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Sample records for medetomidine continuous rate

  1. Effect of medetomidine-butorphanol-ketamine anaesthesia and atipamezole on heart and respiratory rate and cloacal temperature of domestic pigeons.

    PubMed

    Atalan, G; Uzun, M; Demirkan, I; Yildiz, S; Cenesiz, M

    2002-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the sedative-anaesthetic effects of a combination of medetomidine (M, 50 microg per pigeon), butorphanol (B, 50 microg per pigeon) and ketamine (K, 25 mg per pigeon) in domestic pigeons. Eight domestic pigeons (four male and four female, 8-15 months old) were used. The combination of Medetomidine and butorphanol injectable solutions were used to produce sedation. Ten minutes after M + B administration, K was injected. The anaesthetic effects of the drugs were reversed by administration of Atipamazole (AT) at 60 min after K administration. All drugs were injected into the pectoral muscles. The sedative-anaesthetic effects of the M + B-K combination and, alterations in respiratory rate (RR), heart rate (HR), electrocardiographic (ECG) findings and cloacal temperature (CT) were investigated before and 10 min after pre-medication with M + B, at 5, 15, 30, 45 and 60 min during the onset of K anaesthesia and at 1, 5, 10, 20, 30 and 60 min following the administration of AT. The HR and RR of pigeons decreased within 10 min following M + B administration and remained lower until 1st and 5 min of AT injection, respectively. In ECG, no significant alterations in P, Q, R and S-values were observed, however, arhythmia was recorded for three pigeons, which returned to normal values following AT administration throughout the measurement. Cloacal temperature decreased gradually during the anaesthesia from 41.0 to 32.7 degrees C. The drug combination used in this study produced a satisfactory general anaesthesia for seven of the eight pigeons. All pigeons were unconscious within 5 min after K administration as indicated by disappearance of the palpebral and corneal reflexes and lack of reaction to the pain stimuli during the study. The effect of AT administration was observed within 10 min as all pigeons responded partly against stimuli and all reflexes. It is concluded that M + B-K anaesthesia in pigeons is a safe and reliable anaesthetic

  2. 21 CFR 522.1335 - Medetomidine hydrochloride injection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Medetomidine hydrochloride injection. 522.1335 Section 522.1335 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS IMPLANTATION OR INJECTABLE DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 522.1335 Medetomidine...

  3. An evaluation of the influence of medetomidine hydrochloride and atipamezole hydrochloride on the arrhythmogenic dose of epinephrine in dogs during halothane anesthesia.

    PubMed Central

    Pettifer, G R; Dyson, D H; McDonell, W N

    1996-01-01

    Alterations in the arrhythmogenic dose of epinephrine (ADE) were determined following administration of medetomidine hydrochloride (750 micrograms/M2) and a saline placebo, or medetomidine hydrochloride (750 micrograms/M2), followed by specific medetomidine reversal agent, atipamezole hydrochloride (50 micrograms/kg) 20 min later, in halothane-anesthetized dogs (n = 6). ADE determinations were made prior to the administration of either treatment, 20 min and 4 h following medetomidine/saline or medetomidine/atipamezole administration. Epinephrine was infused for 3 min at increasing dose rates (2.5 and 5.0 micrograms/kg/min) until the arrhythmia criterion (4 or more intermittent or continuous premature ventricular contractions) was reached. The interinfusion interval was 20 min. There were no significant differences in the amount of epinephrine required to reach the arrhythmia criterion following the administration of either treatment. In addition, the ADE at each determination was not different between treatment groups. In this study, the administration of medetomidine to halothane-anesthetized dogs did not alter their arrhythmogenic response to infused epinephrine. PMID:8825986

  4. Effects of isoflurane, ketamine-xylazine and a combination of medetomidine, midazolam and fentanyl on physiological variables continuously measured by telemetry in Wistar rats

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background This study investigated effects on cardiovascular parameters during anaesthesia with isoflurane (ISO, 2–3 Vol%), ketamine-xylazine (KX, 100 mg•kg−1 + 5 mg•kg−1) or a combination of medetomidine-midazolam-fentanyl (MMF, 0.15 mg•kg−1 + 2.0 mg•kg−1 + 0.005 mg•kg−1) in rats throughout induction, maintenance and recovery from anaesthesia. Rats were instrumented with a telemetric system for the measurement of systolic, diastolic and mean arterial pressure (SAP, DAP, MAP), pulse pressure (PP), heart rate (HR) and core body temperature (BT). The parameters were continuously measured before, during and after each type of anaesthesia. Forty minutes after induction, ISO delivery was terminated and MMF was antagonized with atipamezole-flumazenil-naloxone (AFN, 0.75 mg•kg−1 + 0.2 mg•kg−1 + 0.12 mg•kg−1) whereas KX was not antagonized. Results Differences were observed between anaesthesias with KX (301 min) lasting much longer than MMF (45 min) and ISO (43 min). HR in ISO (x¯ = 404 ± 25 bpm) increased during the time of surgical tolerance whereas a HR decrease was observed in KX (x¯ = 255 ± 26 bpm) and MMF (x¯ = 209 ± 24 bpm). In ISO (MAP during time of surgical tolerance: x¯ = 89 ± 12.3 mmHg) and KX (MAP during wake-up period: x¯ = 84 ± 8.5 mmHg) mild hypotensive values were observed, whereas blood pressure (BP) in MMF (MAP during time of surgical tolerance: x¯ = 138 ± 9.9 mmHg) increased. Despite keeping animals on a warming pad, a loss of BT of about 1°C was seen in all groups. Additionally, we observed a peaked increase of HR (x¯ = 445 ± 20 bpm) during the wake-up period with ISO and an increase of PP (x¯ = 59 ± 8.5 mmHg) in MMF during the time of surgical tolerance. Conclusion The anaesthesias influenced very differently the cardiovascular parameters measured in Wistar rats. ISO caused mild hypotension and increased HR whereas MMF produced a

  5. The clinical efficacy of medetomidine.

    PubMed

    Vähä-Vahe, T

    1989-01-01

    Studies on the clinical efficacy of medetomidine, a novel alpha-2 adrenoceptor agonist, are reviewed. Medetomidine has been shown to produce a reliable state of sedation, relaxation and recumbency suitable for small animal practice. In dogs, the optimal clinical dose for examinations, clinical procedures and minor surgical interventions seems to be 30-40 micrograms/kg intramusculary and in cats 80-110 micrograms/kg. Other effects of medetomidine reported include bradycardia, nausea and vomiting. Occasional muscle jerkings have been also reported after medetomidine injection. In special investigations, medetomidine has successfully been used in wound suturation and ovariohysterectomy in dogs and for sedation in dogs with heart diseases. Medetomidine-ketamine combination has been shown to be useful for anesthesia and immobilization in cats and zoo animals. The medetomidine-fentanyl combination was tested in dog: The administration of fentanyl increased the sedation and analgesia obtained with medetomidine. Medetomidine appears to be a potent sedative and analgesic agent for clinical use. PMID:2571266

  6. Effect of low inspired oxygen fraction on respiratory indices in mechanically ventilated horses anaesthetised with isoflurane and medetomidine constant rate infusion.

    PubMed

    Taylor, A H; Seymour, C J

    2016-05-01

    Horses may become hypoxaemic during anaesthesia despite a high inspired oxygen fraction (FiO2). A lower FiO2 is used commonly in human beings to minimise atelectasis and to improve lung function, and previously has been shown to be of potential benefit in horses in experimental conditions. Other studies suggest no benefit to using a FiO2 of 0.5 during clinically relevant conditions; however, low FiO2 (0.65) is commonly used in practice and in a large number of studies. The present study was performed to compare the effect of a commonly used FiO2 of 0.65 versus 0.90 on calculated respiratory indices in anaesthetised mechanically ventilated horses in a clinical setting. Eighteen healthy Thoroughbred horses anaesthetised for experimental laryngeal surgery were recruited into a prospective, non-blinded, randomised clinical study. Before anaesthesia, the horses were randomly allocated into either low (0.65) or high (0.90) FiO2 groups and arterial blood gas (ABG) analysis was performed every 30 min during anaesthesia to allow for statistical analysis of respiratory indices. As expected, PaO2 was significantly lower in horses anaesthetised with a low FiO2, but was sufficient to fully saturate haemoglobin. There were no significant improvements in any of the other respiratory indices. There is no obvious benefit to be gained from the use of a FiO2 of 0.65 compared to 0.90 for mechanically ventilated Thoroughbred horses anaesthetised in lateral recumbency with isoflurane and a medetomidine constant rate infusion. PMID:27012166

  7. Medetomidine sedation in dogs and cats: a review of its pharmacology, antagonism and dose.

    PubMed

    Cullen, L K

    1996-09-01

    Medetomidine is a relatively new sedative analgesic in dogs and cats but some precautions are required when using it. It is a potent alpha 2-adrenoceptor agonist and stimulates receptors centrally to produce dose-dependent sedation and analgesia and receptors centrally and peripherally to cause marked bradycardia and decrease the cardiac output. While hypotension occurs frequently, higher doses of the sedative can raise the blood pressure due to an affect on peripheral receptors. Slowing of the respiratory rate is a frequent effect of medetomidine with some dogs showing signs of cyanosis. Other actions that follow medetomidine use are slowing of gastrointestinal motility, hypothermia, changes to endocrine function and, occasionally, vomiting and muscle twitching. The clinical use of medetomidine in dogs and cats is discussed. Recommended dose rates are presented along with precautions that should be taken when it is used alone for sedation, as an anaesthetic premedicant or in combination with ketamine, propofol or opioids. Hypoxaemia occurs frequently in dogs given medetomidine and propofol. The actions of medetomidine can be rapidly reversed with the specific alpha 2-adrenoceptor antagonist, atipamezole, which is an advantage because undesirable and sedative actions of medetomidine can be terminated. PMID:8885463

  8. Mortality associated with using medetomidine and ketamine for general anesthesia in pregnant and nonpregnant Wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Callahan, Lauren M; Ross, Simone M; Jones, Megan L; Musk, Gabrielle C

    2014-06-01

    Medetomidine and ketamine are injectable drugs that can be used in combination to induce general anesthesia in rats. After noticing a high incidence of morbidity and mortality in pregnant Wistar rats given medetomidine and ketamine for anesthesia, the authors further investigated the effects of this combination of anesthetic drugs in both pregnant and nonpregnant Wistar rats. The time to recumbency and the duration of general anesthesia were similar between pregnant and nonpregnant rats. Pregnancy status did not affect the rats' pulse rate, respiratory rate, rectal temperature, oxygen saturation or perfusion index during 2 h of anesthesia. Pregnant rats had significantly lower blood glucose concentrations than nonpregnant rats at all time points, though blood glucose concentrations increased in both groups. The mortality rate was ∼15% both for nonpregnant rats and for pregnant rats. Researchers using medetomidine and ketamine to anesthetize Wistar rats should carefully monitor the rats in order to minimize mortality. PMID:24845007

  9. Comparison of the efficacy and cardiorespiratory effects of medetomidine-based anesthetic protocols in ring-tailed lemurs (Lemur catta).

    PubMed

    Williams, Cathy V; Glenn, Kelly M; Levine, Jay F; Horne, William A

    2003-06-01

    The relative efficacies and cardiorespiratory effects of three injectable anesthetic combinations containing medetomidine were evaluated in ring-tailed lemurs (Lemur catta). In addition, the direct effects of medetomidine on heart rate and blood pressure were evaluated in lemurs anesthetized with isoflurane. For injectable anesthesia, captive adult ring-tailed lemurs were anesthetized with medetomidine and ketamine (0.04-0.06 mg/kg, i.m. and 3 mg/kg, i.m., respectively), medetomidine, butorphanol, and ketamine (0.04 mg/kg, i.m., 0.4 mg/kg, i.m., and 3 mg/kg, i.m., respectively), or medetomidine, butorphanol, and midazolam (0.04 mg/kg, i.m., 0.4 mg/kg, i.m., and 0.3 mg/kg, i.m., respectively). For inhalation anesthesia, lemurs were mask-induced and maintained with isoflurane for 30 min before receiving medetomidine (0.04 mg/kg, i.m.). Sedation produced by medetomidine-ketamine was unpredictable and of short duration. Both medetomidine-butorphanol-ketamine (MBK) and medetomidine-butorphanol-midazolam (MBMz) provided adequate anesthesia for routine physical exams; however, the effects of MBMz lasted longer than those of MBK. Heart rates and respiratory rates were within clinically normal ranges for all groups, and lemurs remained normotensive throughout the study. Common side effects such as hypertension and bradycardia associated with the use of alpha2-adrenergic receptor agonist combinations in other species were not observed. Likewise, medetomidine administration had no effect on HR in lemurs receiving isoflurane. Lemurs in all groups were well ventilated and remained well oxygenated throughout the procedures, though arterial partial pressure of O2 was lowest in the MBMz group. All three injectable medetomidine combinations were effective in ring-tailed lemurs but only MBK and MBMz provided adequate depth and duration of anesthesia for use as sole regimes. For many clinical procedures in lemurs, MBMz offers advantages over MBK because of its longer duration of

  10. Introduction to the clinical pharmacology of medetomidine.

    PubMed

    Vainio, O

    1989-01-01

    Medetomidine is a sedative and analgesic drug intended for use in dogs and cats but it can also be successfully used in many other species. The effect of medetomidine is dose dependent at the recommended dose range (10-80 micrograms/kg for dogs and 50-150 micrograms/kg for cats). At doses higher than the recommended ones the strength of sedation does not increase, only the duration of the effect. From the cardiovascular changes induced with medetomidine, the profound bradycardia is most prominent. It can be transiently prevented with atropine or glycopyrrolate medication. An initial increase in arterial blood pressure followed by a longer lasting slightly hypotensive or normotensive period can be observed. Respiratory frequency tends to decrease but the changes stay within normal limits for resting animals. Vomiting may occur during the induction period of sedation. Occasional muscle jerks can be observed. Hypothermia has been reported in every animal sedated with medetomidine. Medetomidine can be used as preanaesthetic prior to ketamine, barbiturate and halothane anaesthesia. PMID:2571283

  11. Cardiorespiratory and anesthetic effects of combined alfaxalone, butorphanol, and medetomidine in Thoroughbred horses

    PubMed Central

    OHMURA, Hajime; OKANO, Atsushi; MUKAI, Kazutaka; FUKUDA, Kentaro; TAKAHASHI, Toshiyuki

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT This study evaluated induction of anesthesia and cardiorespiratory and anesthetic effects during maintained anesthesia with the combination of alfaxalone, medetomidine, and butorphanol. Alfaxalone (1.0 mg/kg) was administered to induce anesthesia after premedication with medetomidine (7.0 µg/kg), butorphanol (25 µg/kg), and midazolam (50 µg/kg) in six Thoroughbred horses. Intravenous general anesthesia was maintained with alfaxalone (2.0 mg/(kg∙hr)), medetomidine (5.0 µg/(kg∙hr)), and butorphanol (30 µg/(kg∙hr)) for 60 min. Electrical stimulation of the upper oral mucosa was used to assess anesthetic depth at 10 min intervals during anesthesia. Heart rate (HR), respiratory rate (RR), and mean arterial pressure (MAP) were measured. All horses became recumbent within 1 min after alfaxalone administration. Induction scores were 5 (best) in five horses and 4 in one horse. During the 60-min anesthesia, average HR, RR, and MAP were 35.8 ± 2.6 beat/min, 4.7 ± 0.6 breath/min, and 129 ± 3 mmHg, respectively. No horse moved with electrical stimulation; however, two horses experienced apnea (no respiration for 1 to 3 min). Recovery scores were 5 (best) in two horses and 3 in four horses. These results suggest that alfaxalone is effective for induction and maintenance of anesthesia and analgesia when combined with butorphanol and medetomidine for 60 min in Thoroughbreds. However, respiratory depression might require support. PMID:27073330

  12. Cardiorespiratory and anesthetic effects of combined alfaxalone, butorphanol, and medetomidine in Thoroughbred horses.

    PubMed

    Ohmura, Hajime; Okano, Atsushi; Mukai, Kazutaka; Fukuda, Kentaro; Takahashi, Toshiyuki

    2016-01-01

    This study evaluated induction of anesthesia and cardiorespiratory and anesthetic effects during maintained anesthesia with the combination of alfaxalone, medetomidine, and butorphanol. Alfaxalone (1.0 mg/kg) was administered to induce anesthesia after premedication with medetomidine (7.0 µg/kg), butorphanol (25 µg/kg), and midazolam (50 µg/kg) in six Thoroughbred horses. Intravenous general anesthesia was maintained with alfaxalone (2.0 mg/(kg∙hr)), medetomidine (5.0 µg/(kg∙hr)), and butorphanol (30 µg/(kg∙hr)) for 60 min. Electrical stimulation of the upper oral mucosa was used to assess anesthetic depth at 10 min intervals during anesthesia. Heart rate (HR), respiratory rate (RR), and mean arterial pressure (MAP) were measured. All horses became recumbent within 1 min after alfaxalone administration. Induction scores were 5 (best) in five horses and 4 in one horse. During the 60-min anesthesia, average HR, RR, and MAP were 35.8 ± 2.6 beat/min, 4.7 ± 0.6 breath/min, and 129 ± 3 mmHg, respectively. No horse moved with electrical stimulation; however, two horses experienced apnea (no respiration for 1 to 3 min). Recovery scores were 5 (best) in two horses and 3 in four horses. These results suggest that alfaxalone is effective for induction and maintenance of anesthesia and analgesia when combined with butorphanol and medetomidine for 60 min in Thoroughbreds. However, respiratory depression might require support. PMID:27073330

  13. Antagonistic activities of atipamezole, 4-aminopyridine and yohimbine against medetomidine/ketamine-induced anaesthesia in cats.

    PubMed

    Verstegen, J; Fargetton, X; Zanker, S; Donnay, I; Ectors, F

    1991-01-19

    The objectives of this trial were to determine the ability of atipamezole, 4-aminopyridine and yohimbine to reverse the anaesthetic effects of a combination of medetomidine and ketamine in cats. Forty healthy cats were anaesthetised with 80 micrograms/kg medetomidine combined with 5 mg/kg ketamine. Thirty minutes later atipamezole (200 or 500 micrograms/kg), 4-aminopyridine (500 or 1000 micrograms/kg) or yohimbine (250 or 500 micrograms/kg) were injected intramuscularly. The doses of antagonists were randomised, so that each dose was administered to five cats, and 10 cats were injected only with physiological saline. Atipamezole clearly reversed the anaesthesia and bradycardia induced by medetomidine and ketamine. The mean (+/- sd) arousal times were 28 (+/- 4.7), 5.8 (+/- 1.8) and 7 (+/- 2.1) minutes in the placebo group, and the groups receiving 200 and 500 micrograms/kg atipamezole, respectively. The heart rates of the cats receiving 200 micrograms/kg atipamezole rapidly returned to values close to the initial ones, but 15 minutes after the injection of 500 micrograms/kg atipamezole a significant tachycardia was observed. All the cats showed moderate signs of ataxia during the recovery period. A dose of 500 micrograms/kg yohimbine also clearly reversed the anaesthetic effects of medetomidine/ketamine but 250 micrograms/kg was not effective. The dose of 500 micrograms/kg allowed a smooth recovery with no particular side effects except for some signs of incomplete antagonism of the ketamine effects, ie, ataxia and muscular incoordination. With 4-aminopyridine there were no statistically significant effects on the recovery, or the heart and respiratory rates of the cats anaesthetised with medetomidine/ketamine. PMID:2003354

  14. Field anesthesia of golden jackals (Canis aureus) with the use of medetomidine-ketamine or medetomidine-midazolam with atipamezole reversal.

    PubMed

    King, Roni; Lapid, Roi; Epstein, Ana; Bdolah-Abram, Tali; Shilo, Yael

    2008-12-01

    Twenty-two free-ranging golden jackals (Canis aureus) were immobilized with a combination of 113 +/- 24 microg/kg medetomidine and 2.1 +/- 0.3 mg/kg ketamine (M-K) or 88 +/- 16 microg/kg medetomidine and 0.47 +/- 0.08 mg/ kg midazolam (M-M) by i.m. injection. Induction and recovery times were recorded. Pulse rate, respiratory rate, body temperature, systolic and diastolic blood pressures, and oxygen saturation were measured. Anesthesia depth indicators were observed. There was no significant difference between the M-K and the M-M groups regarding induction time (6:14 +/- 1:45 and 7:16 +/- 2:09 min, respectively). Both combinations provided safe and effective immobilization for at least 20-30 min. Pulse rate was significantly higher in the M-K group. There was no significant difference in any other objective or subjective parameter. Following administration of atipamezole at five times the dose of medetomidine given, there was a significant difference between the two combinations in recovery time; M-K jackals were standing within 3:42 +/- 2:17 min and M-M jackals within 8:47 +/- 4:32 min. Neither of the combinations caused rough or prolonged recovery. Subjectively, the M-M group had smoother and less ataxic recovery. PMID:19110699

  15. ETORPHINE-KETAMINE-MEDETOMIDINE TOTAL INTRAVENOUS ANESTHESIA IN WILD IMPALA (AEPYCEROS MELAMPUS) OF 120-MINUTE DURATION.

    PubMed

    Zeiler, Gareth E; Stegmann, George F; Fosgate, Geoffrey; Buck, Roxanne K; Kästner, Sabine B R; Kummrow, Maya; Gerlach, Christina; Meyer, Leith C R

    2015-12-01

    There is a growing necessity to perform long-term anesthesia in wildlife, especially antelope. The costs and logistics of transporting wildlife to veterinary practices make surgical intervention a high-stakes operation. Thus there is a need for a field-ready total intravenous anesthesia (TIVA) infusion to maintain anesthesia in antelope. This study explored the feasibility of an etorphine-ketamine-medetomidine TIVA for field anesthesia. Ten wild-caught, adult impala ( Aepyceros melampus ) were enrolled in the study. Impala were immobilized with a standardized combination of etorphine (2 mg) and medetomidine (2.2 mg), which equated to a median (interquartile range [IQR]) etorphine and medetomidine dose of 50.1 (46.2-50.3) and 55.1 (50.8-55.4) μg/kg, respectively. Recumbency was attained in a median (IQR) time of 13.9 (12.0-16.5) min. Respiratory gas tensions, spirometry, and arterial blood gas were analyzed over a 120-min infusion. Once instrumented, the TIVA was infused as follows: etorphine at a variable rate initiated at 40 μg/kg per hour (adjusted according to intermittent deep-pain testing); ketamine and medetomidine at a fixed rate of 1.5 mg/kg per hour and 5 μg/kg per hour, respectively. The etorphine had an erratic titration to clinical effect in four impala. Arterial blood pressure and respiratory and heart rates were all within normal physiological ranges. However, arterial blood gas analysis revealed severe hypoxemia, hypercapnia, and acidosis. Oxygenation and ventilation indices were calculated and highlighted possible co-etiologies to the suspected etorphine-induced respiratory depression as the cause of the blood gas derangements. Impala recovered in the boma post atipamezole (13 mg) and naltrexone (42 mg) antagonism of medetomidine and etorphine, respectively. The etorphine-ketamine-medetomidine TIVA protocol for impala may be sufficient for field procedures of up to 120-min duration. However, hypoxemia and hypercapnia are of paramount concern and

  16. Immobilization of sun bears (Helarctos malayanus) with medetomidine-zolazepam-tiletamine.

    PubMed

    Onuma, Manabu

    2003-06-01

    A mixture of medetomidine (50.0 microg/kg, i.m.) and zolazepam-tiletamine (2.0 mg/kg, i.m.) effectively immobilized 16 sun bears (Helarctos malayanus) for more than 1 hr with good myorelaxation and minimal effects on cardiorespiratory performance during 22 immobilizations. All bears were immobilized once, except for six individuals that were immobilized twice. Atipamezole (250 microg/kg, i.v.) effectively reversed medetomidine-induced sedation and reduced recovery time significantly. Respiratory rates of immobilized bears did not change significantly over time. Rectal body temperature and heart rate decreased significantly after 10 min of immobilization. Hematologic and serum biochemical parameters did not change significantly within 30 min of induction. PMID:12885141

  17. IMMOBILIZATION OF CAPTIVE NUBIAN IBEX (CAPRA NUBIANA) WITH BUTORPHANOL-MIDAZOLAM-MEDETOMIDINE OR BUTORPHANOL-AZAPERONE-MEDETOMIDINE AND ATIPAMEZOLE REVERSAL.

    PubMed

    Lapid, Roi; Shilo-Benjamini, Yael

    2015-06-01

    Seventeen captive Nubian ibex (Capra nubiana) were immobilized for transportation and/or hoof trimming, deworming, and vaccinations. Of these, 11 were immobilized with a combination of butorphanol (0.13±0.03 mg/kg), midazolam (0.13±0.03 mg/kg), and medetomidine (0.13±0.03 mg/kg) (BMM), and 6 were immobilized with a combination of butorphanol (0.11±0.03 mg/kg), azaperone (0.22±0.06 mg/kg), and medetomidine (0.11±0.03 mg/kg) (BAM) by intramuscular injection. Induction and recovery times were recorded. Heart rate, respiratory rate, rectal temperature, blood pressure, and oxygen saturation were measured. The quality of induction, immobilization, and recovery were scored (scale 1-5; 1=poor, 5=excellent). Mean induction time was significantly shorter in the BMM group versus the BAM group (8.8±2.7 and 20.1±7.8 min, respectively). Median induction score and median immobilization score were significantly higher (i.e., better) in the BMM group than the BAM group (5 versus 2.5 and 4 versus 3, respectively). The mean and diastolic blood pressures were significantly higher in the BMM group at the 25-min time point. Atipamezole was administered at the end of procedures, and all ibex recovered smoothly. Mean recovery time was significantly longer in the BMM group versus the BAM group (9.5±4.3 and 3.3±2.2, respectively). In conclusion, at the doses used, the combination of BMM was superior to BAM for short-term immobilization in captive Nubian ibex. PMID:26056882

  18. A review of the physiological effects of α2-agonists related to the clinical use of medetomidine in small animal practice

    PubMed Central

    Sinclair, Melissa D.

    2003-01-01

    Medetomidine is a relatively new sedative analgesic drug that is approved for use in dogs in Canada. It is the most potent α2-adrenoreceptor available for clinical use in veterinary medicine and stimulates receptors centrally to produce dose-dependent sedation and analgesia. Significant dose sparing properties occur when medetomidine is combined with other anesthetic agents correlating with the high affinity of this drug to the α2-adrenoreceptor. Hypoventilation occurs with medetomidine sedation in dogs; however, respiratory depression becomes most significant when given in combination with other sedative or injectable agents. The typical negative cardiovascular effects produced with other α2-agonists (bradycardia, bradyarrhythmias, a reduction in cardiac output, hypertension ± hypotension) are also produced with medetomidine, warranting precautions when it is used and necessitating appropriate patient selection (young, middle-aged healthy animals). While hypotension may occur, sedative doses of medetomidine typically raise the blood pressure, due to the effect on peripheral α2-adrenoreceptors. Anticholinergic premedication has been recommended with α2-agonists to prevent bradyarrhythmias and, potentially, the reduction in cardiac output produced by these agents; however, current research does not demonstrate a clear improvement in cardio vascular function. Negatively, the anticholinergic induced increase in heart rate potentiates the α2-agonist mediated hypertension and may increase myocardial oxygen tension, demand, and workload. Overall, reversal with the specific antagonist atipamezole is recommended when significant cardiorespiratory complications occur. Other physiological effects of medetomidine sedation include; vomiting, increased urine volumes, changes to endocrine function and uterine activity, decreased intestinal motility, decreased intraocular pressure and potentially hypothermia, muscle twitching, and cyanosis. Decreased doses of medetomidine

  19. Anesthesia of wild red howler monkeys (Alouatta seniculus) with medetomidine/ketamine and reversal by atipamezole.

    PubMed

    Vié, J C; De Thoisy, B; Fournier, P; Fournier-Chambrillon, C; Genty, C; Kéravec, J

    1998-01-01

    Wild red howler monkeys (Alouatta seniculus) were translocated during the flooding of the forest at a hydroelectric dam site in French Guiana. For a variety of minor clinical procedures, 96 monkeys were anesthetized with various intramuscular injections of combinations of medetomidine and ketamine. The howler population was composed of healthy animals (42 males and 54 females) of various ages. Medetomidine (150 micrograms/kg) associated with ketamine (4 mg/kg) gave the best results and was used on 63 animals. The injection rapidly resulted in complete immobilization with good to excellent myorelaxation. The induction stage was quiet, with absence of both corneal and pedal withdrawal reflexes in 57 animals after 2.9 +/- 1.4 min. Six animals required an additional injection. Rectal temperature and respiratory and heart rates decreased during anesthesia, whereas relative oxyhemoglobin saturation increased. One death occurred during anesthesia. One abortion and one death also occurred the day following anesthesia but were more probably a result of capture stress. Atipamezole given i.m. at a dose of five times the medetomidine dose 38.4 +/- 8.0 min after the anesthetic injection led to standing recovery in 7.1 +/- 4.5 min. Spontaneous recovery occurred in 17 animals before the atipamezole injection after an average of 30.6 +/- 9.6 min. Total recovery time was shorter in young animals. Medetomidine/ketamine induced good myorelaxation and provided considerably shortened immobilization duration, which are two notable advantages for field studies. We recommend this association for short procedures including minor surgery in red howler monkeys. PMID:9702284

  20. Survey of utilization of medetomidine and atipamezole in private veterinary practice in Quebec in 2002.

    PubMed

    Kaartinen, M Johanna; Cuvelliez, Sophie; Brouillard, Line; Rondenay, Yves; Kona-Boun, Jean Jacques; Troncy, Eric

    2007-07-01

    This survey evaluates early perceptions about the use of medetomidine and atipamezole among veterinary practitioners in Quebec in 2002. Response rate was 23.5%; 71.1% of the practitioners did not use these products because of lack of information (69.3%), unavailability of the drugs in the practice (23.3%), or other reasons (7.3%), including concerns about the safety of alpha-2 agonists. Most veterinarians who used these products (70.4%) used them only rarely. Sedation by medetomidine was qualified as good (44.2%) or excellent (36%), and analgesia as good (46.5%) or average (32.7%). Waking up after atipamezole was qualified as good (47.5%) or excellent (40.9%). These perceptions indicate an opportunity for wider use of the products in veterinary practice. With more education and experience, practitioners could find medetomidine hydrochloride alone or in combination with an opioid useful for sedation, analgesia, and premedication for healthy animals. Reversal with atipamezole hydrochloride is considered effective, when residual sedation is undesirable. PMID:17824157

  1. Physiology and mRNA expression in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) after long-term exposure to the new antifoulant medetomidine.

    PubMed

    Lennquist, Anna; Asker, Noomi; Kristiansson, Erik; Brenthel, Adam; Björnsson, Björn Thrandur; Kling, Peter; Hultman, Maria; Larsson, D G Joakim; Förlin, Lars

    2011-09-01

    Medetomidine is under evaluation for use as an antifouling agent, and its effects on non-target aquatic organisms are therefore of interest. In this study, rainbow trout was exposed to low (0.5 and 5.0nM) concentrations of medetomidine for up to 54 days. Recently we have reported on effects on paleness and melanophore aggregation of medetomidine in these fish. Here, specific growth rates were investigated together with a broad set of physiological parameters including plasma levels of growth hormone (GH), insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) and leptin, glucose and haemoglobin (Hb), hematocrit (Ht), condition factor, liver and heart somatic indexes (LSI, HSI). Hepatic enzyme activities of CYP1A (EROD activity), glutathione S-transferases (GST) and glutathione reductase (GR) were also measured. Additionally, hepatic mRNA expression was analysed through microarray and quantitative PCR in fish sampled after 31 days of exposure. Medetomidine at both concentrations significantly lowered blood glucose levels and the higher concentration significantly reduced the LSI. The mRNA expression analysis revealed few differentially expressed genes in the liver and the false discovery rate was high. Taken together, the results suggest that medetomidine at investigated concentrations could interfere with carbohydrate metabolism of exposed fish but without any clear consequences for growth. PMID:21703361

  2. 21 CFR 522.1335 - Medetomidine hydrochloride injection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... solution contains 1.0 milligram of medetomidine hydrochloride. (b) Sponsor. See 052483 in § 510.600(c) of... diseases, dogs in shock, dogs which are severly debilitated, or dogs which are stressed due to extreme...

  3. Reversal of medetomidine-induced sedation in reindeer (Rangifer tarandus tarandus) with atipamezole increases the medetomidine concentration in plasma.

    PubMed

    Ranheim, B; Horsberg, T E; Nymoen, U; Søli, N E; Tyler, N J; Arnemo, J M

    1997-10-01

    The pharmacokinetics of two potent alpha 2-adrenoceptor agents that can be used for immobilization (medetomidine) and reversal (atipamezole) of the sedation in mammals, were studied in three reindeer (Rangifer tarandus tarandus) in winter and again in summer. Medetomidine (60 micrograms/kg) was injected intravenously (i.v.), followed by atipamezole (300 micrograms/kg) intravenously 60 min later. Drug concentrations in plasma were measured by HPLC. The administration of atipamezole resulted in an immediate 2.5-3.5 fold increase in the medetomidine concentration in plasma. Clearance for medetomidine (median 19.3 mL/min.kg) was lower than clearance for atipamezole (median 31.0 mL/min.kg). The median elimination half-lives of medetomidine and atipamezole in plasma were 76.1 and 59.9 min, respectively. The animals became resedated 0.5-1 h after the reversal with atipamezole. Resedation may be explained by the longer elimination half-life of medetomidine compared to atipamezole. PMID:9350254

  4. Overhead rate issue continues to churn

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, Richard M.

    Recent actions and statements by Congress and the White House make it clear that the controversy over university indirect cost rates, first raised by Rep. John D. Dingell (D-Mich.) almost one year ago, will not be resolved in the near future.On January 29, the same day that the president's 1993 budget was released, Rep. Dingell convened a third hearing of his Subcommittee on Oversight and Investigations. Dingell opened the proceedings by stating that a “fair amount has been accomplished,” but continued that the Defense Contract Audit Agency (DCAA) has started audits at almost all of 38 major research universities. Dingell spoke of “stunning findings” from these audits and said that DCAA is now initiating audits at non-profit research institutions, such as the National Academy of Sciences. “These audits have also discovered serious overcharging,” he said.

  5. Immobilization of Norwegian reindeer (Rangifer tarandus tarandus) and Svalbard Reindeer (R. t. platyrhynchus) with medetomidine and medetomidine-ketamine and reversal of immobilization with atipamezole.

    PubMed

    Tyler, N J; Hotvedt, R; Blix, A S; Sørensen, D R

    1990-01-01

    The sedative action of medetomidine (-ketamine) was studied in 12 captive Norwegian semidomesticated reindeer (NR), including 4 newborn calves, and in 7 free-living Svalbard reindeer (SR). Medetomidine, with or without ketamine, caused effective, reliable immobilization in NR. Doses of 50-200 micrograms/kg medetomidine alone or 30-125 micrograms/kg medetomidine combined with greater than or equal to 300 micrograms/kg ketamine induced complete immobilization, good muscle relaxation and persistent, deep sedation with little respiratory depression in NR; SR required higher doses. Atipamezole successfully antagonized medetomidine (-ketamine) resulting in rapid and persistent reversal of immobilization in all cases (NR and SR). Both medetomidine and atipamezole had wide safety margins and no conspicuous lasting side effects after reversal. PMID:1983084

  6. Chemical immobilization and anesthesia of free-living aardvarks (Orycteropus afer) with ketamine-medetomidine-midazolam and isoflurane.

    PubMed

    Rey, Benjamin; Costello, Mary-Ann; Fuller, Andrea; Haw, Anna; Hetem, Robyn S; Mitchell, Duncan; Meyer, Leith C R

    2014-10-01

    Abstract We evaluated the effectiveness of a ketamine-medetomidine-midazolam drug combination administered intramuscularly by remote injection followed by isoflurane anesthesia in free-living aardvarks (Orycteropus afer). Seven aardvarks weighing 33-45 kg were immobilized to perform surgical implantation of temperature loggers using 3.8 mg/kg ketamine, 0.1 mg/kg medetomidine, and 0.25 mg/kg midazolam. Immobilized aardvarks were transported to a surgical theater and received 0.5-1% isoflurane in oxygen after tracheal intubation. After surgery, medetomidine was antagonized with 0.5 mg/kg atipamezole, and aardvarks were released at the site of capture. We recorded induction and recovery times, clinical and physiologic parameters, and conducted blood gas analyses before and during isoflurane administration. Aardvarks showed initial effects within 3 min and reached lateral recumbency within 7 min after drug administration. Heart rate (50-67 beats/min), respiratory rate (10-15 breaths/min), oxygen hemoglobin saturation (SaO2; 90-97%), and rectal temperature (34.0-37.5 C) were within acceptable physiologic ranges. Mean arterial blood pressure was initially high (146 ± 12 mmHg), but the hypertension resolved over time. Rectal temperature dropped significantly during anesthesia. Four animals had to be treated to relieve apnea. Blood gas analyses revealed mild to moderate hypercapnia but no hypoxaemia. The ketamine-medetomidine-midazolam combination provided effective immobilization. Combined with a low concentration of isoflurane, it can be used for prolonged surgical procedures in wild aardvarks. However, caution is needed, and monitoring of clinical parameters is required. PMID:25014906

  7. U.S. Cancer Death Rate Continues to Fall

    MedlinePlus

    ... gov/medlineplus/news/fullstory_157680.html U.S. Cancer Death Rate Continues to Fall But there's been a ... 2016 (HealthDay News) -- Overall rates of cancer and deaths from cancer in the United States continue to ...

  8. The pharmacological effects of intramuscular administration of alfaxalone combined with medetomidine and butorphanol in dogs

    PubMed Central

    TAMURA, Jun; HATAKEYAMA, Naohiro; ISHIZUKA, Tomohito; ITAMI, Takaharu; FUKUI, Sho; MIYOSHI, Kenjiro; SANO, Tadashi; PASLOSKE, Kirby; YAMASHITA, Kazuto

    2016-01-01

    The pharmacological effects of intramuscular (IM) administration of alfaxalone combined with medetomidine and butorphanol were evaluated in 6 healthy beagle dogs. Each dog received three treatments with a minimum 10-day interval between treatments. The dogs received an IM injection of alfaxalone 2.5 mg/kg (ALFX), medetomidine 2.5 µg/kg and butorphanol 0.25 mg/kg (MB), or their combination (MBA) 1 hr after the recovery from their instrumentation. Endotracheal intubation was attempted, and dogs were allowed to breath room air. Neuro-depressive effects (behavior changes and subjective scores) and cardiorespiratory parameters (rectal temperature, heart rate, respiratory rate, direct blood pressure, central venous pressure and blood gases) were evaluated before and at 2 to 120 min after IM treatment. Each dog became lateral recumbency, except for two dogs administered the MB treatment. The duration was longer in the MBA treatment compared with the ALFX treatment (100 ± 48 min vs 46 ± 13 min). Maintenance of the endotracheal tube lasted for 60 ± 24 min in five dogs administered the MBA treatment and for 20 min in one dog administered the ALFX treatment. Cardiorespiratory variables were maintained within clinically acceptable ranges, although decreases in heart and respiratory rates, and increases in central venous pressure occurred after the MBA and MB treatments. The MBA treatment provided an anesthetic effect that permitted endotracheal intubation without severe cardiorespiratory depression in healthy dogs. PMID:26875835

  9. The pharmacological effects of intramuscular administration of alfaxalone combined with medetomidine and butorphanol in dogs.

    PubMed

    Tamura, Jun; Hatakeyama, Naohiro; Ishizuka, Tomohito; Itami, Takaharu; Fukui, Sho; Miyoshi, Kenjiro; Sano, Tadashi; Pasloske, Kirby; Yamashita, Kazuto

    2016-07-01

    The pharmacological effects of intramuscular (IM) administration of alfaxalone combined with medetomidine and butorphanol were evaluated in 6 healthy beagle dogs. Each dog received three treatments with a minimum 10-day interval between treatments. The dogs received an IM injection of alfaxalone 2.5 mg/kg (ALFX), medetomidine 2.5 µg/kg and butorphanol 0.25 mg/kg (MB), or their combination (MBA) 1 hr after the recovery from their instrumentation. Endotracheal intubation was attempted, and dogs were allowed to breath room air. Neuro-depressive effects (behavior changes and subjective scores) and cardiorespiratory parameters (rectal temperature, heart rate, respiratory rate, direct blood pressure, central venous pressure and blood gases) were evaluated before and at 2 to 120 min after IM treatment. Each dog became lateral recumbency, except for two dogs administered the MB treatment. The duration was longer in the MBA treatment compared with the ALFX treatment (100 ± 48 min vs 46 ± 13 min). Maintenance of the endotracheal tube lasted for 60 ± 24 min in five dogs administered the MBA treatment and for 20 min in one dog administered the ALFX treatment. Cardiorespiratory variables were maintained within clinically acceptable ranges, although decreases in heart and respiratory rates, and increases in central venous pressure occurred after the MBA and MB treatments. The MBA treatment provided an anesthetic effect that permitted endotracheal intubation without severe cardiorespiratory depression in healthy dogs. PMID:26875835

  10. COMPARISON OF ETORPHINE-ACEPROMAZINE AND MEDETOMIDINE-KETAMINE ANESTHESIA IN CAPTIVE IMPALA (AEPYCEROS MELAMPUS).

    PubMed

    Perrin, Kathryn L; Denwood, Matthew J; Grøndahl, Carsten; Nissen, Peter; Bertelsen, Mads F

    2015-12-01

    Impala (Aepyceros melampus) are a notoriously difficult species to manage in captivity, and anesthesia is associated with a high risk of complications including mortality. The aim of this study was to compare an opioid-based protocol with an α-2 agonist-based protocol. Nine female impala were studied in a random cross-over design. Subjects received either an etorphine-acepromazine (EA) protocol: 15 μg/kg etorphine and 0.15 mg/kg acepromazine, or a medetomidine-ketamine (MK) protocol: 109 μg/kg medetomidine and 4.4 mg/kg ketamine on day 1. Anaesthesia was repeated 3 days later with the alternative protocol. Subjective assessments of the quality of induction, muscle relaxation, and recovery were made by a blinded observer. Objective monitoring included blood pressure, end-tidal CO2, regional tissue oxygenation, and blood gas analysis. EA provided a significantly quicker (mean EA, 7.17 mins; MK, 17.6 mins) and more-reliable (score range EA, 3-5; MK, 1-5) induction. Respiratory rates were lower for EA with higher end-tidal CO2, but no apnoea was observed. As expected, blood pressures with EA were lower, with higher heart rates; however, arterial oxygenation and tissue oxygenation were equal or higher than with the MK protocol. In conclusion, at these doses, EA provided superior induction and equivalent muscle relaxation and recovery with apparent improved oxygen tissue delivery when compared to MK. PMID:26667544

  11. Anaesthetic and cardiopulmonary effects of intramuscular morphine, medetomidine and ketamine administered to telemetered cats.

    PubMed

    Wiese, Ashley J; Muir, William W

    2007-04-01

    The quality and duration of anaesthesia, cardiorespiratory effects and recovery characteristics of a morphine, medetomidine, ketamine (MMK) drug combination were determined in cats. Six healthy, adult female cats were administered 0.2 mg/kg morphine sulphate, 60 microg/kg medetomidine hydrochloride, and 5 mg/kg ketamine hydrochloride intramuscularly. Atipamezole was administered intramuscularly at 120 min after MMK administration. Time to lateral recumbency, intubation, extubation and sternal recumbency were recorded. Cardiorespiratory variables and response to a noxious stimulus were recorded before and at 3 min and 10 min increments after drug administration until sternal recumbency. The time to lateral recumbency and intubation were 1.9+/-1.2 and 4.3+/-1.2 min, respectively. Body temperature and haemoglobin saturation with oxygen remained unchanged compared to baseline values throughout anaesthesia. Respiratory rate, tidal volume, minute volume, heart rate, and blood pressure were significantly decreased during anaesthesia compared to baseline values. One cat met criteria for hypotension (systolic blood pressure <90 mmHg). End tidal carbon dioxide increased during anaesthesia compared to baseline values. All but one cat remained non-responsive to noxious stimuli from 3 to 120 min. Time to extubation and sternal recumbency following atipamezole were 2.9+/-1.1 and 4.7+/-1.0 min, respectively. MMK drug combination produced excellent short-term anaesthesia and analgesia with minimal cardiopulmonary depression. Anaesthesia lasted for at least 120 min in all but one cat and was effectively reversed by atipamezole. PMID:17198759

  12. 47 CFR 76.982 - Continuation of rate agreements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Continuation of rate agreements. 76.982 Section... MULTICHANNEL VIDEO AND CABLE TELEVISION SERVICE Cable Rate Regulation § 76.982 Continuation of rate agreements... competition under Commission rules in effect on that date, the franchising authority may regulate basic...

  13. 47 CFR 76.982 - Continuation of rate agreements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Continuation of rate agreements. 76.982 Section... MULTICHANNEL VIDEO AND CABLE TELEVISION SERVICE Cable Rate Regulation § 76.982 Continuation of rate agreements... competition under Commission rules in effect on that date, the franchising authority may regulate basic...

  14. Continuous operation of high bit rate quantum key distribution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dixon, A. R.; Yuan, Z. L.; Dynes, J. F.; Sharpe, A. W.; Shields, A. J.

    2010-04-01

    We demonstrate a quantum key distribution with a secure bit rate exceeding 1 Mbit/s over 50 km fiber averaged over a continuous 36 h period. Continuous operation of high bit rates is achieved using feedback systems to control path length difference and polarization in the interferometer and the timing of the detection windows. High bit rates and continuous operation allows finite key size effects to be strongly reduced, achieving a key extraction efficiency of 96% compared to keys of infinite lengths.

  15. Novel combinations of nalbuphine and medetomidine for wildlife immobilization.

    PubMed

    Wolfe, Lisa L; Lance, William R; Smith, David K; Miller, Michael W

    2014-10-01

    We formulated novel drug combinations of nalbuphine HCl and medetomidine HCl (NalMed), with or without azaperone tartrate, for use in immobilizing Rocky Mountain elk (Cervus elaphus nelsoni) and potentially for other wildlife species. Using the lowest tested nalbuphine dose (0.3 mg/kg) that produced sedation in elk, we initially evaluated a combination of nalbuphine, medetomidine, and azaperone (NalMed-A) for immobilizing adult elk. Based on initial success, we then conducted follow-up trials to assess alternative NalMed formulations successively modified to improve field usability, striving to shorten induction within a dose volume that accommodated practical remote delivery. All NalMed formulations immobilized adult elk; however, combinations with dose volumes that included about 80 mg nalbuphine tended to yield the shortest inductions (mean 6.8 min with, and 7.7 min without, azaperone). Our findings demonstrate that nalbuphine and medetomidine can be combined to yield effective, low-volume (≤ 2 mL), lightly regulated, reversible drug combinations. Based on results to date, we recommend NalMed-A (40 mg/mL nalbuphine, 10 mg/mL medetomidine, and 10 mg/mL azaperone) dosed at 1.8-2.0 mL for immobilizing adult elk; for recovery we recommend 50 mg naltrexone and 600 mg tolazoline administered intramuscularly (IM) about 5 min in advance of 100 mg atipamezole (divided 25 mg intravenously and 75 mg IM). Further work is under way to explore efficacy in other large mammal species. PMID:25121404

  16. Effects of MK-467 on the antinociceptive and sedative actions and pharmacokinetics of medetomidine in dogs.

    PubMed

    Bennett, R C; Salla, K M; Raekallio, M R; Hänninen, L; Rinne, V M; Scheinin, M; Vainio, O M

    2016-08-01

    We investigated the influence of the peripherally acting α2 -adrenoceptor antagonist MK-467 on the sedative and antinociceptive actions and plasma drug concentrations of medetomidine, an α2 -adrenoceptor agonist that is used in veterinary medicine as a sedative and analgesic agent. Eight healthy beagle dogs received intravenous medetomidine (10 μg/kg) or medetomidine with MK-467 (250 μg/kg) in a randomized crossover design. A standardized nociceptive pressure stimulus was applied to a nail bed of a hindlimb. Times for withdrawal of the limb and for head lift were measured, and sedation was scored. EEG data were collected prior to and after stimulation. Plasma drug concentrations were measured. Co-administration of MK-467 significantly attenuated medetomidine analgesia, as assessed with limb withdrawal, and also shortened the duration of sedation. The apparent plasma clearance of both enantiomers of medetomidine, dexmedetomidine and levomedetomidine, was more than doubled in the presence of MK-467. Antagonism by MK-467 of medetomidine-evoked vasoconstriction is seen as the mechanism behind this pharmacokinetic drug interaction. Thus, MK-467 attenuated the antinociceptive and sedative effects of medetomidine. This can probably be explained by increased clearance and decreased concentrations of dexmedetomidine in plasma after co-administration of MK-467 with racemic medetomidine. PMID:26763145

  17. Immobilization of free-ranging Hoffmann's two-toed and brown-throated three-toed sloths using ketamine and medetomidine: a comparison of physiologic parameters.

    PubMed

    Hanley, Christopher S; Siudak-Campfield, Joanna; Paul-Murphy, Joanne; Vaughan, Christopher; Ramirez, Oscar; Keuler, Nicholas S; Sladky, Kurt K

    2008-10-01

    Free-ranging Hoffmann's two-toed sloths (Choloepus hoffmanni; n=26) and brown-throated three-toed sloths (Bradypus variegatus; n=15) were manually captured and immobilized with 2.5 mg/kg ketamine + 0.02 mg/kg medetomidine administered intramuscularly. Physical examinations were conducted on each sloth 10 min after initial injection, and blood, fecal, and ectoparasite samples were collected. Heart rate, respiratory rate, body temperature, indirect systolic blood pressure, and indirect peripheral oxygen saturation were monitored every 5 min for the duration of anesthesia. After 45 min, atipamazole (0.1 mg/kg) was administered intramuscularly, as an antagonist to medetomidine, in order to facilitate recovery. All recoveries were smooth, rapid, and uneventful. Physiologic parameters were compared across time, gender, and species. All sloths, regardless of species and gender, demonstrated a time-dependent decrease in heart rate and blood pressure, and an increase in respiratory rate, during the course of anesthesia. Peripheral oxygen saturation was similar for all sloths over time. There were significant species differences for heart rate (Choloepus > Bradypus), respiratory rate (Choloepus > Bradypus), and systolic blood pressure (Bradypus > Choloepus), while there were significant gender differences for body temperature (males > females) and blood pressure (males > females). Results of this study suggest that the ketamine-medetomidine mixture, as described above, is a safe and effective anesthetic combination in free-ranging two- and three-toed sloths, although peripheral blood pressure should be monitored during anesthesia. PMID:18957650

  18. 38 CFR 3.343 - Continuance of total disability ratings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... disability ratings. 3.343 Section 3.343 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS... Evaluations; Service Connection § 3.343 Continuance of total disability ratings. (a) General. Total disability... latter, reduction from total disability ratings will not be considered pending reexamination after...

  19. Injection anaesthesia with fentanyl-midazolam-medetomidine in adult female mice: importance of antagonization and perioperative care.

    PubMed

    Fleischmann, Thea; Jirkof, Paulin; Henke, Julia; Arras, Margarete; Cesarovic, Nikola

    2016-08-01

    Injection anaesthesia is commonly used in laboratory mice; however, a disadvantage is that post-anaesthesia recovery phases are long. Here, we investigated the potential for shortening the recovery phase after injection anaesthesia with fentanyl-midazolam-medetomidine by antagonization with naloxone-flumazenil-atipamezole. In order to monitor side-effects, the depth of anaesthesia, heart rate (HR), core body temperature (BT) and concentration of blood gases, as well as reflex responses, were assessed during a 50 min anaesthesia. Mice were allowed to recover from the anaesthesia in their home cages either with or without antagonization, while HR, core BT and spontaneous home cage behaviours were recorded for 24 h. Mice lost righting reflex at 330 ± 47 s after intraperitoneal injection of fentanyl-midazolam-medetomidine. During anaesthesia, HR averaged 225 ± 23 beats/min, respiratory rate and core BT reached steady state at 131 ± 15 breaths/min and 34.3 ± 0.25℃, respectively. Positive pedal withdrawal reflex, movement triggered by tail pinch and by toe pinch, still occurred in 25%, 31.2% and 100% of animals, respectively. Arterial blood gas analysis revealed acidosis, hypoxia, hypercapnia and a marked increase in glucose concentration. After anaesthesia reversal by injection with naloxone-flumazenil-atipamezole, animals regained consciousness after 110 ± 18 s and swiftly returned to physiological baseline values, yet they displayed diminished levels of locomotion and disrupted circadian rhythm. Without antagonization, mice showed marked hypothermia (22 ± 1.9℃) and bradycardia (119 ± 69 beats/min) for several hours. Fentanyl-midazolam-medetomidine provided reliable anaesthesia in mice with reasonable intra-anaesthetic side-effects. Post-anaesthetic period and related adverse effects were both reduced substantially by antagonization with naloxone-flumazenil-atipamezole. PMID:26860578

  20. 38 CFR 3.343 - Continuance of total disability ratings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Continuance of total disability ratings. 3.343 Section 3.343 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS ADJUDICATION Pension, Compensation, and Dependency and Indemnity Compensation Ratings and Evaluations; Service Connection § 3.343...

  1. Neurohormonal and metabolic effects of medetomidine compared with xylazine in beagle dogs

    PubMed Central

    Ambrisko, T. D.; Hikasa, Y.

    2002-01-01

    This study was aimed to investigate and compare the effects of medetomidine and xylazine on the blood level of some stress-related neurohormonal and metabolic variables in clinically normal dogs, especially focusing on time and dose relations of the effects. A total of 9 beagle dogs were used for 9 groups, which were treated with physiological saline solution (control), 10, 20, 40, and 80 μg/kg medetomidine, and 1, 2, 4, and 8 mg/kg xylazine, intramuscularly. Blood samples were taken at 10 times during 24 h from a central venous catheter. Plasma norepinephrine, epinephrine, cortisol, glucose, insulin, glucagon, and non-esterified fatty acid concentrations were determined. Both medetomidine and xylazine similarly and dose-dependently inhibited norepinephrine release and lipolysis. Medetomidine suppressed epinephrine release dose-dependently with greater potency than xylazine. Xylazine also tended to decrease epinephrine levels dose-dependently. The cortisol and glucagon levels did not change significantly in any treatment group. Both drugs suppressed insulin secretion with similar potency. Both medetomidine and xylazine increased glucose levels. The hyperglycemic effect of medetomidine, in contrast with xylazine, was not dose-dependent at the tested dosages. The results suggested that the effect of medetomidine on glucose metabolism may not be due only to α2-adrenoceptor-mediated actions. PMID:11858648

  2. Effects of medetomidine and ketamine on the regional cerebral blood flow in cats: a SPECT study.

    PubMed

    Waelbers, T; Peremans, K; Vermeire, S; Piron, K; Doom, M; Boer, V O; de Leeuw, H; Vente, M A D; Dobbeleir, A; Gielen, I; Audenaert, K; Polis, I

    2012-04-01

    Brain perfusion can be investigated using single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) and the intravenous injection of (99m)technetium ethyl cysteinate dimer ((99m)Tc-ECD). However, sedation using medetomidine, an α(2)-agonist, or anaesthesia using medetomidine and ketamine, an N-methyl-d-aspartate-(NMDA)-antagonist, may be required for SPECT studies in cats but can affect the regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF). The effects of medetomidine, with or without ketamine, on regional brain perfusion were therefore investigated in six cats under three conditions. Injection of tracer occurred before sedation or anaesthesia (condition A), following intramuscular (IM) sedation with medetomidine (condition M) or after IM anaesthesia with medetomidine and ketamine (condition MK). Medetomidine and medetomidine with ketamine caused a significantly higher total tracer uptake in all brain regions. Semi-quantification of brain perfusion gave lower perfusion indices in several sub-cortical regions in conditions M and MK, compared to A. Left-right differences were observed in the temporal cortex (A), the temporal, parietal cortex and the thalamus (M) and the frontal cortex (MK). A significantly higher perfusion index in the sub-cortical regions, compared to the whole cortex, was only present in condition A. This study showed that caution is needed when quantifying brain perfusion indices when using sedative or anaesthetic agents that may affect rCBF. PMID:21636298

  3. Clinical evaluation of medetomidine, a novel sedative and analgesic drug for dogs and cats.

    PubMed

    Vähä-Vahe, T

    1989-01-01

    Medetomidine, a potent alpha 2-adrenoceptor agonist, was investigated in open, multicenter clinical trials with patients of various canine and feline breeds (1736 dogs and 678 cats). The purpose of the study was to find an optimal dose of medetomidine for sedation and analgesia in clinical practice and to study how well the intended procedure could be performed under the influence of the drug. The mean dose (i.m.) of medetomidine used for examinations, clinical procedures and minor surgical interventions was 40 micrograms/kg, and for radiography 30 micrograms/kg. In cats the dose was 80-110 micrograms/kg. On the doses chosen, almost all animals were recumbent and 72% of the dogs and 85% of the cats were in a slight anaesthetic stage, unable to rise. The evaluation of the overall suitability of medetomidine (% of cases) in different indications was "very satisfactory" or "satisfactory" in 95% of dogs and 81-96% of cats. Side effects reported were limited almost exclusively to vomiting and muscle jerking in dogs (12% and 0.5% of the cases) and to vomiting in cats (65%). Medetomidine seems to suffice for pharmacological restraint of dogs and cats. The concomitant use of medetomidine (80-100 micrograms/kg) and ketamine (7 mg/kg) in cats (n = 295) provided a good anaesthesia (20-40 min). The recovery was smooth. The present study shows that medetomidine provides an effective level of sedation and analgesia for clinical use. PMID:2698057

  4. A comparative clinical study of three different dosages of intramuscular midazolam-medetomidine-ketamine immobilization in cats.

    PubMed

    Ebner, J; Wehr, U; Busch, R; Erhardt, W; Henke, J

    2007-10-01

    A low dose of midazolam-medetomidine-ketamine (MMK) combination was evaluated in three increasing dosages. Each of the 18 cats was randomly allocated for several times to one of four groups. Five minutes after premedication with intramuscular (IM) 0.04 mg/kg atropine, group A (n = 43), B (n = 40) and C (n = 28) all were anaesthetized with 0.5 mg/kg midazolam, combined with 10, 20 or 30 microg/kg medetomidine, and 1.0, 2.0 or 3.0 mg/kg ketamine, respectively, IM in one syringe. Group D (n = 11) received the established combination of 50 microg/kg medetomidine and 10.0 mg/kg ketamine for comparison. Because this study was in cooperation with a project on dental prophylaxis, cats had to be immobilized for approximately 1 h. Therefore, anaesthesia was prolonged with propofol to effect, if necessary. Duration of MMK anaesthesia was between 30 +/- 15, 45 +/- 19 and 68 +/- 28 min in groups A, B and C respectively. A significant decrease of respiratory rate was observed with increasing dosage, but venous carbon dioxide (pCO(2)) and pH values in combination with arterial oxygen saturation (SpO(2)) values were not alarming. The diastolic blood pressure particularly showed an increase. MMK combination A showed the best cardiovascular results, but it cannot be recommended due to disadvantages like a long induction time sometimes accompanied by excitations and the short duration of surgical immobilization. Dosage C in contrast had fewer side effects but less favourable cardiovascular results and a longer recovery period. However, either dosage B or C was suitable as a repeatable IM immobilization method for non-invasive procedures in healthy cats. PMID:17877583

  5. Evaluation of quality of anesthesia and analgesia and of vital signs after intramuscular administration of a combination of butorphanol, medetomidine and alfaxalone in cats.

    PubMed

    Kim, Ye-Won; Suh, Sang-Il; Choi, Ran; Hyun, Changbaig

    2016-03-01

    This study evaluated the quality of anesthesia, duration of analgesia and changes in vital signs after intramuscular administration of a combination of butorphanol, medetomidine and alfaxalone in domestic cats. Ten healthy adult domestic cats (weighing 2.9 ± 0.5 kg) were used in this study. Rectal temperature (T), pulse rate (PR), respiratory rate (fR) and systolic arterial pressure (SAP) were measured and recorded prior to intramuscular (IM) administration of butorphanol (0.2 mg/kg), medetomidine (20 ug/kg) and alfaxalone (5 mg/kg) and then every 10 min until return of consciousness. Qualitative scores for induction of anesthesia and recovery were allocated, duration of anesthesia and recovery were calculated, and adverse events were recorded. A needle prick with a 22-gauge hypodermic needle was used to assess analgesia. Scores for induction and recovery quality were acceptable. No significant adverse events except nausea (7/10) and vomiting (5/10) were observed. The mean ± SD times from induction to extubation and to standing (full recovery) were 114 ± 8 and 125 ± 7 min, respectively. There were statistically significant changes in PR, fR and SAP after induction of anesthesia. The combination of butorphanol, medetomidine and alfaxalone provided acceptable quality of anesthesia and analgesia and exerted minimal cardiopulmonary effects in domestic cats. PMID:26549435

  6. Evaluation of quality of anesthesia and analgesia and of vital signs after intramuscular administration of a combination of butorphanol, medetomidine and alfaxalone in cats

    PubMed Central

    KIM, Ye-Won; SUH, Sang-Il; CHOI, Ran; HYUN, Changbaig

    2015-01-01

    This study evaluated the quality of anesthesia, duration of analgesia and changes in vital signs after intramuscular administration of a combination of butorphanol, medetomidine and alfaxalone in domestic cats. Ten healthy adult domestic cats (weighing 2.9 ± 0.5 kg) were used in this study. Rectal temperature (T), pulse rate (PR), respiratory rate (fR) and systolic arterial pressure (SAP) were measured and recorded prior to intramuscular (IM) administration of butorphanol (0.2 mg/kg), medetomidine (20 ug/kg) and alfaxalone (5 mg/kg) and then every 10 min until return of consciousness. Qualitative scores for induction of anesthesia and recovery were allocated, duration of anesthesia and recovery were calculated, and adverse events were recorded. A needle prick with a 22-gauge hypodermic needle was used to assess analgesia. Scores for induction and recovery quality were acceptable. No significant adverse events except nausea (7/10) and vomiting (5/10) were observed. The mean ± SD times from induction to extubation and to standing (full recovery) were 114 ± 8 and 125 ± 7 min, respectively. There were statistically significant changes in PR, fR and SAP after induction of anesthesia. The combination of butorphanol, medetomidine and alfaxalone provided acceptable quality of anesthesia and analgesia and exerted minimal cardiopulmonary effects in domestic cats. PMID:26549435

  7. Report to nation finds continued declines in many cancer rates

    Cancer.gov

    Rates of death in the United States from all cancers for men and women continued to decline between 2003 and 2007, the most recent reporting period available, according to the latest Annual Report to the Nation on the Status of Cancer. The report also finds that the overall rate of new cancer diagnoses for men and women combined decreased an average of slightly less than 1 percent per year for the same period.

  8. Immobilization of sika deer with medetomidine and ketamine, and antagonism by atipamezole.

    PubMed

    Tsuruga, H; Suzuki, M; Takahashi, H; Jinma, K; Kaji, K

    1999-10-01

    Forty wild sika deer (Cervus nippon) were immobilized with medetomidine and ketamine and reversed by atipamezole in summer and fall captures from September 1994 to October 1995. For large yearling and older deer, mean +/- SD doses of 57.0+/-15.6 microg/kg medetomidine and 1.64+/-0.49 mg/kg (male) or 4.02+/-1.16 mg/kg (female) of ketamine were administered by intramuscular injection. For calves and small yearlings, 69.3+/-7.0 microg/kg medetomidine and 2.69+/-0.44 mg/kg ketamine were administered. While immobilized, deer were easy to handle, and muscles were well relaxed. After intramuscular administration of atipamezole (about 5 times the dose of medetomidine), deer recovered rapidly and smoothly. PMID:10574539

  9. Contrasting effects of the imidazol(in)e alpha 2-adrenoceptor agonists, medetomidine, clonidine and UK 14,304 on extraneuronal levels of noradrenaline in the rat frontal cortex: evaluation using in vivo microdialysis and synaptosomal uptake studies.

    PubMed Central

    Dalley, J W; Stanford, S C

    1995-01-01

    1. In vivo microdialysis in halothane-anaesthetized rats and synaptosomal [3H]-noradrenaline uptake studies in vitro were used to evaluate the effects of imidazole (medetomidine) and imidazoline (clonidine and UK 14,304) alpha 2-adrenoceptor agonists on extraneuronal levels of noradrenaline in the frontal cortex. 2. Levels of noradrenaline in the dialysate were increased by a depolarizing concentration of K+ (60 mM for 20 min) and substantially attenuated by reducing Ca2+ supply in the perfusate. These results suggest that spontaneous efflux of noradrenaline in the cortex is regulated predominantly by cation-dependent exocytotic mechanisms. 3. At a low perfusion concentration (0.5 microM), medetomidine, clonidine and UK 14,304 all reduced the level of noradrenaline in cortical dialysates. Continuous perfusion of the selective alpha 2-adrenoceptor antagonist, atipamezole (0.5 microM) caused a sustained increase in noradrenaline efflux and reversed the inhibitory effects of medetomidine. All these changes are consistent with drug actions at presynaptic alpha 2-adrenoceptors. 4. Higher concentrations of medetomidine (5-50 microM), but not clonidine or UK 14,304, evoked a non-desensitizing increase in noradrenaline efflux. This effect was not antagonized by 0.5 microM atipamezole. 5. The tricyclic noradrenaline reuptake inhibitor, desmethylimipramine (0.5-50 microM), increased noradrenaline efflux in a concentration-dependent manner. 6. The specific uptake of [3H]-noradrenaline into cortical synaptosomes was inhibited by medetomidine and desmethylimipramine with IC50 values of approximately 7 microM and 8 microM respectively. Neither clonidine nor UK 14,304 inhibited [3H]-noradrenaline uptake.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:7599940

  10. A comparison of anesthetic and cardiorespiratory effects of tiletamine-zolazepam-butorphanol and tiletamine-zolazepam-butorphanol- medetomidine in cats.

    PubMed

    Ko, Jeff C; Abbo, Lisa A; Weil, Ann B; Johnson, Brenda M; Payton, Mark

    2007-01-01

    Using a randomized crossover design, this study compared the anesthetic and cardiorespiratory effects of three intramuscular anesthetic combinations in seven 2-year-old cats: tiletamine-zolazepam (8 mg/kg) and butorphanol (0.2 mg/kg) (TT); tiletamine-zolazepam (3 mg/kg), butorphanol (0.15 mg/kg), and medetomidine (15 microg/kg) (TTD); or the TTD protocol plus atipamezole (75 microg/kg IM) given 20 minutes later to reverse medetomidine. Analgesia was assessed using algometry and needle pricking. All three combinations effectively induced anesthesia suitable for orotracheal intubation within 5 minutes after injection. Hemoglobin oxygen saturation was lower than 90% at least once in all three groups between 5 and 15 minutes after drug administration. Blood pressure and heart and respiratory rates were within normal ranges. Both TT and TTD appeared to be effective injectable anesthetic combinations. TTD provided significantly better analgesia with a longer duration than did TT. Atipamezole administration shortened the duration of analgesia and decreased blood pressure but did not shorten total recovery time. PMID:17926302

  11. Effects of ketamine or medetomidine administration on quality of electroejaculated sperm and on sperm flow in the domestic cat.

    PubMed

    Zambelli, D; Cunto, M; Prati, F; Merlo, B

    2007-09-15

    The effects of two commonly used drugs for anaesthesia in the domestic cat, ketamine and medetomidine, on features of electroejaculated semen and on sperm flow in this species were evaluated performing three experiments. This is the first study about these topics in the domestic cat. In Experiment 1, ketamine or medetomidine effects on cat sperm quality after collection by electroejaculation (E.E.) have been assessed in nine animals. Results showed that mean sperm concentration was significantly higher (p<0.01) after medetomidine than after ketamine administration. In Experiment 2, ketamine or medetomidine effects on sperm flow in 12 electroejaculated cats were studied. Mean sperm concentration and mean total number of spermatozoa resulted significantly higher (p<0.01) in medetomidine than in ketamine treated animals. The number of spermatozoa displaced in urethra was significantly higher (p<0.01) using medetomidine. No significant differences were observed in percentages of retrograde flow. In Experiment 3, ketamine or medetomidine effects on urethral sperm flow, without any stimulation for sperm collection, were evaluated. Data obtained showed a significantly higher (p<0.05) number of spermatozoa displaced in urethra after medetomidine than after ketamine injection. In conclusion, E.E. in the cat after medetomidine administration determined a higher number of spermatozoa per ejaculate than after ketamine administration, with a good pharmacological restriction and without increasing sperm retrograde flow. PMID:17662381

  12. Antagonistic effects of atipamezole, yohimbine and prazosin on medetomidine-induced diuresis in healthy cats.

    PubMed

    Murahata, Yusuke; Yamamoto, Asami; Miki, Yuya; Hikasa, Yoshiaki

    2014-03-01

    This study aimed to investigate and compare the antagonistic effects of atipamezole, yohimbine and prazosin on medetomidine-induced diuresis in healthy cats. Five cats were repeatedly used in each of the 9 groups. One group was not medicated. Cats in the other groups received 40 µg/kg medetomidine intramuscularly and saline (as the control), 160 µg/kg prazosin, or 40, 160 or 480 µg/kg atipamezole or yohimbine intravenously 0.5 hr later. Volume, pH and specific gravity of urine; plasma arginine vasopressin (AVP) level; and creatinine, osmolality and electrolyte levels in both urine and plasma were measured. Both atipamezole and yohimbine, but not prazosin, antagonized medetomidine-induced diuresis. The antidiuretic effect of atipamezole was more potent than that of yohimbine, but was not dose dependent, in contrast to the effect of yohimbine at the tested doses. Both atipamezole and yohimbine reversed medetomidine-induced decreases in both urine specific gravity and osmolality and increases in plasma osmolality and free-water clearance. Antidiuresis of either atipamezole or yohimbine was not related to the area under the curve for AVP level, although the highest dose of both atipamezole and yohimbine initially and temporarily increased plasma AVP levels, suggesting that this may partly influence the antidiuretic effects of both agents. The diuretic effect of medetomidine in cats may be mediated by α2-adrenoceptors, but not α1-adrenoceptors. Atipamezole and yohimbine can be used as antagonistic agents against medetomidine-induced diuresis in healthy cats. PMID:24107430

  13. Evaluation of medetomidine, ketamine and buprenorphine for neutering feral cats.

    PubMed

    Harrison, Kelly A; Robertson, Sheilah A; Levy, Julie K; Isaza, Natalie M

    2011-12-01

    A combination of medetomidine (M, 100 μg/kg), ketamine (K, 10 mg/kg) and buprenorphine (B, 10 μg/kg), administered by intramuscular injection, was evaluated for spaying and castration (neutering) of feral cats (n = 101). Eleven animals (11%) required supplemental anesthesia (isoflurane by mask) to maintain an adequate plane of surgical anesthesia. Atipamezole (A, 125 μg/kg) was administered subcutaneously at the completion of surgery. All cats recovered from surgery and were released the following day. A hemoglobin saturation (SpO(2)) value of < 95% was recorded at least once during anesthesia in all cats. This MKB combination can be used in a feral cat sterilization clinic, but isoflurane supplementation may be necessary. Further research is indicated to determine the clinical significance of the low SpO(2) values associated with this anesthetic regimen. PMID:21885310

  14. Effective Reversible Immobilization of Captive Himalayan Black Bears (Selenarctos thibetanus laniger) with Medetomidine-Tiletamine-Zolazepam and Atipamezole.

    PubMed

    Arun, Attur Shanmugam; Krishna, Sanath; Antony, Linto; Pillai, Harikrishnan Chandran; Venkataramanappa, Manjunatha; Suresh, Sujay

    2016-04-28

    We used a combination of medetomidine and tiletamine-zolazepam to immobilize five Himalayan black bears (Selenarctos thibetanus laniger) in Bannerghatta Biological Park, Bangalore, India. Medetomidine and tiletamine-zolazepam were administered at 0.01 mg/kg and 0.5 mg/kg, respectively. We describe procedures and observations recorded during the immobilization. PMID:27124333

  15. Cardiorespiratory and anesthetic effects produced by the combination of butorphanol, medetomidine and alfaxalone administered intramuscularly in Beagle dogs.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jongsung; Suh, Sangil; Choi, Ran; Hyun, Changbaig

    2016-01-01

    This study evaluated anesthesia quality, degree of analgesia and cardiorespiratory parameters after intramuscular (IM) injection of a combination of butorphanol (0.1 mg/kg), medetomidine (10 µg/kg) and alfaxalone (1.5 mg/kg) in ten healthy adult Beagle dogs. Rectal temperature (T), heart rate (HR), respiratory rate (fR), arterial pressure, arterial blood gases and M-mode echocardiographic left ventricular (LV) indices were measured before drug administration and every 10 min thereafter until extubation. Mean duration of anesthesia, recovery and analgesia were 89 ± 17, 6 ± 1 and 80 ± 12 min. HR, fR, partial pressure of arterial CO2 and O2, arterial pressure, and LV contractility were significantly altered during anesthesia. IM administration of the drug combination provided acceptable anesthesia, but produced substantial cardiorespiratory suppression. PMID:26256405

  16. Cardiorespiratory and anesthetic effects produced by the combination of butorphanol, medetomidine and alfaxalone administered intramuscularly in Beagle dogs

    PubMed Central

    LEE, Jongsung; SUH, Sangil; CHOI, Ran; HYUN, Changbaig

    2015-01-01

    This study evaluated anesthesia quality, degree of analgesia and cardiorespiratory parameters after intramuscular (IM) injection of a combination of butorphanol (0.1 mg/kg), medetomidine (10 µg/kg) and alfaxalone (1.5 mg/kg) in ten healthy adult Beagle dogs. Rectal temperature (T), heart rate (HR), respiratory rate (fR), arterial pressure, arterial blood gases and M-mode echocardiographic left ventricular (LV) indices were measured before drug administration and every 10 min thereafter until extubation. Mean duration of anesthesia, recovery and analgesia were 89 ± 17, 6 ± 1 and 80 ± 12 min. HR, fR, partial pressure of arterial CO2 and O2, arterial pressure, and LV contractility were significantly altered during anesthesia. IM administration of the drug combination provided acceptable anesthesia, but produced substantial cardiorespiratory suppression. PMID:26256405

  17. Cardiovascular effects of total intravenous anesthesia using ketamine-medetomidine-propofol (KMP-TIVA) in horses undergoing surgery

    PubMed Central

    UMAR, Mohammed Ahmed; FUKUI, Sho; KAWASE, Kodai; ITAMI, Takaharu; YAMASHITA, Kazuto

    2014-01-01

    Cardiovascular effects of total intravenous anesthesia using ketamine-medetomidine-propofol drug combination (KMP-TIVA) were determined in 5 Thoroughbred horses undergoing surgery. The horses were anesthetized with intravenous administration (IV) of ketamine (2.5 mg/kg) and midazolam (0.04 mg/kg) following premedication with medetomidne (5 µg/kg, IV) and artificially ventilated. Surgical anesthesia was maintained by controlling propofol infusion rate (initially 0.20 mg/kg/min following an IV loading dose of 0.5 mg/kg) and constant rate infusions of ketamine (1 mg/kg/hr) and medetomidine (1.25 µg/kg/hr). The horses were anesthetized for 175 ± 14 min (range from 160 to 197 min). Propofol infusion rates ranged from 0.13 to 0.17 mg/kg/min, and plasma concentration (Cpl) of propofol ranged from 11.4 to 13.3 µg/ml during surgery. Cardiovascular measurements during surgery remained within clinically acceptable ranges in the horses (heart rate: 33 to 37 beats/min, mean arterial blood pressure: 111 to 119 mmHg, cardiac index: 48 to 53 ml/kg/min, stroke volume: 650 to 800 ml/beat and systemic vascular resistance: 311 to 398 dynes/sec/cm5). The propofol Cpl declined rapidly after the cessation of propofol infusion and was significantly lower at 10 min (4.5 ± 1.5 µg/ml), extubation (4.0 ± 1.2 µg/ml) and standing (2.4 ± 0.9 µg/ml) compared with the Cpl at the end of propofol administration (11.4 ± 2.7 µg/ml). All the horses recovered uneventfully and stood at 74 ± 28 min after the cessation of anesthesia. KMP-TIVA provided satisfactory quality and control of anesthesia with minimum cardiovascular depression in horses undergoing surgery. PMID:25409552

  18. An evaluation of medetomidine/ketamine and other drug combinations for anaesthesia in cats.

    PubMed

    Verstegen, J; Fargetton, X; Donnay, I; Ectors, F

    1991-01-12

    The anaesthesia induced by cyclohexylamine derivatives in cats was studied by comparing the effects induced by four pairs of agents: acepromazine/ketamine, xylazine/ketamine, zolazepam/tiletamine and medetomidine/ketamine. Acepromazine/ketamine was free of undesirable side effects but provided inadequate anaesthetic cover. The other combinations differed only in the dosage, the quality of the anaesthesia and the importance of the side effects. Medetomidine/ketamine was the best combination; it induced a good degree of anaesthesia with small doses and was free of major side effects. PMID:2017841

  19. Rate of tree carbon accumulation increases continuously with tree size.

    PubMed

    Stephenson, N L; Das, A J; Condit, R; Russo, S E; Baker, P J; Beckman, N G; Coomes, D A; Lines, E R; Morris, W K; Rüger, N; Alvarez, E; Blundo, C; Bunyavejchewin, S; Chuyong, G; Davies, S J; Duque, A; Ewango, C N; Flores, O; Franklin, J F; Grau, H R; Hao, Z; Harmon, M E; Hubbell, S P; Kenfack, D; Lin, Y; Makana, J-R; Malizia, A; Malizia, L R; Pabst, R J; Pongpattananurak, N; Su, S-H; Sun, I-F; Tan, S; Thomas, D; van Mantgem, P J; Wang, X; Wiser, S K; Zavala, M A

    2014-03-01

    Forests are major components of the global carbon cycle, providing substantial feedback to atmospheric greenhouse gas concentrations. Our ability to understand and predict changes in the forest carbon cycle--particularly net primary productivity and carbon storage--increasingly relies on models that represent biological processes across several scales of biological organization, from tree leaves to forest stands. Yet, despite advances in our understanding of productivity at the scales of leaves and stands, no consensus exists about the nature of productivity at the scale of the individual tree, in part because we lack a broad empirical assessment of whether rates of absolute tree mass growth (and thus carbon accumulation) decrease, remain constant, or increase as trees increase in size and age. Here we present a global analysis of 403 tropical and temperate tree species, showing that for most species mass growth rate increases continuously with tree size. Thus, large, old trees do not act simply as senescent carbon reservoirs but actively fix large amounts of carbon compared to smaller trees; at the extreme, a single big tree can add the same amount of carbon to the forest within a year as is contained in an entire mid-sized tree. The apparent paradoxes of individual tree growth increasing with tree size despite declining leaf-level and stand-level productivity can be explained, respectively, by increases in a tree's total leaf area that outpace declines in productivity per unit of leaf area and, among other factors, age-related reductions in population density. Our results resolve conflicting assumptions about the nature of tree growth, inform efforts to undertand and model forest carbon dynamics, and have additional implications for theories of resource allocation and plant senescence. PMID:24429523

  20. Rate of tree carbon accumulation increases continuously with tree size

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stephenson, N.L.; Das, A.J.; Condit, R.; Russo, S.E.; Baker, P.J.; Beckman, N.G.; Coomes, D.A.; Lines, E.R.; Morris, W.K.; Rüger, N.; Álvarez, E.; Blundo, C.; Bunyavejchewin, S.; Chuyong, G.; Davies, S.J.; Duque, Á.; Ewango, C.N.; Flores, O.; Franklin, J.F.; Grau, H.R.; Hao, Z.; Harmon, M.E.; Hubbell, S.P.; Kenfack, D.; Lin, Y.; Makana, J.-R.; Malizia, A.; Malizia, L.R.; Pabst, R.J.; Pongpattananurak, N.; Su, S.-H.; Sun, I-F.; Tan, S.; Thomas, D.; van Mantgem, P.J.; Wang, X.; Wiser, S.K.; Zavala, M.A.

    2014-01-01

    Forests are major components of the global carbon cycle, providing substantial feedback to atmospheric greenhouse gas concentrations. Our ability to understand and predict changes in the forest carbon cycle—particularly net primary productivity and carbon storage—increasingly relies on models that represent biological processes across several scales of biological organization, from tree leaves to forest stands. Yet, despite advances in our understanding of productivity at the scales of leaves and stands, no consensus exists about the nature of productivity at the scale of the individual tree, in part because we lack a broad empirical assessment of whether rates of absolute tree mass growth (and thus carbon accumulation) decrease, remain constant, or increase as trees increase in size and age. Here we present a global analysis of 403 tropical and temperate tree species, showing that for most species mass growth rate increases continuously with tree size. Thus, large, old trees do not act simply as senescent carbon reservoirs but actively fix large amounts of carbon compared to smaller trees; at the extreme, a single big tree can add the same amount of carbon to the forest within a year as is contained in an entire mid-sized tree. The apparent paradoxes of individual tree growth increasing with tree size despite declining leaf-level and stand-level productivity can be explained, respectively, by increases in a tree’s total leaf area that outpace declines in productivity per unit of leaf area and, among other factors, age-related reductions in population density. Our results resolve conflicting assumptions about the nature of tree growth, inform efforts to understand and model forest carbon dynamics, and have additional implications for theories of resource allocation and plant senescence.

  1. Rate of tree carbon accumulation increases continuously with tree size

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stephenson, N. L.; Das, A. J.; Condit, R.; Russo, S. E.; Baker, P. J.; Beckman, N. G.; Coomes, D. A.; Lines, E. R.; Morris, W. K.; Rüger, N.; Álvarez, E.; Blundo, C.; Bunyavejchewin, S.; Chuyong, G.; Davies, S. J.; Duque, Á.; Ewango, C. N.; Flores, O.; Franklin, J. F.; Grau, H. R.; Hao, Z.; Harmon, M. E.; Hubbell, S. P.; Kenfack, D.; Lin, Y.; Makana, J.-R.; Malizia, A.; Malizia, L. R.; Pabst, R. J.; Pongpattananurak, N.; Su, S.-H.; Sun, I.-F.; Tan, S.; Thomas, D.; van Mantgem, P. J.; Wang, X.; Wiser, S. K.; Zavala, M. A.

    2014-03-01

    Forests are major components of the global carbon cycle, providing substantial feedback to atmospheric greenhouse gas concentrations. Our ability to understand and predict changes in the forest carbon cycle--particularly net primary productivity and carbon storage--increasingly relies on models that represent biological processes across several scales of biological organization, from tree leaves to forest stands. Yet, despite advances in our understanding of productivity at the scales of leaves and stands, no consensus exists about the nature of productivity at the scale of the individual tree, in part because we lack a broad empirical assessment of whether rates of absolute tree mass growth (and thus carbon accumulation) decrease, remain constant, or increase as trees increase in size and age. Here we present a global analysis of 403 tropical and temperate tree species, showing that for most species mass growth rate increases continuously with tree size. Thus, large, old trees do not act simply as senescent carbon reservoirs but actively fix large amounts of carbon compared to smaller trees; at the extreme, a single big tree can add the same amount of carbon to the forest within a year as is contained in an entire mid-sized tree. The apparent paradoxes of individual tree growth increasing with tree size despite declining leaf-level and stand-level productivity can be explained, respectively, by increases in a tree's total leaf area that outpace declines in productivity per unit of leaf area and, among other factors, age-related reductions in population density. Our results resolve conflicting assumptions about the nature of tree growth, inform efforts to undertand and model forest carbon dynamics, and have additional implications for theories of resource allocation and plant senescence.

  2. Comparison of the clinical utility of medetomidine/ketamine and xylazine/ketamine combinations for the ovariectomy of cats.

    PubMed

    Verstegen, J; Fargetton, X; Donnay, I; Ectors, F

    1990-10-27

    A controlled trial was conducted to assess suitability of combinations of medetomidine and ketamine for the ovariectomy of cats, to investigate the possible side effects, and to compare medetomidine/ketamine with a combination of xylazine and ketamine. Three hundred and thirty-seven cats were submitted to surgery; 100 were anaesthetised with 80 micrograms/kg medetomidine and 5 mg/kg ketamine, 137 with 80 micrograms/kg medetomidine and 7.5 mg/kg ketamine, and 100 were anaesthetised with 1 mg/kg xylazine and 10 mg/kg ketamine. The combinations were injected intramuscularly in the same syringe. The anaesthesia provided by the medetomidine/ketamine combinations was characterised by good muscle relaxation, good analgesia and minimal side effects. The only difference between the two doses of ketamine was the length of the period of anaesthesia. The advantages of the medetomidine/ketamine combination in comparison with xylazine/ketamine were the need for a lower dose of ketamine, a longer duration of action and better analgesia. Similar side effects were observed with both medetomidine/ketamine and xylazine/ketamine combinations. PMID:2264244

  3. Male Basketball Players Continue To Lag in Graduation Rates.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ethier, Marc

    1997-01-01

    In 1996, college athletes in "revenue-producing" sports (basketball and football) graduated at lower rates than other students, while athletes in general graduated at a higher rate than that of other undergraduates. Much of the recent improvement in athlete graduation rates is attributed to women. Data on graduation rates are tabulated by ethnic…

  4. Evaluation of medetomidine-ketamine and medetomidine-ketamine-butorphanol for the field anesthesia of free-ranging dromedary camels (Camelus dromedarius) in Australia.

    PubMed

    Boardman, Wayne S J; Lethbridge, Mark R; Hampton, Jordan O; Smith, Ian; Woolnough, Andrew P; McEwen, Margaret-Mary; Miller, Graham W J; Caraguel, Charles G B

    2014-10-01

    Abstract We report the clinical course and physiologic and anesthetic data for a case series of 76 free-ranging dromedary camels (Camelus dromedarius) chemically restrained, by remote injection from a helicopter, in the rangelands of Western Australia and South Australia, 2008-11, to attach satellite-tracking collars. Fifty-five camels were successfully anesthetized using medetomidine-ketamine (MK, n=27) and medetomidine-ketamine-butorphanol (MKB, n=28); the induction of anesthesia in 21 animals was considered unsuccessful. To produce reliable anesthesia for MK, medetomidine was administered at 0.22 mg/kg (± SD=0.05) and ketamine at 2.54 mg/kg (± 0.56), and for MKB, medetomidine was administered at 0.12 mg/kg (± 0.05), ketamine at 2.3 mg/kg (± 0.39), and butorphanol at 0.05 mg/kg (± 0.02). Median time-to-recumbency for MKB (8.5 min) was 2.5 min shorter than for MK (11 min) (P=0.13). For MK, the reversal atipamezole was administered at 0.24 mg/kg (± 0.10), and for MKB, atipamezole was administered at 0.23 mg/kg (± 0.13) and naltrexone at 0.17 mg/kg (± 0.16). Median time-to-recovery was 1 min shorter for MK (5 min) than MKB (6 min; P=0.02). Physiologic parameters during recumbency were not clinically different between the two regimes. Both regimes were suitable to safely anesthetize free-ranging camels; however, further investigation is required to find the safest, most consistent, and logistically practical combination. PMID:25105812

  5. Comparison of carfentanil-xylazine and thiafentanil-medetomidine in electroejaculation of captive gaur (Bos gaurus).

    PubMed

    Napier, Julia E; Loskutoff, Naida M; Simmons, Lee G; Armstrong, Douglas L

    2011-09-01

    Carfentanil citrate and thiafentanil oxalate have been used successfully to immobilize captive and free-ranging ungulates. The objective of this study was to compare the efficacy and certain physiologic parameters of protocols by using the 2 opioids in gaur (Bos gaurus). Eight adult gaur bulls were immobilized for electroejaculation at Omaha's Henry Doorly Zoo (Omaha, Nebraska, USA). All the animals were immobilized twice, by using each of the following protocols one time: 10 mg carfentanil combined with 100 mg xylazine (CX), reversed with 1,000 mg naltrexone and 24 mg yohimbine; and 12 mg thiafentanil combined with 20 mg medetomidine (TM), reversed with 120 mg naltrexone and 100 mg atipamezole. Immobilization drugs were delivered intramuscularly into the shoulder area via pole syringe. Electroejaculation was carried out by a standardized protocol to duplicate procedural stimulation on each animal. Induction and recovery times, initial rectal temperature, heart rate, respiratory rate, anesthetic depth, oxygen saturation, indirect blood pressure, and arterial blood gases were recorded at the time of initial handling, before ejaculation, and after ejaculation. Antagonists were administered 1/4 i.v. and 3/4 s.q. Both protocols require a small volume of drug for a large ungulate, provide smooth induction, and adequate anesthesia. Both protocols produced a significant hypoxemia, although the animals on CX showed slightly better blood gas values (based on lower partial pressure of carbon dioxide) and numerically lower blood pressure values. Animals on TM had better muscle relaxation and smoother recoveries, with no renarcotization noted. The results of the present study indicate the TM and CX protocols used for immobilizing gaur result in similar quality ejaculates that can be used for fertility examination as well as for assisted reproduction such as artificial insemination. Additional immobilizations need to take place to further compare these 2 combinations in this

  6. 38 CFR 3.343 - Continuance of total disability ratings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... period of employment (3 to 6 months). (b) Tuberculosis; compensation. In service-connected cases, evaluations for active or inactive tuberculosis will be governed by the Schedule for Rating Disabilities...

  7. 38 CFR 3.343 - Continuance of total disability ratings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... period of employment (3 to 6 months). (b) Tuberculosis; compensation. In service-connected cases, evaluations for active or inactive tuberculosis will be governed by the Schedule for Rating Disabilities...

  8. 38 CFR 3.343 - Continuance of total disability ratings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... period of employment (3 to 6 months). (b) Tuberculosis; compensation. In service-connected cases, evaluations for active or inactive tuberculosis will be governed by the Schedule for Rating Disabilities...

  9. President Hails Continued Decline in Default Rate on Student Loans.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burd, Stephen

    1997-01-01

    President Bill Clinton used the declining default rate on college student loans as a basis for proposing tax breaks for college costs. Reduced defaults have saved taxpayer money and helped reduce the federal deficit. Over 150 colleges and universities, including 25 private institutions, risk losing eligibility for federal grant and loan programs…

  10. Remote semi-continuous flow rate logging seepage meter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reay, William G.; Walthall, Harry G.

    1991-01-01

    The movement of groundwater and its associated solutes from upland regions was implicated in the degradation of receiving surface water bodies. Current efforts to directly measure this influx of water incorporate manually operated seepage meters which are hindered by severe limitations. A prototype seepage meter was developed by NASA Langley Research Center and Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University that will allow for the semi-continuous collection and data logging of seepage flux across the sediment water interface. The meter is designed to operate at depths to 40 meters, and alleviate or minimize all disadvantages associated with traditional methods while remaining cost effective. The unit was designed to operate independently for time periods on the order of weeks with adjustable sample sequences depending upon hydrologic conditions. When used in conjunction with commercially available pressure transducers, this seepage meter allows for correlations to be made between groundwater discharge and tidal/sea state conditions in coastal areas. Field data from the Chesapeake Bay and Florida Bay systems are presented.

  11. 30 CFR 77.801-1 - Grounding resistors; continuous current rating.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Grounding resistors; continuous current rating. 77.801-1 Section 77.801-1 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF...; continuous current rating. The ground fault current rating of grounding resistors shall meet the...

  12. 30 CFR 77.801-1 - Grounding resistors; continuous current rating.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Grounding resistors; continuous current rating. 77.801-1 Section 77.801-1 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF...; continuous current rating. The ground fault current rating of grounding resistors shall meet the...

  13. 30 CFR 77.901-1 - Grounding resistor; continuous current rating.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Grounding resistor; continuous current rating... OF UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Low- and Medium-Voltage Alternating Current Circuits § 77.901-1 Grounding resistor; continuous current rating. The ground fault current rating of grounding resistors shall meet...

  14. 30 CFR 77.801-1 - Grounding resistors; continuous current rating.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Grounding resistors; continuous current rating. 77.801-1 Section 77.801-1 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF...; continuous current rating. The ground fault current rating of grounding resistors shall meet the...

  15. 30 CFR 77.801-1 - Grounding resistors; continuous current rating.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Grounding resistors; continuous current rating. 77.801-1 Section 77.801-1 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF...; continuous current rating. The ground fault current rating of grounding resistors shall meet the...

  16. 30 CFR 77.901-1 - Grounding resistor; continuous current rating.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Grounding resistor; continuous current rating... OF UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Low- and Medium-Voltage Alternating Current Circuits § 77.901-1 Grounding resistor; continuous current rating. The ground fault current rating of grounding resistors shall meet...

  17. 30 CFR 77.901-1 - Grounding resistor; continuous current rating.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Grounding resistor; continuous current rating... OF UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Low- and Medium-Voltage Alternating Current Circuits § 77.901-1 Grounding resistor; continuous current rating. The ground fault current rating of grounding resistors shall meet...

  18. 30 CFR 77.801-1 - Grounding resistors; continuous current rating.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Grounding resistors; continuous current rating. 77.801-1 Section 77.801-1 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF...; continuous current rating. The ground fault current rating of grounding resistors shall meet the...

  19. 30 CFR 77.901-1 - Grounding resistor; continuous current rating.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Grounding resistor; continuous current rating... OF UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Low- and Medium-Voltage Alternating Current Circuits § 77.901-1 Grounding resistor; continuous current rating. The ground fault current rating of grounding resistors shall meet...

  20. 30 CFR 77.901-1 - Grounding resistor; continuous current rating.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Grounding resistor; continuous current rating... OF UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Low- and Medium-Voltage Alternating Current Circuits § 77.901-1 Grounding resistor; continuous current rating. The ground fault current rating of grounding resistors shall meet...

  1. Metabolic stability and determination of cytochrome P450 isoenzymes' contribution to the metabolism of medetomidine in dog liver microsomes.

    PubMed

    Duhamel, Marie-Claude; Troncy, Eric; Beaudry, Francis

    2010-08-01

    Medetomidine is a potent and selective alpha2-adrenergic agonist. The activation of alpha2-adrenergic receptor mediates a variety of effects including sedation, analgesia, relief of anxiety, vasoconstriction and bradycardia. However, our main interest is the sedative effects of medetomidine when used as a premedicant prior surgery in companion animals, especially in dogs. Recently, data suggested that following intravenous infusion at six dosing regiments non-linear pharmacokinetics was observed. Major causes of non-linear pharmacokinetics are the elimination of the drug not following a simple first-order kinetics and/or the elimination half-life changing due to saturation of an enzyme system. The goal of this study was to establish the metabolic stability and determine the metabolic pathway of medetomidine in dog liver microsomes. Consequently, Michaelis-Menten parameters (V(max), K(m)), T(1/2) and CL(i) were determined. The incubations were performed in a microcentrifuge tube and containing various concentrations of medetomidine (10-5000 nM), 1 mg/mL of microsomal proteins suspended in 0.1 M phosphate buffer, pH 7.4. Microsomal suspensions were preincubated with NADPH (1 mM) for 5 min at 37 degrees C prior to fortification with medetomidine. Samples were taken at various time points for kinetic information and the initial velocity (v(i)) was determined after 10 min incubation. The reaction was stopped by the addition of an internal standard solution (100 ng/mL of dextrometorphan in acetone). Medetomidine concentrations were determined using a selective and sensitive HPLC-ESI/MS/MS method. Using non-linear regression, we determined a K(m) value of 577 nM, indicating relatively low threshold enzyme saturation consistent with previous in vivo observation. The metabolic stability was determined at a concentration of 100 nm (

  2. The toxicity of the three antifouling biocides DCOIT, TPBP and medetomidine to the marine pelagic copepod Acartia tonsa.

    PubMed

    Wendt, Ida; Backhaus, Thomas; Blanck, Hans; Arrhenius, Åsa

    2016-07-01

    Copepods, the largest group of pelagic grazers, are at risk from exposure to antifouling biocides. This study investigated the toxicity of the antifouling biocides 4,5-dichloro-2-octyl-1,2-thiazol-3(2H)-one (DCOIT), triphenylborane pyridine (TPBP) and 4-[1-(2,3-dimethylphenyl)ethyl]-1H-imidazole (medetomidine) to the copepod Acartia tonsa, using mortality and egg production as endpoints. The toxicity ranking for mortality was as follows: DCOIT (LC50 57 nmol l(-1)) = TPBP (LC50 56 nmol l(-1)) > medetomidine (LC50 241 nmol l(-1)). Egg production was more sensitive than mortality to TPBP (EC50 3.2 nmol l(-1)), while DCOIT and medetomidine inhibited egg production at roughly the same concentrations (72 and 186 nmol l(-1) respectively). Furthermore, TPBP seems to affect egg hatching directly which was not the case for DCOIT and medetomidine. DCOIT and medetomidine might pose an environmental risk as they have been reported to occur in different exposure scenarios or analytical surveys at concentrations only 2-3 times lower than the respective EC10. Reported environmental concentrations of TPBP are few but clearly lower than the EC10 values reported here, suggesting current risk of TPBP to copepods to be moderate. PMID:26984312

  3. Fertility rates and future population trends: will Europe's birth rate recover or continue to decline?

    PubMed

    Lutz, Wolfgang

    2006-02-01

    Europe has long completed its demographic transition from high birth and death rates to low birth and death rates. But the demographic transition paradigm that has been very useful for explaining global demographic trends during the 20th century and that still has strong predictive power when it comes to projecting future trends in countries that still have high fertility, has nothing to say about the future of fertility in Europe. The currently popular notion of a 'second demographic transition' is a useful way to describe a bundle of behavioural and normative changes that recently happened in Europe, but it has no predictive power. The social sciences have not yet come up with a useful theory to predict the future fertility level of post-demographic transition societies. We even do not know whether the trend will be up or down. Given the lack of a predictive theory, this paper will try to do two things: (i) Summarize different substantive arguments that would either suggest the assumption of a recovery of fertility rates in Europe or alternatively, imply further declines. (ii) Convert this discussion of the uncertainty of future fertility trends into probabilistic population projections for Europe, thus highlighting the implications of alternative fertility levels over the coming years. We will also discuss trade-offs between fertility and immigration, and the phenomenon that Europe now has entered a period of negative momentum of population growth. PMID:16466521

  4. U.S. Teen Birth Rate Continues to Fall, Hits New Record Low

    MedlinePlus

    ... U.S. Teen Birth Rate Continues to Fall, Hits New Record Low CDC statistics for 2015 show another ... fell another 8 percent in 2015, reaching a new record low. According to the report from the ...

  5. U.S. Teen Birth Rate Continues to Fall, Hits New Record Low

    MedlinePlus

    ... page: https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_159170.html U.S. Teen Birth Rate Continues to Fall, Hits New ... record low. According to the report from the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, moms aged ...

  6. The impact of medetomidine on the protein-binding characteristics of MK-467 in canine plasma.

    PubMed

    Bennett, R C; Hokkanen, J; Raekallio, M R; Vainio, O M

    2016-08-01

    This study determined the unbound fraction of the peripheral α2 -adrenoceptor antagonist MK-467 alone and combined with medetomidine. MK-467 (0.1, 1 and 10 μm) was incubated in canine plasma with and without medetomidine (molar ratio 20:1), with human serum albumin (HSA) and with α1-acid glycoprotein (AGP). Rapid equilibrium dialysis was used for the measurement of protein binding. All samples were analysed by liquid chromatography and tandem mass spectrometry to obtain the unbound fraction (fu ) of MK-467. Unbound fractions (fu ) of MK-467 in canine plasma (mean ± standard deviation) were 27.6 ± 3.5%, 26.6 ± 0.9% and 42.4 ± 1.2% at 0.1, 1.0 and 10 μm concentrations, respectively. In the presence of medetomidine, fu were 27.5 ± 0.4%, 26.6 ± 0.9% and 41.0 ± 2.4%. The fu of MK-467 in HSA were 50.1 ± 2.5% at 0.1 μm, 49.4 ± 1.2% at 1.0 μm and 56.7 ± 0.5% at 10 μm. fu of MK-467 in AGP was 56.3 ± 3.7% at 0.1 μm, 54.6 ± 5.6% at 1.0 μm and 65.3 ± 0.4% at 10 μm. Protein binding of MK-467 was approximately 70% between 0.1 and 1.0 μm. Medetomidine had no apparent effect on the protein binding of MK-467. PMID:26763140

  7. Report to the nation finds continuing declines in cancer death rates

    Cancer.gov

    Death rates from all cancers combined for men, women, and children continued to decline in the United States between 2004 and 2008, according to the Annual Report to the Nation on the Status of Cancer, 1975-2008. The overall rate of new cancer diagnoses,

  8. Clinicophysiological and haemodynamic effects of fentanyl with xylazine, medetomidine and dexmedetomidine in isoflurane-anaesthetised water buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis).

    PubMed

    Singh, Gyan D; Kinjavdekar, Prakash; Amarpal; Aithal, Hari P; Pawde, Abhijeet M; Zama, Malik M S; Singh, Jasmeet; Tiwary, Ramesh

    2013-01-01

    The present study was undertaken to investigate the sedative, analgesic and clinical effects of xylazine, medetomidine and dexmedetomidine with fentanyl as pre-anaesthetics in water buffaloes and to compare the dose-sparing effect of xylazine, medetomidine and dexmedetomidine on thiopental for induction and isoflurane for maintenance of anaesthesia in water buffaloes. Six male water buffaloes randomly received intravenous fentanyl (5.0 µg/kg body weight) and xylazine (0.05 mg/kg body weight), fentanyl (5.0 µg/kg body weight) and medetomidine (2.5 µg/kg body weight), fentanyl (5.0 µg/kg body weight) and dexmedetomidine (5.0 µg/kg body weight) at weekly intervals in groups I1, I2 and I3, respectively. After 15 min, the animals were restrained in right lateral recumbency and anaesthesia was induced by 5% thiopental sodium administered intravenously. The intubated animal was connected to the large animal anaesthesia machine and isoflurane in 100% oxygen (5 L/min) was insufflated for 60 min. The treatments were compared by clinicophysiological, haematobiochemical and haemodynamic parameters. Fentanyl-medetomidine and fentanyl-dexmedetomidine produced more cardiovascular depression during the pre-anaesthetic period but less depression of cardio-respiratory dynamics in the post induction and maintenance period. Quicker recovery was recorded in I2 and I3 groups. A lower dose of thiopental was required in group I3 (4.33 mg/kg ± 0.66 mg/kg) than in groups I2 (4.41 mg/kg ± 0.98 mg/kg) and I1 (4.83 mg/kg ± 0.79 mg/kg). The dose of isoflurane was less in group I3 (45.50 mL ± 5.45 mL) than in group I1 and I2 (48.66 mL ± 5.10 mL and 48.00 mL ± 6.38 mL). Better anaesthesia was recorded with fentanyl-dexmedetomidine-thiopental-isoflurane (group I3) than with fentanyl-medetomidine-thiopental-isoflurane (group I2) and fentanyl-xylazine-thiopental-isoflurane (group I1). Fentanyl-medetomidine and fentanyl-dexmedetomidine were better pre-anaesthetic agents in comparison to

  9. Standing sedation with medetomidine and butorphanol in captive African elephants (Loxodonta africana).

    PubMed

    Lüders, I; Tindall, B; Young, D; van der Horst, G; Botha, S; Luther, I; Maree, L; Bertschinger, H J

    2016-03-01

    Doses for standing sedation allowing for various procedures in otherwise inaccessible, untrained captive African elephant bulls are presented. Thirty-three standing sedations were performed in 12 males aged 8-30 years (one to four sedations per animal). Each bull received a combination of 0.009 ± 0.002 mg/kg medetomidine and 0.03 ± 0.007 mg/kg butorphanol. Full sedation was reached on average 25.5 min after injection. The addition of hyaluronidase (1000-2000 IU) significantly reduced time to full sedation to 16.5 min (paired t test, P = 0.024). Reversal was induced with intramuscular atipamezole 0.008 (±0.002) and naltrexone 0.035 (±0.015) mg/kg. Recovery took on average 7 min (3-18 min). The medetomidine/butorphanol combination provided safe standing sedation for smaller procedures. PMID:26831175

  10. Effects of changing continuous iron input rates on a Southern Ocean algal assemblage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hare, C. E.; DiTullio, G. R.; Riseman, S. F.; Crossley, A. C.; Popels, L. C.; Sedwick, P. N.; Hutchins, D. A.

    2007-05-01

    The upwelling of nutrients and iron (Fe) sustains biological production in much of the Southern Ocean. Using a shipboard natural community continuous culture system (Ecostat), we supplied a single added Fe concentration at two dilution rates chosen to examine the effects of variations in realistic growth and loss rates on an Fe-limited algal community in the Antarctic Zone south of Australia. A parallel growout experiment provided "no-dilution" +Fe and -Fe controls. In the continuous flow experiment, phytoplankton biomass was lower and more constant throughout the incubation and major nutrients were never depleted. Nanophytoplankton abundance remained similar in both growout treatments, and therefore, growth of this group did not appear to be Fe-limited. The addition of Fe in a continuous fashion resulted in a community co-dominated by both small diatoms and nanophytoplankton. Increases in dilution rate favored diatom species that were smaller and faster-growing, as well as non-silicified algal groups. Particulate carbon (PC) to particulate nitrogen (PN) ratios increased above the Redfield ratio when Fe was added in a continuous fashion, while biogenic silica (BSi) to PC and PN ratios decreased 2-3 fold in the continuous flow experiment compared to the initial conditions and the parallel growout control experiment. Photosynthetic efficiency increased in the continuous flow treatments above the control but remained significantly lower than in the 1.4 nM Fe addition. The results of our shipboard continuous flow experiments are compared and contrasted with those of the mesoscale Southern Ocean Iron RElease Experiment (SOIREE) carried out at the same site. Our results suggest that increases in natural dilution rates (i.e. vertical turbulent diffusion) in polar Antarctic waters could shift the algal community towards smaller, faster-growing algal species, thus having a major effect on nutrient cycling and carbon export in the Southern Ocean.

  11. Variable-Rate Ring Convolutional Coded Continuous Phase Modulation Using Puncturing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Lei; Wu, Jun; Zhu, Aiming

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, puncturing technique is used to establish variable-rate ring convolutional coded continuous phase modulation (CPM) systems. Maximum likelihood sequence detectors over both AWGN channels and Rayleigh flat-fading channels are considered. The suggested system provides us with different rates and performance when simple adjustment is taken to the puncturing matrix. Since the performance of the first error event of this system is represented by normalized minimum squared Euclidean distance (NMSED), some typical codes with maximum NMSED are searched and given. The performance of symbol error rate for the suggested system is simulated using computer software, and the results show that this system provides good performance of symbol error rate with variable-rate capabilities in time varying channels. Furthermore, simulation results also prove that the transmission efficiency increases when code rate is decreasing.

  12. Continuation rates with a levonorgestrel-releasing contraceptive implant (Norplant). A prospective study in Belgium.

    PubMed

    Vekemans, M; Delvigne, A; Paesmans, M

    1997-11-01

    Contraceptive protection offered by a method depends on its duration of use, which reflects costs, side effects, and relatives' opinions. This study investigated in Norplant implants users the continuation rates, some of their determinants, and the motives for removals. Since 1988, 612 Norplant implants sets, designed to protect for 5 years, have been inserted. Observing 13,907 months of use, we determined over time the continuation rates and how age, parity, circumstances at insertion (postpartum, postabortum, others), and patronymic origins (surrogate for sociocultural factors) influenced them. Statistics included Kaplan-Meier's method and log rank tests, and uni- and multivariate Cox models. Continuation increased with age and depended on sociocultural factors. Parity exerted influence only in younger women. Median duration of use was 3 years 11 months. Removals before 5 years related almost equally to irregular bleeding, other side effects, and pregnancy wish. The cumulative 5-year failure rate was 1.5%. Unsatisfied users returned earlier, distorting the first results. A literature search showed that implants yield, in the mean, slightly better continuation figures than do intrauterine devices, and clearly higher than those obtained with pills and injectables. To optimize costs and counseling, warnings about the risk of short duration of use in young nullipara, especially if negative sociocultural influences prevail, are recommended. In no category are the implants absolutely to be avoided. Individual and programmatic contraceptive choice should take into account the expected continuation of use. PMID:9437557

  13. ESTIMATION OF PHYTOPLANKTON DECOMPOSITION RATES USING TWO-STAGE CONTINUOUS FLOW STUDIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    A two-stage continuous flow (TSCF) system was used to quantify phytoplankton decomposition rates and to characterize the decay process as a function of phytoplankton species, phytoplankton physiological state, and the presence and character of a decomposer community. A TSCF syste...

  14. Studies with sample conductivity, insertion rates, and particle deflection in a continuous flow electrophoresis system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, G., Jr.

    1982-01-01

    The continuous flow electrophoresis system makes electrophoresis possible in a free-flowing film of aqueous electrolyte medium. The sample continuously enters the electrolyte at the top of the chamber and is subjected to the action of a lateral dc field. This divides the sample into fractions since each component has a distinctive electrophoretic mobility. Tests were made using monodisperse polystyrene latex microspheres to determine optimum sample conductivity, insertion rates and optimum electric field applications as baseline data for future STS flight experiments. Optimum sample flow rates for the selected samples were determined to be approximately 26 micro-liters/min. Experiments with samples in deionized water yielded best results and voltages in the 20 V/cm to 30 V/cm range were optimum. Deflections of formaldehyde fixed turkey and bovine erythrocytes were determined using the continuous flow electrophoresis system. The effects of particle interactions on sample resolution and migration in the chamber was also evaluated.

  15. Field anesthesia of wild ring-tailed lemurs (Lemur catta) using tiletamine-zolazepam, medetomidine, and butorphanol.

    PubMed

    Larsen, R Scott; Moresco, Anneke; Sauther, Michelle L; Cuozzo, Frank P

    2011-03-01

    Telazol has been commonly used for field anesthesia of wild lemurs, including ring-tailed lemurs (Lemur catta). Telazol alone provides good induction, but doesn't cause adequate muscle relaxation and sedation for collecting consistent somatic measurements and high-quality dental impressions that are sometimes needed. Variability in induction response has been seen between individuals that have received similar dosages, with young lemurs seeming to need more anesthetic than mature lemurs. This investigation evaluated Telazol induction in young (2.0-4.9 yr) and mature (> or = 5.0 yr) ring-tailed lemurs and compared postinduction supplementation with medetomidine or medetomidine-butorphanol. Forty-eight lemurs were anesthetized with Telazol administered via blow dart; then, 20 min after darting, they were supplemented via hand injection with either medetomidine (0.04 mg/ kg) or medetomidine-butorphanol (0.04 mg/kg and 0.2 mg/kg, respectively). The odds ratio for young lemurs to need more than one dart for induction, relative to mature lemurs, was 3.8, even though the initial dose of Telazol received by young lemurs (19 +/- 7 mg/kg) was significantly higher than the initial dose administered to mature lemurs (12 +/- 5 mg/kg). The total Telazol dosage was also significantly different between young lemurs (33 +/- 15 mg/kg) and mature lemurs (18 +/- 9 mg/kg). Both medetomidine and medetomidine-butorphanol provided good muscle relaxation and sedation for all procedures. Physiologic values were similar between the two protocols. Oxygen saturation by pulse oximetry was generally good, although there were a few SaO2 values < 90%. Recoveries were smooth, but long. Time to head up was correlated with total Telazol dosage in mature lemurs. In young lemurs, time to standing was correlated with Telazol induction dosage and time of last Telazol administration. Lemurs that received hand injections of Telazol took longer to recover than those that did not. Further refinements are

  16. Antinociceptive effects of epidural buprenorphine or medetomidine, or the combination, in conscious cats.

    PubMed

    Steagall, P V M; Millette, V; Mantovani, F B; Gilbert, P; Luna, S P L; Duke-Novakovski, T

    2009-10-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the antinociceptive effects of epidural buprenorphine (EB), epidural medetomidine (EM) or epidural buprenorphine-medetomidine (EBM). Eight cats were studied. Thermal thresholds (TT) were measured by increasing the temperature of a probe placed on the thorax. Mechanical thresholds (MT) were measured through inflation of a modified blood pressure bladder to the cat's forelimb. After baseline measurements, EB (0.02 mg/kg), EM (0.01 mg/kg) or half of the doses of each drug (EBM) were administered. Data were analysed using anova (P < 0.05) and 95% confidence interval (CI). TT increased from 30 min to 1 h after EB and at 45 min after EM. MT increased from 45 min to 2 h after EB, from 15 min to 1 h after EM and at 30, 45 min and at 2 h after EBM. MT were significantly lower after EB than EM at 30 min. TT were above the upper 95%CI from 15 min to 24 h after EB, from 15 min to 4 h after EM and from 15 min to 8 h after EBM. MT were above the upper 95%CI from 15 min to 5 h, and at 8, 12 and 24 h after EB, from 15 min to 6 h after EM and from 15 min to 6 h and at 12 and 24 h after EBM. All treatments had similar onset. Overall, EB presented longer period of action than EBM and EM. The same magnitude of analgesia was achieved, but with fewer side effects when EBM was compared with EM. PMID:19754915

  17. Partial antagonization of midazolam-medetomidine-ketamine in cats--atipamezole versus combined atipamezole and flumazenil.

    PubMed

    Ebner, J; Wehr, U; Baumgartner, C; Erhardt, W; Henke, J

    2007-11-01

    Two different methods, administered both subcutaneously and intravenously, to reverse intramuscular midazolam-medetomidine-ketamine, are evaluated. Eighteen cats were anaesthetized twice each 5 min after premedication with atropine 0.04 mg/kg using midazolam 0.5 mg/kg, medetomidine 0.02 mg/kg and ketamine 2.0 mg/kg intramuscularly in one syringe. Because this study was conducted in co-operation with a dental prophylaxis project, cats had to be immobilized for approximately 1 h. Therefore, anaesthesia was prolonged with propofol to effect, if necessary. After 68+/-11 min on average, immobilization was partially reversed by either atipamezole 0.05 mg/kg subcutaneously (group A/SC, n=7) or intravenously (group A/IV, n=10), or by atipamezole 0.05 mg/kg and flumazenil 0.05 mg/kg subcutaneously (group AF/SC, n=10) or intravenously (group AF/IV, n=9), respectively. These four groups were additionally compared with a non-reversed group. Recovery time and total time of immobilization (until cats regained a standing position) were not significantly shortened using the antagonists. However, unconsciousness and sedation (expressed through parameters like the time taken to head lifting, crawling, sitting and the return of righting reflex) were significantly shortened by the antagonists, especially if administered intravenously. Abnormal behaviour, such as vocalization, licking, hyperaesthesia, restlessness or salivation, was observed in all groups. However, excitation and hyperaesthesia were not observed in group AF/IV, whereas in this group only intensified salivation occurred. The addition of flumazenil showed no significant difference to atipamezole alone, but subcutaneous administration of atipamezole alone was not sufficient in the dosage used to show an advantage compared to non-reversed cats. PMID:17931228

  18. Simultaneous fMRI and local field potential measurements during epileptic seizures in medetomidine sedated rats using RASER pulse sequence

    PubMed Central

    Airaksinen, Antti M; Niskanen, Juha-Pekka; Chamberlain, Ryan; Huttunen, Joanna K; Nissinen, Jari; Garwood, Michael; Pitkänen, Asla; Gröhn, Olli

    2010-01-01

    Simultaneous electrophysiological and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) measurements of animal models of epilepsy are methodologically challenging, but essential to better understand abnormal brain activity and hemodynamics during seizures. In the present study, fMRI of medetomidine sedated rats was performed using novel Rapid Acquisition by Sequential Excitation and Refocusing (RASER) fast imaging pulse sequence and simultaneous local field potential (LFP) measurements during kainic acid (KA) induced seizures. The image distortion caused by the hippocampal measuring electrode was clearly seen in echo planar imaging (EPI) images, whereas no artifact was seen in RASER images. Robust blood oxygenation level dependent (BOLD) responses were observed in the hippocampus during KA induced seizures. The recurrent epileptic seizures were detected in the LFP signal after KA injection. The presented combination of deep electrode LFP measurements and fMRI under medetomidine anesthesia, that does not significantly suppress KA induced seizures, provides a unique tool for studying abnormal brain activity in rats. PMID:20725933

  19. Lymphoid cell kinetics under continuous low dose-rate gamma irradiation: A comparison study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Foster, B. R.

    1975-01-01

    A comparison study was conducted of the effects of continuous low dose-rate gamma irradiation on cell population kinetics of lymphoid tissue (white pulp) of the mouse spleen with findings as they relate to the mouse thymus. Experimental techniques employed included autoradiography and specific labeling with tritiated thymidine (TdR-(h-3)). The problem studied involved the mechanism of cell proliferation of lymphoid tissue of the mouse spleen and thymus under the stress of continuous irradiation at a dose rate of 10 roentgens (R) per day for 105 days (15 weeks). The aim was to determine whether or not a steady state or near-steady state of cell population could be established for this period of time, and what compensatory mechanisms of cell population were involved.

  20. Continuous high-repetition-rate operation of collisional soft-x-ray lasers with solid targets.

    PubMed

    Weith, A; Larotonda, M A; Wang, Y; Luther, B M; Alessi, D; Marconi, M C; Rocca, J J; Dunn, J

    2006-07-01

    We have generated a laser average output power of 2 microW at a wavelength of 13.9 nm by operating a tabletop laser-pumped Ni-like Ag laser at a 5 Hz repetition rate, using a solid helicoidal target that is continuously rotated and advanced to renew the target surface between shots. More than 2 x 10(4) soft-x-ray laser shots were obtained by using a single target. Similar results were obtained at 13.2 nm in Ni-like Cd with a Cd-coated target. This scheme will allow uninterrupted operation of laser-pumped tabletop collisional soft-x-ray lasers at a repetition rate of 10 Hz for a period of hours, enabling the generation of continuous high average soft-x-ray powers for applications. PMID:16770410

  1. Modular continuous wavelet processing of biosignals: extracting heart rate and oxygen saturation from a video signal.

    PubMed

    Addison, Paul S

    2016-06-01

    A novel method of extracting heart rate and oxygen saturation from a video-based biosignal is described. The method comprises a novel modular continuous wavelet transform approach which includes: performing the transform, undertaking running wavelet archetyping to enhance the pulse information, extraction of the pulse ridge time-frequency information [and thus a heart rate (HRvid) signal], creation of a wavelet ratio surface, projection of the pulse ridge onto the ratio surface to determine the ratio of ratios from which a saturation trending signal is derived, and calibrating this signal to provide an absolute saturation signal (SvidO2). The method is illustrated through its application to a video photoplethysmogram acquired during a porcine model of acute desaturation. The modular continuous wavelet transform-based approach is advocated by the author as a powerful methodology to deal with noisy, non-stationary biosignals in general. PMID:27382479

  2. Modular continuous wavelet processing of biosignals: extracting heart rate and oxygen saturation from a video signal

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    A novel method of extracting heart rate and oxygen saturation from a video-based biosignal is described. The method comprises a novel modular continuous wavelet transform approach which includes: performing the transform, undertaking running wavelet archetyping to enhance the pulse information, extraction of the pulse ridge time–frequency information [and thus a heart rate (HRvid) signal], creation of a wavelet ratio surface, projection of the pulse ridge onto the ratio surface to determine the ratio of ratios from which a saturation trending signal is derived, and calibrating this signal to provide an absolute saturation signal (SvidO2). The method is illustrated through its application to a video photoplethysmogram acquired during a porcine model of acute desaturation. The modular continuous wavelet transform-based approach is advocated by the author as a powerful methodology to deal with noisy, non-stationary biosignals in general. PMID:27382479

  3. Swimmer detection and pose estimation for continuous stroke-rate determination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zecha, Dan; Greif, Thomas; Lienhart, Rainer

    2012-02-01

    In this work we propose a novel approach to automatically detect a swimmer and estimate his/her pose continuously in order to derive an estimate of his/her stroke rate given that we observe the swimmer from the side. We divide a swimming cycle of each stroke into several intervals. Each interval represents a pose of the stroke. We use specifically trained object detectors to detect each pose of a stroke within a video and count the number of occurrences per time unit of the most distinctive poses (so-called key poses) of a stroke to continuously infer the stroke rate. We extensively evaluate the overall performance and the influence of the selected poses for all swimming styles on a data set consisting of a variety of swimmers.

  4. Evaluation of medetomidine-ketamine and atipamezole for reversible anesthesia of free-ranging gray wolves (Canis lupus).

    PubMed

    Arnemo, Jon M; Evans, Alina L; Ahlqvist, Per; Segerström, Peter; Liberg, Olof

    2013-04-01

    Twenty-eight anesthetic events were carried out on 24 free-ranging Scandinavian gray wolves (Canis lupus) by darting from a helicopter with 5 mg medetomidine and 250 mg ketamine during winter in 2002 and 2003. Mean±SD doses were 0.162±0.008 mg medetomidine/kg and 8.1±0.4 mg ketamine/kg in juveniles (7-10 mo old) and 0.110±0.014 mg medetomidine/kg and 5.7±0.5 mg ketamine/kg in adults (>19 mo old). Mean±SD induction time was shorter (P<0.01) in juveniles (2.3±0.8 min) than in adults (4.1±0.6 min). In 26 cases, the animals were completely immobilized after one dart. Muscle relaxation was good, palpebral reflexes were present, and there were no reactions to handling or minor painful stimuli. Mild to severe hyperthermia was detected in 14/28 anesthetic events. Atipamezole (5 mg per mg medetomidine) was injected intramuscularly for reversal 98±28 and 94±40 min after darting in juveniles and adults, respectively. Mean±SD time from administration of atipamezole to coordinated walking was 38±20 min in juveniles and 41±21 min in adults. Recovery was uneventful in 25 anesthetic events, although vomiting was observed in five animals. One adult that did not respond to atipamezole was given intravenous fluids and was fully recovered 8 hr after darting. Two animals died 7-9 hr after capture, despite intensive care. Both mortalities were attributed to shock and circulatory collapse following stress-induced hyperthermia. Although effective, this combination cannot be recommended for darting free-ranging wolves from helicopter at the doses presented here because of the severe hyperthermia seen in several wolves, two deaths, and prolonged recovery in one individual. PMID:23568917

  5. Inferring Transition Rates of Networks from Populations in Continuous-Time Markov Processes.

    PubMed

    Dixit, Purushottam D; Jain, Abhinav; Stock, Gerhard; Dill, Ken A

    2015-11-10

    We are interested inferring rate processes on networks. In particular, given a network's topology, the stationary populations on its nodes, and a few global dynamical observables, can we infer all the transition rates between nodes? We draw inferences using the principle of maximum caliber (maximum path entropy). We have previously derived results for discrete-time Markov processes. Here, we treat continuous-time processes, such as dynamics among metastable states of proteins. The present work leads to a particularly important analytical result: namely, that when the network is constrained only by a mean jump rate, the rate matrix is given by a square-root dependence of the rate, kab ∝ (πb/πa)(1/2), on πa and πb, the stationary-state populations at nodes a and b. This leads to a fast way to estimate all of the microscopic rates in the system. As an illustration, we show that the method accurately predicts the nonequilibrium transition rates in an in silico gene expression network and transition probabilities among the metastable states of a small peptide at equilibrium. We note also that the method makes sensible predictions for so-called extra-thermodynamic relationships, such as those of Bronsted, Hammond, and others. PMID:26574334

  6. Improvement of continuous solid circulation rate measurement in a cold flow circulating fluidized bed

    SciTech Connect

    Ludlow, J.C.; Monazam, E.R.; Shadle, L.J.

    2008-03-10

    A method is described to independently estimate the solids velocity and voidage in the moving bed portion of the NETL circulating fluidized bed (CFB). These quantities are used by a device that continuously measures the solids circulation rate. The device is based on the use of a rotating Spiral vane installed in the standpipe of a circulating fluid bed (CFB). Correlations were developed from transient experiments and steady state mass balance data to correct the solids velocity and solids fraction in the standpipe as a function of standpipe aeration rate. A set of statisticallydesigned experiments was used to establish the need for these corrections and to verify the accuracy of solid circulation rate measurements after correction. The differences between the original and corrected measurements were quantitatively compared.

  7. A Continuous Time Model for Interest Rate with Autoregressive and Moving Average Components

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benth, F. E.; Koekebakker, S.; Zakamouline, V.

    2010-09-01

    In this paper we present a multi-factor continuous-time autoregressive moving-average (CARMA) model for the short and forward interest rates. This models is able to present a more adequate statistical description of the short and forward rate dynamics. We show that this is a tractable term structure model and provide closed-form solutions to bond and bond option prices, bond yields, and the forward rate volatility term structure. We demonstrate the capabilities of our model by calibrating it to market data and show that it can reproduce rather complex shapes of the empirical volatility term structure. In particular, a three-factor CARMA model can easily capture the dynamics of the level, slope, and curvature factors widely documented in term structure models.

  8. Continuous- and Discrete-Time Stimulus Sequences for High Stimulus Rate Paradigm in Evoked Potential Studies

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Tao; Huang, Jiang-hua; Lin, Lin

    2013-01-01

    To obtain reliable transient auditory evoked potentials (AEPs) from EEGs recorded using high stimulus rate (HSR) paradigm, it is critical to design the stimulus sequences of appropriate frequency properties. Traditionally, the individual stimulus events in a stimulus sequence occur only at discrete time points dependent on the sampling frequency of the recording system and the duration of stimulus sequence. This dependency likely causes the implementation of suboptimal stimulus sequences, sacrificing the reliability of resulting AEPs. In this paper, we explicate the use of continuous-time stimulus sequence for HSR paradigm, which is independent of the discrete electroencephalogram (EEG) recording system. We employ simulation studies to examine the applicability of the continuous-time stimulus sequences and the impacts of sampling frequency on AEPs in traditional studies using discrete-time design. Results from these studies show that the continuous-time sequences can offer better frequency properties and improve the reliability of recovered AEPs. Furthermore, we find that the errors in the recovered AEPs depend critically on the sampling frequencies of experimental systems, and their relationship can be fitted using a reciprocal function. As such, our study contributes to the literature by demonstrating the applicability and advantages of continuous-time stimulus sequences for HSR paradigm and by revealing the relationship between the reliability of AEPs and sampling frequencies of the experimental systems when discrete-time stimulus sequences are used in traditional manner for the HSR paradigm. PMID:23606900

  9. Contraception: Efficacy, Risks, Continuation Rates, and Use in High-Risk Women.

    PubMed

    Batur, Pelin; Bowersox, Natalie; McNamara, Megan

    2016-08-01

    The clinical update serves as a brief review of recently published, high-impact, and potentially practice-changing journal articles summarized for our readers. Topics include menopause, sexual dysfunction, breast health, contraception, osteoporosis, and cardiovascular disease. In this clinical update, we selected recent publications relevant to the use of contraceptive methods. We highlight articles on continuation rates of long-acting reversible contraception versus nonlong-acting methods, updated risks of intrauterine devices, use of estrogen-containing contraceptives during anticoagulation for venous thromboembolic events, and the efficacy of oral and emergency contraception in women with elevated body mass index. PMID:27438879

  10. Remission rates with antithyroid drug therapy: continuing influence of iodine intake?

    PubMed

    Solomon, B L; Evaul, J E; Burman, K D; Wartofsky, L

    1987-10-01

    We retrospectively reviewed the therapeutic efficacy of antithyroid drugs for Graves disease. Sixty-nine patients were divided into three categories according to their response: 28 (40.6%) were unable to achieve a remission; 6 (8.7%) achieved a remission and subsequently had a relapse; and 35 (50.7%) were able to sustain a remission. The mean duration for sustained remissions was 33 months. Our earlier review of outcome of antithyroid therapy showed markedly reduced remission rates, which appeared to be related to increases in dietary iodine intake. Although the greater percentage of patients entering remission today is in marked contrast to the 1973 report, average dietary iodine content has been decreasing. A continuing role for antithyroid drugs should be maintained as an option in the management of Graves disease. Daily dietary iodine intake may influence the anticipated remission rate after antithyroid drug therapy. PMID:2443050

  11. A Novel Estimator for the Rate of Information Transfer by Continuous Signals

    PubMed Central

    Takalo, Jouni; Ignatova, Irina; Weckström, Matti; Vähäsöyrinki, Mikko

    2011-01-01

    The information transfer rate provides an objective and rigorous way to quantify how much information is being transmitted through a communications channel whose input and output consist of time-varying signals. However, current estimators of information content in continuous signals are typically based on assumptions about the system's linearity and signal statistics, or they require prohibitive amounts of data. Here we present a novel information rate estimator without these limitations that is also optimized for computational efficiency. We validate the method with a simulated Gaussian information channel and demonstrate its performance with two example applications. Information transfer between the input and output signals of a nonlinear system is analyzed using a sensory receptor neuron as the model system. Then, a climate data set is analyzed to demonstrate that the method can be applied to a system based on two outputs generated by interrelated random processes. These analyses also demonstrate that the new method offers consistent performance in situations where classical methods fail. In addition to these examples, the method is applicable to a wide range of continuous time series commonly observed in the natural sciences, economics and engineering. PMID:21494562

  12. Sweat Rates During Continuous and Interval Aerobic Exercise: Implications for NASA Multipurpose Crew Vehicle (MPCV) Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ryder, Jeffrey W.; Scott, Jessica; Ploutz-Snyder, Robert; Ploutz-Snyder, Lori L.

    2016-01-01

    Aerobic deconditioning is one of the effects spaceflight. Impaired crewmember performance due to loss of aerobic conditioning is one of the risks identified for mitigation by the NASA Human Research Program. Missions longer than 8 days will involve exercise countermeasures including those aimed at preventing the loss of aerobic capacity. The NASA Multipurpose Crew Vehicle (MPCV) will be NASA's centerpiece architecture for human space exploration beyond low Earth orbit. Aerobic exercise within the small habitable volume of the MPCV is expected to challenge the ability of the environmental control systems, especially in terms of moisture control. Exercising humans contribute moisture to the environment by increased respiratory rate (exhaling air at 100% humidity) and sweat. Current acceptable values are based on theoretical models that rely on an "average" crew member working continuously at 75% of their aerobic capacity (Human Systems Integration Requirements Document). Evidence suggests that high intensity interval exercise for much shorter durations are equally effective or better in building and maintaining aerobic capacity. This investigation will examine sweat and respiratory rates for operationally relevant continuous and interval aerobic exercise protocols using a variety of different individuals. The results will directly inform what types of aerobic exercise countermeasures will be feasible to prescribe for crewmembers aboard the MPCV.

  13. Continuous Multi-Parameter Heart Rate Variability Analysis Heralds Onset of Sepsis in Adults

    PubMed Central

    Ahmad, Saif; Ramsay, Tim; Huebsch, Lothar; Flanagan, Sarah; McDiarmid, Sheryl; Batkin, Izmail; McIntyre, Lauralyn; Sundaresan, Sudhir R.; Maziak, Donna E.; Shamji, Farid M.; Hebert, Paul; Fergusson, Dean; Tinmouth, Alan; Seely, Andrew J. E.

    2009-01-01

    Background Early diagnosis of sepsis enables timely resuscitation and antibiotics and prevents subsequent morbidity and mortality. Clinical approaches relying on point-in-time analysis of vital signs or lab values are often insensitive, non-specific and late diagnostic markers of sepsis. Exploring otherwise hidden information within intervals-in-time, heart rate variability (HRV) has been documented to be both altered in the presence of sepsis, and correlated with its severity. We hypothesized that by continuously tracking individual patient HRV over time in patients as they develop sepsis, we would demonstrate reduced HRV in association with the onset of sepsis. Methodology/Principal Findings We monitored heart rate continuously in adult bone marrow transplant (BMT) patients (n = 21) beginning a day before their BMT and continuing until recovery or withdrawal (12±4 days). We characterized HRV continuously over time with a panel of time, frequency, complexity, and scale-invariant domain techniques. We defined baseline HRV as mean variability for the first 24 h of monitoring and studied individual and population average percentage change (from baseline) over time in diverse HRV metrics, in comparison with the time of clinical diagnosis and treatment of sepsis (defined as systemic inflammatory response syndrome along with clinically suspected infection requiring treatment). Of the 21 patients enrolled, 4 patients withdrew, leaving 17 patients who completed the study. Fourteen patients developed sepsis requiring antibiotic therapy, whereas 3 did not. On average, for 12 out of 14 infected patients, a significant (25%) reduction prior to the clinical diagnosis and treatment of sepsis was observed in standard deviation, root mean square successive difference, sample and multiscale entropy, fast Fourier transform, detrended fluctuation analysis, and wavelet variability metrics. For infected patients (n = 14), wavelet HRV demonstrated a 25% drop from baseline 35 h

  14. Continuous hydroxyl radical planar laser imaging at 50 kHz repetition rate.

    PubMed

    Hammack, Stephen; Carter, Campbell; Wuensche, Clemens; Lee, Tonghun

    2014-08-10

    This study demonstrates high-repetition-rate planar laser-induced fluorescence (PLIF) imaging of hydroxyl radicals (OH) in flames at a continuous framing rate of 50 kHz. A frequency-doubled dye laser is pumped by the second harmonic of an Nd:YAG laser to generate laser radiation near 283 nm with a pulse width of 8 ns and rate of 50 kHz. Fluorescence is recorded by a two-stage image intensifier and complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor camera. The average power of the 283 nm beam reaches 7 W, yielding a pulse energy of 140 μJ. Both a Hencken burner and a DC transient-arc plasmatron are used to produce premixed CH4/air flames to evaluate the OH PLIF system. The average signal-to-noise ratio for the Hencken burner flame is greater than 20 near the flame front and greater than 10 further downstream in a region of the flame near equilibrium. Image sequences of the DC plasmatron discharge clearly illustrate development and evolution of flow features with signal levels comparable to those in the Hencken burner. The results are a demonstration of the ability to make high-fidelity OH PLIF measurements at 50 kHz using a Nd:YAG-pumped, frequency-doubled dye laser. PMID:25320935

  15. Anesthetic effect of a combination of medetomidine-midazolam-butorphanol in cynomolgus monkeys (Macaca fascicularis).

    PubMed

    Ochi, Takehiro; Nishiura, Ippei; Tatsumi, Mitsuyoshi; Hirano, Yoshimi; Yahagi, Kouichi; Sakurai, Yasuhiro; Matsuyama-Fujiwara, Kanako; Sudo, Yuji; Nishina, Noriko; Koyama, Hironari

    2014-06-01

    The anesthetic effect of a combination of medetomidine, midazolam and butorphanol (Me-Mi-Bu) was evaluated in healthy cynomolgus monkeys. The Me-Mi-Bu combination was intramuscularly administered as follows: Dose 1, Me 0.015 mg/kg-Mi 0.1 mg/kg-Bu 0.15 mg/kg; Dose 2, Me 0.02 mg/kg-Mi 0.15 mg/kg-Bu 0.2 mg/kg; and Dose 3, Me 0.04 mg/kg-Mi 0.3 mg/kg-Bu 0.4 mg/kg. The combination rapidly induced immobilization, and lateral recumbency was reached within 15 min. The duration of anesthesia for each dose administered was follows: Dose 1, 47 ± 27 min; Dose 2, 113 ± 31 min; and Dose 3, 190 ± 24 min. The anesthetic effect of the combination was abolished by the α2-adrenoceptor antagonist atipamezole. No marked changes in the levels of hematologic or serum biochemical parameters were noted in cynomolgus monkeys administered the combination plus atipamezole. Taken together, these results suggest that the Me-Mi-Bu combination exhibits reversible anesthetic effect and may be useful for studies involving cynomolgus monkeys. PMID:24584083

  16. SITE project. Phase 1: Continuous data bit-error-rate testing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fujikawa, Gene; Kerczewski, Robert J.

    1992-09-01

    The Systems Integration, Test, and Evaluation (SITE) Project at NASA LeRC encompasses a number of research and technology areas of satellite communications systems. Phase 1 of this project established a complete satellite link simulator system. The evaluation of proof-of-concept microwave devices, radiofrequency (RF) and bit-error-rate (BER) testing of hardware, testing of remote airlinks, and other tests were performed as part of this first testing phase. This final report covers the test results produced in phase 1 of the SITE Project. The data presented include 20-GHz high-power-amplifier testing, 30-GHz low-noise-receiver testing, amplitude equalization, transponder baseline testing, switch matrix tests, and continuous-wave and modulated interference tests. The report also presents the methods used to measure the RF and BER performance of the complete system. Correlations of the RF and BER data are summarized to note the effects of the RF responses on the BER.

  17. Lymphoid cell kinetics under continuous low dose-rate gamma irradiation: A comparison study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Foster, B. R.

    1975-01-01

    The mechanism of cell proliferation is studied in the lymphoid tissue of the mouse spleen under the stress of continuous irradiation at a dose-rate of 10 roentgens per day for 105 days. Autoradiography and specific labeling with tritiated thymidine were utilized. It was found that at least four compensatory mechanisms maintained a near-steady state of cellular growth: (1) an increase in the proportion of PAS-positive cells which stimulate mitotic activity, (2) maturation arrest of proliferating and differentiating cells which tend to replenish the cells damaged or destroyed by irradiation, (3) an increase in the proportion of cells proliferating, and (4) an increase in the proportion of precursor cells. The results are compared to previous findings observed in the thymus.

  18. Towards continuous monitoring of pulse rate in neonatal intensive care unit with a webcam.

    PubMed

    Mestha, Lalit K; Kyal, Survi; Xu, Beilei; Lewis, Leslie Edward; Kumar, Vijay

    2014-01-01

    We describe a novel method to monitor pulse rate (PR) on a continuous basis of patients in a neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) using videos taken from a high definition (HD) webcam. We describe algorithms that determine PR from videoplethysmographic (VPG) signals extracted from multiple regions of interest (ROI) simultaneously available within the field of view of the camera where cardiac signal is registered. We detect motion from video images and compensate for motion artifacts from each ROI. Preliminary clinical results are presented on 8 neonates each with 30 minutes of uninterrupted video. Comparisons to hospital equipment indicate that the proposed technology can meet medical industry standards and give improved patient comfort and ease of use for practitioners when instrumented with proper hardware. PMID:25570823

  19. SITE project. Phase 1: Continuous data bit-error-rate testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fujikawa, Gene; Kerczewski, Robert J.

    1992-01-01

    The Systems Integration, Test, and Evaluation (SITE) Project at NASA LeRC encompasses a number of research and technology areas of satellite communications systems. Phase 1 of this project established a complete satellite link simulator system. The evaluation of proof-of-concept microwave devices, radiofrequency (RF) and bit-error-rate (BER) testing of hardware, testing of remote airlinks, and other tests were performed as part of this first testing phase. This final report covers the test results produced in phase 1 of the SITE Project. The data presented include 20-GHz high-power-amplifier testing, 30-GHz low-noise-receiver testing, amplitude equalization, transponder baseline testing, switch matrix tests, and continuous-wave and modulated interference tests. The report also presents the methods used to measure the RF and BER performance of the complete system. Correlations of the RF and BER data are summarized to note the effects of the RF responses on the BER.

  20. Sweat Rates During Continuous and Interval Aerobic Exercise: Implications for NASA Multipurpose Crew Vehicle (MPCV) Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ryder, Jeffrey W.; Scott, Jessica; Ploutz-Snyder, Lori L.

    2016-01-01

    Aerobic deconditioning is one of the effects spaceflight. Impaired crewmember performance due to loss of aerobic conditioning is one of the risks identified for mitigation by the NASA Human Research Program. Missions longer than 8 days will involve exercise countermeasures including those aimed at preventing the loss of aerobic capacity. The NASA Multipurpose Crew Vehicle (MPCV) will be NASA's centerpiece architecture for human space exploration beyond low Earth orbit. Aerobic exercise within the small habitable volume of the MPCV is expected to challenge the ability of the Air Revitalization System, especially in terms of moisture and temperature control. Exercising humans contribute moisture to the environment by increased respiratory rate (exhaling air saturated with moisture) and sweat. Current acceptable values are based on theoretical models that rely on an "average" crew member working continuously at 75% of their aerobic capacity (Human Systems Integration Requirements Document). Evidence suggests that high intensity interval exercise for much shorter durations are equally effective or better in building and maintaining aerobic capacity. This investigation will examine metabolic moisture and heat production for operationally relevant continuous and interval aerobic exercise protocols. The results will directly inform what types of aerobic exercise countermeasures will be feasible to prescribe for crewmembers aboard the MPCV.

  1. Control of algal production in a high rate algal pond: investigation through batch and continuous experiments.

    PubMed

    Derabe Maobe, H; Onodera, M; Takahashi, M; Satoh, H; Fukazawa, T

    2014-01-01

    For decades, arid and semi-arid regions in Africa have faced issues related to water availability for drinking, irrigation and livestock purposes. To tackle these issues, a laboratory scale greywater treatment system based on high rate algal pond (HRAP) technology was investigated in order to guide the operation of the pilot plant implemented in the 2iE campus in Ouagadougou (Burkina Faso). Because of the high suspended solids concentration generally found in effluents of this system, the aim of this study is to improve the performance of HRAPs in term of algal productivity and removal. To determine the selection mechanism of self-flocculated algae, three sets of sequencing batch reactors (SBRs) and three sets of continuous flow reactors (CFRs) were operated. Despite operation with the same solids retention time and the similarity of the algal growth rate found in these reactors, the algal productivity was higher in the SBRs owing to the short hydraulic retention time of 10 days in these reactors. By using a volume of CFR with twice the volume of our experimental CFRs, the algal concentration can be controlled during operation under similar physical conditions in both reactors. PMID:24960016

  2. Does sample rate introduce an artifact in spectral analysis of continuous processes?

    PubMed

    Wijnants, Maarten L; Cox, R F A; Hasselman, F; Bosman, A M T; Van Orden, Guy

    2012-01-01

    Spectral analysis is a widely used method to estimate 1/f(α) noise in behavioral and physiological data series. The aim of this paper is to achieve a more solid appreciation for the effects of periodic sampling on the outcomes of spectral analysis. It is shown that spectral analysis is biased by the choice of sample rate because denser sampling comes with lower amplitude fluctuations at the highest frequencies. Here we introduce an analytical strategy that compensates for this effect by focusing on a fixed amount, rather than a fixed percentage of the lowest frequencies in a power spectrum. Using this strategy, estimates of the degree of 1/f(α) noise become robust against sample rate conversion and more sensitive overall. Altogether, the present contribution may shed new light on known discrepancies in the psychological literature on 1/f(α) noise, and may provide a means to achieve a more solid framework for 1/f(α) noise in continuous processes. PMID:23346058

  3. Effects of Intermittent Positive Pressure Ventilation on Cardiopulmonary Function in Horses Anesthetized with Total Intravenous Anesthesia Using Combination of Medetomidine, Lidocaine, Butorphanol and Propofol (MLBP-TIVA)

    PubMed Central

    ISHIZUKA, Tomohito; TAMURA, Jun; NAGARO, Tsukasa; SUDO, Kanako; ITAMI, Takaharu; UMAR, Mohammed Ahamed; MIYOSHI, Kenjirou; SANO, Tadashi; YAMASHITA, Kazuto

    2014-01-01

    Effects of intermittent positive pressure ventilation (IPPV) on cardiopulmonary function were evaluated in horses anesthetized with total intravenous anesthesia using constant rate infusions of medetomidine (3.5 µg/kg/hr), lidocaine (3 mg/kg/hr), butorphanol (24 µg/kg/hr) and propofol (0.1 mg/kg/min) (MLBP-TIVA). Five horses were anesthetized twice using MLBP-TIVA with or without IPPV at 4-week interval (crossover study). In each occasion, the horses breathed 100% oxygen with spontaneous ventilation (SB-group, n=5) or with IPPV (CV-group, n=5), and changes in cardiopulmonary parameters were observed for 120 min. In the SB-group, cardiovascular parameters were maintained within acceptable ranges (heart rate: 33–35 beats/min, cardiac output: 27–30 l/min, mean arterial blood pressure [MABP]: 114–123 mmHg, mean pulmonary arterial pressure [MPAP]: 28–29 mmHg and mean right atrial pressure [MRAP]: 19–21 mmHg), but severe hypercapnea and insufficient oxygenation were observed (arterial CO2 pressure [PaCO2]: 84–103 mmHg and arterial O2 pressure [PaO2]: 155–172 mmHg). In the CV-group, normocapnea (PaCO2: 42–50 mmHg) and good oxygenation (PaO2: 395–419 mmHg) were achieved by the IPPV without apparent cardiovascular depression (heart rate: 29–31 beats/min, cardiac output: 17–21 l /min, MABP: 111–123 mmHg, MPAP: 27–30 mmHg and MRAP: 15–16 mmHg). MLBP-TIVA preserved cardiovascular function even in horses artificially ventilated. PMID:25649938

  4. Effects of intermittent positive pressure ventilation on cardiopulmonary function in horses anesthetized with total intravenous anesthesia using combination of medetomidine, lidocaine, butorphanol and propofol (MLBP-TIVA).

    PubMed

    Ishizuka, Tomohito; Tamura, Jun; Nagaro, Tsukasa; Sudo, Kanako; Itami, Takaharu; Umar, Mohammed Ahamed; Miyoshi, Kenjirou; Sano, Tadashi; Yamashita, Kazuto

    2014-12-01

    Effects of intermittent positive pressure ventilation (IPPV) on cardiopulmonary function were evaluated in horses anesthetized with total intravenous anesthesia using constant rate infusions of medetomidine (3.5 µg/kg/hr), lidocaine (3 mg/kg/hr), butorphanol (24 µg/kg/hr) and propofol (0.1 mg/kg/min) (MLBP-TIVA). Five horses were anesthetized twice using MLBP-TIVA with or without IPPV at 4-week interval (crossover study). In each occasion, the horses breathed 100% oxygen with spontaneous ventilation (SB-group, n=5) or with IPPV (CV-group, n=5), and changes in cardiopulmonary parameters were observed for 120 min. In the SB-group, cardiovascular parameters were maintained within acceptable ranges (heart rate: 33-35 beats/min, cardiac output: 27-30 l/min, mean arterial blood pressure [MABP]: 114-123 mmHg, mean pulmonary arterial pressure [MPAP]: 28-29 mmHg and mean right atrial pressure [MRAP]: 19-21 mmHg), but severe hypercapnea and insufficient oxygenation were observed (arterial CO(2) pressure [PaCO(2)]: 84-103 mmHg and arterial O(2) pressure [PaO(2)]: 155-172 mmHg). In the CV-group, normocapnea (PaCO(2): 42-50 mmHg) and good oxygenation (PaO(2): 395-419 mmHg) were achieved by the IPPV without apparent cardiovascular depression (heart rate: 29-31 beats/min, cardiac output: 17-21 l /min, MABP: 111-123 mmHg, MPAP: 27-30 mmHg and MRAP: 15-16 mmHg). MLBP-TIVA preserved cardiovascular function even in horses artificially ventilated. PMID:25649938

  5. Effect of Coupling Medium Temperature on Rate of Intramuscular Temperature Rise Using Continuous Ultrasound

    PubMed Central

    Oshikoya, Corey A.; Shultz, Sandra J.; Mistry, Danny; Perrin, David H.; Arnold, Brent L.; Gansneder, Bruce M.

    2000-01-01

    Objective: We determined the effects of coupling medium temperature on the rate of intramuscular temperature rise (RTR) during continuous ultrasound. Design and Setting: Ultrasound was applied in a continuous mode at a frequency of 1 MHz and intensity of 1.5 W/cm². Each subject received 3 treatments, using water-based coupling gel at temperatures of 18°C, 25°C, and 39°C. All treatments were performed in an athletic training room under controlled environmental conditions. Subjects: Eighteen healthy male subjects (mean age = 23.6 ± 3.5 years; height = 177.8 ± 6.9 cm; weight = 76.6 ± 8.2 kg; calf size = 37.6 ± 2.4 cm) participated in this study. Measurements: A thermistor was inserted into the left medial triceps surae at a depth of 5 cm, and baseline tissue temperatures were recorded before treatment. Intramuscular temperature was recorded every 30 seconds until the temperature rose 4°C above baseline or until discomfort was felt. RTR was calculated by dividing the absolute temperature change by treatment time. Results: A 1-way, repeated-measures analysis of variance revealed a significant difference in RTR among gel temperatures, RTR was significantly faster using the 25°C gel compared with the 18°C and 39°C gels. There was no difference between the 18°C and 39°C gel treatments. Conclusions: These results suggest that the use of a cooled or heated gel may be counterproductive when maximal thermal effects are desired within a given time frame. PMID:16558655

  6. Continuous high-energy low-flow-rate enteral support: a panoramic review of 1000 cases.

    PubMed

    Levy, E; Huguet, C; Parc, R; Ollivier, J M; Goldberg, J; Loygue, J

    1985-01-01

    One thousand intensive care digestive surgical cases are reviewed concerning continuous low-flow-rate enteral support (CLFRES), using Nutripompe: 607 males and 393 females, average age 51 years. The average duration of CLFRES is 21.5 days +/- 13, range 4 to 180 days. CLFRES was used postoperatively in 76 per cent, preoperatively in 10 per cent, and pre- and postoperatively in 14 per cent of cases, respectively. The enteral support route was 63 per cent nasogastric, 20 per cent gastrostomy and 17 per cent jejunostomy. Five hundred and ten patients required extensive digestive surgery with temporary exclusions. More than 100 patients with either temporary enterostomies or enterocutaneous fistulas have had continuous reinstillation of digestive chyme (CRDC) associated with their intensive care unit treatment management. CRDC in the lower end of an enterostomy has shown a specific retrograde inhibitory effect on the upper digestive secretions, particularly on the intestinal secretions during pathologies associated with one or several interruptions of the continuity of the gastrointestinal tract. This technique and its physiological implications were discussed. The principal pathologies in this important study group are: severe digestive fistulas, 24 per cent; acute diffuse peritonitis, 18 per cent; acute enterocolitis, 14 per cent; digestive tumours, 35 per cent; and acute necrotizing haemorrhagic pancreatitis, 9 per cent. A comparative analysis of nutritional energy nitrogen requirement was presented in view of the cancer, the septic, and the non-cancer non-septic patient groups. Enteral support nutritional solutions were primarily mixed non-degraded food, 70 per cent, and semi-elemental diets, 30 per cent. Certain pathology groups required variations in protein and lipid percentage. An up-to-date evaluation of nutritive formulas based on small peptides in normal and small bowel postoperative patients was discussed. Four CLFRES administration programmes were discussed

  7. Controlling growth rate anisotropy for formation of continuous ZnO thin films from seeded substrates.

    PubMed

    Zhang, R H; Slamovich, E B; Handwerker, C A

    2013-05-17

    Solution-processed zinc oxide (ZnO) thin films are promising candidates for low-temperature-processable active layers in transparent thin film electronics. In this study, control of growth rate anisotropy using ZnO nanoparticle seeds, capping ions, and pH adjustment leads to a low-temperature (90 ° C) hydrothermal process for transparent and high-density ZnO thin films. The common 1D ZnO nanorod array was grown into a 2D continuous polycrystalline film using a short-time pure solution method. Growth rate anisotropy of ZnO crystals and the film morphology were tuned by varying the chloride (Cl(-)) ion concentration and the initial pH of solutions of zinc nitrate and hexamethylenetetramine (HMTA), and the competitive adsorption effects of Cl(-) ions and HMTA ligands on the anisotropic growth behavior of ZnO crystals were proposed. The lateral growth of nanorods constituting the film was promoted by lowering the solution pH to accelerate the hydrolysis of HMTA, thereby allowing the adsorption effects from Cl(-) to dominate. By optimizing the growth conditions, a dense ∼100 nm thickness film was fabricated in 15 min from a solution of [Cl(-)]/[Zn(2+)] = 1.5 and pH=  4.8 ± 0.1. This film shows >80% optical transmittance and a field-effect mobility of 2.730 cm(2) V(-1) s(-1) at zero back-gate bias. PMID:23595114

  8. Ocean-Scale Patterns in Community Respiration Rates along Continuous Transects across the Pacific Ocean

    PubMed Central

    Wilson, Jesse M.; Severson, Rodney; Beman, J. Michael

    2014-01-01

    Community respiration (CR) of organic material to carbon dioxide plays a fundamental role in ecosystems and ocean biogeochemical cycles, as it dictates the amount of production available to higher trophic levels and for export to the deep ocean. Yet how CR varies across large oceanographic gradients is not well-known: CR is measured infrequently and cannot be easily sensed from space. We used continuous oxygen measurements collected by autonomous gliders to quantify surface CR rates across the Pacific Ocean. CR rates were calculated from changes in apparent oxygen utilization and six different estimates of oxygen flux based on wind speed. CR showed substantial spatial variation: rates were lowest in ocean gyres (mean of 6.93 mmol m−3 d−1±8.0 mmol m−3 d−1 standard deviation in the North Pacific Subtropical Gyre) and were more rapid and more variable near the equator (8.69 mmol m−3 d−1±7.32 mmol m−3 d−1 between 10°N and 10°S) and near shore (e.g., 5.62 mmol m−3 d−1±45.6 mmol m−3 d−1 between the coast of California and 124°W, and 17.0 mmol m−3 d−1±13.9 mmol m−3 d−1 between 156°E and the Australian coast). We examined how CR varied with coincident measurements of temperature, turbidity, and chlorophyll concentrations (a proxy for phytoplankton biomass), and found that CR was weakly related to different explanatory variables across the Pacific, but more strongly related to particular variables in different biogeographical areas. Our results indicate that CR is not a simple linear function of chlorophyll or temperature, and that at the scale of the Pacific, the coupling between primary production, ocean warming, and CR is complex and variable. We suggest that this stems from substantial spatial variation in CR captured by high-resolution autonomous measurements. PMID:25048960

  9. Temporal effects of intramuscular administration of medetomidine hydrochloride or xylazine hydrochloride to healthy dogs on tear flow measured by use of a Schirmer tear test I.

    PubMed

    Kanda, Teppei; Ishihara, Satoko; Oka, Miina; Sako, Kaori; Sato, Yoko; Maeta, Noritaka; Tamura, Katsutoshi; Furumoto, Kayo; Furukawa, Toshinori

    2016-04-01

    OBJECTIVE To determine the temporal effects on tear flow measurements obtained by use of a Schirmer tear test (STT) I after IM administration of various doses of medetomidine or xylazine to healthy dogs. ANIMALS 5 healthy purpose-bred male Beagles. PROCEDURES Each dog received IM injections of 2.0 mL of physiologic saline (0.9% NaCl) solution (control treatment); 0.1% medetomidine hydrochloride (5, 10, 20, and 40 μg/kg), and 2.0% xylazine hydrochloride (0.5, 1.0, 2.0, and 4.0 mg/kg). Treatments were injected into the semimembranosus muscles; there was at least a 1-week interval between successive injections. Order of treatments was determined via a randomized Latin square crossover design. The STT I was performed on both eyes before (baseline) and 0.25, 0.50, 0.75, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, and 24 hours after each injection. RESULTS STT I values decreased significantly within 45 minutes after injection of medetomidine or xylazine, which was followed by gradual recovery. The lowest mean STT I value was < 10 mm/min for all sedation treatments, except when dogs received 5 μg of medetomidine/kg. Linear regression of the area under the curve for the 8 hours after administration yielded significant effects for all sedation treatments. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE IM administration of medetomidine or xylazine to dogs reduced tear flow in a dose-related manner. Artificial tear solution or ophthalmic ointment should be used to protect the ocular surface when these drugs are administered to dogs. PMID:27027832

  10. Comparative evaluation of halothane anaesthesia in medetomidine-butorphanol and midazolam-butorphanol premedicated water buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis).

    PubMed

    Malik, V; Kinjavdekar, P; Amarpal; Aithal, H P; Pawde, A M; Surbhi

    2011-03-01

    Six clinically healthy male water buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis) 2-3 years of age and weighing 290-325 kg were used for 2 different treatments (H1 and H2). The animals of group H1 were premedicated with medetomidine (2.5 g/kg,i.v.) and butorphanol (0.05 mg/kg, i.v.), while in group H2 midazolam (0.25 mg/kg) and butorphanol (0.05 mg/kg) were used intravenously. Induction of anaesthesia was achieved by 5% thiopental sodium in H1 (3.85 +/- 0.63 mg/kg) and H2 (6.96 +/- 0.45 mg/kg) groups. The anaesthesia was maintained with halothane in 100 % oxygen through a large animal anaesthetic machine. Better analgesia and sedation with a significantly lower dose of thiopental for induction and significantly higher values of sternal recumbency time and standing time were recorded in group H1 than in group H2, whereas no significant (P > 0.05) difference for the halothane concentration was observed between groups H1 and H2. Significant decrease in heart rate was observed in group H1 whereas it significantly increased in group H2. In both groups, RR decreased during the preanaesthetic period, which increased significantly (P < 0.01) after halothane administration. In both groups a significant (P < 0.01) fallin RT was recorded from 20 min to the end of observation period. A significant (P < 0.05) fall in MAP was observed in group H1 from 15 min until the end, while in group H2 MAP increased nonsignificantly (P > 0.05) after premedication and a significant (P < 0.05) occurredafter thiopental administration. In both groups a significant (P < 0.01) increase in CVP and a significant (P < 0.01) decrease in SpO2 were observed after premedication which persisted up to 120 min. ECG changes included significant (P < 0.01) decrease and increase in QRS amplitudes in groups H1 and H2 respectively, a significant (P < 0.05) increase in PR interval was recorded at 15 min in group H1, a significant (P < 0.05) decrease in PR interval in group H2, a significant (P < 0.05) decrease in T wave amplitude

  11. A protocol for use of medetomidine anesthesia in rats for extended studies using task-induced BOLD contrast and resting-state functional connectivity

    PubMed Central

    Pawela, Christopher P.; Biswal, Bharat B.; Hudetz, Anthony G.; Schulte, Marie L.; Li, Rupeng; Jones, Seth R.; Cho, Younghoon R.; Matloub, Hani S.; Hyde, James S.

    2009-01-01

    The α2-adrenoreceptor agonist, medetomidine, which exhibits dose-dependent sedative effects and is gaining acceptance in small-animal functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), has been studied. Rats were examined on the bench using the classic tail-pinch method with three infusion sequences: 100 μg/kg/hr, 300 μg/kg/hr, or 100 μg/kg/hr followed by 300 μg/kg/hr. Stepping the infusion rate from 100 to 300 μg/kg/hr after 2.5 hours resulted in a prolonged period of approximately level sedation that cannot be achieved by a constant infusion of either 100 or 300 μg/kg/hr. By stepping the infusion dosage, experiments as long as six hours are possible. Functional MRI experiments were carried out on rats using a frequency dependent electrical stimulation protocol—namely, forepaw stimulation at 3, 5, 7, and 10 Hz. Each rat was studied for a four-hour period, divided into two equal portions. During the first portion, rats were started at a 100 μg/kg/hr constant infusion. During the second portion, four secondary levels of infusion were used: 100, 150, 200, and 300 μg/kg/hr. The fMRI response to stimulation frequency was used as an indirect measure of modulation of neuronal activity through pharmacological manipulation. The frequency response to stimulus was attenuated at the lower secondary infusion dosages 100 or 150 μg/kg/hr but not at the higher secondary infusion dosages 200 or 300 μg/kg/hr. Parallel experiments with the animal at rest were carried out using both electroencephalogram (EEG) and functional connectivity MRI (fcMRI) methods with consistent results. In the secondary infusion period using 300 μg/kg/hr, resting-state functional connectivity is enhanced. PMID:19285560

  12. Trap-effectiveness and response to tiletamine-zolazepam and medetomidine anaesthesia in Eurasian wild boar captured with cage and corral traps

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Capture, handling and chemical restraint are basic techniques often needed for research or management purposes. The aim of this study was testing a combination of tiletamine-zolazepam (TZ) (3 mg/kg) and medetomidine (M) (0.05 mg/kg) on Eurasian wild boar (Sus scrofa). A total of 77 free-ranging wild boar were captured by means of portable cages and corral traps and then anaesthetized with intramuscular darts using a blowpipe. The individual response to chemical immobilization was characterized using anaesthetic, clinical, and serum biochemical variables. After the procedure, 14 of these wild boar were monitored for 20 days using GPS-GSM collars. Results Pre-release mortality during capture and handling (6.5%) was associated with severe trauma in corral traps. Capture specificity for wild boar was 96.3% and trapping effort was 16.5 days per captured wild boar. Mean induction period was 4.5 ± 2.2 min, hypnosis period enabling effective handling was 61.6 ± 25.4 min, and recovery period was 12.8 ± 12.1 min. No heart or respiratory failure due to added stress occurred and post-release monitoring by GPS-devices revealed no mortality due to anaesthesia. According to the best statistical model obtained, the main factor driving anaesthetic efficacy and stress indicators is trap type. Conclusions Both cage and corral traps are efficient methods to capture wild boar. Cage traps are safer, as demonstrated by mortality rates as well as anaesthetic, physiological, and serum biochemical responses. This anaesthetic protocol is useful for prolonged handling of wild boar and allows sampling and collecting data for ecological and epidemiological studies. PMID:23702232

  13. Comparative cardiopulmonary effects of carfentanil-xylazine and medetomidine-ketamine used for immobilization of mule deer and mule deer/white-tailed deer hybrids.

    PubMed Central

    Caulkett, N A; Cribb, P H; Haigh, J C

    2000-01-01

    Three mule deer and 4 mule deer/white-tailed deer hybrids were immobilized in a crossover study with carfentanil (10 microg/kg) + xylazine (0.3 mg/kg) (CX), and medetomidine (100 microg/kg) + ketamine (2.5 mg/kg) (MK). The deer were maintained in left lateral recumbency for 1 h with each combination. Deer were immobilized with MK in 230+/-68 s (mean +/- SD) and with CX in 282+/-83 seconds. Systolic, mean and diastolic arterial pressure were significantly higher with MK. Heart rate, PaO2, PaCO2, pH, and base excess were not significantly different between treatments. Base excess and pH increased significantly over time with both treatments. Both treatments produced hypoventilation (PaCO2 > 50 mm Hg) and hypoxemia (PaO2 < 60 mm Hg). PaO2 increased significantly over time with CX. Body temperature was significantly (P<0.05) higher with CX compared to MK. Ventricular premature contractions, atrial premature contractions, and a junctional escape rhythm were noted during CX immobilization. No arrhythmias were noted during MK immobilization. Quality of immobilization was superior with MK, with no observed movement present for the 60 min of immobilization. Movement of the head and limbs occurred in 4 animals immobilized with CX. The major complication observed with both of these treatments was hypoxemia, and supplemental inspired oxygen is recommended during immobilization. Hyperthermia can further complicate immobilization with CX, reinforcing the need for supplemental oxygen. PMID:10680659

  14. Anesthetic effects of a combination of medetomidine, midazolam and butorphanol on the production of offspring in Japanese field vole, Microtus montebelli.

    PubMed

    Kageyama, Atsuko; Tohei, Atsushi; Ushijima, Hitoshi; Okada, Konosuke

    2016-09-01

    Pentobarbital sodium (Somnopentyl) can induce surgical anesthesia with a strong hypnotic effect that causes loss of consciousness. Animals have been known to die during experimental surgery under anesthesia with Somnopentyl, causing it to be declared inadequate as a general anesthetic for single treatment. An anesthetic combination of 0.3 mg/kg medetomidine, 4.0 mg/kg midazolam and 5.0 mg/kg butorphanol (M/M/B:0.3/4/5) was reported to induce anesthesia for a duration of around 40 min in ICR mice; similar anesthetic effects were reported in both male and female BALB/c and C57BL/6J strains of mice. However, the anesthetic effects of this combination in Japanese field vole, Microtus montebelli, remain to be evaluated. In the present study, we assessed the effects of Somnopentyl and different concentrations of anesthetic combination (M/M/B:0.3/4/5, 0.23/3/3.75 or 0.15/2/2.5) in Japanese field voles, by means of anesthetic scores. We also examined effect of these anesthetics on production of offspring. Death of the animals was observed only with Somnopentyl. The anesthetic score of Somnopentyl was lower than those of the other anesthetics, although there were no significant differences in duration, body weight and frequency of respiratory among the evaluated anesthetics. Abortion rate with Somnopentyl was significantly higher than that with the M/M/B:0.23/3/3.75 combination, although there was no significant difference in the number of offspring between two. In conclusion, results of this study provide basic information for achieving appropriate anesthetic concentrations in addition to indicating a new, safe and effective surgical anesthetic for Japanese field voles. PMID:27238159

  15. The effect of discrete vs. continuous-valued ratings on reputation and ranking systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Medo, Matúš; Rushton Wakeling, Joseph

    2010-08-01

    When users rate objects, a sophisticated algorithm that takes into account ability or reputation may produce a fairer or more accurate aggregation of ratings than the straightforward arithmetic average. Recently a number of authors have proposed different co-determination algorithms where estimates of user and object reputation are refined iteratively together, permitting accurate measures of both to be derived directly from the rating data. However, simulations demonstrating these methods' efficacy assumed a continuum of rating values, consistent with typical physical modelling practice, whereas in most actual rating systems only a limited range of discrete values (such as a 5-star system) is employed. We perform a comparative test of several co-determination algorithms with different scales of discrete ratings and show that this seemingly minor modification in fact has a significant impact on algorithms' performance. Paradoxically, where rating resolution is low, increased noise in users' ratings may even improve the overall performance of the system.

  16. Prophylactic Oophorectomy: Reducing the U.S. Death Rate from Epithelial Ovarian Cancer. A Continuing Debate.

    PubMed

    Piver

    1996-01-01

    If instead of the title "Prophylactic Oophorectomy: Reducing the U.S. Death Rate from Epithelial Ovarian Cancer," the title were "Drug X Reducing the U.S. Death Rate from Epithelial Ovarian Cancer," there would be great media and medical attention worldwide to such a report. Correctly so. Regrettably, there probably is no new Drug X in the foreseeable future that will significantly reduce the death rate from ovarian cancer, be it Taxol®, taxotere, topotecan, gemcitabine, or liposomal doxorubicin-although each may result in significant responses and some prolongation of median survival. Epithelial ovarian cancer is a much more complex disease than anyone envisioned, when it was believed that extensive debulking surgery and the newest cytotoxic chemotherapy would radically reduce the death rate from ovarian cancer in the United States. Over 20 years after the first patient was treated with cisplatin for epithelial ovarian cancer, the annual death rate from ovarian cancer continued to increase. Just in the past decade, the number of women in the United States dying from ovarian cancer has increased 18% (Fig. 1) [1]. Although ovarian cancer is estimated to account for 26,700 cases and 14,800 deaths in 1996, it is a low-prevalence disease in comparison with breast cancer, which in 1996 is estimated to account for 185,700 cases and 44,560 deaths. Inexplicably, similar to breast cancer, the lifetime risk for ovarian cancer in the United States continues to increase. The most recent Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results (SEER) calculations of lifetime risk for ovarian cancer are that 1 in 55 women will develop ovarian cancer over their lifetime, or 1.8%, up from the 1970 figures of 1 in 70, or 1.4% [2]. The 1.8% baseline lifetime risk for the general population is used to estimate the lifetime risk of known ovarian cancer risk factors (Table 1). Even utilizing what are now believed to be two of the most effective cytotoxic drugs against stage III and IV epithelial

  17. Evaluation of a combination of alfaxalone with medetomidine and butorphanol for inducing surgical anesthesia in laboratory mice.

    PubMed

    Higuchi, Shota; Yamada, Riku; Hashimoto, Asami; Miyoshi, Kenjiro; Yamashita, Kazuto; Ohsugi, Takeo

    2016-05-01

    The anesthetic effects of alfaxalone were investigated in mice. Mice were administered alfaxalone (100 mg/kg) alone or the combinations of 0.3 mg/kg of medetomidine and 5 mg/kg of butorphanol with alfaxalone at doses of 20 mg/kg (M/B/A20), 40 mg/kg (M/B/A40), 60 mg/kg (M/B/A60), or 80 mg/kg (M/B/A80). Control mice received 0.3 mg/kg of medetomidine, 4 mg/kg of midazolam, and 5 mg/kg of butorphanol (M/M/B). Each drug was administrated by intraperitoneal (IP) or subcutaneous (SC) routes. M/M/B IP did not achieve surgical anesthesia but M/M/B SC achieved surgical anesthesia within 10 min after administration and maintained anesthesia for 45 min. The anesthetic scores were very low after IP or SC administration of alfaxalone alone. M/B/A20 IP and SC did not achieve surgical anesthesia. M/B/A40 IP did not achieve surgical anesthesia but M/B/A40 SC achieved surgical anesthesia within 10 min after administration and maintained anesthesia for 35 min. M/B/A60 SC achieved surgical anesthesia within 5 min after administration and maintained anesthesia for 75 min. By contrast, M/B/A60 IP did not achieve surgical anesthesia. M/B/A80 SC achieved surgical anesthesia within 5 min after administration and maintained anesthesia for 85 min. By contrast, M/B/A80 IP did not achieve surgical anesthesia and one mouse died about 10 min after drug administration. Administration of atipamezole rapidly reversed anesthesia induced by M/B/A60 in mice. These results suggest that M/B/A60 SC, an alfaxalone-based combination, is suitable for inducing surgical anesthesia in laboratory mice. PMID:27506087

  18. Debate response: Which rate designs provide revenue stability and efficient price signals? Let the debate continue.

    SciTech Connect

    Boonin, David Magnus

    2009-11-15

    Let's engage in further discussion that provides solutions and details, not just criticisms and assertions. Let's engage in a meaningful dialogue about the conditions where real-time pricing or critical peak pricing with decoupling or the SFV rate design with a feebate is most effective. (author)

  19. Why Has the Continuous Decline in German Suicide Rates Stopped in 2007?

    PubMed Central

    Doganay, Gülcihan; Reschke, Konrad; Rummel-Kluge, Christine

    2013-01-01

    Background Whereas German suicide rates had a clear decreasing tendency between 1991 and 2006, they increased from 2007 to 2010. Deeper analyses of suicide data might help to understand better this change. The aim of this study was to analyze 1) whether recent trends can be related to changes in specific suicide methods and diverge by gender and age; 2) whether the decrease of suicide rates before 2007 as well as the increase from 2007 to 2010 are driven by the same suicide method. Methods Analyses were based on suicide data from the Federal Statistical Office of Germany. For 1998–2010, 136.583 suicide cases of men and women with known age and suicide method could be identified. These data were analyzed by joinpoint regression analysis, allowing identification of the best fitting point in time (“joinpoint”) at which the suicide rate significantly changes in magnitude or direction. Results The national downward trend between 1998 and 2007 was mainly due to corresponding changes in self-poisoning by other means than drugs (e.g., pesticides) (annual percentage change (APC) ≤ −4.33), drowning (APC ≤ −2.73), hanging (APC ≤ −2.69) and suicides by firearms (APC ≤ −1.46) in both genders. Regarding the overall increase of age-adjusted suicide rates in Germany 2007–2010, mainly the increase of self-poisoning (e.g., by drugs) and “being overrun” (APC ≥ 1.50) contributed to this trend. Limitations The true suicide rates might have been underestimated because of errors in the official death certificates. Conclusions Increase in suicide rates in Germany since 2007 went along with corresponding changes for “being overrun” and “self-poisoning”. Copycat suicides following the railway suicide of the goalkeeper Robert Enke partly contributed to the results. Thus, prevention of Werther effects and limitation of the availability of high pack sizes for drugs are of special relevance for the reversal of this trend. PMID:23967225

  20. Comparison of medetomidine, thiopental and ketamine/midazolam anesthesia in chick embryos for in ovo Magnetic Resonance Imaging free of motion artifacts

    PubMed Central

    Waschkies, Conny; Nicholls, Flora; Buschmann, Johanna

    2015-01-01

    Non-invasive assessment of the perfusion capacity of tissue engineered constructs grown on the chorioallantoic membrane by MRI is often hampered by motion artifacts. Therefore, we examined the suitability of three anesthetic regimes for sufficient sedation of the chick embryo. Medetomidine at a dosage of 0.3 mg/kg, was compared to thiopental at 100 mg/kg and ketamine/midazolam at 50 mg/kg and 1 mg/kg, respectively. These soluble anesthetics were applied by dropping a total volume of 0.3 mL onto the surface of the CAM. Motion was videotaped through the window of the eggshell and scored semi-quantitatively. Medetomidine performed best in terms of reduced motion; onset of anesthesia occurred within 10 minutes and for the following 30 minutes, allowing proper in vivo MRI measurements. The other regimen were not sedating deep enough (ketamine/midazolam) and not long enough (thiopental). In sum, medetomidine allows proper sedation for MRI assessment of the perfusion capacity in a tissue engineered construct placed on the CAM. PMID:26493765

  1. Comparison of medetomidine, thiopental and ketamine/midazolam anesthesia in chick embryos for in ovo Magnetic Resonance Imaging free of motion artifacts.

    PubMed

    Waschkies, Conny; Nicholls, Flora; Buschmann, Johanna

    2015-01-01

    Non-invasive assessment of the perfusion capacity of tissue engineered constructs grown on the chorioallantoic membrane by MRI is often hampered by motion artifacts. Therefore, we examined the suitability of three anesthetic regimes for sufficient sedation of the chick embryo. Medetomidine at a dosage of 0.3 mg/kg, was compared to thiopental at 100 mg/kg and ketamine/midazolam at 50 mg/kg and 1 mg/kg, respectively. These soluble anesthetics were applied by dropping a total volume of 0.3 mL onto the surface of the CAM. Motion was videotaped through the window of the eggshell and scored semi-quantitatively. Medetomidine performed best in terms of reduced motion; onset of anesthesia occurred within 10 minutes and for the following 30 minutes, allowing proper in vivo MRI measurements. The other regimen were not sedating deep enough (ketamine/midazolam) and not long enough (thiopental). In sum, medetomidine allows proper sedation for MRI assessment of the perfusion capacity in a tissue engineered construct placed on the CAM. PMID:26493765

  2. Analgesia after feline ovariohysterectomy under midazolam-medetomidine-ketamine anaesthesia with buprenorphine or butorphanol, and carprofen or meloxicam: a prospective, randomised clinical trial.

    PubMed

    Polson, Sally; Taylor, Polly M; Yates, David

    2012-08-01

    One hundred female cats undergoing routine ovariohysterectomy under midazolam-medetomidine-ketamine anaesthesia were included in a blinded, randomised, prospective clinical study to compare postoperative analgesia produced by four analgesic drug combinations given preoperatively (n = 25 per group). A secondary aim was to assess the effects in kittens and pregnant animals. Buprenorphine 180 µg/m(2) or butorphanol 6 mg/m(2) were given with either carprofen 4 mg/kg (groups BUPC and BUTC, respectively) or meloxicam 0.3 mg/kg (groups BUPM or BUTM, respectively). Medetomidine was not antagonised. A simple, descriptive scale (SDS; 0-4), a dynamic and interactive visual analogue scale (DIVAS; 0-100 mm) and mechanical nociceptive thresholds (MT; 2.5-mm diameter probe) were used to evaluate postoperative pain. All pain scores were low (DIVAS <10 mm, SDS <2 and MT >10 N) and there were no significant differences between the groups. It was concluded that all protocols provided adequate analgesia and when used with midazolam-medetomidine-ketamine are effective for routine feline ovariohysterectomy. PMID:22505603

  3. Affinity states of biocides determine bioavailability and release rates in marine paints.

    PubMed

    Dahlström, Mia; Sjögren, Martin; Jonsson, Per R; Göransson, Ulf; Lindh, Liselott; Arnebrant, Thomas; Pinori, Emiliano; Elwing, Hans; Berglin, Mattias

    2015-01-01

    A challenge for the next generation marine antifouling (AF) paints is to deliver minimum amounts of biocides to the environment. The candidate AF compound medetomidine is here shown to be released at very low concentrations, ie ng ml(-1) day(-1). Moreover, the release rate of medetomidine differs substantially depending on the formulation of the paint, while inhibition of barnacle settlement is independent of release to the ambient water, ie the paint with the lowest release rate was the most effective in impeding barnacle colonisation. This highlights the critical role of chemical interactions between biocide, paint carrier and the solid/aqueous interface for release rate and AF performance. The results are discussed in the light of differential affinity states of the biocide, predicting AF activity in terms of a high surface affinity and preserved bioavailability. This may offer a general framework for the design of low-release paint systems using biocides for protection against biofouling on marine surfaces. PMID:25775096

  4. Comparison of High Rate Laser Ablation and Resulting Structures Using Continuous and Pulsed Single Mode Fiber Lasers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knebel, T.; Streek, A.; Exner, H.

    This paper compares high rate laser ablation and resulting structures of aluminum by using both a continuous wave and a ns-pulsed single mode fiber laser of high average laser power. Two different scan technologies were applied for fast deflection of the laser beams. In this work, 2.5D laser processing was studied by using a high aperture galvanometer scanner with a maximum scan speed of 18 m/s. By contrast, considerably higher scan speeds up to 1,000 m/s were achieved by using the in-house developed polygon scanner system. The ablation rates and the processing rates per unit area were analyzed by means of the depths of line-scan ablation tracks and laser processed cavities. In addition, SEM photograph of the machining samples will be presented in order to evaluate the machining quality. Finally the feasibility of this high rate technology for industrial application is demonstrated by machining examples.

  5. Effect of specific light supply rate on photosynthetic efficiency of Nannochloropsis salina in a continuous flat plate photobioreactor.

    PubMed

    Sforza, Eleonora; Calvaruso, Claudio; Meneghesso, Andrea; Morosinotto, Tomas; Bertucco, Alberto

    2015-10-01

    In this work, Nannochloropsis salina was cultivated in a continuous-flow flat-plate photobioreactor, working at different residence times and irradiations to study the effect of the specific light supply rate on biomass productivity and photosynthetic efficiency. Changes in residence times lead to different steady-state cell concentrations and specific growth rates. We observed that cultures at steady concentration were exposed to different values of light intensity per cell. This specific light supply rate was shown to affect the photosynthetic status of the cells, monitored by fluorescence measurements. High specific light supply rate can lead to saturation and photoinhibition phenomena if the biomass concentration is not optimized for the selected operating conditions. Energy balances were applied to quantify the biomass growth yield and maintenance requirements in N. salina cells. PMID:26257264

  6. Continuous multigram nanoparticle synthesis by high-power, high-repetition-rate ultrafast laser ablation in liquids.

    PubMed

    Streubel, René; Barcikowski, Stephan; Gökce, Bilal

    2016-04-01

    Utilizing a novel laser system consisting of a 500 W, 10 MHz, 3 ps laser source which is fully synchronized with a polygon scanner reaching scanning speeds up to 500 m/s, we explore the possibilities to increase the productivity of nanoparticle synthesis by laser ablation in liquids. By exploiting the high scanning speed, laser-induced cavitation bubbles are spatially bypassed at high repetition rates and continuous multigram ablation rates up to 4 g/h are demonstrated for platinum, gold, silver, aluminum, copper, and titanium. Furthermore, the applicable, ablation-effective repetition rate is increased by two orders of magnitude. The ultrafast ablation mechanisms are investigated for different laser fluences, repetition rates, interpulse distances, and ablation times, while the resulting trends are successfully described by validating a model developed for ultrafast laser ablation in air to hold in liquids as well. PMID:27192268

  7. Statistical properties of aftershock rate decay: Implications for the assessment of continuing activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adamaki, Aggeliki; Papadimitriou, Eleftheria; Tsaklidis, George; Karakostas, Vassilios

    2011-08-01

    Aftershock rates seem to follow a power law decay, but the assessment of the aftershock frequency immediately after an earthquake, as well as during the evolution of a seismic excitation remains a demand for the imminent seismic hazard. The purpose of this work is to study the temporal distribution of triggered earthquakes in short time scales following a strong event, and thus a multiple seismic sequence was chosen for this purpose. Statistical models are applied to the 1981 Corinth Gulf sequence, comprising three strong (M = 6.7, M = 6.5, and M = 6.3) events between 24 February and 4 March. The non-homogeneous Poisson process outperforms the simple Poisson process in order to model the aftershock sequence, whereas the Weibull process is more appropriate to capture the features of the short-term behavior, but not the most proper for describing the seismicity in long term. The aftershock data defines a smooth curve of the declining rate and a long-tail theoretical model is more appropriate to fit the data than a rapidly declining exponential function, as supported by the quantitative results derived from the survival function. An autoregressive model is also applied to the seismic sequence, shedding more light on the stationarity of the time series.

  8. Identifying protein aggregation mechanisms and quantifying aggregation rates from combined monomer depletion and continuous scattering.

    PubMed

    Barnett, Gregory V; Drenski, Michael; Razinkov, Vladimir; Reed, Wayne F; Roberts, Christopher J

    2016-10-15

    Parallel temperature initial rates (PTIR) from chromatographic separation of aggregating protein solutions are combined with continuous simultaneous multiple sample light scattering (SMSLS) to make quantitative deductions about protein aggregation kinetics and mechanisms. PTIR determines the rates at which initially monomeric proteins are converted to aggregates over a range of temperatures, under initial-rate conditions. Using SMSLS for the same set of conditions provides time courses of the absolute Rayleigh scattering ratio, IR(t), from which a potentially different measure of aggregation rates can be quantified. The present report compares these measures of aggregation rates across a range of solution conditions that result in different aggregation mechanisms for anti-streptavidin (AS) immunoglobulin gamma-1 (IgG1). The results illustrate how the two methods provide complementary information when deducing aggregation mechanisms, as well as cases where they provide new mechanistic details that were not possible to deduce in previous work. Criteria are presented for when the two techniques are expected to give equivalent results for quantitative rates, the potential limitations when solution non-idealities are large, as well as a comparison of the temperature dependence of AS-IgG1 aggregation rates with published data for other antibodies. PMID:27510552

  9. A low perfusion rate microreactor for continuous monitoring of enzyme characteristics: application to glucose oxidase

    PubMed Central

    Venema, K.; van Berkel, W. J. H.; Korf, J.

    2007-01-01

    This report describes a versatile and robust microreactor for bioactive proteins physically immobilized on a polyether sulfone filter. The potential of the reactor is illustrated with glucose oxidase immobilized on a filter with a cut-off value of 30 kDa. A flow-injection system was used to deliver the reactants and the device was linked on-line to an electrochemical detector. The microreactor was used for on-line preparation of apoglucose oxidase in strong acid and its subsequent reactivation with flavin adenine dinucleotide. In addition we describe a miniaturized version of the microreactor used to assess several characteristics of femtomole to attomole amounts of glucose oxidase. A low negative potential over the electrodes was used when ferrocene was the mediator in combination with horseradish peroxidase, ensuring the absence of oxidation of electro-active compounds in biological fluids. A low backpressure at very low flow rates is an advantage, which increases the sensitivity. A variety of further applications of the microreactor are suggested. Figure Preparation of apoGOx and restoration of enzyme activity using a soluton of FAD PMID:17909761

  10. Comparison of three different sedative-anaesthetic protocols (ketamine, ketamine-medetomidine and alphaxalone) in common marmosets (Callithrix jacchus)

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Handling of common marmoset (Callithrix jacchus) usually requires chemical restraint. Ketamine has been associated with muscle damage in primates, while common marmosets, compared to other primates, additionally display an exceptional high sensitivity to ketamine-associated side-effects. Notably, muscle twitching movements of limbs and hands, and a marked increase in salivation are observed. We investigated two alternative intramuscular (i.m.) immobilisation protocols against ketamine (50 mg/kg; protocol 1) in a double-blind randomised crossover study in ten healthy adult common marmosets for use as a safe reliable, short-term immobilisation and sedation. These protocols comprised: alphaxalone (12 mg/kg; protocol 2) and 25 mg/kg ketamine combined with 0.50 mg/kg medetomidine (reversal with 2.5 mg/kg atipamezole; protocol 3A). Following completion and unblinding, the project was extended with an additional protocol (3B), comprising 25 mg/kg ketamine combined with 0.05 mg/kg medetomidine (reversal with 0.25 mg/kg atipamezole, twice with 35 min interval). Results All protocols in this study provided rapid onset (induction times <5 min) of immobilisation and sedation. Duration of immobilisation was 31.23 ± 22.39 min, 53.72 ± 13.08 min, 19.73 ± 5.74 min, and 22.78 ± 22.37 min for protocol 1, 2, 3A, and 3B, respectively. Recovery times were 135.84 ± 39.19 min, 55.79 ± 11.02 min, 405.46 ± 29.81 min, and 291.91 ± 80.34 min, respectively. Regarding the quality, and reliability (judged by pedal withdrawal reflex, palpebral reflex and muscle tension) of all protocols, protocol 2 was the most optimal. Monitored vital parameters were within clinically acceptable limits during all protocols and there were no fatalities. Indication of muscle damage as assessed by AST, LDH and CK values was most prominent elevated in protocol 1, 3A, and 3B. Conclusions We conclude that intramuscular administration of 12

  11. Strain and rotation rate patterns of mainland Greece from continuous GPS data and comparison between seismic and geodetic moment release

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chousianitis, Konstantinos; Ganas, Athanassios; Evangelidis, Christos P.

    2015-05-01

    We processed data from ~100 continuous GPS stations to provide new insights into the crustal motion and deformation of central and western Greece. We used the derived velocity field to evaluate two-dimensional strain and rotation rate tensors, and we mapped the dilatation and maximum shear strain rates. In central Peloponnese and Epirus, we documented a 90° switch in the extension direction, which can be explained on the basis of the plate boundary configuration. Evidence for an extended deformation pattern in central Greece was found. Additionally, we detected two pairs of shear belts, one in Akarnania-NW Peloponnese and one in North Aegean. We delineated two rotational domains that dominate the present-day pattern. Moreover, we saw no geodetic evidence for North Anatolian Fault growth toward central Greece. We translated the geodetic strain rates into rates of seismic moment release and compared them with earthquake catalog-based moment rates. In the central Ionian Sea, the geodetic strain is completely released seismically, which is indicative of a fully coupled seismogenic zone. However, for most of the study area, the geodesy-based moment rates are at least 2 times higher than the earthquake-based rates. We attribute this mainly to earthquake catalog representativity over the long-term situation. However, for the Gulf of Corinth, it is unrealistic to associate the high ratio of geodetic to seismic moment rates only to incompleteness of the earthquake catalog; instead, long-term aseismic deformation must be an important mechanism accommodating a considerable portion of the strain budget, especially at its western part.

  12. Comparison of quasisteady-state performance of the DEAMOX process under intermittent and continuous feeding and different nitrogen loading rates.

    PubMed

    Kalyuzhnyi, Sergey; Gladchenko, Marina; Mulder, Arnold; Versprille, Bram

    2007-07-01

    The recently developed denitrifying ammonium oxidation (DEAMOX) process combines the anammox reaction with autotrophic denitrifying conditions using sulfide as an electron donor for the production of nitrite from nitrate within an anaerobic biofilm. This paper compares a quasisteady-state performance of this process for treatment of baker's yeast wastewater under intermittent and continuous feeding and increasing nitrogen loading rate (NLR) from 300 till 858 mg N/L/d. The average total nitrogen removal slightly decreased on increasing the NLR: from 86 to 79% (intermittent feeding) and from 87 to 84% (continuous feeding). The better performance under continuous feeding was due to a more complete nitrate removal in the former case whereas the ammonia removal was similar for both feeding regimes under the comparable NLR. A possible explanation can be that, during continuous feeding (simultaneous supply of nitrate and sulfide), there were less mass transfer limitations for sulfide oxidizing denitrifiers presumably located in the outer layer of sludge aggregates. On the contrary, the ammonia oxidisers presumably located inside the aggregates apparently suffered from nitrite mass transfer limitations under both the feedings. The paper further describes some characteristics of the DEAMOX sludge. PMID:17427996

  13. The effect of continuous low dose-rate gamma irradiation on cell population kinetics of lymphoid tissue

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Foster, B. R.

    1974-01-01

    Cellular response and cell population kinetics were studied during lymphopoiesis in the thymus of the mouse under continuous gamma irradiation using autoradiographic techniques and specific labeling with tritiated thymidine. On the basis of tissue weights, it is concluded that the response of both the thymus and spleen to continuous low dose-rate irradiation is multiphasic. That is, alternating periods of steady state growth, followed by collapse, which in turn is followed by another period of homeostasis. Since there are two populations of lymphocytes - short lived and long-lived, it may be that different phases of steady state growth are mediated by different lymphocytes. The spleen is affected to a greater extent with shorter periods of steady-state growth than exhibited by the thymus.

  14. Soil bacterial and fungal community dynamics in relation to Panax notoginseng death rate in a continuous cropping system

    PubMed Central

    Dong, Linlin; Xu, Jiang; Feng, Guangquan; Li, Xiwen; Chen, Shilin

    2016-01-01

    Notoginseng (Panax notoginseng), a valuable herbal medicine, has high death rates in continuous cropping systems. Variation in the soil microbial community is considered the primary cause of notoginseng mortality, although the taxa responsible for crop failure remains unidentified. This study used high-throughput sequencing methods to characterize changes in the microbial community and screen microbial taxa related to the death rate. Fungal diversity significantly decreased in soils cropped with notoginseng for three years. The death rate and the fungal diversity were significantly negatively correlated, suggesting that fungal diversity might be a potential bioindicator of soil health. Positive correlation coefficients revealed that Burkholderiales, Syntrophobacteraceae, Myrmecridium, Phaeosphaeria, Fusarium, and Phoma were better adapted to colonization of diseased plants. The relative abundance of Fusarium oxysporum (R = 0.841, P < 0.05) and Phaeosphaeria rousseliana (R = 0.830, P < 0.05) were positively associated with the death rate. F. oxysporum was a pathogen of notoginseng root-rot that caused seedling death. Negative correlation coefficients indicated that Thermogemmatisporaceae, Actinosynnemataceae, Hydnodontaceae, Herpotrichiellaceae, and Coniosporium might be antagonists of pathogens, and the relative abundance of Coniosporium perforans was negatively correlated with the death rate. Our findings provide a dynamic overview of the microbial community and present a clear scope for screening beneficial microbes and pathogens of notoginseng. PMID:27549984

  15. Soil bacterial and fungal community dynamics in relation to Panax notoginseng death rate in a continuous cropping system.

    PubMed

    Dong, Linlin; Xu, Jiang; Feng, Guangquan; Li, Xiwen; Chen, Shilin

    2016-01-01

    Notoginseng (Panax notoginseng), a valuable herbal medicine, has high death rates in continuous cropping systems. Variation in the soil microbial community is considered the primary cause of notoginseng mortality, although the taxa responsible for crop failure remains unidentified. This study used high-throughput sequencing methods to characterize changes in the microbial community and screen microbial taxa related to the death rate. Fungal diversity significantly decreased in soils cropped with notoginseng for three years. The death rate and the fungal diversity were significantly negatively correlated, suggesting that fungal diversity might be a potential bioindicator of soil health. Positive correlation coefficients revealed that Burkholderiales, Syntrophobacteraceae, Myrmecridium, Phaeosphaeria, Fusarium, and Phoma were better adapted to colonization of diseased plants. The relative abundance of Fusarium oxysporum (R = 0.841, P < 0.05) and Phaeosphaeria rousseliana (R = 0.830, P < 0.05) were positively associated with the death rate. F. oxysporum was a pathogen of notoginseng root-rot that caused seedling death. Negative correlation coefficients indicated that Thermogemmatisporaceae, Actinosynnemataceae, Hydnodontaceae, Herpotrichiellaceae, and Coniosporium might be antagonists of pathogens, and the relative abundance of Coniosporium perforans was negatively correlated with the death rate. Our findings provide a dynamic overview of the microbial community and present a clear scope for screening beneficial microbes and pathogens of notoginseng. PMID:27549984

  16. Effect of pH and dilution rate on specific production rate of extra cellular metabolites by Lactobacillus salivarius UCO_979C in continuous culture.

    PubMed

    Valenzuela, Javier Ferrer; Pinuer, Luis; Cancino, Apolinaria García; Yáñez, Rodrigo Bórquez

    2015-08-01

    The effect of pH and dilution rate on the production of extracellular metabolites of Lactobacillus salivarius UCO_979 was studied. The experiments were carried out in continuous mode, with chemically defined culture medium at a temperature of 37 °C, 200 rpm agitation and synthetic air flow of 100 ml/min. Ethanol, acetic acid, formic acid, lactic acid and glucose were quantified through HPLC, while exopolysaccharide (EPS) was extracted with ethanol and quantified through the Dubois method. The results showed no linear trends for the specific production of lactic acid, EPS, acetic acid and ethanol, while the specific glucose consumption and ATP production rates showed linear trends. There was a metabolic change of the strain for dilution rates below 0.3 h(-1). The pH had a significant effect on the metabolism of the strain, which was evidenced by a higher specific glucose consumption and increased production of ATP at pH 6 compared with that obtained at pH 7. This work shows not only the metabolic capabilities of L. salivarius UCO_979C, but also shows that it is possible to quantify some molecules associated with its current use as gastrointestinal probiotic, especially regarding the production of organic acids and EPS. PMID:25805342

  17. Continuous Exposure to Low-Dose-Rate Gamma Irradiation Reduces Airway Inflammation in Ovalbumin-Induced Asthma.

    PubMed

    Kim, Joong Sun; Son, Yeonghoon; Bae, Min Ji; Lee, Seung Sook; Park, Sun Hoo; Lee, Hae June; Lee, Soong In; Lee, Chang Geun; Kim, Sung Dae; Jo, Wol Soon; Kim, Sung Ho; Shin, In Sik

    2015-01-01

    Although safe doses of radiation have been determined, concerns about the harmful effects of low-dose radiation persist. In particular, to date, few studies have investigated the correlation between low-dose radiation and disease development. Asthma is a common chronic inflammatory airway disease that is recognized as a major public health problem. In this study, we evaluated the effects of low-dose-rate chronic irradiation on allergic asthma in a murine model. Mice were sensitized and airway-challenged with ovalbumin (OVA) and were exposed to continuous low-dose-rate irradiation (0.554 or 1.818 mGy/h) for 24 days after initial sensitization. The effects of chronic radiation on proinflammatory cytokines and the activity of matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) were investigated. Exposure to low-dose-rate chronic irradiation significantly decreased the number of inflammatory cells, methylcholine responsiveness (PenH value), and the levels of OVA-specific immunoglobulin E, interleukin (IL)-4, and IL-5. Furthermore, airway inflammation and the mucus production in lung tissue were attenuated and elevated MMP-9 expression and activity induced by OVA challenge were significantly suppressed. These results indicate that low-dose-rate chronic irradiation suppresses allergic asthma induced by OVA challenge and does not exert any adverse effects on asthma development. Our findings can potentially provide toxicological guidance for the safe use of radiation and relieve the general anxiety about exposure to low-dose radiation. PMID:26588845

  18. Continuous Exposure to Low-Dose-Rate Gamma Irradiation Reduces Airway Inflammation in Ovalbumin-Induced Asthma

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Joong Sun; Son, Yeonghoon; Bae, Min Ji; Lee, Seung Sook; Park, Sun Hoo; Lee, Hae June; Lee, Soong In; Lee, Chang Geun; Kim, Sung Dae; Jo, Wol Soon; Kim, Sung Ho; Shin, In Sik

    2015-01-01

    Although safe doses of radiation have been determined, concerns about the harmful effects of low-dose radiation persist. In particular, to date, few studies have investigated the correlation between low-dose radiation and disease development. Asthma is a common chronic inflammatory airway disease that is recognized as a major public health problem. In this study, we evaluated the effects of low-dose-rate chronic irradiation on allergic asthma in a murine model. Mice were sensitized and airway-challenged with ovalbumin (OVA) and were exposed to continuous low-dose-rate irradiation (0.554 or 1.818 mGy/h) for 24 days after initial sensitization. The effects of chronic radiation on proinflammatory cytokines and the activity of matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) were investigated. Exposure to low-dose-rate chronic irradiation significantly decreased the number of inflammatory cells, methylcholine responsiveness (PenH value), and the levels of OVA-specific immunoglobulin E, interleukin (IL)-4, and IL-5. Furthermore, airway inflammation and the mucus production in lung tissue were attenuated and elevated MMP-9 expression and activity induced by OVA challenge were significantly suppressed. These results indicate that low-dose-rate chronic irradiation suppresses allergic asthma induced by OVA challenge and does not exert any adverse effects on asthma development. Our findings can potentially provide toxicological guidance for the safe use of radiation and relieve the general anxiety about exposure to low-dose radiation. PMID:26588845

  19. Influence of seasonal fluctuation and loading rates on microbial and chemical indicators during semi-continuous anaerobic digestion.

    PubMed

    Rosenblum, James; Bisesi, Michael; Castano, Juan; Tamkin, Abigal; Ciotola, Richard; Lee, Jiyoung; Martin, Jay

    2015-01-01

    Minimal attention is paid towards the performance of the 40 million small-scale digesters which frequently operate at psychrophilic temperatures. Understanding the levels of microbial and chemical indicators at various loading rates and temperatures is useful for improving treatment efficiency and management strategies for small-scale digesters. In this study, semi-continuous anaerobic digesters were operated in replicate at four different loading rates (control, 0.3, 0.8 and 1.3 kg VS/m(3)/day) and housed in an environment that simulated seasonal change (27.5°C,10°C and 27.5°C). The results illustrate that class B quality biosolids were generated for all treatments as per guidelines from the United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA). The simulated seasonal change did not influence Escherichia coli or faecal coliform levels, while it did appear to have an effect upon levels of Enterococci. Reduced loading rates led to a more stable environment (in terms of pH, levels of volatile fatty acids (VFAs) and total inorganic carbonate (TIC)) as well as lower levels of indicator bacteria, but generated slightly lower biogas volumes (high--53.23 L vs. low--53.19 L) over the course of the study. The results provide important data to improve the performance of small-scale psychrophilic digesters, specifically by reducing loading rates to prevent souring during winter months. PMID:25515031

  20. Antagonistic effects of atipamezole, flumazenil and 4-aminopyridine against anaesthesia with medetomidine, midazolam and ketamine combination in cats.

    PubMed

    Ueoka, Naotami; Hikasa, Yoshiaki

    2008-02-01

    Antagonistic effects of atipamezole (ATI), flumazenil (FLU) and 4-aminopyridine (4AP) alone and in various combinations after administration of medetomidine-midazolam-ketamine (MED-MID-KET) were evaluated in cats. Animals were anaesthetised with MED (50 microg/kg), MID (0.5 mg/kg) and KET (10 mg/kg) given intramuscularly. Twenty minutes later, physiological saline, ATI (200 microg/kg), FLU (0.1 mg/kg), 4AP (0.5 mg/kg), ATI-FLU, FLU-4AP, ATI-4AP or ATI-FLU-4AP was administered intravenously. FLU, 4AP alone, or FLU-4AP did not effectively antagonise the anaesthesia, hypothermia, bradycardia, and bradypnoea induced by MED-MID-KET. ATI alone was effective. ATI-FLU, ATI-4AP and ATI-FLU-4AP combinations produced an immediate and effective recovery from anaesthesia. The combination of ATI-FLU-4AP was the most effective in antagonising the anaesthetic effects, but was associated with tachycardia, tachypnoea, excitement, and muscle tremors. Combinations with ATI are more effective for antagonising anaesthesia, but ATI-FLU-4AP is not suitable. PMID:17766159

  1. Continuous measurements of bedload transport rates in a small glacial river catchment in the summer season (Spitsbergen)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kociuba, Waldemar; Janicki, Grzegorz

    2014-05-01

    The study on bedload transport was conducted on the gravel-bed Scott River catchment with a glacial alimentation regime, located in the NW part of the Wedel Jarlsberg Land (Spitsbergen) with subpolar climatic conditions. In the melt season of 2010, bedload transport rate was continuously monitored at 24-hour intervals by means of four River Bedload Trap devices aligned across the width of the channel. The maximum bedload transport rate varied strongly at portions of the cross section from 16 to 152 kg m- 1 d- 1 in cross-profile I (c-p I) and 4 to 125 kg m- 1 d- 1 in cross-profile II (c-p II). The maximum channel-mean bedload transport rate (qa) amounted to 54 kg m- 1 d- 1 (c-p I) and 35 kg m- 1 d- 1 (c-p II). Mean daily bedload discharge (Qb) was estimated at a level of 97 kg day- 1 (c-p I) and 35 kg m- 1 d- 1 (c-p II), and the total bedload yield was determined at approx. 4345 kg in the measurement period (2086 kg — c-p I; 2203 kg — c-p II from 13.07 to 10.08). The analysis of the relationship between channel-mean bedload transport rate and water velocity or shear stress revealed a significant value of the correlation coefficient (R2 = 0.6). Discharge and rate of bedload transport were dependent on the weather and number of days with flood discharge. Approx. 58% of the entire discharged bedload was transported during 3 violent ablation-precipitation floods. Bedload grain size distribution was right-skewed and showed moderate sorting.

  2. Continuous hormone replacement therapy for menopause combining nomegestrol acetate and gel, patch, or oral estrogen: a comparison of amenorrhea rates.

    PubMed

    Blanc, B; Cravello, L; Micheletti, M C; d'Ercole, C; Zartarian, M

    1998-01-01

    This open-label, prospective, randomized, multicenter trial compared the incidence of amenorrhea in 54 postmenopausal women (mean age, 54.9 +/- 0.6 years) who underwent six 4-week cycles of continuous hormone replacement therapy combining a progestin-nomegestrol acetate 2.5 mg/d--plus one of three estrogens: percutaneous 17beta-estradiol gel (1.5 mg/d, group A), transdermal 17beta-estradiol patch (50 microg/d, group B), or oral estradiol valerate (2 mg/d, group C). Based on an intent-to-treat analysis, the rate of amenorrhea varied significantly according to which estrogen preparation was used. Calculated cycle by cycle, rates of amenorrhea were 67% to 83% for group A, 25% to 56% for group B, and 53% to 61% for group C. Overall rates of persistent amenorrhea were not statistically different between groups for cycles 1 through 3, but for cycles 4 through 6, significantly more women in groups A and C (67% and 46%, respectively) experienced amenorrhea than did those in group B (12%). Amenorrhea rates for the entire six-cycle period were 78% for group A, 48% for group B, and 60% for group C. These differences were not statistically significant. The differences in rates could not be attributed to endometrial atrophy, since when measured by transvaginal sonography, endometrial thickness did not differ significantly between groups. Of the original population, 7% withdrew prematurely because of bleeding. The data for all three groups confirmed that in two out of three women, the occurrence of amenorrhea during the first three cycles predicted continuation of amenorrhea during subsequent cycles and that for 51% of women, < or =10 days of bleeding during the first three cycles predicted amenorrhea during the last three cycles. Calculated as a function of the number of women included in the trial, the percentage of amenorrheic women (evaluated cycle by cycle or for the second three-cycle period) was highest when the progestin was combined with percutaneous 17beta

  3. Influence of specific growth rate on biomass yield, productivity, and compostion of Candida utilis in batch and continuous culture.

    PubMed Central

    Paredes-López, O; Camargo-Rubio, E; Ornelas-Vale, A

    1976-01-01

    Candida utilis was grown in batch and continuous culture on prickly pear juice as sole carbon and energy source. In batch culture the maximum specific growth rate (mum) and the substrate yield coefficient (Yps) varied according to sugar concentration. When the fermentation was carried out with 1% sugar, mum and Ys were 0.47/h and 42.6%, respectively. The best yields occurred in a chemostat at the pH range of 3.5 to 4.5 and temperature of 30 C. A beneficial effect on Ys was observed when the dilution rate (D) was increased. At a D of 0.55/h, the productivity was 2.38 g/liter per h. The maintenance coefficient attained a value of 0.09 g of sugar/g of biomass per h. Increases of D produced higher protein contents of the biomass. The information obtained indicates that protein production with Candida utilis, using prickly pear juice, should be carried out a high dilution rates where the Ys and protein content of the cell mass are also higher. PMID:5055

  4. Continuous, online measurement of the absolute plasma refill rate during hemodialysis using feedback regulated ultrafiltration: preliminary results.

    PubMed

    Brummelhuis, Walter J; van Schelven, Leonard J; Boer, Walther H

    2008-01-01

    Methods to continuously measure absolute refill during dialysis are not available. It would be useful to have such a method because it would allow investigating the mechanism of refill the effect of interventions. We designed a feedback algorithm that adjusts ultrafiltration rate (QUF) according to hemoglobin (Hb) concentration changes in such a way that relative blood volume (BV) remains constant within a narrow target range. In this situation, the generated QUF quantitatively reflects refill. Refill patterns were studied in five hypotension prone patients. In addition, on separate occasions, we studied the effect of antiembolism stockings (AES) and infusion of hydroxy-ethylated starch (HAES) on refill in these patients. Refill during the first hour fell significantly from 21 +/- 3 ml/min to 9 +/- 2 ml/min (p < 0.05). In the second hour, refill decreased further and became zero in four out of five patients. Neither AES nor HAES measurably affected refill. The marked and rapid fall in refill in the early stages of dialysis suggests untimely depletion of the interstitial compartment and underestimation of dry weight. We propose that continuous, online measurement of refill patterns may be of value for accurate estimation of dry weight in dialysis patients. PMID:18204322

  5. Photosynthetic efficiency and rate of CO2 assimilation by Arthrospira (Spirulina) platensis continuously cultivated in a tubular photobioreactor.

    PubMed

    Matsudo, Marcelo Chuei; Bezerra, Raquel Pedrosa; Sato, Sunao; Converti, Attilio; de Carvalho, João Carlos Monteiro

    2012-11-01

    Similar to other photosynthetic microorganisms, the cyanobacterium Arthrospira platensis can be used to produce pigments, single cell proteins, fatty acids (which can be used for bioenergy), food and feed supplements, and biofixation of CO(2) . Cultivation in a specifically designed tubular photobioreactor is suitable for photosynthetic biomass production, because the cultivation area can be reduced by distributing the microbial cells vertically, thus avoiding loss of ammonia and CO(2) . The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of light intensity and dilution rate on the photosynthetic efficiency and CO(2) assimilation efficiency of A. platensis cultured in a tubular photobioreactor in a continuous process. Urea was used as a nitrogen source and CO(2) as carbon source and for pH control. Steady-state conditions were achieved in most of the runs, indicating that continuous cultivation of this cyanobacterium in a tubular photobioreactor could be an interesting alternative for the large-scale fixation of CO(2) to mitigate the greenhouse effect while producing high protein content biomass. PMID:22933335

  6. Improve Synergy Between Health Information Exchange and Electronic Health Records to Increase Rates of Continuously Insured Patients

    PubMed Central

    Gold, Rachel; Burdick, Tim; Angier, Heather; Wallace, Lorraine; Nelson, Christine; Likumahuwa-Ackman, Sonja; Sumic, Aleksandra; DeVoe, Jennifer E.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: The Affordable Care Act increases health insurance options, yet many Americans may struggle to consistently maintain coverage. While health care providers have traditionally not been involved in providing insurance enrollment support to their patients, the ability for them to do so now exists. We propose that providers could capitalize on the expansion of electronic health records (EHRs) and the advances in health information exchanges (HIEs) to improve their patients’ insurance coverage rates and continuity. Evidence for Argument: We describe a project in which we are building strategies for linking, and thus improving synergy between, payer and EHR data. Through this effort, care teams will have access to new automated tools and increased EHR functionality designed to help them assist their patients in obtaining and maintaining health insurance coverage. Suggestion for the Future: The convergence of increasing EHR adoption, improving HIE functionality, and expanding insurance coverage options, creates new opportunities for clinics to help their patients obtain public health insurance. Harnessing this nascent ability to exchange information between payers and providers may improve synergies between HIE and EHRs, and thus support clinic-based efforts to keep patients continuously insured. PMID:26355818

  7. Controlled continuous systemic heparinization increases success rate of artery-only anastomosis replantation in single distal digit amputation

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Jun Yong; Kim, Hak Soo; Heo, Sang Taek; Kwon, Ho; Jung, Sung-No

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Replantation is a prime indication for distal digital amputation, as it helps restore hand aesthetics and functions; however, venous anastomosis is often not feasible. Previous studies used systemic anticoagulation in distal digital artery only anastomosis replantation surgery to improve replantation success rate, however, which yielded limited level of clinical evidence. This study aimed to compare controlled continuous heparinization (CCH) and intermittent bolus heparinization (IBH) for surgical outcome and clinical variables after single distal digital artery only anastomosis replantation surgery. A single-institution, retrospective cohort study was performed. Out of 324 patients who underwent digital replantation surgery, we focused the study for the Zone I and II single distal digital amputation patients excluding confounding factors. Sixty-one patients were included in this study and underwent artery-only anastomosis replantation surgery with postoperative CCH (34 patients) or IBH (27 patients) protocols. The CCH group targeted activated partial thromboplastin time (aPTT) at 51 to 70 seconds, monitoring aPTT levels every eight hours and administering 100 mg of aspirin per day. The IBH group received 300 mg of aspirin per day and underwent IBH (12,500 U). Both groups received intravenous prostaglandin E1 drips (10 μg). To verify the factors affecting the success rate of the heparin protocol, patient factors, clinical factors, and operative factors were extracted from the medical records. Statistical analysis with inverse probability of treatment weights propensity score methods compared treatment outcomes and clinical variables. The CCH group's replantation success rate was higher (91.17% vs 59.25%), and the transfusion rate was increased (P = 0.032). However, the significant decrease in hemoglobin levels (>15%) did not differ between the groups (P = 0.108). Multivariable logistic regression analysis with potent univariate variables (P

  8. The impact of continuously-variable dose rate VMAT on beam stability, MLC positioning, and overall plan dosimetry.

    PubMed

    Boylan, Christopher; McWilliam, Alan; Johnstone, Emily; Rowbottom, Carl

    2012-01-01

    A recent control system update for Elekta linear accelerators includes the ability to deliver volumetric-modulated arc therapy (VMAT) with continuously variable dose rate (CVDR), rather than a number of fixed binned dose rates (BDR). The capacity to select from a larger range of dose rates allows the linac to maintain higher gantry speeds, resulting in faster, smoother deliveries. The purpose of this study is to investigate two components of CVDR delivery - the increase in average dose rate and gantry speed, and a determination of their effects on beam stability, MLC positioning, and overall plan dosimetry. Initially, ten VMAT plans (5 prostate, 5head and neck) were delivered to a Delta4 dosimetric phantom using both the BDR and CVDR systems. The plans were found to be dosimetrically robust using both delivery methods, although CVDR was observed to give higher gamma pass rates at the 2%/2 mm gamma level for prostates (p < 0.01). For the dual arc head-and-neck plans, CVDR delivery resulted in improved pass rates at all gamma levels (2%/2 mm to 4%/4 mm) for individual arc verifications (p < 0.01), but gave similar results to BDR when both arcs were combined. To investigate the impact of increased gantry speed on MLC positioning, a dynamic leaf-tracking tool was developed using the electronic portal imaging device (EPID). Comparing the detected MLC positions to those expected from the plan, CVDR was observed to result in a larger mean error compared to BDR (0.13 cm and 0.06 cm, respectively, p < 0.01). The EPID images were also used to monitor beam stability during delivery. It was found that the CVDR deliveries had a lower standard deviation of the gun-target (GT) and transverse (AB) profiles (p < 0.01). This study has determined that CVDR may offer a dosimetric advantage for VMAT plans. While the higher gantry speed of CVDR appears to increase deviations in MLC positioning, the relative effect on dosimetry is lower than the positive impact of a flatter and more

  9. Dynamic shear-stress-enhanced rates of nutrient consumption in gas-liquid semi-continuous-flow suspensions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belfiore, Laurence A.; Volpato, Fabio Z.; Paulino, Alexandre T.; Belfiore, Carol J.

    2011-12-01

    The primary objective of this investigation is to establish guidelines for generating significant mammalian cell density in suspension bioreactors when stress-sensitive kinetics enhance the rate of nutrient consumption. Ultra-low-frequency dynamic modulations of the impeller (i.e., 35104 Hz) introduce time-dependent oscillatory shear into this transient analysis of cell proliferation under semi-continuous creeping flow conditions. Greater nutrient consumption is predicted when the amplitude A of modulated impeller rotation increases, and stress-kinetic contributions to nutrient consumption rates increase linearly at higher modulation frequency via an application of fluctuation-dissipation response. Interphase mass transfer is required to replace dissolved oxygen as it is consumed by aerobic nutrient consumption in the liquid phase. The theory and predictions described herein could be important at small length scales in the creeping flow regime where viscous shear is significant at the interface between the nutrient medium and isolated cells in suspension. Two-dimensional flow around spherically shaped mammalian cells, suspended in a Newtonian culture medium, is analyzed to calculate the surface-averaged magnitude of the velocity gradient tensor and modify homogeneous rates of nutrient consumption that are stimulated by viscous shear, via the formalism of stress-kinetic reciprocal relations that obey Curie's theorem in non-equilibrium thermodynamics. Time constants for stress-free free and stress-sensitive stress nutrient consumption are defined and quantified to identify the threshold (i.e., stress,threshold) below which the effect of stress cannot be neglected in accurate predictions of bioreactor performance. Parametric studies reveal that the threshold time constant for stress-sensitive nutrient consumption stress,threshold decreases when the time constant for stress

  10. Effects of an anesthetic mixture of medetomidine, midazolam, and butorphanol in rats-strain difference and antagonism by atipamezole.

    PubMed

    Kirihara, Yumiko; Takechi, Mayumi; Kurosaki, Kaoru; Kobayashi, Yuta; Saito, Yoji; Takeuchi, Takashi

    2016-01-01

    An anesthetic mixture of medetomidine (MED), midazolam (MID), and butorphanol (BUT) has been used in laboratory animals. We previously reported that this anesthetic mixture produced closely similar anesthetic effects in BALB/c and C57BL/6J strains. We also demonstrated the efficacy of atipamezole (ATI), an antagonist of MED that produced quick recovery from anesthesia in mice. Anesthetics have various anesthetic effects among animal strains. However, the differences in the effects of anesthetic mixtures in rats are unclear. In the present study, we first examined effects of the abovementioned anesthetic mixture using three different rat strains: Wistar (WST), Sprague-Dawley (SD), and Fischer 344 (F344). Second, we examined how different dosages and optimum injection timing of ATI affected recovery from anesthesia in rats. We used the anesthetic score to measure anesthetic duration and a pulse oximeter to monitor vital signs. We found no significant differences in anesthetic duration among the three different strains. However, recovery from anesthesia in the SD strain took significantly longer than in the other strains. The antagonistic effects of ATI (0.15 mg/kg and 0.75 mg/kg) were equivalent when administered at 30 min after anesthetic mixture administration. The antagonistic effects of ATI 0.75 mg/kg were stronger than those of ATI 0.15 mg/kg at 10 min after anesthetic mixture administration. This anesthetic mixture is a useful drug that can induce similar anesthetic effects in three different strains and has an antagonist, ATI, that makes rats quickly recover from anesthesia. These results may contribute to the welfare of laboratory animals. PMID:26424468

  11. Effects of an anesthetic mixture of medetomidine, midazolam, and butorphanol in rats—strain difference and antagonism by atipamezole

    PubMed Central

    Kirihara, Yumiko; Takechi, Mayumi; Kurosaki, Kaoru; Kobayashi, Yuta; Saito, Yoji; Takeuchi, Takashi

    2015-01-01

    An anesthetic mixture of medetomidine (MED), midazolam (MID), and butorphanol (BUT) has been used in laboratory animals. We previously reported that this anesthetic mixture produced closely similar anesthetic effects in BALB/c and C57BL/6J strains. We also demonstrated the efficacy of atipamezole (ATI), an antagonist of MED that produced quick recovery from anesthesia in mice. Anesthetics have various anesthetic effects among animal strains. However, the differences in the effects of anesthetic mixtures in rats are unclear. In the present study, we first examined effects of the abovementioned anesthetic mixture using three different rat strains: Wistar (WST), Sprague-Dawley (SD), and Fischer 344 (F344). Second, we examined how different dosages and optimum injection timing of ATI affected recovery from anesthesia in rats. We used the anesthetic score to measure anesthetic duration and a pulse oximeter to monitor vital signs. We found no significant differences in anesthetic duration among the three different strains. However, recovery from anesthesia in the SD strain took significantly longer than in the other strains. The antagonistic effects of ATI (0.15 mg/kg and 0.75 mg/kg) were equivalent when administered at 30 min after anesthetic mixture administration. The antagonistic effects of ATI 0.75 mg/kg were stronger than those of ATI 0.15 mg/kg at 10 min after anesthetic mixture administration. This anesthetic mixture is a useful drug that can induce similar anesthetic effects in three different strains and has an antagonist, ATI, that makes rats quickly recover from anesthesia. These results may contribute to the welfare of laboratory animals. PMID:26424468

  12. Continuity of slip rates over various time scales on the Puente Hills Blind-thrust Fault, Los Angeles, California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bergen, Kristian J.; Shaw, John H.; Leon, Lorraine A.; Dolan, James F.; Pratt, Thomas L.; Ponti, Daniel J.; Barrera, Wendy; Rhodes, Edward J.; Murari, Madhav K.; Owen, Lewis A.

    2014-05-01

    Our study seeks to assess the history of slip on the Los Angeles segment of the Puente Hills blind-thrust fault system (PHT) from its inception through the Holocene by integrating a suite of geological and geophysical datasets. The PHT presents one of the largest seismic hazards in the United States, given its location beneath downtown Los Angeles. It is also well suited to slip rate studies, as fold scarps formed by slip on the PHT at depth have been continually buried by flood deposits from the Los Angeles and San Gabriel Rivers, preserving a record of uplift in the form of growth stratigraphy. We determined uplift from the growth stratigraphy by measuring the difference in sediment thickness across the folded layers. At our study site above the western segment of the PHT, the fold structure was imaged by industry seismic reflection data and a pair of high-resolution (100 to 700 m depth) seismic reflection profiles acquired by the authors for this study using weight drop and small vibrator sources. The industry and high-resolution profiles were stacked, migrated and depth converted using a velocity model based on the stacking velocities and the Southern California Earthquake Center Community Velocity Model. The shallowest layers of growth stratigraphy were geometrically constrained by lithological correlations across a series of cone penetration tests and continuously cored boreholes. Age control was provided by radiocarbon dating, optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) and infrared stimulated luminescence (IRSL) dating, and sequence-stratigraphic boundaries. Radiocarbon dating was used to constrain individual earthquake event ages in the borehole transect. Using a novel coring procedure, light-protected samples for quartz OSL and feldspar IRSL dating were acquired from a 171-m-deep borehole that we drilled within the growth fold. These samples provided age constraints on growth strata that were tied to prominent seismic reflections and were combined with

  13. Continuous monitoring of fluid flow rate and contemporaneous biogeochemical fluxes in the sub-seafloor; the Mosquito flux meter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Culling, D. P.; Solomon, E. A.; Kastner, M.; Berg, R. D.

    2013-12-01

    Fluid flow through marine sediments and oceanic crust impacts seawater chemistry as well as diagenetic, thermal, seismic, and magmatic processes at plate boundaries, creates ore and gas hydrate deposits at and below seafloor, and establishes and maintains deep microbial ecosystems. However, steady-state fluid flow rates, as well as the temporal and spatial variability of fluid flow and composition are poorly constrained in many marine environments. A new, low-cost instrument deployable by ROV or submersible, named the Mosquito, was recently developed to provide continuous, long-term and campaign style monitoring of fluid flow rate and contemporaneous solute fluxes at multiple depths below the sea floor. The Mosquito consists of a frame that houses several osmotic pumps (Osmo-Samplers [OS]) connected to coils of tubing that terminate with an attachment to long thin titanium (Ti) needles, all of which are mounted to a release plate. The OS's consist of an acrylic housing which contains a brine chamber (BC) and a distilled water chamber (DWC) separated by semi permeable membranes. The osmotic gradient between the chambers drives the flow of distilled water into the BC. The DWC is connected to the Teflon tubing coil and a Ti needle, both of which are also filled with distilled water, thus the OS pulls fluid from the base of the needle through the tubing coil. One central Ti needle is attached to a custom-made tracer injection assembly, filled with a known volume of tracer, which is triggered, injecting a point source in the sediment. On a typical Mosquito, 4 needles are mounted vertically at varying depths with respect to the tracer injection needle, and 4 needles are mounted at equal depth but set at variable horizontal distances away from the tracer injection. Once the Mosquito has been placed on the seafloor, the release plate is manually triggered pushing the Ti needles into the sediment, then the tracer injection assembly is actuated. As the tracer is advected

  14. Effects of continuous rate intravenous infusion of butorphanol on physiologic and outcome variables in horses after celiotomy.

    PubMed

    Sellon, Debra C; Roberts, Malcolm C; Blikslager, Anthony T; Ulibarri, Catherine; Papich, Mark G

    2004-01-01

    A randomized, controlled, blinded clinical trial was performed to determine whether butorphanol administered by continuous rate infusion (CRI) for 24 hours after abdominal surgery would decrease pain and surgical stress responses and improve recovery in horses. Thirty-one horses undergoing exploratory celiotomy for abdominal pain were randomly assigned to receive butorphanol CRI (13 microg/kg/h for 24 hours after surgery; treatment) or isotonic saline (control). All horses received flunixin meglumine (1.1 mg/kg IV q12h). There were no significant differences between treatment and control horses in preoperative or operative variables. Treatment horses had significantly lower plasma cortisol concentration compared with control horses at 2, 8, 12, 24, 36, and 48 hours after surgery. Mean weight loss while hospitalized was significantly less for treatment horses than control horses, whether expressed as total decrease in body weight (13.9+/-3.4 and 27.9+/-4.5 kg, respectively) or as a percentage decrease in body weight (2.6+/-0.7 and 6.3+/-1.1%, respectively). Treatment horses were significantly delayed in time to first passage of feces (median times of 15 and 4 hours, respectively). Treatment horses had significantly improved behavior scores during the first 24 hours after surgery, consistent with the conclusion that they experienced less pain during that time. Butorphanol CRI during the immediate postoperative period significantly decreased plasma cortisol concentrations and improved recovery characteristics in horses undergoing abdominal surgery. PMID:15320598

  15. Variational Continuous Assimilation of TMI and SSM/I Rain Rates: Impact on GEOS-3 Hurricane Analyses and Forecasts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hou, Arthur Y.; Zhang, Sara Q.; Reale, Oreste

    2003-01-01

    We describe a variational continuous assimilation (VCA) algorithm for assimilating tropical rainfall data using moisture and temperature tendency corrections as the control variable to offset model deficiencies. For rainfall assimilation, model errors are of special concern since model-predicted precipitation is based on parameterized moist physics, which can have substantial systematic errors. This study examines whether a VCA scheme using the forecast model as a weak constraint offers an effective pathway to precipitation assimilation. The particular scheme we exarnine employs a '1+1' dimension precipitation observation operator based on a 6-h integration of a column model of moist physics from the Goddard Earth Observing System (GEOS) global data assimilation system DAS). In earlier studies, we tested a simplified version of this scheme and obtained improved monthly-mean analyses and better short-range forecast skills. This paper describes the full implementation ofthe 1+1D VCA scheme using background and observation error statistics, and examines how it may improve GEOS analyses and forecasts of prominent tropical weather systems such as hurricanes. Parallel assimilation experiments with and without rainfall data for Hurricanes Bonnie and Floyd show that assimilating 6-h TMI and SSM/I surfice rain rates leads to more realistic storm features in the analysis, which, in turn, provide better initial conditions for 5-day storm track prediction and precipitation forecast. These results provide evidence that addressing model deficiencies in moisture tendency may be crucial to making effective use of precipitation information in data assimilation.

  16. Effect of Growth Rate and Glucose Concentration on the Biochemical Properties of Streptococcus mutans Ingbritt in Continuous Culture

    PubMed Central

    Hamilton, I. R.; Phipps, P. J.; Ellwood, D. C.

    1979-01-01

    A comparison was made of the properties of Streptococcus mutans Ingbritt grown in continuous culture under conditions of excess glucose (nitrogen limitation) and limiting glucose at mean generation times of 1.7 to 14 h. Only low levels of glucoamylase-specific glycogen were formed in cells from either culture, and the total carbohydrate content of the cells under excess glucose was only at most 1.6-fold higher than in the glucose-limited culture. A negligible amount of cell-free polysaccharide was formed in either culture, although a significant level of glucosyltransferase activity was observed in both, with the highest activity at D = 0.2 and 0.4 h-1 with a glucose limitation. Other differences were observed. (i) Lactate was the main end product of the glucose-excess culture, whereas acetate, formate, and ethanol were the main products of the glucose-limited culture except at a mean generation time of 1.5, when lactate represented 30% of the products. (ii) The yield (in grams per mole of glucose) of the latter culture was 2.6- to 4.0- fold higher than the yield of the glucose-excess culture. (iii) Washed cells from the glucose-limited culture were much more acidogenic (1.7- to 6.2-fold) than the glucose-excess cells when incubated with glucose, sucrose, and fructose. Endogenous glycolytic activity by the latter cells was significant, being 31 to 92% of the exogenous glucose rate at the four dilution rates. (iv) Cells from the glucose-excess culture were more insensitive to fluoride than cells from the glucose-limited culture. The NaF 50% inhibition dose values for the effect of fluoride on the metabolism of glucose, sucrose, and fructose were calculated for the four dilution rates at four pH values. This analysis indicated that rapidly metabolizing cells were more sensitive to fluoride than cells that metabolized the sugars more slowly. PMID:43291

  17. Cell yields and fermentation responses of a Salmonella Typhimurium poultry isolate at different dilution rates in an anaerobic steady state continuous culture

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objectives of these studies were to determine cell yield and fermentation responses of a Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium poultry isolate using various dilution rates in steady state continuous culture incubations. S. enterica Typhimurium cells were propagated in continuous cultures with ...

  18. Automated Peritoneal Dialysis Is Associated with Better Survival Rates Compared to Continuous Ambulatory Peritoneal Dialysis: A Propensity Score Matching Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Beduschi, Gabriela de Carvalho; Figueiredo, Ana Elizabeth; Olandoski, Marcia; Pecoits-Filho, Roberto; Barretti, Pasqual; de Moraes, Thyago Proenca

    2015-01-01

    Introduction The impact of peritoneal dialysis modality on patient survival and peritonitis rates is not fully understood, and no large-scale randomized clinical trial (RCT) is available. In the absence of a RCT, the use of an advanced matching procedure to reduce selection bias in large cohort studies may be the best approach. The aim of this study is to compare automated peritoneal dialysis (APD) and continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD) according to peritonitis risk, technique failure and patient survival in a large nation-wide PD cohort Methods This is a prospective cohort study that included all incident PD patients with at least 90 days of PD recruited in the BRAZPD study. All patients who were treated exclusively with either APD or CAPD were matched for 15 different covariates using a propensity score calculated with the nearest neighbor method. Clinical outcomes analyzed were overall mortality, technique failure and time to first peritonitis. For all analysis we also adjusted the curves for the presence of competing risks with the Fine and Gray analysis. Results After the matching procedure, 2,890 patients were included in the analysis (1,445 in each group). Baseline characteristics were similar for all covariates including: age, diabetes, BMI, Center-experience, coronary artery disease, cancer, literacy, hypertension, race, previous HD, gender, pre-dialysis care, family income, peripheral artery disease and year of starting PD. Mortality rate was higher in CAPD patients (SHR1.44 CI95%1.21-1.71) compared to APD, but no difference was observed for technique failure (SHR0.83 CI95%0.69-1.02) nor for time till the first peritonitis episode (SHR0.96 CI95%0.93-1.11). Conclusion In the first large PD cohort study with groups balanced for several covariates using propensity score matching, PD modality was not associated with differences in neither time to first peritonitis nor in technique failure. Nevertheless, patient survival was significantly better

  19. Coping with continuous human disturbance in the wild: insights from penguin heart rate response to various stressors

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background A central question for ecologists is the extent to which anthropogenic disturbances (e.g. tourism) might impact wildlife and affect the systems under study. From a research perspective, identifying the effects of human disturbance caused by research-related activities is crucial in order to understand and account for potential biases and derive appropriate conclusions from the data. Results Here, we document a case of biological adjustment to chronic human disturbance in a colonial seabird, the king penguin (Aptenodytes patagonicus), breeding on remote and protected islands of the Southern ocean. Using heart rate (HR) as a measure of the stress response, we show that, in a colony with areas exposed to the continuous presence of humans (including scientists) for over 50 years, penguins have adjusted to human disturbance and habituated to certain, but not all, types of stressors. When compared to birds breeding in relatively undisturbed areas, birds in areas of high chronic human disturbance were found to exhibit attenuated HR responses to acute anthropogenic stressors of low-intensity (i.e. sounds or human approaches) to which they had been subjected intensely over the years. However, such attenuation was not apparent for high-intensity stressors (i.e. captures for scientific research) which only a few individuals experience each year. Conclusions Habituation to anthropogenic sounds/approaches could be an adaptation to deal with chronic innocuous stressors, and beneficial from a research perspective. Alternately, whether penguins have actually habituated to anthropogenic disturbances over time or whether human presence has driven the directional selection of human-tolerant phenotypes, remains an open question with profound ecological and conservation implications, and emphasizes the need for more knowledge on the effects of human disturbance on long-term studied populations. PMID:22784366

  20. Effects of atipamezole and medetomidine administration on seminal variables and functions of erection and ejaculation of the collared peccary (Tayassu tajacu) after electroejaculation

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Alpha adrenergic drugs are usually used in the treatment of erectile and ejaculatory dysfunction in humans. The influence of such drugs on the seminal characteristics of wild animals has not been verified; whereas their impact on the seminal characteristics and erectile and ejaculatory functions of collared peccaries (Tayassu tajacu) has already been determined. This study aimed at investigating and comparing the effects of medetomidine and atipamezole on the seminal variables of collared peccaries undergoing electroejaculation as well as at determining whether these drugs affected the erectile and ejaculatory functions of this species. Results A statistically significant difference in sperm concentration was observed between AP (100.0 ± 26.0 × 106 sperm/ml) and MP (220.2 ± 49.8 × 106 sperm/ml); however, both these treatments did not differ from P treatment (180.0 ± 50.7 × 106 sperm/ml). No statistically significant difference was observed among all treatments with regard to erectile function. With regard to ejaculation time, no significant difference was observed between the MP and AP treatments; however, when compared with the P treatment, AP exhibited a significantly higher difference. Conclusions When collared peccaries were anesthetized with propofol, neither medetomidine nor atipamezole significantly affected the characteristics of the semen or the erectile function, despite the fact that the AP treatment increased ejaculation time. Therefore, the data indicate that using propofol alone is an effective anesthetic protocol for collecting semen in collared peccaries. Other non-injectable anesthetic drugs, such as inhaled anesthetics, may be used in future research to collect semen from peccaries. PMID:25103781

  1. Influence of cooling rate on the precipitation behavior in Ti–Nb–Mo microalloyed steels during continuous cooling and relationship to strength

    SciTech Connect

    Bu, F.Z.; Wang, X.M.; Chen, L.; Yang, S.W.; Shang, C.J.; Misra, R.D.K.

    2015-04-15

    In this study we elucidate carbide precipitation at varied cooling rates in Ti–Nb–Mo microalloyed steels during continuous cooling. The study suggests that increasing the cooling rate prevents precipitate formation in the ferrite phase during continuous cooling after finish rolling at 850 °C. At a lower cooling rate of 0.5 °C/s, the microhardness of ferrite grains exhibited maxima because of high volume fraction of fine carbides. A high density of nanoscale carbides with similar precipitation characteristics, including interphase precipitates, was observed at cooling rates of 0.5 and 1 °C/s, but the carbides were marginally larger and the spacing between them was increased with cooling rate. Additionally, carbide precipitation at a high cooling rate was associated with strain-induced precipitation. Through the analysis of selection area electron diffraction patterns and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy, lattice imaging, the fine spherical-shaped carbides of size ~ 6–10 nm were identified as MC-type carbides of the type (Ti,Nb,Mo)C and NbC. - Highlights: • We model three cooling rates which have indicated different precipitation behaviors. • We find two types of precipitates including NbC and (Ti,Nb,Mo)C based on HRTEM study. • Increasing cooling rate will decrease volume fraction and size of the precipitates. • There is no absence of interphase precipitation when the cooling rate increases to 5 °C/s.

  2. A Continuation of the Paradigm Wars? Prevalence Rates of Methodological Approaches across the Social/Behavioral Sciences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alise, Mark A.; Teddlie, Charles

    2010-01-01

    A new line of research has emerged that examines the prevalence rates of mixed methods within disciplines in the social/behavioral sciences. Research presented in this article is unique in that it examines prevalence rates across multiple disciplines using an established cross-disciplinary classification scheme. Results indicate that there are…

  3. The use of dexmedetomidine continuous rate infusion for horses undergoing transvenous electrical cardioversion — A case series

    PubMed Central

    Marly-Voquer, Charlotte; Schwarzwald, Colin C.; Bettschart-Wolfensberger, Regula

    2016-01-01

    Five horses were presented for treatment of atrial fibrillation by transvenous electrical cardioversion (TVEC). A dexmedetomidine infusion was administered for sedation during positioning of the cardioversion catheters, and continued during general anesthesia. Shocks were applied until return to sinus rhythm. Dexmedetomidine infusion provided excellent conditions for TVEC catheter placement and procedure. PMID:26740702

  4. Lack of effect of microinjection of noradrenaline or medetomidine on stimulus-evoked release of substance P in the spinal cord of the cat: a study with antibody microprobes.

    PubMed Central

    Lang, C. W.; Hope, P. J.; Grubb, B. D.; Duggan, A. W.

    1994-01-01

    1. Experiments were performed on barbiturate anaesthetized, spinalized cats to investigate the effect of microinjected noradrenaline or medetomidine on the release of immunoreactive substance P in the dorsal spinal cord following peripheral nerve stimulation. The presence of immunoreactive substance P was assessed with microprobes bearing C-terminus-directed antibodies to substance P. 2. Noradrenaline or medetomidine were microinjected into the grey matter of the spinal cord, near microprobe insertion sites, at depths of 2.5, 2.0, 1.5 and 1.0 mm below the spinal cord surface with volumes of approximately 0.125 microliters and a concentration of 10(-3) M. 3. In the untreated spinal cord, electrical stimulation of the ipsilateral tibial nerve (suprathreshold for C-fibres) elicited release of immunoreactive substance P which was centred in and around lamina II. Neither noradrenaline nor medetomidine administration in the manner described produced significant alterations in this pattern of nerve stimulus-evoked release. 4. In agreement with recent ultrastructural studies these results do not support a control of substance P release by catecholamines released from sites near to the central terminals of small diameter primary afferent fibres. PMID:7522862

  5. The reliability of lumbar motion palpation using continuous analysis and confidence ratings: choosing a relevant index of agreement

    PubMed Central

    Cooperstein, Robert; Young, Morgan

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Most studies show motion palpation unreliable. This study’s primary objective was assessing its reliability using a continuous measure methods, most-fixated level paradigm, stratified by examiners’ confidence; and the secondary objective was comparing various indices of examiner agreement. Methods: Thirty-four minimally symptomatic participants were palpated in side posture by two experienced examiners. Interexaminer differences in identifying the most-fixated level and degree of examiner confidence were recorded. Indices of agreement were: Intraclass correlation coefficient, Mean and Median Examiner Absolute Examiner Differences, Root-Mean-Square Error and Bland-Altman Limits of Agreement. Results: Three of four reliability indices (excluding intraclass correlation) suggested on average examiners agreed on the most fixated motion segment, and agreement increased with confidence. Statistical measures of data dispersion were low. The analyses of subgroups were “fragile” due to small sample size. Discussion: Although subject homogeneity lowered ICC levels, the other reliability measures were not similarly impacted. Continuous measures statistical analysis demonstrates examiner agreement in situations where discrete analysis with kappa may not. Conclusion: Continuous analysis for the lumbar most-fixated level is reliable. Future studies will need a larger sample size to properly analyze subgroups based on examiner confidence. PMID:27385834

  6. Comparative effectiveness of standard endotracheal tubes vs. endotracheal tubes with continuous subglottic suctioning on ventilator-associated pneumonia rates.

    PubMed

    Speroni, Karen Gabel; Lucas, Joy; Dugan, Lisa; O'Meara-Lett, Mildred; Putman, Marissa; Daniel, Marlon; Atherton, Martin

    2011-01-01

    Ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) accounts for the majority of nosocomial pneumonias, which may increase intensive care and prolonged hospital stays. Endotracheal tubes allowing continuous subglottic suctioning may reduce VAP; however, they are more expensive than standard endotracheal tubes not allowing continuous suctioning. he objective of this study was to measure the comparative costs associated with continuous subglottic suctioning endotracheal tubes (CSS-ETT) versus standard endotracheal tubes (S-ETT) among intubated patients and whether cost differential is offset by the occurrence of VAP in patients receiving either type of intubation. A retrospective chart review was conducted for 154 intubated adult patients (77 = S-ETT; 77 = CSS-ETT). The S-ETT group had one case of VAP; the CSS-ETT group had none. The mean total hospital charges were higher for the S-ETT group ($103,600; CSS-ETT= $88,500) (p = 0.3). Although the average number of intubation days and ICU days were greater for the CSS-ETT group, there were no cases of VAP compared to the S-ETT group. ased upon the one S-ETT VAP case and the VAP attributable costs, it is cost effective to use the CSS-ETT. PMID:21469484

  7. Determinants of Calcium Infusion Rate During Continuous Veno-venous Hemofiltration with Regional Citrate Anticoagulation in Critically Ill Patients with Acute Kidney Injury

    PubMed Central

    Liu, De-Lin; Huang, Li-Feng; Ma, Wen-Liang; Ding, Qi; Han, Yue; Zheng, Yue; Li, Wen-Xiong

    2016-01-01

    Background: It is unclear that how to decide the calcium infusion rate during continuous veno-venous hemofiltration (CVVH) with regional citrate anticoagulation (RCA). This study aimed to assess the determinants of calcium infusion rate during CVVH with RCA in critically ill patients with acute kidney injury (AKI). Methods: A total of 18 patients with AKI requiring CVVH were prospectively analyzed. Postdilution CVVH was performed with a fixed blood flow rate of 150 ml/min and a replacement fluid flow rate of 2000 ml/h for each new circuit. The infusion of 4% trisodium citrate was started at a rate of 29.9 mmol/h prefilter and adjusted according to postfilter ionized calcium. The infusion of 10% calcium gluconate was initiated at a rate of 5.5 mmol/h and adjusted according to systemic ionized calcium. The infusion rate of trisodium citrate and calcium gluconate as well as ultrafiltrate flow rate were recorded at 1, 2, 4, 6, 12, and 24 h after starting CVVH, respectively. The calcium loss rate by CVVH was also calculated. Results: Fifty-seven sessions of CVVH were performed in 18 AKI patients. The citrate infusion rate, calcium loss rate by CVVH, and calcium infusion rate were 31.30 (interquartile range: 2.70), 4.60 ± 0.48, and 5.50 ± 0.35 mmol/h, respectively. The calcium infusion rate was significantly higher than that of calcium loss rate by CVVH (P < 0.01). The correlation coefficient between the calcium and citrate infusion rates, and calcium infusion and calcium loss rates by CVVH was −0.031 (P > 0.05) and 0.932 (P < 0.01), respectively. In addition, calcium infusion rate (mmol/h) = 1.77 + 0.8 × (calcium loss rate by CVVH, mmol/h). Conclusions: The calcium infusion rate correlates significantly with the calcium loss rate by CVVH but not with the citrate infusion rate in a fixed blood flow rate during CVVH with RCA. PMID:27411455

  8. The effect of continuous low dose-rate gamma irradiation on cell population kinetics of lymphoid tissue

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Foster, B. R.

    1973-01-01

    The problem studied involved cell proliferation in mice thymus undergoing irradiation at a dose rate of 10 roetgens/day for 105 days. Specifically, the aim was to determine wheather or not a steady state of cell population can be established for the indicated period of time and what compensatory mechanisms of cell population are involved.

  9. A Wearable Vital Signs Monitor at the Ear for Continuous Heart Rate and Pulse Transit Time Measurements

    PubMed Central

    Winokur, Eric S.; Da He, David; Sodini, Charles G.

    2015-01-01

    A continuous, wearable and wireless vital signs monitor at the ear is demonstrated. The device has the form factor of a hearing aid and is wirelessly connected to a PC for data recording and analysis. The device monitors the electrocardiogram (ECG) in a single lead configuration, the ballistocardiogram (BCG) with a MEMS triaxial accelerometer, and the photoplethysmograms (PPG) with 660nm and 940nm LED sources and a static photocurrent subtraction analog front end. Clinical tests are conducted, including Valsalva and head-up tilt maneuvers. Peak timing intervals between the ECG, BCG and PPG are extracted and are shown to relate to pre-ejection period and mean arterial blood pressure (MAP). Pulse Transit Time (PTT) extracted from cross-correlation between the PPG and BCG shows improved results compared to the pulse arrival time (PAT) method for tracking changes in MAP. PMID:23366488

  10. [Effects of different application rates of calcium cyanamide on soil microbial biomass and enzyme activity in cucumber continuous cropping].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xue-peng; Ning, Tang-yuan; Yang, Yan; Sun, Tao; Zhang, Shu-min; Wang, Bin

    2015-10-01

    A 2-year field experiment was conducted to study the effects of CaCN2 combined with cucumber straw retention on soil microbial biomass carbon (SMBC) , soil microbial biomass nitrogen (SMBN) and soil enzyme activities under cucumber continuous cropping system. Four treatments were used in this study as follows: CK (null CaCN2), CaCN2-90 (1350 kg CaCN2 . hm-2) CaCN2-60 (900 kg CaCN2 . hm-2), CaCN2-30 (450 kg CaCN2 . hm-2). The results indicated that, compared with the other treatments, CaCN2-90 treatment significantly decreased SMBC in 0-10 cm soil layer at seedling stage, but increased SMBC in 0-20 cm soil layer after early-fruit stage. Compared with CK, CaCN2 increased SMBC in 0-20 cm soil layer at late-fruit stage, and increased SMBN in 0-10 cm soil layer at mid- and late-fruit stages, however there was no significant trend among CaCN2 treatments in the first year (2012), while in the second year (2013) SMBN increased with the increasing CaCN2 amount after mid-fruit stage. CaCN2 increased straw decaying and nutrients releasing, and also increased soil organic matter. Furthermore, the CaCN2-90 could accelerate straw decomposition. Compared with CK, CaCN2 effectively increased soil urease, catalase and polyphenol oxidase activity. The soil urease activity increased while the polyphenol oxidase activity decreased with the increase of CaCN2, and CaCN2-60 could significantly improve catalase activity. Soil organic matter, urease activity and catalase activity had significant positive correlations with SMBC and SMBN. However, polyphenol oxidase activity was negatively correlated to SMBC and SMBN. Our findings indicated that CaCN2 application at 900 kg . hm-2 combined with cucumber straw retention could effectively improve soil environment, alleviating the soil obstacles under the cucumber continuous cropping system. PMID:26995916

  11. On-line monitoring of blend uniformity in continuous drug product manufacturing process--The impact of powder flow rate and the choice of spectrometer: Dispersive vs. FT.

    PubMed

    Shi, Zhenqi; McGhehey, Kathryn C; Leavesley, Ian M; Manley, Leo F

    2016-01-25

    One of the commonly acknowledged issues in continuous manufacturing of drug products is how to provide a representative sampling on flowing powder to assure its blend uniformity. An investigation was conducted to improve understanding on the impact of powder flow rate under different continuous manufacturing conditions and the impact of optical parameters (such as resolution, co-adds, and integration time) on NIR spectral quality with respect to a dispersive and a Fourier transform instrument. A partial least squares (PLS)-based spectral pretreatment was found useful to tackle the impact of different flow rates on NIR spectral signals. Multivariate figures of merit (FOM) were used to evaluate performances across different instruments and optical settings and discover the advantageous selectivity and sensitivity on the Fourier transform than the dispersive instrument regardless of the use of co-adds. PMID:26580823

  12. Pilot-scale continuous synthesis of a vanadium-doped LiFePO4/C nanocomposite high-rate cathodes for lithium-ion batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, Ian D.; Lübke, Mechthild; Wu, On Ying; Makwana, Neel M.; Smales, Glen J.; Islam, Husn U.; Dedigama, Rashmi Y.; Gruar, Robert I.; Tighe, Christopher J.; Scanlon, David O.; Corà, Furio; Brett, Dan J. L.; Shearing, Paul R.; Darr, Jawwad A.

    2016-01-01

    A high performance vanadium-doped LiFePO4 (LFP) electrode is synthesized using a continuous hydrothermal method at a production rate of 6 kg per day. The supercritical water reagent rapidly generates core/shell nanoparticles with a thin, continuous carbon coating on the surface of LFP, which aids electron transport dynamics across the particle surface. Vanadium dopant concentration has a profound effect on the performance of LFP, where the composition LiFe0.95V0.05PO4, achieves a specific discharge capacity which is among the highest in the comparable literature (119 mA h g-1 at a discharge rate of 1500 mA g-1). Additionally, a combination of X-ray absorption spectroscopy analysis and hybrid-exchange density functional theory, suggest that vanadium ions replace both phosphorous and iron in the structure, thereby facilitating Li+ diffusion due to Li+ vacancy generation and changes in the crystal structure.

  13. Quantifying VOC-Reaction Tracers, Ozone Production, and Continuing Aerosol Production Rates in Urban and Far-Downwind Atmospheres

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chatfield, Robert; Ren, X.; Brune, W.; Fried, A.; Schwab, J.

    2008-01-01

    We have found a surprisingly informative decomposition of the complex question of smoggy ozone production (basically, [HO2] in a more locally determined field of [NO]) in the process of linked investigations of modestly smoggy Eastern North America (by NASA aircraft, July 2004) and rather polluted Flushing, NYC (Queens College, July, 2001). In both rural and very polluted situations, we find that a simple contour graph parameterization of the local principal ozone production rate can be estimated using only the variables [NO] and j(sub rads) [HCHO]: Po(O3) = c (j(sub rads) [HCHO])(sup a) [HCHO](sup b). Here j(sub rads) is the photolysis of HCHO to radicals, presumably capturing many harder-UV photolytic processes and the principle ozone production is that due to HO2; mechanisms suggest that ozone production due to RO2 is closely correlated, often suggesting a limited range of different proportionality factors. The method immediately suggests a local interpretation for concepts of VOC limitation and NOx limitation. We believe that the product j(sub rads) [HCHO] guages the oxidation rate of observed VOC mixtures in a way that also provides [HO2] useful for the principle ozone production rate k [HO2] [NO], and indeed, all ozone chemical production. The success of the method suggests that dominant urban primary-HCHO sources may transition to secondary plume-HCHO sources in a convenient way. Are there other, simple, near-terminal oxidized VOC's which help guage ozone production and aerosol particle formation? Regarding particles, we report on, to the extent NASA Research resources allow, on appealing relationships between far-downwind (Atlantic PBL) HCHO and very fine aerosol (including sulfate. Since j(sub rads) [HCHO] provides a time-scale, we may understand distant-plume particle production in a more quantitative manner. Additionally we report on a statistical search in the nearer field for relationships between glyoxals (important near-terminal aromatic and isoprene

  14. Neighbourhood density and genetic relatedness interact to determine fruit set and abortion rates in a continuous tropical tree population

    PubMed Central

    Jones, F.A; Comita, L.S

    2008-01-01

    Tropical trees may show positive density dependence in fruit set and maturation due to pollen limitation in low-density populations. However, pollen from closely related individuals in the local neighbourhood might reduce fruit set or increase fruit abortion in self-incompatible tree species. We investigated the role of neighbourhood density and genetic relatedness on individual fruit set and abortion in the neotropical tree Jacaranda copaia in a large forest plot in central Panama. Using nested neighbourhood models, we found a strong positive effect of increased conspecific density on fruit set and maturation. However, high neighbourhood genetic relatedness interacted with density to reduce total fruit set and increase the proportion of aborted fruit. Our results imply a fitness advantage for individuals growing in high densities as measured by fruit set, but realized fruit set is lowered by increased neighbourhood relatedness. We hypothesize that the mechanism involved is increased visitation by density-dependent invertebrate pollinators in high-density populations, which increases pollen quantity and carry-over and increases fruit set and maturation, coupled with self-incompatibility at early and late stages due to biparental inbreeding that lowers fruit set and increases fruit abortion. Implications for the reproductive ecology and conservation of tropical tree communities in continuous and fragmented habitats are discussed. PMID:18713714

  15. Relational scaffolding of school motivation: developmental continuities in students' and parents' ratings of the importance of school goals.

    PubMed

    Bigelow, B J; Zhou, R M

    2001-03-01

    The authors investigated whether parents and students are consistent, over grade levels, in the importance they assign to school goals. Elementary and high school students (n = 178) and their parents (n = 130) completed a questionnaire addressing the personal importance of students' school goals, defined in terms of school success. Parent-child consistencies in the rating patterns of school goals over grade levels were more common than were inconsistencies. These developmental consistencies support the position that students' school goals are embedded within the parent-child relationship (J. Youniss, 1980; J. Youniss & J. Smollar, 1985) and are scaffolded within it (J. S. Bruner, 1975; L. S. Vygotsky, 1978). Potential sources of relational and phenotypic influences on school goals are discussed, as is the need for effective friendship management and school performance in high school. PMID:11338442

  16. Hour-long continuous operation of a tabletop soft x-ray laser at 50-100 Hz repetition rate.

    PubMed

    Reagan, Brendan A; Li, Wei; Urbanski, Lukasz; Wernsing, Keith A; Salsbury, Chase; Baumgarten, Cory; Marconi, Mario C; Menoni, Carmen S; Rocca, Jorge J

    2013-11-18

    We report the uninterrupted operation of an 18.9 nm wavelength tabletop soft x-ray laser at 100 Hz repetition rate for extended periods of time. An average power of about 0.1 mW was obtained by irradiating a Mo target with pulses from a compact diode-pumped chirped pulse amplification Yb:YAG laser. Series of up to 1.8 x 10(5) consecutive laser pulses of ~1 µJ energy were generated by displacing the surface of a high shot-capacity rotating molybdenum target by ~2 µm between laser shots. As a proof-of-principle demonstration of the use of this compact ultrashort wavelength laser in applications requiring a high average power coherent beam, we lithographically printed an array of nanometer-scale features using coherent Talbot self-imaging. PMID:24514347

  17. High-rate reel-to-reel continuous coating of biaxially textured magnesium oxide thin films for coated conductors

    SciTech Connect

    Chudzik, M. P.; Erck, R. A.; Balachandran, U.; Luo, Z. P.; Miller, D. J.; Kannewurf, C. R.

    2000-01-12

    Biaxially textured thin films of magnesium oxide (MgO) were deposited by electron beam evaporation at deposition rates of 0.6 {mu}m/min on moving Ni-based alloy tapes as oriented buffer layers for coated conductors. Moving substrates were inclined with respect to the atomic vapor and translated through collimated dual vapor sources. Growth anisotropy in the MgO and self-shadowing effects due to the inclined angle combine to create biaxial texture in the deposited thin films. MgO films grown to a thickness of 2.0 {mu}m with this inclined-substrate deposition technique have yielded in-plane textures of 10--12{degree} fill-width half-maximum (FWHM). Results of a parametric study on the in-plane texture in short-length static-mode samples are presented, along with preliminary results of long-length samples deposited under translating conditions.

  18. The San Francisco Men's Health Study: continued decline in HIV seroconversion rates among homosexual/bisexual men.

    PubMed Central

    Winkelstein, W; Wiley, J A; Padian, N S; Samuel, M; Shiboski, S; Ascher, M S; Levy, J A

    1988-01-01

    The incidence of infection by the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) has been monitored since 1984 in an area probability sample of homosexual/bisexual men drawn from a six-kilometer square area of San Francisco where the epidemic of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) has been most severe. Annualized HIV seroconversion rates in previously uninfected cohort members have declined by 88 per cent from 5.9 per cent during the first six months of 1985 to 0.7 per cent during the last six months of 1987. Concurrent declines of approximately 80 per cent in the prevalence of sexual behaviors associated with HIV transmission were also observed in the sample. PMID:3177723

  19. Continuous In-The-Field Measurement of Heart Rate: Correlates of Drug Use, Craving, Stress, and Mood in Polydrug Users

    PubMed Central

    Kennedy, Ashley P.; Epstein, David H.; Jobes, Michelle L.; Agage, Daniel; Tyburski, Matthew; Phillips, Karran A.; Ali, Amin Ahsan; Bari, Rummana; Hossain, Syed Monowar; Hovsepian, Karen; Rahman, Md. Mahbubur; Ertin, Emre; Kumar, Santosh; Preston, Kenzie L.

    2015-01-01

    Background Ambulatory physiological monitoring could clarify antecedents and consequences of drug use and could contribute to a sensor-triggered mobile intervention that automatically detects behaviorally risky situations. Our goal was to show that such monitoring is feasible and can produce meaningful data. Methods We assessed heart rate (HR) with AutoSense, a suite of biosensors that wirelessly transmits data to a smartphone, for up to four weeks in 40 polydrug users in opioid-agonist maintenance as they went about their daily lives. Participants also self-reported drug use, mood, and activities on electronic diaries. We compared HR with self-report using multilevel modeling (SAS Proc Mixed). Results Compliance with AutoSense was good; the data yield from the wireless electrocardiographs was 85.7%. HR was higher when participants reported cocaine use than when they reported heroin use (F(2,9) = 250.3, p<.0001) and was also higher as a function of the dose of cocaine reported (F(1,8) = 207.7, p<.0001). HR was higher when participants reported craving heroin (F(1,16)=230.9, p<.0001) or cocaine (F(1,14)=157.2, p<.0001) than when they reported of not craving. HR was lower (p<.05) in randomly prompted entries in which participants reported feeling relaxed, feeling happy, or watching TV, and was higher when they reported feeling stressed, being hassled, or walking. Conclusions High-yield, high-quality heart-rate data can be obtained from drug users in their natural environment as they go about their daily lives, and the resultant data robustly reflect episodes of cocaine and heroin use and other mental and behavioral events of interest. PMID:25920802

  20. PS1-10jh Continues to Follow the Fallback Accretion Rate of a Tidally Disrupted Star

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gezari, S.; Chornock, R.; Lawrence, A.; Rest, A.; Jones, D. O.; Berger, E.; Challis, P. M.; Narayan, G.

    2015-12-01

    We present late-time observations of the tidal disruption event candidate PS1-10jh. UV and optical imaging with Hubble Space Telescope/WFC3 localize the transient to be coincident with the host galaxy nucleus to an accuracy of 0.023 arcsec, corresponding to 66 pc. The UV flux in the F225W filter, measured 3.35 rest-frame years after the peak of the nuclear flare, is consistent with a decline that continues to follow a t‑5/3 power-law with no spectral evolution. Late epochs of optical spectroscopy obtained with MMT ∼ 2 and 4 years after the peak, enable a clean subtraction of the host galaxy from the early spectra, revealing broad helium emission lines on top of a hot continuum, and placing stringent upper limits on the presence of hydrogen line emission. We do not measure Balmer Hδ absorption in the host galaxy that is strong enough to be indicative of a rare, post-starburst “E+A” galaxy as reported by Arcavi et al. The light curve of PS1-10jh over a baseline of 3.5 years is best modeled by fallback accretion of a tidally disrupted star. Its strong broad helium emission relative to hydrogen (He iiλ4686/Hα > 5) could be indicative of either the hydrogen-poor chemical composition of the disrupted star, or certain conditions in the tidal debris of a solar-composition star in the presence of an optically thick, extended reprocessing envelope.

  1. Minute ventilation at different compression to ventilation ratios, different ventilation rates, and continuous chest compressions with asynchronous ventilation in a newborn manikin

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background In newborn resuscitation the recommended rate of chest compressions should be 90 per minute and 30 ventilations should be delivered each minute, aiming at achieving a total of 120 events per minute. However, this recommendation is based on physiological plausibility and consensus rather than scientific evidence. With focus on minute ventilation (Mv), we aimed to compare today’s standard to alternative chest compression to ventilation (C:V) ratios and different ventilation rates, as well as to continuous chest compressions with asynchronous ventilation. Methods Two investigators performed cardiopulmonary resuscitation on a newborn manikin with a T-piece resuscitator and manual chest compressions. The C:V ratios 3:1, 9:3 and 15:2, as well as continuous chest compressions with asynchronous ventilation (120 compressions and 40 ventilations per minute) were performed in a randomised fashion in series of 10 × 2 minutes. In addition, ventilation only was performed at three different rates (40, 60 and 120 ventilations per minute, respectively). A respiratory function monitor measured inspiration time, tidal volume and ventilation rate. Mv was calculated for the different interventions and the Mann–Whitney test was used for comparisons between groups. Results Median Mv per kg in ml (interquartile range) was significantly lower at the C:V ratios of 9:3 (140 (134–144)) and 15:2 (77 (74–83)) as compared to 3:1 (191(183–199)). With ventilation only, there was a correlation between ventilation rate and Mv despite a negative correlation between ventilation rate and tidal volumes. Continuous chest compressions with asynchronous ventilation gave higher Mv as compared to coordinated compressions and ventilations at a C:V ratio of 3:1. Conclusions In this study, higher C:V ratios than 3:1 compromised ventilation dynamics in a newborn manikin. However, higher ventilation rates, as well as continuous chest compressions with asynchronous ventilation gave higher Mv

  2. Readout circuitry for continuous high-rate photon detection with arrays of InP Geiger-mode avalanche photodiodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frechette, Jonathan; Grossmann, Peter J.; Busacker, David E.; Jordy, George J.; Duerr, Erik K.; McIntosh, K. Alexander; Oakley, Douglas C.; Bailey, Robert J.; Ruff, Albert C.; Brattain, Michael A.; Funk, Joseph E.; MacDonald, Jason G.; Verghese, Simon

    2012-06-01

    An asynchronous readout integrated circuit (ROIC) has been developed for hybridization to a 32x32 array of single-photon sensitive avalanche photodiodes (APDs). The asynchronous ROIC is capable of simultaneous detection and readout of photon times of arrival, with no array blind time. Each pixel in the array is independently operated by a finite state machine that actively quenches an APD upon a photon detection event, and re-biases the device into Geiger mode after a programmable hold-off time. While an individual APD is in hold-off mode, other elements in the array are biased and available to detect photons. This approach enables high pixel refresh frequency (PRF), making the device suitable for applications including optical communications and frequency-agile ladar. A built-in electronic shutter that de-biases the whole array allows the detector to operate in a gated mode or allows for detection to be temporarily disabled. On-chip data reduction reduces the high bandwidth requirements of simultaneous detection and readout. Additional features include programmable single-pixel disable, region of interest processing, and programmable output data rates. State-based on-chip clock gating reduces overall power draw. ROIC operation has been demonstrated with hybridized InP APDs sensitive to 1.06-μm and 1.55-μm wavelength, and fully packaged focal plane arrays (FPAs) have been assembled and characterized.

  3. Rationale and Enrollment Results for a Partially Randomized Patient Preference Trial to Compare Continuation Rates of Short-Acting and Long-Acting Reversible Contraception

    PubMed Central

    Hubacher, David; Spector, Hannah; Monteith, Charles; Chen, Pai-Lien; Hart, Catherine

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Most published contraceptive continuation rates have scientific limitations and cannot be compared; this is particularly true for dissimilar contraceptives. This study uses a new approach to determine if high continuation rates of long-acting reversible contraception (LARC) and protection from unintended pregnancy are observable in a population not self-selecting to use LARC. Study Design We are conducting a partially randomized patient preference trial to compare continuation rates of short-acting reversible contraception (SARC) and LARC. Only women seeking SARC were invited to participate. Participants chose to be in the preference cohort (self-selected method use) or opted to be randomized to SARC or LARC; only those in the randomized cohort received free product. We compared participant characteristics, reasons for not trying LARC previously, and the contraceptive choices that were made. Results We enrolled 917 eligible women; 57% chose to be in the preference cohort and 43% opted for the randomized trial. The preference and randomized cohorts were similar on most factors. However, the randomized cohort was more likely than the preference cohort to be uninsured (48% versus 36%, respectively) and to cite cost as a reason for not trying LARC previously (50% versus 10%) (p<0.01 for both comparisons). In the preference cohort, fear of pain/injury/side effects/health risks were the predominant reasons (cited by over 25%) for not trying LARC previously (p<0.01 in comparison to randomized cohort). Conclusions Enrollment was successful and the process created different cohorts to compare contraceptive continuation rates and unintended pregnancy in this ongoing trial. The choices participants made were associated with numerous factors; lack of insurance was associated with participation in the randomized trial. Implications This partially randomized patient preference trial will provide new estimates of contraceptive continuation rates, such that any benefits

  4. EFFECTS OF ADDITION RATE AND ACID MATRIX ON THE DESTRUCTION OF AMMONIUM BY THE SEMI-CONTINUOUS ADDITION OF SODIUM NITRITE DURING EVAPORATION

    SciTech Connect

    Kyser, E

    2007-08-27

    The destruction of ammonium by the semi-continuous addition of sodium nitrite during acidic evaporation can be achieved with a wide range of waste compositions. The efficiency of nitrite utilization for ammonium destruction was observed to vary from less than 20% to 60% depending on operating conditions. The effects of nitric acid concentration and nitrite addition rate are dominant factors that affect the efficiency of nitrite utilization for ammonium destruction. Reducing the acid concentration by performing acid recovery via steam stripping prior to performing nitrite destruction of ammonium will require more nitrite due to the low destruction efficiency. The scale-up of the baseline rate nitrite addition rate from the 100 mL to the 1600 gallon batch size has significant uncertainty and poses the risk of lower efficiency at the plant scale. Experience with plant scale processing will improve confidence in the application of nitrite destruction of ammonium to different waste streams.

  5. The application of an innovative continuous multiple tube reactor as a strategy to control the specific organic loading rate for biohydrogen production by dark fermentation.

    PubMed

    Gomes, Simone D; Fuess, Lucas T; Penteado, Eduardo D; Lucas, Shaiane D M; Gotardo, Jackeline T; Zaiat, Marcelo

    2015-12-01

    Biohydrogen production in fixed-bed reactors often leads to unstable and decreasing patterns because the excessive accumulation of biomass in the bed negatively affects the specific organic loading rate (SOLR) applied to the reactor. In this context, an innovative reactor configuration, i.e., the continuous multiple tube reactor (CMTR), was assessed in an attempt to better control the SOLR for biohydrogen production. The CMTR provides a continuous discharge of biomass, preventing the accumulation of solids in the long-term. Sucrose was used as the carbon source and mesophilic temperature conditions (25°C) were applied in three continuous assays. The reactor showed better performance when support material was placed in the outlet chamber to enhance biomass retention within the reactor. Although the SOLR could not be effectively controlled, reaching values usually higher than 10gsucroseg(-1)VSSd(-1), the volumetric hydrogen production and molar hydrogen production rates peaked, respectively, at 1470mLH2L(-1)d(-1) and 45mmolH2d(-1), indicating that the CMTR was a suitable configuration for biohydrogen production. PMID:26340028

  6. Investigating MALDI MSI parameters (Part 1) - A systematic survey of the effects of repetition rates up to 20kHz in continuous raster mode.

    PubMed

    Steven, Rory T; Dexter, Alex; Bunch, Josephine

    2016-07-15

    Recent developments in laser performance, combined with the desire for increases in detected ion intensity and throughput, have led to the adoption of high repetition-rate diode-pumped solid-state (DPSS) lasers in matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization (MALDI) mass spectrometry imaging (MSI). Previous studies have demonstrated a more complex relationship between detected ion intensity, stage raster speed and laser pulse repetition rate than the simple linear relationship between number of pulses and detected ion intensity that might be expected. Here we report, for the first time, the interrelated influence of varying laser energy, repetition rate and stage raster speed on detected ion intensity. Thin films of PC 34:1 lipid standard and murine brain tissue with CHCA are analysed by continuous stage raster MALDI MSI. Contrary to previous reports, the optimum laser repetition rate is found to be dependent on both laser energy and stage raster speed and is found to be as high as 20kHz under some conditions. The effects of different repetition rates and raster speeds are also found to vary for different ion species within MALDI MSI of tissue and so may be significant when either targeting specific molecules or seeking to minimize bias. A clear dependence on time between laser pulses is also observed indicating the underlying mechanisms may be related to on-plate hysteresis-exhibiting processes such as matrix chemical modification. PMID:27080810

  7. Orogen-scale along-strike continuity in quartz recrystallization microstructures adjacent to the Main Central Thrust: implications for deformation temperatures, strain rates and flow stresses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Law, Richard

    2015-04-01

    Traced for ~ 1500 km along the foreland edge of the Himalaya from NW India to Bhutan published reports indicate a remarkable along-strike continuity of quartz recrystallization microstructures in the footwall and hanging wall to the Main Central Thrust (MCT). Recrystallization in Lesser Himalayan Series (LHS) rocks in the footwall to the MCT is dominated by grain boundary bulging (BLG) microstructures, while recrystallization in Greater Himalayan Series (GHS) rocks in the hanging wall is dominated by grain boundary migration microstructures that traced structurally upwards transition in to the anatectic core of the GHS. In foreland-positioned high-strain rocks adjacent to the MCT recrystallization is dominated by subgrain rotation (SGR) with transitional BLG-SGR and SGR-GBM microstructures being recorded at structural distances of up to a few hundred meters below and above the MCT, respectively. Correlation with available information on temperatures of metamorphism indicated by mineral phase equilibria and RSCM data suggests that recrystallization in the structural zones dominated by BLG, SGR and GBM occurred at temperatures of ~ 350-450, 450-550 and 550- > 650 °C, respectively. It should be kept in mind, however, that these temperatures are likely to be 'close-to-peak' temperatures of metamorphism, whereas penetrative shearing and recrystallization may have continued during cooling. The dominance of SGR along the more foreland-positioned exposures of the MCT intuitively suggests that shearing occurred under a relatively restricted range of deformation temperatures and strain rates. Plotting the 'close-to-peak' 450-500 °C temperatures of metamorphism indicated for SGR-dominated rocks located at up to a few hundred meters below/above the MCT on the quartz recrystallization map developed by Stipp et al. (2002) indicates 'ball-park' strain rates of ~ 10-13 to 10-10 sec-1. However, only strain rates slower than 10-12 sec-1 on the MCT are likely to be compatible with

  8. Toward continuous quantification of lava extrusion rate: Results from the multidisciplinary analysis of the 2 January 2010 eruption of Piton de la Fournaise volcano, La Réunion.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hibert, Clement; Mangeney, Anne; Polacci, Margherita; Di Muro, Andrea; Vergniolle, Sylvie; Ferrazzini, Valérie; Peltier, Aline; Taisne, Benoit; Burton, Mike; Dewez, Thomas; Grandjean, Gilles; Dupont, Aurélien; Staudacher, Thomas; Brenguier, Florent; Kowalski, Philippe; Boissier, Patrice; Catherine, Philippe; Lauret, Frédéric

    2016-04-01

    The dynamics of the 2-12 January 2010 effusive eruption at Piton de la Fournaise volcano were examined through seismic and infrasound records, time-lapse photography, SO2 flux measurements, deformation data, and direct observations. Digital elevation models were constructed for four periods of the eruption, thus providing an assessment of the temporal evolution of the morphology, the volume and the extrusion rate of the lava flow. These data were compared to the continuous recording of the seismic and infrasonic waves, and a linear relationship was found between the seismic energy of the tremor and the lava extrusion rate. This relationship is supported by data from three other summit eruptions of Piton de la Fournaise and gives total volume and average lava extrusion rate in good agreement with previous studies. We can therefore provide an estimate of the lava extrusion rate for the January 2010 eruption with a very high temporal resolution. We found an average lava extrusion rate of 2.4 m3.s‑1 with a peak of 106.6 m3.s‑1 during the initial lava fountaining phase. We use the inferred average lava extrusion rate during the lava fountaining phase (30.23 m3.s‑1) to estimate the value of the initial overpressure in the magma reservoir, which we found to range from 3.7×106 Pa to 5.9×106 Pa. Finally, based on the estimated initial overpressure, the volume of magma expelled during the lava fountaining phase and geodetic data, we inferred the volume of the magma reservoir using a simple Mogi model, between 0.25 km3 and 0.54 km3, which is in good agreement with previous studies. The multidisciplinary analysis presented in our study sheds light on crucial qualitative and quantitative relations between eruption dynamics, seismic and infrasonic signals, and especially on the direct link between the lava extrusion rate and the seismic energy of the volcanic tremor. If this relationship is confirmed for other eruptions, generalization of its use will lead to a better

  9. Toward continuous quantification of lava extrusion rate: Results from the multidisciplinary analysis of the 2 January 2010 eruption of Piton de la Fournaise volcano, La Réunion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hibert, C.; Mangeney, A.; Polacci, M.; Muro, A. Di; Vergniolle, S.; Ferrazzini, V.; Peltier, A.; Taisne, B.; Burton, M.; Dewez, T.; Grandjean, G.; Dupont, A.; Staudacher, T.; Brenguier, F.; Kowalski, P.; Boissier, P.; Catherine, P.; Lauret, F.

    2015-05-01

    The dynamics of the 2-12 January 2010 effusive eruption at Piton de la Fournaise volcano were examined through seismic and infrasound records, time-lapse photography, SO2 flux measurements, deformation data, and direct observations. Digital elevation models were constructed for four periods of the eruption, thus providing an assessment of the temporal evolution of the morphology, the volume and the extrusion rate of the lava flow. These data were compared to the continuous recording of the seismic and infrasonic waves, and a linear relationship was found between the seismic energy of the tremor and the lava extrusion rate. This relationship is supported by data from three other summit eruptions of Piton de la Fournaise and gives total volume and average lava extrusion rate in good agreement with previous studies. We can therefore provide an estimate of the lava extrusion rate for the January 2010 eruption with a very high temporal resolution. We found an average lava extrusion rate of 2.4 m3s-1 with a peak of 106.6 m3s-1 during the initial lava fountaining phase. We use the inferred average lava extrusion rate during the lava fountaining phase (30.23 m3s-1) to estimate the value of the initial overpressure in the magma reservoir, which we found to range from 3.7×106 Pa to 5.9×106 Pa. Finally, based on the estimated initial overpressure, the volume of magma expelled during the lava fountaining phase and geodetic data, we inferred the volume of the magma reservoir using a simple Mogi model, between 0.25 km3 and 0.54 km3, which is in good agreement with previous studies.

  10. Using nitroxide spin labels. How to obtain T1e from continuous wave electron paramagnetic resonance spectra at all rotational rates.

    PubMed Central

    Haas, D A; Mailer, C; Robinson, B H

    1993-01-01

    Historically, the continuous wave electron paramagnetic resonance (CW-EPR) progressive saturation method has been used to obtain information on the spin-lattice relaxation time (T1e) and those processes, such as motion and spin exchange, that occur on a competitive timescale. For example, qualitative information on local dynamics and solvent accessibility of proteins and nucleic acids has been obtained by this method. However, making quantitative estimates of T1e from CW-EPR spectra have been frustrated by a lack of understanding of the role of T1e (and T2e) in the slow-motion regime. Theoretical simulation of the CW-EPR lineshapes in the slow-motion region under increasing power levels has been used in this work to test whether the saturation technique can produce quantitative estimates of the spin-lattice relaxation rates. A method is presented by which the correct T1e may be extracted from an analysis of the power-saturation rollover curve, regardless of the amount of inhomogeneous broadening or the rates of molecular reorientation. The range of motional correlation times from 10 to 200 ns should be optimal for extracting quantitative estimates of T1e values in spin-labeled biomolecules. The progressive-saturation rollover curve method should find wide application in those areas of biophysics where information on molecular interactions and solvent exposure as well as molecular reorientation rates are desired. PMID:8386009

  11. Bystander Effects Induced by Continuous Low-Dose-Rate {sup 125}I Seeds Potentiate the Killing Action of Irradiation on Human Lung Cancer Cells In Vitro

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, H.H. Jia, R.F.; Yu, L.; Zhao, M.J.; Shao, C.L.; Cheng, W.Y.

    2008-12-01

    Purpose: To investigate bystander effects of low-dose-rate (LDR) {sup 125}I seed irradiation on human lung cancer cells in vitro. Methods and Materials: A549 and NCI-H446 cell lines of differing radiosensitivity were directly exposed to LDR {sup 125}I seeds irradiation for 2 or 4 Gy and then cocultured with nonirradiated cells for 24 hours. Induction of micronucleus (MN), {gamma}H2AX foci, and apoptosis were assayed. Results: After 2 and 4 Gy irradiation, micronucleus formation rate (MFR) and apoptotic rate of A549 and NCI-H446 cells were increased, and the MFR and apoptotic rate of NCI-H446 cells was 2.1-2.8 times higher than that of A549 cells. After coculturing nonirradiated bystander cells with {sup 125}I seed irradiated cells for 24 hours, MFR and the mean number of {gamma}H2AX foci/cells of bystander A549 and NCI-H446 cells were similar and significantly higher than those of control (p <0.05), although they did not increase with irradiation dose. However, the proportion of bystander NCI-H446 cells with MN numbers {>=}3 and {gamma}H2AX foci numbers 15-19 and 20-24 was higher than that of bystander A549 cells. In addition, dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) treatment could completely suppress the bystander MN of NCI-H446 cells, but it suppressed only partly the bystander MN of A549 cells, indicating that reactive oxygen species are involved in the bystander response to NCI-H446 cells, but other signaling factors may contribute to the bystander response of A549 cells. Conclusions: Continuous LDR irradiation of {sup 125}I seeds could induce bystander effects, which potentiate the killing action on tumor cells and compensate for the influence of nonuniform distribution of radiation dosage on therapeutic outcomes.

  12. Effects in cats of atipamezole, flumazenil and 4-aminopyridine on stress-related neurohormonal and metabolic responses induced by medetomidine, midazolam and ketamine.

    PubMed

    Ueoka, Naotami; Hikasa, Yoshiaki

    2015-08-01

    This study aimed to investigate the antagonistic effects of a fixed dose of atipamezole (ATI), flumazenil (FLU) and 4-aminopyridine (4AP), both alone and in various combinations, on key stress-related neurohormonal and metabolic changes induced by medetomidine (MED), midazolam (MID) and ketamine (KET) in healthy cats. Seven cats were used consistently in eight investigation groups. Cats were administered a mixture of 0.05 mg/kg MED and 0.5 mg/kg MID followed 10 mins later by 10 mg/kg KET intramuscularly. Twenty minutes after KET injection, the cats were intravenously injected with either a physiological saline solution at 0.1 ml/kg (control) or one of the seven variations of experimental drugs, alone or in combination: ATI, FLU, 4AP, ATI + FLU, FLU + 4AP, ATI + 4AP and ATI + FLU + 4AP. Blood samples were collected 10 times during the 24 h test period. Plasma glucose, insulin, cortisol, epinephrine, norepinephrine and non-esterified fatty acid levels were measured. The administration of MED + MID + KET resulted in hyperglycaemia and decreases in epinephrine, norepinephrine, cortisol and non-esterified fatty acid levels. FLU or 4AP alone or FLU + 4AP did not effectively antagonise the effects induced by MED + MID + KET but enhanced the hyperglycaemia. ATI alone was effective in antagonising these effects. Compared with non-ATI regimens, combinations with ATI were more effective in antagonising the effects induced by MED + MID + KET; however, ATI + FLU + 4AP caused large increases in cortisol, epinephrine and norepinephrine concentrations. ATI, both alone and in combination, is effective in antagonising the neurohormonal and metabolic effects of MED + MID + KET in cats. However, ATI + FLU + 4AP is not suitable because of large stress-related hormonal responses. PMID:25366173

  13. Changes in fermentation and biohydrogenation intermediates in continuous cultures fed low and high levels of fat with increasing rates of starch degradability.

    PubMed

    Lascano, G J; Alende, M; Koch, L E; Jenkins, T C

    2016-08-01

    Excessive levels of starch in diets for lactating dairy cattle is a known risk factor for milk fat depression, but little is known about how this risk is affected by differences in rates of starch degradability (Kd) in the rumen. The objective of this study was to compare accumulation of biohydrogenation intermediates causing milk fat depression, including conjugated linoleic acid (CLA), when corn with low or high Kd were fed to continuous cultures. Diets contained (dry matter basis) 50% forage (alfalfa pellets and grass hay) and 50% concentrate, with either no added fat (LF) or 3.3% added soybean oil (HF). Within both the LF and HF diets, 3 starch degradability treatments were obtained by varying the ratio of processed (heat and pressure treatments) and unprocessed corn sources, giving a total of 6 dietary treatments. Each diet was fed to dual-flow continuous fermenters 3 times a day at 0800, 1600, and 2400h. Diets were fed for four 10-d periods, with 7d for adaptation and 3d for sample collection. Orthogonal contrasts were used in the GLIMMIX procedure of SAS to test the effects of fat, starch degradability, and their interaction. Acetate and acetate:propionate were lower for HF than for LF but daily production of trans-10 18:1 and trans-10,cis-12 CLA were higher for HF than for LF. Increasing starch Kd from low to high increased culture pH, acetate, and valerate but decreased butyrate and isobutyrate. Changes in biohydrogenation intermediates (expressed as % of total isomers) from low to high starch Kd included reductions in trans-11 18:1 and cis-9,trans-11 CLA but increases in trans-10 18:1 and trans-10,cis-12 CLA. The results show that increasing the starch Kd in continuous cultures while holding starch level constant causes elevation of biohydrogenation intermediates linked to milk fat depression. PMID:27265165

  14. Multiple scales of temporal variability in ecosystem metabolism rates: results from two years of continuous monitoring in a forested headwater stream

    SciTech Connect

    Roberts, Brian J; Mulholland, Patrick J; Hill, Walter

    2007-01-01

    Headwater streams are key sites of nutrient and organic matter processing and retention, but little is known about temporal variability in gross primary production (GPP) and ecosystem respiration (ER) rates as a result of the short duration of most ecosystem metabolism measurements in lotic ecosystems. We examined temporal variability and controls on ecosystem metabolism by measuring daily rates continuously for two years in Walker Branch, a first-order deciduous forest stream. Four important scales of temporal variability in ecosystem metabolism rates were identified: (1) seasonal, (2) day-to-day, (3) episodic (storm-related), and (4) inter-annual. Seasonal patterns were largely controlled by the leaf phenology and productivity of the deciduous riparian forest. Walker Branch was strongly net heterotrophic throughout the year with the exception of the open-canopy spring when GPP and ER rates were similar. Day-to-day variability in weather conditions influenced light reaching the streambed, resulting in high day-to-day variability in GPP particularly during spring (daily light levels explained 84% of the variance in daily GPP in April). Episodic storms depressed GPP for several days in spring, but increased GPP in autumn by removing leaves shading the streambed. Storms depressed ER initially, but then stimulated ER to 2-3 times pre-storm levels for several days. Walker Branch was strongly net heterotrophic in both years of the study (NEP = -1156 and -773 g O2 m-2 y-1), with annual GPP being similar (488 and 519 g O2 m-2 y-1) but annual ER being higher in 2004 than 2005 (-1645 vs. -1292 g O2 m-2 y-1). Inter-annual variability in ecosystem metabolism (assessed by comparing 2004 and 2005 rates with previous measurements) was the result of the storm frequency and timing and the size of the spring macroalgal bloom. Changes in local climate can have substantial impacts on stream ecosystem metabolism rates and ultimately influence the carbon source and sink properties of

  15. Controlled continuous systemic heparinization increases success rate of artery-only anastomosis replantation in single distal digit amputation: A retrospective cohort study.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jun Yong; Kim, Hak Soo; Heo, Sang Taek; Kwon, Ho; Jung, Sung-No

    2016-06-01

    Replantation is a prime indication for distal digital amputation, as it helps restore hand aesthetics and functions; however, venous anastomosis is often not feasible. Previous studies used systemic anticoagulation in distal digital artery only anastomosis replantation surgery to improve replantation success rate, however, which yielded limited level of clinical evidence. This study aimed to compare controlled continuous heparinization (CCH) and intermittent bolus heparinization (IBH) for surgical outcome and clinical variables after single distal digital artery only anastomosis replantation surgery.A single-institution, retrospective cohort study was performed. Out of 324 patients who underwent digital replantation surgery, we focused the study for the Zone I and II single distal digital amputation patients excluding confounding factors. Sixty-one patients were included in this study and underwent artery-only anastomosis replantation surgery with postoperative CCH (34 patients) or IBH (27 patients) protocols. The CCH group targeted activated partial thromboplastin time (aPTT) at 51 to 70 seconds, monitoring aPTT levels every eight hours and administering 100 mg of aspirin per day. The IBH group received 300 mg of aspirin per day and underwent IBH (12,500 U). Both groups received intravenous prostaglandin E1 drips (10 μg). To verify the factors affecting the success rate of the heparin protocol, patient factors, clinical factors, and operative factors were extracted from the medical records. Statistical analysis with inverse probability of treatment weights propensity score methods compared treatment outcomes and clinical variables.The CCH group's replantation success rate was higher (91.17% vs 59.25%), and the transfusion rate was increased (P = 0.032). However, the significant decrease in hemoglobin levels (>15%) did not differ between the groups (P = 0.108). Multivariable logistic regression analysis with potent univariate variables (P < .10

  16. Cellstat--A continuous culture system of a bacteriophage for the study of the mutation rate and the selection process at the DNA level

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Husimi, Yuzuru; Nishigaki, Koichi; Kinoshita, Yasunori; Tanaka, Toyosuke

    1982-04-01

    A bacteriophage is continuously cultured in the flow of the host bacterial cell under the control of a minicomputer. In the culture, the population of the noninfected cell is kept constant by the endogeneous regulation mechanism, so it is called the ''cellstat'' culture. Due to the high dilution rate of the host cell, the mutant cell cannot be selected in the cellstat. Therefore, the cellstat is suitable for the study of the mutation rate and the selection process of a bacteriophage under well-defined environmental conditions (including physiological condition of the host cell) without being interfered by host-cell mutations. Applications to coliphage fd, a secretion type phage, are shown as a measurement example. A chimera between fd and a plasmid pBR322 is cultured more than 100 h. The process of population changeovers by deletion mutants indicates that the deletion hot spots exist in this cloning vector and that this apparatus can be used also for testing instability of a recombinant DNA.

  17. Nonideal Transport of Contaminants in Heterogeneous Porous Media: 11. Testing the Experiment Condition Dependency of the Continuous-Distribution Rate Model for Sorption-Desorption

    PubMed Central

    Schnaar, G.; Brusseau, M.L.

    2015-01-01

    A series of miscible-displacement experiments was conducted to examine the impact of experiment conditions (detection limit, input-pulse size, input concentration, pore-water velocity, contact time) on the performance of a mathematical solute–transport model incorporating nonlinear, rate-limited sorption/desorption described by a continuous-distribution reaction function. Effluent solute concentrations were monitored over a range of approximately seven orders of magnitude, allowing characterization of asymptotic tailing phenomenon. The model successfully simulated the extensive elution tailing observed for the measured data. Values for the mean desorption rate coefficient (ln k2) and the variance of ln k2 were obtained through calibration of the model to measured data. Similar parameter values were obtained for experiments with different input-pulse size, input concentration, pore-water velocity, contact time. This suggests that the model provided a robust representation of sorption-desorption for this system tested. The impact of analytical detection limit was examined by calibrating the model to subsets of the breakthrough curves wherein the extent of the elution tail was artificially reduced to mimic a poorer detection limit. The parameters varied as a function of the extent of elution tail used for the calibrations, indicating the importance of measuring as full an extent of the tail as possible. PMID:26380531

  18. The Influence of Growth Rate on 2H/1H Fractionation in Continuous Cultures of the Coccolithophorid Emiliania huxleyi and the Diatom Thalassiosira pseudonana

    PubMed Central

    Sachs, Julian P.; Kawka, Orest E.

    2015-01-01

    The hydrogen isotope (2H/1H) ratio of lipids from phytoplankton is a powerful new tool for reconstructing hydroclimate variations in the geologic past from marine and lacustrine sediments. Water 2H/1H changes are reflected in lipid 2H/1H changes with R2 > 0.99, and salinity variations have been shown to cause about a 1‰ change in lipid δ2H values per unit (ppt) change in salinity. Less understood are the effects of growth rate, nutrient limitation and light on 2H/1H fractionation in phytoplankton. Here we present the first published study of growth rate effects on 2H/1H fractionation in the lipids of coccolithophorids grown in continuous cultures. Emiliania huxleyi was cultivated in steady state at four growth rates and the δ2H value of individual alkenones (C37:2, C37:3, C38:2, C38:3), fatty acids (C14:0, C16:0, C18:0), and 24-methyl cholest-5,22-dien-3β-ol (brassicasterol) were measured. 2H/1H fractionation increased in all lipids as growth rate increased by 24‰ to 79‰ (div d-1)-1. We attribute this response to a proportional increase in the fraction of NADPH from Photosystem I (PS1) of photosynthesis relative to NADPH from the cytosolic oxidative pentose phosphate (OPP) pathway in the synthesis of lipids as growth rate increases. A 3-endmember model is presented in which lipid hydrogen comes from NADPH produced in PS1, NADPH produced by OPP, and intracellular water. With published values or best estimates of the fractionation factors for these sources (αPS1 = 0.4, αOPP = 0.75, and αH2O = 0) and half of the hydrogen in a lipid derived from water the model indicates αlipid = 0.79. This value is within the range measured for alkenones (αalkenone = 0.77 to 0.81) and fatty acids (αFA = 0.75 to 0.82) in the chemostat cultures, but is greater than the range for brassicasterol (αbrassicasterol = 0.68 to 0.72). The latter is attributed to a greater proportion of hydrogen from NADPH relative to water in isoprenoid lipids. The model successfully explains

  19. Response surface analysis of the effects of pH and dilution rate on Ruminococcus flavefaciens FD-1 in cellulose-fed continuous culture.

    PubMed Central

    Shi, Y; Weimer, P J

    1992-01-01

    The ruminal cellulolytic bacterium Ruminococcus flavefaciens FD-1 was grown in cellulose-fed continuous culture with 20 different combinations of pH and dilution rate (D); the combinations were selected according to the physiological pH range of the organism (6.0 to 7.1) and growth rate of the organism on cellulose (0.017 to 0.10 h-1). A response surface analysis was used to characterize the effects of pH and D on the extent of cellulose consumption, growth yield, soluble sugar concentration, and yields of fermentation products. The response surfaces indicate that pH and D coordinately affect cellulose digestion and growth yield in this organism. As expected, the net cellulose consumption increased with increasing D while the fraction of added cellulose that was utilized decreased with increasing D. The effect of changes in pH within the physiological range on cellulose consumption was smaller than that of changes in D. Cellulose degradation was less sensitive to low pH than to high pH. At low Ds (longer retention times), cellulose degradation did not follow first-order kinetics. This decreased rate of cellulose digestion was not due to poor mixing, limitation by other medium components, or preferential utilization of the more amorphous fraction of the cellulose. The cell yield increased from 0.13 to 0.18 mg of cells per mg of cellulose with increasing Ds from 0.02 to 0.06 h-1 and decreased when the pH was shifted from the optimum of 6.5 to 6.8. The effect of pH on cell yield increased with increasing D. The reduced cell yield at low pH appears to be due to both an increase in maintenance energy requirements and a decrease in true growth yield. PMID:1514805

  20. A finite-state continuous-time approach for inferring regional migration and mortality rates from archival tagging and conventional tag-recovery experiments.

    PubMed

    Miller, Timothy J; Andersen, Per K

    2008-12-01

    Spatially structured population dynamics models are important management tools for harvested, highly mobile species and although conventional tag recovery experiments remain useful for estimation of various demographic parameters of these models, archival tagging experiments are becoming an important data source for analyzing migratory behavior of mobile marine species. We provide a likelihood-based approach for estimating the regional migration and mortality rate parameters intrinsic to these models that may use information obtained from conventional tag recovery and archival tagging experiments. Specifically, we assume that the regional location and survival of animals through time is a finite-state continuous-time stochastic process. The stochastic process is the basis of probability models for observations provided by the different types of tags. Results from application to simulated tagging experiments for western Atlantic bluefin tuna show that maximum likelihood estimators based on archival tagging observations and corresponding confidence intervals perform similar to conventional tagging observations for a given number of tag releases and releasing tags in each region can improve the behavior of maximum likelihood estimators regardless of tag type. We provide an example application with Atlantic bluefin tuna released with conventional tags in 1990-1992. PMID:18325073

  1. Determination of direct photolysis rate constants and OH radical reactivity of representative odour compounds in brewery broth using a continuous flow-stirred photoreactor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jürgens, Marion; Jacob, Fritz; Ekici, Perihan; Friess, Albrecht; Parlar, Harun

    A method based on photolysis was developed for the appropriate treatment of organic pollutants in air exhausting from breweries upon wort decoction, and thereby causing smell nuisance. A continuous flow stirred photoreactor was built-up exclusively, allowing OH radicals to react with selected odorous compounds contained in exhaust vapours, such as: 2-methylpropanal, 3-methylbutanal, 2-methylbutanal, 3-methyl-1-butanol, n-hexanal, 2-methylbutyl isobutyrate, 2-undecanone, phenyl acetaldehyde, myrcene, limonene, linalool, humulene, dimethylsulphide, and dimethyltrisulphide. These substances were quantified in brewery broth before and after UV irradiation using high-resolution gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (HRGC-MS). For odour analysis, high-resolution gas chromatography-flame ionisation detection (HRGC-FID) coupled with sensory methods was used. Determined quantum yields of about 10 -3 for phenyl acetaldehyde, myrcene, and humulene pointed out that direct photolysis contributed to their decay. Quantum yields of below 10 -4 for the other substances indicated that UV irradiation did not contribute significantly to their degradation processes. Hydroxyl radical reaction rate constants and Henry constants of organic compounds were also measured. Substances accompanied with low Henry constants converted rapidly, whereas those with higher ones, relatively slowly. Determined aroma values concluded that after UV-H 2O 2 treatment, only dimethylsulphide and myrcene remained as important odorous compounds, but in significantly reduced concentrations. The UV-H 2O 2 treatment of brewery broth has been proved effective to reduce smell-irritating substances formed upon wort decoction.

  2. Regularity underlying complexity: a redshift-independent description of the continuous variation of galaxy-scale molecular gas properties in the mass-star formation rate plane

    SciTech Connect

    Sargent, M. T.; Daddi, E.; Béthermin, M.; Aussel, H.; Juneau, S.; Elbaz, D.; Hwang, H. S.; Da Cunha, E.

    2014-09-20

    Star-forming galaxies (SFGs) display a continuous specific star formation rate (sSFR) distribution, which can be approximated by two log-normal functions: one encompassing the galaxy main sequence (MS), and the other a rarer, starbursting population. Starburst (SB) sSFRs can be regarded as the outcome of a physical process (plausibly merging) taking the mathematical form of a log-normal boosting kernel that enhances star formation activity. We explore the utility of splitting the star-forming population into MS and SB galaxies—an approach we term the '2-Star Formation Mode' framework—for understanding their molecular gas properties. Star formation efficiency (SFE) and gas fraction variations among SFGs take a simple redshift-independent form, once these quantities are normalized to the corresponding values for average MS galaxies. SFE enhancements during SB episodes scale supra-linearly with the SFR increase, as expected for mergers. Consequently, galaxies separate more clearly into loci for SBs and normal galaxies in the Schmidt-Kennicutt plane than in (s)SFR versus M {sub *} space. SBs with large deviations (>10 fold) from the MS, e.g., local ULIRGs, are not average SBs, but are much rarer events whose progenitors had larger gas fractions than typical MS galaxies. Statistically, gas fractions in SBs are reduced two- to threefold compared to their direct MS progenitors, as expected for short-lived SFR boosts where internal gas reservoirs are depleted more quickly than gas is re-accreted from the cosmic web. We predict variations of the conversion factor α{sub CO} in the SFR-M {sub *} plane and we show that the higher sSFR of distant galaxies is directly related to their larger gas fractions.

  3. A Comparison of the Biological Effects of 125I Seeds Continuous Low-Dose-Rate Radiation and 60Co High-Dose-Rate Gamma Radiation on Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer Cells

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Zhijin; Mao, Aiwu; Teng, Gaojun; Liu, Fenju

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To compare the biological effects of 125I seeds continuous low-dose-rate (CLDR) radiation and 60Co γ-ray high-dose-rate (HDR) radiation on non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cells. Materials and Methods A549, H1299 and BEAS-2B cells were exposed to 125I seeds CLDR radiation or 60Co γ-ray HDR radiation. The survival fraction was determined using a colony-forming assay. The cell cycle progression and apoptosis were detected by flow cytometry (FCM). The expression of the apoptosis-related proteins caspase-3, cleaved-caspase-3, PARP, cleaved-PARP, BAX and Bcl-2 were detected by western blot assay. Results After irradiation with 125I seeds CLDR radiation, there was a lower survival fraction, more pronounced cell cycle arrest (G1 arrest and G2/M arrest in A549 and H1299 cells, respectively) and a higher apoptotic ratio for A549 and H1299 cells than after 60Co γ-ray HDR radiation. Moreover, western blot assays revealed that 125I seeds CLDR radiation remarkably up-regulated the expression of Bax, cleaved-caspase-3 and cleaved-PARP proteins and down-regulated the expression of Bcl-2 proteins in A549 and H1299 cells compared with 60Co γ-ray HDR radiation. However, there was little change in the apoptotic ratio and expression of apoptosis-related proteins in normal BEAS-2B cells receiving the same treatment. Conclusions 125I seeds CLDR radiation led to remarkable growth inhibition of A549 and H1299 cells compared with 60Co HDR γ-ray radiation; A549 cells were the most sensitive to radiation, followed by H1299 cells. In contrast, normal BEAS-2B cells were relatively radio-resistant. The imbalance of the Bcl-2/Bax ratio and the activation of caspase-3 and PARP proteins might play a key role in the anti-proliferative effects induced by 125I seeds CLDR radiation, although other possibilities have not been excluded and will be investigated in future studies. PMID:26266801

  4. Effect of Growth Rate and Glucose Concentration on the Activity of the Phosphoenolpyruvate Phosphotransferase System in Streptococcus mutans Ingbritt Grown in Continuous Culture

    PubMed Central

    Ellwood, D. C.; Phipps, P. J.; Hamilton, I. R.

    1979-01-01

    Streptococcus mutans Ingbritt was grown anaerobically in a chemostat with a glucose limitation, as well as with an excess of glucose (amino acid limitation) at dilution rates (D) between 0.05 and 0.4 h−1 (mean generation time = 12 to 1.5 h). The glucose-limited culture produced cells having 1.5- to 6.0-fold greater glycolytic activity than the cells from the glucose-excess culture. The preferred substrate for these cells was glucose, with the glycolytic rate for sucrose being only slightly lower; the rate for fructose was half that of glucose. The glycolytic rate of the glucose-limited cells was maximum at D = 0.1 h−1, with a decline in rate as the growth rate approached D = 0.4 h−1. A comparison of the activity of phosphoenolpyruvate phosphotransferase system (PTS) in the two types of cells showed that the glucose-limited cells had 1.7- to 5.6-fold greater PTS activity for the three sugars than the glucose-excess-grown cells. Whereas little difference was seen between the three sugars with the latter cells, the glucose-PTS had the greatest activity with glucose-limited cells, with the maximum in cells grown at D = 0.1 h−1. Comparison of the rate of sugar uptake in the chemostat with the rate of PTS transport activity in the cells at each growth rate demonstrated that only under conditions of slow growth with a glucose limitation was the PTS system capable of supporting growth on glucose. Furthermore, PTS activity in cells grown with an excess of glucose was insignificant when compared with glucose uptake during growth in the chemostat. This evidence supports the observation that S. mutans possesses at least one other system, in addition to the PTS, for the transport of glucose into the cell. The organism was, however, devoid of glucose-proton symport transport activity. PMID:33901

  5. SEU measurements using /sup 252/CF fission particles, on CMOS static RAMS, subjected to a continuous period of low dose rate /sup 60/CO irradiation

    SciTech Connect

    Sanderson, T.K.; Mapper, D.; Stephen, J.H.; Farren, J.; Adams, L.; Harboe-Sorensen, R.

    1987-12-01

    SEU measurements have been made on a number of CMOS static RAMs over a period of eight months while they were being continuously irradiated with /sup 60/Co gamma rays. The results are discussed and compared with those of other workers using different methods.

  6. Comment on "A universal optimum work rate potential for continuous endoreversible Carnot heat engine cycles" [J. Appl. Phys. 80, 3619 (1996)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Jincan; Yan, Zijun

    1997-12-01

    It is pointed out that there is not a certain universal relation for the power outputs of continuous endoreversible and reversible Carnot heat engine cycles operating between the same temperature limits, and the relevant conclusion obtained by Blank and Bhattacharyya in a recent article of this journal is incorrect.

  7. Comparison of real time polymerase chain reaction quantification of changes in hilA and rpoS gene expression of a Salmonella typhimurium poultry isolate grown at fast versus slow dilution rates in an anaerobic continuous

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective of this study was to determine the genetic responses of a Salmonella enterica Typhimurium poultry isolate during low and high dilution rates (D) in steady state continuous culture (CC) incubations. Samples for genetic analyses were taken from a previous study where S. typhimurium cell...

  8. Circadian variation of heart rate is affected by environment: a study of continuous electrocardiographic monitoring in members of a symphony orchestra.

    PubMed Central

    Mulcahy, D; Keegan, J; Fingret, A; Wright, C; Park, A; Sparrow, J; Curcher, D; Fox, K M

    1990-01-01

    Twenty four hour ambulatory ST segment monitoring was performed on 48 members (43 players and five members of the management/technical team) of the British Broadcasting Corporation (BBC) symphony orchestra without a history of cardiac disease. This period included final rehearsals and live performances (for audience and radio) of music by Richard Strauss and Mozart at the Royal Festival Hall (n = 36) and Rachmaninov and Tchaikovsky at the Barbican Arts Centre (n = 21). During the period of monitoring one person (2%) had transient ST segment changes. Mean heart rates were significantly higher during the live performances than during the rehearsals. Mean heart rates during the live performance of Rachmaninov and Tchaikovsky were significantly higher than during Strauss and Mozart in those (n = 6) who were monitored on both occasions. Mean heart rates in the management and technical team were higher than those of the players. The recognised circadian pattern of heart rate, with a peak in the morning waking hours, was altered similarly during both concert days, with a primary peak occurring in the evening hours and a lesser peak in the morning for both musicians and management/technical staff. This study showed that environmental factors are of primary importance in defining the circadian pattern of heart rate. This has important implications when identifying peak periods of cardiovascular stress and tailoring drug treatment for patients with angina pectoris. PMID:2271347

  9. Use of NH4Cl-H2O Analogue Castings to Model Aspects of Continuous Casting. Part 2; Columnar-Equiaxed Grain Transition and Crystal Sedimentation Rates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jang, J.; Hellawell, A.

    1991-01-01

    In this paper, aspects of the columnar-equiaxed transition with particular reference to the rates of sedimentation of equiaxed crystals and analysis of measured values are considered. The attempt is made to compare data from an aqueous analogue system with those expected in a metal, specifically, from NH4CI-70 wt-%H20 and Fe-0.2 wt-%C.

  10. A Comparison of Accuracy and Rate of Transcription by Adults with Learning Disabilities Using a Continuous Speech Recognition System and a Traditional Computer Keyboard

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Millar, Diane C.; McNaughton, David B.; Light, Janice C.

    2005-01-01

    A single-subject, alternating-treatments design was implemented for three adults with learning disabilities to compare the transcription of college-level texts using a speech recognition system and a traditional keyboard. The accuracy and rate of transcribing after editing was calculated for each transcribed passage. The results provide evidence…

  11. State-related differences in the level of psychomotor activity in patients with bipolar disorder - Continuous heart rate and movement monitoring.

    PubMed

    Faurholt-Jepsen, Maria; Brage, Søren; Vinberg, Maj; Kessing, Lars Vedel

    2016-03-30

    Measuring changes in psychomotor activity is a potential tool in the monitoring of the course of affective states in bipolar disorder. Previous studies have been cross-sectional and only some have used objective measures. The aim was to investigate state-related differences in objectively-measured psychomotor activity in bipolar disorder. During a 12 weeks study, repeated measurements of heart rate and movement monitoring over several days were collected during different affective states from 19 outpatients with bipolar disorder. Outcomes included activity energy expenditure (AEE) and trunk acceleration (ACC). Symptoms were clinically assessed using Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HDRS-17) and Young Mania Rating Scale (YMRS). Compared to patients in a euthymic state, patients in a manic state had significantly higher AEE. Compared to patients in a depressive state, patients in a manic state had significantly higher ACC and AEE. There was a significant diurnal variation in ACC and AEE between affective states. Finally, there was a significant correlation between the severity of manic symptoms and ACC and AEE, respectively. This first study measuring psychomotor activity during different affective states using a combined heart rate and movement sensor supports that psychomotor activity is a core symptom in bipolar disorder that is altered during affective states. PMID:26832835

  12. Linking SO2 emission rates and seismicity by continuous wavelet transform: implications for volcanic surveillance at San Cristóbal volcano, Nicaragua

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Conde, Vladimir; Bredemeyer, Stefan; Saballos, J. Armando; Galle, Bo; Hansteen, Thor H.

    2016-07-01

    San Cristóbal volcano is the highest and one of the most active volcanoes in Nicaragua. Its persistently high activity during the past decade is characterized by strong degassing and almost annual VEI 1-2 explosions, which present a threat to the local communities. Following an eruption on 8 September 2012, the intervals between eruptions decreased significantly, which we interpret as the start of a new eruptive phase. We present here the results of semi-continuous SO2 flux measurements covering a period of 18 months, obtained by two scanning UV-DOAS instruments installed as a part of the network for observation of volcanic and atmospheric change project, and the results of real-time seismic amplitude measurements (RSAM) data. Our data comprise a series of small to moderately explosive events in December 2012, June 2013 and February 2014, which were accompanied by increased gas emissions and seismicity. In order to approach an early warning strategy, we present a statistical method for the joint analysis of gas flux and seismic data, by using continuous wavelet transform and cross-wavelet transform (XWT) methods. This analysis shows that the XWT coefficients of SO2 flux and RSAM are in good agreement with the occurrence of eruptive events and thus may be used to indicate magma ascent into the volcano edifice. Such multi-parameter surveillance efforts can be useful for the interpretation and surveillance of possible eruptive events and could thus be used by local institutions for the prediction of upcoming volcanic unrest.

  13. Linking SO2 emission rates and seismicity by continuous wavelet transform: implications for volcanic surveillance at San Cristóbal volcano, Nicaragua

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Conde, Vladimir; Bredemeyer, Stefan; Saballos, J. Armando; Galle, Bo; Hansteen, Thor H.

    2015-11-01

    San Cristóbal volcano is the highest and one of the most active volcanoes in Nicaragua. Its persistently high activity during the past decade is characterized by strong degassing and almost annual VEI 1-2 explosions, which present a threat to the local communities. Following an eruption on 8 September 2012, the intervals between eruptions decreased significantly, which we interpret as the start of a new eruptive phase. We present here the results of semi-continuous SO2 flux measurements covering a period of 18 months, obtained by two scanning UV-DOAS instruments installed as a part of the network for observation of volcanic and atmospheric change project, and the results of real-time seismic amplitude measurements (RSAM) data. Our data comprise a series of small to moderately explosive events in December 2012, June 2013 and February 2014, which were accompanied by increased gas emissions and seismicity. In order to approach an early warning strategy, we present a statistical method for the joint analysis of gas flux and seismic data, by using continuous wavelet transform and cross-wavelet transform (XWT) methods. This analysis shows that the XWT coefficients of SO2 flux and RSAM are in good agreement with the occurrence of eruptive events and thus may be used to indicate magma ascent into the volcano edifice. Such multi-parameter surveillance efforts can be useful for the interpretation and surveillance of possible eruptive events and could thus be used by local institutions for the prediction of upcoming volcanic unrest.

  14. Hemostasis during low molecular weight heparin anticoagulation for continuous venovenous hemofiltration: a randomized cross-over trial comparing two hemofiltration rates

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Introduction Renal insufficiency increases the half-life of low molecular weight heparins (LMWHs). Whether continuous venovenous hemofiltration (CVVH) removes LMWHs is unsettled. We studied hemostasis during nadroparin anticoagulation for CVVH, and explored the implication of the endogenous thrombin potential (ETP). Methods This cross-over study, performed in a 20-bed teaching hospital ICU, randomized non-surgical patients with acute kidney injury requiring nadroparin for CVVH to compare hemostasis between two doses of CVVH: filtrate flow was initiated at 4 L/h and converted to 2 L/h after 60 min in group 1, and vice versa in group 2. Patients received nadroparin 2850 IU i.v., followed by 380 IU/h continuously in the extracorporeal circuit. After baseline sampling, ultrafiltrate, arterial (art) and postfilter (PF) blood was taken for hemostatic markers after 1 h, and 15 min, 6 h, 12 h and 24 h after converting filtrate flow. We compared randomized groups, and 'early circuit clotting' to 'normal circuit life' groups. Results Fourteen patients were randomized, seven to each group. Despite randomization, group 1 had higher SOFA scores (median 14 (IQR 11-15) versus 9 (IQR 5-9), p = 0.004). Anti-Xa art activity peaked upon nadroparin bolus and declined thereafter (p = 0.05). Anti-Xa PF did not change in time. Anti-Xa activity was not detected in ultrafiltrate. Medians of all anti-Xa samples were lower in group 1 (anti-Xa art 0.19 (0.12-0.37) vs. 0.31 (0.23-0.52), p = 0.02; anti-Xa PF 0.34 (0.25-0.44) vs. 0.51 (0.41-0.76), p = 0.005). After a steep decline, arterial ETPAUC tended to increase (p = 0.06), opposite to anti-Xa, while postfilter ETPAUC increased (p = 0.001). Median circuit life was 24.5 h (IQR 12-37 h). Patients with 'short circuit life' had longer baseline prothrombin time (PTT), activated thromboplastin time (aPTT), lower ETP, higher thrombin-antithrombin complexes (TAT) and higher SOFA scores; during CVVH, anti-Xa, and platelets were lower; PTT, aPTT, TAT

  15. Fully vectorial laser resonator modeling of continuous-wave solid-state lasers including rate equations, thermal lensing and stress-induced birefringence.

    PubMed

    Asoubar, Daniel; Wyrowski, Frank

    2015-07-27

    The computer-aided design of high quality mono-mode, continuous-wave solid-state lasers requires fast, flexible and accurate simulation algorithms. Therefore in this work a model for the calculation of the transversal dominant mode structure is introduced. It is based on the generalization of the scalar Fox and Li algorithm to a fully-vectorial light representation. To provide a flexible modeling concept of different resonator geometries containing various optical elements, rigorous and approximative solutions of Maxwell's equations are combined in different subdomains of the resonator. This approach allows the simulation of plenty of different passive intracavity components as well as active media. For the numerically efficient simulation of nonlinear gain, thermal lensing and stress-induced birefringence effects in solid-state active crystals a semi-analytical vectorial beam propagation method is discussed in detail. As a numerical example the beam quality and output power of a flash-lamp-pumped Nd:YAG laser are improved. To that end we compensate the influence of stress-induced birefringence and thermal lensing by an aspherical mirror and a 90° quartz polarization rotator. PMID:26367545

  16. Continuous Problem of Function Continuity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jayakody, Gaya; Zazkis, Rina

    2015-01-01

    We examine different definitions presented in textbooks and other mathematical sources for "continuity of a function at a point" and "continuous function" in the context of introductory level Calculus. We then identify problematic issues related to definitions of continuity and discontinuity: inconsistency and absence of…

  17. Improved Monitoring of Semi-Continuous Anaerobic Digestion of Sugarcane Waste: Effects of Increasing Organic Loading Rate on Methanogenic Community Dynamics

    PubMed Central

    Leite, Athaydes Francisco; Janke, Leandro; Lv, Zuopeng; Harms, Hauke; Richnow, Hans-Hermann; Nikolausz, Marcell

    2015-01-01

    The anaerobic digestion of filter cake and its co-digestion with bagasse, and the effect of gradual increase of the organic loading rate (OLR) from start-up to overload were investigated. Understanding the influence of environmental and technical parameters on the development of particular methanogenic pathway in the biogas process was an important aim for the prediction and prevention of process failure. The rapid accumulation of volatile organic acids at high OLR of 3.0 to 4.0 gvs·L−1·day−1 indicated strong process inhibition. Methanogenic community dynamics of the reactors was monitored by stable isotope composition of biogas and molecular biological analysis. A potential shift toward the aceticlastic methanogenesis was observed along with the OLR increase under stable reactor operating conditions. Reactor overloading and process failure were indicated by the tendency to return to a predominance of hydrogenotrophic methanogenesis with rising abundances of the orders Methanobacteriales and Methanomicrobiales and drop of the genus Methanosarcina abundance. PMID:26404240

  18. Improved Monitoring of Semi-Continuous Anaerobic Digestion of Sugarcane Waste: Effects of Increasing Organic Loading Rate on Methanogenic Community Dynamics.

    PubMed

    Leite, Athaydes Francisco; Janke, Leandro; Lv, Zuopeng; Harms, Hauke; Richnow, Hans-Hermann; Nikolausz, Marcell

    2015-01-01

    The anaerobic digestion of filter cake and its co-digestion with bagasse, and the effect of gradual increase of the organic loading rate (OLR) from start-up to overload were investigated. Understanding the influence of environmental and technical parameters on the development of particular methanogenic pathway in the biogas process was an important aim for the prediction and prevention of process failure. The rapid accumulation of volatile organic acids at high OLR of 3.0 to 4.0 gvs·L⁻¹·day⁻¹ indicated strong process inhibition. Methanogenic community dynamics of the reactors was monitored by stable isotope composition of biogas and molecular biological analysis. A potential shift toward the aceticlastic methanogenesis was observed along with the OLR increase under stable reactor operating conditions. Reactor overloading and process failure were indicated by the tendency to return to a predominance of hydrogenotrophic methanogenesis with rising abundances of the orders Methanobacteriales and Methanomicrobiales and drop of the genus Methanosarcina abundance. PMID:26404240

  19. A QUARTER-CENTURY OF OBSERVATIONS OF COMET 10P/TEMPEL 2 AT LOWELL OBSERVATORY: CONTINUED SPIN-DOWN, COMA MORPHOLOGY, PRODUCTION RATES, AND NUMERICAL MODELING

    SciTech Connect

    Knight, Matthew M.; Schleicher, David G.; Schwieterman, Edward W.; Christensen, Samantha R.; Farnham, Tony L.

    2012-11-01

    We report on photometry and imaging of Comet 10P/Tempel 2 obtained at Lowell Observatory from 1983 through 2011. We measured a nucleus rotation period of 8.950 {+-} 0.002 hr from 16 nights of imaging acquired between 2010 September and 2011 January. This rotation period is longer than the period we previously measured in 1999, which was itself longer than the period measured in 1988, and demonstrates that Tempel 2 is continuing to spin down, presumably due to torques caused by asymmetric outgassing. A nearly linear jet was observed which varied little during a rotation cycle in both R and CN images acquired during the 1999 and 2010 apparitions. We measured the projected direction of this jet throughout the two apparitions and, under the assumption that the source region of the jet was near the comet's pole, determined a rotational pole direction of R.A./decl. = 151 Degree-Sign /+59 Degree-Sign from CN measurements and R.A./decl. = 173 Degree-Sign /+57 Degree-Sign from dust measurements (we estimate a circular uncertainty of 3 Degree-Sign for CN and 4 Degree-Sign for dust). Different combinations of effects likely bias both gas and dust solutions and we elected to average these solutions for a final pole direction of R.A./decl. = 162 Degree-Sign {+-} 11 Degree-Sign /+58 Degree-Sign {+-} 1 Degree-Sign . Photoelectric photometry was acquired on 3 nights in 1983, 2 nights in 1988, 19 nights in 1999/2000, and 10 nights in 2010/2011. The activity exhibited a steep 'turn-on' {approx}3 months prior to perihelion (the exact timing of which varies) and a relatively smooth decline after perihelion. The activity during the 1999 and 2010 apparitions was similar; limited data in 1983 and 1988 (along with IUE data from the literature) were systematically higher and the difference cannot be explained entirely by the smaller perihelion distance. We measured a 'typical' composition, in agreement with previous investigators. Monte Carlo numerical modeling with our pole solution best

  20. A Quarter-century of Observations of Comet 10P/Tempel 2 at Lowell Observatory: Continued Spin-down, Coma Morphology, Production Rates, and Numerical Modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knight, Matthew M.; Schleicher, David G.; Farnham, Tony L.; Schwieterman, Edward W.; Christensen, Samantha R.

    2012-11-01

    We report on photometry and imaging of Comet 10P/Tempel 2 obtained at Lowell Observatory from 1983 through 2011. We measured a nucleus rotation period of 8.950 ± 0.002 hr from 16 nights of imaging acquired between 2010 September and 2011 January. This rotation period is longer than the period we previously measured in 1999, which was itself longer than the period measured in 1988, and demonstrates that Tempel 2 is continuing to spin down, presumably due to torques caused by asymmetric outgassing. A nearly linear jet was observed which varied little during a rotation cycle in both R and CN images acquired during the 1999 and 2010 apparitions. We measured the projected direction of this jet throughout the two apparitions and, under the assumption that the source region of the jet was near the comet's pole, determined a rotational pole direction of R.A./decl. = 151°/+59° from CN measurements and R.A./decl. = 173°/+57° from dust measurements (we estimate a circular uncertainty of 3° for CN and 4° for dust). Different combinations of effects likely bias both gas and dust solutions and we elected to average these solutions for a final pole direction of R.A./decl. = 162° ± 11°/+58° ± 1°. Photoelectric photometry was acquired on 3 nights in 1983, 2 nights in 1988, 19 nights in 1999/2000, and 10 nights in 2010/2011. The activity exhibited a steep "turn-on" ~3 months prior to perihelion (the exact timing of which varies) and a relatively smooth decline after perihelion. The activity during the 1999 and 2010 apparitions was similar; limited data in 1983 and 1988 (along with IUE data from the literature) were systematically higher and the difference cannot be explained entirely by the smaller perihelion distance. We measured a "typical" composition, in agreement with previous investigators. Monte Carlo numerical modeling with our pole solution best replicated the observed coma morphology for a source region located near a comet latitude of +80° and having a

  1. Biogas production performance of mesophilic and thermophilic anaerobic co-digestion with fat, oil, and grease in semi-continuous flow digesters: effects of temperature, hydraulic retention time, and organic loading rate.

    PubMed

    Li, C; Champagne, P; Anderson, B C

    2013-01-01

    Anaerobic co-digestions with fat, oil, and grease (FOG) were investigated in semi-continuous flow digesters under various operating conditions. The effects of hydraulic retention times (HRTs) of 12 and 24 days, organic loading rates (OLRs) between 1.19 and 8.97 gTVS/Ld, and digestion temperatures of 37 degrees C and 55 degrees C on biogas production were evaluated. It was proposed that, compared to anaerobic digestion with wastewater treatment plant sludge (primary raw sludge), semi-continuous flow anaerobic co-digestion with FOG could effectively enhance biogas and methane production. Thermophilic (55 degrees C) co-digestions exhibited higher biogas production and degradation of organics than mesophilic co-digestions. The best biogas production rate of 17.4 +/- 0.86 L/d and methane content 67.9 +/- 1.46% was obtained with a thermophilic co-digestion at HRT = 24 days and OLR = 2.43 +/- 0.15 g TVS/Ld. These were 32.8% and 7.10% higher than the respective values from the mesophilic co-digestion under similar operating conditions. PMID:24350466

  2. Anaerobic co-digestion of cheese whey and the screened liquid fraction of dairy manure in a single continuously stirred tank reactor process: Limits in co-substrate ratios and organic loading rate.

    PubMed

    Rico, Carlos; Muñoz, Noelia; Rico, José Luis

    2015-01-01

    Mesophilic anaerobic co-digestion of cheese whey and the screened liquid fraction of dairy manure was investigated with the aim of determining the treatment limits in terms of the cheese whey fraction in feed and the organic loading rate. The results of a continuous stirred tank reactor that was operated with a hydraulic retention time of 15.6 days showed that the co-digestion process was possible with a cheese whey fraction as high as 85% in the feed. The efficiency of the process was similar within the range of the 15-85% cheese whey fraction. To study the effect of the increasing loading rate, the HRT was progressively shortened with the 65% cheese whey fraction in the feed. The reactor efficiency dropped as the HRT decreased but enabled a stable operation over 8.7 days of HRT. At these operating conditions, a volumetric methane production rate of 1.37 m(3) CH4 m(-3) d(-1) was achieved. PMID:25911592

  3. All-optical continuously tunable delay with a high linear-chirp-rate fiber Bragg grating based on four-wave mixing in a highly-nonlinear photonic crystal fiber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Jianguo; Cheng, Tee Hiang; Yeo, Yong Kee; Wang, Yixin; Xue, Lifang; Zhu, Ninghua; Xu, ZhaoWen; Wang, Dawei

    2009-11-01

    A scheme for hi-fi all-optical continuously tunable delay is proposed. The signal wavelength is converted to a desired idler wavelength and converted back after being delayed by a high linear-chirp-rate (HLCR) fiber Bragg grating (FBG) based on four-wave mixing (FWM) in a highly-nonlinear photonic crystal fiber (HN-PCF). In our experiment, 400 ps (more than 8 full width of half maximum, FWHM) tunable delay is achieved for a 10 GHz clock pulse with relative pulse width broaden ratio (RPWBR) of 2.08%. The power penalty is only 0.3 dB at 10 -9 BER for a 10 Gb/s 2 31-1 pseudo random bit sequence (PRBS) data.

  4. Synchronized ps fiber lasers with pulse durations (25, 50, 100-2000ps) and repetition rates (100kHz-150Mhz) continuously tunable over three orders of magnitude

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dupuis, Alexandre; Burgoyne, Bryan; Pena, Guido; Archambault, André; Lemieux, Dominic; Solomonean, Vasile; Duong, Maxime; Villeneuve, Alain

    2013-03-01

    Ultrafast lasers are enabling precision machining of a wide variety of materials. However, the optimal laser parameters for proper material processing can differ greatly from one material to another. In order to cut high aspect-ratio features at high processing speeds the laser parameters such as pulse energy, repetition rate, and cutting speed need to be optimized. In particular, a shorter pulse duration plays an important role in reducing the thermal damage in the Heat-Affected Zones. In this paper we present a novel ps fiber laser whose electronically tunable parameters aim to facilitate the search for optimal processing parameters. The 20W 1064nm Yb fiber laser is based on a Master Oscillator Power Amplifier (MOPA) architecture with a repetition rate that can be tuned continuously from 120kHz to 120MHz. More importantly, the integration of three different pulse generators enables the pulse duration to be switched from 25ps to 50ps, or to any value within the 55ps to 2000ps range. By reducing the pulse duration from the ns-regime down to 25ps, the laser approaches the transition from the thermal processing regime to the ablation regime of most materials. Moreover, in this paper we demonstrate the synchronization of the pulses from two such MOPA lasers. This enables more elaborate multipulse processing schemes where the pulses of each laser can be set to different parameter values, such as an initial etching pulse followed by a thermal annealing pulse. It should be noted that all the laser parameters are controlled electronically with no moving parts, including the synchronization.

  5. CONTINUOUS GAS ANALYZER

    DOEpatents

    Katz, S.; Weber, C.W.

    1960-02-16

    A reagent gas and a sample gas are chemically combined on a continuous basis in a reaction zone maintained at a selected temperature. The reagent gas and the sample gas are introduced to the reaction zone at preselected. constant molar rates of flow. The reagent gas and the selected gas in the sample mixture combine in the reaction zone to form a product gas having a different number of moles from the sum of the moles of the reactants. The difference in the total molar rates of flow into and out of the reaction zone is measured and indicated to determine the concentration of the selected gas.

  6. Continuous verification using multimodal biometrics.

    PubMed

    Sim, Terence; Zhang, Sheng; Janakiraman, Rajkumar; Kumar, Sandeep

    2007-04-01

    Conventional verification systems, such as those controlling access to a secure room, do not usually require the user to reauthenticate himself for continued access to the protected resource. This may not be sufficient for high-security environments in which the protected resource needs to be continuously monitored for unauthorized use. In such cases, continuous verification is needed. In this paper, we present the theory, architecture, implementation, and performance of a multimodal biometrics verification system that continuously verifies the presence of a logged-in user. Two modalities are currently used--face and fingerprint--but our theory can be readily extended to include more modalities. We show that continuous verification imposes additional requirements on multimodal fusion when compared to conventional verification systems. We also argue that the usual performance metrics of false accept and false reject rates are insufficient yardsticks for continuous verification and propose new metrics against which we benchmark our system. PMID:17299225

  7. Atomizing, continuous, water monitoring module

    DOEpatents

    Thompson, Cyril V.; Wise, Marcus B.

    1997-01-01

    A system for continuously analyzing volatile constituents of a liquid is described. The system contains a pump for continuously pumping the liquid to be tested at a predetermined flow rate into an extracting container through a liquid directing tube having an orifice at one end and positioned to direct the liquid into the extracting container at a flow rate sufficient to atomize the liquid within the extracting container. A continuous supply of helium carrier gas at a predetermined flow rate is directed through a tube into the extracting container and co-mingled with the atomized liquid to extract the volatile constituents contained within the atomized liquid. The helium containing the extracted volatile constituents flows out of the extracting container into a mass spectrometer for an analysis of the volatile constituents of the liquid.

  8. Atomizing, continuous, water monitoring module

    DOEpatents

    Thompson, C.V.; Wise, M.B.

    1997-07-08

    A system for continuously analyzing volatile constituents of a liquid is described. The system contains a pump for continuously pumping the liquid to be tested at a predetermined flow rate into an extracting container through a liquid directing tube having an orifice at one end and positioned to direct the liquid into the extracting container at a flow rate sufficient to atomize the liquid within the extracting container. A continuous supply of helium carrier gas at a predetermined flow rate is directed through a tube into the extracting container and co-mingled with the atomized liquid to extract the volatile constituents contained within the atomized liquid. The helium containing the extracted volatile constituents flows out of the extracting container into a mass spectrometer for an analysis of the volatile constituents of the liquid. 3 figs.

  9. 47 CFR 64.1900 - Nondominant interexchange carrier certifications regarding geographic rate averaging and rate...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... such services in compliance with its geographic rate averaging and rate integration obligations... certifications regarding geographic rate averaging and rate integration requirements. 64.1900 Section 64.1900 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES (CONTINUED)...

  10. Continuous pressure letdown system

    DOEpatents

    Sprouse, Kenneth M.; Matthews, David R.; Langowski, Terry

    2010-06-08

    A continuous pressure letdown system connected to a hopper decreases a pressure of a 2-phase (gas and solid) dusty gas stream flowing through the system. The system includes a discharge line for receiving the dusty gas from the hopper, a valve, a cascade nozzle assembly positioned downstream of the discharge line, a purge ring, an inert gas supply connected to the purge ring, an inert gas throttle, and a filter. The valve connects the hopper to the discharge line and controls introduction of the dusty gas stream into the discharge line. The purge ring is connected between the discharge line and the cascade nozzle assembly. The inert gas throttle controls a flow rate of an inert gas into the cascade nozzle assembly. The filter is connected downstream of the cascade nozzle assembly.

  11. Continuously tailored Taylor vortices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sprague, M. A.; Weidman, P. D.

    2009-11-01

    Modified axisymmetric, finite-length Taylor-Couette (TC) cells with stationary outer cylinder and rotating inner cylinder are designed in an effort to produce simultaneous onset of toroidal vortices of continuously varying wavelength along the gap. For a given axial variation in the inner radius, the axial variation in the outer radius can be chosen such that at every axial position, the criterion for the onset of Taylor vortices in a corresponding classical TC cell is met. In one scenario, a conical inner cylinder is chosen and the shape of the outer cylinder is then determined by locally satisfying the onset criterion. In another scenario, the inner and outer radii are chosen such that the onset criterion is locally satisfied and the axial rate of change in the classical onset wave number is held constant. In both cases, the modified cells possess a large-scale meridional circulation wrought by the finite Ekman (Bödewadt) pumping on the inner (outer) cylinder walls. Using direct numerical simulation, it is found that for sufficiently large aspect ratio, there exists a critical rotation rate for the simultaneous transition from the base flow to counter-rotating toroidal vortices throughout the varying-radius region. The vortices propagate in the direction of decreasing gap width with a phase speed that decreases with increasing aspect ratio.

  12. Suicide in Detroit 1975: Changes and Continuities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stack, Steven

    1982-01-01

    Analyzed data on 193 cases of suicide in Detroit to assess changes and continuities in the etiology of suicide. Results showed the highest rate of suicide has shifted from the elderly to the relatively young age cohorts. Males, persons in manual occupations, Whites, and immigrants continued to have relatively high rates of suicide. (JAC)

  13. Continuity of Care

    PubMed Central

    Alazri, Mohammed; Heywood, Philip; Neal, Richard D; Leese, Brenda

    2007-01-01

    Continuity of care is widely regarded as a core value of primary care. The objective of this article is to explore the literature about the concept of continuity of care focusing on factors that influence continuity; advantages and disadvantages of continuity and the effect of continuity on outcomes, hence on the quality of care. Electronic databases and other websites were searched for relevant literature. The results of this review showed that continuity of care is influenced by demographic factors, factors related to patients and healthcare professionals, patient-healthcare professional relationship, inter-professional factors, role of receptionists and organisational factors. Several advantages were found to be associated with most types of continuity in various medical disciplines preventive medicine, general health, maternity and child health, mental and psychosocial health, chronic diseases and costs of care.Various factors influenced different types of continuity. Most types of continuity were associated with good outcomes, hence indirectly affecting the quality of care. Health care professionals and policy makers should be aware of the effect of continuity on quality of care and of the factors that influence continuity if they wish to preserve it as a core value of primary care. PMID:21748104

  14. Continuous and Pulsed Quantum Zeno Effect

    SciTech Connect

    Streed, Erik W.; Mun, Jongchul; Boyd, Micah; Campbell, Gretchen K.; Medley, Patrick; Ketterle, Wolfgang; Pritchard, David E.

    2006-12-31

    Continuous and pulsed quantum Zeno effects were observed using a {sup 87}Rb Bose-Einstein condensate. Oscillations between two ground hyperfine states of a magnetically trapped condensate, externally driven at a transition rate {omega}{sub R}, were suppressed by destructively measuring the population in one of the states with resonant light. The suppression of the transition rate in the two-level system was quantified for pulsed measurements with a time interval {delta}t between pulses and continuous measurements with a scattering rate {gamma}. We observe that the continuous measurements exhibit the same suppression in the transition rate as the pulsed measurements when {gamma}{delta}t=3.60(0.43), in agreement with the predicted value of 4. Increasing the measurement rate suppressed the transition rate down to 0.005{omega}{sub R}.

  15. Comparison of continuous and cyclic pumping from a well.

    PubMed

    Kawecki, M W

    2001-01-01

    Two practically applicable pumping patterns for wells are: (1) continuous pumping at a sustainable constant rate; and (2) pumping at a sustainable constant rate for a fixed period every day (cyclic pumping). Theoretical analysis shows that with the cyclic pumping pattern the pump can be run at a higher rate than with continuous pumping. However continuous pumping at the maximum continuously sustainable constant rate produces considerably more water. If the objective is to produce as much water as possible, it is important to use a pump designed for running at the maximum continuously sustainable rate. PMID:11447863

  16. 47 CFR 65.800 - Rate base.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Rate base. 65.800 Section 65.800 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES (CONTINUED) INTERSTATE RATE OF RETURN PRESCRIPTION PROCEDURES AND METHODOLOGIES Rate Base § 65.800 Rate base. The rate base...

  17. 47 CFR 65.800 - Rate base.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Rate base. 65.800 Section 65.800 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES (CONTINUED) INTERSTATE RATE OF RETURN PRESCRIPTION PROCEDURES AND METHODOLOGIES Rate Base § 65.800 Rate base. The rate base...

  18. Continuous magnetic separator and process

    DOEpatents

    Oder, Robin R.; Jamison, Russell E.

    2008-04-22

    A continuous magnetic separator and process for separating a slurry comprising magnetic particles into a clarified stream and a thickened stream. The separator has a container with a slurry inlet, an overflow outlet for the discharge of the clarified slurry stream, and an underflow outlet for the discharge of a thickened slurry stream. Magnetic particles in the slurry are attracted to, and slide down, magnetic rods within the container. The slurry is thus separated into magnetic concentrate and clarified slurry. Flow control means can be used to control the ratio of the rate of magnetic concentrate to the rate of clarified slurry. Feed control means can be used to control the rate of slurry feed to the slurry inlet.

  19. Continuous monitoring of bacterial attachment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Koeing, D. W.; Mishra, S. K.; Pierson, D. L.

    1994-01-01

    A major concern with the Space Station Freedom (SSF) water supply system is the control of longterm microbial contamination and biofilm development in the water storage and distribution systems. These biofilms have the potential for harboring pathogens as well as microbial strains containing resistance factors that could negatively influence crew health. The proposed means for disinfecting the water system on SSF (iodine) may encourage the selection of resistant strains. In fact, biofilm bacteria were observed in water lines from the Space Shuttle Columbia (OV-102); therefore, an alternative remediation method is required to disinfect spacecraft water lines. A thorough understanding of colonization events and the physiological parameters that will influence bacteria adhesion is required. The limiting factor for development of this technology is the ability to continuously monitor adhesion events and the effects of biocides on sessile bacteria. Methods were developed to allow bacterial adhesion and subsequent biocidal treatment to be monitored continuously. This technique couples automated image analysis with a continuous flow of a bacterial suspension through an optical flow cell. A strain of Pseudomonas cepacia isolated from the water supply of the Space Shuttle Discovery (OV-103) during STS-39 was grown in a nitrogen-limited continuous culture. This culture was challenged continuously with iodine during growth, and the adhesion characteristics of this strain was measure with regard to flow rate. Various biocides (ozone, hypochlorite, and iodine) were added to the flow stream to evaluate how well each chemical removed the bacteria. After biocide treatment, a fresh bacterial suspension was introduced into the flow cell, and the attachment rate was evaluated on the previously treated surface. This secondary fouling was again treated with biocide to determine the efficacy of multiple batch chemical treatments in removing biofilm.

  20. Pregnancy Rates for U.S. Women Continue to Drop

    MedlinePlus

    ... associated with a variety of demographic, social, and economic factors, and related program and policy efforts. It has been suggested that the declining economy, beginning in 2007, has likely played a role ...

  1. Spatial distribution visualization of PWM continuous variable-rate spray

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Chemical application is a dynamic spatial distribution process, during which spray liquid covers the targets with certain thickness and uniformity. Therefore, it is important to study the 2-D and 3-D (dimensional) spray distribution to evaluate spraying quality. The curve-surface generation methods ...

  2. Planning for Project Continuation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berry, Grant, Jr.

    Designed to help colleges plan for the successful continuation of educational improvement projects beyond the end of their original funding period, this report presents a case study of Pennsylvania College of Technology's (PCT's) efforts to ensure the continuation of a Title III faculty development program. After describing the the Title III…

  3. Reinventing Continuing Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walshok, Mary Lindenstein

    2012-01-01

    Re-inventing continuing higher education is about finding ways to be a more central player in a region's civic, cultural, and economic life as well as in the education of individuals for work and citizenship. Continuing higher education will require data gathering, analytical tools, convening authority, interpretive skills, new models of delivery,…

  4. Continuing Vocational Training (CVT).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Drogosz-Zablocka, Elzbieta; Izycka, Halina; Trzeciak, Wlodzimierz

    Polish continuing education (CE) includes education, further education, and professional development in and out of school; in day, evening, or weekend courses; and distance education. The state, workplaces, grants, and foreign assistance provide financing. A variety of organizations cooperate to provide continuing education. High-risk groups…

  5. The Tactile Continuity Illusion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kitagawa, Norimichi; Igarashi, Yuka; Kashino, Makio

    2009-01-01

    We can perceive the continuity of an object or event by integrating spatially/temporally discrete sensory inputs. The mechanism underlying this perception of continuity has intrigued many researchers and has been well documented in both the visual and auditory modalities. The present study shows for the first time to our knowledge that an illusion…

  6. Continuous partition lattice

    PubMed Central

    Björner, Anders

    1987-01-01

    A continuous analogue to the partition lattices is presented. This is the metric completion of the direct limit of a system of embeddings of the finite partition lattices. The construction is analogous to von Neumann's construction of a continuous geometry over a field F from the finite-dimensional projective geometries over F. PMID:16593874

  7. Library of Continuation Algorithms

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    2005-03-01

    LOCA (Library of Continuation Algorithms) is scientific software written in C++ that provides advanced analysis tools for nonlinear systems. In particular, it provides parameter continuation algorithms. bifurcation tracking algorithms, and drivers for linear stability analysis. The algorithms are aimed at large-scale applications that use Newton’s method for their nonlinear solve.

  8. Heart Rate Monitor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1984-01-01

    In the mid 70's, NASA saw a need for a long term electrocardiographic electrode suitable for use on astronauts. Heart Rate Inc.'s insulated capacitive electrode is constructed of thin dielectric film applied to stainless steel surface, originally developed under a grant by Texas Technical University. HRI, Inc. was awarded NASA license and continued development of heart rate monitor for use on exercise machines for physical fitness and medical markets.

  9. Continual improvement plan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    NASA's approach to continual improvement (CI) is a systems-oriented, agency-wide approach that builds on the past accomplishments of NASA Headquarters and its field installations and helps achieve NASA's vision, mission, and values. The NASA of the future will fully use the principles of continual improvement in every aspect of its operations. This NASA CI plan defines a systematic approach and a model for continual improvement throughout NASA, stressing systems integration and optimization. It demonstrates NASA's constancy of purpose for improvement - a consistent vision of NASA as a worldwide leader in top-quality science, technology, and management practices. The CI plan provides the rationale, structures, methods, and steps, and it defines NASA's short term (1-year) objectives for improvement. The CI plan presents the deployment strategies necessary for cascading the goals and objectives throughout the agency. It also provides guidance on implementing continual improvement with participation from top leadership and all levels of employees.

  10. Continuing Appropriations Act, 2012

    THOMAS, 112th Congress

    Rep. Aderholt, Robert B. [R-AL-4

    2011-05-26

    09/30/2011 Became Public Law No: 112-33. (TXT | PDF) (All Actions) Notes: Continuing appropriations through 10/4/2011. Tracker: This bill has the status Became LawHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  11. Continuing Appropriations Resolution, 2015

    THOMAS, 113th Congress

    Rep. Rogers, Harold [R-KY-5

    2014-09-09

    09/19/2014 Became Public Law No: 113-164. (TXT | PDF) (All Actions) Notes: Continuing appropriations through 12/11/2014. Tracker: This bill has the status Became LawHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  12. Continuing Appropriations Act, 2012

    THOMAS, 112th Congress

    Rep. Graves, Sam [R-MO-6

    2011-07-21

    10/05/2011 Became Public Law No: 112-36. (TXT | PDF) (All Actions) Notes: Continuing appropriations through 11/18/2011. Tracker: This bill has the status Became LawHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  13. Symmetric continued fractions

    SciTech Connect

    Panprasitwech, Oranit; Laohakosol, Vichian; Chaichana, Tuangrat

    2010-11-11

    Explicit formulae for continued fractions with symmetric patterns in their partial quotients are constructed in the field of formal power series. Similar to the work of Cohn in 1996, which generalized the so-called folding lemma to {kappa}-fold symmetry, the notion of {kappa}-duplicating symmetric continued fractions is investigated using a modification of the 1995 technique due to Clemens, Merrill and Roeder.

  14. Continuous parallel coordinates.

    PubMed

    Heinrich, Julian; Weiskopf, Daniel

    2009-01-01

    Typical scientific data is represented on a grid with appropriate interpolation or approximation schemes,defined on a continuous domain. The visualization of such data in parallel coordinates may reveal patterns latently contained in the data and thus can improve the understanding of multidimensional relations. In this paper, we adopt the concept of continuous scatterplots for the visualization of spatially continuous input data to derive a density model for parallel coordinates. Based on the point-line duality between scatterplots and parallel coordinates, we propose a mathematical model that maps density from a continuous scatterplot to parallel coordinates and present different algorithms for both numerical and analytical computation of the resulting density field. In addition, we show how the 2-D model can be used to successively construct continuous parallel coordinates with an arbitrary number of dimensions. Since continuous parallel coordinates interpolate data values within grid cells, a scalable and dense visualization is achieved, which will be demonstrated for typical multi-variate scientific data. PMID:19834230

  15. Noninvasive continuous blood pressure monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poghosyan, Armen; Mouradian, Vahram; Hovhannisyan, Levon

    2015-03-01

    We are presenting a novel photoplethysmographic (PPG) optical sensor and device with ambient optical, electrical and electromagnetic noises cancellation, thus allowing only the useful optical signals to be received by the health monitoring device. We are also presenting a new processing technique for canceling the ambient noises contributed by optical, electrical and electromagnetic artifacts in the measured PPG signals. Such a device and method allow the enhancement of the performance of the PPG sensors compared to conventional apparatus and methods. The presented sensor and methodology have been integrated into a prototype standalone device for noninvasive, continuous, wearable, remote and mobile monitoring of blood pressure and other human vital signs, such as heart rate, oxygen saturation, respiration rate, etc This small device allows the user to read, store, process and transmit all the measurements made using the PPG optical sensor and the electronic unit to a remote location.

  16. (Continuous casting 1985)

    SciTech Connect

    Wilde, R.A.

    1985-06-12

    The report covers the Continuous Casting '85 Conference including informal discussions with conference attendees. In general, the papers presented at the conference concerned an overview of continuous steel casting worldwide, state-of-the-art aspects of steel continuous casting technology including caster startup problems, modifications, control system strategies, energy use profiles, quality control aspects, steel chemistry control, refractories, operational aspects of continuous casters, etc. No papers were presented in the development of thin section or thin strip casting of steel. Informal discussions were held with several conference attendees including (1) Bernard Trentini, Executive Director of the Association Technique De La Siderurgie Francaise in Paris, France (similar to the American Iron and Steel Institute); (2) Dr. Wolfgang Reichelt and Dr. Peter Voss-Spilker both of Mannesmann Demag Huttentechnik -a continuous casting and other steel making machine builder in-lieu of meeting at their plant in Duisburg, FRG on May 31; (3) Ewan C. Hewitt of Devote McKee Corp., Sheffield, England; (4) Wilfried Heinemann, head of R D Dept. at Concast Standard AG in Zurich, Switzerland; and (5) Hideo Ueno, engineer of melting section, Mitsubishi Steel Mfg. Co. Ltd, Tokyo Japan. A visit was made to the Teesside Laboratories of British Steel Corp. for discussions of their thin section casting research program in particular and R D program in general.

  17. Pressurized continuous chromatography

    SciTech Connect

    Canon, R.M.; Begovich, J.M.; Sisson, W.G.

    1980-04-01

    A pressurized continuous annular chromatograph has been developed for preparative separations. This device utilizes a slowly rotating annular bed of sorbent material, fixed multiple feed points, and fixed withdrawal locations. Most of our investigations have been performed with a 28-cm-diam column, but a larger model is being designed and constructed. The separation of copper, nickel, and cobalt components from a carbonate solution has been studied in detail. This solution simulates the leach liquor from the Caron process for recovering nickel and cobalt from laterite ores. Use of continuous gradient elution has been demonstrated. Recent studies have investigated several separations, including that of zirconium and hafnium (necessary for the production of zirconium for use in nuclear reactors), on a preparative scale. This system, because of its continuous feed and product withdrawal, its adaptability to large-scale operations, and its ability to separate many components, is expected to make chromatography a more competitive process in the industrial sector.

  18. Singular Continuations of Attractors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giraldo, A.; Sanjurjo, J. M. R.

    2009-01-01

    We study dynamical and topological properties of the singularities of continuations of attractors of flows on manifolds. Despite the fact that these singularities are not isolated invariant sets, they share many of the properties of attractors; in particular, they have finitely generated Čech homology and cohomology, and they have the Čech homotopy type of attractors. This means that, from a global point of view, the singularities of continuations are topological objects closely related to finite polyhedra. The global structure is preserved even for weaker forms of continuation. An interesting case occurs with the Lorenz system for parameter values close to the situation of preturbulence. A general result, motivated by this particular case, is presented.

  19. Reasoning about continuous processes

    SciTech Connect

    Herrmann, C.S.; Thielscher, M.

    1996-12-31

    Overcoming the disadvantages of equidistant discretization of continuous actions, we introduce an approach that separates time into slices of varying length bordered by certain events. Such events are points in time at which the equations describing the system`s behavior that is, the equations which specify the ongoing processes-change. Between two events the system`s parameters stay continuous. A high-level semantics for drawing logical conclusions about dynamic systems with continuous processes is presented, and we have developed an adequate calculus to automate this reasoning process. In doing this, we have combined deduction and numerical calculus, offering logical reasoning about precise, quantitative system information. The scenario of multiple balls moving in 1-dimensional space interacting with a pendulum serves as demonstration example of our method.

  20. Advancements for continuous miners

    SciTech Connect

    Fiscor, S.

    2007-06-15

    Design changes and new technology make the modern continuous miner more user friendly. Two of the major manufacturers, Joy Mining Machinery and DBT, both based near Pittsburgh, PA, USA, have recently acquired other OEMs to offer a greater product line. Joy's biggest development in terms of improving cutting time is the FACEBOSS Control System which has an operator assistance element and Joy Surface Reporting Software (JSRP). Joy's WetHead continuous miners have excellent performance. DBT is researching ways to make the machines more reliable with new drive systems. It has also been experimenting with water sprays to improve dust suppression. 4 photos.

  1. Toward Continuous Medical Education

    PubMed Central

    Zeiger, Roni F

    2005-01-01

    While traditional continuing medical education (CME) courses increase participants' knowledge, they have minimal impact on the more relevant end points of physician behavior and patient outcomes. The interactive potential of online CME and its flexibility in time and place offer potential improvements over traditional CME. However, more emphasis should be placed on continuing education that occurs when clinicians search for answers to questions that arise in clinical practice, instead of that which occurs at an arbitrary time designated for CME. The use of learning portfolios and informationists can be integrated with self-directed CME to help foster a culture of lifelong learning. PMID:15693934

  2. Distributed Continuous Registration.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Myers, Donald L.

    1981-01-01

    The development, implementation, and features of Northern Colorado's continuous registration system are described. The system is an online distributed processing system, written in COBOL for an IBM Series I under the CPS operating system. Course selection, permit to enroll, and drop/add forms are provided. (Author/MLW)

  3. Continuous Personal Improvement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Emiliani, M. L.

    1998-01-01

    Suggests that continuous improvement tools used in the workplace can be applied to self-improvement. Explains the use of such techniques as one-piece flow, kanban, visual controls, and total productive maintenance. Points out misapplications of these tools and describes the use of fishbone diagrams to diagnose problems. (SK)

  4. To Be Continued...

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Poliniak, Susan

    2010-01-01

    Professional growth, like personal growth, comes only through an investment of effort, but it can provide significant returns. Music educators--indeed, most serious musicians--are naturally curious and intensely interested in opportunities for continuing education. If music educators are looking for ways to increase the level of knowledge they…

  5. CEU [Continuing Education Unit].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adult Basic Education Region V Staff Development Bulletin, 1974

    1974-01-01

    The Continuing Education Unit (CEU) is a means of recording and accounting non-credit programs and activities which are professional in nature. Seven criteria have been established to assure the professionalism and quality of instruction. The criteria concern the need, objectives, and rationale of the activity; the course planning and…

  6. Continuing Appropriations Act, 2014

    THOMAS, 113th Congress

    Rep. Black, Diane [R-TN-6

    2013-07-22

    10/17/2013 Became Public Law No: 113-46. (TXT | PDF) (All Actions) Notes: The final version of the bill makes continuing appropriations through January 15, 2014, thus ending the government shutdown, and increases the debt limit through February 7, 2014. Tracker: This bill has the status Became LawHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  7. Continuing Education Survey.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bird, K. A.; Fenwick, P. R.

    In 1978, a national survey was conducted in New Zealand to determine the extent of participation in continuing education and the level of unmet need for these activities. A questionnaire was developed dealing with respondent characteristics, spare time and interests, agency-directed learning activities (ADLAS), and unmet needs, and administered to…

  8. Legitimacy and Program Continuation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dahl, Rene F.

    This paper examines the extent to which legitimacy affects program continuation, and focuses on the process by which programs attempt to maintain legitimate status through conformity with the larger environment. Legitimacy is defined as cultural support from a program's larger environment, such as the school district or community. An innovative…

  9. Continuing Education of Women.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adult Education Association of U.S.A., Washington, DC.

    This annotated bibliography of about 150 items on women's continuing education begins with descriptions of a newsletter and three bibliographies, followed by documents on sex differences in ability, achievement, and role perception. Four other sections cover employment related interests and needs, women's participation in programs by universities…

  10. Clausal Continuations in Japanese

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krekoski, Ross

    2012-01-01

    Recent studies illustrate cases of turn continuations that are not necessarily criterially dependent on clausal syntax (Couper-Kuhlen & Ono, 2007; Ford, Fox, & Thompson, 2002), advancing a more multidimensional construal of turn expansions, in general, which, as Auer (2007) put it, "is not a syntactic issue alone" (p. 651). This study further…

  11. 47 CFR 64.1801 - Geographic rate averaging and rate integration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Geographic rate averaging and rate integration... CARRIER SERVICES (CONTINUED) MISCELLANEOUS RULES RELATING TO COMMON CARRIERS Geographic Rate Averaging and Rate Integration § 64.1801 Geographic rate averaging and rate integration. (a) The rates charged...

  12. High throughput continuous cryopump

    SciTech Connect

    Foster, C.A.

    1986-01-01

    A cryocondensation pump with a unique regeneration mechanism that allows continuous operation has been constructed and tested. The pump features a device referred to as the ''Snail'' which removes the cryofrost layer as it is moved over the pumping surfaces. A forepump pumps the sublimed gas generated inside the Snail. The compression ratio of the pump is the ratio of the cryopump speed to the leakage conductance of the Snail. Deuterium had been pumped continuously at 30 torr.L/s at a speed of 2000 L/s and a compression ratio of 100. The pump, being all metal sealed and free of lubricating fluids, has many potential applications where untraclean high throughput pumping is desirable. Since the pump regenerates on a time scale of 60 seconds, the inventory in the pump is minimized - an important consideration when pumping radioactive materials such as tritium. Test data and a videotape of the Snail removing the cryofrost will be shown.

  13. Continuous coal processing method

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ryason, P. R. (Inventor)

    1980-01-01

    A coal pump is provided in which solid coal is heated in the barrel of an extruder under pressure to a temperature at which the coal assumes plastic properties. The coal is continuously extruded, without static zones, using, for example, screw extrusion preferably without venting through a reduced diameter die to form a dispersed spray. As a result, the dispersed coal may be continuously injected into vessels or combustors at any pressure up to the maximum pressure developed in the extrusion device. The coal may be premixed with other materials such as desulfurization aids or reducible metal ores so that reactions occur, during or after conversion to its plastic state. Alternatively, the coal may be processed and caused to react after extrusion, through the die, with, for example, liquid oxidizers, whereby a coal reactor is provided.

  14. Continuous Fiber Ceramic Composites

    SciTech Connect

    2002-09-01

    Fiber-reinforced ceramic composites demonstrate the high-temperature stability of ceramics--with an increased fracture toughness resulting from the fiber reinforcement of the composite. The material optimization performed under the continuous fiber ceramic composites (CFCC) included a series of systematic optimizations. The overall goals were to define the processing window, to increase the robustinous of the process, to increase process yield while reducing costs, and to define the complexity of parts that could be fabricated.

  15. Continuous in vitro evolution of catalytic function.

    PubMed

    Wright, M C; Joyce, G F

    1997-04-25

    A population of RNA molecules that catalyze the template-directed ligation of RNA substrates was made to evolve in a continuous manner in the test tube. A simple serial transfer procedure was used to achieve approximately 300 successive rounds of catalysis and selective amplification in 52 hours. During this time, the population size was maintained against an overall dilution of 3 x 10(298). Both the catalytic rate and amplification rate of the RNAs improved substantially as a consequence of mutations that accumulated during the evolution process. Continuous in vitro evolution makes it possible to maintain laboratory "cultures" of catalytic molecules that can be perpetuated indefinitely. PMID:9110984

  16. Continuous in vitro evolution of catalytic function

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wright, M. C.; Joyce, G. F.

    1997-01-01

    A population of RNA molecules that catalyze the template-directed ligation of RNA substrates was made to evolve in a continuous manner in the test tube. A simple serial transfer procedure was used to achieve approximately 300 successive rounds of catalysis and selective amplification in 52 hours. During this time, the population size was maintained against an overall dilution of 3 x 10(298). Both the catalytic rate and amplification rate of the RNAs improved substantially as a consequence of mutations that accumulated during the evolution process. Continuous in vitro evolution makes it possible to maintain laboratory "cultures" of catalytic molecules that can be perpetuated indefinitely.

  17. Continuous peripheral nerve blocks in children.

    PubMed

    Dadure, C; Capdevila, X

    2005-06-01

    In recent years, regional anaesthesia in children has generated increasing interest. Continuous peripheral nerve blocks have an important role in the anaesthetic arsenal, allowing effective, safe and prolonged postoperative pain management. Indications for continuous peripheral nerve blocks depend on benefits/risks analysis of each technique for each patient. The indications include surgery associated with intense postoperative pain, surgery requiring painful physical therapy, and complex regional pain syndrome. Continuous peripheral nerve blocks are usually performed under general anaesthesia or sedation, and require appropriate equipment in order to decrease the risk of nerve injury. New techniques, such as transcutaneous stimulation or ultrasound guidance, appear to facilitate nerve and plexus identification in paediatric patients. Nevertheless, continuous peripheral nerve block may mask compartment syndrome in certain surgical procedure or trauma. Finally, ropivacaine appears to be the best local anaesthetic for continuous peripheral nerve blocks in children, requiring low flow rate with low concentration of the local anaesthetic. PMID:15966500

  18. Continuous reduction of uranium tetrafluoride

    SciTech Connect

    DeMint, A.L.; Maxey, A.W.

    1993-10-21

    Operation of a pilot-scale system for continuous metallothermic reduction of uranium tetrafluoride (UF{sub 4} or green salt) has been initiated. This activity is in support of the development of a cost- effective process to produce uranium-iron (U-Fe) alloy feed for the Uranium-Atomic Vapor Laser Isotope Separation (U-AVLIS) program. To date, five runs have been made to reduce green salt (UF{sub 4}) with magnesium. During this quarter, three runs were made to perfect the feeding system, examine feed rates, and determine the need for a crust breaker/stirrer. No material was drawn off in any of the runs; both product metal and by-product salt were allowed to accumulate in the reactor.

  19. Continuous Aqueous Tritium Monitoring

    SciTech Connect

    Hofstetter, K.J.

    1995-03-29

    Continuous monitoring for tritium in the aqueous effluents of selected Savannah River Site (SRS) facilities is performed using a custom designed system that includes an automated water purification system and a flow-through radiation detection system optimized for tritium. Beads of plastic scintillators coupled with coincidence electronics provide adequate sensitivity (=25kBz/L) for tritium break-through detection int he aqueous discharge stream from these facilities. The tritium effluent water monitors (TEWMs) at SRS provide early warning (within 30 minutes) of an unanticipated release of tritium, supplement the routine sampling surveillances, and mitigate the impact of aqueous plant discharges of tritium releases to the environment.

  20. Continuous aqueous tritium monitoring

    SciTech Connect

    Hofstetter, K.J.

    1995-10-01

    Continuous monitoring for tritium in the aqueous effluents of selected Savannah River Site (SRS) facilities is performed using a unique system that includes an automated water purification system and a flow-through radiation detection system optimized for tritium. Beads of plastic scintillator coupled with coincidence electronics provide adequate sensitivity (approx.25kBq/L) for tritium breakthrough detection in the aqueous discharge stream from these facilities. The tritium effluent water monitors (TEWMs) at SRS provide early warning (within 30 minutes) of an unanticipated release of tritium, supplement the routine sampling surveillances, and mitigate the impact of aqueous plant discharges of tritium to the environment. 4 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

  1. Continuous system modeling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cellier, Francois E.

    1991-01-01

    A comprehensive and systematic introduction is presented for the concepts associated with 'modeling', involving the transition from a physical system down to an abstract description of that system in the form of a set of differential and/or difference equations, and basing its treatment of modeling on the mathematics of dynamical systems. Attention is given to the principles of passive electrical circuit modeling, planar mechanical systems modeling, hierarchical modular modeling of continuous systems, and bond-graph modeling. Also discussed are modeling in equilibrium thermodynamics, population dynamics, and system dynamics, inductive reasoning, artificial neural networks, and automated model synthesis.

  2. Multiclass Continuous Correspondence Learning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bue, Brian D,; Thompson, David R.

    2011-01-01

    We extend the Structural Correspondence Learning (SCL) domain adaptation algorithm of Blitzer er al. to the realm of continuous signals. Given a set of labeled examples belonging to a 'source' domain, we select a set of unlabeled examples in a related 'target' domain that play similar roles in both domains. Using these 'pivot samples, we map both domains into a common feature space, allowing us to adapt a classifier trained on source examples to classify target examples. We show that when between-class distances are relatively preserved across domains, we can automatically select target pivots to bring the domains into correspondence.

  3. Continuous gravity gradient logging

    SciTech Connect

    Fitch, J.L.; Lyle, W.D. Jr.

    1986-07-29

    A method is described for conducting a gravimetry survey of an earth formation, comprising the steps of: (a) continuously traversing the earth formation with a gravity logging tool having a column of fluid within the tool, (b) measuring a first pressure difference along a first interval within the column of fluid, (c) measuring a second pressure difference along a second interval within the column of fluid, (d) differencing the first and second pressure differences to determine the gravity gradient along the earth formation between the first and second intervals.

  4. Continuous polymerization reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Wilt, M.S.

    1986-05-06

    A method is described for contacting olefinic monomer and initiator in a continuous polymerization process comprising of the steps of: creating three turbulent zones in a vessel; introducing the olefinic monomer into a first part of the periphery of each one of the three turbulent zones; introducing the initiator into a second part of the periphery of each one of the three turbulent zones, wherein the first part of the periphery of each one of the three turbulent zones is substantially diametrically opposed to the second part of the periphery of each one of the three turbulent zones respectively.

  5. Continuous plutonium dissolution apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Meyer, F.G.; Tesitor, C.N.

    1974-02-26

    This invention is concerned with continuous dissolution of metals such as plutonium. A high normality acid mixture is fed into a boiler vessel, vaporized, and subsequently condensed as a low normality acid mixture. The mixture is then conveyed to a dissolution vessel and contacted with the plutonium metal to dissolve the plutonium in the dissolution vessel, reacting therewith forming plutonium nitrate. The reaction products are then conveyed to the mixing vessel and maintained soluble by the high normality acid, with separation and removal of the desired constituent. (Official Gazette)

  6. Personal continuous air monitor

    DOEpatents

    Morgan, Ronald G.; Salazar, Samuel A.

    2000-01-01

    A personal continuous air monitor capable of giving immediate warning of the presence of radioactivity has a filter/detector head to be worn in the breathing zone of a user, containing a filter mounted adjacent to radiation detectors, and a preamplifier. The filter/detector head is connected to a belt pack to be worn at the waist or on the back of a user. The belt pack contains a signal processor, batteries, a multichannel analyzer, a logic circuit, and an alarm. An air pump also is provided in the belt pack for pulling air through the filter/detector head by way of an air tube.

  7. Continuous miner noise

    SciTech Connect

    Robertson, J.

    1981-08-01

    Noise generated by continuous miners in underground coal production is an important health hazard. Laboratory tests of simulated cutting operations and in-mine noise measurements have been made. These show that coal cutting noise and conveyor noise are the dominant sources of miner operational noise. Typical noise levels for cutting and conveying operations are 97 dBA. For full operation of all machine systems, the overall sound pressure level is approximately 101 dBA. In-mine and laboratory test results show excellent agreement in both A-weighted overall levels as well as A-weighted one-third octave band spectra.

  8. 7 CFR 1980.320 - Interest rate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 14 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Interest rate. 1980.320 Section 1980.320 Agriculture... REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) GENERAL Rural Housing Loans § 1980.320 Interest rate. The interest rate must not... interest rate over the life of the loan. The rate shall be agreed upon by the borrower and the Lender...

  9. Continuous production of titanium powder

    SciTech Connect

    Gerdemann, Stephen J.; Oden, Laurence L.; White, Jack C.

    1997-01-01

    Although incremental improvements have been made to the Kroll process since its inception in 1948, the process in use today remains essentially the same batch process developed by Dr. Kroll and perfected by the U.S. Bureau of Mines. In this process, titanium tetrachloride (TiCl4) is reduced by magnesium to produce titanium metal. There are two major limitations to the Kroll process: (1) it is a batch process; and (2) the reduction of TiCl4 proceeds so rapidly that the sponge formed is an interlocking dendritic mass with inclusions of magnesium, magnesium salts and titanium subchloride that must undergo several purification steps before the metal is suitable for use. The Albany Research Center (ARC), formerly the U.S. Bureau of Mines, has investigated a new, continuous titanium metal production process in which a titanium powder is produced in a bath of molten salt. In this process, the rate of the reduction reaction was slowed and controlled by diluting the reactants with molten chloride salts. The diluted reactant streams were combined in a continuous stirred tank reactor, operated much like a crystallizer. New titanium metal forms on the already present small Ti particles. When the Ti particles become too large to remain suspended in solution, they fall to the bottom of the reactor and are removed. Initial experiments show promise but problems remain in obtaining the required purity and uniform particle size.

  10. Continuously adjustable Pulfrich spectacles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jacobs, Ken; Karpf, Ron

    2011-03-01

    A number of Pulfrich 3-D movies and TV shows have been produced, but the standard implementation has inherent drawbacks. The movie and TV industries have correctly concluded that the standard Pulfrich 3-D implementation is not a useful 3-D technique. Continuously Adjustable Pulfrich Spectacles (CAPS) is a new implementation of the Pulfrich effect that allows any scene containing movement in a standard 2-D movie, which are most scenes, to be optionally viewed in 3-D using inexpensive viewing specs. Recent scientific results in the fields of human perception, optoelectronics, video compression and video format conversion are translated into a new implementation of Pulfrich 3- D. CAPS uses these results to continuously adjust to the movie so that the viewing spectacles always conform to the optical density that optimizes the Pulfrich stereoscopic illusion. CAPS instantly provides 3-D immersion to any moving scene in any 2-D movie. Without the glasses, the movie will appear as a normal 2-D image. CAPS work on any viewing device, and with any distribution medium. CAPS is appropriate for viewing Internet streamed movies in 3-D.

  11. Continuing challenges in influenza

    PubMed Central

    Webster, Robert G.; Govorkova, Elena A.

    2014-01-01

    Influenza is an acute respiratory disease in mammals and domestic poultry that emerges from zoonotic reservoirs in aquatic birds and bats. Although influenza viruses are among the most intensively studied pathogens, existing control options require further improvement. Influenza vaccines must be regularly updated because of continuous antigenic drift and sporadic antigenic shifts in the viral surface glycoproteins. Currently, influenza therapeutics are limited to neuraminidase inhibitors; novel drugs and vaccine approaches are therefore urgently needed. Advances in vaccinology and structural analysis have revealed common antigenic epitopes on hemagglutinins across all influenza viruses and suggest that a universal influenza vaccine is possible. In addition, various immunomodulatory agents and signaling pathway inhibitors are undergoing preclinical development. Continuing challenges in influenza include the emergence of pandemic H1N1 influenza in 2009, human infections with avian H7N9 influenza in 2013, and sporadic human cases of highly pathogenic avian H5N1 influenza. Here, we review the challenges facing influenza scientists and veterinary and human public health officials; we also discuss the exciting possibility of achieving the ultimate goal of controlling influenza’s ability to change its antigenicity. PMID:24891213

  12. Australia: a continuing genocide?

    PubMed

    Short, Damien

    2010-01-01

    Debates about genocide in Australia have for the most part focussed on past frontier killings and child removal practices. This article, however, focuses on contemporary culturally destructive policies, and the colonial structures that produce them, through the analytical lens of the concept of genocide. The article begins with a discussion of the meaning of cultural genocide, locating the idea firmly in Lemkin's work before moving on to engage with the debates around Lemkin's distinction between genocide and cultural 'diffusion.' In contrast to those scholars who prefer the word 'ethnocide,' the underlying conceptual contention is that the term 'cultural genocide' simply describes a key method of genocide and should be viewed, without the need for qualification, as genocide. While direct physical killing and genocidal child removal practices may have ceased in Australia, some indigenous activists persuasively contend that genocide is a continuing process in an Australia that has failed to decolonise. Concurring with these views the article argues that the contemporary expression of continuing genocidal relations in Australia can be seen principally, and perversely, in the colonial state's official reconciliation process, native title land rights regime and the recent interventionist 'solutions' to indigenous 'problems' in the Northern Territory. PMID:20941881

  13. Continuous steel production and apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Peaslee, Kent D.; Peter, Jorg J.; Robertson, David G. C.; Thomas, Brian G.; Zhang, Lifeng

    2009-11-17

    A process for continuous refining of steel via multiple distinct reaction vessels for melting, oxidation, reduction, and refining for delivery of steel continuously to, for example, a tundish of a continuous caster system, and associated apparatus.

  14. 15 CFR 700.3 - Priority ratings and rated orders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Priority ratings and rated orders. 700.3 Section 700.3 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Commerce and Foreign Trade (Continued) BUREAU OF INDUSTRY AND SECURITY, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE NATIONAL SECURITY INDUSTRIAL...

  15. Lapse in Institutional Animal Care and Use Committee Continuing Reviews.

    PubMed

    Tsan, Min-Fu; Grabenbauer, Michael; Nguyen, Yen

    2016-01-01

    The United States federal animal welfare regulations and the Public Health Service Policy on Humane Care and Use of Laboratory Animals require that institutional animal care and use committees (IACUCs) conduct continuing reviews of all animal research activities. However, little is known about the lapse rate of IACUC continuing reviews, and how frequently investigators continue research activities during the lapse. It is also not clear what factors may contribute to an institution's lapse in IACUC continuing reviews. As part of the quality assurance program, the Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) has collected performance metric data for animal care and use programs since 2011. We analyzed IACUC continuing review performance data at 74-75 VA research facilities from 2011 through 2015. The IACUC continuing review lapse rates improved from 5.6% in 2011 to 2.7% in 2015. The rate of investigators continuing research activities during the lapse also decreased from 47.2% in 2012 to 7.4% in 2015. The type of IACUCs used and the size of animal research programs appeared to have no effect in facility's rates of lapse in IACUC continuing reviews. While approximately 80% of facilities reported no lapse in IACUC continuing reviews, approximately 14% of facilities had lapse rates of >10% each year. Some facilities appeared to be repeat offenders. Four facilities had IACUC lapse rates of >10% in at least 3 out of 5 years, suggesting a system problem in these facilities requiring remedial actions to improve their IACUC continuing review processes. PMID:27606820

  16. 47 CFR 64.1801 - Geographic rate averaging and rate integration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Geographic rate averaging and rate integration. 64.1801 Section 64.1801 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON... Rate Integration § 64.1801 Geographic rate averaging and rate integration. (a) The rates charged...

  17. 47 CFR 64.1801 - Geographic rate averaging and rate integration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Geographic rate averaging and rate integration. 64.1801 Section 64.1801 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON... Rate Integration § 64.1801 Geographic rate averaging and rate integration. (a) The rates charged...

  18. 47 CFR 64.1801 - Geographic rate averaging and rate integration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Geographic rate averaging and rate integration. 64.1801 Section 64.1801 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON... Rate Integration § 64.1801 Geographic rate averaging and rate integration. (a) The rates charged...

  19. 47 CFR 64.1801 - Geographic rate averaging and rate integration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Geographic rate averaging and rate integration. 64.1801 Section 64.1801 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON... Rate Integration § 64.1801 Geographic rate averaging and rate integration. (a) The rates charged...

  20. Continuous coring drill bit

    SciTech Connect

    Ford, G.A.

    1987-09-22

    A continuous coring drill bit is described comprising: (a) body means defining a vertical axis and adapted for connection to drill pipe and forming an internal body cavity disposed in eccentric relation with the vertical axis and a generally circular throat in communication with the body cavity for conducting drilling fluid. The throat defining a throat axis coincident with the vertical axis and being of a configuration permitting passage of a formation core into the body cavity; (b) a generally cylindrical tubular core breaker being rotatably mounted within the body cavity and defining a vertical axis of rotation of generally parallel and offset relation with the vertical axis of the body means; and (c) a buttress element extending inwardly from the core breaker and adapted to contact the formation core. Upon each rotation of the drill bit the buttress element applying transverse force to the core for fracturing of the core into sections sufficiently small for transport by the drilling fluid.

  1. Continuous steam explosion

    SciTech Connect

    Taylor, J.D.; Yu, E.K.C.

    1995-02-01

    StakeTech has focused on developing steam explosion on a commercial basis. The company essentially a biomass conversion company dealing with cellulosic biomass such as wood, crop residues and, more recently, wastepaper and municipal solid waste (MSW). They are faced with a tremendous opportunity to develop uses for the 50% of biomass that is currently wasted. The StakeTech steam explosion process is able to break the bonds using only high-pressure steam with no chemical additives. The continuous StakeTech System now has been installed in five countries and has proved effective in processing a wide variety of raw materials including wood chips, straw, sugarcane bagasse, and waste paper. End-use applications range from specialty chemicals to large-volume agricultural products. The increase of development activities in steam explosion should lead to expanded end-use applications, and acceptance of the technology by industry should accelerate in the years to come.

  2. Quasi-continuous magnets

    SciTech Connect

    Sims, J.R.; Naumovich, G.J.; Hoang, T.A.; Dent, P.C.

    1996-05-01

    The National High Magnetic Field Laboratory is completing a quasi-continuous magnet which will sustain a constant field of 60 T for 100 ms in a 32-mm 77 K bore. This magnet consists of 9 mechanically independent, nested, liquid nitrogen-cooled coils which are individually reinforced by high-strength stainless steel outer shells. The coils were wound from rectangular large cross-section, high-strength, high-conductivity copper conductor insulated wtih polyimide and fiberglass tapes. After winding, the coils were inserted into closely fitted, stainless steel reinforcing shells and impregnated with epoxy resin. Design, analysis, material, fabrication and operational issues for this class of magnets are reviewed. Fabrication and quality assurance testing of the 60 T coil set are covered in detail. Future growth of and possible links from this technology to other magnet systems are discussed. Needed improvements in design, analysis, materials, and fabrication are outlined.

  3. Superfund policy fight continues

    SciTech Connect

    Kirschner, E.

    1992-07-29

    Superfund continues to be embroiled in controversy, as companies contend with cleanup costs and Senate amendments seek to cut back municipality and lender liability. The Environmental Protection Agency announced earlier this month that it is suing seven companies for Superfund costs at the Bridgeport Rental and Oil Services waste oil recycling and disposal facility in Logan Township, NJ. EPA says the companies -- Monsanto, DuPont, Allied Signal, Rohm and Haas, Rollings Environmental Services, International Flavors Fragrances, and Atlantic City Electric Power -- as waste generators, should foot the $29 million-plus cleanup bill. At issue is whether the government should be named a potentially responsible party (PRP). Ten PRPs, including four of the firms named in the EPA case, filed a suit in March seeking government involvement in negotiations. DuPont attorney Bernard Reilly says a study of the site shows that 50 million-70 million gal is military waste oil, pegging only 5 million gal as industry's share.

  4. CONTINUOUSLY SENSITIVE BUBBLE CHAMBER

    DOEpatents

    Good, R.H.

    1959-08-18

    A radiation detector of the bubble chamber class is described which is continuously sensitive and which does not require the complex pressure cycling equipment characteristic of prior forms of the chamber. The radiation sensitive element is a gas-saturated liquid and means are provided for establishing a thermal gradient across a region of the liquid. The gradient has a temperature range including both the saturation temperature of the liquid and more elevated temperatures. Thus a supersaturated zone is created in which ionizing radiations may give rise to visible gas bubbles indicative of the passage of the radiation through the liquid. Additional means are provided for replenishing the supply of gas-saturated liquid to maintaincontinuous sensitivity.

  5. Continuous miner noise

    SciTech Connect

    Robertson, J.; Kovac, J.; Bartholomae, R.

    1981-08-01

    Noise generated by continuous miners in underground coal production is an important health hazard. Bureau of Mines contract J0387229 charters investigation and control of this noise through laboratory tests of simulated cutting operations and through in-mine noise measurements. The results of these investigations indicate that coal cutting noise and conveyor noise are dominant sources of miner operational noise. Typical noise levels for both cutting and conveying operations are approximately 97 dBA. For full operation of all machine systems, the overall sound pressure level is approximately 101 dBA. In-mine and laboratory test results show agreement in both A-weighted overall levels as well as A-weighted one-third octave band spectra. 4 refs.

  6. Evolution & the Cesarean Section Rate

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walsh, Joseph A.

    2008-01-01

    "Nothing in biology makes sense except in the light of evolution." This was the title of an essay by geneticist Theodosius Dobzhansky writing in 1973. Many causes have been given for the increased Cesarean section rate in developed countries, but biologic evolution has not been one of them. The C-section rate will continue to rise, because the…

  7. Continuous extraction of organic materials from water

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Goldberg, M.C.; DeLong, L.; Kahn, L.

    1971-01-01

    A continuous liquid solvent extractor, designed to utilize organic solvents that are heavier than water, is described. The extractor is capable of handling input rates up to 2 liters per hour and has a 500-ml. extractant capacity. Extraction efficiency is dependent upon the p-value, the two solvent ratios, rate of flow of the aqueous phase, and rate of reflux of the organic phase. Extractors can be serially coupled to increase extraction efficiency and, when coupled with a lighter-than-water extractor, the system will allow the use of any immiscible solvent.

  8. Landsat Data Continuity Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Markham, Brian; Irons, James; Dabney, Philip

    2011-01-01

    The Landsat Data Continuity Mission (LDCM) is currently under development and is on schedule to launch the 8th satellite in the Landsat series in December of 2012. LDCM is a joint project between the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) and the United States Geological Survey (USGS). NASA is responsible for developing and launching the flight hardware and on-orbit commissioning and USGS is responsible for developing the ground system and operating the system onorbit after commissioning. Key components of the flight hardware are the Operational Land Imager (OLI), nearing completion by Ball Aerospace & Technologies Corp in Boulder, CO, the Thermal Infrared Sensor (TIRS), being built by NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center and the spacecraft, undergoing integration at Orbital Sciences Corp in Gilbert, Arizona. The launch vehicle will be an Atlas-5 with launch services provided by NASA's Kennedy Space Center. Key ground systems elements are the Mission Operations Element, being developed by the Hammers Corporation, and the Collection Activity Planning Element, Ground Network Element, and Data Processing and Archive System, being developed internally by the USGS Earth Resources Observations and Science (EROS) Center. The primary measurement goal of LDCM is to continue the global coverage of moderate spatial resolution imagery providing continuity with the existing Landsat record. The science goal for this imagery is to monitor land use and land cover, particularly as it relates to global climate change. Together the OLI and TIRS instruments on LDCM replace the ETM+ instrument on Landsat-7 with significant enhancements. The OLI is a pushbroom design instrument where the scanning mechanism of the ETM+ is effectively replaced by a long line of detectors. The OLI has 9 spectral bands with similar spatial resolution to ETM+: 7 of them similar to the reflective spectral bands on ETM+ and two new bands. The two new bands cover (1) the shorter wavelength blue part

  9. An Introduction to Continued Fractions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, Charles G.

    Provided is an introduction to the properties of continued fractions for the intellectually curious high school student. Among the topics included are (1) Expansion of Rational Numbers into Simple Continued Fractions, (2) Convergents, (3) Continued Fractions and Linear Diophantine Equations of the Type am + bn = c, (4) Continued Fractions and…

  10. Continuous fiber thermoplastic prepreg

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, Maywood L. (Inventor); Johnson, Gary S. (Inventor)

    1993-01-01

    A pultrusion machine employing a corrugated impregnator vessel to immerse multiple, continuous strand, fiber tow in an impregnating material, and an adjustable metered exit orifice for the impregnator vessel to control the quantity of impregnating material retained by the impregnated fibers, is provided. An adjustable height insert retains transverse rod elements within each depression of the corrugated vessel to maintain the individual fiber tows spread and in contact with the vessel bottom. A series of elongated heating dies, transversely disposed on the pultrusion machine and having flat heating surfaces with radiused edges, ensure adequate temperature exposed dwell time and exert adequate pressure on the impregnated fiber tows, to provide the desired thickness and fiber/resin ratio in the prepreg formed. The prepreg passing through the pulling mechanism is wound on a suitable take-up spool for subsequent use. A formula is derived for determining the cross sectional area opening of the metering device. A modification in the heating die system employs a heated nip roller in lieu of one of the pressure applying flat dies.

  11. A ''Continuous'' Li

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Genest, Vincent X.; Vinet, Luc; Zhedanov, Alexei

    2014-03-01

    A novel family of -1 orthogonal polynomials called the Chihara polynomials is characterized. The polynomials are obtained from a ''continuous'' limit of the complementary Bannai-Ito polynomials, which are the kernel partners of the Bannai-Ito polynomials. The three-term recurrence relation and the explicit expression in terms of Gauss hypergeometric functions are obtained through a limit process. A one-parameter family of second-order differential Dunkl operators having these polynomials as eigenfunctions is also exhibited. The quadratic algebra with involution encoding this bispectrality is obtained. The orthogonality measure is derived in two different ways: by using Chihara's method for kernel polynomials and, by obtaining the symmetry factor for the one-parameter family of Dunkl operators. It is shown that the polynomials are related to the big -1 Jacobi polynomials by a Christoffel transformation and that they can be obtained from the big q-Jacobi by a q→ -1 limit. The generalized Gegenbauer/Hermite polynomials are respectively seen to be special/limiting cases of the Chihara polynomials. A one-parameter extension of the generalized Hermite polynomials is proposed.

  12. Continuing Care for Adolescents in Treatment for Substance Use Disorders.

    PubMed

    Passetti, Lora L; Godley, Mark D; Kaminer, Yifrah

    2016-10-01

    Adolescents who enter treatment for substance use often do not complete the program and do not connect with continuing care services. Most return to some level of substance use. Our review found 10 outcome studies of continuing care treatment. More assertive approaches can increase continuing care initiation rates and rapid initiation of continuing care makes a difference in reducing substance use. Continuing care is appropriate for those who complete treatment and for those who do not. Adaptive treatment designs hold promise for establishing decision rules as to which adolescents need low-intensity continuing care services and which need more intensive care. PMID:27613345

  13. Continuities in Continuing Education: A View from Community Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mace, Jane

    1993-01-01

    Open, modular, and distance forms of learning pose a risk to the continuity of the group in continuing and community education. Group sharing of learning and experience is the environment in which adult learning takes place. (SK)

  14. Keeping Communication Continuous

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    General Dynamics Decision Systems employees have played a role in supplying telemetry, tracking, and control (TT&C) and other communications systems to NASA and the U.S. Department of Defense for over 40 years. Providing integrated communication systems and subsystems for nearly all manned and unmanned U.S. space flights, the heritage of this Scottsdale, Arizona-based company includes S-band transceivers that enabled millions of Americans to see Neil Armstrong and hear his prophetic words from the Moon in 1969. More recently, Decision Systems has collaborated with NASA s Goddard Space Flight Center to develop transponders, wireless communications devices that pick up and automatically respond to an incoming signal, for NASA s Tracking and Data Relay Satellite System (TDRSS). Four generations of Decision Systems TDRSS transponders have been developed under Goddard s sponsorship. The company s Fourth Generation TDRSS User Transponder (TDRSS IV) allows low-Earth-orbiting spacecraft to communicate continuously with a single ground station at White Sands, New Mexico, through a constellation of geostationary relay satellites positioned at key locations around the Earth. In addition to the communications of forward link control commands and return link telemetry data, the TDRSS IV also supports spacecraft orbit tracking through coherent turn-around of a pseudo-noise ranging code and two-way Doppler tracking.When the NSBF adopted the use of global positioning system receivers for balloon position tracking, Decision Systems concluded that a simpler, noncoherent transceiver could provide the NSBF with the necessary TDRSS communications without the additional cost and complexity of a coherent transponder. The solution was to take the core design of the TDRSS IV Transponder, but remove the extra functionality that supported coherent turn-around. This would simplify the production effort, reduce the testing required, and result in a lower cost product with smaller size, weight

  15. Continuing Through Iani Chaos

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site]

    The THEMIS VIS camera is capable of capturing color images of the Martian surface using five different color filters. In this mode of operation, the spatial resolution and coverage of the image must be reduced to accommodate the additional data volume produced from using multiple filters. To make a color image, three of the five filter images (each in grayscale) are selected. Each is contrast enhanced and then converted to a red, green, or blue intensity image. These three images are then combined to produce a full color, single image. Because the THEMIS color filters don't span the full range of colors seen by the human eye, a color THEMIS image does not represent true color. Also, because each single-filter image is contrast enhanced before inclusion in the three-color image, the apparent color variation of the scene is exaggerated. Nevertheless, the color variation that does appear is representative of some change in color, however subtle, in the actual scene. Note that the long edges of THEMIS color images typically contain color artifacts that do not represent surface variation.

    This false color image continues the northward trend through the Iani Chaos region. Compare this image to Monday's and Tuesday's. This image was collected during the Southern Fall season.

    Image information: VIS instrument. Latitude -0.1 Longitude 342.6 East (17.4 West). 19 meter/pixel resolution.

    Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with Project policies at a later time.

    NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001

  16. Continuous Processing With Mars Gases

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parrish, Clyde; Jennings, Paul

    2000-01-01

    Current Martian missions call for the production of oxygen for breathing, and fuel and oxygen for propulsion to be produced from atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2). Adsorption and freezing are the two methods considered for capturing CO2 from the atmosphere. However, the nitrogen (N2) and argon (Ar), which make up less than 5 percent of the atmosphere, cause difficulties with both of these processes by blocking the CO2. This results in the capture process rapidly changing from a pressure driven process to a diffusion controlled process. To increase the CO2 capture rates, some type of mechanical pump is usually proposed to remove the N2 and Ar. The N2 and Ar are useful and have been proposed for blanketing and pressurizing fuel tanks and as buffer gas for breathing air for manned missions. Separation of the Martian gases with the required purity can be accomplished with a combination of membranes. These membrane systems do not require a high feed pressure and provide suitable separation. Therefore, by use of the appropriate membrane combination with the Martian atmosphere supplied by a compressor a continuous Supply Of CO2 for fuel and oxygen production can be supplied. This phase of our program has focused on the selection of the membrane system. Since permeation data for membranes did not exist for Martian atmospheric pressures and temperatures, this information had to be compiled. The general trend as the temperature was lowered was for the membranes to become more selective. In addition, the relative permeation rates between the three gases changed with temperature. The end result was to provide design parameters that could be used to separate CO2 from N2 and Ar. This paper will present the membrane data, provide the design requirements for a compressor, and compare the results with adsorption and freezer methods.

  17. 18 CFR 704.39 - Discount rate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... rate in effect immediately prior to the effective date of this section, and that rate shall continue to... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Discount rate. 704.39... STANDARDS AND PROCEDURES Standards for Plan Formulation and Evaluation § 704.39 Discount rate. (a)...

  18. 18 CFR 704.39 - Discount rate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... rate in effect immediately prior to the effective date of this section, and that rate shall continue to... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Discount rate. 704.39... STANDARDS AND PROCEDURES Standards for Plan Formulation and Evaluation § 704.39 Discount rate. (a)...

  19. 7 CFR 953.253 - Assessment rate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Assessment rate. 953.253 Section 953.253 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements... STATES Assessment Rates § 953.253 Assessment rate. On and after June 1, 1998, an assessment rate of...

  20. 7 CFR 953.253 - Assessment rate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Assessment rate. 953.253 Section 953.253 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements... STATES Assessment Rates § 953.253 Assessment rate. On and after June 1, 1998, an assessment rate of...

  1. 7 CFR 953.253 - Assessment rate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Assessment rate. 953.253 Section 953.253 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements... STATES Assessment Rates § 953.253 Assessment rate. On and after June 1, 1998, an assessment rate of...

  2. 7 CFR 953.253 - Assessment rate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Assessment rate. 953.253 Section 953.253 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS... STATES Assessment Rates § 953.253 Assessment rate. On and after June 1, 1998, an assessment rate of...

  3. 7 CFR 915.235 - Assessment rate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Assessment rate. 915.235 Section 915.235 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements... Assessment Rates § 915.235 Assessment rate. On and after April 1, 2010, an assessment rate of $0.37 per...

  4. 7 CFR 916.234 - Assessment rate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Assessment rate. 916.234 Section 916.234 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements... Assessment Rates § 916.234 Assessment rate. On and after March 1, 2009, an assessment rate of $0.0175 per...

  5. 7 CFR 916.234 - Assessment rate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Assessment rate. 916.234 Section 916.234 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements... Assessment Rates § 916.234 Assessment rate. On and after March 1, 2010, an assessment rate of $0.0280 per...

  6. 7 CFR 915.235 - Assessment rate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Assessment rate. 915.235 Section 915.235 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS... Assessment Rates § 915.235 Assessment rate. On and after April 1, 2012, an assessment rate of $0.25 per...

  7. 7 CFR 915.235 - Assessment rate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Assessment rate. 915.235 Section 915.235 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements... Assessment Rates § 915.235 Assessment rate. On and after April 1, 2010, an assessment rate of $0.37 per...

  8. 7 CFR 915.235 - Assessment rate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Assessment rate. 915.235 Section 915.235 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements... Assessment Rates § 915.235 Assessment rate. On and after April 1, 2005, an assessment rate of $0.27 per...

  9. 7 CFR 984.347 - Assessment rate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Assessment rate. 984.347 Section 984.347 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS... Assessment Rates § 984.347 Assessment rate. On and after September 1, 2011, an assessment rate of $0.0175...

  10. 7 CFR 984.347 - Assessment rate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Assessment rate. 984.347 Section 984.347 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS... Assessment Rates § 984.347 Assessment rate. On and after September 1, 2013, an assessment rate of $0.0189...

  11. 7 CFR 989.347 - Assessment rate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Assessment rate. 989.347 Section 989.347 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS... CALIFORNIA Assessment Rates § 989.347 Assessment rate. On and after August 1, 2010, an assessment rate of...

  12. 7 CFR 989.347 - Assessment rate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Assessment rate. 989.347 Section 989.347 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements... CALIFORNIA Assessment Rates § 989.347 Assessment rate. On and after August 1, 2005, an assessment rate of...

  13. 7 CFR 989.347 - Assessment rate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Assessment rate. 989.347 Section 989.347 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements... CALIFORNIA Assessment Rates § 989.347 Assessment rate. On and after August 1, 2010, an assessment rate of...

  14. 7 CFR 993.347 - Assessment rate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Assessment rate. 993.347 Section 993.347 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements... Assessment Rates § 993.347 Assessment rate. On and after August 1, 2011, an assessment rate of $0.22 per...

  15. 7 CFR 993.347 - Assessment rate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Assessment rate. 993.347 Section 993.347 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS... Assessment Rates § 993.347 Assessment rate. On and after August 1, 2011, an assessment rate of $0.22 per...

  16. 7 CFR 984.347 - Assessment rate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Assessment rate. 984.347 Section 984.347 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements... Assessment Rates § 984.347 Assessment rate. On and after September 1, 2009, an assessment rate of $0.0177...

  17. 7 CFR 993.347 - Assessment rate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Assessment rate. 993.347 Section 993.347 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements... Assessment Rates § 993.347 Assessment rate. On and after August 1, 2009, an assessment rate of $0.16 per...

  18. 7 CFR 993.347 - Assessment rate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Assessment rate. 993.347 Section 993.347 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements... Assessment Rates § 993.347 Assessment rate. On and after August 1, 2010, an assessment rate of $0.27 per...

  19. 7 CFR 989.347 - Assessment rate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Assessment rate. 989.347 Section 989.347 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements... CALIFORNIA Assessment Rates § 989.347 Assessment rate. On and after August 1, 2005, an assessment rate of...

  20. 7 CFR 993.347 - Assessment rate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Assessment rate. 993.347 Section 993.347 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS... Assessment Rates § 993.347 Assessment rate. On and after August 1, 2011, an assessment rate of $0.22 per...

  1. 7 CFR 984.347 - Assessment rate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Assessment rate. 984.347 Section 984.347 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements... Assessment Rates § 984.347 Assessment rate. On and after September 1, 2011, an assessment rate of $0.0175...

  2. 7 CFR 984.347 - Assessment rate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Assessment rate. 984.347 Section 984.347 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements... Assessment Rates § 984.347 Assessment rate. On and after September 1, 2010, an assessment rate of $0.0174...

  3. 7 CFR 989.347 - Assessment rate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Assessment rate. 989.347 Section 989.347 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS... CALIFORNIA Assessment Rates § 989.347 Assessment rate. On and after August 1, 2010, an assessment rate of...

  4. [Continuous peripheral regional analgesia in children].

    PubMed

    Lacroix, F

    2007-06-01

    Continuous peripheral nerve blocks (CPNB) have important role in the therapeutic arsenal, anaesthetic or analgesic in children. Indications for CPNB depend on benefits/risks analysis for each patient. The indications include surgery associated with intense postoperative pain, surgery requiring painful physical therapy, and complex regional pain syndrome. CPNB are usually performed under sedation or general anaesthesia, and require appropriate equipment in order to decrease the risk of nerve injury. Nevertheless, CPNB may mask compartment syndrome in trauma or certain surgical procedure. Finally, ropivacaine, and perhaps levobupivacaine, appears to be the best local anaesthetic for continuous peripheral nerve blocks in children, requiring low flow rate with low concentration. PMID:17543494

  5. Periodic optimization of continuous microbial growth processes.

    PubMed

    Abulesz, E M; Lyberatos, G

    1987-06-01

    Steady-state operation of continuous bioreactors is not necessarily the optimum type of operation. The method of pi-criterion is used in this work to determine whether periodic variation of the dilution rate can enhance the performance of continuous fermentation processes. It is found that the presence of time delay in the dynamic response of the chemostat renders a periodic operation of bioreactors, used for biomass production, superior to any steady-state operation. Also, employing Williams' structured model it is shown that cycling improves the average protein productivity. PMID:18576558

  6. Limitations of Continuous Glucose Monitor Usage.

    PubMed

    Anhalt, Henry

    2016-03-01

    Much progress has been made in diabetes treatments since the first dose of insulin was administered in 1921. However, a truly transformational moment in diabetes care occurred when urine testing gave way to capillary blood home glucose monitoring. As improvements were made to these devices, continuous glucose monitoring (CGM) was introduced. The advantages of experiential learnings gleaned from seeing continuous real-time data have been borne out in numerous peer-reviewed journals. Limitations to use of CGM include patient's level of numeracy and literacy, development of alarm fatigue, interfering substances leading to erroneous readings, high rates of discontinuation, and poor reimbursement. PMID:26983025

  7. Pharmacokinetics and toxicology of continuously infused nitroimidazoles

    SciTech Connect

    Eifel, P.J.; Brown, J.M.

    1984-08-01

    The pharmacokinetics and toxicology of misonidazole (MISO) and SR-2508 given by continuous intraperitoneal infusion were studied in female C/sub 3/H mice. The survival (time to death) of animals receiving continuous infusions of SR-2508 and MISO was compared and related to plasma concentration, rate of infusion and total amount of drug delivered. Brain and plasma concentrations were determined by HPLC. For SR-2508, plasma concentration was directly proportional to the infusion rate. However, as the infusion rate of MISO was doubled, the plasma concentration of MISO increased approximately 6-fold, reflecting a substantial increase in the apparent half-life. The brain/plasma concentration ratio in animals infused for up to 6 days with SR-2508 remained constant, at approximately 0.09. At plasma concentrations of 0.08-1.5 mM, animals receiving SR-2508 survived approximately 3 times as long as animals exposed to a comparable plasma concentration of MISO. Even at the lowest infusion rates employed in this study, the survival of mice receiving SR-2508 was much shorter than would have been predicted if the toxicity of these two drugs were solely related to the integral brain exposure. The low brain/plasma concentration ratio of SR-2508 was maintained throughout long continuous exposures.

  8. [Generation continuity and integration].

    PubMed

    Zakhvatkin, Iu A

    2008-01-01

    Transformation of the cyclic morphoprocesses in Protista toward the terminal-cyclic morphoprocesses in Metazoa had lead to integration of the fomer's life circles into the latter's ontogenesis and began to supply the newly emerging ecosystems with the regular income of mortomasses. According to the palintomic hypothesis of A.A. Zakhvatkin, it was the egg that became a means of the metazoan generation continuity, and not the half set of organells acquired by descendants of a divided maternal cell in Protozoa. Origin of Metazoa and of their ontogenesis was accomplished by hypetrophic distomy and subsequent palintomic division of the protist parental cell, these processes being comparable to the ovogenesis and ovocyte division in the Metazoa. Division process in the most primitive metazoans, Leptolida and Calcarea, retained certains features of its palintomic nature that are clear in the Ctenophora, the latter though specific being most similar in this respect to the spongs and not to the Coelenterata whith whom they were united in the same phylum formerly. The ovogenesis perfection controlled by the maternal organism and leading to an increment of the nuclear-plasmic tension due to enrichment of egg with the yolk, promoted the embrionization of development and formation of the egg morphogenetic environment providing for the earlier formation processes without participation of the parental recombined genotypes. With all this, far earlier appearence of symmetry elements of definitive forms is embriogenesis along the ascending trend from the lower Metazoa to the most advanced insects. The unordered correspondence of the polarity axis of egg and the oral-aboral axis of blastula-like larva (1) is replaced by protaxony (2) in which these axes coincide, all formation processes reaching their perfection in the homoquadrant spiral division of annelids, which became a means of ovoplasma segregation. Afterward, a herequadrant division and plagioxony are developed in the course

  9. 7 CFR 1980.320 - Interest rate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 14 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Interest rate. 1980.320 Section 1980.320 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL HOUSING SERVICE, RURAL BUSINESS-COOPERATIVE SERVICE, RURAL UTILITIES SERVICE, AND FARM SERVICE AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) PROGRAM REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) GENERAL...

  10. Uniform Continuity on Unbounded Intervals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pouso, Rodrigo Lopez

    2008-01-01

    We present a teaching approach to uniform continuity on unbounded intervals which, hopefully, may help to meet the following pedagogical objectives: (i) To provide students with efficient and simple criteria to decide whether a continuous function is also uniformly continuous; and (ii) To provide students with skill to recognize graphically…

  11. Calculus Student Understanding of Continuity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wangle, Jayleen Lillian

    2013-01-01

    Continuity is a central concept in calculus. Yet very few students seem to understand the nature of continuity. The research described was conducted in two stages. Students were asked questions in multiple choice and true/false format regarding function, limit and continuity. These results were used to identify participants as strong, weak or…

  12. Continuous Production Of Refractory Microballoons

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schilling, Christopher H.; Lee, Mark C.; Wang, Taylor G.

    1988-01-01

    Continuous process has economic and quality advantages over batch processes. Expected to produce high-quality microballoons at relatively low cost. Continuous hollow-jet process produces microballoons of refractory metal. Microballoon products made by continuous process includes inertial-confinement fusion targets, thermal insulators, lightweight composites, impact absorbers, and containers for hazardous materials.

  13. Continuous Risk Management Course. Revised

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hammer, Theodore F.

    1999-01-01

    This document includes a course plan for Continuous Risk Management taught by the Software Assurance Technology Center along with the Continuous Risk Management Guidebook of the Software Engineering Institute of Carnegie Mellon University and a description of Continuous Risk Management at NASA.

  14. Exoplanets: The Hunt Continues!

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2001-04-01

    Swiss Telescope at La Silla Very Successful Summary The intensive and exciting hunt for planets around other stars ( "exoplanets" ) is continuing with great success in both hemispheres. Today, an international team of astronomers from the Geneva Observatory and other research institutes [1] is announcing the discovery of no less than eleven new, planetary companions to solar-type stars, HD 8574, HD 28185, HD 50554, HD 74156, HD 80606, HD 82943, HD 106252, HD 141937, HD 178911B, HD 141937, among which two new multi-planet systems . The masses of these new objects range from slightly less than to about 10 times the mass of the planet Jupiter [2]. The new detections are based on measured velocity changes of the stars [3], performed with the CORALIE spectrometer on the Swiss 1.2-m Leonard Euler telescope at the ESO La Silla Observatory , as well as with instruments on telescopes at the Haute-Provence Observatory and on the Keck telescopes on Mauna Kea (Hawaii, USA). Some of the new planets are unusual: * a two-planet system (around the star HD 82943) in which one orbital period is nearly exactly twice as long as the other - cases like this (refered to as "orbital resonance") are well known in our own solar system; * another two-planet system (HD 74156), with a Jupiter-like planet and a more massive planet further out; * a planet with the most elongated orbit detected so far (HD 80606), moving between 5 and 127 million kilometers from the central star; * a giant planet moving in an orbit around its Sun-like central star that is very similar to the one of the Earth and whose potential satellites (in theory, at least) might be "habitable". At this moment, there are 63 know exoplanet candidates with minimum masses below 10 Jupiter masses, and 67 known objects with minimum masses below 17 Jupiter masses. The present team of astronomers has detected about half of these. PR Photo 13a/01 : Radial-velocity measurements of HD 82943, a two-planet system . PR Photo 13b/01 : Radial

  15. 14 CFR 33.7 - Engine ratings and operating limitations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...— (i) Rated maximum continuous power (relating to unsupercharged operation or to operation in each supercharger mode as applicable); and (ii) Rated takeoff power (relating to unsupercharged operation or to... continuous power or thrust (augmented); (ii) Rated maximum continuous power or thrust (unaugmented);...

  16. Module Hipot and ground continuity test results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Griffith, J. S.

    1984-01-01

    Hipot (high voltage potential) and module frame continuity tests of solar energy conversion modules intended for deployment into large arrays are discussed. The purpose of the tests is to reveal potentially hazardous voltage conditions in installed modules, and leakage currents that may result in loss of power or cause ground fault system problems, i.e., current leakage potential and leakage voltage distribution. The tests show a combined failure rate of 36% (69% when environmental testing is included). These failure rates are believed easily corrected by greater care in fabrication.

  17. Continuous method of producing silicon carbide fibers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barnard, Thomas Duncan (Inventor); Nguyen, Kimmai Thi (Inventor); Rabe, James Alan (Inventor)

    1999-01-01

    This invention pertains to a method for production of polycrystalline ceramic fibers from silicon oxycarbide (SiCO) ceramic fibers wherein the method comprises heating an amorphous ceramic fiber containing silicon and carbon in an inert environment comprising a boron oxide and carbon monoxide at a temperature sufficient to convert the amorphous ceramic fiber to a polycrystalline ceramic fiber. By having carbon monoxide present during the heating of the ceramic fiber, it is possible to achieve higher production rates on a continuous process.

  18. Continuous production of carotenoids from Dunaliella salina.

    PubMed

    Kleinegris, Dorinde M M; Janssen, Marcel; Brandenburg, Willem A; Wijffels, René H

    2011-03-01

    During the in situ extraction of β-carotene from Dunaliella salina, the causal relationship between carotenoid extraction and cell death indicated that cell growth and cell death should be at equilibrium for a continuous in situ extraction process. In a flat-panel photobioreactor that was operated as a turbidostat cell numbers of stressed cells were kept constant while attaining a continuous well-defined light-stress. In this way it was possible to study the balance between cell growth and cell death and determine whether both could be increased to reach higher volumetric productivities of carotenoids. In the two-phase system a volumetric productivity of 8.3 mg β-carotene L(RV)(-1)d(-1) was obtained. In situ extraction contributed only partly to this productivity. The major part came from net production of carotenoid-rich biomass, due to a high growth rate of the cells and subsequent dilution of the reactor. To reach equilibrium between cell growth and cell death, sparging rates of dodecane could have been increased. However, already at the applied sparging rate of 286 L(dod)L(RV)(-1)min(-1) emulsion formation of the dodecane in the aqueous phase appeared. In a turbidostat without in situ extraction a volumetric productivity of 13.5 mg β-caroteneL(RV)(-1)d(-1) was reached, solely based on the continuous production of carotenoid-rich biomass. PMID:22112908

  19. 21 CFR 522.1335 - Medetomidine hydrochloride injection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... intramuscularly per square meter of body surface. The IV route is more efficacious for dental care. (2... care. (3) Limitations. Do not use in dogs with cardiac disease, respiratory disorders, liver or kidney diseases, dogs in shock, dogs which are severly debilitated, or dogs which are stressed due to extreme...

  20. 21 CFR 522.1335 - Medetomidine hydrochloride injection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... intramuscularly per square meter of body surface. The IV route is more efficacious for dental care. (2... care. (3) Limitations. Do not use in dogs with cardiac disease, respiratory disorders, liver or kidney diseases, dogs in shock, dogs which are severly debilitated, or dogs which are stressed due to extreme...

  1. Manufacturing laser glass by continuous melting

    SciTech Connect

    Campbell, J H; Suratwala, T; krenitsky, S; Takeuchi, K

    2000-07-01

    A novel, continuous melting process is being used to manufacture meter-sized plates of laser glass at a rate 20-times faster, 5-times cheaper, and with 2-3 times better optical quality than with previous one-at-a-time, ''discontinuous'' technology processes. This new technology for manufacturing laser glass, which is arguably the most difficult continuously-melted optical material ever produced, comes as a result of a $60 million, six-year joint R&D program between government and industry. The glasses manufactured by the new continuous melting process are Nd-doped phosphate-based glasses and are marketed under the product names LG-770 (Schott Glass Technologies) and LHG-8 (Hoya Corporation USA). With this advance in glass manufacturing technology, it is now possible to construct high-energy, high-peak-power lasers for use in fusion energy development, national defense, and basic physics research that would have been impractical to build using the old melting technology. The development of continuously melted laser glass required technological advances that have lead to improvements in the manufacture of other optical glass products as well. For example, advances in forming, annealing, and conditioning steps of the laser glass continuous melting process are now being used in manufacture of other large-size optical glasses.

  2. The Challenge of Continuation: Schools' Continuation of the Respect Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ertesvag, Sigrun K.; Roland, Pal; Vaaland, Grete Sorensen; Storksen, Svein; Veland, Jarmund

    2010-01-01

    The Respect program is a whole school approach to prevent and reduce problem behavior. The purpose of this study was to investigate which conditions in schools helped them to continue the program successfully after the end of the 1-year implementation period. The study also looked at the actual continuation after the program end. Especially, we…

  3. Continuous error correction for Ising anyons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hutter, Adrian; Wootton, James R.

    2016-04-01

    Quantum gates in topological quantum computation are performed by braiding non-Abelian anyons. These braiding processes can presumably be performed with very low error rates. However, to make a topological quantum computation architecture truly scalable, even rare errors need to be corrected. Error correction for non-Abelian anyons is complicated by the fact that it needs to be performed on a continuous basis, and further errors may occur while we are correcting existing ones. Here, we prove the feasibility of this task, establishing non-Abelian anyons as a viable platform for scalable quantum computation. We thereby focus on Ising anyons as the most prominent example of non-Abelian anyons and show that for these a finite error rate can indeed be corrected continuously. There is a threshold error rate pc>0 such that for all error rates p

  4. 12 CFR Appendix A to Part 228 - Ratings

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Ratings A Appendix A to Part 228 Banks and Banking FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM (CONTINUED) BOARD OF GOVERNORS OF THE FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM (CONTINUED) COMMUNITY REINVESTMENT (REGULATION BB) Pt. 228, App. A Appendix A to Part 228—Ratings (a) Ratings in general. (1) In assigning a rating, the...

  5. 47 CFR 65.600 - Rate of return reports.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Rate of return reports. 65.600 Section 65.600 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES (CONTINUED) INTERSTATE RATE OF RETURN PRESCRIPTION PROCEDURES AND METHODOLOGIES Rate of Return Reports § 65.600 Rate of...

  6. 12 CFR Appendix A to Part 228 - Ratings

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Ratings A Appendix A to Part 228 Banks and Banking FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM (CONTINUED) BOARD OF GOVERNORS OF THE FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM (CONTINUED) COMMUNITY REINVESTMENT (REGULATION BB) Pt. 228, App. A Appendix A to Part 228—Ratings (a) Ratings in general. (1) In assigning a rating, the...

  7. 40 CFR 60.256 - Continuous monitoring requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... facilities that use wet scrubber emission control equipment: (A) A monitoring device for the continuous... paragraph (c) of this section. (2) For mechanical vents with wet scrubbers, monitoring devices according to... supply flow rate. (iii) A monitoring device for the continuous measurement of the pH of the wet...

  8. 40 CFR 60.256 - Continuous monitoring requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... facilities that use wet scrubber emission control equipment: (A) A monitoring device for the continuous... paragraph (c) of this section. (2) For mechanical vents with wet scrubbers, monitoring devices according to... supply flow rate. (iii) A monitoring device for the continuous measurement of the pH of the wet...

  9. 40 CFR 60.256 - Continuous monitoring requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... facilities that use wet scrubber emission control equipment: (A) A monitoring device for the continuous... paragraph (c) of this section. (2) For mechanical vents with wet scrubbers, monitoring devices according to... supply flow rate. (iii) A monitoring device for the continuous measurement of the pH of the wet...

  10. Rational Exponentials and Continued Fractions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Denny, J. K.

    2012-01-01

    Using continued fraction expansions, we can approximate constants, such as pi and e, using an appropriate integer n raised to the power x[superscript 1/x], x a suitable rational. We review continued fractions and give an algorithm for producing these approximations.

  11. Profit Planning in Continuing Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haddock, M. David, Jr.

    1979-01-01

    Presents a "profit" model for continuing education (in a university setting but applicable to all continuing education operations) based upon the organization of profit and cost centers to help develop an administrative structure and control mechanisms to achieve profit planning. Tables illustrate different elements in the model. (MF)

  12. Wanted: A Continuing Education Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Calhoun, A. Brian

    1986-01-01

    Describes the efforts of the Triton College Continuing Education Department to develop a unified curriculum and to market the program. Includes information on developing a continuing education philosophy, providing a unified curriculum, and creating a marketing bulletin. Illustrates ways to recombine courses to provide a unified approach. (CH)

  13. Continuing Professional Education Delivery Systems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weeks, James P.

    This investigation of delivery systems for continuing professional education provides an overview of current operational delivery systems in continuing professional education, drawing on experience as found in the literature. Learning theories and conclusions are woven into the descriptive text. Delivery systems profiled in the paper include the…

  14. On the Continuity of Functions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Takaci, D.; Pesic, D.; Tatar, J.

    2006-01-01

    In this paper, results of a questionnaire about continuity of functions are analysed. The tested students attend Novi Sad grammar school. The aim of this test was to check the student's theoretical and visual knowledge of continuous functions at the end of their high school education. The questions were given with and without the graphs of…

  15. Perspectives: The Continuous Improvement Trap

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arnold, David L.

    2011-01-01

    Accrediting agencies, legislators, pundits, and even higher educational professionals have become enamored with applying the language of continuous improvement to learning outcomes. The Southern Association of Colleges and Schools Commission on Colleges specifically uses the term "continuing improvement" in Core Standard 2.5, one of its…

  16. 46 CFR 111.40-13 - Rating.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Rating. 111.40-13 Section 111.40-13 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING ELECTRIC SYSTEMS-GENERAL REQUIREMENTS Panelboards § 111.40-13 Rating. Each panelboard must have a current rating not less than the feeder...

  17. 46 CFR 111.40-13 - Rating.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Rating. 111.40-13 Section 111.40-13 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING ELECTRIC SYSTEMS-GENERAL REQUIREMENTS Panelboards § 111.40-13 Rating. Each panelboard must have a current rating not less than the feeder...

  18. 46 CFR 111.40-13 - Rating.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Rating. 111.40-13 Section 111.40-13 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING ELECTRIC SYSTEMS-GENERAL REQUIREMENTS Panelboards § 111.40-13 Rating. Each panelboard must have a current rating not less than the feeder...

  19. 46 CFR 111.40-13 - Rating.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Rating. 111.40-13 Section 111.40-13 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING ELECTRIC SYSTEMS-GENERAL REQUIREMENTS Panelboards § 111.40-13 Rating. Each panelboard must have a current rating not less than the feeder...

  20. 46 CFR 111.40-13 - Rating.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Rating. 111.40-13 Section 111.40-13 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING ELECTRIC SYSTEMS-GENERAL REQUIREMENTS Panelboards § 111.40-13 Rating. Each panelboard must have a current rating not less than the feeder...

  1. 7 CFR 983.253 - Assessment rate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Assessment rate. 983.253 Section 983.253 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements..., ARIZONA, AND NEW MEXICO Assessment Rate § 983.253 Assessment rate. (a) On and after September 1, 2006,...

  2. 7 CFR 983.253 - Assessment rate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Assessment rate. 983.253 Section 983.253 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS..., ARIZONA, AND NEW MEXICO Assessment Rate § 983.253 Assessment rate. (a) On and after September 1, 2011,...

  3. 7 CFR 983.253 - Assessment rate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Assessment rate. 983.253 Section 983.253 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements..., ARIZONA, AND NEW MEXICO Assessment Rate § 983.253 Assessment rate. (a) On and after September 1, 2011,...

  4. 7 CFR 983.253 - Assessment rate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Assessment rate. 983.253 Section 983.253 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements..., ARIZONA, AND NEW MEXICO Assessment Rate § 983.253 Assessment rate. (a) On and after September 1, 2006,...

  5. 7 CFR 922.235 - Assessment rate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Assessment rate. 922.235 Section 922.235 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements... IN WASHINGTON Assessment Rate § 922.235 Assessment rate. On and after April 1, 2010, an...

  6. 7 CFR 920.213 - Assessment rate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Assessment rate. 920.213 Section 920.213 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements... Miscellaneous Provisions § 920.213 Assessment rate. On and after August 1, 2008, an assessment rate of...

  7. 7 CFR 922.235 - Assessment rate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Assessment rate. 922.235 Section 922.235 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS... IN WASHINGTON Assessment Rate § 922.235 Assessment rate. On or after April 1, 2012, an...

  8. 7 CFR 920.213 - Assessment rate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Assessment rate. 920.213 Section 920.213 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS... Miscellaneous Provisions § 920.213 Assessment rate. On and after August 1, 2008, an assessment rate of...

  9. 19 CFR 159.33 - Proclaimed rate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Proclaimed rate. 159.33 Section 159.33 Customs... (CONTINUED) LIQUIDATION OF DUTIES Conversion of Foreign Currency § 159.33 Proclaimed rate. If a rate of exchange has been proclaimed by the Secretary of the Treasury in accordance with 31 U.S.C. 5151(b) for...

  10. Modeling of continuous strip production by rheocasting

    SciTech Connect

    Matsumiya, T.; Flemings, M.C.

    1981-03-01

    A process was experimentally and mathematically modeled for continuous and direct production of metal strip from its molten state by the use of Rheocasting. The process comprises 1) continuous production of a Rheocast semisolid alloy, and 2) direct shaping of the semisolid into strip. Sn-15 pct Pb was used as the modeling alloy. Crack formation and surface quality of the strip produced depend on fraction solid and deformation force. Continuous, sound strip could be obtained with good surface quality when fraction solid was between 0.50 and 0.70 and deformation force did not exceed a given maximum. Sheet thickness depends on deformation force, fraction solid, rotor rate of Rheocaster and production line speed. At constant deformation force, sheet thickness increases as fraction solid increases, rotor rate decreases and line speed is reduced. Sheet thickness is larger in the center than in the edge, but the difference is reduced by applying edgers. Some segregation of lead toward the edges is observed, ad the segregation increases as amount of deformation is increased. A mathematical model for heat flow, solidification and deformation was constructed. The model predicts the point of completion of solidification in the strip and sheet thickness as a function of deformation force and line speed. Calculations are in good agreement with experimental results.

  11. Applications of a fast, continuous wavelet transform

    SciTech Connect

    Dress, W.B.

    1997-02-01

    A fast, continuous, wavelet transform, based on Shannon`s sampling theorem in frequency space, has been developed for use with continuous mother wavelets and sampled data sets. The method differs from the usual discrete-wavelet approach and the continuous-wavelet transform in that, here, the wavelet is sampled in the frequency domain. Since Shannon`s sampling theorem lets us view the Fourier transform of the data set as a continuous function in frequency space, the continuous nature of the functions is kept up to the point of sampling the scale-translation lattice, so the scale-translation grid used to represent the wavelet transform is independent of the time- domain sampling of the signal under analysis. Computational cost and nonorthogonality aside, the inherent flexibility and shift invariance of the frequency-space wavelets has advantages. The method has been applied to forensic audio reconstruction speaker recognition/identification, and the detection of micromotions of heavy vehicles associated with ballistocardiac impulses originating from occupants` heart beats. Audio reconstruction is aided by selection of desired regions in the 2-D representation of the magnitude of the transformed signal. The inverse transform is applied to ridges and selected regions to reconstruct areas of interest, unencumbered by noise interference lying outside these regions. To separate micromotions imparted to a mass-spring system (e.g., a vehicle) by an occupants beating heart from gross mechanical motions due to wind and traffic vibrations, a continuous frequency-space wavelet, modeled on the frequency content of a canonical ballistocardiogram, was used to analyze time series taken from geophone measurements of vehicle micromotions. By using a family of mother wavelets, such as a set of Gaussian derivatives of various orders, features such as the glottal closing rate and word and phrase segmentation may be extracted from voice data.

  12. Growth Rate and Turgor Pressure

    PubMed Central

    Green, Paul B.; Cummins, W. Raymond

    1974-01-01

    Because turgor pressure is regarded as the driving force for cell extension, any general theory of plant growth requires quantitative information on the relationship between steady irreversible growth rate and turgor pressure. To investigate contrasting views of this relation an automated apparatus was constructed which perfused both the outer and inner epidermis of a single coleoptile while its growth rate was continuously recorded. Turgor was altered abruptly by perfusing with solutions of varying tonicity. With specially grown rye coleoptiles the half-time of the osmo-elastic response was reduced to 2 minutes or less. After decay of this response, however, rate continued to change (so as to partially compensate the effects of the turgor shift in question) for 30 to 60 minutes. Only then could a steady rate be taken. A characterization of steady rate versus turgor covering five turgor values for a single coleoptile thus required many hours. The conclusions are as follows. (a) The change in steady rate, per unit change in turgor, was much greater +IAA than −IAA. (b) Both auxin and turgor act to reset an apparent stabilizing system whose presence is shown in the partial compensation of the initial response to turgor shifts. The above “extensibility” changes are operational only. They need not reflect changes in the immediate physical extensibility of the wall; they could reflect changes in a process acting on the wall. (c) The growth rate versus turgor relation shows some hysteresis. PMID:16658991

  13. Continuing professional development for veterinarians.

    PubMed

    Caple, I W

    2005-04-01

    Continuing professional development for veterinarians is expected to commence in the year after graduation and continue until retirement. The World Organisation for Animal Health standard for veterinary services is based on principles of an ethical, organisational and technical nature, and a mix of regulation, self-regulation and quality assurance approaches are used. Few jurisdictions have made a minimum requirement of continuing professional development, measured in hours or units, mandatory in 2004, however, there is an increasing expectation of veterinarians to keep a personal record of their continuing professional development activities. Such records might assist in defending complaints about professional misconduct, and provide a basis for planning and monitoring personal professional growth. Continuing professional development can be obtained by a variety of means through structured and unstructured learning activities. The rapid advances in communication technologies and ready access to available electronic databases at the beginning of the 21st century is rapidly changing the way students learn in veterinary schools and how they will acquire continuing professional development during their careers. Universities, governments, professional associations and special interest groups all have roles to play in the delivery of continuing professional development to the veterinary profession and to ensure a structure is in place to monitor improvements in the delivery of quality veterinary services. PMID:15907035

  14. The continuation inverse problem revisited

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huestis, Stephen P.

    1998-06-01

    The non-uniqueness of the continuation of a finite collection of harmonic potential field data to a level surface in the source-free region forces its treatment as an inverse problem. A formalism is proposed for the construction of continuation functions which are extremal by various measures. The problem is cast in such a form that the inverse problem solution is the potential function on the lowest horizontal surface above all sources, serving as the boundary function for the Dirichlet problem in the upper half-plane. The desired continuation, at the higher level of interest, must then be in the range of the upward continuation operator acting on this boundary function, rather than being allowed the full freedom of itself being part of a Dirichlet problem boundary function. Extremal solutions minimize non-linear functionals of the continuation function, which are re-expressed as different functionals of the boundary function. A crux of the method is that there is no essential distinction between the upward and downward continuation inverse problems to levels above or below data locations. Casting the optimization as a Lagrange multiplier problem leads to an integral equation for the boundary function, which is readily solved in the Fourier domain for a certain class of functionals. The desired extremal continuation is then given by upward continuation. It is found that for some functionals, application of the Lagrange multiplier theorem requires a further restriction on the set of allowable boundary functions: bandlimitedness is a natural choice for the continuation problem. With this imposition, the theory is developed in detail for semi-norm functionals penalizing departure from a constant potential, in the 2-norm and Sobelev norm senses, and illustrated by application for a small synthetic Deep Tow magnetic field data set.

  15. Continuous propagation of microalgae. III.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hanson, D. T.; Fredrickson, A. G.; Tsuchiya, H. M.

    1971-01-01

    Data are presented which give the specific photosynthetic rate and the specific utilization rates of urea and carbon dioxide as functions of specific growth rate for Chlorella. A mathematical model expresses a set of mass balance relations between biotic and environmental materials. Criteria of validity are used to test this model. Predictive procedures are complemented by a particular model of microbial growth. Methods are demonstrated for predicting substrate utilization rates, production rates of extracellular metabolites, growth limiting conditions, and photosynthetic quotients from propagator variables.

  16. A continuous cold atomic beam interferometer

    SciTech Connect

    Xue, Hongbo; Feng, Yanying Yan, Xueshu; Jiang, Zhikun; Chen, Shu; Wang, Xiaojia; Zhou, Zhaoying

    2015-03-07

    We demonstrate an atom interferometer that uses a laser-cooled continuous beam of {sup 87}Rb atoms having velocities of 10–20 m/s. With spatially separated Raman beams to coherently manipulate the atomic wave packets, Mach–Zehnder interference fringes are observed at an interference distance of 2L = 19 mm. The apparatus operates within a small enclosed area of 0.07 mm{sup 2} at a bandwidth of 190 Hz with a deduced sensitivity of 7.8×10{sup −5} rad/s/√(Hz) for rotations. Using a low-velocity continuous atomic source in an atom interferometer enables high sampling rates and bandwidths without sacrificing sensitivity and compactness, which are important for applications in real dynamic environments.

  17. Continuous steam hydrolysis of tulip poplar

    SciTech Connect

    Fieber, C.; Colcord, A.R.; Faass, S.; Muzzy, J.D.; Roberts, R.S.

    1982-08-01

    To produce ethanol from hardwood it is desirable to fractionate the hardwood in order to produce a relatively pure cellulosic pulp for dilute acid hydrolysis. An experimental investigation of continuous steam hydrolysis of tulip poplar wood chips indicates that over 90% of the lignin present can be extracted by 0.1N sodium hydroxide, resulting in a cellulose pulp containing over 90% hexosan. The study was performed using a Stake Technology, Ltd., continuous digester rated at one oven dry ton per hour of wood chips. The yields of hexosans, hexoses, xylan, xylose, lignin, furfural, acetic acid and methanol were determined as a function of residence time and steam pressure in the digester. The information provides a basis for establishing a material and energy balance for a hardwood to ethanol plant.

  18. Continuous Blood Pressure Monitoring in Daily Life

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lopez, Guillaume; Shuzo, Masaki; Ushida, Hiroyuki; Hidaka, Keita; Yanagimoto, Shintaro; Imai, Yasushi; Kosaka, Akio; Delaunay, Jean-Jacques; Yamada, Ichiro

    Continuous monitoring of blood pressure in daily life could improve early detection of cardiovascular disorders, as well as promoting healthcare. Conventional ambulatory blood pressure monitoring (ABPM) equipment can measure blood pressure at regular intervals for 24 hours, but is limited by long measuring time, low sampling rate, and constrained measuring posture. In this paper, we demonstrate a new method for continuous real-time measurement of blood pressure during daily activities. Our method is based on blood pressure estimation from pulse wave velocity (PWV) calculation, which formula we improved to take into account changes in the inner diameter of blood vessels. Blood pressure estimation results using our new method showed a greater precision of measured data during exercise, and a better accuracy than the conventional PWV method.

  19. Theoretical and methodological studies of continuous microbial bioreactors.

    PubMed

    Toda, Kiyoshi

    2003-08-01

    This article reviews most of the author's studies on process development and reactor design for continuous microbial reactions. (1) Enzyme reactions of growing and non-growing microbial cells immobilized in agar gel beads were analyzed pertaining to the effects of external and internal diffusion of substrate on reaction kinetics. (2) Experimental correlations of production rates of beta-fructosidase and acid phosphatase with dilution rate of continuous culture were simulated based on an operon model for enzyme regulation. (3) Population dynamics of an amylase-producing bacteria and their mutant were discussed in relation to enzyme productivity in a continuous culture of spore-forming bacteria. (4) Plasmid mobilization in a mixed population of donor, recipient, and helper cells was investigated in a continuous culture as a model study of accidental release of a genetically modified plasmid into a natural environment. (5) A production rate increase of up to 100-fold was achieved by cell-recycle culturing of continuous acetic acid fermentation using a filter module with a hollow fiber membrane. (6) The feasibility of a continuous surface culture for the biooxidation of organic substances was ascribed to an enhanced oxygen absorption rate in the presence of a microbial film on a liquid surface. (7) Simultaneous separation of inhibitory products using an electrodialysis module during some organic acid fermentations was effective for increasing production in a continuous culture. PMID:14581991

  20. Further Continuing Appropriations Amendments, 2011

    THOMAS, 112th Congress

    Rep. Rogers, Harold [R-KY-5

    2011-02-28

    03/02/2011 Became Public Law No: 112-4. (TXT | PDF) (All Actions) Notes: Continuing appropriations through 3/18/2011. Tracker: This bill has the status Became LawHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  1. Stratigraphy -- The Fall of Continuity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Byers, Charles W.

    1982-01-01

    Reviews advances in stratigraphy as illustrated in the current geological literature, discussing discontinuity and how the recognition of discontinuity in the stratigraphic record is changing views of Superposition and Original Lateral Continuity. (Author/JN)

  2. Continuous sterilization of plumbing systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bryan, C. J.; Moyers, C. V.; Wright, E. E., Jr.

    1979-01-01

    Continuous sterilization of plumbing, such as in hospitals, clinics, and biological testing laboratories is possible with ethylene oxide/Freon 12 (ETO/F-12) humidifier developed for sterilization of potable water systems.

  3. CONTINUOUS EMISSION MONITORING DEMONSTRATION PROGRAM

    EPA Science Inventory

    Continuous emissions monitoring of hazardous and mixed waste thermal treatment processes is desired for verification of emission compliance, process control, and public safety perception. pecies of particular interest include trace metals and organic compounds resulting from inco...

  4. Competitive Strategy in Continuing Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baden, Clifford

    1987-01-01

    Reviews strategic variables available to those planning continuing education marketing programs. Discusses generic competitive strategies: (1) overall cost leadership, (2) differentiation, and (3) specialization. Mentions several potential problems. (CH)

  5. Additional Continuing Appropriations Amendments, 2011

    THOMAS, 112th Congress

    Rep. Rogers, Harold [R-KY-5

    2011-03-11

    03/18/2011 Became Public Law No: 112-6. (TXT | PDF) (All Actions) Notes: Continuing appropriations through 4/8/2011. Tracker: This bill has the status Became LawHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  6. Marketing Essentials for Continuing Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fong, Jim

    2001-01-01

    A survey of continuing education providers showed the need for greater investment in marketing, cultivation of outsourcing relationships, staff development in marketing techniques, and new ways of communicating the message to potential customers. (SK)

  7. Asymmetric reactions in continuous flow

    PubMed Central

    Mak, Xiao Yin; Laurino, Paola

    2009-01-01

    Summary An overview of asymmetric synthesis in continuous flow and microreactors is presented in this review. Applications of homogeneous and heterogeneous asymmetric catalysis as well as biocatalysis in flow are discussed. PMID:19478913

  8. Wright State Expands Continuing Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chemical and Engineering News, 1974

    1974-01-01

    By leasing the Eugene W. Kettering Engineering and Science Center in downtown Dayton, Ohio, Wright State University plans to enlarge significantly its activities in continuing education for engineers, scientists, and others. (JR)

  9. Communications Technology and Continuing Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldstein, Sheldon

    1984-01-01

    Focusing on three recent developments in communications technology--communications satellites, multichannel cable systems, and home videodisc players--the author discusses the current and potential applications of each to continuing education programs. (SK)

  10. Continuing Education: "Something for Everyone"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Long, Larry W.

    1973-01-01

    New River Community College, Dublin, Virginia, has a continuing education philosophy based upon the understanding that education is never complete. They view themselves, and similar institutions, as true community education and cultural centers. (AG)

  11. The Engineering Societies & Continuing Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Professional Engineer, 1979

    1979-01-01

    Gives a description of what the major engineering societies (ASCE, ASME, AICHE, and IEEE) are doing in the area of continuing education. The description includes the short courses, their costs, duration, type and scope of the content. (GA)

  12. Continuing Education Goes to Market

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lenz, Elinor

    1976-01-01

    Successful marketing of continuing education involves, essentially, two things: (1) that we never confuse marketing with manipulation, and (2) that we keep our sights firmly fixed on the interests and concerns of the people we serve. (Author)

  13. LANL continuity of operations plan

    SciTech Connect

    Senutovitch, Diane M

    2010-12-22

    The Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) is a premier national security research institution, delivering scientific and engineering solutions for the nation's most crucial and complex problems. Our primary responsibility is to ensure the safety, security, and reliability of the nation's nuclear stockpile. LANL emphasizes worker safety, effective operational safeguards and security, and environmental stewardship, outstanding science remains the foundation of work at the Laboratory. In addition to supporting the Laboratory's core national security mission, our work advances bioscience, chemistry, computer science, earth and environmental sciences, materials science, and physics disciplines. To accomplish LANL's mission, we must ensure that the Laboratory EFs continue to be performed during a continuity event, including localized acts of nature, accidents, technological or attack-related emergencies, and pandemic or epidemic events. The LANL Continuity of Operations (COOP) Plan documents the overall LANL COOP Program and provides the operational framework to implement continuity policies, requirements, and responsibilities at LANL, as required by DOE 0 150.1, Continuity Programs, May 2008. LANL must maintain its ability to perform the nation's PMEFs, which are: (1) maintain the safety and security of nuclear materials in the DOE Complex at fixed sites and in transit; (2) respond to a nuclear incident, both domestically and internationally, caused by terrorist activity, natural disaster, or accident, including mobilizing the resources to support these efforts; and (3) support the nation's energy infrastructure. This plan supports Continuity of Operations for Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). This plan issues LANL policy as directed by the DOE 0 150.1, Continuity Programs, and provides direction for the orderly continuation of LANL EFs for 30 days of closure or 60 days for a pandemic/epidemic event. Initiation of COOP operations may be required to support an

  14. 26 CFR 1.1275-5 - Variable rate debt instruments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 11 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Variable rate debt instruments. 1.1275-5 Section 1.1275-5 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Special Rules for Determining Capital Gains and Losses § 1.1275-5 Variable rate debt instruments....

  15. Stochastic string models with continuous semimartingales

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bueno-Guerrero, Alberto; Moreno, Manuel; Navas, Javier F.

    2015-09-01

    This paper reformulates the stochastic string model of Santa-Clara and Sornette using stochastic calculus with continuous semimartingales. We present some new results, such as: (a) the dynamics of the short-term interest rate, (b) the PDE that must be satisfied by the bond price, and (c) an analytic expression for the price of a European bond call option. Additionally, we clarify some important features of the stochastic string model and show its relevance to price derivatives and the equivalence with an infinite dimensional HJM model to price European options.

  16. Quasi-periodic continuation along a continuous symmetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salomone, Matthew David

    Given a system of differential equations which admits a continuous group of symmetries and possesses a periodic solution, we show that under certain nondegeneracy assumptions there always exists a continuous family containing infinitely many periodic and quasi-periodic trajectories. This generalizes the continuation method of Poincaré to orbits which are not necessarily periodic. We apply these results in the setting of the Lagrangian N -body problem of homogeneous potential to characterize an infinite family of rotating nonplanar "hip-hop" orbits in the four-body problem of equal masses, and show how some other trajectories in the N -body theory may be extended to infinite families of periodic and quasi-periodic trajectories.

  17. Business continuity 2014: From traditional to integrated Business Continuity Management.

    PubMed

    Ee, Henry

    As global change continues to generate new challenges and potential threats to businesses, traditional business continuity management (BCM) slowly reveals its limitations and weak points to ensuring 'business resiliency' today. Consequently, BCM professionals also face the challenge of re-evaluating traditional concepts and introducing new strategies and industry best practices. This paper points to why traditional BCM is no longer sufficient in terms of enabling businesses to survive in today's high-risk environment. It also looks into some of the misconceptions about BCM and other stumbling blocks to establishing effective BCM today. Most importantly, however, this paper provides tips based on the Business Continuity Institute's (BCI) Good Practices Guideline (GPG) and the latest international BCM standard ISO 22301 on how to overcome the issues and challenges presented. PMID:25416371

  18. Obesity Rates Rising Among Women: CDC

    MedlinePlus

    ... nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/news/fullstory_159239.html Obesity Rates Rising Among Women: CDC Though a major ... are another group that continues to struggle with obesity. "Obesity remains a public health concern," said Cynthia ...

  19. Renal effects of continuous negative pressure breathing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kinney, M. J.; Discala, V. A.

    1975-01-01

    Continuous negative pressure breathing (CNPB) was utilized to simulate the thoracic vascular distension of zero g or space, in 11 anesthetized rats. The animals underwent renal clearance and micropuncture renal nephron studies before, during, and after CNPB. Rats were pretreated with a high salt diet and I-M desoxycorticosterone (DOCA) in excess. None of these rats diuresed with CNPB. In contrast 5 of the 7 remaining rats increased the fraction of the filtered sodium excreted (C sub Na/GFR, p .05) and their urinary flow rate (V, p .05). Potassium excretion increased (U sub k V, p .05). End proximal tubular fluid specimen's TF/P inulin ratios were unchanged. Whole kidney and single nephron glomerular filtration rates fell 10%. CNPB, a mechanism for atrial distension, appears to cause, in rats, a decrease in distal tubular sodium, water and potassium reabsorption. Exogenous mineral-corticoid prevents the diuresis, saluresis, and kaluresis.

  20. Metabolic regulation in bacterial continuous cultures: I.

    PubMed

    Baloo, S; Ramkrishna, D

    1991-12-20

    Dilution rate steps in continuous culture experiments with Klebsiella pneumoniae growing on single substrate feeds have brought out interesting features of metabolic regulation not observed in batch cultures. In a step-up experiment, the adjustment of the culture to a new steady state is preceded by an undershoot in cell density. Results of a step-down experiment indicate a corresponding overshoot phenomenon. These observations of the transient behavior of the culture growing on glucose and xylose as well as the steady-state results are interpreted with cybernetic models. The development of the model explicitly accounts for the lumped internal resource, which is optimally allocated toward the synthesis of key enzymes catalyzing different cellular processes. The model also includes a description of the increased maintenance demand observed at low growth rates. It reduces to previous cybernetic models in situations where the cell does not experience a sudden change in its environment and, hence, retains their predictive capability. PMID:18600736

  1. In Vivo Continuous Directed Evolution

    PubMed Central

    Badran, Ahmed H.; Liu, David R.

    2014-01-01

    The development and application of methods for the laboratory evolution of biomolecules has rapidly progressed over the last few decades. Advancements in continuous microbe culturing and selection design have facilitated the development of new technologies that enable the continuous directed evolution of proteins and nucleic acids. These technologies have the potential to support the extremely rapid evolution of biomolecules with tailor-made functional properties. Continuous evolution methods must support all of the key steps of laboratory evolution—translation of genes into gene products, selection or screening, replication of genes encoding the most fit gene products, and mutation of surviving genes—in a self-sustaining manner that requires little or no researcher intervention. Continuous laboratory evolution has been historically used to study problems including antibiotic resistance, organismal adaptation, phylogenetic reconstruction, and host-pathogen interactions, with more recent applications focusing on the rapid generation of proteins and nucleic acids with useful, tailor-made properties. The advent of increasingly general methods for continuous directed evolution should enable researchers to address increasingly complex questions and to access biomolecules with more novel or even unprecedented properties. PMID:25461718

  2. Coded continuous wave meteor radar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vierinen, Juha; Chau, Jorge L.; Pfeffer, Nico; Clahsen, Matthias; Stober, Gunter

    2016-03-01

    The concept of a coded continuous wave specular meteor radar (SMR) is described. The radar uses a continuously transmitted pseudorandom phase-modulated waveform, which has several advantages compared to conventional pulsed SMRs. The coding avoids range and Doppler aliasing, which are in some cases problematic with pulsed radars. Continuous transmissions maximize pulse compression gain, allowing operation at lower peak power than a pulsed system. With continuous coding, the temporal and spectral resolution are not dependent on the transmit waveform and they can be fairly flexibly changed after performing a measurement. The low signal-to-noise ratio before pulse compression, combined with independent pseudorandom transmit waveforms, allows multiple geographically separated transmitters to be used in the same frequency band simultaneously without significantly interfering with each other. Because the same frequency band can be used by multiple transmitters, the same interferometric receiver antennas can be used to receive multiple transmitters at the same time. The principles of the signal processing are discussed, in addition to discussion of several practical ways to increase computation speed, and how to optimally detect meteor echoes. Measurements from a campaign performed with a coded continuous wave SMR are shown and compared with two standard pulsed SMR measurements. The type of meteor radar described in this paper would be suited for use in a large-scale multi-static network of meteor radar transmitters and receivers. Such a system would be useful for increasing the number of meteor detections to obtain improved meteor radar data products.

  3. Continuous overnight observation of human premolar eruption.

    PubMed

    Risinger, R K; Proffit, W R

    1996-01-01

    Such observation was made possible by transmitting the image of a mobile ceramic ruling on the erupting maxillary second premolar to a video-microscope via a coaxial fibreoptic cable. The cable was inserted into a reference bar secured to the adjacent first molar and first premolar. The image of the ruling was superimposed with the image from a surveillance camera focused on the patient and continuously recorded on video-tape along with the participant's blood pressure, pulse rate, electromyographic activity and occlusal contact sounds. Overnight data from 12 individuals clearly revealed a circadian rhythm in eruption during the prefunctional spurt. On average, the maxillary second premolar erupted 41 microns during an 11-h overnight observation, with almost all the eruption occurring in the late evening from 8 p.m. to 1 a.m. After 1 a.m., eruption typically ceased, with a tendency for intrusion to occur until 7 a.m. Sleep increased the rate of eruption during the late evening, but did not influence the eruption rate during the early morning. Haemodynamic changes, including blood pressure and pulse rate, did not have a significant impact on the rhythm of eruption. The observed eruption rhythm is most probably caused by changing hormone levels and their effect on the periodontal ligament. The late-evening eruption of human premolars coincides with the late-evening secretion of growth hormone and thyroid hormone typically found in humans. PMID:9022915

  4. Baseline budgeting for continuous improvement.

    PubMed

    Kilty, G L

    1999-05-01

    This article is designed to introduce the techniques used to convert traditionally maintained department budgets to baseline budgets. This entails identifying key activities, evaluating for value-added, and implementing continuous improvement opportunities. Baseline Budgeting for Continuous Improvement was created as a result of a newly named company president's request to implement zero-based budgeting. The president was frustrated with the mind-set of the organization, namely, "Next year's budget should be 10 to 15 percent more than this year's spending." Zero-based budgeting was not the answer, but combining the principles of activity-based costing and the Just-in-Time philosophy of eliminating waste and continuous improvement did provide a solution to the problem. PMID:10387778

  5. 47 CFR 54.607 - Determining the rural rate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Determining the rural rate. 54.607 Section 54.607 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES (CONTINUED) UNIVERSAL SERVICE Universal Service Support for Health Care Providers § 54.607 Determining the rural rate. (a) The rural rate shall be the...

  6. 32 CFR 204.9 - Schedule of fees and rates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Schedule of fees and rates. 204.9 Section 204.9 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY OF DEFENSE (CONTINUED) MISCELLANEOUS USER FEES § 204.9 Schedule of fees and rates. (a) Schedule of fees and rates. (1) This schedule applies to authorized services related...

  7. 32 CFR 204.9 - Schedule of fees and rates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Schedule of fees and rates. 204.9 Section 204.9 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY OF DEFENSE (CONTINUED) MISCELLANEOUS USER FEES § 204.9 Schedule of fees and rates. (a) Schedule of fees and rates. (1) This schedule applies to authorized services related...

  8. Slow continuous ultrafiltration with bound solute dialysis.

    PubMed

    Patzer, John F; Safta, Stefan A; Miller, Richard H

    2006-01-01

    Bound solute dialysis (BSD), often referred to as "albumin dialysis" (practiced clinically as the molecular adsorbents recirculating system, MARS, or single-pass albumin dialysis, SPAD) or "sorbent dialysis" (practiced clinically as the charcoal-based Biologic-DT), is based upon the thermodynamic principle that the driving force for solute mass transfer across a dialysis membrane is the difference in free solute concentration across the membrane. The clinically relevant practice of slow continuous ultrafiltration (SCUF) for maintenance of patients with liver failure is analyzed in conjunction with BSD. The primary dimensionless operating parameters that describe SCUF-BSD include (1) beta, the dialysate/blood binder concentration ratio; (2) kappa, the dialyzer mass transfer/blood flow rate ratio; (3) alpha, the dialysate/blood flow rate ratio; and, (4) gamma, the ultrafiltration/blood flow rate ratio. Results from mathematical modeling of solute removal during a single pass through a dialyzer and solute removal from a one-compartment model indicate that solute removal is remarkably insensitive to gamma. Solute removal approaches an asymptote (improvement in theoretical clearance over that obtainable with no binder in the dialysate) with increasing beta that is dependent on kappa and independent of alpha. The amount of binder required to approach the asymptote decreases with increasing solute-binder equilibrium constant, i.e., more strongly bound solutes require less binder in the dialysate. The results of experimental observations over a range of blood flow rates, 100 to 180 mL/min, dialysate flow rates, 600 to 2150 mL/h, ultrafiltration rates, 0 to 220 mL/h, and dialysate/blood albumin concentration ratios, beta = 0.01 to 0.04, were independently predicted remarkably well by the one-compartment model (with no adjustable parameters) based on BSD principles. PMID:16436890

  9. Continuous production of polymethylpentene membranes

    DOEpatents

    Epperson, B.J.; Burnett, L.J.; Helm, V.D.

    1983-11-15

    Gas separation membranes may be prepared in a continuous manner by passing a porous support which may, if so desired, be backed by a fabric through a solution of polymethylpentene dissolved in an organic solvent such as hexane. The support member is passed through the solution while one side thereof is in contact with a roller, thereby permitting only one side of the support member to be coated with the polymer. After continuously withdrawing the support member from the bath, the solvent is allowed to evaporate and the resulting membrane is recovered.

  10. Continuous measurements of ATP secretion in vivo.

    PubMed

    Smith, J B; Burke, S E; Lefer, A M; Freilich, A

    1984-01-01

    Blood was withdrawn continuously from femoral veins of anesthetized rabbits at a rate of 0.07 ml/min. Sodium citrate was pumped into the blood to prevent coagulation, and luciferin-luciferase reagent was added to permit the continuous detection of extracellular ATP. Subsequently, the red blood cells were lysed and the platelet count was recorded continuously. Injection of platelet activating factor or collagen into rabbit ear veins caused an almost immediate but short-lived increase in extracellular ATP with a simultaneous but more prolonged decrease in the platelet count. Although both the endoperoxide analog 9,11-azo-PGH2 and ADP also decreased the platelet count, little extracellular ATP was detected after the azo-PGH2 and none after ADP. These studies demonstrate that those agents that cause platelet secretion from rabbit platelets in vitro also cause secretion in vivo. The method described should be useful in evaluating the capacity of antithrombotic drugs to modify platelet secretion in vivo. PMID:24277184

  11. Continuous observations of North Atlantic heat transport

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balcerak, Ernie

    2012-02-01

    The Atlantic meridional overturning circulation (AMOC), which transports warm water northward and cold water back southward, is important in transferring heat to the North Atlantic Ocean. Some models predict that AMOC will slow down as Earth's temperatures rise due to anthropogenic warming, which could have serious climate consequences for the Northern Hemisphere. However, the response of AMOC to global warming is uncertain—different models predict different rates of slowdown—and there have been few continuous observations of AMOC heat transport. Hobbs and Willis used temperature, salinity, and displacement data measured from foats in the Argo array, combined with sea surface heights measured by satellites, to estimate a continuous time series of Atlantic meridional heat transport from 2002 to 2010 at 41°N latitude. They found that the mean heat transport was about 0.5 petawatt. The authors note that this estimate is consistent with previous studies in similar latitudes based on atmospheric flux data but is lower than most hydrographic estimates. Heat transport varied on an annual cycle as well as on shorter time scales, with atmospheric variability explaining most of the short-term variance. The researchers note that the period of study was too short to infer any long-term trends, and they emphasize the need for continued monitoring of AMOC. (Journal of Geophysical Research-Oceans, doi:10.1029/2011JC007039, 2012)

  12. Determination of a sedative protocol for use in California sea lions (Zalophus californianus) with neurologic abnormalities undergoing electroencephalographic examination.

    PubMed

    Dennison, Sophie; Haulena, Martin; Williams, D Colette; Dawson, John; Yandell, Brian S; Gulland, Frances M D

    2008-12-01

    Sedation in sea lions exhibiting abnormal neurologic signs may require modification of established sedatior protocols because of the likely interaction between effects of the sedative and physiologic changes in diseased animals The effects of two sedative combinations, 0.07 mg/kg medetomidine and 0.07 mg/kg medetomidine plus 0.2 mg/kg butorphanol, were compared between California sea lions (Zalophus californianus) with signs of neurologic dysfunctior (n=33) and without neurologic signs (n=8). Sedation depth was scored on a scale of 0 (no effect) to 4 (profound sedation) assessed by response to auditory, tactile, and visual stimuli at the time of perceived maximal sedative effect In the medetomidine-alone group, sea lions with neurologic signs attained a median sedation score of 4 compared to a median sedation score of 1 in the clinically normal sea lions. Sea lions with and without neurologic signs giver medetomidine-butorphanol attained a median sedation score of 4. No statistically significant difference in time to induction and respiratory rate was found between the two sedation protocols in all sea lions. In the sea lions with neurologic signs, the recovery time from medetomidine-butorphanol sedation was prolonged (P < 0.01) and minimum recorded heart rates, although remaining within normal physiologic limits, were lower (P = 0.02) when compared to the sea lions administered medetomidine alone. Muscle jerks were observed in many animals given medetomidine-butorphanol and were detrimental to the diagnostic quality of the electroencephalogram (EEG) recording. Medetomidine alone at a dose rate of 0.07 mg/kg thus provides adequate and safe sedation in sea lions with neurologic signs undergoing EEG evaluation. PMID:19110694

  13. 38 CFR 4.128 - Convalescence ratings following extended hospitalization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... evaluation due to a continuous period of hospitalization lasting six months or more, the rating agency shall continue the total evaluation indefinitely and schedule a mandatory examination six months after...

  14. 38 CFR 4.128 - Convalescence ratings following extended hospitalization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... evaluation due to a continuous period of hospitalization lasting six months or more, the rating agency shall continue the total evaluation indefinitely and schedule a mandatory examination six months after...

  15. 38 CFR 4.128 - Convalescence ratings following extended hospitalization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... evaluation due to a continuous period of hospitalization lasting six months or more, the rating agency shall continue the total evaluation indefinitely and schedule a mandatory examination six months after...

  16. 26 CFR 1.1274-4 - Test rate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 11 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Test rate. 1.1274-4 Section 1.1274-4 Internal... TAXES (CONTINUED) Special Rules for Determining Capital Gains and Losses § 1.1274-4 Test rate. (a) Determination of test rate of interest—(1) In general—(i) Test rate is the 3-month rate. Except as provided...

  17. Continuous enzymatic liquefaction of starch for saccharification

    SciTech Connect

    Carr, M.E.; Black, L.T.; Bagby, M.O.

    1982-01-01

    A process was explored for continuous enzymatic liquefaction of corn starch at high concentration and subsequent saccharification to glucose. The process appears to be quite efficient for conversion of starch to glucose and enzymatic liquefaction and should be readily adaptable to industrial fermentation processes. Preliminary work indicated that milled corn or other cereal grains also can be suitably converted by such a process. Essentially, the process involved incorporation of a thermostable, bacterial alpha-amylase for liquefaction and, subsequently, of a glucoamylase into the continuous mixer under conditions conductive to rapid enzymatic hydrolyses. Also studied was the effect on substrate liquefaction of variables such as starch concentration (40-70%), level of alpha-amylase (0.14-0.4%, dry starch basis), temperature (70-100 degrees C), pH (5.8-7.1), and residence time (6 and 12 minutes). The degree of liquefaction was assessed by determining 1) the Brookfield viscosity, 2) the amount of reducing groups, and 3) the rate and extent of glucose formed after glucoamylase treatment. Best liquefaction processing conditions were achieved by using 50-60% starch concentration, at 95 degrees C, with 0.4% alpha-amylase, and a 6 minute residence period in the mixer. Under these conditions, rates and extents of glucose obtained after glucoamylase treatment approached those obtained in longer laboratory batch liquefactions. The amount of glucose formed in 24 hours with the use of 0.4% glucoamylase was 86% of theory after a 6-min continuous liquefaction, compared to 90% for a 30-min laboratory batch liquefaction (95 degrees C, 0.4% alpha-amylase). (Refs. 15).

  18. Connecting the Dots: Rediscovering Continuity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Camenga, Kristin A.; Yates, Rebekah B. Johnson

    2014-01-01

    The topic of continuity is typically not introduced until calculus and then reexamined in real analysis. Recognizing the connections between secondary school mathematics and the advanced mathematics studied at the college level allows teachers to better identify mathematical concepts in student ideas, motivate students by piquing their curiosity,…

  19. Pythagorean Approximations and Continued Fractions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peralta, Javier

    2008-01-01

    In this article, we will show that the Pythagorean approximations of [the square root of] 2 coincide with those achieved in the 16th century by means of continued fractions. Assuming this fact and the known relation that connects the Fibonacci sequence with the golden section, we shall establish a procedure to obtain sequences of rational numbers…

  20. ISES Training Class - Continuous Measurements

    EPA Science Inventory

    Features of Continuous Monitoring•Provides for high definition of temporal resolution•Provides means for discerning primary exposure events•Provides means for critically examining data quality rather than just an average point•Applicable to any measure of inte...

  1. Coded continuous wave meteor radar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vierinen, J.; Chau, J. L.; Pfeffer, N.; Clahsen, M.; Stober, G.

    2015-07-01

    The concept of coded continuous wave meteor radar is introduced. The radar uses a continuously transmitted pseudo-random waveform, which has several advantages: coding avoids range aliased echoes, which are often seen with commonly used pulsed specular meteor radars (SMRs); continuous transmissions maximize pulse compression gain, allowing operation with significantly lower peak transmit power; the temporal resolution can be changed after performing a measurement, as it does not depend on pulse spacing; and the low signal to noise ratio allows multiple geographically separated transmitters to be used in the same frequency band without significantly interfering with each other. The latter allows the same receiver antennas to be used to receive multiple transmitters. The principles of the signal processing are discussed, in addition to discussion of several practical ways to increase computation speed, and how to optimally detect meteor echoes. Measurements from a campaign performed with a coded continuous wave SMR are shown and compared with two standard pulsed SMR measurements. The type of meteor radar described in this paper would be suited for use in a large scale multi-static network of meteor radar transmitters and receivers. This would, for example, provide higher spatio-temporal resolution for mesospheric wind field measurements.

  2. The Value of Continuing Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schejbal, David; Wilson, David

    2008-01-01

    Higher education--and continuing education as one arm of that enterprise--is not just an economic engine; it contributes directly and in a multifaceted fashion to the common good. It generates and makes accessible a great deal of the knowledge that drives the economy; it helps develop an understanding of the society and the world for millions of…

  3. Marketing Continuing Education for Nurses.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Southern Regional Education Board, Atlanta, GA.

    This guide presents an overview of marketing and its potential value in continuing education programs for nurses. The first portion of the guide briefly discusses the concept of marketing. It contains definitions of key marketing concepts (product, place, price, and promotion), discussion of the basic tenets of marketing (consumer needs…

  4. Continuing Education Survey, Fall 1981.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LaCalle, James F.; And Others

    In fall 1981, all students attending a continuing education course at Harford Community College (HCC) were asked to complete a survey instrument designed to collect information on student demographics, reasons for attendance, tuition payment, sources of information about the non-credit courses, registration and commuting patterns, satisfaction…

  5. Reliability of CHAMP Anomaly Continuations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    vonFrese, Ralph R. B.; Kim, Hyung Rae; Taylor, Patrick T.; Asgharzadeh, Mohammad F.

    2003-01-01

    CHAMP is recording state-of-the-art magnetic and gravity field observations at altitudes ranging over roughly 300 - 550 km. However, anomaly continuation is severely limited by the non-uniqueness of the process and satellite anomaly errors. Indeed, our numerical anomaly simulations from satellite to airborne altitudes show that effective downward continuations of the CHAMP data are restricted to within approximately 50 km of the observation altitudes while upward continuations can be effective over a somewhat larger altitude range. The great unreliability of downward continuation requires that the satellite geopotential observations must be analyzed at satellite altitudes if the anomaly details are to be exploited most fully. Given current anomaly error levels, joint inversion of satellite and near- surface anomalies is the best approach for implementing satellite geopotential observations for subsurface studies. We demonstrate the power of this approach using a crustal model constrained by joint inversions of near-surface and satellite magnetic and gravity observations for Maude Rise, Antarctica, in the southwestern Indian Ocean. Our modeling suggests that the dominant satellite altitude magnetic anomalies are produced by crustal thickness variations and remanent magnetization of the normal polarity Cretaceous Quiet Zone.

  6. Continuing Education for Distance Librarians

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cassner, Mary; Adams, Kate E.

    2012-01-01

    Distance librarians as engaged professionals work in a complex environment of changes in technologies, user expectations, and institutional goals. They strive to keep current with skills and competencies to support distance learners. This article provides a selection of continuing education opportunities for distance librarians, and is relevant…

  7. Continuing Education in Canadian Universities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cannell, R. L.

    Different aspects of the development of continuing education in Canadian universities and institutions were studied by the British author through visits to Vancouver, Toronto, Montreal, Winnipeg, Saskatoon, Calgary, and Banff. Short visits were also made to Massachusetts, Washington, Oregon, and California. Comparisons between Canadian and British…

  8. Continuous Education, Democracy, and Society.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Filippov, Fridrikh Rafailovich

    1990-01-01

    Identifies links in Soviet continuous education from preschool to postsecondary study, and their objectives. Discusses lifelong learning as a means of keeping pace with socioeconomic and technological developments. Advocates democratic and humanistic reforms in the Soviet educational system in response to the political changes of perestroika. (CH)

  9. Continuous sampling of MSWI dioxins.

    PubMed

    Hung, Pao-Chen; Chang, Shu-Hao; Buekens, Alfons; Chang, Moo-Been

    2016-02-01

    Municipal solid waste incineration (MSWI) is generally considered as a well-controlled source of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs), in brief dioxins. Start-up conditions continue, however, to be problematic. A self-developed continuous sampler was specially designed and built to fulfill the various sampling criteria of U.S. EPA Method 23 and monitor the trends of dioxins emissions during diverse operating conditions. In the MSWI plant investigated, a 98.1% TEQ PCDD/F removal efficiency was achieved in normal operation using activated carbon injection + bag filtration (ACI + BF) and the corresponding PCDD/F emission remains well below the standard set by Taiwan EPA (0.1 ng I-TEQ/Nm(3) @ 11% O2). During start-up, however, continuous sampling indicates that this limit value is reached only after 12 and 9 days, respectively for the 1st (2011) and 2nd test campaign (2012). Only 15 days after start-up the PCDD/F emissions shrunk to the levels typically measured during normal operation. The PCDD/F emissions from the 1st and 2nd continuous sampling campaigns were 5.4 and 5.5 mg I-TEQ, respectively. Short-term PCDD/F sampling such as the U.S. EPA Method 23 is less adapted to monitor these transient PCDD/F emissions representatively and accurately, due to a steady decrease of PCDD/F emissions after start-up. This self-developed continuous sampler effectively enhances the ease and reliability of emission data collecting during transient conditions of MSWI. PMID:26688247

  10. Applications of a fast continuous wavelet transform

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dress, William B.

    1997-04-01

    A fast, continuous, wavelet transform, justified by appealing to Shannon's sampling theorem in frequency space, has been developed for use with continuous mother wavelets and sampled data sets. The method differs from the usual discrete-wavelet approach and from the standard treatment of the continuous-wavelet transform in that, here, the wavelet is sampled in the frequency domain. Since Shannon's sampling theorem lets us view the Fourier transform of the data set as representing the continuous function in frequency space, the continuous nature of the functions is kept up to the point of sampling the scale-translation lattice, so the scale-translation grid used to represent the wavelet transform is independent of the time-domain sampling of the signal under analysis. Although more computationally costly and not represented by an orthogonal basis, the inherent flexibility and shift invariance of the frequency-space wavelets are advantageous for certain applications. The method has been applied to forensic audio reconstruction, speaker recognition/identification, and the detection of micromotions of heavy vehicles associated with ballistocardiac impulses originating from occupants' heart beats. Audio reconstruction is aided by selection of desired regions in the 2D representation of the magnitude of the transformed signals. The inverse transform is applied to ridges and selected regions to reconstruct areas of interest, unencumbered by noise interference lying outside these regions. To separate micromotions imparted to a mass- spring system by an occupant's beating heart from gross mechanical motions due to wind and traffic vibrations, a continuous frequency-space wavelet, modeled on the frequency content of a canonical ballistocardiogram, was used to analyze time series taken from geophone measurements of vehicle micromotions. By using a family of mother wavelets, such as a set of Gaussian derivatives of various orders, different features may be extracted from voice

  11. Continuous Tuning and Calibration of Vibratory Gyroscopes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hayworth, Ken

    2003-01-01

    A method of control and operation of an inertial reference unit (IRU) based on vibratory gyroscopes provides for continuously repeated cycles of tuning and calibration. The method is intended especially for application to an IRU containing vibratory gyroscopes that are integral parts of microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) and that have cloverleaf designs, as described in several previous NASA Tech Briefs articles. The method provides for minimization of several measures of spurious gyroscope output, including zero-rate offset (ZRO), angle random walk (ARW), and rate drift. These benefits are afforded both at startup and thereafter during continuing operation, in the presence of unknown rotation rates and changes in temperature. A vibratory gyroscope contains a precision mechanically resonant structure containing two normal modes of vibration nominally degenerate in frequency and strongly coupled via a Coriolis term. In the case of the cloverleaf design MEMS gyro, these normal modes of vibration are plate rocking modes. The rocking motion of the plate is described by giving two angles, theta(sub 1) and theta(sub 2). A proof mass consisting of a post orthogonal to the plate ensures a high degree of Coriolis coupling of vibratory energy from one mode into the other under inertial rotation. The plate is driven and sensed capacitively across a few-microns-wide gap, and the normal mode frequencies can be tuned electrostatically by DC voltages applied across this gap. In order to sense rotation, the resonator plate is caused to rock in the theta(sub 1) direction, then any small motions in the theta(sub 2) direction are sensed, rebalanced, and interpreted as inertial rotation. In this scenario, the "drive" has been assigned to the theta(sub 1) direction, and the "sense" has been assigned to the theta(sub 2) direction.

  12. Continued detention involvement and adolescent marijuana use trajectories.

    PubMed

    Ewing, Sarah W Feldstein; Schmiege, Sarah J; Bryan, Angela D

    2014-01-01

    Justice-involved youth have high rates of marijuana use. Less is known about what may drive these rates, particularly when justice-involved youth return to the community. One factor that has been implicated is continued detention involvement. Yet, it is unknown how this factor may influence marijuana use trajectories. Using longitudinal growth curve modeling, the researchers evaluated the association between continued detention involvement and marijuana use trajectories in two large, ethnically diverse samples of community-based, justice-involved youth. Across both samples, marijuana use decreased over time for youth with continued detention involvement but did not change for youth without continued detention involvement. These findings underscore the importance of attending to the influence of detention involvement in community-based, justice-involved adolescents' marijuana use trajectories. This study also highlights the importance of coordinating prevention/intervention programming for justice-involved youth once they are in the community. PMID:24272742

  13. 14 CFR 63.33 - Aircraft ratings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...) Turbopropeller powered; and (3) Turbojet powered. (b) To be eligible for an additional aircraft class rating... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Aircraft ratings. 63.33 Section 63.33 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED)...

  14. 7 CFR 3550.66 - Interest rate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Interest rate. 3550.66 Section 3550.66 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL HOUSING SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE DIRECT SINGLE FAMILY HOUSING LOANS AND GRANTS Section 502 Origination § 3550.66 Interest rate. Loans will be written using the applicable...

  15. 47 CFR 73.1942 - Candidate rates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Candidate rates. 73.1942 Section 73.1942 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) BROADCAST RADIO SERVICES RADIO BROADCAST SERVICES Rules Applicable to All Broadcast Stations § 73.1942 Candidate rates. (a) Charges for use of...

  16. 47 CFR 76.206 - Candidate rates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Candidate rates. 76.206 Section 76.206 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) BROADCAST RADIO SERVICES MULTICHANNEL VIDEO AND CABLE TELEVISION SERVICE Cablecasting § 76.206 Candidate rates. (a) Charges for use of cable...

  17. 33 CFR 159.69 - Motor ratings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Motor ratings. 159.69 Section 159.69 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) POLLUTION MARINE SANITATION DEVICES Design, Construction, and Testing § 159.69 Motor ratings. Motors must be...

  18. 33 CFR 159.69 - Motor ratings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Motor ratings. 159.69 Section 159.69 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) POLLUTION MARINE SANITATION DEVICES Design, Construction, and Testing § 159.69 Motor ratings. Motors must be...

  19. 33 CFR 159.69 - Motor ratings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Motor ratings. 159.69 Section 159.69 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) POLLUTION MARINE SANITATION DEVICES Design, Construction, and Testing § 159.69 Motor ratings. Motors must be...

  20. 33 CFR 159.69 - Motor ratings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Motor ratings. 159.69 Section 159.69 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) POLLUTION MARINE SANITATION DEVICES Design, Construction, and Testing § 159.69 Motor ratings. Motors must be...

  1. 33 CFR 159.69 - Motor ratings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Motor ratings. 159.69 Section 159.69 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) POLLUTION MARINE SANITATION DEVICES Design, Construction, and Testing § 159.69 Motor ratings. Motors must be...

  2. Graduation Rates: Real Kids, Real Numbers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swanson, Christopher B.

    2004-01-01

    With the advent of the No Child Left Behind Act (NCLB), graduation rate accountability has become the educational law of the land, a small part of it at least. Some uncertainty continues to persist around key issues like exactly how to calculate graduation rates and how much weight should be placed on graduation versus test scores when attaching…

  3. 7 CFR 1466.23 - Payment rates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Payment rates. 1466.23 Section 1466.23 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) COMMODITY CREDIT CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE LOANS, PURCHASES, AND OTHER OPERATIONS ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY INCENTIVES PROGRAM Contracts and Payments § 1466.23 Payment rates. (a)...

  4. 47 CFR 76.206 - Candidate rates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Candidate rates. 76.206 Section 76.206 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) BROADCAST RADIO SERVICES MULTICHANNEL VIDEO AND CABLE TELEVISION SERVICE Cablecasting § 76.206 Candidate rates. (a) Charges for use of cable...

  5. 47 CFR 76.206 - Candidate rates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Candidate rates. 76.206 Section 76.206 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) BROADCAST RADIO SERVICES MULTICHANNEL VIDEO AND CABLE TELEVISION SERVICE Cablecasting § 76.206 Candidate rates. (a) Charges for use of cable...

  6. 47 CFR 76.206 - Candidate rates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Candidate rates. 76.206 Section 76.206 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) BROADCAST RADIO SERVICES MULTICHANNEL VIDEO AND CABLE TELEVISION SERVICE Cablecasting § 76.206 Candidate rates. (a) Charges for use of cable...

  7. 47 CFR 76.206 - Candidate rates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Candidate rates. 76.206 Section 76.206 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) BROADCAST RADIO SERVICES MULTICHANNEL VIDEO AND CABLE TELEVISION SERVICE Cablecasting § 76.206 Candidate rates. (a) Charges for use of cable...

  8. 29 CFR 4006.3 - Premium rate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 9 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Premium rate. 4006.3 Section 4006.3 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) PENSION BENEFIT GUARANTY CORPORATION PREMIUMS PREMIUM RATES § 4006.3 Premium... (dealing with premiums for certain terminated single-employer plans), the premium paid for basic...

  9. 29 CFR 4006.3 - Premium rate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 9 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Premium rate. 4006.3 Section 4006.3 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) PENSION BENEFIT GUARANTY CORPORATION PREMIUMS PREMIUM RATES § 4006.3 Premium... (dealing with premiums for certain terminated single-employer plans), the premium paid for basic...

  10. 29 CFR 4006.3 - Premium rate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 9 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Premium rate. 4006.3 Section 4006.3 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) PENSION BENEFIT GUARANTY CORPORATION PREMIUMS PREMIUM RATES § 4006.3 Premium... (dealing with premiums for certain terminated single-employer plans), the premium paid for basic...

  11. 29 CFR 4006.3 - Premium rate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 9 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Premium rate. 4006.3 Section 4006.3 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) PENSION BENEFIT GUARANTY CORPORATION PREMIUMS PREMIUM RATES § 4006.3 Premium... (dealing with premiums for certain terminated single-employer plans), the premium paid for basic...

  12. Pressurized tundish for controlling a continuous flow of molten metal

    DOEpatents

    Lewis, T.W.; Hamill, P.E. Jr.; Ozgu, M.R.; Padfield, R.C.; Rego, D.N.; Brita, G.P.

    1990-07-24

    A pressurized tundish for controlling a continuous flow of molten metal is characterized by having a pair of principal compartments, one being essentially unpressurized and receiving molten metal introduced thereto, and the other being adapted for maintaining a controlled gaseous pressure over the surface of the fluid metal therein, whereby, by controlling the pressure within the pressurized chamber, metal exiting from the tundish is made to flow continually and at a controlled rate. 1 fig.

  13. THE CONTINUING CHALLENGE OF ESBLS

    PubMed Central

    Perez, Federico; Endimiani, Andrea; Hujer, Kristine M.; Bonomo, Robert A.

    2007-01-01

    Summary of recent advances Since their first description more than twenty years ago, Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae possessing extended-spectrum class A beta-lactamases (ESBLs) continue to thwart our best clinical efforts. In the “early years” the most common beta-lactamases were of the TEM and SHV varieties. Now, CTX-M enzymes are being discovered though out the world and are becoming the most prevalent beta-lactamases found in clinical isolates. The Klebsiella pneumoniae carbapenemases (KPC) (ESBL type enzymes that confer resistance to extended spectrum cephalosporins and carbapenems) present the most significant challenge to date. Structural studies of ESBLs indicate that active site expansion and remodeling are responsible for this extended hydrolytic activity. Continuing questions still exist regarding the optimal detection method for ESBLs. Most relevant are the increasing concerns regarding the status of carbapenems as “best therapy” for ESBL producing bacteria in light of the emergence of carbapenemases. PMID:17875405

  14. Monolithic Continuous-Flow Bioreactors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stephanopoulos, Gregory; Kornfield, Julia A.; Voecks, Gerald A.

    1993-01-01

    Monolithic ceramic matrices containing many small flow passages useful as continuous-flow bioreactors. Ceramic matrix containing passages made by extruding and firing suitable ceramic. Pores in matrix provide attachment medium for film of cells and allow free movement of solution. Material one not toxic to micro-organisms grown in reactor. In reactor, liquid nutrients flow over, and liquid reaction products flow from, cell culture immobilized in one set of channels while oxygen flows to, and gaseous reaction products flow from, culture in adjacent set of passages. Cells live on inner surfaces containing flowing nutrient and in pores of walls of passages. Ready access to nutrients and oxygen in channels. They generate continuous high yield characteristic of immobilized cells, without large expenditure of energy otherwise incurred if necessary to pump nutrient solution through dense biomass as in bioreactors of other types.

  15. [Continuous computer-assisted monitoring].

    PubMed

    Ritz, R

    1982-07-01

    Optimal monitoring of vital parameters in critically ill patients should be performed continuously with non-invasive and automatic methods including trend presentation of the data. Continuous measurements are now in frequent use in intensive care units, and non-invasive techniques are being increasingly explored. Besides automatic registration, computerization of monitoring allows trend presentation of the measured values and thereby improves diagnostic and therapeutic procedures. The characteristic peculiarities of a computer, i.e. acquisition, computing and presentation of the data, as well as storage capacity, enable simultaneous monitoring of several complex parameters, as is demonstrated by arrhythmia monitoring systems already in routine use. Optimal patient surveillance is described in three practical examples of computer application. PMID:7112071

  16. Continuous measurement: Watchdog effect versus golden rule

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Joos, E.

    1984-04-01

    Conditions which may lead to a freezing of the motion of a system under continuous observation (the so-called "Zeno paradox" or "watchdog effect") are examined. The measurement process is treated phenomenologically by the usual wave-packet reduction as well as in a more realistic way by including the measuring apparatus. For this purpose a model for an ideal measurement process is employed, following an example given by von Neumann. The resulting behavior varies between complete freezing and a mere suppression of interference terms and constant transition rates as represented by a master equation (rate equation). The most familiar example of the latter is Fermi's golden rule, with integration leading to exponential decay. Reviewing and extending the derivation of the Pauli master equation, the conditions leading to constant transition rates are discussed. The importance of the interaction with the natural environment for establishing a master equation is emphasized. Some consequences for the derivation of macroscopic equations of motion and for the physical foundations of superselection rules are pointed out.

  17. Continuous scanning mode for ptychography

    SciTech Connect

    Clark, Jesse N.; Huang, Xiaojing; Harder, Ross J.; Robinson, Ian K.

    2014-01-01

    Here, we outline how ptychographic imaging can be performed without the need for discrete scan positions. Through an idealized experiment, we demonstrate how a discrete-position scan regime can be replaced with a continuously scanned one with suitable modification of the reconstruction scheme based on coherent modes. Furthermore, the impact of this is that acquisition times can be reduced, significantly aiding ptychographic imaging with x rays, electrons, or visible light.

  18. Continuous scanning mode for ptychography

    SciTech Connect

    Clark, Jesse N.; Huang, Xiaojing; Harder, Ross; Robinson, Ian K.

    2014-10-15

    We outline how ptychographic imaging can be performed without the need for discrete scan positions. Through an idealized experiment, we demonstrate how a discrete-position scan regime can be replaced with a continuously scanned one with suitable modification of the reconstruction scheme based on coherent modes. The impact of this is that acquisition times can be reduced, significantly aiding ptychographic imaging with x rays, electrons, or visible light.

  19. Excellence in Ophthalmology: Continuous Certification.

    PubMed

    Siatkowski, R Michael

    2016-09-01

    Over the course of a century, American medical specialty boards including the American Board of Ophthalmology (ABO) have developed significant expertise in assessing physician competence on completion of postgraduate training and, more recently, in defining appropriate criteria for continuous learning and quality improvement in practicing physicians. This article explores why maintaining career-long excellence is an evolving challenge, but one that is at the heart of the ABO's mission to protect the public by improving patient care. PMID:27549998

  20. High-throughput continuous cryopump

    SciTech Connect

    Foster, C.A.

    1986-01-01

    A cryopump with a unique method of regeneration which allows continuous operation at high throughput has been constructed and tested. Deuterium was pumped continuously at a throughput of 30 Torr.L/s at a speed of 2000 L/s and a compression ratio of 200. Argon was pumped at a throughput of 60 Torr.L/s at a speed of 1275 L/s. To produce continuous operation of the pump, a method of regeneration that does not thermally cycle the pump is employed. A small chamber (the ''snail'') passes over the pumping surface and removes the frost from it either by mechanical action with a scraper or by local heating. The material removed is topologically in a secondary vacuum system with low conductance into the primary vacuum; thus, the exhaust can be pumped at pressures up to an effective compression ratio determined by the ratio of the pumping speed to the leakage conductance of the snail. The pump, which is all-metal-sealed and dry and which regenerates every 60 s, would be an ideal system for pumping tritium. Potential fusion applications are for mpmp limiters, for repeating pneumatic pellet injection lines, and for the centrifuge pellet injector spin tank, all of which will require pumping tritium at high throughput. Industrial applications requiring ultraclean pumping of corrosive gases at high throughput, such as the reactive ion etch semiconductor process, may also be feasible.