25598293

  3. 46 CFR 194.10-25 - Ventilation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... CONTROL OF EXPLOSIVES AND OTHER HAZARDOUS MATERIALS Magazines 194.10-25 Ventilation. (a) Integral magazines. (1) All integral magazines shall be provided with natural or mechanical ventilation....

  4. Does the use of primary continuous positive airway pressure reduce the need for intubation and mechanical ventilation in infants ?32 weeks gestation?

    PubMed Central

    Yee, Wendy H; Scotland, Jeanne; Pham, Yung; Finch, Robert

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Ventilator-induced lung injury is a recognized risk factor for bronchopulmonary dysplasia. OBJECTIVE: To determine whether primary continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP), defined as CPAP without previous endotracheal intubation for any indication, can reduce the need for intubation and mechanical ventilation in infants born at ?32 weeks gestational age. METHODS: The literature was reviewed using the methodology for systematic reviews for the Consensus on Resuscitation Science adapted from the American Heart Associations International Liaison Committee on Resuscitation. RESULTS: Fourteen studies were reviewed. Eleven studies provided varying degrees of supportive evidence (level of evidence 3 to 4) that the use of primary CPAP can reduce the need for intubation and mechanical ventilation. CONCLUSION: The use of CPAP as a primary intervention and mode of respiratory support is an option for infants ?32 weeks gestation, but avoidance of intubation and mechanical ventilation is more likely in mature infants >27 weeks gestation. PMID:23204903

  5. A comparison of the laryngeal mask airway with facemask and oropharyngeal airway for manual ventilation by critical care nurses in children.

    PubMed

    Rechner, J A; Loach, V J; Ali, M T; Barber, V S; Young, J D; Mason, D G

    2007-08-01

    The laryngeal mask airway is included as a first line airway device during adult resuscitation by first responders. However, there is little evidence for its role in paediatric resuscitation. Using anaesthetised children as a model for paediatric cardiopulmonary arrest, we compared the ability of critical care nurses to manually ventilate the anaesthetised child via the laryngeal mask airway compared with the facemask and oropharyngeal airway. The airway devices were inserted in random order and chest expansion was measured using an ultrasound distance transducer. The critical care nurses were able to place the laryngeal mask airway and achieve successful ventilation in 82% of children compared to 70% using the facemask and oropharyngeal airway, although the difference was not statistically significant (p = 0.136). The median time to first successful breath using the laryngeal mask airway was 39 s compared to 25 s using the facemask (p < 0.001). In this group of nurses, we did not show a difference in ventilation via a laryngeal mask airway or facemask, although facemask ventilation was achieved more quickly. PMID:17635426

  6. Pulmonary and Systemic Pharmacokinetics of Colistin Following a Single Dose of Nebulized Colistimethate in Mechanically Ventilated Neonates.

    PubMed

    Nakwan, Narongsak; Lertpichaluk, Pichaya; Chokephaibulkit, Kulkanya; Villani, Paola; Regazzi, Mario; Imberti, Roberto

    2015-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the pulmonary and systemic pharmacokinetics of colistin following a single dose of nebulized colistimethate sodium (CMS) in mechanically ventilated neonates. We administered a single dose of nebulized CMS (approximately 120,000 IU/kg of CMS, equivalent to 4 mg/kg colistin base activity) to 6 ventilated neonates with ventilator-associated pneumonia. The median gestational age was 39 weeks (range, 32-39 weeks). Mean ( SD) tracheal aspirate colistin maximum concentration (Cmax), area under the concentration-time curve (AUC 0-24) and t1/2 were 24.0 8.2 ?g/mL, 147.6 53.5 ?g hours/mL and 9.8 5.5 hours, respectively. The plasma concentrations of colistin were low. In neonates, a single nebulized dose of CMS (120,000 IU) resulted in high local concentrations for at least 12 hours and low systemic concentrations of colistin. Twice daily nebulization might be more appropriate. PMID:26065861

  7. A simplified model for estimating population-scale energy impacts of building envelope air-tightening and mechanical ventilation retrofits

    SciTech Connect

    Logue, Jennifer M.; Turner, William J. N.; Walker, Iain S.; Singer, Brett C.

    2015-01-19

    Changing the air exchange rate of a home (the sum of the infiltration and mechanical ventilation airflow rates) affects the annual thermal conditioning energy. Large-scale changes to air exchange rates of the housing stock can significantly alter the residential sector's energy consumption. However, the complexity of existing residential energy models is a barrier to the accurate quantification of the impact of policy changes on a state or national level. The Incremental Ventilation Energy (IVE) model developed in this study combines the output of simple air exchange models with a limited set of housing characteristics to estimate the associated change in energy demand of homes. The IVE model was designed specifically to enable modellers to use existing databases of housing characteristics to determine the impact of ventilation policy change on a population scale. The IVE model estimates of energy change when applied to US homes with limited parameterisation are shown to be comparable to the estimates of a well-validated, complex residential energy model.

  8. Prevention of ventilator-associated pneumonia, mortality and all intensive care unit acquired infections by topically applied antimicrobial or antiseptic agents: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials in intensive care units

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Introduction Given the high morbidity and mortality attributable to ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) in intensive care unit (ICU) patients, prevention plays a key role in the management of patients undergoing mechanical ventilation. One of the candidate preventive interventions is the selective decontamination of the digestive or respiratory tract (SDRD) by topical antiseptic or antimicrobial agents. We performed a meta-analysis to investigate the effect of topical digestive or respiratory tract decontamination with antiseptics or antibiotics in the prevention of VAP, of mortality and of all ICU-acquired infections in mechanically ventilated ICU patients. Methods A meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials was performed. The U.S. National Library of Medicine's MEDLINE database, Embase, and Cochrane Library computerized bibliographic databases, and reference lists of selected studies were used. Selection criteria for inclusion were: randomised controlled trials (RCTs); primary studies; examining the reduction of VAP and/or mortality and/or all ICU-acquired infections in ICU patients by prophylactic use of one or more of following topical treatments: 1) oropharyngeal decontamination using antiseptics or antibiotics, 2) gastrointestinal tract decontamination using antibiotics, 3) oropharyngeal plus gastrointestinal tract decontamination using antibiotics and 4) respiratory tract decontamination using antibiotics; reported enough data to estimate the odds ratio (OR) or risk ratio (RR) and their variance; English language; published through June 2010. Results A total of 28 articles met all inclusion criteria and were included in the meta-analysis. The overall estimate of efficacy of topical SDRD in the prevention of VAP was 27% (95% CI of efficacy = 16% to 37%) for antiseptics and 36% (95% CI of efficacy = 18% to 50%) for antibiotics, whereas in none of the meta-analyses conducted on mortality was a significant effect found. The effect of topical SDRD in the prevention of all ICU-acquired infections was statistically significant (efficacy = 29%; 95% CI of efficacy = 14% to 41%) for antibiotics whereas the use of antiseptics did not show a significant beneficial effect. Conclusions Topical SDRD using antiseptics or antimicrobial agents is effective in reducing the frequency of VAP in ICU. Unlike antiseptics, the use of topical antibiotics seems to be effective also in preventing all ICU-acquired infections, while the effectiveness on mortality of these two approaches needs to be investigated in further research. PMID:21702946

  9. Central Fan Integrated Ventilation Systems

    SciTech Connect

    2009-05-12

    This information sheet describes one example of a ventilation system design, a central fan integrated supply (CFIS) system, a mechanical ventilation and pollutant source control to ensure that there is reasonable indoor air quality inside the house.

  10. Burst Suppression on Processed Electroencephalography as a Predictor of Post-Coma Delirium in Mechanically Ventilated ICU Patients

    PubMed Central

    Andresen, Jennifer M.; Girard, Timothy D.; Pandharipande, Pratik P.; Davidson, Mario A.; Ely, E. Wesley; Watson, Paula L.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Many patients, due to a combination of illness and sedatives, spend a considerable amount of time in a comatose state that can include time in burst suppression. We sought to determine if burst suppression measured by processed electroencephalography (pEEG) during coma in sedative-exposed patients is a predictor of post-coma delirium during critical illness. Design Observational convenience sample cohort Setting Medical and surgical ICUs in a tertiary care medical center Patients Cohort of 124 mechanically ventilated ICU patients Measurements and Main Results Depth of sedation was monitored twice daily using the Richmond Agitation-Sedation Scale and continuously monitored by pEEG. When non-comatose, patients were assessed for delirium twice daily using Confusion Assessment Method for the ICU (CAM-ICU). Multiple logistic regression and Cox proportional hazards regression were used to assess associations between time in burst suppression and both incidence and time to resolution of delirium, respectively, adjusting for time in deep sedation and a principal component score consisting of APACHE II score and cumulative doses of sedatives while comatose. Of the 124 patients enrolled and monitored, 55 patients either never had coma or never emerged from coma yielding 69 patients for whom we performed these analyses; 42 of these 69 (61%) had post-coma delirium. Most patients had burst-suppression during coma, though often short-lived [ median (intraquartile range) time in burst suppression, 6.4 (1-58) minutes]. After adjusting for covariates, even this short time in burst suppression independently predicted a higher incidence of post-coma delirium [odds ratio 4.16; 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.27-13.62; p=0.02] and a lower likelihood (delayed) resolution of delirium (hazard ratio 0.78; 95% CI 0.53-0.98; p=0.04). Conclusions Time in burst suppression during coma, as measured by processed EEG, was an independent predictor of incidence and time to resolution of post-coma/post-deep sedation delirium. These findings of this single center investigation support lighter sedation strategies. PMID:25072756

  11. Evaluation of the Effect of Nebulized N-Acetylcysteine on Respiratory Secretions in Mechanically Ventilated Patients: Randomized Clinical Trial

    PubMed Central

    Masoompour, Seyed Masoom; Anushiravani, Amir; Tafaroj Norouz, Amir

    2015-01-01

    Background The purpose of our study was to evaluate an inexpensive and available method to reduce mucous impactions in mechanically ventilated patients. Methods This randomized clinical trial was conducted on 40 mechanically ventilated patients aged 15-90 years. The patients were randomly allocated into two arms; 20 cases and 20 controls. The cases received N-acetylcysteine via their nebulizers, and the control group received normal saline three times a day for one day. We measured the density of respiratory secretion, plateau and peak airway pressures, and O2 saturation at baseline, 12 and 24 hours later. Results Although the mean secretion density was significantly lower in the NAC group (F (1, 38)=8.61, P=0.006), but a repeated measures ANOVA with a Greenhouse-Geisser correction determined that the effect of NAC on mean secretion density did not differ significantly between time points (F (1, 38)=3.08, P=0.087). NAC increased O2 saturation significantly between time points (F (1.92, 73.1)=4.6, P=0.014). The plateau airway pressures were relatively stable throughout the study in the normal saline and NAC groups (F (1.95, 37.1)=0.67, P=0.513). The peak airway pressure did not change significantly during the study in the normal saline and NAC groups (F (1.52, 56.4)=0.91, P=0.384). Conclusion Considering the limitations of the study, nebulized NAC in mechanically ventilated patients was not effective more than normal saline nebulization in reducing the density of mucous plugs. The peak and plateau airway pressures were relatively stable throughout the study in both groups. Trial Registration Number: IRCT201104276312N1. PMID:26170516

  12. 76 FR 37307 - Rural Health Care Support Mechanism

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-27

    ... COMMISSION 47 CFR Part 54 Rural Health Care Support Mechanism AGENCY: Federal Communications Commission... services under the rural health care program. Grandfathered providers do not currently qualify as ``rural,'' but play a key role in delivering health care services to surrounding regions that do qualify...

  13. 78 FR 13935 - Rural Health Care Support Mechanism

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-01

    ... March 1, 2013 Part II Federal Communications Commission 47 CFR Part 54 Rural Health Care Support... Regulations#0;#0; ] FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION 47 CFR Part 54 Rural Health Care Support Mechanism... Communications Commission reforms its universal service support program for health care, transitioning...

  14. 76 FR 37280 - Rural Health Care Support Mechanism

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-27

    ... COMMISSION 47 CFR Part 54 Rural Health Care Support Mechanism AGENCY: Federal Communications Commission...) adopts an interim rule permitting health care providers that are located in a ``rural area'' under the... rural health care program prior to July 1, 2005, to continue to be treated as if they are located...

  15. Effect of pressure assist on ventilation and respiratory mechanics in heavy exercise.

    PubMed

    Gallagher, C G; Younes, M

    1989-04-01

    To assess the effect of the normal respiratory resistive load on ventilation (VE) and respiratory motor output during exercise, we studied the effect of flow-proportional pressure assist (PA) (2.2 cmH2O.l-1.s) on various ventilatory parameters during progressive exercise to maximum in six healthy young men. We also measured dynamic lung compliance (Cdyn) and lung resistance (RL) and calculated the time course of respiratory muscle pressure (Pmus) during the breath in the assisted and unassisted states at a sustained exercise level corresponding to 70-80% of the subject's maximum O2 consumption. Unlike helium breathing, resistive PA had no effect on VE or any of its subdivisions partly as the result of an offsetting increase in RL (0.78 cmH2O.1-1.s) and partly to a reduction in Pmus. These results indicate that the normal resistive load does not constrain ventilation during heavy exercise. Furthermore, the increase in exercise ventilation observed with helium breathing, which is associated with much smaller degrees of resistive unloading (ca. -0.6 cmH2O.l-1.s), is likely the result of factors other than respiratory muscle unloading. The pattern of Pmus during exercise with and without unloading indicates that the use of P0.1 as an index of respiratory motor output under these conditions may result in misleading conclusions. PMID:2732175

  16. Air compressor battery duration with mechanical ventilation in a field anesthesia machine.

    PubMed

    Szpisjak, Dale F; Giberman, Anthony A

    2015-05-01

    Compressed air to power field anesthesia machine ventilators may be supplied by air compressor with battery backup. This study determined the battery duration when the compPAC ventilator's air compressor was powered by NiCd battery to ventilate the Vent Aid Training Test Lung modeling high (HC = 0.100 L/cm H2O) and low (LC = 0.020 L/cm H2O) pulmonary compliance. Target tidal volumes (VT) were 500, 750, and 1,000 mL. Respiratory rate = 10 bpm, inspiratory-to-expiratory time ratio = 1:2, and fresh gas flow = 1 L/min air. N = 5 in each group. Control limits were determined from the first 150 minutes of battery power for each run and lower control limit = mean VT - 3SD. Battery depletion occurred when VT was below the lower control limit. Battery duration ranged from 185.8 (3.2) minutes in the LC-1000 group to 233.3 (3.6) minutes in the HC-750 group. Battery duration of the LC-1000 group was less than all others (p = 0.027). The differences among the non-LC-1000 groups were not clinically significant. PMID:25939102

  17. Indoor ozone concentrations: Ventilation rate impacts and mechanisms of outdoor concentration attenuation

    SciTech Connect

    Cano-Ruiz, J.A.; Modera, M.P.; Nazaroff, W.W.

    1992-07-01

    The classification of outdoor (ambient) air as fresh for the purposes of ventilation is not always appropriate, particularly in urban areas. In many cities of the world, urban air frequently violates health-based air quality standards due to high ozone concentrations. The degree of protection from exposure to ozone offered by the indoor environment depends on the relationship between indoor and outdoor ozone levels. Existing concentration data indicates that indoor/outdoor ozone ratios range between 10 and 80%. This paper analyzes several of the key issues influencing indoor ozone concentrations, including: (1) the degree of penetration of outdoor ozone indoors, (2) removal within the indoor environment (removal at surfaces and within air distribution systems), and (3) the correlation in time between outdoor ozone levels and ventilation rates. A model for calculating the degree of ozone removal in typical building leaks and air distribution systems is described and applied to a range of typical cases. This model indicates that the degree of removal is minimal for most wooden building cracks, but could be significant in leaks in concrete or brick structures, and is strongly dependent on the lining material for air distribution systems. Indoor ozone exposure estimates based on hourly outdoor ozone monitoring data and hour-by-hour weather-based simulations of infiltration rates and building operation are reported for a few residential scenarios. These estimates serve as a basis for exploring the impact of energy-efficient ventilation strategies on indoor ozone exposures.

  18. Need for Mechanical Ventilation in Pediatric Scald Burns: Why it Happens and Why it Matters.

    PubMed

    Mosier, Michael J; Peter, Tony; Gamelli, Richard L

    2016-01-01

    Scald burns are the most common thermal injury among children. A small subset of pediatric scald burns are complicated by the need for mechanical ventilation (MV). Studies suggest that 4 to 5% of pediatric scald burns will require MV, and these patients tend to be younger with larger burns. Identifying why pediatric patients with scald burns require MV has remained unclear, and few studies have sought to elucidate possible mechanisms. After institutional review board approval, a retrospective review of all pediatric patients with scald burns admitted to the Burn Center between 2010 and 2013 was conducted. Variables collected included age, sex, weight, height, race, ethnicity, socioeconomic status or type of insurance, hospital length of stay, burn size and location, Department of Child and Family Services (DCFS) involvement, time to intubation from admission, reason for intubation, need for MV, duration of MV, need for operative intervention, 24-hour and 48-hour total fluid intake and urine output, glucose levels, infectious complications, comorbidities, and mortality. Patients who required MV were then compared with those who did not require MV to identify statistically significant differences between groups. The MV patients (n = 6) and nonventilated patients (n = 339) did not show significant differences in regards to gender, body mass index, ethnicity, and type of insurance; however, MV patients were younger and had larger burns. The mean age of MV patients was 8.2 + 5.0 months compared with 40.7 + 45.2 months for non-MV (P = .002). The mean percentage of TBSA burn in MV patients was 17.3 + 9.0% compared with 4.5 + 3.9% for non-MV (P < .001). Burn location was significant, and 66.6% of MV patients had burns on the face or neck compared with 23.6% of non-MV (P = .015). MV patients were more likely to have been victims of child abuse, as DCFS was involved in 67% of MV patients vs 28% of non-MV patients (P = .036). Fifty percent of patients requiring MV had either a preceding upper respiratory infection, diagnosis of asthma, or congenital defects, compared with 6% of non-MV patients (P = .004). MV patients received more fluids for 48 hours compared with non-MV patients (2275.7 vs 1332.3 ml, P = .013) and had a higher 48-hour urine output (2.34 vs 1.34 ml/kg/hr, P = .013). Pediatric scald burns that require MV have an increased mortality risk and length of stay. MV patients were younger with larger burns. They received more fluids than non-MV patients, and child abuse, asthma, and stress hyperglycemia within the first 72 hours of injury were common among MV patients. Importantly, burn size and previous history of asthma were found to be independent predictors of the need for MV. PMID:26284637

  19. Prospective observational cohort study of patients with weaning failure admitted to a specialist weaning, rehabilitation and home mechanical ventilation centre

    PubMed Central

    Mifsud Bonnici, Denise; Sanctuary, Thomas; Murphy, Patrick B; Steier, Joerg; Marino, Philip; Pattani, Hina; Creagh-Brown, Ben C; Hart, Nicholas

    2016-01-01

    Objectives According to National Health Service England (NHSE) specialist respiratory commissioning specification for complex home ventilation, patients with weaning failure should be referred to a specialist centre. However, there are limited data reporting the clinical outcomes from such centres. Setting Prospective observational cohort study of patients admitted to a UK specialist weaning, rehabilitation and home mechanical ventilation centre between February 2005 and July 2013. Participants 262 patients admitted with a median age of 64.2 years (IQR 52.6–73.2 years). 59.9% were male. Results 39.7% of patients had neuromuscular and/or chest wall disease, 21% were postsurgical, 19.5% had chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), 5.3% had obesity-related respiratory failure and 14.5% had other diagnoses. 64.1% of patients were successfully weaned, with 38.2% weaned fully from ventilation, 24% weaned to nocturnal non-invasive ventilation (NIV), 1.9% weaned to nocturnal NIV with intermittent NIV during the daytime. 21.4% of patients were discharged on long-term tracheostomy ventilation. The obesity-related respiratory failure group were most likely to wean (relative risk (RR) for weaning success=1.48, 95% CI 1.35 to 1.77; p<0.001), but otherwise weaning success rates did not significantly vary by diagnostic group. The median time-to-wean was 19 days (IQR 9–33) and the median duration of stay was 31 days (IQR 16–50), with no difference observed between the groups. Weaning centre mortality was 14.5%, highest in the COPD group (RR=2.15, 95% CI 1.19 to 3.91, p=0.012) and lowest in the neuromuscular and/or chest wall disease group (RR=0.34, 95% CI 0.16 to 0.75, p=0.007). Of all patients discharged alive, survival was 71.7% at 6 months and 61.8% at 12 months postdischarge. Conclusions Following NHSE guidance, patients with weaning delay and failure should be considered for transfer to a specialist centre where available, which can demonstrate favourable short-term and long-term clinical outcomes. PMID:26956162

  20. Empirical Antibiotic Therapy for Ventilator-Associated Pneumonia

    PubMed Central

    Swanson, Joseph M.; Wells, Diana L.

    2013-01-01

    Ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) is the most common infectious complication in the intensive care unit. It can increase duration of mechanical ventilation, length of stay, costs, and mortality. Improvements in the administration of empirical antibiotic therapy have potential to reduce the complications of VAP. This review will discuss the current data addressing empirical antibiotic therapy and the effect on mortality in patients with VAP. It will also address factors that could improve the administration of empirical antibiotics and directions for future research.

  1. Mild hypothermia attenuates lung edema and plasma interleukin-1? in a rat mechanical ventilation-induced lung injury model.

    PubMed

    Cruces, Pablo; Ronco, Ricardo; Erranz, Benjamn; Conget, Paulette; Carvajal, Cristbal; Donoso, Alejandro; Daz, Franco

    2011-11-01

    Recent data suggest that deep hypothermia has protective effects on experimental induced lung injury. It is not well known if these effects persist with mild hypothermia. The authors hypothesized that mild hypothermia may attenuate lung injury and decrease local and systemic proinflammatory cytokines in a rat model of injurious mechanical ventilation (MV). Twelve Sprague-Dawley male adult rats were anesthetized, intubated, and randomly allocated to normothermia group (37C) (NT) or mild hypothermia group (34C) (MH). After 2 hours of deleterious MV (peak inspiratory pressure [PIP] 40 cm H(2)O, zero end-expiratory pressure [ZEEP], and inspiratory fraction of oxygen [Fio(2)] 100%), arterial blood gases, lung gravimetry, and histological study were obtained. Protein content, interleukin (IL)-1?, and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-? were measured in plasma and bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid. Subjects that underwent MH had a significant lower wet-to-dry lung weight ratio (8.32 0.28 vs. 10.8 0.49, P = .01), IL-1? plasma concentration (0.6 0.6 vs. 10.27 2.80 pg/mL, P = .0048) and PaCO(2). There were no differences in terms of PaO(2), histological injury, or BAL protein content. In this model of injurious mechanical ventilation, subjects treated with mild hypothermia had less lung edema and lower plasma IL-1?. Some of known beneficial effects of deep hypothermia can be obtained with mild hypothermia. PMID:22007788

  2. Neuromuscular electrical stimulation in mechanically ventilated patients: A randomized, sham-controlled pilot trial with blinded outcome assessment

    PubMed Central

    Kho, Michelle E.; Truong, Alexander D.; Zanni, Jennifer M.; Ciesla, Nancy D.; Brower, Roy G.; Palmer, Jeffrey B.; Needham, Dale M.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose To compare neuromuscular electrical stimulation (NMES) versus sham on leg strength at hospital discharge in mechanically ventilated patients. Materials and Methods We conducted a randomized pilot study of NMES versus sham applied to 3 bilateral lower extremity muscle groups for 60 minutes daily in ICU. Between 6/2008 and 3/2013, we enrolled adults who were receiving mechanical ventilation within the first week of ICU stay, and who could transfer independently from bed to chair before hospital admission. The primary outcome was lower extremity muscle strength at hospital discharge using Medical Research Council score (maximum = 30). Secondary outcomes at hospital discharge included walking distance and change in lower extremity strength from ICU awakening. Clinicaltrials.gov:NCT00709124. Results We stopped enrollment early after 36 patients due to slow patient accrual and the end of research funding. For NMES versus sham, mean (SD) lower extremity strength was 28(2) versus 27(3), p=0.072. Among secondary outcomes, NMES versus sham patients had a greater mean (SD) walking distance (514(389) vs. 251(210) feet, p=0.050) and increase in muscle strength (5.7(5.1) vs. 1.8(2.7), p=0.019). Conclusions In this pilot randomized trial, NMES did not significantly improve leg strength at hospital discharge. Significant improvements in secondary outcomes require investigation in future research. PMID:25307979

  3. Analyzing small data sets using Bayesian estimation: the case of posttraumatic stress symptoms following mechanical ventilation in burn survivors

    PubMed Central

    van de Schoot, Rens; Broere, Joris J.; Perryck, Koen H.; Zondervan-Zwijnenburg, Marille; van Loey, Nancy E.

    2015-01-01

    Background The analysis of small data sets in longitudinal studies can lead to power issues and often suffers from biased parameter values. These issues can be solved by using Bayesian estimation in conjunction with informative prior distributions. By means of a simulation study and an empirical example concerning posttraumatic stress symptoms (PTSS) following mechanical ventilation in burn survivors, we demonstrate the advantages and potential pitfalls of using Bayesian estimation. Methods First, we show how to specify prior distributions and by means of a sensitivity analysis we demonstrate how to check the exact influence of the prior (mis-) specification. Thereafter, we show by means of a simulation the situations in which the Bayesian approach outperforms the default, maximum likelihood and approach. Finally, we re-analyze empirical data on burn survivors which provided preliminary evidence of an aversive influence of a period of mechanical ventilation on the course of PTSS following burns. Results Not suprisingly, maximum likelihood estimation showed insufficient coverage as well as power with very small samples. Only when Bayesian analysis, in conjunction with informative priors, was used power increased to acceptable levels. As expected, we showed that the smaller the sample size the more the results rely on the prior specification. Conclusion We show that two issues often encountered during analysis of small samples, power and biased parameters, can be solved by including prior information into Bayesian analysis. We argue that the use of informative priors should always be reported together with a sensitivity analysis. PMID:25765534

  4. High-molecular-weight hyaluronan a possible new treatment for sepsis-induced lung injury: a preclinical study in mechanically ventilated rats

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Yung-Yang; Lee, Cheng-Hung; Dedaj, Rejmon; Zhao, Hang; Mrabat, Hicham; Sheidlin, Aviva; Syrkina, Olga; Huang, Pei-Ming; Garg, Hari G; Hales, Charles A; Quinn, Deborah A

    2008-01-01

    Introduction Mechanical ventilation with even moderate-sized tidal volumes synergistically increases lung injury in sepsis and has been associated with proinflammatory low-molecular-weight hyaluronan production. High-molecular-weight hyaluronan (HMW HA), in contrast, has been found to be anti-inflammatory. We hypothesized that HMW HA would inhibit lung injury associated with sepsis and mechanical ventilation. Methods SpragueDawley rats were randomly divided into four groups: nonventilated control rats; mechanical ventilation plus lipopolysaccharide (LPS) infusion as a model of sepsis; mechanical ventilation plus LPS with HMW HA (1,600 kDa) pretreatment; and mechanical ventilation plus LPS with low-molecular-weight hyaluronan (35 kDa) pretreatment. Rats were mechanically ventilated with low (7 ml/kg) tidal volumes. LPS (1 or 3 mg/kg) or normal saline was infused 1 hour prior to mechanical ventilation. Animals received HMW HA or low-molecular-weight hyaluronan via the intraperitoneal route 18 hours prior to the study or received HMW HA (0.025%, 0.05% or 0.1%) intravenously 1 hour after injection of LPS. After 4 hours of ventilation, animals were sacrificed and the lung neutrophil and monocyte infiltration, the cytokine production, and the lung pathology score were measured. Results LPS induced lung neutrophil infiltration, macrophage inflammatory protein-2 and TNF? mRNA and protein, which were decreased in the presence of both 1,600 kDa and 35 kDa hyaluronan pretreatment. Only 1,600 kDa hyaluronan completely blocked both monocyte and neutrophil infiltration and decreased the lung injury. When infused intravenously 1 hour after LPS, 1,600 kDa hyaluronan inhibited lung neutrophil infiltration, macrophage inflammatory protein-2 mRNA expression and lung injury in a dose-dependent manner. The beneficial effects of hyaluronan were partially dependent on the positive charge of the compound. Conclusions HMW HA may prove to be an effective treatment strategy for sepsis-induced lung injury with mechanical ventilation. PMID:18691420

  5. Mechanisms of gas transport during ventilation by high-frequency oscillation.

    PubMed

    Chang, H K

    1984-03-01

    Ventilation by high-frequency oscillation (HFO) presents some difficulties in understanding exactly how gas is transported in the lung. However, at a qualitative level, five modes of transport may be identified: 1) direct alveolar ventilation in the lung units situated near the airway opening; 2) bulk convective mixing in the conducting airways as a result of recirculation of air among units of inhomogeneous time constants; 3) convective transport of gases as a result of the asymmetry between inspiratory and expiratory velocity profiles; 4) longitudinal dispersion caused by the interaction between axial velocities and radial transports due to turbulent eddies and/or secondary swirling motions; and 5) molecular diffusion near the alveolocapillary membrane. These modes of transport are not mutually exclusive and certainly interact. It is therefore difficult to make quantitative predictions about the overall rate of transport. Qualitatively, it may now be stated with confidence that convective transport in the tracheobronchial tree is very important during HFO as in normal breathing and that increasing tidal volume is more effective than increasing frequency in improving gas exchange during HFO. To optimize the gas transport efficiency of HFO, future research should focus on identifying the rate-limiting mode of transport for a given set of geometric and dynamic conditions. PMID:6368498

  6. Update on the role of extracorporeal CO? removal as an adjunct to mechanical ventilation in ARDS.

    PubMed

    Morimont, Philippe; Batchinsky, Andriy; Lambermont, Bernard

    2015-01-01

    This article is one of ten reviews selected from the Annual Update in Intensive Care and Emergency Medicine 2015 and co-published as a series in Critical Care. Other articles in the series can be found online at http://ccforum.com/series/annualupdate2015. Further information about the Annual Update in Intensive Care and Emergency Medicine is available from http://www.springer.com/series/8901. PMID:25888428