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1

Median  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, students explore median as the middle value of an ordered data set. The mechanics of locating the median are emphasized through visual images, voice explanation, interactive work with even-numbered sets of data, and multiple-choice questions.

2007-01-01

2

Maternal Age and Malformations in Singleton Births  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To examine the effect of maternal age on inci- dence of nonchromosomal fetal malformations. Methods: Malformations detected at birth or in the new- born nursery were catalogued prospectively for 102,728 pregnancies, including abortions, stillbirths, and live births, from January 1, 1988 to December 31, 1994. Maternal age was divided into seven epochs. Relative risks (RRs) were used to compare

LISA M. HOLLIER; KENNETH J. LEVENO; MARY ANN KELLY; DONALD D. MCINTIRE; F. GARY CUNNINGHAM

2000-01-01

3

Maternal age and malformations in singleton births  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To examine the effect of maternal age on incidence of nonchromosomal fetal malformations.Methods: Malformations detected at birth or in the newborn nursery were catalogued prospectively for 102,728 pregnancies, including abortions, stillbirths, and live births, from January 1, 1988 to December 31, 1994. Maternal age was divided into seven epochs. Relative risks (RRs) were used to compare demographic variables and

Lisa M Hollier; Kenneth J Leveno; Mary Ann Kelly; Donald D MCIntire; F. Gary Cunningham

2000-01-01

4

Effects of maternal age on parenting role  

Microsoft Academic Search

Examined the proposition that maternal age influences parental role performance and satisfaction. Mothers, ranging in age from 16 to 38 yrs, comprised 53 full-term and 52 preterm dyads. Perceptions of parenting role were assessed 1 mo after hospital discharge of infancts using the Satisfaction with Parenting Scale; interactive behaviors were observed when infants were 4 mo old. When other demographic

Arlene S Ragozin

1982-01-01

5

Mitochondria, maternal inheritance, and male aging.  

PubMed

The maternal transmission of mitochondrial genomes invokes a sex-specific selective sieve, whereby mutations in mitochondrial DNA can only respond to selection acting directly on females. In theory, this enables male-harming mutations to accumulate in mitochondrial genomes when these same mutations are neutral, beneficial, or only slightly deleterious in their effects on females. Ultimately, this evolutionary process could result in the evolution of male-specific mitochondrial mutation loads; an idea previously termed Mother's Curse. Here, we present evidence that the effects of this process are broader than hitherto realized, and that it has resulted in mutation loads affecting patterns of aging in male, but not female Drosophila melanogaster. Furthermore, our results indicate that the mitochondrial mutation loads affecting male aging generally comprise numerous mutations over multiple sites. Our findings thus suggest that males are subject to dramatic consequences that result from the maternal transmission of mitochondrial genomes. They implicate the diminutive mitochondrial genome as a hotspot for mutations that affect sex-specific patterns of aging, thus promoting the idea that a sex-specific selective sieve in mitochondrial genome evolution is a contributing factor to sexual dimorphism in aging, commonly observed across species. PMID:22863313

Camus, M Florencia; Clancy, David J; Dowling, Damian K

2012-08-02

6

Disparities in preschool immunization coverage associated with maternal age.  

PubMed

Associations between maternal age and preschool immunization coverage are unclear. This study aimed to determine if maternal age is associated with preschool immunization coverage and the importance of maternal age compared with other factors affecting vaccination coverage. Data from the 2001-2003 National Immunization Survey (NIS) were used to estimate vaccine coverage. Children were considered up-to-date (UTD) if they received > or =4 doses of DTaP, > or =3 doses of polio, > or =1 doses of MMR, > or =3 doses of Hib and > or =3 doses of Hep B. Bivariate and multivariate relationships between UTD coverage and maternal, child and household factors were evaluated. Classification tree analysis assessed complex interactions between maternal, child and household factors associated with UTD coverage and isolated the most important factors in predicting UTD coverage. UTD coverage was significantly associated with maternal age: coverage increased as maternal age increased. Coverage among children with 17 year old mothers was 64%; coverage among children of mothers 17-26 years old increased by 16.3% overall (approximately 1.8% per year). After 26 years of age, coverage did not increase significantly as maternal age increased. The relationship between maternal age and UTD coverage remained statistically significant after adjusting for a broad range of maternal, child and household factors. Classification tree analysis suggested that maternal age is the most important factor associated with vaccine coverage. More research is needed to determine the reasons for underimmunization of children born to young mothers. PMID:19556887

Salmon, Daniel A; Smith, Philip J; Pan, William K Y; Navar, Ann Marie; Omer, Saad B; Halsey, Neal A

2009-08-14

7

Rescue of cognitive aging by long-lasting environmental enrichment exposure initiated before median lifespan.  

PubMed

The rescue of cognitive function through environmental enrichment (EE) during aging has been extensively documented. However, the age at onset, the duration of EE, and the cerebral mechanisms required to obtain the greatest benefits still remain to be determined. We have recently shown that EE applied for 3 mo after the median lifespan, i.e., the age at which 50% of the population is still alive (from 17 to 20 mo in NMRI mice), failed to prevent cognitive deficits in senescent animals. In the present study, mice were exposed to EE prior to the median lifespan, and for a longer total duration (from 14 to 20 mo), before the assessment of memory performance and the electrophysiological properties of hippocampal neuronal networks. The EE prevented memory deficits and reduced anxiety as the animal aged. Moreover, EE attenuated the age-related impairment of basal glutamatergic neurotransmission in CA1 hippocampal slices, and reversed the decrease in isolated N-methyl-D-Aspartate receptor (NMDA-R)-dependent synaptic potentials. Surprisingly, EE did not prevent the age-related alteration of theta-burst-induced long-term potentiation (LTP). This study therefore suggests that EE needs to be initiated before the age corresponding to the median lifespan and/or required long duration (> 3 mo) to have an effect on cognitive aging. In addition, we show that EE probably acts through theta-burst-independent mechanisms of synaptic plasticity. PMID:22035592

Freret, T; Billard, J-M; Schumann-Bard, P; Dutar, P; Dauphin, F; Boulouard, M; Bouet, V

2011-10-27

8

Brief Report: Effect of Maternal Age on Severity of Autism  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The etiology of autism is complex, consisting of unknown genetic and environmental factors. Previous studies have revealed that maternal age is increased in autism compared to controls, making it a possible risk factor. This study examined the effects of maternal age on autism severity using IQ as a measure of cognitive severity and selected…

Baxter, Alisa C.; Lotspeich, Linda J.; Spiker, Donna; Martin, Jacquelin L.; Grether, Judith K.; Hallmayer, Joachim F.

2007-01-01

9

Influence of maternal age, gestational age and fetal gender on expression of immune mediators in amniotic fluid  

PubMed Central

Background Variations in cytokine and immune mediator expression patterns in amniotic fluid due to gestational age, maternal age and fetal gender were investigated. Findings Amniotic fluid samples were obtained from 192 women, 82 with a mid-trimester amniocentesis (median gestational age 17?weeks) and 110 with a caesarean section not in labor (median gestational age 39?weeks). Amniotic fluid was screened by commercial ELISAs for the TH1/TH2/TH17 cytokines and immune mediators IL-1 beta, IL-2, IL-4, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, IL-12, IL-15, IL-17, TNF alpha, GRO-alpha, MIP1alpha, MIP1beta, Histone, and IP10. Analysis was by Bonferroni correction for multiple comparisons. None of the 15 examined cytokines revealed any differences in expression patterns regarding fetal gender. Significant differences were found in IL-4, IL-10, IL-12, TNF- alpha, GRO-alpha and MIP1-beta with respect to gestational age and in GRO-alpha regarding maternal age. Conclusion Cytokines utilized as biomarkers in the diagnosis of intrauterine infections are not influenced in their expression pattern by fetal gender but may vary with respect to maternal age and gestational age.

2012-01-01

10

Maternal age and adverse pregnancy outcomes: a cohort study.  

PubMed

OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to examine the association between maternal age and a wide range of adverse pregnancy outcomes after adjustment for confounding factors in obstetric history and maternal characteristics. METHODS: This was a retrospective study in women with singleton pregnancies attending the first routine hospital visit at 11(+0) -13(+6) weeks of gestation. Data on maternal characteristics, medical and obstetric history were collected and pregnancy outcomes ascertained. Maternal age was studied, both as a continuous and as a categorical variable. Regression analysis was performed to examine the association between maternal age and adverse pregnancy outcomes including preeclampsia (PE), gestational hypertension (GH), gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM), preterm delivery (PTD), small for gestational age (SGA), large for gestational age (LGA), miscarriage, stillbirth, elective and emergency cesarean section (CS). RESULTS: The study population included 76,158 singleton pregnancies with a live fetus at 11(+0) -13(+6) weeks. After adjusting for maternal and pregnancy potential confounding variables, advanced maternal age (defined as ?40 years) was associated with increased risk of miscarriage [OR (95% CI): 2.32 (1.83-2.93), p?Maternal age should be combined with other maternal characteristics and obstetric history when calculating an individualised adjusted risk for adverse pregnancy complications. Advanced maternal age is a risk factor for miscarriage, PE, SGA, GDM and CS, but not for stillbirth, GH, spontaneous PTD or LGA. PMID:23630102

Khalil, Asma; Syngelaki, Argyro; Maiz, Nerea; Zinevich, Yana; Nicolaides, Kypros H

2013-04-30

11

Paternal age and maternal age are risk factors for miscarriage; results of a multicentre European study  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: It is well known that miscarriage risk increases with age. However, studies usually investigate only maternal age effects. We investigated both maternal age and paternal age effects on miscarriage risk to provide insight into this frequent reproductive failure. METHODS: The last planned pregnancies (n 3174) that ended in a birth or miscarriage were analysed in a retrospective population-based study

Elise de La Rochebrochard; Patrick Thonneau

12

Maternal body mass index and daughters' age at menarche  

PubMed Central

Background The role of inter-generational influences on age at menarche has not been explored far beyond the association between mothers’ and daughters’ menarcheal ages. Small size at birth and childhood obesity have been associated with younger age at menarche, but the influence of maternal overweight or obesity on daughters’ age at menarche has not been thoroughly examined. Methods In a follow-up study of the prospective Collaborative Perinatal Project grown daughters were asked in 1987-1991 for their age at menarche. Data from the original Collaborative Perinatal Project (1959-1966) included their mothers’ height and pre-pregnancy weight. In the follow-up study, 597 of 627 daughters had complete menarche and maternal data available and were included in the present analysis. We used polytomous logistic regression to examine the association between maternal overweight (body mass index [BMI] = 25-29.9 km/m2) or obesity (BMI ? 30) and daughter’s age at menarche (< 12, 12, 13, > 13 years). Results Compared with those whose mothers had a BMI less than 25, daughters of obese mothers experienced younger age at menarche (OR for menarche at < 12 years=3.1 [1.1 - 9.2]). This association remained after adjusting for maternal age at menarche, maternal parity, socioeconomic status, race, and study site (OR=3.3 [1.1 - 10.0]). Effect estimates for maternal overweight were close to the null. There was limited evidence of mediation by small-for-gestational age or BMI at age 7. Conclusions Maternal obesity is associated with younger menarcheal age among daughters in this study, possibly via unmeasured shared factors.

Keim, Sarah A.; Branum, Amy M.; Klebanoff, Mark A.; Zemel, Babette S.

2011-01-01

13

Maternal and grandmaternal age influence offspring fitness in Drosophila.  

PubMed Central

The influence of maternal and grandmaternal age on progeny egg-to-adult viability was assessed in Drosophila serrata. Viability in progeny decreased with increasing maternal age. The potential for cumulative age effects was investigated in two environments, one of which involved nutrient and cold stress. Environment influenced viability and female age influenced progeny egg-to-adult viability across one generation. The influence on viability was cumulative across two generations. Females from old mothers, who also had old grandmothers, had the lowest viability in both environments. Grandmaternal effects were associated with a decrease in egg hatch rate whereas maternal effects also involved larval-to-adult viability. The age of the mother and grandmother should be taken into account when evaluating life-history traits in Drosophila.

Hercus, M J; Hoffmann, A A

2000-01-01

14

Influence of advanced age of maternal grandmothers on Down syndrome  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Down syndrome (DS) is the most common chromosomal anomaly associated with mental retardation. This is due to the occurrence of free trisomy 21 (92–95%), mosaic trisomy 21 (2–4%) and translocation (3–4%). Advanced maternal age is a well documented risk factor for maternal meiotic nondisjunction. In India three children with DS are born every hour and more DS children are

Suttur S Malini; Nallur B Ramachandra

2006-01-01

15

THE EFFECT OF MATERNAL AGE, GESTATIONAL AGE AND PARITY ON THE SIZE OF THE NEWBORN  

Microsoft Academic Search

A descriptive prospective study was undertaken to determine birth weight, length and head circumference of live births and to examine the effect of maternal age, parity and gestational age on birth sizes of the live births. A total of 459 term singleton maternal- neonate pairs were studied. The neonates had anthropometric measurements determined with in 24hours of life using standard

H. Shajari; V. Marsoosy; M. Aslani; M. R. Mohammad; P. Heshmaty

16

Maternal age, social class, and the obstetric performance of teenagers  

Microsoft Academic Search

It has been widely reported that teenage mothers experience more complications of labor and delivery as well as higher rates of prematurity and low-birth weight infants than women 20–30 years old. However, a few studies have suggested that birth complications are related to social class, not maternal age. The purpose of this study was to examine the interaction of social

Mark W. Roosa

1984-01-01

17

Validity of adolescents' report of maternal age.  

PubMed

Examined the validity of adolescents' reports of their mother's age. Most research on the validity of self-report focuses on personal behaviors such as alcohol and substance use, or response bias due to social desirability. Few studies investigate the validity of adolescents reporting of nonsensitive information. Data from 80 mother-adolescent pairs were collected. The sample included 9th graders from four high school English classes, equal numbers of males and females, and 15% African Americans. The correlation between mothers' reports and youths' reports of mother's age was .99, and 95% of the youth were within a year of their mother's correct age. No race or gender differences were found. These results allow researchers to examine adolescent outcomes for youth born to teen mothers without the expense of also collecting data from their mothers. Results also suggest that adolescents' self-reports of other nonsensitive familial data may also be valid. PMID:9534223

Zimmerman, M A; Rowe, K; Tuttle, L; Bryant, A

1997-12-01

18

Maternal age and risk of stillbirth: a systematic review  

PubMed Central

Background The number of women who delay childbirth to their late 30s and beyond has increased significantly over the past several decades. Studies regarding the relation between older maternal age and the risk of stillbirth have yielded inconsistent conclusions. In this systematic review we explored whether older maternal age is associated with an increased risk of stillbirth. Methods We searched MEDLINE, EMBASE and the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews for all relevant articles (original studies and systematic reviews) published up to Dec. 31, 2006. We included all cohort and case–control studies that measured the association between maternal age and risk of stillbirth. Two reviewers independently abstracted data from all included studies using a standardized data abstraction form. Methodologic and statistical heterogeneities were reviewed and tested. Results We identified 913 unique citations, of which 31 retrospective cohort and 6 case–control studies met our inclusion criteria. In 24 (77%) of the 31 cohort studies and all 6 of the case–control studies, we found that greater maternal age was significantly associated with an increased risk of stillbirth; relative risks varied from 1.20 to 4.53 for older versus younger women. In the 14 studies that presented adjusted relative risk, we found no extensive change in the direction or magnitude of the relative risk after adjustment. We did not calculate a pooled relative risk because of the extreme methodologic heterogeneity among the individual studies. Interpretation Women with advanced maternal age have an increased risk of stillbirth. However, the magnitude and mechanisms of the increased risk are not clear, and prospective studies are warranted.

Huang, Ling; Sauve, Reg; Birkett, Nicholas; Fergusson, Dean; van Walraven, Carl

2008-01-01

19

Down Syndrome: Parental Origin, Recombination, and Maternal Age  

PubMed Central

The aims of the present study were to assess (1) the parental origin of trisomy 21 and the stage in which nondisjunction occurs and (2) the relationship between altered genetic recombination and maternal age as risk factors for trisomy 21. The study included 102 cases with Down syndrome from the Croatian population. Genotyping analyses were performed by polymerase chain reaction using 11 short tandem repeat markers along chromosome 21q. The vast majority of trisomy 21 was of maternal origin (93%), followed by paternal (5%) and mitotic origin (2%). The frequencies of maternal meiotic I (MI) and meiotic II errors were 86% and 14%, respectively. The highest proportion of cases with zero recombination was observed among those with maternal MI derived trisomy 21. A higher proportion of telomeric exchanges were presented in cases with maternal MI errors and cases with young mothers, although these findings were not statistically significant. The present study is the first report examining parental origin and altered genetic recombination as a risk factor for trisomy 21 in a Croatian population. The results support that trisomy 21 has a universal genetic etiology across different human populations.

Vranekovic, Jadranka; Bozovic, Ivana Babic; Grubic, Zorana; Wagner, Jasenka; Pavlinic, Dinko; Dahoun, Sophie; Bena, Frederique; Culic, Vida

2012-01-01

20

Down syndrome: parental origin, recombination, and maternal age.  

PubMed

The aims of the present study were to assess (1) the parental origin of trisomy 21 and the stage in which nondisjunction occurs and (2) the relationship between altered genetic recombination and maternal age as risk factors for trisomy 21. The study included 102 cases with Down syndrome from the Croatian population. Genotyping analyses were performed by polymerase chain reaction using 11 short tandem repeat markers along chromosome 21q. The vast majority of trisomy 21 was of maternal origin (93%), followed by paternal (5%) and mitotic origin (2%). The frequencies of maternal meiotic I (MI) and meiotic II errors were 86% and 14%, respectively. The highest proportion of cases with zero recombination was observed among those with maternal MI derived trisomy 21. A higher proportion of telomeric exchanges were presented in cases with maternal MI errors and cases with young mothers, although these findings were not statistically significant. The present study is the first report examining parental origin and altered genetic recombination as a risk factor for trisomy 21 in a Croatian population. The results support that trisomy 21 has a universal genetic etiology across different human populations. PMID:21861707

Vranekovi?, Jadranka; Božovi?, Ivana Babi?; Grubi?, Zorana; Wagner, Jasenka; Pavlini?, Dinko; Dahoun, Sophie; Bena, Frédérique; Culi?, Vida; Brajenovi?-Mili?, Bojana

2011-08-23

21

A retrospective follow up study on maternal age and infant mortality in two Sicilian districts  

PubMed Central

Background Infant mortality rate (IMR) is a key public health indicator. Maternal age is a well-known determinant of pregnancy and delivery complications and of infant morbidity and mortality. In Italy the Infant Mortality Rate was 3.7/1000 during 2005, lower than the average IMR for the European Union (4.94/1000). Sicily is the Italian region with the highest IMR, 5/1000, and neonatal mortality rate (NMR), 3.8/1000, with substantial variation among its nine districts. The present study compared a high IMR/NMR district (Messina) with a low IMR/NMR district (Palermo) during the period 2004-2006 to evaluate potential determinants of the IMRs' differences between the two districts and specifically the impact of maternal age. Methods The Death Causes Registers identified all deaths during the first year of life recorded among infants born to residents of the two districts in 2004-2006. For every case, available hospital charts records were abstracted using a standardized form designed to capture information on potential determinants of infant death. For each district and for each year, IMRs and NMRs were computed. Chi-squared statistics tested the significance of differences between district-specific IMRs. A Poisson regression model was used to analyze the relationship between maternal age, district of residence and IMR. Results The 246 death registry-confirmed cases included 143 (58.1%) males and 103 (41.2%) females, with mean age at death of 33.3 days (SD: 64.5, median: 5.5). The average IMR for 2004-2006 was significantly higher for the Messina district than for the Palermo district (p = 0.0001). The IMR ratio was 1.6 (95%CI: 1.2 - 2.1). The IMRs declined from 2004 to 2006. A significant interaction (p = 0.04) between maternal age and district of residence was documented. Conclusion The association between advanced maternal age and infant deaths in the Messina district was due in part to the excess of newborns from advanced age mothers, but also to increased risk of death among such newborns. The significant interaction between district of residence and maternal age indicated that the IMR excess in the Messina district cannot be explained by disproportionately high live birth rates among older mothers and suggested the hypothesis that health care facilities in the Messina district could be less well prepared to provide assistance to the excess of high risk pregnancies and deliveries, as compared to Palermo district.

2011-01-01

22

Maternal Age, Multiple Birth and Extremely Low Birth Weight Infants  

PubMed Central

Objectives To compare the rates of adverse neurodevelopmental outcome or death at 18 to 22 months among extremely low birth weight (ELBW) infants born to mothers ? 40 years to the corresponding rates among infants of younger mothers. Study Design Prospective evaluation of ELBW infants to quantify the relative risks of maternal age and multiple birth for death or adverse neurodevelopmental outcome. Results The sample consisted of 14,671 live ELBW births divided into maternal age groups: <20; 20–29; 30–39; and ? 40 years. Of infants born to mothers ? 40 years, 20% were multiples. Mothers ? 40 years had high rates of obstetrical interventions and medical morbidities compared to mothers < 40 years. ELBW live births of mothers ? 40 years were 22 % more likely to survive and had a 13% decreased risk of neurodevelopmental impairment or death compared to mothers< 20. Multiple birth, however, was associated with a 10 % greater risk or neurodevelopmental impairment or death. Conclusion Although mothers ? 40 years had high pregnancy related morbidities, we found no overall increased risk of the composite outcome of death or NDI. Multiple birth, however, was a predictor of all adverse outcomes examined, regardless of maternal age.

Vohr, Betty R.; Tyson, Jon E.; Wright, Linda L; Perritt, Rebecca L.; Li, Lei; Poole, W. Kenneth

2010-01-01

23

The proportion of uniparental disomy is increased in Prader-Willi syndrome due to an advanced maternal childbearing age in Korea.  

PubMed

Prader-Willi syndrome (PWS) is a genetic disorder caused by the absence of expression of the paternal copy of maternally imprinted genes in chromosome region 15q11-13. The genetic subtypes of PWS are classified into deletion (~70%), maternal uniparental disomy (mUPD; 25-30%), imprinting center defects (3-5%) and rare unbalanced translocations. Recently, Matsubara et al. reported a significantly higher maternal age in a trisomy rescue (TR) or gamete complementation (GC) by nondisjunction at maternal meiosis 1 (M1) group than in a deletion group. In the present study, we try to confirm their findings in an ethnically different population. A total of 97 Korean PWS patients were classified into deletional type (n=66), TR/GC (M1) (n=15), TR/GC by nondisjunction at maternal meiosis 2 (n=2), monosomy rescue or postfertilization mitotic nondisjunction (n=4) and epimutation (n=2). Maternal ages at birth showed a significant difference between the deletion group (median age of 29, interquartile range (IQR)=(27,31)) and the TR/GC (M1) group (median age of 35, IQR=(31,38)) (P<0.0001). The relative birth frequency of the TR/GC (M1) group has substantially increased since 2006 when compared with the period before 2005. These findings support the hypothesis that the advanced maternal age at childbirth is a predisposing factor for the development of mUPD because of increased M1 errors. PMID:23303386

Yoon Cho, Sung; Ki, Chang-Seok; Bae Sohn, Young; Hyun Maeng, Se; Jin Jung, You; Jin Kim, Su; Jin, Dong-Kyu

2013-01-10

24

Maternal age effect on the development of Prader-Willi syndrome resulting from upd(15)mat through meiosis 1 errors.  

PubMed

Prader-Willi syndrome (PWS) is primarily caused by deletions involving the paternally derived imprinted region at chromosome 15q11.2-q13 and maternal uniparental disomy 15 (upd(15)mat). The underlying mechanisms for upd(15)mat include trisomy rescue (TR), gamete complementation (GC), monosomy rescue and post-fertilization mitotic error, and TR/GC is mediated by non-disjunction at maternal meiosis 1 (M1) or meiosis 2 (M2). Of these factors involved in the development of upd(15)mat, M1 non-disjunction is a maternal age-dependent phenomenon. We studied 117 Japanese patients with PWS and identified deletions in 84 patients (Deletion group) and TR/GC type upd(15)mat through M1 non-disjunction in 15 patients (TR/GC (M1) group), together with other types of abnormalities. Maternal age was significantly higher in TR/GC (M1) group than in Deletion group (median (range), 37 (35-45) versus 30 (19-42); P=1.0 × 10(-7)). Furthermore, delayed childbearing age became obvious since the year 2003 in Japan, and relative frequency of TR/GC (M1) group was significantly larger in patients born since the year 2003 than in those born until the year 2002. The results imply that the advanced maternal age at childbirth is a predisposing factor for the development of upd(15)mat because of increased M1 errors. PMID:21633360

Matsubara, Keiko; Murakami, Nobuyuki; Nagai, Toshiro; Ogata, Tsutomu

2011-06-02

25

Maternal serum median levels of alpha-foetoprotein, human chorionic gonadotropin & unconjugated estriol in second trimester in pregnant women from north-west India  

PubMed Central

Background & objectives: Triple test as prenatal screening procedure does not form a part of routine health care of pregnant women in India. Hence, median values of triple test biomarkers are lacking for Indian population. This study was undertaken to establish population-specific medians for biomarkers viz. alpha-foetoprotien (AFP), human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG?), and unconjugated estriol (uE3) for detection of Down's syndrome, Edward's syndrome and neural tube defects (NTDs) in pregnant women in north-west India. Methods: Serum biomarker values were derived from 5420 pregnant women between 15-20 wk of gestation who were enrolled for triple test investigations at Department of Gynecology and Obstetrics, Government Medical College and Hospital, Chandigarh, India, between January, 2007 to December, 2009. Median values were calculated for rounded weeks using database comprising pregnancies with normal outcomes only. Simple statistical analysis and log-linear regression were used for median estimation of the biomarker values. Results: The levels of the three biomarkers were found to be ranging from 1.38 to 187.00 IU/ml for AFP, 1.06 to 315 ng/ml for hCG?, and 0.25 to 28.5 nmol/l for uE3. The age of women ranged from 18 to 47 yr and mean weight was 57.9 ± 9.8 kg. Data revealed that AFP, hCG? and uE3 medians in our study population were not significantly different from those reported from other countries or when compared ethnically. Interpretation & conclusion: The population-specific median values for the three biomarkers (AFP, hCG?, uE3) may be used as reference values during prenatal screening in Indian pregnant women.

Kaur, Gurjit; Srivastav, Jyoti; Sharma, Suresh; Huria, Anju; Goel, Poonam; Chavan, Bir Singh

2013-01-01

26

Maternal serum median levels of alpha-foetoprotein, human chorionic gonadotropin & unconjugated estriol in second trimester in pregnant women from north-west India.  

PubMed

Background & objectives: Triple test as prenatal screening procedure does not form a part of routine health care of pregnant women in India. Hence, median values of triple test biomarkers are lacking for Indian population. This study was undertaken to establish population-specific medians for biomarkers viz. alpha-foetoprotien (AFP), human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG?), and unconjugated estriol (uE3) for detection of Down's syndrome, Edward's syndrome and neural tube defects (NTDs) in pregnant women in north-west India. Methods: Serum biomarker values were derived from 5420 pregnant women between 15-20 wk of gestation who were enrolled for triple test investigations at Department of Gynecology and Obstetrics, Government Medical College and Hospital, Chandigarh, India, between January, 2007 to December, 2009. Median values were calculated for rounded weeks using database comprising pregnancies with normal outcomes only. Simple statistical analysis and log-linear regression were used for median estimation of the biomarker values. Results: The levels of the three biomarkers were found to be ranging from 1.38 to 187.00 IU/ml for AFP, 1.06 to 315 ng/ml for hCG?, and 0.25 to 28.5 nmol/l for uE3. The age of women ranged from 18 to 47 yr and mean weight was 57.9 ± 9.8 kg. Data revealed that AFP, hCG? and uE3 medians in our study population were not significantly different from those reported from other countries or when compared ethnically. Interpretation & conclusion: The population-specific median values for the three biomarkers (AFP, hCG?, uE3) may be used as reference values during prenatal screening in Indian pregnant women. PMID:24056560

Kaur, Gurjit; Srivastav, Jyoti; Sharma, Suresh; Huria, Anju; Goel, Poonam; Chavan, Bir Singh

2013-07-01

27

Aging in inbred strains of mice: study design and interim report on median lifespans and circulating IGF1 levels.  

PubMed

To better characterize aging in mice, the Jackson Aging Center carried out a lifespan study of 31 genetically-diverse inbred mouse strains housed in a specific pathogen-free facility. Clinical assessments were carried out every 6 months, measuring multiple age-related phenotypes including neuromuscular, kidney and heart function, body composition, bone density, hematology, hormonal levels, and immune system parameters. In a concurrent cross-sectional study of the same 31 strains at 6, 12, and 20 months, more invasive measurements were carried out followed by necropsy to assess apoptosis, DNA repair, chromosome fragility, and histopathology. In this report, which is the initial paper of a series, the study design, median lifespans, and circulating insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF1) levels at 6, 12, and 18 months are described for the first cohort of 32 females and 32 males of each strain. Survival curves varied dramatically among strains with the median lifespans ranging from 251 to 964 days. Plasma IGF1 levels, which also varied considerably at each time point, showed an inverse correlation with a median lifespan at 6 months (R = -0.33, P = 0.01). This correlation became stronger if the short-lived strains with a median lifespan < 600 days were removed from the analysis (R = -0.53, P < 0.01). These results support the hypothesis that the IGF1 pathway plays a key role in regulating longevity in mice and indicates that common genetic mechanisms may exist for regulating IGF1 levels and lifespan. PMID:19627267

Yuan, Rong; Tsaih, Shirng-Wern; Petkova, Stefka B; Marin de Evsikova, Caralina; Xing, Shuqin; Marion, Michael A; Bogue, Molly A; Mills, Kevin D; Peters, Luanne L; Bult, Carol J; Rosen, Clifford J; Sundberg, John P; Harrison, David E; Churchill, Gary A; Paigen, Beverly

2009-04-09

28

Maternal and Neonatal Circulating Visfatin Concentrations in Patients with Preeclampsia and a Small-For-Gestational Age Neonate  

PubMed Central

Objective Maternal circulating visfatin concentrations are higher in patients with a small-for-gestational-age (SGA) neonate than in those who delivered an appropriate-for-gestational age AGA neonate or in those with preeclampsia. It has been proposed that enhanced transfer of visfatin from the fetal to maternal circulation may account for the high concentrations of maternal visfatin observed in patients with an SGA neonate. The aims of this study were: 1) to determine whether cord blood visfatin concentrations differ between normal neonates, SGA neonates and newborns of preeclamptic mothers; and 2) to assess the relationship between maternal and fetal circulating visfatin concentrations in patients with an SGA neonate and those with preeclampsia. Study design This cross-sectional study included 88 pregnant women and their neonates, as well as 22 preterm neonates in the following groups: 1) 44 normal pregnant women at term and their AGA neonates; 2) 22 normotensive pregnant women and their SGA neonates; 3) 22 women with preeclampsia and their neonates; and 4) 22 preterm neonates delivered following spontaneous preterm labor without funisitis or histologic chorioamnionitis, matched for gestational age with infants of preeclamptic mothers. Maternal plasma and cord blood visfatin concentrations were determined by ELISA. Non-parametric statistics were used for analyses. Results 1) The median visfatin concentration was lower in umbilical cord blood than in maternal circulation, in normal pregnancy, SGA and preeclampsia groups (p<0.001 for all comparisons); 2) the median cord blood visfatin concentrations did not differ significantly between term AGA or SGA neonates, infants of mothers with preeclampsia and their gestational-age-matched preterm AGA neonates; 3) maternal and cord blood visfatin concentrations correlated only in the normal term group (r= 0.48, p=0.04). Conclusion Circulating visfatin concentrations are lower in the fetal than in the maternal circulation and did not significantly differ between the study groups. Thus, it is unlikely that the fetal circulation is the source of the high maternal visfatin concentrations reported in patients with an SGA neonate.

Mazaki-Tovi, Shali; Vaisbuch, Edi; Romero, Roberto; Kusanovic, Juan Pedro; Chaiworapongsa, Tinnakorn; Kim, Sun Kwon; Nhan-Chang, Chia-Ling; Gomez, Ricardo; Savasan, Zeynep Alpay; Madan, Ichchha; Yoon, Bo Hyun; Yeo, Lami; Mittal, Pooja; Ogge, Giovanna; Gonzalez, Juan M.; Hassan, Sonia S.

2012-01-01

29

Changes in the kinetics of ( sup 3 H)dopamine release from median eminence and striatal synaptosomes during aging  

SciTech Connect

The release of preaccumulated tritium-labeled dopamine was examined in isolated nerve terminals prepared from the median eminence (ME) and corpus striatum (CS) of young, middle-aged, and old male rats. Fractional release of (3H)DA was measured over 1- to 10-sec time intervals under basal and depolarizing conditions in the presence of calcium. No differences in the rate of basal efflux between the age groups were observed in either ME or CS preparations. Fast-phase evoked (3H)DA release from CS synaptosomes was unchanged from young to middle-aged, but was decreased in old preparations. These data demonstrate that the nigrostriatal nerve terminal has a diminished ability to respond fully to depolarizing stimuli in advanced age. Mean serum PRL levels in old rats were 2.3-fold greater than those in both young and middle-aged rats, while serum LH levels were decreased 2.0-fold in middle-aged and old compared with those in young rats. The fact that LH levels were already decreased in middle-aged rats while PRL levels had not yet increased suggests that decreased gonadotropin titers in old rats do not result from the coincident hyperprolactinemia. In ME synaptosomes, depolarization-induced (3H)DA release was decreased at all time points in middle-aged preparations compared to that in young preparations. The reduced fractional release from the middle-aged ME synaptosomes was due to a depressed rate of release during the initial second of depolarization. Evoked release from ME terminals of old rats was comparable to that measured in the young group. Thus, there occurred an age-related biphasic change in the initial rate of evoked DA release from ME synaptosomes. Diminished response of ME dopaminergic terminals to depolarizing stimuli during middle age may be important in the later development of hyperprolactinemia in aging male rats.

Gregerson, K.A.; Selmanoff, M. (Univ. of Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore (USA))

1990-01-01

30

Mother-Child Disagreement in Reports of Child Anxiety: Effects of Child Age and Maternal Anxiety  

PubMed Central

The present study examined effects of maternal anxiety, child age, and their interaction on mother-child anxiety reporting disagreement while taking into account the direction of each informant's report relative to the other. Participants were 41 dyads of mothers and clinically anxious children aged 7-13. A hierarchical regression revealed a significant interaction between maternal anxiety and child age (? = .30, p < .05). A graph of this interaction indicated that when maternal anxiety is high and the child is older, maternal report of anxiety is relatively higher, and when maternal anxiety is high and the child is younger, child report of anxiety is relatively higher. When maternal anxiety is low, the reporting discrepancy is relatively stable across age. Results may help explain previous mixed findings regarding effects of age and maternal anxiety on reporting discrepancies. Possible explanations for these results are discussed.

Niditch, Laura A.; Varela, R. Enrique

2010-01-01

31

Sensory nerve findings by tactile stimulation of median and ulnar nerves in healthy subjects of different ages.  

PubMed

We studied orthodromic sensory conduction velocity along the distal and proximal segments of the median and ulnar nerves by tactile stimulation of the distal phalanx of the 3rd and 5th digits in 44 healthy subjects divided into 2 age groups: from 16 to 35 years and from 63 to 81 years. In the same nerves, we used selective electrical stimulation of the corresponding digital nerves to obtain sensory potentials. In both groups, responses to tactile stimuli had a longer latency and smaller amplitude than those to electrical stimulation, and they were distributed in a series of 6-7 main deflections, apparently regardless of whether the recording site was distal or proximal. Moreover, irrespective of the nerve and of subject age, conduction velocity along both the digit-wrist and the wrist-elbow nerve segments was significantly slower with tactile stimuli than with electrical stimuli. However, independently of the stimulus used, conduction velocity along the proximal nerve segment was significantly faster than that measured along the digit-wrist nerve segment. In both the median and ulnar nerves, maximum potential amplitude, cumulative area and conduction velocity were significantly reduced in the older age group. This finding could reflect the smaller number of Meissner's corpuscles in older subjects, and the loss of large nerve fibres in individuals over 60. PMID:7507425

Caruso, G; Nilsson, J; Crisci, C; Nolano, M; Massini, R; Lullo, F

1993-12-01

32

Selenium and maternal blood pressure during childbirth  

Microsoft Academic Search

Evidence suggests selenium concentrations outside the nutritional range may worsen cardiovascular health. This paper examines the relationship between selenium and maternal blood pressure (BP) among 270 deliveries using umbilical cord serum as a proxy for maternal exposure levels. Multivariable models used linear splines for selenium and controlled for gestational age, maternal age, race, median household income, parity, smoking, and prepregnancy

Ellen M Wells; Lynn R Goldman; Jeffery M Jarrett; Benjamin J Apelberg; Julie B Herbstman; Kathleen L Caldwell; Rolf U Halden; Frank R Witter

2012-01-01

33

Young maternal age and depressive symptoms: results from the 1988 National Maternal and Infant Health Survey.  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVES: The goal of this study was to provide population-based estimates of the prevalence of depressive symptoms among primiparous US adolescent mothers. METHODS: Data from the live-birth component of the 1988 National Maternal and Infant Health Survey were analyzed. RESULTS: The prevalence of depressive symptoms varied by age and race, from 14% among White adult mothers to 48% among Black mothers 15 to 17 years old. After control for income and marital status, the increased prevalence of depressive symptoms associated with adolescent motherhood was greatly diminished (for 15- to 17-year-old Black women and 18- to 19-year-old White women) or eliminated (for 18- to 19-year-old Black women and 15- to 17-year-old White women). CONCLUSIONS: Adolescent mothers experience high rates of depressive symptoms relative to adult mothers, and mental health and other interventions that alleviate the exacerbating influence of poverty and unmarried status are warranted.

Deal, L W; Holt, V L

1998-01-01

34

Maternal age, investment, and parent-child conflict: a mediational test of the terminal investment hypothesis.  

PubMed

Drawing on the evolutionary terminal investment hypothesis and Trivers' (1974) parent-offspring conflict theory, we advance and evaluate a mediational model specifying why and how maternal age, via mating effort and parental investment, affects mother-child conflict. Data from a longitudinal study of 757 families indicate that (a) older maternal age predicts lower mating effort during the child's first 5 years of life, and (b) thereby, higher maternal investment in middle childhood when the child is around 10 years old. (c) Higher maternal investment, in turn, forecasts less child-perceived mother-child conflict in adolescence (age 15). These results proved robust against theoretically relevant covariates (family resources, parity, maternal education, and maternal personality characteristics) and in the context of an autoregressive model. Study limitations are noted and results are discussed in terms of the unique contributions of an evolutionary perspective to the determinants-of-parenting literature. PMID:22468690

Schlomer, Gabriel L; Belsky, Jay

2012-04-02

35

Utilization of prenatal cytogenetic diagnosis in women of advanced maternal age in Australia, 1979-1982.  

PubMed

This paper reports the results of a complete national survey to measure utilization rates of prenatal cytogenetic diagnosis (P.C.D.) in women of advanced maternal age in Australia. P.C.D. has been available throughout Australia for the last decade. Every laboratory in Australia providing a P.C.D. service for the years 1979-1982 took part in this study. Utilization rates (both National and State rates) by ages of mothers, are presented. Big interstate differences exist. The 1982 National P.C.D. utilization rate for pregnant women who were 40 years of age and over was 38.8 per cent, and this rate has shown an average annual increase of 9 per cent. In those four States which offered P.C.D. to pregnant women of 35 years or over the median utilization rate was 20 per cent. These Australian rates indicate an under-utilization of P.C.D. services with (in 1982) 50-80 per cent of 'at risk' women not being tested. Factors which influence this are discussed. PMID:3975222

Bell, J A; Pearn, J; Cohen, G; Ford, J; Halliday, J; Martin, N; Mulcahy, M; Purvis-Smith, S; Sutherland, G

36

Embryonic exposure to maternal testosterone influences age-specific mortality patterns in a captive passerine bird  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hormones are potent mediators of developmental programming and maternal epigenetic effects. In vertebrates, developmental\\u000a exposure to maternal androgen hormones has been shown to impact multiple behavioral and physiological traits of progeny, but\\u000a the possible consequences of this early exposure in terms of aging-related changes in mortality and fitness remain largely\\u000a unexplored. Avian eggs naturally contain variable doses of maternal hormones—in

Hubert Schwabl; Donna Holmes; Rosemary Strasser; Alex Scheuerlein

37

Does Maternal Prenatal Stress Adversely Affect the Child’s Learning and Memory at Age Six?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Prenatal maternal stress has been shown to affect postnatal development in animals and humans. In animals, the morphology and function of the offspring’s hippocampus is negatively affected by prenatal maternal stress. The present study prospectively investigated the influence of prenatal maternal stress on learning and memory of 112 children (50 boys, 62 girls, Age: M=6.7 years, SD=8.4 months), with the

Barbara M. Gutteling; Carolina de Weerth; Noortje Zandbelt; Eduard J. H. Mulder; Gerard H. A. Visser; Jan K. Buitelaar

2006-01-01

38

Nuchal thickness, urine ?-core fragment level, and maternal age for Down syndrome screening  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: Our purpose was to report the midtrimester Down syndrome screening efficiency of a 2-analyte algorithm, urine ?-core fragment (a metabolite of human chorionic gonadotropin) and nuchal thickness, along with maternal age in a high-risk population undergoing genetic amniocentesis. Method: Nuchal thickness, humerus length, and maternal urine ?-core fragment levels were measured prospectively before genetic amniocentesis in 1360 singleton pregnancies,

R. O. Bahado-Singh; A. U. Oz; D. Flores; D. Cermik; E. Acuna; M. J. Mahoney; L. Cole

1999-01-01

39

PARENTAL AGE AND MATERNAL ANTIBODIES TO FETAL HUMAN BRAIN IN AUTISM  

Microsoft Academic Search

The etiology of autism remains unknown however the role of the immune system has recently come into question. Specifically, transfer of maternal autoantibodies to neural antigens may occur in utero in autism. These antibodies may be associated with clinical symptoms of regression and related to maternal and paternal age. Western immunoblotting was used to identify protein bands against human fetal

Christen L. Ebens

40

Ethnic differences in the impact of advanced maternal age on birth prevalence of Down syndrome.  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVES: This study explored whether ethnic differences in the impact of advanced maternal age on the risk of Down syndrome might reflect differences in use of prenatal diagnostic technologies. METHODS: Maternal age-specific odds of Down syndrome and amniocentesis use were compared among African Americans, Mexican Americans, and non-Hispanic Whites via birth data for the years 1989 to 1991. RESULTS: The odds ratio and population attributable risk of Down syndrome due to maternal age of 35 years or older were highest for Mexican Americans, intermediate for African Americans, and lowest for non-Hispanic Whites. CONCLUSIONS: Advanced maternal age has a greater impact on the risk of Down syndrome for African American and, particularly, Mexican American women than for non-Hispanic White women. This difference in impact might reflect lower availability or use of prenatal diagnostic technologies.

Khoshnood, B; Pryde, P; Wall, S; Singh, J; Mittendorf, R; Lee, K S

2000-01-01

41

Maternal drug abuse versus maternal depression: Vulnerability and resilience among school-age and adolescent offspring  

PubMed Central

In this study of 360 low-income mother-child dyads, our primary goal was to disentangle risks linked with commonly co-occurring maternal diagnoses: substance abuse and affective/anxiety disorders. Variable- and person-based analyses suggest that, at least through children’s early adolescence, maternal drug use is no more inimical for them than is maternal depression. A second goal was to illuminate vulnerability and protective processes linked with mothers’ everyday functioning, and results showed that negative parenting behaviors were linked with multiple adverse child outcomes. Conversely, the other parenting dimensions showed more domain specificity; parenting stress was linked with children’s lifetime diagnoses, and limit setting and closeness with children’s externalizing problems and everyday competence, respectively. Results are discussed in terms of implications for resilience theory, interventions, and social policy.

LUTHAR, SUNIYA S.; SEXTON, CHRIS C.

2007-01-01

42

Contribution of maternal age to preterm birth rates in denmark and quebec, 1981-2008.  

PubMed

Objectives. We sought evidence to support the hypothesis that advancing maternal age is potentially causing a rise in preterm birth (PTB) rates in high-income countries. Methods. We assessed maternal age-specific trends in PTB using all singleton live births in Denmark (n?=?1?674?308) and Quebec (n?=?2?291?253) from 1981 to 2008. We decomposed the country-specific contributions of age-specific PTB rates and maternal age distribution to overall PTB rates over time. Results. PTB rates increased from 4.4% to 5.0% in Denmark and from 5.1% to 6.0% in Quebec. Rates increased the most in women aged 20 to 29 years, whereas rates decreased or remained stable in women aged 35 years and older. The overall increase over time was driven by age-specific PTB rates, although the contribution of younger women was countered by fewer births at this age in both Denmark and Quebec. Conclusions. PTB rates increased among women aged 20 to 29 years, but their contribution to the overall PTB rates was offset by older maternal age over time. Women aged 20 to 29 years should be targeted to reduce PTB rates, as potential for prevention may be greater in this age group. PMID:23947312

Auger, Nathalie; Hansen, Anne V; Mortensen, Laust

2013-08-15

43

Older not wiser: risk of prenatal alcohol use by maternal age.  

PubMed

High levels of alcohol use among pregnant women have been associated with a spectrum of birth defects. Greater maternal age has been related to an increased risk of drinking during pregnancy. Although the context, process, and outcomes of pregnancy and alcohol use vary by maternal age, no studies have examined predictors of prenatal drinking by age. This study addresses this gap by examining potential risk factors associated with prenatal alcohol use (any versus none) by maternal age (<20, 20-25, 26-34, and 35 years or older). Descriptive and logistic regression analyses were completed on survey data from 9,004 pregnant women from the north central U.S. Descriptive statistics revealed teens in general had a higher level or greater occurrence of risk factors previously identified with prenatal drinking compared to older women, yet women of advanced maternal age (35 years or older) were most likely to drink alcohol during pregnancy. Based on the regression by age, 20-25 year old women had the greatest number of significant risk factors associated with prenatal drinking including being employed, white, unmarried, first birth, smoking prenatally, greater levels of depressed mood, and more experiences related to alcohol abuse. The number and patterns of significant predictors of drinking alcohol while pregnant by age encourage greater investigation of other social, contextual factors that might contribute to the risk of prenatal drinking. This is especially salient for women of advanced maternal age, for whom very few significant predictors emerged. PMID:22307728

Meschke, Laurie L; Holl, Joyce; Messelt, Sara

2013-01-01

44

Maternal Serum Soluble CD30 Is Increased in Normal Pregnancy, but Decreased in Preeclampsia and Small for Gestational Age Pregnancies  

PubMed Central

Objective Women with preeclampsia and those who deliver small for gestational age (SGA) neonates are characterized by intravascular inflammation (T helper 1 (Th1)-biased immune response). There is controversy about the T helper 2 (Th2) response in preeclampsia and SGA. CD30, a member of the tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily, is preferentially expressed in vitro and in vivo by activated T cells producing Th2-type cytokines. Its soluble form (sCD30) has been proposed to be an index of Th2 immune response. The objective of this study was to determine whether maternal serum concentration of sCD30 changes with normal pregnancy, as well as in mothers with preeclampsia and those who deliver SGA neonates. Methods This cross-sectional study included patients in the following groups: (1) non-pregnant women (N=49); (2) patients with a normal pregnancy (N=89); (3) patients with preeclampsia (N=100); and (4) patients who delivered an SGA neonates (N=78). Maternal serum concentration of sCD30 was measured by a specific and sensitive enzyme-linked immunoassay. Non-parametric tests with post-hoc analysis were used for comparisons. A p value <0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results (1) The median sCD30 serum concentration of pregnant women was significantly higher than that of non-pregnant women (median: 29.7 U/mL, range: 12.2-313.2 vs. median: 23.2 U/mL, range: 14.6-195.1, respectively; p=0.01); (2) Patients with preeclampsia had a significantly lower median serum concentration of sCD30 than normal pregnant women (median: 24.7 U/mL, range: 7.6-71.2 vs. median: 29.7 U/mL, range: 12.2-313.2, respectively; p<0.05); (3) Mothers with SGA neonates had a lower median concentration of sCD30 than normal pregnant women (median: 23.4 U/mL, range: 7.1-105.3 vs. median: 29.7 U/mL, range: 12.2-313.2, respectively; p<0.05); and (4) There was no significant correlation (r=-0.059, p=0.5) between maternal serum sCD30 concentration and gestational age (19-38 weeks) in normal pregnant women. Conclusions (1) Patients with preeclampsia and those who deliver a SGA neonate had a significantly lower serum concentration of sCD30 than normal pregnant women; (2) This finding is consistent with the view that preeclampsia and SGA are associated with a polarized Th1 immune response and, perhaps, a reduced Th2 response.

Kusanovic, Juan Pedro; Romero, Roberto; Hassan, Sonia S.; Gotsch, Francesca; Edwin, Samuel; Erez, Offer; Mittal, Pooja; Mazaki-Tovi, Shali; Soto, Eleazar; Than, Nandor Gabor; Friel, Lara A.; Chaiworapongsa, Tinnakorn; Yoon, Bo Hyun; Espinoza, Jimmy

2008-01-01

45

Nerve Conduction Study Among Healthy Malays. The Influence of Age, Height and Body Mass Index on Median, Ulnar, Common Peroneal and Sural Nerves  

PubMed Central

Nerve conduction study is essential in the diagnosis of focal neuropathies and diffuse polyneuropathies. Age, height and body mass index (BMI) can affect nerve velocities as reported by previous studies. We studied the effect of these factors on median, ulnar, common peroneal and sural nerves among healthy Malay subjects. We observed slowing of nerve conduction velocities (NCVs) with increasing age and BMI (except ulnar sensory velocities). No demonstrable trend can be seen across different height groups except in common peroneal nerve.

Awang, Mohamed Saufi; Abdullah, Jafri Malin; Abdullah, Mohd Rusli; Tharakan, John; Prasad, Atul; Husin, Zabidi Azhar; Hussin, Ahmad Munawir; Tahir, Adnan; Razak, Salmi Abdul

2006-01-01

46

Perceived and Observed Maternal Relationship Quality Predict Sexual Debut by Age 15  

Microsoft Academic Search

Early sexual behaviors during adolescence have the potential to lead to unhealthy outcomes. This study explored the association\\u000a between specific dimensions of maternal relationship quality and adolescent sexual debut by age 15. We hypothesized that adolescents\\u000a who have poor maternal relationships are at greater risk of early sexual debut than those who have a more supportive relationship.\\u000a These hypotheses were

Myeshia N. PriceJanet; Janet Shibley Hyde

47

Maternal age affects brain metabolism in adult children of mothers affected by Alzheimer's disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cognitively normal (NL) individuals with a maternal history of late-onset Alzheimer's disease (MH) show reduced brain glucose metabolism on FDG-PET as compared to those with a paternal history (PH) and those with negative family history (NH) of Alzheimer's disease (AD). This FDG-PET study investigates whether metabolic deficits in NL MH are associated with advancing maternal age at birth. Ninety-six NL

Lisa Mosconi; Wai Tsui; John Murray; Pauline McHugh; Yi Li; Schantel Williams; Elizabeth Pirraglia; Lidia Glodzik; Susan De Santi; Shankar Vallabhajosula; Mony J. de Leon

48

Maternal Size and Age Shape Offspring Size in a Live-Bearing Fish, Xiphophorus birchmanni  

PubMed Central

Many studies of offspring size focus on differences in maternal investment that arise from ecological factors such as predation or competition. Classic theory predicts that these ecological factors will select for an optimal offspring size, and therefore that variation in a given environment will be minimized. Yet recent evidence suggests maternal traits such as size or age could also drive meaningful variation in offspring size. The generality of this pattern is unclear, as some studies suggest that it may represent non-adaptive variation or be an artifact of temporal or spatial differences in maternal environments. To clarify this pattern, we asked how maternal size, age and condition are related to each other in several populations of the swordtail Xiphophorus birchmanni. We then determined how these traits are related to offspring size, and whether they could resolve unexplained intra-population variation in this trait. We found that female size, age, and condition are correlated within populations; at some of these sites, older, larger females produce larger offspring than do younger females. The pattern was robust to differences among most, but not all, sites. Our results document a pattern that is consistent with recent theory predicting adaptive age- and size-dependence in maternal investment. Further work is needed to rule out non-adaptive explanations for this variation. Our results suggest that female size and age could play an under-appreciated role in population growth and evolution.

Kindsvater, Holly K.; Rosenthal, Gil G.; Alonzo, Suzanne H.

2012-01-01

49

Aging in inbred strains of mice: study design and interim report on median lifespans and circulating IGF1 levels  

Microsoft Academic Search

To better characterize aging in mice, the Jackson Aging Center carried out a lifespan study of 31 genetically-diverse inbred mouse strains housed in a specific pathogen-free facility. Clinical assessments were carried out every 6 months, measuring multiple age-related phenotypes including neuromuscular, kidney and heart function, body composition, bone density, hematology, hormonal levels, and immune system parameters. In a concurrent cross-sectional

R Tsaih S Yuan; S Marion M Xing; L L Bult Peters

2009-01-01

50

Maternal age affects offspring lifespan of the seed beetle, Callosobruchus maculatus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary 1. Offspring from older parents often have shorter adult lifespans than offspring of younger mothers. We examine the effects of offspring genotype, maternal age and paternal age on offspring survival, development and adult lifespan in the seed beetle, Callosobruchus maculatus . 2. Females took about a quarter of a day longer to develop from an egg to an adult

C. W. Fox; M. L. Bush; W. G. Wallin

2003-01-01

51

Redefining advanced maternal age as an indication for preimplantation genetic screening  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this retrospective study, the utility of preimplantation genetic screening (PGS) in patients with advanced maternal age is evaluated. The patient population consisted of women aged 38–44years and included in a regular IVF programme with or without PGS analysis. Transfer rate, ongoing implantation rate and ongoing pregnancy rate were the main outcome parameters measured. A trend of better ongoing pregnancy

Miguel Milán; Ana Cristina Cobo; Lorena Rodrigo; Emilia Mateu; Amparo Mercader; Pilar Buendía; Vanessa Peinado; Arantzazu Delgado; Pere Mir; Carlos Simón; José Remohí; Antonio Pellicer; Carmen Rubio

2010-01-01

52

The impact of early age at first childbirth on maternal and infant health.  

PubMed

The objective of this review was to assess whether early age at first childbirth is associated with increased risk of poor pregnancy outcomes. Early age at childbirth is variously defined in studies of its effect on maternal and infant health. In this systematic review, we limit analysis to studies of at least moderate quality that examine first births among young mothers, where young maternal age is defined as low gynaecological age (? 2 years since menarche) or as a chronological age ? 16 years at conception or delivery. We conduct meta-analyses for specific maternal or infant health outcomes when there are at least three moderate quality studies that define the exposure and outcome in a similar manner and provide odds ratios or risk ratios as their effect estimates. We conclude that the overall evidence of effect for very young maternal age (<15 years or <2 years post-menarche) on infant outcomes is moderate; that is, future studies are likely to refine the estimate of effect or precision but not to change the conclusion. Evidence points to an impact of young maternal age on low birthweight and preterm birth, which may mediate other infant outcomes such as neonatal mortality. The evidence that young maternal age increases risk for maternal anaemia is also fairly strong, although information on other nutritional outcomes and maternal morbidity/mortality is less clear. Many of the differences observed among older teenagers with respect to infant outcomes may be because of socio-economic or behavioural differences, although these may vary by country/setting. Future, high quality observational studies in low income settings are recommended in order to address the question of generalisability of evidence. In particular, studies in low income countries need to consider low gynaecological age, rather than simply chronological age, as an exposure. As well, country-specific studies should measure the minimum age at which childbearing for teens has similar associations with health as childbearing for adults. This 'tipping point' may vary by the underlying physical and nutritional health of girls and young women. PMID:22742615

Gibbs, Cassandra M; Wendt, Amanda; Peters, Stacey; Hogue, Carol J

2012-07-01

53

Migration and maternity in the age of superdiversity.  

PubMed

The UK has entered an era of superdiversity with our communities being more diverse than ever before. Migration has contributed to rising birth rates, and poor birth outcomes have been increasingly associated with ethnicity, often in areas with high concentrations of migrants. This article sets out the findings of a study looking at the maternity needs and experiences of migrant women and professionals living in the West Midlands. The study found that migrant women tended to book late or drop out of the maternity system due to a range of barriers including lack of understanding of the system, lack of information, poor language skills and poverty. Migrant women often had negative birth experiences and did not receive the follow on care they needed. Professionals recognised many of the problems migrant women experienced but lacked the time and resources to meet needs. The article concludes by recognising that additional training and time are needed to help professionals to address those needs and signposts the reader to good practice. PMID:22324128

Newall, Dave; Phillimore, Jenny; Sharpe, Hilary

2012-01-01

54

Maternal death after oocyte donation at high maternal age: case report  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: The percentage of women giving birth after the age of 35 increased in many western countries. The number of women remaining childless also increased, mostly due to aging oocytes. The method of oocyte donation offers the possibility for infertile older women to become pregnant. Gestation after oocyte-donation-IVF, however, is not without risks for the mother, especially at advanced age.

Joke M Schutte; Nico WE Schuitemaker; Eric AP Steegers; Jos van Roosmalen

2008-01-01

55

Maternal age-specific incidence of Down's syndrome in Malaysian neonates.  

PubMed

Over an 18 month period, 34,495 livebirths were delivered in the Kuala Lumpur Maternity Hospital. 36 neonates (1.044 per 1000 livebirths) had Down's syndrome. The observed rates of Down's syndrome per 1000 livebirths by single year intervals of maternal age were calculated. By using the discontinuous slope model, our study showed that the incidence of Down's syndrome among the Malaysian liveborns increased markedly when the maternal age exceeded 35 years. This study also suggested that the Malay mothers had increased risk of producing babies with Down's syndrome at a later age than the Chinese and the Indians. However, a larger number of babies in each racial group needs to be studied to confirm this. PMID:2534718

Boo, N Y; Hoe, T S; Lye, M S; Poon, P K; Mahani, M C

1989-01-01

56

Why is Chromosome Segregation Error in Oocytes Increased With Maternal Aging?  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

It is well documented that female fertility is decreased with advanced maternal age due to chromosome abnormality in oocytes. Increased chromosome missegregation is mainly caused by centromeric cohesion reduction. Other factors such as weakened homologous recombination, improper spindle organization, spindle assembly checkpoint (SAC) malfunction, chromatin epigenetic changes, and extra-oocyte factors may also cause chromosome errors....Here, we review the potential mechanisms, especially the molecular basis associated with increased chromosome missegregation with advanced maternal age, mainly based on studies in humans and rodents. The related factors are classified into two categories: intrinsic factors within oocytes and the extrinsic causes.

Zhen-Bo Wang (Chinese Academy of Sciences State Key Laboratory of Reproductive Biology, Institute of Zoology); Heide Schatten (University of Missouri-Columbia Department of Veterinary Pathobiology); Qing-Yuan Sun (Chinese Academy of Sciences State Key Laboratory of Reproductive Biology, Institute of Zoology)

2011-10-01

57

Maternal Pre-pregnancy BMI, Gestational Weight Gain, and Age at Menarche in Daughters.  

PubMed

Life course theory suggests that early life experiences can shape health over a lifetime and across generations. Associations between maternal pregnancy experience and daughters' age at menarche are not well understood. We examined whether maternal pre-pregnancy BMI and gestational weight gain (GWG) were independently related to daughters' age at menarche. Consistent with a life course perspective, we also examined whether maternal GWG, birth weight, and prepubertal BMI mediated the relationship between pre-pregnancy BMI and daughter's menarcheal age. We examined 2,497 mother-daughter pairs from the 1979 National Longitudinal Survey of Youth. Survival analysis with Cox proportional hazards was used to estimate whether maternal pre-pregnancy overweight/obesity (BMI ? 25.0 kg/m(2)) and GWG adequacy (inadequate, recommended, and excessive) were associated with risk for earlier menarche among girls, controlling for important covariates. Analyses were conducted to examine the mediating roles of GWG adequacy, child birth weight and prepubertal BMI. Adjusting for covariates, pre-pregnancy overweight/obesity (HR = 1.20, 95 % CI 1.06, 1.36) and excess GWG (HR = 1.13, 95 % CI 1.01, 1.27) were associated with daughters' earlier menarche, while inadequate GWG was not. The association between maternal pre-pregnancy weight and daughters' menarcheal timing was not mediated by daughter's birth weight, prepubertal BMI or maternal GWG. Maternal factors, before and during pregnancy, are potentially important determinants of daughters' menarcheal timing and are amenable to intervention. Further research is needed to better understand pathways through which these factors operate. PMID:23054446

Deardorff, Julianna; Berry-Millett, Rachel; Rehkopf, David; Luecke, Ellen; Lahiff, Maureen; Abrams, Barbara

2013-10-01

58

MATERNAL SERUM ADIPONECTIN MULTIMERS IN PATIENTS WITH A SMALL-FOR-GESTATIONAL-AGE NEWBORN  

PubMed Central

Objective Several mechanisms of disease have been implicated in the pathophysiology of SGA including an anti-angiogenic state, failure of physiologic transformation of spiral arteries, and an exaggerated intravascular pro-inflammatory response. Adiponectin, an insulin-sensitizing, anti-atherogenic, anti-inflammatory and angiogenic adipokine circulates in oligomeric complexes including low-molecular-weight (LMW) trimers, medium-molecular-weight (MMW) hexamers and high-molecular-weight (HMW) isoforms. Adiponectin plays a role in a wide range of biological activities including those that have been implicated in the pathophysiology SGA. Thus, the aim of this study was to determine if third trimester adiponectin concentrations differed between women with normal weight infants and those with an SGA neonate. Study design This cross-sectional study included women with: 1) a normal pregnancy (n=234); and 2) an SGA neonate (n=78). The study population was further stratified by first trimester BMI (normal weight <25 kg/m2 vs. overweight/obese ?25 kg/m2). Maternal serum adiponectin multimers (total, HMW, MMW and LMW) concentrations were determined by ELISA. Non-parametric statistics were used for analyses. Results 1) The median maternal serum concentrations of total, HMW and MMW adiponectin were significantly lower in patients with an SGA neonate than in those with normal pregnancies; 2) patients with an SGA neonate had a significantly lower median HMW/total adiponectin ratio and higher median MMW/total adiponectin and LMW/total adiponectin ratios than those with a normal pregnancy; 3) among patients with an SGA neonate, neither maternal serum concentrations of adiponectin multimers, nor their relative distribution differ between normal weight and overweight/obese patients. Conclusion 1) Pregnancies complicated by an SGA neonate are characterized by a alterations in the maternal serum adiponectin multimers concentrations and their relative abundance; 2) in contrast to normal pregnancies, those complicated by an SGA neonate are not associated with low circulating adiponectin multimers in overweight/obese individuals suggesting altered regulation of this adipokine in the presence of an SGA neonate; 3) collectively, the findings reported herein suggest that maternal adipose tissue may play a role, in the pathogenesis of SGA.

Mazaki-Tovi, Shali; Romero, Roberto; Vaisbuch, Edi; Erez, Offer; Mittal, Pooja; Chaiworapongsa, Tinnakorn; Kim, Sun Kwon; Pacora, Percy; Yeo, Lami; Gotsch, Francesca; Dong, Zhong; Yoon, Bo Hyun; Hassan, Sonia S.; Kusanovic, Juan Pedro

2013-01-01

59

Maternal Attitudes toward Mother-Child Separation: Working and Nonworking Mothers of School-Age Children.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Exploring possible similarities and differences between mothers who work outside the home and mothers who do not, this study provides a preliminary investigation of maternal reactions to mother-child separation when children have reached school age. A total of 41 women working outside the home and 48 mothers staying at home responded to a…

Koplik, Elissa K.; Fisher, Celia B.

60

Maternal Age at Childbirth and Offspring Disruptive Behaviors: Testing the Causal Hypothesis  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Background: Recent studies suggest that the association between maternal age at childbearing (MAC) and children's disruptive behaviors is the result of family factors that are confounded with both variables, rather than a casual effect of environmental factors specifically related to MAC. These studies, however, relied on restricted samples and…

D'Onofrio, Brian M.; Goodnight, Jackson A.; Van Hulle, Carol A.; Rodgers, Joseph Lee; Rathouz, Paul J.; Waldman, Irwin D.; Lahey, Benjamin B.

2009-01-01

61

Effect of maternal and paternal age on pregnancy and miscarriage rates after intrauterine insemination  

Microsoft Academic Search

More than 17,000 intrauterine insemination (IUI) cycles were analysed retrospectively with respect to outcome according to differing aetiologies of infertility. The quantity and motility of spermatozoa in the final preparation used for insemination had a positive effect on the outcome, as classically observed in the past. It was found that advanced maternal age had a negative effect on the pregnancy

Stéphanie Belloc; Paul Cohen-Bacrie; Moncef Benkhalifa; Martine Cohen-Bacrie; Jacques De Mouzon; André Hazout; Yves Ménézo

2008-01-01

62

Advancing Maternal Age Is Associated with Increasing Risk for Autism: A Review and Meta-Analysis  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Objective: We conducted a meta-analysis of epidemiological studies investigating the association between maternal age and autism. Method: Using recommended guidelines for performing meta-analyses, we systematically selected, and extracted results from, epidemiological scientific studies reported before January 2012. We calculated pooled risk…

Sandin, Sven; Hultman, Christina M.; Kolevzon, Alexander; Gross, Raz; MacCabe, James H.; Reichenberg, Abraham

2012-01-01

63

A survey on maternal age and karyotype in Down's syndrome in Japan, 1947–1975  

Microsoft Academic Search

Data on karyotype and maternal age of 1954 cases of Down's syndrome were analyzed to see if the rate of chromosome mutations leading to this abnormality has been enhanced during the last 20 years. Comparison of the data for patients born in 1947–1960 with those in 1961–1975 revealed little change with time in the proportions of cases due to different

Ei Matsunaga; Hiroko Fujita

1977-01-01

64

Maternal Age at Childbirth and Offspring Disruptive Behaviors: Testing the Causal Hypothesis  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: Recent studies suggest that the association between maternal age at childbearing (MAC) and children's disruptive behaviors is the result of family factors that are confounded with both variables, rather than a casual effect of environmental factors specifically related to MAC. These studies, however, relied on restricted samples and…

D'Onofrio, Brian M.; Goodnight, Jackson A.; Van Hulle, Carol A.; Rodgers, Joseph Lee; Rathouz, Paul J.; Waldman, Irwin D.; Lahey, Benjamin B.

2009-01-01

65

Association between nondisjunction and maternal age in meiosis-II human oocytes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The relationship between advanced maternal age and increased risk of trisomic offspring is well know clinically but not clearly understood at the level of the oocyte. A total of 383 oocytes that failed fertilization from 107 patients undergoing in vitro fertilization were analyzed by FISH using X-, 18-, and 13\\/21-chromosome probes simultaneously. The corresponding polar bodies were also analyzed in

T. Dailey; J. Cohen; S. Munne; B. Dale

1996-01-01

66

Age and racial\\/ethnic differences in maternal, fetal, and placental conditions in laboring patients  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: Most health indicators exhibit evidence of ethnic disparity. This study describes the prevalence of clinical conditions that are associated with pregnancy, stratified at age 35 years, and by ethnicity (black, white, Hispanic, other). Study Design: This was a retrospective, cross-sectional cohort study. We used International Classification of Diseases discharge diagnostic codes from California discharge data to identify 31 maternal,

Kimberly D. Gregory; Lisa M. Korst

2003-01-01

67

Effect of Older Maternal Age on the Risk of Spontaneous Preterm Labor: A Population-Based Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

To determine if older maternal age (35 years and older) at first birth was an independent risk factor for spontaneous preterm labor, we conducted a retrospective population-based cohort study. Using provincial perinatal data, we developed separate risk models for low- and high-risk women using multivariate logistic regression. We found that older maternal age exerted a direct and independent effect on

Safina Hassan Mcintyre; Christine V. Newburn-Cook; Beverley OBrien; Nestor N. Demianczuk

2009-01-01

68

INFLUENCE OF MATERNAL AGE ON THE FITNESS OF PROGENY IN THE RICE WEEVIL, SITOPHILUS ORYZAE (COLEOPTERA: CURCULIONIDAE)  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

We investigated the effects of maternal age on fitness of progeny in the rice weevil, Sitophilus oryzae (L.) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae). Five-, 20-, and 50-day-old female rice weevils were used to investigate the effects of maternal age on the life-time fecundity and longevity of their daughters. I...

69

International variation in reported livebirth prevalence rates of Down syndrome, adjusted for maternal age  

PubMed Central

Reported livebirth prevalence of Down syndrome (DS) may be affected by the maternal age distribution of the population, completeness of ascertainment, accuracy of diagnosis, extent of selective prenatal termination of affected pregnancies, and as yet unidentified genetic and environmental factors. To search for evidence of the latter, we reviewed all published reports in which it was possible to adjust both for effects of maternal age and for selective termination (where relevant).?We constructed indices that allowed direct comparisons of prevalence rates after standardising for maternal age. Reference rates were derived from studies previously identified as having near complete ascertainment. An index value significantly different from 1 may result from random fluctuations, as well as from variations in the factors listed above. We found 49 population groups for which an index could be calculated. Methodological descriptions suggested that low values could often be attributed to underascertainment. A possible exception concerned African-American groups, though even among these most acceptable studies were compatible with an index value of 1. As we have reported elsewhere, there was also a suggestive increase in rates among US residents of Mexican or Central American origin. Nevertheless, our results suggest that "real" variation between population groups reported to date probably amounts to no more than ±25%. However, reliable data in many human populations are lacking including, surprisingly, some jurisdictions with relatively advanced health care systems. We suggest that future reports of DS livebirth prevalence should routinely present data that allow calculation of an index standardised for maternal age and adjusted for elective prenatal terminations.???Keywords: Down syndrome; prenatal diagnosis; maternal age standardisation; epidemiology

Carothers, A.; Hecht, C.; Hook, E.

1999-01-01

70

Influence of gestational age and maternal height on fetal femur length calculations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To determine whether current methods of detecting Down syndrome based on fetal femur length calculations are influenced by gestational age or maternal height.Methods: Four formulas were used to calculate expected femur length (FL) based on the fetal biparietal diameter (BPD) between 15 0\\/7 weeks’ gestation and 19 6\\/7 weeks’ gestation. For each gestational age, the BPD:FL ratio for women

Brian T Pierce; Elizabeth G Hancock; Christine M Kovac; Peter G Napolitano; Roderick F Hume; Byron C Calhoun

2001-01-01

71

Maternal Age at Childbirth and Social Development in Infancy  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Difficulties in social communication are not necessarily observed only in individuals with autism spectrum disorders (ASD), and there are many subclinical cases in the general populations. Although advanced parental age at childbirth has often been considered a possible risk factor of ASD, it might contribute to poor social functioning in…

Koyama, Tomonori; Kamio, Yoko; Inada, Naoko; Inokuchi, Eiko

2011-01-01

72

Recombination and maternal age-dependent nondisjunction: molecular studies of trisomy 16.  

PubMed Central

Trisomy 16 is the most common human trisomy, occurring in > or = 1% of all clinically recognized pregnancies. It is thought to be completely dependent on maternal age and thus provides a useful model for studying the association of increasing maternal age and nondisjunction. We have been conducting a study to determine the parent and meiotic stage of origin of trisomy 16 and the possible association of nondisjunction and aberrant recombination. In the present report, we summarize our observations on 62 spontaneous abortions with trisomy 16. All trisomies were maternally derived, and in virtually all the error occurred at meiosis I. In studies of genetic recombination, we observed a highly significant reduction in recombination in the trisomy-generating meioses by comparison with normal female meioses. However, most cases of trisomy 16 had at least one detectable crossover between the nondisjoined chromosomes, indicating that it is reduced--and not absent--recombination that is the important predisposing factor. Additionally, our data indicate an altered distribution of crossing-over in trisomy 16, as we rarely observed crossovers in the proximal long and short arms. Thus, it may be that, at least for trisomy 16, the association between maternal age and trisomy is due to diminished recombination, particularly in the proximal regions of the chromosome.

Hassold, T; Merrill, M; Adkins, K; Freeman, S; Sherman, S

1995-01-01

73

Mutation risk associated with paternal and maternal age in a cohort of retinoblastoma survivors.  

PubMed

Autosomal dominant conditions are known to be associated with advanced paternal age, and it has been suggested that retinoblastoma (Rb) also exhibits a paternal age effect due to the paternal origin of most new germline RB1 mutations. To further our understanding of the association of parental age and risk of de novo germline RB1 mutations, we evaluated the effect of parental age in a cohort of Rb survivors in the United States. A cohort of 262 Rb patients was retrospectively identified at one institution, and telephone interviews were conducted with parents of 160 survivors (65.3%). We classified Rb survivors into three groups: those with unilateral Rb were classified as sporadic if they had no or unknown family history of Rb, those with bilateral Rb were classified as having a de novo germline mutation if they had no or unknown family history of Rb, and those with unilateral or bilateral Rb, who had a family history of Rb, were classified as familial. We built two sets of nested logistic regression models to detect an increased odds of the de novo germline mutation classification related to older parental age compared to sporadic and familial Rb classifications. The modeling strategy evaluated effects of continuous increasing maternal and paternal age and 5-year age increases adjusted for the age of the other parent. Mean maternal ages for survivors classified as having de novo germline mutations and sporadic Rb were similar (28.3 and 28.5, respectively) as were mean paternal ages (31.9 and 31.2, respectively), and all were significantly higher than the weighted general US population means. In contrast, maternal and paternal ages for familial Rb did not differ significantly from the weighted US general population means. Although we noted no significant differences between mean maternal and paternal ages between each of the three Rb classification groups, we found increased odds of a survivor being in the de novo germline mutation group for each 5-year increase in paternal age, but these findings were not statistically significant (de novo vs. sporadic ORs 30-34 = 1.7 [0.7-4], ? 35 = 1.3 [0.5-3.3]; de novo vs. familial ORs 30-34 = 2.8 [1.0-8.4], ? 35 = 1.6 [0.6-4.6]). Our study suggests a weak paternal age effect for Rb resulting from de novo germline mutations consistent with the paternal origin of most of these mutations. PMID:22203219

Mills, Melissa B; Hudgins, Louanne; Balise, Raymond R; Abramson, David H; Kleinerman, Ruth A

2011-12-28

74

Maternal Age, Exposure to Siblings, and Risk of Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis  

PubMed Central

Between 1987 and 2005, the authors conducted a nested case-control study based on the Swedish Multi-Generation Register to investigate whether early life exposures, namely, maternal age at delivery and exposure to siblings, are associated with an increased risk of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). The study comprised 768 ALS cases and five controls per case matched by birth year and gender. Odds ratios and their corresponding 95% confidence intervals for ALS were estimated by conditional logistic regression modeling. Low maternal age (?20 years) and high maternal age (?41 years) were both associated with higher risk of ALS (odds ratio (OR) = 1.5, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.1, 2.0 and OR = 1.7, 95% CI: 1.1, 2.4, respectively). The relative risk of ALS increased slightly with increasing number of younger siblings (OR = 1.1, 95% CI: 1.0, 1.1; p = 0.02). Children whose first younger sibling was born after the age of 6 years had the greatest relative risk (OR = 1.8, 95% CI: 1.2, 2.7). Exposure to older siblings was not associated with the risk of ALS. Although the strength of the observed associations was modest, these results provided further support for the theory that early life exposures might contribute to the disease pathogenesis.

Fang, Fang; Kamel, Freya; Sandler, Dale P.; Sparen, Par; Ye, Weimin

2009-01-01

75

Aneuploidy involving chromosome 1 in failed-fertilized human oocytes is unrelated to maternal age  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: To study whether maternal meiotic errors in failed-fertilized oocytes involving chromosome 1 occur at frequencies similar to those involving other autosomes, and whether their frequency is affected by maternal age. Methods: Using fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH), frequencies of aneusomy and chromatid pre-division involving chromosomes 1, 16, 18, and 21 were determined for 273 failed-fertilized oocytes. Results: The aneuploidy rate for chromosome 1 was 15.8 percent, and was neither age-dependent nor significantly different from that for chromosomes 16,18 or 21. Only chromosome 16 exhibited an age-dependent increase in aneusomy rates. The frequency of chromatid pre-division was lower for chromosome 1 than for chromosome 18 (11.9 percent vs. 25.4 percent; P=0.01), but not different from that for chromosomes 16 or 21. Conclusion: Aneuploidy involving chromosome 1 in failed-fertilized oocytes is unrelated to maternal age and occurs at a frequency similar to that for chromosomes 16, 18 and 21.

Weier, Jingly Fung; Weier, Heinz-Ulrich G.; Nureddin, Aida.; Pedersen, Roger A.; Racowsky, Catherine

2004-12-04

76

Effect of maternal and paternal age on pregnancy and miscarriage rates after intrauterine insemination.  

PubMed

More than 17,000 intrauterine insemination (lUI) cycles were analysed retrospectively with respect to outcome according to differing aetiologies of infertility. The quantity and motility of spermatozoa in the final preparation used for insemination had a positive effect on the outcome, as classically observed in the past. It was found that advanced maternal age had a negative effect on the pregnancy rate and was associated with increased miscarriage rate. More interestingly, an exactly parallel effect was found for paternal age. The impact of increased age on necrospermia and sperm DNA structure is discussed as a probable direct cause of this paternal effect. PMID:18765010

Belloc, Stéphanie; Cohen-Bacrie, Paul; Benkhalifa, Moncef; Cohen-Bacrie, Martine; De Mouzon, Jacques; Hazout, André; Ménézo, Yves

2008-09-01

77

Relationship Between Advanced Maternal Age, Hiesho (Sensitivity to Cold) and Abnormal Delivery in Japan  

PubMed Central

Background: In Japan, the proportion of women aged 35 and older giving birth has greatly increased in recent years, and maternal age is continuing to increase. Advanced maternal age is a risk factor for abnormal delivery, as is hiesho (sensitivity to cold). Research Question: This study aimed to assess whether advanced maternal age and hiesho precipitate premature delivery, premature rupture of membranes, weak labor pains, prolonged labor and atonic bleeding. Method: The study design was a descriptive comparative study with a retrospective cohort group design. Subjects in this study were 2,810 Japanese women in hospital after childbirth. The research methods employed were a paper questionnaire and extraction of data from medical records. Results: Comparing the rate of occurrence of abnormal delivery among women aged 35 to 39 according to whether or not they had hiesho, results were premature delivery OR: 3.51 (95% CI: 1.66-7.43), premature rupture of membranes OR: 1.25 (95% CI: 0.90-1.74), weak labor pains OR: 2.94 (95% CI: 1.65-5.24), prolonged labor OR: 2.56 (95% CI: 1.23-5.26), and atonic bleeding, OR: 1.65 (95% CI: 0.14-2.40) when hiesho was present. Among women aged 40 and over, results were premature delivery OR: 5.09 (95% CI: 1.16-22.20), premature rupture of membranes OR: 1.60 (95% CI: 0.73-3.46), weak labor pains OR: 7.02 (95% CI: 1.56-31.55), prolonged labor OR:7.19 (95% CI: 1.49-34.60) and atonic bleeding OR: 2.00 (95% CI: 0.64-6.23). Conclusions: Regardless of maternal age, the presence of hiesho is a risk factor that can precipitate premature delivery, premature rupture of membranes, weak labor pains, prolonged labor and atonic bleeding. Furthermore, hiesho coupled with advanced maternal age increases the incidence of premature delivery, weak labor pains and prolonged labor.

Nakamura, Sachiyo; Horiuchi, Shigeko

2013-01-01

78

Maternal Age, Parity, and Reproductive Outcome in Captive Chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes)  

PubMed Central

As early as the 1970s, it was suggested that nonhuman primates may serve as models of human reproductive senescence. In the present study, the reproductive outcomes of 1,255 pregnancies in captive chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) were examined in relation to parity and its covariate, maternal age. The results show that the percentage of positive pregnancy outcomes was negatively correlated with increasing parity. In addition, spontaneous abortions, stillbirths, and caesarian sections (C-sections) were positively correlated with increasing parity. Maternal age, rather than parity, was found to be the most important predictor of negative birth outcome. This study supports research demonstrating reproductive decline and termination in nonhuman primates, and is the first to quantitatively account for this phenomenon in captive female chimpanzees.

ROOF, KATHERINE A.; HOPKINS, WILLIAM D.; IZARD, M. KAY; HOOK, MICHELLE; SCHAPIRO, STEVEN J.

2007-01-01

79

Advanced Maternal Age and Adverse Pregnancy Outcome: Evidence from a Large Contemporary Cohort  

PubMed Central

Background Recent decades have witnessed an increase in mean maternal age at childbirth in most high-resourced countries. Advanced maternal age has been associated with several adverse maternal and perinatal outcomes. Although there are many studies on this topic, data from large contemporary population-based cohorts that controls for demographic variables known to influence perinatal outcomes is limited. Methods We performed a population-based cohort study using data on all singleton births in 2004–2008 from the North Western Perinatal Survey based at The University of Manchester, UK. We compared pregnancy outcomes in women aged 30–34, 35–39 and ?40 years with women aged 20–29 years using log-linear binomial regression. Models were adjusted for parity, ethnicity, social deprivation score and body mass index. Results The final study cohort consisted of 215,344 births; 122,307 mothers (54.19%) were aged 20–29 years, 62,371(27.63%) were aged 30–34 years, 33,966(15.05%) were aged 35–39 years and 7,066(3.13%) were aged ?40 years. Women aged 40+ at delivery were at increased risk of stillbirth (RR?=?1.83, [95% CI 1.37–2.43]), pre-term (RR?=?1.25, [95% CI: 1.14–1.36]) and very pre-term birth (RR?=?1.29, [95% CI:1.08–1.55]), Macrosomia (RR?=?1.31, [95% CI: 1.12–1.54]), extremely large for gestational age (RR?=?1.40, [95% CI: 1.25–1.58]) and Caesarean delivery (RR?=?1.83, [95% CI: 1.77–1.90]). Conclusions Advanced maternal age is associated with a range of adverse pregnancy outcomes. These risks are independent of parity and remain after adjusting for the ameliorating effects of higher socioeconomic status. The data from this large contemporary cohort will be of interest to healthcare providers and women and will facilitate evidence based counselling of older expectant mothers.

Kenny, Louise C.; Lavender, Tina; McNamee, Roseanne; O'Neill, Sinead M.; Mills, Tracey; Khashan, Ali S.

2013-01-01

80

Longitudinal Association of Maternal Attempt to Lose Weight During the Postpartum Period and Child Obesity at Age 3 Years  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of maternal attempt to lose weight during the postpartum period on later child weight has not been explored. Among 1,044 mother–infant pairs in Project Viva, we estimated longitudinal associations of maternal attempt to lose weight during the postpartum period with child weight and adiposity at age 3 years and examined differences in associations by type of weight loss

Kendrin R. Sonneville; Sheryl L. Rifas-Shiman; Emily Oken; Karen E. Peterson; Steven L. Gortmaker; Matthew W. Gillman; Elsie M. Taveras

2011-01-01

81

Maternal Pre-Pregnancy Obesity and Diagnosis of Asthma in Offspring at Age 3 Years  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective The objective of this study was to examine the relationship between maternal pre-pregnancy obesity and a diagnosis of asthma\\u000a in offspring at age 3 years. Methods A population-based sample of children born in large U.S. cities in 1998–2000 was followed since birth (N = 1971). The main\\u000a outcome measure was whether the mother reported at 3 years that the child had ever been

Nancy E. Reichman; Lenna Nepomnyaschy

2008-01-01

82

Maternal Weight Gain During Pregnancy and Child Weight at Age 3 Years  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives To determine the importance of pregnancy weight gain as a predictor of overweight (Body Mass Index [BMI] >85th percentile)\\u000a in offspring at age 3 years and if its influence varies by maternal BMI. Methods Chi-square and logistic regression analyses were conducted on a sample of 208 mother-child pairs from an earlier observational\\u000a cohort study on postpartum weight retention. Results In the

Christine M. Olson; Myla S. Strawderman; Barbara A. Dennison

2009-01-01

83

Maternal age and birth defects after the use of assisted reproductive technology in Japan, 2004-2010  

PubMed Central

Background Older mothers are becoming more common in Japan. One reason for this is the widespread use of assisted reproductive technology (ART). This study assesses the relationship between maternal age and the risk of birth defects after ART. Methods Nationwide data on ART between 2004 and 2010 in Japan were analyzed. Diseases that were classified as code Q00-Q99 (ie, congenital malformations, deformations, and chromosomal abnormalities) in the International Classification of Diseases, tenth edition, were selected. There were 219,185 pregnancies and 153,791 live births in total ART. Of these, 1943 abortions, stillbirths, or live births with birth defects were recorded. Percentage of multiple birth defects in total birth defects, the prevalence, crude relative risk and 95% confidence interval per 10,000 pregnancies and per 10,000 live births were analyzed according to the maternal age class (ie, 25–29, 30–34 (reference), 35–39, and 40+ years). Results Multiple birth defects were observed among 14% of the 25–29 year old class, and 8% among other classes when chromosomal abnormalities were excluded. The prevalence of chromosomal abnormalities per pregnancy and per live birth became significantly and rapidly higher in mothers in the age classes of 30–35 and 40+ years. Nonchromosomal birth defects per pregnancy decreased linearly with advanced maternal age, while the number of nonchromosomal birth defects per live birth formed a gradual U-shaped distribution. The prevalence per pregnancy of congenital malformations of the nervous system was significantly lower with advanced maternal age. The relative risk per live birth was significant regarding congenital malformations of the circulatory system for a maternal age of 40+ years. Some other significant associations between maternal age and birth defects were observed. Conclusion Maternal age is associated with several birth defects; however, older maternal age in itself does not produce noticeable extra risk for nonchromosomal birth defects overall.

Ooki, Syuichi

2013-01-01

84

Lifestyle, nutrient intake, iron status, and pregnancy outcome in pregnant women of advanced maternal age  

PubMed Central

The purpose of this study was to investigate how advanced maternal age influences lifestyle, nutrient intake, iron status, and pregnancy outcomes in pregnant women. The subjects of this study were 112 pregnant women who were receiving prenatal care at gynecologists located in Seoul. The subjects were divided into two groups according to their ages: those over age 35 were the advanced age group of pregnant women (AP) and those under age 35 were the young age group of pregnant women (YP). General factors, nutrient intakes, iron status, and pregnancy outcomes of the two groups were then compared. It was found that 72.5% of the YP group and 51.2% of the AP group had pre-pregnancy alcohol drinking experience; indicating that the YP group had more pre-pregnancy alcohol consumption than the AP group (P < 0.05). The only difference found in nutrient intake between the two groups was their niacin intakes which were 16.83 ± 8.20 mg/day and 13.76 ± 5.28 mg/day, respectively. When gestational age was shorter than 38.7 weeks, the average infant birth weight was 2.95 ± 0.08 kg, and when gestational age was longer than 40 weeks, it averaged at about 3.42 ± 0.08 kg. In other words, as gestational age increased, infant birth weight increased (P < 0.0001), and when maternal weight increased more than 15 kg, the infant birth weight increased significantly (P < 0.05). In conclusion, in order to secure healthy human resources, with respect to advanced aged women, it is necessary to intervene by promoting daily habits that consist of strategic increases in folate and calcium intake along with appropriate amounts of exercise.

2011-01-01

85

Effect of birth weight, maternal education and prenatal smoking on offspring intelligence at school age.  

PubMed

To examine the combined effect of birth weight, mothers' education and prenatal smoking on psychometrically measured intelligence at school age 1,822 children born in 1992-1999 and attending the first six grades from 45 schools representing all of the fifteen Estonian counties with information on birth weight, gestational age and mother's age, marital status, education, parity and smoking in pregnancy, and intelligence tests were studied. The scores of Raven's Standard Progressive Matrices were related to the birth weight: in the normal range of birth weight (>or=2500 g) every 500 g increase in birth weight was accompanied by around 0.7-point increase in IQ scores. A strong association between birth weight and IQ remained even if gestational age and mother's age, marital status, education, place of residence, parity and smoking during pregnancy have been taken into account. Maternal prenatal smoking was accompanied by a 3.3-point deficit in children's intellectual abilities. Marriage and mother's education had an independent positive correlation with offspring intelligence. We concluded that the statistical effect of birth weight, maternal education and smoking in pregnancy on offspring's IQ scores was remarkable and remained even if other factors have been taken into account. PMID:20634008

Rahu, Kaja; Rahu, Mati; Pullmann, Helle; Allik, Jüri

2010-07-14

86

Association between nondisjunction and maternal age in meiosis-II human oocytes  

SciTech Connect

The relationship between advanced maternal age and increased risk of trisomic offspring is well know clinically but not clearly understood at the level of the oocyte. A total of 383 oocytes that failed fertilization from 107 patients undergoing in vitro fertilization were analyzed by FISH using X-, 18-, and 13/21-chromosome probes simultaneously. The corresponding polar bodies were also analyzed in 188 of these oocytes. The chromosomes in the oocyte and first polar body complement each other and provide an internal control to differentiate between aneuploidy and technical errors. Two mechanisms of nondisjunction were determined. First, nondisjunction of bivalent chromosomes resulting in two univalents going to the same pole and, second, nondisjunction by premature chromatid separation (predivision) of univalent chromsomes producing either a balanced (2 + 2) or unbalanced (3 + 1) distribution of chromatids into the first polar body and M-II oocytes. Balanced predivision of chromatids, previously proposed as a major mechanism of aneuploidy, was found to increase significantly with time in culture (P < .005), which suggests that this phenomenon should be interpreted carefully. Unbalanced predivision and classical nondisjunction were unaffected by oocyte aging. In comparing oocytes from women <35 years of age with oocytes from women {ge}40 years of age, a significant increase (P < .001) in nondisjunction of full dyads was found in the oocytes with analyzable polar bodies and no FISH errors. Premature predivision of chromatids was also found to cause nondisjunction, but it did not increase with maternal age. 44 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs.

Dailey, T.; Cohen, J.; Munne, S.; Dale, B.

1996-07-01

87

Association between nondisjunction and maternal age in meiosis-II human oocytes.  

PubMed Central

The relationship between advanced maternal age and increased risk of trisomic offspring is well known clinically but not clearly understood at the level of the oocyte. A total of 383 oocytes that failed fertilization from 107 patients undergoing in vitro fertilization were analyzed by FISH using X-, 18-, and 13/21-chromosome probes simultaneously. The corresponding polar bodies were also analyzed in 188 of these oocytes. The chromosomes in the oocyte and first polar body complement each other and provide an internal control to differentiate between aneuploidy and technical errors. Two mechanisms of nondisjunction were determined. First, nondisjunction of bivalent chromosomes resulting in two univalents going to the same pole and, second, nondisjunction by premature chromatid separation (predivision) of univalent chromosomes producing either a balanced (2 + 2) or unbalanced (3 + 1) distribution of chromatids into the first polar body and M-II oocytes. Balanced predivision of chromatids, previously proposed as a major mechanism of aneuploidy, was found to increase significantly with time in culture (P < .005), which suggests that this phenomenon should be interpreted carefully. Unbalanced predivision and classical nondisjunction were unaffected by oocyte aging. In comparing oocytes from women <35 years of age with oocytes from women > or = 40 years of age, a significant increase (P < .001) in nondisjunction of full dyads was found in the oocytes with analyzable polar bodies and no FISH errors. Premature predivision of chromatids was also found to cause nondisjunction, but it did not increase with maternal age. Images Figure 2 Figure 3

Dailey, T.; Dale, B.; Cohen, J.; Munne, S.

1996-01-01

88

Influence of Age and 17?-Estradiol on Kisspeptin, Neurokinin B, and Prodynorphin Gene Expression in the Arcuate-Median Eminence of Female Rhesus Macaques  

PubMed Central

The neuropeptides kisspeptin, neurokinin B, and dynorphin A (collectively abbreviated as KNDy) are, respectively, encoded by KiSS-1, NKB, and PDYN and are coexpressed by neurons of the hypothalamic arcuate nucleus (ARC). Here, using quantitative real-time PCR, we examined age-related changes in the expression of genes encoding KNDy and associated receptors G protein-coupled receptor 54 (encoded by GPR54), neurokinin 3 receptor (encoded by NK3), and ?-opioid receptor (encoded by KOR), in the female rhesus macaque ARC-median eminence (ARC-ME). Expression of KiSS-1 and NKB was highly elevated in old perimenopausal compared with young or middle-aged premenopausal animals. To test whether these age-related changes could be attributed to perimenopausal loss of sex steroids, we then examined KNDy, GPR54, NK3, and KOR expression changes in response to ovariectomy (OVX) and exposure to 17?-estradiol (E2). Short-term (7 months) OVX (with or without 1 month of estrogen replacement) failed to modulate the expression of any of the KNDy-related genes. In contrast, long-term (?4 yr) OVX significantly increased KiSS-1 and NKB expression, and this was reversed by E2 administration. Finally, we examined the expression of KNDy-related genes in young adult females during the early follicular, late follicular, or midluteal phases of their menstrual cycle but found no difference. Together, the results suggest that short-term alterations in circulating E2 levels, such as those occurring during the menstrual cycle, may have little effect on the ARC-ME expression of KNDy and associated receptors. Nevertheless, they clearly demonstrate that loss of ovarian steroid negative feedback that occurs during perimenopause plays a major role in modulating the activity of KNDy circuits of the aging primate ARC-ME.

Eghlidi, Dominique H.; Haley, Gwendolen E.; Noriega, Nigel C.; Kohama, Steven G.; Urbanski, Henryk F.

2010-01-01

89

Effect of maternal antibodies and pig age on the antibody response after vaccination against Glässers disease.  

PubMed

The influence of age and maternal antibodies on the development and duration of postvaccinal antibody response against Glässer's disease were investigated. Pigs born to immune (MDA-positive) and non-immune (MDA-negative) sows were vaccinated with inactivated vaccine. Vaccination was done according to three different protocols: at 1 and 4, at 2 and 5 or at 4 and 7 weeks of age. There were also two control groups for MDA-negative and MDA-positive pigs. The level of Haemophilus parasuis (Hps) specific antibodies were determined using commercial ELISA test. No serological responses were seen in any of the groups after the first vaccination. Maternally derived antibodies (MDA) against Hps were above the positive level until approximately 3 weeks of life in MDA-positive pigs. In those pigs the strongest postvaccinal humoral response was observed in piglets vaccinated at 4 and 7 weeks of age. In the remaining MDA-positive piglets only slight seroconversion was noted but levels of antibodies never exceeded values considered as positive. All MDA-negative pigs produced Hps-specific antibodies after the second vaccination. The results of the present study indicated that MDA may alter the development and duration of active postvaccinal antibody response. Age of pigs at the moment of vaccination was not associated with the significant differences in the magnitude of antibody response, however influenced the kinetics of decline of Hps-specific antibodies. PMID:21584780

Pomorska-Mól, Ma?gorzata; Markowska-Daniel, Iwona; Rachubik, Jaros?aw; Pejsak, Zygmunt

2011-05-17

90

Maternal age and number of children are risk factors for depressive disorders in non-perinatal women of reproductive age.  

PubMed

Abstract Objective. It remains unclear whether or not the vulnerability of depression in women of reproductive age is related with pregnancy or perinatal period. The aim of the study was to determine the prevalence of depressive disorders and related factors in a large sample of non-perinatal women of reproductive age. Method. This study involved 589 women of reproductive age. At baseline, sociodemographic data and premenstrual assessment forms were completed, and screening tests for the assessment of the severity of depressive symptoms were administered to all of the participants. Participants who had over scale scores of the cut-off point in the screening instruments were assessed with module A of the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM Disorders (SCID-I) to determine DSM IV Axis I disorders. Results. The prevalence of depressive disorders was 32.8%. Depressive disorders had high rates in women who were married at younger ages and who had three or more children. Although the prevalence of depressive disorders was 32.8%, only 10.4% of the women had follow-up and treatment in a psychiatric outpatient clinic. Conclusion. Low education levels, early maternal age, and having more than three children and higher premenstrual symptom scores were risk factors for depressive disorders in non-perinatal reproductive age. PMID:23822181

Aras, Neriman; Oral, Elif; Aydin, Nazan; Gulec, Mustafa

2013-09-25

91

Telomere length is associated with types of chromosome 21 nondisjunction: a new insight into the maternal age effect on Down syndrome birth  

Microsoft Academic Search

Advanced maternal age is a well-documented risk factor of chromosome 21 nondisjunction in humans, but understanding of this\\u000a association at the genetic level is still limited. In particular, the state of maternal genetic age is unclear. In the present\\u000a study, we estimated maternal genetic age by measuring telomere length of peripheral blood lymphocytes among age-matched mothers\\u000a of children with Down

Sujoy Ghosh; Eleanor Feingold; Sumita Chakraborty; Subrata Kumar Dey

2010-01-01

92

Maternal intake of methyl-donor nutrients and child cognition at 3 years of age  

PubMed Central

SUMMARY Methyl-donor nutrients are substrates for methylation reactions involved in neurodevelopment processes. The role of maternal intake of these nutrients on cognitive performance of the offspring is poorly understood. We examined the associations of maternal intake of folate, vitamin B12, choline, betaine, and methionine during the first and second trimesters of pregnancy, with tests of cognitive performance in the offspring at 3 y of age using data from 1210 participants in Project Viva, a prospective pre-birth cohort study in Massachusetts. We assessed nutrient intake with the use of food frequency questionnaires. Children’s cognition at age 3 y was evaluated with the Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test III (PPVT-III) and visual-motor skills with the Wide Range Assessment of Visual Motor Abilities (WRAVMA) test. In multivariable models adjusting for potential sociobehavioral and nutritional confounders, for each 600 µg/d increment in total folate intake during the first trimester, PPVT-III score at age 3 y was 1.6 points [95% CI: 0.1, 3.1; P = 0.04] higher. There was a weak inverse association between vitamin B12 intake during the second trimester and PPVT-III scores [?0.4 points per 2.6 µg/d; 95% CI: ?0.8, ?0.1; P = 0.01]. We did not find associations between choline, betaine, or methionine and cognitive outcomes at this age. Results of this study suggest that higher intake of folate in early pregnancy is associated with higher scores on the PPVT-III, a test of receptive language that predicts overall intelligence, at age 3 y.

Villamor, Eduardo; Rifas-Shiman, Sheryl L.; Gillman, Matthew W.; Oken, Emily

2012-01-01

93

Tissue distribution, maternal transfer, and age-related accumulation of dechloranes in Chinese sturgeon.  

PubMed

While dechloranes have been detected in environmental media and wildlife, limited information was available on their tissue distribution in wildlife. Syn-dechlorane plus (syn-DP), anti-DP, syn-undecachloropentacyclooctadecadiene (syn-Cl(11)DP), anti-Cl(11)DP, dechlorane 602, dechlorane 603 and mirex were measured in 13 organs of 17 female Chinese sturgeon (Acipenser sinensis). Dechloranes were detected in all tissues and the highest concentrations of total dechloranes were detected in heart (87 pg/g ww, 4.5-645 pg/g ww), followed by adipose (61 pg/g ww, 14-531 pg/g ww) and eggs (57 pg/g ww, 13-261 pg/g ww). The tissue distribution of DP was mainly determined by lipid partition, while Dec 602 and Dec 603 preferred to accumulate in the intestine and stomach. The values of f(anti) (the concentration of anti-DP relative to the sum concentration of DP) in maternal tissues (0.72 ± 0.03 in muscle) were significantly higher than those found in eggs (0.65 ± 0.04) (p < 0.001), while f(anti-Cl11DP) (the concentration of anti-Cl(11)DP relative to the sum concentration of Cl(11)DP) in maternal tissues (0.59 ± 0.10 in muscle) was significantly lower than that in eggs (0.75 ± 0.13) (p < 0.05). High maternal transfer efficiencies of dechloranes were observed in eggs, which accounted for 49% of the total body burden, and the ratios of concentrations in eggs to maternal tissues (EMR) for mirex, Dec 602, Dec 603, syn-Cl(11)DP, anti-Cl(11)DP, syn-DP, and anti-DP were 18, 8.8, 5.2, 2.6, 5.2, 5.5 and 3.7, respectively, which are dependent on their K(OW) values (r = -0.66, p < 0.01). Negative age-related trends were observed for mirex, Dec 603, syn-Cl(11)DP and anti-Cl(11)DP in eggs (R(2) = 0.28-0.38, p = 0.02-0.05), which were possibly due to their high transfer efficiencies to eggs from maternal body (49%). PMID:22913883

Peng, Hui; Zhang, Kun; Wan, Yi; Hu, Jianying

2012-09-07

94

Differential Gene Expression at the Maternal-Fetal Interface in Preeclampsia Is Influenced by Gestational Age  

PubMed Central

Genome-wide transcription data of utero-placental tissue has been used to identify altered gene expression associated with preeclampsia (PE). As many women with PE deliver preterm, there is often a difference in gestational age between PE women and healthy pregnant controls. This may pose a potential bias since gestational age has been shown to dramatically influence gene expression in utero-placental tissue. By pooling data from three genome-wide transcription studies of the maternal-fetal interface, we have evaluated the relative effect of gestational age and PE on gene expression. A total of 18,180 transcripts were evaluated in 49 PE cases and 105 controls, with gestational age ranging from week 14 to 42. A total of 22 transcripts were associated with PE, whereas 92 transcripts with gestational age (nominal P value <1.51*10?6, Bonferroni adjusted P value <0.05). Our results indicate that gestational age has a great influence on gene expression both in normal and PE-complicated pregnancies. This effect might introduce serious bias in data analyses and needs to be carefully assessed in future genome-wide transcription studies.

Lian, Ingrid A.; Langaas, Mette; Moses, Eric; Johansson, Asa

2013-01-01

95

Neighborhood influences on the association between maternal age and birth weight: A multilevel investigation of age-related disparities in health  

PubMed Central

It was hypothesized that the relationship between maternal age and infant birthweight varies significantly across neighborhoods and that such variation can be predicted by neighborhood characteristics. We analyzed 229,613 singleton births of mothers aged 20–45 from Chicago, USA in 1997–2002. Random coefficient models were used to estimate the between-neighborhood variation in age-birthweight slopes, and both intercepts- and-slopes-as-outcomes models were used to evaluate area-level predictors of such variation. The crude maternal age-birthweight slopes for neighborhoods ranged from a decrease of 17 grams to an increase of 10 grams per year of maternal age. Adjustment for individual-level covariates reduced but did not eliminate this between-neighborhood variation. Concentrated poverty was a significant neighborhood-level predictor of the age-birthweight slope, explaining 44.4 percent of the between-neighborhood variation in slopes. Neighborhoods of higher economic disadvantage showed a more negative age-birthweight slope. The findings support the hypothesis that the relationship between maternal age and birthweight varies between neighborhoods. Indicators of neighborhood disadvantage help to explain such differences.

Cerda, Magdalena; Buka, Stephen L; Rich-Edwards, Janet W

2009-01-01

96

Does advanced maternal age confer a survival advantage to infants born at early gestation?  

PubMed Central

Background Recent studies have shown that older mothers who deliver at preterm gestation have lower neonatal mortality rates compared with younger mothers who deliver at preterm gestation. We examined the effect of maternal age on gestational age-specific perinatal mortality. Methods We compared fetal, neonatal and perinatal mortality rates among singleton births in the United States, 2003–2005, to mothers aged ?35 versus 20–29 years. The analysis was stratified by gestational age and perinatal mortality rates were contrasted by maternal age at earlier (22–33 weeks) and later gestation (?34 weeks). Gestational age-specific perinatal mortality rates were calculated using the traditional perinatal formulation (deaths among births at any gestation divided by total births at that gestation) and also the fetuses-at-risk model (deaths among births at any gestation divided by fetuses-at-risk of death at that gestation). Logistic regression was used to estimate adjusted odds ratios (AOR) for perinatal death. Results Under the traditional approach, fetal death rates at 22–33 weeks were non-significantly lower among older mothers (AOR 0.97, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.91-1.03), while rates were significantly higher among older mothers at ?34 weeks (AOR 1.66, 95% CI 1.56-1.76). Neonatal death rates were significantly lower among older compared with younger mothers at 22–33 weeks (AOR=0.93, 95% CI 0.88-0.98) but higher at ?34 weeks (AOR 1.26, 95% CI 1.21-1.31). Under the fetuses-at-risk model, both rates were higher among older vs younger mothers at early gestation (AOR for fetal and neonatal mortality 1.35, 95% CI 1.27-1.43 and 1.31, 95% CI 1.24-1.38, respectively) and late gestation (AOR for fetal and neonatal mortality 1.66, 95% CI 1.56-1.76) and 1.21, 95% CI 1.14-1.29, respectively). Conclusions Although the traditional prognostic perspective on the risk of perinatal death among older versus younger mothers varies by gestational age at birth, the causal fetuses-at-risk model reveals a consistently elevated risk of perinatal death at all gestational ages among older mothers.

2013-01-01

97

Maternal mortality in Kassala State - Eastern Sudan: community-based study using Reproductive age mortality survey (RAMOS)  

PubMed Central

Background The maternal mortality ratio in Sudan was estimated at 750/100,000 live births. Sudan was one of eleven countries that are responsible for 65% of global maternal deaths according to a recent World Health Organization (WHO) estimate. Maternal mortality in Kassala State was high in national demographic surveys. This study was conducted to investigate the causes and contributing factors of maternal deaths and to identify any discrepancies in rates and causes between different areas. Methods A reproductive age mortality survey (RAMOS) was conducted to study maternal mortality in Kassala State. Deaths of women of reproductive age (WRA) in four purposively selected areas were identified by interviewing key informants in each village followed by verbal autopsy. Results Over a three-year period, 168 maternal deaths were identified among 26,066 WRA. Verbal autopsies were conducted in 148 (88.1%) of these cases. Of these, 64 (43.2%) were due to pregnancy and childbirth complications. Maternal mortality rates and ratios were 80.6 per 100,000 WRA and 713.6 per 100,000 live births (LB), respectively. There was a wide discrepancy between urban and rural maternal mortality ratios (369 and 872\\100,000 LB, respectively). Direct obstetric causes were responsible for 58.4% of deaths. Severe anemia (20.3%) and acute febrile illness (9.4%) were the major indirect causes of maternal death whereas obstetric hemorrhage (15.6%), obstructed labor (14.1%) and puerperal sepsis (10.9%) were the major obstetric causes. Of the contributing factors, we found delay of referral in 73.4% of cases in spite of a high problem recognition rate (75%). 67.2% of deaths occurred at home, indicating under utilization of health facilities, and transportation problems were found in 54.7% of deaths. There was a high illiteracy rate among the deceased and their husbands (62.5% and 48.4%, respectively). Conclusions Maternal mortality rates and ratios were found to be high, with a wide variation between urban and rural populations. Direct causes of maternal death were similar to those in developing countries. To reduce this high maternal mortality rate we recommend improving provision of emergency obstetric care (Emoc) in all health facilities, expanding midwifery training and coverage especially in rural areas.

2011-01-01

98

Age and parity as determinants of maternal mortality -- impact of their shifting distribution among parturients in Sweden from 1781 to 1980  

PubMed Central

The reduction in maternal mortality in Sweden between 1781 and 1980 is analysed with respect to changes in the distribution of age and parity among parturients over this period. Changes in maternal age contributed to almost 3% of the reduction in mortality over the period 1781-1911 and to 5% between 1911 and 1980. From 1965 to 1980, however, about 50% of the reduction in mortality was caused by a decrease in maternal age. Changes in parity have had the opposite effect. Maternal deaths attributable to the risk factors of age and parity increased from 46% during the 19th century to 80% from 1951 to 1980.

Hogberg, Ulf; Wall, Stig

1986-01-01

99

Spinning Tops (median)  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students measure distances using standard and non-standard units and record their measurement in various tables. Then they are asked to use descriptive statistics to report the results. During a top-spinning contest, students measure the distance along a curve using indirect measurement. They record the data for their group in a chart and compute their individual median and the group median.

Mathematics, Illuminations N.

2010-05-20

100

Maternal meiosis I non-disjunction of chromosome 15: dependence of the maternal age effect on level of recombination  

Microsoft Academic Search

Non-disjoined chromosomes 15 from 115 cases of uni- parental disomy (ascertained through Prader-Willi syndrome) and 13 cases of trisomy of maternal origin were densely typed for microsatellite loci spanning chromosome 15q. Of these 128 cases a total of 97 mei- osis I (MI) errors, 19 meiosis II (MII) errors and 12 mito- tic errors were identified. The genetic length of

W. P. Robinson; B. D. Kuchinka; F. Bernasconi; M. B. Petersen; A. Schulze; K. Brøndum-Nielsen; S. L. Christian; D. H. Ledbetter; A. A. Schinzel; B. Horsthemke; S. Schuffenhauer; R. C. Michaelis; S. Langlois; T. J. Hassold

1998-01-01

101

Does Maternal Prenatal Stress Adversely Affect the Child's Learning and Memory at Age Six?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Prenatal maternal stress has been shown to affect postnatal development in animals and humans. In animals, the morphology and function of the offspring's hippocampus is negatively affected by prenatal maternal stress. The present study prospectively investigated the influence of prenatal maternal stress on learning and memory of 112 children (50…

Gutteling, Barbara M.; de Weerth, Carolina; Zandbelt, Noortje; Mulder, Eduard J. H.; Visser, Gerard H. A.; Buitelaar, Jan K.

2006-01-01

102

Mean and Median Applet  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The concepts of median and mean are key to understanding statistics, and this rather novel applet from the Mathematical Association of America (MAA) Mathematical Sciences Digital Library is quite a find. The applet was created by Kady Schneiter of Utah State University and it consists of two windows. In the first, the user fills in a grid to create a distribution of numbers and to investigate the mean and median of the distribution. The second window enables users to test their knowledge about the mean and the median. In this window, the applet will display a hypothetical distribution and an unspecified marker. The user will then determine whether the marker indicates the position of the mean of the distribution, the median, both or neither. It's a well-designed instructional tool, and one that can be used in the classroom with ease.

2012-06-01

103

[Impact of the maternal age variable on ovular harvesting, fertilization and segmentation in a program of assisted reproduction].  

PubMed

The increased maternal age was found as responsible for the ovaric biological failure, that in turn, becomes an altered hormonal response, and a reduction in the amount of susceptible ovocytes, susceptible for capture; this diminution in the amount of ovocytes, and not an intrinsic alteration in its quality is at the moment the biological translation of ovarian aging. Therefore, maternal age variable, with its ovarian and endometrial repercussion, becomes the variable with the greatest impact in Assisted Reproduction programs. The variable age is statistically independent from other variables as procedure indication, sterility type, used ovarian stimulation. The patients age should be considered as a very important prognostic factor, when proposing the methods os Assisted Reproduction, independently of the greater risk of gestation problems. PMID:1601321

Di Castro Stringher, P; Hernández Vazquez, J; Kably Ambe, A; Gaviño Gaviño, F; Calderón Saldaña, M C

1992-03-01

104

The differential effects of maternal age, race/ethnicity and insurance on neonatal intensive care unit admission rates  

PubMed Central

Background Maternal race/ethnicity, age, and socioeconomic status (SES) are important factors determining birth outcome. Previous studies have demonstrated that, teenagers, and mothers with advanced maternal age (AMA), and Black/Non-Hispanic race/ethnicity can independently increase the risk for a poor pregnancy outcome. Similarly, public insurance has been associated with suboptimal health outcomes. The interaction and impact on the risk of a pregnancy resulting in a NICU admission has not been studied. Our aim was, to analyze the simultaneous interactions of teen/advanced maternal age (AMA), race/ethnicity and socioeconomic status on the odds of NICU admission. Methods The Consortium of Safe Labor Database (subset of n = 167,160 live births) was used to determine NICU admission and maternal factors: age, race/ethnicity, insurance, previous c-section, and gestational age. Results AMA mothers were more likely than teenaged mothers to have a pregnancy result in a NICU admission. Black/Non-Hispanic mothers with private insurance had increased odds for NICU admission. This is in contrast to the lower odds of NICU admission seen with Hispanic and White/Non-Hispanic pregnancies with private insurance. Conclusions Private insurance is protective against a pregnancy resulting in a NICU admission for Hispanic and White/Non-Hispanic mothers, but not for Black/Non-Hispanic mothers. The health disparity seen between Black and White/Non-Hispanics for the risk of NICU admission is most evident among pregnancies covered by private insurance. These study findings demonstrate that adverse pregnancy outcomes are mitigated differently across race, maternal age, and insurance status.

2012-01-01

105

The Associations of Prenatal Substance Use To Birth Outcomes and Infant Death: Do They Vary by Maternal Age and Race?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examined whether associations between prenatal substance use and birth and infant outcomes varied by maternal age and race. Data on all singleton live births in Minnesota from 1990-98 indicated that poor birth outcomes and infant death were generally lower for whites than for African Americans and American Indians. Prenatal substance use varied by…

Hellerstedt, Wendy L.; Johnson, Pamela Jo; Oswald, John W.

2002-01-01

106

Preterm behavior, maternal adjustment, and competencies in the newborn period: What influence do they have at 12 months postnatal age?  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article examines whether preterm newborns' behavior and their mother's adjustment to the premature birth and infant hospitalization have an influence on subsequent infant development and behavior, maternal adjustment, and mother- infant relationship. The behavioral competencies of 42 well, singleton preterminfants (m ean gestational age 31 weeks) were assessed, as were their mothers' adjustment (depression and coping) and competencies (knowledge

M. Veddovi; F. Gibson; D. T. Kenny; J. Bowen; D. Starte

2004-01-01

107

Preimplantation genetic screening in women of advanced maternal age caused a decrease in clinical pregnancy rate: a randomized controlled trial  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Advanced maternal age (AMA) is an important parameter that negatively influences the clinical pregnancy rate in IVF, in particular owing to the increased embryo aneuploidy rate. It has thus been suggested that only transferring euploid embryos in this patient group would improve the pregnancy rate. The purpose of this study was to test whether employing preimplantation genetic screening (PGS)

T. Hardarson; C. Hanson; K. Lundin; T. Hillensjo; L. Nilsson; J. Stevic; E. Reismer; K. Borg; M. Wikland; C. Bergh

2008-01-01

108

Risk of Low Birth Weight Associated with Advanced Maternal Age Among Four Ethnic Groups in the United States  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives: To examine and compare the risk of low birth weight associated with delayed childbearing in four ethnic groups using nationally representative data in the United States. Methods: We compared the risk of low (Results: African Americans and Puerto Ricans, and to a lesser extent Mexican Americans, had higher risk differences associated with advanced maternal age. For first births, the

Babak Khoshnood; Stephen Wall; Kwang-sun Lee

2005-01-01

109

Maternal influence on the sexual behavior of teen-age daughters.  

PubMed

449 girls in Detroit between the ages of 14 and 16 years, and their mothers were interviewed. Sampling took into account factors of race and social class. The objective of the study was to examine the relationship between the type of maternal involvement in the sexual socialization of daughters and the sexual behaviour of these girls during adolescence. Measures of early and current communication between mother and daughter regarding sexual issues were based on daughter's reports. Information regarding the mother's role as a supervisor of the daughter's social life was obtained from reports of the mothers. The 2 other major variables were quality of mother-daughter relationship (MDREL) measured by a 9-item summed index reflective of the daughter's assessment of the relationship; and the nonmarital sexual history of the mother as an indicator of the mother's role as a modeling agent. The criterion variable was the daughter's sexual behavior measured by whether or not she had ever had sexual intercourse (yes or no). 5 background variables (race, head of household, daughter's age, relative family income, and family religiosity) were also measured. After controlling for background variables, mother's presence as a role model was found to be significantly related to the sexual status of the daughter. MDREL was the strongest predictor of sexual experience, with a more favorable relationship corresponding to lack of sexual experience. Early and recent sexual communication and mother's supervisory role were not found to be significantly related to the criterion variable. Implications of these findings are discussed. PMID:12310348

Inazu, J K; Fox, G L

1980-03-01

110

Germline mosaicism does not explain the maternal age effect on trisomy.  

PubMed

A variety of hypotheses have been proposed to explain the association between trisomy and increasing maternal age in humans, virtually all of which assume that the underlying mechanisms involve meiotic errors. However, recently Hultén and colleagues [Hulten et al., 2010b] proposed a provocative model-the Oocyte Mosaicism Selection Model (OMSM)-that links age-dependent trisomy 21 to pre-meiotic errors in the ovary. Specifically, they propose that nondisjunctional events occur in a proportion of germ cells as they mitotically proliferate, resulting in mosaicism for trisomy 21. Assuming that the presence of an additional chromosome 21 delays meiotic progression, these cells would be ovulated later in reproductive life, resulting in an age-dependent increase in aneuploid eggs. Because this model has important clinical implications, we initiated studies to test it. We first analyzed oocytes from two trisomy 21 fetuses, combining immunostaining with FISH to determine the likelihood of detecting the additional chromosome 21 at different stages of meiosis. The detection of trisomy was enhanced during the earliest stage of prophase (leptotene), before homologs synapsed. Accordingly, in subsequent studies we examined the chromosome content of leptotene oocytes in seven second trimester female fetuses, analyzing three chromosomes commonly associated with human trisomies (i.e., 13, 16, and 21). In contrast to the prediction of the OMSM, we found no evidence of trisomy mosaicism for any chromosome. We conclude that errors in pre-meiotic germ cells are not a major contributor to human aneuploidy and do not provide an explanation for the age-related increase in trisomic conceptions. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:23950106

Rowsey, Ross; Kashevarova, Anna; Murdoch, Brenda; Dickenson, Carrie; Woodruff, Tracey; Cheng, Edith; Hunt, Patricia; Hassold, Terry

2013-08-15

111

Increased Risk of Preterm Premature Rupture of Membranes at Early Gestational Ages among Maternal Cigarette Smokers.  

PubMed

Objective To examine the effect of cigarette smoking during pregnancy on the development of preterm premature rupture of membranes (PPROM) categorized by gestational age.Methods We conducted a retrospective cohort study of 17,961 births using data from the McGill Obstetric and Neonatal Database between years 2001 and 2006. Our exposure was defined according to self-reported maternal cigarette smoking status categorized as nonsmoker, smoker of 1 to 10 cigarettes per day, and smoker of > 10 cigarettes per day. The outcome was measured as incidence of premature rupture of membranes (PROM) among gestational age categories of < 28, < 32, < 37, and > 37 weeks. Unconditional logistic regression analysis and Wald test for trend were used to estimate the adjusted risk of PPROM according to smoking status.Results Among the study population, 640 cases of PPROM (<37 weeks) and 40 cases of PROM (>37 weeks). After adjusting for confounding variables, smoking > 10 cigarettes per day was associated with an increased risk of PPROM at < 28 weeks (odds ratio [OR] 5.28; 95% confidence interval [CI] 2.20 to 12.7); < 32 weeks (OR 2.36; 95% CI 1.09 to 5.11; < 37 weeks (OR 1.97; 95% CI 1.32 to 2.94); and > 37 weeks (OR 3.19; 95% CI 0.92 to 11.0). Smoking 1 to 10 cigarettes per day was not associated with a significant risk of PPROM at any gestational age.Conclusion Heavy cigarette smoking increases the risk of PPROM more so at early gestational age than at term. PMID:23329562

England, Mary C; Benjamin, Alice; Abenhaim, Haim A

2013-01-17

112

Medians and Steiner Trees.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The theory of Steiner trees deals with the problem of designing a network connecting a set of points and minimizing the total connection length. We consider this problem in median metric spaces. It is shown that Steiner trees exist and can be found in a f...

M. van de Vel E. Verheul

1993-01-01

113

Assessment of Median Barriers.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Over the last 10 years passenger cars have become smaller, and the percentage of smaller cars in the traffic stream nation-wide, has increased dramatically, while trucks have become heavier and longer. Concern has been expressed that current median barrie...

C. J. Khisty

1986-01-01

114

[Maternal phenylketonuria].  

PubMed

Elevated maternal phenylalanine levels during pregnancy are teratogenic, and may result in embryo-foetopathy, which could lead to stillbirth, significant psychomotor handicaps and birth defects. This foetal damage is known as maternal phenylketonuria. Women of childbearing age with all forms of phenylketonuria, including mild variants such as hyperphenylalaninaemia, should receive detailed counselling regarding their risks for adverse foetal effects, optimally before contemplating pregnancy. The most assured way to prevent maternal phenylketonuria is to maintain the maternal phenylalanine levels within the optimal range already before conception and throughout the whole pregnancy. Authors review the comprehensive programme for prevention of maternal phenylketonuria at the Metabolic Center of Budapest, they survey the practical approach of the continuous maternal metabolic control and delineate the outcome of pregnancies of mothers with phenylketonuria from the introduction of newborn screening until most recently. PMID:23628728

Bókay, János; Kiss, Erika; Simon, Erika; Sz?nyi, László

2013-05-01

115

Maternal Psychological Distress during Pregnancy in Relation to Child Development at Age Two  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Concern exists that a constellation of negative maternal emotions during pregnancy generates persistent negative consequences for child development. Maternal reports of anxiety, pregnancy-specific and nonspecific stress, and depressive symptoms were collected during mid-pregnancy and at 6 weeks and 24 months after birth in a sample of healthy…

DiPietro, Janet A.; Novak, Matthew F. S. X.; Costigan, Kathleen A.; Atella, Lara D.; Reusing, Sarah P.

2006-01-01

116

Are Maternal Genitourinary Infection and Pre-Eclampsia Associated with ADHD in School-Aged Children?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: To investigate the hypothesis that maternal genitourinary infection (GU) infection is associated with increased risk of ADHD. Method: The authors obtained linked Medicaid billing data for pregnant women and their children in South Carolina, with births from 1996 through 2002 and follow-up data through 2008. Maternal GU infections and…

Mann, Joshua R.; McDermott, Suzanne

2011-01-01

117

Are Maternal Genitourinary Infection and Pre-Eclampsia Associated with ADHD in School-Aged Children?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Objective: To investigate the hypothesis that maternal genitourinary infection (GU) infection is associated with increased risk of ADHD. Method: The authors obtained linked Medicaid billing data for pregnant women and their children in South Carolina, with births from 1996 through 2002 and follow-up data through 2008. Maternal GU infections and…

Mann, Joshua R.; McDermott, Suzanne

2011-01-01

118

Risk factors for antepartum stillbirth and the influence of maternal age in New South Wales Australia: A population based study  

PubMed Central

Background Maternal age is a known risk factor for stillbirth and delayed childbearing is a societal norm in developed country settings. The timing and reasons for age being a risk factor are less clear. This study aimed to document the gestational specific risk of maternal age throughout pregnancy and whether the underlying causes of stillbirth differ for older women. Methods Using linkage of state maternity and perinatal death data collections the authors assessed risk factors for antepartum stillbirth in New South Wales Australia for births between 2002 – 2006 (n = 327,690) using a Cox proportional hazards model. Gestational age specific risk was calculated for different maternal age groups. Deaths were classified according to the Perinatal Mortality Classifications of the Perinatal Society of Australia and New Zealand. Results Maternal age was a significant independent risk factor for antepartum stillbirth (35 – 39 years HR 1.4 95% CI 1.12 – 1.75; ? 40 years HR 2.41 95% CI 1.8 – 3.23). Other significant risk factors were smoking HR 1.82 (95% CI 1.56 –2.12) nulliparity HR 1.23 (95% CI 1.08 – 1.40), pre-existing hypertension HR 2.77 (95% CI 1.94 – 3.97) and pre-existing diabetes HR 2.65 (95% CI 1.63 – 4.32). For women aged 40 or over the risk of antepartum stillbirth beyond 40 weeks was 1 in 455 ongoing pregnancies compared with 1 in 1177 ongoing pregnancies for those under 40. This risk was increased in nulliparous women to 1 in 247 ongoing pregnancies. Unexplained stillbirths were the most common classification for all women, stillbirths classified as perinatal infection were more common in the women aged 40 or above. Conclusions Women aged 35 or older in a first pregnancy should be counselled regarding stillbirth risk at the end of pregnancy to assist with informed decision making regarding delivery. For women aged 40 or older in their first pregnancy it would be reasonable to offer induction of labour by 40 weeks gestation.

2013-01-01

119

Amniocentesis Due to Advanced Maternal Age: The Role of Marital Intimacy in Couples’ Decision-Making Process  

Microsoft Academic Search

Due to the risk of fetal anomaly, pregnant women of advanced maternal age are given the option to undergo amniocentesis. In\\u000a our study we aimed to describe couples’ decision-making process regarding amniocentesis, and assess whether it is influenced\\u000a by marital intimacy and men’s participation in genetic counseling. During pregnancy, 112 couples answered the Personal Assessment\\u000a of Intimacy in Relationships questionnaire

Bárbara Nazaré; Ana Fonseca; Sofia Gameiro; Maria Cristina Canavarro; Frank M. Dattilio

2011-01-01

120

Chronic Maternal Depression Is Associated with Reduced Weight Gain in Latino Infants from Birth to 2 Years of Age  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundLatino children are at increased risk for mirconutrient deficiencies and problems of overweight and obesity. Exposures in pregnancy and early postpartum may impact future growth trajectories.ObjectivesTo evaluate the relationship between prenatal and postnatal maternal depressive symptoms experienced in pregnancy and infant growth from birth to 2 years of age in a cohort of Latino infants.MethodsWe recruited pregnant Latina mothers at

Janet M. Wojcicki; Katherine Holbrook; Robert H. Lustig; Elissa Epel; Aaron B. Caughey; Ricardo F. Muñoz; Stephen C. Shiboski; Melvin B. Heyman; Virginia Vitzthum

2011-01-01

121

Healthy births and ongoing pregnancies obtained by preimplantation genetic diagnosis in patients with advanced maternal age and recurrent implantation failure  

Microsoft Academic Search

Preimplantation genetic diagnosis (PGD) and subsequent embryo development was evaluated in 72 couples presenting at our centre for intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) due to severe male factor. The embryo biopsies were performed in Ca2\\/Mg2-free medium. These patients were further divided into those with advanced maternal age (AMA, n 49) and those with recurrent implantation failure (RIF, n 23). Fluorescence in-situ

S. Kahraman; M. Bahce; H. Samlõ; N. I úmirzalõog ùlu; K. Yakõsn; G. Cengiz; E. Donmez

2000-01-01

122

Assessing the relationship between maternal cigarette smoking during pregnancy and age at first police contact  

Microsoft Academic Search

Several types of pre- and perinatal risk factors, such as maternal cigarette smoking, are related to various manifestations of life-course-persistent criminal offending. Studies have reported evidence of a relationship between maternal prenatal cigarette smoking and antisocial\\/criminal behavior. All of these studies, however, used white male samles, thus limiting the generalizability of research findings. In an attempt to overcome this problem,

Chris L. Gibson; Alex R. Piquero; Stephen G. Tibbetts

2000-01-01

123

Crucifixion and median neuropathy  

PubMed Central

Crucifixion as a means of torture and execution was first developed in the 6th century B.C. and remained popular for over 1000 years. Details of the practice, which claimed hundreds of thousands of lives, have intrigued scholars as historical records and archaeological findings from the era are limited. As a result, various aspects of crucifixion, including the type of crosses used, methods of securing victims to crosses, the length of time victims survived on the cross, and the exact mechanisms of death, remain topics of debate. One aspect of crucifixion not previously explored in detail is the characteristic hand posture often depicted in artistic renditions of crucifixion. In this posture, the hand is clenched in a peculiar and characteristic fashion: there is complete failure of flexion of the thumb and index finger with partial failure of flexion of the middle finger. Such a “crucified clench” is depicted across different cultures and from different eras. A review of crucifixion history and techniques, median nerve anatomy and function, and the historical artistic depiction of crucifixion was performed to support the hypothesis that the “crucified clench” results from proximal median neuropathy due to positioning on the cross, rather than from direct trauma of impalement of the hand or wrist.

Regan, Jacqueline M; Shahlaie, Kiarash; Watson, Joseph C

2013-01-01

124

Functional Play at 2 Years of Age: Effects of Prenatal Maternal Stress  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Toddler toy play evolves in a predictable manner and provides a valid, nonverbal measure of cognitive function unbiased by social behaviors. Research on prenatal maternal stress (PNMS) indicates that exposure to stress in utero results in developmental deficits. We hypothesized that children exposed to high objective PNMS from a natural disaster…

Laplante, David P.; Zelazo, Philip R.; Brunet, Alain; King, Suzanne

2007-01-01

125

Fetal nucleated cells in maternal peripheral blood: frequency and relationship to gestational age  

Microsoft Academic Search

To determine the frequency of fetal nucleated cells in maternal peripheral blood during different stages of pregnancy, 50 primigravidas were investigated by determining the frequency of cells with the Y chromosome using fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) of Y-specific repetitive sequences of the DYZ1 family. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplifying the same part of the DYZ1 used as the probe

Hiromi Hamada; Tadao Arinami; Takeshi Kubo; Hideo Hamaguchi; Hirokazu Iwasaki

1993-01-01

126

Is Young Maternal Age a Risk Factor for Sexually Transmitted Diseases and Anaemia in India? An Examination in Urban and Rural Areas  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present research work aims to study the effect of young maternal age on the prevalence of sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) and anaemia using National Family Health Survey-3 (NFHS-3) data for India. Analysis has been done for currently married women in the reproductive age group and who had their first birth in the age group 29 or below. Data have

N. Kavitha

2011-01-01

127

Effect of maternal age and growth on placental nutrient transport: potential mechanisms for teenagers' predisposition to small-for-gestational-age birth?  

PubMed Central

Teenagers have an increased risk of delivering small-for-gestational-age (SGA) infants. Young maternal age and continued skeletal growth have been implicated as causal factors. In growing adolescent sheep, impaired placental development and nutrient transfer cause reduced birth weight. In human pregnancies, SGA is associated with reduced placental amino acid transport. Maternal growth has no effect on placental morphology or cell turnover, but growing teenagers have higher birth weight:placental weight ratios than nongrowing teenagers. We hypothesized that placental nutrient transporter activity would be affected by maternal age and/or growth status. Placentas from teenagers and adults were collected. Teenagers were defined as growing or nongrowing based on knee height measurements. System A amino acid transporter activity was quantified as sodium-dependent uptake of [14C]methylaminoisobutyric acid into placental fragments. Teenagers had lower placental system A activity than adults (P < 0.05). In adults, placental system A activity was lower in SGA infants than appropriate-for-gestational-age (AGA) infants (P < 0.05). In teenagers, AGA and SGA infants had lower placental system A activity than AGA infants born to adults (P < 0.05). Placental system A activity was higher in growing teenagers than in nongrowing teenagers (P < 0.001). Placental mRNA expression of system A transporter isoforms SLC38A1 and -2 was lower in teenagers than in adults (P < 0.05) but did not differ between growing and nongrowing teenagers. There was no difference in transporter protein expression/localization between cohorts. Teenagers have inherently reduced placental transport, which may underlie their susceptibility to delivering SGA infants. Growing teenagers appear to overcome this susceptibility by stimulating the activity, but not expression, of system A transporters.

Greenwood, Susan L.; Sibley, Colin P.; Baker, Philip N.; Challis, John R. G.; Jones, Rebecca L.

2012-01-01

128

Maternal fish intake during pregnancy, blood mercury levels, and child cognition at age 3 years in a US cohort.  

PubMed

The balance of contaminant risk and nutritional benefit from maternal prenatal fish consumption for child cognitive development is not known. Using data from a prospective cohort study of 341 mother-child pairs in Massachusetts enrolled in 1999-2002, the authors studied associations of maternal second-trimester fish intake and erythrocyte mercury levels with children's scores on the Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test (PPVT) and Wide Range Assessment of Visual Motor Abilities (WRAVMA) at age 3 years. Mean maternal total fish intake was 1.5 (standard deviation, 1.4) servings/week, and 40 (12%) mothers consumed >2 servings/week. Mean maternal mercury level was 3.8 (standard deviation, 3.8) ng/g. After adjustment using multivariable linear regression, higher fish intake was associated with better child cognitive test performance, and higher mercury levels with poorer test scores. Associations strengthened with inclusion of both fish and mercury: effect estimates for fish intake of >2 servings/week versus never were 2.2 (95% confidence interval (CI): -2.6, 7.0) for the PPVT and 6.4 (95% CI: 2.0, 10.8) for the WRAVMA; for mercury in the top decile, they were -4.5 (95% CI: -8.5, -0.4) for the PPVT and -4.6 (95% CI: -8.3, -0.9) for the WRAVMA. Fish consumption of < or =2 servings/week was not associated with a benefit. Dietary recommendations for pregnant women should incorporate the nutritional benefits as well as the risks of fish intake. PMID:18353804

Oken, Emily; Radesky, Jenny S; Wright, Robert O; Bellinger, David C; Amarasiriwardena, Chitra J; Kleinman, Ken P; Hu, Howard; Gillman, Matthew W

2008-03-18

129

Multiple meiotic errors caused by predivision of chromatids in women of advanced maternal age undergoing in vitro fertilisation  

PubMed Central

Chromosome aneuploidy is a major cause of pregnancy loss, abnormal pregnancy and live births following both natural conception and in vitro fertilisation (IVF) and increases exponentially with maternal age in the decade preceding the menopause. Molecular genetic analysis following natural conception and spontaneous miscarriage demonstrates that trisomies arise mainly in female meiosis and particularly in the first meiotic division. Here, we studied copy number gains and losses for all chromosomes in the two by-products of female meiosis, the first and second polar bodies, and the corresponding zygotes in women of advanced maternal age undergoing IVF, using microarray comparative genomic hybridisation (array CGH). Analysis of the segregation patterns underlying the copy number changes reveals that premature predivision of chromatids rather than non-disjunction of whole chromosomes causes almost all errors in the first meiotic division and unlike natural conception, over half of aneuploidies result from errors in the second meiotic division. Furthermore, most abnormal zygotes had multiple aneuploidies. These differences in the aetiology of aneuploidy in IVF compared with natural conception may indicate a role for ovarian stimulation in perturbing meiosis in ageing oocytes.

Handyside, Alan H; Montag, Markus; Magli, M Cristina; Repping, Sjoerd; Harper, Joyce; Schmutzler, Andreas; Vesela, Katerina; Gianaroli, Luca; Geraedts, Joep

2012-01-01

130

Maternal health and lifestyle and caries experience in preschool children. A longitudinal study from pregnancy to age 5 yr  

PubMed Central

In this study, associations were explored between maternal health and lifestyle during pregnancy and in early childhood and preschool children’s caries experience. The study is based on the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort study conducted by the Norwegian Institute of Public Health and on data from the Public Dental Services. A total of 1348 children were followed from pregnancy to age 5 yr. A clinical dental examination was performed at age 5 yr. Questionnaires were completed by the mothers during pregnancy and the first 18 months of life, and as part of the dental examination. Results from the multivariable logistic regression analysis showed that having an obese mother (OR 2.3, 95% CI 1.3–4.1), with a diet containing more fat (OR 1.6, 95% CI 1.1 – 2.5) or sugar (OR 1.5, 95% CI 1.1–2.3) than recommended, with low education (OR 1.5, 95% CI 1.1–2.3) or having one or both parents of non-western origin (OR 5.4, 95% CI 2.8–10.6) were statistically significant risk indicators for caries experience at age 5 yr. In conclusion, maternal weight and intake of sugar and fat in pregnancy were associated with caries experience in preschool children. These characteristics may enable early referral to the dental services and preventive care to be delivered.

Wigen, Tove I; Wang, Nina J

2011-01-01

131

Paradox Revisited: A Further Investigation of Race/Ethnic Differences in Infant Mortality by Maternal Age1  

PubMed Central

We reexamine the epidemiological paradox of lower overall infant mortality rates in the Mexican-origin population relative to US-born non-Hispanic whites using the 1995–2002 U.S. NCHS linked cohort birth-infant death files. A comparison of infant mortality rates among US-born non-Hispanic white and Mexican-origin mothers by maternal age reveals an infant survival advantage at younger maternal ages when compared to non-Hispanic whites, which is consistent with the Hispanic infant mortality paradox. However, this is accompanied by higher infant mortality at older ages for Mexican-origin women, which is consistent with the weathering framework. These patterns vary by nativity of the mother and do not change when rates are adjusted for risk factors. The relative infant survival disadvantage among Mexican-origin infants born to older mothers may be attributed to differences in the socioeconomic attributes of US-born non-Hispanic white and Mexican-origin women.

Powers, Daniel A.

2013-01-01

132

The effect of ethnicity and maternal birthplace on small-for-gestational-age deliveries to HIV-infected women  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective  To examine the relative role of ethnicity and maternal birthplace on small-for-gestational-age (SGA) deliveries of a cohort\\u000a of mothers in New York who were infected with human immunodeficiency virus.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  Medicaid claims and linked vital statistics records were examined for 2,525 singleton deliveries to HIV-infected women from\\u000a 1993 through 1996. We estimated adjusted odds ratios (AORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs)

James R. Cocroft; Walter W. Hauck; Leon Cosler; Barbara J. Turner

2002-01-01

133

Behavior Problems at 5 Years of Age and Maternal Mental Health in Autism and Intellectual Disability  

Microsoft Academic Search

We examined child behavior problems and maternal mental health in a British population-representative sample of 5 year-old\\u000a children with an autism spectrum disorder (ASD), controlling for the presence of an intellectual disability (ID). Behavior\\u000a problems were significantly higher in children with ASD with\\/out ID compared to typically developing children, but compared\\u000a to children with ID only hyperactivity was significantly higher in

Vasiliki Totsika; Richard P. Hastings; Eric Emerson; Damon M. Berridge; Gillian A. Lancaster

134

Maternal mortality.  

PubMed

This article comments on the causes of maternal mortality which are considered preventable if reproductive health services is adequately provided among women belonging to reproductive age. A report from the UN International Children's Emergency Fund announced that 585,000 women die each year from pregnancy and childbirth, which is a 20% increase from the estimates made a decade ago. About 140,000 maternal mortality victims die from violent hemorrhaging, while others perish from blood infections, obstructive deliveries, brain and kidney diseases, and self-administered abortions. It has also been discovered that for every maternal death in childbirth 30 more are grievously wounded. Modest improvements on modern obstetric facilities and proper sanitation and training have been found to dramatically decrease maternal injury and death rates. A foreign aid bill has also been passed to provide a US$600 million fund to address the health issues of both women and children. PMID:12295799

1996-06-21

135

Median filtering by threshold decomposition  

Microsoft Academic Search

Median filters are a special class of ranked order filters used for smoothing signals. Repeated application of the filter on a quantized signal of finite length ultimately results in a sequence, termed a root signal, which is invariant to further passes of the median filter. In this paper, it is shown that median filtering an arbitrary level signal to its

J. PATRICK FITCH; EDWARD J. COYLE; NEAL C. GALLAGHER

1984-01-01

136

Growth to Age 18 Months Following Prenatal Supplementation with Docosahexaenoic Acid Differs by Maternal Gravidity in Mexico1234  

PubMed Central

Little is known about the long-term effects of DHA intake during pregnancy. Offspring of primagravid Mexican women who received 400 mg/d DHA from wk 20 of gestation through delivery were heavier and had larger head circumferences at birth than children whose mothers received placebo; no effect was observed in offspring of multigravidae. We have followed these children (n = 739; 76% of the birth cohort), measuring length, weight, and head circumference at 1, 3, 6, 9, 12, and 18 mo. At 18 mo, intent-to-treat differences between placebo and DHA, adjusted for maternal height and child sex and age at measurement, were: length, ?0.21 cm (95% CI = ?0.58, 0.15); weight, ?0.03 kg (95% CI =?0.19, 0.13); and head circumference, 0.02 cm (95% CI = ?0.18, 0.21) (all P > 0.05). There was heterogeneity of associations by maternal gravidity for weight (P < 0.08), length (P < 0.02), and head circumference (P < 0.05). Among offspring of primagravid women, length at 18 mo was increased by 0.72 cm (95% CI = 0.11, 1.33) following DHA supplementation, representing 0.26 length-for-age Z-score units; among offspring of multigravidae, the estimate was ?0.13 cm (95% CI = ?0.59, 0.32) (P > 0.5). Maternal DHA supplementation during the second half of gestation may enhance growth through 18 mo of children born to primagravid women.

Stein, Aryeh D; Wang, Meng; Martorell, Reynaldo; Neufeld, Lynnette M.; Flores-Ayala, Rafael; Rivera, Juan A.; Ramakrishnan, Usha

2011-01-01

137

A systematic review of factors influencing uptake of invasive fetal genetic testing by pregnant women of advanced maternal age.  

PubMed

Women of advanced maternal age have a higher risk of having a child affected by a chromosomal disorder than younger childbearing women and are frequently offered invasive testing during pregnancy. The aim of our systematic review was to identify and analyse the current evidence base regarding factors that influence the uptake of invasive fetal testing by pregnant women of advanced maternal age. We conducted a systematic review. A search of The Cochrane Library, CINAHL, Embase and Medline databases was undertaken for papers published in English and Italian from January 2002 to May 2012. Eleven studies satisfied the inclusion criteria, were subjected to quality assessment and included in the review. We analysed the data using thematic analysis. The factors influencing women were classified as either external or psychosocial factors. External factors included the opportunity for screening, screening results and use of genetic counselling. Psychosocial factors related to ethnicity, socio-demographic status and attendance of partners during counselling. It is difficult to draw firm conclusions as to the principle factors that influence uptake of invasive tests by women of AMA. More research is needed to enhance understanding of relevant factors to ensure that services are offered in a way that acknowledges practical as well as psychosocial influences. This type of research will help to equip midwives and other professionals caring for women during pregnancy to ensure that women are supported to make the choices that are appropriate for them and their families. PMID:23453699

Godino, Lea; Turchetti, Daniela; Skirton, Heather

2013-03-01

138

Maternal and Early Childhood Risk Factors for Overweight and Obesity among Low-Income Predominantly Black Children at Age Five Years: A Prospective Cohort Study.  

PubMed

Objective. To identify maternal and early childhood risk factors for obesity and overweight among children at age 5 in the state of Alabama. Methods. We recruited 740 mothers during early pregnancy from University of Alabama Prenatal Clinics in a prospective cohort study and followed them throughout pregnancy. We followed their children from birth until 5 years of age. The main outcome measure was obesity (BMI for age and sex ? 95th percentile) at 5 years of age. We used poisson regression with robust variance estimation to compute risk ratio (RR). Results. At the 5th year of followup, 71 (9.6%) of the children were obese and 85 (11.5%) were overweight (BMI ? 85th-<95th percentile). In multivariable analysis, maternal prepregnancy overweight (RR: 2.30, 95% CI: 1.29-4.11) and obesity (RR: 2.53, 95% CI: 1.49-4.31), and child's birth weight >85th percentile (RR: 2.04, 95% CI: 1.13-3.68) were associated with childhood obesity. Maternal prepregnancy BMI, birth weight, and maternal smoking were associated with the child being overweight 1-12 cigarettes/day versus 0 cigarettes/day (RR: 1.40, 95% CI: 1.02-1.91). Conclusion. Children of overweight and obese mothers, and children with higher birth weight, are more likely to be obese and overweight at age 5. Maternal smoking 1-12 cigarettes per day is associated with the child being overweight. PMID:23056928

Janjua, Naveed Zafar; Mahmood, Bushra; Islam, M Aminul; Goldenberg, Robert L

2012-09-29

139

Maternal and Early Childhood Risk Factors for Overweight and Obesity among Low-Income Predominantly Black Children at Age Five Years: A Prospective Cohort Study  

PubMed Central

Objective. To identify maternal and early childhood risk factors for obesity and overweight among children at age 5 in the state of Alabama. Methods. We recruited 740 mothers during early pregnancy from University of Alabama Prenatal Clinics in a prospective cohort study and followed them throughout pregnancy. We followed their children from birth until 5 years of age. The main outcome measure was obesity (BMI for age and sex ? 95th percentile) at 5 years of age. We used poisson regression with robust variance estimation to compute risk ratio (RR). Results. At the 5th year of followup, 71 (9.6%) of the children were obese and 85 (11.5%) were overweight (BMI ? 85th–<95th percentile). In multivariable analysis, maternal prepregnancy overweight (RR: 2.30, 95% CI: 1.29–4.11) and obesity (RR: 2.53, 95% CI: 1.49–4.31), and child's birth weight >85th percentile (RR: 2.04, 95% CI: 1.13–3.68) were associated with childhood obesity. Maternal prepregnancy BMI, birth weight, and maternal smoking were associated with the child being overweight 1–12 cigarettes/day versus 0 cigarettes/day (RR: 1.40, 95% CI: 1.02–1.91). Conclusion. Children of overweight and obese mothers, and children with higher birth weight, are more likely to be obese and overweight at age 5. Maternal smoking 1–12 cigarettes per day is associated with the child being overweight.

Janjua, Naveed Zafar; Mahmood, Bushra; Islam, M. Aminul; Goldenberg, Robert L.

2012-01-01

140

Mother's Genome or Maternally-Inherited Genes Acting in the Fetus Influence Gestational Age in Familial Preterm Birth  

PubMed Central

Objective While multiple lines of evidence suggest the importance of genetic contributors to risk of preterm birth, the nature of the genetic component has not been identified. We perform segregation analyses to identify the best fitting genetic model for gestational age, a quantitative proxy for preterm birth. Methods Because either mother or infant can be considered the proband from a preterm delivery and there is evidence to suggest that genetic factors in either one or both may influence the trait, we performed segregation analysis for gestational age either attributed to the infant (infant's gestational age), or the mother (by averaging the gestational ages at which her children were delivered), using 96 multiplex preterm families. Results These data lend further support to a genetic component contributing to birth timing since sporadic (i.e. no familial resemblance) and nontransmission (i.e. environmental factors alone contribute to gestational age) models are strongly rejected. Analyses of gestational age attributed to the infant support a model in which mother's genome and/or maternally-inherited genes acting in the fetus are largely responsible for birth timing, with a smaller contribution from the paternally-inherited alleles in the fetal genome. Conclusion Our findings suggest that genetic influences on birth timing are important and likely complex.

Plunkett, Jevon; Feitosa, Mary F.; Trusgnich, Michelle; Wangler, Michael F.; Palomar, Lisanne; Kistka, Zachary A.-F.; DeFranco, Emily A.; Shen, Tammy T.; Stormo, Adrienne E.D.; Puttonen, Hilkka; Hallman, Mikko; Haataja, Ritva; Luukkonen, Aino; Fellman, Vineta; Peltonen, Leena; Palotie, Aarno; Daw, E. Warwick; An, Ping; Teramo, Kari; Borecki, Ingrid; Muglia, Louis J.

2009-01-01

141

Prevention of maternal aging-associated oocyte aneuploidy and meiotic spindle defects in mice by dietary and genetic strategies  

PubMed Central

Increased meiotic spindle abnormalities and aneuploidy in oocytes of women of advanced maternal ages lead to elevated rates of infertility, miscarriage, and trisomic conceptions. Despite the significance of the problem, strategies to sustain oocyte quality with age have remained elusive. Here we report that adult female mice maintained under 40% caloric restriction (CR) did not exhibit aging-related increases in oocyte aneuploidy, chromosomal misalignment on the metaphase plate, meiotic spindle abnormalities, or mitochondrial dysfunction (aggregation, impaired ATP production), all of which occurred in oocytes of age-matched ad libitum-fed controls. The effects of CR on oocyte quality in aging females were reproduced by deletion of the metabolic regulator, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor ? coactivator-1? (PGC-1?). Thus, CR during adulthood or loss of PGC-1? function maintains female germline chromosomal stability and its proper segregation during meiosis, such that ovulated oocytes of aged female mice previously maintained on CR or lacking PGC-1? are comparable to those of young females during prime reproductive life.

Selesniemi, Kaisa; Lee, Ho-Joon; Muhlhauser, Ailene; Tilly, Jonathan L.

2011-01-01

142

Black\\/white differences in the relationship of maternal age to birthweight: A population-based test of the weathering hypothesis  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study seeks to explore if early health deterioration (‘weathering’) among young adult African American women contributes to observed increases with maternal age in the black\\/white disparity in birth outcome. Theoretically, ‘weathering’ is constructed as being a physical consequence of social inequality. Thus, we also examine whether African American mothers vary in their age trajectories of poor birth outcome with

Arline T. Geronimus

1996-01-01

143

The Impact of Maternal Age on Clinical Pregnancy an Spontaneous Abortion in Women Undergoing In Vitro Fertilization and Gamete IntraFallopian Transfer  

Microsoft Academic Search

The age at which women should be advised against proceeding with initial or further infertility treatment is one of the many unresolved questions in this area of women's health and was the subject of investigation in this study. One of the major diffi culties in determining the impact of maternal age on outcomes is the practice of researchers (publishing in

Dianna T. Kenny

1994-01-01

144

Comparison of blastocyst transfer with or without preimplantation genetic diagnosis for aneuploidy screening in couples with advanced maternal age: a prospective randomized controlled trial  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: It is generally accepted that the age-related increased aneuploidy rate is correlated with reduced implantation and a higher abortion rate. Therefore, advanced maternal age (AMA) couples are a good target group to assess the possible benefit of preimplantation genetic diagnosis for aneuploidy screening (PGD-AS) on the outcome after assisted reproductive technology (ART). METHODS: A prospective randomized controlled clinical trial

Catherine Staessen; Peter Platteau; Elvire Van Assche; An Michiels; Herman Tournaye; Michel Camus; Paul Devroey; Inge Liebaers; AndreVan Steirteghem

2004-01-01

145

The Maternal and Child Health Sites' Practices Regarding HIV Education, Counseling, and Testing of Women of Reproductive Age in Chicago: Barriers to Universal Implementation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives: Women of reproductive age are increasingly at risk for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. Recent advances in reducing perinatal transmission have resulted in official guidelines on universal HIV education, counseling, and voluntary testing of women of reproductive age, especially pregnant women. This study assesses to what extent the maternal child health (MCH) sites are implementing these guidelines with their

Afsaneh Rahimian; Mary Driscoll; Dean Taylor

1998-01-01

146

Effect of maternal age on the risk of stillbirth: a population-based cohort study on 37 million births in the United States.  

PubMed

The objective of our study was to evaluate the incidence and effect of maternal age on the risk of stillbirth. We conducted a population-based cohort study using the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's "Linked Birth-Infant Death" and "Fetal Death" data files. We excluded all births of gestational age under 24 weeks and those with reported congenital malformations. We estimated the adjusted effect of maternal age on the risk of stillbirth using logistic regression analysis. There were 37,504,230 births that met study criteria, of which 130,353 (3.5/1,000) were stillbirths. Rates of stillbirth remained constant throughout the 10 years. As compared with women between the ages of 25 and 30, decreasing maternal age was associated with the following risk of stillbirth: odds ratio (OR) 0.95 (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.93 to 0.97) for ages 20 to 25; OR 0.97 (95% CI 0.94 to 0.99) for ages 15 to 20; and OR 1.32 (95% CI 1.18 to 1.47) for ages <15. Increasing maternal age was associated with an increasing risk of stillbirth: OR 1.02 (95% CI 0.99 to 1.04) for ages 30 to 35, OR 1.25 (95% CI 1.21 to 1.28) for ages 35 to 40, OR 1.60 (95% CI 1.53 to 1.67) for ages 40 to 45, and OR 2.22 (95% CI 1.91 to 2.53) for ages >45. Although the overall risk is low, the risk of stillbirth increases considerably in women at the extremes of the reproductive age spectrum. Antenatal surveillance may be justified in these women. PMID:21544772

Balayla, Jacques; Azoulay, Laurent; Assayag, Jonathan; Benjamin, Alice; Abenhaim, Haim A

2011-05-03

147

Maternal pregnancy-specific anxiety is associated with child executive function at 6-9 years age  

PubMed Central

Because fetal brain development proceeds at an extremely rapid pace, early life experiences have the potential to alter the trajectory of neurodevelopment, which may increase susceptibility for developmental and neuropsychiatric disorders. There is evidence that prenatal maternal stress and anxiety, especially worries specifically related to being pregnant, influence neurodevelopmental outcomes. In the current prospective longitudinal study, we included 89 women for whom serial data were available for pregnancy-specific anxiety, state anxiety, and depression at 15, 19, 25, 31, and 37 weeks gestation. When the offspring from the target pregnancy were between 6 and 9 years of age, their executive function was assessed. High levels of mean maternal pregnancy-specific anxiety over the course of gestation were associated with lower inhibitory control in girls only and lower visuospatial working memory performance in boys and girls. Higher-state anxiety and depression also were associated with lower visuospatial working memory performance. However, neither state anxiety nor depression explained any additional variance after accounting for pregnancy-specific anxiety. The findings contribute to the literature supporting an association between pregnancy-specific anxiety and cognitive development and extend our knowledge about the persistence of this effect until middle childhood.

BUSS, C.; DAVIS, E. P.; HOBEL, C. J.; SANDMAN, C. A.

2011-01-01

148

Constriction band syndrome occurring in the setting of in vitro fertilization and advanced maternal age  

PubMed Central

The debate as to the pathogenesis of constriction band syndrome began with Hippocrates and continues today. The exogenous theory attributes the condition to entanglement of the fetus in the amniotic remnants following premature rupture of the amnion, which is in contrast to the endogenous, or genetic, mechanism. A case of constriction band syndrome in the setting of in vitro fertilization, where the child was genetically unrelated to the birth mother, is presented. Constriction band syndrome has been reported following amniocentesis and chorionic villus sampling, but it has not heretofore been presented in the setting of in vitro fertilization. In addition, the present case presents an opportunity to separate maternal from genetic factors and, possibly, shed some light on the etiology of the condition.

Rinker, Brian; Vasconez, Henry C

2006-01-01

149

Maternal immune activation causes age- and region-specific changes in brain cytokines in offspring throughout development.  

PubMed

Maternal infection is a risk factor for autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and schizophrenia (SZ). Indeed, modeling this risk factor in mice through maternal immune activation (MIA) causes ASD- and SZ-like neuropathologies and behaviors in the offspring. Although MIA upregulates pro-inflammatory cytokines in the fetal brain, whether MIA leads to long-lasting changes in brain cytokines during postnatal development remains unknown. Here, we tested this possibility by measuring protein levels of 23 cytokines in the blood and three brain regions from offspring of poly(I:C)- and saline-injected mice at five postnatal ages using multiplex arrays. Most cytokines examined are present in sera and brains throughout development. MIA induces changes in the levels of many cytokines in the brains and sera of offspring in a region- and age-specific manner. These MIA-induced changes follow a few, unexpected and distinct patterns. In frontal and cingulate cortices, several, mostly pro-inflammatory, cytokines are elevated at birth, followed by decreases during periods of synaptogenesis and plasticity, and increases again in the adult. Cytokines are also altered in postnatal hippocampus, but in a pattern distinct from the other regions. The MIA-induced changes in brain cytokines do not correlate with changes in serum cytokines from the same animals. Finally, these MIA-induced cytokine changes are not accompanied by breaches in the blood-brain barrier, immune cell infiltration or increases in microglial density. Together, these data indicate that MIA leads to long-lasting, region-specific changes in brain cytokines in offspring-similar to those reported for ASD and SZ-that may alter CNS development and behavior. PMID:22841693

Garay, Paula A; Hsiao, Elaine Y; Patterson, Paul H; McAllister, A K

2012-07-25

150

Maternal Thyroid Function during the Second Half of Pregnancy and Child Neurodevelopment at 6, 12, 24, and 60 Months of Age  

PubMed Central

Although evidence suggests that maternal hypothyroidism and mild hypothyroxinemia during the first half of pregnancy alters fetal neurodevelopment among euthyroid offspring, little data are available from later in gestation. In this study, we measured free T4 using direct equilibrium dialysis, as well as total T4 and TSH in 287 pregnant women at 27 weeks' gestation. We also assessed cognition, memory, language, motor functioning, and behavior in their children at 6, 12, 24, and 60 months of age. Increasing maternal TSH was related to better performance on tests of cognition and language at 12 months but not at later ages. At 60 months, there was inconsistent evidence that higher TSH was related to improved attention. We found no convincing evidence that maternal TH during the second half of pregnancy was related to impaired child neurodevelopment.

Chevrier, Jonathan; Harley, Kim G.; Kogut, Katherine; Holland, Nina; Johnson, Caroline; Eskenazi, Brenda

2011-01-01

151

Effect of very advanced maternal age on pregnancy outcome and rate of cesarean delivery  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To determine outcomes of pregnancies in women at least 44 years of age and to determine factors predicting cesarean delivery in these patients.Methods: Between January 1988 and December 1995, 109 women at least 44 years old delivered in our medical center. These women were matched to a group of 309 women 20–29 years of age. Multiple logistic regression analysis

Mordechai Dulitzki; David Soriano; Eyal Schiff; Angela Chetrit; Shlomo Mashiach; Daniel S Seidman

1998-01-01

152

Maternal gestational zinc supplementation does not influence multiple aspects of child development at 54 mo of age in Peru123  

PubMed Central

Background: Zinc is necessary for central nervous system development, and maternal zinc status has been associated with developmental differences in offspring. Objective: The objective was to evaluate differences in cognitive, social, and behavioral function in Peruvian children at 54 mo of age whose mothers participated during pregnancy in a zinc supplementation trial. Design: We attempted to follow up 205 children from a prenatal zinc supplementation trial and present data on 184 (90%) children—86 whose mothers took 25 mg zinc/d in addition to 60 mg iron and 250 ?g folic acid and 98 whose mothers took iron and folic acid only. Following a standardized protocol, we assessed children's intelligence, language and number skills, representational ability, interpersonal understanding, and adaptive behavior and behavioral adjustment. We also assessed aspects of the mother (eg, age, education, verbal intelligence, stresses, and social support in parenting) and the home environment [HOME (Home Observation for the Measurement of the Environment) inventory]. Results: No differences were observed between any of the tests used to characterize cognitive, social, or behavioral development (P > 0.05). Child sex, parity, or treatment compliance did not modify the effects of supplementation on any outcomes. Conclusion: The addition of zinc to prenatal supplements did not influence developmental outcomes in Peruvian children when assessed at 4.5 y of age.

Putnick, Diane L; Zavaleta, Nelly; Lazarte, Fabiola; Albornoz, Carla; Chen, Ping; DiPietro, Janet A; Bornstein, Marc H

2010-01-01

153

Maternal Feeding Practices and Feeding Behaviors of Australian Children Aged 12–36 Months  

Microsoft Academic Search

To explore parents’ perceptions of the eating behaviors and related feeding practices of their young children. Mothers (N = 740)\\u000a of children aged 12–36 months and born in South Australia were randomly selected by birth date in four 6-month age bands from\\u000a a centralized statewide database and invited to complete a postal questionnaire. Valid completed questionnaires were returned\\u000a for 374 children (51% response

L. ChanA; A. M. Magarey; L. A. Daniels

154

Maternal age specific risk rate estimates for Down syndrome among live births in whites and other races from Ohio and metropolitan Atlanta, 1970-1989  

Microsoft Academic Search

Our primary objective was to estimate, by one year and five year intervals, maternal age specific risk rates for Down syndrome among whites and among other races from two different populations, metropolitan Atlanta and south west Ohio, using live birth and prenatally diagnosed cases ascertained during 1970-1989. The five year estimates were also calculated separately for each of the five

C A Huether; J Ivanovich; B S Goodwin; E L Krivchenia; V S Hertzberg; L D Edmonds; D S May; J H Priest

1998-01-01

155

Central Tendency: Mean, Mode, Median  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This learning unit from Regents Exam Prep Center will help students learning to calculate mean, mode and median. The unit includes a lesson plan, practice examples, a teacher's guide and a worksheet. The term "measures of central tendency" is explained as finding the mean, median and mode of a set of data. The example of a set of test scores is used to demonstrate finding these measures. Links are also included which explain how to find these measurements using a graphing calculator.

2012-01-01

156

Impact of change in maternal age composition on the incidence of Caesarean section and low birth weight: analysis of delivery records at a tertiary hospital in Tanzania, 1999–2005  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Previous studies on change in maternal age composition in Tanzania do not indicate its impact on adverse pregnancy outcomes. We sought to establish temporal changes in maternal age composition and their impact on annual Caesarean section (CS) and low birth weight deliveries (LBWT) at Muhimbili National Hospital in Tanzania. METHODS: We conducted data analysis of 91,699 singleton deliveries that

Projestine S Muganyizi; Hussein L Kidanto

2009-01-01

157

Effects of ethnicity and child's age on maternal judgements of children's transgressions against persons and property.  

PubMed

Mothers (N = 256) of four different cultural groups judged the culpability of children whose actions were described in Piaget-type stories depicting commission of harm under various conditions. Child's age, harm to persons vs material objects, intentions, and amount of harm were systematically varied. All main effects (culture, intent of transgressor, age, and magnitude of harm) were significant, but several effects were qualified interactions. A cognitive social learning explanation is proposed to account for group differences in judgement, with special attention to cultural differences in values attached to harm to persons vs damage to property. PMID:7150430

Henderson, R W; Brody, G H; Lane, T S; Parra, E

1982-06-01

158

Maternal obesity disturbs the postnatal development of gonocytes in the rat without impairment of testis structure at prepubertal age.  

PubMed

In this study, we evaluated whether maternal obesity (MO) affects testis development and gonocyte differentiation in the rat from 0.5 to 14.5 postnatal days. Male Wistar rats were used at 0.5, 4.5, 7.5, and 14.5 days post partum (dpp). These rats were born from obese mothers, previously fed with a high-fat diet (20% saturated fat), for 15 weeks, or normal mothers that had received a balanced murine diet (4% lipids). MO did not affect testis weight or histology at birth but changed the migratory behavior of gonocytes. The density of relocated cells was higher in MO pups at 0.5 dpp, decreased at 4.5 dpp, and differed from those of control pups, where density increased exponentially from 0.5 to 7.5 dpp. The numerical density of gonocytes within seminiferous cords did not vary in MO, in relation to control neonates, for any age considered, but the testis weight was 50% lower at 4.5 dpp. A wide variation in plasmatic testosterone and estrogen levels was observed among the groups during the first week of age and MO pups exhibited higher steroid concentrations at 4.5 dpp, in comparison with controls. At this age, higher estrogen levels of MO pups impaired the gonocyte proliferation. At 7.5 dpp, the testicular size and other parameters of gonocyte development are retrieved. In conclusion, MO and saturated lipid diets disturb gonocyte development and sexual steroid levels during the first days of life, with recovery at prepubertal age. PMID:24043845

Christante, Caroline Maria; Taboga, Sebastião Roberto; Pinto-Fochi, Maria Etelvina; Góes, Rejane Maira

2013-10-21

159

Aging of Xenopus tropicalis eggs leads to deadenylation of a specific set of maternal mRNAs and loss of developmental potential.  

PubMed

As first shown more than 100 years ago, fertilization of an aged (overripe) egg increases the rate of malformations and embryonic loss in several vertebrates, including possibly humans as well. Since the molecular events in aging eggs may be similar in these species, we established in the frog Xenopus tropicalis a defined protocol for delayed fertilization of eggs. A three-hour delayed fertilization led to a dramatic increase in malformation and mortality. Gene expression profiling revealed that 14% of the polyadenylated maternal transcripts were downregulated upon aging. These transcripts were not degraded, but rather deadenylated as shown for specific maternal mRNAs. The affected transcripts are characterized by a relatively short 3'UTR and a paucity of cytoplasmic polyadenylation elements (CPE) and polyadenylation signals (PAS). Furthermore, maternal mRNAs known to be deadenylated during egg maturation as well as after fertilization were preferentially deadenylated in aged eggs. Taken together our analysis of aging eggs reveals that unfertilized eggs are in a dynamic state that was previously not realized. On the one hand deadenylation of transcripts that are typically deadenylated during egg maturation continues and this implies overripeness of the aged egg in the truest sense of the word. On the other hand transcripts that normally are deadenylated after fertilization loose their poly(A) in the aged egg and this implies that the egg awaiting fertilization starts processes that are normally only observed after fertilization. Based on our novel finding we postulate that the imbalance of the polyadenylated maternal transcripts upon egg aging contributes to the loss of developmental potential. Based on this hypothesis the developmental consequences of downregulation of specific transcripts can be analyzed in future. PMID:21042572

Kosubek, Anna; Klein-Hitpass, Ludger; Rademacher, Katrin; Horsthemke, Bernhard; Ryffel, Gerhart U

2010-10-22

160

Patterns of Adolescent Depression to Age 20: The Role of Maternal Depression and Youth Interpersonal Dysfunction  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Considerable research has focused on youth depression, but further information is needed to characterize different patterns of onset and recurrence during adolescence. Four outcome groups by age 20 were defined (early onset-recurrent, early-onset-desisting, later-onset, never depressed) and compared on three variables predictive of youth…

Hammen, Constance; Brennan, Patricia A.; Keenan-Miller, Danielle

2008-01-01

161

Cognitive assessment of school-age children infected with maternally transmitted human immunodeficiency virus type 1  

Microsoft Academic Search

Thirty-three children vertically infected with human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1), who were born before 1985, were followed in a single center, and had reached the age of 6 years, were studied and tested for school achievement. Of these 33 children, 24 were also tested for cognitive abilities, fine motor and language skills, and emotional adaptation. Of the 33 patients,

Marc Tardieu; Marie-Jeanne Mayaux; Nathalie Seibel; Isabelle Funck-Brentano; Elisabeth Straub; Jean-Paul Teglas; Stéphane Blanche

1995-01-01

162

Patterns of Adolescent Depression to Age 20: The Role of Maternal Depression and Youth Interpersonal Dysfunction  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Considerable research has focused on youth depression, but further information is needed to characterize different patterns of onset and recurrence during adolescence. Four outcome groups by age 20 were defined (early onset-recurrent, early-onset-desisting, later-onset, never depressed) and compared on three variables predictive of youth…

Hammen, Constance; Brennan, Patricia A.; Keenan-Miller, Danielle

2008-01-01

163

Maternal Feeding Style During Infancy and Children's Adiposity at 5 Years of Age. Archives of Pediatrics and Adolescent Medicine  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article examines the relationship between maternal infant-feeding style and adiposity in childhood to determine whether feeding style explains any of the association between maternal obesity and childhood obesity. Researchers found little relationship between maternal feeding style during infancy—for example, awareness of infant’s hunger and satiety cues, feeding on a schedule, and using food to calm infant’s fussiness—and fatness at

Hillary L. Burdette; Robert C. Whitaker; Waynitra C. Hall; Stephen R. Daniels

2006-01-01

164

Polymorphisms in Maternal and Fetal Genes Encoding for Proteins Involved in Extracellular Matrix Metabolism Alter the Risk for Small-for-Gestational-Age  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE To examine the association between maternal and fetal genetic variants and small-for-gestational-age (SGA). METHODS A case-control study was conducted in patients with SGA neonates (530 maternal and 436 fetal) and controls (599 maternal and 628 fetal); 190 candidate genes and 775 SNPs were studied. Single locus, multilocus and haplotype association analyses were performed on maternal and fetal data with logistic regression, multifactor dimensionality reduction (MDR) analysis, and haplotype-based association with 2 and 3 marker sliding windows, respectively. Ingenuity Pathway Analysis (IPA) software was used to assess pathways that associate with SGA. RESULTS The most significant single locus association in maternal data was with a SNP in tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase 2 (TIMP2) (rs2277698 OR = 1.71 95% CI [1.26-2.32], p = 0.0006) while in the fetus it was with a SNP in fibronectin 1 isoform 3 preproprotein (FN1) (rs3796123, OR = 1.46 95% CI [1.20-1.78], p = 0.0001). Both SNPs were adjusted for potential confounders (maternal body mass index and fetal sex). Haplotype analyses resulted in associations in alpha 1 type I collagen preproprotein (COL1A1, rs1007086-rs2141279-rs17639446, global p = 0.006) in mothers and FN1 (rs2304573-rs1250204-rs1250215, global p = 0.045) in fetuses. Multilocus analyses with MDR identified a two SNP model with maternal variants collagen type V alpha 2 (COL5A2) and plasminogen activator urokinase (PLAU) predicting SGA outcome correctly 59% of the time (p = 0.035). CONCLUSIONS Genetic variants in extracellular matrix related genes showed significant single locus association with SGA. These data are consistent with other studies that have observed elevated circulating fibronectin concentrations in association with increased risk of SGA. The present study supports the hypothesis that DNA variants can partially explain risk of SGA in a cohort of Hispanic women.

Edwards, Digna R. Velez; Romero, Roberto; Kusanovic, Juan Pedro; Hassan, Sonia S.; Mazaki-Tovi, Shali; Vaisbuch, Edi; Kim, Chong Jai; Erez, Offer; Chaiworapongsa, Tinnakorn; Pearce, Brad D.; Bartlett, Jacquelaine; Friel, Lara A.; Salisbury, Benjamin A.; Anant, Madan Kumar; Vovis, Gerald F.; Lee, Min Seob; Gomez, Ricardo; Behnke, Ernesto; Oyarzun, Enrique; Tromp, Gerard; Menon, Ramkumar; Williams, Scott M.

2011-01-01

165

Survival costs of reproduction predict age-dependent variation in maternal investment.  

PubMed

Life-history theory predicts that older females will increase reproductive effort through increased fecundity. Unless offspring survival is density dependent or female size constrains offspring size, theory does not predict variation in offspring size. However, empirical data suggest that females of differing age or condition produce offspring of different sizes. We used a dynamic state-variable model to determine when variable offspring sizes can be explained by an interaction between female age, female state and survival costs of reproduction. We found that when costs depend on fecundity, young females with surplus state increase offspring size and reduce number to minimize fitness penalties. When costs depend on total reproductive effort, only older females increase offspring size. Young females produce small offspring, because decreasing offspring size is less expensive than number, as fitness from offspring investment is nonlinear. Finally, allocation patterns are relatively stable when older females are better at acquiring food and are therefore in better condition. Our approach revealed an interaction between female state, age and survival costs, providing a novel explanation for observed variation in reproductive traits. PMID:21745251

Kindsvater, H K; Bonsall, M B; Alonzo, S H

2011-07-11

166

Maternal Prenatal Urinary Phthalate Metabolite Concentrations and Child Mental, Psychomotor, and Behavioral Development at 3 Years of Age  

PubMed Central

Background: Research suggests that prenatal phthalate exposures affect child executive function and behavior. Objective: We evaluated associations between phthalate metabolite concentrations in maternal prenatal urine and mental, motor, and behavioral development in children at 3 years of age. Methods: Mono-n-butyl phthalate (MnBP), monobenzyl phthalate (MBzP), monoisobutyl phthalate (MiBP), and four di-2-ethylhexyl phthalate metabolites were measured in a spot urine sample collected from 319 women during the third trimester. When children were 3 years of age, the Mental Development Index (MDI) and Psychomotor Development Index (PDI) were measured using the Bayley Scales of Infant Development II, and behavior problems were assessed by maternal report on the Child Behavior Checklist. Results: Child PDI scores decreased with increasing loge MnBP [estimated adjusted ?-coefficient = –2.81; 95% confidence interval (CI): –4.63, –1.0] and loge MiBP (? = –2.28; 95% CI: –3.90, –0.67); odds of motor delay increased significantly [per loge MnBP: estimated adjusted odds ratio (OR) = 1.64; 95% CI: 1.10, 2.44; per loge MiBP: adjusted OR =1.82; 95% CI: 1.24, 2.66]. In girls, MDI scores decreased with increasing loge MnBP (? = –2.67; 95% CI: –4.70, –0.65); the child sex difference in odds of mental delay was significant (p = 0.037). The ORs for clinically withdrawn behavior were 2.23 (95% CI: 1.27, 3.92) and 1.57 (95% CI: 1.07, 2.31) per loge unit increase in MnBP and MBzP, respectively; for clinically internalizing behaviors, the OR was 1.43 (95% CI: 1.01, 1.90) per loge unit increase in MBzP. Significant child sex differences were seen in associations between MnBP and MBzP and behaviors in internalizing domains (p < 0.05). Conclusion: Certain prenatal phthalate exposures may decrease child mental and motor development and increase internalizing behaviors.

Liu, Xinhua; Rauh, Virginia A.; Calafat, Antonia M.; Just, Allan C.; Hoepner, Lori; Diaz, Diurka; Quinn, James; Adibi, Jennifer; Perera, Frederica P.; Factor-Litvak, Pam

2011-01-01

167

Revisiting the Link between Maternal Employment and School-Aged Children Health Status in Developing Countries: An Instrumental Variable Approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study analyses the link between maternal employment and the health status of the child. Using data from Indonesia, it uses mothers' risk averse measures, households' recent flood and drought experience, and the interactions between risk measures and experience of recent natural disasters to explain endogenous maternal employment as proxied by mothers' working hours. Critical values based on Stock and

Risti Permani

2011-01-01

168

Maternal Pre-Pregnancy Body Mass Index and Offspring Temperament and Behavior at 1 and 2 Years of Age  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Recent research suggests that fetal exposure to increased maternal body mass index (BMI) during pregnancy may be associated with psychopathology later in life. When this link first emerges, and if it is due to intrauterine exposures or confounding variables is not known. We therefore assessed associations between maternal pre-pregnancy BMI and:…

Van Lieshout, Ryan J.; Schmidt, Louis A.; Robinson, Monique; Niccols, Alison; Boyle, Michael H.

2013-01-01

169

Multicriteria Planar Ordered Median Problems  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we deal with the determination of the entire set of Pareto solutions of location problems involving Q general criteria. These criteria include median, center, or centdian objective functions as particular instances. We characterize the set of Pareto solutions of all these multicriteria problems for any polyhedral gauge. An efficient algorithm is developed for the planar case and

S. Nickel; J. Puerto; A. M. Rodríguez-Chía; A. Weissler

2005-01-01

170

Higher maternal prenatal cortisol and younger age predict greater infant reactivity to novelty at 4 months: An observation-based study.  

PubMed

Distress-linked activation of the maternal hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA)-axis is considered a pathway by which affect regulation impacts the fetal milieu and neurodevelopment. There is little direct evidence for this conceptual model. In 103 women [mean age 27.45 (±5.65) years] at 36-38 weeks gestation, salivary cortisol was measured before/after stress tasks; distress questionnaires were completed. At 18.49 (±1.83) weeks, infants underwent the Harvard Infant Behavioral Reactivity Protocol assessing cry/motor responses to novelty; women reported on infant behavior and postnatal distress. Prenatal cortisol and distress were not significantly correlated (all ps?>?.10). Proportional odds logistic regressions showed that neither prenatal nor postnatal distress was associated with infant responses to the Harvard Protocol yet pre-stress cortisol and maternal age were: The odds of being classified as High Reactive were 1.60 times higher [95% CI: 1.04, 2.46] for each unit of added cortisol and .90 times lower [95% CI: .82, .99] for every additional year in maternal age. No associations were found between cortisol or prenatal distress and mother-rated infant behavior; postnatal distress was positively associated with mother-rated infant negative behavior (p?=?.03). Observer and mother-rated infant behavior were not associated (all ps?>?.05). Based on independent observations of infants in contrast to maternal perceptions, these results lend support to the hypothesis that pregnant women's HPA-axis activity influences infant behavior. The impact of maternal distress was not supported, except in so far as postnatal distress may increase the likelihood of making negative judgments about infant behavior. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Dev Psychobiol 55: 707-718, 2013. PMID:22778036

Werner, Elizabeth; Zhao, Yihong; Evans, Lynn; Kinsella, Michael; Kurzius, Laura; Altincatal, Arman; McDonough, Laraine; Monk, Catherine

2012-07-06

171

Healthy births and ongoing pregnancies obtained by preimplantation genetic diagnosis in patients with advanced maternal age and recurrent implantation failure.  

PubMed

Preimplantation genetic diagnosis (PGD) and subsequent embryo development was evaluated in 72 couples presenting at our centre for intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) due to severe male factor. The embryo biopsies were performed in Ca(2+)/Mg(2+)-free medium. These patients were further divided into those with advanced maternal age (AMA, n = 49) and those with recurrent implantation failure (RIF, n = 23). Fluorescence in-situ hybridization (FISH) was carried out on 329 blastomeres (91.3%) with probes for the X, Y, 13, 18 and 21 chromosomes. The chromosomal abnormality rate was 41.3% with no significant difference between the AMA and RIF groups. Aneuploidy accounted for the majority (72.8%) of chromosomal abnormalities. Out of 329 embryos, 84.2% had cleaved after 24 h and 15.1% had arrested. Embryos were transferred in 70 patients and 22 pregnancies were achieved (31.4% with an ongoing pregnancy rate of 28.5%). There were no significant differences between the pregnancy rates of the AMA and RIF groups (32.5 and 30% respectively). Therefore PGD should be offered to patients with AMA and RIF. Furthermore, the use of Ca(2+)/Mg(2+)-free medium during the blastomere biopsy facilitates the procedure, while further embryo cleavage, ongoing pregnancies and healthy births are possible. PMID:10967004

Kahraman, S; Bahçe, M; Samli, H; Imirzalio?lu, N; Yakisn, K; Cengiz, G; Dönmez, E

2000-09-01

172

Maternal age at first birth and offspring criminality: Using the children-of-twins design to test causal hypotheses  

PubMed Central

Teenage childbirth is a risk factor for poor offspring outcomes, particularly offspring antisocial behaviour. It is not clear if maternal age at first birth (MAFB) is causally associated with offspring antisocial behavior or if this association is due to selection factors that influence both the likelihood that a young woman gives birth early and that her offspring engage in antisocial behavior. The current study addresses the limitations of previous research by using longitudinal data from Swedish national registries and children-of-siblings and children-of-twins comparisons to identify the extent to which the association between MAFB and offspring criminal convictions is consistent with a causal influence and confounded by genetic or environmental factors that make cousins similar. We found offspring born to mothers who began childbearing earlier were more likely to be convicted of a crime than offspring born to mothers who delayed childbearing. The results from comparisons of differentially exposed cousins, especially born to discordant MZ twin sisters, provide support for a causal association between MAFB and offspring criminal convictions. The analyses also found little evidence for genetic confounding due to passive gene-environment correlation. Future studies are needed to replicate these findings and to identify environmental risk factors that mediate this causal association.

Coyne, Claire A; Langstrom, Niklas; Rickert, Martin E; Lichtenstein, Paul; D'Onofrio, Brian M

2013-01-01

173

Maternal age at first birth and offspring criminality: using the children of twins design to test causal hypotheses.  

PubMed

Teenage childbirth is a risk factor for poor offspring outcomes, particularly offspring antisocial behavior. It is not clear, however, if maternal age at first birth (MAFB) is causally associated with offspring antisocial behavior or if this association is due to selection factors that influence both the likelihood that a young woman gives birth early and that her offspring engage in antisocial behavior. The current study addresses the limitations of previous research by using longitudinal data from Swedish national registries and children of siblings and children of twins comparisons to identify the extent to which the association between MAFB and offspring criminal convictions is consistent with a causal influence and confounded by genetic or environmental factors that make cousins similar. We found offspring born to mothers who began childbearing earlier were more likely to be convicted of a crime than offspring born to mothers who delayed childbearing. The results from comparisons of differentially exposed cousins, especially born to discordant monozygotic twin sisters, provide support for a causal association between MAFB and offspring criminal convictions. The analyses also found little evidence for genetic confounding due to passive gene-environment correlation. Future studies are needed to replicate these findings and to identify environmental risk factors that mediate this causal association. PMID:23398750

Coyne, Claire A; Långström, Niklas; Rickert, Martin E; Lichtenstein, Paul; D'Onofrio, Brian M

2013-02-01

174

Chromosome analysis in human oocytes remaining unfertilized after in-vitro insemination: effect of maternal age and fertilization rate.  

PubMed

The incidence of chromosomal abnormalities was studied in 719 unfertilized human oocytes obtained from our in-vitro fertilization (IVF) programme. To make chromosome preparations, a gradual fixation/air-drying method was utilized. Of 388 oocytes successfully karyotyped, 70 (18.0%) were abnormal. The abnormalities included 33 aneuploidies (8.5%) (14 hyperhaploidies and 19 hypohaploidies), 25 diploidies (6.4%) and 15 structural abnormalities (3.9%), three of them being accompanied by aneuploidy. Of the 33 aneuploidies, 16 (48.5%) showed the loss or gain of dyads (so-called non-disjunction), while 17 (51.5%) showed the loss or gain of monads (so-called predivision). There was no maternal age-dependent increase in the incidence of aneuploidy. Unfertilized oocytes from patients with a high fertilization rate (>25%) had a significantly higher (11.4%, P < 0.05) incidence of diploidy compared with the oocytes from the remaining patients (4.3 and 4.0%), suggesting that diploid oocytes might have a lower fertilizing ability. PMID:9557850

Nakaoka, Y; Okamoto, E; Miharu, N; Ohama, K

1998-02-01

175

Neurobehavioral deficits at age 7 years associated with prenatal exposure to toxicants from maternal seafood diet.  

PubMed

To determine the possible neurotoxic impact of prenatal exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), we analyzed banked cord blood from a Faroese birth cohort for PCBs. The subjects were born in 1986-1987, and 917 cohort members had completed a series of neuropsychological tests at age 7 years. Major PCB congeners (118, 138, 153, and 180), the calculated total PCB concentration, and the PCB exposure estimated in a structural equation model showed weak associations with test deficits, with statistically significant negative associations only with the Boston Naming test. Likewise, neither hexachlorobenzene nor p,p'-dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene showed clear links to neurobehavioral deficits. Thus, these associations were much weaker than those associated with the cord-blood mercury concentration, and adjustment for mercury substantially attenuated the regression coefficients for PCB exposure. When the outcomes were joined into motor and verbally mediated functions in a structural equation model, the PCB effects remained weak and virtually disappeared after adjustment for methylmercury exposure, while mercury remained statistically significant. Thus, in the presence of elevated methylmercury exposure, PCB neurotoxicity may be difficult to detect, and PCB exposure does not explain the methylmercury neurotoxicity previously reported in this cohort. PMID:22705177

Grandjean, Philippe; Weihe, Pal; Nielsen, Flemming; Heinzow, Birger; Debes, Frodi; Budtz-Jørgensen, Esben

2012-06-13

176

Mean, Median, Mode, and Range  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this lesson plan students must use a frequency chart to describe a set of data, including the mean, median, mode, and range of the data set. The lesson plan includes a pre-assessment, whole class activity, collaborative learning activity, and formative assessment. To be successful at this lesson students will need to be able to interpret the frequency chart for the mean, median, mode, and range, but also be able to fill in a frequency chart with a possible solution when given these data landmarks. Additional resources include the lesson plan in a 26-page PDF, the teacher slides in a 4-slide PowerPoint presentation, and a 16-page PDF guide for teachers and administrators.

Team, Shell C.

2013-01-17

177

Maternal calcium intake during pregnancy and blood pressure in the offspring at age 3 years: A follow-up analysis of the project viva cohort  

Microsoft Academic Search

A previous analysis of the Project Viva cohort (eastern Massachusetts, 1999-2002 recruitment) found an association between higher second-trimester supplemental maternal calcium intake and lower systolic blood pressure in offspring at 6 months. The authors analyzed 5,527 systolic blood pressure measurements from 1,173 mother-child pairs from this same cohort when the children were aged 3 years. They estimated the change in

Rachel Bakker; Sheryl L. Rifas-Shiman; Ken P. Kleinman; Steven E. Lipshultz; Matthew W. Gillman

2008-01-01

178

Screening for trisomy 21 by maternal age, fetal nuchal translucency thickness, free beta-human chorionic gonadotropin and pregnancy-associated plasma protein-A  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives To derive a model and examine the perfor- mance of first-trimester combined screening by mater- nal age, fetal nuchal translucency (NT) thickness and maternal serum free beta-human chorionic gonadotropin (?-hCG) and pregnancy-associated plasma protein-A (PAPP-A). Methods Prospective combined screening for trisomy 21 was carried out at 11 + 0t o 13+ 6 weeks in 56 771 singleton pregnancies, including

K. O. Kagan; D. Wright; A. Baker; D. Sahota; K. H. Nicolaides

2008-01-01

179

Maternal Fish Intake During Pregnancy, Blood Mercury Levels, and Child Cognition at Age 3 Years in a US Cohort  

Microsoft Academic Search

The balance of contaminant risk and nutritional benefit from maternal prenatal fish consumption for child cog- nitive development is not known. Using data from a prospective cohort study of 341 mother-child pairs in Massa- chusetts enrolled in 1999-2002, the authors studied associations of maternal second-trimester fish intake and erythrocyte mercury levels with children's scores on the Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test

Emily Oken; Jenny S. Radesky; Robert O. Wright; David C. Bellinger; Chitra J. Amarasiriwardena; Ken P. Kleinman; Howard Hu; Matthew W. Gillman

2008-01-01

180

DNA microarray reveals that high proportions of human blastocysts from women of advanced maternal age are aneuploid and mosaic.  

PubMed

Trophectoderm (TE) biopsy and DNA microarray have become the new technologies for preimplantation genetic diagnosis in humans. In this study, we comprehensively examined aneuploid formation in human blastocysts produced in vitro with microarray and investigated the clinical outcome after transfer of euploid embryos. Biopsied cells from either TE or inner cell mass (ICM) were processed for microarray to examine the errors in 23 pairs of chromosomes and the consistency between TE and ICM. It was found that 56.6% of blastocysts were aneuploid. Further analysis indicated that 62.3% of aneuploid blastocysts had single and 37.7% had multiple chromosomal abnormalities. Chromosome errors could occur in any chromosome, but errors in chromosome 21 accounted for the most (11.3%) among the 23 pairs of chromosomes. Transfer of array-screened blastocysts produced high pregnancy (70.2%) and implantation (63.5%) rates. Microarray of TE and ICM cells in the same blastocysts revealed that high proportions of aneuploid blastocysts (69.2%) were mosaic, including aneuploid TE and euploid ICM, inconsistent anomalies between ICM and TE, or euploid TE cells and aneuploid ICM in the same blastocyst. These results indicate that high proportions of human blastocysts produced in vitro from women of advanced maternal age are aneuploid and mosaic. Errors can occur in any of the 23 pairs of chromosomes in human blastocysts. Biopsy from TE in blastocysts does not exactly predict the chromosomal information in ICM if the embryos are aneuploid. Some mosaic blastocysts have euploid ICM, which may indicate important differentiate mechanism(s) of human preimplantation embryos. PMID:23136294

Liu, Jianqiao; Wang, Weihua; Sun, Xiaofang; Liu, Lian; Jin, Hua; Li, Man; Witz, Craig; Williams, Dan; Griffith, Jason; Skorupski, Josh; Haddad, Gus; Gill, Jimmy

2012-12-27

181

Pulsed Radiofrequency of the Median Nerve under Ultrasound Guidance  

Microsoft Academic Search

Neuropathy of the median nerve within the carpal tunnel (carpal tunnel syn- drome) has an age adjusted incidence of 105 cases per 100,000 person years. Treatment of carpal tunnel syndrome ranges from conservative management with medication and exercise to surgical release of the median nerve. Conser- vative treatment accounts for a significant portion of resources utilized and in- cludes splinting,

Naeem Haider; Daniel Mekasha; Srinivas Chiravuri; Ronald Wasserman

2007-01-01

182

2-Hour Postload Serum Glucose Levels and Maternal Blood Pressure as Independent Predictors of Birth Weight in "Appropriate for Gestational Age" Neonates in Healthy Nondiabetic Pregnancies  

PubMed Central

Introduction. Increased neonatal birth weight (NBW), often associated with diabetic pregnancies, is a recognized indicator of childhood obesity and future metabolic risk. Predictors of NBW in healthy non-diabetic pregnancies are not yet established. Here, we investigated the association of maternal parameters of healthy non-diabetic mothers with NBW of their “appropriate-for-gestational age” neonates. Methods. The study involved 36 healthy mother/infant pairs. Examined parameters included NBW, maternal age, first and last trimester (BMI), weight gain, fasting serum lipids and glucose, 2-hour postload glucose levels and blood pressure. Results. Postload-glucose levels were significantly higher in mothers of heavier neonates. ANOVA results indicated that 15% increase in postload-glucose levels corresponded to more than 0.5?Kg increase in NBW in the third tertile. NBW correlated positively with postload glucose levels, and negatively with systolic blood pressure. Regression analysis showed that the main predictors of NBW were postload-glucose levels (B = 0.455, P = 0.003), followed by systolic blood pressure (B = ?0.447, P = 0.004), together predicting 31.7% NBW variation. Conclusion. This study highlights that increased maternal postload sugar levels and blood pressure, within the normal range, highly predicts NBW of healthy mothers. These findings may provide focus for early dietary intervention measures to avoid future risks to the mother and baby.

Saleh, Jumana; Machado, Lovina; Razvi, Zahra

2013-01-01

183

Relationships between marital distress and child behavior problems, maternal personal adjustment, maternal personality, and maternal parenting behavior  

Microsoft Academic Search

Examined the relationship of marital adjustment to maternal personal adjustment, maternal personality, maternal perception of child adjustment, maternal parenting behavior, and child behavior using 20 maritally distressed and 20 maritally nondistressed mothers and their children (aged 3–7 yrs). Ss were given a battery of tests that included the Beck Depression Inventory, the Trait form of the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory, and

Catherine R. Bond; Robert J. McMahon

1984-01-01

184

Are birth weight and maternal smoking during pregnancy associated with malnutrition and excess weight among school age children?  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the late 1980's child malnutrition was still prevalent in Brazil, and child obesity was beginning to rise in the richest regions of the country. To assess the extent of the nutritional transition during the period and the influence of birth weight and maternal smoking on the nutritional condition of schoolchildren, we estimated the prevalence of excess weight and malnutrition

F. S. Tomé; V. C. Cardoso; M. A. Barbieri; A. A. M. da Silva; V. M. F. Simões; C. A. Garcia; H. Bettiol

2007-01-01

185

Maternal Responsiveness to Young Children at Three Ages: Longitudinal Analysis of a Multidimensional, Modular, and Specific Parenting Construct  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Responsiveness defines the prompt, contingent, and appropriate reactions parents display to their children in the context of everyday exchanges. Maternal responsiveness occupies a theoretically central position in developmental science and possesses meaningful predictive validity over diverse domains of children's development, yet basic…

Bornstein, Marc H.; Tamis-LeMonda, Catherine S.; Hahn, Chun-Shin; Haynes, O. Maurice

2008-01-01

186

Socioemotional and Behavioral Adjustment among School-Age Children with Learning Disabilities: The Moderating Role of Maternal Personal Resources  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The study examined the role of maternal personal resources (mother's attachment style, coping strategies, and affect) in moderating the effects of learning disabilities (LD) on children's socioemotional and behavioral adjustment (self-rated sense of coherence, loneliness, and hope; and mother-rated child behavior checklist measures), as well as on…

Al-Yagon, Michal

2007-01-01

187

Maternal smoking very early in pregnancy is related to child overweight at age 5-7 y1-3  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Despite being associated with lower birth weight, maternal smoking in the last 2 trimesters of pregnancy has been associated with increased risk of offspring overweight in several studies. To date, only one study has examined whether smoking in the first trimester only, which is not associated with birth weight, is also associated with childhood overweight. Objective:Thisstudyusesprospectivedatatoexamineassociations betweenmaternalsmokinginthefirstcomparedwithlatertrimesters of pregnancy

Michelle A Mendez; Maties Torrent; Carlos Ferrer; Nuria Ribas-Fito; Jordi Sunyer

188

Plasmodium falciparum exposure in utero, maternal age and parity influence the innate activation of foetal antigen presenting cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Malaria in pregnancy is associated with immunological abnormalities in the newborns, such as hampered T-helper 1 responses and increased T-regulatory responses, while the effect of maternal Plasmodium falciparum infection on foetal innate immunity is still controversial. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The immunophenotype and cytokine release by dendritic cells (DC) and monocytes were evaluated in cord blood from 59 Beninese women

Nadine Fievet; Stefania Varani; Samad Ibitokou; Valérie Briand; Stéphanie Louis; René Xavier Perrin; Achille Massougbogji; Anne Hosmalin; Marita Troye-Blomberg; Philippe Deloron

2009-01-01

189

Maternal characteristics associated with the dietary intake of nitrates, nitrites, and nitrosamines in women of child-bearing age: a cross-sectional study  

PubMed Central

Background Multiple N-nitroso compounds have been observed in animal studies to be both mutagenic and teratogenic. Human exposure to N-nitroso compounds and their precursors, nitrates and nitrites, can occur through exogenous sources, such as diet, drinking water, occupation, or environmental exposures, and through endogenous exposures resulting from the formation of N-nitroso compounds in the body. Very little information is available on intake of nitrates, nitrites, and nitrosamines and factors related to increased consumption of these compounds. Methods Using survey and dietary intake information from control women (with deliveries of live births without major congenital malformations during 1997-2004) who participated in the National Birth Defects Prevention Study (NBDPS), we examined the relation between various maternal characteristics and intake of nitrates, nitrites, and nitrosamines from dietary sources. Estimated intake of these compounds was obtained from the Willet Food Frequency Questionnaire as adapted for the NBDPS. Multinomial logistic regression models were used to estimate odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals for the consumption of these compounds by self-reported race/ethnicity and other maternal characteristics. Results Median intake per day for nitrates, nitrites, total nitrites (nitrites + 5% nitrates), and nitrosamines was estimated at 40.48 mg, 1.53 mg, 3.69 mg, and 0.472 ?g respectively. With the lowest quartile of intake as the referent category and controlling for daily caloric intake, factors predicting intake of these compounds included maternal race/ethnicity, education, body mass index, household income, area of residence, folate intake, and percent of daily calories from dietary fat. Non-Hispanic White participants were less likely to consume nitrates, nitrites, and total nitrites per day, but more likely to consume dietary nitrosamines than other participants that participated in the NBDPS. Primary food sources of these compounds also varied by maternal race/ethnicity. Conclusions Results of this study indicate that intake of nitrates, nitrites, and nitrosamines vary considerably by race/ethnicity, education, body mass index, and other characteristics. Further research is needed regarding how consumption of foods high in nitrosamines and N-nitroso precursors might relate to risk of adverse pregnancy outcomes and chronic diseases.

2010-01-01

190

Teaching Chilean mothers to massage their full-term infants: effects on maternal breast-feeding and infant weight gain at age 2 and 4 months.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of massage on infant weight gain and exclusive maternal breast-feeding of an intervention that involved teaching mothers to massage their full-term infants. The sample included 100 healthy newborn infants who were receiving primary healthcare at 3 health centers in a low-income neighborhood of Santiago, Chile. The control group included 65 infants and the massage group included 35 infants. During their second well-child clinic visit, clinic nurses provided instruction to massage-group mothers about how to massage their infants, based on the methods of the Baby's First Massage program (http://www.babysfirstmassage.com/Scripts/default.asp). Mothers were encouraged to massage their infants for 10 to 15 minutes at least once a day, starting when their infants were 15 days old. There was no difference in the mean weights of the infants between the massage and control groups at baseline, but at age 2 months, massage group infants weighed significantly more than control-group infants. There were no weight differences between the 2 groups at age 4 months. There were no differences between the 2 groups on the incidence of exclusive maternal breast-feeding at age 2 or 4 months. The findings suggest that teaching mothers to massage their newborn infants may have a beneficial effect on the infant's early weight gain. There is a need for additional studies to evaluate the effect of maternal massage on other health and welfare outcomes for both mothers and infants. PMID:20442614

Serrano, Maria Sylvia Campos; Doren, Francisca Márquez; Wilson, Lynda

191

A Longitudinal Study of Maternal Folate and Vitamin B12 Status in Pregnancy and Postpartum, with the Same Infant Markers at 6 Months of Age  

Microsoft Academic Search

Folate and vitamin B12 are involved in homocysteine metabolism and are critical to the methylation of DNA. We aimed to assess\\u000a plasma vitamin B12 (pB12), plasma folate (pFol), and red cell folate (rcFol) in women and their infants during pregnancy and\\u000a after birth. Maternal biomarkers were tested as predictors of infant biomarkers, including plasma homocysteine (pHcy), at\\u000a age 6 months. Participants

Alexis J. HureClare; Clare E. Collins; Roger Smith

192

Prospective study of maternal and neonatal outcome in great-grand multiparous women (?10 births) and in aged-matched women with lesser parity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose  Evaluation of outcome of labor\\/delivery in great-grand multiparous (GGMP) women relative to women with lower parity is complicated\\u000a because of confounding parity with (older) age. Herein, we compare maternal and neonatal outcome in GGMP from a large obstetrics\\u000a department to that in older women with lesser parity.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  This was a prospective observational study of older gravid women. All laboring women

Angelica Fadeev; Alexander Ioscovitch; Alina Rivlis; Sorina Grisaru-Granovsky; Arnon Samueloff; Michael S. Schimmel; Deborah Elstein

193

Maternal feeding practices, child eating behaviour and body mass index in preschool-aged children: a prospective analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Previous research has found associations between parental feeding practices and children's eating behaviour and weight status. Prospective research is needed to elucidate these relationships. METHODS: One hundred and fifty-six mothers of 2- to 4-year-old children completed questionnaires including measures of maternal feeding practices (pressure to eat, restriction, monitoring and modelling of healthy eating), child eating behaviour (food responsiveness, food

Jane E Gregory; Susan J Paxton; Anna M Brozovic

2010-01-01

194

Effects of birth rank, maternal age, birth interval, and sibship size on infant and child mortality: evidence from 18th and 19th century reproductive histories.  

PubMed Central

There has been long-standing interest in the effects of maternal age, birth rank, and birth spacing on infant and child mortality. Contradictory inferences about the role of these factors have arisen on occasion because of the absence of adequate controls, the use of cross-sectional or incomplete reproductive histories, and inattention to the effect of family size goals and birth limitation practices. This study analyzes completed reproductive histories for German village populations in the 18th and 19th centuries, a period when deliberate fertility control was largely absent. Our results confirm previous studies of the association of infant mortality with maternal age, although in the present data these differentials are largely limited to neonatal mortality. They also confirm the importance of birth interval as a factor in infant mortality. Sibship size is positively related to infant mortality even when birth rank is controlled. However, once sibship size is controlled, there are no systematic differences in infant and child mortality by birth order. The mechanisms relating sibship size and mortality are explored.

Knodel, J; Hermalin, A I

1984-01-01

195

Effects of birth rank, maternal age, birth interval, and sibship size on infant and child mortality: evidence from 18th and 19th century reproductive histories.  

PubMed

There has been long-standing interest in the effects of maternal age, birth rank, and birth spacing on infant and child mortality. Contradictory inferences about the role of these factors have arisen on occasion because of the absence of adequate controls, the use of cross-sectional or incomplete reproductive histories, and inattention to the effect of family size goals and birth limitation practices. This study analyzes completed reproductive histories for German village populations in the 18th and 19th centuries, a period when deliberate fertility control was largely absent. Our results confirm previous studies of the association of infant mortality with maternal age, although in the present data these differentials are largely limited to neonatal mortality. They also confirm the importance of birth interval as a factor in infant mortality. Sibship size is positively related to infant mortality even when birth rank is controlled. However, once sibship size is controlled, there are no systematic differences in infant and child mortality by birth order. The mechanisms relating sibship size and mortality are explored. PMID:6383084

Knodel, J; Hermalin, A I

1984-10-01

196

On the Median and Its Extensions  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a We review various representations of the median and related aggregation functions. An advantage of the median is that it discards\\u000a extreme values of the inputs, and hence exhibits a better central tendency than the arithmetic mean. However the value of\\u000a the median depends on only one or two central inputs. Our aim is to design median-like aggregation functions whose value

Gleb Beliakov; Humberto Bustince; Javier Fernandez

2010-01-01

197

Twisted Maternalism  

Microsoft Academic Search

Much of the recent work on Palestinian female suicide bombers (shahidas) explains their violence in domestic and maternal language. These descriptions read shockingly similar to the maternalist position. Maternalism typically equates women's participation in the political arena with peace and non-violence, and is criticized for essentializing women's role. The application of a ‘twisted’ maternalism to women's political violence also appears

Caron E. Gentry

2009-01-01

198

Maternal immune markers in serum during gestation and in breast milk and the risk of asthma-like symptoms at ages 6 and 12 months: a longitudinal study  

PubMed Central

Background The role of breast milk on the risk of childhood asthma is in dispute. The aim of this prospective study is to determine the relationship of immune markers in maternal serum during gestation and breast milk to asthma-like symptoms (AS) in infancy. Methods Pregnant women were recruited in Columbia and Charleston, South Carolina. Blood (median: three weeks before delivery) and breast milk (three weeks after delivery) samples were collected. Concentrations of interferon (IFN)-?, IFN gamma-induced protein 10 (IP-10 or CXCL10), CCL11, interleukin (IL) 1?, IL-4, IL-5, IL-6, CXCL8, IL-10, IL-12(p70), IL-13, transforming growth factor (TGF)-?1, and immunoglobulin (Ig) A in both maternal serum and milk whey were determined via immunoassays. Asthma-like symptoms (AS) of the infant were ascertained at 6 and 12 months, respectively. Generalized estimating equations assessed relative risks (RRs) of immune markers for repeated measurements of AS, considering intra-individual correlations and adjusting for confounders. To provide comparable risk estimates, quartiles of the immune markers were used, except for IL-5 in whey and IgA in serum, which were dichotomized. Results Of 178 women, 161 provided blood and 115 breast milk samples. IL-12(p70), IL-4, IL-10, IL-1?, and CCL11 in serum and in whey were not further considered for the statistical analyses since the proportion of non-detectable values was high. Most immune markers in serum and milk whey were moderately or highly correlated; however, IgA was negatively correlated. Infants in the highest quartile of IL-13 in both serum and whey were at a higher risk of AS (RR = 3.02 and 4.18; respectively) compared to infants in the first quartile. High levels of IL-5 in serum and whey was also identified as a risk. In addition, increased secretory IgA and TGF-?1 in breast milk reduced the risks of AS. Conclusions Maternal serum and whey levels of IL-5 and IL-13 are risk markers for AS; whey IgA and TGF-?1 seem to be protective. Only focusing on breast milk portend that milk cytokines IL-5 and IL-13 have adverse effects. However, similar immune exposures during late gestation and via milk suggest that both may enhance AS among infants.

2012-01-01

199

Optimal weighted median filtering under structural constraints  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new expression for the output moments of weighted median filtered data is derived. The noise attenuation capability of a weighted median filter can now be assessed using the L-vector and M-vector parameters in the new expression. The second major contribution of the paper is the development of a new optimality theory for weighted median filters. This theory is based

Ruikang Yang; Lin Yin; Moncef Gabbouj; Jaakko Astola; Yrjo Neuvo

1995-01-01

200

Optimal weighted median filters under structural constraints  

Microsoft Academic Search

An algorithm is developed for finding optimal weighted median (WM) filters which minimize noise subject to a predetermined set of structural constraints on the filter's behavior. Based on the derivation of the output moments of weighted medians, it is shown that optimal weighted medians with structural constraints may be found by solving a group of linear inequalities. One-dimensional applications are

Ruikang Yang; Lin Yin; Moncef Gabbouj; Jaakko Astola; Yrjö Neuvo

1993-01-01

201

A Warning About Median Reaction Time  

Microsoft Academic Search

When used with positively skewed reaction time distributions, sample medians tend to over-estimate population medians. The extent of overestimation is related directly to the amount of skew in the reaction time distributions and inversely to the size of the sample over which the median is computed. Simulations indicate that overestimation could approach 50 ms with small samples and highly skewed

Jeff Miller

1988-01-01

202

Determinants of Maternal Sex Steroids During the First Half of Pregnancy  

PubMed Central

Objective To examine the associations of maternal and child characteristics with early pregnancy maternal concentrations of testosterone, androstenedione, progesterone, 17-hydroxyprogesterone and estradiol. Methods We analyzed these hormones among 1,343 women with singleton pregnancies who donated serum samples to the Finnish Maternity Cohort from 1986 to 2006 during the first half of pregnancy (median, 11 weeks). The associations of maternal and child characteristics with hormone concentrations were investigated by correlation and multivariable regression. Results Women above age 30 had lower androgen and estradiol but higher progesterone concentrations than women below that age. Multiparous women had 14% lower testosterone, 11% lower androstenedione and 17-hydroxyprogesterone, 9% lower progesterone, and 16% lower estradiol concentrations compared to nulliparous women (all P<.05). Smoking mothers had 11%, 18%, and 8% higher testosterone, androstenedione, and 17-hydroxyprogesterone levels, respectively, but 10% lower progesterone compared to non-smoking women (all P<.05). Estradiol concentrations were 9% higher (P<0.05) among women with a female fetus compared to those with a male fetus. Conclusions Parity, smoking, and to a lesser extent maternal age and child gender are associated with sex steroid levels during the first half of a singleton pregnancy. The effects of smoking on the maternal hormonal environment and the possible long-term deleterious consequences on the fetus deserve further evaluation.

Toriola, Adetunji T; Vaarasmaki, Marja; Lehtinen, Matti; Zeleniuch-Jacquotte, Anne; Lundin, Eva; Rodgers, Kenneth-Gary; Lakso, Hans-Ake; Chen, Tianhui; Schock, Helena; Hallmans, Goran; Pukkala, Eero; Toniolo, Paolo; Grankvist, Kjell; Surcel, Helja-Marja; Lukanova, Annekatrin

2011-01-01

203

Passive West Nile virus antibody transfer from maternal Eastern Screech-Owls (Megascops asio) to progeny  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Transovarial antibody transfer in owls has not been demonstrated for West Nile virus (WNV). We sampled chicks from captive adult WNV-antibody-positive Eastern Screech-Owls (Megascops asio) to evaluate the prevalence of transovarial maternal antibody transfer, as well as titers and duration of maternal antibodies. Twenty-four owlets aged 1 to 27 days old circulated detectable antibodies with neutralizing antibody titers ranging from 20 to 1600 (median 1:40). Demonstrating that WNV antibodies are passively transferred transovarially is important for accurate interpretation of serologic data from young birds.

Hahn, D.C.; Nemeth, N.M.; Edwards, E.; Bright, P.R,.; Komar, N.

2006-01-01

204

Maternal age specific risk rate estimates for Down syndrome among live births in whites and other races from Ohio and metropolitan Atlanta, 1970-1989.  

PubMed Central

Our primary objective was to estimate, by one year and five year intervals, maternal age specific risk rates for Down syndrome among whites and among other races from two different populations, metropolitan Atlanta and south west Ohio, using live birth and prenatally diagnosed cases ascertained during 1970-1989. The five year estimates were also calculated separately for each of the five four year periods during these 20 years. Additionally, we compared two different methods of estimating these risk rates by using a third population of whites, and compared two different statistical methods of smoothing the risk rates. The results indicate good agreement between the metropolitan Atlanta and south west Ohio estimates within races, but show a statistically significant difference between the two race categories. Because 86% of live births in the "other races" category in the combined population are to blacks, these data may be seen as the first estimates of maternal age specific risk rates for Down syndrome among blacks calculated by one year intervals. We found excellent agreement in the risk rate estimates among the five four year time periods, between the estimates obtained by using the two different methods of estimation, and between the estimates obtained using the two different methods of statistical smoothing. Our estimated risk rates for white women in their 20s strongly reinforce those from previous studies currently being used for genetic counselling purposes. While we did find somewhat higher rates for women under 20, and increasingly higher rates for those over 30 years of age, these differences are not substantial. Thus, this study in general supports the risk rates estimated from data collected mostly during the 1960s and 1970s.

Huether, C A; Ivanovich, J; Goodwin, B S; Krivchenia, E L; Hertzberg, V S; Edmonds, L D; May, D S; Priest, J H

1998-01-01

205

Prevalence of the Persistant Median Artery  

PubMed Central

Introduction Neurovascular variations in the upper limb are common and they are well documented. An accurate knowledge of the normal and the variant anatomy of the median nerve and the median artery are important for clinical procedures and for vascular surgeries. The persistant median artery is one such anomaly which was seen in 6.6% (4) of the 60 upper limbs which were dissected in the present study, it being bilateral in one cadaver. Material and Methods The present study was conducted on 60 upper limbs of 30 cadavers at the Government Medical College, Amritsar, India. The whole course of the median nerve and the persistant median artery was exposed. Results In all the 4 variant limbs, the persistent median artery originated from the anterior interrosseous artery and terminated in the incomplete mediano- ulnar type of the superficial palmar arch. In three upper limbs, the persistant median artery simply accompanied the median nerve upto the palm. But in the left upper limb of the cadaver with the bilateral variation, the artery penetrated and divided the nerve into two halves which joined to form a neural loop around the artery. Thereafter, the nerve and the artery followed the same course upto the palm. Such a penetration of the median nerve by the persistent median artery is extremely rare. Further, its ontogeny and clinical implications have been discussed in detail.

Singla, Rajan Kumar; Kaur, Neelamjit; Dhiraj, Gurvinder Singh

2012-01-01

206

Non-invasive prenatal diagnosis by fetal nucleic acid analysis in maternal plasma: the coming of age.  

PubMed

Prenatal diagnosis is an important part of obstetrics care. In the current prenatal programmes, definitive diagnosis of fetal genetic or chromosomal conditions is conducted through fetal sampling by amniocentesis or chorionic villus sampling. To obviate the risks of fetal miscarriage that are associated with the invasive sampling procedures, we have been developing non-invasive prenatal diagnostic tests based on cell-free fetal DNA analysis from maternal plasma. To date, fetal sex and rhesus D status determination by circulating fetal DNA analysis is performed clinically in many centres. Strategies for the non-invasive diagnosis of monogenic diseases have been developed. Accurate detection of fetal trisomy 21 by next-generation sequencing has been achieved. Many of the non-invasive prenatal tests could be introduced to the clinics as soon as cost-effective and high throughput protocols are developed. PMID:21075065

Chiu, Rossa W K; Lo, Y M Dennis

2010-11-12

207

LOW CIRCULATING MATERNAL ADIPONECTIN IN PATIENTS WITH PYELONEPHRITIS: ADIPONECTIN AT THE CROSSROADS OF PREGNANCY AND INFECTION  

PubMed Central

Objective An emerging theme in modern biology is that adipose tissue can respond to metabolic stress, and to inflammatory stimuli, by regulating the secretion of a complex network of soluble mediators, termed adipokines. Adiponectin, the most prevalent circulating adipokine in human, has profound insulin-sensitizing and anti-inflammatory properties. Indeed, the notion that adiponectin plays an important role in the interactions between the metabolic and the immune systems has been strongly suggested. Thus, the aim of this study was to determine if pyelonephritis during pregnancy is associated with changes in maternal serum adiponectin concentrations. Study design This cross-sectional study included women in the following groups: 1) normal pregnant women (n=200); and 2) pregnant women with pyelonephritis (n=50). Maternal plasma adiponectin concentrations were determined by ELISA. Non-parametric statistics were used for analyses. Results 1) The median maternal plasma adiponectin concentration was lower in patients with pyelonephritis than in those with a normal pregnancy (p<0.001); 2) among pregnant women with a normal weight, patients with pyelonephritis had a lower median plasma adiponectin concentration than those with a normal pregnancy (p<0.001); 3) similarly, among overweight/obese patients, those with pyelonephritis had a lower median plasma adiponectin concentration than those with a normal pregnancy (p<0.001); and 4) the presence of pyelonephritis was independently associated with maternal plasma adiponectin concentrations after adjustment for maternal age, smoking, gestational age at sampling, and pre-gestational BMI. Conclusion 1) The findings that acute pyelonephritis in pregnancy is characterized by low maternal plasma concentrations of adiponectin in both lean and overweight/obese patients are novel and concur with the anti-inflammatory properties of adiponectin; and 2) the results of this study support the notion that adiponectin may play a role in the intricate interface between inflammation and metabolism during pregnancy.

Mazaki-Tovi, Shali; Romero, Roberto; Vaisbuch, Edi; Chaiworapongsa, Tinnakorn; Erez, Offer; Mittal, Pooja; Kim, Sun Kwon; Gotsch, Francesca; Lamont, Ronald; Ogge, Giovanna; Pacora, Percy; Goncalves, Luis; Kim, Chong Jai; Gomez, Ricardo; Espinoza, Jimmy; Hassan, Sonia S.; Kusanovic, Juan Pedro

2009-01-01

208

Fetal exposure to maternal stress influences leptin receptor gene expression during development and age at puberty in gilts  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Various factors influence age at puberty, such as stress and leptin. Stress delays age at puberty and absence of leptin, or lack of central perception of leptin leads to perpetual sexual immaturity. The environment in which a fetus develops is believed to play a role in the development of various ph...

209

Meta-analysis of telomere length in 19?713 subjects reveals high heritability, stronger maternal inheritance and a paternal age effect.  

PubMed

Telomere length (TL) has been associated with aging and mortality, but individual differences are also influenced by genetic factors, with previous studies reporting heritability estimates ranging from 34 to 82%. Here we investigate the heritability, mode of inheritance and the influence of parental age at birth on TL in six large, independent cohort studies with a total of 19?713 participants. The meta-analysis estimate of TL heritability was 0.70 (95% CI 0.64-0.76) and is based on a pattern of results that is highly similar for twins and other family members. We observed a stronger mother-offspring (r=0.42; P-value=3.60 × 10(-61)) than father-offspring correlation (r=0.33; P-value=7.01 × 10(-5)), and a significant positive association with paternal age at offspring birth (?=0.005; P-value=7.01 × 10(-5)). Interestingly, a significant and quite substantial correlation in TL between spouses (r=0.25; P-value=2.82 × 10(-30)) was seen, which appeared stronger in older spouse pairs (mean age ?55 years; r=0.31; P-value=4.27 × 10(-23)) than in younger pairs (mean age<55 years; r=0.20; P-value=3.24 × 10(-10)). In summary, we find a high and very consistent heritability estimate for TL, evidence for a maternal inheritance component and a positive association with paternal age. PMID:23321625

Broer, Linda; Codd, Veryan; Nyholt, Dale R; Deelen, Joris; Mangino, Massimo; Willemsen, Gonneke; Albrecht, Eva; Amin, Najaf; Beekman, Marian; de Geus, Eco J C; Henders, Anjali; Nelson, Christopher P; Steves, Claire J; Wright, Margie J; de Craen, Anton J M; Isaacs, Aaron; Matthews, Mary; Moayyeri, Alireza; Montgomery, Grant W; Oostra, Ben A; Vink, Jacqueline M; Spector, Tim D; Slagboom, P Eline; Martin, Nicholas G; Samani, Nilesh J; van Duijn, Cornelia M; Boomsma, Dorret I

2013-01-16

210

The Moments of the Sample Median  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is shown that under certain regularity conditions, the central moments of the sample median are asymptotically equal to the corresponding ones of its asymptotic distribution (which is normal). A method of approximation, using the inverse function of the cumulative distribution function, is obtained for the moments of the sample median of a certain type of parent distribution. An advantage

John T. Chu; Harold Hotelling

1955-01-01

211

REGRESSION ON MEDIANS OF PROBABILITY DISTRIBUTIONS  

EPA Science Inventory

The median is a fundamental parameter in the area of lifetime and survival statistics. n toxicodynamics the LD50, lethal dose that results in 50% mortality, is frequently used. he median is also used to describe the incidence of cancer and other disease states. Factors such as nu...

212

A NEW CONTENT BASED MEDIAN FILTER  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper the hardware implementation of a content based median filter suitable for real-time impulse noise sup- pression is presented. The function of the proposed circuitry is adaptive; it detects the existence of impulse noise in an image neighborhood and applies the median filter operator only when necessary. In this way, the blurring of the image in process is

Gerasimos Louverdis; Ioannis Andreadis; Antonios Gasteratos

213

Adaptive median filters: new algorithms and results  

Microsoft Academic Search

Based on two types of image models corrupted by impulse noise, we propose two new algorithms for adaptive median filters. They have variable window size for removal of impulses while preserving sharpness. The first one, called the ranked-order based adaptive median filter (RAMF), is based on a test for the presence of impulses in the center pixel itself followed by

H. Hwang; Richard A. Haddad

1995-01-01

214

Could alterations in maternal plasma visfatin concentration participate in the phenotypes definition of preeclampsia and SGA?  

PubMed Central

Objective Women with preeclampsia and those who delivered a small-for-gestational-age (SGA) neonate share several mechanisms of disease, including chronic uteroplacental ischemia and failure of physiologic transformation of the spiral arteries. However, the clinical manifestation of these obstetrical syndromes is remarkably different. It has been proposed that an altered maternal metabolic state, as well as a unique circulating cytokines milieu, predispose women to develop either preeclampsia or SGA. Compelling evidence suggests that adipose tissue orchestrates both metabolic pathways and immunological responses via the production of adipokines. Visfatin is a novel adipocytokine with metabolic and immunomodulating properties. The objective of this study was to determine whether preeclampsia and SGA are associated with alterations in maternal circulating visfatin concentrations. Methods This cross-secitonal study included pregnant women in the following groups: (1) normal pregnancy (n = 158); (2) patients with preeclampsia (n = 43) of which 32 had an AGA and 11 had an SGA neonate; (3) patients without preeclampsia who delivered an SGA neonate (n = 55). Maternal plasma visfatin concentrations were measured by ELISA. Nonparametric tests and multiple linear regression analysis were used. Results (1) Women who delivered an SGA neonate had a higher median maternal plasma visfatin concentration than those with a normal pregnancy (20.0 ng/ml, interquartile range: 17.2-24.6 vs. 15.2 ng/ml, 12.1-19.2, respectively; P < 0.001) than those with preeclampsia (14.5 ng/ml, 12.5-18.7; P < 0.001); (2) the median maternal plasma visfatin concentration did not differ significantly between patients with preeclampsia and those with a normal pregnancy (P = 0.8); (3) among patients with preeclampsia, there was no significant difference in the median maternal plasma visfatin concentration between those with or without an SGA neonate (P = 0.5); (4) in a linear regression model, delivery of an SGA neonate and pregestational body mass index were independently associated with increased visfatin concentration after adjustment for confounding factors (maternal age, smoking, gestational age at blood collection and the presence of preeclampsia or SGA). Conclusion (1) Patients with SGA, but not those with preeclampsia, had a higher maternal plasma visfatin concentration than those with a normal pregnancy; (2) this finding suggests differential involvement of visfatin in SGA and preeclampsia; (3) we propose that changes in circulating maternal visfatin concentration may be implicated in the phenotypic definitions and distinction of preeclampsia and SGA.

Mazaki-Tovi, S; Romero, R; Kim, SK; Vaisbuch, E; Kusanovic, JP; Erez, O; Chaiworapongsa, T; Gotsch, F; Mittal, P; Nhan-Chang, CL; Than, NG; Gomez, R; Nien, JK; Edwin, SS; Pacora, P; Yeo, L; Hassan, SS

2013-01-01

215

Maternal and Adolescent Temperament as Predictors of Maternal Affective Behavior during Mother-Adolescent Interactions  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This study examined maternal and early adolescent temperament dimensions as predictors of maternal emotional behavior during mother-adolescent interactions. The sample comprised 151 early adolescents (aged 11-13) and their mothers (aged 29-57). Adolescent- and mother-reports of adolescent temperament and self-reports of maternal temperament were…

Davenport, Emily; Yap, Marie B. H.; Simmons, Julian G.; Sheeber, Lisa B.; Allen, Nicholas B.

2011-01-01

216

Maternal and Adolescent Temperament as Predictors of Maternal Affective Behavior during Mother-Adolescent Interactions  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined maternal and early adolescent temperament dimensions as predictors of maternal emotional behavior during mother-adolescent interactions. The sample comprised 151 early adolescents (aged 11-13) and their mothers (aged 29-57). Adolescent- and mother-reports of adolescent temperament and self-reports of maternal temperament were…

Davenport, Emily; Yap, Marie B. H.; Simmons, Julian G.; Sheeber, Lisa B.; Allen, Nicholas B.

2011-01-01

217

Effect of Maternal Schistosoma mansoni Infection and Praziquantel Treatment During Pregnancy on Schistosoma mansoni Infection and Immune Responsiveness among Offspring at Age Five Years  

PubMed Central

Introduction Offspring of Schistosoma mansoni-infected women in schistosomiasis-endemic areas may be sensitised in-utero. This may influence their immune responsiveness to schistosome infection and schistosomiasis-associated morbidity. Effects of praziquantel treatment of S. mansoni during pregnancy on risk of S. mansoni infection among offspring, and on their immune responsiveness when they become exposed to S. mansoni, are unknown. Here we examined effects of praziquantel treatment of S. mansoni during pregnancy on prevalence of S. mansoni and immune responsiveness among offspring at age five years. Methods In a trial in Uganda (ISRCTN32849447, http://www.controlled-trials.com/ISRCTN32849447/elliott), offspring of women treated with praziquantel or placebo during pregnancy were examined for S. mansoni infection and for cytokine and antibody responses to SWA and SEA, as well as for T cell expression of FoxP3, at age five years. Results Of the 1343 children examined, 32 (2.4%) had S. mansoni infection at age five years based on a single stool sample. Infection prevalence did not differ between children of treated or untreated mothers. Cytokine (IFN?, IL-5, IL-10 and IL-13) and antibody (IgG1, Ig4 and IgE) responses to SWA and SEA, and FoxP3 expression, were higher among infected than uninfected children. Praziquantel treatment of S. mansoni during pregnancy had no effect on immune responses, with the exception of IL-10 responses to SWA, which was higher in offspring of women that received praziquantel during pregnancy than those who did not. Conclusion We found no evidence that maternal S. mansoni infection and its treatment during pregnancy influence prevalence and intensity of S. mansoni infection or effector immune response to S. mansoni infection among offspring at age five years, but the observed effects on IL-10 responses to SWA suggest that maternal S. mansoni and its treatment during pregnancy may affect immunoregulatory responsiveness in childhood schistosomiasis. This might have implications for pathogenesis of the disease.

Tweyongyere, Robert; Naniima, Peter; Mawa, Patrice A.; Jones, Frances M.; Webb, Emily L.; Cose, Stephen; Dunne, David W.; Elliott, Alison M.

2013-01-01

218

Modeling the effects of maternal nutritional status and socioeconomic variables on the anthropometric and psychological indicators of Kenyan infants from age 0-6 months.  

PubMed

This paper presents a comprehensive empirical analysis of the factors affecting growth and psychological development of over 100 infants from birth to age 6 months in the Embu region of Kenya. The analysis was divided into four parts. First, infants' birth weight, and length and head circumference as measured few days after birth, were modeled using multiple regression models. Maternal prepregnancy body mass index (BMI), gestation period, and parity were associated with infants' anthropometric measurements (P < 0.05). Second, the scores on seven clusters of the Brazelton Neonatal Behavioral Assessment Scale were explained by health and socioeconomic indicators. While the models had poor predictive power, the scores were comparable to those reported in the literature for Puerto Rican and African American infants. The third part of the analysis modeled infant growth between 1-6 months by analyzing longitudinal data on length, head circumference, and weight. Dynamic models were postulated for the effects of nutritional, socioeconomic, and environmental factors and morbidity on anthropometric variables. The results showed that infants' calcium intakes were positively associated with length (P < 0.05). Maternal BMI and hemoglobin concentration were positively associated with infant weight (P < 0. 05); infant morbidity was negatively associated with weight (P < 0. 05). Lastly, the infants' scores at 6 months on the Bayley Motor Scale and on eight items from the Bayley Infant Behavior Record were explained using anthropometric, socioeconomic, and psychological variables. The infants' arm circumference and intake of protein were significant predictors of scores on the Bayley Motor Scale. In addition, time spent by the mother talking to the infant was positively associated with the scores on the Bayley Infant Behavior Record. The empirical results have implications for identifying vulnerable children in developing countries. PMID:10618590

Bhargava, A

2000-01-01

219

Median nerve neuropathy from an old lunate dislocation.  

PubMed

The case of an old volar dislocation of the lunate, associated with median nerve neuropathy, is described in a 37-year-old patient. The treatment took into account the age of the patient and the relative tolerance to the dislocation. We performed a simple excision of the lunate combined with a release of the transverse carpal ligament in order to free the median nerve, together with a tenosynovectomy of flexor digitorum profoundus. Two years after operation, wrist function was virtually complete and the patient was asymptomatic and had resumed his occupation. PMID:9586259

Cara, J; Narvaez, A; de la Varga, V; Guerado, E

1998-03-01

220

Solitary median maxillary central incisor (SMMCI) syndrome  

PubMed Central

Solitary median maxillary central incisor syndrome (SMMCI) is a complex disorder consisting of multiple, mainly midline defects of development resulting from unknown factor(s) operating in utero about the 35th–38th day(s) from conception. It is estimated to occur in 1:50,000 live births. Aetiology is uncertain. Missense mutation in the SHH gene (I111F) at 7q36 may be associated with SMMCI. The SMMCI tooth differs from the normal central incisor, in that the crown form is symmetric; it develops and erupts precisely in the midline of the maxillary dental arch in both primary and permanent dentitions. Congenital nasal malformation (choanal atresia, midnasal stenosis or congenital pyriform aperture stenosis) is positively associated with SMMCI. The presence of an SMMCI tooth can predict associated anomalies and in particular the serious anomaly holoprosencephaly. Common congenital anomalies associated with SMMCI are: severe to mild intellectual disability, congenital heart disease, cleft lip and/or palate and less frequently, microcephaly, hypopituitarism, hypotelorism, convergent strabismus, oesophageal and duodenal atresia, cervical hemivertebrae, cervical dermoid, hypothyroidism, scoliosis, absent kidney, micropenis and ambiguous genitalia. Short stature is present in half the children. Diagnosis should be made by eight months of age, but can be made at birth and even prenatally at 18–22 weeks from the routine mid-trimester ultrasound scan. Management depends upon the individual anomalies present. Choanal stenosis requires emergency surgical treatment. Short stature may require growth hormone therapy. SMMCI tooth itself is mainly an aesthetic problem, which is ideally managed by combined orthodontic, prosthodontic and oral surgical treatment; alternatively, it can be left untreated.

Hall, Roger K

2006-01-01

221

Accumulation of mtDNA variations in human single CD34+ cells from maternally related individuals: effects of aging and family genetic background.  

PubMed

Marked sequence variation in the mtDNA control region has been observed in human single CD34(+) cells, which persist in vivo and are present also in differentiated hematopoietic cells. In this study, we analyzed 5071 single CD34(+) cells from 49 individuals (including 31 maternally related members from four families and 18 unrelated donors) in order to determine the mutation spectrum within the mtDNA control region in single cells, as related to aging and family genetic background. Many highly mutated sites among family members were hypervariable sites in the mtDNA control region. Further, CD34(+) cells from members of the same family also shared several unique mtDNA variants, suggesting pedigree-specific occurrence of these variants. Overall age-related accumulation of mtDNA mutations in CD34(+) cells varied in different families, suggesting a specific accumulation pattern, which might be modulated by family genetic background. Our current findings have implications for the occurrence of mtDNA mutations in hematopoietic stem cells and progenitors. PMID:23455392

Yao, Yong-Gang; Kajigaya, Sachiko; Feng, Xingmin; Samsel, Leigh; McCoy, J Philip; Torelli, Giuseppe; Young, Neal S

2013-01-29

222

Maternal Schooling and Children's Relative Inequalities in Developmental Outcomes: Evidence from the 1947 School Leaving Age Reform in Britain  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This paper investigates whether mothers' participation in post-compulsory education impacts on children's relative inequalities across four developmental outcomes. The empirical analysis uses information from children born in 1958 in Britain. Mothers of the 1958 British cohort were affected by the 1947 school leaving age reform, which increased…

Sabates, Ricardo; Duckworth, Kathryn

2010-01-01

223

Social Competitiveness and Plasticity of Neuroendocrine Function in Old Age: Influence of Neonatal Novelty Exposure and Maternal Care Reliability  

Microsoft Academic Search

Early experience is known to have a profound impact on brain and behavioral function later in life. Relatively few studies, however, have examined whether the effects of early experience remain detectable in the aging animal. Here, we examined the effects of neonatal novelty exposure, an early stimulation procedure, on late senescent rats' ability to win in social competition. During the

Katherine G. Akers; Zhen Yang; Dominic P. DelVecchio; Bethany C. Reeb; Russell D. Romeo; Bruce S. McEwen; Akaysha C. Tang

2008-01-01

224

[Lipofibromatous hamartoma of the median nerve].  

PubMed

Lipofibromatous hamartoma of the nerve is a very uncommon, congenital, benign, peripheral nerve tumor. It is mostly encountered in the extremities of young adults, involving the median nerve in the majority of cases. The nerve tissue is infiltrated by diffuse fibroadipose tissue which dissociates the fasciculi without invasion. Patients with lipofibromatous hamartoma of the median nerve usually present with symptoms of carpal tunnel syndrome, usually accompanied by marked macrodactyly. Lipofibromatous hamartoma of the median nerve was encountered in an 18-year-old female patient, involving the wrist, causing macrodactyly of the index finger, and resulting in symptoms of carpal tunnel syndrome. Median nerve release and partial excision of the adipose tissue along the mass were performed. Fourteen months postoperatively, the patient had no complaints and the mass decreased in size without any motor or sensory functional losses. PMID:12510101

Bagatur, A Erdem

2002-01-01

225

A Median Voter Model of Social Security  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a theoretical median voter analysis of the determination of the level of social security. The framework for the analysis is a continuous-time, overlapping-generations model with nonaltruistic households facing borrowing constraints in the capital market. A majority voting equilibrium is shown to exist in which the median voter is liquidity-constrained. The desired level of social security for each

Robin W Boadway; David E Wildasin

1989-01-01

226

The Median of a Random Interval  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a In dealing with real-valued random variables, the median of the distribution is the ‘central tendency’ summary measure associated\\u000a with its ‘middle position’. When available random elements are interval-valued, the lack of a universal ranking of values\\u000a makes it impossible to formalize the extension of the concept of median as a middle-position summary measure. Nevertheless,\\u000a the use of a generalized L

Beatriz Sinova; María Casals; Ana Colubi; María Gil

227

Effects of Nurse Home Visiting on Maternal and Child Functioning: Age-9 Follow-up of a Randomized Trial  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE Our goal was to test the effect of prenatal and infancy home visits by nurses on mothers’ fertility and children’s functioning 7 years after the program ended at child age 2. METHODS We conducted a randomized, controlled trial in a public system of obstetric and pediatric care. A total of 743 primarily black women <29 weeks’ gestation, with previous live births and at least 2 sociodemographic risk characteristics (unmarried, <12 years of education, unemployed), were randomly assigned to receive nurse home visits or comparison services. Primary outcomes consisted of intervals between births of first and second children and number of children born per year; mothers’ stability of relationships with partners and relationships with the biological father of the child; mothers’ use of welfare, food stamps, and Medicaid; mothers’ use of substances; mothers’ arrests and incarcerations; and children’s academic achievement, school conduct, and mental disorders. Secondary outcomes were the sequelae of subsequent pregnancies, women’s employment, experience of domestic violence, and children’s mortality. RESULTS Nurse-visited women had longer intervals between births of first and second children, fewer cumulative subsequent births per year, and longer relationships with current partners. From birth through child age 9, nurse-visited women used welfare and food stamps for fewer months. Nurse-visited children born to mothers with low psychological resources, compared with control-group counterparts, had better grade-point averages and achievement test scores in math and reading in grades 1 through 3. Nurse-visited children, as a trend, were less likely to die from birth through age 9, an effect accounted for by deaths that were attributable to potentially preventable causes. CONCLUSIONS By child age 9, the program reduced women’s rates of subsequent births, increased the intervals between the births of first and second children, increased the stability of their relationships with partners, facilitated children’s academic adjustment to elementary school, and seems to have reduced childhood mortality from preventable causes.

Olds, David L.; Kitzman, Harriet; Hanks, Carole; Cole, Robert; Anson, Elizabeth; Sidora-Arcoleo, Kimberly; Luckey, Dennis W.; Henderson, Charles R.; Holmberg, John; Tutt, Robin A.; Stevenson, Amanda J.; Bondy, Jessica

2010-01-01

228

Maternal Plasma Concentration of the Pro-Inflammatory Adipokine Pre-B-Cell Enhancing Factor (PBEF)/ Visfatin Is Elevated In Pregnant Patients with Acute Pyelonephritis  

PubMed Central

Problem Visfatin/pre-B-cell enhancing factor (PBEF) has been implicated in the regulation of the innate immune system, as well as in glucose metabolism. Specifically, visfatin plays a requisite role in delayed neutrophil apoptosis in patients with sepsis. The aim of this study was to determine whether pyelonephritis during pregnancy is associated with changes in maternal plasma visfatin concentration in normal weight and overweight/obese patients. Methods of Study This cross-sectional study included the following groups: 1) normal pregnant women (n=200); and 2) pregnant women with pyelonephritis (n=40). Maternal plasma visfatin concentrations were determined by ELISA. Non-parametric statistics were used for analyses. Results 1) The median maternal plasma visfatin concentration was significantly higher in patients with pyelonephritis than in those with a normal pregnancy; 2) among overweight/obese pregnant women, those with pyelonephritis had a significantly higher median plasma visfatin concentration than women with a normal pregnancy; and 3) pyelonephritis was independently associated with higher maternal plasma visfatin concentrations after adjustment for maternal age, pre-gestational BMI, smoking status, gestational age at sampling, and birthweight. Conclusions Acute pyelonephritis during pregnancy is associated with a high circulating maternal visfatin concentration. These findings suggest that visfatin/PBEF may play a role in the regulation of the complex and dynamic crosstalk between inflammation and metabolism during pregnancy.

Mazaki-Tovi, Shali; Vaisbuch, Edi; Romero, Roberto; Kusanovic, Juan Pedro; Chaiworapongsa, Tinnakorn; Kim, Sun Kwon; Nhan-Chang, Chia-Ling; Gomez, Ricardo; Yoon, Bo H.; Yeo, Lami; Mittal, Pooja; Ogge, Giovanna; Gonzalez, Juan M.; Hassan, Sonia S.

2012-01-01

229

Fuzzy vector median-based surface smoothing.  

PubMed

This paper proposes a novel approach for smoothing surfaces represented by triangular meshes. The proposed method is a two-step procedure: surface normal smoothing through fuzzy vector median (FVM) filtering followed by integration of surface normals for vertex position update based on the least square error (LSE) criteria. Median and Order Statistic-based filters are extensively used in signal processing, especially image processing, due to their ability to reject outliers and preserve features such as edges and monotonic regions. More recently, fuzzy ordering theory has been introduced to allow averaging among similarly valued samples. Fuzzy ordering theory leads naturally to the fuzzy median, which yields improved noise smoothing over traditional crisp median filters. This paper extends the fuzzy ordering concept to vector-based data and introduces the fuzzy vector median filter. The application of FVM filters to surface normal smoothing yields improved results over previously introduced normal smoothing algorithms. The improved filtering results, coupled with LSE vertex position update, produces surface smoothing that minimizes the effects of noise while simultaneously preserving detail features. The proposed method is simple to implement and relatively fast. Simulation results are presented showing the performance of the proposed method and its advantages over commonly used surface smoothing algorithms. Additionally, optimization procedures for FVM filters are derived and evaluated. PMID:18579957

Shen, Yuzhong; Barner, Kenneth E

230

Comprehensive chromosome screening of trophectoderm with vitrification facilitates elective single-embryo transfer for infertile women with advanced maternal age.  

PubMed

The universal goal of assisted reproduction technologies is a singleton delivery of a healthy full-term baby. For younger women (<35 years of age) single-embryo transfer is a viable option resulting in clinical success similar to multiple-embryo transfers. In contrast, older women have significantly lower pregnancy rates following single-embryo transfer. To provide effective single-embryo transfer options for older women, improved methods of embryo selection are required to overcome the marked differences in outcome of single- versus double-embryo transfer. With the development of comprehensive chromosome screening, blastocyst vitrification, and trophectoderm biopsy techniques, older women have the opportunity of elective single-embryo transfer with live birth rates as high as those reported for younger good-prognosis infertility patients. PMID:23993664

Schoolcraft, William B; Katz-Jaffe, Mandy G

2013-09-01

231

Maternal knowledge, attitudes, and practices as predictors of diarrboeal disease in Saudi children < 3 years of age.  

PubMed

Diarrhoeal disease continues to be a leading cause of morbidity and mortality in many developing countries. This study demonstrates the importance of behavioral risk factors as determinants of diarrhoeal disease. The study design used is incidence-base, case-control design. The cases were obtained from Primary Health Care Centers (PHCC) in Makkah area, Saudi Arabia, during October 1994 to January 1995. The studied sample consisted of 319 cases and 312 controls < 3 years of age. The results showed that mothers of cases were significant inferior knowledge about aetiology and transmission of diarrhoeal disease than did mothers of controls. Poor hygiene was significantly high in households of cases for two items; disposal of faeces in latrine and presence of toilet papers (p < 0.05). Assuming causal association between the risk factors and diarrhoeal disease, up to 60% of diarrhoeal disease in the study population may be attributable to the studied behavioral factors. PMID:17214175

Abalkhail, B; Bahnassy, A A; Al Abasi, H

1995-01-01

232

Maternal enterovirus infection during pregnancy as a risk factor in offspring diagnosed with type 1 diabetes between 15 and 30 years of age.  

PubMed

Maternal enterovirus infections during pregnancy may increase the risk of offspring developing type 1 diabetes during childhood. The aim of this study was to investigate whether gestational enterovirus infections increase the offspring's risk of type 1 diabetes later in life. Serum samples from 30 mothers without diabetes whose offspring developed type 1 diabetes between 15 and 25 years of age were analyzed for enterovirus-specific immunoglobulin M (IgM) antibodies and enterovirus genome (RNA), and compared to a control group. Among the index mothers, 9/30 (30%) were enterovirus IgM-positive, and none was positive for enterovirus RNA. In the control group, 14/90 (16%) were enterovirus IgM-positive, and 4/90 (4%) were positive for enterovirus RNA (n.s.). Boys of enterovirus IgM-positive mothers had approximately 5 times greater risk of developing diabetes (OR 4.63; 95% CI 1.22-17.6), as compared to boys of IgM-negative mothers (P < .025). These results suggest that gestational enterovirus infections may be related to the risk of offspring developing type 1 diabetes in adolescence and young adulthood. PMID:18670622

Elfving, Maria; Svensson, Johan; Oikarinen, Sami; Jonsson, Björn; Olofsson, Per; Sundkvist, Göran; Lindberg, Bengt; Lernmark, Ake; Hyöty, Heikki; Ivarsson, Sten-Anders

2008-01-01

233

Median Statistics and the Hubble Constant  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Following Gott et al., we use Huchra''s final compilation of 553 measurements of the Hubble constant (H0) to estimate median statistical constraints on H0. Our median statistical analysis yields H0 = 68 ± 5.5 (or ±1) km s-1 Mpc, where the errors are the 95% statistical and systematic (or statistical) errors. These results are close to what Gott et al. found a decade ago, with smaller statistical errors and similar systematic errors. With about two-thirds more measurements, we are also able to clearly illustrate the presence and magnitude of systematic errors for different methods.

Chen, Gang; Ratra, Bharat

2011-09-01

234

Median regression model with interval censored data.  

PubMed

Quantile regression methods have been used to estimate upper and lower quantile reference curves as the function of several covariates. Especially, in survival analysis, median regression models to the right-censored data are suggested with several assumptions. In this article, we consider a median regression model for interval-censored data and construct an estimating equation based on weights derived from interval-censored data. In a simulation study, the performances of the proposed method are evaluated for both symmetric and right-skewed distributed failure times. A well-known breast cancer data are analyzed to illustrate the proposed method. PMID:20394082

Kim, Yang-J; Cho, Hyungjun; Kim, Jinheum; Jhun, Myoungshic

2010-04-01

235

Introduction to Statistics: Mean, Median, Mode  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This lesson is designed to introduce students to statistical measures of central tendency (i.e., mean, median, and mode). The lesson provides links to discussions and activities related to mean, median, and mode, as well as suggested ways to integrate them into the lesson. Upon completion of the lesson, students should understand the differences in the three measures and be able to compute each. Finally, the lesson provides links to follow-up lessons designed for use in succession with learning about the measures of central tendency.

2010-01-01

236

Median palmar digital neuropathy in a cheerleader.  

PubMed

Median palmar digital neuropathy developed in a 16-year-old girl as a result of chronic trauma to the palm during cheerleading activities. The clinical findings on examination, which included paresthesias in the distribution of a palmar digital nerve and exacerbation of symptoms with compression of the palm, were consistent with this diagnosis. Nerve conduction studies documented a lesion of the median palmar digital nerve. Avoidance of cheerleading activities resulted in nearly total resolution of the symptoms. Awareness of this entity and the value of nerve conduction studies in establishing the diagnosis may avoid confusion and facilitate correct diagnosis and management. PMID:3778181

Shields, R W; Jacobs, I B

1986-11-01

237

Influence of maternal stature, pregnancy age, and infant birth weight on growth during childhood in Yucatan, Mexico: a test of the intergenerational effects hypothesis.  

PubMed

In developing nations, obesity has increased dramatically in the last decade, but a high prevalence of stunting still coexists. The intergenerational influences hypothesis (IIH) is one explanation for this. We test the IIH regarding variation in maternal stature, mother's age at pregnancy, and infant birth weight in relation to risk for overweight and stunting in 206 Maya children (4-6 years old) from Mérida, Yucatan, Mexico. The Maya children are compared with growth references (Frisancho 2008: Anthropometric Standards: An Interactive Nutritional Reference of Body Size and Body Composition for Children and Adults. Ann Arbor, MI: The University of Michigan Press. 335 pp) for height, weight, and body mass index (BMI). Almost 70% of the mothers are shorter than 150 cm. Mothers' height and child's birth weight predict overweight. Children with a mother shorter than 150 cm are less than half as likely (OR = 0.44) to be overweight compared to children whose mothers are equal to or taller than 150 cm. Children with birth weights below 3,000 g are only a third as likely to be overweight (OR = 0.28) than their peers within the range of normal birth weight (3,000-3,500 g). Sex of the child, mother's height, and birth weight predict stunting. Girls are only 40% as likely as boys to be stunted. Children with a mother below 150 cm are 3.6 times more likely of being stunted. Children with birth weights below 3000 g are over 3 times more likely to be stunted relative to children with birth weights within the normal range. Mother's age at pregnancy is not a predictor of overweight or stunting. Our findings conform the IIH and with similar studies of populations undergoing nutritional/epidemiological transitions from traditional to globalized lifestyles. PMID:19214997

Varela-Silva, Maria Inês; Azcorra, Hugo; Dickinson, Federico; Bogin, Barry; Frisancho, A R

238

Maternal characteristics predicting young girls' disruptive behavior.  

PubMed

Little is known about the relative predictive utility of maternal characteristics and parenting skills on the development of girls' disruptive behavior. The current study used five waves of parent- and child-report data from the ongoing Pittsburgh Girls Study to examine these relationships in a sample of 1,942 girls from age 7 to 12 years. Multivariate generalized estimating equation analyses indicated that European American race, mother's prenatal nicotine use, maternal depression, maternal conduct problems prior to age 15, and low maternal warmth explained unique variance. Maladaptive parenting partly mediated the effects of maternal depression and maternal conduct problems. Both current and early maternal risk factors have an impact on young girls' disruptive behavior, providing support for the timing and focus of the prevention of girls' disruptive behavior. PMID:21391016

van der Molen, Elsa; Hipwell, Alison E; Vermeiren, Robert; Loeber, Rolf

2011-01-01

239

Maternal age, education level and migration: Socioeconomic determinants for smoking during pregnancy in a field study from Turkey  

PubMed Central

Background Smoking during pregnancy has been associated with socioeconomic determinants and it is recognized as the most important preventable risk factor for an unsuccessful pregnancy outcome. Turkey has national data on the prevalance of smoking during pregnancy; however there is no data on the characteristics of the high-risk population. This is a field study that aims to identify socioeconomic determinants for smoking during pregnancy as well as differentiating the daily and occasional smokers. Method Cross sectional study was conducted among women with 0-5 year old children living in the area served by Primary Health Care Center (PHCC) in Burhaniye, Turkey. Face-to-face interviews were conducted by the researchers during January-March 2008 at the home of the participants with 83.7% response rate (n = 256). The relation of "smoking during pregnacy" and "daily smoking during pregnancy" with the independent variables was determined with ?2 tests. Women's age, educational level, number of previous births, place of origin, migration, partner's educational level, poverty, perceived income, social class were evaluated. Statistical significance was achieved when the p value was less than 0.05. The variables in relation with the dependent variables in the ?2 tests were included in the forward-stepwise logistic analysis. Results Prevalance of smoking during pregnancy was 22.7%. The majority (74.1%) were daily smokers. Young mothers (< 20), low educated women and migrants were at increased risk for smoking during pregnancy. Low education and being a migrant were risk factors for daily consumption (p < 0.05). Conclusions Systematic attention should be paid to socioeconomic determinants in smoking for pregnant women, especially in countries like Turkey with high rates of infant and mother mortality and substantial health inequalities. Young mothers (< 20), low educated women and migrants are important groups to focus on.

2010-01-01

240

Cells in the Median Ocellus of Limulus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two types of photoreceptors are found in the median ocellus of Limulus. One type is maximally sensitive to ultraviolet (UV) light, the other to green light; they are called UV and VIS cells, respectively. Biphasic receptor potentials, consisting of a small initial hyperpolarizing phase and a later slow depolarizing phase, can be recorded from both receptor types. These biphasic responses

JOHN NOLTE; JOEL E. BROWN

241

Feasibility Study of Retrofitting Concrete Median Barriers.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Since the imposition of the 55mph speed limit in 1974, accident data on the concrete median barriers (CMB) in California showed that the fatal + injury accident rates are increasing. The findings in this study indicate that this significant increase in ro...

E. R. Post P. T. McCoy T. J. Wipf R. W. Bolton

1983-01-01

242

Multicriteria Planar Ordered Median Problems1  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we deal with the determination of the entire set of Pareto solutions of location problems involving Q general criteria. These criteria include median, center, or centdian objec- tive functions as particular instances. We characterize the set of Pareto solutions of all these multicriteria problems for any polyhedral gauge. An efficient algorithm is developed for the planar case

S. Nickel; J. Puerto; A. M. Rodriguez-Chia; A. Weissler

2005-01-01

243

Candy Colors: Figuring the Mean, Median & Mode  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students will count candy of different colors and use the data to calculate mean, median, and mode. Groups of students will work together to share their data and calculate the measures of central tendency again. At the end of the lesson, they will apply their learning to another collection of data.

Association, National E.

2009-07-16

244

Median filtering in multispectral filter array demosaicking  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Inspired by the concept of the colour filter array (CFA), the research community has shown much interest in adapting the idea of CFA to the multispectral domain, producing multispectral filter arrays (MSFAs). In addition to newly devised methods of MSFA demosaicking, there exists a wide spectrum of methods developed for CFA. Among others, some vector based operations can be adapted naturally for multispectral purposes. In this paper, we focused on studying two vector based median filtering methods in the context of MSFA demosaicking. One solves demosaicking problems by means of vector median filters, and the other applies median filtering to the demosaicked image in spherical space as a subsequent refinement process to reduce artefacts introduced by demosaicking. To evaluate the performance of these measures, a tool kit was constructed with the capability of mosaicking, demosaicking and quality assessment. The experimental results demonstrated that the vector median filtering performed less well for natural images except black and white images, however the refinement step reduced the reproduction error numerically in most cases. This proved the feasibility of extending CFA demosaicking into MSFA domain.

Wang, Xingbo; Thomas, Jean-Baptiste; Hardeberg, Jon Y.; Gouton, Pierre

2013-01-01

245

Circulating insulin-like growth factor-1 in pregnancy and maternal risk of breast cancer  

PubMed Central

Background Elevated serum concentrations of insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-1 have been associated with increased risk of breast cancer. Previously, we reported a similar association in samples obtained during pregnancy. The current study was conducted to further characterize the association of IGF-1 during pregnancy with maternal breast cancer risk. Methods A case-control study was nested within the Finnish Maternity Cohort. The study was limited to primiparous women less than 40 years of age, who donated blood samples during early (median, 12 weeks) pregnancy and delivered a single child at term. Seven hundred and nineteen women with invasive breast cancer were eligible. Two controls (n = 1,434) were matched to each case on age and date at blood donation. Serum IGF-1 concentration was measured using an Immulite 2000 analyzer. Conditional logistic regression was used to estimate odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI). Results No significant associations were observed between serum IGF-1 concentrations and breast cancer risk in both the overall analysis (OR 1.08 (95% CI 0.80–1.47) and in analyses stratified by histological subtype, lag-time to cancer diagnosis, age at pregnancy or age at diagnosis. Conclusion There was no association between IGF-1 and maternal breast cancer risk during early pregnancy in this large nested case-control study. Impact Serum IGF-1 concentrations during early pregnancy may not be related to maternal risk of breast cancer.

Toriola, Adetunji T; Lundin, Eva; Schock, Helena; Grankvist, Kjell; Pukkala, Eero; Chen, Tianhui; Zeleniuch-Jacquotte, Anne; Toniolo, Paolo; Lehtinen, Matti; Surcel, Helja-Marja; Lukanova, Annekatrin

2011-01-01

246

Evidence for differential regulation of the adipokine visfatin in the maternal and fetal compartments in normal spontaneous labor at term  

PubMed Central

Objective Visfatin, a novel adipokine with metabolic and immunoregulatory properties, has been implicated in the regulation of fetal growth, as well as in preterm labor. A gap in knowledge is whether spontaneous labor at term is associated with changes in the maternal and fetal concentrations of visfatin. The aim of this study was to determine if the presence of labor at term is associated with alterations in maternal and neonatal plasma visfatin concentrations. Study design This cross-sectional study included 50 normal pregnant women at term and their appropriate-for-gestational age (AGA) neonates in the following groups: 1) 25 mother-neonate pairs delivered by elective cesarean section without spontaneous labor, and 2) 25 mother-neonate pairs who delivered vaginally following spontaneous labor. Maternal plasma and cord blood visfatin concentrations were determined by ELISA. Non-parametric statistics were used for analyses. Results 1) The median visfatin concentration was higher in umbilical cord plasma of neonates born following a spontaneous labor at term than that of those who were born by an elective cesarean section (p=0.02); 2) in contrast, the median maternal plasma visfatin concentration did not differ significantly between patients with and without labor (p=0.44); and 3) there was a significant correlation between umbilical cord plasma concentration of visfatin and both maternal visfatin concentration (r= 0.54, p=0.005) and gestational age at delivery (r= 0.58; p=0.002) only in the absence of labor. Conclusion Term labor is associated with increased fetal, but not maternal, circulating visfatin concentrations. Previous reports indicate that preterm labor leading to preterm delivery is characterized by an increase in maternal plasma concentrations of visfatin. The observations reported herein support the view that there are fundamental differences in the endocrine and metabolic adaptations in normal labor at term and preterm labor.

Mazaki-Tovi, Shali; Romero, Roberto; Vaisbuch, Edi; Kim, Sun Kwon; Kusanovic, Juan Pedro; Chaiworapongsa, Tinnakorn; Mittal, Pooja; Dong, Zhong; Pacora, Percy; Yeo, Lami; Hassan, Sonia S.

2012-01-01

247

Maternal Symptoms of Attention-Deficit\\/Hyperactivity Disorder and Maternal Language: Implications for Infant Language Development  

Microsoft Academic Search

The relationship between maternal ADHD symptoms and maternal language was examined in a community sample of 50 mothers of\\u000a infants age 3–12 months. It was hypothesized that higher maternal symptoms of ADHD would be related to lower quality of maternal\\u000a language use. Recordings of mothers’ speech were coded for complexity and elaboration of speech and vocabulary diversity during\\u000a an interview with

Katie R. Kryski; Eric J. Mash; Jerilyn E. Ninowski; Deborah L. Semple

2010-01-01

248

Predictors of maternal mortality and near-miss maternal morbidity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective:To identify risk factors for life-threatening maternal outcomes.Study design:Hospital charts were reviewed for cases of maternal mortality or near-miss and for controls overmatched 1:3. Significant risk factors were identified through simple and best subsets multiple logistic regression.Result:Eight cases of mortality and 69 near-miss cases were found. Significant risk factors with their odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals are: age 35

D Goffman; R C Madden; E A Harrison; I R Merkatz; C Chazotte

2007-01-01

249

Vaccination of Piglets up to 1 Week of Age with a Single-Dose Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae Vaccine Induces Protective Immunity within 2 Weeks against Virulent Challenge in the Presence of Maternally Derived Antibodies  

PubMed Central

Enzootic pneumonia, resulting from infection with Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae, is of considerable economic importance to the pig industry and normally is controlled through active vaccination of piglets. We have demonstrated that administration of an inactivated Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae vaccine to piglets less than 1 week old is efficacious under field conditions and reduces the level of lung lesions observed in comparison to that in control pigs. Here, the results of two separate studies, one in piglets with and the second one in piglets without maternal antibodies, conducted to satisfy the requirements of the European Pharmacopoeia (monograph no. 07/2009:2448), are reported. Piglets received either minimal titer Suvaxyn MH-One or saline at less than 1 week of age and were challenged with Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae 2 weeks later. The number of lung lesions was recorded 4 weeks after challenge, and bronchial swab and lung tissue specimens were analyzed for quantification of Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae DNA. In the presence and absence of maternal antibodies, vaccination of piglets at less than 1 week of age was efficacious, with vaccinated piglets having significantly lower percentages of lung with lesions and lower Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae counts detected in bronchial swab and lung tissue specimens at necropsy. In conclusion, the vaccination of piglets at 1 week of age with Suvaxyn MH-One is efficacious in the presence of high levels of maternal antibodies.

Van Brussel, Leen; Saunders, Gillian; Runnels, Paul; Taylor, Lucas; Fredrickson, Dan; Salt, Jeremy

2013-01-01

250

Determinants of maternal and fetal exposure and temporal trends of perfluorinated compounds.  

PubMed

In recent years, some perfluorinated compounds (PFCs) have been identified as potentially hazardous substances which are harmful to the environment and human health. According to limited data, PFC levels in humans could be influenced by several determinants. However, the findings are inconsistent. In the present study, perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS), perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), and perfluorononanoic acid (PFNA) were measured in paired maternal and cord serum samples (N?=?237) collected between 1978 and 2001 in Southern Sweden to study the relationship between these and to investigate several potential determinants of maternal and fetal exposure to PFCs. Time trends of PFCs in Swedish women were also evaluated. The study is a part of the Fetal Environment and Neurodevelopment Disorders in Epidemiological Research project. PFOS, PFOA, and PFNA levels (median) were higher in maternal serum (15, 2.1, and 0.24 ng/ml, respectively) than in cord serum (6.5, 1.7, and 0.20 ng/ml, respectively). PFC levels were among the highest in women originating from the Nordic countries and the lowest in women from the Middle East, North Africa, and sub-Saharan Africa. Multiparous women had lower serum PFOA levels (1.7 ng/ml) than primiparous women (2.4 ng/ml). Maternal age, body mass index, cotinine levels, and whether women carried male or female fetuses did not affect serum PFC concentrations. Umbilical cord serum PFC concentrations showed roughly similar patterns as the maternal except for the gestational age where PFC levels increased with advancing gestational age. PFOS levels increased during the study period in native Swedish women. In summary, PFOS levels tend to increase while PFOA and PFNA levels were unchanged between 1978 and 2001 in our study population. Our results demonstrate that maternal country of origin, parity, and gestational age might be associated with PFC exposure. PMID:23436123

Ode, Amanda; Rylander, Lars; Lindh, Christian H; Källén, Karin; Jönsson, Bo A G; Gustafsson, Peik; Olofsson, Per; Ivarsson, Sten A; Rignell-Hydbom, Anna

2013-02-24

251

Solitary median maxillary central incisor (SMMCI) syndrome  

Microsoft Academic Search

Solitary median maxillary central incisor syndrome (SMMCI) is a complex disorder consisting of multiple, mainly midline defects of development resulting from unknown factor(s) operating in utero about the 35th–38th day(s) from conception. It is estimated to occur in 1:50,000 live births. Aetiology is uncertain. Missense mutation in the SHH gene (I111F) at 7q36 may be associated with SMMCI. The SMMCI

Roger K Hall

2006-01-01

252

Median Eminence Dopamine and Serotonin Neuronal Activity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Using a high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) system coupled with an electrochemical detector, the concentrations of dopamine (DA) and 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) and their major specific metabolites 3,4-dihydroxy-phenylacetic acid (DOPAC) and 5-hydroxyindole-3-acetic acid (5-HIAA), respectively, were measured in the median eminence (ME) throughout the rat estrous cycle. The ME DA content remained fairly constant throughout the estrous cycle except on estrus when

Bernard Kerdelhué; Florence Bojda; Philippe Lesieur; Catherine Pasqualini; Amor El Abed; Véronique Lenoir; Patrice Douillet; Mike C. Chiueh; Miklos Palkovits

1989-01-01

253

Robust Regression by Boosting the Median  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Most boosting regression algorithms use the weighted average of base regressors as their final regressor. In this paper we\\u000a analyze the choice of the weighted median. We propose a general boosting algorithm based on this approach. We prove boosting-type\\u000a convergence of the algorithm and give clear conditions for the convergence of the robust training error. The algorithm recovers\\u000a ADABOOST\\\\textsc{AdaBoost} and

Balázs Kégl

2003-01-01

254

Median Facial Cleft in Amniotic Band Syndrome  

PubMed Central

Amniotic band syndrome manifests at birth with a variety of malformations ranging from constriction ring to defects incompatible to life, in various parts of the body. Although some theories have been proposed for the development of this syndrome, the exact cause remains unknown. The median facial cleft is an extremely rare manifestation of amniotic band syndrome with a relative paucity of reports available in the literature. Here, we report one such case.

Das, Debabrata; Das, Gobinda; Gayen, Sibnath; Konar, Arpita

2011-01-01

255

Median facial cleft in amniotic band syndrome.  

PubMed

Amniotic band syndrome manifests at birth with a variety of malformations ranging from constriction ring to defects incompatible to life, in various parts of the body. Although some theories have been proposed for the development of this syndrome, the exact cause remains unknown. The median facial cleft is an extremely rare manifestation of amniotic band syndrome with a relative paucity of reports available in the literature. Here, we report one such case. PMID:21731335

Das, Debabrata; Das, Gobinda; Gayen, Sibnath; Konar, Arpita

2011-04-01

256

Maternal Filicide  

Microsoft Academic Search

Having identified that most violent crime is carried out by men, feminists have recently called attention to the need to also bring a feminist analysis to violent crimes committed by women. This research examines data drawn from coroners court files in Victoria, Australia for the period 1978 to 1991 to explore scenarios of maternal filicide. The data are reviewed in

Christine M. Alder; June Baker

1997-01-01

257

Maternal amalgam dental fillings as the source of mercury exposure in developing fetus and newborn.  

PubMed

Dental amalgam is a mercury-based filling containing approximately 50% of metallic mercury (Hg(0)). Human placenta does not represent a real barrier to the transport of Hg(0); hence, fetal exposure occurs as a result of maternal exposure to Hg, with possible subsequent neurodevelopmental disabilities in infants. This study represents a substudy of the international NIH-funded project "Early Childhood Development and polychlorinated biphenyls Exposure in Slovakia". The main aim of this analysis was to assess the relationship between maternal dental amalgam fillings and exposure of the developing fetus to Hg. The study subjects were mother-child pairs (N=99). Questionnaires were administered after delivery, and chemical analyses of Hg were performed in the samples of maternal and cord blood using atomic absorption spectrometry with amalgamation technique. The median values of Hg concentrations were 0.63 microg/l (range 0.14-2.9 microg/l) and 0.80 microg/l (range 0.15-2.54 microg/l) for maternal and cord blood, respectively. None of the cord blood Hg concentrations reached the level considered to be hazardous for neurodevelopmental effects in children exposed to Hg in utero (EPA reference dose for Hg of 5.8 microg/l in cord blood). A strong positive correlation between maternal and cord blood Hg levels was found (rho=0.79; P<0.001). Levels of Hg in the cord blood were significantly associated with the number of maternal amalgam fillings (rho=0.46, P<0.001) and with the number of years since the last filling (rho=-0.37, P<0.001); these associations remained significant after adjustment for maternal age and education. Dental amalgam fillings in girls and women of reproductive age should be used with caution, to avoid increased prenatal Hg exposure. PMID:17851449

Palkovicova, Lubica; Ursinyova, Monika; Masanova, Vlasta; Yu, Zhiwei; Hertz-Picciotto, Irva

2007-09-12

258

Maternal Nutrition Knowledge and Children's Diet Quality and Nutrition Intakes.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

We found significant evidence that greater maternal knowledge of health and nutrition leads to better diet quality for preschoolers but not necessarily for school-age children after accounting for the influence of maternal background characteristics, heal...

B. H. Lin J. N. Variyam J. R. Blaylock

1999-01-01

259

The orthopedic approach in infected median sternotomy.  

PubMed

A retrospective review of 10 infected median sternotomies revealed that the management may be difficult and several procedures may be required to obtain a satisfactory result. Repeated curettage was successful in four patients. The cavity created by d ebridement was treated by the temporary insertion of gentamicin beads in one patient and by the Papineau bone grafting procedure in two. In two patients the thoracic cage became unstable as a result of extensive d ebridement and was stabilized successfully by inserting Harrington compression rods. One patient died of mediastinitis. PMID:6722678

Kinnard, P; Tran Van, B; Teijeira, F; Trias, A

1984-05-01

260

Laparoscopic release of median arcuate ligament  

PubMed Central

Median arcuate ligament (MAL) syndrome, also known as the celiac axis compression syndrome, is rare. It is a diagnosis of exclusion, characterised by the clinical triad of postprandial abdominal pain, weight loss and vomiting. Computed tomographic angiography is the gold standard for making the diagnosis of MAL and colour Doppler is essential to confirm the diagnosis. The classic management involves the surgical division of the MAL fibres. We report successful management of two patients diagnosed as MAL syndrome and treated by laparoscopic release of the MAL.

Wani, Sachin; Wakde, Vineet; Patel, Rakesh; Patankar, Roy; Mathur, S K

2012-01-01

261

Electrophysiological findings in entrapment of the median nerve at wrist and elbow  

Microsoft Academic Search

In 117 consecutive patients with carpal tunnel syndrome and 11 patients with a compression syndrome of the median nerve at elbow, motor and sensory conduction along the median and ulnar nerves and quantitative electromyography were compared with findings in 190 normal controls of the same age. In 25% of patients with carpal tunnel syndrome in whom motor conduction and EMG

Fritz Buchthal; Annelise Rosenfalck; Werner Trojaborg

1974-01-01

262

Maternal Sensitivity and Child Responsiveness: Associations with Social Context, Maternal Characteristics, and Child Characteristics in a Multivariate Analysis  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This study examined unique associations of multiple distal context variables (family socioeconomic status [SES], maternal employment, and paternal parenting) and proximal maternal (personality, intelligence, and knowledge; behavior, self-perceptions, and attributions) and child (age, gender, representation, language, and sociability)…

Bornstein, Marc H.; Hendricks, Charlene; Haynes, O. Maurice; Painter, Kathleen M.

2007-01-01

263

The second-language vocabulary trajectories of Turkish immigrant children in Norway from ages five to ten: the role of preschool talk exposure, maternal education, and co-ethnic concentration in the neighborhood.  

PubMed

ABSTRACT Little research has explored how preschools can support children's second-language (L2) vocabulary development. This study keenly followed the progress of twemty-six Turkish immigrant children growing up in Norway from preschool (age five) to fifth grade (age ten). Four different measures of preschool talk exposure (amount and diversity of teacher-led group talk and amount and diversity of peer talk), as well as the demographic variables of maternal education and co-ethnic concentration in the neighborhood, were employed to predict the children's L2 vocabulary trajectories. The results of growth analyses revealed that maternal education was the only variable predicting children's vocabulary growth during the elementary years. However, teacher-led talk, peer talk, and neighborhood predicted children's L2 vocabulary skills at age five, and these differences were maintained up to age ten. This study underscores the importance of both preschool talk exposure (teacher-led talk and peer talk) and demographic factors on L2 learners' vocabulary development. PMID:23442820

Rydland, Veslemøy; Grøver, Vibeke; Lawrence, Joshua

2013-02-26

264

Median and ulnar nerve grafting in children.  

PubMed

A case series of seven children and adolescents who underwent secondary nerve grafting of median or ulnar nerve is presented. The children were evaluated after a mean follow-up of 7 years, using the Disabilities of Arm Shoulder and Hand (DASH) questionnaire and the Rosen-Lundborg outcome scale. The mean DASH outcome was 14.6 and the mean Rosen-Lundborg score was 2.08. A similar study was conducted for comparison in an adult group, with a mean DASH score of 46.3 and Rosen-Lundborg score of 1.3, indicating superior treatment results in children. The treatment outcome after nerve grafting in children did not match, however, to those obtained in the primary suture group. PMID:22186705

Ceynowa, Marcin; Mazurek, Tomasz; Sikora, Tomasz

2012-11-01

265

Lipofibromatous hamartoma of the median nerve  

PubMed Central

Lipofibromatous hamartoma is a rare tumour of peripheral nerves which is characterised by an excessive infiltration of the epineurium and perineurium by fibroadipose tissue. To the best of our knowledge, only approximately 88 cases are reported in the literature. We report a rare case of lipofibromatous hamartoma of the median nerve causing secondary carpal tunnel syndrome in a 25 year old patient. This patient was treated conservatively with decompression and biopsy and experienced a complete resolution of symptoms post-operatively. Magnetic resonance imaging may be used to diagnose this lesion as it has very distinctive characteristics. Multiple conditions have been associated with this lesion and a greater understanding of these associations may clarify the pathogenesis. The architecture of the tumour makes excision very challenging and the surgical management remains controversial. A review of the literature regarding the etiology, pathogenesis and surgical management of lipofibromatous hamartoma is included.

2010-01-01

266

Maternal intake of vitamin D during pregnancy and risk of recurrent wheeze in children a t3yo f age1-3  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Vitamin D deficiency and asthma are common at higher latitudes. Although vitamin D has important immunologic effects, its relation with asthma is unknown. Objective: We hypothesized that a higher maternal intake of vita- min D during pregnancy is associated with a lower risk of recurrent wheeze in children a t3yo fage. Design: The participants were 1194 mother-child pairs in

Carlos A Camargo Jr; Sheryl L Rifas-Shiman; Augusto A Litonjua; Janet W Rich-Edwards; Scott T Weiss; Diane R Gold; Ken Kleinman; Matthew W Gillman

267

Effects of domestic violence on behavior problems of preschool-aged children: Do maternal mental health and parenting mediate the effects?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Using the first four waves of the Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing Study, this article examined the effects of mothers who experienced domestic violence at Year 1 on the externalizing and internalizing behavior problems of children at Year 5 and investigated whether maternal mental health and parenting at Year 3 mediated those effects. Findings from structural equation modeling showed partial

Chien-Chung Huang; Lih-Rong Wang; Corinne Warrener

2010-01-01

268

C57BL/6J male offspring exposed "in utero" and during weaning to a maternal low protein diet have reduced muscle weight by 12 months of age  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Objective: C57BL/6J mice are predisposed to obesity and type 2 diabetes (T2DM) and may be a sensitive model for fetal programming of T2DM. The "maternal low protein diet" (MLP) rat model is well established to study fetal growth restriction effects on programming of T2DM. How data from C57BL/6J mice...

269

Effects of maternal and pre-weaning undernutrition in rat offspring: Age at reproductive senescence and intergenerational pup growth and viability  

EPA Science Inventory

Maternal and/or postnatal undernutrition are widespread in human populations and are components of many experimental developmental and reproductive toxicology bio-assays. This study investigated in utero and/or pre-weaning undernutrition effects on reproductive maturation and se...

270

Persistence of maternal effects in baboons: Mother's dominance rank at son's conception predicts stress hormone levels in subadult males.  

PubMed

Dominance status and reproductive experience are maternal characteristics that affect offspring traits in diverse taxa, including some cercopithecine primates. Maternal effects of this sort are widespread and are sources of variability in offspring fitness. We tested the hypothesis that maternal dominance rank and reproductive experience as well as a male's own age and dominance rank predicted chronic fecal glucocorticoid (fGC) concentrations in 17 subadult wild male baboons, Papio cynocephalus (median age 6.5 years), in the Amboseli basin, Kenya. Among these variables, maternal dominance rank at a subadult male's conception was the sole significant predictor of the male's fGC and accounted for 42% of fGC variance; sons of lower ranking mothers had higher fGC than did those of high-ranking mothers. This result is striking because subadult male baboons are approximately 4-6 years past the period of infant dependence on their mothers, and are larger than and dominant to all adult females. In addition, many males of this age have survived their mothers' death. Consequently, the influence of maternal dominance rank persisted well beyond the stage at which direct maternal influence on sons is likely. Persistence of these major maternal influences from the perinatal period may signal organizational effects of mothers on sons' HPA axis. Although short-term, acute, elevations in GC are part of adaptive responses to challenges such as predators and other emergencies, chronically elevated GC are often associated with stress-related pathologies and, thereby, adverse effects on fitness components. PMID:18448106

Onyango, Patrick Ogola; Gesquiere, Laurence R; Wango, Emmanuel O; Alberts, Susan C; Altmann, Jeanne

2008-03-20

271

The association of maternal ACE A11860G with small for gestational age babies is modulated by the environment and by fetal sex: a multicentre prospective case-control study  

PubMed Central

We aimed to determine whether the ACE A11860G genotype is associated with small for gestational age babies (SGA) and to determine whether the association is affected by environmental factors and fetal sex. Overall, 3234 healthy nulliparous women with singleton pregnancies, their partners and babies were prospectively recruited in Adelaide, Australia and Auckland, New Zealand. Data analyses were confined to 2121 Caucasian parent–infant trios, among which 216 were pregnancies with SGA infants and 1185 were uncomplicated pregnancies. Women with the ACE A11860G GG genotype in the combined and Adelaide cohorts had increased risk for SGA [odds ratios (OR) 1.5, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.1–2.1 and OR 2.0, 95% CI 1.3–3.3, respectively) and delivered lighter babies (P = 0.02; P = 0.007, respectively) compared with those with AA/AG genotypes. The maternal ACE A11860G GG genotype was associated with higher maternal plasma ACE concentration at 15 weeks' gestation than AA/AG genotypes (P < 0.001). When the Adelaide cohort was stratified by maternal socio-economic index (SEI) and pre-pregnancy green leafy vegetable intake, the ACE A11860G GG genotype was only associated with an increased risk for SGA (OR 4.9, 95% CI 1.8–13.4 and OR 3.3, 95% CI 1.6–7.0, respectively) and a reduction in customized birthweight centile (P = 0.006 and P = 0.03) if superimposed on maternal SEI <34 or pre-pregnancy green leafy vegetable intake <1 serve/day. Furthermore, the associations of maternal ACE A11860G with customized birthweight centile observed among Adelaide women with SEI <34 or pre-pregnancy green leafy vegetable intake <1 serve/day were female specific. The current study identified a novel association of maternal ACE A11860G with SGA. More interestingly, this association was modified by environmental factors and fetal sex, suggesting ACE A11860G–environment–fetal sex interactions. Trial Registry Name: Screening nulliparous women to identify the combinations of clinical risk factors and/or biomarkers required to predict pre-eclampsia, SGA babies and spontaneous preterm birth. URL: http://www.anzctr.org.au. Registration number: ACTRN12607000551493.

Zhou, Ang; Dekker, Gustaaf A.; Lumbers, Eugenie R.; Leemaqz, Shalem Y.; Thompson, Steven D.; Heinemann, Gary; McCowan, Lesley M.E.; Roberts, Claire T.

2013-01-01

272

Input variable selection for median flood regionalization  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Flood estimation for ungauged catchments is a challenging task for hydrologists. A modern geographical information system is able to extract a large number of catchment characteristics as input variables for regionalization analysis. Effective and efficient selection of the best input variables is urgently needed in this field. This paper explores a new methodology for selecting the best input variable combination on the basis of the gamma test and leave-one-out cross validation (LOOCV) to estimate the median annual maximum flow (as an index flood). Since the gamma test is capable of efficiently calculating the output variance on the basis of the input without the need to select a model structure type, more effective regionalization models could be developed because there is no need to define an a priori model structure. A case study from 20 catchments in southwest England has been used to illustrate and validate the proposed scheme. It has been found that the gamma test is able to narrow down the search options to be further explored by the LOOCV. The best formula from this approach outperforms the conventional approaches based on cross validation, data filtering with Spearman's rank correlation matrix, and corrected Akaike information criterion. In addition, the developed formula is significantly more accurate than the existing equation used in the Flood Estimation Handbook.

Wan Jaafar, W. Z.; Liu, J.; Han, D.

2011-07-01

273

Toddlers' food preferences. The impact of novel food exposure, maternal preferences and food neophobia.  

PubMed

Food preferences have been identified as a key determinant of children's food acceptance and consumption. The aim of this study was to identify factors that influence children's liking for fruits, vegetables and non-core foods. Participants were Australian mothers (median age at delivery=31years, 18-46years) and their two-year-old children (M=24months, SD=1month; 52% female) allocated to the control group (N=245) of the NOURISH RCT. The effects of repeated exposure to new foods, maternal food preferences and child food neophobia on toddlers' liking of vegetables, fruits and non-core foods and the proportion never tried were examined via hierarchical regression models; adjusting for key maternal (age, BMI, education) and child covariates (birth weight Z-score, gender), duration of breastfeeding and age of introduction to solids. Maternal preferences corresponded with child preferences. Food neophobia among toddlers was associated with liking fewer vegetables and fruits, and trying fewer vegetables. Number of repeated exposures to new food was not significantly associated with food liking at this age. Results highlight the need to: (i) encourage parents to offer a wide range of foods, regardless of their own food preferences, and (ii) provide parents with guidance on managing food neophobia. PMID:22940687

Howard, Anika J; Mallan, Kimberley M; Byrne, Rebecca; Magarey, Anthea; Daniels, Lynne A

2012-08-29

274

New systolic array architecture for vector median filters  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In digital image and audio processing, the scalar median filter is very effective in removing impulse noise and preserves the edge in the signal. Neuvo extended the scalar median and introduced vector median, which processes the vector signal. Since the vector median utilizes the correlation between different components, it is better than componentwise scalar median for color image processing. In this paper, a new systolic array architecture for computing the vector median of a series of vector signals is proposed. In pipeline processing of a sequence of vector signals it can output a vector median every clock with clock time just about computing one multiplication.

Chang, Long-Wen

1998-12-01

275

Metabolizing enzyme localization and activities in the first trimester human placenta: the effect of maternal and gestational age, smoking and alcohol consumption  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: The rationale for this study was to assess the expression, activity and localization of the enzymes uridine diphosphate glucuronosyltransferase (UGT), ?-glucuronidase, cytochrome P450 1A (CYP1A) and cytochrome P450 2E1 (CYP2E1) in first trimester human placenta and to gauge the effects of maternal variables on placental metabolism. METHODS: CYP1A, CYP2E1, UGT and ?-glucuronidase activities were assessed in 25 placentas using

Abby C. Collier; Malcolm D. Tingle; James W. Paxton; Murray D. Mitchell; Jeffrey A. Keelan

276

Does maternal concern about children's weight affect children's body size perception at the age of 6.5?—A community-based study  

Microsoft Academic Search

ObjectiveThough overweight is often established by school entry, not all mothers of such children report weight concerns. Enhancing concern might assist lifestyle change, but could lead to child body dissatisfaction. We investigated (i) perceived\\/desired body size and body dissatisfaction in mothers and their 6.5-year-old children, and (ii) the impact of earlier maternal concern about overweight on children's body mass index

R Mitchell; M Wake; L Canterford; J Williams

2008-01-01

277

Is maternal separation anxiety associated with school readiness?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background. Increasing rates of maternal employment highlight the need for non-maternal child care for infants at an earlier age. Several studies have shown that employment induced maternal depression or psychological distress is associated with the child's socio-emotional and cognitive development. However, separation anxiety, a common phenomenon observed among employed mothers during early years, has seldom been studied. Therefore, the purpose

Meenal J Sawant

2009-01-01

278

Effect of Maternal Hydration on Fetal Renal Pyelectasis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To assess the effect of maternal hydration on fetal pyelectasis.Methods: Thirteen pregnant women with fetal pyelectasis and 13 controls matched for gestational age were recruited during the same period. Ultrasound and Doppler studies and maternal urine specific gravity measurements were carried out before and after maternal oral hydration. The data were analyzed by either a two- or three-factor analysis

J. N Robinson; K Tice; P Kolm; A. Z Abuhamad

1998-01-01

279

Neonatal-maternal factors and perfluoroalkyl substances in cord blood.  

PubMed

Perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) can cross the placenta, enter fetal circulation, and were found to correlate with adverse fetal growth. However, determinants of cord blood PFASs are not fully characterized. The study aimed to explore the association between PFASs and neonatal-maternal factors within a Taiwanese birth cohort. We selected subjects from Taiwan Birth Panel Study, which enrolled 486 infant-mother pairs in 2004-2005. We collected cord blood and analyzed perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), perfluorooctanyl sulfonate (PFOS), perfluorononanoic acid (PFNA) and perfluoroundecanoic acid (PFUA) using a simple protein precipitation and an ultra-high performance liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry. We retrieved information pertaining to maternal socio-demographics, lifestyle- and dietary-related factors through structured questionnaires during the postpartum hospital stay. A total of 439 subjects, with 90% response rate, have completed serum analysis and questionnaire survey. The median concentrations for PFOA, PFOS, PFNA, and PFUA in cord blood were 1.86, 5.67, 3.00, and 13.5ngmL(-1), respectively. After adjusting for potential confounders, multiple linear regression models revealed that log10-PFOA was positively associated with maternal age (?=0.011) and negatively associated with multiparity (?=-0.044). Log10-PFOS was negatively correlated with birth weight (?=-0.011) and higher maternal education (senior high school: ?=-0.067; university: ?=-0.088). Log10-PFUA tended to negatively associate with gender, male infants (?=-0.075), and using cosmetics during pregnancy (?=-0.065). Interestingly, presence of cockroaches in the home was positively associated with log10-PFOA (?=0.041) and 1og10-PFNA (?=0.123). In conclusion, this study demonstrated several factors to correlate with cord blood PFASs and further investigation are still needed for confirmation of exposure routes. PMID:23689097

Lien, Guang-Wen; Huang, Ching-Chun; Wu, Kuen-Yuh; Chen, Mei-Huei; Lin, Chien-Yu; Chen, Chia-Yang; Hsieh, Wu-Shiun; Chen, Pau-Chung

2013-05-18

280

Maternal mortality due to violence  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objectives were to investigate the death of women by violent injuries, including induced abortion, in the Province of Córdoba, Argentina, 1992–1996 and to perform a bibliographic review on maternal death due to violence. Reports of autopsies of all violent deaths in women aged 12–44 years were reviewed to determine the cause of death for cases of suicide, homicide, accident

R. G. Rizzi; R. Ruiz Córdoba; J. J. Maguna

1998-01-01

281

Infant Outcomes After Maternal Antiretroviral Exposure in Resource-Limited Settings  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: The impact of maternal antiretrovirals (ARVs) during pregnancy, labor, and postpartum on infant outcomes is unclear. METHODS: Infants born to HIV-infected mothers in ARV studies were followed for 18 months. RESULTS: Between June 2006 and December 2008, 236 infants enrolled from Africa (n = 36), India (n = 47), Thailand (n = 152), and Brazil (n = 1). Exposure to ARVs in pregnancy included ?3 ARVs (10%), zidovudine/intrapartum ARV (81%), and intrapartum ARV (9%). There were 4 infant infections (1 in utero, 3 late postpartum) and 4 deaths with 1.8% mortality (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.1%–3.5%) and 96.4% HIV-1–free survival (95% CI, 94.0%–98.9%). Birth weight was ?2.5 kg in 86%. In the first 6 months, Indian infants (nonbreastfed) had lowest median weights and lengths and smallest increases in growth. After 6 months, African infants had the lowest median weight and weight-for-age z scores. Infants exposed to highest maternal viral load had the lowest height and height-for-age z scores. Serious adverse events occurred in 38% of infants, did not differ by country, and correlated with less maternal ARV exposure. Clinical diagnoses were seen in 84% of Thai, 31% of African, and 9% of Indian infants. Congenital defects/inborn errors of metabolism were seen in 18 (7.6%) infants, of which 17 were Thai (11%: 95% CI, 6.7%–17.0%); none had first trimester ARV exposure. CONCLUSIONS: Infant follow-up in large international cohorts is feasible and provides important safety and HIV transmission data following maternal ARV exposure. Increased surveillance increases identification of congenital/inborn errors.

Komarow, Lauren; Cu-Uvin, Susan; Jourdain, Gonzague; Klingman, Karin L.; Shapiro, David E.; Mofenson, Lynne; Moran, Laura; Campbell, Thomas B.; Hitti, Jane; Fiscus, Susan; Currier, Judith

2012-01-01

282

Development of maternal identity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Reva Rubin suggested in her theoretical framework that developmental tasks were necessary for a woman to achieve maternal identity post partum. Rubin defined maternal identity as the woman's internal sense of competence in the maternal role and her knowledge of her infant. If measures of pregnancy developmental tasks could predict maternal identity such measures would be helpful in determining women

Sharon Lynn Dore

2001-01-01

283

The Influence of Maternal Body Mass Index on Myometrial Oxytocin Receptor Expression in Pregnancy.  

PubMed

Obese pregnant women have higher rates of dysfunctional labor patterns, need for oxytocin augmentation, labor induction, postdates pregnancy, and cesarean delivery compared to normal weight pregnant women. We tested the hypothesis that myometrial oxytocin receptor (OXTR) gene and protein expression are affected by obesity in pregnancy. Myometrial samples were obtained at the time of cesarean delivery from the upper aspect of the uterine hysterotomy incision and processed for real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction and Western blot. There were 63 myometrial samples available for analysis. The median body mass index (BMI) at delivery was 31.0 kg/m(2) (interquartile range, 26.0, 40.0 kg/m(2)), and the median gestational age at delivery was 38.0 weeks (interquartile range, 33.0, 39.1 weeks). The OXTR gene expression did not correlate with maternal BMI at delivery by linear regression, and the median OXTR gene expression did not differ between women with a BMI ? 30 kg/m(2) and those with a BMI ? 40 kg/m(2). The OXTR protein expression was also not affected by maternal BMI. Myometrial OXTR gene expression appears to be independent of BMI at the time of delivery. Dysfunctional labor patterns and increased oxytocin utilization seen in obese women may not be due to differences in OXTR expression, though functional studies are required. PMID:23653389

Grotegut, Chad A; Gunatilake, Ravindu P; Feng, Liping; Heine, R Phillips; Murtha, Amy P

2013-05-01

284

Nature, nurture or nutrition? Impact of maternal nutrition on maternal care, offspring development and reproductive function.  

PubMed

We have previously reported that offspring of mothers fed a high fat (HF) diet during pregnancy and lactation enter puberty early and are hyperleptinaemic, hyperinsulinaemic and obese as adults. Poor maternal care and bonding can also impact offspring development and disease risk.We therefore hypothesized that prenatal nutrition would affect maternal care and that an interaction may exist between a maternal HF diet and maternal care, subsequently impacting on offspring phenotype.Wistar rats were mated and randomized to control dams fed a control diet (CON) or dams fed a HF diet from conception until the end of lactation (HF). Maternal care was assessed by observing maternal licking and grooming of pups between postnatal day (P)3 and P8. Postweaning (P22), offspring were fed a control (–con) or HF (–hf) diet. From P27, pubertal onset was assessed. At ?P105 oestrous cyclicity was investigated. Maternal HF diet reduced maternal care; HF-fed mothers licked and groomed pups less than CON dams.Maternal fat:lean ratio was higher in HF dams at weaning and was associated with higher maternal plasma leptin and insulin concentrations, but there was no effect of maternal care on fat:lean ratio or maternal hormone levels. Both female and male offspring of HF dams were lighter from birth to P11 than offspring of CON dams, but by P19, HF offspring were heavier than controls. Prepubertal retroperitoneal fat mass was greater in pups from HF-fed dams compared to CON and was associated with elevated circulating leptin concentrations in females only, but there was neither an effect of maternal care, nor an interaction between maternal diet and care on prepubertal fat mass. Pups from HF-fed dams went into puberty early and this effect was exacerbated by a postweaning HF diet.Maternal and postweaning HF diets independently altered oestrous cyclicity in females: female offspring of HF-fed mothers were more likely to have prolonged or persistent oestrus, whilst female offspring fed a HF diet postweaning were more likely to have irregular oestrous cycles and were more likely to have prolonged or persistent oestrus. These data indicate that maternal HF nutrition during pregnancy and lactation results in a maternal obese phenotype and has significant impact on maternal care during lactation. Maternal and postweaning nutritional signals, independent of maternal care, alter offspring body fat pre-puberty and female reproductive function in adulthood, which may be associated with advanced ovarian ageing and altered fertility. PMID:22411006

Connor, K L; Vickers, M H; Beltrand, J; Meaney, M J; Sloboda, D M

2012-03-12

285

DYSREGULATION OF MATERNAL SERUM ADIPONECTIN IN PRETERM LABOR  

PubMed Central

Objective Intra-amniotic and systemic infection/inflammation have been causally linked to preterm parturition and fetal injury. An emerging theme is that adipose tissue can orchestrate a metabolic response to insults, but also an inflammatory response via the production of adipocytokines, and that these two phenomenon are interrelated. Adiponectin, an insulin-sensitizing, anti-inflammatory adipocytokine, circulates in multimeric complexes including low-molecular-weight (LMW) trimers, medium-molecular-weight (MMW) hexamers and high-molecular-weight (HMW) isoforms. Each of these complexes can exert differential biological effects. The aim of this study was to determine whether spontaneous preterm labor (PTL) with intact membranes and intra-amniotic infection/inflammation (IAI) is associated with changes in maternal serum circulating adiponectin multimers. Study design This cross-sectional study included patients in the following groups: 1) normal pregnant women (n=158); 2) patients with an episode of preterm labor and intact membranes without IAI who delivered at term (n=41); 3) preterm labor without IAI who delivered preterm (n=27); and 4) preterm labor with IAI who delivered preterm (n=36). Serum adiponectin multimers (total, HMW, MMW and LMW) concentrations were determined by ELISA. Non-parametric statistics were used for analyses. Results 1) Preterm labor leading to preterm delivery or an episode of preterm labor which does not lead to preterm delivery, was associated with a lower median maternal serum concentration of total and HMW adiponectin, a lower median HMW/total adiponectin ratio, and a higher median LMW/total adiponectin ratio than normal pregnancy; 2) among patients with preterm labor, those with IAI had the lowest median concentration of total and HMW adiponectin, as well as the lowest median HMW/total adiponectin ratio; 3) The changes in maternal adiponectin and adiponectin multimers remained significant after adjusting for confounding factors such as maternal age, BMI, gestational age at sampling, and parity. Conclusion 1) Preterm labor is characterized by a change in the profile of adiponectin multimers concentrations and their relative isoforms. These changes were observed in patients with an episode of preterm labor not leading to preterm delivery, in patients with intra-amniotic inflammation, or in those without evidence of intra-amniotic inflammation; 2) The changes in adiponectin multimer concentrations reported in preterm labor are different from those previously reported in spontaneous labor at term, suggesting that there is a fundamental difference between preterm labor and labor at term; 3) The findings reported herein, provide the first evidence for the participation of adiponectin multimer in preterm parturition. We propose that adiponectins and adipokines in general provide a mechanism to organize the metabolic demands generated by the process of preterm parturition regardless of the nature of the insult (intra-amniotic inflammation or not).

Mazaki-Tovi, Shali; Romero, Roberto; Vaisbuch, Edi; Erez, Offer; Mittal, Pooja; Chaiworapongsa, Tinnakorn; Kim, Sun Kwon; Pacora, Percy; Yeo, Lami; Gotsch, Francesca; Dong, Zhong; Nhan-Chang, Chia-Ling; Jodicke, Cristiano; Yoon, Bo Hyun; Hassan, Sonia S.; Kusanovic, Juan Pedro

2013-01-01

286

Effect of maternal hydration on the increase of amniotic fluid index.  

PubMed

The objective of this study was to determine the effect of maternal hydration with oral isotonic solution and water on the amniotic fluid (AF) index of women with normohydramnios. Women with a normal AF index and gestational age between 33 and 36 weeks without maternal complications were randomized into three groups [isotonic solution (Gatorade(®)), water, control]. The isotonic solution and water groups were instructed to drink 1.5 L of the respective solution and the control group was instructed to drink 200 mL water over a period of 2 to 4 h. AF index was measured before and after hydration by Doppler ultrasonography. The investigator performing the AF index measurement was blind to the subject's group. Ninety-nine women completed the study without any adverse maternal effects. The median increase in AF index after hydration was significantly greater for the isotonic solution and water groups than for the control group. There was no significant difference between the isotonic solution and water groups. Hydration with isotonic solution and water caused a 10-fold (95%CI: 2.09-49.89) and 6-fold (95%CI: 1.16-30.95) increase in the chance of a 20% increase of AF index, respectively. Maternal hydration with isotonic solution or water increased the AF index in women with normohydramnios. PMID:21271182

Borges, V T M; Rososchansky, J; Abbade, J F; Dias, A; Peraçoli, J C; Rudge, M V C

2011-01-21

287

Prenatal Maternal Stress Programs Infant Stress Regulation  

PubMed Central

Objective Prenatal exposure to inappropriate levels of glucocorticoids and maternal stress are putative mechanisms for the fetal programming of later health outcomes. The current investigation examined the influence of prenatal maternal cortisol and maternal psychosocial stress on infant physiological and behavioral responses to stress. Methods The study sample comprised 116 women and their full term infants. Maternal plasma cortisol and report of stress, anxiety and depression were assessed at 15, 19, 25, 31 and 36+ weeks’ gestational age. Infant cortisol and behavioral responses to the painful stress of a heel-stick blood draw were evaluated at 24 hours after birth. The association between prenatal maternal measures and infant cortisol and behavioral stress responses was examined using hierarchical linear growth curve modeling. Results A larger infant cortisol response to the heel-stick procedure was associated with exposure to elevated concentrations of maternal cortisol during the late second and third trimesters. Additionally, a slower rate of behavioral recovery from the painful stress of a heel-stick blood draw was predicted by elevated levels of maternal cortisol early in pregnancy as well as prenatal maternal psychosocial stress throughout gestation. These associations could not be explained by mode of delivery, prenatal medical history, socioeconomic status or child race, sex or birth order. Conclusions These data suggest that exposure to maternal cortisol and psychosocial stress exert programming influences on the developing fetus with consequences for infant stress regulation.

Davis, Elysia Poggi; Glynn, Laura M.; Waffarn, Feizal; Sandman, Curt A.

2010-01-01

288

Trajectories of Maternal Depressive Symptoms, Maternal Sensitivity, and Children's Functioning at School Entry  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Using data from the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development Study of Early Child Care and Youth Development, the authors modeled trajectories of maternal depressive symptoms from infant age 1 month to 7 years. The authors identified 6 trajectories of maternal depressive symptoms: high-chronic, moderate-increasing,…

Campbell, Susan B.; Matestic, Patricia; von Stauffenberg, Camilla; Mohan, Roli; Kirchner, Thomas

2007-01-01

289

The Relations among Maternal Depressive Disorder, Maternal Expressed Emotion, and Toddler Behavior Problems and Attachment  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Direct and indirect relations among maternal depression, maternal Expressed Emotion (EE: Self- and Child-Criticism), child internalizing and externalizing symptoms, and child attachment were examined. Participants were mothers with depression (n = 130) and comparison mothers (n = 68) and their toddlers (M age = 20 mo.; 53% male). Assessments…

Gravener, Julie A.; Rogosch, Fred A.; Oshri, Assaf; Narayan, Angela J.; Cicchetti, Dante; Toth, Sheree L.

2012-01-01

290

Maternal Psychopathology and Infant Development at 18 Months: The Impact of Maternal Personality Disorder and Depression  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: No previous longitudinal study has examined the impact of comorbid maternal personality disorder (PD) and depression on child development. We set out to examine whether maternal PD and depression assessed at 2 months post partum would be independently associated with adverse developmental outcomes at 18 months of age. Method: Women were…

Conroy, Susan; Pariante, Carmine M.; Marks, Maureen N.; Davies, Helen A.; Farrelly, Simone; Schacht, Robin; Moran, Paul

2012-01-01

291

Current and Past Maternal Depression, Maternal Interaction Behaviors, and Children's Externalizing and Internalizing Symptoms  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Relations among past maternal depressive disorder, current depressive symptoms, current maternal interaction behaviors, and children's adjustment were examined in a sample of 204 women and their young adolescent offspring (mean age = 11.86, SD = 0.55). Mothers either had (n = 157) or had not (n = 57) experienced at least one depressive disorder…

Foster, Cynthia J. Ewell; Garber, Judy; Durlak, Joseph A.

2008-01-01

292

The Relations among Maternal Depressive Disorder, Maternal Expressed Emotion, and Toddler Behavior Problems and Attachment  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Direct and indirect relations among maternal depression, maternal Expressed Emotion (EE: Self- and Child-Criticism), child internalizing and externalizing symptoms, and child attachment were examined. Participants were mothers with depression (n = 130) and comparison mothers (n = 68) and their toddlers (M age = 20 mo.; 53% male). Assessments…

Gravener, Julie A.; Rogosch, Fred A.; Oshri, Assaf; Narayan, Angela J.; Cicchetti, Dante; Toth, Sheree L.

2012-01-01

293

Maternal Psychopathology and Infant Development at 18 Months: The Impact of Maternal Personality Disorder and Depression  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Objective: No previous longitudinal study has examined the impact of comorbid maternal personality disorder (PD) and depression on child development. We set out to examine whether maternal PD and depression assessed at 2 months post partum would be independently associated with adverse developmental outcomes at 18 months of age. Method: Women…

Conroy, Susan; Pariante, Carmine M.; Marks, Maureen N.; Davies, Helen A.; Farrelly, Simone; Schacht, Robin; Moran, Paul

2012-01-01

294

Trajectories of Maternal Depressive Symptoms, Maternal Sensitivity, and Children's Functioning at School Entry  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Using data from the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development Study of Early Child Care and Youth Development, the authors modeled trajectories of maternal depressive symptoms from infant age 1 month to 7 years. The authors identified 6 trajectories of maternal depressive symptoms: high-chronic, moderate-increasing, high-decreasing,…

Campbell, Susan B.; Matestic, Patricia; von Stauffenberg, Camilla; Mohan, Roli; Kirchner, Thomas

2007-01-01

295

Current and Past Maternal Depression, Maternal Interaction Behaviors, and Children's Externalizing and Internalizing Symptoms  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Relations among past maternal depressive disorder, current depressive symptoms, current maternal interaction behaviors, and children's adjustment were examined in a sample of 204 women and their young adolescent offspring (mean age = 11.86, SD = 0.55). Mothers either had (n = 157) or had not (n = 57) experienced at least one depressive disorder…

Foster, Cynthia J. Ewell; Garber, Judy; Durlak, Joseph A.

2008-01-01

296

Maternal Sensitivity in a Developing Society: The Context of Urban Poverty and Infant Chronic Undernutrition  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study focuses on young children's chronic undernutrition and its association with maternal sensitivity, sociodemographic variables, children's play, and problem-solving measures. Data were obtained with home observations and laboratory procedures on 85 mothers and infants (M age = 18 months) in a low-income urban population in Santiago, Chile. Maternal sensitivity was correlated with maternal education, maternal weight, and marital satisfaction.

Marta Valenzuela

1997-01-01

297

Relationship Between Maternal Behavior During Pregnancy, Birth Outcome, and Early Childhood Development: An Exploratory Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examines the relationship between maternal behavior during pregnancy, birth outcomes, and early childhood development. Specifically, in the context of four measures of maternal behavior during pregnancy (maternal smoking, drinking, prenatal care, and maternal weight gain), three measures of birth outcome (gestational age, birth length, and birth weight), and 32 exogenous covariates observed during pregnancy, we investigate the importance

Kai Li; Dale J. Poirier

2003-01-01

298

Wheelchair pushrim kinetics: Body weight and median nerve function  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives: Individuals who use manual wheelchairs are at high risk for median nerve injury and subsequent carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS). To gain a better understanding of the mechanism behind CTS in manual wheelchair users, this study examined the relation between (1) pushrim biomechanics and function of the median nerve, (2) pushrim biomechanics and subject characteristics, and (3) median nerve function

Michael L. Boninger; Rory A. Cooper; Mark A. Baldwin; Sean D. Shimada; Alicia Koontz

1999-01-01

299

Bimodal issues, the median voter model, Legislator's ideology, and abortion  

Microsoft Academic Search

The median voter model is widely used in the public choice literature to explain legislator's behavior. According to the model, if voter preferences are unimodal, a vote-maximizing legislator should mirror the position of the median voter. However, the median voter model has not been tested on bimodal issues. This paper fills this critical void by empirically testing the applicability of

Marshall H. Medoff; Christopher Dennis; Benjamin G. Bishin

1995-01-01

300

On Asymptotic Efficiency and Robustness of Multivariate Medians  

Microsoft Academic Search

Univariate median is a well-known location estimator, which is p n-consistent, asymptotically Gaussian and affine equivariant. It is also a robust estimator of location with the highest asymptotic break- down point (50%). While there are several versions of multivariate median proposed and extensively studied in the literature, many of those statistical properties of univariate median fail to hold for some

Subhra Sankar Dhar; Probal Chaudhuri

301

Cognitive and motor skills in school-aged children following maternal vitamin A supplementation during pregnancy in rural Nepal: a follow-up of a placebo-controlled, randomised cohort  

PubMed Central

Objective To determine the effects of maternal vitamin A supplementation from preconception through postpartum on cognitive and motor development of children at 10–13?years of age in rural Nepal. Design Follow-up assessment of children born to women randomly assigned by a village to receive either supplemental vitamin A (7000?µg retinol equivalents) or placebo weekly during a continuous 3.5-year period from 1994–1997. The participants came from 12 wards, a subset of 270 wards in the original trial. Trained staff tested children for cognition by the Universal Nonverbal Intelligence Test (UNIT) and motor ability using four subtests from the Movement Assessment Battery for Children (MABC). Data on schooling, home environment and nutritional and socioeconomic status were also collected. Setting Southern plains district of Sarlahi, Nepal. Participants 390 Nepalese children 10–13?years of age. Main outcome measures Raw scores on UNIT and square-root transformed scores on an abridged version of the MABC tests, expressed as cluster-summarised (mean±SD) values to account for the design of the original trial. Results There were no differences in UNIT (79.61±5.99 vs 80.69±6.71) or MABC (2.64±0.07 vs 2.49±0.09) test scores in children whose mothers were exposed to vitamin A vs placebo (mean differences: ?1.07, 95% CI ?7.10 to 9.26, p=0.78; 0.15, 95% CI 0.43 to ?0.08, p=0.15), respectively. More children in the placebo group had repeated a grade in school (28% of placebo vs 16.7% of vitamin A, p=0.01). Conclusions Preconceptional to postpartum maternal vitamin A supplementation, in an undernourished setting, does not improve cognition or motor development at ages 10–13?years.

Buckley, Gillian J; Murray-Kolb, Laura E; Khatry, Subarna K; LeClerq, Steven C; Wu, Lee; West, Keith P; Christian, Parul

2013-01-01

302

A Conceptual Model for Maternal Behavior Among Polydrug Cocaine-Using Mothers: The Role of Postnatal Cocaine Use and Maternal Depression  

PubMed Central

This study examined the association between maternal cocaine use and maternal behavior and tested a conceptual model predicting maternal insensitivity during mother–infant interactions. Participants included 130 mother–infant dyads (68 cocaine-exposed and 62 noncocaine-exposed) who were recruited after birth and assessed at 4–8 weeks of infant age. Results of model testing indicated that when the effects of prenatal cocaine use were examined in the context of polydrug use, maternal psychopathology, maternal childhood history, and infant birth weight, only postnatal cocaine use and maternal depression/anxiety were unique predictors of maternal insensitivity during mother–infant interactions.

Eiden, Rina D.; Stevens, Arianne; Schuetze, Pamela; Dombkowski, Laura E.

2011-01-01

303

Maternal anxiety and infants' hippocampal development: timing matters  

PubMed Central

Exposure to maternal anxiety predicts offspring brain development. However, because children's brains are commonly assessed years after birth, the timing of such maternal influences in humans is unclear. This study aimed to examine the consequences of antenatal and postnatal exposure to maternal anxiety upon early infant development of the hippocampus, a key structure for stress regulation. A total of 175 neonates underwent magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) at birth and among them 35 had repeated scans at 6 months of age. Maternal anxiety was assessed using the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI) at week 26 of pregnancy and 3 months after delivery. Regression analyses showed that antenatal maternal anxiety did not influence bilateral hippocampal volume at birth. However, children of mothers reporting increased anxiety during pregnancy showed slower growth of both the left and right hippocampus over the first 6 months of life. This effect of antenatal maternal anxiety upon right hippocampal growth became statistically stronger when controlling for postnatal maternal anxiety. Furthermore, a strong positive association between postnatal maternal anxiety and right hippocampal growth was detected, whereas a strong negative association between postnatal maternal anxiety and the left hippocampal volume at 6 months of life was found. Hence, the postnatal growth of bilateral hippocampi shows distinct responses to postnatal maternal anxiety. The size of the left hippocampus during early development is likely to reflect the influence of the exposure to perinatal maternal anxiety, whereas right hippocampal growth is constrained by antenatal maternal anxiety, but enhanced in response to increased postnatal maternal anxiety.

Qiu, A; Rifkin-Graboi, A; Chen, H; Chong, Y-S; Kwek, K; Gluckman, P D; Fortier, M V; Meaney, M J

2013-01-01

304

Maternal anxiety and infants' hippocampal development: timing matters.  

PubMed

Exposure to maternal anxiety predicts offspring brain development. However, because children's brains are commonly assessed years after birth, the timing of such maternal influences in humans is unclear. This study aimed to examine the consequences of antenatal and postnatal exposure to maternal anxiety upon early infant development of the hippocampus, a key structure for stress regulation. A total of 175 neonates underwent magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) at birth and among them 35 had repeated scans at 6 months of age. Maternal anxiety was assessed using the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI) at week 26 of pregnancy and 3 months after delivery. Regression analyses showed that antenatal maternal anxiety did not influence bilateral hippocampal volume at birth. However, children of mothers reporting increased anxiety during pregnancy showed slower growth of both the left and right hippocampus over the first 6 months of life. This effect of antenatal maternal anxiety upon right hippocampal growth became statistically stronger when controlling for postnatal maternal anxiety. Furthermore, a strong positive association between postnatal maternal anxiety and right hippocampal growth was detected, whereas a strong negative association between postnatal maternal anxiety and the left hippocampal volume at 6 months of life was found. Hence, the postnatal growth of bilateral hippocampi shows distinct responses to postnatal maternal anxiety. The size of the left hippocampus during early development is likely to reflect the influence of the exposure to perinatal maternal anxiety, whereas right hippocampal growth is constrained by antenatal maternal anxiety, but enhanced in response to increased postnatal maternal anxiety. PMID:24064710

Qiu, A; Rifkin-Graboi, A; Chen, H; Chong, Y-S; Kwek, K; Gluckman, P D; Fortier, M V; Meaney, M J

2013-09-24

305

Maternal Predictors of Rejecting Parenting and Early Adolescent Antisocial Behavior  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study examined relations among maternal psychological resources, rejecting parenting, and early adolescent antisocial\\u000a behavior in a sample of 231 low-income mothers and their sons with longitudinal assessments from age 18 months to 12 years.\\u000a The maternal resources examined were age at first birth, aggressive personality, and empathy. Each of the maternal resources\\u000a predicted rejecting parenting during early childhood in structural

Christopher J. Trentacosta; Daniel S. Shaw

2008-01-01

306

Maternal vitamin D status during pregnancy and child outcomes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective:To investigate whether exposure to high maternal concentrations of 25(OH)-vitamin D in pregnancy poses any risk to the child.Design:Prospective study.Setting:Princess Anne Maternity Hospital, Southampton, UK.Subjects:A group of 596 pregnant women were recruited. A total of 466 (78%) children were examined at birth, 440 (74%) at age 9 months and 178 (30%) at age 9 years.Methods:Maternal 25 (OH)-vitamin D concentrations were

C R Gale; S M Robinson; N C Harvey; M K Javaid; B Jiang; C N Martyn; K M Godfrey; C Cooper

2008-01-01

307

Maternal age-specific rates of 47,+21 and other cytogenetic abnormalities diagnosed in the first trimester of pregnancy in chorionic villus biopsy specimens: comparison with rates expected from observations at amniocentesis.  

PubMed Central

Results are presented on chromosome analyses made on 4,481 embryos or fetuses studied through chorionic villus sampling (CVS) in whom there was no known bias to presence of a chromosome abnormality except advanced parental age. We excluded from the analysis most cases in which mosaicism was diagnosed or in which there were cytogenetic discrepancies among samples obtained from the conceptus. There remain 48 cases of 47,+21, 39 cases of other nonlethal abnormalities, and 12 lethal abnormalities diagnosed in 4,481 studied. A regression analysis (restricted to the 3,848 cases diagnosed in the 35-49-year maternal age interval) was done on rates of (1) 47,+21, (2) other abnormalities excluding lethals or (3) including them, and (4) all abnormalities excluding lethals or (5) including them. The model used was y = exp(bx + c), where y is the rate of abnormality, x is maternal age at time of CVS (the modal age of the procedure was 10 gestational weeks from the last menstrual period), and b and c were, respectively, (1) 0.288 and -15.527; (2) 0.272 and -15.173; (3) 0.253 and -14.141; (4) 0.282 and -14.753; and (5) 0.271 and -14.195. We also derived rates of abnormalities at the time of CVS that would be predicted from rates (of nonmosaics) at amniocentesis after adjustment for the difference in gestational age between the usual times that these two procedures are done. The difference between the numbers of abnormalities predicted on the basis of these adjusted amniocentesis rates and the numbers observed at CVS provides an estimate of the spontaneous loss of embryos and fetuses between the usual gestational ages of these procedures. In these data, for 47,+21 the estimated proportion lost is 21% but the result is not significant at the .05 level. For other abnormalities excluding lethals the estimated spontaneous loss is 29% (P approximately .05); including lethals it is 44%. For all abnormalities, excluding lethals, pooled together, the estimate is 24%; including lethals it is 33%. The last three values are all significant at the .05 level or lower. The observed rates of abnormalities at CVS would be approximately 10% to 15% higher if one pooled diagnosed mosaics with the nonmosaics, but the estimated proportion of spontaneous fetal loss would be lower.

Hook, E B; Cross, P K; Jackson, L; Pergament, E; Brambati, B

1988-01-01

308

Maternal Mortality and the Consequences on Infant and Child Survival in Rural Haiti  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To determine the odds of death of children when a woman of reproductive age dies from maternal or non maternal causes in\\u000a rural Haiti.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods: Deaths among reproductive aged women between 1997 and 1999 in and around Jeremie, Haiti were classified as maternal or non\\u000a maternal and matched to female, non-deceasesd controls based on village, age, and parity. Information

Frank W. J. Anderson; Sarah U. Morton; Sujata Naik; Bette Gebrian

2007-01-01

309

Maternal Transmission of Alzheimer Disease  

PubMed Central

Some propose maternal Alzheimer disease (1) inheritance. We compared dementia family histories in AD cases and cognitively normal controls. We expected more mothers to have AD in both groups. If maternal risk was not only due to female longevity more AD cases’ than controls’ mothers should be demented. We matched 196 AD cases to 200 controls by gender and age. We obtained parent dementia status and age of death for 348 AD and 319 control parents. 24 (12%) controls’ fathers, 26 (13%) AD patient fathers, 58 (29%) controls’ mothers and 55 (28%) AD mothers had memory difficulty. More mothers than fathers had memory problems in both groups and the statistical significance persisted after adjusting for parent age at death and APOE for controls (OR=2.40, p=0.004) but not cases (OR=1.63, p=0.14), although results are qualitatively similar. There was no evidence of a real difference between the two groups in interaction analysis (p=0.41). Mothers of both cases and controls were more often affected than fathers, even after adjusting for age. Cases’ mothers were no more often demented than controls’ mothers, which does not support the maternal AD transmission. Rather, the increased number of affected mothers relates, at least in part, to female longevity.

Heggeli, Kristin; Crook, Julia; Thomas, Colleen; Graff-Radford, Neill

2012-01-01

310

The Relation Between Maternal Symptoms of Attention-Deficit\\/Hyperactivity Disorder and Mother–Infant Interaction  

Microsoft Academic Search

The relationship between maternal symptoms of attention-deficit\\/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and specific maternal behaviors\\u000a was examined in a community sample of 40 mothers of infants aged 3–8 months. It was hypothesized that maternal ADHD symptoms\\u000a would be related to lower levels of maternal sensitivity, and higher levels of maternal intrusiveness and negative regard.\\u000a Mothers and their infants were observed and video-recorded in

Deborah L. Semple; Eric J. Mash; Jerilyn E. Ninowski; Karen M. Benzies

311

Gabor Feature-Based Face Recognition Using Median MSD  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper introduces a novel Gabor-based median maximum scatter difference (GMMSD) method for face recognition. Maximum scatter difference (MSD) is a recently proposed linear discriminative method for dimensionality reduction. Its theory is similar to linear discriminative analysis (LDA). In this paper, we investigate its extension, called median MSD, in which the within-class mean is replaced with within-class median. The GMMSD

Liu Min

2009-01-01

312

The p-Median Problem: A Survey of Metaheuristic Approaches  

Microsoft Academic Search

The p-median problem, like most location problems, is classifled as NP-hard, and so, heuristic methods are usually used for solving it. The p- median problem is a basic discrete location problem with real application that have been widely used to test heuristics. Metaheuristics are frameworks for building heuristics. In this survey, we examine the p-median, with the aim of providing

Nenad Mladenovic; Jack Brimberg; Pierre Hansen; Jose A. Moreno Perez

2005-01-01

313

Persistent median artery in a pediatric trauma patient: case report.  

PubMed

A persistent median artery is a well-described variation in the vascular anatomy of the upper extremity and hand, with an incidence of 1% to 30% in the general population. We present a case of a persistent median artery in a pediatric trauma patient. The median artery helped maintain blood flow to the nearly amputated hand after complete transection of radial and ulnar arteries. PMID:21463728

Muratore, Timothy; Ozer, Kagan

2011-04-01

314

Sudden expansion of a single brown bear maternal lineage across northern continental Eurasia after the last ice age: a general demographic model for mammals?  

PubMed

The brown bear has proved a useful model for studying Late Quaternary mammalian phylogeography. However, information is lacking from northern continental Eurasia, which constitutes a large part of the species' current distribution. We analysed mitochondrial DNA sequences (totalling 1943 bp) from 205 bears from northeast Europe and Russia in order to characterize the maternal phylogeography of bears in this region. We also estimated the formation times of the sampled brown bear lineages and those of its extinct relative, the cave bear. Four closely related haplogroups belonging to a single mitochondrial subclade were identified in northern continental Eurasia. Several haplotypes were found throughout the whole study area, while one haplogroup was restricted to Kamchatka. The haplotype network, estimated divergence times and various statistical tests indicated that bears in northern continental Eurasia recently underwent a sudden expansion, preceded by a severe bottleneck. This brown bear population was therefore most likely founded by a small number of bears that were restricted to a single refuge area during the last glacial maximum. This pattern has been described previously for other mammal species and as such may represent one general model for the phylogeography of Eurasian mammals. Bayesian divergence time estimates are presented for different brown and cave bear clades. Moreover, our results demonstrate the extent of substitution rate variation occurring throughout the phylogenetic tree, highlighting the need for appropriate calibration when estimating divergence times. PMID:19434812

Korsten, Marju; Ho, Simon Y W; Davison, John; Pähn, Berit; Vulla, Egle; Roht, Maris; Tumanov, Igor L; Kojola, Ilpo; Andersone-Lilley, Zanete; Ozolins, Janis; Pilot, Malgorzata; Mertzanis, Yorgos; Giannakopoulos, Alexios; Vorobiev, Alex A; Markov, Nikolai I; Saveljev, Alexander P; Lyapunova, Elena A; Abramov, Alexei V; Männil, Peep; Valdmann, Harri; Pazetnov, Sergei V; Pazetnov, Valentin S; Rõkov, Alexander M; Saarma, Urmas

2009-05-01

315

Maternal Postpartum Distress and Childhood Overweight  

Microsoft Academic Search

ObjectiveWe investigated associations between maternal postpartum distress covering anxiety, depression and stress and childhood overweight.MethodsWe performed a prospective cohort study, including 21 121 mother-child-dyads from the Danish National Birth Cohort (DNBC). Maternal distress was measured 6 months postpartum by 9 items covering anxiety, depression and stress. Outcome was childhood overweight at 7-years-of age. Multiple logistic regression analyses were performed and

Teresa A. Ajslev; Camilla S. Andersen; Katja G. Ingstrup; Ellen A. Nohr; Thorkild I. A. Sørensen; Ian Lanza

2010-01-01

316

Responses to pain in school-aged children with experience in a neonatal intensive care unit: Cognitive aspects and maternal influences  

Microsoft Academic Search

Previously, it was shown that school-aged (9–14yr) preterm and fullterm children with neonatal pain exposure exhibit elevated heat pain thresholds and heightened perceptual sensitization to tonic painful heat when tested under standard conditions [Hermann C, Hohmeister J, Demirakca S, Zohsel K, Flor H. Long-term alteration of pain sensitivity in school-aged children with early pain experiences. Pain 2006;125:278–85]. Here, changes in

Johanna Hohmeister; Süha Demirakça; Katrin Zohsel; Herta Flor; Christiane Hermann

2009-01-01

317

Pentraxin 3 in maternal circulation: an association with preterm labor and preterm PROM, but not with intra-amniotic infection/inflammation  

PubMed Central

Objective Pentraxin 3 (PTX3) is an acute-phase protein that has an important role in the regulation of the innate immune response. The aim of this study was to determine if maternal plasma PTX3 concentration changes in the presence of intra-amniotic infection and/or inflammation (IAI) in women with preterm labor (PTL) and intact membranes as well as those with preterm prelabor rupture of membranes (preterm PROM). Study design This cross-sectional study included women in the following groups: 1) non-pregnant (n=40); 2) uncomplicated pregnancies in the first (n=22), second (n=22) or third (n=71, including 50 women at term not in labor) trimester; 3) uncomplicated pregnancies at term with spontaneous labor (n=49); 4) PTL and intact membranes who delivered at term (n=49); 5) PTL without IAI who delivered preterm (n=26); 6) PTL with IAI (n=65); 7) preterm PROM without IAI (n=25); and 8) preterm PROM with IAI (n=77). Maternal plasma PTX3 concentrations were determined by ELISA. Results 1) Maternal plasma PTX3 concentrations increased with advancing gestational age (r= 0.62, p<0.001); 2) women at term with spontaneous labor had a higher median plasma PTX3 concentration than those at term not in labor (8.29 ng/mL vs. 5.98 ng/mL, p=0.013); 3) Patients with an episode of PTL, regardless of the presence or absence of IAI and whether these patients delivered preterm or at term, had a higher median plasma PTX3 concentration than normal pregnant women (p<0.001 for all comparisons); 4) Similarly, patients with preterm PROM, with or without IAI had a higher median plasma PTX3 concentration than normal pregnant women (p<0.001 for both comparisons); and 5) Among patients with PTL and those with preterm PROM, IAI was not associated with significant changes in the median maternal plasma PTX3 concentrations. Conclusions The maternal plasma PTX3 concentration increases with advancing gestational age and is significantly elevated during labor at term and in the presence of spontaneous preterm labor or preterm PROM. These findings could not be explained by the presence of IAI, suggesting that the increased PTX3 concentration is part of the physiologic or pathologic activation of the pro-inflammatory response in the maternal circulation during the process of labor at term or preterm.

Cruciani, Laura; Romero, Roberto; Vaisbuch, Edi; Kusanovic, Juan Pedro; Chaiworapongsa, Tinnakorn; Mazaki-Tovi, Shali; Dong, Zhong; Kim, Sun Kwon; Ogge, Giovanna; Yeo, Lami; Mittal, Pooja; Hassan, Sonia S.

2012-01-01

318

A new impulse detector for switching median filters  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new impulse noise detection technique for switching median filters is presented, which is based on the minimum absolute value of four convolutions obtained using one-dimensional Laplacian operators. Extensive simulations show that the proposed filter provides better performance than many of the existing switching median filters with comparable computational complexity. In particular, the proposed filter is directed toward improved line

Shuqun Zhang; Mohammad A. Karim

2002-01-01

319

Electoral Systems and District Magnitude: beyond the Median  

Microsoft Academic Search

Next to the electoral formula, district magnitude is perhaps the most important component defining an electoral system. Since within most electoral systems districts vary in their magnitude, a central tendency is often used to characterize the district magnitude in a country: either the magnitude of the median district or the magnitude of the district electing the median legislator. In this

Orit Kedar

320

A note on bias robustness of the median  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this article, it is proved that the median is a minimax bias functional (with respect to many distances including the Kolmogorov distance) among all location equivariant functionals if the distribution of interest is symmetric and unimodal. This is a parallel result of Huber's well-known result (1964). We also proved that the median is no longer a minimax bias functional

Zhiqiang Chen

1998-01-01

321

Factors Having an Impact on Maternal Role Attainment the First Year of Motherhood.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This research was designed to determine the form and strength of the relationship between maternal age, perception of the birth experience, early maternal-infant separation, stress, social support, personality traits, self concept, health status, childrea...

R. T. Mercer K. C. Hackley

1982-01-01

322

Estimation of Median Streamflows at Perennial Stream Sites in Hawaii  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The most accurate estimates of median streamflows at perennial stream sites in Hawaii are those made at streamflow-gaging stations. Two alternative methods for estimating median streamflows at ungaged sites are described in this report. Multiple-regression equations were developed for estimating median streamflows at ungaged, unregulated, perennial stream sites. The equations relate combinations of drainage area, mean altitude of the main stream channel, and mean annual precipitation to median streamflow. Streamflow data from 56 long-term continuous-record gaging stations were used in the analysis. Median-streamflow data for all 56 sites were adjusted using record-extension techniques to reflect base period (1912 through 1986) conditions. Hawaii was subdivided into two geographic groups and multiple-regression equations were developed for each. The standard error of predication for the equation developed for the first group, the islands of Oahu, Molokai, and Hawaii, is 41 percent. The standard error of predication for the equation developed for the second group, the islands of Kauai and Maui, is 54 percent. A method for estimating median-streamflow, based on discharge measurements and data from nearby streamflow-gaging stations, was also developed for 27 regulated, perennial windward Oahu sites. Standard errors of prediction for 23 of the sites range from 5 to 34 percent. Median-streamflow estimates for the four remaining sites were considered poor and no measures of accuracy are provided. Discharge measurements can be used to make estimates of median streamflows at ungaged, regulated sites where the regression equations developed in this report are not applicable. Discharge measurements can also be used to make estimates of median streamflows at ungaged, unregulated sites. Estimates of median streamflows based on discharge measurements have greater standard errors than estimates based on continuous streamflow records and in general have smaller standard errors than estimates based on regression equations.

Fontaine, Richard A.; Wong, Michael F.; Matsuoka, Iwao

1992-01-01

323

Does Warmth Moderate Longitudinal Associations Between Maternal Spanking and Child Aggression in Early Childhood?  

PubMed

This study examines whether maternal warmth moderates the association between maternal use of spanking and increased child aggression between ages 1 and 5. Participants were 3,279 pairs of mothers and their children from a cohort study of urban families from 20 U.S. cities. Maternal spanking was assessed when the child was 1 year, 3 years, and 5 years of age. Maternal warmth and child aggressive behavior were measured at 3 years and 5 years of age. Models controlled for demographic characteristics (measured at the child's birth), child emotionality (measured at age 1), and maternal psychosocial risk factors (measured when children were 3 years old). Cross-lagged path models examined the within-time and longitudinal associations between spanking and child aggression. Results indicated that maternal spanking at age 1 was associated with higher levels of child aggression at age 3; similarly, maternal spanking at age 3 predicted increases in child aggression by age 5. Maternal warmth when children were 3 years old did not predict changes in child aggression between 3 and 5 years old. Furthermore, maternal warmth did not moderate the association between spanking and increased child aggression over time. Beginning as early as age 1, maternal spanking is predictive of child behavior problems, and maternal warmth does not counteract the negative consequences of the use of spanking. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved). PMID:23339588

Lee, Shawna J; Altschul, Inna; Gershoff, Elizabeth T

2013-01-21

324

The importance of maternal state of mind regarding attachment and infant age at placement to foster mothers' representations of their foster infants  

Microsoft Academic Search

Previous research has found that foster mother state of mind with respect to attachment and infant age at placement into foster care influence the developing foster mother- foster child relationship (Dozier, Albus, Stovall, & Bates, 2000; Stovall & Dozier, 2000). This study extends prior research by assessing factors related to foster mothers' representations of their foster infants. Participants were 48

Brady C. Bates; Mary Dozier

2002-01-01

325

Effects of organic additions to sediment, and maternal age and size, on patterns of offspring investment and performance in two opportunistic deposit-feeding polychaetes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The investment made by a reproducing organism in its offspring can be affected by both extrinsic (environmental) and intrinsic (female condition) factors. The purpose of this study, conducted between December 1990 and June 1992, was to examine the influence of organic additions to sediment, and female age and size, on patterns of offspring investment and performance in the opportunistic polychaete

T. S. Bridges

1996-01-01

326

Analysis of the properties of median and weighted median filters using threshold logic and stack filter representation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The deterministic properties of weighted median (WM) filters are analyzed. Threshold decomposition and the stacking property together establish a unique relationship between integer and binary domain filtering. The authors present a method to find the weighted median filter which is equivalent to a stack filter defined by a positive Boolean function. Because the cascade of WM filters can always be

O. Yli-Harja; J. Astola; Y. Neuvo

1991-01-01

327

Dual pathology proximal median nerve compression of the forearm.  

PubMed

We report an unusual case of synchronous pathology in the forearm- the coexistence of a large lipoma of the median nerve together with an osteochondroma of the proximal ulna, giving rise to a dual proximal median nerve compression. Proximal median nerve compression neuropathies in the forearm are uncommon compared to the prevalence of distal compression neuropathies (eg Carpal Tunnel Syndrome). Both neural fibrolipomas (Refs. 1,2) and osteochondromas of the proximal ulna (Ref. 3) in isolation are rare but well documented. Unlike that of a distal compression, a proximal compression of the median nerve will often have a definite cause. Neural fibrolipoma, also called fibrolipomatous hamartoma are rare, slow-growing, benign tumours of peripheral nerves, most often occurring in the median nerve of younger patients. To our knowledge, this is the first report of such dual pathology in the same forearm, giving rise to a severe proximal compression of the median nerve. In this case, the nerve was being pushed anteriorly by the osteochondroma, and was being compressed from within by the intraneural lipoma. This unusual case highlights the advantage of preoperative imaging as part of the workup of proximal median nerve compression. PMID:23707555

Murphy, Siun M; Browne, Katherine; Tuite, David J; O'Shaughnessy, Michael

2013-05-23

328

Environmental and maternal correlates of foetal sex ratios in the African buffalo (Syncerus caffer) and savanna elephant (Loxodonta africana)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many species exhibit skewed sex ratios at birth. Here we investigate the relationships between environmental and maternal variables (as surrogates for maternal condition) and foetal sex in African buffalo Syncerus caffer and elephant Loxodonta africana of the Kruger National Park, South Africa. Using logistic regression no significant effect was found of year, maternal lactational status, maternal age, rainfall or density

D. R. Visscher; R. J. van Aarde; I. Whyte

2004-01-01

329

Maternal subjective sleep quality and nighttime infant care  

Microsoft Academic Search

The current study explored the relationship between maternal subjective sleep quality and two factors that have been independently linked to maternal sleep: infant caretaking at night and maternal depressive symptom severity. Participants were a follow?up cohort of 94 women (mean age 33.3, SD=4.4), who were depressed during pregnancy and part of a larger randomised controlled trial. Participants were evaluated 10

Jenna L. Gress; Andrea S. Chambers; Jason C. Ong; Liat Tikotzky; Robin L. Okada; Rachel Manber

2010-01-01

330

Studies on human fetal tissues— I. Fetal weight and tissue weights in relation to gestational age, fetal size and maternal nutritional status  

Microsoft Academic Search

Studies were done on 130 human fetuses (including stillborns) varying in gestational age from 8 to 40 weeks, on fetal weight\\u000a and tissue weights of selected fetal tissues, namely, liver, lung, heart small intestine and large intestine. As expected,\\u000a fetal weight as well as tissue weights increased with the progress of gestation. Both fetal and tissue weights were found\\u000a to

Raksha S. Shah; R. Rajalakshmi

1988-01-01

331

Estimates of maternal mortality for 1995.  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE: To present estimates of maternal mortality in 188 countries, areas, and territories for 1995 using methodologies that attempt to improve comparability. METHODS: For countries having data directly relevant to the measurement of maternal mortality, a variety of adjustment procedures can be applied depending on the nature of the data used. Estimates for countries lacking relevant data may be made using a statistical model fitted to the information from countries that have data judged to be of good quality. Rather than estimate the Maternal Mortality Ratio (MMRatio) directly, this model estimates the proportion of deaths of women of reproductive age that are due to maternal causes. Estimates of the number of maternal deaths are then obtained by applying this proportion to the best available figure of the total number of deaths among women of reproductive age. FINDINGS: On the basis of this exercise, we have obtained a global estimate of 515,000 maternal deaths in 1995, with a worldwide MMRatio of 397 per 100,000 live births. The differences, by region, were very great, with over half (273,000 maternal deaths) occurring in Africa (MMRatio: > 1000 per 100,000), compared with a total of only 2000 maternal deaths in Europe (MMRatio: 28 per 100,000). Lower and upper uncertainty bounds were also estimated, on the basis of which the global MMRatio was unlikely to be less than 234 or more than 635 per 100,000 live births. These uncertainty bounds and those of national estimates are so wide that comparisons between countries must be made with caution, and no valid conclusions can be drawn about trends over a period of time. CONCLUSION: The MMRatio is thus an imperfect indicator of reproductive health because it is hard to measure precisely. It is preferable to use process indicators for comparing reproductive health between countries or across time periods, and for monitoring and evaluation purposes.

Hill, K.; AbouZhar, C.; Wardlaw, T.

2001-01-01

332

223. FREQUENTLY REPRODUCED VIEW OF GWMP SHOWING VARIABLE WIDTH MEDIANS ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

223. FREQUENTLY REPRODUCED VIEW OF GWMP SHOWING VARIABLE WIDTH MEDIANS WITH INDEPENDENT ALIGNMENTS FROM KEY BRIDGE LOOKING NORTHWEST, 1953. - George Washington Memorial Parkway, Along Potomac River from McLean to Mount Vernon, VA, Mount Vernon, Fairfax County, VA

333

2. HISTORIC PHOTOGRAPH, VIEW FROM MEDIAN OF MERRITT PARKWAY TO ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

2. HISTORIC PHOTOGRAPH, VIEW FROM MEDIAN OF MERRITT PARKWAY TO EAST ROCKS ROAD BRIDGE, CA. 1940. COLLECTION CONNECTICUT DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION. - Merritt Parkway, East Rocks Road Bridge, Spanning Merritt Parkway, Norwalk, Fairfield County, CT

334

Evaluation of Concrete Median Barrier Delineation Under Poor Visibility Conditions.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In this research, a nationwide survey, durability test, and visibility test were conducted for concrete median barrier delineation. This research was in response to problems PENNDOT was encountering with delineators becoming detached due to harsh conditio...

L. J. French K. A. French

2002-01-01

335

Fuzzy scalar and vector median filters based on fuzzy distances.  

PubMed

In this paper, the fuzzy scalar median (FSM) is proposed, defined by using ordering of fuzzy numbers based on fuzzy minimum and maximum operations defined by using the extension principle. Alternatively, the FSM is defined from the minimization of a fuzzy distance measure, and the equivalence of the two definitions is proven. Then, the fuzzy vector median (FVM) is proposed as an extension of vector median, based on a novel distance definition of fuzzy vectors, which satisfy the property of angle decomposition. By defining properly the fuzziness of a value, the combination of the basic properties of the classical scalar and vector median (VM) filter with other desirable characteristics can be succeeded. PMID:18267487

Chatzis, V; Pitas, I

1999-01-01

336

Elemental analysis of human amniotic fluid and placenta by total-reflection X-ray fluorescence and energy-dispersive X-ray fluorescence: child weight and maternal age dependence  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This work is an attempt to evaluate the possible influence of the mother's age in trace element concentrations in human amniotic fluid and placenta and whether these concentrations are correlated to the weight of the newborn infants. Total-reflection X-ray fluorescence (TXRF) was used to analyze 16 amniotic fluid samples, and the placenta samples were analyzed by energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence (EDXRF). The whole samples were collected during delivery from healthy mothers and healthy infants and full-term pregnancies. According to the age of the mother, three different groups were considered: 20-25, 25-30 and 30-40 years old. Only two mothers were aged more than 35 years. The weight of the infants ranged from 2.56 to 4.05 kg and three groups were also considered: 2.5-3, 3-3.5 and 3.5-4 kg. The organic matrix of the amniotic fluid samples was removed by treatment with HNO 3 followed by oxygen plasma ashing. Yttrium was used as the internal standard for TXRF analysis. Placenta samples were lyophilized and analyzed by EDXRF without any chemical treatment. Very low levels of Ni and Sr were found in the amniotic fluid samples, and were independent of the age of the mother and weight of the child. Cr, Mn, Se and Pb were at the level of the detection limit. Zn, considered one of the key elements in neonatal health, was not significantly different in the samples analyzed; however, it was weakly related to birth weigh. The concentrations obtained ranged from 0.11 to 0.92 mg/l and 30 to 65 ?g/g in amniotic fluid and placenta, respectively. The only two elements which seemed to be significantly correlated with mother's age and newborn weight were Ca and Fe for both types of sample: Ca levels were increased in heavier children and older mothers; however, Fe increased with increasing maternal age, but decreased for heavier babies. The same conclusions were obtained for placenta and amniotic fluid samples. Cu is closely associated with Fe in its function in the organism and has a similar behavior to this element, but not as pronounced.

Carvalho, M. L.; Custódio, P. J.; Reus, U.; Prange, A.

2001-11-01

337

Changes in Median Household Income: 1969 to 1996  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Census Bureau report Changes in Median Household Income: 1969 to 1996 by Jack McNeil indicates that the US median household income rose six percent overall between 1969 and 1996. This modest increase does not reflect the more dynamic changes experienced by a variety of the household types studied, however, as selected measures in the seventeen statistical appendices included in the report reveal.

Mcneil, John.

1998-01-01

338

Modified Ranked Order Adaptive Median Filter for Impulse Noise Removal  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a In this paper problem of impulse noise removal is considered. Specifically, modifications of ranked order adaptive median\\u000a filter (RAMF) are proposed. RAMF is popular, well established and effective switching median filter for denoising images corrupted\\u000a by impulse noise. However, the modifications proposed in this paper significantly improve its results, especially in case\\u000a of highly corrupted images. Results of denosing of

Anna Fabija?ska

339

Consensus genetic maps as median orders from inconsistent sources.  

PubMed

A genetic map is an ordering of genetic markers calculated from a population of known lineage. While traditionally a map has been generated from a single population for each species, recently researchers have created maps from multiple populations. In the face of these new data, we address the need to find a consensus map--a map that combines the information from multiple partial and possibly inconsistent input maps. We model each input map as a partial order and formulate the consensus problem as finding a median partial order. Finding the median of multiple total orders (preferences or rankings)is a well studied problem in social choice. We choose to find the median using the weighted symmetric difference distance, a more general version of both the symmetric difference distance and the Kemeny distance. Finding a median order using this distance is NP-hard. We show that for our chosen weight assignment, a median order satisfies the positive responsiveness, extended Condorcet,and unanimity criteria. Our solution involves finding the maximum acyclic subgraph of a weighted directed graph. We present a method that dynamically switches between an exact branch and bound algorithm and a heuristic algorithm, and show that for real data from closely related organisms, an exact median can often be found. We present experimental results using seven populations of the crop plant Zea mays. PMID:18451426

Jackson, Benjamin N; Schnable, Patrick S; Aluru, Srinivas

340

Directional median filtering for regional-residual separation of bathymetry  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present a new spatial filter designed to separate short-length-scale bathymetric features from regional bathymetry. The directional median (DiM) filter divides a given filter circle into N "bow tie" sectors, allocates data points inside the filter circle to each sector based on their relative position within the circle, estimates a median for each sector, and returns the lowest of these N medians. This approach prevents DiM filtering from choosing the biased medians near the features on a sloping regional trend, which is a serious artifact of standard median filtering. As the bathymetry comprises diverse length-scale features, the separated results vary with the choice of filter width. Such variations are spatially distributed. Using a finite range of filter widths, we evaluate the spatial distribution of variations in the DiM-based separation by estimating their median absolute deviation (MAD) at each data point. The distribution of MAD values is indicative of uncertainties inherent in the separation. We demonstrate the effectiveness of DiM filtering with both synthetic and actual bathymetric data.

Kim, Seung-Sep; Wessel, Paul

2008-03-01

341

Paternal Contribution to Down's Syndrome Dispels Maternal Myths.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The paper refutes the long held belief that Down's syndrome is the result of maternal age and maternal etiology. The author cites new evidence which demonstrates that Trisomy-21 (the presence in the chromosome of an extra arcocentric chromosome resulting from non-disjunction), the major cause (95% of the cases) of Down's syndrome, can originate…

Abroms, Kippy I.; Bennett, Joan W.

342

Maternal and perinatal complications in triplet compared with twin pregnancy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To compare maternal and perinatal complications in triplet and twin pregnancies. Study design: Case-controlled study in the setting of a University Hospital. Each pregnancy of a consecutive series of 40 triplet pregnancies of 20 weeks or more was matched for parity and maternal age with two sets of twins delivered in the same year. Primary end points of the

Job G. Santema; Petra Bourdrez; Henk C. S. Wallenburg

1995-01-01

343

Maternal effects on daughters' eating pathology and body image  

Microsoft Academic Search

Effects of maternal eating behaviors and attitudes, maternal feedback to daughter about weight issues, mother–daughter relationship closeness, media influences, and mothers' perceptions of daughters shape on daughters' body image and eating pathology were examined using 91 pairs of mothers and college-aged daughters. Hierarchical multiple regressions using daughters' BMI as the first step were separately performed for daughters' body image and

Eric Cooley; Tamina Toray; Mei Chuan Wang; Noreen N. Valdez

2008-01-01

344

Maternal Work Status and Pregnancy Outcomes: A Pilot.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Investigated were effects of maternal work status and parity on specific outcomes in maternal psychology and physiology and infant physiology. In addition, the study design and the usefulness of instruments were evaluated, and the feasibility of subject recruitment and retention was assessed. Subjects were 20 women between 18 and 35 years of age

Pitzer, Martha S.

345

Maternal and Child Predictors of Preschool Children's Social Competence  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The present study examined child and maternal predictors of children's social competence in preschool. One hundred ten mothers and their preschool-aged children participated. Mothers completed parent reports of child temperament and self-regulation, and self-reports of maternal separation anxiety. Mothers' interactional style was coded from…

Diener, Marissa L.; Kim, Do-Yeong

2004-01-01

346

Maternal Depression and Children's Attachment Representations during the Preschool Years  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This longitudinal study aimed to investigate the impact of chronic and transient maternal depression on children's attachment representations at 4 years of age measured with the Attachment Story Completion Task (Bretherton, Ridgeway, & Cassidy, 1990). The impact of concurrent maternal depressive symptoms was also considered. A secondary aim was…

Trapolini, T.; Ungerer, J. A.; McMahon, C. A.

2007-01-01

347

Maternal low-protein diet alters the expression of real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction reference genes in an age-, sex-, and organ-dependent manner in rat offspring.  

PubMed

Altered perinatal environment, often manifested as low birth weight, is thought to contribute to greater susceptibility for hypertension, hyperlipidemia, and diabetes as a result of epigenetic modifications and alteration of transcriptional activity for key genes. Real-time polymerase chain reaction is a useful technique for the quantitative determination of differences in transcriptional activity. Real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction data analyses require normalization of transcriptional activity of target genes to an endogenous control, usually a reference gene. In response to reports of altered expression of reference genes in various experimental models, we hypothesized that adverse perinatal environment alters reference gene expression. We examined the expression of the following reference genes in the offspring of a rodent maternal low-protein diet model: ?-actin, hypoxanthine phosphoribosyltransferase 1, TATA-box-binding protein, glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase, and glucuronidase-? in brain, heart, kidneys, and intestines. We found altered expression in brain, heart, and kidneys for each of the reference genes measured; these effects were age, organ, and sex dependent. Glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase and glucuronidase-? were found to be the least affected by these variables, whereas hypoxanthine phosphoribosyltransferase 1 was the most inconsistent. Our findings underscore the importance of empirical determination of a reliable reference gene for real-time polymerase chain reaction studies in the low-protein diet model. PMID:23507230

DuBois, Barent; Pearson, Jacob; Hastings, Bonnie; Mahmood, Tahir; Chan, Tammy; Alnakhli, Ali; Cherala, Ganesh

2013-02-04

348

Management of the woman with threatened birth of an infant of extremely low gestational age. Fetus and Newborn Committee, Canadian Paediatric Society, Maternal-Fetal Medicine Committee, Society of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists of Canada.  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE: To offer guidelines for parents, physicians and other members of the health-care team for management of the probable birth of an infant with a gestational age of 26 completed weeks or less. OPTIONS: Vaginal birth or birth by cesarean section for fetal indications and active treatment or palliative care of the infant at birth. OUTCOMES: Increased risk of complications for the mother from cesarean section at this stage of pregnancy and the difficulty in making a prognosis before or at birth for an infant of this gestational age. EVIDENCE: Published survival rates and risks of impairment or disability for infants of each gestational age; current information provided by directors of follow-up clinics in Canadian university-based pediatric programs. VALUES: The recommended management of the woman and her fetus or infant is based on many underlying considerations, including the best interests of the mother and her infant and the views of fully informed parents. BENEFITS, HARMS AND COSTS: Use of these guidelines will enable health care providers to offer parents of infants of extremely low gestational age therapeutic choices before birth based on full information on likely outcomes, to avoid unnecessary cesarean section and to minimize suffering when treatment of infants is not in their best interests. RECOMMENDATIONS: According to current Canadian outcome data, fetuses with a gestational age of less than 22 completed weeks are not viable and those with an age of 22 weeks rarely viable. Their mothers are not, therefore, candidates for cesarean section, and the newborns should be provided with compassionate care, rather than active treatment. The outcomes for infants with a gestational age of 23 to 24 completed weeks vary greatly. Careful consideration should be given to the limited benefits for the infant and potential harms of cesarean section, as well as to the expected results of resuscitation at birth. Cesarean section, when indicated, and any required neonatal treatment are recommended for infants with gestational ages of 25 and 26 completed weeks; most infants of this age will survive, and most survivors will not be severely disabled. Treatment of all infants with a gestational age of 22 to 26 weeks should be tailored to the infant and family and should involve fully informed parents. VALIDATION: Members of the Fetus and Newborn Committee of the Canadian Paediatric Society (CPS) were involved in the preparation of this article, which was reviewed and modified by the Ethics Committee of the CPS and the Maternal-Fetal Medicine Committee of the Society of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists of Canada (SOGC). A draft was circulated to Canadian university-based perinatal programs and members of the Section on Neonatal-Perinatal Medicine of the CPS. Comments from physicians and bioethicists were incorporated, when possible, into the final version. There are no similar guidelines in North America.

1994-01-01

349

Maternal risk factors for low birth weight newborn in Thailand.  

PubMed

The present study assesses the risk approach for maternal risk factors for LBW newborn in Thailand. This study can be considered as a managerial tool for developing local strategies and is particularly useful in the field of maternal and child health care. A summary of maternal risk factors for LBW newborn as listed in Table 7 and can be used as a health educational tool for pregnant women and as basic data for marital counseling. It can also be used to keep the public informed about the maternal risk factors for LBW newborn which will help Thai women of reproductive age avoid the chance of having such babies. PMID:1300361

Chumnijarakij, T; Nuchprayoon, T; Chitinand, S; Onthuam, Y; Quamkul, N; Dusitsin, N; Viputsiri, O A; Chotiwan, P; Limpongsanurak, S; Sukomol, P

1992-08-01

350

Differences in accommodative properties of median and peroneal motor axons  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVES—To investigate whether accommodation to depolarising and hyperpolarising currents differs for motor axons of human upper and lower limb nerves.?METHODS—The threshold tracking technique was used to measure threshold electrotonus for median and peroneal motor axons. The threshold current that produced a compound muscle action potential 50% of maximum was measured, and membrane potential was altered using subthreshold polarising currents of 330 ms duration but of variable intensity, from +40% (depolarising) to -100% (hyperpolarising) of the unconditioned threshold.?RESULTS—The maximal threshold changes (the peak of the S1 phase of threshold electrotonus) were significantly greater in median axons for both depolarising and hyperpolarising currents. The subsequent phases of accommodation to depolarising currents (S2) and to hyperpolarising currents (S3) were also significantly greater in median axons. These findings raised the possibility that greater accommodation (S2 and S3) in median axons resulted from greater changes in membrane potential. However, regression of S2 against S1 to depolarising currents disclosed significantly greater accommodation (27.8%) for median axons, suggesting that slow K+ conductances may be more prominent on median than peroneal axons. By contrast, the relation between S3 and S1 to hyperpolarising currents was similar for the two nerves, suggesting that the difference in inward rectification was merely because the conductance varies with the extent of hyperpolarisation.?CONCLUSIONS—Slow K+ conductances are more prominent for median motor axons than for peroneal axons. It would therefore be expected that axons innervating the lower limbs have less protection from depolarising stress and could develop ectopic activity more readily.??

Kuwabara, S; Cappelen-Smith, C; Lin, C; Mogyoros, I; Burke, D

2001-01-01

351

Maternal behavior in cattle  

Microsoft Academic Search

We provide a critical summary of the literature on maternal behavior in cattle. The studies we review increase our basic understanding of this behavior and provide insights into practical problems in cattle production. When domesticated cattle are permitted to rear their young, the behaviors associated with maternal care are for the most part similar to those observed in wild ungulates.

Marina A. G. von Keyserlingk; Daniel M. Weary

2007-01-01

352

Woman-Centered Maternity Nursing Education and Practice  

PubMed Central

The purpose of this Heideggerian phenomenological study was to uncover the meanings of the clinical experiences of registered nurses working in maternity settings after they studied maternity nursing from a woman-centered, feminist perspective in a generic baccalaureate nursing program. Purposeful sampling was conducted to locate and recruit nurses who had graduated from this nursing program between the December 1996 and December 1998 semesters and were currently working in a maternal-newborn clinical setting. Each participant had taken the required woman-centered, maternity-nursing course during her/his undergraduate education. Data collection included an individual, open-ended interview that focused on the nurses' descriptions of their everyday practices as maternity nurses. Nineteen maternal-newborn nurses between the ages of 23 and 43 years who had been in practice from six months to three years were interviewed. The constitutive patterns identified from the interviews were: “Otherness,” “Being and Becoming Woman-Centered,” and “Tensions in Practicing Woman-Centered Care.” Findings revealed that the nurses had a raised awareness of oppressive maternity care practices and applied ideology of woman-centeredness as a framework for providing more humanistic care. Creating woman-centered maternity care meant negotiating tensions and barriers in medically focused maternity settings and looking for opportunities for advocacy and woman-empowerment. The barriers the nurses faced in implementing woman-centered care exposed limitations to childbearing choices and nursing practices that remain problematic in maternity care.

Giarratano, Gloria

2003-01-01

353

Maternal hormones during early pregnancy: a cross-sectional study  

PubMed Central

Background Little is known about correlates of first trimester pregnancy hormones as in most studies maternal hormones have been measured later in gestation. We examined the associations of maternal characteristics and child sex with first trimester maternal concentrations of 4 hormones implicated in breast cancer: human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG), ?-fetoprotein (AFP), insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-I and IGF-II. Methods 338 serum samples donated to the Northern Sweden Maternity Cohort (NSMC), 1975–2001, during the first trimester of uncomplicated pregnancies were analyzed for the hormones of interest as a part of a case-control study. The associations between maternal characteristics and child sex with hormone concentrations were investigated by correlation, general linear regression, and multivariate regression models. Results In the first trimester, greater maternal age was inversely correlated with IGF-I and IGF-II. In comparison with women carrying their first child, already parous women had higher IGF-I but lower hCG. Greater maternal weight and smoking were inversely correlated with hCG. No differences in hormone levels by child sex were observed. Conclusions Our analyses indicated that potentially modifiable maternal characteristics (maternal weight and smoking) influence first trimester pregnancy maternal hormone concentrations.

Chen, Tianhui; Lundin, Eva; Grankvist, Kjell; Zeleniuch-Jacquotte, Anne; Wulff, Marianne; Afanasyeva, Yelena; Schock, Helena; Johansson, Robert; Lenner, Per; Hallmans, Goran; Wadell, Goran; Toniolo, Paolo; Lukanova, Annekatrin

2010-01-01

354

Maternal Antenatal Complications and the Risk of Neonatal Cerebral White Matter Damage and Later Cerebral Palsy in Children Born at an Extremely Low Gestational Age  

PubMed Central

In a 2002–2004 prospective cohort study of deliveries of infants at <28 weeks at 14 US centers, the authors sought the antecedents of white matter damage evident in newborn cranial ultrasound scans (ventriculomegaly and an echolucent lesion) and of cerebral palsy diagnoses at age 2 years. Of the 1,455 infants enrolled, those whose mothers received an antenatal steroid tended to have lower risks of ventriculomegaly and an echolucent lesion than their peers (10% vs. 23%, P?

Allred, Elizabeth N.; Boggess, Kim A.; Kuban, Karl; O'Shea, T. Michael; Paneth, Nigel

2009-01-01

355

Median-Based Incremental Cost-Effectiveness Ratio (ICER)  

PubMed Central

Cost-effectiveness analysis (CEA) is a type of economic evaluation that examines the costs and health outcomes of alternative strategies and has been extensively applied in health sciences. The incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER), which represents the additional cost of one unit of outcome gained by one strategy compared with another, has become a popular methodology in CEA. Despite its popularity, limited attention has been paid to summary measures other than the mean for summarizing cost as well as effectiveness in the context of CEA. Although some apparent advantages of other central tendency measures such as median for cost data that are often highly skewed are well understood, thus far, the median has rarely been considered in the ICER. In this paper, we propose the median-based ICER, along with inferential procedures, and suggest that mean and median-based ICERs be considered together as complementary tools in CEA for informed decision making, acknowledging the pros and cons of each. If the mean and median-based CEAs are concordant, we may feel reasonably confident about the cost-effectiveness of an intervention, but if they provide different results, our confidence may need to be adjusted accordingly, pending further evidence.

Bang, Heejung; Zhao, Hongwei

2013-01-01

356

Median-Based Incremental Cost-Effectiveness Ratio (ICER).  

PubMed

Cost-effectiveness analysis (CEA) is a type of economic evaluation that examines the costs and health outcomes of alternative strategies and has been extensively applied in health sciences. The incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER), which represents the additional cost of one unit of outcome gained by one strategy compared with another, has become a popular methodology in CEA. Despite its popularity, limited attention has been paid to summary measures other than the mean for summarizing cost as well as effectiveness in the context of CEA. Although some apparent advantages of other central tendency measures such as median for cost data that are often highly skewed are well understood, thus far, the median has rarely been considered in the ICER. In this paper, we propose the median-based ICER, along with inferential procedures, and suggest that mean and median-based ICERs be considered together as complementary tools in CEA for informed decision making, acknowledging the pros and cons of each. If the mean and median-based CEAs are concordant, we may feel reasonably confident about the cost-effectiveness of an intervention, but if they provide different results, our confidence may need to be adjusted accordingly, pending further evidence. PMID:23441022

Bang, Heejung; Zhao, Hongwei

2012-08-10

357

Median Arcuate Ligament Syndrome in a patient with Crohn's disease  

PubMed Central

INTRODUCTION The Median Arcuate Ligament Syndrome is a rare condition characterized by postprandial abdominal pain, bowel function disorder and weight loss. We report the first case to our knowledge of Crohn's disease and Median Arcuate Ligament Syndrome. PRESENTATION OF CASE The patient was a 33 year-old female with a previous diagnosis of Crohn's disease. Acute postprandial abdominal pain affected the patient every day; she was, therefore, referred to US-Doppler and magnetic resonance angiography of the abdominal vessels and received a diagnosis of Median Arcuate Ligament Syndrome. Consequently, the patient was surgically treated, releasing the vascular compression. After the operation, she reported a complete relief from postprandial pain which was one of her major concerns. Subocclusive symptoms occurred after six months due to the inflammatory reactivation of the terminal ileitis. DISCUSSION The diagnosis of Median Arcuate Ligament Syndrome is mainly based on the exclusion of other intestinal disorders but it should be always confirmed using noninvasive tests such as US-Doppler, angio-CT or magnetic resonance angiography. CONCLUSION This case demonstrates that the Median Arcuate Ligament Syndrome could be the major cause of symptoms, even in presence of other abdominal disorders.

Sturiale, Alessandro; Alemanno, Giovanni; Giudici, Francesco; Addasi, Rami; Bellucci, Francesco; Tonelli, Francesco

2013-01-01

358

Maternal depressive symptoms in infancy: unique contribution to children's depressive symptoms in childhood and adolescence?  

PubMed

This prospective 20-year study assessed associations between maternal depressive symptoms in infancy, childhood, and adolescence, and child and adolescent depressive symptoms in a sample of families at high psychosocial risk. Maternal symptomatology was assessed with the Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale (CES-D) when children were infants (12 months), school-aged (age 8), and adolescents (age 19). Children's depressive symptoms were measured at age 8 (Dimensions of Depression Profile for Children and Adolescents) and age 19 (CES-D). Maternal depressive symptoms during infancy contributed to the prediction of child depressive symptoms at age 8, after controlling for concurrent maternal depressive symptoms, clinical risk in infancy, and gender. Clinical risk in infancy marginally contributed to the prediction model. Disorganization of attachment in infancy and maternal hostility were independent predictors of depressive symptoms at age 8 and did not mediate the relation between maternal and child depressive symptoms. Depressive symptoms in adolescence were predicted by gender, children's depressive symptoms at age 8, maternal depressive symptoms in adolescence, and maternal depressive symptoms in infancy. There was no moderating effect of gender. Adding to previous evidence on the importance of early maternal depression, maternal depressive symptoms during infancy were related to the development of depressive symptoms in childhood and adolescence even when other variables of potential relevance were controlled. PMID:19338696

Bureau, Jean-François; Easterbrooks, M Ann; Lyons-Ruth, Karlen

2009-01-01

359

Maternal depressive symptoms in infancy: Unique contribution to children's depressive symptoms in childhood and adolescence?  

PubMed Central

This prospective 20-year study assessed associations between maternal depressive symptoms in infancy, childhood, and adolescence and child and adolescent depressive symptoms in a sample of families at high psychosocial risk. Maternal symptomatology was assessed with the Center for Epidemiological Studies-Depression Scale (CES-D; Radloff, 1977) when children were infants (12 months), school-aged (age 8), and adolescents (age 19). Children’s depressive symptoms were measured at age 8 (Dimensions of Depression Profile for Children and Adolescents, Hatter & Nowakowski, 1987) and age 19 (CES-D). Maternal depressive symptoms during infancy contributed to the prediction of child depressive symptoms at age 8, after controlling for concurrent maternal depressive symptoms, clinical family risk in infancy, and gender. Clinical family risk in infancy marginally contributed to the prediction model. Disorganization of attachment in infancy and maternal hostility were independent predictors of depressive symptoms at age 8 and did not mediate the relation between maternal and child depressive symptoms. Depressive symptoms in adolescence were predicted by gender, children’s depressive symptoms at age 8, maternal depressive symptoms in adolescence, and maternal depressive symptoms in infancy. There was no moderating effect of gender. Adding to previous evidence on the importance of early maternal depression, maternal depressive symptoms during infancy were strongly related to the development of depressive symptoms in childhood and adolescence.

Bureau, Jean-Francois; Easterbrooks, M. Ann; Lyons-Ruth, Karlen

2008-01-01

360

Maternal Sensitivity and Attachment Security: Concordance of Home- and Lab-Based Measures.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|In Ontario, mothers and their preterm or full-term infants were observed at home when the infants were 8 and 12 months of age. At each visit, the Bayley Scales of Infant Development were administered, and after each visit, observers completed the Maternal Behavior Q-Sort and Ainsworth ratings of maternal sensitivity. Maternal sensitivity and…

Pederson, David R.; And Others

361

The Role of Maternal Literacy in Child Health and Cognitive Development in Rural Guatemala.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

There is growing evidence supporting the powerful role that maternal education plays in child growth and cognitive development in developing countries. This study examined the contribution of maternal literacy in mediating the relationship between maternal education and variation in child outcomes from birth to 7 years of age. It was hypothesized…

Khandke, Veena; Pollitt, Ernesto; Gorman, Kathleen S.

362

Median nerve palsy after operative treatment of olecranon fracture.  

PubMed

Olecranon fracture is not an uncommon fracture in clinical practice. Simple olecranon fracture usually heals quite well without any types of iatrogenic complications. Despite close proximity of the fracture to the nerve, median nerve palsy after operative treatment of olecranon fracture is a rare complication. To the authors' knowledge, this complication has not been previously reported in the Thai or English literature. The authors present a patient who had median nerve palsy after tension-band wiring for olecranon fixation. Intraoperative finding revealed that the median nerve was injured by the tip of K-wire. While this complication is uncommon on a per-person basis, it may results in serious complication, such as nerve palsy or limb ischemia. Orthopedic surgeons must remain vigilant with regard to any type of internal fixation in the upper extremity because the risk of neurovascular injury is high. PMID:16519392

Thumroj, Ekamol; Jianmongkol, Surut; Thammaroj, Jureerut

2005-10-01

363

Maternal History of Parentification, Maternal Warm Responsiveness, and Children's Externalizing Behavior  

PubMed Central

Destructive parentification occurs when children are expected to provide instrumental or emotional caregiving within the family system that overtaxes their developmental capacity. According to parentification theory, destructive parentification in family of origin poses a risk to child development in subsequent generations; however, there is a paucity of empirical research examining the impact of a maternal history of destructive parentification on parenting quality and child outcomes in subsequent generations. The present study examined the potential risk of maternal history of parentification on child adjustment by hypothesizing that a maternal history of parentification in family of origin would have a negative impact on quality of maternal warm responsiveness at 18 months of age which would, in turn, be associated with increased children’s externalizing symptoms at 36 months. Results indicated that there was a significant indirect effect of maternal history of destructive parentification in family of origin on child externalizing behavior in the next generation through maternal warm responsiveness, supporting the hypothesized model. This finding suggests that facilitating the development of maternal contingent responsiveness among mothers with a history of destructive parentification may promote more adaptive child development in the next generation.

Nuttall, Amy K.; Valentino, Kristin; Borkowski, John G.

2012-01-01

364

Birth weight, maternal weight and childhood leukaemia  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is mounting evidence that childhood leukaemia is associated with high birth weight, but few studies have examined the relationship between leukaemia and other perinatal factors that influence birth weight, such as maternal weight or gestational weight gain. This case-cohort study included 916 acute lymphocytic leukaemia (ALL) and 154 acute myeloid leukaemia (AML) cases diagnosed prior to age 10 years

C C McLaughlin; M S Baptiste; M J Schymura; P C Nasca; M S Zdeb

2006-01-01

365

Maternal Responsiveness and Subsequent Child Compliance.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Contrasts effects of three modes of mother/child interaction on children's subsequent compliance with maternal directives. Subjects were 39 children from lower-middle-class families, ranging in age from approximately three to four-and-a-half. Responsive play and noninteractive conditions produced higher levels of compliance than the untrained…

Parpal, Mary; Maccoby, Eleanor E.

1985-01-01

366

The role of maternal attachment in children's attachment and cognitive executive functioning: A preliminary study  

Microsoft Academic Search

The influence of maternal attachment on children's attachment and executive functioning skills through maternal sensitivity and decentered tutoring were studied in 40 middle-class mother–child dyads. Infant attachment security in the Strange Situation Procedure was related to maternal attachment security, evaluated with the Adult Attachment Interview. When the children were six–seven months of age, maternal sensitivity was evaluated. When the child

Anna von der Lippe; Dag Erik Eilertsen; Ellen Hartmann; Kari Killèn

2010-01-01

367

Decay and Persistence of Maternal Dengue Antibodies among Infants in Bangkok  

PubMed Central

Maternal dengue antibodies are important in determining the optimal age of dengue vaccination, but no study has quantified the heterogeneity of antibody decay and persistence in infants. We used longitudinal regression methods and survival analysis to measure decay and persistence times of serotype-specific neutralizing antibodies in 139 infants in Bangkok. A biphasic decay pattern was found with half-life times of 24–29 days between birth and 3 months and 44–150 days after 3 months. Atypical decay rates were found in 17% of infants for dengue virus-1 and -4. Median persistence times of plaque reduction neutralization tests > 10 ranged from 6 to 9 months. Persistence times for individuals could not be predicted based on antibody values at birth. Vaccination against dengue before 12 months of age would be ineffective if maternal antibodies at plaque reduction neutralization test levels below 80 interfere with vaccine uptake. Projections of average antibody persistence based on values at birth should be avoided in studies on dengue pathogenesis in infants.

van Panhuis, Willem G.; Luxemburger, Christine; Pengsaa, Krisana; Limkittikul, Kriengsak; Sabchareon, Arunee; Lang, Jean; Durbin, Anna P.; Cummings, Derek A. T.

2011-01-01

368

PREECLAMPSIA AND SMALL FOR GESTATIONAL AGE ARE ASSOCIATED WITH DECREASED CONCENTRATIONS OF A FACTOR INVOLVED IN ANGIOGENESIS: SOLUBLE TIE-2  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE An anti-angiogenic state has been described in patients with preeclampsia, small for gestational age (SGA) fetuses and fetal death, and changes in the concentration of circulating angiogenic and anti-angiogenic factors can precede the clinical recognition of preeclampsia and small for gestational age by several weeks. Gene deletion studies demonstrate that a selective group of endothelial growth factors are required for vascular development, including members of the vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) family, as well as Angiopoietin-1 and Angiopoietin-2, both ligands for the tyrosine kinase endothelial cell receptor Tie-2. These angiogenic factors have been proposed to promote angiogenesis in a coordinated and complementary fashion. Soluble Tie-2 (sTie-2) is the soluble form of the Tie-2 receptor which is detectable in biological fluids. The purpose of this study was to determine whether patients with preeclampsia and mothers who deliver a small for gestational age neonate have changes in the plasma concentrations of sTie-2. STUDY DESIGN This cross-sectional study included patients in the following groups: 1) non-pregnant women (n=40); 2) women with normal pregnancies (n=135); 3) patients with preeclampsia (n=112); and 4) patients who delivered a small for gestational age (SGA) neonate (n=53). Maternal plasma concentrations of sTie-2 were measured by a sensitive immunoassay. Parametric statistics were used for analysis. RESULTS 1) The median maternal plasma concentration of sTie-2 was lower in normal pregnant women than in non-pregnant women [median 16.0 ng/ml (range 5.0–71.6) vs. median 20.7 ng/ml (range 10.8–52.4), respectively; p=0.01)]; 2) Plasma sTie-2 concentrations in normal pregnancy changed significantly as a function of gestational age; 3) Patients with preeclampsia and those who delivered SGA neonates had a lower median maternal plasma concentration of sTie-2 than those with a normal pregnancy [Preeclampsia: median 14.9 ng/ml (range 4.9–67.3); SGA: median 10.9 ng/ml (range 5.1–29.1); Normal pregnancy: median 16.0 ng/ml (range 5.0–71.6); p=0.048 and p<0.001, respectively]; 4) Patients with SGA neonates had a lower median plasma concentration of sTie-2 than that of those with preeclampsia [median 10.9 ng/ml (range 5.1–29.1) vs. median 14.9 ng/ml (range 4.9–67.3), respectively; p<0.001)]; and 5) Patients with early-onset preeclampsia (?34 weeks) had lower concentrations of sTie-2 than women with late-onset preeclampsia (>34 weeks) [median of delta values: ?0.13 ng/ml (range ?0.47–0.58) vs. median of delta values: ?0.09 ng/ml (range: ?0.60–0.58), respectively; p=0.043]. In contrast, there were no significant differences in the maternal plasma sTie-2 concentration between women with severe and mild preeclampsia (p=0.6). CONCLUSION Patients with preeclampsia and those with SGA fetuses have lower median plasma concentrations of soluble Tie-2 than women with normal pregnancies.

Gotsch, Francesca; Romero, Roberto; Kusanovic, Juan Pedro; Chaiworapongsa, Tinnakorn; Dombrowski, Michael; Erez, Offer; Than, Nandor Gabor; Mazaki-Tovi, Shali; Mittal, Pooja; Espinoza, Jimmy; Hassan, Sonia S

2009-01-01

369

Median filter with absolute value norm spatial regularization  

Microsoft Academic Search

We provide a novel formulation for computing median filter with spatial regularization as minimizing a cost function composed of absolute value norms. We turn this cost minimization into an equivalent linear programming (LP) and solve its dual LP as a minimum cost flow (MCF) problem. The MCF is solved over a graph constructed for an input image, and the primal

Nilanjan Ray

2011-01-01

370

Median tests for censored survival data; a contingency table approach.  

PubMed

The median failure time is often utilized to summarize survival data because it has a more straightforward interpretation for investigators in practice than the popular hazard function. However, existing methods for comparing median failure times for censored survival data either require estimation of the probability density function or involve complicated formulas to calculate the variance of the estimates. In this article, we modify a K-sample median test for censored survival data (Brookmeyer and Crowley, 1982, Journal of the American Statistical Association 77, 433-440) through a simple contingency table approach where each cell counts the number of observations in each sample that are greater than the pooled median or vice versa. Under censoring, this approach would generate noninteger entries for the cells in the contingency table. We propose to construct a weighted asymptotic test statistic that aggregates dependent ?(2)-statistics formed at the nearest integer points to the original noninteger entries. We show that this statistic follows approximately a ?(2)-distribution with k-1 degrees of freedom. For a small sample case, we propose a test statistic based on combined p-values from Fisher's exact tests, which follows a ?(2)-distribution with 2 degrees of freedom. Simulation studies are performed to show that the proposed method provides reasonable type I error probabilities and powers. The proposed method is illustrated with two real datasets from phase III breast cancer clinical trials. PMID:23189327

Tang, Shaowu; Jeong, Jong-Hyeon

2012-09-01

371

Iatrogenic selective lesion of the median nerve at the elbow.  

PubMed

A lesion of the median nerve may occur as a consequence of a compression by a haematoma or for a direct damage of the axons caused by a needle insertion. To date, no investigation reported a very selective lesion of the median nerve at the elbow, with the suffering limited only to the fibres for the first digit. A 53 year-old left-handed violinist underwent an arterial blood gas drawing. The patient complained immediately of an electrical shock impression going down the arm, followed by pin sensation into the first finger. A tingling sensation associated with numbness in the first fingertip and difficulty in the index-thumb pinch became progressively evident. The ENG-EMG findings showed an impairment mainly of the sensory fibres innervating the first digit and a drop of the motor action potential amplitude when the nerve was stimulated at the elbow. We reported a very partial lesion of the left median nerve at the elbow in a violinist who had a selective involvement of the fibres for his first digit. Even minimal lesions of the median nerve may impair severely the quality of life of patients. PMID:20514934

Di Fabio, Roberto; Casali, Carlo; Pierelli, Francesco

2010-03-01

372

Transverse sliding of the median nerve beneath the flexor retinaculum.  

PubMed

Transverse sliding of the median nerve beneath the flexor retinaculum during active-resistant flexion of the fingers was sonographically demonstrated. Although it is a physiological phenomenon, it may cause mechanical nerve deformation in addition to longitudinal sliding when the nerve is subject to compression against the flexor retinaculum by tensed overlying flexor tendons. PMID:1588207

Nakamichi, K; Tachibana, S

1992-04-01

373

Electroacupuncture and Acupuncture Promote the Rat's Transected Median Nerve Regeneration  

PubMed Central

Background. Acupuncture and electroacupuncture treatments of damaged nerves may aid nerve regeneration related to hindlimb function, but the effects on the forelimb-related median nerve were not known. Methods. A gap was made in the median nerve of each rat by suturing the stumps into silicone rubber tubes. The influences of acupuncture and electroacupuncture treatments on transected median nerve regeneration were evaluated from morphological, electrophysiological, and functional angles. Results. Morphologically, the group receiving acupuncture and electroacupuncture treatments had larger total nerve area and blood vessel number compared with the controls. Electrophysiologically, the group receiving electroacupuncture had significantly larger amplitude and larger area of the evoked muscle action potentials compared with the controls. Functionally, the acupuncture and electroacupuncture treatments enhanced the injured paw's ability to regain its grasping power and resulted in a faster efficiency to a new bilateral balance. Conclusion. Our findings provide multiapproach evidence of the efficacy of acupuncture and electroacupuncture treatments to the regeneration of median nerve. Indeed, acupuncture and electroacupuncture appear to have positive effects on the regeneration processes. This platform is beneficial to further study the clinical application of acupuncture and electroacupuncture alternative treatments on nerve-injured patients.

Ho, C. Y.; Yao, C. H.; Chen, W. C.; Shen, W. C.; Bau, D. T.

2013-01-01

374

VIEW OF PIEDMONT AVENUE AND MEDIAN. REPLICATING WERNER HEGEMANN PHOTO ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

VIEW OF PIEDMONT AVENUE AND MEDIAN. REPLICATING WERNER HEGEMANN PHOTO TAKEN CIRCA 1909 SEEN FROM TRAFFIC CIRCLE AT CHANNING WAY LOOKING NW. Photograph by Fredrica Drotos and Michael Kelly, July 9, 2006 - Piedmont Way & the Berkeley Property Tract, East of College Avenue between Dwight Way & U.C. Memorial Stadium, Berkeley, Alameda County, CA

375

VIEW OF STONE STAIR DETAIL IN MEDIAN FROM WEST SIDE ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

VIEW OF STONE STAIR DETAIL IN MEDIAN FROM WEST SIDE OF PIEDMONT NORTH OF BANCROFT WAY LOOKING TOWARDS CALIFORNIA MEMORIAL STADIUM TO THE EAST. Photograph by Fredrica Drotos and Michael Kelly, July 16, 2006 - Piedmont Way & the Berkeley Property Tract, East of College Avenue between Dwight Way & U.C. Memorial Stadium, Berkeley, Alameda County, CA

376

Electroacupuncture and Acupuncture Promote the Rat's Transected Median Nerve Regeneration.  

PubMed

Background. Acupuncture and electroacupuncture treatments of damaged nerves may aid nerve regeneration related to hindlimb function, but the effects on the forelimb-related median nerve were not known. Methods. A gap was made in the median nerve of each rat by suturing the stumps into silicone rubber tubes. The influences of acupuncture and electroacupuncture treatments on transected median nerve regeneration were evaluated from morphological, electrophysiological, and functional angles. Results. Morphologically, the group receiving acupuncture and electroacupuncture treatments had larger total nerve area and blood vessel number compared with the controls. Electrophysiologically, the group receiving electroacupuncture had significantly larger amplitude and larger area of the evoked muscle action potentials compared with the controls. Functionally, the acupuncture and electroacupuncture treatments enhanced the injured paw's ability to regain its grasping power and resulted in a faster efficiency to a new bilateral balance. Conclusion. Our findings provide multiapproach evidence of the efficacy of acupuncture and electroacupuncture treatments to the regeneration of median nerve. Indeed, acupuncture and electroacupuncture appear to have positive effects on the regeneration processes. This platform is beneficial to further study the clinical application of acupuncture and electroacupuncture alternative treatments on nerve-injured patients. PMID:23573131

Ho, C Y; Yao, C H; Chen, W C; Shen, W C; Bau, D T

2013-03-12

377

Response in the median plane localization of sound  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the author's earlier study subjects reported that sounds appeared definitely lateral in spite of the fact that they were well aware that the sounds were actually situated in the median plane. The purpose of the present study was to determine whether this phenomenon would appear with regularity if the subject did not know the exact source of the sound.

C. H. Pearce

1937-01-01

378

Multipoint scales: Mean and median differences and observed significance levels  

Microsoft Academic Search

Researchers in human?computer interaction (HCI) often use discrete multipoint scales (such as 5? or 7?point scales) to measure user satisfaction and preference. Many knowledgeable authors state that the median is the appropriate measure of central tendency for such ordinal scales, although others challenge this assertion. This article introduces a new point of view, based on a human factors consideration. When

James R. Lewis

1993-01-01

379

Morphine and endorphins modulate dopamine turnover in rat median eminence.  

PubMed Central

The is evidence that some of the actions of both endogenous and exogenous opioids (e.g., stimulation of prolactin release) are mediated by interaction with catecholaminergic systems. Morphine (1.67, 5, and 15 mg/kg of body weight, intraperitoneally) altered dopamine turnover as measured by the alpha-methyl-p-tyrosine method in the median eminence, neostriatum, and frontal cortex of male Sprague-Dawley rats. The turnover rate of dopamine was reduced in the median eminence and frontal cortex but accelerated in the neostriatum. In the frontal cortex all doses were effective in decreasing dopamine turnover; however, in the median eminence the lowest dose of morphine did not significantly alter dopamine turnover. All three doses accelerated dopamine turnover in the neostriatum. Naloxone effectively reversed the effects of morphine at all doses in all brain areas, whereas it had no effect on turnover when given alone. In the median eminence, neostriatum, and frontal cortex, intraventricular injection of [D-Ala2,D-Leu5]-enkephalin (25 micrograms) or beta-endorphin (15 micrograms) produced the same effects on dopamine turnover as morphine. The actions of these peptides were blocked by naloxone. It is hypothesized that opiates and opioid peptides increase prolactin release by reducing the activity of the tuberoinfundibular dopaminergic system.

Deyo, S N; Swift, R M; Miller, R J

1979-01-01

380

The lumbrical provocation test in subjects with median inclusive paresthesia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Karl AI, Carney ML, Kaul MP. The Lumbrical Provocation Test and discriminating among subjects with median inclusive paresthesia. Arch Phys Med Rehabil 2001;82:935-7. Objective: To investigate the value of the Lumbrical Provocation Test (LPT) in predicting carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS) among patients with symptoms suspicious for CTS. Design: Prospective unigroup technique with blinded comparison of a clinical diagnostic test with

Andrea I. Karl; Maureen L. Carney; Matthew P. Kaul

2001-01-01

381

Text summarization model based on the budgeted median problem  

Microsoft Academic Search

We propose a multi-document generic summarization model based on the budgeted median problem. Our model selects sentences to generate a summary so that every sentence in the document cluster can be assigned to and be represented by a sentence in the summary as much as possible. The advantage of this model is that it covers the entire relevant part of

Hiroya Takamura; Manabu Okumura

2009-01-01

382

Coadaptation of prenatal and postnatal maternal effects.  

PubMed

In a wide variety of species, a female's age of first reproduction influences offspring size and survival, suggesting that there exists an optimal timing of reproduction. Mothers in many species also influence offspring size and survival after birth through variation in parental care. We experimentally separated these effects in the burying beetle Nicrophorus vespilloides to test for coadaptation between prenatal and postnatal maternal effects associated with age at first reproduction. Females that reproduced early produced offspring with lower birth weight. The amount of parental care depended on the age of first reproduction of the caretaker, as did the extent of offspring begging. As predicted for a coadaptation of maternal effects, prenatal and postnatal effects were opposite for different-aged mothers, and larval weight gain and survival was greatest when the age of the caretaker and birth mother matched. Thus, prenatal effects intrinsically associated with age of first reproduction can be ameliorated by innate plasticity in postnatal care. A coadaptation of prenatal and postnatal maternal effects may evolve to allow variable timing of the first reproductive attempt. Such a coadaptation might be particularly valuable when females are constrained from reproducing at an optimal age, as, for example, in species that breed on scarce and unpredictable resources. PMID:17926293

Lock, Judith E; Smiseth, Per T; Moore, Patricia J; Moore, Allen J

2007-09-05

383

The maternal autopsy  

PubMed Central

Careful study of reports prepared for the Confidential Enquiries into Maternal Deaths in England and Wales has made it clear that many maternal autopsy reports are not as informative as they might be. This is, in part at least, because no pathologist who does not work in a maternity unit can expect to see more than a handful of such deaths in a working lifetime. This paper describes briefly the particular features to look for at autopsy, stresses the importance of taking adequate material for histology and discusses some of the more significant histological findings, both of conditions which cause death and of those commonly associated with it. Images

Rushton, DI; Dawson, IMP

1982-01-01

384

Maternal near-miss in a rural hospital in Sudan  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background  Investigation of maternal near-miss is a useful complement to the investigation of maternal mortality with the aim of meeting\\u000a the United Nations' fifth Millennium Development Goal. The present study was conducted to investigate the frequency of near-miss\\u000a events, to calculate the mortality index for each event and to compare the socio-demographic and obstetrical data (age, parity,\\u000a gestational age, education and

AbdelAziem A Ali; Awadia Khojali; Amira Okud; Gamal K Adam; Ishag Adam

2011-01-01

385

Effects of chronic median nerve compression at the wrist on sensation and manual skills.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to analyse the functional impairments caused by chronic median nerve compression at the wrist on hand sensation and manual skill. Hand function was assessed in 11 patients (8 women and 3 men) with severe carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS) and compared with that of an age- and sex-matched control group. Apart from CTS, the subjects were healthy and the electrodiagnostic examination was normal. The pressure and vibration detection thresholds of the index finger were partially impaired and statistically different (P<0.05) when compared with controls, suggesting a reduction of tactile acuity in the territory of the median nerve. The thermal thresholds were identical in both groups, suggesting that the small-diameter fibres were not affected. When a small object was lifted and positioned in space, the coordination between the grip force and the vertical lifting force did not seem to be affected in our patients. They were able to modify their grip force according to the friction between the fingertips and the object, i.e. the more slippery the object, the higher the grip force. The unimanual Purdue Pegboard subtest results suggest that digital dexterity was also not significantly perturbed in our sample of CTS patients when compared with controls. Despite the severe abnormalities of median nerve conduction, our results suggest that chronic median nerve compression occurring in CTS induces partial impairment of tactile sensibility with minor impact on grasp force regulation and digital dexterity. PMID:10473740

Thonnard, J; Saels, P; Van den Bergh, P; Lejeune, T

1999-09-01

386

August median streamflow on ungaged streams in Eastern Coastal Maine  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Methods for estimating August median streamflow were developed for ungaged, unregulated streams in eastern coastal Maine. The methods apply to streams with drainage areas ranging in size from 0.04 to 73.2 square miles and fraction of basin underlain by a sand and gravel aquifer ranging from 0 to 71 percent. The equations were developed with data from three long-term (greater than or equal to 10 years of record) continuous-record streamflow-gaging stations, 23 partial-record streamflow- gaging stations, and 5 short-term (less than 10 years of record) continuous-record streamflow-gaging stations. A mathematical technique for estimating a standard low-flow statistic, August median streamflow, at partial-record streamflow-gaging stations and short-term continuous-record streamflow-gaging stations was applied by relating base-flow measurements at these stations to concurrent daily streamflows at nearby long-term continuous-record streamflow-gaging stations (index stations). Generalized least-squares regression analysis (GLS) was used to relate estimates of August median streamflow at streamflow-gaging stations to basin characteristics at these same stations to develop equations that can be applied to estimate August median streamflow on ungaged streams. GLS accounts for different periods of record at the gaging stations and the cross correlation of concurrent streamflows among gaging stations. Thirty-one stations were used for the final regression equations. Two basin characteristics?drainage area and fraction of basin underlain by a sand and gravel aquifer?are used in the calculated regression equation to estimate August median streamflow for ungaged streams. The equation has an average standard error of prediction from -27 to 38 percent. A one-variable equation uses only drainage area to estimate August median streamflow when less accuracy is acceptable. This equation has an average standard error of prediction from -30 to 43 percent. Model error is larger than sampling error for both equations, indicating that additional or improved estimates of basin characteristics could be important to improved estimates of low-flow statistics. Weighted estimates of August median streamflow at partial- record or continuous-record gaging stations range from 0.003 to 31.0 cubic feet per second or from 0.1 to 0.6 cubic feet per second per square mile. Estimates of August median streamflow on ungaged streams in eastern coastal Maine, within the range of acceptable explanatory variables, range from 0.003 to 45 cubic feet per second or 0.1 to 0.6 cubic feet per second per square mile. Estimates of August median streamflow per square mile of drainage area generally increase as drainage area and fraction of basin underlain by a sand and gravel aquifer increase.

Lombard, Pamela J.

2004-01-01

387

Maternal and cord blood LC-HRMS metabolomics reveal alterations in energy and polyamine metabolism, and oxidative stress in very-low birth weight infants.  

PubMed

To assess the global effect of preterm birth on fetal metabolism and maternal-fetal nutrient transfer, we used a mass spectrometric-based chemical phenotyping approach on cord blood obtained at the time of birth. We sampled umbilical venous, umbilical arterial, and maternal blood from mothers delivering very-low birth weight (VLBW, with a median gestational age and weight of 29 weeks, and 1210 g, respectively) premature or full-term (FT) neonates. In VLBW group, we observed a significant elevation in the levels and maternal-fetal gradients of butyryl-, isovaleryl-, hexanoyl- and octanoyl-carnitines, suggesting enhanced short- and medium chain fatty acid ?-oxidation in human preterm feto-placental unit. The significant decrease in glutamine-glutamate in preterm arterial cord blood beside lower levels of amino acid precursors of Krebs cycle suggest increased glutamine utilization in the fast growing tissues of preterm fetus with a deregulation in placental glutamate-glutamine shuttling. Enhanced glutathione utilization is likely to account for the decrease in precursor amino acids (serine, betaine, glutamate and methionine) in arterial cord blood. An increase in both the circulating levels and maternal-fetal gradients of several polyamines in their acetylated form (diacetylspermine and acetylputrescine) suggests an enhanced polyamine metabolic cycling in extreme prematurity. Our metabolomics study allowed the identification of alterations in fetal energy, antioxidant defense, and polyamines and purines flux as a signature of premature birth. PMID:23527880

Alexandre-Gouabau, Marie-Cécile; Courant, Frédérique; Moyon, Thomas; Küster, Alice; Le Gall, Gwénaëlle; Tea, Illa; Antignac, Jean-Philippe; Darmaun, Dominique

2013-04-04

388

Maternal Insomnia and Children's Family Socialization Environments  

PubMed Central

Study Objectives: To examine concurrent associations between maternal insomnia and different aspects of the family socialization environment. Design: Mothers reported on their symptoms of insomnia in a private standardized interview and interviewers evaluated the family socialization environment using the Coder's Inventory. Setting: Assessments were conducted in participants' homes within the U.K. Patients or Participants: One thousand one hundred sixteen mothers of British children enrolled in the Environmental Risk (E-Risk) study were invited to participate when their children were aged 12 years. Interventions: N/A. Measurements and Results: After controlling for family socioeconomic status (SES), mothers' relationship status, and maternal depression, maternal insomnia was associated with a poorer family socialization environment (? = ?0.10, [95% confidence intervals (CI) = ?0.16, ?0.04], P < 0.001). When family socialization environment subscales were examined, after controlling for family SES, mothers' relationship status, and maternal depression, maternal insomnia was associated with greater chaos (? = 0.09, [95% CI = 0.03, 0.15], P = 0.002), greater child neglect (? = 0.13, [95% CI = 0.07, 0.18], P < 0.001), less happiness (? = ?0.13, [95% CI = ?0.18, ?0.07], P < 0.001), less child stimulation (? = ?0.06, [95% CI = ?0.11, 0.00], P = 0.043), but not poorer state of the home, such as orderliness (? = ?0.04, [95% CI = ?0.10, 0.02], P = 0.182). Conclusions: Maternal insomnia is associated with the family socialization environment. This finding emphasizes the need to consider insomnia in the family context. Citation: Gregory AM; Moffitt TE; Ambler A; Arseneault L; Houts RM; Caspi A. Maternal insomnia and children's family socialization environments. SLEEP 2012;35(4):579-582.

Gregory, Alice M.; Moffitt, Terrie E.; Ambler, Antony; Arseneault, Louise; Houts, Renate M.; Caspi, Avshalom

2012-01-01

389

The median arcuate ligament syndrome: a mimicker of mesenteric vasculitis.  

PubMed

The median arcuate ligament syndrome is an uncommon condition characterized by the triad of postprandial abdominal pain, unintentional weight loss, and an epigastric bruit. This condition is diagnostically challenging and patients often undergo extensive laboratory, radiographic, and invasive evaluations before it is identified. Physicians should consider this syndrome in the differential diagnoses of chronic abdominal pain and mesenteric vasculitis. Once diagnosed, treatment is generally surgical with known predictors of favorable and unfavorable outcomes. Surgical candidates should be selected carefully. We describe the cases of two young active duty patients diagnosed with median arcuate ligament syndrome after suffering from chronic abdominal pain. Both were referred to our rheumatology department to evaluate for mesenteric vasculitis. Each had a different therapeutic outcome. PMID:23929065

Kay, Johnson C; Arroyo, Ramon A

2013-08-01

390

Roundworm-associated median nerve compression: a case report.  

PubMed

Human dirofilariasis is a rare zoonotic infection caused by the bite of a blood-feeding mosquito infected with a filarial nematode (roundworm). these infections can manifest as stationary or migratory subcutaneous or conjunctival nodules. We report an unusual case of Dirofilaria tenuis (D.tenuis) infection that developed into a space- occupying lesion in the wrist leading to median nerve compression pathology in an otherwise healthy young woman. We also comment on the natural history of the disease and report the outcome after surgical excision. To our knowledge, we are the first to report a case of median nerve compression caused by a growing subcutaneous nodule from a D.tenuis infection. PMID:24027489

Ramirez, Jose M; Ramirez, Miguel A; Essilfie, Anthony; Taylor, Cristina E; Stearns, Harry C; Mollano, Anthony

2013-01-01

391

Isolated severe median mononeuropathy caused by a jellyfish sting.  

PubMed

Neuropathies caused by jellyfish stings are extremely rare and poorly studied. A 20-year-old female patient was stung on the volar aspect of the right forearm by an unidentified species of jellyfish. Local cutaneous reaction was followed within few days by severe median mononeuropathy, involving the motor and sensory branches to the hand and forearm but sparing the palmar branch. The patient had neuropathic pain relieved by pregabaline. Electrodiagnostic studies confirmed a demyelinating lesion. Ultrasound and magnetic resonance imaging of the median nerve revealed uniform swelling with mild uptake of contrast along the forearm. Within 2 months, strength improved significantly, pain subsided, and numbness partially resolved. Literature review and discussion of the possible mechanisms and implications of this rare effect of marine animal envenomation is presented. Jellyfish sting may cause focal mononeuropathies most probably because of the local effects of the toxins. PMID:23703015

Al-Ajmi, Abdullah M; Jayappa, Sateesh; Rousseff, Rossen T

2013-06-01

392

Bayesian median regression for temporal gene expression data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Most of the existing methods for the identification of biologically interesting genes in a temporal expression profiling dataset do not fully exploit the temporal ordering in the dataset and are based on normality assumptions for the gene expression. In this paper, we introduce a Bayesian median regression model to detect genes whose temporal profile is significantly different across a number of biological conditions. The regression model is defined by a polynomial function where both time and condition effects as well as interactions between the two are included. MCMC-based inference returns the posterior distribution of the polynomial coefficients. From this a simple Bayes factor test is proposed to test for significance. The estimation of the median rather than the mean, and within a Bayesian framework, increases the robustness of the method compared to a Hotelling T2-test previously suggested. This is shown on simulated data and on muscular dystrophy gene expression data.

Yu, Keming; Vinciotti, Veronica; Liu, Xiaohui; 't Hoen, Peter A. C.

2007-09-01

393

The Association between Early Childhood Overweight and Maternal Factors  

PubMed Central

Abstract Background Early childhood obesity, like other health disparities, disproportionately affects low-income populations. The purpose of this study is to determine the association between maternal sociodemographic factors and child overweight and obesity in a sample of low-income Mexican Americans. Methods The current study is a secondary analysis of baseline data that were collected as part of a longitudinal study of 374 children aged 12–24 months receiving Women, Infants, and Children (WIC) services in a large metropolitan area in central/south Texas. Measures used in this secondary analysis were: Measured weight and height of the child and mother to calculate weight-for-stature and BMI, respectively; maternal sociodemographic variables (age, education, marital status, employment status, and nativity); maternal acculturation level; and child breastfed status. Descriptive statistics are reported as frequencies, percentages, means, and standard deviations (SD). Chi-squared Fisher exact tests assessed differences in maternal factors by child weight (healthy weight and overweight). Odds ratios (OR), 95% confidence intervals (CI), and levels of significance are reported. Results Of the 372 mothers, most were young (mean age 26.1 years, SD=6.1), 47.3% had graduated high school, 33.6% were employed at the time of the study, and 72.1% were U.S. born. No significant differences were observed for the maternal factors by child weight-for-stature z-score. However, maternal BMI statistically differed by child weight. Healthy weight mothers were more likely to have healthy weight children than overweight mothers. Maternal nativity and maternal acculturation were not statistically associated with child weight in this sample of low-income Mexican Americans. Conclusions The findings of the current study reinforce the importance of addressing the influence of maternal sociodemographic factors on child weight, in particular, maternal weight. A more comprehensive investigation of ecological factors' influence on obesity onset and control in young Mexican-American children is needed.

Roncancio, Angelica; Hinojosa, Martha B.; Reifsnider, Elizabeth

2012-01-01

394

The posterior median eyes of the dinopid spider Menneus  

Microsoft Academic Search

The posterior median (pm) eyes of the dinopid spider Menneus unifasciatus L. Koch are described and compared with the pm eyes of Dinopis, which are highly specialised for night vision. The lenses of Menneus have F-numbers of 0.72 compared to 0.58 in Dinopis, the distance between receptors is ca. 4.0 µm compared to 20–22 µm for Dinopis, and image quality

A. D. Blest; D. S. Williams; Ling Kao

1980-01-01

395

Image Clustering with Median and Myriad Spatial Constraint Enhanced FCM  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the current study two approaches to the clustering problem have been tested. First, a sequential analysis of -ltering and\\u000a fuzzy c-means (FCM) method is performed. Then, the standard FCM has been modi-ed by adding to the objective function a second\\u000a term that formulates a spatial constraint. In both approaches mean, median, and myriad are implemented. The analysis has been

Jacek Kawa; Ewa Pietka

2005-01-01

396

Centers and medians of distance-hereditary graphs  

Microsoft Academic Search

A graph is distance-hereditary if the distance between any two vertices in a connected induced subgraph is the same as in the original graph. In this paper, we study metric properties of distance-hereditary graphs. In particular, we determine the structures of centers and medians of distance-hereditary and related graphs. The relations between eccentricity, radius, and diameter of such graphs are

Hong-gwa Yeh; Gerard J. Chang

2003-01-01

397

On rationalizability of choice functions: A characterization of the median  

Microsoft Academic Search

.   In this paper we characterize choice behaviour that picks the median element from a set of feasible alternatives. It is easily\\u000a seen that this choice behaviour violates most of the standard consistency conditions for set contraction and set expansion.\\u000a The paper offers a complete characterization in terms of pure choice function conditions, and contrasts the new axiom set\\u000a with

Wulf Gaertner; Yongsheng Xu

1999-01-01

398

Median sternotomy T incision for thymectomy in myasthenia gravis.  

PubMed

Controversy exists over the surgical approach for thymectomy for myasthenia gravis. Opinion is divided between transcervical thymectomy and transsternal thymectomy performed through a median sternotomy. A technique that combines the advantages of a small, cosmetic T incision with good visualization through a partial sternotomy is presented. We have utilized this technique in more than 35 patients during the past ten years with excellent results. PMID:7138118

Miller, J I; Mansour, K A; Hatcher, C R

1982-10-01

399

Median-Selection for Parallel Steady-State Evolution Strategies  

Microsoft Academic Search

We describe a new selection scheme for steady-state evolution strategies, median selection. In steady-state algorithms, only one individual is generated and evaluated at each step and is immediately integrated into the population. This is especially well suited for parallel fitness evaluation in a multiprocessor environment. Previous steady-state selection schemes resembled (m + l) selection, which has a disadvantage in self-adaptation

Jiirgen Wakunda; Andreas Zell

2000-01-01

400

Maternal thyroid dysfunction during pregnancy and thyroid function of her child in adolescence.  

PubMed

Context: Normal maternal thyroid function is important for fetal development. No knowledge exists on how maternal thyroid function and thyroid antibodies during early pregnancy affect thyroid function of the offspring. Objective: The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between maternal and adolescent thyroid function parameters. Design, Setting, and Participants: A total of 3673 mother-child pairs from the prospective, population-based Northern Finland Birth Cohort 1986 participated in the study. Maternal serum samples were drawn in early pregnancy (<20th gestational week), and children's samples were drawn at the age of 16 years and analyzed for TSH, free T4 (fT4), and thyroid peroxidase antibodies (TPO-Abs). Main Outcome Measures: TSH, fT4, and TPO-Ab concentrations were measured at the age of 16 years. Children of mothers with thyroid dysfunction (hypothyroidism, hyperthyroidism, or hypothyroxinemia) or TPO-Ab positivity were compared to those of euthyroid or TPO-Ab-negative mothers. The distributions are expressed as medians with 5th to 95th percentiles. Results: Boys of hypothyroid mothers had higher TSH concentrations than those of euthyroid mothers: 2.0 (0.9-4.0) vs 1.7 (0.8-3.3) mU/L; P = .001. Children of hyperthyroid mothers had lower TSH concentrations than those of euthyroid mothers: 1.3 (0.6-4.2) vs 1.7 (0.8-3.3) mU/L, P = .013, for boys; and 1.3 (0.5-3.5) vs 1.6 (0.7-3.4) mU/L, P = .034, for girls. There were no differences in TSH or fT4 concentrations between children of hypothyroxinemic and euthyroid mothers. TPO-Ab-positive mothers more often had TPO-Ab-positive children (prevalence, 9.0 vs 3.7% among boys, and 22.7 vs 7.5% among girls). Conclusions: Maternal thyroid dysfunction and TPO-Ab positivity during pregnancy seem to modify thyroid function parameters of offspring even in adolescence. Whether this increases the thyroid disease risk of the children is still unknown. PMID:23408571

Päkkilä, Fanni; Männistö, Tuija; Surcel, Heljä-Marja; Ruokonen, Aimo; Bloigu, Aini; Pouta, Anneli; Hartikainen, Anna-Liisa; Vääräsmäki, Marja; Järvelin, Marjo-Riitta; Suvanto, Eila

2013-02-13

401

Sparse Estimation and Inference for Censored Median Regression  

PubMed Central

Censored median regression has proved useful for analyzing survival data in complicated situations, say, when the variance is heteroscedastic or the data contain outliers. In this paper, we study the sparse estimation for censored median regression models, which is an important problem for high dimensional survival data analysis. In particular, a new procedure is proposed to minimize an inverse-censoring-probability weighted least absolute deviation loss subject to the adaptive LASSO penalty and result in a sparse and robust median estimator. We show that, with a proper choice of the tuning parameter, the procedure can identify the underlying sparse model consistently and has desired large-sample properties including root-n consistency and the asymptotic normality. The procedure also enjoys great advantages in computation, since its entire solution path can be obtained efficiently. Furthermore, we propose a resampling method to estimate the variance of the estimator. The performance of the procedure is illustrated by extensive simulations and two real data applications including one microarray gene expression survival data.

Shows, Justin Hall; Lu, Wenbin; Zhang, Hao Helen

2010-01-01

402

Median recoil direction as a WIMP directional detection signal  

SciTech Connect

Direct detection experiments have reached the sensitivity to detect dark matter weakly interacting massive particles (WIMPs). Demonstrating that a putative signal is due to WIMPs, and not backgrounds, is a major challenge, however. The direction dependence of the WIMP scattering rate provides a potential WIMP 'smoking gun'. If the WIMP distribution is predominantly smooth, the Galactic recoil distribution is peaked in the direction opposite to the direction of Solar motion. Previous studies have found that, for an ideal detector, of order 10 WIMP events would be sufficient to reject isotropy, and rule out an isotropic background. We examine how the median recoil direction could be used to confirm the WIMP origin of an anisotropic recoil signal. Specifically, we determine the number of events required to confirm the direction of solar motion as the median inverse recoil direction at 95% confidence. We find that for zero background 31 events are required, a factor of {approx}2 more than are required to simply reject isotropy. We also investigate the effect of a nonzero isotropic background. As the background rate is increased the number of events required increases, initially fairly gradually and then more rapidly, once the signal becomes subdominant. We also discuss the effect of features in the speed distribution at large speeds, as found in recent high resolution simulations, on the median recoil direction.

Green, Anne M. [School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Nottingham, University Park, Nottingham, NG7 2RD (United Kingdom); Morgan, Ben [Department of Physics, University of Warwick, Coventry, CV4 7AL (United Kingdom)

2010-03-15

403

Nonparametric inference for median costs with censored data.  

PubMed

Increasingly, estimations of health care costs are used to evaluate competing treatments or to assess the expected expenditures associated with certain diseases. In health policy and economics, the primary focus of these estimations has been on the mean cost, because the total cost can be derived directly from the mean cost, and because information about total resources utilized is highly relevant for policymakers. Yet, the median cost also could be important, both as an intuitive measure of central tendency in cost distribution and as a subject of interest to payers and consumers. In many prospective studies, cost data collection is sometimes incomplete for some subjects due to right censoring, which typically is caused by loss to follow-up or by limited study duration. Censoring poses a unique challenge for cost data analysis because of so-called induced informative censoring, in that traditional methods suited for survival data generally are invalid in censored cost estimation. In this article, we propose methods for estimating the median cost and its confidence interval (CI) when data are subject to right censoring. We also consider the estimation of the ratio and difference of two median costs and their CIs. These methods can be extended to the estimation of other quantiles and other informatively censored data. We conduct simulation and real data analysis in order to examine the performance of the proposed methods. PMID:22364557

Zhao, Hongwei; Zuo, Chen; Chen, Shuai; Bang, Heejung

2012-02-24

404

Development of an index of maternal transport.  

PubMed

The authors used a decision-analytic approach to develop a Maternal Transport Index (MTI) from ACOG guidelines for maternal transport. Data were obtained from three questionnaires administered to five perinatologists, practicing in facilities with various casemixes. Each questionnaire was based on a given level of hospital and contained scenarios describing indications for maternal transport. The MTIs, ratios of the logs of the proportions with given outcomes in Level III hospitals relative to Level I (or II) hospitals, ranged from 1.0 to 26.3 for newborn outcomes. They were greater for Level I hospitals (than Level II) and when newborn outcomes included severe disability as well as death. Within gestational age categories, the MTI was generally greatest for active preterm labor and, within complication categories, for 24-26 or 27-31 weeks' gestation. It was large for maternal outcomes only for two rare acute medical conditions. The MTI has potential use in setting priorities for maternal transport. PMID:8433639

Strobino, D M; Frank, R; Oberdorf, M A; Shachtman, R; Kim, Y J; Callan, N; Nagey, D

405

A comparative study of median nerve somatosensory evoked potential in the totally blind and normal subjects.  

PubMed

The totally blind individuals are often considered to be compensated for their visual loss by augmentation in the auditory and tactile perceptions as against the normal sighted individuals. The objective of the present work was to study the somatosensory evoked potentials (SEPs) after median nerve stimulation in the wrist of totally blind and normal sighted individuals. SEPs were recorded after median nerve stimulation in the wrist of 15 Braille reading totally blind females and compared with 15 age matched normal sighted females. Latency and amplitudes of SEPs (N9, N13, and N20) were measured and analyzed statistically. Amplitude of N20 SEP was significantly larger in the totally blind than in normal sighted individuals (P < 0.05). The amplitudes of N9 and N13 SEPs and the latencies of all SEPs showed no significant differences. The congenitally blind individuals have larger N20 amplitude, suggestive of greater somatosensory cortical representation than normal sighted individuals. PMID:19130863

Dayananda, G; Roopakala, M S; Srinivasa, R; Sharma, Rajeev

406

Maternal Antibodies to Pneumolysin but Not to Pneumococcal Surface Protein A Delay Early Pneumococcal Carriage in High-Risk Papua New Guinean Infants?  

PubMed Central

Immunization of pregnant women can be an efficient strategy to induce early protection in infants in developing countries. Pneumococcal protein-based vaccines may have the capacity to induce pneumococcal serotype-independent protection. To understand the potential of maternal pneumococcal protein-specific antibodies in infants in high-risk areas, we studied the placental transfer of naturally acquired antibodies to pneumolysin (Ply) and pneumococcal surface protein A family 1 and 2 (PspA1 and PspA2) in relation to onset of pneumococcal nasopharyngeal carriage in infants in Papua New Guinea (PNG). In this study, 76% of the infants carried Streptococcus pneumoniae in the upper respiratory tract within the first month of life, at a median age of 19 days. Maternal and cord blood antibody titers to Ply (? = 0.824, P < 0.001), PspA1 (? = 0.746, P < 0.001), and PspA2 (? = 0.631, P < 0.001) were strongly correlated. Maternal pneumococcal carriage (hazard ratio [HR], 2.60; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.25 to 5.39) and younger maternal age (HR, 0.74; 95% CI, 0.54 to 1.00) were independent risk factors for early carriage, while higher cord Ply-specific antibody titers predicted a significantly delayed onset (HR, 0.71; 95% CI, 0.52 to 1.00) and cord PspA1-specific antibodies a significantly younger onset of carriage in PNG infants (HR, 1.57; 95% CI, 1.03 to 2.40). Maternal vaccination with a pneumococcal protein-based vaccine should be considered as a strategy to protect high-risk infants against pneumococcal disease by reducing carriage risks in both mothers and infants.

Francis, Jacinta P.; Richmond, Peter C.; Pomat, William S.; Michael, Audrey; Keno, Helen; Phuanukoonnon, Suparat; Nelson, Jan B.; Whinnen, Melissa; Heinrich, Tatjana; Smith, Wendy-Anne; Prescott, Susan L.; Holt, Patrick G.; Siba, Peter M.; Lehmann, Deborah; van den Biggelaar, Anita H. J.

2009-01-01

407

Is Maternal PTSD Associated with Greater Exposure of Very Young Children to Violent Media?  

PubMed Central

This study examined media-viewing by mothers with violence-related posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and related media exposure of their preschool-age children. Mothers (N = 67) recruited from community pediatric clinics participated in a protocol involving a media-preference survey. Severity of maternal PTSD and dissociation were significantly associated with child exposure to violent media. Family poverty and maternal viewing-behavior were also associated. Maternal viewing-behavior mediated the effects specifically of maternal PTSD severity on child exposure. Clinicians should assess maternal and child media viewing practices in families with histories of violent trauma exposure and related psychopathology.

Schechter, Daniel S.; Gross, Anna; Willheim, Erica; McCaw, Jaime; Turner, J. Blake; Myers, Michael M.; Zeanah, Charles H.; Gleason, Mary Margaret

2009-01-01

408

Is maternal PTSD associated with greater exposure of very young children to violent media?  

PubMed

This study examined media viewing by mothers with violence-related posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and related media exposure of their preschool-age children. Mothers (N = 67) recruited from community pediatric clinics participated in a protocol involving a media-preference survey. Severity of maternal PTSD and dissociation were significantly associated with child exposure to violent media. Family poverty and maternal viewing behavior were also associated. Maternal viewing behavior mediated the effects specifically of maternal PTSD severity on child exposure. Clinicians should assess maternal and child media viewing practices in families with histories of violent trauma exposure and related psychopathology. PMID:19924819

Schechter, Daniel S; Gross, Anna; Willheim, Erica; McCaw, Jaime; Turner, J Blake; Myers, Michael M; Zeanah, Charles H; Gleason, Mary Margaret

2009-12-01

409

Maternal Corticosteroid Use and Hypospadias  

PubMed Central

Objective To explore whether women who reported corticosteroid use during pregnancy were more likely to deliver an infant with hypospadias than women who did not. Study design The analysis encompassed data on deliveries with an estimated due date between 1997 and 2004 from the National Birth Defects Prevention Study, a large population-based, case-control study conducted in the United States. Included were 1165 cases of moderate to severe hypospadias and 3000 nonmalformed male controls. Results The mothers of 39 cases (3.3%) and 62 controls (2.1%) reported using a corticosteroid medication during the period extending from 4 weeks before conception to 14 weeks after conception. The odds ratio (OR) for any corticosteroid exposure versus no corticosteroid exposure was 1.6 (95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.1 to 2.5); after adjustment for maternal race/ethnicity, education, age, and study site, it was 1.3 (95% CI = 0.8 to 2.0). Analyses by route of administration and specific component suggest that elevated ORs occurred only for nasal spray/inhaled corticosteroids (OR = 1.5; 95% CI = 0.9 to 2.6). Conclusions Maternal use of corticosteroid medications was weakly associated with risk of hypospadias, but the association was negligible after adjustment for potential confounders.

Carmichael, Suzan L.; Ma, Chen; Werler, Martha M.; Olney, Richard S.; Shaw, Gary M.

2009-01-01

410

Regional differences in maternal mortality in Greece, 1973-1982.  

PubMed

Maternal mortality in the ten regions of Greece during the period 1973-82 is examined. In Greece as a whole, maternal mortality declined from 27.2 per 100,000 livebirths in 1973, to 12.0 in 1982. During these ten years, the age standardized maternal mortality ratios (SMRs) of two regions was significantly raised, Thrace (SMR = 295, 95% CL = 187-443) and the Aegean Islands (SMR = 197, 95% CL = 117-311). Greater Athens was the only region with significantly reduced maternal mortality (SMR = 77, 95% CL = 59-99). In two regions, Thrace and Epirus, maternal mortality increased during the ten years studied. To explore the possible reasons for the observed geographical differences in maternal mortality, data on three sociodemographic and three obstetric service indicators are presented. Regions with the highest proportion of hospital births had the lowest SMRs (p less than 0.05); and it is suggested that cultural factors in the case of Thrace, mainly emanating from the Muslim minority living in this region, and topographical factors, in the case of the Aegean Islands and Epirus, may have influenced maternal mortality by adversely affecting maternity service usage and availability. PMID:3209337

Llongueras, S de S; Kogevinas, M; Roman, E

1988-09-01

411

Mediating Links Between Maternal Childhood Trauma and Preadolescent Behavioral Adjustment  

PubMed Central

Structural equation modeling was used to simultaneously examine maternal psychological distress and social support as mediators linking maternal childhood trauma (MCT) to both maternal and child-reported behavior at 9 years of age in 231 birth mother-child dyads, who were primarily poor, urban, and African American. One half of the mothers (n = 116) reported a history of childhood abuse and neglect. Although MCT was associated with both increased maternal psychological distress and limited social support at 6 years, the pathway to child behavior ratings at 9 years was informant dependent. MCT influenced maternal ratings of her child’s behavior, with some effects mediated through psychological distress. MCT indirectly influenced children’s self-perception of behavior through maternal experience of social support. Maternal ratings and child self-ratings of child behavior problems were moderately correlated. No significant gender interaction was found. Findings suggest a need for understanding trauma histories in the lives of mothers who seek assistance for parenting and child behavior problems, especially in urban low income communities. Interventions targeting both increasing maternal social support and reducing psychological distress may promote competency and resiliency among children for whom MCT poses a risk to optimal development.

Min, Meeyoung O.; Singer, Lynn T.; Minnes, Sonia; Kim, Hyunsoo; Short, Elizabeth

2013-01-01

412

Maternal Cocaine Use and Mother-Toddler Aggression  

PubMed Central

This study examined the direct and indirect associations between maternal cocaine use during pregnancy and mother-toddler aggression in an interactive context at 2 years of child age. We hypothesized that in addition to direct effects of cocaine exposure on maternal and child aggression, the association between maternal cocaine use and mother-toddler aggression may be indirect via higher maternal psychiatric symptoms, negative affect, or poor infant autonomic regulation at 13 months. Participants consisted of 220 (119 cocaine exposed, 101 non-cocaine exposed) mother-toddler dyads participating in an ongoing longitudinal study of prenatal cocaine exposure. Results indicated that mothers who used cocaine during pregnancy displayed higher levels of aggression toward their toddlers compared to mothers in the control group. Results from model testing indicated significant indirect associations between maternal cocaine use and maternal aggression via higher maternal negative affect as well as lower infant autonomic regulation at 13 months. Although there were no direct associations between cocaine exposure and toddler aggression, there was a significant indirect effect via lower infant autonomic regulation at 13 months. Results highlight the importance of including maternal aggression in predictive models of prenatal cocaine exposure examining child aggression. Results also emphasize the important role of infant regulation as a mechanism partially explaining associations between cocaine exposure and mother-toddler aggression.

Eiden, Rina D.; Schuetze, Pamela; Colder, Craig; Veira, Yvette

2011-01-01

413

Effect of Hispanic Ethnicity on Interpretation of Maternal Serum Screening  

Microsoft Academic Search

Maternal serum concentrations of ?-fetoprotein (MSAFP), unconjugated estriol (uE3) and human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) were measured in the sera of 3,046 Hispanic women and of 15,154 Caucasian women from gestational weeks 14 through 20 between January 1990 and December 1995. Median values for analytes were calculated for each gestational week and the two ethnic groups compared. Our findings indicate that

Janice L. B. Byrne; Kim Waller; Esmie Rose; Sherman Elias

1997-01-01

414

Median arcuate ligament syndrome presenting as hemorrhagic shock.  

PubMed

The major symptoms of median arcuate ligament syndrome, celiac axis stenosis, or occlusion compressed by the median arcuate ligament include eating-associated abdominal pain and weight loss. Because celiac stenosis increases retrograde collateral blood flow from the superior mesenteric artery to the celiac artery via the pancreaticoduodenal arcade, a pancreaticoduodenal artery aneurysm could occur at a low incidence rate. Rupture of the pancreaticoduodenal artery aneurysm and hemorrhagic shock are rare. In this report, we present 3 cases of patients who had been well with no abdominal symptoms until the day of admission, when they experienced sudden-onset intra-abdominal hemorrhage and shock. These 3 patients were admitted to the emergency department, and contrast-enhanced computed tomography and radiographic selective catheter angiography revealed intra-abdominal hemorrhage, stenosis of the celiac arteries, and dilated pancreaticoduodenal arcade. Case 1 demonstrated severe hemorrhagic shock, whereas case 2 demonstrated moderate shock. We treated ruptured pancreaticoduodenal artery aneurysms with coil embolization. Case 3 demonstrated complete celiac occlusion and moderate hemorrhagic shock, and no aneurysm was detected. PMID:23688569

Matsumura, Yosuke; Nakada, Taka-aki; Kobe, Yoshiro; Hattori, Noriyuki; Oda, Shigeto

2013-05-18

415

Structure and function of the median finfold in larval teleosts.  

PubMed

This paper offers a structural and mechanical analysis of the median finfold in larval teleosts. The median finfold is strengthened by bundles of collagen fibres, known as actinotrichia. We demonstrate that these structures contribute to increase the mass of backward accelerated water during swimming. The amount, dimensions, orientation and growth of actinotrichia were measured at various locations along the finfold in several developmental stages of common carp (Cyprinus carpio) and zebrafish (Danio rerio). Actinotrichia morphology, using light microscopy (e.g. diameter, orientation) and electron microscopy (which revealed their anchoring at proximal and distal ends), correlated with expected lateral forces exerted on the water during swimming. An analytical model is proposed that predicts the extent of camber from the oblique arrangement of the actinotrichia and curvature of the body. Camber of the finfold during swimming was measured from high-speed video recordings and used to evaluate the model predictions. Based on structural requirements for swimming and strain limits for collagen, the model also predicts optimal orientations of actinotrichia. Experimental data confirm the predictions of the model. PMID:22723474

van den Boogaart, Jos G M; Muller, Mees; Osse, Jan W M

2012-07-15

416

Neural Organization of the Median Ocellus of the Dragonfly  

PubMed Central

Two types of presumed synaptic contacts have been recognized by electron microscopy in the synaptic plexus of the median ocellus of the dragonfly. The first type is characterized by an electron-opaque, button-like organelle in the presynaptic cytoplasm, surrounded by a cluster of synaptic vesicles. Two postsynaptic elements are associated with these junctions, which we have termed button synapses. The second synaptic type is characterized by a dense cluster of synaptic vesicles adjacent to the presumed presynaptic membrane. One postsynaptic element is observed at these junctions. The overwhelming majority of synapses seen in the plexus are button synapses. They are found most commonly in the receptor cell axons where they synaptically contact ocellar nerve dendrites and adjacent receptor cell axons. Button synapses are also seen in the ocellar nerve dendrites where they appear to make synapses back onto receptor axon terminals as well as onto adjacent ocellar nerve dendrites. Reciprocal and serial synaptic arrangements between receptor cell axon terminals, and between receptor cell axon terminals and ocellar nerve dendrites are occasionally seen. It is suggested that the lateral and feedback synapses in the median ocellus of the dragonfly play a role in enhancing transients in the postsynaptic responses.

Dowling, John E.; Chappell, Richard L.

1972-01-01

417

Color demosaicking using deinterlacing and median-based filtering techniques  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Color demosaicking is critical to the image quality of single-sensor-based imaging devices. Caused by the sampling pattern of color filter array (CFA), the demosaicked images typically suffer from visual color artifacts in regions of high frequency and sharp edge structures, degrading the quality of camera output. We present a new high-quality demosaicking algorithm by taking advantage of deinterlacing and median-based filtering techniques. We treat the sampled green data of Bayer CFA as a form of diagonal interlaced green planes and make use of some key concepts about spatial deinterlacing to help the edge estimation in terms of both various directions and accuracy. In addition, a specific edge feature, sharp line edge of width 1 pixel, can also be handed well by the proposed method. The median-based filtering techniques are developed for suppressing most visual demosaicking artifacts, such as zipper effect, false color artifact, and interpolation artifact. Experimental results show that our algorithm is effective in suppressing visual artifacts, preserving the edges of image with sharpness and satisfying visual inspection, while keeping computational efficiency.

Huang, Wen-Tsung; Chen, Wen-Jan; Tai, Shen-Chuan

2010-10-01

418

Plant development:: Medea's maternal instinct  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Arabidopsis MEDEA gene is required in maternal tissues to restrict cell proliferation in embryos. Molecular characterisation indicates that MEDEA encodes a Polycomb-group protein, particularly intriguing as MEDEA's maternal effects may be a consequence of genomic imprinting.

Justin Goodrich

1998-01-01