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Sample records for medial branch block

  1. Controlled medial branch anesthetic block in the diagnosis of chronic lumbar facet joint pain: the value of a three-month follow-up

    PubMed Central

    da Rocha, Ivan Dias; Cristante, Alexandre Fogaça; Marcon, Raphael Martus; Oliveira, Reginaldo Perilo; Letaif, Olavo Biraghi; de Barros Filho, Tarcisio Eloy Pessoa

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To verify the incidence of facetary and low back pain after a controlled medial branch anesthetic block in a three-month follow-up and to verify the correlation between the positive results and the demographic variables. METHODS: Patients with chronic lumbar pain underwent a sham blockade (with a saline injection) and then a controlled medial branch block. Their symptoms were evaluated before and after the sham injection and after the real controlled medial branch block; the symptoms were reevaluated after one day and one week, as well as after one, two and three months using the visual analog scale. We searched for an association between the positive results and the demographic characteristics of the patients. RESULTS: A total of 104 controlled medial branch blocks were performed and 54 patients (52%) demonstrated >50% improvements in pain after the blockade. After three months, lumbar pain returned in only 18 individuals, with visual analogue scale scores >4. Therefore, these patients were diagnosed with chronic facet low back pain. The three-months of follow-up after the controlled medial branch block excluded 36 patients (67%) with false positive results. The results of the controlled medial branch block were not correlated to sex, age, pain duration or work disability but were correlated with patient age (p<0.05). CONCLUSION: Patient diagnosis with a controlled medial branch block proved to be effective but was not associated with any demographic variables. A three-month follow-up is required to avoid a high number of false positives. PMID:25141111

  2. The Role of Thoracic Medial Branch Blocks in Managing Chronic Mid and Upper Back Pain: A Randomized, Double-Blind, Active-Control Trial with a 2-Year Followup

    PubMed Central

    Manchikanti, Laxmaiah; Singh, Vijay; Falco, Frank J. E.; Cash, Kimberly A.; Pampati, Vidyasagar; Fellows, Bert

    2012-01-01

    Study Design. A randomized, double-blind, active-control trial. Objective. To determine the clinical effectiveness of therapeutic thoracic facet joint nerve blocks with or without steroids in managing chronic mid back and upper back pain. Summary of Background Data. The prevalence of thoracic facet joint pain has been established as 34% to 42%. Multiple therapeutic techniques utilized in managing chronic thoracic pain of facet joint origin include medial branch blocks, radiofrequency neurotomy, and intraarticular injections. Methods. This randomized double-blind active controlled trial was performed in 100 patients with 50 patients in each group who received medial branch blocks with local anesthetic alone or local anesthetic and steroids. Outcome measures included the numeric rating scale (NRS), Oswestry Disability Index (ODI), opioid intake, and work status, at baseline, 3, 6, 12, 18, and 24 months. Results. Significant improvement with significant pain relief and functional status improvement of 50% or more were observed in 80% of the patients in Group I and 84% of the patients in Group II at 2-year followup. Conclusions. Therapeutic medial branch blocks of thoracic facets with or without steroids may provide a management option for chronic function-limiting thoracic pain of facet joint origin. PMID:22851967

  3. [Masquerading bundle branch block].

    PubMed

    Kukla, Piotr; Baranchuk, Adrian; Jastrzębski, Marek; Bryniarski, Leszek

    2014-01-01

    We here describe a surface 12-lead electrocardiogram (ECG) of a 72-year-old female with a prior history of breast cancer and chemotherapy-induced cardiomyopathy. An echocardiogram revealed left ventricular dysfunction, ejection fraction of 23%, with mild enlarged left ventricle. The 12-lead ECG showed atrial fibrillation with a mean heart rate of about 100 bpm, QRS duration 160 ms, QT interval 400 ms, right bundle branch block (RBBB) and left anterior fascicular block (LAFB). The combination of RBBB features in the precordial leads and LAFB features in the limb leads is known as ''masquerading bundle branch block''. In most cases of RBBB and LAFB, the QRS axis deviation is located between - 80 to -120 degrees. Rarely, when predominant left ventricular forces are present, the QRS axis deviation is near about -90 degrees, turning the pattern into an atypical form. In a situation of RBBB associated with LAFB, the S wave can be absent or very small in lead I. Such a situation is the result of not only purely LAFB but also with left ventricular hypertrophy and/or focal block due to scar (extensive anterior myocardial infarction) or fibrosis (cardiomyopathy). Sometimes, this specific ECG pattern is mistaken for LBBB. RBBB with LAFB may imitate LBBB either in the limb leads (known as 'standard masquerading' - absence of S wave in lead I), or in the precordial leads (called 'precordial masquerading' - absence of S wave in leads V₅ and V₆). Our ECG showed both these types of masquerading bundle branch block - absence of S wave in lead I and in leads V₅ and V₆. PMID:24469750

  4. Medial and lateral pectoral nerves: course and branches.

    PubMed

    Macchi, Veronica; Tiengo, Cesare; Porzionato, Andrea; Parenti, Anna; Stecco, Carla; Mazzoleni, Francesco; De Caro, Raffaele

    2007-03-01

    During modified radical mastectomy or cosmetic surgery, denervation of the lower part of the pectoralis major frequently occurs and may reduce muscle spasm, with consequent better reconstruction of the breast. The aim of this study was to determine the relationship between the pectoral nerves and the pectoral muscles. Eight unembalmed female cadavers were dissected and vascular and radiologic studies performed. The lateral pectoral nerves showed a constant course, parallel to the thoraco-acromial vessels. They coursed for 55 +/- 7 mm inferomedially on the deep surface of pectoralis major, under its fascia. The medial pectoral nerves showed two main patterns of branching, which correlated with the extent of the costal attachments of the pectoralis minor muscles. In pattern A (56%), associated with costal attachments narrower than 6.0 cm, the nerve pierced the deep aspect of the pectoralis minor as a single trunk, ramified in the muscle, and gave some branches that appeared on the superficial aspect to enter the pectoralis major. In pattern B (44%), associated with costal attachments wider than 6.6 cm, the nerve divided before entering pectoralis minor and its branches passed through the muscle or round its lower border to reach pectoralis major. The most medial branch of the medial pectoral nerve directed to the pectoralis major muscle emerged from pectoralis minor at the third intercostal space in the midclavicular line, a mean of 10.3 cm lateral to the margin of the sternum. Knowledge of the relationship between the extent of the costal attachment of pectoralis minor and the two patterns of branching of the medial pectoral nerve may be useful when performing elective denervation of the major pectoralis muscle. PMID:16583383

  5. Arthroscopic medial meniscus trimming or repair under nerve blocks: Which nerves should be blocked?

    PubMed Central

    Taha, AM; Abd-Elmaksoud, AM

    2016-01-01

    Background: This study aimed to determine the role of the sciatic and obturator nerve blocks (in addition to femoral block) in providing painless arthroscopic medial meniscus trimming/repair. Materials and Methods: One hundred and twenty patients with medial meniscus tear, who had been scheduled to knee arthroscopy, were planned to be included in this controlled prospective double-blind study. The patients were randomly allocated into three equal groups; FSO, FS, and FO. The femoral, sciatic, and obturator nerves were blocked in FSO groups. The femoral and sciatic nerves were blocked in FS group, while the femoral and obturator nerves were blocked in FO group. Intraoperative pain and its causative surgical maneuver were recorded. Results: All the patients (n = 7, 100%) in FO group had intraoperative pain. The research was terminated in this group but completed in FS and FSO groups (40 patients each). During valgus positioning of the knee for surgical management of the medial meniscus tear, the patients in FS group experienced pain more frequently than those in FSO group (P = 0.005). Conclusion: Adding a sciatic nerve block to the femoral nerve block is important for painless knee arthroscopy. Further adding of an obturator nerve block may be needed when a valgus knee position is required to manage the medial meniscus tear. PMID:27375382

  6. Treatment of nocturnal leg cramps by blockade of the medial branch of the deep peroneal nerve after lumbar spine surgery

    PubMed Central

    Imura, Takayuki; Inoue, Gen; Nakazawa, Toshiyuki; Miyagi, Masayuki; Saito, Wataru; Uchida, Kentaro; Namba, Takanori; Shirasawa, Eiki; Takahira, Naonobu; Takaso, Masashi

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Patients with lumbar spine disease sometimes complain of nocturnal leg cramps. We sought to investigate the effectiveness of blocking the medial branch of the deep peroneal nerve as treatment for nocturnal leg cramps after spinal surgery for lumbar spine disease. Methods We evaluated 66 postoperative patients in this prospective comparative study of a group of patients with a nerve block (n = 41) and a control group without (n = 25). In the block group, the medial branch of the deep peroneal nerve was blocked at the distal two-thirds of the interspace between the first and second metatarsals using 5.0 mL of 1.0% lidocaine. Results Two weeks after the block, the frequency of nocturnal leg cramps was reduced to less than a quarter of pretreatment baseline frequency in 61.0% of patients (n = 25) and less than half in 80.5% (n = 33). In the control group, the frequency of the leg cramps was reduced from baseline in 32.0% of patients (n = 8), and was unchanged or increased in 68.0% (n = 17) at 2 weeks. Cramp frequency was reduced to less than a quarter or less than half of baseline frequency in a significantly (P < 0.05 and P < 0.01, respectively) larger percentage of patients in the block group. The severity of each cramp was less in about two-thirds of patients (63.4%; n = 26) in the block group and was unchanged in one-third (31.7%; n = 13). Conclusions Blocking the medial branch of the peroneal nerve can be an effective, long-lasting, and simple treatment with low risk for nocturnal cramps sustained after lumbar spine surgery. PMID:26445706

  7. Study of the anatomy of the tibial nerve and its branches in the distal medial leg

    PubMed Central

    Torres, André Leal Gonçalves; Ferreira, Marcus Castro

    2012-01-01

    Objective Determine, through dissection in fresh cadavers, the topographic anatomy of the tibial nerve and its branches at the ankle, in relation to the tarsal tunnel. Methods Bilateral dissections were performed on 26 fresh cadavers and the locations of the tibial nerve bifurcation and its branches were measured in millimeters. For the calcaneal branches, the amount and their respective nerves of origin were also analyzed. Results The tibial nerve bifurcation occurred under the tunnel in 88% of the cases and proximally in 12%. As for the calcaneal branches, the medial presented with one (58%), two (34%) and three (8%) branches, with the most common source occurring in the tibial nerve (90%) and the lower with a single branch per leg and lateral plantar nerve as the most common origin (70%). Level of Evidence, V Expert opinion. PMID:24453596

  8. Treatment of Chronic Plantar Heel Pain With Radiofrequency Neural Ablation of the First Branch of the Lateral Plantar Nerve and Medial Calcaneal Nerve Branches.

    PubMed

    Arslan, Aydın; Koca, Tuba Tulay; Utkan, Ali; Sevimli, Resit; Akel, İbrahim

    2016-01-01

    From March 2012 to February 2013, 37 patients experiencing plantar heel pain for ≥6 months despite treatment with physical therapy and other conservative treatment modalities were followed up. If neurogenic heel pain originating from the first branch of the lateral plantar nerve was present, with or without the medial calcaneal nerve, diagnostic nerve blocks to these nerves were performed for confirmation. If the pain was determined to be of neurogenic origin, radiofrequency neural ablation (RFNA) was applied to the corresponding sensory nerve endings. Pain was evaluated using the visual analog scale, and patients were followed for at least one year. A total of 41 feet from 37 patients (30 [81.1%] females, 7 [18.9%] males; mean age, 50.7 ± 1.6 years; mean body mass index, 30.6 ± 0.7 kg/m(2)) were included. The mean visual analog scale scores improved significantly from 1 to 6 to 12 months after the procedure relative to before the procedure, with 88% of all patients rating the treatment as either very successful or successful at 12 months postoperatively. RFNA applied to both the first branch of the lateral plantar nerve and the medial calcaneal nerve sensory branches (16 [39%] feet) and only the first branch of the lateral plantar nerve sensory branches (25 [61%] feet) showed similarly high levels of success. Of the 41 feet, 28 [68.3%] had received extracorporeal shockwave therapy, 35 [85.4%] had received steroid injections, and 22 [53.7%] had received both extracorporeal shockwave therapy and steroid injections before RFNA as an index procedure. All were unresponsive to these previous treatments. In contrast, almost all (88%) were treated successfully with RFNA. Despite a high incidence of neurologic variations, with a precise diagnosis and good application of the technique using the painful points, chronic plantar heel pain can be treated successfully with RFNA. PMID:27073185

  9. The Effectiveness of Endoscopic Radiofrequency Denervation of Medial Branch for Treatment of Chronic Low Back Pain

    PubMed Central

    Jeong, Sun Yoon; Choi, Won Suh; Hur, Jung Woo; Ryu, Kyoung Sik

    2014-01-01

    Objective The aim of this study is to evaluate the clinical results of endoscopic radiofrequency ablation of medial branch in patients with chronic low back pain originating from facet joints. Methods Between October 2010 and December 2013, 52 consecutive patients had suffering from chronic low back pain had undergone endoscopic radiofrequency denervation of medial branch of dorsal ramus. The clinical outcomes of these 52 patients were reviewed retrospectively. Preoperative and postoperative Visual Analogue Scale (VAS) and Korean version of Oswestry Disability Index (K-ODI), and patients' satisfaction with the procedure were assessed. Results The pain scores on the VAS for back pain had improved significantly from a preoperative mean of 7.1 to a postoperative mean of 2 at the last follow-up (p<0.001). The clinical outcomes based on the K-ODI had also improved significantly from a preoperative mean of 26.5% to postoperative mean of 7.7% at the last follow-up (p<0.001). 80% of patients were satisfied with the procedure. There were no complications associated with the procedure. Conclusion Our preliminary results demonstrate that endoscopic radiofrequency denervation of medial branch could be an effective alternative treatment modality for chronic back pain originating from facet joints that provides long-term pain relief. PMID:25371785

  10. Left bundle branch block and suspected myocardial infarction: does chronicity of the branch block matter?

    PubMed Central

    Liakopoulos, Vasileios; Christensen, Kjeld

    2013-01-01

    Background: Our aim was to investigate if patients with suspected myocardial infarction (MI) and a new or presumed new left bundle branch block (nLBBB) were treated according to the ESC reperfusion guidelines and to compare them with patients having a previously known LBBB (oLBBB). Furthermore, we investigated the prevalence of ST-segment concordance in this population. Methods: Retrospective data was collected from the Swedeheart registry for patients admitted to the cardiac care unit at Örebro University Hospital with LBBB and suspected MI during 2009 and 2010. The patients were divided in two age groups; <80 or ≥80 years and analysed for LBBB chronicity (nLBBB or oLBBB), MI, and reperfusion treatment. We also compared our data with the national Swedeheart database for 2009. Results: A total of 99 patients fulfilled the inclusion criteria. A diagnosis of MI was significantly more common in the group ≥80 years compared to the group <80 years (53.8 vs. 25%, p=0.007). The rate of MI was similar in the groups with nLBBB and oLBBB (33 and 37% respectively, p=0.912). Of the 36 patients with a final diagnosis of MI, only eight (22%) had nLBBB. Reperfusion treatment, defined as an acute coronary angiography with or without intervention, was significantly more often performed in patients with nLBBB compared to patients with oLBBB (42 vs. 8%, p<0.001). The rate of MI and reperfusion treatment did not differ between our institution and the Swedish national data. ST-concordance was present in only two cases, one of which did not suffer an MI. Conclusions: The proportion of patients receiving reperfusion treatment was low, but higher in nLBBB, reflecting a partial adherence to the guidelines. We found no correlation between LBBB chronicity and MI. Furthermore, only a minority of the MIs occurred in patients with nLBBB. ST-concordance was found in only one of 36 MI cases, indicating lack of sensitivity for this test. PMID:24222829

  11. Phantom Study of a New Laser-Etched Needle for Improving Visibility During Ultrasonography-Guided Lumbar Medial Branch Access With Novices

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Objective To compare the visibility and procedural parameters between a standard spinal needle and a new laser-etched needle (LEN) in real-time ultrasonography guided lumbar medial branch access in a phantom of the lumbosacral spine. Methods We conducted a prospective single-blinded observational study at a rehabilitation medicine center. A new model of LEN was manufactured with a standard 22-gauge spinal needle and a laser etching machine. Thirty-two inexperienced polyclinic medical students performed ultrasonography-guided lumbar medial branch access using both a standard spinal needle and a LEN with scanning protocol. The outcomes included needle visibility score, needle elapsed time, first-pass success rate, and number of needle sticks. Results The LEN received significantly better visibility scores and shorter needle elapsed time compared to the standard spinal needle. First-pass success rate and the number of needle sticks were not significantly different between needles. Conclusion A new LEN is expected to offer better visibility and enable inexperienced users to perform an ultrasonography-guided lumbar medial branch block more quickly. However, further study of variables may be necessary for clinical application. PMID:27606263

  12. TopMaker: A Technique for Automatic Multi-Block Topology Generation Using the Medial Axis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heidmann, James D. (Technical Monitor); Rigby, David L.

    2004-01-01

    A two-dimensional multi-block topology generation technique has been developed. Very general configurations are addressable by the technique. A configuration is defined by a collection of non-intersecting closed curves, which will be referred to as loops. More than a single loop implies that holes exist in the domain, which poses no problem. This technique requires only the medial vertices and the touch points that define each vertex. From the information about the medial vertices, the connectivity between medial vertices is generated. The physical shape of the medial edge is not required. By applying a few simple rules to each medial edge, the multiblock topology is generated with no user intervention required. The resulting topologies contain only the level of complexity dictated by the configurations. Grid lines remain attached to the boundary except at sharp concave turns where a change in index family is introduced as would be desired. Keeping grid lines attached to the boundary is especially important in the area of computational fluid dynamics where highly clustered grids are used near no-slip boundaries. This technique is simple and robust and can easily be incorporated into the overall grid generation process.

  13. Metal block augmentation for bone defects of the medial tibia during primary total knee arthroplasty

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Stable and well-aligned placement of tibial components during primary total knee arthroplasty is challenging in patients with bone defects. Although rectangular block-shaped augmentations are widely used to reduce the shearing force between the tibial tray and bone compared with wedge-shaped augmentations, the clinical result remains unclear. This study aimed to evaluate the outcome of primary total knee arthroplasty with metal block augmentation. Methods We retrospectively reviewed the 3- to 6-year follow-up results of 33 knees that underwent total knee arthroplasty with metal block augmentation (metal-augmented group) for bone defects of the medial tibia and 132 varus knees without bone defects as the control group. All surgeries were performed using posterior-stabilized cemented prostheses in both groups. Cemented stems were routinely augmented when the metal block was used. Results There were no differences in implant survival rates (100% in metal-augmented and 99.2% in control) or knee function scores (82 points in metal-augmented and 84 points in control) between the two groups at the final follow-up examination (P = 0.60 and P = 0.09, respectively). No subsidence or loosening of the tibial tray was observed. Of 33 metal-augmented total knee arthroplasties, a nonprogressive radiolucent line beneath the metal was detected in 10 knees (30.3%), and rounding of the medial edge of the tibia was observed in 17 knees (51.5%). Conclusions The clinical results of total knee arthroplasty with metal augmentation were not inferior to those in patients without bone defects. However, radiolucent lines were observed in 30.3%. PMID:24139483

  14. Comparison of the Volar and Medial Approach in Peripheral Block of Ulnar Nerve at the Wrist – A Cadaveric Study

    PubMed Central

    Joy, Praisy; Satyanandan, Cephas

    2014-01-01

    Context: Two standard approaches are described to block the ulnar nerve at wrist. These include a) the traditional Volar approach where the needle is inserted lateral to tendon of flexor carpi ulnaris (FCU) b) Medial approach where the needle is inserted posterior to the tendon of FCU. Caution must be exercised to avoid puncture of the ulnar artery and/or intraneural injection of the ulnar nerve in both the approaches. Aim: This study compares the volar and medial approach to the peripheral block of ulnar nerve at the wrist. The objective was two fold: a) to analyze the position of the ulnar nerve and the ulnar artery in relation to the Flexor Carpi Ulnaris tendon b) to assess the risk of injury to ulnar artery in both the volar and medial approach. Settings and Designs: Twelve cadaveric upper limbs were used and both approaches compared by an observational study. Materials and Methods: Two 18 G needles were inserted up to a depth of 7 mm using the standard volar and medial approach. The pattern of arrangement and positions of the ulnar artery and nerve in relation to FCU tendon were observed. The distance between the tip of needle and its proximity to the ulnar artery, and risk of injury were determined. Statistical analysis was done using SPSS for Windows, Version 16.0. Chicago, SPSS Inc. Results: Three patterns of arrangement and position of the ulnar nerve and artery were observed. Puncture of ulnar artery was seen in 50% of cases in the volar approach as compared to no injury at all in the medial approach. The ulnar artery is highly liable to injury during the volar approach in type I and II and safe only in type III arrangement of ulnar artery. The medial approach showed no injury to the ulnar artery or nerve at a penetration depth of 7mm. Conclusion: The medial approach is safer compared to volar approach for peripheral block of ulnar nerve at wrist. PMID:25584201

  15. Kamin Blocking Is Associated with Reduced Medial-Frontal Gyrus Activation: Implications for Prediction Error Abnormality in Schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    Cross, Benjamin; Corcoran, Rhiannon

    2012-01-01

    The following study used 3-T functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to investigate the neural signature of Kamin blocking. Kamin blocking is an associative learning phenomenon seen where prior association of a stimulus (A) with an outcome blocks subsequent learning to an added stimulus (B) when both stimuli are later presented together (AB) with the same outcome. While there are a number of theoretical explanations of Kamin blocking, it is widely considered to exemplify the use of prediction error in learning, where learning occurs in proportion to the difference between expectation and outcome. In Kamin blocking as stimulus A fully predicts the outcome no prediction error is generated by the addition of stimulus B to form the compound stimulus AB, hence learning about it is “blocked”. Kamin blocking is disrupted in people with schizophrenia, their relatives and healthy individuals with high psychometrically-defined schizotypy. This disruption supports suggestions that abnormal prediction error is a core deficit that can help to explain the symptoms of schizophrenia. The present study tested 9 healthy volunteers on an f-MRI adaptation of Oades' “mouse in the house task”, the only task measuring Kamin blocking that shows disruption in schizophrenia patients that has been independently replicated. Participant's Kamin blocking scores were found to inversely correlate with Kamin-blocking-related activation within the prefrontal cortex, specifically the medial frontal gyrus. The medial frontal gyrus has been associated with the psychological construct of uncertainty, which we suggest is consistent with disrupted Kamin blocking and demonstrated in people with schizophrenia. These data suggest that the medial frontal gyrus merits further investigation as a potential locus of reduced Kamin blocking and abnormal prediction error in schizophrenia. PMID:23028415

  16. Electrocardiographic criteria of left ventricular hypertrophy in left bundle-branch block.

    PubMed Central

    Cokkinos, D V; Demopoulos, J N; Heimonas, E T; Mallios, C; Papazoglou, N; Vorides, E M

    1978-01-01

    In order to determine whether the electrocardiographic criteria of left ventricular hypertrophy apply in the presence of left bundle-branch block we studied 79 cases of intermittent left bundle-branch block and compared the QRS voltage and axis before and after its onset. Cases of incomplete left bundle-branch block were excluded. There was a statistically significant correlation between pre- and post-left bundle-branch block values of R or S wave voltage in leads I, V1, V2, V5, and V6, the Sokolow index (R V5 or V6 + S V1), and the QRS axis. There was a statistically significant reduction in R wave voltage in leads I, V5, and V6, an increase in S wave voltage in V1 and V2, and leftward shift of QRS axis, but the Sokolow index remained unchanged, after the onset of left bundle-branch block. The Sokolow criteria for left ventricular hypertrophy apply satisfactorily even in the presence of left bundle-branch block, though specificity is low, but QRS axis is unhelpful. Images PMID:147697

  17. Brachial branches of the medial antebrachial cutaneous nerve: A case report with its clinical significance and a short review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Stylianos, Kapetanakis; Konstantinos, Giatroudakis; Pavlos, Pavlidis; Aliki, Fiska

    2016-01-01

    The medial antebrachial cutaneous nerve (MACN) is a branch of the brachial plexus with a great variation within its branches. Knowledge of these variations is critical to neurologists, hand surgeons, plastic surgeons, and vascular surgeons. The aim of this study was to search for variations of the MACN and to discuss their clinical significance. For this study, six arm cadavers from three fresh cadavers were dissected and examined to find and study possible anatomical variations of the MACN. The authors report a rare case of a variation of the MACN, in which there are four brachial cutaneous branches, before the separation to anterior (volar) and posterior (ulnar) branch, that provide sensory innervation to the medial, inferior half of the arm, in the area that is commonly innervated from the medial brachial cutaneous nerve. To our knowledge, this is the first documented case of this nerve variation. This variation should be taken into serious consideration for the differential diagnosis of patients with complaints of hypoesthesia, pain, and paresthesia and for the surgical operations in the medial part of the arm. PMID:27365965

  18. Brachial branches of the medial antebrachial cutaneous nerve: A case report with its clinical significance and a short review of the literature

    PubMed Central

    Stylianos, Kapetanakis; Konstantinos, Giatroudakis; Pavlos, Pavlidis; Aliki, Fiska

    2016-01-01

    The medial antebrachial cutaneous nerve (MACN) is a branch of the brachial plexus with a great variation within its branches. Knowledge of these variations is critical to neurologists, hand surgeons, plastic surgeons, and vascular surgeons. The aim of this study was to search for variations of the MACN and to discuss their clinical significance. For this study, six arm cadavers from three fresh cadavers were dissected and examined to find and study possible anatomical variations of the MACN. The authors report a rare case of a variation of the MACN, in which there are four brachial cutaneous branches, before the separation to anterior (volar) and posterior (ulnar) branch, that provide sensory innervation to the medial, inferior half of the arm, in the area that is commonly innervated from the medial brachial cutaneous nerve. To our knowledge, this is the first documented case of this nerve variation. This variation should be taken into serious consideration for the differential diagnosis of patients with complaints of hypoesthesia, pain, and paresthesia and for the surgical operations in the medial part of the arm. PMID:27365965

  19. Medial Amygdala Lesions Selectively Block Aversive Pavlovian–Instrumental Transfer in Rats

    PubMed Central

    McCue, Margaret G.; LeDoux, Joseph E.; Cain, Christopher K.

    2014-01-01

    Pavlovian conditioned stimuli (CSs) play an important role in the reinforcement and motivation of instrumental active avoidance (AA). Conditioned threats can also invigorate ongoing AA responding [aversive Pavlovian–instrumental transfer (PIT)]. The neural circuits mediating AA are poorly understood, although lesion studies suggest that lateral, basal, and central amygdala nuclei, as well as infralimbic prefrontal cortex, make key, and sometimes opposing, contributions. We recently completed an extensive analysis of brain c-Fos expression in good vs. poor avoiders following an AA test (Martinez et al., 2013, Learning and Memory). This analysis identified medial amygdala (MeA) as a potentially important region for Pavlovian motivation of instrumental actions. MeA is known to mediate defensive responding to innate threats as well as social behaviors, but its role in mediating aversive Pavlovian–instrumental interactions is unknown. We evaluated the effect of MeA lesions on Pavlovian conditioning, Sidman two-way AA conditioning (shuttling) and aversive PIT in rats. Mild footshocks served as the unconditioned stimulus in all conditioning phases. MeA lesions had no effect on AA but blocked the expression of aversive PIT and 22 kHz ultrasonic vocalizations in the AA context. Interestingly, MeA lesions failed to affect Pavlovian freezing to discrete threats but reduced freezing to contextual threats when assessed outside of the AA chamber. These findings differentiate MeA from lateral and central amygdala, as lesions of these nuclei disrupt Pavlovian freezing and aversive PIT, but have opposite effects on AA performance. Taken together, these results suggest that MeA plays a selective role in the motivation of instrumental avoidance by general or uncertain Pavlovian threats. PMID:25278858

  20. Medial and Lateral Pectoral Nerve Block with Liposomal Bupivacaine for the Management of Postsurgical Pain after Submuscular Breast Augmentation

    PubMed Central

    Barlow, Mark; Carpin, Kimberly; Piña, Edward M.; Casso, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    Summary: This report describes an ultrasound-guided medial and lateral pectoralis nerve block using liposome bupivacaine, performed before the surgical incision, in a patient undergoing submuscular breast augmentation. The anatomic basis and technique are described. This procedure may be offered to patients undergoing submuscular insertion of a breast implant or tissue expander. Advancements in ultrasound guidance allow for more precise anatomic placement of local anesthetic agents. The injection technique used for this procedure resulted in complete relaxation of the pectoralis major, facilitating the surgical dissection and markedly diminishing postsurgical pain and muscle spasms. PMID:25587516

  1. New Right Bundle Branch Block as a Criterion for Emergent Coronary Angiography

    PubMed Central

    Pozen, Jonah M.; Mankad, Anit K.; Owens, John T.; Jovin, Ion S.

    2015-01-01

    Context: ST-segment elevations in two or more contiguous leads or new left bundle branch block (LBBB) on electrocardiography (ECG) in a patient with acute onset chest pain are diagnostic criteria for acute myocardial infarction (AMI) and generally warrant urgent coronary angiography and cardiac catheterization. However, the significance of new right bundle branch block (RBBB) without other acute ECG changes is unclear and is currently not considered a criterion. Case Report: We present a patient with chest pain, positive biomarkers of myocardial necrosis and isolated new right bundle block on ECG. He was diagnosed with AMI but did not undergo urgent reperfusion therapy in the absence of ST-segment elevations or new LBBB. However, angiography ultimately demonstrated complete coronary occlusion. Conclusion: The established criteria for emergent catheterization may prove to be more sensitive with the inclusion of the presence of new RBBB on ECG. PMID:26942134

  2. Lyme Carditis in the Fast Lane: From Alternating Bundle Branch Block to Asystole in 12 Hours.

    PubMed

    Khalil, Sara; Padala, Santosh K; Hui, Chui Man Carmen; Steckman, David A; Sidhu, Mandeep S; Torosoff, Mikhail T

    2015-10-01

    Lyme borreliosis is a multisystem infectious disease with well-known cardiac involvement, including potential carditis as well as conduction abnormalities. We report a case of Lyme disease in a previously healthy 24-year-old male presenting with alternating right- and left-bundle branch block, indicating infra-Hisian atrioventricular (infra-His) block with an accelerated fascicular escape rhythm. Inless than 12 hours, the conduction abnormalities progressed to asystole requiring the urgent placement of a temporary transvenous pacemaker. Subsequently, with appropriate antibiotic treatment, the patient's conduction abnormalities resolved in a week without the need for a permanent pacemaker. PMID:26630701

  3. [Ultrasound-guided cutaneous intercostal branches nerves block: A good analgesic alternative for gallbladder open surgery].

    PubMed

    Fernández Martín, M T; López Álvarez, S; Mozo Herrera, G; Platero Burgos, J J

    2015-12-01

    Laparoscopic cholecystectomy has become the standard treatment for gallbladder diseases. However, there are still some patients for whom conversion to open surgery is required. This surgery can produce significant post-operative pain. Opioids drugs have traditionally been used to treat this pain, but side effects have led to seeking alternatives (plexus, nerve or fascia blocks or wound). The cases are presented of 4 patients subjected to ultrasound-guided intercostal branches blocks in the mid-axillary line from T6 to T12 with levobupivacaine as an analgesic alternative in open surgery of gallbladder, with satisfactory results. PMID:25896736

  4. Chronic bilateral bundle-branch block. Long-term observations in ambulatory patients.

    PubMed Central

    Lister, J W; Kline, R S; Lesser, M E

    1977-01-01

    During a period of 28 months, all patients (79) who presented with bilateral bundle-branch block were selected for study from a private practice outpatient population. They were followed prospectively from the date of entry into the study and their charts were reviewed retrospectively. The average age of the participants was 73-3 years and they were observed clinically for a cumulative period of 4237 months (353-08 years). A high incidence of severe heart disease and death was noted among the study group. Twenty-four (30-3%) had a New York Heart Association functional classification of 3 or 4. Eight (10-1%) died. Only one patient died suddenly and he had had a stable electrocardiographic pattern of bilateral bundle-branch block for a period of 118 months (9 years 10 months). Seven patients required permanent pacemakers. In 6 instances death resulted from pump failure; in one it was the result of lung cancer. In none of these 7 individuals did rhythm disturbances contribute to death. In most cases vertigo was not of cardiac origin (88-2%). Eight patients had 11 major surgical procedures with no significant cardiac sequelae. Our observations suggest that elderly patients with chronic bilateral bundle-branch block should be managed conservatively. The prognosis in these patients appears primarily to be related to the degree of myocardial disease rather than to the conduction disorder. PMID:836736

  5. Medial Versus Traditional Approach to US-guided TAP Blocks for Open Inguinal Hernia Repair

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2012-04-30

    Abdominal Muscles/Ultrasonography; Adult; Ambulatory Surgical Procedures; Anesthetics, Local/Administration & Dosage; Ropivacaine/Administration & Dosage; Ropivacaine/Analogs & Derivatives; Hernia, Inguinal/Surgery; Humans; Nerve Block/Methods; Pain Measurement/Methods; Pain, Postoperative/Prevention & Control; Ultrasonography, Interventional

  6. Efficacy of Pulsed Radiofrequency on Cervical 2-3 Posterior Medial Branches in Treating Chronic Migraine: A Randomized, Controlled, and Double-Blind Trial

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Yuecheng; Huang, Xuehua; Fan, Yinghui; Wang, Yingwei; Ma, Ke

    2015-01-01

    Objective. The aim of this study was to examine the efficacy and safety of pulsed radiofrequency (PRF) in the treatment of chronic migraine (CM) on cervical 2-3 posterior medial branches. Methods. This randomized, double-blind, and controlled clinical trial included 40 subjects with CM, who were randomly divided into two groups: treatment (treated by PRF) and sham (treated by sham treatment). Pain intensity, headache duration (days), the Migraine Disability Assessment Questionnaire (MIDAS), and aspirin dose taken by patients were evaluated at 1, 2, and 6 months after the intervention. Side effects were observed from the time of treatment and throughout the follow-up period. Results. During the follow-up, pain intensity, headache duration (days), disability score, and the analgesic dose were significantly improved in the treatment group compared to the sham group (P < 0.001) and the baseline (P < 0.001) at all measured time points after intervention. No serious complications were reported. Conclusion. PRF on the cervical 2-3 posterior medial branches could provide satisfactory efficacy in the treatment of CM without obvious adverse effects. PMID:26170880

  7. New-Onset Left Bundle Branch Block Induced by Transcutaneous Aortic Valve Implantation.

    PubMed

    Massoullié, Grégoire; Bordachar, Pierre; Ellenbogen, Kenneth A; Souteyrand, Géraud; Jean, Frédéric; Combaret, Nicolas; Vorilhon, Charles; Clerfond, Guillaume; Farhat, Mehdi; Ritter, Philippe; Citron, Bernard; Lusson, Jean-R; Motreff, Pascal; Ploux, Sylvain; Eschalier, Romain

    2016-03-01

    New-onset left bundle branch block (LBBB) is a specific concern of transcutaneous aortic valve implantation (TAVI) given its estimated incidence ranging from 5% to 65%. This high rate of occurrence is dependent on the type of device used (size and shape), implantation methods, and patient co-morbidities. The appearance of an LBBB after TAVI reflects a very proximal lesion of the left bundle branch as it exits the bundle of His. At times transient, its persistence can lead to permanent pacemaker implantation in 15% to 20% of cases, most often for high-degree atrioventricular block. The management of LBBB after TAVI is currently not defined by international societies resulting in individual centers developing their own management strategy. The potential consequences of LBBB are dysrhythmias (atrioventricular block, syncope, and sudden death) and functional (heart failure) complications. Prompt postprocedural recognition and management (permanent pacemaker implantation) of patients prevents the occurrence of potential complications and may constitute the preferred approach in this frail and elderly population despite additional costs and complications of cardiac pacing. Moreover, the expansion of future indications for TAVI necessitates better identification of the predictive factors for the development of LBBB. Indeed, long-term right ventricular pacing may potentially increase the risk of developing heart failure in this population. In conclusion, it is thus imperative to not only develop new aortic prostheses with a less-deleterious impact on the conduction system but also to prescribe appropriate pacing modes in this frail population. PMID:26742470

  8. Hybrid Bacterial Foraging and Particle Swarm Optimization for detecting Bundle Branch Block.

    PubMed

    Kora, Padmavathi; Kalva, Sri Ramakrishna

    2015-01-01

    Abnormal cardiac beat identification is a key process in the detection of heart diseases. Our present study describes a procedure for the detection of left and right bundle branch block (LBBB and RBBB) Electrocardiogram (ECG) patterns. The electrical impulses that control the cardiac beat face difficulty in moving inside the heart. This problem is termed as bundle branch block (BBB). BBB makes it harder for the heart to pump blood effectively through the heart circulatory system. ECG feature extraction is a key process in detecting heart ailments. Our present study comes up with a hybrid method combining two heuristic optimization methods: Bacterial Forging Optimization (BFO) and Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO) for the feature selection of ECG signals. One of the major controlling forces of BFO algorithm is the chemotactic movement of a bacterium that models a test solution. The chemotaxis process of the BFO depends on random search directions which may lead to a delay in achieving the global optimum solution. The hybrid technique: Bacterial Forging-Particle Swarm Optimization (BFPSO) incorporates the concepts from BFO and PSO and it creates individuals in a new generation. This BFPSO method performs local search through the chemotactic movement of BFO and the global search over the entire search domain is accomplished by a PSO operator. The BFPSO feature values are given as the input for the Levenberg-Marquardt Neural Network classifier. PMID:26361582

  9. His bundle recordings in right bundle-branch block coexisting with iatrogenic right ventricular pre-excitation

    PubMed Central

    Castellanos, Agustin; Castillo, Cesar A.

    1972-01-01

    Iatrogenic right ventricular pre-excitation failed to abolish right bundle-branch block in two patients. When `exclusive' His bundle pacing was performed, the QRS complexes, St-V, and St-LVE intervals were similar to the ventricular deflections, H-V, and V-LVE (intervals) recorded during sinus rhythm. `Exclusive' pacing of the ordinary muscle at the right ventricular inflow tract produced a complete left bundle-branch block pattern without abnormal left axis deviation. Pacing of both His bundle and ordinary muscle yielded combination complexes in which the right bundle-branch block pattern persisted. The ventricular activation process was studied in these beats, as well as during the right and left bundle-branch block induced by coupled atrial stimulation. It appeared as if certain areas of the right septal surface behaved, electrophysiologically, as if they belonged to the left ventricle. Impulses emerging from these sites were not propagated to the right ventricular free wall. The latter was activated by the excitation front emerging through the left bundle system. During right bundle-branch block the endocardium of the right ventricular inflow was activated before the peak of the R in V1. Bipolar leads, 1 mm apart (with the possible exception of the ones over the tricuspid valve), were helpful in mapping the spread of activation in the human heart. Images PMID:18610233

  10. Inducible Nitric Oxide Inhibitors Block NMDA Antagonist-Stimulated Motoric Behaviors and Medial Prefrontal Cortical Glutamate Efflux

    PubMed Central

    Bergstrom, Hadley C.; Darvesh, Altaf S.; Berger, S. P.

    2015-01-01

    Nitric oxide (NO) plays a critical role in the motoric and glutamate releasing action of N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA)-antagonist stimulants. Earlier studies utilized neuronal nitric oxide synthase inhibitors (nNOS) for studying the neurobehavioral effects of non-competitive NMDA-antagonist stimulants such as dizocilpine (MK-801) and phencyclidine (PCP). This study explores the role of the inducible nitric oxide synthase inhibitors (iNOS) aminoguanidine (AG) and (-)-epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) in NMDA-antagonist induced motoric behavior and prefrontal cortical glutamate efflux. Adult male rats were administered a dose range of AG, EGCG, or vehicle prior to receiving NMDA antagonists MK-801, PCP, or a conventional psychostimulant (cocaine) and tested for motoric behavior in an open arena. Glutamate in the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) was measured using in vivo microdialysis after a combination of AG or EGCG prior to MK-801. Acute administration of AG or EGCG dose-dependently attenuated the locomotor and ataxic properties of MK-801 and PCP. Both AG and EGCG were unable to block the motoric effects of cocaine, indicating the acute pharmacologic action of AG and EGCG is specific to NMDA antagonism and not generalizable to all stimulant class drugs. AG and EGCG normalized MK-801-stimulated mPFC glutamate efflux. These data demonstrate that AG and EGCG attenuates NMDA antagonist-stimulated motoric behavior and cortical glutamate efflux. Our results suggest that EGCG-like polyphenol nutraceuticals (contained in “green tea” and chocolate) may be clinically useful in protecting against the adverse behavioral dissociative and cortical glutamate stimulating effects of NMDA antagonists. Medications that interfere with NMDA antagonists such as MK-801 and PCP have been proposed as treatments for schizophrenia. PMID:26696891

  11. Comparison of the calculation QRS angle for bundle branch block detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goeirmanto, L.; Mengko, R.; Rajab, T. L.

    2016-04-01

    QRS angle represent condition of blood circulation in the heart. Normally QRS angle is between -30 until 90 degree. Left Axis Defiation (LAD) and Right Axis Defiation (RAD) are abnormality conditions that lead to Bundle Branch Block. QRS angle is calculated using common method from physicians and compared to mathematical method using difference amplitudos and difference areas. We analyzed the standard 12 lead electrocardiogram data from MITBIH physiobank database. All methods using lead I and lead avF produce similar QRS angle and right QRS axis quadrant. QRS angle from mathematical method using difference areas is close to common method from physician. Mathematical method using difference areas can be used as a trigger for detecting heart condition.

  12. Significance of an isolated new right bundle branch block in a patient with chest pain.

    PubMed

    Gilliot, Geraldine; Monney, Pierre; Muller, Olivier; Hugli, Olivier

    2015-01-01

    Chest pain is a common presenting symptom in emergency departments, and a typical manifestation of acute myocardial infarction (AMI). Recognition of ECG changes in AMI is essential for timely diagnosis and treatment. Right bundle branch block (RBBB) may be an isolated sign of AMI, and was previously considered as a criterion for fibrinolytic therapy. Since the most recent European Society of Cardiology and American Heart Association guidelines in 2013, RBBB alone is no longer considered a diagnostic criterion of AMI, even if it occurs in the context of acute chest pain, as RBBB does not usually interfere with the interpretation of ST-segment alteration. Our case illustrates an acute septal myocardial infarction with an isolated RBBB, and thus the importance of recognising this pattern in order to permit timely diagnosis and treatment. PMID:26055601

  13. Electrocardiographic right and left bundle branch block patterns in athletes: prevalence, pathology, and clinical significance.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jonathan H; Baggish, Aaron L

    2015-01-01

    Differentiating benign electrocardiographic (ECG) patterns in athletes from those representative of underlying cardiac pathology is both clinically relevant and challenging. Complete right (RBBB) and left (LBBB) bundle branch block are relatively rare in asymptomatic athletic populations, and current expert consensus guidelines recommend further clinical investigation upon detection of either ECG pattern. However, present data suggest that typical RBBB is not associated with structural cardiac pathology and may alternatively represent an ECG marker of exercise-induced right ventricular remodeling. In accordance with current guidelines, the presence of asymptomatic LBBB in athletes is not associated with normal exercise physiology and more likely indicative of underlying cardiac pathology. While long-term outcomes for asymptomatic athletes with RBBB or LBBB remain unknown, current evidence regarding these ECG patterns should be considered to improve the specificity of future athlete-specific ECG interpretation guidelines. PMID:25836379

  14. Wolff-Parkinson-White syndrome type B and left bundle-branch block: electrophysiologic and radionuclide study

    SciTech Connect

    Rakovec, P.; Kranjec, I.; Fettich, J.J.; Jakopin, J.; Fidler, V.; Turk, J.

    1985-01-01

    Coinciding left bundle-branch block and Wolff-Parkinson-White syndrome type B, a very rare electrocardiographic occurrence, was found in a patient with dilated cardiomyopathy. Electrophysiologic study revealed eccentric retrograde atrial activation during ventricular pacing, suggesting right-sided accessory pathway. At programmed atrial pacing, effective refractory period of the accessory pathway was 310 ms; at shorter pacing coupling intervals, normal atrioventricular conduction with left bundle-branch block was seen. Left bundle-branch block was seen also with His bundle pacing. Radionuclide phase imaging demonstrated right ventricular phase advance and left ventricular phase delay; both right and left ventricular phase images revealed broad phase distribution histograms. Combined electrophysiologic and radionuclide investigations are useful to disclose complex conduction abnormalities and their mechanical correlates.

  15. Protective Role of False Tendon in Subjects with Left Bundle Branch Block: A Virtual Population Study

    PubMed Central

    Lange, Matthias; Di Marco, Luigi Yuri; Lekadir, Karim; Lassila, Toni; Frangi, Alejandro F.

    2016-01-01

    False tendons (FTs) are fibrous or fibromuscular bands that can be found in both the normal and abnormal human heart in various anatomical forms depending on their attachment points, tissue types, and geometrical properties. While FTs are widely considered to affect the function of the heart, their specific roles remain largely unclear and unexplored. In this paper, we present an in silico study of the ventricular activation time of the human heart in the presence of FTs. This study presents the first computational model of the human heart that includes a FT, Purkinje network, and papillary muscles. Based on this model, we perform simulations to investigate the effect of different types of FTs on hearts with the electrical conduction abnormality of a left bundle branch block (LBBB). We employ a virtual population of 70 human hearts derived from a statistical atlas, and run a total of 560 simulations to assess ventricular activation time with different FT configurations. The obtained results indicate that, in the presence of a LBBB, the FT reduces the total activation time that is abnormally augmented due to a branch block, to such an extent that surgical implant of cardiac resynchronisation devices might not be recommended by international guidelines. Specifically, the simulation results show that FTs reduce the QRS duration at least 10 ms in 80% of hearts, and up to 45 ms for FTs connecting to the ventricular free wall, suggesting a significant reduction of cardiovascular mortality risk. In further simulation studies we show the reduction in the QRS duration is more sensitive to the shape of the heart then the size of the heart or the exact location of the FT. Finally, the model suggests that FTs may contribute to reducing the activation time difference between the left and right ventricles from 12 ms to 4 ms. We conclude that FTs may provide an alternative conduction pathway that compensates for the propagation delay caused by the LBBB. Further investigation is

  16. Left Bundle Branch Block in Acute Cardiac Events: Insights From a 23-Year Registry.

    PubMed

    Alkindi, Fahad; El-Menyar, Ayman; Al-Suwaidi, Jassim; Patel, Ashfaq; Gehani, Abdurrazzak A; Singh, Rajvir; Albinali, Hajar; Arabi, Abdulrahman

    2015-10-01

    Between 1991 and 2013, we evaluated the demographics, presentations, and final diagnosis of patients hospitalized with acute cardiac events and left bundle branch block (LBBB). Of 50 992 patients, 768 (1.5%) had LBBB. Compared with non-LBBB patients, patients with LBBB were mostly older, female, diabetic, and had hypertension and chronic kidney failure (CKF; P < .001 for all). Dyspnea (P < .001) and dizziness (P = .037) were more frequent in patients with LBBB. The most frequent cause of admission with LBBB was congestive heart failure (CHF; 54.2%), followed by ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI; 13.3%), valvular heart disease (9.4%), unstable angina (8.3%) and Non-STEMI (7.7%). On multivariate analysis, CKF (odds ratio [OR]: 2.02, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.09-3.70) and LBBB (OR: 2.96, 95% CI: 2.01-4.42) were predictors of in-hospital mortality in the entire study population. Further analysis of patients with LBBB showed that CKF (OR: 2.93, 95% CI: 1.40-6.12) was the only predictor of in-hospital mortality. Regardless the presenting symptoms, CHF was the final diagnosis in most cases with LBBB. PMID:25477500

  17. High prevalence of incomplete right bundle branch block in facioscapulohumeral muscular dystrophy without cardiac symptoms

    PubMed Central

    van Dijk, Gaby Pons; van der Kooi, Elly; Behin, Anthony; Smeets, Joep; Timmermans, Janneke; van der Maarel, Silvère; Padberg, George; Voermans, Nicol; van Engelen, Baziel

    2014-01-01

    Summary The exact prevalence and nature of cardiac involvement in facioscapulohumeral muscular dystrophy (FSHD) is unknown. Nevertheless, the current opinion is that symptomatic cardiac disease is rare. We performed a cardiac screening [electrocardiogram (ECG) and echocardiography in the event of ECG abnormalities] in 75 genetically confirmed, ambulant FSHD patients without cardiac symptoms, with an eight-year follow-up of 57 patients, and compared the findings with results of previously performed cardiac screenings in the normal population. Baseline ECG demonstrated incomplete right bundle branch block (RBBB) in 33%, complete RBBB in 4%, and other minor abnormalities in 16%. Echocardiography showed no abnormalities. No significant changes were found after eight years of follow-up. Comparison with ECG abnormalities in the normal population showed a higher prevalence of incomplete RBBB (9.7 times higher) and of complete RBBB (4.8 times higher) in FSHD patients. This study in cardiac asymptomatic FSHD patients shows i) increased prevalence of incomplete RBBB in the absence of cardiomyopathy; ii) no progression of these abnormalities during eight years of follow-up. We conclude that FSHD patients without cardiac complaints do not need specific cardiac screening or surveillance. Furthermore, the increased prevalence of incomplete RBBB in the absence of cardiomyopathy suggests a selective involvement of the His-Purkinje system in FSHD. PMID:25473735

  18. Drug nanoparticles by emulsion-freeze-drying via the employment of branched block copolymer nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Wais, Ulrike; Jackson, Alexander W; Zuo, Yanming; Xiang, Yu; He, Tao; Zhang, Haifei

    2016-01-28

    A large percentage of drug compounds exhibit low water solubility and hence low bioavailability and therapeutic efficacy. This may be addressed by preparation of drug nanoparticles, leading to enhanced dissolution rate and direct use for treatment. Various methods have been developed to produce drug nanocrystals, including wet milling, homogenization, solution precipitation, emulsion diffusion, and the recently developed emulsion freeze-drying. The drawback for these methods may include difficult control in particles size, use of surfactants & polymer, and low ratio of drug to stabilizer. Here, biocompatible branched block copolymer nanoparticles with lightly-crosslinked hydrophobic core and hydrophilic surface groups are synthesized by the direct monomer-to-particle methodology, characterized, and then used as scaffold polymer/surfactant to produce drug nanoparticles via the emulsion-freeze-drying approach. This method can be used for model organic dye and different poorly water-soluble drugs. Aqueous drug nanoparticle dispersions can be obtained with high ratio of drug to stabilizer and relatively uniform nanoparticle sizes. PMID:26704935

  19. Effect of rate-dependent left bundle branch block on global and regional left ventricular function

    SciTech Connect

    Bramlet, D.A.; Morris, K.G.; Coleman, R.E.; Albert, D.; Cobb, F.R.

    1983-05-01

    Seven subjects with rate-dependent left bundle branch block (RDLBBB) and 13 subjects with normal conduction (control group) underwent upright bicycle exercise radionuclide angiography to determine the effects of the development of RDLBBB on global and regional left ventricular function. Six of the seven subjects with RDLBBB had atypical chest pain syndromes; none had evidence of cardiac disease based on clinical examination and either normal cardiac catheterization or exercise thallium-201 scintigraphy. Radionuclide angiograms were recorded at rest and immediately before and after RDLBBB in the test group, and at rest and during intermediate and maximal exercise in the control group. The development of RDLBBB was associated with an abrupt decrease in left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) in six of seven patients (mean decrease 6 +/- 5%) and no overall increase in LVEF between rest and maximal exercise (65 +/- 9% and 65 +/- 12%, respectively). In contrast, LVEF in the control group was 62 +/- 8% at rest and increased to 72 +/- 8% at intermediate and 78 +/- 7% at maximal exercise. The onset of RDLBBB was associated with the development of asynchronous left ventricular contraction in each patient and hypokinesis in four of seven patients. All patients in the control group had normal wall motion at rest and exercise. These data indicate that the development of RDLBBB is associated with changes in global and regional ventricular function that may be confused with development of left ventricular ischemia during exercise.

  20. Electrophysiological Assessment of Injury to the Infra-patellar Branch(es) of the Saphenous Nerve during Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction Using Medial Hamstring Auto-grafts: Vertical versus Oblique Harvest Site Incisions

    PubMed Central

    Tavakoli Darestani, Reza; Bagherian Lemraski, Mohammad Mehdi; Hosseinpour, Mehrdad; Kamrani-Rad, Amin

    2013-01-01

    Background It was suggested that the direction of incision for medial hamstring tendons harvesting influences the incidence of injury to the infrapatellar branch of the saphenous nerve (IPBSN), a common complication following arthroscopically-assisted anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction (ACLR). Objectives The main purpose of current study was to compare the incidence of IPBSN injury between vertical and oblique incisions utilizing electrophysiological evaluation. Patients and Methods There were 60 patients underwent arthroscopically-assisted ACLR assigned to two equal vertical or oblique incision groups, randomly. One year postoperatively, the patients were electrophysiologically examined to detect whether IPBSN is injured. The Lysholm score was completed. The patients' satisfaction with surgical outcomes determined utilizing visual analogue scale (VAS). Finally, two groups were compared and the effect of IPBSN injury on function and satisfaction was investigated. Results The incidence of IPBSN injury was higher in the vertical group (4 patients vs. 10 patients), but the difference was not statistically significant. The mean of Lysholm and VAS scores were the same. Also, the mean of Lysholm score was the same in patients with and without IPBSN injury. However, patients without IPBSN injury were more satisfied (8.9 ± 9 vs. 7.4 ± 1.1; P < 0.001). Conclusions IPBSN injury is a common complication following arthroscopically-assisted ACLR and, if not significant, oblique direction of the incision is associated with decreased incidence of the injury. IPBSN injury has no effect on the function but because of the disturbance with patients' satisfaction, authors believe the oblique incision is preferable to avoid the nerve injury during medial hamstring tendons harvesting. PMID:24693521

  1. Re-evaluation of normal splitting of the second heart sound in patients with classical left bundle branch block.

    PubMed

    Xiao, H B; Faiek, A H; Gibson, D G

    1994-07-01

    To study the mechanism of normal splitting of the second heart sound in patients with classical left bundle branch block, we investigated 43 such patients and 15 normal controls, using electro-, phono- and echo-cardiography and comparing the relative timing of mechanical activity in the two ventricles. The splitting of the second heart sound is reversed in only two-thirds of the patients and normal in remaining one-third. Comparing patients with and without reversed splitting, there are no significant differences in left ventricular cavity size, heart rate, pre-ejection period and the distribution of age, gender, or aetiology. QRS duration is longer (P < 0.01) in patients with reversed splitting. Diastolic events of the left ventricle do not differ between groups. The onset of the left ventricular free wall motion is delayed compared with normal by a similar extent in the two groups. In patients with normal splitting, the onset of the right ventricular wall motion is also delayed, both with respect to normal and to those with reversed splitting to an extent similar to that seen in classical right bundle branch block. Normal splitting of the second heart sound associated with an electrocardiographic pattern of left bundle branch block therefore suggests bilateral block. This combination can be documented from the precise timing of the movement of the two ventricles by M-mode echocardiography and identified by simple auscultation. PMID:7960260

  2. Myocardial blood flow assessment with 82rubidium-PET imaging in patients with left bundle branch block

    PubMed Central

    Falcão, Andréa; Chalela, William; Giorgi, Maria Clementina; Imada, Rodrigo; Soares, José; Do Val, Renata; Oliveira, Marco Antonio; Izaki, Marisa; Filho, Roberto Kalil; Meneghetti, José C

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Perfusion abnormalities are frequently seen in Single Photon Emission Computed Tomography (SPECT) when a left bundle branch block is present. A few studies have shown decreased coronary flow reserve in the left anterior descending territory, regardless of the presence of coronary artery disease. OBJECTIVE: We sought to investigate rubidium-82 (82Rb) positron emission tomography imaging in the assessment of myocardial blood flow and coronary flow reserve in patients with left bundle branch block. METHODS: Thirty-eight patients with left bundle branch block (GI), median age 63.5 years, 22 (58%) female, 12 with coronary artery disease (≥70%; GI-A) and 26 with no evidence of significant coronary artery disease (GI-B), underwent rest-dipyridamole stress 82Rb-positron emission tomography with absolute quantitative flow measurements using Cedars-Sinai software (mL/min/g). The relative myocardial perfusion and left ventricular ejection fraction were assessed in 17 segments. These parameters were compared with those obtained from 30 patients with normal 82Rb-positron emission tomography studies and without left bundle branch block (GII). RESULTS: Stress myocardial blood flow and coronary flow reserve were significantly lower in GI than in GII (p<0.05). The comparison of coronary flow reserve between GI-A and GI-B showed that it was different from the global coronary flow reserve (p<0.05) and the stress flow was significantly lower in the anterior than in the septal wall for both groups. Perfusion abnormalities were more prevalent in GI-A (p=0.06) and the left ventricular ejection fraction was not different between GI-A and GI-B, whereas it was lower in GI than in GII (p<0.001). CONCLUSION: The data confirm that patients with left bundle branch block had decreased myocardial blood flow and coronary flow reserve and coronary flow reserve assessed by 82Rb-positron emission tomography imaging may be useful in identifying coronary artery disease in patients with

  3. Assessment of QT and JT Intervals in Patients With Left Bundle Branch Block

    PubMed Central

    Tabatabaei, Peyman; Keikhavani, Ala; Haghjoo, Majid; Fazelifar, Amirfarjam; Emkanjoo, Zahra; Zeighami, Mahbobeh; Bakhshandeh, Hooman; Ghadrdoost, Behshid; Alizadeh, Abolfath

    2016-01-01

    Background Prolongation of the QT interval is considered a risk factor for cardiac adverse events and mortality. Left bundle branch block (LBBB) lengthens the QT interval. The corrected QT interval (QTc) is most likely overestimated because its prolongation is caused by increases in depolarization duration and not in repolarization. Objectives In this study, we aimed to apply corrected JT interval (JTc) as an appropriate measure of ventricular repolarization for predicting QTc in a formula. Patients and Methods The study population consisted of 101 patients with sinus rhythm (SR) and narrow QRS complexes (< 120 milliseconds). All patients underwent electrophysiology studies or ablation. A diagnostic catheter was positioned in the right ventricular apex (RVA) to induce LBBB at two different cycle lengths (CLs; 600 and 700 mv). The intrinsic QRS complex, QT time, and JT time were measured during SR and subsequent RVA pacing. The JTc was derived simply by subtracting the QRS duration from the QTc. Results Stimulation from the RVA increased the QTc from 456.20 ± 38.63 ms to 530.67 ± 47.73 ms at a CL of 600 (P < 0.0001) and to 502.32 ± 47.26 ms at 700 CL (P < 0.0001). JTc showed no significant changes with stimulation from the RVA (102.97 ± 11.35 ms vs. 103.59 ± 10.67 ms, P = 0.24). There was no significant correlation between JTc and QRS complex duration. A significant correlation was seen between QRS and QTc at both CLs. The ROC curve indicated that sensitivity of 80% and specificity of 67% were obtained with JTc duration of 92.6 ms. Conclusions Right ventricular pacing increases the QT interval without increasing the JT interval. Our results confirm that JTc, as an index of repolarization, is independent of ventricular depolarization. Therefore, it can be applied for predicting QTc in patients with LBBB. PMID:26949694

  4. Dipyridamole stress myocardial perfusion by computed tomography in patients with left bundle branch block

    PubMed Central

    Cabeda, Estêvan Vieira; Falcão, Andréa Maria Gomes; Soares Jr., José; Rochitte, Carlos Eduardo; Nomura, César Higa; Ávila, Luiz Francisco Rodrigues; Parga, José Rodrigues

    2015-01-01

    Background Functional tests have limited accuracy for identifying myocardial ischemia in patients with left bundle branch block (LBBB). Objective To assess the diagnostic accuracy of dipyridamole-stress myocardial computed tomography perfusion (CTP) by 320-detector CT in patients with LBBB using invasive quantitative coronary angiography (QCA) (stenosis ≥ 70%) as reference; to investigate the advantage of adding CTP to coronary computed tomography angiography (CTA) and compare the results with those of single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) myocardial perfusion scintigraphy. Methods Thirty patients with LBBB who had undergone SPECT for the investigation of coronary artery disease were referred for stress tomography. Independent examiners performed per-patient and per-coronary territory assessments. All patients gave written informed consent to participate in the study that was approved by the institution’s ethics committee. Results The patients’ mean age was 62 ± 10 years. The mean dose of radiation for the tomography protocol was 9.3 ± 4.6 mSv. With regard to CTP, the per-patient values for sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values, and accuracy were 86%, 81%, 80%, 87%, and 83%, respectively (p = 0.001). The per-territory values were 63%, 86%, 65%, 84%, and 79%, respectively (p < 0.001). In both analyses, the addition of CTP to CTA achieved higher diagnostic accuracy for detecting myocardial ischemia than SPECT (p < 0.001). Conclusion The use of the stress tomography protocol is feasible and has good diagnostic accuracy for assessing myocardial ischemia in patients with LBBB. PMID:26421532

  5. [Wall motion abnormalities and hemodynamic parameters in patients with left bundle branch block during exercise echocardiography].

    PubMed

    Dupliakov, D V; Vozhdaeva, Z I; Sysuenkova, E V; Zemlianova, M E; Lotina, A S; Goleva, S V; Svetlakova, A P; Khokhlunov, S M

    2011-01-01

    Study aim was to investigate dynamics of local contractility and hemodynamic parameters during exercise stress echocardiography (EEcho) in patients with left bundle branch block (LBBB). We examined 23 patients (15 men, 8 women) aged 48-65 years (mean age 53.9+/-8.1 years). Bicycle EEcho was accomplished according to standard protocol. Patients without clinical signs of ischemic heart disease (n=11) comprised group 1, patients after myocardial infarction (n=12) - group 2 (subgroup 2A - with negative test result, subgroup 2B - with worsening of local left ventricular contractility during EEcho). At baseline group 1 patients had significantly better hemodynamic parameters (ejection fraction - EF, left ventricular end diastolic volume - LVEDV) and no abnormalities of local contractility. Exercise tolerance was also the highest in this group. Insignificant worsening of postexercise EF occurred in patients of subgroup 2B (from 46+/-10.5 to 44,2+/-9.4%). In group 1 EF significantly increased (from 56.8+/-10.5% to 64.7+/-15.4%, <0.05), in subgroup 2A tendency to EF increase up to 48.7+/-9.9% was registered. Lowering of local contractility abnormalities index was noted also only in patients of subgroup 2B (from 1.54+/-0.4 to 2.17+/-0.37 (p<0.01). LVEDV compared with initial values tended to decrease in both groups (however differences between groups were not significant). Positive echocardiographic response was associated with significant changes of transmitral blood flow. Angiographically clean coronary arteries were found in 8 of 10 patients in group 1. Six group 2 patients with history of typical clinical picture of angina and myocardial infarction) had multivessel lesions in coronary vascular bed. EEcho result was positive in 5 of 6 group 2 patients. Thus EEcho possesses high potential for diagnosis of coronary atherosclerosis in patients with LBBB. This allows recommending it as a first line method in patients with this pathology. PMID:21623720

  6. Left bundle branch block and mechanical events of the cardiac cycle.

    PubMed

    Hultgren, H N; Craige, E; Fujii, J; Nakamura, T; Bilisoly, J

    1983-10-01

    Left bundle branch block (LBBB) is associated with a prolongation of the interval from the QRS onset to the onset of left ventricular (LV) ejection. The locus and prevalence of specific sites of delay were examined in 56 patients with complete LBBB using echocardiography, phonocardiography and external pulse recordings. The results were compared with those in 52 control subjects without LBBB. The onset of the QRS complex was used as the initial reference point of measurement of time intervals. The following abnormalities were found in patients with LBBB: (1) delayed mitral valve closure (Q-MC greater than 0.08 second) was the major site of delay in 23% of patients; (2) prolongation of the LV isovolumetric contraction time (greater than 0.06 second) was the major site of delay in 41%; (3) both Q-MC and LV isovolumetric contraction time were prolonged in 18%; and (4) in 26% of patients the onset of ventricular contraction determined by the onset of the increase of the apex impulse was delayed (Q-VC greater than 0.07 second). The most common cause of delayed ejection was a prolonged LV isovolumetric contraction time, which occurred in 59% of patients. A control group of 20 patients with abnormal LV function but without LBBB had a low incidence of the 3 types of delay in LV ejection (0 to 15%). Thus, the major abnormalities in the cardiac cycle in LBBB are due to the conduction defect and not to LV dysfunction. The results of this study suggest the presence of variable abnormalities of conduction in complete LBBB. PMID:6624668

  7. Reduced Glutamatergic Currents and Dendritic Branching of Layer 5 Pyramidal Cells Contribute to Medial Prefrontal Cortex Deactivation in a Rat Model of Neuropathic Pain

    PubMed Central

    Kelly, Crystle J.; Huang, Mei; Meltzer, Herbert; Martina, Marco

    2016-01-01

    Multiple studies have demonstrated that neuropathic pain is associated with major reorganization in multiple brain areas. In line with the strong emotional salience of chronic pain, involvement of the limbic system appears particularly important. Within the past few years, it has become clear that the functional deactivation of the prefrontal cortex (PFC) is critical for both the cognitive/emotional and the sensory components of pain. However, at the cellular level, details of this deactivation remain in large part unclear. Here we show that 1 week after a peripheral neuropathic injury (Spared Nerve Injury model) pyramidal cells in layer 5 (L5) of the rat medial PFC show responses to excitatory glutamatergic inputs that are reduced by about 50%, as well as reduced frequency of spontaneous excitatory synaptic currents. Additionally, these cells have reduced membrane capacitance and increased input resistance. All these findings are consistent with decreased dendritic length, thus we performed a detailed morphological analysis on a subset of the recorded neurons. We found that the apical dendrites proximal to the soma (excluding the tuft) are shorter and less complex in SNI animals, in agreement with the reduced capacitance and glutamatergic input. Finally, we used in vivo microdialysis to compare the basal concentrations of glutamate and GABA in the PFC of sham and SNI rats and found that ambient glutamate is decreased in SNI rats. Taken together, these data show that impaired glutamatergic transmission contributes to the functional deactivation of the mPFC in neuropathic pain. Additionally, the reduced branching of apical dendrites of L5 pyramidal neurons may underlay the gray matter reduction in chronic pain. PMID:27252623

  8. Depressive-like behaviours and decreased dendritic branching in the medial prefrontal cortex of mice with tumors: A novel validated model of cancer-induced depression.

    PubMed

    Nashed, Mina G; Seidlitz, Eric P; Frey, Benicio N; Singh, Gurmit

    2015-11-01

    Depression is commonly comorbid in cancer patients and has detrimental effects on disease progression. Evidence suggests that biological mechanisms may induce the onset of cancer-induced depression (CID). The present investigation aims to establish a validated preclinical animal model of CID. Female BALB/c mice were allocated to four groups: control (n=12), chronic oral exposure to corticosterone (CORT) (n=12), CORT exposure followed by chronic low dose fluoxetine (FLX) treatment (n=12), and subcutaneous inoculation of 4T1 mammary carcinoma cells (n=13). Anhedonia was evaluated using the sucrose preference test (SPT), and behavioural despair was evaluated using the forced swim test (FST) and tail suspension test (TST). Sholl analyses were used to examine the dendritic morphology of Golgi-Cox impregnated neurons from the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC). CORT exposure and tumor burden were both associated with decreased sucrose preference, increased FST immobility, and decreased basilar and apical dendritic branching of neurons in the mPFC. CORT-induced behavioural and dendritic morphological changes were reversible by FLX. No differences in TST immobility were observed between groups. On the secondary TST outcome measure, CORT exposure and tumor burden were associated with a trend towards decreased power of movement. CORT exposure induced a positive control model of a depressive-like state, with FLX treatment confirming the predictive validity of the model. This verified the sensitivity of behavioural and histological tests, which were used to assess the CID model. The induction of a depressive-like state in this model represents the first successfully validated animal model of CID. PMID:26222786

  9. Patient skin dose measurements using a cable free system MOSFETs based in fluoroscopically guided percutaneous vertebroplasty, percutaneous disc decompression, radiofrequency medial branch neurolysis, and endovascular critical limb ischemia.

    PubMed

    Falco, Maria D; Masala, Salvatore; Stefanini, Matteo; Fiori, Roberto; Gandini, Roberto; Bagalà, Paolo; Morosetti, Daniele; Calabria, Eros; Tonnetti, Alessia; Verona-Rinati, Gianluca; Santoni, Riccardo; Simonetti, Giovanni

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this work has been to dosimetrically investigate four fluoroscopically guided interventions: the percutaneous vertebroplasty (PVP), the percutaneous disc decompression (PDD), the radiofrequency medial branch neurolysis (RF) (hereafter named spine procedures), and the endovascular treatment for the critical limb ischemia (CLI). The X-ray equipment used was a Philips Integris Allura Xper FD20 imaging system provided with a dose-area product (DAP) meter. The parameters investigated were: maximum skin dose (MSD), air kerma (Ka,r), DAP, and fluoroscopy time (FT). In order to measure the maximum skin dose, we employed a system based on MOSFET detectors. Before using the system on patients, a calibration factor Fc and correction factors for energy (CkV) and field size (CFD) dependence were determined. Ka,r, DAP, and FT were extrapolated from the X-ray equipment. The analysis was carried out on 40 patients, 10 for each procedure. The average fluoroscopy time and DAP values were compared with the reference levels (RLs) proposed in literature. Finally, the correlations between MSD, FT, Ka,r, and DAP values, as well as between DAP and FT values, were studied in terms of Pearson's product-moment coefficients for spine procedures only. An Fc value of 0.20 and a very low dependence of CFD on field size were found. A third-order polynomial function was chosen for CkV. The mean values of MSD ranged from 2.3 to 10.8cGy for CLI and PVP, respectively. For these procedures, the DAP and FT values were within the proposed RL values. The statistical analysis showed little correlation between the investigated parameters. The interventional procedures investigated were found to be both safe with regard to deterministic effects and optimized for stochastic ones. In the spine procedures, the observed correlations indicated that the estimation of MSD from Ka,r or DAP was not accurate and a direct measure of MSD is therefore recommended. PMID:25679159

  10. Previous experience with behavioral control over stress blocks the behavioral and dorsal raphe nucleus activating effects of later uncontrollable stress: role of the ventral medial prefrontal cortex.

    PubMed

    Amat, José; Paul, Evan; Zarza, Christina; Watkins, Linda R; Maier, Steven F

    2006-12-20

    Previous experience with stressors over which the subject has behavioral control blocks the typical behavioral consequences of subsequent exposure to stressors over which the organism has no behavioral control. The present experiments explored the involvement of the ventral medial prefrontal cortex (mPFCv) in mediating this "immunizing" or resilience producing effect of an initial experience with control. Behavioral immunization was blocked by inactivation of the mPFCv with muscimol at the time of the initial experience with control, as well as at the time of the later exposure to uncontrollable stress. Inhibition of protein synthesis within the mPFCv by anisomycin also blocked immunization when administered at the time of the initial controllable stress but had no effect when administered at the time of the later uncontrollable stress. Additional experiments found that the initial experience with control blocks the intense activation of serotonergic cells in the dorsal raphe nucleus that would normally be produced by uncontrollable stress, providing a mechanism for behavioral immunization. Furthermore, mPFCv activity during the initial controllable stressor was required for this effect to occur. These results suggest that the mPFCv is needed both to process information about the controllability of stressors and to utilize such information to regulate responses to subsequent stressors. Moreover, the mPFCv may be a site of storage or plasticity concerning controllability information. These results are consistent with recent research in other domains that explore the functions of the mPFCv. PMID:17182776

  11. Molecular changes in the medial prefrontal cortex and nucleus accumbens are associated with blocking the behavioral sensitization to cocaine

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yi; Zhu, Xiongzhao; Huang, Can; Zhang, Xiuwu

    2015-01-01

    Previous studies have demonstrated that cocaine-induced behavioral sensitization is associated with persistent functional and structural alterations in the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) and nucleus accumbens (NAc); however, the molecular mechanisms underlying these changes have not been elucidated. In this study, the behavioral sensitization to cocaine was established in Sprague Dawley rats and was measured by locomotion and behavioral rating. The brain tissue homogenization was used for measuring the level of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), the expression and activity of integrin-linked kinase (ILK), level of protein kinase B (Akt) phosphorylation at serine 473 and threonine 308, and the expression of p75NTR, TrkA, and TrkB protein. The Results showed that cocaine sensitization was associated with increased BDNF, ILK activity, phospho-Akt Ser473, p75NTR, and TrkB protein levels in the mPFC and NAc core. The combination of pergolide and ondansetron normalized not only behavioral sensitization, but also the increases in these molecular markers. Dual immunofluoresence staining showed that ILK expression is co-distributed with p75NTR and TrkA expression in both the mPFC and NAc core. Results suggested that the BDNF-TrkA/p75NTR-ILK-Akt signaling pathway may be active in cocaine sensitization and associated neural plasticity in the mPFC and NAc core. PMID:26538265

  12. [Joint and sensory branch block of the obturator and femoral nerves in a case of femoral head osteonecrosis and arthritis].

    PubMed

    Cortiñas-Sáenz, M; Salmerón-Velez, G; Holgado-Macho, I A

    2014-01-01

    The sensory innervation of the hip joint is complex. The joint and sensory branch block of the obturator and femoral nerves is effective for treating the pain caused due to different hip diseases. This could be an option to be considered in certain circumstances such as, being a surgical-anaesthetic high risk, or if there is significant overweight, It could also be useful on other occasions if the traumatoligist considers that it is better to delay hip replacement for a limited period. PMID:24656423

  13. Normalization of left ventricular function following cardiac resynchronization therapy: left bundle branch block as a potential etiology of dilated cardiomyopathy.

    PubMed

    Fujii, Banyo; Takami, Mistuaki

    2008-06-01

    Patients with chronic heart failure (HF) not infrequently present conduction disturbances, which are most commonly exhibited as a left bundle branch block (LBBB). LBBB is associated with intraventricular conduction delay, paradoxical septal motion, and hemodynamic deterioration, indicating an impairment of left ventricular (LV) function. However, there is controversy as to whether dilated cardiomyopathy leading to HF could develop just as a result of conduction disturbances without apparent pre-existing heart disease. We report here 2 cases of patients with non-ischemic dilated cardiomyopathy and LBBB who had complete reversal of their LV dysfunction and enlargement after cardiac resynchronization therapy, which corrects the LV activation sequence. These cases might support the idea that conduction disturbances themselves can be a principal etiology in the development of dilated cardiomyopathy. PMID:18503236

  14. Mechanical analysis of congestive heart failure caused by bundle branch block based on an electromechanical canine heart model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dou, Jianhong; Xia, Ling; Zhang, Yu; Shou, Guofa; Wei, Qing; Liu, Feng; Crozier, Stuart

    2009-01-01

    Asynchronous electrical activation, induced by bundle branch block (BBB), can cause reduced ventricular function. However, the effects of BBB on the mechanical function of heart are difficult to assess experimentally. Many heart models have been developed to investigate cardiac properties during BBB but have mainly focused on the electrophysiological properties. To date, the mechanical function of BBB has not been well investigated. Based on a three-dimensional electromechanical canine heart model, the mechanical properties of complete left and right bundle branch block (LBBB and RBBB) were simulated. The anatomical model as well as the fiber orientations of a dog heart was reconstructed from magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and diffusion tensor MRI (DT-MRI). Using the solutions of reaction-diffusion equations and with a strategy of parallel computation, the asynchronous excitation propagation and intraventricular conduction in BBB was simulated. The mechanics of myocardial tissues were computed with time-, sarcomere length-dependent uniaxial active stress initiated at the time of depolarization. The quantification of mechanical intra- and interventricular asynchrony of BBB was then investigated using the finite-element method with an eight-node isoparametric element. The simulation results show that (1) there exists inter- and intraventricular systolic dyssynchrony during BBB; (2) RBBB may have more mechanical synchrony and better systolic function of the left ventricle (LV) than LBBB; (3) the ventricles always move toward the early-activated ventricle; and (4) the septum experiences higher stress than left and right ventricular free walls in BBB. The simulation results validate clinical and experimental recordings of heart deformation and provide regional quantitative estimates of ventricular wall strain and stress. The present work suggests that an electromechanical heart model, incorporating real geometry and fiber orientations, may be helpful for better

  15. A subset of yeast vacuolar protein sorting mutants is blocked in one branch of the exocytic pathway.

    PubMed

    Harsay, Edina; Schekman, Randy

    2002-01-21

    Exocytic vesicles that accumulate in a temperature-sensitive sec6 mutant at a restrictive temperature can be separated into at least two populations with different buoyant densities and unique cargo molecules. Using a sec6 mutant background to isolate vesicles, we have found that vacuolar protein sorting mutants that block an endosome-mediated route to the vacuole, including vps1, pep12, vps4, and a temperature-sensitive clathrin mutant, missort cargo normally transported by dense exocytic vesicles, such as invertase, into light exocytic vesicles, whereas transport of cargo specific to the light exocytic vesicles appears unaffected. Immunoisolation experiments confirm that missorting, rather than a changed property of the normally dense vesicles, is responsible for the altered density gradient fractionation profile. The vps41Delta and apl6Delta mutants, which block transport of only the subset of vacuolar proteins that bypasses endosomes, sort exocytic cargo normally. Furthermore, a vps10Delta sec6 mutant, which lacks the sorting receptor for carboxypeptidase Y (CPY), accumulates both invertase and CPY in dense vesicles. These results suggest that at least one branch of the yeast exocytic pathway transits through endosomes before reaching the cell surface. Consistent with this possibility, we show that immunoisolated clathrin-coated vesicles contain invertase. PMID:11807092

  16. Electrocardiographic changes associated with takotsubo cardiomyopathy in a patient with pre-existing left bundle branch block.

    PubMed

    Ito, Tsuyoshi; Fujita, Hiroshi; Ichihashi, Taku; Ohte, Nobuyuki

    2016-08-01

    An 81-year-old man was referred to our emergency department with severe persistent chest pain. One year before presentation at our department, his 12-lead electrocardiogram (ECG) revealed a normal QRS pattern during the period of normal conduction with intermittent left bundle branch block (LBBB). His ECG immediately after arrival showed deep T-wave inversion in the precordial leads during normal conduction. During LBBB, there was mild ST-segment elevation with poor R-wave progression across the precordial leads. Emergent cardiac catheterization was performed to rule out acute coronary syndrome. Coronary angiography showed no significant stenosis, and coronary spasm was not provoked by the administration of intracoronary ergonovine. Left ventriculography demonstrated persistent left ventricular apical akinesis with systolic ballooning. Based on these findings, the patient was diagnosed to have takotsubo cardiomyopathy (TCM). After 6 months, echocardiography demonstrated the recovery of the left ventricular regional wall motion abnormality. An ECG performed 6 months after the presentation showed incomplete resolution of T-wave inversion in the periods of normal conduction. ST elevation and poor R-wave progression were improved during LBBB. In a case with acute chest pain and an ECG changes incompatible with acute ischemia superimposed on a pattern of LBBB, TCM should be considered as a differential diagnosis. PMID:26498941

  17. Left ventricular performance during exercise in patients with left bundle branch block: evaluation by gated radionuclide ventriculography

    SciTech Connect

    Rowe, D.W.; De Puey, E.G.; Sonnemaker, R.E.; Hall, R.J.; Burdine, J.A.

    1983-01-01

    To investigate changes in left ventricular (LV) function during exercise in patients with left bundle branch block (LBBB), 22 patients without a history or physical findings of previous myocardial infarction or LV dysfunction were studied by gated radionuclide ventriculography (GRNV) at rest and during bicycle exercise. Coronary arteriography demonstrated greater than 75% diameter narrowing of at least one coronary artery in nine patients. Of the remaining 13 patients, GRNV demonstrated wall motion abnormalities in seven patients either at rest or with exercise. During exercise, mean ejection fraction (EF) did not increase in patients without coronary artery disease (CAD). Patients with CAD had a 12-point fall in mean EF with exercise. Researchers conclude that LV reserve, as demonstrated by ability to increase EF with exercise, is impaired in patients with LBBB even in the absence of CAD or other underlying cardiac disease and that standard GRNV criteria to exclude the presence of CAD (a greater than five-point increase in EF with exercise and normal wall motion) are not strictly applicable in screening patients with LBBB.

  18. Prognostic Significance of Right Bundle Branch Block for Patients with Acute Myocardial Infarction: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Xiang, Li; Zhong, Anyuan; You, Tao; Chen, Jianchang; Xu, Weiting; Shi, Minhua

    2016-01-01

    Background The aim of the current meta-analysis was to assess the effect of right bundle branch block (RBBB) on mortality outcome in patients with acute myocardial infarction (AMI). Material/Methods Embase, PubMed, and Cochrane databases were searched through January 2015 using the keywords “RBBB”, “mortality”, “AMI”, “Coronary Heart Disease”, and “cardiovascular”. An odds ratio (OR) of RBBB on mortality endpoints was calculated using random-effects models. Results RBBB was associated with significantly increased overall mortality in patients with AMI. The OR of RBBB for deaths was 1.56 [95% confidence interval (CI), 1.44 to 1.68, p<0.001]. Moreover, RBBB showed a considerable effect on both in-hospital mortality (OR: 1.94, 95% CI: 1.60 to 2.37, p=0.002) and long-term mortality (OR: 1.49, 95% CI: 1.37 to 1.62, p<0.001). Conclusions RBBB is associated with an increased risk of all-cause mortality and indicates a poorer prognosis in patients with AMI. PMID:27017617

  19. Right Bundle Branch Block-Like Pattern During Uncomplicated Right Ventricular Pacing and the Effect of Pacing Site.

    PubMed

    Tzeis, Stylianos; Andrikopoulos, George; Weigand, Severin; Grebmer, Christian; Semmler, Verena; Brkic, Amir; Asbach, Stefan; Kloppe, Axel; Lennerz, Carsten; Bourier, Felix; Pastromas, Sokratis; Kolb, Christof

    2016-03-15

    Right bundle branch block (RBBB) configuration is an unexpected finding during right ventricular (RV) pacing that raises the suspicion of inadvertent left ventricular lead positioning. The aim of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of paced RBBB pattern in relation to RV lead location. This is a secondary analysis of a prospective, multicenter study, which randomized implantable cardioverter defibrillator recipients to an apical versus midseptal defibrillator lead positioning. A 12-lead electrocardiogram was recorded during intrinsic rhythm and RV pacing. Paced RBBB-like pattern was defined as positive (>0.05 mV) net amplitude of QRS complex in leads V1 and/or V2. In total, 226 patients (65.6 ± 12.0 years, 20.8% women, 53.1% apical site) were included in the study. The prevalence of paced RBBB pattern in the total population was 15.5%. A significantly lower percentage of patients in the midseptal group demonstrated RBBB-type configuration during RV pacing compared with the apical group (1.9% vs 27.5%, p <0.001). Baseline RBBB, prolonged QRS duration during intrinsic rhythm, and reduced ejection fraction were not associated with increased likelihood of paced RBBB. In the subgroup of patients with RBBB type during pacing, 91.4% of patients had a paced QRS axis from -30° to -90°, whereas 100% of patients displayed a negative QRS vector at lead V3. In conclusion, RBBB configuration is encountered in a considerable percentage of device recipients during uncomplicated RV pacing. Midseptal lead positioning is associated with significantly lower likelihood of paced RBBB pattern compared with apical location. PMID:26796192

  20. Clinical Determinants of Left Ventricular Ejection Fraction Deterioration in Patients Suffered From Complete Left Bundle Branch Block

    PubMed Central

    Hashemi Jazi, Mohammad; Nilforoush, Peyman; Gharipour, Mojgan; Batvandi, Azadeh; Mohammadi, Robabeh; Najafi, Roya

    2015-01-01

    Background: Recently, the deleterious effects of left bundle branch block (LBBB) on left ventricular systolic function have been taken into consideration. Objectives: The present study aimed to identify underlying factors that predict left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) deterioration in patients suffered from complete LBBB. Patients and Methods: In a retrospective case-control study, the data of 220 consecutive patients diagnosed with LBBB on their electrocardiograms were assessed. They were referred to Isfahan Heart Center in Isfahan Province, Iran in 2013. LVEF deterioration was defined as a decrease in LVEF at least 10% between the baseline and follow-up echocardiography study. Thus, achieving the LVEF values ≤ 40% in patients with an initial EF of > 50% was considered LVEF deterioration. Results: Among 220 patients, 40% of LBBB patients suffered LVEF deterioration within 3 months of initial assessment. The group with LVEF deterioration had higher male to female ratio, had higher NYHA score, and suffered more from systolic hypertension than another group. Those with coronary artery disease (CAD) had also significantly lower LVEF than non-CAD ones. Adverse associations were revealed between systolic blood pressure and LVEF measurement (r = -0.193, P = 0.006) as well as between NYHA score and LVEF (r = -0.215, P = 0.002). A multivariable logistic regression model showed that among baseline variables, male gender (OR = 3.218, P < 0.001), history of systolic hypertension (OR = 2.012, P = 0.029), higher NYHA score (OR = 1.623, P = 0.005), and the presence of coronary artery disease (OR = 2.475, P = 0.028) could effectively predict LVEF deterioration in patients with LBBB. Conclusions: Male gender, history of hypertension, high NYHA score, and the presence of CAD predict LVEF deterioration in patients with LBBB. PMID:25838930

  1. Bundle-Branch Block Morphology and Other Predictors of Outcome After Cardiac Resynchronization Therapy in Medicare Patients

    PubMed Central

    Bilchick, Kenneth C.; Kamath, Sandeep; DiMarco, John P.; Stukenborg, George J.

    2013-01-01

    Background Clinical trials of cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT) have enrolled a select group of patients, with few patients in subgroups such as right bundle-branch block (RBBB). Analysis of population-based outcomes provides a method to identify real-world predictors of CRT outcomes. Methods and Results Medicare Implantable Cardioverter-Defibrillator Registry (2005 to 2006) data were merged with patient outcomes data. Cox proportional-hazards models assessed death and death/heart failure hospitalization outcomes in patients with CRT and an implantable cardioverter-defibrillator (CRT-D). The 14 946 registry patients with CRT-D (median follow-up, 40 months) had 1-year, 3-year, and overall mortality rates of 12%, 32%, and 37%, respectively. New York Heart Association class IV heart failure status (1-year hazard ratio [HR], 2.23; 3-year HR, 1.98; P<0.001) and age ≥80 years (1-year HR, 1.74; 3-year HR, 1.75; P<0.001) were associated with increased mortality both early and late after CRT-D. RBBB (1-year HR, 1.44; 3-year HR, 1.37; P<0.001) and ischemic cardiomyopathy (1-year HR, 1.39; 3-year HR, 1.44; P<0.001) were the next strongest adjusted predictors of both early and late mortality. RBBB and ischemic cardiomyopathy together had twice the adjusted hazard for death (HR, 1.99; P<0.001) as left BBB and nonischemic cardiomyopathy. QRS duration of at least 150 ms predicted more favorable outcomes in left BBB but had no impact in RBBB. A secondary analysis showed lower hazards for CRT-D compared with standard implantable cardioverter-defibrillators in left BBB compared with RBBB. Conclusions In Medicare patients, RBBB, ischemic cardiomyopathy, New York Heart Association class IV status, and advanced age were powerful adjusted predictors of poor outcome after CRT-D. Real-world mortality rates 3 to 4 years after CRT-D appear higher than previously recognized. PMID:21041691

  2. Chronic Desipramine Prevents Acute Stress-Induced Reorganization of Medial Prefrontal Cortex Architecture by Blocking Glutamate Vesicle Accumulation and Excitatory Synapse Increase

    PubMed Central

    Treccani, Giulia; Liebenberg, Nico; Chen, Fenghua; Popoli, Maurizio; Wegener, Gregers; Nyengaard, Jens Randel

    2015-01-01

    Background: Although a clear negative influence of chronic exposure to stressful experiences has been repeatedly demonstrated, the outcome of acute stress on key brain regions has only just started to be elucidated. Although it has been proposed that acute stress may produce enhancement of brain plasticity and that antidepressants may prevent such changes, we still lack ultrastructural evidence that acute stress-induced changes in neurotransmitter physiology are coupled with structural synaptic modifications. Methods: Rats were pretreated chronically (14 days) with desipramine (10mg/kg) and then subjected to acute foot-shock stress. By means of serial section electron microscopy, the structural remodeling of medial prefrontal cortex glutamate synapses was assessed soon after acute stressor cessation and stress hormone levels were measured. Results: Foot-shock stress induced a remarkable increase in the number of docked vesicles and small excitatory synapses, partially and strongly prevented by desipramine pretreatment, respectively. Acute stress-induced corticosterone elevation was not affected by drug treatment. Conclusions: Since desipramine pretreatment prevented the stress-induced structural plasticity but not the hormone level increase, we hypothesize that the preventing action of desipramine is located on pathways downstream of this process and/or other pathways. Moreover, because enhancement of glutamate system remodeling may contribute to overexcitation dysfunctions, this aspect could represent a crucial component in the pathophysiology of stress-related disorders. PMID:25522419

  3. Branched-chain amino acid transport regulation in mutants blocked in tRNA maturation and transcriptional termination.

    PubMed Central

    Quay, S C; Lawther, R P; Hatfield, G W; Oxender, D L

    1978-01-01

    The regulation of branched-chain amino acid transport and binding protein biosynthesis was studied in Escherichia coli strains containing hisT (the structural gene for pseudouridine synthetase) and rho (the structural gene for the mRNA transcriptional termination factor rho) mutations. The results indicate that the hisT strain cannot be fully derepressed for transport and that the hisT rho double mutant is partially derepressed under excess leucine conditions, but cannot be further derepressed by leucine deprivation. These data are consistent with a model in which fully mature tRNALeu is required for derepression and in which rho interacts with tRNALeu in regulating transport by terminating transcription, especially in excess-leucine growth conditions. PMID:350834

  4. Usefulness of His Bundle Pacing to Achieve Electrical Resynchronization in Patients With Complete Left Bundle Branch Block and the Relation Between Native QRS Axis, Duration, and Normalization.

    PubMed

    Teng, Alexandra E; Lustgarten, Daniel L; Vijayaraman, Pugazhendhi; Tung, Roderick; Shivkumar, Kalyanam; Wagner, Galen S; Ajijola, Olujimi A

    2016-08-15

    His Bundle pacing (HBP) restores electrical synchronization in left bundle branch block (LBBB); however, the underlying mechanisms are poorly understood. We examined the relation between native QRS axis in LBBB, a potential indicator of the site of block, and QRS normalization in patients with LBBB. Data from patients (n = 41) undergoing HBP at 3 sites were studied (68 ± 13 years, 13 women). Study criteria included strictly defined complete LBBB and successful implantation of a permanent HBP lead. Preprocedure and postprocedure electrocardiograms were reviewed independently by 2 blinded readers. QRS axis and duration were measured to the nearest 10° and 10 ms, respectively. QRS narrowing or normalization was the primary end point. Of 29 patients meeting study criteria, 9 had frontal plane QRS axes between -60° and -80°, 10 from -40° to 0°, and 10 from +1° to +90°. QRS narrowing occurred in 24 patients (83%, 44 ± 34 ms, p <0.05). Percent QRS narrowing by axis were 26 ± 19%, 29 ± 25%, and 28 ± 23%, respectively. No correlation between prepacing QRS axis and postpacing narrowing was identified (r(2) = 0.001, p = 0.9). In patients with or without QRS normalization after HBP, mean QRS duration was 155 ± 21 vs 171 ± 8 ms, respectively, p = 0.014. HBP induces significant QRS narrowing in most patients and normalization in patients with shorter baseline QRS duration. In conclusion, the lack of correlation between native QRS axis and narrowing suggests that proximal His-Purkinje block causes most cases of LBBB, or that additional mechanisms underlie HBP efficacy. Further studies are needed to better understand how to predict those patients in whom HBP will normalize LBBB. PMID:27344272

  5. Epidemiological and evolutionary characteristics of heart failure in patients with left bundle branch block – A Moroccan center-based study

    PubMed Central

    Bouqata, N.; Kheyi, J.; Miftah, F.; Sabor, H.; Bouziane, A.; Bouzelmat, H.; Chaib, A.; Benyass, A.; Moustaghfir, A.

    2014-01-01

    Background In patients with heart failure, left bundle branch block (LBBB) seems to be associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular mortality. Purpose The purpose of this study is to determine the in-hospital outcome of congestive heart failure patients with LBBB versus those without. Methods We conducted a prospective observational study at the Department of Intensive Care and Rhythmology at the Mohammed V Military Hospital of Rabat, where 330 patients were admitted for heart failure between January 2008 and September 2012. Screening out patients with missing data yielded a cohort of 274 patients. Among the 274 patients, only 110 had LBBB and a left ventricular ejection fraction lower than 50%. We randomly selected a subset of 110 patients diagnosed as non-LBBB to ensure a significant statistical comparison between LBBB and non-LBBB patients. We therefore considered two groups in our analysis: 110 heart failure (HF) patients with LBBB and 110 HF patients without LBBB. Patients with incomplete records were excluded. Results Male gender was dominant in both groups (82.7% vs. 66.7%, p = 0.005). Patients with LBBB had a higher prevalence of idiopathic dilated cardiomyopathy (39.1% vs. 4.8%, p < 0.001); and a higher prevalence of previous hospitalization for heart failure (64.5% vs. 23.3%, p < 0.001). The left ventricular ejection fraction was significantly lower in the group with LBBB (25.49% vs. 39.53%, p < 0.001). Age, cardiovascular risk factors, rhythmic and thromboembolic complications did not significantly differ. In patients with LBBB, 61.8% received cardiac resynchronization therapy performed both during the index hospital stay (50.9%) and previously (10.9%). Hospital outcome was marked by 20 in-hospital deaths in the group with LBBB and eight deaths in the group without LBBB (p = 0.008). Conclusion Our analysis emphasizes increased in-hospital mortality and higher disease severity, over a short period of stay, in heart failure patients with

  6. Impact on Left Ventricular Function and Remodeling and on 1-Year Outcome in Patients With Left Bundle Branch Block After Transcatheter Aortic Valve Implantation.

    PubMed

    Carrabba, Nazario; Valenti, Renato; Migliorini, Angela; Marrani, Marco; Cantini, Giulia; Parodi, Guido; Dovellini, Emilio Vincenzo; Antoniucci, David

    2015-07-01

    Conflicting results have been reported about the prognostic impact of left bundle branch block (LBBB) after transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI). The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of LBBB after TAVI on left ventricular (LV) function and remodeling and on 1-year outcomes. Of 101 TAVI patients, 9 were excluded. All complications were evaluated according to the Valve Academic Research Consortium 2 definition. Of 92 patients, 34 developed LBBB without more advanced myocardial damage or inflammation biomarkers in comparison with patients without LBBB. The only predictor of new LBBB was larger baseline LV end-diastolic volume. LBBB plus advanced atrioventricular block was strongly correlated with permanent pacemaker implantation (p <0.0001). Patients with LBBB had a higher rate of permanent pacemaker implantation at 30 days (59% vs 19%, p <0.0001) and less recovery of LV systolic function and a trend toward a lower rate of LV reverse remodeling at 1 year. The development of acute kidney injury and the logistic European System for Cardiac Operative Risk Evaluation score were associated with poor outcomes (all-cause mortality and heart failure) (hazard ratio 6.86, 95% confidence interval 2.51 to 18.74, p <0.0001, and hazard ratio 1.04, 95% confidence interval 1.01 to 1.08, p = 0.021, respectively), but not LBBB. In conclusion, after TAVI, 37% of patients developed new LBBB without more advanced myocardial damage or inflammation biomarkers. LBBB was associated with a higher rate of permanent pacemaker implantation, which negatively affected the recovery of LV systolic function. The development of acute kidney injury, rather than LBBB, increases the 1-year risk for mortality and hospitalization for heart failure. PMID:25937352

  7. Cardiac incoordination induced by left bundle branch block: its relation with left ventricular systolic function in patients with and without cardiomyopathy

    PubMed Central

    Quintana, Miguel; Saha, Samir; Govind, Satish; Brodin, Lars Åke; del Furia, Francesca; Bertomeu, Vicente

    2008-01-01

    Background Although left bundle branch block (LBBB) alters the electrical activation of the heart, it is unknown how it might change the process of myocardial coordination (MC) and how it may affect the left ventricular (LV) systolic function. The present study assessed the effects of LBBB on MC in patients with LBBB with and without dilated (DCMP) or ischemic cardiomyopathy (ICMP). Methods Tissue Doppler echocardiography (TDE) was performed in 86 individuals: 21 with isolated LBBB, 26 patients with DCMP + LBBB, 19 patients with ICMP + LBBB and in 20 healthy individuals (Controls). MC was assessed analyzing the myocardial velocity profiles obtained from six basal segments of the LV using TDE. The LV systolic function was assessed by standard two-dimensional echocardiography and by TDE. Results Severe alterations in MC were observed in subjects with LBBB as compared with controls (P < 0.01 for all comparisons); these derangements were even worse in patients with DCMP and ICMP (P < 0.001 for comparisons with Controls and P < 0.01 for comparison with individuals with isolated LBBB). Some parameters of MC differed significantly between DCMP and ICMP (P < 0.01). A good or very good correlation coefficient was found between variables of MC and variables of LV systolic function. Conclusion LBBB induces severe derangement in the process of MC that are more pronounced in patients with cardiomyopathies and that significantly correlates with the LV systolic function. The assessment of MC may help in the evaluation of the etiology of dilated cardiomyopathy. PMID:18681971

  8. Improved specificity of myocardial thallium-201 single-photon emission computed tomography in patients with left bundle branch block by dipyridamole

    SciTech Connect

    Burns, R.J.; Galligan, L.; Wright, L.M.; Lawand, S.; Burke, R.J.; Gladstone, P.J. )

    1991-08-15

    Reduced septal uptake of thallium-201 during exercise is frequently observed in patients with left bundle branch block (LBBB) and normal coronary arteries. This may reflect normal coronary autoregulation in response to lower septal oxygen demand; thus, dipyridamole, which uniformly exploits flow reserve, would be more accurate for diagnosis of coronary artery disease (CAD). Sixteen patients with LBBB underwent exercise and dipyridamole thallium-201 single-photon emission computed tomography and coronary angiography within 3 months. Sensitivity for detection of left anterior descending CAD (greater than 50% stenosis) was 0.83 for exercise and 1.00 for dipyridamole. Specificity was 0.30 (visual) or 0.20 (quantitative analysis) for exercise and 0.80 (visual) or 0.90 (quantitative) for dipyridamole (p less than 0.05). Dipyridamole combined with quantitative analysis also improved specificity of CAD detection overall (p less than 0.01). These data demonstrate that pharmacologic vasodilation is more accurate than exercise when diagnosing CAD by myocardial perfusion scintigraphy in patients with LBBB.

  9. The novel neurotensin analog NT69L blocks phencyclidine (PCP)-induced increases in locomotor activity and PCP-induced increases in monoamine and amino acids levels in the medial prefrontal cortex.

    PubMed

    Li, Zhimin; Boules, Mona; Williams, Katrina; Peris, Joanna; Richelson, Elliott

    2010-01-22

    Schizophrenia is a life-long, severe, and disabling brain disorder that requires chronic pharmacotherapy. Because current antipsychotic drugs do not provide optimal therapy, we have been developing novel treatments that focus on receptors for the neuropeptide neurotensin (NT). NT69L, an analog of neurotensin(8-13), acts like an atypical antipsychotic drug in several dopamine-based animal models used to study schizophrenia. Another current animal model utilizes non-competitive antagonists of the NMDA/glutamate receptor, such as the psychotomimetic phencyclidine (PCP). In the present study, we investigated the effects of NT69L on PCP-induced behavioral and biochemical changes in the rat. The top of an activity chamber was modified to allow us to perform microdialysis in rat brain, while simultaneously recording the locomotor activity of a rat. PCP injection significantly increased activity as well as the extracellular concentration of norepinephrine (NE), 5-HT, dopamine (DA), and glutamate in the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC). Pretreating with NT69L blocked the PCP-induced hyperactivity as well as the increase of DA, 5-HT, NE, and glutamate in mPFC. Interestingly and unexpectedly, NT69L markedly increased glycine levels, while PCP was without effect on glycine levels. Thus, NT69L showed antipsychotic-like effects in this glutamate-based animal model for studying schizophrenia. Previous work from our group suggests that NT69L also has antipsychotic-like effects in dopaminergic and serotonergic rodent models. Taken together, these data suggest that NT69L in particular and NT receptor agonists in general, will be useful as broad-spectrum antipsychotic drugs. PMID:19948149

  10. Discoid medial meniscus.

    PubMed

    Tachibana, Yomei; Yamazaki, Yuji; Ninomiya, Setsuo

    2003-09-01

    A discoid medial meniscus is an extremely rare anomaly. We present 4 cases of symptomatic discoid medial meniscus. Furthermore, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the unaffected knee was obtained in 3 cases, and 1 patient had bilateral discoid medial menisci as well as a unilateral discoid lateral meniscus proven by MRI. Another patient had bilateral discoid medial menisci. In one of the other 2 cases, an MRI of the unaffected knee was not obtained. However, in the involved knees of both cases, medial and lateral menisci were discoid. The incidence of bilateral discoid medial menisci is unknown. In the past, the diagnosis of a discoid meniscus was made with an arthrogram or at arthrotomy. Therefore, whether some of the unilateral cases reported in the literature might have been bilateral is unknown. The reported prevalence of bilateral discoid medial menisci will probably increase, because when a discoid medial meniscus is encountered currently, an MRI is used to find knee disorders, including in the contralateral knee. Axial multiplanar gradient-recalled-echo imaging could provide images of the discoid meniscus, depicted in its entirety in one section. This would make the recognition of a discoid meniscus simple. PMID:12966402

  11. Genetic variation at the human connexin 43 locus but not at the connexin 40 locus is associated with left bundle branch block

    PubMed Central

    Ladenvall, Per; Andersson, Björn; Dellborg, Mikael; Hansson, Per-Olof; Eriksson, Henry; Thelle, Dag; Eriksson, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Background Bundle branch block (BBB) has been regarded as a disease of the conduction system, but occurs in mice lacking connexin 40 (expressed in atria, proximal conduction system) or connexin 43 (expressed in Purkinje cells, cardiomyocytes). Objective The aim of this paper is to explore whether BBB is heritable, and whether polymorphisms at connexin 40 and connexin 43 loci are associated with BBB. Methods To assess BBB heritability, we screened descendants of men with BBB in the population cohort ‘The Study of Men Born 1913’. DNA samples from 80-year-old men with extreme QRS-duration phenotypes were used to search for polymorphisms at connexin 40 and 43 loci. Associations between identified polymorphisms and BBB were evaluated in an independent cohort (INTERGENE). Results Seventy-seven men from ‘The Study of Men Born 1913’ with BBB had 116 descendants. Among the 76 participating descendants, 2 sons (6.4%) had BBB at 54 years of age. At the same age, 0.9% of men born in 1913 had BBB. We identified 6 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in connexin 40 and 1 polymorphism in connexin 43. In the INTERGENE cohort, the connexin 43 polymorphism was associated with left BBB (LBBB) (4 of 35 LBBB vs 16 of 232 without BBB, χ2=7.4, p=0.03), but not with right BBB (RBBB) or overall BBB. None of the connexin 40 SNPs or haplotypes were associated with LBBB or RBBB. Conclusions These findings indicate that conduction by connexin 43 within the ventricular muscle distal to the specialised conduction system may be important for LBBB development. PMID:25893100

  12. Septal and Anterior Reverse Mismatch of Myocardial Perfusion and Metabolism in Patients With Coronary Artery Disease and Left Bundle Branch Block

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Jian-Guang; Fang, Wei; Yang, Min-Fu; Tian, Yue-Qin; Zhang, Xiao-Li; Shen, Rui; Sun, Xiao-Xin; Guo, Feng; Wang, Dao-Yu; He, Zuo-Xiang

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The effects of left bundle branch block (LBBB) on left ventricular myocardial metabolism have not been well investigated. This study evaluated these effects in patients with coronary artery disease (CAD). Sixty-five CAD patients with complete LBBB (mean age, 61.8 ± 9.7 years) and 65 without LBBB (mean age, 59.9 ± 8.4 years) underwent single photon emission computed tomography, positron emission tomography, and contrast coronary angiography. The relationship between myocardial perfusion and metabolism and reverse mismatch score, and that between QRS length and reverse mismatch score and wall motion score were evaluated. The incidence of left ventricular septum and anterior wall reverse mismatching between the two groups was significantly different (P < 0.001 and P = 0.002, respectively). The incidences of normal myocardial perfusion and metabolism in the left ventricular lateral and inferior walls were also significantly different between the two groups (P < 0.001 and P < 0.001, respectively). The incidence of septal reverse mismatching in patients with mild to moderate perfusion was significantly higher among those with LBBB than among those without LBBB (P < 0.001). In CAD patients with LBBB, septal reverse mismatching was significantly more common among those with mild to moderate perfusion than among those with severe perfusion defects (P = 0.002). The correlation between the septal reverse mismatch score and QRS length was significant (P = 0.026). In patients with CAD and LBBB, septal and anterior reverse mismatching of myocardial perfusion and metabolism was frequently present; the septal reverse mismatch score negatively correlated with the QRS interval. PMID:25997045

  13. False-positive defects on exercise 99mTc-sestamibi SPECT imaging, but not on dipyridamole 99mTc-sestamibi SPECT imaging, in a patient with right bundle branch block (RBBB).

    PubMed

    Javadi, Hamid; Jallalat, Sara; Semnani, Shahriar; Mogharrabi, Mehdi; Nabipour, Iraj; Abbaszadeh, Moloud; Assadi, Majid

    2013-01-01

    False-positive findings with myocardial perfusion imaging (MPI) have frequently been identified in the presence of left bundle branch block (LBBB) and tend to lower the accuracy of MPI in individuals with normal coronary angiographs. Pharmacologic stress is recognized as the preferred method for MPI in patients with LBBB. In contrast, very few studies have evaluated the effect of right bundle branch block (RBBB) on MPI, and there is no consensus regarding the selection of pharmacologic versus exercise stress during MPI for the RBBB patient. In this study, we present a 45-year-old man with RBBB, who has a normal coronary artery angiography, but who showed abnormal myocardial perfusion with exercise MPI, and normal perfusion on dipyridamole MPI. The aim of the study is to stimulate awareness that the stress method selected for patients with RBBB can potentially interfere with the accuracy of the data. PMID:23677764

  14. Dilated cardiomyopathy and left bundle branch block associated with ingestion of colloidal gold and silver is reversed by British antiLewisite and vitamin E: The potential toxicity of metals used as health supplements

    PubMed Central

    Archer, Stephen Lawrence

    2008-01-01

    A case of left bundle branch block and a dilated, nonhypertrophic cardiomyopathy associated with ingestion of colloidal gold and silver as an ‘energy tonic’ is described. The cardiac disease was reversed within two months by a course of dimercaprol (Akorn Inc, USA) (British antiLewisite) and vitamin E. This is the first case of gold and silver cardiomyopathy in humans, and highlights the risks of these colloidal metal ‘health supplements’. PMID:18464946

  15. Chuave Medial Verbs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thurman, Robert C.

    1975-01-01

    This article discusses two syntactic processes known as chaining and linkage, insofar as they are relevant to Chuave, a Papuan language spoken in the East New Guinea Highlands. These processes are discussed in relation to Chuave medial verbs. (CLK)

  16. Bilateral medial medullary syndrome secondary to Takayasu arteritis.

    PubMed

    Deshpande, Anirudda; Chandran, Vijay; Pai, Aparna; Rao, Suryanarayana; Shetty, Ranjan

    2013-01-01

    Medial medullary syndrome (MMS) is a rare type of stroke which results due to occlusion of the anterior spinal artery or vertebral artery or its branches. In this case report we present a patient who developed MMS secondary to Takayasu arteritis (TA). TA is a chronic inflammatory arteritis primarily involving the arch of aorta and its branches, which in our patient resulted in occlusion of subclavian arteries as well as infarction of the medial medulla bilaterally. To our knowledge this is the first time that MMS has been found to occur secondary to TA. PMID:23943806

  17. [Anatomical variants of the medial calcaneal nerve and the Baxter nerve in the tarsal tunnel].

    PubMed

    Martín-Oliva, X; Elgueta-Grillo, J; Veliz-Ayta, P; Orosco-Villaseñor, S; Elgueta-Grillo, M; Viladot-Perice, R

    2013-01-01

    The tarsal tunnel is composed of the posterior border of the medial malleoulus, the posterior aspect of the talus and the medial aspect of the calcaneus. The medial calcaneal nerve emerges from the posterior aspect of the posterior tibial nerve in 75% of cases and from the lateral plantar nerve in the remaining 25%. Finally, the medial calcaneal nerve ends as a single terminal branch in 79% of cases and in numerous terminal branches in the remaining 21%. To describe the anatomical variants of the posterior tibial nerve and its terminal branches. To describe the steps for tarsal tunnel release. To describe Baxter nerve release. The anatomical variants of the posterior tibial nerve and its terminal branches within the tarsal tunnel were studied. Then the Lam technique was performed; it consists of: 1) opening of the laciniate ligament, 2) opening of the fascia over the abductor hallucis muscle, 3) exoneurolysis of the posterior tibial nerve and its terminal branches, identifying the emergence and pathway of the medial calcaneal branch, the lateral plantar nerve and its Baxter nerve branch and the medial plantar nerve. Baxter nerve was found in 100% of cases. In 100% of cases in our series the nerve going to the abductor digiti minimi muscle of the foot was found; 87.5% of cases had two terminal branches. The dissections proved that a crucial step was the release of the distal tarsal tunnel. PMID:24701749

  18. Shoot branching.

    PubMed

    Ward, Sally P; Leyser, Ottoline

    2004-02-01

    The mature form of a plant shoot system is an expression of several genetically controlled traits, many of which are also environmentally regulated. A major component of this architectural variation is the degree of shoot branching. Recent results indicate conserved mechanisms for shoot branch development across the monocots and eudicots. The existence of a novel long-range branch-inhibiting signal has been inferred from studies of branching mutants in pea and Arabidopsis. PMID:14732444

  19. Tentorial dural arteriovenous fistula of the medial tentorial artery.

    PubMed

    Liu, Syrone; Lee, Dane C; Tanoura, Tad

    2016-09-01

    The medial tentorial artery arises from the meningohypophyseal trunk, a branch of the cavernous internal carotid artery, and it is poorly visualized on angiography in the absence of pathologically increased blood flow. We present the case of a 38-year-old man with intraventricular hemorrhage from a tentorial dural arteriovenous fistula (DAVF) singularly supplied by a robust medial tentorial artery. Tentorial DAVFs comprise a rare but high-risk subset of DAVFs. The diagnosis was suggested by computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging findings and confirmed with digital subtraction angiography. PMID:27594958

  20. Multi-stage metamorphism in the South Armenian Block during the Late Jurassic to Early Cretaceous: Tectonics over south-dipping subduction of Northern branch of Neotethys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hässig, M.; Rolland, Y.; Sahakyan, L.; Sosson, M.; Galoyan, G.; Avagyan, A.; Bosch, D.; Müller, C.

    2015-04-01

    The geologic evolution of the South Armenian Block (SAB) in the Mesozoic is reconstructed from a structural, metamorphic, and geochronologic study including U-Pb and 40Ar/39Ar dating. The South Armenian Block Crystalline Basement (SABCB) outcrops solely in a narrow tectonic window, NW of Yerevan. The study of this zone provides key and unprecedented information concerning closing of the Northern Neotethys oceanic domain north of the Taurides-Anatolides platform from the Middle Jurassic to the Early Cretaceous. The basement comprises of presumed Proterozoic orthogneiss overlain by metamorphosed pelites as well as intrusions of granodiorite and leucogranite during the Late Jurassic and Early Cretaceous. Structural, geochronological and petrological observations show a multiphased evolution of the northern margin of the SAB during the Late Jurassic and Early Cretaceous. A south-dipping subduction under the East Anatolian Platform-South Armenian Block (EAP-SAB) is proposed in order to suit recent findings pertaining emplacement of relatively hot subduction related granodiorite as well as the metamorphic evolution of the crystalline basement in the Lesser Caucasus area. The metamorphism is interpreted as evidencing: (1) M1 Barrovian MP-MT conditions (staurolite-kyanite) at c. 157-160 Ma and intrusion of dioritic magmas at c. 150-156 Ma, (2) near-adiabatic decompression is featured by partial melting and production of leucogranites at c. 153 Ma, followed by M2 HT-LP conditions (andalusite-K-feldspar). A phase of shearing and recrystallization is ascribed to doming at c. 130-150 Ma and cooling at 400 °C by c. 123 Ma (M3). Structural observations show (1) top to the north shearing during M1 and (2) radial extension during M2. The extensional event ends by emplacement of a thick detrital series along radial S, E and W-dipping normal faults. Further, the crystalline basement is unconformably covered by Upper Cretaceous-Paleocene series dated by nannofossils, evolving from

  1. Electrostatically anchored branched brush layers.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xiaoyan; Dedinaite, Andra; Rutland, Mark; Thormann, Esben; Visnevskij, Ceslav; Makuska, Ricardas; Claesson, Per M

    2012-11-01

    A novel type of block copolymer has been synthesized. It consists of a linear cationic block and an uncharged bottle-brush block. The nonionic bottle-brush block contains 45 units long poly(ethylene oxide) side chains. This polymer was synthesized with the intention of creating branched brush layers firmly physisorbed to negatively charged surfaces via the cationic block, mimicking the architecture (but not the chemistry) of bottle-brush molecules suggested to be present on the cartilage surface, and contributing to the efficient lubrication of synovial joints. The adsorption properties of the diblock copolymer as well as of the two blocks separately were studied on silica surfaces using quartz crystal microbalance with dissipation monitoring (QCM-D) and optical reflectometry. The adsorption kinetics data highlight that the diblock copolymers initially adsorb preferentially parallel to the surface with both the cationic block and the uncharged bottle-brush block in contact with the surface. However, as the adsorption proceeds, a structural change occurs within the layer, and the PEO bottle-brush block extends toward solution, forming a surface-anchored branched brush layer. As the adsorption plateau is reached, the diblock copolymer layer is 46-48 nm thick, and the water content in the layer is above 90 wt %. The combination of strong electrostatic anchoring and highly hydrated branched brush structures provide strong steric repulsion, low friction forces, and high load bearing capacity. The strong electrostatic anchoring also provides high stability of preadsorbed layers under different ionic strength conditions. PMID:23046176

  2. The Trapped Medial Meniscus Tear

    PubMed Central

    Herschmiller, Thomas A.; Anderson, John A.; Garrett, William E.; Taylor, Dean C.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Numerous clinical examination maneuvers have been developed to identify meniscus tears of the knee. While meniscus injuries vary significantly in type and severity, no maneuvers have been developed that help to distinguish particular tear characteristics. Purpose: This nonconsecutive case series highlights a distinctive clinical finding that correlates with inferiorly displaced flap tears of the medial meniscus that become trapped in the medial gutter of the knee, as identified through magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and arthroscopy. Study Design: Cohort study (diagnosis); Level of evidence, 3. Methods: Eight patients with trapped medial meniscus tears were identified from a single surgeon’s academic orthopaedic sports medicine practice between January 2009 and January 2012. Each patient underwent clinical evaluation, MRI, and arthroscopic treatment for meniscus injury. Clinical notes, MRI images, radiology reports, and operative findings were reviewed and compared in a descriptive fashion. Results: Each patient displayed a positive clinical examination finding of medial knee pain inferior to the joint line with flexion and the application of valgus stress in the setting of a torn medial meniscus and intact medial collateral ligament (MCL). Preoperative MRI revealed a distinctive flap tear of the medial meniscus flipped inferiorly to lay trapped between the tibia and deep fibers of the MCL. On arthroscopy, flap tears were found displaced inferiorly and trapped in the medial gutter in 6 of the 8 patients. Displaced meniscal fragments in the remaining 2 patients were found within the medial compartment. Conclusion: Inferiorly displaced flap tears of the meniscus that have been displaced to the medial gutter can be localized through a careful examination technique. Clinical Relevance: Early identification of this injury pattern may help reduce the likelihood that the trapped fragment will be missed during arthroscopy. PMID:26675499

  3. Medial Collateral Ligament (MCL) Injuries

    MedlinePlus

    ... often occur among active teens, especially athletes. A torn medial collateral ligament (MCL) — a ligament that helps ... the more serious injuries. Teens who have a torn MCL tend to play contact sports, like football ...

  4. In Heart Failure Patients with Left Bundle Branch Block Single Lead MultiSpot Left Ventricular Pacing Does Not Improve Acute Hemodynamic Response To Conventional Biventricular Pacing. A Multicenter Prospective, Interventional, Non-Randomized Study

    PubMed Central

    Sterliński, Maciej; Sokal, Adam; Lenarczyk, Radosław; Van Heuverswyn, Frederic; Rinaldi, C. Aldo; Vanderheyden, Marc; Khalameizer, Vladimir; Francis, Darrel; Heynens, Joeri; Stegemann, Berthold; Cornelussen, Richard

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Recent efforts to increase CRT response by multiSPOT pacing (MSP) from multiple bipols on the same left ventricular lead are still inconclusive. Aim The Left Ventricular (LV) MultiSPOTpacing for CRT (iSPOT) study compared the acute hemodynamic response of MSP pacing by using 3 electrodes on a quadripolar lead compared with conventional biventricular pacing (BiV). Methods Patients with left bundle branch block (LBBB) underwent an acute hemodynamic study to determine the %change in LV+dP/dtmax from baseline atrial pacing compared to the following configurations: BiV pacing with the LV lead in a one of lateral veins, while pacing from the distal, mid, or proximal electrode and all 3 electrodes together (i.e. MSP). All measurements were repeated 4 times at 5 different atrioventricular delays. We also measured QRS-width and individual Q-LV durations. Results Protocol was completed in 24 patients, all with LBBB (QRS width 171±20 ms) and 58% ischemic aetiology. The percentage change in LV+dP/dtmax for MSP pacing was 31.0±3.3% (Mean±SE), which was not significantly superior to any BiV pacing configuration: 28.9±3.2% (LV-distal), 28.3±2.7% (LV-mid), and 29.5±3.0% (LV-prox), respectively. Correlation between LV+dP/dtmax and either QRS-width or Q-LV ratio was poor. Conclusions In patients with LBBB MultiSPOT LV pacing demonstrated comparable improvement in contractility to best conventional BiV pacing. Optimization of atrioventricular delay is important for the best performance for both BiV and MultiSPOT pacing configurations. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov NTC01883141 PMID:27124724

  5. Deltoid Branch of Thoracoacromial Vein

    PubMed Central

    Su, Ta-Wei; Wu, Ching-Feng; Fu, Jui-Ying; Ko, Po-Jen; Yu, Sheng-Yueh; Kao, Tsung-Chi; Hsieh, Hong-Chang; Wu, Ching-Yang

    2015-01-01

    Abstract An entry vessel is crucial for intravenous port implantation. A safe alternative entry vessel that can be easily explored is crucial for patients without feasible cephalic vein or for those who need port reimplantation because of disease relapse. In this study, we tried to analyze the safety and feasibility of catheter implantation via the deltoid branch of the thoracoacromial vein. From March 2012 to November 2013, 802 consecutive oncology patients who had received intravenous port implantation via the superior vena cava were enrolled in this study. The functional results and complications of different entry vessels were compared. The majority of patients (93.6%) could be identified as thoracoacromial vessel. The deltoid branch of the thoracoacromial vein is located on the medial aspect of the deltopectoral groove beneath the pectoralis major muscle (85.8%) and in the deep part of the deltopectoral groove (14.2%). Due to the various calibers employed and tortuous routes followed, we utilized 3 different methods for catheter implantation, including vessel cutdown (47.4%), wire assisted (17.9%), and modified puncture method (34.6%). The functional results and complication rate were similar to other entry vessels. The deltoid branch of the thoracoacromial vein is located in the neighborhood of the cephalic vein. The functional results of intravenous port implantation via the deltoid branch of the thoracoacromial vein are similar to other entry vessels. It is a safe alternative entry vessel for intravenous port implantation. PMID:25929903

  6. Medial portion of the cavernous sinus: quantitative analysis of the medial wall.

    PubMed

    Yilmazlar, Selcuk; Kocaeli, Hasan; Aydiner, Fatma; Korfali, Ender

    2005-09-01

    Pituitary tumors invade the cavernous sinus via the medial wall. Researchers have speculated that this wall is composed of dura and that substances secreted by tumors might damage this barrier. In contrast to the lateral wall, little is known about the structure of the medial wall of the cavernous sinus (MWCS). This study provides the first detailed quantitative (thickness) and qualitative (histological) assessment of the MWCS. Eighteen sellar-parasellar tissue blocks were obtained from adult human autopsies. Ten specimens were used for microsurgical dissection and macroscopic anatomical description. Eight specimens were used for histopathological study and for recording computer measurements of MWCS thickness. Each of these eight specimens was divided into three approximately equal-sized pieces, with cuts made in the coronal plane from posterior to anterior starting at the anterior level of the pituitary stalk. Wall thicknesses were compared in the three different regions (posterior, middle, anterior), and also on the left vs. the right sides. The investigations showed that the MWCS is a distinct dural layer that forms a barrier between the medial venous space of the cavernous sinus and the pituitary gland. The mean thickness of the 48 total (left and right) MWCS observed in the 24 sections examined was 0.195 +/- 0.066 mm (range = 0.080-0.387 mm). This wall is composed of loosely arranged collagen fibers that comprise a specific layer known as "meningeal dura." The posterior third of the MWCS was significantly thinner than the middle third (P = 0.0014) or anterior third (P = 0.0001). No macro- or microscopic defects were observed in any of the MWCS in the 18 specimens. The thinness of the posterior MWCS suggests that this is the most likely path for extension of pituitary tumors into the cavernous sinus. PMID:16015624

  7. Bilateral discoid medial menisci: a rare phenomenon

    PubMed Central

    Samal, Puspak; Bhagwat, Kishan; Panigrahi, Tapas; Gopinathan, Nirmalraj

    2014-01-01

    Discoid medial meniscus is a relatively rare pathology of the knee joint, with bilateral cases even rarer. Herein, we report the case of a 25-year-old man diagnosed with discoid medial meniscus in the right knee with a horizontal tear. Increased cupping of the medial condyle of the tibia, widening of the medial joint space and the presence of discoid meniscus in the right knee prompted investigation of the asymptomatic left knee with magnetic resonance imaging. The contralateral asymptomatic knee also showed evidence of discoid medial meniscus. The symptomatic knee was successfully treated by arthroscopic partial meniscectomy, with excellent functional outcome. PMID:25273941

  8. Continuous Medial Representation of Brain Structures Using the Biharmonic PDE

    PubMed Central

    Yushkevich, Paul A.

    2009-01-01

    A new approach for constructing deformable continuous medial models for anatomical structures is presented. Medial models describe geometrical objects by first specifying the skeleton of the object and then deriving the boundary surface corresponding to the skeleton. However, an arbitrary specification of a skeleton will not be “Valid” unless a certain set of sufficient conditions is satisfied. The most challenging of these is the non-linear equality constraint that must hold along the boundaries of the manifolds forming the skeleton. The main contribution of this paper is to leverage the biharmonic partial differential equation as a mapping from a codimension-0 subset of Euclidean space to the space of skeletons that satisfy the equality constraint. The PDE supports robust numerical solution on freeform triangular meshes, providing additional flexibility for shape modeling. The approach is evaluated by generating continuous medial models for a large dataset of hippocampus shapes. Generalizations to modeling more complex shapes and to representing branching skeletons are demonstrated. PMID:19059348

  9. Heart Block

    MedlinePlus

    ... Block Explore Heart Block What Is... Electrical System & EKG Results Types Causes Who Is at Risk Signs & ... heart block. Doctors use a test called an EKG (electrocardiogram) to help diagnose heart block. This test ...

  10. Acute Medial Plantar Fascia Tear.

    PubMed

    Pascoe, Stephanie C; Mazzola, Timothy J

    2016-06-01

    A 32-year-old man who participated in competitive soccer came to physical therapy via direct access for a chief complaint of plantar foot pain. The clinical examination findings and mechanism of injury raised a concern for a plantar fascia tear, so the patient was referred to the physician and magnetic resonance imaging was obtained. The magnetic resonance image confirmed a high-grade, partial-thickness, proximal plantar fascia tear with localized edema at the location of the medial band. J Orthop Sports Phys Ther 2016;46(6):495. doi:10.2519/jospt.2016.0409. PMID:27245491

  11. CONTRIBUTION TO THE ANATOMICAL STUDY OF THE CORTICOPERIOSTEAL FLAP OF THE MEDIAL FEMORAL CONDYLE

    PubMed Central

    Andrade, Rômulo Guimarães; Bufáiçal, Henrique Gubert; Oliveira, Leandro Alves de; Souza, Fabiano Inácio de; Kuwae, Mário Yoshihide; Teixeira da Silva, João Alírio

    2015-01-01

    Objective: to perform the anatomical study, in cadavers, of the corticoperiosteal flap of the medial femoral condyle, based on the medial genicular artery, evaluating challenges in dissection and the topographic patterns. Materials and methods: fifteen limbs from eight cadavers were studied, ages ranging from 19 to 74 years old. They were placed at supine position, and a longitudinal incision on the medial face of the lower part of the thigh was performed, exposing medial vastus and sartorius muscles, with descendent genicular vessels being also exposed. The distance between the descendent genicular artery and the medial articular line of the knee, the diameter of the vessel, the length of the pedicle, and the presence of the fasciocutaneous branch and its location were analyzed. Results: the distance between the origin of the descendent genicular artery and the medial articular line of the knee ranged from 11.2cm to 14.5cm, with an average of 12.63cm. The mean artery diameter was 2.5mm (from 2.25mm to 2.75mm). The distance between the descendent genicular artery and the fasciocutaneous branch ranged from 1.0 to 1.5cm. The mean length of the vascular pedicle was 7.01cm, ranging from 5.6cm to 8.6cm. Conclusion: the corticoperiosteal flap of the medial femoral condyle of the knee is easy to dissect, presents a constant vascular pedicle, with average length of 7.0cm and diameter of 2.5mm, enabling it to be indicated for microsurgical transplants. PMID:27004187

  12. QRS alternans with 2:1 atrioventricular conduction block: what is the mechanism?

    PubMed

    Yamada, Takumi; Tabereaux, Paul B; McElderry, H Thomas; Kay, G Neal

    2008-07-01

    An 81-year-old woman was admitted for symptomatic bradycardia. On admission, the ECG exhibited QRS alternans, narrow QRS complex and left bundle branch block with 2:1 AV block. The patient soon had complete AV block and underwent a pacemaker implantation. An appropriate mechanism for explaining those ECG findings might be 4:1 conduction over the left bundle branch and 2:1 conduction over the right bundle branch. An ECG pattern exhibiting QRS alternans with a narrow QRS complex and bundle branch block with 2:1 AV block may suggest the coexistence of both bundle branch blocks and a high risk of complete AV block. PMID:18713334

  13. Minimally invasive medial hip approach.

    PubMed

    Chiron, P; Murgier, J; Cavaignac, E; Pailhé, R; Reina, N

    2014-10-01

    The medial approach to the hip via the adductors, as described by Ludloff or Ferguson, provides restricted visualization and incurs a risk of neurovascular lesion. We describe a minimally invasive medial hip approach providing broader exposure of extra- and intra-articular elements in a space free of neurovascular structures. With the lower limb in a "frog-leg" position, the skin incision follows the adductor longus for 6cm and then the aponeurosis is incised. A slide plane between all the adductors and the aponeurosis is easily released by blunt dissection, with no interposed neurovascular elements. This gives access to the lesser trochanter, psoas tendon and inferior sides of the femoral neck and head, anterior wall of the acetabulum and labrum. We report a series of 56 cases, with no major complications: this approach allows treatment of iliopsoas muscle lesions and resection or filling of benign tumors of the cervical region and enables intra-articular surgery (arthrolysis, resection of osteophytes or foreign bodies, labral suture). PMID:25164350

  14. Medial Epicondyle Fractures in the Pediatric Overhead Athlete.

    PubMed

    Cruz, Aristides I; Steere, Joshua T; Lawrence, J Todd R

    2016-06-01

    The medial epicondyle serves as the proximal attachment of the medial ulnar collateral ligament and the origin of the flexor pronator musculature and as such it is responsible for resisting the main static and dynamic restraints to valgus force at the elbow. Fractures through the physis in the developing elbow are common and treatment remains controversial. Biomechanical modeling predicts that anterior should be the direction of greatest displacement. Anatomic considerations predict that anterior displacement should have the greatest effect on elbow stability and range of motion making the ulnar collateral ligament too loose in flexion and too tight in extension and potentially leading to valgus laxity in flexion and a block to full extension. In the elite overhead athlete, where elbow stability is critical both for sports performance and the long-term health of the elbow, assessment of anterior displacement is thus theoretically an important consideration. Standard radiographic views cannot adequately assess anterior displacement. Specialized radiographs and 3-dimensional modalities such as computerized tomography and magnetic resonance imaging can adequately assess anterior displacement and in the overhead athlete can sometimes aid in the decision-making process. Here, we present a review of the current literature and the rationale for a treatment algorithm for medial epicondyle fractures in the skeletally immature overhead athlete. PMID:27100037

  15. Origin of Medial and Lateral Pectoral Nerves from the Supraclavicular Part of Brachial Plexus and its Clinical Importance – A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Shetty, Prakashchandra; Nayak, Satheesha B; Kumar, Naveen; Thangarajan, Rajesh; D’Souza, Melanie Rose

    2014-01-01

    Knowledge of normal and anomalous formation of brachial plexus and its branches is of utmost importance to anatomists, clinicians, anesthesiologists and surgeons. Possibility of variations in the origin, course and distribution of branches of brachial plexus must be kept in mind during anesthetizing the brachial plexus, mastectomy and plastic surgery procedures. In the current case, the medial pectoral nerve arose directly from the middle trunk of the brachial plexus and the lateral pectoral nerve arose from the anterior division of the upper trunk of the brachial plexus. The lateral pectoral nerve supplied the pectoralis major and the medial pectoral nerve supplied pectoralis major and pectoralis minor muscles through two separate branches. PMID:24701504

  16. Medial Patella Subluxation: Diagnosis and Treatment

    PubMed Central

    McCarthy, Mark A.; Bollier, Mathew J.

    2015-01-01

    Medial patella subluxation is a disabling condition typically associated with previous patellofemoral instability surgery. Patients often describe achy pain with painful popping episodes. They often report that the patella shifts laterally, which occurs as the medial subluxed patella dramatically shifts into the trochlear groove during early knee flexion. Physical examination is diagnostic with a positive medial subluxation test. Nonoperative treatment, such as focused physical therapy and patellofemoral stabilizing brace, is often unsuccessful. Primary surgical options include lateral retinacular repair/imbrication or lateral reconstruction. Prevention is key to avoid medial patella subluxation. When considering patellofemoral surgery, important factors include appropriate lateral release indications, consideration of lateral retinacular lengthening vs release, correct MPFL graft placement and tension, and avoiding excessive medialization during tubercle transfer. This review article will analyze patient symptoms, diagnostic exam findings and appropriate treatment options, as well as pearls to avoid this painful clinical entity. PMID:26361441

  17. The medial habenula: still neglected.

    PubMed

    Viswanath, Humsini; Carter, Asasia Q; Baldwin, Philip R; Molfese, David L; Salas, Ramiro

    2013-01-01

    The habenula is a small, bilateral brain structure located at the dorsal end of the diencephalon. This structure sends projections to the dopaminergic striatum and receives inputs from the limbic forebrain, making the habenula a unique modulator of cross-talk between these brain regions. Despite strong interest in the habenula during the seventies and eighties (Herkenham and Nauta, 1977; Beckstead, 1979; Beckstead et al., 1979; Herkenham and Nauta, 1979; Caldecott-Hazard et al., 1988), interest waned due to lack of a clearly identifiable functional role. Following Matsumoto and Hikosaka's seminal work on the lateral habenula as a predictor of negative reward in monkeys, the habenula has undergone a resurgence of scientific interest. Matsumoto and Hikosaka demonstrated an increase in habenular neuron firing when monkeys did not receive an expected juice reward (Matsumoto and Hikosaka, 2007). Studies have shown that increased habenular activity inactivates dopaminergic cells in the Rostromedial Tegmental Nucleus (RMTg) through GABAergic mechanisms (Jhou et al., 2009a,b). Additional studies link habenular activity to the regulation of serotonin and norepinephrine, suggesting the habenula modulates multiple brain systems (Strecker and Rosengren, 1989; Amat et al., 2001). These discoveries ushered in a series of new studies that have refocused attention on the lateral habenula and the importance of this small brain structure (Bianco and Wilson, 2009; Jhou et al., 2009a; Matsumoto and Hikosaka, 2009; Sartorius et al., 2010; Savitz et al., 2011). Recently, Geisler and Trimble reviewed this renewed interest in: The Lateral Habenula: No Longer Neglected (Geisler and Trimble, 2008). While the lateral habenula (LHb) has been extensively studied, the anatomically and histochemically distinct medial habenula (MHb) remains largely understudied. This short review argues that the MHb is functionally important and should be studied more aggressively. PMID:24478666

  18. The medial habenula: still neglected

    PubMed Central

    Viswanath, Humsini; Carter, Asasia Q.; Baldwin, Philip R.; Molfese, David L.; Salas, Ramiro

    2013-01-01

    The habenula is a small, bilateral brain structure located at the dorsal end of the diencephalon. This structure sends projections to the dopaminergic striatum and receives inputs from the limbic forebrain, making the habenula a unique modulator of cross-talk between these brain regions. Despite strong interest in the habenula during the seventies and eighties (Herkenham and Nauta, 1977; Beckstead, 1979; Beckstead et al., 1979; Herkenham and Nauta, 1979; Caldecott-Hazard et al., 1988), interest waned due to lack of a clearly identifiable functional role. Following Matsumoto and Hikosaka's seminal work on the lateral habenula as a predictor of negative reward in monkeys, the habenula has undergone a resurgence of scientific interest. Matsumoto and Hikosaka demonstrated an increase in habenular neuron firing when monkeys did not receive an expected juice reward (Matsumoto and Hikosaka, 2007). Studies have shown that increased habenular activity inactivates dopaminergic cells in the Rostromedial Tegmental Nucleus (RMTg) through GABAergic mechanisms (Jhou et al., 2009a,b). Additional studies link habenular activity to the regulation of serotonin and norepinephrine, suggesting the habenula modulates multiple brain systems (Strecker and Rosengren, 1989; Amat et al., 2001). These discoveries ushered in a series of new studies that have refocused attention on the lateral habenula and the importance of this small brain structure (Bianco and Wilson, 2009; Jhou et al., 2009a; Matsumoto and Hikosaka, 2009; Sartorius et al., 2010; Savitz et al., 2011). Recently, Geisler and Trimble reviewed this renewed interest in: The Lateral Habenula: No Longer Neglected (Geisler and Trimble, 2008). While the lateral habenula (LHb) has been extensively studied, the anatomically and histochemically distinct medial habenula (MHb) remains largely understudied. This short review argues that the MHb is functionally important and should be studied more aggressively. PMID:24478666

  19. Characterizing Branched Flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drury, Byron; Klales, Anna; Heller, Eric

    2014-03-01

    Branched flow appears in a variety of physical systems spanning length scales from microns to thousands of kilometers. For instance, it plays an important role in both electron transport in two dimensional electron gases and the propagation of tsunamis in the ocean. Branches have typically been identified with caustics in the theoretical literature, but concentrations of flux recognizable as branches can arise from other mechanisms. We propose a generalized definition of branching based on a local measure of the stability of trajectories. We analytically and numerically study the characteristics of Hamiltonian flow in phase space and characterize the relationship between branch formation and trajectory stability.

  20. Population Blocks.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Martin H.

    1992-01-01

    Describes an educational game called "Population Blocks" that is designed to illustrate the concept of exponential growth of the human population and some potential effects of overpopulation. The game material consists of wooden blocks; 18 blocks are painted green (representing land), 7 are painted blue (representing water); and the remaining…

  1. Medial amygdaloid suppression of predatory attack behavior in the cat: II. Role of a GABAergic pathway from the medial to the lateral hypothalamus.

    PubMed

    Han, Y; Shaikh, M B; Siegel, A

    1996-04-15

    medial amygdaloid stimulation. Furthermore, pretreatment with bicuculline microinjected into the lateral hypothalamus blocked the suppressive effects of substance P, that was infused into the ventromedial hypothalamus, upon predatory attack. Receptor autoradiography demonstrated the presence of high affinity binding for GABAA receptors in the lateral hypothalamus. A combination of immunocytochemical and retrograde axonal tract tracing procedures, in which Fluoro-Gold was microinjected into the lateral hypothalamic attack sites, revealed the presence of populations of neurons labeled for both Fluoro-Gold and GABA in the ventromedial hypothalamus. These findings provide new evidence for the existence of a pathway from the medial to lateral hypothalamus whose functions are mediated by GABA. Thus, the overall findings provide support for the view that the pathway from the medial amygdala to the lateral hypothalamus underlying suppression of predatory attack behavior involves a two-neuronal arc: the first neuron projects from the medial amygdala to the medial hypothalamus and its functions are mediated by substance P: the second neuron involves a GABAergic pathway originating in the ventromedial hypothalamus and which projects to the lateral hypothalamus. PMID:8738222

  2. TopMaker: Technique Developed for Automatic Multiblock Topology Generation Using the Medial Axis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rigby, David L.

    2004-01-01

    The TopMaker technique was developed in an effort to reduce the time required for grid generation in complex numerical studies. Topology generation accounts for much of the man-hours required for structured multiblock grids. With regard to structured multiblock grids, topology refers to how the blocks are arranged and connected. A two-dimensional multiblock topology generation technique has been developed at the NASA Glenn Research Center. Very general configurations can be addressed by the technique. A configuration is defined by a collection of non-intersecting closed curves, which will be referred to as loops. More than a single loop implies that holes exist in the domain, which poses no problem. This technique requires only the medial vertices and the touch points that define each vertex. From the information about the medial vertices, the connectivity between medial vertices is generated. The physical shape of the medial edge is not required. By applying a few simple rules to each medial edge, a multiblock topology can be generated without user intervention. The resulting topologies contain only the level of complexity dictated by the configurations. Grid lines remain attached to the boundary except at sharp concave turns, where a change in index family is introduced as would be desired. Keeping grid lines attached to the boundary is especially important in computational fluid dynamics, where highly clustered grids are used near no-slip boundaries. This technique is simple and robust and can easily be incorporated into the overall grid-generation process.

  3. Medial thighplasty: Current concepts and practices.

    PubMed

    Bertheuil, N; Carloni, R; De Runz, A; Herlin, C; Girard, P; Watier, E; Chaput, B

    2016-02-01

    Medial thighplasty, also known as medial thigh lift, is a procedure that has been carried out for five decades. The original "Lewis" technique has undergone many changes, and thereby been rendered widely available to plastic surgeons. Given the increasingly high number of surgical reconstructions after massive weight loss, this technique is now an integral part of a surgeon's therapeutic arsenal as he strives to meet the evolving demands of patients. The objective of this article, which is based on a comprehensive review of the literature, is to summarize current knowledge on medial thighplasty and thereby allow plastic surgeons to adopt the operating technique best suited to the deformations presented by their patients and to the overall context. The different techniques, outcomes and complications are successively discussed. PMID:26433317

  4. Melons are Branched Polymers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gurau, Razvan; Ryan, James P.

    2014-11-01

    Melonic graphs constitute the family of graphs arising at leading order in the 1/N expansion of tensor models. They were shown to lead to a continuum phase, reminiscent of branched polymers. We show here that they are in fact precisely branched polymers, that is, they possess Hausdorff dimension 2 and spectral dimension 4/3.

  5. Effects of implant stiffness, shape, and medialization depth on the acoustic outcomes of medialization laryngoplasty

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Zhaoyan; Chhetri, Dinesh K.; Bergeron, Jennifer L.

    2014-01-01

    Objective Medialization laryngoplasty is commonly used to treat glottic insufficiency. In this study, we investigated the effects of implant stiffness (Young’s modulus), medialization depth, and implant medial surface shape on acoustic outcomes. Study Design Basic science study using ex vivo laryngeal phonation model. Methods In an ex vivo human larynx phonation model, bilateral medialization laryngoplasties were performed with implants of varying stiffness, medial surface shape (rectangular, divergent and convergent), and varying depths of medialization. The subglottal pressure, the flow rate, and the outside sound were measured as the implant parameters were varied. Results Medialization through the use of implants generally improved the harmonic-to-noise ratio (HNR) and the number of harmonics excited in the outside sound spectra. The degree of acoustic improvement depended on the implant insertion depth, stiffness, and to a lesser degree implant shape. Varying implant insertion depth led to large variations in phonation for stiff implants, but had much smaller effects for soft implants. Conclusions Implants with stiffness comparable to vocal folds provided more consistent improvement in acoustic outcomes across different implant conditions. Further investigations are required to better understand the underlying mechanisms. PMID:25499519

  6. Freestyle perforator-based propeller flap of medial arm for medial elbow reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Zang, Mengqing; Yu, Shengji; Xu, Libin; Zhao, Zhenguo; Ding, Qiang; Guo, Lingling; Liu, Yuanbo

    2015-07-01

    Elbow reconstruction is challenging for reconstructive surgeons. The purpose of this report is to present the results of the use of freestyle perforator-based propeller flap designed from the medial arm region for elbow reconstruction. The defects following soft tissue sarcoma resection at the medial and posterior elbow were repaired in two patients. The dimensions of the defects were 11 × 7 cm(2) and 10 × 7 cm(2). Two perforators were identified in each case using Doppler ultrasound probe in the medial arm, adjacent to the defect. The perforator with visible pulsation was chosen as the pedicle vessel, which was 12-cm and 7-cm proximal to the medial epicondyle. An elliptical flap, extending almost the full length of arm, was raised and rotated 180° to repair medial elbow defects. The sizes of the flaps were 17 × 8 cm(2) and 11 × 7 cm(2). The donor sites were closed directly. Both flaps survived; temporary venous congestion occurred in one case. There were no other postoperative complications. These cases illustrated that the medial arm flap might be used for reconstruction of medial elbow defects with this freestyle perforator-based propeller flap design. PMID:25417774

  7. Ionic Blocks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sevcik, Richard S.; Gamble, Rex; Martinez, Elizabet; Schultz, Linda D.; Alexander, Susan V.

    2008-01-01

    "Ionic Blocks" is a teaching tool designed to help middle school students visualize the concepts of ions, ionic compounds, and stoichiometry. It can also assist high school students in reviewing their subject mastery. Three dimensional blocks are used to represent cations and anions, with color indicating charge (positive or negative) and size…

  8. Medial elbow injury in young throwing athletes

    PubMed Central

    Gregory, Bonnie; Nyland, John

    2013-01-01

    Summary This report reviews the anatomy, overhead throwing biomechanics, injury mechanism and incidence, physical examination and diagnosis, diagnostic imaging and conservative treatment of medial elbow injuries in young throwing athletes. Based on the information a clinical management decision-making algorithm is presented. PMID:23888291

  9. Empty Consonants in Root-Medial Position.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marlett, Stephen A.

    This analysis of verb morphology in Seri finds evidence that empty consonants occur in root-medial position. Analysis focuses on the parallel conjugation patterns of the verbs for "know" and "give," finding an empty consonant slot in the middle of each. This position is never preceded by a consonant, so it never appears as a geminated consonant,…

  10. [Arthritis of the Medial Knee Joint Compartment].

    PubMed

    Matziolis, G; Röhner, E

    2015-10-01

    23 % of all persons older than 65 years suffer from osteoarthritis of the medial compartment of the knee joint, a very common situation in orthopaedic practice 1. As a result of the demographic trend the number of patients is expected to increase in the future. Based on specific joint biomechanics and kinematics the medial knee joint compartment is more frequently affected than the lateral. Only an understanding of the functional anatomy and underlying pathology allows a critical evaluation of different available conservative and operative treatment options. This article gives an overview of diagnostic and therapeutic strategies of osteoarthritis of the medial knee joint. Frequently performed surgeries, e.g. high tibial osteotomy (HTO), unicompartmental knee arthroplasty (UKA) and total knee arthroplasty (TKA) will be presented in a comparative manner. The actual scientific evidence will be given with the goal of an evidence based therapy that is adopted to stage and pathology of osteoarthritis of the medial compartment of the knee joint. PMID:26451864

  11. Femoral neck version affects medial femorotibial loading.

    PubMed

    Papaioannou, T A; Digas, Georgios; Bikos, Ch; Karamoulas, V; Magnissalis, E A

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to provide a preliminary evaluation of the possible effect that femoral version may have on the bearing equilibrium conditions developed on the medial tibiofemoral compartment. A digital 3D solid model of the left physiological adult femur was used to create morphological variations of different neck-shaft angles (varus 115, normal 125, and valgus 135 degrees) and version angles (-10, 0, and +10 degrees). By means of finite element modeling and analysis techniques (FEM-FEA), a virtual experiment was executed with the femoral models aligned in a neutral upright position, distally supported on a fully congruent tibial tray and proximally loaded with a vertical only hip joint load of 2800 N. Equivalent stresses and their distribution on the medial compartment were computed and comparatively evaluated. Within our context, the neck-shaft angle proved to be of rather indifferent influence. Reduction of femoral version, however, appeared as the most influencing parameter regarding the tendency of the medial compartment to establish its bearing equilibrium towards posteromedial directions, as a consequence of the corresponding anteroposterior changes of the hip centre over the horizontal tibiofemoral plane. We found a correlation between femoral anteversion and medial tibiofemoral compartment contact pressure. Our findings will be further elucidated by more sophisticated FEM-FEA and by clinical studies that are currently planned. PMID:24959355

  12. Affective Aprosodia from a Medial Frontal Stroke

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heilman, Kenneth M.; Leon, Susan A.; Rosenbek, John C.

    2004-01-01

    Background and objectives: Whereas injury to the left hemisphere induces aphasia, injury to the right hemisphere's perisylvian region induces an impairment of emotional speech prosody (affective aprosodia). Left-sided medial frontal lesions are associated with reduced verbal fluency with relatively intact comprehension and repetition…

  13. Materials Test Branch

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gordon, Gail

    2012-01-01

    The Materials Test Branch resides at Marshall Space Flight Center's Materials and Processing laboratory and has a long history of supporting NASA programs from Mercury to the recently retired Space Shuttle. The Materials Test Branch supports its customers by supplying materials testing expertise in a wide range of applications. The Materials Test Branch is divided into three Teams, The Chemistry Team, The Tribology Team and the Mechanical Test Team. Our mission and goal is to provide world-class engineering excellence in materials testing with a special emphasis on customer service.

  14. Importance of anatomically locating the infrapatellar branch of the saphenous nerve in reconstructing the anterior cruciate ligament using flexor tendons☆☆☆

    PubMed Central

    Gali, Julio Cesar; Resina, André França; Pedro, Gabriel; Neto, Ildefonso Angelo Mora; Almagro, Marco Antonio Pires; da Silva, Phelipe Augusto Cintra; Caetano, Edie Benedito

    2014-01-01

    Objective To describe the path of the infrapatellar branch of the saphenous nerve (IBSN) using the medial joint line, anterior tibial tuberosity (ATT), tibial collateral ligament and a horizontal line parallel to the medial joint line that passes over the ATT, as reference points, in order to help surgeons to diminish the likelihood of injuring this nerve branch during reconstruction of the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) using flexor tendons. Methods Ten frozen knees that originated from amputations were examined. Through anatomical dissection performed with the specimens flexed, we sought to find the IBSN, from its most medial and proximal portion to its most lateral and distal portion. Following this, the anatomical specimens were photographed and, using the ImageJ software, we determined the distance from the IBSN to the medial joint line and to a lower horizontal line going through the ATT and parallel to the first line. We also measured the angle of the direction of the path of the nerve branch in relation to this lower line. Results The mean angle of the path of the nerve branch in relation to the lower horizontal line was 17.50 ± 6.17°. The mean distance from the IBSN to the medial joint line was 2.61 ± 0.59 cm and from the IBSN to the lower horizontal line, 1.44 ± 0.51 cm. Conclusion The IBSN was found in all the knees studied. In three knees, we found a second branch proximal to the first one. The direction of its path was always from proximal and medial to distal and lateral. The IBSN was always proximal and medial to the ATT and distal to the medial joint line. The medial angle between its direction and a horizontal line going through the ATT was 17.50 ± 6.17°. PMID:26229872

  15. Composite tissue flap at perforating branches of saphenous artery: a new design for repairing composite tissue defects in anterior knee

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Guangfeng; Nie, Kaiyu; Jin, Wenhu; Wei, Zairong; Qi, Jianping; Wang, Dali

    2015-01-01

    So far it has been difficult to repair and reconstruct the composite tissue defects in knee. Saphenous artery flap has been widely used to repair complex wounds, but the design and clinical application of composite tissue flap at perforating branches of saphenous artery were not reported. In this research, we design a new composite tissue flap by carrying fascial flap in the medial gastrocnemius muscle with perforators flap in saphenous artery to repair and reconstruct the composite tissue defects in knee. By anatomic observation and analysis, we find that there exists blood-supply in netty form among saphenous arteries, medial artery below the knee, intermuscular branch in high-order position of posterior tibial artery and perforating branch in medial artery of calf. We chose saphenous artery as blood-supplying artery; utilized the netty blood-supplying mode in middle-up and medial part of shank; cut the composite tissue flap at perforating branches of saphenous artery with fascial flap carried in the medial gastrocnemius muscle; reconstructed the ligamentum patellae using medial head of gastrocnemius muscle and Achilles’s tendon; and covered the wounds at front side of knee with flap. Composite tissues were survived completely, free from infection at wounds and exosmosis of joint fluid. Motion function of knee-joint proved satisfactory, and ambulatory function was recovered. There was no complication in donor site. Composite tissue flap at perforating branches of saphenous artery with fascial flap carried in the medial gastrocnemius muscle is one of the most ideal solutions for repairing the composite tissue defects at front side of knee joint. PMID:26885090

  16. Ultrasound guidance of uncommon nerve blocks

    PubMed Central

    Thallaj, Ahmed

    2011-01-01

    In the past nerve stimulation was considered the standard tool for anesthesiologists to locate the peripheral nerve for nerve blocks. However, with the recent introduction of ultrasound (US) technology for regional anesthesia, the use of nerve stimulation has become a rarity nowadays. There is a growing interest by most anesthesiologists in using US for nerve blocks because of its simplicity and accuracy. US is now available in most hospitals practicing regional anesthesia and is a popular tool for performance of nerve blocks. Although nerve stimulation became a rarity, however the use of it is now limited to identify small nerve structures, such as greater auricular nerve and medial antebrachial cutaneous nerve of the forearm. However, in this review article we discuss the role of ultrasonography for greater auricular and antebrachial cutaneous nerve blocks, which could replace nerve stimulation technique. We look at the available literature on the role of US for the performance of uncommon nerve blocks and its benefits. PMID:22144927

  17. Medial and lateral discoid menisci: a case report.

    PubMed

    Kim, Sung-Jae; Lubis, Andri Mt

    2010-01-01

    Discoid menisci on both medial and lateral tibial plateau are very rare abnormalities. We report a 44-year-old woman with bilateral medial and lateral discoid menisci. She also had anomalous insertion of discoid medial meniscus to anterior cruciate ligament, and pathologic medial patellar plica on the right knee. Meniscectomies has been performed for her torn discoid menisci with satisfactory result on the latest follow-up. PMID:20731824

  18. Medial and lateral discoid menisci: a case report

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Discoid menisci on both medial and lateral tibial plateau are very rare abnormalities. We report a 44-year-old woman with bilateral medial and lateral discoid menisci. She also had anomalous insertion of discoid medial meniscus to anterior cruciate ligament, and pathologic medial patellar plica on the right knee. Meniscectomies has been performed for her torn discoid menisci with satisfactory result on the latest follow-up. PMID:20731824

  19. The Olive Branch Awards.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harnack, William

    1984-01-01

    The first annual Olive Branch Awards, sponsored by the Writers' and Publishers Alliance and the Editors' Organizing Committee, were given to ten magazines, out of 60 that submitted entries. Winning entries are described briefly. (IM)

  20. Discoid medial meniscus. Varied presentation of 3 knees.

    PubMed

    Vidyadhara, S; Rao, Sharath K; Rao, Sripathi

    2006-06-01

    Discoid medial meniscus is a rarity. We present 2 cases, one with bilateral discoid medial menisci, and the other with both medial and lateral discoid menisci in the same knee. The radiological, MRI and arthroscopic findings in these knees and their association with various synovial plicae have been described. Both patients had good results after arthroscopic subtotal meniscectomy. PMID:16758058

  1. Branch retinal vein occlusion.

    PubMed

    Hamid, Sadaf; Mirza, Sajid Ali; Shokh, Ishrat

    2008-01-01

    Retinal vein occlusions (RVO) are the second commonest sight threatening vascular disorder. Branch retinal vein occlusion (BRVO) and central retinal vein occlusion (CRVO) are the two basic types of vein occlusion. Branch retinal vein occlusion is three times more common than central retinal vein occlusion and- second only to diabetic retinopathy as the most common retinal vascular cause of visual loss. The origin of branch retinal vein occlusion undoubtedly includes both systemic factors such as hypertension and local anatomic factors such as arteriovenous crossings. Branch retinal vein occlusion causes a painless decrease in vision, resulting in misty or distorted vision. Current treatment options don't address the underlying aetiology of branch retinal vein occlusion. Instead they focus on treating sequelae of the occluded venous branch, such as macular oedema, vitreous haemorrhage and traction retinal detachment from neovascularization. Evidences suggest that the pathogenesis of various types of retinal vein occlusion, like many other ocular vascular occlusive disorders, is a multifactorial process and there is no single magic bullet that causes retinal vein occlusion. A comprehensive management of patients with retinal vascular occlusions is necessary to correct associated diseases or predisposing abnormalities that could lead to local recurrences or systemic event. Along with a review of the literature, a practical approach for the management of retinal vascular occlusions is required, which requires collaboration between the ophthalmologist and other physicians: general practitioner, cardiologist, internist etc. as appropriate according to each case. PMID:19385476

  2. Anatomic variations of anterior cerebral artery cortical branches.

    PubMed

    Stefani, M A; Schneider, F L; Marrone, A C; Severino, A G; Jackowski, A P; Wallace, M C

    2000-01-01

    The anterior cerebral artery (ACA) is a major vessel responsible for the blood supply to the interhemispheric region. The ACA segment after the anterior communicating artery (AComA) origin is called the distal ACA and has central and cortical branches. The cortical branches are distributed in the different regions of the orbital and medial part of the brain. The objects of this study are the anatomical variations found in the distal ACA. In 76 hemispheres the ACA distal branches were injected with latex and dissected under microscope magnification. Vessel diameters and distances between vessel origins and anterior communicating artery were recorded and analyzed. Microsurgical dissection was carried out to demonstrate anatomic variations of these vessels. Average diameter of ACA at origin was 2.61 +/- 0.34 mm and average diameter of cortical branches diameter ranged from 0.79 +/- 0.27 mm to 1.84 +/- 0.3 mm. Distances between vessel origin and AComA ranged from 7.68 +/- 3.91 mm (orbitofrontal) to 112.6 +/- 11.63 mm (inferior internal parietal). This study found anatomical variations: a single (azygos) ACA was present in one case and three in three cases. Crossing branches of the distal ACA to the contralateral hemisphere were present in 26% of the cases. In some cases a single ACA may supply the posterior hemispheric region through crossing branches. This calls attention to potential bilateral brain infarcts due to a single unilateral ACA occlusion. PMID:10873213

  3. Speed cells in the medial entorhinal cortex.

    PubMed

    Kropff, Emilio; Carmichael, James E; Moser, May-Britt; Moser, Edvard I

    2015-07-23

    Grid cells in the medial entorhinal cortex have spatial firing fields that repeat periodically in a hexagonal pattern. When animals move, activity is translated between grid cells in accordance with the animal's displacement in the environment. For this translation to occur, grid cells must have continuous access to information about instantaneous running speed. However, a powerful entorhinal speed signal has not been identified. Here we show that running speed is represented in the firing rate of a ubiquitous but functionally dedicated population of entorhinal neurons distinct from other cell populations of the local circuit, such as grid, head-direction and border cells. These 'speed cells' are characterized by a context-invariant positive, linear response to running speed, and share with grid cells a prospective bias of ∼50-80 ms. Our observations point to speed cells as a key component of the dynamic representation of self-location in the medial entorhinal cortex. PMID:26176924

  4. Mechanoreceptors in the human medial meniscus.

    PubMed

    Zimny, M L; Albright, D J; Dabezies, E

    1988-01-01

    Medial menisci, obtained at autopsy, were sectioned into radial segments which were stained in bulk using a modified gold chloride method following pretreatment with Triton X-100. Segments were then sectioned on a sliding microtome at 100 microns, mounted on slides, dehydrated and coverslipped. Axons were seen penetrating from the perimeniscal tissue into the outer third of the meniscus with a heavier concentration at the horns. Neural elements were identified in the perimeniscal tissue and in the outer and middle thirds of the meniscus, but not in the inner third. The medial meniscus is capable of afferent input to the central nervous system of importance to the biomechanical function of the joint. PMID:3213403

  5. Medial epicondyle fractures in the pediatric population.

    PubMed

    Gottschalk, Hilton P; Eisner, Eric; Hosalkar, Harish S

    2012-04-01

    Humeral medial epicondyle fractures in the pediatric population account for up to 20% of elbow fractures, 60% of which are associated with elbow dislocation. Isolated injuries can occur from either direct trauma or avulsion. Medial epicondyle fractures also occur in combination with elbow dislocations. Traditional management by cast immobilization increasingly is being replaced with early fixation and mobilization. Relative indications for surgical fixation include ulnar nerve entrapment, gross elbow instability, and fractures in athletic or other patients who require high-demand upper extremity function. Absolute indications for surgical intervention are an incarcerated fragment in the joint or open fractures. Radiographic assessment of these injuries and their true degree of displacement remain controversial. PMID:22474092

  6. [SECOT consensus on medial femorotibial osteoarthritis].

    PubMed

    Moreno, A; Silvestre, A; Carpintero, P

    2013-01-01

    A consensus, prepared by SECOT, is presented on the management of medial knee compartment osteoarthritis, in order to establish clinical criteria and recommendations directed at unifying the criteria in its management, dealing with the factors involved in the pathogenesis of medial femorotibial knee osteoarthritis, the usefulness of diagnostic imaging techniques, and the usefulness of arthroscopy. Conservative and surgical treatments are also analysed. The experts consulted showed a consensus (agreed or disagreed) in 65.8% of the items considered, leaving 14items where no consensus was found, which included the aetiopathogenesis of the osteoarthritis, the value of NMR in degenerative disease, the usefulness of COX-2 and the chondroprotective drugs, as well as on the ideal valgus tibial osteotomy technique. PMID:24169227

  7. Medial Cochlear Efferent Function: A Theoretical Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mountain, David C.

    2011-11-01

    Since the discovery of the cochlear efferent system, many hypotheses have been put forth for its function. These hypotheses for its function range from protecting the cochlea from over stimulation to improving the detection of sounds in noise. It is known that the medial efferent system innervates the outer hair cells and that stimulation of this system reduces basilar membrane and auditory nerve sensitivity which suggests that this system acts to decrease the gain of the cochlear amplifier. Here I present modeling results as well as analysis of published experimental data that suggest that the function of the medial efferent reflex is to decrease the cochlear amplifier gain by just the right amount so that the nonlinearity in the basilar membrane response lines up perfectly with the inner hair cell nonlinear transduction process to produce a hair cell receptor potential that is proportional to the logarithm of the sound pressure level.

  8. Stress fracture of the medial malleolus.

    PubMed

    Orava, S; Karpakka, J; Taimela, S; Hulkko, A; Permi, J; Kujala, U

    1995-03-01

    We studied eight patients who had a stress fracture of the medial malleolus. The main symptom was localized pain on the medial side of the ankle. The initial radiographs revealed the lesion for only three patients; for the other patients, the diagnosis was made with the use of isotope scans and was confirmed with computerized tomography scans, magnetic resonance images, or subsequent plain radiographs. One vertical fracture was treated initially with compression with AO screws. On the basis of our experience with stress fractures in other bones, drilling was performed to enhance the formation of bone in two patients who had delayed healing and who had had symptoms for eight and twelve months. The fractures healed four and five months after the drilling. The five patients who were managed non-operatively had to avoid running and jumping for at least three months (average, four months) so that healing could take place. All five of these fractures healed within five months. PMID:7890784

  9. Usefulness of the Medial Portal during Hip Arthroscopy

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Chan; Hwang, Jung-Mo; Park, Eugene J.

    2015-01-01

    The current conventional portals for hip arthroscopic surgery are the anterior, anterolateral, and posterolateral portals. For lesions in the medial anteroinferior or posteroinferior portion of the hip, these portals provide insufficient access to the lesion and consequently lead to incomplete treatment. Thus, in such a situation, a medial portal approach might be helpful. However, operators have avoided this procedure because of the risk of injury to the obturator, femoral neurovascular structures, and the medial femoral circumflex artery. Thus, to overcome the disadvantages of the conventional method for medial lesions of the hip, we performed a cadaveric study to evaluate the technique, usefulness, and risk of the medial portal technique. PMID:26330964

  10. Posterior sternoclavicular Salter-Harris fracture-dislocation in a patient with unossified medial clavicle epiphysis.

    PubMed

    Beckmann, Nicholas; Crawford, Lindsay

    2016-08-01

    Sternoclavicular injuries are relatively rare, composing less than 1 % of all musculoskeletal fractures or dislocations. When sternoclavicular injuries do occur, they typically present as an isolated dislocation of the sternoclavicular joint without associated fracture of the clavicle or manubrium. However, in patients with unfused medial clavicle physis, sternoclavicular joint injuries can present as a fracture-dislocation through the unfused physis. These physeal injuries are important to recognize as the displaced epiphysis can block reduction of the sternoclavicular joint. We present a case of a 15-year-old female basketball player presenting with suspected sternoclavicular joint injury after sustaining a direct blow to the left shoulder. An initial shoulder CT confirmed the presence of the clinically suspected posterior sternoclavicular dislocation without fracture identified. An MRI of the left sternoclavicular joint was then performed for suspected physeal fracture, which confirmed the presence of a fracture through the medial clavicle physis with anterior displacement of the unossified epiphysis, blocking reduction of the metaphysis. Given the findings on MRI, the pediatric orthropedic surgeon was able to counsel the family of the high likelihood of failed closed reduction of the sternoclavicular joint requiring conversion to open reduction and internal fixation. The patient underwent successful open reduction and internal fixation of the medial clavical physeal fracture after an initial gentle attempt at closed reduction was unsuccessful. PMID:27107998

  11. Anomalous insertion of the medial menisci.

    PubMed

    Jung, Y B; Yum, J K; Bae, Y J; Song, K S

    1998-01-01

    Many types of meniscal anomalies have been reported. The authors encountered two cases of anomalous insertion of the anterior horn of the medial menisci to the lateral femoral condyle, which ran up along the course of the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL), but was independent of the ACL. These anomalies were noted during arthroscopic examination and surgery of the ipsilateral knee for a torn discoid meniscus and a patellar fracture. A 34-year-old woman had a horizontal tear of the lateral discoid meniscus. We performed arthroscopic partial meniscectomy of the inner torn portion of the lateral discoid meniscus and contoured it to resemble a normal meniscus. An anomalous insertion of the medial meniscus was found on examination of the joint during surgery. A 32-year-old man had a patellar fracture and we performed reduction under arthroscopy and internal fixation with cannulated screws. The same anomalous insertion of the medial meniscus was also found on examination of the joint during surgery. We report the cases with a review of the literature. PMID:9681544

  12. Branch of the canalis sinuosus: a rare anatomical variation--a case report.

    PubMed

    Torres, Marianna Guanaes Gomes; de Faro Valverde, Ludmila; Vidal, Manuela Torres Andion; Crusoé-Rebello, Iêda Margarida

    2015-09-01

    The canalis sinuosus (CS) is a neurovascular canal, a branch of the infraorbital canal through which the anterior superior alveolar nerve passes. There are no studies or case reports of anatomical variations related to this canal. A rare case of anatomical variation in the CS is reported that was detected by cone beam computed tomography done in a 47-year-old female as a pre-operative workup before dental implants. In this case, in the region slightly medial to tooth 23, a wide accessory branch from the CS was observed, running an intraosseous course in the inferior and posterior direction up to a foramen located in the hard palate, slightly medial in relation to tooth 23. The location of this branching, as well as its neurovascular component, is important for dental implant planning because of its proximity to the upper teeth. Identification of neurovascular bundles is fundamental to avoid complications for the patient. PMID:25616849

  13. Unusual and Unique Variant Branches of Lateral Cord of Brachial Plexus and its Clinical Implications- A Cadaveric Study

    PubMed Central

    Padur, Ashwini Aithal; Shanthakumar, Swamy Ravindra; Shetty, Surekha Devadas; Prabhu, Gayathri Sharath; Patil, Jyothsna

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Adequate knowledge on variant morphology of brachial plexus and its branches are important in clinical applications pertaining to trauma and surgical procedures of the upper extremity. Aim Current study was aimed to report variations of the branches of the lateral cord of brachial plexus in the axilla and their possible clinical complications. Materials and Methods Total number of 82 upper limbs from 41 formalin embalmed cadavers was dissected. Careful observation was made to note the formation and branching pattern of lateral cord. Meticulous inspection for absence of branches, presence of additional or variant branches and presence of abnormal communications between its branches or with branches of other cords was carried out. Results In the present study, we noted varied branching pattern of lateral cord in 6 out of 82 limbs (7%). In one of the limb, the median nerve was formed by three roots; two from lateral cord and one from medial cord. Two limbs had absence of lateral pectoral nerve supplemented by medial pectoral nerves. One of which had an atypical ansa pectoralis. In 2 upper limbs, musculocutaneous nerve was absent and in both cases it was supplemented by median nerve. In one of the limb, coracobrachialis had dual nerve supply by musculocutaneous nerve and by an additional branch from the lateral cord. Conclusion Variations of brachial plexus and its branches could pose both intraoperative and postoperative complications which eventually affect the normal sensory and motor functions of the upper limb. PMID:27190783

  14. Application of Additional Medial Plate in Treatment of Proximal Humeral Fractures With Unstable Medial Column

    PubMed Central

    He, Yu; He, Jiliang; Wang, Fu; Zhou, Dongsheng; Wang, Yan; Wang, Bomin; Xu, Shihong

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The purpose of this study was to use finite element analysis to compare the biomechanical characteristics after lateral locking plate (LLP) or LLP with a medial anatomical locking plate (LLP-MLP) fixation of proximal humeral fractures with an unstable medial column. First, a 3-dimensional, finite element analysis model was developed. Next, LLP and LLP-MLP implants were instrumented into the proximal humeral fracture models. Compressive and rotational loads were then applied to the humerus model to determine the biomechanical characteristics. Both normal and osteoporotic proximal humerus fractures were simulated using 2 internal fixation methods each under 7 loading conditions. To assess the biomechanical characteristics, the construct stiffness, fracture micromotion, and stress distribution on the implants were recorded and compared. The LLP-MLP method provided both lateral and medial support that reduced the stress on the LLP and the amount of displacement in the fracture region. In contrast, the LLP method resulted in more instability in the medial column and larger magnitudes of stress. In osteoporotic bone, the LLP was more inclined to fail than LLP-MLP. The LLP-MLP method provides a strong support for the medial column and increases the stability of the region surrounding the fracture. PMID:26469918

  15. Damage Tolerance Assessment Branch

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walker, James L.

    2013-01-01

    The Damage Tolerance Assessment Branch evaluates the ability of a structure to perform reliably throughout its service life in the presence of a defect, crack, or other form of damage. Such assessment is fundamental to the use of structural materials and requires an integral blend of materials engineering, fracture testing and analysis, and nondestructive evaluation. The vision of the Branch is to increase the safety of manned space flight by improving the fracture control and the associated nondestructive evaluation processes through development and application of standards, guidelines, advanced test and analytical methods. The Branch also strives to assist and solve non-aerospace related NDE and damage tolerance problems, providing consultation, prototyping and inspection services.

  16. Pen Branch delta expansion

    SciTech Connect

    Nelson, E.A.; Christensen, E.J.; Mackey, H.E.; Sharitz, R.R.; Jensen, J.R.; Hodgson, M.E.

    1984-02-01

    Since 1954, cooling water discharges from K Reactor ({anti X} = 370 cfs {at} 59 C) to Pen Branch have altered vegetation and deposited sediment in the Savannah River Swamp forming the Pen Branch delta. Currently, the delta covers over 300 acres and continues to expand at a rate of about 16 acres/yr. Examination of delta expansion can provide important information on environmental impacts to wetlands exposed to elevated temperature and flow conditions. To assess the current status and predict future expansion of the Pen Branch delta, historic aerial photographs were analyzed using both basic photo interpretation and computer techniques to provide the following information: (1) past and current expansion rates; (2) location and changes of impacted areas; (3) total acreage presently affected. Delta acreage changes were then compared to historic reactor discharge temperature and flow data to see if expansion rate variations could be related to reactor operations.

  17. Branch classification: A new mechanism for improving branch predictor performance

    SciTech Connect

    Chang, P.Y.; Hao, E.; Patt, Y.; Yeh, T.Y.

    1996-04-01

    There is wide agreement that one of the most significant impediments to the performance of current and future pipelined superscalar processors is the presence of conditional branches in the instruction stream. Speculative execution is one solution to the branch problem, but speculative work is discarded if a branch is mispredicted. For it to be effective, speculative work is discarded if a branch is mispredicted. For it to be effective, speculative execution requires a very accurate branch predictor; 95% accuracy is not good enough. This paper proposes branch classification, a methodology for building more accurate branch predictors. Branch classification allows an individual branch instruction to be associated with the branch predictor best suited to predict its direction. Using this approach, a hybrid branch predictor can be constructed such that each component branch predictor predicts those branches for which it is best suited. To demonstrate the usefulness of branch classification, an example classification scheme is given and a new hybrid predictor is built based on this scheme which achieves a higher prediction accuracy than any branch predictor previously reported in the literature.

  18. Multimodal efferent and recurrent neurons in the medial lobes of cockroach mushroom bodies.

    PubMed

    Li, Y; Strausfeld, N J

    1999-07-12

    Previous electrophysiological studies of cockroach mushroom bodies demonstrated the sensitivity of efferent neurons to multimodal stimuli. The present account describes the morphology and physiology of several types of efferent neurons with dendrites in the medial lobes. In general, efferent neurons respond to a variety of modalities in a context-specific manner, responding to specific combinations or specific sequences of multimodal stimuli. Efferent neurons that show endogenous activity have dendritic specializations that extend to laminae of Kenyon cell axons equipped with many synaptic vesicles, termed "dark" laminae. Efferent neurons that are active only during stimulation have dendritic specializations that branch mainly among Kenyon cell axons having few vesicles and forming the "pale" laminae. A new category of "recurrent" efferent neuron has been identified that provides feedback or feedforward connections between different parts of the mushroom body. Some of these neurons are immunopositive to antibodies raised against the inhibitory transmitter gamma-aminobutyric acid. Feedback pathways to the calyces arise from satellite neuropils adjacent to the medial lobes, which receive axon collaterals of efferent neurons. Efferent neurons are uniquely identifiable. Each morphological type occurs at the same location in the mushroom bodies of different individuals. Medial lobe efferent neurons terminate in the lateral protocerebrum among the endings of antennal lobe projection neurons. It is suggested that information about the sensory context of olfactory (or other) stimuli is relayed by efferent neurons to the lateral protocerebrum where it is integrated with information about odors relayed by antennal lobe projection neurons. PMID:10376745

  19. Radioiodinated branched carbohydrates

    DOEpatents

    Goodman, Mark M.; Knapp, Jr., Furn F.

    1989-01-01

    A radioiodinated branched carbohydrate for tissue imaging. Iodine-123 is stabilized in the compound by attaching it to a vinyl functional group that is on the carbohydrate. The compound exhibits good uptake and retention and is promising in the development of radiopharmaceuticals for brain, heart and tumor imaging.

  20. Front Range Branch Officers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    The Front Range Branch of AGU has installed officers for 1990: Ray Noble, National Center for Atmospheric Research, chair; Sherry Oaks, U.S. Geological Survey, chair-elect; Howard Garcia, NOAA, treasurer; Catharine Skokan, Colorado School of Mines, secretary. JoAnn Joselyn of NOAA is past chair. Members at large are Wallace Campbell, NOAA; William Neff, USGS; and Stephen Schneider, NCAR.

  1. Discoid medial meniscus completely coalesced with the anterior cruciate ligament.

    PubMed

    Joshi, Deepak; Jain, Vineet; Goyal, Ankit; Bahl, Vibhu; Chaudhary, Deepak

    2013-11-01

    Discoid meniscus is an abnormality of the knee in which the meniscus is discoid rather than semilunar in shape. Medial discoid menisci are rare, and no specific associated symptoms suggest this condition. Several medial meniscus anomalies, including discoid variants, have been reported in the literature. This article describes a rare case of medial discoid meniscus completely coalesced with the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL). A 22-year-old man presented with intermittent right knee pain of 6 months' duration. Physical examination revealed mild wasting of the quadriceps with medial joint line tenderness but no effusion. Radiographically, hypoplasia of the lateral tibial spine, increased medial joint space, and increased concavity of the medial tibial condyle were noted in both knees. Arthroscopic examination revealed a complete discoid medial meniscus that was contiguous with the ACL. On probing, a horizontal tear in the medial meniscus was noted. A meniscectomy was performed, and deep longitudinal furrows with exposed subchondral bone were noted underlying the posteromedial tibial condyle. At the patient's 6-month follow-up visit, he had no knee symptoms and had returned to his daily activities, which included jogging. Discoid medial meniscus is a rare anomaly, and this case represents only the second reported in the literature of discoid medial meniscus completely coalesced with ACL. This case supports the theory that the ACL and menisci can be differentiated from 1 mesenchyme. PMID:24200455

  2. Achieving ligament stability and correct rotational alignment of the femur in knee arthroplasty: a study using the Medial Pivot knee.

    PubMed

    Shakespeare, David; Kinzel, Vera; Ledger, Michael

    2005-12-01

    In a series of 90 Medial Pivot arthroplasties rotational alignment of the femur was achieved by provisionally reconstructing the lateral side of the joint and tensioning the medial side with feeler gauges. Axial CT scans were employed to measure the rotational alignment relative to surgical epicondylar axis. In valgus knees the cutting block was externally rotated to adjust for posterolateral bone loss. The mean rotational alignment of the femur was 0.6 degrees of external rotation (S.D. 1.3, range 3 degrees of ER to 4 degrees of IR). The mean laxity of the medial ligament was 1 mm in flexion (SD 1, range 0-5 mm) and 0.5 mm in flexion (S.D. 0.5, range 0-2 mm) In those knees in which the medial ligament had been released the CT alignment was perfect, but when internally rotated against the hip 3-4 mm of gapping was noted. In valgus knees the mean rotation of the femoral component was 0.8 degrees of internal rotation (S.D. 1.5, range 1 degrees of IR to 4 degrees of ER). In spite of externally rotating the cutting block there was still a tendency to internally rotate the femur in some knees. This simple technique achieves the two goals of ligament stability and correct rotational alignment in a high proportion of cases. It may be applicable to any instrument system which employs posterior referencing. PMID:15967668

  3. Medial patellofemoral ligament reconstruction in patellar instability

    PubMed Central

    Krishna Kumar, MS; Renganathan, Sankarram; Joseph, Clement J; Easwar, TR; Rajan, David V

    2014-01-01

    Background: Medial patellofemoral ligament (MPFL) is one of the major static medial stabilising structures of the patella. MPFL is most often damaged in patients with patellar instability. Reconstruction of MPFL is becoming a common surgical procedure in treating patellar instability. We hypothesised that MPFL reconstruction was adequate to treat patients with patellar instability if the tibial tubercle and the centre of the trochlear groove (TT-TG) value was less than 20 mm and without a dysplastic trochlea. Materials and Methods: 30 patients matching our inclusion criteria and operated between April 2009 and May 2011 were included in the study. MPFL reconstruction was performed using gracilis tendon fixed with endobutton on the patellar side and bio absorbable interference screw or staple on the femoral side. Patients were followed up with subjective criteria, Kujala score and Lysholm score. Results: The mean duration of followup was 25 months (range 14-38 months). The mean preoperative Kujala score was 47.5 and Lysholm score was 44.7. The mean postoperative Kujala score was 87 and Lysholm score was 88.06. None of the patients had redislocation. Conclusion: MPFL reconstruction using gracilis tendon gives excellent results in patients with patellar instability with no redislocations. Some patients may have persistence of apprehension. PMID:25298558

  4. Atomic branching in molecules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Estrada, Ernesto; Rodríguez-Velázquez, Juan A.; Randić, Milan

    A graph theoretic measure of extended atomic branching is defined that accounts for the effects of all atoms in the molecule, giving higher weight to the nearest neighbors. It is based on the counting of all substructures in which an atom takes part in a molecule. We prove a theorem that permits the exact calculation of this measure based on the eigenvalues and eigenvectors of the adjacency matrix of the graph representing a molecule. The definition of this measure within the context of the Hückel molecular orbital (HMO) and its calculation for benzenoid hydrocarbons are also studied. We show that the extended atomic branching can be defined using any real symmetric matrix, as well as any Hermitian (self-adjoint) matrix, which permits its calculation in topological, geometrical, and quantum chemical contexts.

  5. 19. DETAIL, METAL LIGHT STANDARD, AT NORTH END BLOCK OF ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    19. DETAIL, METAL LIGHT STANDARD, AT NORTH END BLOCK OF EAST PARAPET, FROM WEST, SHOWING SIMPLE ORNAMENTATION OF BASE OF STANDARD, WITH 'UNION METAL' IMPRINT - Fifth Street Viaduct, Spanning Bacon's Quarter Branch Valley on Fifth Street, Richmond, Independent City, VA

  6. 18. METAL LIGHT STANDARD, AT NORTH END BLOCK OF EAST ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    18. METAL LIGHT STANDARD, AT NORTH END BLOCK OF EAST PARAPET, FROM NORTH, SHOWING ORIGINAL LIGHT STANDARD, WITH REPLACEMENT BRACKET AND COBRA-HEAD LAMP - Fifth Street Viaduct, Spanning Bacon's Quarter Branch Valley on Fifth Street, Richmond, Independent City, VA

  7. Detail, south (breslau) approach span, from west, showing end block ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Detail, south (breslau) approach span, from west, showing end block and railing at approach span - Breslau Bridge, Spanning North Branch of Susquehanna River at Hannover Street, Plymouth, Luzerne County, PA

  8. Underwater branch connection study

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-06-01

    This report was prepared with the object of developing guidelines for designing underwater connections of branch pipelines to main lines at existing tap valves and with hot taps in diver accessible water depths. The report considers ANSI Classes 600 and 900 branch pipelines of up to twelve inches in diameter that conform to API Specification 5L minimum. Loads due to gravity, buoyancy, intemal and external pressure, thermal expansion, hydrodynamics and random events are considered. External corrosion, temperature, cover, bottom conditions, stability, testing, commissioning, trenching, and pigging are also addressed. A general discussion of these issues is included in the body of the report. Methods of analysis are included in the appendices and in various references. Lotus 123'' spreadsheets that compute the expansion stresses resulting from pressure and temperature at points on a generic piping geometry are presented. A program diskette is included with the report. The report summarizes, and draws from, the results of a survey of the relevant practice and experience of fifteen gas pipeline operating companies. The survey indicates that most existing branch connections do not provide for pigging of the lateral lines, but that there is a growing consensus that cleaning and inspection pigging of lateral lines is desirable or necessary.

  9. Combined Reconstruction of the Medial Patellofemoral Ligament With Quadricipital Tendon and the Medial Patellotibial Ligament With Patellar Tendon

    PubMed Central

    Hinckel, Betina Bremer; Gobbi, Riccardo Gomes; Demange, Marco Kawamura; Bonadio, Marcelo Batista; Pécora, José Ricardo; Camanho, Gilberto Luis

    2016-01-01

    Although the medial patellotibial ligament (MPTL) has been neglected regarding its function in patellar stability, recently, its importance in terminal extension and during flexion has been recognized. Indications for reconstruction of the medial patellofemoral ligament combined with the MPTL are extension subluxation, flexion instability, children with anatomic risk factors for patellar instability, and knee hyperextension associated with generalized laxity. We describe a combined reconstruction of the medial patellofemoral ligament with quadricipital tendon and reconstruction of the MPTL with patellar tendon autografts. PMID:27073782

  10. DIFFERENT DISTRIBUTIONS OF CALBINDIN AND CALRETININ IMMUNOSTAINING ACROSS THE MEDIAL AND DORSAL DIVISIONS OF THE MOUSE MEDIAL GENICULATE BODY

    PubMed Central

    LU, E.; LLANO, D.A.; SHERMAN, S. M.

    2009-01-01

    We studied the distributions of calretinin and calbindin immunoreactivity in subdivisions of the mouse medial geniculate body and the adjacent paralaminar nuclei. We found that the vast majority of labeled cells in the dorsal division of the medial geniculate body were immunoreactive for calbindin only, whereas most of the remaining labeled cells were double-labeled. Very few calretinin+ only cells were observed. By contrast, we observed significant proportions of calbindin+ only, calretinin+ only and double-labeled cells in the medial division of the medial geniculate body. Further, the distributions of calbindin-only, calretinin-only and double-labeled cells did not differ between the medial division of the medial geniculate body, the suprageniculate nucleus, the peripeduncular nucleus and the posterior intralaminar nucleus. We found essentially no somatic staining for either calbindin or calretinin in the ventral division of the medial geniculate body. These data suggest that there are distinct neurochemical differences between the two nonlemniscal auditory thalamic nuclei. In addition, these data extend previous observations that the medial division of the medial geniculate body shares many properties with the paralaminar group of nuclei. PMID:19643174

  11. Consequences of temporary inhibition of the medial amygdala on social recognition memory performance in mice.

    PubMed

    Noack, Julia; Murau, Rita; Engelmann, Mario

    2015-01-01

    Different lines of investigation suggest that the medial amygdala is causally involved in the processing of information linked to social behavior in rodents. Here we investigated the consequences of temporary inhibition of the medial amygdala by bilateral injections of lidocaine on long-term social recognition memory as tested in the social discrimination task. Lidocaine or control NaCl solution was infused immediately before learning or before retrieval. Our data show that lidocaine infusion immediately before learning did not affect long-term memory retrieval. However, intra-amygdalar lidocaine infusions immediately before choice interfered with correct memory retrieval. Analysis of the aggressive behavior measured simultaneously during all sessions in the social recognition memory task support the impression that the lidocaine dosage used here was effective as it-at least partially-reduced the aggressive behavior shown by the experimental subjects toward the juveniles. Surprisingly, also infusions of NaCl solution blocked recognition memory at both injection time points. The results are interpreted in the context of the importance of the medial amygdala for the processing of non-volatile odors as a major contributor to the olfactory signature for social recognition memory. PMID:25972782

  12. Medial perirhinal cortex disambiguates confusable objects

    PubMed Central

    Tyler, Lorraine K.; Monsch, Andreas U.; Taylor, Kirsten I.

    2012-01-01

    Our brain disambiguates the objects in our cluttered visual world seemingly effortlessly, enabling us to understand their significance and to act appropriately. The role of anteromedial temporal structures in this process, particularly the perirhinal cortex, is highly controversial. In some accounts, the perirhinal cortex is necessary for differentiating between perceptually and semantically confusable objects. Other models claim that the perirhinal cortex neither disambiguates perceptually confusable objects nor plays a unique role in semantic processing. One major hurdle to resolving this central debate is the fact that brain damage in human patients typically encompasses large portions of the anteromedial temporal lobe, such that the identification of individual substructures and precise neuroanatomical locus of the functional impairments has been difficult. We tested these competing accounts in patients with Alzheimer’s disease with varying degrees of atrophy in anteromedial structures, including the perirhinal cortex. To assess the functional contribution of each anteromedial temporal region separately, we used a detailed region of interest approach. From each participant, we obtained magnetic resonance imaging scans and behavioural data from a picture naming task that contrasted naming performance with living and non-living things as a way of manipulating perceptual and semantic confusability; living things are more similar to one another than non-living things, which have more distinctive features. We manually traced neuroanatomical regions of interest on native-space cortical surface reconstructions to obtain mean thickness estimates for the lateral and medial perirhinal cortex and entorhinal cortex. Mean cortical thickness in each region of interest, and hippocampal volume, were submitted to regression analyses predicting naming performance. Importantly, atrophy of the medial perirhinal cortex, but not lateral perirhinal cortex, entorhinal cortex or

  13. Medial Patellofemoral Ligament Reconstruction: A Comprehensive Review

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Hee-June

    2015-01-01

    It has been suggested that in the majority of patellar dislocation cases, the medial patellofemoral ligament (MPFL) is disrupted with a high recurrence rate especially in female patients. Although MPFL tear is not the primary cause of instability, MPFL reconstruction is effective for stabilizing the knee and may alone prevent lateral patellar dislocation. There is limited but growing evidence that MPFL reconstruction for patellofemoral instability leads to excellent functional outcomes. Growing awareness of the biomechanical contribution of the MPFL has led to an upsurge in the publication of techniques and trials dealing with reconstructive techniques, warranting a review that includes the most recent evidence. The aim of this article was to review and summarize the recent literatures concerning MPFL reconstruction and provide a comprehensive review of previous studies ranging from basic science to current surgical techniques and results. PMID:26389065

  14. Combustion Branch Website Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bishop, Eric

    2004-01-01

    The NASA combustion branch is a leader in developing and applying combustion science to focused aerospace propulsion systems concepts. It is widely recognized for unique facilities, analytical tools, and personnel. In order to better communicate the outstanding research being done in this Branch to the public and other research organization, a more substantial website was desired. The objective of this project was to build an up-to-date site that reflects current research in a usable and attractive manner. In order to accomplish this, information was requested from all researchers in the Combustion branch, on their professional skills and on the current projects. This information was used to fill in the Personnel and Research sections of the website. A digital camera was used to photograph all personnel and these photographs were included in the personnel section as well. The design of the site was implemented using the latest web standards: xhtml and external css stylesheets. This implementation conforms to the guidelines recommended by the w3c. It also helps to ensure that the web site is accessible by disabled users, and complies with Section 508 Federal legislation (which mandates that all Federal websites be accessible). Graphics for the new site were generated using the gimp (www.gimp.org) an open-source graphics program similar to Adobe Photoshop. Also, all graphics on the site were of a reasonable size (less than 20k, most less than 2k) so that the page would load quickly. Technologies such as Macromedia Flash and Javascript were avoided, as these only function on some clients which have the proper software installed or enabled. The website was tested on different platforms with many different browsers to ensure there were no compatibility issues. The website was tested on windows with MS IE 6, MSIE 5 , Netscape 7, Mozilla and Opera. On a Mac, the site was tested with MS IE 5 , Netscape 7 and Safari.

  15. Thermal Energy Conversion Branch

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bielozer, Matthew C.; Schreiber, Jeffrey, G.; Wilson, Scott D.

    2004-01-01

    The Thermal Energy Conversion Branch (5490) leads the way in designing, conducting, and implementing research for the newest thermal systems used in space applications at the NASA Glenn Research Center. Specifically some of the most advanced technologies developed in this branch can be broken down into four main areas: Dynamic Power Systems, Primary Solar Concentrators, Secondary Solar Concentrators, and Thermal Management. Work was performed in the Dynamic Power Systems area, specifically the Stirling Engine subdivision. Today, the main focus of the 5490 branch is free-piston Stirling cycle converters, Brayton cycle nuclear reactors, and heat rejection systems for long duration mission spacecraft. All space exploring devices need electricity to operate. In most space applications, heat energy from radioisotopes is converted to electrical power. The Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generator (RTG) already supplies electricity for missions such as the Cassini Spacecraft. The focus of today's Stirling research at GRC is aimed at creating an engine that can replace the RTG. The primary appeal of the Stirling engine is its high system efficiency. Because it is so efficient, the Stirling engine will significantly reduce the plutonium fuel mission requirements compared to the RTG. Stirling is also being considered for missions such as the lunar/Mars bases and rovers. This project has focused largely on Stirling Engines of all types, particularly the fluidyne liquid piston engine. The fluidyne was developed by Colin D. West. This engine uses the same concepts found in any type of Stirling engine, with the exception of missing mechanical components. All the working components are fluid. One goal was to develop and demonstrate a working Stirling Fluidyne Engine at the 2nd Annual International Energy Conversion Engineering Conference in Providence, Rhode Island.

  16. Medial septum regulates the hippocampal spatial representation

    PubMed Central

    Mamad, Omar; McNamara, Harold M.; Reilly, Richard B.; Tsanov, Marian

    2015-01-01

    The hippocampal circuitry undergoes attentional modulation by the cholinergic medial septum. However, it is unclear how septal activation regulates the spatial properties of hippocampal neurons. We investigated here what is the functional effect of selective-cholinergic and non-selective septal stimulation on septo-hippocampal system. We show for the first time selective activation of cholinergic cells and their differential network effect in medial septum of freely-behaving transgenic rats. Our data show that depolarization of cholinergic septal neurons evokes frequency-dependent response from the non-cholinergic septal neurons and hippocampal interneurons. Our findings provide vital evidence that cholinergic effect on septo-hippocampal axis is behavior-dependent. During the active behavioral state the activation of septal cholinergic projections is insufficient to evoke significant change in the spiking of the hippocampal neurons. The efficiency of septo-hippocampal processing during active exploration relates to the firing patterns of the non-cholinergic theta-bursting cells. Non-selective septal theta-burst stimulation resets the spiking of hippocampal theta cells, increases theta synchronization, entrains the spiking of hippocampal place cells, and tunes the spatial properties in a timing-dependent manner. The spatial properties are augmented only when the stimulation is applied in the periphery of the place field or 400–650 ms before the animals approached the center of the field. In summary, our data show that selective cholinergic activation triggers a robust network effect in the septo-hippocampal system during inactive behavioral state, whereas the non-cholinergic septal activation regulates hippocampal functional properties during explorative behavior. Together, our findings uncover fast septal modulation on hippocampal network and reveal how septal inputs up-regulate and down-regulate the encoding of spatial representation. PMID:26175674

  17. Flight Dynamics Analysis Branch

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stengle, Tom; Flores-Amaya, Felipe

    2000-01-01

    This report summarizes the major activities and accomplishments carried out by the Flight Dynamics Analysis Branch (FDAB), Code 572, in support of flight projects and technology development initiatives in fiscal year 2000. The report is intended to serve as a summary of the type of support carried out by the FDAB, as well as a concise reference of key accomplishments and mission experience derived from the various mission support roles. The primary focus of the FDAB is to provide expertise in the disciplines of flight dynamics, spacecraft trajectory, attitude analysis, and attitude determination and control. The FDAB currently provides support for missions and technology development projects involving NASA, government, university, and private industry.

  18. A simple, safe and reliable surgical landmark for medial epicondylectomy

    PubMed Central

    McCann, Philip S; Clark, Damian; Amirfeyz, Rouin

    2014-01-01

    Background Various surgical strategies have been described for the treatment of cubital tunnel syndrome, including medial epicondylectomy. This aims to decompress the ulnar nerve and allow a ‘mini anterior transposition’. The major concern over medial epicondylectomy is the potential for postoperative iatrogenic valgus instability. Methods We utilized a surgical landmark for medial epicondylectomy based on the medial aspect of the ulnar nerve with the elbow in 90° of flexion in 12 cadaveric upper limbs. The size of the resultant fragment was measured and, subsequently, the medial collateral ligament was dissected and the elbow stressed to assess its integrity. Results This technique resulted in the excision of a fragment of mean width 8 mm (range 6 mm to 11 mm) and allowed the ulnar nerve to smoothly translate anteriorly in flexion. The anterior band of the ulnar collateral ligament was macroscopically preserved in all cases and there was no valgus instability. Conclusions The medial border of the ulnar nerve is a simple, safe and reliable surgical landmark for medial epicondylectomy. This technique offers advantages over other described methods of assessing the location at which to perform a medial epicondylectomy.

  19. Medial Meniscal Allograft Transplantation: The Bone Plug Technique.

    PubMed

    Dean, Chase S; Olivetto, Javier; Chahla, Jorge; Serra Cruz, Raphael; LaPrade, Robert F

    2016-04-01

    The medial meniscus is crucial for knee homeostasis. Treating patients who have undergone a subtotal or total meniscectomy, or equivalent irreparable tear pattern, can be extremely challenging, especially in young, active patients. The importance of meniscal preservation has been reported by several authors. Meniscal repair is now widely accepted as the first surgical option for treating medial meniscal tears. Moreover, current guidelines recommend preserving as much meniscal tissue as possible. Treating a symptomatic medial meniscectomized knee is challenging because of limited surgical options. In this context, medial meniscal allograft transplantation arises as the preferred procedure. The purpose of this article was to detail the arthroscopic medial meniscal allograft transplantation technique with the use of 2 bone plugs. PMID:27330948

  20. Precaruncular approach for the reconstruction of medial orbital wall fractures.

    PubMed

    You, Hi-Jin; Kim, Deok-Woo; Dhong, Eun-Sang; Yoon, Eul-Sik

    2014-01-01

    To reconstruct medial orbital wall fractures with a clear, least dissection, an alternative method, precaruncular approach, has been performed. We reviewed 36 patients with medial blowout fractures treated with this technique. The incision was made between the caruncle and medial canthal skin at the mucocutaneous junction, and was continued along the conjunctival fornix superiorly and inferiorly. An extended conjunctival incision was carried for additional access to the orbit floor. The dissection continued medially and proceeded along the preseptal plane. The clinical results were assessed by postoperative computed tomographic scan and by reviewing postoperative complications. Postoperatively, computed tomographic scans demonstrated adequate reduction of soft tissues and correct positioning of the inserted implant without surgical complications. In most cases, the edema resolved within 24 to 48 hours after surgery. The precaruncular approach is a good option in reconstructing medial orbital wall fractures because it provides satisfactory exposure with superior cosmetic result. PMID:23241800

  1. Noradrenergic control of error perseveration in medial prefrontal cortex.

    PubMed

    Caetano, Marcelo S; Jin, Lu E; Harenberg, Linda; Stachenfeld, Kimberly L; Arnsten, Amy F T; Laubach, Mark

    2012-01-01

    The medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) plays a key role in behavioral variability, action monitoring, and inhibitory control. The functional role of mPFC may change over the lifespan due to a number of aging-related issues, including dendritic regression, increased cAMP signaling, and reductions in the efficacy of neuromodulators to influence mPFC processing. A key neurotransmitter in mPFC is norepinephrine. Previous studies have reported aging-related changes in the sensitivity of mPFC-dependent tasks to noradrenergic agonist drugs, such as guanfacine. Here, we assessed the effects of yohimbine, an alpha-2 noradrenergic antagonist, in cohorts of younger and older rats in a classic test of spatial working memory (using a T-maze). Older rats (23-29 mo.) were impaired by a lower dose of yohimbine compared to younger animals (5-10 mo.). To determine if the drug acts on alpha-2 noradrenergic receptors in mPFC and if its effects are specific to memory-guided performance, we made infusions of yohimbine into mPFC of a cohort of young rats (6 mo.) using an operant delayed response task. The task involved testing rats in blocks of trials with memory- and stimulus-guided performance. Yohimbine selectively impaired memory-guided performance and was associated with error perseveration. Infusions of muscimol (a GABA-A agonist) at the same sites also selectively impaired memory-guided performance, but did not lead to error perseveration. Based on these results, we propose several potential interpretations for the role for the noradrenergic system in the performance of delayed response tasks, including the encoding of previous response locations, task rules (i.e., using a win-stay strategy instead of a win-shift strategy), and performance monitoring (e.g., prospective encoding of outcomes). PMID:23293590

  2. Noradrenergic control of error perseveration in medial prefrontal cortex

    PubMed Central

    Caetano, Marcelo S.; Jin, Lu E.; Harenberg, Linda; Stachenfeld, Kimberly L.; Arnsten, Amy F. T.; Laubach, Mark

    2013-01-01

    The medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) plays a key role in behavioral variability, action monitoring, and inhibitory control. The functional role of mPFC may change over the lifespan due to a number of aging-related issues, including dendritic regression, increased cAMP signaling, and reductions in the efficacy of neuromodulators to influence mPFC processing. A key neurotransmitter in mPFC is norepinephrine. Previous studies have reported aging-related changes in the sensitivity of mPFC-dependent tasks to noradrenergic agonist drugs, such as guanfacine. Here, we assessed the effects of yohimbine, an alpha-2 noradrenergic antagonist, in cohorts of younger and older rats in a classic test of spatial working memory (using a T-maze). Older rats (23–29 mo.) were impaired by a lower dose of yohimbine compared to younger animals (5–10 mo.). To determine if the drug acts on alpha-2 noradrenergic receptors in mPFC and if its effects are specific to memory-guided performance, we made infusions of yohimbine into mPFC of a cohort of young rats (6 mo.) using an operant delayed response task. The task involved testing rats in blocks of trials with memory- and stimulus-guided performance. Yohimbine selectively impaired memory-guided performance and was associated with error perseveration. Infusions of muscimol (a GABA-A agonist) at the same sites also selectively impaired memory-guided performance, but did not lead to error perseveration. Based on these results, we propose several potential interpretations for the role for the noradrenergic system in the performance of delayed response tasks, including the encoding of previous response locations, task rules (i.e., using a win-stay strategy instead of a win-shift strategy), and performance monitoring (e.g., prospective encoding of outcomes). PMID:23293590

  3. An anatomical evaluation of the serratus anterior plane block.

    PubMed

    Mayes, J; Davison, E; Panahi, P; Patten, D; Eljelani, F; Womack, J; Varma, M

    2016-09-01

    The serratus anterior plane block has been described for analgesia of the hemithorax. This study was conducted to determine the spread of injectate and investigate the anatomical basis of the block. Ultrasound-guided serratus anterior plane block was performed on six soft-fix embalmed cadavers. All cadavers received bilateral injections, on one side performed with 20 ml latex and on the other with 20 ml methylene blue. Subsequent dissection explored the extent of spread and nerve involvement. Photographs were taken throughout dissection. The intercostal nerves were involved on three occasions with dye, but not with latex. The lateral cutaneous branches of the intercostal nerve contained dye and latex on all occasions. The serratus plane block appears to be mediated through blockade of the lateral cutaneous branches of the intercostal nerves. Anatomically, serratus plane block does not appear to be equivalent to paravertebral block for rib fracture analgesia. PMID:27440171

  4. A dysexecutive syndrome of the medial thalamus.

    PubMed

    Liebermann, Daniela; Ploner, Christoph J; Kraft, Antje; Kopp, Ute A; Ostendorf, Florian

    2013-01-01

    Thalamic stroke is associated with neurological and cognitive sequelae. Resulting neuropsychological deficits vary with the vascular territory involved. Whereas sensory, motor and memory deficits following thalamic stroke are comparatively well characterized, the exact relationship between executive dysfunction and thalamic damage remains more ambiguous. To assess the pattern of executive-cognitive deficits following thalamic stroke and its possible association with distinct thalamic nuclei, 19 patients with focal thalamic lesions were examined with high-resolution structural imaging and neuropsychological testing. Twenty healthy individuals served as controls. Patient MRIs were co-registered to an atlas of the human thalamus. Lesion overlap and subtraction analyses were used for lesion-to-symptom mapping. In eight patients (42.1%), neuropsychological assessment demonstrated a disproportionate deficit in the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test (WCST), while other executive and memory functions were much less affected. Subtraction analysis revealed an area in the left medial thalamus, mainly consisting of the centromedian and parafascicular nuclei (CM-Pf complex) that was damaged in these patients and spared in patients with normal WCST performance. Thus, damage to the CM-Pf complex may yield a distinct dysexecutive syndrome in which deficient maintenance and shifting between cognitive sets predominates. We hypothesize that the CM-Pf complex may contribute to maintenance and shifting of cognitive sets by virtue of its dense connections with the striatum. The pattern of executive dysfunction following thalamic stroke may vary considerably with lesion location. PMID:22172979

  5. Optogenetic dissection of medial prefrontal cortex circuitry

    PubMed Central

    Riga, Danai; Matos, Mariana R.; Glas, Annet; Smit, August B.; Spijker, Sabine; Van den Oever, Michel C.

    2014-01-01

    The medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) is critically involved in numerous cognitive functions, including attention, inhibitory control, habit formation, working memory and long-term memory. Moreover, through its dense interconnectivity with subcortical regions (e.g., thalamus, striatum, amygdala and hippocampus), the mPFC is thought to exert top-down executive control over the processing of aversive and appetitive stimuli. Because the mPFC has been implicated in the processing of a wide range of cognitive and emotional stimuli, it is thought to function as a central hub in the brain circuitry mediating symptoms of psychiatric disorders. New optogenetics technology enables anatomical and functional dissection of mPFC circuitry with unprecedented spatial and temporal resolution. This provides important novel insights in the contribution of specific neuronal subpopulations and their connectivity to mPFC function in health and disease states. In this review, we present the current knowledge obtained with optogenetic methods concerning mPFC function and dysfunction and integrate this with findings from traditional intervention approaches used to investigate the mPFC circuitry in animal models of cognitive processing and psychiatric disorders. PMID:25538574

  6. Subspecialization in the human posterior medial cortex

    PubMed Central

    Bzdok, Danilo; Heeger, Adrian; Langner, Robert; Laird, Angela R.; Fox, Peter T.; Palomero-Gallagher, Nicola; Vogt, Brent A.; Zilles, Karl; Eickhoff, Simon B.

    2014-01-01

    The posterior medial cortex (PMC) is particularly poorly understood. Its neural activity changes have been related to highly disparate mental processes. We therefore investigated PMC properties with a data-driven exploratory approach. First, we subdivided the PMC by whole-brain coactivation profiles. Second, functional connectivity of the ensuing PMC regions was compared by task-constrained meta-analytic coactivation mapping (MACM) and task-unconstrained resting-state correlations (RSFC). Third, PMC regions were functionally described by forward/reverse functional inference. A precuneal cluster was mostly connected to the intraparietal sulcus, frontal eye fields, and right temporo-parietal junction; associated with attention and motor tasks. A ventral posterior cingulate cortex (PCC) cluster was mostly connected to the ventromedial prefrontal cortex and middle left inferior parietal cortex (IPC); associated with facial appraisal and language tasks. A dorsal PCC cluster was mostly connected to the dorsomedial prefrontal cortex, anterior/posterior IPC, posterior midcingulate cortex, and left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex; associated with delay discounting. A cluster in the retrosplenial cortex was mostly connected to the anterior thalamus and hippocampus. Furthermore, all PMC clusters were congruently coupled with the default mode network according to task-constrained but not task-unconstrained connectivity. We thus identified distinct regions in the PMC and characterized their neural networks and functional implications. PMID:25462801

  7. Congenital absence of the medial meniscus associated with lipoma arborescens.

    PubMed

    Utkan, Ali; Ozkan, Güray; Köse, Cem Cüneyt; Ciliz, Deniz Sözmen; Albayrak, Ahmet Levent

    2010-06-01

    Congenital abnormalities of the medial meniscus are extremely rare and have been reported commonly with other deformities. We report an isolated aplasia of the medial meniscus. A 37-year-old man presented with a slow-growing painless swelling, accompanied by intermittent effusion of his left knee. Magnetic resonance imaging demonstrated frond-like proliferations of fatty synovium. He was initially diagnosed with synovial chondromatosis, but later found to have lipoma arborescens. While an arthroscopic synovectomy was being performed, congenital absence of the medial meniscus was discovered as an incidental finding. PMID:19766501

  8. Methods and Technologies Branch (MTB)

    Cancer.gov

    The Methods and Technologies Branch focuses on methods to address epidemiologic data collection, study design and analysis, and to modify technological approaches to better understand cancer susceptibility.

  9. Branches in the Everett interpretation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cunningham, Arthur J.

    2014-05-01

    Hugh Everett III describes a quantum measurement as resulting in the "branching" of the quantum state of observer and measured system, with all possible measurement outcomes represented by the ensuing branches of the total quantum state. But Everett does not specify a general rule for decomposing a quantum state into branches, and commentators have long puzzled over how, and even whether, to regard Everett's notion of branching states as physically meaningful. It is common today to appeal to decoherence considerations as a way of giving physical content to the Everettian notion of branches, but these appeals to decoherence are often regarded as considerations foreign to Everett's own approach. This paper contends that this assessment is only half right: though he does not invoke environmental decoherence, Everett does appeal to decoherence considerations, broadly understood, in his treatment of measurement. Careful consideration of his idealized models of measurement, and of the significance he ascribes to the branching of states corresponding to definite measurement outcomes, reveals that his notion of branching refers to a special physical characteristic of elements of a particular decomposition, namely the absence of interference between these component states as a result of the particular dynamics governing the evolution of the system. Characterizations of branching that appeal to the results of modern decoherence theory should therefore be regarded as a natural development of Everett's own physically meaningful conception of branching.

  10. The control of branching morphogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Iber, Dagmar; Menshykau, Denis

    2013-01-01

    Many organs of higher organisms are heavily branched structures and arise by an apparently similar process of branching morphogenesis. Yet the regulatory components and local interactions that have been identified differ greatly in these organs. It is an open question whether the regulatory processes work according to a common principle and how far physical and geometrical constraints determine the branching process. Here, we review the known regulatory factors and physical constraints in lung, kidney, pancreas, prostate, mammary gland and salivary gland branching morphogenesis, and describe the models that have been formulated to analyse their impacts. PMID:24004663

  11. Medial Compartment Decompression by Fibular Osteotomy to Treat Medial Compartment Knee Osteoarthritis: A Pilot Study.

    PubMed

    Yang, Zong-You; Chen, Wei; Li, Cun-Xiang; Wang, Juan; Shao, De-Cheng; Hou, Zhi-Yong; Gao, Shi-Jun; Wang, Fei; Li, Ji-Dong; Hao, Jian-Dong; Chen, Bai-Cheng; Zhang, Ying-Ze

    2015-12-01

    Compared with high tibial osteotomy and total knee arthroplasty, the authors found a simpler surgical procedure, partial fibular osteotomy, could effectively relieve knee pain and also correct the varus deformity for patients with medial compartment knee osteoarthritis (OA). From January 1996 to April 2012, a total of 156 patients with medial compartment OA were treated by proximal fibular osteotomy in the authors' hospital. A 2-cm-long section of fibula was resected 6 to 10 cm below the fibular head. A total of 110 patients with follow-up of more than 2 years were included in the study, including 34 males and 76 females with an average age of 59.2 years. Anteroposterior and lateral weight-bearing radiographs, the femorotibial angle (FTA) and lateral joint space, and the American Knee Society Score (KSS) and the visual analog scale (VAS) score of the knee joint were evaluated preoperatively and at final follow-up, respectively. At final follow-up, mean FTA and lateral joint space were 179.4°±1.8° and 6.9±0.7 mm, respectively, which were significantly smaller than those measured preoperatively (182.7°±2.0° and 12.2±1.1 mm, respectively; both P<.001). Mean KSS at final follow-up was 92.3±31.7, significantly higher than the mean preoperative score of 45.0±21.3 (P<.001). Mean VAS score and interquartile range were 2.0 and 2.0, significantly lower than the preoperative data (7 and 1.0, respectively; P<.001). The authors found that proximal fibular osteotomy can significantly improve both the radiographic appearance and function of the affected knee joint and also achieve long-term pain relief. This procedure may be an alternative treatment option for medial compartment OA. PMID:26652332

  12. LayTracks3D: A new approach for meshing general solids using medial axis transform

    SciTech Connect

    Quadros, William Roshan

    2015-08-22

    This study presents an extension of the all-quad meshing algorithm called LayTracks to generate high quality hex-dominant meshes of general solids. LayTracks3D uses the mapping between the Medial Axis (MA) and the boundary of the 3D domain to decompose complex 3D domains into simpler domains called Tracks. Tracks in 3D have no branches and are symmetric, non-intersecting, orthogonal to the boundary, and the shortest path from the MA to the boundary. These properties of tracks result in desired meshes with near cube shape elements at the boundary, structured mesh along the boundary normal with any irregular nodes restricted to the MA, and sharp boundary feature preservation. The algorithm has been tested on a few industrial CAD models and hex-dominant meshes are shown in the Results section. Work is underway to extend LayTracks3D to generate all-hex meshes.

  13. Treatment of a Femur Nonunion with Microsurgical Corticoperiosteal Pedicled Flap from the Medial Femoral Condyle

    PubMed Central

    Guzzini, Matteo; Guidi, Marco; Civitenga, Carolina; Ferri, Germano; Ferretti, Andrea

    2016-01-01

    Introduction. The vascularized corticoperiosteal flap is harvested from the medial femoral condyle and it is nourished by the articular branch of the descending genicular artery and the superomedial genicular artery. This flap is usually harvested as a free flap for the reconstruction of bone defects at forearm, distal radius, carpus, hand, and recently at lower limb too. Case Report. A 50-year-old Caucasian man referred to our department for hypertrophic nonunion of the distal femur, refractory to the conservative treatments. The first surgical choice was the revision of the nail and the bone reconstruction with a corticoperiosteal pedicled flap from the medial femoral condyle. We considered union to have occurred 3.5 months after surgery when radiographs showed bridging of at least three of the four bony cortices and clinically the patient was able to walk with full weight bearing without any pain. At the last follow-up (25 months), the patient was completely satisfied with the procedure. Discussion. The corticoperiosteal flap allows a faster healing of fractures with a minimal morbidity at the donor site. We suggest that the corticoperiosteal pedicled flap graft is a reliable and effective treatment for distal femur nonunion. PMID:27064589

  14. Modeling branching in cereals

    PubMed Central

    Evers, Jochem B.; Vos, Jan

    2013-01-01

    Cereals and grasses adapt their structural development to environmental conditions and the resources available. The primary adaptive response is a variable degree of branching, called tillering in cereals. Especially for heterogeneous plant configurations the degree of tillering varies per plant. Functional–structural plant modeling (FSPM) is a modeling approach allowing simulation of the architectural development of individual plants, culminating in the emergent behavior at the canopy level. This paper introduces the principles of modeling tillering in FSPM, using (I) a probability approach, forcing the dynamics of tillering to correspond to measured probabilities. Such models are particularly suitable to evaluate the effect structural variables on system performance. (II) Dose–response curves, representing a measured or assumed response of tillering to an environmental cue. (III) Mechanistic approaches to tillering including control by carbohydrates, hormones, and nutrients. Tiller senescence is equally important for the structural development of cereals as tiller appearance. Little study has been made of tiller senescence, though similar concepts seem to apply as for tiller appearance. PMID:24133499

  15. Isolated medial meniscal tear in a Border Collie.

    PubMed

    Ridge, P A

    2006-01-01

    A three-year-old, female Border Collie was successfully treated for an isolated, torn, medial meniscus by arthroscopic meniscal tear resection. The dog returned to agility competition without recurrence of lameness. PMID:16810354

  16. Photocopy of photograph in Fitzsimons Army Medial Center Real Property ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Photocopy of photograph in Fitzsimons Army Medial Center Real Property Book (green cloth cover), south and west sides. - Fitzsimons General Hospital, Officers Quarters, Northeast Corner of West Harlow Avenue & North Seventh Street, Aurora, Adams County, CO

  17. SnapShot: Branching Morphogenesis.

    PubMed

    Chuong, Cheng-Ming; Bhat, Ramray; Widelitz, Randall B; Bissell, Mina J

    2014-08-28

    Ectodermal appendages such as feathers, hair, mammary glands, salivary glands, and sweat glands form branches, allowing much-increased surface for functional differentiation and secretion. Here, the principles of branching morphogenesis are exemplified by the mammary gland and feathers. PMID:25171418

  18. Branching mechanisms in surfactant micelles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dhakal, Subas; Sureshkumar, Radhakrishna

    The mechanisms of branch formation in surfactant micelles of cetyltrimethylammonium chloride (CTAC) in presence of sodium salicylate (NaSal) counter ions in water are studied using molecular dynamics simulations. The curvature energy associated with the formation of micelle branches and the effect of branching on the solution viscosity are quantified. Highly curved surfaces are energetically stabilized by a higher density of binding counter ions near the branch points. Simulations show that micellar branches result in a significant reduction in the solution viscosity as observed in experiments [Dhakal & Sureshkumar, J. Chem. Phys. 143, 024905 (2015)]. This reduction in viscosity has long been attributed to the sliding motion of micelle branches across the main chain. However, to date, such dynamics of micelle branches have never been visualized in either experiments or simulations. Here, we explicitly illustrate and quantify, for the first time, how branches slide along the micelle contour to facilitate stress relaxation. We acknowledged the computational resources provided by XSEDE which is supported by NSF Grant Number OCI-1053575 and the financial support by National Science Foundation under Grants 1049489 and 1049454.

  19. A Branch Meeting in Avon

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vaughan, Kathryn; Coles, Alf

    2011-01-01

    The Association of Teachers of Mathematics (ATM) exists for, and is run by, its members. Branch meetings are so much more than the "grass roots" of the association--it can be a powerhouse of inspiration and creativity. In this article, the authors provide commentaries on a recent branch meeting.

  20. Efficient learning mechanisms hold in the social domain and are implemented in the medial prefrontal cortex

    PubMed Central

    Tobler, Philippe N.

    2015-01-01

    When we are learning to associate novel cues with outcomes, learning is more efficient if we take advantage of previously learned associations and thereby avoid redundant learning. The blocking effect represents this sort of efficiency mechanism and refers to the phenomenon in which a novel stimulus is blocked from learning when it is associated with a fully predicted outcome. Although there is sufficient evidence that this effect manifests itself when individuals learn about their own rewards, it remains unclear whether it also does when they learn about others’ rewards. We employed behavioral and neuroimaging methods to address this question. We demonstrate that blocking does indeed occur in the social domain and it does so to a similar degree as observed in the individual domain. On the neural level, activations in the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) show a specific contribution to blocking and learning-related prediction errors in the social domain. These findings suggest that the efficiency principle that applies to reward learning in the individual domain also applies to that in the social domain, with the mPFC playing a central role in implementing it. PMID:25326037

  1. Medial Patellofemoral Ligament Reconstruction for Patellar Dislocation

    PubMed Central

    Mackay, Nicola D.; Smith, Nicholas A.; Parsons, Nick; Spalding, Tim; Thompson, Peter; Sprowson, Andrew P.

    2014-01-01

    Background: With improved understanding of the biomechanical importance of the medial patellofemoral ligament (MPFL), its reconstruction for patellar dislocation has become increasingly popular. The aim of this systematic review was to critically determine the effectiveness of MPFL reconstruction for patellar dislocation. Hypothesis: MPFL reconstruction for patellar dislocation leads to a low redislocation rate with improved Kujala scores. Study Design: Systematic review; Level of evidence, 4. Methods: A literature search was performed using Embase and Medline (Ovid) databases. Inclusion criteria included first-time and recurrent patellar dislocation, subluxation, or persistent instability with a minimum follow-up of 12 months and documentation of postoperative redislocation rate or Kujala score. The studies were systematically appraised, and a meta-analysis was performed. Results: Twenty-two studies were included: 2 randomized controlled trials, 3 parallel case series, and 17 case series. There were a total of 655 knees in the review, with an age range at time of surgery from 11 to 52 years. The pooled postoperative redislocation rate from all 17 case series showed a mean of 2.44%. The pooled preoperative Kujala scores from 12 case series showed a mean of 51.6 (95% CI, 46.71-56.49). The pooled postoperative Kujala scores from 16 case series showed a mean of 87.77 (95% CI, 85.15-90.39). Conclusion: Although the studies were of low quality, the meta-analysis of 17 case series shows that MPFL reconstruction for recurrent patellar dislocation results in a significant improvement in Kujala scores, a low redislocation rate, and acceptable complication rate. Randomized trials would be needed to draw influences on the superiority of MPFL reconstruction compared with other treatments. PMID:26535352

  2. Localized Disruption of Narp in Medial Prefrontal Cortex Blocks Reinforcer Devaluation Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Alexander W.; Han, Sungho; Blouin, Ashley M.; Saini, Jasjit; Worley, Paul F.; During, Matthew J.; Holland, Peter C.; Baraban, Jay M.; Reti, Irving M.

    2010-01-01

    Neuronal activity regulated pentraxin (Narp) is a secreted protein that regulates [alpha]-amino-3-hydroxyl-5-methyl-4-isoxazole-propionate receptors (AMPAR) aggregation and synaptogenesis. Mapping of Narp-positive neurons in brain has revealed it is prominently expressed in several limbic system projection pathways. Consistent with this…

  3. Evaluation of Lumbar Facet Joint Nerve Blocks in Managing Chronic Low Back Pain: A Randomized, Double-Blind, Controlled Trial with a 2-Year Follow-Up

    PubMed Central

    Manchikanti, Laxmaiah; Singh, Vijay; Falco, Frank J.E.; Cash, Kimberly A.; Pampati, Vidyasagar

    2010-01-01

    Study Design: A randomized, double-blind, controlled trial. Objective: To determine the clinical effectiveness of therapeutic lumbar facet joint nerve blocks with or without steroids in managing chronic low back pain of facet joint origin. Summary of Background Data: Lumbar facet joints have been shown as the source of chronic pain in 21% to 41% of low back patients with an average prevalence of 31% utilizing controlled comparative local anesthetic blocks. Intraarticular injections, medial branch blocks, and radiofrequency neurotomy of lumbar facet joint nerves have been described in the alleviation of chronic low back pain of facet joint origin. Methods: The study included 120 patients with 60 patients in each group with local anesthetic alone or local anesthetic and steroids. The inclusion criteria was based upon a positive response to diagnostic controlled, comparative local anesthetic lumbar facet joint blocks. Outcome measures included the numeric rating scale (NRS), Oswestry Disability Index (ODI), opioid intake, and work status, at baseline, 3, 6, 12, 18, and 24 months. Results: Significant improvement with significant pain relief of ≥ 50% and functional improvement of ≥ 40% were observed in 85% in Group 1, and 90% in Group II, at 2-year follow-up. The patients in the study experienced significant pain relief for 82 to 84 weeks of 104 weeks, requiring approximately 5 to 6 treatments with an average relief of 19 weeks per episode of treatment. Conclusions: Therapeutic lumbar facet joint nerve blocks, with or without steroids, may provide a management option for chronic function-limiting low back pain of facet joint origin. PMID:20567613

  4. Complications Associated With Medial Thigh Lift: A Comprehensive Literature Review

    PubMed Central

    Sisti, Andrea; Cuomo, Roberto; Zerini, Irene; Tassinari, Juri; Brandi, Cesare; Grimaldi, Luca; D’Aniello, Carlo; Nisi, Giuseppe

    2015-01-01

    Medial contouring of the thigh is frequently requested to improve appearance and function of medial thigh deformities, following massive weight loss or aging process. This surgical procedure can be associated with a significant rate of complications. Our aim was to consider the complications and outcomes according to the performed technique, through a wide and comprehensive review of the literature. A search on PubMed/Medline was performed using “medial thighplasty”, “medial thigh lifting” and “technique” as key words. As inclusion criteria, we selected the clinical studies describing techniques of medial thighplasty. We excluded the papers in which complications related to medial thighplasty were not specified. We also excluded literature-review articles. We found 16 studies from 1988 to 2015. Overall, 447 patients were treated. Different techniques were applied. Complications were observed in 191/447 patients (42.72%). The most frequent complications were wound dehiscence(18.34%) and seroma (8.05%). No major complications, such as thromboembolism and sepsis, were observed. Minor complications occurred in a high percent of patients, regardless of the performed surgical procedure. Patients should be informed about the possible occurrence of wound dehiscence and seroma, as common complications associated with this surgical procedure. PMID:26865783

  5. Complications Associated With Medial Thigh Lift: A Comprehensive Literature Review.

    PubMed

    Sisti, Andrea; Cuomo, Roberto; Zerini, Irene; Tassinari, Juri; Brandi, Cesare; Grimaldi, Luca; D'Aniello, Carlo; Nisi, Giuseppe

    2015-01-01

    Medial contouring of the thigh is frequently requested to improve appearance and function of medial thigh deformities, following massive weight loss or aging process. This surgical procedure can be associated with a significant rate of complications. Our aim was to consider the complications and outcomes according to the performed technique, through a wide and comprehensive review of the literature. A search on PubMed/Medline was performed using "medial thighplasty", "medial thigh lifting" and "technique" as key words. As inclusion criteria, we selected the clinical studies describing techniques of medial thighplasty. We excluded the papers in which complications related to medial thighplasty were not specified. We also excluded literature-review articles. We found 16 studies from 1988 to 2015. Overall, 447 patients were treated. Different techniques were applied. Complications were observed in 191/447 patients (42.72%). The most frequent complications were wound dehiscence(18.34%) and seroma (8.05%). No major complications, such as thromboembolism and sepsis, were observed. Minor complications occurred in a high percent of patients, regardless of the performed surgical procedure. Patients should be informed about the possible occurrence of wound dehiscence and seroma, as common complications associated with this surgical procedure. PMID:26865783

  6. Extreme horizontal branch stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heber, U.

    A review is presented on the properties, origin and evolutionary links of hot subluminous stars which are generally believed to be extreme Horizontal Branch stars or closely related objects. They exist both in the disk and halo populations (globular clusters) of the Galaxy. Amongst the field stars a large fraction of sdBs are found to reside in close binaries. The companions are predominantly white dwarfs, but also low mass main sequence stars are quite common. Systems with sufficiently massive white dwarf companions may qualify as Supernova Ia progenitors. Recently evidence has been found that the masses of some unseen companions might exceed the Chandrasekhar mass, hence they must be neutron stars or black holes. Even a planet has recently been detected orbiting the pulsating sdB star V391 Peg. Quite to the opposite,in globular clusters, only very few sdB binaries amongst are found indicating that the dominant sdB formation processes is different in a dense environment. Binary population synthesis models identify three formation channels, (i) stable Roche lobe overflow, (ii) one or two common envelope ejection phases and (iii) the merger of two helium white dwarfs. The latter channel may explain the properties of the He-enriched subluminous O stars, the hotter sisters of the sdB stars, because their binary fraction is lower than that of the sdBs by a factor of ten or more. The rivaling ''late hot flasher'' scenario is also discussed. Pulsating subluminous B (sdB) stars play an important role for asteroseismology as this technique has already led to mass determinations for a handful of stars. A unique hyper-velocity sdO star moving so fast that it is unbound to the Galaxy has probably been ejected by the super-massive black hole in the Galactic centre.

  7. A Cadaveric Study of the Branching Pattern and Diameter of the Genicular Arteries: A Focus on the Middle Genicular Artery.

    PubMed

    Shahid, Shahab; Saghir, Noman; Cawley, Oliver; Saujani, Shyamal

    2015-10-01

    The aim of the study was to gain an appreciation of the variation in the branching pattern and diameter of the genicular arteries arising directly from the popliteal artery (PA), namely, the superior medial genicular artery (SMGA), superior lateral genicular artery (SLGA), inferior medial genicular artery (IMGA), inferior lateral genicular artery (ILGA), and middle genicular artery (MGA). Twenty cadaveric knees aged between 62 and 92 years were dissected. A posterior midline vertical incision was used to gain access to the PA. The diameter of the PA, the sequence of branching, and subsequent diameter of genicular vessels and common trunks were recorded. PA average diameter was 7.9 mm. The SMGA (1.6-mm diameter) was the first branch in 45% and the second branch in 20%, and in seven limbs it arose from a common trunk with the SLGA. The SLGA was the second branch in 30% and the first branch in 25%, and it branched from a common trunk in 45%. The MGA (1.1-mm diameter) arose as the second branch in four knees and as the third branch in eight knees. It arose from a common trunk in eight knees, either with a superior genicular (three knees) or with an inferior genicular (five knees). The IMGA (1.5-mm diameter) was the third branch in 25%, the fourth branch in 35%, and the fifth branch in 15%. In five cases, it arose from a common trunk (25%). The ILGA (1.4-mm diameter) was the third branch in 15%, the fourth branch in 30%, and the fifth branch in 25%. It arose from a common trunk in six knees. These trunks also gave rise to the IMGA in all cases. There is extensive variation in the branching pattern and diameter of the genicular arteries differing from textbook descriptions. An awareness of vascular variation is imperative for preservation of the blood supply to the knee, which may promote recovery after anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction and popliteal aneurysm repair. PMID:25892007

  8. Types of Heart Block

    MedlinePlus

    ... Block Explore Heart Block What Is... Electrical System & EKG Results Types Causes Who Is at Risk Signs & ... the P and the R waves on the EKG (electrocardiogram). First-degree heart block may not cause ...

  9. Inactivation of BRD7 results in impaired cognitive behavior and reduced synaptic plasticity of the medial prefrontal cortex.

    PubMed

    Xu, Yang; Cao, Wenyu; Zhou, Ming; Li, Changqi; Luo, Yanwei; Wang, Heran; Zhao, Ran; Jiang, Shihe; Yang, Jing; Liu, Yukun; Wang, Xinye; Li, Xiayu; Xiong, Wei; Ma, Jian; Peng, Shuping; Zeng, Zhaoyang; Li, Xiaoling; Tan, Ming; Li, Guiyuan

    2015-06-01

    BRD7 is a bromodomain-containing protein (BCP), and recent evidence implicates the role of BCPs in the initiation and development of neurodevelopmental disorders. However, few studies have investigated the biological functions of BRD7 in the central nervous system. In our study, BRD7 was found to be widely expressed in various regions of the mouse brain, including the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC), caudate putamen (CPu), hippocampus (Hip), midbrain (Mb), cerebellum (Cb), and mainly co-localized with neuron but not with glia. Using a BRD7 knockout mouse model and a battery of behavioral tests, we report that disruption of BRD7 results in impaired cognitive behavior leaving the emotional behavior unaffected. Moreover, a series of proteins involved in synaptic plasticity were decreased in the medial prefrontal cortex and there was a concomitant decrease in neuronal spine density and dendritic branching in the medial prefrontal cortex. However, no significant difference was found in the hippocampus compared to the wild-type mice. Thus, BRD7 might play a critical role in the regulation of synaptic plasticity and affect cognitive behavior. PMID:25721744

  10. Branch strategies - Modeling and optimization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dubey, Pradeep K.; Flynn, Michael J.

    1991-01-01

    The authors provide a common platform for modeling different schemes for reducing the branch-delay penalty in pipelined processors as well as evaluating the associated increased instruction bandwidth. Their objective is twofold: to develop a model for different approaches to the branch problem and to help select an optimal strategy after taking into account additional i-traffic generated by branch strategies. The model presented provides a flexible tool for comparing different branch strategies in terms of the reduction it offers in average branch delay and also in terms of the associated cost of wasted instruction fetches. This additional criterion turns out to be a valuable consideration in choosing between two strategies that perform almost equally. More importantly, it provides a better insight into the expected overall system performance. Simple compiler-support-based low-implementation-cost strategies can be very effective under certain conditions. An active branch prediction scheme based on loop buffers can be as competitive as a branch-target-buffer based strategy.

  11. Tension in Highly Branched Polymers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rubinstein, Michael

    2012-02-01

    We propose a systematic method of designing branched macromolecules capable of building up high tension in their covalent bonds, which can be controlled by changing solvent quality. This tension is achieved exclusively due to intramolecular interactions by focusing lower tensions from its numerous branches to a particular section of the designed molecule. The simplest molecular architecture, which allows this tension amplification, is a so-called pom-pom macromolecule consisting of a relatively short linear spacer and two z-arm stars at its ends. Tension developed in the stars due to crowding of their branches is amplified by a factor of z and focused to the spacer. There are other highly branched macromolecules, such as molecular brushes - comb polymers with high density of side branches, that have similar focusing and amplification properties. In addition molecular brushes transmit tension along their backbone. Adsorption or grafting of these branched molecules on a substrate results in further increase in tension as compared to molecules in solution. Molecular architectures similar to pom-pom and molecular brushes with a high tension amplification parts can be used in numerous sensor applications. Unique conformations of molecular brushes in a pre-wetting layer allow direct visualization by atomic force microscope. Detailed images of individual molecules spreading along the surface enable critical evaluation of theories of chain dynamics in polymer monolayer. Strong spreading of densely branched macromolecules on a planar substrate can lead to high tension in the molecular backbone sufficient to break covalent bonds.

  12. Comparison of medial versus lateral meniscus allograft transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Wei, Guo; Liang, Jie; Ru, Neng; Li, Yu-Peng; Shang, Zheng-Hui; Chen, Jian-Feng

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: To perform a literature review and meta-analysis evaluating the effectiveness of medial and lateral meniscus allograft transplantation (MAT). Methods: The literature review and meta-analysis were conducted between August and October 2015 in the People’s Hospital of China Three Gorges University, Yi Chang, China. A systematic search was performed in the Medline and EMBASE databases, and the Cochrane Library for relevant literature published through October 2015. The outcomes of the included studies were analyzed in terms of the Lysholm Score, International Knee Documentation Committee (IKDC) Score, Knee Injury And Osteoarthritis Outcome Score (KOOS), Visual Analog Scale (VAS), Tegner Activity Score, MRI results, and failure rates. An adapted version of the Newcastle-Ottawa Scale was used for the methodological quality assessment in the meta-analyses. Results: The literature review identified 12 observational studies, including 7 retrospective studies, 4 prospective studies, and the nature of one study was not reported. Significant differences in the outcomes of the lateral MAT group and the medial MAT group were observed in the IKDC scores, KOOS pain values, KOOS activities of daily living (ADL) values, and the absolute and relative extrusions observed on MRI, which suggested that the lateral MAT patients experienced superior clinical benefits compared with the medial MAT patients. However, significant differences between the lateral MAT group and the medial MAT group were not observed with regards to the Lysholm Scores, KOOS symptom values, KOOS sports and recreations values, KOOS quality of life (QOL) values, Tegner Activity Scores, VAS for pain values, and failure rates. Conclusion: The analysis results indicated that lateral MAT provides superior clinical outcomes compared with medial MAT according to the KOOS and IKDC scores. In addition, greater graft extrusion was observed in the medial group on MRI. Although significant differences were not

  13. Protrusio After Medial Acetabular Wall Breach in Total Hip Arthroplasty

    PubMed Central

    Martin, Christopher T.; Heiner, Anneliese D.; Baer, Thomas E.; Pugely, Andrew J.; Noiseux, Nicolas O.

    2015-01-01

    Background Medial protrusio is a recognized complication of total hip arthroplasty, but it is not known if a medial wall breach during cup implantation increases the risk. We thus investigated the effect of up to a 2 cm defect in the medial acetabular wall in a cadaveric model. Separately, we investigated the ability of acetabular screws to rescue the construct. Methods Nine human fresh-frozen hemipelves were reamed medially to create the defect, implanted with acetabular cups, and then loaded to failure. The nine contralateral hemipelves were reamed in a standard fashion and served as controls. Separately, nine hemipelves with a medial defect were augmented with two acetabular screws each, then loaded to failure, with the contralateral side as a control. Load-to-failure, stiffness, and energy were recorded. Findings The presence of a medial wall defect decreased the load-to-failure by a mean of 26% (5710 v. 4221 N, p=0.024). The addition of two acetabular screws did not rescue the construct (mean 27% decrease, 4082 v. 2985 N, p=0.024). The majority of specimens failed in a supra-physiologic range of force. Bone density correlated with failure loads (R2 range of 0.54-0.78), and osteoporotic specimens were more likely to fail at a physiologic range, consistent with forces experienced during minor stumbles or falls. Interpretation Osteoporotic patients with a medial wall defect after hip arthroplasty may be susceptible to fracture during activities of daily living. Protected weight bearing with an assistive device may be reasonable in order to minimize fall risk until cup ingrowth is achieved. PMID:26361450

  14. Knee stabilization in patients with medial compartment knee osteoarthritis

    PubMed Central

    Lewek, Michael D.; Ramsey, Dan K.; Snyder-Mackler, Lynn; Rudolph, Katherine S.

    2005-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Individuals with medial knee osteoarthritis (MKOA) experience knee laxity and instability. Muscle stabilization strategies may influence the long term integrity of the joint. In this study we determined how individuals with medial knee OA respond to a rapid valgus knee movement to investigate the relationship between muscle stabilization strategies and knee instability. METHODS Twenty one subjects with MKOA and genu varum, and 19 control subjects were tested. Subjects stood with the test limb on a moveable platform that translated laterally to rapidly stress the knee’s medial periarticular structures and create a potentially destabilizing feeling at the knee joint. Knee motion and muscle responses were recorded. Subjects rated their knee instability with a self-report questionnaire about knee instability during daily activities. RESULTS Prior to plate movement the OA subjects demonstrated more medial muscle co-contraction (p=0.014). Following plate movement the OA subjects shifted less weight off the test limb (p = 0.013) and had more medial co-contraction (p=0.037). Those without instability had higher VMMH co-contraction than those who reported more instability (p=0.038). Knee stability correlated positively with VMMH co-contraction prior to plate movement (r = 0.459; p = 0.042). CONCLUSION This study demonstrates that individuals with MKOA attempt to stabilize the knee with greater medial muscle co-contraction in response to laxity that appears on only the medial side of the joint. This strategy presumably contributes to higher joint compression and could exacerbate joint destruction and needs to be altered to slow or stop the progression of the OA disease process. PMID:16142714

  15. TCDD alters medial epithelial cell differentiation during palatogenesis

    SciTech Connect

    Abbott, B.D.; Birnbaum, L.S. )

    1989-06-15

    2,3,7,8-Tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) is a widely distributed, persistent environmental contaminant that is teratogenic in mice, where it induces hydronephrosis and cleft palate. The incidence of clefting has been shown to be dose dependent after exposure on either gestation Day (GD) 10 or 12, although the embryo is more susceptible on GD 12. TCDD-exposed palatal shelves meet but do not fuse, and programmed cell death of the medial epithelial cells is inhibited. The mechanism of action through which TCDD alters the program of medial cell development has not been examined in earlier studies, and it is not known whether the mechanism is the same regardless of the dose or developmental stage of exposure. In this study, C57BL/6N mice, a strain sensitive to TCDD, were dosed orally on GD 10 or 12 with 0, 6, 12, 24, or 30 micrograms/kg body wt, in 10 ml corn oil/kg. Embryonic palatal shelves were examined on GD 14, 15, or 16. The degree of palatal closure, epithelial surface morphology, and cellular ultrastructure, the incorporation of (3H)TdR, the expression of EGF receptors, and the binding of 125I-EGF were assessed. After exposure on GD 10 or 12, TCDD altered the differentiation pathway of the medial epithelial cells. The palatal shelves were of normal size and overall morphology, but fusion of the medial epithelia of the opposing shelves did not occur. TCDD prevented programmed cell death of the medial peridermal cells. The expression of EGF receptors by medial cells continued through Day 16 and the receptors were able to bind ligand. The medial cells differentiated into a stratified, squamous, keratinizing epithelium. The shift in phenotype to an oral-like epithelium occurred after exposure on either GD 10 or 12. At the lower dose (6 micrograms/kg), fewer cleft palates were produced, but those shelves which did respond had a fully expressed shift in differentiation.

  16. Relationship between foot function and medial knee joint loading in people with medial compartment knee osteoarthritis

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Dynamic joint loading, particularly the external knee adduction moment (KAM), is an important surrogate measure for the medio-lateral distribution of force across the knee joint in people with knee osteoarthritis (OA). Foot motion may alter the load on the medial tibiofemoral joint and hence affect the KAM. Therefore, this study aimed to investigate the relationship between tibia, rearfoot and forefoot motion in the frontal and transverse planes and the KAM in people with medial compartment knee OA. Method Motion of the knee, tibia, rearfoot and forefoot and knee moments were evaluated in 32 patients with clinically and radiographically-confirmed OA, predominantly in the medial compartment. Pearson’s correlation coefficient was used to investigate the association between peak values of tibia, rearfoot and forefoot motion in the frontal and transverse planes and 1st peak KAM, 2nd peak KAM, and the knee adduction angular impulse (KAAI). Results Lateral tilt of the tibia was significantly associated with increased 1st peak KAM (r = 0.60, p < 0.001), 2nd peak KAM (r = 0.67, p = 0.001) and KAAI (r = 0.82, p = 0.001). Increased peak rearfoot eversion was significantly correlated with decreased 2nd peak KAM (r = 0.59, p < 0.001) and KAAI (r = 0.50, p = 0.004). Decreased rearfoot internal rotation was significantly associated with increased 2nd peak KAM (r = −0.44, p = 0.01) and KAAI (r = −0.38, p = 0.02), while decreased rearfoot internal rotation relative to the tibia was significantly associated with increased 2nd peak KAM (r = 0.43, p = 0.01). Significant negative correlations were found between peak forefoot eversion relative to the rearfoot and 2nd peak KAM (r = −0.53, p = 0.002) and KAAI (r = −0.51, p = 0.003) and between peak forefoot inversion and 2nd peak KAM (r = −0.54, p = 0.001) and KAAI (r = −0.48, p = 0.005). Conclusion Increased rearfoot

  17. Tweak induces mammary epithelial branching morphogenesis.

    PubMed

    Michaelson, Jennifer S; Cho, Sandy; Browning, Beth; Zheng, Timothy S; Lincecum, John M; Wang, Monica Z; Hsu, Yen-Ming; Burkly, Linda C

    2005-04-14

    Members of the tumor necrosis factor (TNF) superfamily regulate cell survival and proliferation and have been implicated in cancer. Tweak (TNF-related weak inducer of apoptosis) has pleiotropic biological functions including proapoptotic, proangiogenic and proinflammatory activities. We explored a role for Tweak in mammary gland transformation using a three-dimensional model culture system. Tweak stimulates a branching morphogenic phenotype, similar to that induced by pro-oncogenic factors, in Eph4 mammary epithelial cells cultured in matrigel. Increased proliferation and invasiveness are observed, with a concomitant inhibition of functional differentiation. Levels of matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) are significantly increased following Tweak treatment. Notably, MMP inhibitors are sufficient to block the branching phenotype induced by Tweak. The capacity to promote proliferation, inhibit differentiation and induce invasion suggests a role for Tweak in mammary gland tumorigenesis. Consistent with this, we have observed elevated protein levels of the Tweak receptor, Fn14, in human breast tumor cell lines and xenograft models as well as in primary human breast tumors. Together, our results suggest that the Tweak/Fn14 pathway may be protumorigenic in human breast cancer. PMID:15735761

  18. Open Right Hemicolectomy:Lateral to Medial or Medial to Lateral Approach?

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Qi; Zhong, Yunshi; Tang, Wentao; Feng, Qingyang; Zheng, Peng; Ji, Meiling; Wei, Ye; Xu, Jianmin

    2015-01-01

    Objective Currently, no published studies have compared the clinical outcomes of the medial-to-lateral approach (MA) and lateral-to-medial approach (LA) for open right hemicolectomy. Thus, the present study aimed to assess whether one of these approaches has any potential benefits over the other. Methods A retrospective study was performed of all patients who underwent open right hemicolectomy with pathologically confirmed disease who met the eligibility criteria between June 2008 and June 2012. The population was divided into an MA group and an LA group by propensity scoring. We compared patient demographic and clinical characteristic variables between the two groups and assessed short-term and long-term outcomes. Results A total of 450 patients (MA, n = 150; LA, n = 300) were evaluated. The operation time (MA,138.4 minutesvs.LA,166.2 minutes; P < .05) and blood loss (MA,52.0mL vs. LA,62.6mL; P < .05)were significantly lower in the MA group. No differences in the number of harvested lymph nodes and oncologic outcomes were observed between the two groups. Further subgroup analysis for stage III colon cancer revealed that the MA group had significantly more retrieved lymph nodes (MA,18.8vs. LA,16.0; P = .028). There were no differences in other variables between the two groups. Conclusions The MA reduced operative time and blood loss compared with the LA. We thus concluded that the MA provided short-term benefits compared with the LA in open right hemicolectomy for right-sided colon cancer. PMID:26720634

  19. Longitudinal Effects of Ketamine on Dendritic Architecture In Vivo in the Mouse Medial Frontal Cortex123

    PubMed Central

    Phoumthipphavong, Victoria; Barthas, Florent; Hassett, Samantha

    2016-01-01

    Abstract A single subanesthetic dose of ketamine, an NMDA receptor antagonist, leads to fast-acting antidepressant effects. In rodent models, systemic ketamine is associated with higher dendritic spine density in the prefrontal cortex, reflecting structural remodeling that may underlie the behavioral changes. However, turnover of dendritic spines is a dynamic process in vivo, and the longitudinal effects of ketamine on structural plasticity remain unclear. The purpose of the current study is to use subcellular resolution optical imaging to determine the time course of dendritic alterations in vivo following systemic ketamine administration in mice. We used two-photon microscopy to visualize repeatedly the same set of dendritic branches in the mouse medial frontal cortex (MFC) before and after a single injection of ketamine or saline. Compared to controls, ketamine-injected mice had higher dendritic spine density in MFC for up to 2 weeks. This prolonged increase in spine density was driven by an elevated spine formation rate, and not by changes in the spine elimination rate. A fraction of the new spines following ketamine injection was persistent, which is indicative of functional synapses. In a few cases, we also observed retraction of distal apical tuft branches on the day immediately after ketamine administration. These results indicate that following systemic ketamine administration, certain dendritic inputs in MFC are removed immediately, while others are added gradually. These dynamic structural modifications are consistent with a model of ketamine action in which the net effect is a rebalancing of synaptic inputs received by frontal cortical neurons. PMID:27066532

  20. Kisspeptin in the medial amygdala and sexual behavior in male rats.

    PubMed

    Gresham, Rebecca; Li, Shengyun; Adekunbi, Daniel A; Hu, Minghan; Li, Xiao Feng; O'Byrne, Kevin T

    2016-08-01

    The medial amygdala (MeA) is crucial for sexual behavior; kisspeptin (Kiss1) also plays a role in sexual function. Kisspeptin receptor (Kiss1r) knockout mice display no sexual behavior. Recently Kiss1 and Kiss1r have been discovered in the posterodorsal subnucleus of the medial amygdala (MePD). We hypothesised that Kiss1 in the MePD may have an influence on male sexual behavior. To test this we bilaterally cannulated the MePD and infused kisspeptin-10 in male rats. This caused the rats to have multiple erections, an effect specific to Kiss1 receptor activation, because Kiss1r antagonism blocked the erectile response. When Kiss1 was infused into the lateral cerebroventricle, there were no observed erections. We also measured the plasma levels of LH when Kiss1 is infused into the MePD or lateral cerebroventricle; Kiss1 increased plasma LH to comparable levels when infused into both sites. We conclude that Kiss1 has a role in male sexual behavior, which is specific to the MePD. PMID:27233219

  1. Delay and block of cardiac impulse caused by enhanced phase-4 depolarization in the His-Purkinje system.

    PubMed Central

    Kretz, A; Da Rous, H O; Palumbo, J R

    1975-01-01

    The underlying mechanism of bradycardia-dependent bundle-branch and paroxysmal atrioventricular block appears to be enhancement of phase-4 depolarization in a branch or in a natural or acquired monofascicular pathway. Clinical records of these forms of impaired conduction occurring in the bundle-branches, with either longer or shorter cardiac cycle lengths, are presented and analysed. These also include the combination of Mobitz typw I atrioventricular block with variable degrees of bundle-branch block, as a representative example of narrow ventricular escape beats firing in the zone where prominent diastolic depolarization is present. PMID:123463

  2. Lateral–Medial Dissociation in Orbitofrontal Cortex–Hypothalamus Connectivity

    PubMed Central

    Hirose, Satoshi; Osada, Takahiro; Ogawa, Akitoshi; Tanaka, Masaki; Wada, Hiroyuki; Yoshizawa, Yasunori; Imai, Yoshio; Machida, Toru; Akahane, Masaaki; Shirouzu, Ichiro; Konishi, Seiki

    2016-01-01

    The orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) is involved in cognitive functions, and is also closely related to autonomic functions. The OFC is densely connected with the hypothalamus, a heterogeneous structure controlling autonomic functions that can be divided into two major parts: the lateral and the medial. Resting-state functional connectivity has allowed us to parcellate the cerebral cortex into putative functional areas based on the changes in the spatial pattern of connectivity in the cerebral cortex when a seed point is moved from one voxel to another. In the present high spatial-resolution fMRI study, we investigate the connectivity-based organization of the OFC with reference to the hypothalamus. The OFC was parcellated using resting-state functional connectivity in an individual subject approach, and then the functional connectivity was examined between the parcellated areas in the OFC and the lateral/medial hypothalamus. We found a functional double dissociation in the OFC: the lateral OFC (the lateral orbital gyrus) was more likely connected with the lateral hypothalamus, whereas the medial OFC (the medial orbital and rectal gyri) was more likely connected with the medial hypothalamus. These results demonstrate the fundamental heterogeneity of the OFC, and suggest a potential neural basis of the OFC–hypothalamic functional interaction. PMID:27303281

  3. Lateral-Medial Dissociation in Orbitofrontal Cortex-Hypothalamus Connectivity.

    PubMed

    Hirose, Satoshi; Osada, Takahiro; Ogawa, Akitoshi; Tanaka, Masaki; Wada, Hiroyuki; Yoshizawa, Yasunori; Imai, Yoshio; Machida, Toru; Akahane, Masaaki; Shirouzu, Ichiro; Konishi, Seiki

    2016-01-01

    The orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) is involved in cognitive functions, and is also closely related to autonomic functions. The OFC is densely connected with the hypothalamus, a heterogeneous structure controlling autonomic functions that can be divided into two major parts: the lateral and the medial. Resting-state functional connectivity has allowed us to parcellate the cerebral cortex into putative functional areas based on the changes in the spatial pattern of connectivity in the cerebral cortex when a seed point is moved from one voxel to another. In the present high spatial-resolution fMRI study, we investigate the connectivity-based organization of the OFC with reference to the hypothalamus. The OFC was parcellated using resting-state functional connectivity in an individual subject approach, and then the functional connectivity was examined between the parcellated areas in the OFC and the lateral/medial hypothalamus. We found a functional double dissociation in the OFC: the lateral OFC (the lateral orbital gyrus) was more likely connected with the lateral hypothalamus, whereas the medial OFC (the medial orbital and rectal gyri) was more likely connected with the medial hypothalamus. These results demonstrate the fundamental heterogeneity of the OFC, and suggest a potential neural basis of the OFC-hypothalamic functional interaction. PMID:27303281

  4. Medial prefrontal theta phase coupling during spatial memory retrieval.

    PubMed

    Kaplan, Raphael; Bush, Daniel; Bonnefond, Mathilde; Bandettini, Peter A; Barnes, Gareth R; Doeller, Christian F; Burgess, Neil

    2014-06-01

    Memory retrieval is believed to involve a disparate network of areas, including medial prefrontal and medial temporal cortices, but the mechanisms underlying their coordination remain elusive. One suggestion is that oscillatory coherence mediates inter-regional communication, implicating theta phase and theta-gamma phase-amplitude coupling in mnemonic function across species. To examine this hypothesis, we used non-invasive whole-head magnetoencephalography (MEG) as participants retrieved the location of objects encountered within a virtual environment. We demonstrate that, when participants are cued with the image of an object whose location they must subsequently navigate to, there is a significant increase in 4-8 Hz theta power in medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC), and the phase of this oscillation is coupled both with ongoing theta phase in the medial temporal lobe (MTL) and perceptually induced 65-85 Hz gamma amplitude in medial parietal cortex. These results suggest that theta phase coupling between mPFC and MTL and theta-gamma phase-amplitude coupling between mPFC and neocortical regions may play a role in human spatial memory retrieval. PMID:24497013

  5. Structural Mechanics and Dynamics Branch

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stefko, George

    2003-01-01

    The 2002 annual report of the Structural Mechanics and Dynamics Branch reflects the majority of the work performed by the branch staff during the 2002 calendar year. Its purpose is to give a brief review of the branch s technical accomplishments. The Structural Mechanics and Dynamics Branch develops innovative computational tools, benchmark experimental data, and solutions to long-term barrier problems in the areas of propulsion aeroelasticity, active and passive damping, engine vibration control, rotor dynamics, magnetic suspension, structural mechanics, probabilistics, smart structures, engine system dynamics, and engine containment. Furthermore, the branch is developing a compact, nonpolluting, bearingless electric machine with electric power supplied by fuel cells for future "more electric" aircraft. An ultra-high-power-density machine that can generate projected power densities of 50 hp/lb or more, in comparison to conventional electric machines, which generate usually 0.2 hp/lb, is under development for application to electric drives for propulsive fans or propellers. In the future, propulsion and power systems will need to be lighter, to operate at higher temperatures, and to be more reliable in order to achieve higher performance and economic viability. The Structural Mechanics and Dynamics Branch is working to achieve these complex, challenging goals.

  6. [Relevance of nerve blocks in treating and diagnosing low back pain--is the quality decisive?].

    PubMed

    Hildebrandt, J

    2001-12-01

    Diagnostic nerve blocks: The popularity of neural blockade as a diagnostic tool in painful conditions, especially in the spine, is due to features like the unspecific character of spinal pain, the irrelevance of radiological findings and the purely subjective character of pain. It is said that apart from specific causes of pain and clear radicular involvement with obvious neurological deficits and corresponding findings of a prolapsed disc in MRI or CT pictures, a diagnosis of the anatomical cause of the pain can only be established if invasive tests are used [5]. These include zygapophyseal joint blocks, sacroiliacal joint blocks, disc stimulation and nerve root blocks. Under controlled conditions, it has been shown that among patients with chronic nonradicular low back pain, some 10-15% have zygapophyseal joint pain [58], some 15-20% have sacroiliacal joint pain [36, 59] and 40% have pain from internal disc disruption [60]. The diagnostic use of neural blockade rests on three premises. First, pathology causing pain is located in an exact peripheral location, and impulses from this site travel via a unique and consistent neural root. Second, injection of local aneasthetic totally abolishes sensory function of intended nerves and does not affect other nerves. Third, relief of pain after local anaesthetic block is attributable solely to block of the target afferent neural pathway. The validity of these assumptions is limited by complexities of anatomy, physiology, and psychology of pain perception and the effect of local anaesthetics on impulse conduction [28]. Facet joints: The prevalence of zygapophyseal joint pain among patients with low back pain seems to be between 15% and 40% [62], but apparently only 7% of patients have pure facet pain [8, 29]. Facet blockade is achieved either by injection of local anaesthetic into the joint space or around the medial branches of the posterior medial rami of the spinal nerves that innervate the joint. There are several

  7. Tachycardia- and bradycardia-dependent atrioventricular block: observations regarding the mechanism of block.

    PubMed

    Denes, P; Murabit, I; Ezri, M; Eybel, C

    1987-02-01

    A case of paroxysmal bradycardia- and tachycardia-dependent atrioventricular (AV) block is described in a patient with right bundle branch block. The His bundle recordings demonstrated the site of the AV block to be distal to the His bundle recording site (probably in the left bundle branch). Whereas AV block distal to the His bundle occurred at an atrial paced cycle length of 700 ms, intact ventriculoatrial (VA) conduction was present up to a ventricular paced cycle length of 400 ms. Resumption of AV conduction was dependent on a critical HH or RH (in case of escapes) interval. These findings suggest that the bradycardia-dependent block is related to a time-dependent decrease in the amplitude of the current intensity of the proximal segment during late diastole. Spontaneous diastolic depolarization during late diastole resulted in impaired anterograde (AV) conduction but facilitated retrograde (VA) conduction. These findings are consistent with experimental "in vitro" observation in the sucrose gap model of AV block. PMID:2433320

  8. Unusual Appearance of an Osteochondral Lesion Accompanying Medial Meniscus Injury

    PubMed Central

    Mine, Takatomo; Ihara, Koichiro; Kawamura, Hiroyuki; Date, Ryo; Chagawa, Kazuki

    2014-01-01

    An osteochondral lesion in the knee joint is caused by a focal traumatic osteochondral defect, osteochondritis dissecans, an isolated degenerative lesion, or diffuse degenerative disease. An osteochondral lesion with a cleft-like appearance accompanying medial meniscus injury is rare without trauma. We report the case of a 13-year-old boy who complained of right knee pain and swelling, with radiographic findings of an osteochondral defect. Arthroscopic inspection showed an osteochondral lesion in the medial condyle of the femur and tibial plateau accompanying a partial medial meniscus discoid tear. Partial meniscectomy was performed, and a microfracture procedure was carried out on the osteochondral defect. The patient was asymptomatic at 2 years' follow-up. This technique is a relatively easy, completely arthroscopic procedure that spares the bone and cartilage and has yielded a good clinical outcome in a skeletally immature patient who had an osteochondral lesion with a cleft-like appearance. PMID:24749028

  9. Postero‐medial elbow problems in the adult athlete

    PubMed Central

    Eygendaal, D; Safran, M R

    2006-01-01

    The ligamentous, osseous, musculotendinous, and neural structures at the postero‐medial side of the elbow are at risk for various injuries in overhead athletes. The combination of valgus and extension overload during overhead activities results in tensile forces along the medial stabilising structures, with compression on the lateral compartment and shear stress posteriorly. The combination of tensile forces medially and shear forces posteriorly can result in ulnar collateral ligament (UCL) tears, flexor–pronator mass injuries, neuritis of the ulnar nerve, posterior impingement, and olecranon stress fractures. Most symptomatic conditions of the overhead athlete can be treated conservatively initially. In cases where conservative treatment is unsuccessful surgical intervention is indicated. Recent advances in arthroscopic surgical techniques and ligamentous reconstruction ensure that the prognosis for return to pre‐injury level is good. PMID:16632574

  10. Common medial elbow injuries in the adolescent athlete.

    PubMed

    Leahy, Ian; Schorpion, Melissa; Ganley, Theodore

    2015-01-01

    Recently there has been increased year-round sports participation among children and adolescents with limited to no rest periods. This has led to increases in pediatric repetitive stress injuries, once considered a rarity. Whether in the throwing athlete or in the athlete that experiences repetitive axial loading; increased medial tension and overload syndromes can lead to stress reactions and fractures. This occurs in the developing athlete due to the bone being weaker than the surrounding tendons and ligaments. The medial elbow is a high stress area and is susceptible to many conditions including apophysitis , avulsion fractures and ulnar collateral ligament disruption. Valgus stress can cause injury to the medial elbow which can lead to increased lateral compression, Panner's disease and osteochondral lesions of the capitellum and olecranon. The purpose of this manuscript is to review common elbow disorders in the adolescent population, outline management and highlight important features of rehabilitation. PMID:25840494

  11. Medial Arterial Calcification: An Overlooked Player in Peripheral Arterial Disease.

    PubMed

    Ho, Chin Yee; Shanahan, Catherine M

    2016-08-01

    Peripheral arterial disease (PAD) is a global health issue that is becoming more prevalent in an aging world population. Diabetes mellitus and chronic kidney disease are also on the increase, and both are associated with accelerated vascular calcification and an unfavorable prognosis in PAD. These data challenge the traditional athero-centric view of PAD, instead pointing toward a disease process complicated by medial arterial calcification. Like atherosclerosis, aging is a potent risk factor for medial arterial calcification, and accelerated vascular aging may underpin the devastating manifestations of PAD, particularly in patients prone to calcification. Consequently, this review will attempt to dissect the relationship between medial arterial calcification and atherosclerosis in PAD and identify common as well as novel risk factors that may contribute to and accelerate progression of PAD. In this context, we focus on the complex interplay between oxidative stress, DNA damage, and vascular aging, as well as the unexplored role of neuropathy. PMID:27312224

  12. Individuals' and groups' intentions in the medial prefrontal cortex.

    PubMed

    Chaminade, Thierry; Kawato, Mitsuo; Frith, Chris

    2011-11-16

    Functional MRI signal was recorded while participants perceived stimuli presented using moving dots. In two conditions of interest, the motion of dots depicted intentions: dots representing the joints of an agent performing an action, and dots representing individual agents behaving contingently. The finding of a common cluster in the posterior part of the medial frontal cortex involved in intentional action representation validates the hypothesis that perception of these two conditions requires a similar internal representation. A cluster responding to the behaving group only is found in the anterior medial frontal cortex. These results support a division of the medial frontal cortex according to social stimuli attributes, with anterior areas responding to higher-order group behaviours integrating the action of multiple individual agents. PMID:21897305

  13. ASSESSMENT OF TIBIAL SLOPE ANGLE AND PATELLAR HEIGHT AFTER MEDIAL-OPENING TIBIAL OSTEOTOMY

    PubMed Central

    de Paula Mozella, Alan; Vieira Costa, Marcos Areias; de Araujo Barros Cobra, Hugo Alexandre

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To measure the variation in posterior tibial slope angle and patellar height in patients who underwent proximal tibial valgus-producing osteotomy using the medial-opening wedge technique. Methods: Anteroposterior panoramic radiographs of the lower limbs and lateral radiographs of the knee obtained before and after tibial valgus-producing osteotomy on 46 patients with unicompartmental arthrosis of the knee were analyzed. Results: In 23 patients, an external fixator was used to gradually apply a medial-opening wedge; and in the other 23, a blocked plate with a stop bar was applied as a fixation method. Patients with tricompartmental knee disease and those who underwent osteotomy to treat fracture sequelae were excluded from this study. After surgery, the mean increase in the tibial slope was 1.7 degrees (p < 0.01) in the group in which the blocked plate with a stop bar was used; and 2.7 degrees (p < 0.05) in the group in which the external fixator was used. There was no statistical difference between the groups regarding the increase in the posterior tibial slope. Conclusion: The patellar height did not present any change in the cases in which the plate was used, when measured using the Insall-Salvati method, but it presented a decrease in 11 cases (47.8%) when the Caton-Deschamps method was applied. The same tendency was observed regarding change in the patellar height in the cases in which the external fixator was used, such that a decrease was observed in eight cases (34.7%) only when measured using the Caton-Deschamps method. PMID:27047847

  14. Two cases of medial knee pain involving the medial coronary ligament in adolescents treated with conservative rehabilitation therapy

    PubMed Central

    Hudes, Karen

    2011-01-01

    Objective: This case study chronicled the assessment, treatment and management of two adolescent patients presenting with acute knee pain, diagnosed as medial meniscus tear, with or without a medial collateral ligament sprain, with coronary ligament involvement. Cases Patient 1: A 16 year old male football player presented with right medial knee pain of 2 days duration after having been tackled during practice from the left side. Patient 2: A 16 year old female presented with right medial knee pain that began 1 week prior to presentation after a fall down the stairs. Treatment: Treatment was initiated in both cases using inflammatory control techniques of icing and fascial stripping and progressed to rehabilitative exercises including VMO (vastus medialis oblique) exercises and squatting exercises to strengthen the quadriceps femoris musculature and proprioceptive exercise. Rehabilitation occurred over a four week duration in both cases with progression of exercises on an individual basis. Both cases resolved within four weeks and return to normal activities resumed at the three week mark including a return to play in patient 1. Both patients reported complete resolution of symptoms at the four week mark with no recurrence on follow up a number of months later. Summary: Conservative management, including icing, fascial stripping, and rehabilitative exercises may be beneficial in the treatment of medial meniscus tears with coronary ligament involvement in adolescents. PMID:21629464

  15. Apical constriction initiates new bud formation during monopodial branching of the embryonic chicken lung.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hye Young; Varner, Victor D; Nelson, Celeste M

    2013-08-01

    Branching morphogenesis sculpts the airway epithelium of the lung into a tree-like structure to conduct air and promote gas exchange after birth. In the avian lung, a series of buds emerges from the dorsal surface of the primary bronchus via monopodial branching to form the conducting airways; anatomically, these buds are similar to those formed by domain branching in the mammalian lung. Here, we show that monopodial branching is initiated by apical constriction of the airway epithelium, and not by differential cell proliferation, using computational modeling and quantitative imaging of embryonic chicken lung explants. Both filamentous actin and phosphorylated myosin light chain were enriched at the apical surface of the airway epithelium during monopodial branching. Consistently, inhibiting actomyosin contractility prevented apical constriction and blocked branch initiation. Although cell proliferation was enhanced along the dorsal and ventral aspects of the primary bronchus, especially before branch formation, inhibiting proliferation had no effect on the initiation of branches. To test whether the physical forces from apical constriction alone are sufficient to drive the formation of new buds, we constructed a nonlinear, three-dimensional finite element model of the airway epithelium and used it to simulate apical constriction and proliferation in the primary bronchus. Our results suggest that, consistent with the experimental results, apical constriction is sufficient to drive the early stages of monopodial branching whereas cell proliferation is dispensable. We propose that initial folding of the airway epithelium is driven primarily by apical constriction during monopodial branching of the avian lung. PMID:23824575

  16. Testing block subdivision algorithms on block designs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wiseman, Natalie; Patterson, Zachary

    2016-01-01

    Integrated land use-transportation models predict future transportation demand taking into account how households and firms arrange themselves partly as a function of the transportation system. Recent integrated models require parcels as inputs and produce household and employment predictions at the parcel scale. Block subdivision algorithms automatically generate parcel patterns within blocks. Evaluating block subdivision algorithms is done by way of generating parcels and comparing them to those in a parcel database. Three block subdivision algorithms are evaluated on how closely they reproduce parcels of different block types found in a parcel database from Montreal, Canada. While the authors who developed each of the algorithms have evaluated them, they have used their own metrics and block types to evaluate their own algorithms. This makes it difficult to compare their strengths and weaknesses. The contribution of this paper is in resolving this difficulty with the aim of finding a better algorithm suited to subdividing each block type. The proposed hypothesis is that given the different approaches that block subdivision algorithms take, it's likely that different algorithms are better adapted to subdividing different block types. To test this, a standardized block type classification is used that consists of mutually exclusive and comprehensive categories. A statistical method is used for finding a better algorithm and the probability it will perform well for a given block type. Results suggest the oriented bounding box algorithm performs better for warped non-uniform sites, as well as gridiron and fragmented uniform sites. It also produces more similar parcel areas and widths. The Generalized Parcel Divider 1 algorithm performs better for gridiron non-uniform sites. The Straight Skeleton algorithm performs better for loop and lollipop networks as well as fragmented non-uniform and warped uniform sites. It also produces more similar parcel shapes and patterns.

  17. Vinylogous chain branching catalysed by a dedicated polyketide synthase module.

    PubMed

    Bretschneider, Tom; Heim, Joel B; Heine, Daniel; Winkler, Robert; Busch, Benjamin; Kusebauch, Björn; Stehle, Thilo; Zocher, Georg; Hertweck, Christian

    2013-10-01

    Bacteria use modular polyketide synthases (PKSs) to assemble complex polyketides, many of which are leads for the development of clinical drugs, in particular anti-infectives and anti-tumoral agents. Because these multifarious compounds are notoriously difficult to synthesize, they are usually produced by microbial fermentation. During the past two decades, an impressive body of knowledge on modular PKSs has been gathered that not only provides detailed insight into the biosynthetic pathways but also allows the rational engineering of enzymatic processing lines to yield structural analogues. Notably, a hallmark of all PKS modules studied so far is the head-to-tail fusion of acyl and malonyl building blocks, which leads to linear backbones. Yet, structural diversity is limited by this uniform assembly mode. Here we demonstrate a new type of PKS module from the endofungal bacterium Burkholderia rhizoxinica that catalyses a Michael-type acetyl addition to generate a branch in the carbon chain. In vitro reconstitution of the entire PKS module, X-ray structures of a ketosynthase-branching didomain and mutagenesis experiments revealed a crucial role of the ketosynthase domain in branching the carbon chain. We present a trapped intermediary state in which acyl carrier protein and ketosynthase are covalently linked by the branched polyketide and suggest a new mechanism for chain alkylation, which is functionally distinct from terpenoid-like β-branching. For the rice seedling blight toxin rhizoxin, one of the strongest known anti-mitotic agents, the non-canonical polyketide modification is indispensable for phytotoxic and anti-tumoral activities. We propose that the formation of related pharmacophoric groups follows the same general scheme and infer a unifying vinylogous branching reaction for PKS modules with a ketosynthase-branching-acyl-carrier-protein architecture. This study unveils the structure and function of a new PKS module that broadens the biosynthetic scope of

  18. Medial proximal tibial angle after medial opening wedge HTO: A retrospective diagnostic test study

    PubMed Central

    Pornrattanamaneewong, Chaturong; Narkbunnam, Rapeepat; Chareancholvanich, Keerati

    2012-01-01

    Background: Medial proximal tibial angle (MPTA) is the commonly used angle, which is simply measured from the knee radiographs. It can determine the correction angle in medial opening wedge high tibial osteotomy (MOWHTO). The hypothesis of our study is that post-osteotomy MPTA can predict the change in correction angle, and we aimed to determine the optimal MPTA with which to prevent recurrent varus deformity after MOWHTO. Materials and Methods: Between January 2002 and April 2010, radiographs of 59 patients, who underwent 71 MOWHTOs using the locking-compression osteotomy plates without bone grafts, were evaluated for the change of the MPTA. The MPTA was measured preoperatively and one and twelve months postoperatively. The changes of MPTA between one and twelve months were classified into valgus, stable, and varus change. The predicting factors were analyzed using analysis of variance (ANOVA) and Bonferroni multiple comparisons. The receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve was used to find out the cut off point for preventing the recurrent varus deformity. Results: The overall preoperative, and one and twelve month postoperative MPTA values were 84.4 ± 2.4°, 97.2 ± 4.1°, and 96.3 ± 3.6°, respectively. Between one and twelve months, 39 knees displayed reduced varus change (–2.8 ± 2.1°), 18 knees displayed no change, and 14 knees displayed a greater valgus change (+2.9 ± 2.1°). The best factor for predicting these changes was the one month MPTA value (P = 0.006). By using the ROC curve, a one month MPTA of 95° was analyzed as the cut off point for preventing the recurrent varus deformity. With MPTA ≥95°, 92.3% of the osteotomies exhibited stable or varus change and 7.7% exhibited valgus change. However, with MPTA <95°, 47.4% exhibited stable or varus change and 52.6% exhibited valgus change (P < 0.001, odds ratio = 13.3). Conclusion: The postoperative MPTA can be used to predict the change in correction angle and an MPTA of at least 95° is

  19. Locked bucket-handle tears of both medial and lateral menisci with simultaneous anterior cruciate and medial collateral ligaments injury.

    PubMed

    Koukoulias, Nikolaos E; Kyparlis, Dimitris; Koumis, Panagiotis; Lola, Despoina; Papastergiou, Stergios G

    2011-01-01

    The authors report the case of a 38-year-old male who presented to the accident and emergency department with a locked knee after falling from a height. The knee was locked at 35° of flexion without any signs of instability in clinical examination. The patient was operated within 6 h from injury. During arthroscopy bucket-handle tears of both medial and lateral menisci were found. The bucket-handle fragments were displaced into the intercondylar notch causing the knee to lock. Additionally, tears of the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) and the medial collateral ligament (MCL) were also found. The patient underwent ACL reconstruction with hamstrings autograft, medial subtotal meniscectomy and lateral meniscus repair. The MCL was treated conservatively. The postoperative period was uneventful and the patient returned to the preinjury level of activity within 8 months. The patient remains asymptomatic 2 years postoperatively. PMID:22691631

  20. Locked bucket-handle tears of both medial and lateral menisci with simultaneous anterior cruciate and medial collateral ligaments injury

    PubMed Central

    Koukoulias, Nikolaos E; Kyparlis, Dimitris; Koumis, Panagiotis; Lola, Despoina; Papastergiou, Stergios G

    2011-01-01

    The authors report the case of a 38-year-old male who presented to the accident and emergency department with a locked knee after falling from a height. The knee was locked at 35° of flexion without any signs of instability in clinical examination. The patient was operated within 6 h from injury. During arthroscopy bucket-handle tears of both medial and lateral menisci were found. The bucket-handle fragments were displaced into the intercondylar notch causing the knee to lock. Additionally, tears of the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) and the medial collateral ligament (MCL) were also found. The patient underwent ACL reconstruction with hamstrings autograft, medial subtotal meniscectomy and lateral meniscus repair. The MCL was treated conservatively. The postoperative period was uneventful and the patient returned to the preinjury level of activity within 8 months. The patient remains asymptomatic 2 years postoperatively. PMID:22691631

  1. Medial Posterior Meniscal Root Tears Are Associated with Development or Worsening of Medial Tibiofemoral Cartilage Damage: The Multicenter Osteoarthritis Study

    PubMed Central

    Hayashi, Daichi; Jarraya, Mohamed; Roemer, Frank W.; Zhang, Yuqing; Niu, Jingbo; Crema, Michel D.; Englund, Martin; Lynch, John A.; Nevitt, Michael C.; Torner, James C.; Lewis, Cora E.; Felson, David T.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: To assess the association of meniscal root tear with the development or worsening of tibiofemoral cartilage damage. Materials and Methods: Institutional review board approval and written informed consent from all subjects were obtained. A total of 596 knees with radiographically depicted osteoarthritis were randomly selected from the Multicenter Osteoarthritis study cohort. Cartilage damage was semiquantitatively assessed by using the Whole-Organ Magnetic Resonance Imaging Score (WORMS) system (grades 0–6). Subjects were separated into three groups: root tear only, meniscal tear without root tear, and neither meniscal nor root tear. A log-binomial regression model was used to calculate the relative risks for knees to develop incident or progressing cartilage damage in the root tear group and the meniscal tear group, with the no tear group serving as a reference. Results: In the medial tibiofemoral joint, there were 37 knees with isolated medial posterior root tear, 294 with meniscal tear without root tear, and 264 without meniscal or root tear. There were only two lateral posterior root tears, and no anterior root tears were found. Thus, the focus was on the medial posterior root tear. The frequency of severe cartilage damage (WORMS ≥5) was higher in the group with root tear than in the group without root or meniscal tear (76.7% vs 19.7%, P < .0001) but not in the group with meniscal but no root tear (76.7% vs 65.2%, P = .055). Longitudinal analyses included 33 knees with isolated medial posterior root tear, 270 with meniscal tear, and 245 with no tear. Adjusted relative risk of cartilage loss was 2.03 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.18, 3.48) for the root tear group and 1.84 (95% CI: 1.32, 2.58) for the meniscal tear group. Conclusion: Isolated medial posterior meniscal root tear is associated with incident and progressive medial tibiofemoral cartilage loss. © RSNA, 2013 PMID:23696679

  2. 17 CFR 166.4 - Branch offices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Branch offices. 166.4 Section 166.4 Commodity and Securities Exchanges COMMODITY FUTURES TRADING COMMISSION CUSTOMER PROTECTION RULES § 166.4 Branch offices. Each branch office of each Commission registrant must use the name of the firm of which it is a branch for all...

  3. Symptomatic Trifascicular Block in Steinert's Disease: Is It Too Soon for a Pacemaker?

    PubMed Central

    Roberti, Roberto; LaCapra, Gina; Ramirez, Roberto

    2016-01-01

    We report a case of a 62-year-old male with Steinert's disease who presented with progressive intermittent episodes of lightheadedness five years after he was diagnosed with the disease. On evaluation, he developed a new onset trifascicular block (first degree atrioventricular block, new onset right bundle branch block, and left anterior fascicular block). A dual chamber pacemaker was inserted and lightheadedness improved significantly. PMID:27022487

  4. Medial Temporal Lobe Memory in Childhood: Developmental Transitions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Townsend, Elise L.; Richmond, Jenny L.; Vogel-Farley, Vanessa K.; Thomas, Kathleen

    2010-01-01

    The medial temporal lobes (MTL) support declarative memory and mature structurally and functionally during the postnatal years in humans. Although recent work has addressed the development of declarative memory in early childhood, less is known about continued development beyond this period of time. The purpose of this investigation was to explore…

  5. Sural Versus Perforator Flaps for Distal Medial Leg Wounds.

    PubMed

    Schannen, Andrew P; Truchan, Lisa; Goshima, Kaoru; Bentley, Roger; DeSilva, Gregory L

    2015-12-01

    Soft tissue coverage of distal medial ankle wounds is a challenging problem in orthopedic surgery because of the limited local tissues and prominent instrumentation. Traditionally, these wounds required free tissue transfer to achieve suitable coverage and subsequent bony union. To better respect the reconstructive ladder and to avoid the inherent difficulty of free flap coverage, rotational flaps have been used to cover these wounds. Both sural fasciocutaneous flaps and rotational fasciocutaneous perforator (propeller) flaps have been described for distal medial soft tissue coverage. The authors performed a retrospective chart review of patients who underwent distal medial leg coverage with the use of either sural flaps or rotational fasciocutaneous perforator flaps. The authors identified 14 patients by Current Procedural Terminology code who met the study criteria. The average age and degree of medical comorbidities were comparable in the 2 groups. The authors reviewed their medical records to evaluate fracture healing, flap size, complications, and return to normal shoe wear. All 7 sural flaps healed without incident, with underlying fracture healing. Of the 7 perforator flaps, 6 healed without incident, with underlying fracture healing. One perforator-based flap was complicated by superficial tip necrosis and went on to heal with local wound care. All patients returned to normal shoe wear. Both sural artery rotational flaps and posterior tibial artery-based rotational flaps are viable options for coverage of the distal medial leg. Coverage can be achieved reliably without microsurgery, anticoagulation, or monitoring in the intensive care unit. PMID:26652325

  6. Medial Prefrontal Cortex Lesions Abolish Contextual Control of Competing Responses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haddon, J. E.; Killcross, A. S.

    2005-01-01

    There is much debate as to the extent and nature of functional specialization within the different subregions of the prefrontal cortex. The current study was undertaken to investigate the effect of damage to medial prefrontal cortex subregions in the rat. Rats were trained on two biconditional discrimination tasks, one auditory and one visual, in…

  7. Medial temporal N-acetyl aspartate in pediatric major depression

    PubMed Central

    MacMaster, Frank P.; Moore, Gregory J; Russell, Aileen; Mirza, Yousha; Taormina, S. Preeya; Buhagiar, Christian; Rosenberg, David R.

    2008-01-01

    The medial temporal cortex (MTC) has been implicated in the pathogenesis of pediatric major depressive disorder (MDD). Eleven MDD-case control pairs underwent proton magnetic resonance spectroscopic imaging. N-acetyl-aspartate was lower in left MTC (27%) in MDD patients versus controls. Lower N-acetyl-aspartate concentrations in MDD patients may reflect reduced neuronal viability. PMID:18703320

  8. Medial temporal N-acetyl-aspartate in pediatric major depression.

    PubMed

    MacMaster, Frank P; Moore, Gregory J; Russell, Aileen; Mirza, Yousha; Taormina, S Preeya; Buhagiar, Christian; Rosenberg, David R

    2008-10-30

    The medial temporal cortex (MTC) has been implicated in the pathogenesis of pediatric major depressive disorder (MDD). Eleven MDD case-control pairs underwent proton magnetic resonance spectroscopic imaging. N-acetyl-aspartate was lower in the left MTC (27%) in MDD patients versus controls. Lower N-acetyl-aspartate concentrations in MDD patients may reflect reduced neuronal viability. PMID:18703320

  9. Osteochondritis dissecans on the medial aspect of the humeral head

    PubMed Central

    Mima, Yuichiro; Matsumura, Noboru; Ogawa, Kiyohisa; Iwamoto, Takuji; Ochi, Kensuke; Sato, Kazuki; Toyama, Yoshiaki

    2016-01-01

    The case of a 29-year-old man who had osteochondritis dissecans on the medial aspect of the humeral head is reported. Repetitive micro-trauma at a low elevated arm position was thought to have induced the osteochondral lesion. PMID:27186062

  10. Medial Patellofemoral Ligament Reconstruction in a Below-Knee Amputee

    PubMed Central

    El-Tawil, Sherif; Elfons Tawafig, Marian; Miles, Jonathan

    2015-01-01

    Patellar instability is a common finding in patients with below-knee amputation and yet management options are not commonly described in the literature. We describe the first reported case of a medial patellofemoral ligament reconstruction using allograft in a patient with a below-knee amputation. Clinical outcome at two-year follow-up remains very good. PMID:26579321

  11. Medial Temporal Lobe Structures Contribute to On-Line Processing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Warren, David

    2009-01-01

    For the last five decades, the medial temporal lobes have been generally understood to facilitate enduring representation of certain kinds of information. In particular, knowledge about the relations among items and concepts appears to rely on that region of the brain. Recent results suggest that those same structures also play a subtle role in…

  12. Theta Synchronizes the Activity of Medial Prefrontal Neurons during Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paz, Rony; Bauer, Elizabeth P.; Pare, Denis

    2008-01-01

    Memory consolidation is thought to involve the gradual transfer of transient hippocampal-dependent traces to distributed neocortical sites via the rhinal cortices. Recently, medial prefrontal (mPFC) neurons were shown to facilitate this process when their activity becomes synchronized. However, the mechanisms underlying this enhanced synchrony…

  13. Scene-Selectivity and Retinotopy in Medial Parietal Cortex.

    PubMed

    Silson, Edward H; Steel, Adam D; Baker, Chris I

    2016-01-01

    Functional imaging studies in human reliably identify a trio of scene-selective regions, one on each of the lateral [occipital place area (OPA)], ventral [parahippocampal place area (PPA)], and medial [retrosplenial complex (RSC)] cortical surfaces. Recently, we demonstrated differential retinotopic biases for the contralateral lower and upper visual fields within OPA and PPA, respectively. Here, using functional magnetic resonance imaging, we combine detailed mapping of both population receptive fields (pRF) and category-selectivity, with independently acquired resting-state functional connectivity analyses, to examine scene and retinotopic processing within medial parietal cortex. We identified a medial scene-selective region, which was contained largely within the posterior and ventral bank of the parieto-occipital sulcus (POS). While this region is typically referred to as RSC, the spatial extent of our scene-selective region typically did not extend into retrosplenial cortex, and thus we adopt the term medial place area (MPA) to refer to this visually defined scene-selective region. Intriguingly MPA co-localized with a region identified solely on the basis of retinotopic sensitivity using pRF analyses. We found that MPA demonstrates a significant contralateral visual field bias, coupled with large pRF sizes. Unlike OPA and PPA, MPA did not show a consistent bias to a single visual quadrant. MPA also co-localized with a region identified by strong differential functional connectivity with PPA and the human face-selective fusiform face area (FFA), commensurate with its functional selectivity. Functional connectivity with OPA was much weaker than with PPA, and similar to that with face-selective occipital face area (OFA), suggesting a closer link with ventral than lateral cortex. Consistent with prior research, we also observed differential functional connectivity in medial parietal cortex for anterior over posterior PPA, as well as a region on the lateral

  14. Scene-Selectivity and Retinotopy in Medial Parietal Cortex

    PubMed Central

    Silson, Edward H.; Steel, Adam D.; Baker, Chris I.

    2016-01-01

    Functional imaging studies in human reliably identify a trio of scene-selective regions, one on each of the lateral [occipital place area (OPA)], ventral [parahippocampal place area (PPA)], and medial [retrosplenial complex (RSC)] cortical surfaces. Recently, we demonstrated differential retinotopic biases for the contralateral lower and upper visual fields within OPA and PPA, respectively. Here, using functional magnetic resonance imaging, we combine detailed mapping of both population receptive fields (pRF) and category-selectivity, with independently acquired resting-state functional connectivity analyses, to examine scene and retinotopic processing within medial parietal cortex. We identified a medial scene-selective region, which was contained largely within the posterior and ventral bank of the parieto-occipital sulcus (POS). While this region is typically referred to as RSC, the spatial extent of our scene-selective region typically did not extend into retrosplenial cortex, and thus we adopt the term medial place area (MPA) to refer to this visually defined scene-selective region. Intriguingly MPA co-localized with a region identified solely on the basis of retinotopic sensitivity using pRF analyses. We found that MPA demonstrates a significant contralateral visual field bias, coupled with large pRF sizes. Unlike OPA and PPA, MPA did not show a consistent bias to a single visual quadrant. MPA also co-localized with a region identified by strong differential functional connectivity with PPA and the human face-selective fusiform face area (FFA), commensurate with its functional selectivity. Functional connectivity with OPA was much weaker than with PPA, and similar to that with face-selective occipital face area (OFA), suggesting a closer link with ventral than lateral cortex. Consistent with prior research, we also observed differential functional connectivity in medial parietal cortex for anterior over posterior PPA, as well as a region on the lateral

  15. Block That Pain!

    MedlinePlus

    ... combination produces a unique effect, blocking pain-sensing neurons without impairing signals from other cells. In contrast, ... surgical procedures block activity in all types of neurons. This can cause numbness, paralysis, and other nervous ...

  16. A Finite Element Analysis of Medial Patellofemoral Ligament Reconstruction

    PubMed Central

    DeVries Watson, Nicole A.; Duchman, Kyle R.; Bollier, Matthew J.; Grosland, Nicole M.

    2015-01-01

    Background The medial patellofemoral ligament is the primary soft-tissue restraint to lateral patella translation. Medial patellofemoral ligament reconstruction has become a viable surgical option to provide patellar stability in patients with recurrent instability. The primary goal of this study was to determine the effect of medial patellofemoral ligament reconstruction on the lateral force-displacement behavior of the patella using finite element analyses. Methods A finite element model of the knee was created using cadaveric image data. Experimental testing was performed to validate the computational model. After validation, the model was modified to study the effect of various medial patellofemoral ligament reconstruction insertion sites, allowing comparison of patellofemoral contact force and pressure. Results For the intact anatomic model, the lateral restraining force was 80.0 N with a corresponding patellar contact area of 54.97 mm2. For the anatomic reconstructed medial patellofemoral ligament model, the lateral restraining force increased to 148.9 N with a contact area of 71.78 mm2. This compared favorably to the corresponding experimental study. The force required to laterally displace the patella increased when the femoral insertion site was moved anteriorly or distally. The lateral restraining force decreased when the femoral insertion site moved proximally and the patellar insertion site moved either proximal or distal by 5 mm. Conclusion The line of action was altered with insertion site position, which in turn changed the amount of force it took to displace the patella laterally. Considering the model constraints, an anterior femoral attachment may over constrain the patella and increase cartilage wear due to increase contact area and restraining force. Clinical Relevance A malpositioned femoral tunnel in MPFL reconstruction could increase restraining forces and PF contact pressure, thus it is suggested to use intra-operative fluoroscopy to confirm

  17. The origin of the medial circumflex femoral artery: a meta-analysis and proposal of a new classification system.

    PubMed

    Tomaszewski, Krzysztof A; Henry, Brandon M; Vikse, Jens; Roy, Joyeeta; Pękala, Przemysław A; Svensen, Maren; Guay, Daniel L; Saganiak, Karolina; Walocha, Jerzy A

    2016-01-01

    Background and Objectives. The medial circumflex femoral artery (MCFA) is a common branch of the deep femoral artery (DFA) responsible for supplying the femoral head and the greater trochanteric fossa. The prevalence rates of MCFA origin, its branching patterns and its distance to the mid-inguinal point (MIP) vary significantly throughout the literature. The aim of this study was to determine the true prevalence of these characteristics and to study their associated anatomical and clinical relevance. Methods. A search of the major electronic databases Pubmed, EMBASE, Scopus, ScienceDirect, Web of Science, SciELO, BIOSIS, and CNKI was performed to identify all articles reporting data on the origin of the MCFA, its branching patterns and its distance to the MIP. No data or language restriction was set. Additionally, an extensive search of the references of all relevant articles was performed. All data on origin, branching and distance to MIP was extracted and pooled into a meta-analysis using MetaXL v2.0. Results. A total of 38 (36 cadaveric and 2 imaging) studies (n = 4,351 lower limbs) were included into the meta-analysis. The pooled prevalence of the MCFA originating from the DFA was 64.6% (95% CI [58.0-71.5]), while the pooled prevalence of the MCFA originating from the CFA was 32.2% (95% CI [25.9-39.1]). The CFA-derived MCFA was found to originate as a single branch in 81.1% (95% CI [70.1-91.7]) of cases with a mean pooled distance of 50.14 mm (95% CI [42.50-57.78]) from the MIP. Conclusion. The MCFA's variability must be taken into account by surgeons, especially during orthopedic interventions in the region of the hip to prevent iatrogenic injury to the circulation of the femoral head. Based on our analysis, we present a new proposed classification system for origin of the MCFA. PMID:26966661

  18. The Block Scheduling Handbook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Queen, J. Allen

    Block scheduling encourages increased comprehensive immersion into subject matter, improved teacher-student relationships, and decreased disciplinary problems. While block scheduling may offer many advantages, moving to a block schedule from conventional scheduling can be a major adjustment for both students and teachers. This guide is intended to…

  19. Block Scheduling. Research Brief

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Muir, Mike

    2003-01-01

    What are the effects of block scheduling? Results of transitioning from traditional to block scheduling are mixed. Some studies indicate no change in achievement results, nor change in teachers' opinions about instructional strategies. Other studies show that block scheduling doesn't work well for Advanced Placement or Music courses, that "hard to…

  20. Meniscus delivery: a maneuver for easy arthroscopic access to the posterior horn of the medial meniscus

    PubMed Central

    Said, Hatem Galal; Goyal, Saumitra; Fetih, Tarek Nabil

    2016-01-01

    Pathology of posterior horn of medial meniscus is common and often presents a difficult approach during arthroscopy for various reasons. We describe an easy maneuver to facilitate “delivery of the medial meniscus” during arthroscopy. PMID:27163099

  1. Theoretical horizontal-branch evolution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sweigart, Allen V.

    1987-01-01

    The general features of the theoretical evolution of canonical horizontal-branch (HB) stars are briefly reviewed with specific emphasis on the track morphology in the HR diagram and the determination of the globular cluster helium abundance. The observational evidence for the occurrence of semiconvection is discussed together with some remaining theoretical uncertainty.

  2. 76 FR 13272 - Branch Offices

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-10

    ... Office of Thrift Supervision Branch Offices AGENCY: Office of Thrift Supervision (OTS), Treasury. ACTION... 1995, 44 U.S.C. 3507. The Office of Thrift Supervision within the Department of the Treasury will... approval number, to Information Collection Comments, Chief Counsel's Office, Office of Thrift...

  3. NCI: DCTD: Biometric Research Branch

    Cancer.gov

    The Biometric Research Branch (BRP) is the statistical and biomathematical component of the Division of Cancer Treatment, Diagnosis and Centers (DCTDC). Its members provide statistical leadership for the national and international research programs of the division in developmental therapeutics, developmental diagnostics, diagnostic imaging and clinical trials.

  4. Branching of keratin intermediate filaments.

    PubMed

    Nafeey, Soufi; Martin, Ines; Felder, Tatiana; Walther, Paul; Felder, Edward

    2016-06-01

    Keratin intermediate filaments (IFs) are crucial to maintain mechanical stability in epithelial cells. Since little is known about the network architecture that provides this stiffness and especially about branching properties of filaments, we addressed this question with different electron microscopic (EM) methods. Using EM tomography of high pressure frozen keratinocytes, we investigated the course of several filaments in a branching of a filament bundle. Moreover we found several putative bifurcations in individual filaments. To verify our observation we also visualized the keratin network in detergent extracted keratinocytes with scanning EM. Here bifurcations of individual filaments could unambiguously be identified additionally to bundle branchings. Interestingly, identical filament bifurcations were also found in purified keratin 8/18 filaments expressed in Escherichia coli which were reassembled in vitro. This excludes that an accessory protein contributes to the branch formation. Measurements of the filament cross sectional areas showed various ratios between the three bifurcation arms. This demonstrates that intermediate filament furcation is very different from actin furcation where an entire new filament is attached to an existing filament. Instead, the architecture of intermediate filament bifurcations is less predetermined and hence consistent with the general concept of IF formation. PMID:27039023

  5. Cash efficiency for bank branches.

    PubMed

    Cabello, Julia García

    2013-01-01

    Bank liquidity management has become a major issue during the financial crisis as liquidity shortages have intensified and have put pressure on banks to diversity and improve their liquidity sources. While a significant strand of the literature concentrates on wholesale liquidity generation and on the alternative to deposit funding, the management of an inventory of cash holdings within the banks' branches is also a relevant issue as any significant improvement in cash management at the bank distribution channels may have a positive effect in reducing liquidity tensions. In this paper, we propose a simple programme of cash efficiency for the banks' branches, very easy to implement, which conform to a set of instructions to be imposed from the bank to their branches. This model proves to significantly reduce cash holdings at branches thereby providing efficiency improvements in liquidity management. The methodology we propose is based on the definition of some stochastic processes combined with renewal processes, which capture the random elements of the cash flow, before applying suitable optimization programmes to all the costs involved in cash movements. The classical issue of the Transaction Demand for the Cash and some aspects of Inventory Theory are also present. Mathematics Subject Classification (2000) C02, C60, E50. PMID:24010026

  6. National Zoological Park Branch Library.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kenyon, Kay A.

    1988-01-01

    Describes the functions of the National Zoological Park Branch of the Smithsonian Institution Libraries, which is dedicated to supporting the special information needs of the zoo. Topics covered include the library's history, collection, programs, services, future plans, and relations with other zoo libraries. (two references) (Author/CLB)

  7. Multiple pathways regulate shoot branching

    PubMed Central

    Rameau, Catherine; Bertheloot, Jessica; Leduc, Nathalie; Andrieu, Bruno; Foucher, Fabrice; Sakr, Soulaiman

    2015-01-01

    Shoot branching patterns result from the spatio-temporal regulation of axillary bud outgrowth. Numerous endogenous, developmental and environmental factors are integrated at the bud and plant levels to determine numbers of growing shoots. Multiple pathways that converge to common integrators are most probably involved. We propose several pathways involving not only the classical hormones auxin, cytokinins and strigolactones, but also other signals with a strong influence on shoot branching such as gibberellins, sugars or molecular actors of plant phase transition. We also deal with recent findings about the molecular mechanisms and the pathway involved in the response to shade as an example of an environmental signal controlling branching. We propose the TEOSINTE BRANCHED1, CYCLOIDEA, PCF transcription factor TB1/BRC1 and the polar auxin transport stream in the stem as possible integrators of these pathways. We finally discuss how modeling can help to represent this highly dynamic system by articulating knowledges and hypothesis and calculating the phenotype properties they imply. PMID:25628627

  8. Risk Factor Assessment Branch (RFAB)

    Cancer.gov

    The Risk Factor Assessment Branch (RFAB) focuses on the development, evaluation, and dissemination of high-quality risk factor metrics, methods, tools, technologies, and resources for use across the cancer research continuum, and the assessment of cancer-related risk factors in the population.

  9. NCI: DCTD: Biometric Research Branch

    Cancer.gov

    The Biometric Research Branch (BRB) is the statistical and biomathematical component of the Division of Cancer Treatment, Diagnosis and Centers (DCTDC). Its members provide statistical leadership for the national and international research programs of the division in developmental therapeutics, developmental diagnostics, diagnostic imaging and clinical trials.

  10. Quantitative Analysis of Axonal Branch Dynamics in the Developing Nervous System

    PubMed Central

    Scott, Ethan K.; Goodhill, Geoffrey J.

    2016-01-01

    Branching is an important mechanism by which axons navigate to their targets during neural development. For instance, in the developing zebrafish retinotectal system, selective branching plays a critical role during both initial pathfinding and subsequent arborisation once the target zone has been reached. Here we show how quantitative methods can help extract new information from time-lapse imaging about the nature of the underlying branch dynamics. First, we introduce Dynamic Time Warping to this domain as a method for automatically matching branches between frames, replacing the effort required for manual matching. Second, we model branch dynamics as a birth-death process, i.e. a special case of a continuous-time Markov process. This reveals that the birth rate for branches from zebrafish retinotectal axons, as they navigate across the tectum, increased over time. We observed no significant change in the death rate for branches over this time period. However, blocking neuronal activity with TTX slightly increased the death rate, without a detectable change in the birth rate. Third, we show how the extraction of these rates allows computational simulations of branch dynamics whose statistics closely match the data. Together these results reveal new aspects of the biology of retinotectal pathfinding, and introduce computational techniques which are applicable to the study of axon branching more generally. PMID:26998842

  11. Neuropilin-2 promotes branching morphogenesis in the mouse mammary gland.

    PubMed

    Goel, Hira Lal; Bae, Donggoo; Pursell, Bryan; Gouvin, Lindsey M; Lu, Shaolei; Mercurio, Arthur M

    2011-07-01

    Although the neuropilins were characterized as semaphorin receptors that regulate axon guidance, they also function as vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) receptors and contribute to the development of other tissues. Here, we assessed the role of NRP2 in mouse mammary gland development based on our observation that NRP2 is expressed preferentially in the terminal end buds of developing glands. A floxed NRP2 mouse was bred with an MMTV-Cre strain to generate a mammary gland-specific knockout of NRP2. MMTV-Cre;NRP2(loxP/loxP) mice exhibited significant defects in branching morphogenesis and ductal outgrowth compared with either littermate MMTV-Cre;NRP2(+/loxP) or MMTV-Cre mice. Mechanistic insight into this morphological defect was obtained from a mouse mammary cell line in which we observed that VEGF(165), an NRP2 ligand, induces branching morphogenesis in 3D cultures and that branching is dependent upon NRP2 as shown using shRNAs and a function-blocking antibody. Epithelial cells in the mouse mammary gland express VEGF, supporting the hypothesis that this NRP2 ligand contributes to mammary gland morphogenesis. Importantly, we demonstrate that VEGF and NRP2 activate focal adhesion kinase (FAK) and promote FAK-dependent branching morphogenesis in vitro. The significance of this mechanism is substantiated by our finding that FAK activation is diminished significantly in developing MMTV-Cre;NRP2(loxP/loxP) mammary glands compared with control glands. Together, our data reveal a VEGF/NRP2/FAK signaling axis that is important for branching morphogenesis and mammary gland development. In a broader context, our data support an emerging hypothesis that directional outgrowth and branching morphogenesis in a variety of tissues are influenced by signals that were identified initially for their role in axon guidance. PMID:21693513

  12. Blocking Delaunay triangulations

    PubMed Central

    Aichholzer, Oswin; Fabila-Monroy, Ruy; Hackl, Thomas; van Kreveld, Marc; Pilz, Alexander; Ramos, Pedro; Vogtenhuber, Birgit

    2013-01-01

    Given a set B of n black points in general position, we say that a set of white points W blocks B if in the Delaunay triangulation of B∪W there is no edge connecting two black points. We give the following bounds for the size of the smallest set W blocking B: (i) 3n/2 white points are always sufficient to block a set of n black points, (ii) if B is in convex position, 5n/4 white points are always sufficient to block it, and (iii) at least n−1 white points are always necessary to block a set of n black points. PMID:23483043

  13. Blocking Delaunay triangulations.

    PubMed

    Aichholzer, Oswin; Fabila-Monroy, Ruy; Hackl, Thomas; van Kreveld, Marc; Pilz, Alexander; Ramos, Pedro; Vogtenhuber, Birgit

    2013-02-01

    Given a set B of n black points in general position, we say that a set of white points W blocks B if in the Delaunay triangulation of [Formula: see text] there is no edge connecting two black points. We give the following bounds for the size of the smallest set W blocking B: (i) [Formula: see text] white points are always sufficient to block a set of n black points, (ii) if B is in convex position, [Formula: see text] white points are always sufficient to block it, and (iii) at least [Formula: see text] white points are always necessary to block a set of n black points. PMID:23483043

  14. Reversible online control of habitual behavior by optogenetic perturbation of medial prefrontal cortex.

    PubMed

    Smith, Kyle S; Virkud, Arti; Deisseroth, Karl; Graybiel, Ann M

    2012-11-13

    Habits tend to form slowly but, once formed, can have great stability. We probed these temporal characteristics of habitual behaviors by intervening optogenetically in forebrain habit circuits as rats performed well-ingrained habitual runs in a T-maze. We trained rats to perform a maze habit, confirmed the habitual behavior by devaluation tests, and then, during the maze runs (ca. 3 s), we disrupted population activity in a small region in the medial prefrontal cortex, the infralimbic cortex. In accordance with evidence that this region is necessary for the expression of habits, we found that this cortical disruption blocked habitual behavior. Notably, however, this blockade of habitual performance occurred on line, within an average of three trials (ca. 9 s of inhibition), and as soon as during the first trial (<3 s). During subsequent weeks of training, the rats acquired a new behavioral pattern. When we again imposed the same cortical perturbation, the rats regained the suppressed maze-running that typified the original habit, and, simultaneously, the more recently acquired habit was blocked. These online changes occurred within an average of two trials (ca. 6 s of infralimbic inhibition). Measured changes in generalized performance ability and motivation to consume reward were unaffected. This immediate toggling between breaking old habits and returning to them demonstrates that even semiautomatic behaviors are under cortical control and that this control occurs online, second by second. These temporal characteristics define a framework for uncovering cellular transitions between fixed and flexible behaviors, and corresponding disturbances in pathologies. PMID:23112197

  15. Dynamic Changes in Acetylcholine Output in the Medial Striatum during Place Reversal Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ragozzino, Michael E.; Choi, Daniel

    2004-01-01

    The present studies explored the role of the medial striatum in learning when task contingencies change. Experiment 1 examined whether the medial striatum is involved in place reversal learning. Testing occurred in a modified cross-maze across two consecutive sessions. Injections of the local anesthetic, bupivacaine, into the medial striatum, did…

  16. Medial Auditory Thalamus Inactivation Prevents Acquisition and Retention of Eyeblink Conditioning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Halverson, Hunter E.; Poremba, Amy; Freeman, John H.

    2008-01-01

    The auditory conditioned stimulus (CS) pathway that is necessary for delay eyeblink conditioning was investigated using reversible inactivation of the medial auditory thalamic nuclei (MATN) consisting of the medial division of the medial geniculate (MGm), suprageniculate (SG), and posterior intralaminar nucleus (PIN). Rats were given saline or…

  17. Block LU factorization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Demmel, James W.; Higham, Nicholas J.; Schreiber, Robert S.

    1992-01-01

    Many of the currently popular 'block algorithms' are scalar algorithms in which the operations have been grouped and reordered into matrix operations. One genuine block algorithm in practical use is block LU factorization, and this has recently been shown by Demmel and Higham to be unstable in general. It is shown here that block LU factorization is stable if A is block diagonally dominant by columns. Moreover, for a general matrix the level of instability in block LU factorization can be founded in terms of the condition number kappa(A) and the growth factor for Gaussian elimination without pivoting. A consequence is that block LU factorization is stable for a matrix A that is symmetric positive definite or point diagonally dominant by rows or columns as long as A is well-conditioned.

  18. The Extent of Blockade Following Axillary and Infraclavicular Approaches of Brachial Plexus Block in Uremic Patients

    PubMed Central

    Sariguney, Damla; Mahli, Ahmet; Coskun, Demet

    2012-01-01

    Introduction This study was aimed to compare the axillary approach performed through multiple injection method and vertical infraclavicular approach performed through single injection method in terms of the sensory and motor block onset, quality, and extent of blocks of brachial plexus in uremic patients who underwent arteriovenous fistula surgery. Methods Forty patients scheduled for creation of arteriovenous fistula with axillary brachial plexus block (group AX, n = 20) or infraclavicular brachial plexus block (IC group, n = 20) were examined. The median, radial, ulnar, and musculocutaneous nerves were selectively localized by nerve stimulation. The volume of the local anesthetics was calculated based on the height of each patient, and the volume determined was prepared by mixing 2% lidocaine and 0.5% bupivacaine in equal proportions. Sensory and motor block were assessed at 3, 6, 9, 12, 15, 18, and 30th min and their durations were measured. Results While the adequate sensory and motor block rate with axillary approach was 100% in musculocutaneous, median, radial, ulnar and medial antebrachial cutaneous nerves, it was 65% in axillary nerve, 80% in intercostobrachial nerve and 95% in medial brachial cutaneous nerve. This rate was found to be 100% for all the nerves with infraclavicular approach. Conclusion For arteriovenous fistula surgeries in uremic patients, both axillary approach performed through multiple injection method and vertical infraclavicular approach performed through single injection method can be used successfully; however, for the short performance of the procedure, infraclavicular block may be preferred. Keywords Brachial plexus block; Axillary; Infraclavicular; Uremic patients PMID:22383924

  19. To branch or not to branch: Numerical modeling of dynamically branching faults

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dedontney, N. L.; Templeton Barrett, E. L.; Rice, J. R.; Dmowska, R.

    2009-12-01

    Branched fault geometries, and branched rupture paths, occur in strike-slip as well as dip-slip settings [e.g., Poliakov et al., JGR, 2002; Kame et al., JGR, 2003]. The Wenchuan earthquake illustrates such a branched geometry [Hubbard and Shaw, 2009] in a fold and thrust belt, and surface ruptures provide constraints on which faults were activated co-seismically. Additionally, a branched structure, the Central Basin Decollement [Shaw & Suppe, 1996], underlies the Los Angeles Basin. By simulating the dynamic rupture path selection, using explicit finite element methods here, we are able to estimate which faults should be activated under given conditions. Factors that influence coseismic branch activation have been extensively studied [Poliakov et al.; Kame et al.; Oglesby et al., 2003, 2004; Bhat et al., 2004, 2007]. The results show that the rupture velocity, pre-stress orientation and fault geometry influence rupture path selection. We show further that the ratio of σ1/σ3 (equivalently, the seismic S ratio) and the relative frictional fault strength also play a significant role in determining which faults are activated. Our methodology has recently included the use of a regularized friction routine [Ranjith & Rice, 2001; Cochard & Rice, 2000] which reduces the growth of numerical noise throughout the simulations. A difficulty arises in the treatment of surface interactions at the branch junction. When local opening does not occur there, slip on the branch fault must vanish at the junction, a constraint that we impose on the FE model. However, the FE contact routine used demands that slip always be constrained to zero on one or the other fault at such a junction, which is problematic when opening occurs. There is then no fundamental basis for constraining slip at the junction to zero on either fault, and the choice made affects the slip distributions and rupture path selection. Many analyses that we perform are elastic and the same material is used on both sides

  20. Branching processes in disease epidemics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Sarabjeet

    Branching processes have served as a model for chemical reactions, biological growth processes and contagion (of disease, information or fads). Through this connection, these seemingly different physical processes share some common universalities that can be elucidated by analyzing the underlying branching process. In this thesis, we focus on branching processes as a model for infectious diseases spreading between individuals belonging to different populations. The distinction between populations can arise from species separation (as in the case of diseases which jump across species) or spatial separation (as in the case of disease spreading between farms, cities, urban centers, etc). A prominent example of the former is zoonoses -- infectious diseases that spill from animals to humans -- whose specific examples include Nipah virus, monkeypox, HIV and avian influenza. A prominent example of the latter is infectious diseases of animals such as foot and mouth disease and bovine tuberculosis that spread between farms or cattle herds. Another example of the latter is infectious diseases of humans such as H1N1 that spread from one city to another through migration of infectious hosts. This thesis consists of three main chapters, an introduction and an appendix. The introduction gives a brief history of mathematics in modeling the spread of infectious diseases along with a detailed description of the most commonly used disease model -- the Susceptible-Infectious-Recovered (SIR) model. The introduction also describes how the stochastic formulation of the model reduces to a branching process in the limit of large population which is analyzed in detail. The second chapter describes a two species model of zoonoses with coupled SIR processes and proceeds into the calculation of statistics pertinent to cross species infection using multitype branching processes. The third chapter describes an SIR process driven by a Poisson process of infection spillovers. This is posed as a

  1. 20. DETAIL, METAL BRIDGE PLATE, AT SOUTH END BLOCK OF ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    20. DETAIL, METAL BRIDGE PLATE, AT SOUTH END BLOCK OF EAST PARAPET, FROM SOUTH, RECORDING 1933 CONSTRUCTION OF FIFTH STREET VIADUCT BY RICHMOND BRIDGE CORPORATION IN COOPERATION WITH THE CITY OF RICHMOND - Fifth Street Viaduct, Spanning Bacon's Quarter Branch Valley on Fifth Street, Richmond, Independent City, VA

  2. Breaking the Block: Basic Writers in the Electronic Classroom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kish, Judith Mara

    2000-01-01

    Fuses theories about Basic Writers and writer's block. Addresses, through the use of hypertext, how computers can help Basic Writers who experience this writing difficulty. Discusses the two main branches of students' difficulties (problems with genre and problems with the linearity of texts) which may be partially alleviated through the…

  3. 4. DETAIL OF STONE BLOCK CONSTRUCTION AND IRON HARDWARE (Original ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. DETAIL OF STONE BLOCK CONSTRUCTION AND IRON HARDWARE (Original Fabric) - Bald Eagle Cross-Cut Canal Lock, North of Water Street along West Branch of Susquehanna River South bank, 500 feet East of Jay Street Bridge, Lock Haven, Clinton County, PA

  4. Blocked randomization with randomly selected block sizes.

    PubMed

    Efird, Jimmy

    2011-01-01

    When planning a randomized clinical trial, careful consideration must be given to how participants are selected for various arms of a study. Selection and accidental bias may occur when participants are not assigned to study groups with equal probability. A simple random allocation scheme is a process by which each participant has equal likelihood of being assigned to treatment versus referent groups. However, by chance an unequal number of individuals may be assigned to each arm of the study and thus decrease the power to detect statistically significant differences between groups. Block randomization is a commonly used technique in clinical trial design to reduce bias and achieve balance in the allocation of participants to treatment arms, especially when the sample size is small. This method increases the probability that each arm will contain an equal number of individuals by sequencing participant assignments by block. Yet still, the allocation process may be predictable, for example, when the investigator is not blind and the block size is fixed. This paper provides an overview of blocked randomization and illustrates how to avoid selection bias by using random block sizes. PMID:21318011

  5. Differential neuronal changes in medial prefrontal cortex, basolateral amygdala and nucleus accumbens after postweaning social isolation.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yu-Chun; Ho, Ue-Cheung; Ko, Meng-Ching; Liao, Chun-Chieh; Lee, Li-Jen

    2012-04-01

    The mesocorticolimbic system contains dopamine (DA)-producing neurons in the ventral tegmental area (VTA) and their projection targets, including the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC), amygdala (AMY) and nucleus accumbens (NAc). Disruption of this system might attribute to mental illnesses. In the present study, we adopted the postweaning social isolation paradigm to model neuropsychiatric disorders and studied the functional and structural changes of the mesocorticolimbic system. After 8-9 weeks of isolation, rats exhibited hyperlocomotor activity and impaired sensorimotor gating compared to group-reared controls. However, the number of tyrosine hydroxylase-positive VTA neurons and the volume of VTA were not affected. Comparing with group-reared controls, the DA levels in the isolation-reared were not altered in the VTA, mPFC and NAc but decreased in the AMY. In the structural aspect, dendritic features of layer II/III pyramidal mPFC neurons; pyramidal neurons in the basolateral nucleus of amygdala (BLA) and medium spiny neurons in the core region of the NAc (NAcc) were examined. Interestingly, the neuronal changes were region-specific. The mPFC neurons had reduced dendritic complexity, spine density and elongated terminal branches. The BLA neurons had extensive dendritic arbors with short branches but unchanged spine density. The NAcc neurons had reduced total dendritic length but the segment length and spine density remained the same. Together, the results demonstrated the structural and functional changes in the mesocorticolimbic DA system of socially isolated rats. These changes may account for the behavioral impairments in these rats and attribute to the susceptibility to mental disorders related to schizophrenia and depression. PMID:22002740

  6. Horizontal-branch stellar evolution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sweigart, Allen V.

    1990-01-01

    The results of canonical theory for the evolution of horizontal-branch (HB) stars are examined. Particular attention is given to how an HB star maintains the appropriate composition distribution within the semiconvective zone and how this composition is affected by the finite time-dependence with which convective boundaries actually move. Newly developed models based on time-dependent overshooting are presented for both the core-helium-exhaustion and main HB phases.

  7. Geodynamics Branch research report, 1982

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kahn, W. D. (Editor); Cohen, S. C. (Editor)

    1983-01-01

    The research program of the Geodynamics Branch is summarized. The research activities cover a broad spectrum of geoscience disciplines including space geodesy, geopotential field modeling, tectonophysics, and dynamic oceanography. The NASA programs which are supported by the work described include the Geodynamics and Ocean Programs, the Crustal Dynamics Project, the proposed Ocean Topography Experiment (TOPEX) and Geopotential Research Mission. The individual papers are grouped into chapters on Crustal Movements, Global Earth Dynamics, Gravity Field Model Development, Sea Surface Topography, and Advanced Studies.

  8. Solid State Photovoltaic Research Branch

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-09-01

    This report summarizes the progress of the Solid State Photovoltaic Research Branch of the Solar Energy Research Institute (SERI) from October 1, 1988, through September 30,l 1989. Six technical sections of the report cover these main areas of SERIs in-house research: Semiconductor Crystal Growth, Amorphous Silicon Research, Polycrystalline Thin Films, III-V High-Efficiency Photovoltaic Cells, Solid-State Theory, and Laser Raman and Luminescence Spectroscopy. Sections have been indexed separately for inclusion on the data base.

  9. Interactions between axillary branches of Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Ongaro, Veronica; Bainbridge, Katherine; Williamson, Lisa; Leyser, Ottoline

    2008-03-01

    Studies of apical dominance have benefited greatly from two-branch assays in pea and bean, in which the shoot system is trimmed back to leave only two active cotyledonary axillary branches. In these two-branch shoots, a large body of evidence shows that one actively growing branch is able to inhibit the growth of the other, prompting studies on the nature of the inhibitory signals, which are still poorly understood. Here, we describe the establishment of two-branch assays in Arabidopsis, using consecutive branches on the bolting stem. As with the classical studies in pea and bean, these consecutive branches are able to inhibit one another's growth. Not only can the upper branch inhibit the lower branch, but also the lower branch can inhibit the upper branch, illustrating the bi-directional action of the inhibitory signals. Using mutants, we show that the inhibition is partially dependent on the MAX pathway and that while the inhibition is clearly transmitted across the stem from the active to the inhibited branch, the vascular connectivity of the two branches is weak, and the MAX pathway is capable of acting unilaterally in the stem. PMID:19825548

  10. Multiple Running Speed Signals in Medial Entorhinal Cortex.

    PubMed

    Hinman, James R; Brandon, Mark P; Climer, Jason R; Chapman, G William; Hasselmo, Michael E

    2016-08-01

    Grid cells in medial entorhinal cortex (MEC) can be modeled using oscillatory interference or attractor dynamic mechanisms that perform path integration, a computation requiring information about running direction and speed. The two classes of computational models often use either an oscillatory frequency or a firing rate that increases as a function of running speed. Yet it is currently not known whether these are two manifestations of the same speed signal or dissociable signals with potentially different anatomical substrates. We examined coding of running speed in MEC and identified these two speed signals to be independent of each other within individual neurons. The medial septum (MS) is strongly linked to locomotor behavior, and removal of MS input resulted in strengthening of the firing rate speed signal, while decreasing the strength of the oscillatory speed signal. Thus, two speed signals are present in MEC that are differentially affected by disrupted MS input. PMID:27427460

  11. MEDIAL PATELLOFEMORAL LIGAMENT RECONSTRUCTION TO TREAT RECURRENT PATELLAR DISLOCATION

    PubMed Central

    Gonçaives, Matheus Braga Jacques; Júnior, Lúcio Honório de Carvalho; Soares, Luiz Fernando Machado; Gonçaives, Tiago Jacques; dos Santos, Rogério Luciano; Pereira, Marcelo Lobo

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To present a new technique for reconstruction of the medial patellofemoral ligament (MPFL) in patients with recurrent patellar dislocation and to evaluate the clinical findings from this. Methods: Between January 2007 and January 2008, 23 patients underwent reconstruction of the MPFL with a free graft from the semitendinosus tendon. After a minimum of 24 months of follow-up, 22 patients were evaluated using the Kujala and Lysholm clinical protocols. Results: The mean follow up was 26.2 months. According to the Lysholm protocol, the patients had a mean score of 53.72 points preoperatively and 93.36 points postoperatively (p = 0.000006). According to the Kujala protocol, the mean score was 59.81 points preoperatively and 83.54 points postoperatively (p = 0.002173). Conclusion: Reconstruction of the medial patellofemoral ligament using the proposed technique showed excellent results over the short term, when evaluated by means of clinical protocols. PMID:27027005

  12. Walker Branch Watershed Ecosystems Data

    DOE Data Explorer

    Walker Branch Watershed is located on the U. S. Department of Energy's Oak Ridge Reservation near Oak Ridge, in Anderson County, Tennessee. The Walker Branch Watershed Project began in 1967 under sponsorship of the U. S. Atomic Energy Commission (now the U. S. Department of Energy). Initially, the project centered primarily on the geologic and hydrologic processes that control the amounts and chemistry of water moving through the watershed. Past projects have included: • U. S. Department of Energy funded studies of watershed hydrology and forest nutrient dynamics • National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration funded studies of forest micrometeorology • Studies of atmospheric deposition under the National Atmospheric Deposition Program • The International Biological Program Eastern Deciduous Forest Biome Project • National Science Foundation sponsored studies of trace element cycling and stream nutrient spiraling • Electric Power Research Institute funded studies of the effects of acidic deposition on canopy processes and soil chemistry. These projects have all contributed to a more complete understanding of how forest watersheds function and have provided insights into the solution of energy-related problems associated with air pollution, contaminant transport, and forest nutrient dynamics. This is one of a few sites in the world characterized by long-term, intensive environmental studies. The Walker Branch Watershed website at http://walkerbranch.ornl.gov/ provides maps, photographs, and data on climate, precipitation, atmospheric deposition, stream discharge and runoff, stream chemistry, and vegetation. [Taken from http://walkerbranch.ornl.gov/ABOUTAAA.HTM

  13. Bipartite Medial Cuneiform: Case Report and Retrospective Review of 1000 Magnetic Resonance (MR) Imaging Studies

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Geraldine H.; Chang, Eric Y.; Chung, Christine B.; Resnick, Donald L.

    2014-01-01

    Objective. To present a unique case report of a Lisfranc fracture in a patient with a bipartite medial cuneiform and to evaluate the prevalence of the bipartite medial cuneiform in a retrospective review of 1000 magnetic resonance (MR) imaging studies of the foot. Materials and Methods. Case report followed by a retrospective review of 1000 MR imaging studies of the foot for the presence or absence of a bipartite medial cuneiform. Results. The incidence of the bipartite medial cuneiform is 0.1%. Conclusion. A bipartite medial cuneiform is a rare finding but one with both clinical and surgical implications. PMID:24587806

  14. Rod-Coil Block Polyimide Copolymers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meador, Mary Ann B. (Inventor); Kinder, James D. (Inventor)

    2005-01-01

    This invention is a series of rod-coil block polyimide copolymers that are easy to fabricate into mechanically resilient films with acceptable ionic or protonic conductivity at a variety of temperatures. The copolymers consist of short-rigid polyimide rod segments alternating with polyether coil segments. The rods and coil segments can be linear, branched or mixtures of linear and branched segments. The highly incompatible rods and coil segments phase separate, providing nanoscale channels for ion conduction. The polyimide segments provide dimensional and mechanical stability and can be functionalized in a number of ways to provide specialized functions for a given application. These rod-coil black polyimide copolymers are particularly useful in the preparation of ion conductive membranes for use in the manufacture of fuel cells and lithium based polymer batteries.

  15. A combinatorial optogenetic approach to medial habenula function

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Turner, Eric E.; Hsu, Yun-Wei; Wang, Si; Morton, Glenn; Zeng, Hongkui

    2013-03-01

    The habenula is a brain region found in all vertebrate species. It consists of medial and lateral subnuclei which make complex descending connections to the brainstem. Although the medial habenula (MHb) and its projection, the fasciculus retroflexus (FR), have been recognized for decades, their function remains obscure. The small size of the MHb in rodents, and the cellular and molecular complexity of this region, have made it difficult to study the function of this region with high specificity. Here we describe a Cre-mediated genetic system for expressing the microbial opsin channelrhodopsin (ChR2) specifically in the dorsal (dMHb) and ventral (vMHb) medial habenula. Genetically targeted expression of ChR2 allows MHb neurons to be selectively activated with light in acute brain slices with electrophysiological readouts, and in vivo by means of custom-built fiber optic cannulas. These tools will allow highly specific studies of MHb circuitry and the role of the MHb in behaviors related to addiction and mood regulation.

  16. Arthroscopic Removal of Shotgun Pellet From Within the Medial Meniscus

    PubMed Central

    Lacy, Kyle; Cooke, Chris; Cooke, Pat; Tonnos, Frederick

    2016-01-01

    Arthroscopic techniques are effective for the removal of intra-articular bullet and metal fragments after gunshot wounds to the shoulder, hip, knee, and sacroiliac joints. Surgical removal of bullets retained within the synovial joints is indicated; lead is dissolved by synovial fluid over time, leading to proliferative synovitis, lead arthropathy, elevated serum lead levels, and lead toxicity. We present an arthroscopic technique for removal of a shotgun pellet retained within the medial meniscus. In this technique, diagnostic knee arthroscopy is initially performed, which allows for localization of the pellet within the medial meniscus. An up-biter is used to resect the inner rim of meniscus surrounding the pellet, and the pellet is removed with a grasper. This arthroscopic approach is advantageous because it allows for efficient visualization of the pellet within the meniscus, thorough visualization of all compartments of the knee, a reduction in blood loss, and a decrease in surgical morbidity to the surrounding cartilaginous, neurovascular, and soft-tissue structures. This technique may therefore be one option to address bullet fragments or shotgun pellets that are retained within the medial meniscus. PMID:27073774

  17. Gender Effect on the Outcome of Partial Medial Meniscectomy.

    PubMed

    Haviv, Barak; Bronak, Shlomo; Kosashvili, Yona; Thein, Rafael

    2015-10-01

    Complex posterior horn tears of the medial meniscus are common. Previous reports performed statistical stratifications to address the influence of gender on outcome following arthroscopic partial medial meniscectomy with variable conclusions. The aim of this study was to compare the clinical results of arthroscopic partial meniscectomy of the knee between men and women with complex medial meniscal tear type while controlling for other variables that may affect outcome. This study compared groups of 86 men and 49 women who were followed prospectively using the Lysholm Knee Scoring Scale, the visual analogue scale, and patient's satisfaction. Mean age at operation was 51 years and mean follow-up was 26 months. Mean Lysholm score improved from 69 preoperatively to 82.1 postoperatively (P<.001) in the male group and from 64.2 preoperatively to 73.5 postoperatively (P=.04) in the female group. At last follow-up, 68 (79%) men and 35 (71%) women stated that they were satisfied with the operation. In both groups, the severity of chondral lesions was found to be negatively correlated to the preoperative score. Women had more severe chondral lesions at arthroscopy than men. This comparative study showed no significant difference between men and women in terms of clinical improvement following arthroscopic partial meniscectomies of complex tear types in stable knees with intact lateral meniscus. Women had lower functionality pre- and postoperatively, which correlated with more severe chondral degeneration at surgery compared with men. PMID:26488789

  18. Analysis of 3D strain in the human medial meniscus.

    PubMed

    Kolaczek, S; Hewison, C; Caterine, S; Ragbar, M X; Getgood, A; Gordon, K D

    2016-10-01

    This study presents a method to evaluate three-dimensional strain in meniscal tissue using medical imaging. Strain is calculated by tracking small teflon markers implanted within the meniscal tissue using computed tomography imaging. The results are presented for strains in the middle and posterior third of the medial menisci of 10 human cadaveric knees, under simulated physiologically relevant loading. In the middle position, an average compressive strain of 3.4% was found in the medial-lateral direction, and average tensile strains of 1.4% and 3.5% were found in the anterior-posterior and superior-inferior directions respectively at 5° of knee flexion with an applied load of 1× body weight. In the posterior position, under the same conditions, average compressive strains of 2.2% and 6.3% were found in the medial-lateral and superior-inferior directions respectively, and an average tensile strain of 3.8% was found in the anterior-posterior direction. No statistically significant difference between strain in the middle or posterior of the meniscus or between the global strains is uncovered. PMID:27484043

  19. Medial vestibular connections with the hypocretin (orexin) system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Horowitz, Seth S.; Blanchard, Jane; Morin, Lawrence P.

    2005-01-01

    The mammalian medial vestibular nucleus (MVe) receives input from all vestibular endorgans and provides extensive projections to the central nervous system. Recent studies have demonstrated projections from the MVe to the circadian rhythm system. In addition, there are known projections from the MVe to regions considered to be involved in sleep and arousal. In this study, afferent and efferent subcortical connectivity of the medial vestibular nucleus of the golden hamster (Mesocricetus auratus) was evaluated using cholera toxin subunit-B (retrograde), Phaseolus vulgaris leucoagglutinin (anterograde), and pseudorabies virus (transneuronal retrograde) tract-tracing techniques. The results demonstrate MVe connections with regions mediating visuomotor and postural control, as previously observed in other mammals. The data also identify extensive projections from the MVe to regions mediating arousal and sleep-related functions, most of which receive immunohistochemically identified projections from the lateral hypothalamic hypocretin (orexin) neurons. These include the locus coeruleus, dorsal and pedunculopontine tegmental nuclei, dorsal raphe, and lateral preoptic area. The MVe itself receives a projection from hypocretin cells. CTB tracing demonstrated reciprocal connections between the MVe and most brain areas receiving MVe efferents. Virus tracing confirmed and extended the MVe afferent connections identified with CTB and additionally demonstrated transneuronal connectivity with the suprachiasmatic nucleus and the medial habenular nucleus. These anatomical data indicate that the vestibular system has access to a broad array of neural functions not typically associated with visuomotor, balance, or equilibrium, and that the MVe is likely to receive information from many of the same regions to which it projects.

  20. Soft-Tissue Loop for Medial Patellofemoral Ligament Reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Miswan, Mohd Fairudz Bin Mohd; Al-Fayyadh, Mohamed Zubair Mohamed; Seow Hui, Teo; Mohamed Ali, Mohamed Razif Bin; Ng, Wuey Min

    2016-04-01

    A patient with patellar instability frequently presents with anterior knee pain, patellar subluxation, or dislocation. Medial patellofemoral ligament (MPFL) has a key role for normal patella tracking and stability. Reconstruction of the MPFL using a hamstring graft is a commonly used procedure for the treatment of chronic lateral subluxation of patella. Anchor sutures and bony tunnels are used for the patellar attachment of the graft. This can be associated with complications such as patella fracture; besides, it does not produce an anatomical reconstruction for the native MPFL that can alter the direction of tension applied on the patella. To overcome these problems, a soft-tissue loop technique is used for MPFL reconstruction. During this procedure, a semitendinosus graft was passed through the prepatellar extensor retinaculum and secured with sutures. The free ends of the graft were then passed between the second and third layers of the medial patellofemoral retinaculum and fixed to a femoral tunnel on the medial femoral condyle with an interference screw. The desired amount of tension on the graft is achieved under direct vision of patella tracking arthroscopically. We found this method to be relatively safe and fast. It is more anatomical and can avoid the complications during the conventional bony procedures. PMID:27354953

  1. Boundary and medial shape analysis of the hippocampus in schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Styner, Martin; Lieberman, Jeffrey A; Pantazis, Dimitrios; Gerig, Guido

    2004-09-01

    Statistical shape analysis has become of increasing interest to the neuroimaging community due to its potential to precisely locate morphological changes and thus potentially discriminate between healthy and pathological structures. This paper describes a combined boundary and medial shape analysis based on two different shape descriptions applied to a study of the hippocampus shape abnormalities in schizophrenia. The first shape description is the sampled boundary implied by the spherical harmonic SPHARM description. The second one is the medial shape description called M-rep. Both descriptions are sampled descriptions with inherent point correspondence. Their shape analysis is based on computing differences from an average template structure analyzed using standard group mean difference tests. The results of the global and local shape analysis in the presented hippocampus study exhibit the same patterns for the boundary and the medial analysis. The results strongly suggest that the normalized hippocampal shape of the schizophrenic group is different from the control group, most significantly as a deformation difference in the tail region. PMID:15450215

  2. Bottom-up Visual Integration in the Medial Parietal Lobe.

    PubMed

    Pflugshaupt, Tobias; Nösberger, Myriam; Gutbrod, Klemens; Weber, Konrad P; Linnebank, Michael; Brugger, Peter

    2016-03-01

    Largely based on findings from functional neuroimaging studies, the medial parietal lobe is known to contribute to internally directed cognitive processes such as visual imagery or episodic memory. Here, we present 2 patients with behavioral impairments that extend this view. Both had chronic unilateral lesions of nearly the entire medial parietal lobe, but in opposite hemispheres. Routine neuropsychological examination conducted >4 years after the onset of brain damage showed little deficits of minor severity. In contrast, both patients reported persistent unusual visual impairment. A comprehensive series of tachistoscopic experiments with lateralized stimulus presentation and comparison with healthy participants revealed partial visual hemiagnosia for stimuli presented to their contralesional hemifield, applying inferential single-case statistics to evaluate deficits and dissociations. Double dissociations were found in 4 experiments during which participants had to integrate more than one visual element, either through comparison or formation of a global gestalt. Against the background of recent neuroimaging findings, we conclude that of all medial parietal structures, the precuneus is the most likely candidate for a crucial involvement in such bottom-up visual integration. PMID:25331599

  3. LayTracks3D: A new approach for meshing general solids using medial axis transform

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Quadros, William Roshan

    2015-08-22

    This study presents an extension of the all-quad meshing algorithm called LayTracks to generate high quality hex-dominant meshes of general solids. LayTracks3D uses the mapping between the Medial Axis (MA) and the boundary of the 3D domain to decompose complex 3D domains into simpler domains called Tracks. Tracks in 3D have no branches and are symmetric, non-intersecting, orthogonal to the boundary, and the shortest path from the MA to the boundary. These properties of tracks result in desired meshes with near cube shape elements at the boundary, structured mesh along the boundary normal with any irregular nodes restricted to themore » MA, and sharp boundary feature preservation. The algorithm has been tested on a few industrial CAD models and hex-dominant meshes are shown in the Results section. Work is underway to extend LayTracks3D to generate all-hex meshes.« less

  4. 30 CFR 56.6403 - Branch circuits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-SURFACE METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Explosives Electric Blasting § 56.6403 Branch circuits. (a) If electric blasting includes the use of branch circuits,...

  5. 30 CFR 56.6403 - Branch circuits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-SURFACE METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Explosives Electric Blasting § 56.6403 Branch circuits. (a) If electric blasting includes the use of branch circuits,...

  6. 30 CFR 56.6403 - Branch circuits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-SURFACE METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Explosives Electric Blasting § 56.6403 Branch circuits. (a) If electric blasting includes the use of branch circuits,...

  7. 30 CFR 56.6403 - Branch circuits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-SURFACE METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Explosives Electric Blasting § 56.6403 Branch circuits. (a) If electric blasting includes the use of branch circuits,...

  8. 30 CFR 56.6403 - Branch circuits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-SURFACE METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Explosives Electric Blasting § 56.6403 Branch circuits. (a) If electric blasting includes the use of branch circuits,...

  9. Managing occurrence branching in qualitative simulation

    SciTech Connect

    Tokuda, L.

    1996-12-31

    Qualitative simulators can produce common sense abstractions of complex behaviors given only partial knowledge about a system. One of the problems which limits the applicability of qualitative simulators is the intractable branching of successor states encountered with model of even modest size. Some branches may be unavoidable due to the complex nature of a system. Other branches may be accidental results of the model chosen. A common source of intractability is occurrence branching. Occurrence branching occurs when the state transitions of two variables are unordered with respect to each other. This paper extends the QSIM model to distinguish between interesting occurrence branching and uninteresting occurrence branching. A representation, algorithm, and simulator for efficiently handling uninteresting branching is presented.

  10. Differential responses accompanying sequential stimulation and ablation of vagal branches to dog heart.

    PubMed

    Randall, W C; Ardell, J L; Becker, D M

    1985-07-01

    Electrical excitation of small thoracic vagal branches elicited highly localized responses in the canine heart. Specific pathways to the sinoatrial nodal (SAN) regions were identified from negative chronotropic responses to stimulation (20 Hz, 5.0 ms, 3.0-5.0 V) of these branches. Pathways to the atrioventricular nodal (AVN) region were determined from changes in A-H interval (His bundle electrogram) and incidence of heart block as vagal branches were stimulated during concurrent atrial pacing. A few small branches influenced a single cardiac function (atrial rate, contractile force, or AV conduction). More commonly, activation of such branches elicited simultaneous chronotropic and dromotropic effects. However, many branches failed to elicit any detectable cardiac change. The major outflow from the left vagus to SAN and AVN regions is by way of cardiac branches from the recurrent laryngeal nerve at its reflection around the aorta. Activation of the left recurrent nerve reduced atrial rate by 43% and doubled A-H interval 84 to 167 ms. The right thoracic vagus or its branches induced A-H prolongation from 78 to 131 ms. H-V intervals remained constant at a mean of 35 ms. Outflows from the right thoracic vagus to SAN and/or AVN regions originated just below the middle cervical ganglion and at all levels down to the azygos vein. PMID:4014479

  11. Protein based Block Copolymers

    PubMed Central

    Rabotyagova, Olena S.; Cebe, Peggy; Kaplan, David L.

    2011-01-01

    Advances in genetic engineering have led to the synthesis of protein-based block copolymers with control of chemistry and molecular weight, resulting in unique physical and biological properties. The benefits from incorporating peptide blocks into copolymer designs arise from the fundamental properties of proteins to adopt ordered conformations and to undergo self-assembly, providing control over structure formation at various length scales when compared to conventional block copolymers. This review covers the synthesis, structure, assembly, properties, and applications of protein-based block copolymers. PMID:21235251

  12. Risking Exposure: Branch Campus Writers Go Public.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sitler, Helen Collins

    For students who live and study at a branch campus of a mid-sized state university in southwest Pennsylvania, the 30 miles between them and their parent university represents a geographic gulf. No courier carries mail or deliveries between the main campus and the branches, and as a result, students at the branches have no access to the campus…

  13. Structural dynamics branch research and accomplishments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    Summaries are presented of fiscal year 1989 research highlights from the Structural Dynamics Branch at NASA Lewis Research Center. Highlights from the branch's major work areas include aeroelasticity, vibration control, dynamic systems, and computation structural methods. A listing of the fiscal year 1989 branch publications is given.

  14. Tree branch angle: maximizing effective leaf area.

    PubMed

    Honda, H; Fisher, J B

    1978-02-24

    In a computer simulation of branching pattern and leaf cluster in Terminalia catappa, right and left branch angles were varied, and the effective leaf surface areas were calculated. Theoretical branch angles that result in maximum effective leaf area are close to the values observed in nature. PMID:17757590

  15. Guide to the Seattle Archives Branch.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hobbs, Richard, Comp.

    The guide presents an overview of the textual and microfilmed records located at the Seattle Branch of the National Archives of the United States. Established in 1969, the Seattle Archives Branch is one of 11 branches which preserve and make available for research those U.S. Government records of permanent value created and maintained by Federal…

  16. The Effects of a Branch Campus

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lien, Donald; Wang, Yaqin

    2012-01-01

    We examine the effects of a branch campus on the social welfare of the host country and the foreign university. Overall, we find that a branch campus increases both the domestic social welfare (measured by the aggregate student utility) and the tuition revenue of the foreign university. The effect of a branch campus on the brain drain is…

  17. Introduction of Branching Degrees of Octane Isomers.

    PubMed

    Perdih, Anton

    2016-01-01

    The concept of branching degrees is introduced. In the case of octane isomers it is derived from the values of a set of their physicochemical properties, calculating for each isomer the average of the normalized values and these averages are defined as branching degrees of octane isomers. The sequence of these branching degrees of octane isomers does not differ much from the »regular« one defined earlier. 2,2-Dimethylhexane appears to be less branched than 3,4-dimethylhexane and 3-ethyl, 2-methylpentane, whereas 2,3,4-trimethylpentane appears to be less branched than 3-ethyl, 3-methylpentane. While the increasing number of branches gives rise to increasing branching degrees, the peripheral position of branches and the separation between branches decreases the value of the branching degree. The central position of branches increases it. A bigger branch increases it more than a smaller one. The quantification of these structural features and their correlations with few indices is given as well. PMID:27333567

  18. Multimodal intervention in older adults improves resting-state functional connectivity between the medial prefrontal cortex and medial temporal lobe†

    PubMed Central

    Li, Rui; Zhu, Xinyi; Yin, Shufei; Niu, Yanan; Zheng, Zhiwei; Huang, Xin; Wang, Baoxi; Li, Juan

    2014-01-01

    The prefrontal cortex and medial temporal lobe are particularly vulnerable to the effects of aging. The disconnection between them is suggested to be an important cause of cognitive decline in normal aging. Here, using multimodal intervention training, we investigated the functional plasticity in resting-state connectivity of these two regions in older adults. The multimodal intervention, comprised of cognitive training, Tai Chi exercise, and group counseling, was conducted to explore the regional connectivity changes in the default-mode network, as well as changes in prefrontal-based voxel-wise connectivity in the whole brain. Results showed that the intervention selectively affected resting-state functional connectivity between the medial prefrontal cortex and medial temporal lobe. Moreover, the strength of resting-state functional connectivity between these regions correlated with individual cognitive performance. Our results suggest that multimodal intervention could postpone the effects of aging and improve the function of the regions that are most heavily influenced by aging, as well as play an important role in preserving the brain and cognition during old age. PMID:24653698

  19. Long-term Potentiation and Field EPSPs in the Lateral and Medial Perforant Paths in the Dentate Gyrus In Vitro: a Comparison.

    PubMed

    Hanse, Eric; Gustafsson, Bengt

    1992-10-01

    The entorhinal cortex projects monosynaptically to the granule cells in the dentate gyrus via the lateral and medial perforant paths. These two subdivisions of the perforant path differ with respect to synaptic properties, and recent studies suggest that they also differ with respect to long-term potentiation (LTP). In the present study, using the in vitro slice preparation of the guinea-pig hippocampus, field excitatory postsynaptic potentials (EPSPs) and LTP in the lateral and medial perforant paths were compared. The two pathways were distinguished on the basis of their different termination in the dendritic layer, their different pharmacology and short-term synaptic facilitation. The field EPSP [obtained in the presence of gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) A and B receptor antagonists] consisted of a non-N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) component with different time characteristics in the two pathways, the decay being monoexponential in the lateral perforant path and biexponential in the medial one. In addition, the field EPSP in both pathways contained a small NMDA-mediated component that could also be observed after complete blockade of the non-NMDA one. LTP induction in both lateral and medial perforant paths was facilitated by blockade of GABAA inhibition, showed associative properties, and was blocked by NMDA receptor antagonists. Following the induction event, LTP in both pathways developed to a peak value within 30 - 40 s, and the stability of LTP was correlated with the amount of postsynaptic, but not presynaptic, activity during the induction event. During blockade of GABAA inhibition the opioid receptor antagonist naloxone and the beta-adrenergic antagonist timolol had no effect on the magnitude or stability of LTP. It is concluded that LTP in the lateral and medial perforant paths does not differ with respect to induction mechanisms and early temporal characteristics. PMID:12106423

  20. A Novel Medial Soft Tissue Release Method for Varus Deformity during Total Knee Arthroplasty: Femoral Origin Release of the Medial Collateral Ligament

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Seung-Yup; Yang, Jae-Hyuk; Lee, Yong-In

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Numerous methods of medial soft tissue release for severe varus deformity during total knee arthroplasty (TKA) have been reported. These include tibial stripping of the superficial medial collateral ligament (MCL), pie-crusting technique, and medial epicondylar osteotomy. However, there are inherent disadvantages in these techniques. Authors hereby present a novel quantitative method: femoral origin release of the medial collateral ligament (FORM). Surgical Technique For medial tightness remaining even after the release of the deep MCL and semimembranosus, the FORM is initiated with identification of the femoral insertion area of the MCL with the knee in flexion. Starting from the most posterior part of the femoral insertion, one third of the MCL femoral insertion is released from its attachment. If necessary, further sequential medial release is performed. Materials and Methods Seventeen knees that underwent the FORM were evaluated for radiological and clinical outcomes. Results Regardless of the extent of the FORM, no knees showed residual valgus instability at 24 weeks after surgery. Conclusions As the FORM is performed in a stepwise manner, fine adjustment during medial release might be beneficial to prevent inadvertent over-release of the medial structures of the knee. PMID:27274473

  1. High Relief Block Printing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foster, Michael

    1989-01-01

    Explains a method of block printing using styrofoam shapes to make high relief. Describes the creation of the block design as well as the actual printing process. Uses a range of paper types for printing so children can see the results of using different media. (LS)

  2. Surviving Block Scheduling.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haley, Marjorie

    A discussion of block scheduling for second language instruction looks at the advantages and disadvantages and offers some suggestions for classroom management and course organization. It is argued that block scheduling may offer a potential solution to large classes, insufficient time for labs, too little individualized instruction; few…

  3. Block Scheduling Revisited.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Queen, J. Allen

    2000-01-01

    Successful block scheduling depends on provision of initial and ongoing instructional training. Teaching strategies should vary and include cooperative learning, the case method, the socratic seminar, synectics, concept attainment, the inquiry method, and simulations. Recommendations for maximizing block scheduling are outlined. (Contains 52…

  4. Thermally actuated wedge block

    DOEpatents

    Queen, Jr., Charles C.

    1980-01-01

    This invention relates to an automatically-operating wedge block for maintaining intimate structural contact over wide temperature ranges, including cryogenic use. The wedging action depends on the relative thermal expansion of two materials having very different coefficients of thermal expansion. The wedge block expands in thickness when cooled to cryogenic temperatures and contracts in thickness when returned to room temperature.

  5. Evaluation of Joint Space Width and Narrowing After Isolated Partial Medial Meniscectomy for Degenerative Medial Meniscus Tears

    PubMed Central

    Shelbourne, K. Donald; Barnes, Adam F.; Urch, Scott E.; Gray, Tinker

    2013-01-01

    Background: Few studies have evaluated the effect of existing articular cartilage damage and sex on joint space measurements after isolated degenerative medial meniscus tears. Purpose: To determine what factors affected joint space width and narrowing in patients after removal of isolated degenerative medial meniscus tears. Study Design: Cohort study; Level of evidence, 2. Methods: A total of 62 patients (15 women and 47 men) with all ligaments intact, no previous surgery to either knee, and an isolated degenerative medial meniscus tear removed in 1 knee were examined. The mean age at examination was 58.2 years at a mean follow-up of 9.4 years (range, 4-20 years). Subjective results were obtained with the International Knee Documentation Committee (IKDC) knee survey. Radiographs were taken using 45° weightbearing posteroanterior views. Midpoint and perceived minimum joint space width of the medial and lateral compartments of both knees were measured to the nearest 0.1 mm by 2 observers at different times, and they were blinded as to the previous measurements (Pearson intra- and interclass correlations, >0.93). Joint space narrowing was found by calculating the difference in joint space width between knees. Percentage of normal joint space loss was calculated by dividing joint space narrowing by the joint space width in the contralateral knee. Other factors considered were patient sex and Outerbridge grading of articular cartilage. Results: Women had a mean 1.5 mm less normal joint space width than men in the involved and noninvolved knees (P < .01). Mean joint space narrowing was 0.7 mm for both measurements. The mean ± standard deviation narrowing was 0.4 ± 1.2 mm for patients with grade 0-2 damage and 1.1 ± 1.3 for patients with grade 3-4 damage (P = .04). Five women (33%) and 3 men (6%) had narrowing of >50% of the normal joint space as measured in the noninjured knee (P = .016). The mean IKDC total score was 66.1 points for women, which was statistically

  6. Postero-medial approach for complex tibial plateau injuries with a postero-medial or postero-lateral shear fragment.

    PubMed

    Berber, Reshid; Lewis, Charlotte P; Copas, David; Forward, Daren P; Moran, Christopher G

    2014-04-01

    This study demonstrates the utility of a modified postero-medial surgical approach to the knee in treating a series of patients with complex tibial plateau injuries with associated postero-medial and postero-lateral shear fractures. Posterior coronal shear fractures are underappreciated and their clinical relevance has recently been characterised. Less-invasive surgery and indirect reduction techniques are inadequate for treating these coronal plane fractures. Our approach includes an inverted 'L'-shaped incision situated within the posterior flexor knee crease, followed by the retraction or incision of the medial head of the gastrocnemius tendon, while protecting the neurovascular structures. This provides a more extensile exposure, as far as the postero-lateral corner, than previously described. Our case series included eight females and eight males. The average age was 53 years. The majority of these injuries were sustained through high-energy trauma. All patients' fractures were classified as Schatzker grade 4, or above, with a postero-medial split depression. Eight patients had associated postero-lateral corner fractures. Two were open, two had vascular compromise and one had neurological injury. The average time to surgery was 6.4 days (range 0-12), operative time 142 min (range 76-300) and length of stay 17 days (range 7-46). A total of 11 patients were treated using the postero-medial approach alone and in five the treatment was combined with an antero-lateral approach. Two patients suffered a reduced range of movement requiring manipulation and physiotherapy, and three patients had a 5-degree fixed flexion deformity. Two patients developed superficial wound infections treated with antibiotics alone. Anatomical reduction and fracture union was achieved in 15 patients. These are complex fractures to treat, and our modified posterior approach allows direct reduction and optimal positioning of plates to act as buttress devices. It can be extended across the

  7. Abnormal branch of right pulmonary artery (A7): a case report and literature review.

    PubMed

    Atari, Maiko; Nakajima, Yuki; Fukuhara, Mitsuro; Iijima, Yoshihito; Kinoshita, Hiroyasu; Akiyama, Hirohiko; Minamiya, Yoshihiro; Uramoto, Hidetaka

    2016-12-01

    In thoracic surgery, anatomic variations of pulmonary artery increase the risks for vessel injury and critical mistakes during pulmonary artery resection. We report a case of lung cancer with an extremely rare branch, a mediastinal A7 pulmonary artery. Some case reports of the mediastinal pulmonary artery exist until now. However, to the best of our knowledge, this is the first case of a medial basal segmental artery (from the following, it is referred to as A7) branching directly from main pulmonary artery in the literature. Therefore, there is no report that showed three-dimensional computed tomography (3D-CT) and operative findings. So, these information is very useful for thoracic surgeon. A 67-year-old man was admitted to our hospital in order to undergo operation for the treatment of lung cancer. We detected the anomalies preoperatively by 3D-CT. The 3D-CT shows the A7 pulmonary artery branches from the right main pulmonary artery directly. According to previous literature, the cases of a single branch from main pulmonary artery to lower lobe are only five cases. And, the only two of them are right side including our case. In spite of an extremely rare case, we were able to successfully perform a right middle lobectomy because the information obtained from the 3D-CT findings was sufficiently understood preoperatively. PMID:26943692

  8. Buckling of Branched Cytoskeletal Filaments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quint, D. A.; Schwarz, J. M.

    2011-03-01

    In vitro experiments of growing dendritic actin networks demonstrate reversible stress-softening at high loads, above some critical load. The transition to the stress-softening regime has been attributed to the elastic buckling of individual actin filaments. To estimate the critical load above which softening should occur, we extend the elastic theory of buckling of individual filaments embedded in a network to include the buckling of branched filaments, a signature trait of growing dendritic actin networks. Under certain assumptions, there will be approximately a seven-fold increase in the classical critical bucking load, when compared to the unbranched filament, which is entirely due to the presence of a branch. Moreover, we go beyond the classical buckling regime to investigate the effect of entropic fluctuations. The result of compressing the filament in this case leads to an increase in these fluctuations and eventually the harmonic approximation breaks down signifying the onset of the buckling transition. We compute corrections to the classical critical buckling load near this breakdown.

  9. Voice Outcome after Gore-Tex Medialization Thyroplasty.

    PubMed

    Elnashar, Ismail; El-Anwar, Mohammad; Amer, Hazem; Quriba, Amal

    2015-07-01

    Introduction Although medialization thyroplasty utilizing Gore-Tex (Gore and Associates, Newark, Delaware, United States) has been discussed in the literature, few reports have assessed voice quality afterward, and they did not use a full assessment protocol. Objective To assess the improvement in voice quality after medialization thyroplasty utilizing Gore-Tex in patients with glottic insufficiency of variable etiology. Methods Eleven patients with glottic insufficiency of different etiologies that failed compensation were operated by type 1 thyroplasty utilizing Gore-Tex. Pre- and postoperative (1 week, 3 months, and 6 months) voice assessment was done and statistical analysis was performed on the results. Results In all postoperative assessments, there was significant improvement in the grade of dysphonia (p < 0.004) and highly significant reduction in the size of glottic gap and prolongation of maximum phonation time (p < 0.0001). The difference in voice parameters in the early (1 week) and the late (3 and 6 months) postoperative period was not significant. None of the patients developed stridor or shortness of breath necessitating tracheotomy, and there was no implant extrusion in any patient during the study period. Conclusion Gore-Tex medialization provides reliable results for both subjective and objective voice parameters. It leads to a satisfactory restoration of voice whatever the etiology of glottic incompetence is. This technique is relatively easy and does not lead to major complications. Further studies with larger number of patients and more extended periods of follow-up are still required to assess the long-term results of the technique regarding voice quality and implant extrusion. PMID:26157500

  10. Voice Outcome after Gore-Tex Medialization Thyroplasty

    PubMed Central

    Elnashar, Ismail; El-Anwar, Mohammad; Amer, Hazem; Quriba, Amal

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Although medialization thyroplasty utilizing Gore-Tex (Gore and Associates, Newark, Delaware, United States) has been discussed in the literature, few reports have assessed voice quality afterward, and they did not use a full assessment protocol. Objective To assess the improvement in voice quality after medialization thyroplasty utilizing Gore-Tex in patients with glottic insufficiency of variable etiology. Methods Eleven patients with glottic insufficiency of different etiologies that failed compensation were operated by type 1 thyroplasty utilizing Gore-Tex. Pre- and postoperative (1 week, 3 months, and 6 months) voice assessment was done and statistical analysis was performed on the results. Results In all postoperative assessments, there was significant improvement in the grade of dysphonia (p < 0.004) and highly significant reduction in the size of glottic gap and prolongation of maximum phonation time (p < 0.0001). The difference in voice parameters in the early (1 week) and the late (3 and 6 months) postoperative period was not significant. None of the patients developed stridor or shortness of breath necessitating tracheotomy, and there was no implant extrusion in any patient during the study period. Conclusion Gore-Tex medialization provides reliable results for both subjective and objective voice parameters. It leads to a satisfactory restoration of voice whatever the etiology of glottic incompetence is. This technique is relatively easy and does not lead to major complications. Further studies with larger number of patients and more extended periods of follow-up are still required to assess the long-term results of the technique regarding voice quality and implant extrusion. PMID:26157500

  11. The UniSpacer™: correcting varus malalignment in medial gonarthrosis.

    PubMed

    Clarius, Michael; Becker, Justus F; Schmitt, Holger; Seeger, Joern B

    2010-12-01

    While options for operative treatment of leg axis varus malalignment in patients with medial gonarthrosis include several established procedures, such as unicompartmental knee arthroplasty (UKA), total knee arthroplasty (TKA) or high tibial osteotomy (HTO), there has been little focus on a less invasive option introduced more recently: the UniSpacer™ implant, a self-centering, metallic interpositional device for the knee. This study evaluates clinical and radiological results of the UniSpacer™, whether alignment correction can be achieved by UniSpacer™ arthroplasty and alignment change in the first five postoperative years. Anteroposterior long leg stance radiographs of 20 legs were digitally analysed to assess alignment change: two relevant angles and the deviation of the mechanical axis of the leg were analysed before and after surgery. Additionally, the change of the postoperative alignment was determined one and five years postoperatively. Analysing the mechanical tibiofemoral angle, a significant leg axis correction was achieved, with a mean valgus change of 4.7 ± 1.9°; a varus change occurred in the first postoperative year, while there was no significant further change of alignment seen five years after surgery. The UniSpacer™ corrects malalignment in patients with medial gonarthrosis; however, a likely postoperative change in alignment due to implant adaptation to the joint must be considered before implantation. Our results show that good clinical and functional results can be achieved after UniSpacer™ arthroplasty. However, four of 19 knees had to be revised to a TKA or UKA due to persistent pain, which is an unacceptably high revision rate when looking at the alternative treatment options of medial osteoarthritis of the knee. PMID:19946773

  12. Dendritic Organization of Olfactory Inputs to Medial Amygdala Neurons.

    PubMed

    Keshavarzi, Sepideh; Power, John M; Albers, Eva H H; Sullivan, Robert K S; Sah, Pankaj

    2015-09-23

    The medial amygdala (MeA) is a central hub in the olfactory neural network. It receives vomeronasal information directly from the accessory olfactory bulb (AOB) and main olfactory information largely via odor-processing regions such as the olfactory cortical amygdala (CoA). How these inputs are processed by MeA neurons is poorly understood. Using the GAD67-GFP mouse, we show that MeA principal neurons receive convergent AOB and CoA inputs. Somatically recorded AOB synaptic inputs had slower kinetics than CoA inputs, suggesting that they are electrotonically more distant. Field potential recording, pharmacological manipulation, and Ca(2+) imaging revealed that AOB synapses are confined to distal dendrites and segregated from the proximally located CoA synapses. Moreover, unsynchronized AOB inputs had significantly broader temporal summation that was dependent on the activation of NMDA receptors. These findings show that MeA principal neurons process main and accessory olfactory inputs differentially in distinct dendritic compartments. Significance statement: In most vertebrates, olfactory cues are processed by two largely segregated neural pathways, the main and accessory olfactory systems, which are specialized to detect odors and nonvolatile chemosignals, respectively. Information from these two pathways ultimately converges at higher brain regions, one of the major hubs being the medial amygdala. Little is known about how olfactory inputs are processed by medial amygdala neurons. This study shows that individual principal neurons in this region receive input from both pathways and that these synapses are spatially segregated on their dendritic tree. We provide evidence suggesting that this dendritic segregation leads to distinct input integration and impact on neuronal output; hence, dendritic mechanisms control olfactory processing in the amygdala. PMID:26400933

  13. Finding maximum JPEG image block code size

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lakhani, Gopal

    2012-07-01

    We present a study of JPEG baseline coding. It aims to determine the minimum storage needed to buffer the JPEG Huffman code bits of 8-bit image blocks. Since DC is coded separately, and the encoder represents each AC coefficient by a pair of run-length/AC coefficient level, the net problem is to perform an efficient search for the optimal run-level pair sequence. We formulate it as a two-dimensional, nonlinear, integer programming problem and solve it using a branch-and-bound based search method. We derive two types of constraints to prune the search space. The first one is given as an upper-bound for the sum of squares of AC coefficients of a block, and it is used to discard sequences that cannot represent valid DCT blocks. The second type constraints are based on some interesting properties of the Huffman code table, and these are used to prune sequences that cannot be part of optimal solutions. Our main result is that if the default JPEG compression setting is used, space of minimum of 346 bits and maximum of 433 bits is sufficient to buffer the AC code bits of 8-bit image blocks. Our implementation also pruned the search space extremely well; the first constraint reduced the initial search space of 4 nodes down to less than 2 nodes, and the second set of constraints reduced it further by 97.8%.

  14. Considerations for the Management of Medial Orbital Wall Blowout Fracture

    PubMed Central

    Park, Youngsoo; Chung, Kyu Jin

    2016-01-01

    Recently, diagnoses of and operations for medial orbital blowout fracture have increased because of the development of imaging technology. In this article, the authors review the literature, and overview the accumulated knowledge about the orbital anatomy, fracture mechanisms, surgical approaches, reconstruction materials, and surgical methods. In terms of surgical approaches, transcaruncular, transcutaneous, and transnasal endoscopic approaches are discussed. Reconstruction methods including onlay covering, inlay implantation, and repositioning methods are also discussed. Consideration and understanding of these should lead to more optimal outcomes. PMID:27218019

  15. Sensory conduction in medial and lateral plantar nerves.

    PubMed Central

    Ponsford, S N

    1988-01-01

    A simple and reliable method of recording medial and lateral plantar nerve sensory action potentials is described. Potentials are recorded with surface electrodes at the ankle using surface electrodes stimulating orthodromically at the sole. The normal values obtained are higher in amplitude than those obtained by the method described by Guiloff and Sherratt and are detectable in older subjects aged over 80 years. The procedure is valuable in the diagnosis of early peripheral neuropathy, mononeuritis multiplex, tarsal tunnel syndrome and in differentiation between pre and post ganglionic L5 S1 lesions. PMID:2831304

  16. Technique, indications, and results of proximal medial gastrocnemius lengthening.

    PubMed

    Barouk, Pierre

    2014-12-01

    Gastrocnemius proximal lengthening was first performed to correct spasticity in children, and was adapted for the patient with no neuromuscular condition in the late 1990s. Since then, the proximal gastrocnemius release has become less invasive and has evolved to include only the fascia overlying the medial head of the gastrocnemius muscle. The indications for performing this procedure are a clinically demonstrable gastrocnemius contracture that influences a variety of clinical conditions in the forefoot, hindfoot, and ankle. It is a safe and easy procedure that can be performed bilaterally simultaneously, and does not require immobilization of the ankle after surgery. PMID:25456723

  17. Considerations for the Management of Medial Orbital Wall Blowout Fracture.

    PubMed

    Kim, Yong-Ha; Park, Youngsoo; Chung, Kyu Jin

    2016-05-01

    Recently, diagnoses of and operations for medial orbital blowout fracture have increased because of the development of imaging technology. In this article, the authors review the literature, and overview the accumulated knowledge about the orbital anatomy, fracture mechanisms, surgical approaches, reconstruction materials, and surgical methods. In terms of surgical approaches, transcaruncular, transcutaneous, and transnasal endoscopic approaches are discussed. Reconstruction methods including onlay covering, inlay implantation, and repositioning methods are also discussed. Consideration and understanding of these should lead to more optimal outcomes. PMID:27218019

  18. Return to Play After Medial Collateral Ligament Injury.

    PubMed

    Kim, Christopher; Chasse, Patrick M; Taylor, Dean C

    2016-10-01

    Medial collateral ligament injuries are common in the athletic population. Partial injuries are treated nonoperatively with excellent outcomes. Complete ruptures may be treated nonoperatively, although some will require surgery. A comprehensive rehabilitation program is critical to outcome, but a standardized program for all injuries does not exist. Most of the literature regarding nonoperative and postoperative rehabilitation include observational reports and case studies. Level I studies comparing rehabilitation protocols have not been published. The goal of the injured athlete is to not only return to play with no functional limitations, but to also address risk factors and prevent future injuries. PMID:27543407

  19. Mechanical properties of branched actin filaments.

    PubMed

    Razbin, Mohammadhosein; Falcke, Martin; Benetatos, Panayotis; Zippelius, Annette

    2015-07-01

    Cells moving on a two dimensional substrate generate motion by polymerizing actin filament networks inside a flat membrane protrusion. New filaments are generated by branching off existing ones, giving rise to branched network structures. We investigate the force-extension relation of branched filaments, grafted on an elastic structure at one end and pushing with the free ends against the leading edge cell membrane. Single filaments are modeled as worm-like chains, whose thermal bending fluctuations are restricted by the leading edge cell membrane, resulting in an effective force. Branching can increase the stiffness considerably; however the effect depends on branch point position and filament orientation, being most pronounced for intermediate tilt angles and intermediate branch point positions. We describe filament networks without cross-linkers to focus on the effect of branching. We use randomly positioned branch points, as generated in the process of treadmilling, and orientation distributions as measured in lamellipodia. These networks reproduce both the weak and strong force response of lamellipodia as measured in force-velocity experiments. We compare properties of branched and unbranched networks. The ratio of the network average of the force per branched filament to the average force per unbranched filament depends on the orientation distribution of the filaments. The ratio exhibits compression dependence and may go up to about 4.5 in networks with a narrow orientation distribution. With orientation distributions measured in lamellipodia, it is about two and essentially independent from network compression, graft elasticity and filament persistence length. PMID:26040560

  20. Mechanical properties of branched actin filaments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Razbin, Mohammadhosein; Falcke, Martin; Benetatos, Panayotis; Zippelius, Annette

    2015-07-01

    Cells moving on a two dimensional substrate generate motion by polymerizing actin filament networks inside a flat membrane protrusion. New filaments are generated by branching off existing ones, giving rise to branched network structures. We investigate the force-extension relation of branched filaments, grafted on an elastic structure at one end and pushing with the free ends against the leading edge cell membrane. Single filaments are modeled as worm-like chains, whose thermal bending fluctuations are restricted by the leading edge cell membrane, resulting in an effective force. Branching can increase the stiffness considerably; however the effect depends on branch point position and filament orientation, being most pronounced for intermediate tilt angles and intermediate branch point positions. We describe filament networks without cross-linkers to focus on the effect of branching. We use randomly positioned branch points, as generated in the process of treadmilling, and orientation distributions as measured in lamellipodia. These networks reproduce both the weak and strong force response of lamellipodia as measured in force-velocity experiments. We compare properties of branched and unbranched networks. The ratio of the network average of the force per branched filament to the average force per unbranched filament depends on the orientation distribution of the filaments. The ratio exhibits compression dependence and may go up to about 4.5 in networks with a narrow orientation distribution. With orientation distributions measured in lamellipodia, it is about two and essentially independent from network compression, graft elasticity and filament persistence length.

  1. Composition of clusters and building blocks in amylopectins from maize mutants deficient in starch synthase III.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Fan; Bertoft, Eric; Seetharaman, Koushik

    2013-12-18

    Branches in amylopectin are distributed along the backbone. Units of the branches are building blocks (smaller) and clusters (larger) based on the distance between branches. In this study, composition of clusters and building blocks of amylopectins from dull1 maize mutants deficient in starch synthase III (SSIII) with a common genetic background (W64A) were characterized and compared with the wild type. Clusters were produced from amylopectins by partial hydrolysis using α-amylase of Bacillus amyloliquefaciens and were subsequently treated with phosphorylase a and β-amylase to produce φ,β-limit dextrins. Clusters were further extensively hydrolyzed with the α-amylase to produce building blocks. Structures of clusters and building blocks were analyzed by diverse chromatographic techniques. The results showed that the dull1 mutation resulted in larger clusters with more singly branched building blocks. The average cluster contained ~5.4 blocks in dull1 mutants and ~4.2 blocks in the wild type. The results are compared with previous results from SSIII-deficient amo1 barley and suggest fundamental differences in the cluster structures. PMID:24229421

  2. Observing accidental and intentional unusual actions is associated with different subregions of the medial frontal cortex.

    PubMed

    Desmet, Charlotte; Brass, Marcel

    2015-11-15

    The literature on action observation revealed contradictory results regarding the activation of different subregions of the medial prefrontal cortex when observing unusual behaviour. Error observation research has shown that the posterior part of the medial prefrontal cortex is more active when observing unusual behaviour compared to usual behaviour while action understanding research has revealed some mixed results concerning the role of the anterior part of the medial prefrontal cortex during the observation of unusual actions. Here, we resolve this discrepancy in the literature by showing that different parts of the medial prefrontal cortex are active depending on whether an observed unusual behaviour is intentional or not. While the posterior medial prefrontal cortex is more active when we observe unusual accidental actions compared to unusual intentional actions, a more anterior part of the medial prefrontal cortex is more active when we observe unusual intentional actions compared to unusual accidental actions. PMID:26279209

  3. Electrophysiological evidence during episodic prospection implicates medial prefrontal and bilateral middle temporal gyrus.

    PubMed

    Hsu, Chia-Fen; Sonuga-Barke, Edmund J S

    2016-08-01

    fMRI studies have implicated the medial prefrontal cortex and medial temporal lobe, components of the default mode network (DMN), in episodic prospection. This study compared quantitative EEG localized to these DMN regions during prospection and during resting and while waiting for rewards. EEG was recorded in twenty-two adults while they were asked to (i) envision future monetary episodes; (ii) wait for rewards and (iii) rest. Activation sources were localized to core DMN regions. EEG power and phase coherence were compared across conditions. Prospection, compared to resting and waiting, was associated with reduced power in the medial prefrontal gyrus and increased power in the bilateral medial temporal gyrus across frequency bands as well as greater phase synchrony between these regions in the delta band. The current quantitative EEG analysis confirms prior fMRI research suggesting that medial prefrontal and medial temporal gyrus interactions are central to the capacity for episodic prospection. PMID:27026652

  4. Cell block eleven (left) and cell block fifteen, looking from ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Cell block eleven (left) and cell block fifteen, looking from cell block two into the "Death Row" exercise yard - Eastern State Penitentiary, 2125 Fairmount Avenue, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  5. View of cell block eight (left), cell block seven, and ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View of cell block eight (left), cell block seven, and southwest guard tower, looking from cell block eight roof - Eastern State Penitentiary, 2125 Fairmount Avenue, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  6. Blocked tear duct

    MedlinePlus

    ... your baby may have an eye infection called conjunctivitis . ... increase the chance of other infections, such as conjunctivitis. ... be prevented. Proper treatment of nasal infections and conjunctivitis may reduce the risk of having a blocked ...

  7. RX for Writer's Block.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tompkins, Gail E.; Camp, Donna J.

    1988-01-01

    Describes four prewriting techniques that elementary and middle grade students can use to gather and organize ideas for writing, and by so doing, cure writer's block. Techniques discussed are: (1) brainstorming; (2) clustering; (3) freewriting; and (4) cubing.

  8. Superalloy Lattice Block Structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nathal, M. V.; Whittenberger, J. D.; Hebsur, M. G.; Kantzos, P. T.; Krause, D. L.

    2004-01-01

    Initial investigations of investment cast superalloy lattice block suggest that this technology will yield a low cost approach to utilize the high temperature strength and environmental resistance of superalloys in lightweight, damage tolerant structural configurations. Work to date has demonstrated that relatively large superalloy lattice block panels can be successfully investment cast from both IN-718 and Mar-M247. These castings exhibited mechanical properties consistent with the strength of the same superalloys measured from more conventional castings. The lattice block structure also accommodates significant deformation without failure, and is defect tolerant in fatigue. The potential of lattice block structures opens new opportunities for the use of superalloys in future generations of aircraft applications that demand strength and environmental resistance at elevated temperatures along with low weight.

  9. Block copolymer battery separator

    DOEpatents

    Wong, David; Balsara, Nitash Pervez

    2016-04-26

    The invention herein described is the use of a block copolymer/homopolymer blend for creating nanoporous materials for transport applications. Specifically, this is demonstrated by using the block copolymer poly(styrene-block-ethylene-block-styrene) (SES) and blending it with homopolymer polystyrene (PS). After blending the polymers, a film is cast, and the film is submerged in tetrahydrofuran, which removes the PS. This creates a nanoporous polymer film, whereby the holes are lined with PS. Control of morphology of the system is achieved by manipulating the amount of PS added and the relative size of the PS added. The porous nature of these films was demonstrated by measuring the ionic conductivity in a traditional battery electrolyte, 1M LiPF.sub.6 in EC/DEC (1:1 v/v) using AC impedance spectroscopy and comparing these results to commercially available battery separators.

  10. Effects of morphiceptin in the medial preoptic area on male sexual behavior.

    PubMed

    Matuszewich, L; Ormsby, J L; Moses, J; Lorrain, D S; Hull, E M

    1995-12-01

    Morphiceptin, a selective mu opioid agonist, injected into the medial preoptic area (MPOA), delayed the onset of copulation in male rats, but did not affect genital reflexes, sexual motivation or general motor activity. In a dose-dependent manner, morphiceptin (100 ng and 1000 ng) injected into the MPOA increased mount and intromission latencies. Similar injections of morphiceptin into the ventromedial hypothalamus had no effect on any parameter of copulation. The increase in copulatory latencies following the injection of the highest dose of morphiceptin was blocked by pretreatment with the opioid antagonist naloxone. In the X-maze task, morphiceptin had no effect on sexual motivation, as measured by the percentage of trials on which the male chose the female's chamber, but it increased the number of trials in which the subject did not select a chamber within 60 s and the latency to the female the first time he chose her chamber. Similar to the copulation task, the mount and intromission latencies were also increased in the X-maze, after the male reached the female. Morphiceptin in the MPOA had no effect on ex copula genital reflexes, tested in restrained supine males, or on motor activity, tested in a grid box. These results suggest that morphiceptin disrupts either the specific copulatory somatomotor pattern or a more general motivational component. PMID:8657829

  11. Histochemical and contractile responses of rat medial gastrocnemius to 2 weeks of complete disuse.

    PubMed

    Gardiner, P F; Favron, M; Corriveau, P

    1992-08-01

    We studied the histochemical and in situ contractile changes in a rat ankle extensor, medial gastrocnemius, in which activation of muscle fibres by motoneurones was blocked for 14 days, using the sodium channel blocker tetrodotoxin applied to the sciatic nerve. Muscles were atrophied and showed slower twitch responses, greater fusion at subtetanic frequencies of stimulation, and higher twitch/tetanic ratios. Tetanic force/mm2 of fibre area and fatiguability were unchanged. Type II fibres were more atrophied and showed greater decreases in mitochondrial succinate dehydrogenase activity than type I fibres. The contractile changes resulting from complete disuse do not occur in models in which weight-bearing alone has been removed (space flight, hindlimb suspension), suggesting that the residual motoneurone activity reported in models of weightlessness is sufficient to prevent these responses. Similarly, the finding of a greater type II fibre susceptibility to complete disuse, which differs from the pattern seen in models of weightlessness, suggest that this residual motoneurone activity in the latter influences atrophic responses in a manner that is variable among motor unit types, to produce the reported preferential type I atrophy characteristic of removal of weight-bearing. PMID:1473039

  12. 18-Methoxycoronaridine acts in the medial habenula to attenuate behavioral and neurochemical sensitization to nicotine.

    PubMed

    Eggan, Branden L; McCallum, Sarah E

    2016-07-01

    Systemic 18-methoxycoronaridine, an alpha3beta4 nicotinic antagonist, slows the rate of induction of behavioral sensitization to nicotine (Glick et al., 1996; 2011). The primary mechanism of action of 18-MC is believed to be the inhibition of α3β4 nicotinic acetylcholine receptors which are densely expressed in the medial habenula and interpeduncular nucleus (Pace et al., 2004; Glick et al., 2012). Recently, these habenular nicotinic receptors and their multiple roles in nicotine aversion and withdrawal have been increasingly emphasized (Antolin-Fontes et al., 2015). Here, we investigated the effects of 18-MC on both behavioral and neurochemical sensitization to nicotine. Daily systemic administration of 18-MC slowed the rate of induction of behavioral sensitization to nicotine but failed to block the expression of a sensitized locomotor response when absent. In contrast, in nicotine sensitized animals, systemic 18-MC significantly reduced the expression of behavioral sensitization. Results from intra-habenular administration of 18-MC paralleled these findings in that the expression of behavioral sensitization was also reduced in sensitized animals. Consistent with its effects on behavioral sensitization, intra-MHb treatment with 18-MC completely abolished sensitized dopamine responses in the nucleus accumbens in nicotine sensitized animals. These results show that α3β4 nicotinic receptors in the MHb contribute to nicotine sensitization, a phenomenon associated with drug craving and relapse. PMID:27059333

  13. The role of the medial prefrontal cortex in trace fear extinction.

    PubMed

    Kwapis, Janine L; Jarome, Timothy J; Helmstetter, Fred J

    2014-01-01

    The extinction of delay fear conditioning relies on a neural circuit that has received much attention and is relatively well defined. Whether this established circuit also supports the extinction of more complex associations, however, is unclear. Trace fear conditioning is a better model of complex relational learning, yet the circuit that supports extinction of this memory has received very little attention. Recent research has indicated that trace fear extinction requires a different neural circuit than delay extinction; trace extinction requires the participation of the retrosplenial cortex, but not the amygdala, as noted in a previous study. Here, we tested the roles of the prelimbic and infralimbic regions of the medial prefrontal cortex in trace and delay fear extinction by blocking NMDA receptors during extinction learning. We found that the prelimbic cortex is necessary for trace, but not for delay fear extinction, whereas the infralimbic cortex is involved in both types of extinction. These results are consistent with the idea that trace fear associations require plasticity in multiple cortical areas for successful extinction. Further, the infralimbic cortex appears to play a role in extinction regardless of whether the animal was initially trained in trace or delay conditioning. Together, our results provide new information about how the neural circuits supporting trace and delay fear extinction differ. PMID:25512576

  14. Melatonin receptor activation increases glutamatergic synaptic transmission in the rat medial lateral habenula.

    PubMed

    Evely, Katherine M; Hudson, Randall L; Dubocovich, Margarita L; Haj-Dahmane, Samir

    2016-05-01

    Melatonin (MLT) is secreted from the pineal gland and mediates its physiological effects through activation of two G protein-coupled receptors, MT1 and MT2 . These receptors are expressed in several brain areas, including the habenular complex, a pair of nuclei that relay information from forebrain to midbrain and modulate a plethora of behaviors, including sleep, mood, and pain. However, so far, the precise mechanisms by which MLT control the function of habenula neurons remain unknown. Using whole cell recordings from male rat brain slices, we examined the effects of MLT on the excitability of medial lateral habenula (MLHb) neurons. We found that MLT had no significant effects on the intrinsic excitability of MLHb neurons, but profoundly increased the amplitude of glutamate-mediated evoked excitatory post-synaptic currents (EPSC). The increase in strength of glutamate synapses onto MLHb neurons was mediated by an increase in glutamate release. The MLT-induced increase in glutamatergic synaptic transmission was blocked by the competitive MT1 /MT2 receptor antagonist luzindole (LUZ). These results unravel a potential cellular mechanism by which MLT receptor activation enhances the excitability of MLHb neurons. The MLT-mediated control of glutamatergic inputs to the MLHb may play a key role in the modulation of various behaviors controlled by the habenular complex. PMID:26799638

  15. Cortical Dependence of Whisker Responses in Posterior Medial Thalamus In Vivo

    PubMed Central

    Mease, Rebecca A.; Sumser, Anton; Sakmann, Bert; Groh, Alexander

    2016-01-01

    Cortical layer 5B (L5B) thick-tufted pyramidal neurons have reliable responses to whisker stimulation in anesthetized rodents. These cells drive a corticothalamic pathway that evokes spikes in thalamic posterior medial nucleus (POm). While a subset of POm has been shown to integrate both cortical L5B and paralemniscal signals, the majority of POm neurons are suggested to receive driving input from L5B only. Here, we test this possibility by investigating the origin of whisker-evoked responses in POm and specifically the contribution of the L5B-POm pathway. We compare L5B spiking with POm spiking and subthreshold responses to whisker deflections in urethane anesthetized mice. We find that a subset of recorded POm neurons shows early (<50 ms) spike responses and early large EPSPs. In these neurons, the early large EPSPs matched L5B input criteria, were blocked by cortical inhibition, and also interacted with spontaneous Up state coupled large EPSPs. This result supports the view of POm subdivisions, one of which receives whisker signals predominantly via L5B neurons. PMID:27230219

  16. Cortical Dependence of Whisker Responses in Posterior Medial Thalamus In Vivo.

    PubMed

    Mease, Rebecca A; Sumser, Anton; Sakmann, Bert; Groh, Alexander

    2016-08-01

    Cortical layer 5B (L5B) thick-tufted pyramidal neurons have reliable responses to whisker stimulation in anesthetized rodents. These cells drive a corticothalamic pathway that evokes spikes in thalamic posterior medial nucleus (POm). While a subset of POm has been shown to integrate both cortical L5B and paralemniscal signals, the majority of POm neurons are suggested to receive driving input from L5B only. Here, we test this possibility by investigating the origin of whisker-evoked responses in POm and specifically the contribution of the L5B-POm pathway. We compare L5B spiking with POm spiking and subthreshold responses to whisker deflections in urethane anesthetized mice. We find that a subset of recorded POm neurons shows early (<50 ms) spike responses and early large EPSPs. In these neurons, the early large EPSPs matched L5B input criteria, were blocked by cortical inhibition, and also interacted with spontaneous Up state coupled large EPSPs. This result supports the view of POm subdivisions, one of which receives whisker signals predominantly via L5B neurons. PMID:27230219

  17. Blockade of androgen receptor in the medial amygdala inhibits noncontact erections in male rats.

    PubMed

    Bialy, Michal; Nikolaev-Diak, Anna; Kalata, Urszula; Nikolaev, Evgeni

    2011-06-01

    Our previous work demonstrated that androgens in the medial amygdala (MeA) of castrated male rats maintained noncontact erections (NCEs), which occur during exposure to an inaccessible receptive female, for one week after implantation. The present experiments investigated the effects of implantation into the MeA of either flutamide (F), a blocker of androgen receptors, or of 1,4,6-androstatrien-3,17-dione (ATD), which blocks aromatization of testosterone. One day after implantation of F, fewer males displayed NCEs, and had longer latencies to the first NCE and fewer NCEs, and spent less total time in genital grooming, compared to the control group. ATD had only weak facilitative effects on some measures of NCEs. These results suggest that androgen receptors in the MeA play a major role in the regulation of NCEs and that the MeA is one of the neuronal structures that regulate male sexual arousal. Furthermore, it is sensitive to relatively fast changes in the level of androgen receptors stimulation. PMID:21315100

  18. How learn the branching ratio

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Achasov, N. N.; Rogozina, E. V.

    2014-10-01

    Enfant terrible of charmonium spectroscopy, the resonance X(3872), generated a stream of interpretations and ushered in a new exotic XYZ spectroscopy. In the meantime, many (if not all) characteristics of X(3872) are rather ambiguous. We construct spectra of decays of the resonance X(3872) with good analytical and unitary properties which allows to define the branching ratio of the decay studying only one more decay, for example, the X(3872) → π+π- J/ψ(1 S) decay. We next define the range of values of the coupling constant of the X(3872) resonance with the system. Finally, we show that our spectra are effective means of selection of models for the resonance X(3872).

  19. Recursive Branching Simulated Annealing Algorithm

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bolcar, Matthew; Smith, J. Scott; Aronstein, David

    2012-01-01

    This innovation is a variation of a simulated-annealing optimization algorithm that uses a recursive-branching structure to parallelize the search of a parameter space for the globally optimal solution to an objective. The algorithm has been demonstrated to be more effective at searching a parameter space than traditional simulated-annealing methods for a particular problem of interest, and it can readily be applied to a wide variety of optimization problems, including those with a parameter space having both discrete-value parameters (combinatorial) and continuous-variable parameters. It can take the place of a conventional simulated- annealing, Monte-Carlo, or random- walk algorithm. In a conventional simulated-annealing (SA) algorithm, a starting configuration is randomly selected within the parameter space. The algorithm randomly selects another configuration from the parameter space and evaluates the objective function for that configuration. If the objective function value is better than the previous value, the new configuration is adopted as the new point of interest in the parameter space. If the objective function value is worse than the previous value, the new configuration may be adopted, with a probability determined by a temperature parameter, used in analogy to annealing in metals. As the optimization continues, the region of the parameter space from which new configurations can be selected shrinks, and in conjunction with lowering the annealing temperature (and thus lowering the probability for adopting configurations in parameter space with worse objective functions), the algorithm can converge on the globally optimal configuration. The Recursive Branching Simulated Annealing (RBSA) algorithm shares some features with the SA algorithm, notably including the basic principles that a starting configuration is randomly selected from within the parameter space, the algorithm tests other configurations with the goal of finding the globally optimal

  20. Direct muscarinic and nicotinic receptor-mediated excitation of rat medial vestibular nucleus neurons in vitro

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Phelan, K. D.; Gallagher, J. P.

    1992-01-01

    We have utilized intracellular recording techniques to investigate the cholinoceptivity of rat medial vestibular nucleus (MVN) neurons in a submerged brain slice preparation. Exogenous application of the mixed cholinergic agonists, acetylcholine (ACh) or carbachol (CCh), produced predominantly membrane depolarization, induction of action potential firing, and decreased input resistance. Application of the selective muscarinic receptor agonist muscarine (MUSC), or the selective nicotinic receptor agonists nicotine (NIC) or 1,1-dimethyl-4-phenylpiperazinium (DMPP) also produced membrane depolarizations. The MUSC-induced depolarization was accompanied by decreased conductance, while an increase in conductance appeared to underlie the NIC- and DMPP-induced depolarizations. The muscarinic and nicotinic receptor mediated depolarizations persisted in tetrodotoxin and/or low Ca2+/high Mg2+ containing media, suggesting direct postsynaptic receptor activation. The MUSC-induced depolarization could be reversibly blocked by the selective muscarinic-receptor antagonist, atropine, while the DMPP-induced depolarization could be reversibly suppressed by the selective ganglionic nicotinic-receptor antagonist, mecamylamine. Some neurons exhibited a transient membrane hyperpolarization during the depolarizing response to CCh or MUSC application. This transient inhibition could be reversibly blocked by the gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) antagonist, bicuculline, suggesting that the underlying hyperpolarization results indirectly from the endogenous release of GABA acting at GABA receptors. This study confirms the cholinoceptivity of MVN neurons and establishes that individual MVN cells possess muscarinic as well as nicotinic receptors. The data provide support for a prominent role of cholinergic mechanisms in the direct and indirect regulation of the excitability of MVN neurons.

  1. Increased Intrinsic Activity of Medial-Temporal Lobe Subregions is Associated with Decreased Cortical Thickness of Medial-Parietal Areas in Patients with Alzheimer's Disease Dementia.

    PubMed

    Pasquini, Lorenzo; Scherr, Martin; Tahmasian, Masoud; Myers, Nicholas E; Ortner, Marion; Kurz, Alexander; Förstl, Hans; Zimmer, Claus; Grimmer, Timo; Akhrif, Atae; Wohlschläger, Afra M; Riedl, Valentin; Sorg, Christian

    2016-01-21

    In Alzheimer's disease (AD), disrupted connectivity between medial-parietal cortices and medial-temporal lobes (MTL) is linked with increased MTL local functional connectivity, and parietal atrophy is associated with increased MTL memory activation. We hypothesized that intrinsic activity in MTL subregions is increased and associated with medial-parietal degeneration and impaired memory in AD. To test this hypothesis, resting-state-functional and structural-MRI was assessed in 22 healthy controls, 22 mild cognitive impairment patients, and 21 AD-dementia patients. Intrinsic activity was measured by power-spectrum density of blood-oxygenation-level-dependent signal, medial-parietal degeneration by cortical thinning. In AD-dementia patients, intrinsic activity was increased for several right MTL subregions. Raised intrinsic activity in dentate gyrus and cornu ammonis 1 was associated with cortical thinning in posterior cingulate cortices, and at-trend with impaired delayed recall. Critically, increased intrinsic activity in the right entorhinal cortex was associated with ipsilateral posterior cingulate degeneration. Our results provide evidence that in AD, intrinsic activity in MTL subregions is increased and associated with medial-parietal atrophy. Results fit a model in which medial-parietal degeneration contributes to MTL dysconnectivity from medial-parietal cortices, potentially underpinning disinhibition-like changes in MTL activity. PMID:26836175

  2. Sensory nerve conduction in branches of common interdigital nerves: a new technique for normal controls and patients with morton's neuroma.

    PubMed

    Uludag, Burhanettin; Tataroglu, Cengiz; Bademkiran, Fikret; Uludag, Irem Fatma; Ertekin, Cumhur

    2010-06-01

    In this article, a new electrodiagnostic approach is described for patients with Morton's neuroma. The new method is based on the anatomic fact that the two branches of the common plantar interdigital nerves innervate the lateral side of one toe and the medial side the next one. This study included 20 normal subjects (aged 28-58 years, 10 men and 10 women) and 4 patients with Morton's neuroma (aged 44-52 years, 4 women). The branches of adjacent common plantar interdigital nerves that innerve one toe were stimulated superficially and separately with half of one toe covered with a piece of medical tape. The recordings were obtained on the posterior tibial nerve at the medial malleolus with needle electrodes. Thus, the difference in latencies of obtained sensory nerve action potentials on the posterior tibial nerve with needle electrode was measured. From normal subjects' data, it was determined that a latency difference value of above 0.17 milliseconds (mean +/- 2.5 SD) in one toe was abnormal. All of the patients with Morton's neuroma showed abnormal interlatency difference values. This new method, which we have developed, is more sensitive, simple to use, does not require extra equipment, and does not cause excessive pain. We suggest that interlatency difference between branches of the common plantar interdigital nerves is a useful and sensitive method for the diagnosis of Morton's neuroma. PMID:20479659

  3. [Anatomical rationale for lingual nerve injury prevention during mandibular block].

    PubMed

    Semkin, V A; Dydikin, S S; Kuzin, A V; Sogacheva, V V

    2015-01-01

    The topographic and anatomical study of lingual nerve structural features was done. It was revealed that during mandibular anesthesia possible lingual nerve injury can occur if puncture needle is lower than 1 cm. of molars occlusal surface level. The position of the lingual nerve varies withmandible movements. At the maximum open mouth lingual nerve is not mobile and is pressed against the inner surface of the mandibular ramus by the medial pterygoid muscle and the temporal muscle tendon. When closing the mouth to 1.25±0.2 cmfrom the physiological maximum, lingual nerve is displaced posteriorly from the internal oblique line of the mandible and gets mobile. On the basis of topographic and anatomic features of the lingual nervestructure the authors recommend the re-do of inferior alveolar nerve block, a semi-closed mouth position or the use the "high block techniques" (Torus anesthesia, Gow-Gates, Vazirani-Akinozi). PMID:26271698

  4. Reconstruction of medial patellofemoral ligament using quadriceps tendon combined with reconstruction of medial patellotibial ligament using patellar tendon: initial experience☆

    PubMed Central

    Hinckel, Betina Bremer; Gobbi, Riccardo Gomes; Bonadio, Marcelo Batista; Demange, Marco Kawamura; Pécora, José Ricardo; Camanho, Gilberto Luis

    2016-01-01

    Objective To describe a surgical technique for anatomical reconstruction of the medial patellofemoral ligament using the quadriceps tendon, combined with reconstruction of the medial patellotibial ligament using the patellar tendon; and to present the initial results from a case series. Method The proposed technique was used on a series of cases of patients with diagnoses of patellofemoral instability and indications for surgical treatment, who were attended by the Knee Group of HC-IOT, University of São Paulo. The following were evaluated before and after the operation: range of motion (ROM), apprehension test, lateral translation test, patellar inclination test, inverted J sign, subluxation upon extension, pain from compression of the patella and pain from contraction of the quadriceps. After the operation, the patients were asked whether any new episode of dislocation had occurred, what their degree of satisfaction with the surgery was (on a scale from 0 to 10) and whether they would be prepared to go through this operation again. Results Seven knees were operated, in seven patients, with a mean follow-up of 5.46 months (±2.07). Four patients who presented apprehension before the operation did not show this after the operation. The lateral translation test became normal for all the patients, while the patellar inclination test remained positive for two patients. The patients with an inverted J sign continued to be positive for this sign. Five patients were positive for subluxation upon extension before the operation, but all patients were negative for this after the operation. None of the patients presented any new episode of dislocation of the patella. All of them stated that they were satisfied: five gave a satisfaction score of 9 and two, a score of 10. All of them said that they would undergo the operation again. Only one patient presented a postoperative complication: dehiscence of the wound. Conclusion Reconstruction of the medial patellofemoral ligament

  5. Iatrogenic Injury to Medial Rectus After Endoscopic Sinus Surgery.

    PubMed

    Mukherjee, Bipasha; Priyadarshini, Omega; Ramasubramanian, Srikanth; Agarkar, Sumita

    2015-12-01

    Endoscopic sinus surgery (ESS) is the mainstay of the treatment in sinus disorders, to re-establish the drainage of the affected sinus. The close proximity of the orbital structures to paranasal sinuses makes them vulnerable to inadvertent injury during the sinus surgery. Medial rectus (MR) muscle is the most commonly injured extraocular muscle during ESS due to its anatomic proximity to the thin medial wall of the orbit. This is a non-comparative, retrospective, interventional case series of six patients presenting with MR injury after ESS. We discuss the management, outcome and review the published literature. A total of six patients met the inclusion criteria. The presenting complaints were diplopia, squinting and limitation of ocular movements. Two patients underwent surgical exploration of the MR muscle and reattachment of the muscle along with injection botulinum to the antagonist lateral rectus muscle. Two patients who had small angle strabismus and who were able to fuse were advised orthoptic exercises and prisms as management. Remaining two patients were advised surgical intervention to correct strabismus but they declined further surgical intervention. Management of MR injury following ESS is complex, often resulting in suboptimal outcomes. Since early intervention is associated with better outcomes, early referral by otolaryngologists to ophthalmologists would result in better outcome. PMID:26693458

  6. Medial prefrontal cortex role in recognition memory in rodents.

    PubMed

    Morici, Juan Facundo; Bekinschtein, Pedro; Weisstaub, Noelia V

    2015-10-01

    The study of the neurobiology of recognition memory, defined by the integration of the different components of experiences that support recollection of past experiences have been a challenge for memory researches for many years. In the last twenty years, with the development of the spontaneous novel object recognition task and all its variants this has started to change. The features of recognition memory include a particular object or person ("what"), the context in which the experience took place, which can be the arena itself or the location within a particular arena ("where") and the particular time at which the event occurred ("when"). This definition instead of the historical anthropocentric one allows the study of this type of episodic memory in animal models. Some forms of recognition memory that require integration of different features recruit the medial prefrontal cortex. Focusing on findings from spontaneous recognition memory tasks performed by rodents, this review concentrates on the description of previous works that have examined the role that the medial prefrontal cortex has on the different steps of recognition memory. We conclude that this structure, independently of the task used, is required at different memory stages when the task cannot be solved by a single item strategy. PMID:26115848

  7. Medial Foot Loading on Ankle and Knee Biomechanics

    PubMed Central

    Mitchell, Lyneil C.J.; Ford, Kevin R.; Minning, Stephen; Myer, Gregory D.; Mangine, Robert E.

    2008-01-01

    Background The incidence of anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injuries among females continues at disproportionate rates compared to males, with research indicating inconclusive multifactorial causality. Data from previous retrospective studies suggest an effect of abnormal foot and ankle bio-mechanics on pathology at the knee, including the ACL. Objective To determine if a relationship exists between plantar foot loading patterns during normal gait and high risk biomechanics purported to increase risk of ACL injury. Methods Dynamic barefoot plantar pressure distribution was measured on 33 female collegiate soccer players. Groups were divided according to their predominant gait loading pattern (medial or lateral). Three dimensional (3-D) motion analysis was conducted during drop vertical jumps to assess vertical ground reaction force and discrete angle and joint moment variables of the lower extremities. Results No significant differences occured in sagittal or coronal plane knee joint kinematics and kinetics between the medial and lateral loading groups. Discussion Dynamic foot and ankle biomechanics during gait do not appear to be related to lower extremity kinematics or kinetics during landing in collegiate female soccer players. Conclusion The exact cause of the abnormal differences in female landing biomechanics has not been irrefutably defined. This study suggests no effect of foot and ankle biomechanics exists on the landing mechanics of female soccer players. PMID:20379384

  8. Medial Meniscus Posterior Root Tear: A Comprehensive Review

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Dhong Won; Ha, Jeong Ku

    2014-01-01

    Damage to the medial meniscus root, for example by a complete radial tear, destroys the ability of the knee to withstand hoop strain, resulting in contact pressure increases and kinematic alterations. For these reasons, several techniques have been developed to repair the medial meniscus posterior root tear (MMPRT), many of which have shown complete healing of the repaired MMPRT. However, efforts to standardize or optimize the treatment for MMPRT are much needed. When planning a surgical intervention for an MMPRT, strict surgical indications regarding the effect of pullout strength on the refixed root, bony degenerative changes, mechanical alignment, and the Kellgren-Lawrence grade should be considered. Although there are several treatment options and controversies, the current trend is to repair the MMPRT using various techniques including suture anchors and pullout sutures if the patient meets the indications. However, there are still debates on the restoration of hoop tension and prevention of arthritis after repair and further biomechanical and clinical studies should be conducted in the future. The aim of this article was to review and summarize the recent literature regarding various diagnosis and treatment strategies of MMPRT, especially focusing on conflict issues including whether repair techniques can restore the main function of normal meniscus and which is the best suture technique to repair the MMPRT. The authors attempted to provide a comprehensive review of previous studies ranging from basic science to current surgical techniques. PMID:25229041

  9. Is the Medial Prefrontal Cortex Necessary for Theory of Mind?

    PubMed Central

    Otti, Alexander; Wohlschlaeger, Afra M.; Noll-Hussong, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Background Successful social interaction relies on the ability to attribute mental states to other people. Previous functional neuroimaging studies have shown that this process, described as Theory of Mind (ToM) or mentalization, is reliably associated with activation of the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC). However, this study presents a novel and surprising finding that provides new insight into the role of the mPFC in mentalization tasks. Methodology/Principal Findings Twenty healthy individuals were recruited from a wide range of ages and social backgrounds. Participants underwent functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) while viewing a well-established ToM visual paradigm involving moving triangles. Functional MRI data were analyzed using a classical general linear model. No activation was detected in the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) during movement patterns that typically elicit ToM. However, increased activity was observed in the right middle occipital gyrus, right temporoparietal junction (TPJ), left middle occipital gyrus and right inferior frontal gyrus. No correlation was found between participants’ age and BOLD response. Conclusions/Significance In contrast with previous neuroimaging research, our findings support the notion that mPFC function is not critical for reasoning about the mental states of others; furthermore, our data indicate that the right TPJ and right inferior frontal gyrus are able to perform mentalization without any contributions from the mPFC. PMID:26301900

  10. MRI parcellation of ex vivo medial temporal lobe.

    PubMed

    Augustinack, Jean C; Magnain, Caroline; Reuter, Martin; van der Kouwe, André J W; Boas, David; Fischl, Bruce

    2014-06-01

    Recent advancements in radio frequency coils, field strength and sophisticated pulse sequences have propelled modern brain mapping and have made validation to biological standards - histology and pathology - possible. The medial temporal lobe has long been established as a pivotal brain region for connectivity, function and unique structure in the human brain, and reveals disconnection in mild Alzheimer's disease. Specific brain mapping of mesocortical areas affected with neurofibrillary tangle pathology early in disease progression provides not only an accurate description for location of these areas but also supplies spherical coordinates that allow comparison between other ex vivo cases and larger in vivo datasets. We have identified several cytoarchitectonic features in the medial temporal lobe with high resolution ex vivo MRI, including gray matter structures such as the entorhinal layer II 'islands', perirhinal layer II-III columns, presubicular 'clouds', granule cell layer of the dentate gyrus as well as lamina of the hippocampus. Localization of Brodmann areas 28 and 35 (entorhinal and perirhinal, respectively) demonstrates MRI based area boundaries validated with multiple methods and histological stains. Based on our findings, both myelin and Nissl staining relate to contrast in ex vivo MRI. Precise brain mapping serves to create modern atlases for cortical areas, allowing accurate localization with important applications to detecting early disease processes. PMID:23702414

  11. Medial Orbitofrontal Cortex Is Associated with Fatigue Sensation

    PubMed Central

    Tajima, Seiki; Yamamoto, Shigeyuki; Tanaka, Masaaki; Kataoka, Yosky; Iwase, Masao; Yoshikawa, Etsuji; Okada, Hiroyuki; Onoe, Hirotaka; Tsukada, Hideo; Kuratsune, Hirohiko; Ouchi, Yasuomi; Watanabe, Yasuyoshi

    2010-01-01

    Fatigue is an indispensable bioalarm to avoid exhaustive state caused by overwork or stresses. It is necessary to elucidate the neural mechanism of fatigue sensation for managing fatigue properly. We performed H2 15O positron emission tomography scans to indicate neural activations while subjects were performing 35-min fatigue-inducing task trials twice. During the positron emission tomography experiment, subjects performed advanced trail-making tests, touching the target circles in sequence located on the display of a touch-panel screen. In order to identify the brain regions associated with fatigue sensation, correlation analysis was performed using statistical parametric mapping method. The brain region exhibiting a positive correlation in activity with subjective sensation of fatigue, measured immediately after each positron emission tomography scan, was located in medial orbitofrontal cortex (Brodmann's area 10/11). Hence, the medial orbitofrontal cortex is a brain region associated with mental fatigue sensation. Our findings provide a new perspective on the neural basis of fatigue. PMID:21188225

  12. Vegetation survey of PEN Branch wetlands

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-01-01

    A survey was conducted of vegetation along Pen Branch Creek at Savannah River Site (SRS) in support of K-Reactor restart. Plants were identified to species by overstory, understory, shrub, and groundcover strata. Abundance was also characterized and richness and diversity calculated. Based on woody species basal area, the Pen Branch delta was the most impacted, followed by the sections between the reactor and the delta. Species richness for shrub and groundcover strata were also lowest in the delta. No endangered plant species were found. Three upland pine areas were also sampled. In support of K Reactor restart, this report summarizes a study of the wetland vegetation along Pen Branch. Reactor effluent enters Indian Grove Branch and then flows into Pen Branch and the Pen Branch Delta.

  13. Research program of the Geodynamics Branch

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kahn, W. D. (Editor); Cohen, S. C. (Editor); Boccucci, B. S. (Editor)

    1986-01-01

    This report is the Fourth Annual Summary of the Research Program of the Geodynamics Branch. The branch is located within the Laboratory for Terrestrial Physics of the Space and Earth Sciences Directorate of the Goddard Space Flight Center. The research activities of the branch staff cover a broad spectrum of geoscience disciplines including: tectonophysics, space geodesy, geopotential field modeling, and dynamic oceanography. The NASA programs which are supported by the work described in this document include the Geodynamics and Ocean Programs, the Crustal Dynamics Project and the proposed Ocean Topography Experiment (TOPEX). The reports highlight the investigations conducted by the Geodynamics Branch staff during calendar year 1985. The individual papers are grouped into chapters on Crustal Movements and Solid Earth Dynamics, Gravity Field Modeling and Sensing Techniques, and Sea Surface Topography. Further information on the activities of the branch or the particular research efforts described herein can be obtained through the branch office or from individual staff members.

  14. Mechanical Components Branch Test Facilities and Capabilities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oswald, Fred B.

    2004-01-01

    The Mechanical Components Branch at NASA Glenn Research Center formulates, conducts, and manages research focused on propulsion systems for both present and advanced aeronautical and space vehicles. The branch is comprised of research teams that perform basic research in three areas: mechanical drives, aerospace seals, and space mechanisms. Each team has unique facilities for testing aerospace hardware and concepts. This report presents an overview of the Mechanical Components Branch test facilities.

  15. A Case of Spontaneous Osteonecrosis of the Knee with Early and Simultaneous Involvement of the Medial Femoral Condyle and Medial Tibial Plateau

    PubMed Central

    Fujita, Shinya; Arai, Yuji; Honjo, Kuniaki; Nakagawa, Shuji; Kubo, Toshikazu

    2016-01-01

    Spontaneous osteonecrosis of the knee (SPONK) usually involves a single condyle, most often the medial femoral condyle (MFC). Involvement of the medial tibial plateau (MTP) is less common, occurring in about 2% of knees with SPONK. Early onset SPONK on the ipsilateral side of the medial compartment is very rare, with, to our knowledge, only four cases reported to date. We describe a very rare case of SPONK with early simultaneous development in the MFC and MTP. Serial plain radiographs and magnetic resonance imaging showed that SPONK in both condyles followed a similar progressive course. The pathological findings in these lesions were similar to those observed in subchondral insufficiency fractures. PMID:27242941

  16. A Case of Spontaneous Osteonecrosis of the Knee with Early and Simultaneous Involvement of the Medial Femoral Condyle and Medial Tibial Plateau.

    PubMed

    Fujita, Shinya; Arai, Yuji; Honjo, Kuniaki; Nakagawa, Shuji; Kubo, Toshikazu

    2016-01-01

    Spontaneous osteonecrosis of the knee (SPONK) usually involves a single condyle, most often the medial femoral condyle (MFC). Involvement of the medial tibial plateau (MTP) is less common, occurring in about 2% of knees with SPONK. Early onset SPONK on the ipsilateral side of the medial compartment is very rare, with, to our knowledge, only four cases reported to date. We describe a very rare case of SPONK with early simultaneous development in the MFC and MTP. Serial plain radiographs and magnetic resonance imaging showed that SPONK in both condyles followed a similar progressive course. The pathological findings in these lesions were similar to those observed in subchondral insufficiency fractures. PMID:27242941

  17. Branched silver nanowires as controllable plasmon routers.

    PubMed

    Fang, Yurui; Li, Zhipeng; Huang, Yingzhou; Zhang, Shunping; Nordlander, Peter; Halas, Naomi J; Xu, Hongxing

    2010-05-12

    Using polarization dependent scattering spectroscopy, we investigate plasmon propagation on branched silver nanowires. By controlling the polarization of the incident laser light, the wire plasmons can be routed into different wire branches and result in light emission from the corresponding wire ends. This routing behavior is found to be strongly dependent on the wavelength of light. Thus for certain incident polarizations, light of different wavelength will be routed into different branches. The branched nanowire can thus serve as a controllable router and multiplexer in integrated plasmonic circuits. PMID:20420411

  18. Toward improved branch prediction through data mining.

    SciTech Connect

    Hemmert, K. Scott; Johnson, D. Eric

    2009-09-01

    Data mining and machine learning techniques can be applied to computer system design to aid in optimizing design decisions, improving system runtime performance. Data mining techniques have been investigated in the context of branch prediction. Specifically, a comparison of traditional branch predictor performance has been made to data mining algorithms. Additionally, the possiblity of whether additional features available within the architectural state might serve to further improve branch prediction has been evaluated. Results show that data mining techniques indicate potential for improved branch prediction, especially when register file contents are included as a feature set.

  19. Single Molecule Dynamics of Branched DNA Polymers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mai, Danielle; Sing, Charles; Schroeder, Charles

    This work focuses on extending the field of single polymer dynamics to topologically complex polymers. Here, we report the direct observation of DNA-based branched polymers. Recently, we recently demonstrated a two-step synthesis method to generate star, H-shaped, and comb polymers for single molecule visualization. Following synthesis, we use single-color or dual-color single molecule fluorescence microscopy to directly visualize branched polymer dynamics in flow, in particular tracking side branches and backbones independently. In this way, our imaging method allows for characterization of molecular properties, including quantification of polymer contour length and branch distributions. Moving beyond characterization, we use molecular rheology and single molecule techniques to study the dynamics of single branched polymers in flow. Here, we utilize precision microfluidics to directly observe branched DNA polymer conformations during transient stretching, steady-state extension, and relaxation from high stretch. We specifically measure backbone end-to-end distance as a function of time. Experiments and Brownian dynamics simulations show that branched polymer relaxation is a strong function of the number of branches and position of branch points along the main chain backbone.

  20. Clinical and Translational Epidemiology Branch (CTEB)

    Cancer.gov

    The Clinical and Translational Epidemiology Branch focuses on factors that influence cancer progression, recurrence, survival, and other treatment outcomes, and factors associated with cancer development.

  1. CycloBranch: De Novo Sequencing of Nonribosomal Peptides from Accurate Product Ion Mass Spectra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Novák, Jiří; Lemr, Karel; Schug, Kevin A.; Havlíček, Vladimír

    2015-07-01

    Nonribosomal peptides have a wide range of biological and medical applications. Their identification by tandem mass spectrometry remains a challenging task. A new open-source de novo peptide identification engine CycloBranch was developed and successfully applied in identification or detailed characterization of 11 linear, cyclic, branched, and branch-cyclic peptides. CycloBranch is based on annotated building block databases the size of which is defined by the user according to ribosomal or nonribosomal peptide origin. The current number of involved nonisobaric and isobaric building blocks is 287 and 521, respectively. Contrary to all other peptide sequencing tools utilizing either peptide libraries or peptide fragment libraries, CycloBranch represents a true de novo sequencing engine developed for accurate mass spectrometric data. It is a stand-alone and cross-platform application with a graphical and user-friendly interface; it supports mzML, mzXML, mgf, txt, and baf file formats and can be run in parallel on multiple threads. It can be downloaded for free from http://ms.biomed.cas.cz/cyclobranch/, where the User's manual and video tutorials can be found.

  2. Familial discoid medial meniscus tear in three members of a family: a case report and review of literature.

    PubMed

    Ahmed Ali, Raheel; McKay, Scott

    2014-01-01

    Background. A discoid meniscus is a thickened variant of the normal C-shaped meniscus prone to injury. Discoid medial meniscal tears have rarely been reported within families and may suggest familial or developmental origins. Methods. We report the cases of two Caucasian brothers with symptomatic discoid medial meniscus tears. A literature review was conducted addressing discoid medial meniscus and cases of familial meniscus tears. Case Presentation. Physically active brothers presented with progressively worsening knee pain. MRI revealed medial meniscus tears in both brothers. The family history of medial meniscus tears in their mother and the discoid medial meniscus injuries found on arthroscopy suggested evidence for familial discoid medial meniscus tears. Conclusions. Discoid medial meniscus tears within a family have not been previously reported. Two cases of families with discoid lateral meniscus tears have been reported. Discoid medial meniscus is rare relative to the discoid lateral meniscus and predisposes children to symptomatic tears. PMID:25548700

  3. Familial Discoid Medial Meniscus Tear in Three Members of a Family: A Case Report and Review of Literature

    PubMed Central

    Ahmed Ali, Raheel; McKay, Scott

    2014-01-01

    Background. A discoid meniscus is a thickened variant of the normal C-shaped meniscus prone to injury. Discoid medial meniscal tears have rarely been reported within families and may suggest familial or developmental origins. Methods. We report the cases of two Caucasian brothers with symptomatic discoid medial meniscus tears. A literature review was conducted addressing discoid medial meniscus and cases of familial meniscus tears. Case Presentation. Physically active brothers presented with progressively worsening knee pain. MRI revealed medial meniscus tears in both brothers. The family history of medial meniscus tears in their mother and the discoid medial meniscus injuries found on arthroscopy suggested evidence for familial discoid medial meniscus tears. Conclusions. Discoid medial meniscus tears within a family have not been previously reported. Two cases of families with discoid lateral meniscus tears have been reported. Discoid medial meniscus is rare relative to the discoid lateral meniscus and predisposes children to symptomatic tears. PMID:25548700

  4. Temperature-Dependent Deicing Properties of Electrostatically Anchored Branched Brush Layers of Poly(ethylene oxide).

    PubMed

    Heydari, Golrokh; Tyrode, Eric; Visnevskij, Ceslav; Makuska, Ricardas; Claesson, Per M

    2016-05-01

    The hydration water of hydrophilic polymers freezes at subzero temperatures. The adsorption of such polymers will result in a hydrophilic surface layer that strongly binds water. Provided this interfacial hydration water remains liquidlike at subzero temperatures, its presence could possibly reduce ice adhesion, in particular, if the liquidlike layer is thicker than or comparable to the surface roughness. To explore this idea, a diblock copolymer, having one branched bottle-brush block of poly(ethylene oxide) and one linear cationic block, was electrostatically anchored on flat silica surfaces. The shear ice adhesion strength on such polymer-coated surfaces was investigated down to -25 °C using a homebuilt device. In addition, the temperature dependence of the ice adhesion on surfaces coated with only the cationic block, only the branched bottle-brush block, and with linear poly(ethylene oxide) was investigated. Significant ice adhesion reduction, in particular, at temperatures above -15 °C, was observed on silica surfaces coated with the electrostatically anchored diblock copolymer. Differential scanning calorimetry measurements on bulk polymer solutions demonstrate different thermal transitions of water interacting with branched and linear poly(ethylene oxide) (with hydration water melting points of about -18 and -10 °C, respectively). This difference is consistent with the low shear ice adhesion strength measured on surfaces carrying branched bottle-brush structured poly(ethylene oxide) at -10 °C, whereas no significant adhesion reduction was obtained with linear poly(ethylene oxide) at this temperature. We propose a lubrication effect of the hydration water bound to the branched bottle-brush structured poly(ethylene oxide), which, in the bulk, does not freeze until -18 °C. PMID:27064661

  5. The origin of the medial circumflex femoral artery: a meta-analysis and proposal of a new classification system

    PubMed Central

    Henry, Brandon M.; Vikse, Jens; Roy, Joyeeta; Pękala, Przemysław A.; Svensen, Maren; Guay, Daniel L.; Saganiak, Karolina; Walocha, Jerzy A.

    2016-01-01

    Background and Objectives. The medial circumflex femoral artery (MCFA) is a common branch of the deep femoral artery (DFA) responsible for supplying the femoral head and the greater trochanteric fossa. The prevalence rates of MCFA origin, its branching patterns and its distance to the mid-inguinal point (MIP) vary significantly throughout the literature. The aim of this study was to determine the true prevalence of these characteristics and to study their associated anatomical and clinical relevance. Methods. A search of the major electronic databases Pubmed, EMBASE, Scopus, ScienceDirect, Web of Science, SciELO, BIOSIS, and CNKI was performed to identify all articles reporting data on the origin of the MCFA, its branching patterns and its distance to the MIP. No data or language restriction was set. Additionally, an extensive search of the references of all relevant articles was performed. All data on origin, branching and distance to MIP was extracted and pooled into a meta-analysis using MetaXL v2.0. Results. A total of 38 (36 cadaveric and 2 imaging) studies (n = 4,351 lower limbs) were included into the meta-analysis. The pooled prevalence of the MCFA originating from the DFA was 64.6% (95% CI [58.0–71.5]), while the pooled prevalence of the MCFA originating from the CFA was 32.2% (95% CI [25.9–39.1]). The CFA-derived MCFA was found to originate as a single branch in 81.1% (95% CI [70.1–91.7]) of cases with a mean pooled distance of 50.14 mm (95% CI [42.50–57.78]) from the MIP. Conclusion. The MCFA’s variability must be taken into account by surgeons, especially during orthopedic interventions in the region of the hip to prevent iatrogenic injury to the circulation of the femoral head. Based on our analysis, we present a new proposed classification system for origin of the MCFA. PMID:26966661

  6. Impression block with orientator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brilin, V. I.; Ulyanova, O. S.

    2015-02-01

    Tool review, namely the impression block, applied to check the shape and size of the top of fish as well as to determine the appropriate tool for fishing operation was realized. For multiple application and obtaining of the impress depth of 3 cm and more, the standard volumetric impression blocks with fix rods are used. However, the registered impress of fish is not oriented in space and the rods during fishing are in the extended position. This leads to rods deformation and sinking due to accidental impacts of impression block over the borehole irregularity and finally results in faulty detection of the top end of fishing object in hole. The impression blocks with copy rods and fixed magnetic needle allow estimating the object configuration and fix the position of magnetic needle determining the position of the top end of object in hole. However, the magnetic needle fixation is realized in staged and the rods are in extended position during fishing operations as well as it is in standard design. The most efficient tool is the impression block with copy rods which directs the examined object in the borehole during readings of magnetic needles data from azimuth plate and averaging of readings. This significantly increases the accuracy of fishing toll direction. The rods during fishing are located in the body and extended only when they reach the top of fishing object.

  7. Branch Mode Selection during Early Lung Development

    PubMed Central

    Menshykau, Denis; Kraemer, Conradin; Iber, Dagmar

    2012-01-01

    Many organs of higher organisms, such as the vascular system, lung, kidney, pancreas, liver and glands, are heavily branched structures. The branching process during lung development has been studied in great detail and is remarkably stereotyped. The branched tree is generated by the sequential, non-random use of three geometrically simple modes of branching (domain branching, planar and orthogonal bifurcation). While many regulatory components and local interactions have been defined an integrated understanding of the regulatory network that controls the branching process is lacking. We have developed a deterministic, spatio-temporal differential-equation based model of the core signaling network that governs lung branching morphogenesis. The model focuses on the two key signaling factors that have been identified in experiments, fibroblast growth factor (FGF10) and sonic hedgehog (SHH) as well as the SHH receptor patched (Ptc). We show that the reported biochemical interactions give rise to a Schnakenberg-type Turing patterning mechanisms that allows us to reproduce experimental observations in wildtype and mutant mice. The kinetic parameters as well as the domain shape are based on experimental data where available. The developed model is robust to small absolute and large relative changes in the parameter values. At the same time there is a strong regulatory potential in that the switching between branching modes can be achieved by targeted changes in the parameter values. We note that the sequence of different branching events may also be the result of different growth speeds: fast growth triggers lateral branching while slow growth favours bifurcations in our model. We conclude that the FGF10-SHH-Ptc1 module is sufficient to generate pattern that correspond to the observed branching modes. PMID:22359491

  8. Branch mode selection during early lung development.

    PubMed

    Menshykau, Denis; Kraemer, Conradin; Iber, Dagmar

    2012-01-01

    Many organs of higher organisms, such as the vascular system, lung, kidney, pancreas, liver and glands, are heavily branched structures. The branching process during lung development has been studied in great detail and is remarkably stereotyped. The branched tree is generated by the sequential, non-random use of three geometrically simple modes of branching (domain branching, planar and orthogonal bifurcation). While many regulatory components and local interactions have been defined an integrated understanding of the regulatory network that controls the branching process is lacking. We have developed a deterministic, spatio-temporal differential-equation based model of the core signaling network that governs lung branching morphogenesis. The model focuses on the two key signaling factors that have been identified in experiments, fibroblast growth factor (FGF10) and sonic hedgehog (SHH) as well as the SHH receptor patched (Ptc). We show that the reported biochemical interactions give rise to a Schnakenberg-type Turing patterning mechanisms that allows us to reproduce experimental observations in wildtype and mutant mice. The kinetic parameters as well as the domain shape are based on experimental data where available. The developed model is robust to small absolute and large relative changes in the parameter values. At the same time there is a strong regulatory potential in that the switching between branching modes can be achieved by targeted changes in the parameter values. We note that the sequence of different branching events may also be the result of different growth speeds: fast growth triggers lateral branching while slow growth favours bifurcations in our model. We conclude that the FGF10-SHH-Ptc1 module is sufficient to generate pattern that correspond to the observed branching modes. PMID:22359491

  9. Consecutive exotropia: why does it happen, and can medial rectus advancement correct it?

    PubMed Central

    Leon, Bhambi Gesite-de; Demer, Joseph L.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose To investigate whether consecutive exotropia following medial rectus muscle recession is associated with muscle slippage and to assess the effectiveness of treating the condition with medial rectus advancement. Methods The records of patients with consecutive exotropia after medial rectus recession were reviewed to determine medial rectus muscle insertion location at the time of advancement surgery. Measurements before and after medial rectus advancement were compared. Success was defined as alignment within 10Δ of orthotropia. The dose effect of medial rectus advancement was determined by nonlinear regression. Results A total of 20 patients were included. The mean age (± standard deviation) at time of surgery was 19 ± 19 years (range, 1.1–65.4). The mean preoperative exotropia was 28Δ ± 16Δ (range, 12Δ–60Δ). Medial rectus slippage of 2.5 ± 1.7 mm (range, 1.0–5.0 mm) was found in 14 patients (36%) who had previously undergone medial rectus recession. Surgery corrected about 4Δ of exotropia per mm total medial rectus advancement. Although 95% of patients were aligned successfully immediately after surgery, averaging 2Δ ± 4Δ esotropia, there was significant late exodrift, averaging 17Δ at final follow-up. At final follow-up, 1.6 ± 1.8 (range, 0.10–6.2) years after surgery, 50% of patients maintained alignment within 10Δ of orthotropia (mean, 3Δ ± 4Δ exotropia); the rest experienced recurrent exotropia of 25Δ ± 8Δ. Conclusions Medial rectus slippage is common in consecutive exotropia. Medial rectus advancement effectively treated consecutive exotropia, whether or not there was muscle slippage. It is however, associated with late exodrift; hence patients should be warned about potential for further XT recurrence. PMID:25454022

  10. Comparison of Medial and Lateral Meniscus Root Tears

    PubMed Central

    Koo, Ji Hyun; Choi, Sang-Hee; Lee, Seung Ah; Wang, Joon Ho

    2015-01-01

    The meniscus root plays an essential role in maintaining the circumferential hoop tension and preventing meniscal displacement. Studies on meniscus root tears have investigated the relationship of osteoarthritis and an anterior cruciate ligament tear. However, few studies have directly compared the medial and lateral root tears. To assess the prevalence of meniscal extrusion and its relationship with clinical features in medial and lateral meniscus root tears, we performed a retrospective review of the magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) results of 42 knee patients who had meniscus posterior horn root tears and who had undergone arthroscopic operations. The presence of meniscal extrusion was evaluated and the exact extent was measured from the tibial margin. The results were correlated with arthroscopic findings. Clinical features including patients’ ages, joint abnormalities, and previous trauma histories were evaluated. Twenty-two patients had medial meniscus root tears (MMRTs) and twenty patients had lateral meniscus root tears (LMRTs). Meniscal extrusion was present in 18 MMRT patients and one LMRT patient. The mean extent of extrusion was 4.2mm (range, 0.6 to 7.8) in the MMRT group and 0.9mm (range, -1.9 to 3.4) in the LMRT group. Five patients with MMRT had a history of trauma, while 19 patients with LMRT had a history of trauma. Three patients with MMRT had anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) tears, while 19 patients with LMRT had ACL tears. The mean age of the patients was 52 years (range: 29–71 years) and 30 years (range: 14–62 years) in the MMRT and LMRT group, respectively. There was a significant correlation between a MMRT and meniscal extrusion (p<0.0001), and between an ACL tear and LMRT (p<0.0001). A history of trauma was significantly common in LMRT (p<0.0001). LMRT patients were significantly younger than MMRT patients (p<0.0001). Kellgren-Lawrence (K-L) grade differed significantly between MMRT and LMRT group (p<0.0001). Meniscal extrusion is

  11. Iatrogenic Transient Complete Heart Block in a Preexisting LBBB

    PubMed Central

    Kalamkar, Prachi; Bonnet, Christopher A.; Bajwa, Omer A.

    2016-01-01

    Catheter induced cardiac arrhythmia is a well-known complication encountered during pulmonary artery or cardiac catheterization. Injury to the cardiac conducting system often involves the right bundle branch which in a patient with preexisting left bundle branch block can lead to fatal arrhythmia including asystole. Such a complication during central venous cannulation is rare as it usually does not enter the heart. The guide wire or the cannula itself can cause such an injury during central venous cannulation. The length of the guide wire, its rigidity, and lack of set guidelines for its insertion make it theoretically more prone to cause such an injury. We report a case of LBBB that went into transient complete heart block following guide wire insertion during a central venous cannulation procedure. PMID:27478653

  12. Pacific Coastal Ecology Branch: Research Overview

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Pacific Coastal Ecology Branch, Newport, Oregon is part of the Western Ecology Division of the National Health and Environmental Effects Research Laboratory of the U.S. EPA. The Branch conducts research and provides scientific technical support to Headquarters and Regional O...

  13. Epithelial dynamics of pancreatic branching morphogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Villasenor, Alethia; Chong, Diana C.; Henkemeyer, Mark; Cleaver, Ondine

    2010-01-01

    The mammalian pancreas is a highly branched gland, essential for both digestion and glucose homeostasis. Pancreatic branching, however, is poorly understood, both at the ultrastructural and cellular levels. In this article, we characterize the morphogenesis of pancreatic branches, from gross anatomy to the dynamics of their epithelial organization. We identify trends in pancreatic branch morphology and introduce a novel mechanism for branch formation, which involves transient epithelial stratification and partial loss of cell polarity, changes in cell shape and cell rearrangements, de novo tubulogenesis and epithelial tubule remodeling. In contrast to the classical epithelial budding and tube extension observed in other organs, a pancreatic branch takes shape as a multi-lumen tubular plexus coordinately extends and remodels into a ramifying, single-lumen ductal system. Moreover, our studies identify a role for EphB signaling in epithelial remodeling during pancreatic branching. Overall, these results illustrate distinct, step-wise cellular mechanisms by which pancreatic epithelium shapes itself to create a functional branching organ. PMID:21098570

  14. Optimal branching designs in respiratory systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Keunhwan; Kim, Wonjung; Kim, Ho-Young

    2015-11-01

    In nature, the size of the flow channels systematically decreases with multiple generations of branching, and a mother branch is ultimately divided into numerous terminal daughters. One important feature of branching designs is an increase in the total cross-sectional area along with generation, which provide more time and area for mass transfer at the terminal branches. However, the expansion of the total cross-sectional area can be costly due to the maintenance of redundant branches or the additional viscous resistance. Accordingly, we expect to find optimal designs in natural branching systems. Here we present two examples of branching designs in respiratory systems: fish gills and human lung airways. Fish gills consist of filaments with well-ordered lamellar structures. By developing a mathematical model of oxygen transfer rate as a function of the dimensions of fish gills, we demonstrate that the interlamellar distance has been optimized to maximize the oxygen transfer rate. Using the same framework, we examine the diameter reduction ratio in human lung airways, which branch by dichotomy with a systematic reduction of their diameters. Our mathematical model for oxygen transport in the airways enables us to unveil the design principle of human lung airways.

  15. 12 CFR 741.11 - Foreign branching.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...) Contents of Business Plan. The written business plan must address the following: (1) Analysis of market... regarding the branch (shares, lending, capital, charge-offs, collections); (6) The field of membership or... for branch operations (balance sheet and income and expense projections) for the first and second...

  16. Branching out Has So Much to Offer

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murray, Joe

    2012-01-01

    In 1989 there were thirty ATM branches nationally. In January 2012 there were just twelve ATM branches with another three "proposed". How can that happen? How did it happen? Maybe the most pertinent question is: Why did it happen? There is no single answer to the last question, but perhaps it was something to do with the changes that were sweeping…

  17. Existing branches correlatively inhibit further branching in Trifolium repens: possible mechanisms

    PubMed Central

    Thomas, R. G.; Hay, M. J. M.

    2011-01-01

    In Trifolium repens removal of any number of existing branches distal to a nodal root stimulates development of axillary buds further along the stem such that the complement of branches distal to a nodal root remains constant. This study aimed to assess possible mechanisms by which existing branches correlatively inhibit the outgrowth of axillary buds distal to them. Treatments were applied to basal branches to evaluate the roles of three postulated inhibitory mechanisms: (I) the transport of a phloem-mobile inhibitory feedback signal from branches into the main stem; (II) the polar flow of auxin from branches into the main stem acting to limit further branch development; or (III) the basal branches functioning as sinks for a net root-derived stimulatory signal (NRS). Results showed that transport of auxin, or of a non-auxin phloem-mobile signal, from basal branches did not influence regulation of correlative inhibition and were consistent with the possibility that the intra-plant distribution of NRS could be involved in the correlative inhibition of distal buds by basal branches. This study supports existing evidence that regulation of branching in T. repens is dominated by a root-derived stimulatory signal, initially distributed via the xylem, the characterization of which will progress the generic understanding of branching regulation. PMID:21071681

  18. The Vascularized Medial Femoral Corticoperiosteal Flap for Thumb Reconstruction

    PubMed Central

    Amin, Kavit; Darhouse, Nagham; Sivakumar, Bran; Floyd, David

    2015-01-01

    Summary: We present an interesting method of shaping a vascularized medial femoral condyle (MFC) flap into a “neophalanx” for phalangeal reconstruction. Our patient presented with limited strength and function secondary to fracture nonunion of the proximal phalanx of the dominant thumb. Following excision of the pseudarthrosis, an MFC corticoperiosteal flap was harvested, sculpted into a prism shape and inset. The superomedial genicular pedicle was anastomosed to the princeps pollicis artery and a cephalic tributary. On follow-up, new bone growth was seen on radiographs and the patient had substantially improved function, with full metacarpophalangeal extension, a Kapandji score of 9, and a markedly reduced Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder and Hand score of 2.68. The MFC flap is useful for reconstruction of bony defects, with minimal donor morbidity. This versatile vascularized flap can be crafted to requisite shapes and is useful for small defects in the hand, including phalangeal reconstruction. PMID:26495205

  19. Angioleiomyoma of the Plantar-Medial Arch: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Gilheany, Mark

    2016-01-01

    An angioleiomyoma is a benign soft tissue tumour that arises from smooth muscle layer of blood vessels. The true aetiology of these masses is largely unknown and quite often may not be associated with pain. This paper illustrates the occurrence of an angioleiomyoma in the medial arch of the foot, a previously unreported location. Significant delay occurred in the patient being referred for specialist consultation, after attending numerous general practitioners for management. This highlighted the need for ongoing publication for case reports of this nature. The patient underwent excision with no recurrence of the lesion reported at 12 months. Often masses of this type may be left alone. However, when symptomatic simple excision will suffice where no other surrounding complication exists and where the mass is well encapsulated in the sub cutaneous area.

  20. Medial prefrontal cortex predicts internally driven strategy shifts

    PubMed Central

    Schuck, Nicolas W.; Gaschler, Robert; Wenke, Dorit; Heinzle, Jakob; Frensch, Peter A.; Haynes, John-Dylan; Reverberi, Carlo

    2015-01-01

    Summary Many daily behaviors require us to actively focus on the current task and ignore all other distractions. Yet, ignoring everything else might hinder the ability to discover new ways to achieve the same goal. Here, we studied the neural mechanisms that support the spontaneous change to better strategies while an established strategy is executed. Multivariate neuroimaging analysis showed that before the spontaneous change to an alternative strategy, medial prefrontal cortex (MPFC) encoded information that was irrelevant for the current strategy but necessary for the later strategy. Importantly, this neural effect was related to future behavioral changes: information encoding in MPFC was changed only in participants who eventually switched their strategy and started before the actual strategy change. This allowed us to predict spontaneous strategy shifts ahead of time. These findings suggest that MPFC might internally simulate alternative strategies and sheds new light on the organization of PFC. PMID:25819613

  1. The Medial Temporal Lobe Supports Conceptual Implicit Memory

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Wei-Chun; Lazzara, Michele M.; Ranganath, Charan; Knight, Robert T.; Yonelinas, Andrew P.

    2010-01-01

    Summary The medial temporal lobe (MTL) is generally thought to be critical for explicit, but not implicit, memory. Here, we demonstrate that the perirhinal cortex (PRc), within the MTL, plays a role in conceptually-driven implicit memory. Amnesic patients with MTL lesions that converged on the left PRc exhibited deficits on two conceptual implicit tasks (i.e., exemplar generation and semantic decision). A separate functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) study in healthy subjects indicated that PRc activation during encoding of words was predictive of subsequent exemplar generation. Moreover, across subjects, the magnitude of the fMRI and behavioral conceptual priming effects were directly related. Additionally, the PRc region implicated in the fMRI study was the same region of maximal lesion overlap in the patients with impaired conceptual priming. These patient and imaging results converge to suggest that the PRc plays a critical role in conceptual implicit memory, and possibly conceptual processing in general. PMID:21144998

  2. Galanin neurons in the medial preoptic area govern parental behaviour.

    PubMed

    Wu, Zheng; Autry, Anita E; Bergan, Joseph F; Watabe-Uchida, Mitsuko; Dulac, Catherine G

    2014-05-15

    Mice display robust, stereotyped behaviours towards pups: virgin males typically attack pups, whereas virgin females and sexually experienced males and females display parental care. Here we show that virgin males genetically impaired in vomeronasal sensing do not attack pups and are parental. Furthermore, we uncover a subset of galanin-expressing neurons in the medial preoptic area (MPOA) that are specifically activated during male and female parenting, and a different subpopulation that is activated during mating. Genetic ablation of MPOA galanin neurons results in marked impairment of parental responses in males and females and affects male mating. Optogenetic activation of these neurons in virgin males suppresses inter-male and pup-directed aggression and induces pup grooming. Thus, MPOA galanin neurons emerge as an essential regulatory node of male and female parenting behaviour and other social responses. These results provide an entry point to a circuit-level dissection of parental behaviour and its modulation by social experience. PMID:24828191

  3. Bactericidal block copolymer micelles.

    PubMed

    Vyhnalkova, Renata; Eisenberg, Adi; van de Ven, Theo

    2011-05-12

    Block copolymer micelles with bactericidal properties were designed to deactivate pathogens such as E. coli bacteria. The micelles of PS-b-PAA and PS-b-P4VP block copolymers were loaded with biocides TCMTB or TCN up to 20 or 30 wt.-%, depending on the type of antibacterial agent. Bacteria were exposed to loaded micelles and bacterial deactivation was evaluated. The micelles loaded with TCN are bactericidal; bacteria are killed in less than two minutes of exposure. The most likely interpretation of the data is that the biocide is transferred to the bacteria by repeated micelle/bacteria contacts, and not via the solution. PMID:21275041

  4. Dopaminergic projections to the medial preoptic area of postpartum rats

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Stephanie M.; Lonstein, Joseph S.

    2010-01-01

    Dopamine receptor activity in the rodent medial preoptic area (mPOA) is crucial for the display of maternal behaviors, as well as numerous other physiological and behavioral functions. However, the origin of dopaminergic input to the mPOA has not been identified through neuroanatomical tracing. To accomplish this, the retrograde tracer Fluorogold was iontophoretically applied to the mPOA of postpartum laboratory rats, and dual-label immunocytochemistry for Fluorogold and tyrosine hydroxylase later performed to identify dopaminergic cells of the forebrain and midbrain projecting to the mPOA. Results indicate that the number of dopaminergic cells projecting to the mPOA is moderate (~90 cells to one hemisphere), and that these cells have an unexpectedly wide distribution. Even so, more than half of the dual-labeled cells were found in what has been considered extensions of the A10 dopamine group (particularly the ventrocaudal posterior hypothalamus and adjacent medial supramammillary nucleus), or in the A10 cells of the ventral tegmental area. The rostral hypothalamus and surrounding region also contained numerous dual-labeled cells, with the greatest number found within the mPOA itself (including in the AVPV and PVpo). Notably, dual-labeled cells were rare in the zona incerta (A13), a site previously suggested to provide dopaminergic input to the mPOA. This study is the first to use anatomical tracing to detail the dopaminergic projections to the mPOA in the laboratory rat, and indicates that much of this projection originates more caudally than previously suggested. PMID:19409227

  5. Multidimensional assessment of functional outcomes of medialization thyroplasty.

    PubMed

    Uloza, Virgilijus; Pribuisiene, Ruta; Saferis, Viktoras

    2005-08-01

    Medialization thyroplasty (MT) is the most widely used laryngeal framework phonosurgical procedure for managing glottic incompetence secondary to unilateral vocal fold paralysis (UVFP). The aim of the study was to evaluate the functional outcomes of MT in 32 UVFP patients, comparing multidimensional perceptual and instrumental measures of voice before and after surgery, and to evaluate how close to normal that postoperative voice measure became. Video laryngostroboscopy (VLS), auditory perceptive evaluation of voice, the patients' self-evaluation of hoarseness on the Visual Analogue Scale (VAS) and calculation of the Voice Handicap Index (VHI), analysis of objective acoustic voice parameters, quantitative assessment of phonetograms and measurement of maximum phonation time were conducted. Vocal function was evaluated before the surgery and for the period from 1 month to 3 years (Mo 1.0 month; Me 2.0 months) after MT. VLS confirmed remarkable medialization of the paralyzed vocal fold. As a consequence, hoarseness and breathiness were found to be significantly decreased after MT. Pitch and intensity range and phonetogram area were significantly increased. A significant decrease of jitter, shimmer and normalized noise energy reflected improvement of the stability of acoustic signal and a more efficient pattern of phonation. Thus, the perceptual and acoustic voice parameters studied showed statistically significant differences (P < 0.001) between preoperative and postoperative voices, and these objective measurements of voice changes provided accurate and documentary evidence of the results of surgical treatment. A high degree of patient satisfaction with the MT was confirmed by a significant decrease of VHI and hoarseness on VAS. Thus, results of the present investigation confirm the functionality and effectiveness of MT in patient voice rehabilitation with UVFP. However, the means of acoustic voice parameters measured in the study did not reach normal limits

  6. Medialized Versus Lateralized Center of Rotation in Reverse Shoulder Arthroplasty.

    PubMed

    Streit, Jonathan J; Shishani, Yousef; Gobezie, Reuben

    2015-12-01

    Reverse shoulder arthroplasty may be performed using components that medialize or lateralize the center of rotation. The purpose of this prospective study was to directly compare 2 reverse shoulder arthroplasty designs. Two treatment groups and 1 control group were identified. Group I comprised 9 patients using a medialized Grammont-style (GRM) prosthesis with a neck-shaft angle of 155°. Group II comprised 9 patients using a lateralized (LAT) prosthesis with a neck-shaft angle of 135°. Pre- and postoperative assessment of range of motion, American Shoulder and Elbow Surgeons score, and visual analog scale pain score were performed. Radiographic measurements of lateral humeral offset and acromiohumeral distance were compared. The GRM prosthesis achieved greater forward flexion (143.9° vs 115.6°; P=.05), whereas the LAT achieved greater external rotation (35.0° vs 28.3°; P=.07). The lateral humeral offset was greater for the LAT prosthesis compared with the GRM prosthesis, but this distance was not significantly different from that found in the control group. The acromiohumeral distance was significantly greater in the GRM prosthesis group compared with both the LAT and the control groups. The results of this study confirm that different reverse shoulder arthroplasty designs produce radiographically different anatomy. Whereas the GRM prosthesis significantly alters the anatomy of the shoulder, the LAT design can preserve some anatomic relationships found in the normal shoulder. The clinical outcomes indicate that this may have an effect on range of motion, with traditional designs achieving greater forward flexion and lateralized designs achieving greater external rotation. PMID:26652330

  7. Local plate/rod descriptors of 3D trabecular bone micro-CT images from medial axis topologic analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Peyrin, Francoise; Attali, Dominique; Chappard, Christine; Benhamou, Claude Laurent

    2010-08-15

    Purpose: Trabecular bone microarchitecture is made of a complex network of plate and rod structures evolving with age and disease. The purpose of this article is to propose a new 3D local analysis method for the quantitative assessment of parameters related to the geometry of trabecular bone microarchitecture. Methods: The method is based on the topologic classification of the medial axis of the 3D image into branches, rods, and plates. Thanks to the reversibility of the medial axis, the classification is next extended to the whole 3D image. Finally, the percentages of rods and plates as well as their mean thicknesses are calculated. The method was applied both to simulated test images and 3D micro-CT images of human trabecular bone. Results: The classification of simulated phantoms made of plates and rods shows that the maximum error in the quantitative percentages of plate and rods is less than 6% and smaller than with the structure model index (SMI). Micro-CT images of human femoral bone taken in osteoporosis and early or advanced osteoarthritis were analyzed. Despite the large physiological variability, the present method avoids the underestimation of rods observed with other local methods. The relative percentages of rods and plates were not significantly different between osteoarthritis and osteoporotic groups, whereas their absolute percentages were in relation to an increase of rod and plate thicknesses in advanced osteoarthritis with also higher relative and absolute number of nodes. Conclusions: The proposed method is model-independent, robust to surface irregularities, and enables geometrical characterization of not only skeletal structures but entire 3D images. Its application provided more accurate results than the standard SMI on simple simulated phantoms, but the discrepancy observed on the advanced osteoarthritis group raises questions that will require further investigations. The systematic use of such a local method in the characterization of

  8. Toward an understanding of fibrin branching structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fogelson, Aaron L.; Keener, James P.

    2010-05-01

    The blood clotting enzyme thrombin converts fibrinogen molecules into fibrin monomers which polymerize to form a fibrous three-dimensional gel. The concentration of thrombin affects the architecture of the resulting gel, in particular, a higher concentration of thrombin produces a gel with more branch points per unit volume and with shorter fiber segments between branch points. We propose a mechanism by which fibrin branching can occur and show that this mechanism can lead to dependence of the gel’s structure (at the time of gelation) on the rate at which monomer is supplied. A higher rate of monomer supply leads to a gel with a higher branch concentration and with shorter fiber segments between branch points. The origin of this dependence is explained.

  9. Root branching: mechanisms, robustness, and plasticity.

    PubMed

    Dastidar, Mouli Ghosh; Jouannet, Virginie; Maizel, Alexis

    2012-01-01

    Plants are sessile organisms that must efficiently exploit their habitat for water and nutrients. The degree of root branching impacts the efficiency of water uptake, acquisition of nutrients, and anchorage. The root system of plants is a dynamic structure whose architecture is determined by modulation of primary root growth and root branching. This plasticity relies on the continuous integration of environmental inputs and endogenous developmental programs controlling root branching. This review focuses on the cellular and molecular mechanisms involved in the regulation of lateral root distribution, initiation, and organogenesis with the main focus on the root system of Arabidopsis thaliana. We also examine the mechanisms linking environmental changes to the developmental pathways controlling root branching. Recent progress that emphasizes the parallels to the formation of root branches in other species is discussed. PMID:23801487

  10. [Croatian Medical Association--Branch Istria].

    PubMed

    Labinac-Peteh, Loredana

    2014-01-01

    Istrian branch of Croatian Medical Association was established at the Assembly in 1948. at the General Hospital Pula. From the beginning, the seat of the branch is located in Pula. During the last time the work of branch went through different periods, but has never stopped its activity, leading to the basic postulates of professionality in addition with promotion of collegiality. Istrian branch od Croatian Medical Association now has 630 members, most of members are doctors of medicine, slightly less doctors of dental medicine. At the local level Istrian branch today is recognized as expert entity for the helth and as adviser is involved in work of Department of Health in the Istrian County. PMID:25648003

  11. Supinated forearm is correlated with the onset of medial epicondylitis in professional slalom water-skiers

    PubMed Central

    Rosa, Donato; Di Donato, Sigismondo Luca; Balato, Giovanni; D’Addona, Alessio; Schonauer, Fabrizio

    2016-01-01

    Summary Background prolonged and laborious activities involving wrists and forearms has been long associated with the onset of epicondylitis. Slalom water-skiing can be included in this category. The purpose of the study is to analyse the correlation between the pronated or supinated position of forearms during water-skiing practice and the presence respectively of lateral and medial epicondylitis. Methods sixty-six pro and semi-pro slalom water-skiers were enrolled in the study. A questionnaire was submitted to each athlete. Diagnosis of lateral or medial epicondylitis was made through anamnesis and clinical exam by an expert orthopaedic surgeon. Chi-squared were performed for categorical variables, and Mann-Whitney U test for continuous ones. Results from 116 upper limbs examined, we observed 15 (12.9%) cases of lateral epicondylitis, 30 (25.9%) cases of medial epicondylitis, 10 (8.6%) were affected by both lateral and medial epicondylitis. Lateral and medial epicondylitis were associated (95% C.I.=2,489–26,355; P=<0,001) and the supinated position was correlated with medial epicondylitis (95% C.I.=1,529–9,542; P=0.003). Conclusion slalom water-skiing can be considered a high-risk sport for epicondylitis. In slalom water-skiers there is a correlation between development of lateral and medial epicondylitis in the same upper limb. Supinated position of forearms is strongly associated with the diagnosis of medial epicondylitis. PMID:27331043

  12. Non-Hodgkin's lymphoma at the medial clavicular head mimicking Tietze Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Jeon, In-Ho; Jeong, Won-Ju; Yi, Jae-Hyuck; Kim, Hyo-Jin; Park, Il-Hyung

    2012-08-01

    We present a case of Non-Hodgkin's lymphoma involving medial clavicular head, which was initially diagnosed as Tietze syndrome. Non-Hodgkin's lymphoma arising from medial clavicular head is extremely rare, and CT, MRI findings have not been reported. PMID:21140267

  13. Situational Restriction of Elevation in Adduction Relieved by Faden on the Medial Rectus

    PubMed Central

    Muralidhar, R.; Vijayalakshmi, P.; Sujatha, K.; Shetty, Shashikanth; Malay, K.; Rosenberg, Steve

    2016-01-01

    We describe a patient with situational restriction of elevation in adduction in his left eye. Clinical examination pointed to instability of the left medial rectus pulley. This was corrected by Faden on the medial rectus. The importance of this relatively new concept in identifying and treating orbital pulley instability is discussed. PMID:27162460

  14. Anterolateral Versus Medial Plating of Distal Extra-articular Tibia Fractures: A Biomechanical Model.

    PubMed

    Pirolo, Joseph M; Behn, Anthony W; Abrams, Geoffrey D; Bishop, Julius A

    2015-09-01

    Both medial and anterolateral plate applications have been described for the treatment of distal tibia fractures, each with distinct advantages and disadvantages. The objective of this study was to compare the biomechanical properties of medial and anterolateral plating constructs used to stabilize simulated varus and valgus fracture patterns of the distal tibia. In 16 synthetic tibia models, a 45° oblique cut was made to model an Orthopedic Trauma Association type 43-A1.2 distal tibia fracture in either a varus or valgus injury pattern. Each fracture was then reduced and plated with a precontoured medial or anterolateral distal tibia plate. The specimens were biomechanically tested in axial and torsional loading, cyclic axial loading, and load to failure. For the varus fracture pattern, medial plating showed less fracture site displacement and rotation and was stiffer in both axial and torsional loading (P<.05). For the valgus fracture pattern, there was no statistically significant difference between medial and anterolateral plating. There were no significant differences between the 2 constructs for either fracture pattern with respect to ultimate load, displacement, or energy absorption in load to failure testing. When used to stabilize varus fracture patterns, medial plates showed superior biomechanical performance compared with anterolateral plates. In this application, the medial plates functioned in anti-glide mode. For valgus fracture patterns, no biomechanical differences between anterolateral and medial plating were observed. In clinical practice, surgeons should take this biomechanical evidence into account when devising a treatment strategy for fixation of distal tibia fractures. PMID:26375532

  15. Medial Frontal Event-Related Potentials and Reward Prediction: Do Responses Matter?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Laura E.; Potts, Geoffrey F.

    2011-01-01

    Medial frontal event-related potentials (ERPs) following rewarding feedback index outcome evaluation. The majority of studies examining the feedback related medial frontal negativity (MFN) employ active tasks during which participants' responses impact their feedback, however, the MFN has been elicited during passive tasks. Many of the studies…

  16. Feasibility of the Medial Temporal lobe Atrophy index (MTAi) and derived methods for measuring atrophy of the medial temporal lobe

    PubMed Central

    Conejo Bayón, Francisco; Maese, Jesús; Fernandez Oliveira, Aníbal; Mesas, Tamara; Herrera de la Llave, Estibaliz; Álvarez Avellón, Tania; Menéndez-González, Manuel

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: The Medial Temporal-lobe Atrophy index (MTAi), 2D-Medial Temporal Atrophy (2D-MTA), yearly rate of MTA (yrRMTA) and yearly rate of relative MTA (yrRMTA) are simple protocols for measuring the relative extent of atrophy in the medial temporal lobe (MTL) in relation to the global brain atrophy. Albeit preliminary studies showed interest of these methods in the diagnosis of Alzheimer’s disease (AD), frontotemporal lobe degeneration (FTLD) and correlation with cognitive impairment in Parkinson’s disease (PD), formal feasibility and validity studies remained pending. As a first step, we aimed to assess the feasibility. Mainly, we aimed to assess the reproducibility of measuring the areas needed to compute these indices. We also aimed to assess the efforts needed to start using these methods correctly. Methods: A series of 290 1.5T-MRI studies from 230 subjects ranging 65–85 years old who had been studied for cognitive impairment were used in this study. Six inexperienced tracers (IT) plus one experienced tracer (ET) traced the three areas needed to compute the indices. Finally, tracers underwent a short survey on their experience learning to compute the MTAi and experience of usage, including items relative to training time needed to understand and apply the MTAi, time to perform a study after training and overall satisfaction. Results: Learning to trace the areas needed to compute the MTAi and derived methods is quick and easy. Results indicate very good intrarater Intraclass Correlation Coefficient (ICC) for the MTAi, good intrarater ICC for the 2D-MTA, yrMTA and yrRMTA and also good interrater ICC for the MTAi, 2D-MTA, yrMTA and yrRMTA. Conclusion: Our data support that MTAi and derived methods (2D-MTA, yrMTA and yrRTMA) have good to very good intrarater and interrater reproducibility and may be easily implemented in clinical practice even if new users have no experience tracing the area of regions of interest. PMID:25414666

  17. Template-directed synthesis of structurally-defined branched polymer architectures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marciel, Amanda

    2015-03-01

    In this work, we describe a hybrid synthetic strategy to produce structurally-defined branched polymer architectures based on chemically-modified DNA. Overall, this approach enables precise control over branch placement, grafting density, and chemical identity of side branches. We utilize a two-step scheme based on polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for site-specific incorporation of non-natural nucleotides, followed by copper-free click chemistry for grafting side branches at specific locations along the main polymer backbone. Linear DNA backbones are first synthesized via PCR utilizing the promiscuity of a high yield thermophilic DNA polymerase to incorporate nucleotides containing bioorthogonal dibenzocyclooctyne functional groups at precise locations along one strand of a double stranded DNA backbone. Following PCR, copper-free click chemistry is used to attach synthetic polymer branches or oligonucleotide branches to the DNA backbone, thereby allowing for the design and synthesis of a variety of precise polymer architectures, including three-arm stars, H-polymers, and graft block copolymers.

  18. Controlled synthesis of hyper-branched inorganic nanocrystals withrich three-dimensional structures

    SciTech Connect

    Kanaras, Antonios G.; Sonnichsen, Carsten; Liu, Haitao; Alivisatos, A. Paul

    2005-07-27

    Studies of crystal growth kinetics are tightly integrated with advances in the creation of new nanoscale inorganic building blocks and their functional assemblies 1-11. Recent examples include the development of semiconductor nanorods which have potential uses in solar cells 12-17, and the discovery of a light driven process to create noble metal particles with sharp corners that can be used in plasmonics 18,19. In the course of studying basic crystal growth kinetics we developed a process for preparing branched semiconductor nanocrystals such as tetrapods and inorganic dendrimers of precisely controlled generation 20,21. Here we report the discovery of a crystal growth kinetics regime in which a new class of hyper-branched nanocrystals are formed. The shapes range from 'thorny balls', to tree-like ramified structures, to delicate 'spider net'-like particles. These intricate shapes depend crucially on a delicate balance of branching and extension. The multitudes of resulting shapes recall the diverse shapes of snowflakes 22.The three dimensional nature of the branch points here, however, lead to even more complex arrangements than the two dimensionally branched structures observed in ice. These hyper-branched particles not only extend the available three-dimensional shapes in nanoparticle synthesis ,but also provide a tool to study growth kinetics by carefully observing and modeling particle morphology.

  19. A Place for Block Play.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, Gary T.

    1997-01-01

    Discusses the importance of block play--including its contributions to perceptual, fine motor, and cognitive development--and components of a good preschool block play area. Recommends unit blocks complemented by stacking blocks, toys, beads, cubes, and Brio wooden toys. Makes recommendations for space, size, locations and connections to other…

  20. Insulin-Like Growth Factor I Produces an Antidepressant-Like Effect and Elicits N-Methyl-D-Aspartate Receptor Independent Long-Term Potentiation of Synaptic Transmission in Medial Prefrontal Cortex and Hippocampus

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Xiao-lei; Colechio, Elizabeth M.; Ghoreishi-Haack, Nayereh; Gross, Amanda; Kroes, Roger A.; Stanton, Patric K.; Moskal, Joseph R.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Growth factors play an important role in regulating neurogenesis and synapse formation and may be involved in regulating the antidepressant response to conventional antidepressants. To date, Insulin-like growth factor I (IGFI) is the only growth factor that has shown antidepressant properties in human clinical trials. However, its mechanism of action remains unclear. Methods: The antidepressant-like effect of a single IV dose of IGFI was determined using a chronic unpredictable stress paradigm in the rat Porsolt, sucrose preference, novelty-induced hypophagia, and ultrasonic vocalization models. The dependence of the medial prefrontal cortex for these effects was determined by direct medial prefrontal cortex injection followed by Porsolt testing as well as IGFI receptor activation in the medial prefrontal cortex following an optimal IV antidepressant-like dose of IGFI. The effect of IGFI on synaptic transmission and long-term potentiation (LTP) of synaptic strength was assessed in the hippocampus and medial prefrontal cortex. The dependence of these effects on IGFI and AMPA receptor activation and protein synthesis were also determined. Results: IGFI produced a rapid-acting and long-lasting antidepressant-like effect in each of the depression models. These effects were blocked by IGFI and AMPA receptor antagonists, and medial prefrontal cortex was localized. IGFI robustly increased synaptic strength in the hippocampus and medial prefrontal cortex and these effects were IGFI receptor and protein synthesis-dependent but N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor independent. IGFI also robustly facilitated hippocampal metaplasticity 24 hours postdosing. Conclusions: These data support the conclusion that the antidepressant-like effects of IGFI are mediated by a persistent, LTP-like enhancement of synaptic strength requiring both IGFIR activation and ongoing protein synthesis. PMID:26374350

  1. Common medial frontal mechanisms of adaptive control in humans and rodents

    PubMed Central

    Frank, Michael J.; Laubach, Mark

    2013-01-01

    In this report, we describe how common brain networks within the medial frontal cortex facilitate adaptive behavioral control in rodents and humans. We demonstrate that low frequency oscillations below 12 Hz are dramatically modulated after errors in humans over mid-frontal cortex and in rats within prelimbic and anterior cingulate regions of medial frontal cortex. These oscillations were phase-locked between medial frontal cortex and motor areas in both rats and humans. In rats, single neurons that encoded prior behavioral outcomes were phase-coherent with low-frequency field oscillations particularly after errors. Inactivating medial frontal regions in rats led to impaired behavioral adjustments after errors, eliminated the differential expression of low frequency oscillations after errors, and increased low-frequency spike-field coupling within motor cortex. Our results describe a novel mechanism for behavioral adaptation via low-frequency oscillations and elucidate how medial frontal networks synchronize brain activity to guide performance. PMID:24141310

  2. Coding Odorant Concentration Through Activation Timing Between the Medial and Lateral Olfactory Bulb

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Zhishang; Belluscio, Leonardo

    2012-01-01

    SUMMARY In mammals, each olfactory bulb (OB) contains a pair of mirror-symmetric glomerular maps organized to reflect odorant receptor identity. The functional implication of maintaining these symmetric medial-lateral maps within each OB remains unclear. Here, using in vivo multi-electrode recordings to simultaneously detect odorant-induced activity across the entire OB, we reveal a timing difference in the odorant-evoked onset latencies between the medial and lateral halves. Interestingly, the latencies in the medial and lateral OB decreased at different rates as odorant concentration increased, causing the timing difference between them to also diminish. As a result, output neurons in the medial and lateral OB fired with greater synchrony at higher odorant concentrations. Thus, we propose that temporal differences in activity between the medial and lateral OB can dynamically code odorant concentration, which is subsequently decoded in the olfactory cortex through the integration of synchronous action potentials. PMID:23168258

  3. Medial Closing-Wedge Distal Femoral Osteotomy: Fixation With Proximal Tibial Locking Plate.

    PubMed

    Tírico, Luís Eduardo Passarelli; Demange, Marco Kawamura; Bonadio, Marcelo Batista; Helito, Camilo Partezani; Gobbi, Riccardo Gomes; Pécora, José Ricardo

    2015-12-01

    Distal femoral varus osteotomy is a well-established procedure for the treatment of lateral compartment cartilage lesions and degenerative disease, correcting limb alignment and decreasing the progression of the pathology. Surgical techniques can be performed with a lateral opening-wedge or medial closing-wedge correction of the deformity. Fixation methods for lateral opening-wedge osteotomies are widely available, and there are various types of implants that can be used for fixation. However, there are currently only a few options of implants for fixation of a medial closing-wedge osteotomy on the market. This report describes a medial, supracondylar, V-shaped, closing-wedge distal femoral osteotomy using a locked anterolateral proximal tibial locking plate that fits anatomically to the medial side of the distal femur. This is a great option as a stable implant for a medial closing-wedge distal femoral osteotomy. PMID:26870647

  4. 2000 CENSUS BLOCK BOUNDARIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    This data set is a polygon shapefile of the boundaries of Census Blocks in New England derived from U.S. Census Bureau 2000 TIGER/Line data. Numerous attributes pertaining to population are included. TIGER, TIGER/Line, and Census TIGER are registered trademarks of the Bureau o...

  5. Confinement of block copolymers

    SciTech Connect

    1995-12-31

    The following were studied: confinement of block copolymers, free surface confinement, effects of substrate interactions, random copolymers at homopolymer interfaces, phase separation in thin film polymer mixtures, buffing of polymer surfaces, and near edge x-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopy.

  6. A Fluid Block Schedule

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ubben, Gerald C.

    1976-01-01

    Achieving flexibility without losing student accountability is a challenge that faces every school. With a fluid block schedule, as described here, accountability is maintained without inhibiting flexibility. An additional advantage is that three levels of schedule decision making take some of the pressure off the principal. (Editor)

  7. Ischemic Nerve Block.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Ian D.

    This experiment investigated the capability for movement and muscle spindle function at successive stages during the development of ischemic nerve block (INB) by pressure cuff. Two male subjects were observed under six randomly ordered conditions. The duration of index finger oscillation to exhaustion, paced at 1.2Hz., was observed on separate…

  8. Spice Blocks Melanoma Growth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Science Teacher, 2005

    2005-01-01

    Curcumin, the pungent yellow spice found in both turmeric and curry powders, blocks a key biological pathway needed for development of melanoma and other cancers, according to a study that appears in the journal Cancer. Researchers from The University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center demonstrate how curcumin stops laboratory strains of…

  9. [Croatian Medical Association--Branch Zagreb].

    PubMed

    Kaić, Zvonimir; Sain, Snjezana; Gulić, Mirjana; Mahovlić, Vjekoslav; Krznarić, Zeljko

    2014-01-01

    The available literature shows us that "Druztvo ljeciteljah u Zagrebus (the Society of Healers in Zagreb) was founded as far back as the year 1845 by a total of thirteen members. This data allows us to follow the role of doctors and health workers in Zagreb through their everyday profession, research, organizational and social work as well as management through a period of over one hundred to seventy years. The Branch Zagreb was active before the official establishment of subsidiaries of CMA which is evident from the minutes of the regular annual assembly of the Croatian Medical Association on 21 March 1948. Until the end of 1956, there was no clear division of labor, functions and competencies between the Branch and the Main Board. Their actions were instead consolidated and the Branch operated within and under the name of Croatian Medical Association. In that year the Branch became independent. The Branch Zagreb is the largest and one of the most active branches of the Croatian Medical Association. At the moment, the Branch brings together 3621 members, regular members--doctors of medicine (2497), doctors of dental medicine (384), retired physicians (710), and associate members (30 specialists with higher education who are not doctors). The Branch is especially accomplished in its activities in the area of professional development of its members and therefore organizes a series of scientific conferences in the framework of continuous education of physicians, allowing its members to acquire necessary points for the extension of their operating license. The choir "Zagrebacki lijecnici pjevaci" (Zagreb Physicians' Choir) of the Croatian Medical Music Society of the CMA and its activities are inseparable from the Branch Zagreb. The Branch is firmly linked to the parent body, the CMA, and thus has a visible impact on the strategy and the activities of the Association as a whole. Most professional societies of the CMA have their headquarters in Zagreb and this is

  10. A variant extensor indicis muscle and the branching pattern of the deep radial nerve could explain hand functionality and clinical symptoms in the living patient

    PubMed Central

    Kumka, Myroslava

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to document the topographic anatomy of an extensor indicis (EI) muscle with a double tendon and the associated distribution of the deep branch of the radial nerve (DBRN). Both EI tendons were positioned deep to the tendons of the extensor digitorum as they traversed the dorsal osseofibrous tunnel. They then joined the medial slips of the extensor expansion of the second and third digits. In all other dissected forearms, a tendon of the EI muscle joined the medial slip of the extensor expansion to the index finger. The DBRN provided short branches to the superficial extensor muscles, long branches to the abductor pollicis longus and extensor pollicis brevis muscles, and terminated as the posterior interosseous nerve. Descending deep to the extensor pollicis longus muscle, the posterior interosseous nerve sent branches to the extensor pollicis brevis and EI muscles. Understanding of the topographic anatomy of an EI with a double tendon, and the associated distribution of the DBRN, may contribute to accurate diagnosis and treatment of hand lesions. PMID:25729087

  11. Transcaruncular Approach for Treatment of Medial Wall and Large Orbital Blowout Fractures.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Dennis C; Shahzad, Farooq; Snyder-Warwick, Alison; Patel, Kamlesh B; Woo, Albert S

    2016-03-01

    We evaluate the safety and efficacy of the transcaruncular approach for reconstruction of medial orbital wall fractures and the combined transcaruncular-transconjunctival approach for reconstruction of large orbital defects involving the medial wall and floor. A retrospective review of the clinical and radiographic data of patients who underwent either a transcaruncular or a combined transcaruncular-transconjunctival approach by a single surgeon for orbital fractures between June 2007 and June 2013 was undertaken. Seven patients with isolated medial wall fractures underwent a transcaruncular approach, and nine patients with combined medial wall and floor fractures underwent a transcaruncular-transconjunctival approach with a lateral canthotomy. Reconstruction was performed using a porous polyethylene implant. All patients with isolated medial wall fractures presented with enophthalmos. In the combined medial wall and floor group, five out of eight patients had enophthalmos with two also demonstrating hypoglobus. The size of the medial wall defect on preoperative computed tomography (CT) scan ranged from 2.6 to 4.6 cm(2); the defect size of combined medial wall and floor fractures was 4.5 to 12.7 cm(2). Of the 11 patients in whom postoperative CT scans were obtained, all were noted to have acceptable placement of the implant. All patients had correction of enophthalmos and hypoglobus. One complication was noted, with a retrobulbar hematoma having developed 2 days postoperatively. The transcaruncular approach is a safe and effective method for reconstruction of medial orbital floor fractures. Even large fractures involving the orbital medial wall and floor can be adequately exposed and reconstructed with a combined transcaruncular-transconjunctival-lateral canthotomy approach. The level of evidence of this study is IV (case series with pre/posttest). PMID:26889348

  12. NUCLEUS REUNIENS OF THE MIDLINE THALAMUS: LINK BETWEEN THE MEDIAL PREFRONTAL CORTEX AND THE HIPPOCAMPUS

    PubMed Central

    Vertes, Robert P.; Hoover, Walter B.; Szigeti-Buck, Klara; Leranth, Csaba

    2016-01-01

    The medial prefrontal cortex and the hippocampus serve well recognized roles in memory processing. The hippocampus projects densely to, and exerts strong excitatory actions on, the medial prefrontal cortex. Interestingly, the medial prefrontal cortex, in rats and other species, has no direct return projections to the hippocampus, and few projections to parahippocampal structures including the entorhinal cortex. It is well established that the nucleus reuniens of the midline thalamus is the major source of thalamic afferents to the hippocampus. Since the medial prefrontal cortex also distributes to nucleus reuniens, we examined medial prefrontal connections with populations of nucleus reuniens neurons projecting to hippocampus. We used a combined anterograde and retrograde tracing procedure at the light and electron microscopic levels. Specifically, we made Phaseolus vulgaris-leuccoagglutinin (PHA-L) injections into the medial prefrontal cortex and Fluorogold injections into the hippocampus (CA1/subiculum) and examined termination patterns of anterogradely PHA-L labeled fibers on retrogradely FG labeled cells of nucleus reuniens. At the light microscopic level, we showed that fibers from the medial prefrontal cortex form multiple putative synaptic contacts with dendrites of hippocampally projecting neurons throughout the extent of nucleus reuniens. At ultrastructural level, we showed that medial prefrontal cortical fibers form asymmetric contacts predominantly with dendritic shafts of hippocampally projecting reuniens cells. These findings indicate that nucleus reuniens represents a critical link between the medial prefrontal cortex and the hippocampus. We discuss the possibility that nucleus reuniens gates the flow of information between the medial prefrontal cortex and hippocampus dependent upon attentive/arousal states of the organism. PMID:17292803

  13. Comparison of the Supraclavicular, Infraclavicular and Axillary Approaches for Ultrasound-Guided Brachial Plexus Block for Surgical Anesthesia

    PubMed Central

    Stav, Anatoli; Reytman, Leonid; Stav, Michael-Yohay; Portnoy, Isaak; Kantarovsky, Alexander; Galili, Offer; Luboshitz, Shmuel; Sevi, Roger; Sternberg, Ahud

    2016-01-01

    Objective We hypothesized that ultrasound (US)-guided technique of the supra- and infraclavicular and axillary approaches of brachial plexus block (BPB) will produce a high quality of surgical anesthesia for operations below the shoulder independently of the approach and body mass index (BMI). Intercostobrachial and medial brachial cutaneous nerves will be blocked separately because they are not a part of the brachial plexus. Methods This is a prospective randomized observer-blinded study. The three approaches of the US-guided BPB without neurostimulation were compared for quality, performance time, and correlation between performance time and BMI. Intercostobrachial and medial brachial cutaneous nerve blocks were used in all patients. Results A total of 101 patients were randomized into three groups: SCL (supraclavicular), ICL (infraclavicular), and AX (axillary). Seven patients were excluded due to various factors. All three groups were similar in demographic data, M:F proportion, preoperative diagnosis and type of surgery, anesthesiologists who performed the block, and surgical staff that performed the surgical intervention. The time between the end of the block performance and the start of the operation was also similar. The quality of the surgical anesthesia and discomfort during the operation were identical following comparison between groups. No direct positive correlation was observed between BMI and the block performance time. The time for the axillary block was slightly longer than the time for the supra- and infraclavicular approaches, but it had no practical clinical significance. Transient Horner syndrome was observed in three patients in the SCL group. No other adverse effects or complications were observed. Conclusions All three approaches can be used for US-guided BPB with similar quality of surgical anesthesia for operations of below the shoulder. A block of the intercostobrachial and medial brachial cutaneous nerves is recommended. Obesity is not

  14. Mechanisms of Side Branching and Tip Splitting in a Model of Branching Morphogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Yina; Sun, Mingzhu; Garfinkel, Alan; Zhao, Xin

    2014-01-01

    Recent experimental work in lung morphogenesis has described an elegant pattern of branching phenomena. Two primary forms of branching have been identified: side branching and tip splitting. In our previous study of lung branching morphogenesis, we used a 4 variable partial differential equation (PDE), due to Meinhardt, as our mathematical model to describe the reaction and diffusion of morphogens creating those branched patterns. By altering key parameters in the model, we were able to reproduce all the branching styles and the switch between branching modes. Here, we attempt to explain the branching phenomena described above, as growing out of two fundamental instabilities, one in the longitudinal (growth) direction and the other in the transverse direction. We begin by decoupling the original branching process into two semi-independent sub-processes, 1) a classic activator/inhibitor system along the growing stalk, and 2) the spatial growth of the stalk. We then reduced the full branching model into an activator/inhibitor model that embeds growth of the stalk as a controllable parameter, to explore the mechanisms that determine different branching patterns. We found that, in this model, 1) side branching results from a pattern-formation instability of the activator/inhibitor subsystem in the longitudinal direction. This instability is far from equilibrium, requiring a large inhomogeneity in the initial conditions. It successively creates periodic activator peaks along the growing stalk, each of which later on migrates out and forms a side branch; 2) tip splitting is due to a Turing-style instability along the transversal direction, that creates the spatial splitting of the activator peak into 2 simultaneously-formed peaks at the growing tip, the occurrence of which requires the widening of the growing stalk. Tip splitting is abolished when transversal stalk widening is prevented; 3) when both instabilities are satisfied, tip bifurcation occurs together with side

  15. The Contingency of Cocaine Administration Accounts for Structural and Functional Medial Prefrontal Deficits and Increased Adrenocortical Activation

    PubMed Central

    Anderson, Rachel M.; Cosme, Caitlin V.; Glanz, Ryan M.; Miller, Mary C.; Romig-Martin, Sara A.; LaLumiere, Ryan T.

    2015-01-01

    The prelimbic region (PL) of the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) is implicated in the relapse of drug-seeking behavior. Optimal mPFC functioning relies on synaptic connections involving dendritic spines in pyramidal neurons, whereas prefrontal dysfunction resulting from elevated glucocorticoids, stress, aging, and mental illness are each linked to decreased apical dendritic branching and spine density in pyramidal neurons in these cortical fields. The fact that cocaine use induces activation of the stress-responsive hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal axis raises the possibility that cocaine-related impairments in mPFC functioning may be manifested by similar changes in neuronal architecture in mPFC. Nevertheless, previous studies have generally identified increases, rather than decreases, in structural plasticity in mPFC after cocaine self-administration. Here, we use 3D imaging and analysis of dendritic spine morphometry to show that chronic cocaine self-administration leads to mild decreases of apical dendritic branching, prominent dendritic spine attrition in PL pyramidal neurons, and working memory deficits. Importantly, these impairments were largely accounted for in groups of rats that self-administered cocaine compared with yoked-cocaine- and saline-matched counterparts. Follow-up experiments failed to demonstrate any effects of either experimenter-administered cocaine or food self-administration on structural alterations in PL neurons. Finally, we verified that the cocaine self-administration group was distinguished by more protracted increases in adrenocortical activity compared with yoked-cocaine- and saline-matched controls. These studies suggest a mechanism whereby increased adrenocortical activity resulting from chronic cocaine self-administration may contribute to regressive prefrontal structural and functional plasticity. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Stress, aging, and mental illness are each linked to decreased prefrontal plasticity. Here, we show that chronic

  16. Branch architecture, light interception and crown development in saplings of a plagiotropically branching tropical tree, Polyalthia jenkinsii (Annonaceae).

    PubMed

    Osada, Noriyuki; Takeda, Hiroshi

    2003-01-01

    To investigate crown development patterns, branch architecture, branch-level light interception, and leaf and branch dynamics were studied in saplings of a plagiotropically branching tree species, Polyalthia jenkinsii Hk. f. & Thoms. (Annonaceae) in a Malaysian rain forest. Lengths of branches and parts of the branches lacking leaves ('bare' branches) were smaller in upper branches than in lower branches within crowns, whereas lengths of 'leafy' parts and the number of leaves per branch were larger in intermediate than in upper and lower branches. Maximum diffuse light absorption (DLA) of individual leaves was not related to sapling height or branch position within crowns, whereas minimum DLA was lower in tall saplings. Accordingly, branch-level light interception was higher in intermediate than in upper and lower branches. The leaf production rate was higher and leaf loss rate was smaller in upper than in intermediate and lower branches. Moreover, the branch production rate of new first-order branches was larger in the upper crowns. Thus, leaf and branch dynamics do not correspond to branch-level light interception in the different canopy zones. As a result of architectural constraints, branches at different vertical positions experience predictable light microenvironments in plagiotropic species. Accordingly, this pattern of carbon allocation among branches might be particularly important for growth and crown development in plagiotropic species. PMID:12495920

  17. Anatomical study of the dorsal cutaneous branch of the ulnar nerve (DCBUN) and its clinical relevance in TFCC repair.

    PubMed

    Poublon, A R; Kraan, G; Lau, S P; Kerver, A L A; Kleinrensink, G-J

    2016-07-01

    The aim of this study was to define a detailed description of the dorsal cutaneous branch of the ulnar nerve (DCBUN) in particular in relevance to triangular fibrocartilage complex (TFCC) repairs. In 20 formalin-embalmed arms, the DCBUN was dissected, and the course in each arm was mapped and categorized. Furthermore, the point of origin of the DCBUN, that is, from the ulnar nerve in association with the ulnar styloid process, was defined. Finally, the distance between the ulnar styloid process and the branching of the radial-ulnar communicating branch (RUCB) and the first branch of DCBUN was measured. The distance between the origin of the DCBUN in relation to the ulnar styloid process ranges from 55 to 111 mm (mean 87 mm; STD 14 mm). The distance between the ulnar styloid process and the RUCB ranges from 1 to 54 mm (mean 19 mm; STD 12 mm). Finally, the distance between the ulnar styloid process and the lateral distal branch shows a range of -6 to 28 mm (mean 10 mm; STD 9 mm). In general, three dorsal digital nerves (medial, intermediate, and lateral branch), run at the dorsal ulnar aspect of the hand. The RUCB is often less abundant and shows a large amount of variation. No complete safe zone could be identified; the course of the DCBUN suggests a longitudinal incision for the 6R portal. In fact, a more dorsal incision also prevents damage to the main branches of the DCBUN. PMID:26997325

  18. Kinematics of Rift-Parallel Deformation Along the Rukwa Rift, Western Branch, and Main Ethiopian Rift

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stamps, D.; Koehn, D.; Burke, K. C.; d'Oreye, N.; Saria, E.; Xu, R.

    2013-12-01

    The East African Rift System spans N-S ~5000 km and currently experiences E-W extension. Previous kinematic studies of the EARS delineated 3 relatively rigid sub-plates (Victoria, Rovuma, and Lwandle) between the Nubian and Somalian plates. GPS observations of these block interiors confirm the rigid plate model, but we also detect a systematic along-rift deformation pattern at GPS stations located within rift zones bounding the western Victoria block and continuing north between the Nubian and Somalian plates. Here we present a kinematic model of present-day rift-parallel deformation along the Western branch, Rukwa Rift, and Main Ethiopian Rift constrained by a new GPS solution, earthquake slip vectors, and mapped active fault structures. We test the roles of block rotation, elastic deformation, and anelastic deformation by varying block geometry, fault slip distribution parameters, estimating permanent strain rate, and scoring each model with GPS observations. We also explore how the present-day deformation patterns relate to longer-term paleostress indicators. Observations of slickensides and offsets in seismic reflection profiles in the northern Western branch (Albertine rift) indicate a change from ~NNE trending normal faulting to include strike-slip motion within the past 7 My that may be related to previously studied stress changes in the Turkana rift. Preliminary results from the kinematic modeling demonstrate simple elastic strain accumulation on major border faults cannot explain an observed systematic northward component in GPS velocities relative to the Victoria block and the Nubian plate.

  19. Inactivation of the Nucleus Accumbens Core or Medial Shell Attenuates Reinstatement of Sugar-Seeking Behavior following Sugar Priming or Exposure to Food-Associated Cues

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Peagan; Pratt, Wayne E.

    2014-01-01

    Re-exposure to either palatable food or to conditioned stimuli associated with food is known to reinstate food-seeking after periods of abstinence. The nucleus accumbens core and shell are important for reinstatement in both food- and drug-seeking paradigms, although their potential differential roles have been difficult to delineate due to methodological differences in paradigms across laboratories. The present studies assessed the effects of temporary inactivation of the core or shell on priming- and cue-induced reinstatement of food-seeking in identically-trained rats. Inactivation of either the nucleus accumbens core (Experiment 1A; N = 10) or medial shell (Experiment 1B; N = 12) blocked priming-induced reinstatement in an equivalent manner. Similarly, inactivation of the core or medial shell (Experiments 2A & 2B; N = 11 each) also blocked cue-induced reinstatement, although there was also a significant treatment day X brain region X drug order interaction. Specifically, rats with core inactivation reinstated lever-pressing on the vehicle injection day regardless of whether that was their first or second test, whereas rats that had medial shell inactivation on the first day did not significantly reinstate lever-pressing on the second day of testing (when they received vehicle). Yohimbine, while a reportedly robust pharmacological stressor, was ineffective at inducing reinstatement in the current stress-induced reinstatement procedure. These data suggest that both the nucleus accumbens core and shell serve important roles in reinstatement of food-seeking in response to priming and cues. PMID:24910996

  20. Relaxation dynamics of branched polymers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghosh, Arnav

    The Rouse model for star polymers was successfully derived by solving the differential equations governing the net force acting on each bead in a star polymer chain. As opposed to a linear polymer, where we have N unique roots for N beads, in the case of star polymers, there are only 2 Na+1 unique roots and all odd unique roots (except the last root corresponding to the branch point) starting with the first root have a multiplicity of f-1. The relaxation time of the pth unique Rouse mode of a star polymer varies as (2Na + 1)2/p2. Since alternate Rouse modes in a star polymer have a multiplicity of f-1, they add to the terminal modulus of the star polymers and the terminal modulus, G(tau) ends up being proportional to f-1 (besides being inversely proportional to N, which is also the case with linear polymers). A self-consistent theory for the relaxation of entangled star polymers was developed based on the work done by Colby and Rubinstein on linear blends. This theory considers the duality of relaxation dynamics (direct stress relaxation and indirect relaxation by release of constraints) and models the relaxation due to constraint release R(t) based on Dean's approach in solving the vibration frequencies of glassy chains with random spring constants. In our case, the mobilities of beads were considered to be random and based on the relative weight of the prefactor of a Maxwell function, a group of which was fitted to the stress relaxation function mu(t) of a star polymer (proposed and derived by Doi). The tube dilation model for star and comb polymers was investigated in detail and predictions compared to rheological data from polypropylene, polybutadiene and polystyrene comb polymers along with PEP star polymers. The relaxation time from the Tube Dilation Model was compared with the classical Tube Model and was shown to have an extra power dependence on the fraction of the comb backbone.

  1. Q-branch Raman scattering and modern kinetic thoery

    SciTech Connect

    Monchick, L.

    1993-12-01

    The program is an extension of previous APL work whose general aim was to calculate line shapes of nearly resonant isolated line transitions with solutions of a popular quantum kinetic equation-the Waldmann-Snider equation-using well known advanced solution techniques developed for the classical Boltzmann equation. The advanced techniques explored have been a BGK type approximation, which is termed the Generalized Hess Method (GHM), and conversion of the collision operator to a block diagonal matrix of symmetric collision kernels which then can be approximated by discrete ordinate methods. The latter method, which is termed the Collision Kernel method (CC), is capable of the highest accuracy and has been used quite successfully for Q-branch Raman scattering. The GHM method, not quite as accurate, is applicable over a wider range of pressures and has proven quite useful.

  2. Tillering and panicle branching genes in rice.

    PubMed

    Liang, Wei-hong; Shang, Fei; Lin, Qun-ting; Lou, Chen; Zhang, Jing

    2014-03-01

    Rice (Oryza sativa L.) is one of the most important staple food crops in the world, and rice tillering and panicle branching are important traits determining grain yield. Since the gene MONOCULM 1 (MOC 1) was first characterized as a key regulator in controlling rice tillering and branching, great progress has been achieved in identifying important genes associated with grain yield, elucidating the genetic basis of yield-related traits. Some of these important genes were shown to be applicable for molecular breeding of high-yielding rice. This review focuses on recent advances, with emphasis on rice tillering and panicle branching genes, and their regulatory networks. PMID:24345551

  3. Cellular and physical mechanisms of branching morphogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Varner, Victor D.; Nelson, Celeste M.

    2014-01-01

    Branching morphogenesis is the developmental program that builds the ramified epithelial trees of various organs, including the airways of the lung, the collecting ducts of the kidney, and the ducts of the mammary and salivary glands. Even though the final geometries of epithelial trees are distinct, the molecular signaling pathways that control branching morphogenesis appear to be conserved across organs and species. However, despite this molecular homology, recent advances in cell lineage analysis and real-time imaging have uncovered surprising differences in the mechanisms that build these diverse tissues. Here, we review these studies and discuss the cellular and physical mechanisms that can contribute to branching morphogenesis. PMID:25005470

  4. New branch of Kaluza-Klein compactification

    SciTech Connect

    Kinoshita, Shunichiro

    2007-12-15

    We found a new branch of solutions in Freund-Rubin type flux compactifications. The geometry of these solutions is described as the external space which has a de Sitter symmetry and the internal space which is topologically spherical. However, it is not a simple form of dS{sub p}xS{sup q} but a warped product of de Sitter space and a deformed sphere. We explicitly constructed numerical solutions for a specific case with p=4 and q=4. We show that the new branch of solutions emanates from the marginally stable solution in the branch of dS{sub 4}xS{sup 4} solutions.

  5. Quantification of the three-dimensional morphology of coincidence detector neurons in the medial superior olive of gerbils during late postnatal development.

    PubMed

    Rautenberg, Philipp L; Grothe, Benedikt; Felmy, Felix

    2009-11-20

    In the mammalian medial superior olive (MSO), neurons compute the azimuthal location of sound sources by temporally precise coincidence detection. It is assumed that the dendritic morphology of MSO neurons plays a crucial role in this computational process. However, few quantitative data about the morphology of these neuronal coincidence detectors are available, limiting theoretical approaches. Such a quantitative morphological description of neurons of the mammalian MSO would also allow a comparative analysis with its avian analog, the nucleus laminaris. We used single-cell electroporation, microscopic reconstruction, and compartmentalization to extract anatomical parameters of MSO neurons and quantitatively describe their morphology and development between postnatal day 9 and 36. We found that developmental refinement occurs until P27, generating morphologically compact, cylinder-like cells with axons originating from the soma. The complexity of higher order dendrites decreases between postnatal days 9 and 21. This decrease in dendritic complexity is judged from counting and analyzing the location of dendritic branches and determining the distribution of the surface area and total length of neurons. During this developmental period, the average length of terminal branches increases about twofold, indicating an elimination of predominantly small branches. The cell volume increases more than 1.5-fold between P9 and P27, a change that can be attributed to an increase in dendritic diameter during this developmental period. The developmental profile of the morphology of MSO neurons obtained indicates that maturation is reached 2 weeks after hearing onset. PMID:19760600

  6. Location and tension of the medial palpebral ligament.

    PubMed

    Hwang, Kun; Huan, Fan; Nam, Yong Seok; Han, Seung Ho; Kim, Dae Joong

    2013-11-01

    The aim of this study was to elucidate the precise anatomic location and tension of the medial palpebral ligament (MPL). Eleven hemifaces of 10 fresh Korean adult cadavers were used in this study. Nine specimens were used for measurement of dissection and tension, and 2 were used for histologic study. Measurements of tensile strength of each part of the MPL and Horner muscle were performed using a force gauge.The MPL consisted of 2 layers in all specimens dissected. The superficial layer of the palpebral ligament (SMPL) was observed from the anterior lacrimal crest to the upper and lower tarsal plates. The deep layer of the palpebral ligament (DMPL) lay from the anterior lacrimal crest to the posterior lacrimal crest, covering the lacrimal sac. The Horner muscle was observed at the posterior lacrimal crest just lateral to the attachment of the DMPL and ran laterally to the tarsal plate deep to the SMPL. The SMPL began at 4.5 ± 2.3 mm lateral to the nasomaxillary suture line to the upper and lower tarsal plates. Its transverse length was 9.6 ± 1.5 mm, and vertical width was 2.4 ± 0.7 mm, and its thickness was 4.5 ± 2.3 mm. The transverse length of the DMPL was 3.7 ± 0.4 mm, and its vertical width was 2.9 ± 1.3 mm, with a thickness of 0.3 ± 0.1 mm. The transverse length of the Horner muscle was 7.6 ± 1.9 mm, and its vertical width was 4.06 ± 1.5 mm, with a thickness of 0.4 ± 0.1 mm. The tensile strength of the SMPL was 13.4 ± 3.2 N, that of the DMPL was 4.1 ± 1.7 N, and that for Horner muscle was 9.0 ± 3.1 N. The tensile strength of the SMPL was significantly higher than that of the DMPL (P = 0.003).We reconfirmed that the MPL consisted of 2 layers: superficial layer and deep layer. Our results might be of use in surgeries of the medial canthi. PMID:24220420

  7. NCCN Evidence Blocks.

    PubMed

    Carlson, Robert W; Jonasch, Eric

    2016-05-01

    NCCN has developed a series of Evidence Blocks: graphics that provide ratings for each recommended treatment regimen in terms of efficacy, toxicity, quality and consistency of the supporting data, and affordability. The NCCN Evidence Blocks are currently available in 10 tumor types within the NCCN Clinical Practice Guidelines in Oncology (NCCN Guidelines). At a glance, patients and providers can understand how a given treatment was assessed by the NCCN Guidelines Panel and get a sense of how a given treatment may match individual needs and preferences. Robert W. Carlson, MD, CEO of NCCN, described the reasoning behind this new feature and how the tool is used, and Eric Jonasch, MD, Professor of Genitourinary Medical Oncology at The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, and Vice Chair of the NCCN Kidney Cancer Panel, described its applicability in the management of metastatic renal cell carcinoma. PMID:27226499

  8. Posterodorsal Medial Amygdala Mediates Tail-Pinch Induced Food Intake in Female Rats.

    PubMed

    Hu, M H; Bashir, Z; Li, X F; O'Byrne, K T

    2016-05-01

    Comfort eating during periods of stress is a common phenomenon observed in both animals and humans. However, the underlying mechanisms of stress-induced food intake remain elusive. The amygdala plays a central role in higher-order emotional processing and the posterodorsal subnucleus of the medial amygdala (MePD), in particular, is involved in food intake. Extra-hypothalamic corticotrophin-releasing factor (CRF) is well recognised for mediating behavioural responses to stress. To explore the possible role of amygdala CRF receptor activation in stress-induced food intake, we evaluated whether a stressor such as tail-pinch, which reliably induces food intake, would fail to do so in animals bearing bilateral neurotoxic lesions of the MePD. Our results showed that ibotenic acid induced lesions of the MePD markedly reduced tail-pinch induced food intake in ovariectomised, 17β-oestradiol replaced rats. In addition, intra-MePD (right side only) administration of CRF (0.002 or 0.02 ng) via chronically implanted cannulae resulted in a dose-dependent increase in food intake, although higher doses of 0.2 and 2 ng CRF had less effect, producing a bell shaped curve. Furthermore, intra-MePD (bilateral) administration of the CRF receptor antagonist, astressin (0.3 μg per side) effectively blocked tail-pinch induced food intake. These data suggest that the MePD is involved in stress-induced food intake and that the amygdala CRF system may be a mediator of comfort eating. PMID:27028781

  9. Lesions of the Medial Prefrontal Cortex Abolish Conditioned Aversion Associated with Sexual Behavior in Male Rats

    PubMed Central

    Davis, Jon F.; Loos, Maarten; Di Sebastiano, Andrea R.; Brown, Jennifer L.; Lehman, Michael N.; Coolen, Lique M.

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND An inability to inhibit behaviors once they become maladaptive is a component of several psychiatric illnesses and the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) was identified as a potential mediator of behavioral inhibition. The current study tested if the mPFC is involved in inhibition of sexual behavior when associated with aversive outcomes. METHODS Using male rats, effects of lesions of the infralimbic (IL) and prelimbic (PL) areas of the mPFC on expression of sexual behavior and ability to inhibit mating were tested using a paradigm of copulation-contingent aversion. RESULTS mPFC lesions did not alter expression of sexual behavior. In contrast, mPFC lesions completely blocked the acquisition of sex-aversion conditioning and lesioned animals continued to mate, in contrast to the robust behavioral inhibition towards copulation in mPFC intact males, resulting in only 22% of intact males continuing to mate. However, rats with mPFC lesions were capable of forming a conditioned place preference to sexual reward and conditioned place aversion for lithium chloride, suggesting that these lesions did not alter associative learning or sensitivity for lithium chloride. DISCUSSION The current study indicates that animals with mPFC lesions are likely capable of forming the associations with aversive outcomes of their behavior, but lack the ability to suppress seeking of sexual reward in the face of aversive consequences. These data may contribute to a better understanding of a common pathology underlying impulse control disorders as compulsive sexual behavior has a high prevalence of comorbidity with psychiatric disorders and Parkinson’s Disease. PMID:20346444

  10. Medial Calcar Support and Radiographic Outcomes of Plate Fixation for Proximal Humeral Fractures

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Shih-Jie; Tsai, Yao-Hung; Yang, Tien-Yu; Shen, Shih-Hsun; Huang, Kuo-Chin; Lee, Mel S.

    2015-01-01

    Plate fixation remains one of the most popular surgical procedures for treating proximal humeral fractures (PHFx); however, substantial rates of complications have been reported in the literature. The objectives of the study were to examine how medial calcar support (MCS) affects the radiographic outcomes and to determine the prognostic factors predicting treatment failure. We performed a retrospective cohort study of 89 adult patients who had PHFx and were treated with plate fixation at our institution in 2007–2011. The enrolled patients were separated into two groups according to disruption of medial calcar. Our results revealed an increased rate of poor radiographic outcomes in patients with disrupted medial calcar. Osteonecrosis of the humeral head and redisplacement were the two radiographic outcomes which had a positive causality with disruption of medial calcar (P = 0.008 and 0.050, resp.). Deficient medial calcar, inadequate reduction, diabetes mellitus, chronic kidney disease, and chronic liver disease were all significant predictors for the development of osteonecrosis in patients after PHFx surgery. Inadequate reduction was also a predictor for redisplacement. We confirmed that the restoration of medial calcar as well as comorbid conditions plays key roles in treatment of patients having PHFx with disrupted medial calcar. PMID:25692132

  11. Intraocular radiation blocking

    SciTech Connect

    Finger, P.T.; Ho, T.K.; Fastenberg, D.M.; Hyman, R.A.; Stroh, E.M.; Packer, S.; Perry, H.D. )

    1990-09-01

    Iodine-based liquid radiographic contrast agents were placed in normal and tumor-bearing (Greene strain) rabbit eyes to evaluate their ability to block iodine-125 radiation. This experiment required the procedures of tumor implantation, vitrectomy, air-fluid exchange, and 125I plaque and thermoluminescent dosimetry (TLD) chip implantation. The authors quantified the amount of radiation attenuation provided by intraocularly placed contrast agents with in vivo dosimetry. After intraocular insertion of a blocking agent or sham blocker (saline) insertion, episcleral 125I plaques were placed across the eye from episcleral TLD dosimeters. This showed that radiation attenuation occurred after blocker insertion compared with the saline controls. Then computed tomographic imaging techniques were used to describe the relatively rapid transit time of the aqueous-based iohexol compared with the slow transit time of the oil-like iophendylate. Lastly, seven nontumor-bearing eyes were primarily examined for blocking agent-related ocular toxicity. Although it was noted that iophendylate induced intraocular inflammation and retinal degeneration, all iohexol-treated eyes were similar to the control eyes at 7 and 31 days of follow-up. Although our study suggests that intraocular radiopaque materials can be used to shield normal ocular structures during 125I plaque irradiation, a mechanism to keep these materials from exiting the eye must be devised before clinical application.

  12. Overview of the Advanced High Frequency Branch

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miranda, Felix A.

    2015-01-01

    This presentation provides an overview of the competencies, selected areas of research and technology development activities, and current external collaborative efforts of the NASA Glenn Research Center's Advanced High Frequency Branch.

  13. Code 672 observational science branch computer networks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hancock, D. W.; Shirk, H. G.

    1988-01-01

    In general, networking increases productivity due to the speed of transmission, easy access to remote computers, ability to share files, and increased availability of peripherals. Two different networks within the Observational Science Branch are described in detail.

  14. 30 CFR 57.6403 - Branch circuits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Explosives Electric Blasting-Surface and Underground § 57.6403 Branch circuits. (a) If electric blasting includes the use...

  15. 30 CFR 57.6403 - Branch circuits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Explosives Electric Blasting-Surface and Underground § 57.6403 Branch circuits. (a) If electric blasting includes the use...

  16. 30 CFR 57.6403 - Branch circuits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Explosives Electric Blasting-Surface and Underground § 57.6403 Branch circuits. (a) If electric blasting includes the use...

  17. 30 CFR 57.6403 - Branch circuits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Explosives Electric Blasting-Surface and Underground § 57.6403 Branch circuits. (a) If electric blasting includes the use...

  18. 30 CFR 57.6403 - Branch circuits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Explosives Electric Blasting-Surface and Underground § 57.6403 Branch circuits. (a) If electric blasting includes the use...

  19. 12 CFR 741.11 - Foreign branching.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... evidencing written permission from the host country to establish the branch that explicitly recognizes NCUA's... the account agreement, at a U.S. office of the credit union. If the host country requires...

  20. INDUSTRIAL MULTIMEDIA BRANCH (SUSTAINABLE TECHNOLOGY DIVISION, NRMRL)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The mission of NRMRL's Industrial Multimedia Branch (IMB) is to develop, demonstrate, and evaluate timely and integrated innovative engineering and scientific approaches to reduce air, water, and land toxic pollution generated by the production. processing, and use of materials. ...

  1. Applied Aeroscience and CFD Branch Overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    LeBeau, Gerald J.; Kirk, Benjamin S.

    2014-01-01

    The principal mission of NASA Johnson Space Center is Human Spaceflight. In support of the mission the Applied Aeroscience and CFD Branch has several technical competencies that include aerodynamic characterization, aerothermodynamic heating, rarefied gas dynamics, and decelerator (parachute) systems.

  2. Residence times of branching diffusion processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dumonteil, E.; Mazzolo, A.

    2016-07-01

    The residence time of a branching Brownian process is the amount of time that the mother particle and all its descendants spend inside a domain. Using the Feynman-Kac formalism, we derive the residence-time equation as well as the equations for its moments for a branching diffusion process with an arbitrary number of descendants. This general approach is illustrated with simple examples in free space and in confined geometries where explicit formulas for the moments are obtained within the long time limit. In particular, we study in detail the influence of the branching mechanism on those moments. The present approach can also be applied to investigate other additive functionals of branching Brownian process.

  3. [Croatian Medical Association--Branch Zadar].

    PubMed

    Maštrović, Zelimir

    2014-01-01

    Croatian Medical Association--Branch Zadar was founded on 11 October 1947. During the war time in Croatia doctors and local medical community took tremendous part in organizing health care system. PMID:25648014

  4. FY 1990 Applied Sciences Branch annual report

    SciTech Connect

    Keyes, B.M.; Dippo, P.C.

    1991-11-01

    The Applied Sciences Branch actively supports the advancement of DOE/SERI goals for the development and implementation of the solar photovoltaic technology. The primary focus of the laboratories is to provide state-of-the-art analytical capabilities for materials and device characterization and fabrication. The branch houses a comprehensive facility which is capable of providing information on the full range of photovoltaic components. A major objective of the branch is to aggressively pursue collaborative research with other government laboratories, universities, and industrial firms for the advancement of photovoltaic technologies. Members of the branch disseminate research findings to the technical community in publications and presentations. This report contains information on surface and interface analysis, materials characterization, development, electro-optical characterization module testing and performance, surface interactions and FTIR spectroscopy.

  5. [Croatian Medical Association--Branch Sibenik].

    PubMed

    Mihovilcević, Danći

    2014-01-01

    Since the opening of the newly built Sibenik hospital on June 29, 1883, the physicians had the need for association in a free organization where they could solve the problems of medical profession and strive for the development of modern medicine. On December 15, 1939, physicians from Sibenik joined the Croatian Medical Association as the Sibenik branch. Activities of the branch were renewed after the Second World War by the arrivial of new physicians. The branch was founded in 1946, and Dr. Baldo Politeo was elected its president. In 1989 the research unit was founded,and in 2001 for the first time in the history of the Association telepresentation of a book was performed. Since its founding the members of our branch have stood out with their professional, scientific and humanitarian work for which many got deserved acknowledgment from their colleagues, CMA and the town. PMID:25648011

  6. Supplemental branched-chain amino acids improve performance and immune response of newly-received feedlot calves

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Supplemental branched-chain AA (BCAA) improved N balance of steers during a simulated pathogen challenge. The objective of this study was to determine the effect of supplemental BCAA on growth and health of newly-received feedlot steers. Steers (n = 120; initial BW = 376 ± 5 kg) were blocked by BW a...

  7. Block 3. This photograph depicts the northern view of Block ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Block 3. This photograph depicts the northern view of Block 2 towards the May D & F Tower from the main path along the western facades - Skyline Park, 1500-1800 Arapaho Street, Denver, Denver County, CO

  8. Soils of Walker Branch Watershed

    SciTech Connect

    Lietzke, D.A.

    1994-01-01

    The soil survey of Walker Branch Watershed (WBW) utilized the most up-to-date knowledge of soils, geology, and geohydrology in building the soils data base needed to reinterpret past research and to begin new research in the watershed. The soils of WBW were also compared with soils mapped elsewhere along Chestnut Ridge on the Oak Ridge Reservation to (1) establish whether knowledge obtained elsewhere could be used within the watershed, (2) determine whether there were any soils restricted to the watershed, and (3) evaluate geologic formation lateral variability. Soils, surficial geology, and geomorphology were mapped at a scale of 1:1200 using a paper base map having 2-ft contour intervals. Most of the contours seemed to reasonably represent actual landform configurations, except for dense wooded areas. For example, the very large dolines or sinkholes were shown on the contour base map, but numerous smaller ones were not. In addition, small drainageways and gullies were often not shown. These often small but important features were located approximately as soil mapping progressed. WBW is underlain by dolostones of the Knox Group, but only a very small part of the surface area contains outcroppings of rock and most outcrops were located in the lower part. Soil mapping revealed the presence of both ancient alluvium and ancient colluvium deposits, not recognized in previous soil surveys, that have been preserved in high-elevation stable portions of present-day landforms. An erosional geomorphic process of topographic inversion requiring several millions of years within the Pleistocene is necessary to bring about the degree of inversion that is expressed in the watershed. Indeed, some of these ancient alluvial and colluvial remnants may date back into the Tertiary. Also evident in the watershed, and preserved in the broad, nearly level bottoms of dolines, are multiple deposits of silty material either devoid or nearly devoid of coarse fragments. Recent research

  9. Branched dart leaders preceding lightning return strokes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stolzenburg, Maribeth; Marshall, Thomas C.; Karunarathne, Sumedhe; Karunarathna, Nadeeka; Orville, Richard E.

    2014-04-01

    This study describes the occurrence of branches in lightning dart leaders, based on data acquired in Florida using a high-speed video camera and electric field change sensors. More than half (57%) of 72 flashes with analyzable dart leaders show at least one successful branched dart leader (BDL), and nine flashes have two successful BDLs. Overall, 18% of 282 visible successful dart leaders are branched. Most (42 of 50) cases of BDLs occur in the first dart leader after a stepped leader/return stroke sequence, and the data indicate that 55% of first dart leaders are visibly branched. Compared to first dart leaders in the 31 flashes without any branched dart leaders, BDLs tend to follow stepped leader/return strokes with significantly larger average peak currents (-31.3 versus -20.6 kA) and shorter average interstroke intervals (71.94 versus 94.64 ms). Average peak current of BDL strokes is 62% larger (-17.8 versus -11 kA) than that for unbranched first dart leader strokes. Branched dart leaders generally travel in the some of the most recently used lightning channels, but they are not always within the main channel of the prior return stroke. Successful BDLs may dart all the way to ground when in a prior stroke channel, or they may become stepped leaders when they reach the lower end of the prior stroke branch. Electric field change data for all the BDL cases exhibit an erratic pulse character for at least part of the leader duration; in some cases, the erratic character ends when the branches vanish.

  10. Fiber-Optic Communication Technology Branching Devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williams, J. C.

    1985-02-01

    This tutorial review of fiber-optic branching devices covers example uses of branching devices, device types, device-performance characteristics, examples of current technology, and system-design methodology. The discussion is limited to passive single- and multimode devices fabricated from optical fibers or graded-index components. Integrated-optic, wavelength-division-multiplexing, and polarization-selective devices are not specifically addressed.

  11. Sieving di-branched from mono-branched and linear alkanes using ZIF-8: experimental proof and theoretical explanation.

    PubMed

    Ferreira, Alexandre F P; Mittelmeijer-Hazeleger, Marjo C; Granato, Miguel Angelo; Martins, Vanessa F Duarte; Rodrigues, Alírio E; Rothenberg, Gadi

    2013-06-14

    We study the adsorption equilibrium isotherms and differential heats of adsorption of hexane isomers on the zeolitic imidazolate framework ZIF-8. The studies are carried out at 373 K using a manometric set-up combined with a micro-calorimeter. We see that the Langmuir model describes well the isotherms for all four isomers (n-hexane, 2-methylpentane, 2,2-dimethylbutane and 2,3-dimethylbutane). The linear and mono-branched isomers adsorb well, but 2,2-dimethylbutane is totally excluded. Plotting the differential heat of adsorption against the loading shows an initial plateau for n-hexane and 2-methylpentane. This is followed by a slow rise, indicating adsorbate-adsorbate interactions. For the di-branched isomers the differential heat of adsorption decreases with loading. To gain further insight, we ran molecular simulations using the grand-canonical Monte Carlo approach. Comparing the simulation and the experimental results shows that the ZIF framework model requires blocking of the cages, since 2,2-dimethylbutane cannot fit through the sodalite-type windows. Practically speaking, this means that ZIF-8 is a highly promising candidate for enhancing gasoline octane numbers at 373 K, as it can separate 2,2-dimethylbutane and 2,3-dimethylbutane from 2-methylpentane. Our results prove the potential of ZIF-8 as a new adsorbent that can be employed in the upgrade of the Total Isomerization Process for the production of high octane number gasoline, by blending di-branched alkanes in the gasoline. PMID:23640581

  12. Detection of branching points in noisy processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beer, Michael; Liebscher, Martin

    2010-03-01

    Processes in engineering mechanics often contain branching points at which the system can follow different physical paths. In this paper a method for the detection of these branching points is proposed for processes that are affected by noise. It is assumed that a bundle of process records are available from numerical simulations or from experiments, and branching points are concealed by the noise of the process. The bundle of process records is then evaluated at a series of discrete values of the independent process coordinates. At each discrete point of the process, the associated point set of process values is investigated with the aid of cluster analysis. The detected branching points are verified with a recursive algorithm. The revealed information about the branching points can be used to identify the physical and mechanical background for the branching. This helps to better understand a mechanical system and to design it optimal for a specific purpose. The proposed method is demonstrated by means of both a numerical example and a practical example of a crashworthiness investigation.

  13. Correlating Function and Imaging Measures of the Medial Longitudinal Fasciculus

    PubMed Central

    Sakaie, Ken; Takahashi, Masaya; Remington, Gina; Wang, Xiaofeng; Conger, Amy; Conger, Darrel; Dimitrov, Ivan; Jones, Stephen; Frohman, Ashley; Frohman, Teresa; Sagiyama, Koji; Togao, Osamu

    2016-01-01

    Objective To test the validity of diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) measures of tissue injury by examining such measures in a white matter structure with well-defined function, the medial longitudinal fasciculus (MLF). Injury to the MLF underlies internuclear ophthalmoparesis (INO). Methods 40 MS patients with chronic INO and 15 healthy controls were examined under an IRB-approved protocol. Tissue integrity of the MLF was characterized by DTI parameters: longitudinal diffusivity (LD), transverse diffusivity (TD), mean diffusivity (MD) and fractional anisotropy (FA). Severity of INO was quantified by infrared oculography to measure versional disconjugacy index (VDI). Results LD was significantly lower in patients than in controls in the medulla-pons region of the MLF (p < 0.03). FA was also lower in patients in the same region (p < 0.0004). LD of the medulla-pons region correlated with VDI (R = -0.28, p < 0.05) as did FA in the midbrain section (R = 0.31, p < 0.02). Conclusions This study demonstrates that DTI measures of brain tissue injury can detect injury to a functionally relevant white matter pathway, and that such measures correlate with clinically accepted evaluation indices for INO. The results validate DTI as a useful imaging measure of tissue integrity. PMID:26800522

  14. Human Medial Frontal Cortex Mediates Unconscious Inhibition of Voluntary Action

    PubMed Central

    Sumner, Petroc; Nachev, Parashkev; Morris, Peter; Peters, Andrew M.; Jackson, Stephen R.; Kennard, Christopher; Husain, Masud

    2007-01-01

    Summary Within the medial frontal cortex, the supplementary eye field (SEF), supplementary motor area (SMA), and pre-SMA have been implicated in the control of voluntary action, especially during motor sequences or tasks involving rapid choices between competing response plans. However, the precise roles of these areas remain controversial. Here, we study two extremely rare patients with microlesions of the SEF and SMA to demonstrate that these areas are critically involved in unconscious and involuntary motor control. We employed masked-prime stimuli that evoked automatic inhibition in healthy people and control patients with lateral premotor or pre-SMA damage. In contrast, our SEF/SMA patients showed a complete reversal of the normal inhibitory effect—ocular or manual—corresponding to the functional subregion lesioned. These findings imply that the SEF and SMA mediate automatic effector-specific suppression of motor plans. This automatic mechanism may contribute to the participation of these areas in the voluntary control of action. PMID:17553420

  15. Content representation in the human medial temporal lobe.

    PubMed

    Liang, Jackson C; Wagner, Anthony D; Preston, Alison R

    2013-01-01

    Current theories of medial temporal lobe (MTL) function focus on event content as an important organizational principle that differentiates MTL subregions. Perirhinal and parahippocampal cortices may play content-specific roles in memory, whereas hippocampal processing is alternately hypothesized to be content specific or content general. Despite anatomical evidence for content-specific MTL pathways, empirical data for content-based MTL subregional dissociations are mixed. Here, we combined functional magnetic resonance imaging with multiple statistical approaches to characterize MTL subregional responses to different classes of novel event content (faces, scenes, spoken words, sounds, visual words). Univariate analyses revealed that responses to novel faces and scenes were distributed across the anterior-posterior axis of MTL cortex, with face responses distributed more anteriorly than scene responses. Moreover, multivariate pattern analyses of perirhinal and parahippocampal data revealed spatially organized representational codes for multiple content classes, including nonpreferred visual and auditory stimuli. In contrast, anterior hippocampal responses were content general, with less accurate overall pattern classification relative to MTL cortex. Finally, posterior hippocampal activation patterns consistently discriminated scenes more accurately than other forms of content. Collectively, our findings indicate differential contributions of MTL subregions to event representation via a distributed code along the anterior-posterior axis of MTL that depends on the nature of event content. PMID:22275474

  16. The Necessity of the Medial Temporal Lobe for Statistical Learning

    PubMed Central

    Schapiro, Anna C.; Gregory, Emma; Landau, Barbara; McCloskey, Michael; Turk-Browne, Nicholas B.

    2014-01-01

    The sensory input that we experience is highly patterned, and we are experts at detecting these regularities. Although the extraction of such regularities, or statistical learning (SL), is typically viewed as a cortical process, recent studies have implicated the medial temporal lobe (MTL), including the hippocampus. These studies have employed fMRI, leaving open the possibility that the MTL is involved but not necessary for SL. Here, we examined this issue in a case study of LSJ, a patient with complete bilateral hippocampal loss and broader MTL damage. In Experiments 1 and 2, LSJ and matched control participants were passively exposed to a continuous sequence of shapes, syllables, scenes, or tones containing temporal regularities in the co-occurrence of items. In a subsequent test phase, the control groups exhibited reliable SL in all conditions, successfully discriminating regularities from recombinations of the same items into novel foil sequences. LSJ, however, exhibited no SL, failing to discriminate regularities from foils. Experiment 3 ruled out more general explanations for this failure, such as inattention during exposure or difficulty following test instructions, by showing that LSJ could discriminate which individual items had been exposed. These findings provide converging support for the importance of the MTL in extracting temporal regularities. PMID:24456393

  17. Developmental Differences in Medial Temporal Lobe Function During Memory Encoding

    PubMed Central

    Ghetti, Simona; DeMaster, Dana M.; Yonelinas, Andrew P.; Bunge, Silvia A.

    2010-01-01

    The ability to recollect details about past events improves during childhood. Most researchers favor the view that this improvement depends largely on the development of the prefrontal cortex (PFC), which is thought to have a protracted course of development relative to the medial temporal lobes (MTL). The primary goal of the present study was to test the hypothesis that the development of detail recollection is also associated with changes in MTL function. We collected functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) data during an incidental encoding task in 80 participants, divided equally across four age groups: 8-year-olds, 10- to 11-year-olds, 14-year-olds, and young adults. Developmental differences in MTL activation profiles were observed. 14-year-olds and adults engaged regions of the hippocampus and posterior parahippocampal gyrus selectively for subsequent detail recollection, whereas 8- and 10- to 11-year-olds did not. In 8-year-olds, these regions were recruited indiscriminately for detail recollection and item recognition, and in 10- to 11-year-olds, activation in these regions did not consistently predict subsequent memory. These results suggest changes in the functional organization of the MTL, such that the hippocampus and posterior parahippocampal gyrus become increasingly specialized for recollection; these changes may be in part responsible for long-term memory improvements during childhood. PMID:20631183

  18. Morphometric Correlation of Impulsivity in Medial Prefrontal Cortex

    PubMed Central

    Cho, Sang Soo; Pellecchia, Giovanna; Aminian, Kelly; Ray, Nicola; Segura, Barbara; Obeso, Ignacio

    2014-01-01

    Impulsivity is a complex behaviour composed of different domains encompassing behavioural disinhibition, risky decision-making and delay discounting abnormalities. To investigate regional brain correlates between levels of individual impulsivity and grey matter volume, we performed voxel-based morphometric correlation analysis in 34 young, healthy subjects using impulsivity scores measured with Barratt Impulsivity Scale-11 and computerized Kirby’s delay discounting task. The VBM analysis showed that impulsivity appears to be reliant on a network of cortical (medial prefrontal cortex and dorsolateral prefrontal cortex) and subcortical (ventral striatum) structures emphasizing the importance of brain networks associated with reward related decision-making in daily life as morphological biomarkers for impulsivity in a normal healthy population. While our results in healthy volunteers may not directly extend to pathological conditions, they provide an insight into the mechanisms of impulsive behaviour in patients with abnormalities in prefrontal/frontal-striatal connections, such as in drug abuse, pathological gambling, ADHD and Parkinson’s disease. PMID:23274773

  19. Structural development and dorsoventral maturation of the medial entorhinal cortex

    PubMed Central

    Ray, Saikat; Brecht, Michael

    2016-01-01

    We investigated the structural development of superficial-layers of medial entorhinal cortex and parasubiculum in rats. The grid-layout and cholinergic-innervation of calbindin-positive pyramidal-cells in layer-2 emerged around birth while reelin-positive stellate-cells were scattered throughout development. Layer-3 and parasubiculum neurons had a transient calbindin-expression, which declined with age. Early postnatally, layer-2 pyramidal but not stellate-cells co-localized with doublecortin – a marker of immature neurons – suggesting delayed functional-maturation of pyramidal-cells. Three observations indicated a dorsal-to-ventral maturation of entorhinal cortex and parasubiculum: (i) calbindin-expression in layer-3 neurons decreased progressively from dorsal-to-ventral, (ii) doublecortin in layer-2 calbindin-positive-patches disappeared dorsally before ventrally, and (iii) wolframin-expression emerged earlier in dorsal than ventral parasubiculum. The early appearance of calbindin-pyramidal-grid-organization in layer-2 suggests that this pattern is instructed by genetic information rather than experience. Superficial-layer-microcircuits mature earlier in dorsal entorhinal cortex, where small spatial-scales are represented. Maturation of ventral-entorhinal-microcircuits – representing larger spatial-scales – follows later around the onset of exploratory behavior. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.13343.001 PMID:27036175

  20. Stochastic interpolation model of the medial superior olive neural circuit.

    PubMed

    Sanda, Pavel; Marsalek, Petr

    2012-01-24

    This article presents a stochastic model of binaural hearing in the medial superior olive (MSO) circuit. This model is a variant of the slope encoding models. First, a general framework is developed describing the elementary neural operations realized on spike trains in individual parts of the circuit and how the neurons converging onto the MSO are connected. Random delay, coincidence detection of spikes, divergence and convergence of spike trains are operations implemented by the following modules: spike generator, jitter generator, and coincidence detector. Subsequent processing of spike trains computes the sound azimuth in the circuit. The circuit parameters that influence efficiency of slope encoding are studied. In order to measure the overall circuit performance the concept of an ideal observer is used instead of a detailed model of higher relays in the auditory pathway. This makes it possible to bridge the gap between psychophysical observations in humans and recordings taken of small rodents. Most of the results are obtained through numerical simulations of the model. PMID:21920505

  1. Medial PFC Damage Abolishes the Self-reference Effect

    PubMed Central

    Philippi, Carissa L.; Duff, Melissa C.; Denburg, Natalie L.; Tranel, Daniel; Rudrauf, David

    2012-01-01

    Functional neuroimaging studies suggest that the medial PFC (mPFC) is a key component of a large-scale neural system supporting a variety of self-related processes. However, it remains unknown whether the mPFC is critical for such processes. In this study, we used a human lesion approach to examine this question. We administered a standard trait judgment paradigm [Kelley, W. M., Macrae, C. N., Wyland, C. L., Caglar, S., Inati, S., & Heatherton, T. F. Finding the self? An event-related fMRI study. Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience, 14, 785–794, 2002] to patients with focal brain damage to the mPFC. The self-reference effect (SRE), a memory advantage conferred by self-related processing, served as a measure of intact self-processing ability. We found that damage to the mPFC abolished the SRE. The results demonstrate that the mPFC is necessary for the SRE and suggest that this structure is important for self-referential processing and the neural representation of self. PMID:21942762

  2. The role of the medial prefrontal cortex in social categorization.

    PubMed

    Molenberghs, Pascal; Morrison, Samantha

    2014-03-01

    Group membership is an important aspect of our everyday behavior. Recently, we showed that existing relevant in-group labels increased activation in the medial prefrontal cortex (MPFC) compared with out-group labels, suggesting a role of the MPFC in social categorization. However, the question still remains whether this increase in MPFC activation for in-group representation is solely related with previous experience with the in-group. To test this, we randomly assigned participants to a red or blue team and in a subsequent functional magnetic resonance imaging experiment they categorized red and blue team words as belonging to either the in-group or the out-group. Results showed that even under these minimal conditions increased activation was found in the MPFC when participants indicated that they belonged to a group, as compared with when they did not. This effect was found to be associated with the level of group identification. These results confirm the role of MPFC in social categorization. PMID:23175678

  3. Basket-Weave Technique for Medial Patellofemoral Ligament Reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Kodkani, Pranjal S

    2015-06-01

    The anatomy of the medial patellofemoral ligament (MPFL) has been well defined, with parts of its uppermost fibers having a soft-tissue insertion onto the vastus intermedius. Bone tunnels and implants on the patellar side therefore cannot replicate this anatomic construct precisely. Because of implants and tunnels, complications have been reported with bone tunnel fracture. Similarly, on the femoral side, rigid fixation with implants can result in over-constraint with compromised results. Moreover, bone tunnels cannot be used in skeletally immature cases. To overcome issues related to bone tunneling and implants, as well as to reconstruct the MPFL in a precise anatomic manner, an all-soft-tissue fixation technique was devised. Bony landmarks were used as reference points instead of radiologic markers to achieve a more precise construct and to eliminate intraoperative radiography. Hamstring graft was used to reconstruct the MPFL. Special suturing techniques were used to achieve optimal graft fixation with minimal suture knots. A special tissue elevator-suture passer device was designed to facilitate graft passage and ease in performing the procedure. This technique permits differential tensioning, and therefore one achieves stability throughout the range of motion. PMID:26258044

  4. Decoding Representations of Scenes in the Medial Temporal Lobes

    PubMed Central

    Bonnici, Heidi M; Kumaran, Dharshan; Chadwick, Martin J; Weiskopf, Nikolaus; Hassabis, Demis; Maguire, Eleanor A

    2012-01-01

    Recent theoretical perspectives have suggested that the function of the human hippocampus, like its rodent counterpart, may be best characterized in terms of its information processing capacities. In this study, we use a combination of high-resolution functional magnetic resonance imaging, multivariate pattern analysis, and a simple decision making task, to test specific hypotheses concerning the role of the medial temporal lobe (MTL) in scene processing. We observed that while information that enabled two highly similar scenes to be distinguished was widely distributed throughout the MTL, more distinct scene representations were present in the hippocampus, consistent with its role in performing pattern separation. As well as viewing the two similar scenes, during scanning participants also viewed morphed scenes that spanned a continuum between the original two scenes. We found that patterns of hippocampal activity during morph trials, even when perceptual inputs were held entirely constant (i.e., in 50% morph trials), showed a robust relationship with participants' choices in the decision task. Our findings provide evidence for a specific computational role for the hippocampus in sustaining detailed representations of complex scenes, and shed new light on how the information processing capacities of the hippocampus may influence the decision making process. © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:21656874

  5. Medial prefrontal cortex subserves diverse forms of self-reflection.

    PubMed

    Jenkins, Adrianna C; Mitchell, Jason P

    2011-01-01

    The ability to think about oneself--to self--reflect--is one of the defining features of the human mind. Recent research has suggested that this ability may be subserved by a particular brain region: the medial prefrontal cortex (MPFC). However, although humans can contemplate a variety of different aspects of themselves, including their stable personality traits, current feelings, and physical attributes, no research has directly examined the extent to which these different forms of self-reflection are subserved by common mechanisms. To address this question, participants were scanned using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) while making judgments about their own personality traits, current mental states, and physical attributes as well as those of another person. Whereas some brain regions responded preferentially during only one form of self-reflection, a robust region of MPFC was engaged preferentially during self-reflection across all three types of judgment. These results suggest that--although dissociable--diverse forms of self-referential thought draw on a shared cognitive process subserved by MPFC. PMID:20711940

  6. Theta synchronizes the activity of medial prefrontal neurons during learning.

    PubMed

    Paz, Rony; Bauer, Elizabeth P; Paré, Denis

    2008-07-01

    Memory consolidation is thought to involve the gradual transfer of transient hippocampal-dependent traces to distributed neocortical sites via the rhinal cortices. Recently, medial prefrontal (mPFC) neurons were shown to facilitate this process when their activity becomes synchronized. However, the mechanisms underlying this enhanced synchrony remain unclear. Because the hippocampus projects to the mPFC, we tested whether theta oscillations contribute to synchronize mPFC neurons during learning. Thus, we obtained field (LFP) and unit recordings from multiple mPFC sites during the acquisition of a trace-conditioning task, where a visual conditioned stimulus (CS) predicted reward delivery. In quiet waking, the activity of mPFC neurons was modulated by theta oscillations. During conditioning, CS presentation caused an increase in mPFC theta power that augmented as the CS gained predictive value for reward delivery. This increased theta power coincided with a transient theta phase locking at distributed mPFC sites, an effect that was also manifest in the timing of mPFC unit activity. Overall, these results show that theta oscillations contribute to synchronize neuronal activity at distributed mPFC sites, suggesting that the hippocampus, by generating a stronger theta source during learning, can synchronize mPFC activity, in turn facilitating rhinal transfer of its activity to the neocortex. PMID:18612069

  7. Medial Patellofemoral Ligament Reconstruction in Skeletally Immature Patients

    PubMed Central

    Yercan, Hüseyin Serhat; Kale, Gürler; Erkan, Serkan; Özalp, Taçkın; Okcu, Güvenir

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: To evaluate the clinical outcome after medial patellofemoral ligament (MPFL) reconstruction for patellofemoral instability in skeletally immature patients. Methods: Study participants were 8 patients ( median age, 10 years; range, 5-14 and one male , others female) who had suffered from persistent patellofemoral instability. Our technique preserves femoral and patellar insertion anatomy of MPFL using a free semitendinosus autograft, together with tenodesis to the adductor magnus tendon thus sparing the open physis of distal femur and the patellar attachment of MPFL. The clinical results were evaluated preoperatively and the final follow-up period using the Kujala patellofemoral score. Patellar shift, tilt and height were measured preoperatively and on the latest follow-up on plain radiographs. Results: At average 42 months follow-up ( range, 16 to 56), %80 of patients were satisfied with the treatment. Redislocation or instability symptoms occurred in two patients. No apprehension signs or redislocations were seen in the remanining six patients. A significant improvement (p‹0.05) in Kujala score (from 36 to 77) was found. Patellar shift & tilt decreased to anatomic values in six patients but patella alta persisted. Conclusion: The result of this study show that MPFL reconstruction with our technique seems to be an effective treatment for recurrent and habitual patellofemoral dislocation in skeletally immature patients; leading to significant increases in stability and functionality.

  8. Bilateral superior rectus transposition for congenital exotropia associated with anomalous medial rectus muscles.

    PubMed

    Kodsi, Sylvia R

    2015-10-01

    Superior rectus transposition to the lateral rectus insertion without inferior rectus transposition has been used to correct esotropic deviations secondary to Duane syndrome and abducens nerve palsy. This is usually combined with an augmented posterior fixation suture of the superior rectus muscle to the lateral rectus muscle and ipsilateral medial rectus recession. We report a child with a large-angle congenital exotropia who was found to have anomalous medial rectus muscles bilaterally. Bilateral superior rectus transposition to the medial rectus insertion with bilateral lateral rectus recessions achieved good ocular alignment in primary position. PMID:26486030

  9. Bilateral medial displacement of the biceps tendon of origin: repair using polypropylene mesh and staples.

    PubMed

    Barnes, D M

    2013-09-01

    A three-year-old male greyhound was presented with acute onset right forelimb lameness because of medial displacement of the biceps tendon of origin. Ultrasonographic examination confirmed the diagnosis, and a concomitant partial tear of the medial glenohumeral ligament was detected during arthroscopy. To stabilise the biceps tendon, polypropylene mesh was fixed across the intertubercular groove to replace the torn transverse humeral retinaculum. Recovery was uneventful and lameness resolved. Fifteen months later, the dog was presented with medial displacement of the biceps tendon of origin of the left shoulder, and was treated successfully using the same technique. PMID:23614688

  10. Discoid medial meniscus with a horizontal cleavage tear: a juvenile who suffered for 3 years.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jingqing; Gao, Shijun; Chen, Baicheng

    2012-09-01

    It is very rare to see medial discoid meniscus, and there have been only 82 knees in 61 cases reported to date. The investigators found discoid medial meniscus with horizontal cleavage tear in a 13-year-old juvenile who had been injured while playing basketball, and endured for 3 years. Both magnetic resonance images and the arthroscopic findings were presented. Saucerization of the torn discoid medial meniscus was performed successfully, and the clinical outcomes were satisfying according to the follow-up of 14 months. PMID:21912338

  11. 31 CFR 510.301 - Blocked account; blocked property.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Blocked account; blocked property. 510.301 Section 510.301 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY NORTH KOREA SANCTIONS REGULATIONS General Definitions § 510.301 Blocked...

  12. View southeast of caps for blocks for JFK; blocks are ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View southeast of caps for blocks for JFK; blocks are used to support ship when it is repositioned to paint inaccessible areas masked by original support blocks. - Naval Base Philadelphia-Philadelphia Naval Shipyard, Carpentry Shop, League Island, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  13. Right bundle branch block: an uncommon cardiotoxic manifestation of hair dye poisoning-a case report.

    PubMed

    Balasubramanian, Deepak; Subramanian, Saravanan; Thangaraju, Pugazhenthan; Shanmugam, Kani

    2014-01-01

    Hair dye poisoning has been rising in incidence in the recent years. Apart from the commoner manifestations of upper airway edema, rhabdomyolysis and acute renal failure, cardiac toxicity, convulsions and sudden cardiac death are relatively rare complications. We discuss a case of hair dye poisoning manifesting as oropharyngeal edema along with cardiac complication. The patient survived. PMID:24596762

  14. Title Sheet, National Home for Disabled Volunteer Soldiers, Northwestern Branch ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Title Sheet, National Home for Disabled Volunteer Soldiers, Northwestern Branch - National Home for Disabled Volunteer Soldiers, Northwestern Branch, 5000 West National Avenue, Milwaukee, Milwaukee County, WI

  15. Ear - blocked at high altitudes

    MedlinePlus

    High altitudes and blocked ears; Flying and blocked ears; Eustachian tube dysfunction - high altitude ... you are going up or coming down from high altitudes. Chewing gum the entire time you are changing ...

  16. The behaviors of optimal precursors during wintertime Eurasian blocking onset

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Zhina; Wang, Donghai

    2012-11-01

    In this paper the optimal precursors for wintertime Eurasian blocking onset are acquired by solving a nonlinear optimization problem whose objective function is constructed based on a blocking index with a triangular T21, three-level, quasi-geostrophic global spectral model. The winter climatological state is chosen as the reference basic state. Numerical results show that the optimal precursors are characterized by a baroclinic pattern with a westward tilt with height, which are mainly located upstream of the blocking region. For an optimization time of 5 days, these perturbations are mainly localized over the Northeast Atlantic Ocean and continental Europe. With the extension of the optimization time to 8 days, these perturbations are distributed more upstream and extensively in the zonal direction. Wave spectrum analysis reveals that the optimal precursors are composed of not only synoptic-scale (wave numbers 5-18) waves, but planetary-scale (wave numbers 0-4) waves as well. The synoptic-scale optimal precursors are mainly located in the mid-latitude area, while the planetary-scale optimal precursors focus primarily on the high-latitude region. The formation of a strong planetary-scale positive blocking anomaly is accompanied by the reinforcement of synoptic-scale perturbations and further fragmentation into two branches, in which the northern branch is generally stronger than the southern one. The eddy forcing arising from the self-interaction of synoptic-scale disturbances is shown to be crucial in triggering the dipole blocking anomaly, and the planetary-scale optimal precursor provides the initial favorable background conditions for blocking onset.

  17. Branch management: mechanisms of axon branching in the developing vertebrate CNS

    PubMed Central

    Kalil, Katherine; Dent, Erik W.

    2014-01-01

    The remarkable ability of a single axon to extend multiple branches and form terminal arbors allows vertebrate neurons to integrate information from divergent regions of the nervous system. Axons select appropriate pathways during development, but it is the branches that extend interstitially from the axon shaft and arborize at specific targets that are responsible for virtually all of the synaptic connectivity in the vertebrate CNS. How do axons form branches at specific target regions? Recent studies have identified molecular cues that activate intracellular signalling pathways in axons and mediate dynamic reorganization of the cytoskeleton to promote the formation of axon branches. PMID:24356070

  18. Porous block nanofiber composite filters

    DOEpatents

    Ginley, David S.; Curtis, Calvin J.; Miedaner, Alexander; Weiss, Alan J.; Paddock, Arnold

    2016-08-09

    Porous block nano-fiber composite (110), a filtration system (10) and methods of using the same are disclosed. An exemplary porous block nano-fiber composite (110) includes a porous block (100) having one or more pores (200). The porous block nano-fiber composite (110) also includes a plurality of inorganic nano-fibers (211) formed within at least one of the pores (200).

  19. Northwestern Branch of Mangala Vallis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    (Released 12 June 2002) The Science One of the many branches of the Mangala Vallis channel system is seen in this image. The water that likely carved the channels emerged from a huge graben or fracture almost 1000 km to the south. The THEMIS image shows where one of the channels exits the cratered highlands terrain onto the lowland plains. A bright scarp marks the transition between the two terrain types and demonstrates that in this location the highlands terrain is being eroded back. Note how the floor of the main channel appears to be at the same level as the lowland terrain, suggestive of a base level where erosion is no longer effective. Most of the steep slope faces in the image display darker slope streaks that are thought to be dust avalanche scars and indicate that a relatively thick mantle of dust is present in this region. Wind-sculpted ridges known as yardangs cover many of the surfaces throughout the area as shown by images from the Mars Global Surveyor mission. Most of them are at the limit of resolution in the THEMIS image but some are evident on the floor of the main channel at the point at which a smaller side channel enters. In this location they appear to extend right up to the base of the channel wall, giving the appearance that they are emerging from underneath the thick pile of material into which the channel is eroded. This suggests a geologic history in which a preexisting landscape of eroded yardangs was covered over by a thick pile of younger material that is now eroding back down to the original level. Alternatively, it is possible that the yardangs formed more recently at the abrupt transition between the channel floor and wall. More analysis is necessary to sort out the story. The Story This channel system is named 'Mangala,' the word for Mars in Sanskrit, a language of the Hindus of India that goes back more than 4,000 years, with written literature almost as long. Great epic tales have been written in this language, and Odyssey is

  20. Using Attribute Blocks with Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huntsberger, John P.

    1978-01-01

    The classroom use of attribute blocks to develop thinking skills is defended in this article. Divergent-productive thinking is identified as an important skill that can be developed by using these blocks. However, teacher commitment and involvement in the program is considered necessary. Suggestions for using these blocks are included. (MA)

  1. Building Curriculum during Block Play

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Andrews, Nicole

    2015-01-01

    Blocks are not just for play! In this article, Nicole Andrews describes observing the interactions of three young boys enthusiastically engaged in the kindergarten block center of their classroom, using blocks in a building project that displayed their ability to use critical thinking skills, physics exploration, and the development of language…

  2. Property Blocks: Games and Activities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Humphreys, Alan, Ed.; Dailey, Jean, Ed.

    This pamphlet describes the property blocks produced by MINNEMAST, and discusses their use in the development of thinking processes. Classification systems, including block diagrams and tree diagrams, are discussed. Sixteen classroom activities and eleven games which use the blocks are described. Suggestions to the teacher for further reading are…

  3. Characterizing Variation of Branch Angle and Genome-Wide Association Mapping in Rapeseed (Brassica napus L.).

    PubMed

    Liu, Jia; Wang, Wenxiang; Mei, Desheng; Wang, Hui; Fu, Li; Liu, Daoming; Li, Yunchang; Hu, Qiong

    2016-01-01

    Changes in the rapeseed branch angle alter plant architecture, allowing more efficient light capture as planting density increases. In this study, a natural population of rapeseed was grown in three environments and evaluated for branch angle trait to characterize their phenotypic patterns and genotype with a 60K Brassica Infinium SNP array. Significant phenotypic variation was observed from 20 to 70°. As a result, 25 significant quantitative trait loci (QTL) associated with branch angle were identified on chromosomes A2, A3, A7, C3, C5, and C7 by the MLM model in TASSEL 4.0. Orthologs of the functional candidate genes involved in branch angle were identified. Among the key QTL, the peak SNPs were close to the key orthologous genes BnaA.Lazy1 and BnaC.Lazy1 on A3 and C3 homologous genome blocks. With the exception of Lazy (LA) orthologous genes, SQUMOSA PROMOTER BINDING PROTEIN LIKE 14 (SPL14) and an auxin-responsive GRETCHEN HAGEN 3 (GH3) genes from Arabidopsis thaliana were identified close to two clusters of SNPs on the A7 and C7 chromosomes. These findings on multiple novel loci and candidate genes of branch angle will be useful for further understanding and genetic improvement of plant architecture in rapeseed. PMID:26870051

  4. Characterizing Variation of Branch Angle and Genome-Wide Association Mapping in Rapeseed (Brassica napus L.)

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Jia; Wang, Wenxiang; Mei, Desheng; Wang, Hui; Fu, Li; Liu, Daoming; Li, Yunchang; Hu, Qiong

    2016-01-01

    Changes in the rapeseed branch angle alter plant architecture, allowing more efficient light capture as planting density increases. In this study, a natural population of rapeseed was grown in three environments and evaluated for branch angle trait to characterize their phenotypic patterns and genotype with a 60K Brassica Infinium SNP array. Significant phenotypic variation was observed from 20 to 70°. As a result, 25 significant quantitative trait loci (QTL) associated with branch angle were identified on chromosomes A2, A3, A7, C3, C5, and C7 by the MLM model in TASSEL 4.0. Orthologs of the functional candidate genes involved in branch angle were identified. Among the key QTL, the peak SNPs were close to the key orthologous genes BnaA.Lazy1 and BnaC.Lazy1 on A3 and C3 homologous genome blocks. With the exception of Lazy (LA) orthologous genes, SQUMOSA PROMOTER BINDING PROTEIN LIKE 14 (SPL14) and an auxin-responsive GRETCHEN HAGEN 3 (GH3) genes from Arabidopsis thaliana were identified close to two clusters of SNPs on the A7 and C7 chromosomes. These findings on multiple novel loci and candidate genes of branch angle will be useful for further understanding and genetic improvement of plant architecture in rapeseed. PMID:26870051

  5. CORE SATURATION BLOCKING OSCILLATOR

    DOEpatents

    Spinrad, R.J.

    1961-10-17

    A blocking oscillator which relies on core saturation regulation to control the output pulse width is described. In this arrangement an external magnetic loop is provided in which a saturable portion forms the core of a feedback transformer used with the thermionic or semi-conductor active element. A first stationary magnetic loop establishes a level of flux through the saturation portion of the loop. A second adjustable magnet moves the flux level to select a saturation point giving the desired output pulse width. (AEC)

  6. Where the brain grows old: decline in anterior cingulate and medial prefrontal function with normal aging.

    PubMed

    Pardo, José V; Lee, Joel T; Sheikh, Sohail A; Surerus-Johnson, Christa; Shah, Hemant; Munch, Kristin R; Carlis, John V; Lewis, Scott M; Kuskowski, Michael A; Dysken, Maurice W

    2007-04-15

    Even healthy adults worry about declines in mental efficiency with aging. Subjective changes in mental flexibility, self-regulation, processing speed, and memory are often cited. We show here that focal decreases in brain activity occur with normal aging as measured with fluorodeoxyglucose and positron emission tomography. The largest declines localize to a medial network including the anterior cingulate/medial prefrontal cortex, dorsomedial thalamus, and sugenual cingulate/basal forebrain. Declining metabolism in this network correlates with declining cognitive function. The medial prefrontal metabolic changes with aging are similar in magnitude to the hypometabolism found in Mild Cognitive Impairment or Alzheimer's disease. These results converge with data from healthy elderly indicating dysfunction in the anterior attention system. The interaction of attention in the anterior cingulate cortex with memory in the medial temporal lobe may explain the global impairment that defines dementia. Despite the implications for an aging population, the neurophysiologic mechanisms of these metabolic decreases remain unknown. PMID:17321756

  7. Unilateral Resection of the Anterior Medial Temporal Lobe Impairs Odor Identification and Valence Perception

    PubMed Central

    Juran, Stephanie A.; Lundström, Johan N.; Geigant, Michael; Kumlien, Eva; Fredrikson, Mats; Åhs, Fredrik; Olsson, Mats J.

    2016-01-01

    The anterior medial temporal lobe (TL), including the amygdala, has been implicated in olfactory processing, e.g., coding for intensity and valence, and seems also involved in memory. With this background, the present study evaluated whether anterior medial TL-resections in TL epilepsy affected intensity and valence ratings, as well as free and cued identification of odors. These aspects of odor perception were assessed in 31 patients with unilateral anterior medial TL-resections (17 left, 14 right) and 16 healthy controls. Results suggest that the anterior medial TL is in particular necessary for free, but also cued, odor identification. TL resection was also found to impair odor valence, but not intensity ratings. Left resected patients rated nominally pleasant and unpleasant odors as more neutral suggesting a special role for the left anterior TL in coding for emotional saliency in response to odors. PMID:26779109

  8. Medial thigh pain: An unusual presentation of giant calculi in sigmoid neobladder

    PubMed Central

    Abrol, Nitin; Gupta, Narmada; Kumar, Rajeev

    2011-01-01

    Calculi in a neobladder usually present with irritative lower urinary tract symptoms, flank pain, and haematuria. We report a case of giant stones in a sigmoid neobladder, who presented with medial thigh pain. PMID:21814323

  9. Open reduction of medial epicondyle fractures: operative tips for technical ease.

    PubMed

    Kamath, Atul F; Cody, Stephanie R; Hosalkar, Harish S

    2009-08-01

    In the pediatric population, medial humeral epicondylar fractures account for nearly 12% of all elbow fractures. There is ongoing debate about the surgical management of medial epicondyle fracture cases. Our technique in the operative management of medial epicondyle fractures uses the external application of an Esmarch bandage, as well as provisional fixation with needle rather than K-wire fixation. This technique decreases the need for soft-tissue release and, therefore, theoretically, maintains soft-tissue vascularity of the small fracture fragments. Moreover, it preserves the soft-tissue tension medially. It involves the use of a bandage that is universally available in orthopedic operating rooms, including those in developing nations. It is easy to apply by either the principal or assisting surgeon. With practice, it cuts down operative time and can help substitute for an assistant. This relatively simple operative technique makes for a more seamless operative process, improved reduction, and key preservation of soft-tissue vascularity. PMID:19506930

  10. Recruitment of the Rhesus soleus and medial gastrocnemius before, during and after spaceflight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roy, R. R.; Hodgson, J. A.; Aragon, J.; Day, M. K.; Kozlovskaya, I.; Edgerton, V. R.

    1996-01-01

    Electromyograms were recorded from the soleus and medial gastrocnemius muscles and tendon force from the medial gastrocnemius muscle of 2 juvenile Rhesus monkeys before, during and after Cosmos flight 2229 and of ground control animals. Recording sessions were made while the Rhesus were performing a foot pedal motor task. Preflight testing indicated normal patterns of recruitment between the soleus and medial gastrocnemius, i.e. a higher level of recruitment of the soleus compared to the medial gastrocnemius during the task. Recording began two days into the spaceflight and showed that the media gastrocnemius was recruited preferentially over the soleus. This observation persisted throughout the flight and for the 2 week period of postflight testing. These data indicate a significant change in the relative recruitment of slow and fast extensor muscles under microgravity conditions. The appearance of clonic-like activity in one muscle of each Rhesus during flight further suggests a reorganization in the neuromotor system in a microgravity environment.

  11. Unilateral Resection of the Anterior Medial Temporal Lobe Impairs Odor Identification and Valence Perception.

    PubMed

    Juran, Stephanie A; Lundström, Johan N; Geigant, Michael; Kumlien, Eva; Fredrikson, Mats; Åhs, Fredrik; Olsson, Mats J

    2015-01-01

    The anterior medial temporal lobe (TL), including the amygdala, has been implicated in olfactory processing, e.g., coding for intensity and valence, and seems also involved in memory. With this background, the present study evaluated whether anterior medial TL-resections in TL epilepsy affected intensity and valence ratings, as well as free and cued identification of odors. These aspects of odor perception were assessed in 31 patients with unilateral anterior medial TL-resections (17 left, 14 right) and 16 healthy controls. Results suggest that the anterior medial TL is in particular necessary for free, but also cued, odor identification. TL resection was also found to impair odor valence, but not intensity ratings. Left resected patients rated nominally pleasant and unpleasant odors as more neutral suggesting a special role for the left anterior TL in coding for emotional saliency in response to odors. PMID:26779109

  12. Branch Architecture, Light Interception and Crown Development in Saplings of a Plagiotropically Branching Tropical Tree, Polyalthia jenkinsii (Annonaceae)

    PubMed Central

    OSADA, NORIYUKI; TAKEDA, HIROSHI

    2003-01-01

    To investigate crown development patterns, branch architecture, branch‐level light interception, and leaf and branch dynamics were studied in saplings of a plagiotropically branching tree species, Polyalthia jenkinsii Hk. f. & Thoms. (Annonaceae) in a Malaysian rain forest. Lengths of branches and parts of the branches lacking leaves (‘bare’ branches) were smaller in upper branches than in lower branches within crowns, whereas lengths of ‘leafy’ parts and the number of leaves per branch were larger in intermediate than in upper and lower branches. Maximum diffuse light absorption (DLA) of individual leaves was not related to sapling height or branch position within crowns, whereas minimum DLA was lower in tall saplings. Accordingly, branch‐level light interception was higher in intermediate than in upper and lower branches. The leaf production rate was higher and leaf loss rate was smaller in upper than in intermediate and lower branches. Moreover, the branch production rate of new first‐order branches was larger in the upper crowns. Thus, leaf and branch dynamics do not correspond to branch‐level light interception in the different canopy zones. As a result of architectural constraints, branches at different vertical positions experience predictable light microenvironments in plagiotropic species. Accordingly, this pattern of carbon allocation among branches might be particularly important for growth and crown development in plagiotropic species. PMID:12495920

  13. Metabolic Reprogramming by Hexosamine Biosynthetic and Golgi N-Glycan Branching Pathways

    PubMed Central

    Ryczko, Michael C.; Pawling, Judy; Chen, Rui; Abdel Rahman, Anas M.; Yau, Kevin; Copeland, Julia K.; Zhang, Cunjie; Surendra, Anu; Guttman, David S.; Figeys, Daniel; Dennis, James W.

    2016-01-01

    De novo uridine-diphosphate-N-acetylglucosamine (UDP-GlcNAc) biosynthesis requires glucose, glutamine, acetyl-CoA and uridine, however GlcNAc salvaged from glycoconjugate turnover and dietary sources also makes a significant contribution to the intracellular pool. Herein we ask whether dietary GlcNAc regulates nutrient transport and intermediate metabolism in C57BL/6 mice by increasing UDP-GlcNAc and in turn Golgi N-glycan branching. GlcNAc added to the drinking water showed a dose-dependent increase in growth of young mice, while in mature adult mice fat and body-weight increased without affecting calorie-intake, activity, energy expenditure, or the microbiome. Oral GlcNAc increased hepatic UDP-GlcNAc and N-glycan branching on hepatic glycoproteins. Glucose homeostasis, hepatic glycogen, lipid metabolism and response to fasting were altered with GlcNAc treatment. In cultured cells GlcNAc enhanced uptake of glucose, glutamine and fatty-acids, and enhanced lipid synthesis, while inhibition of Golgi N-glycan branching blocked GlcNAc-dependent lipid accumulation. The N-acetylglucosaminyltransferase enzymes of the N-glycan branching pathway (Mgat1,2,4,5) display multistep ultrasensitivity to UDP-GlcNAc, as well as branching-dependent compensation. Indeed, oral GlcNAc rescued fat accumulation in lean Mgat5−/− mice and in cultured Mgat5−/− hepatocytes, consistent with N-glycan branching compensation. Our results suggest GlcNAc reprograms cellular metabolism by enhancing nutrient uptake and lipid storage through the UDP-GlcNAc supply to N-glycan branching pathway. PMID:26972830

  14. Metabolic Reprogramming by Hexosamine Biosynthetic and Golgi N-Glycan Branching Pathways.

    PubMed

    Ryczko, Michael C; Pawling, Judy; Chen, Rui; Abdel Rahman, Anas M; Yau, Kevin; Copeland, Julia K; Zhang, Cunjie; Surendra, Anu; Guttman, David S; Figeys, Daniel; Dennis, James W

    2016-01-01

    De novo uridine-diphosphate-N-acetylglucosamine (UDP-GlcNAc) biosynthesis requires glucose, glutamine, acetyl-CoA and uridine, however GlcNAc salvaged from glycoconjugate turnover and dietary sources also makes a significant contribution to the intracellular pool. Herein we ask whether dietary GlcNAc regulates nutrient transport and intermediate metabolism in C57BL/6 mice by increasing UDP-GlcNAc and in turn Golgi N-glycan branching. GlcNAc added to the drinking water showed a dose-dependent increase in growth of young mice, while in mature adult mice fat and body-weight increased without affecting calorie-intake, activity, energy expenditure, or the microbiome. Oral GlcNAc increased hepatic UDP-GlcNAc and N-glycan branching on hepatic glycoproteins. Glucose homeostasis, hepatic glycogen, lipid metabolism and response to fasting were altered with GlcNAc treatment. In cultured cells GlcNAc enhanced uptake of glucose, glutamine and fatty-acids, and enhanced lipid synthesis, while inhibition of Golgi N-glycan branching blocked GlcNAc-dependent lipid accumulation. The N-acetylglucosaminyltransferase enzymes of the N-glycan branching pathway (Mgat1,2,4,5) display multistep ultrasensitivity to UDP-GlcNAc, as well as branching-dependent compensation. Indeed, oral GlcNAc rescued fat accumulation in lean Mgat5(-/-) mice and in cultured Mgat5(-/-) hepatocytes, consistent with N-glycan branching compensation. Our results suggest GlcNAc reprograms cellular metabolism by enhancing nutrient uptake and lipid storage through the UDP-GlcNAc supply to N-glycan branching pathway. PMID:26972830

  15. Eikonalization of conformal blocks

    SciTech Connect

    Fitzpatrick, A. Liam; Kaplan, Jared; Walters, Matthew T.; Wang, Junpu

    2015-09-03

    Classical field configurations such as the Coulomb potential and Schwarzschild solution are built from the t-channel exchange of many light degrees of freedom. We study the CFT analog of this phenomenon, which we term the 'eikonalization' of conformal blocks. We show that when an operator T appears in the OPE Ο(x)Ο(0), then the large spin Fock space states [TT···T] also appear in this OPE with a computable coefficient. The sum over the exchange of these Fock space states in an correlator build the classical 'T field' in the dual AdS description. In some limits the sum of all Fock space exchanges can be represented as the exponential of a single T exchange in the 4-pt correlator of O. Our results should be useful for systematizing 1/ℓ perturbation theory in general CFTs and simplifying the computation of large spin OPE coefficients. As examples we obtain the leading log ℓ dependence of Fock space conformal block coefficients, and we directly compute the OPE coefficients of the simplest ‘triple-trace’ operators.

  16. Eikonalization of conformal blocks

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Fitzpatrick, A. Liam; Kaplan, Jared; Walters, Matthew T.; Wang, Junpu

    2015-09-03

    Classical field configurations such as the Coulomb potential and Schwarzschild solution are built from the t-channel exchange of many light degrees of freedom. We study the CFT analog of this phenomenon, which we term the 'eikonalization' of conformal blocks. We show that when an operator T appears in the OPE Ο(x)Ο(0), then the large spin Fock space states [TT···T]ℓ also appear in this OPE with a computable coefficient. The sum over the exchange of these Fock space states in an correlator build the classical 'T field' in the dual AdS description. In some limits the sum of all Fock spacemore » exchanges can be represented as the exponential of a single T exchange in the 4-pt correlator of O. Our results should be useful for systematizing 1/ℓ perturbation theory in general CFTs and simplifying the computation of large spin OPE coefficients. As examples we obtain the leading log ℓ dependence of Fock space conformal block coefficients, and we directly compute the OPE coefficients of the simplest ‘triple-trace’ operators.« less

  17. Medial prefrontal cortex stimulation modulates the processing of conditioned fear

    PubMed Central

    Guhn, Anne; Dresler, Thomas; Andreatta, Marta; Müller, Laura D.; Hahn, Tim; Tupak, Sara V.; Polak, Thomas; Deckert, Jürgen; Herrmann, Martin J.

    2014-01-01

    The extinction of conditioned fear depends on an efficient interplay between the amygdala and the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC). In rats, high-frequency electrical mPFC stimulation has been shown to improve extinction by means of a reduction of amygdala activity. However, so far it is unclear whether stimulation of homologues regions in humans might have similar beneficial effects. Healthy volunteers received one session of either active or sham repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) covering the mPFC while undergoing a 2-day fear conditioning and extinction paradigm. Repetitive TMS was applied offline after fear acquisition in which one of two faces (CS+ but not CS−) was associated with an aversive scream (UCS). Immediate extinction learning (day 1) and extinction recall (day 2) were conducted without UCS delivery. Conditioned responses (CR) were assessed in a multimodal approach using fear-potentiated startle (FPS), skin conductance responses (SCR), functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS), and self-report scales. Consistent with the hypothesis of a modulated processing of conditioned fear after high-frequency rTMS, the active group showed a reduced CS+/CS− discrimination during extinction learning as evident in FPS as well as in SCR and arousal ratings. FPS responses to CS+ further showed a linear decrement throughout both extinction sessions. This study describes the first experimental approach of influencing conditioned fear by using rTMS and can thus be a basis for future studies investigating a complementation of mPFC stimulation to cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT). PMID:24600362

  18. [Medial posteroventral pallidotomy for the treatment of Parkinson's disease].

    PubMed

    Krauss, J K; Grossman, R G; Lai, E C; Schwartz, K; Jankovic, J

    1997-01-01

    Stereotactic medial posteroventral pallidotomy for treatment of Parkinson's disease attracts increasing attention. We report on the preliminary results of 12 patients at 1 year after microelectrode-guided unilateral pallidotomy. The primary indications were severe bradykinesia and levodopa-induced dyskinesias. After radiofrequency lesioning all patients had immediate improvement of contralateral parkinsonian signs. Postoperative magnetic resonance imaging confirmed the localization of the lesions. At the 1-year follow-up, all patients had sustained benefit. The global improvement was rated as moderate in six cases, and as marked in six other cases. The mean values of various subscores of the Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale (UPDRS) showed highly significant changes in the "off" state (pre/postoperatively): UPDRS Motor score (60.3/31). UPDRS Activities of Daily Living (ADL) score (33.2/18.3), gait/postural stability score (13.8/7.0), and subscores for contralateral rigidity (4.9/2.1), tremor (7.1/1.4) and bradykinesia (11.6/5.3). There was also significant improvement of ipsilateral bradykinesia and rigidity. Furthermore, we found significant changes of the mean values of the UPDRS ADL and motor "on" scores, an increase of the percentage of "on" time with reduced on-off fluctuations, and a decrease of the percentage of levodopa-induced dyskinesias, with marked improvement or complete abolition of contralateral dyskinesias in particular. The preoperative levodopa regimen was maintained, in general, or only slightly modified, if necessary. Two patients had transient complications: one patient suffered postoperative pneumonia and altered mental status; another patient displayed mild Broca's aphasia secondary to a small stroke involving the dorsal thalamus and the adjacent white matter. There were no persistent side effects at the 1-year follow-up. Contemporary unilateral pallidotomy is an effective and promising therapeutical option for surgical treatment of

  19. Disconnection Between Amygdala and Medial Prefrontal Cortex in Psychotic Disorders.

    PubMed

    Mukherjee, Prerona; Sabharwal, Amri; Kotov, Roman; Szekely, Akos; Parsey, Ramin; Barch, Deanna M; Mohanty, Aprajita

    2016-07-01

    Distracting emotional information impairs attention more in schizophrenia (SCZ) than in never-psychotic individuals. However, it is unclear whether this impairment and its neural circuitry is indicative generally of psychosis, or specifically of SCZ, and whether it is even more specific to certain SCZ symptoms (eg, deficit syndrome). It is also unclear if this abnormality contributes to impaired behavioral performance and real-world functioning. Functional imaging data were recorded while individuals with SCZ, bipolar disorder with psychosis (BDP) and no history of psychotic disorders (CON) attended to identity of faces while ignoring their emotional expressions. We examined group differences in functional connectivity between amygdala, involved in emotional evaluation, and sub-regions of medial prefrontal cortex (MPFC), involved in emotion regulation and cognitive control. Additionally, we examined correlation of this connectivity with deficit syndrome and real-world functioning. Behaviorally, SCZ showed the worst accuracy when matching the identity of emotional vs neutral faces. Neurally, SCZ showed lower amygdala-MPFC connectivity than BDP and CON. BPD did not differ from CON, neurally or behaviorally. In patients, reduced amygdala-MPFC connectivity during emotional distractors was related to worse emotional vs neutral accuracy, greater deficit syndrome severity, and unemployment. Thus, reduced amygdala-MPFC functional connectivity during emotional distractors reflects a deficit that is specific to SCZ. This reduction in connectivity is associated with worse clinical and real-world functioning. Overall, these findings provide support for the specificity and clinical utility of amygdala-MPFC functional connectivity as a potential neural marker of SCZ. PMID:26908926

  20. Medial Prefrontal Cortex: Adding Value to Imagined Scenarios

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Wen-Jing; Horner, Aidan J.; Bisby, James A.; Burgess, Neil

    2016-01-01

    The medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) is consistently implicated in the network supporting autobiographical memory. Whereas more posterior regions in this network have been related to specific processes, such as the generation of visuospatial imagery or the association of items and contexts, the functional contribution of the mPFC remains unclear. However, the involvement of mPFC in estimation of value during decision-making suggests that it might play a similar role in memory. We investigated whether mPFC activity reflects the subjective value of elements in imagined scenarios. Participants in an MRI scanner imagined scenarios comprising a spatial context, a physiological state of need (e.g., thirst), and two items that could be congruent (e.g., drink) or incongruent (e.g., food) with the state of need. Memory for the scenarios was tested outside the scanner. Our manipulation of subjective value by imagined need was verified by increased subjective ratings of value for congruent items and improved subsequent memory for them. Consistent with our hypothesis, fMRI signal in mPFC reflected the modulation of an item’s subjective value by the imagined physiological state, suggesting the mPFC selectively tracked subjective value within our imagination paradigm. Further analyses showed uncorrected effects in non-mPFC regions, including increased activity in the insula when imagining states of need, the caudate nucleus when imagining congruent items, and the anterior hippocampus/amygdala when imagining subsequently remembered items. We therefore provide evidence that the mPFC plays a role in constructing the subjective value of the components of imagined scenarios and thus potentially in reconstructing the value of components of autobiographical recollection. PMID:26042501