Sample records for median maternal age

  1. Contemporary Labor Patterns and Maternal Age

    PubMed Central

    ZAKI, Mary N.; HIBBARD, Judith U.; KOMINIAREK, Michelle A.

    2013-01-01

    Objective To evaluate labor progress and length according to maternal age. Methods Data were abstracted from the Consortium on Safe Labor, a multicenter retrospective study from 19 hospitals in the United States. We studied 120,442 laboring gravid women with singleton, term, cephalic fetuses with normal outcomes and without a prior cesarean delivery from 2002 to 2008. Maternal age categories were less than 20 years old, greater than or equal to 20 to less than 30, greater than or equal to 30 to less than 40 and greater than or 40 years old, with the reference being less than 20 years. Interval-censored regression analysis was used to determine median traverse times (progression cm by cm) with 95th percentiles, adjusting for covariates (race, admission body mass index, diabetes, gestational age, induction, augmentation, epidural use and birth weight). A repeated-measures analysis with an eighth-degree polynomial model was used to construct mean labor curves for each maternal age category, stratified by parity. Results Traverse times for nulliparous women demonstrated the time to progress from 4 to 10 cm decreased as age increased up to age 40 (median 8.5 hrs vs. 7.8 hrs in those greater than or equal to 20 to less than 30 year old group and 7.4 hrs in the greater than or equal to 30 to less than 40 year old group, p<0.001); the length of the second stage with and without epidural increased with age (p<0.001). For multiparous women, time to progress from 4 to 10 cm decreased as age increased (median 8.8 hrs, 7.5, 6.7 and 6.5 from the youngest to oldest maternal age groups, p<0.001). Labor progressed faster with increasing maternal age in both nulliparous and multiparous women in the labor curves analysis. Conclusion The first stage of labor progressed more quickly with increasing age for nulliparous up to age 40 and all multiparous women. Contemporary labor management should account for maternal age. PMID:24104787

  2. [Maternal age in the etiology of schizophrenia].

    PubMed

    Halmo, M; Pogády, J; Letko, E

    1991-10-01

    The relationship between maternal age at time of delivery and the incidence of schizophrenia in the offspring was investigated. By the method of regression analysis the value of the regression coefficient was found to be positive, indicating that with an increase of the mean maternal age by one year the incidence of schizophrenia rises in the offspring by 0.68%. Statistical evaluation of the incidence of the disease in the offspring of two age groups of mothers showed that maternal age ranging from 31 to 40 (means = 25.1 y.) was accompanied with a statistically significant increase in the risk of developing schizophrenia in the offspring as compared to maternal age ranging from 18 to 30 year (mean = 25.1 y.). The difference in the incidence of the disease in the offspring of the two age groups was 9.64% (Tab. 1, Fig. 1, Ref. 13). PMID:1809473

  3. Mitochondria, maternal inheritance, and male aging.

    PubMed

    Camus, M Florencia; Clancy, David J; Dowling, Damian K

    2012-09-25

    The maternal transmission of mitochondrial genomes invokes a sex-specific selective sieve, whereby mutations in mitochondrial DNA can only respond to selection acting directly on females. In theory, this enables male-harming mutations to accumulate in mitochondrial genomes when these same mutations are neutral, beneficial, or only slightly deleterious in their effects on females. Ultimately, this evolutionary process could result in the evolution of male-specific mitochondrial mutation loads; an idea previously termed Mother's Curse. Here, we present evidence that the effects of this process are broader than hitherto realized, and that it has resulted in mutation loads affecting patterns of aging in male, but not female Drosophila melanogaster. Furthermore, our results indicate that the mitochondrial mutation loads affecting male aging generally comprise numerous mutations over multiple sites. Our findings thus suggest that males are subject to dramatic consequences that result from the maternal transmission of mitochondrial genomes. They implicate the diminutive mitochondrial genome as a hotspot for mutations that affect sex-specific patterns of aging, thus promoting the idea that a sex-specific selective sieve in mitochondrial genome evolution is a contributing factor to sexual dimorphism in aging, commonly observed across species. PMID:22863313

  4. Maternal Age at Holocaust Exposure and Maternal PTSD Independently Influence Urinary Cortisol Levels in Adult Offspring

    PubMed Central

    Bader, Heather N.; Bierer, Linda M.; Lehrner, Amy; Makotkine, Iouri; Daskalakis, Nikolaos P.; Yehuda, Rachel

    2014-01-01

    Background: Parental traumatization has been associated with increased risk for the expression of psychopathology in offspring, and maternal posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) appears to increase the risk for the development of offspring PTSD. In this study, Holocaust-related maternal age of exposure and PTSD were evaluated for their association with offspring ambient cortisol and PTSD-associated symptom expression. Method: Ninety-five Holocaust offspring and Jewish comparison subjects received diagnostic and psychological evaluations, and 24?h urinary cortisol was assayed by RIA. Offspring completed the parental PTSD questionnaire to assess maternal PTSD status. Maternal Holocaust exposure was identified as having occurred in childhood, adolescence, or adulthood and examined in relation to offspring psychobiology. Results: Urinary cortisol levels did not differ for Holocaust offspring and comparison subjects but differed significantly in offspring based on maternal age of exposure and maternal PTSD status. Increased maternal age of exposure and maternal PTSD were each associated with lower urinary cortisol in offspring, but did not exhibit a significant interaction. In addition, offspring PTSD-associated symptom severity increased with maternal age at exposure and PTSD diagnosis. A regression analysis of correlates of offspring cortisol indicated that both maternal age of exposure and maternal PTSD were significant predictors of lower offspring urinary cortisol, whereas childhood adversity and offspring PTSD symptoms were not. Conclusion: Offspring low cortisol and PTSD-associated symptom expression are related to maternal age of exposure, with the greatest effects associated with increased age at exposure. These effects are relatively independent of the negative consequences of being raised by a trauma survivor. These observations highlight the importance of maternal age of exposure in determining a psychobiology in offspring that is consistent with increased risk for stress-related pathology. PMID:25071719

  5. Maternal caloric restriction partially rescues the deleterious effects of advanced maternal age on offspring

    PubMed Central

    Gribble, Kristin E; Jarvis, George; Bock, Martha; Mark Welch, David B

    2014-01-01

    While many studies have focused on the detrimental effects of advanced maternal age and harmful prenatal environments on progeny, little is known about the role of beneficial non-Mendelian maternal inheritance on aging. Here, we report the effects of maternal age and maternal caloric restriction (CR) on the life span and health span of offspring for a clonal culture of the monogonont rotifer Brachionus manjavacas. Mothers on regimens of chronic CR (CCR) or intermittent fasting (IF) had increased life span compared with mothers fed ad libitum (AL). With increasing maternal age, life span and fecundity of female offspring of AL-fed mothers decreased significantly and life span of male offspring was unchanged, whereas body size of both male and female offspring increased. Maternal CR partially rescued these effects, increasing the mean life span of AL-fed female offspring but not male offspring and increasing the fecundity of AL-fed female offspring compared with offspring of mothers of the same age. Both maternal CR regimens decreased male offspring body size, but only maternal IF decreased body size of female offspring, whereas maternal CCR caused a slight increase. Understanding the genetic and biochemical basis of these different maternal effects on aging may guide effective interventions to improve health span and life span. PMID:24661622

  6. Maternal caloric restriction partially rescues the deleterious effects of advanced maternal age on offspring.

    PubMed

    Gribble, Kristin E; Jarvis, George; Bock, Martha; Mark Welch, David B

    2014-08-01

    While many studies have focused on the detrimental effects of advanced maternal age and harmful prenatal environments on progeny, little is known about the role of beneficial non-Mendelian maternal inheritance on aging. Here, we report the effects of maternal age and maternal caloric restriction (CR) on the life span and health span of offspring for a clonal culture of the monogonont rotifer Brachionus manjavacas. Mothers on regimens of chronic CR (CCR) or intermittent fasting (IF) had increased life span compared with mothers fed ad libitum (AL). With increasing maternal age, life span and fecundity of female offspring of AL-fed mothers decreased significantly and life span of male offspring was unchanged, whereas body size of both male and female offspring increased. Maternal CR partially rescued these effects, increasing the mean life span of AL-fed female offspring but not male offspring and increasing the fecundity of AL-fed female offspring compared with offspring of mothers of the same age. Both maternal CR regimens decreased male offspring body size, but only maternal IF decreased body size of female offspring, whereas maternal CCR caused a slight increase. Understanding the genetic and biochemical basis of these different maternal effects on aging may guide effective interventions to improve health span and life span. PMID:24661622

  7. Brief Report: Effect of Maternal Age on Severity of Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baxter, Alisa C.; Lotspeich, Linda J.; Spiker, Donna; Martin, Jacquelin L.; Grether, Judith K.; Hallmayer, Joachim F.

    2007-01-01

    The etiology of autism is complex, consisting of unknown genetic and environmental factors. Previous studies have revealed that maternal age is increased in autism compared to controls, making it a possible risk factor. This study examined the effects of maternal age on autism severity using IQ as a measure of cognitive severity and selected…

  8. Stability of Maternal Autonomy Support between Infancy and Preschool Age

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matte-Gagne, Celia; Bernier, Annie; Gagne, Christine

    2013-01-01

    The goals of this article were to examine (1) the relative and absolute stability of maternal autonomy support between infancy and preschool age, and (2) the moderating role of child gender, maternal attachment state of mind, and stressful life events. Sixty-nine mother-child dyads participated in five visits when the child was 8, 15, and 18…

  9. Maternal age, birth order, and race: differential effects on birthweight

    PubMed Central

    Swamy, Geeta K; Edwards, Sharon; Gelfand, Alan; James, Sherman A; Miranda, Marie Lynn

    2014-01-01

    Background Studies examining the influence of maternal age and birth order on birthweight have not effectively disentangled the relative contributions of each factor to birthweight, especially as they may differ by race. Methods A population-based, cross-sectional study of North Carolina births from 1999 to 2003 was performed. Analysis was restricted to 510 288 singleton births from 28 to 42 weeks’ gestation with no congenital anomalies. Multivariable linear regression was used to model maternal age and birth order on birthweight, adjusting for infant sex, education, marital status, tobacco use and race. Results Mean birthweight was lower for non-Hispanic black individuals (NHB, 3166 g) compared with non-Hispanic white individuals (NHW, 3409 g) and Hispanic individuals (3348 g). Controlling for covariates, birthweight increased with maternal age until the early 30s. Race-specific modelling showed that the upper extremes of maternal age had a significant depressive effect on birthweight for NHW and NHB (35+ years, p<0.001), but only age less than 25 years was a significant contributor to lower birthweights for Hispanic individuals, p<0.0001. Among all racial subgroups, birth order had a greater influence on birthweight than maternal age, with the largest incremental increase from first to second births. Among NHB, birth order accounted for a smaller increment in birthweight than for NHW and Hispanic women. Conclusion Birth order exerts a greater influence on birthweight than maternal age, with signficantly different effects across racial subgroups. PMID:21081308

  10. Brief Report: Effect of Maternal Age on Severity of Autism

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Alisa C. Baxter; Linda J. Lotspeich; Donna Spiker; Jacquelin L. Martin; Judith K. Grether; Joachim F. Hallmayer

    2007-01-01

    The etiology of autism is complex, consisting of unknown genetic and environmental factors. Previous studies have revealed\\u000a that maternal age is increased in autism compared to controls, making it a possible risk factor. This study examined the effects\\u000a of maternal age on autism severity using IQ as a measure of cognitive severity and selected subtests of the Child Behavior\\u000a Checklist

  11. Maternal self-confidence postpartum and at pre-school age: the role of depression, anxiety disorders, maternal attachment insecurity.

    PubMed

    Zietlow, Anna-Lena; Schlüter, Myriam Kim; Nonnenmacher, Nora; Müller, Mitho; Reck, Corinna

    2014-10-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze the impact of maternal postpartum depression and/or anxiety disorders according to DMS-IV on maternal self-confidence throughout infancy and early childhood. Exploratively, associations between maternal attachment insecurity and maternal self-confidence at pre-school age were examined. The sample (N = 54) of this prospective longitudinal study was comprised of n = 27 women with postpartum depression and/or anxiety disorders according to DSM-IV criteria and n = 27 healthy women without present or history of mental health disorders or psychotherapy. Data was collected in the postpartum period (M = 60.08 days) and at pre-school age (M = 4.7 years). Subjects were recruited between 2004 and 2011 in South Germany. Data revealed a significant difference in maternal self-confidence between clinical and control group at child's pre-school age: Women with postpartum depression and/or anxiety disorder scored lower on maternal self-confidence than healthy controls, but only if they had current SCID-diagnoses or partly remitted symptoms. According to explorative analyses maternal attachment insecurity turned out to be the strongest predictor of maternal self-confidence at pre-school age besides maternal mental health status. The results emphasize the impact of attachment insecurity and maternal mental health regarding maternal self-confidence leading to potential adverse long-term consequences for the mother-child relationship. Attachment based interventions taking maternal self-confidence into account are needed. PMID:24474591

  12. SOME ANALYTICAL MODELS TO ESTIMATE MATERNAL AGE AT BIRTH USING AGE-SPECIFIC FERTILITY RATES

    Microsoft Academic Search

    ARVIND PANDEY; C. M. SUCHINDRAN

    1995-01-01

    SUMMARY. A class of analytical models to study the distribution of maternal age at different births from the data on age-specific fertility rates has been presented. Deriving the distributions and means of maternal age at birth of any specific order, final parity and at next-to-last birth, we have extended the approach to estimate parity progression ratios and the ultimate parity

  13. Advanced maternal age in Indian children with thyroid dysgenesis

    PubMed Central

    Dayal, Devi; Sindhuja, L; Bhattacharya, Anish; Bharti, Bhavneet

    2015-01-01

    Abstract A retrospective review of medical records of 80 children with thyroid dysgenesis (TD) was conducted to determine the association of gender and maternal age with TD. The study subjects were attending the Pediatric Endocrinology Clinic of our hospital which is a large tertiary care Multispecialty Pediatric Center located in Chandigarh, Northwest India. There were no gender differences (boys to girls’ ratio 1:1). Mean maternal age of 25.87 ± 4.17 yrs (range 19–35 yrs) was significantly higher as compared to the mean maternal age of 23.87 ± 3.34 yrs (range 18–39 yrs) of a reference group (p < 0.0001). Odds of being older than 30 yrs were higher in mothers of children with TD as compared to mothers of normal children (OR 3.23; 95% CI: 1.54–6.44) (p-value 0.0003). In conclusion, our data shows that advanced maternal age is more prevalent in children with TD. PMID:26019402

  14. Advanced maternal age in Indian children with thyroid dysgenesis.

    PubMed

    Dayal, Devi; Sindhuja, L; Bhattacharya, Anish; Bharti, Bhavneet

    2015-04-01

    A retrospective review of medical records of 80 children with thyroid dysgenesis (TD) was conducted to determine the association of gender and maternal age with TD. The study subjects were attending the Pediatric Endocrinology Clinic of our hospital which is a large tertiary care Multispecialty Pediatric Center located in Chandigarh, Northwest India. There were no gender differences (boys to girls' ratio 1:1). Mean maternal age of 25.87 ± 4.17 yrs (range 19-35 yrs) was significantly higher as compared to the mean maternal age of 23.87 ± 3.34 yrs (range 18-39 yrs) of a reference group (p < 0.0001). Odds of being older than 30 yrs were higher in mothers of children with TD as compared to mothers of normal children (OR 3.23; 95% CI: 1.54-6.44) (p-value 0.0003). In conclusion, our data shows that advanced maternal age is more prevalent in children with TD. PMID:26019402

  15. Maternal age and risk of labor and delivery complications.

    PubMed

    Cavazos-Rehg, Patricia A; Krauss, Melissa J; Spitznagel, Edward L; Bommarito, Kerry; Madden, Tessa; Olsen, Margaret A; Subramaniam, Harini; Peipert, Jeffrey F; Bierut, Laura Jean

    2015-06-01

    We utilized an updated nationally representative database to examine associations between maternal age and prevalence of maternal morbidity during complications of labor and delivery. We used hospital inpatient billing data from the 2009 United States Nationwide Inpatient Sample, part of the Healthcare Cost and Utilization Project. To determine whether the likelihood that maternal morbidity during complications of labor and delivery differed among age groups, separate logistic regression models were run for each complication. Age was the main independent variable of interest. In analyses that controlled for demographics and clinical confounders, we found that complications with the highest odds among women, 11-18 years of age, compared to 25-29 year old women, included preterm delivery, chorioamnionitis, endometritis, and mild preeclampsia. Pregnant women who were 15-19 years old had greater odds for severe preeclampsia, eclampsia, postpartum hemorrhage, poor fetal growth, and fetal distress. Pregnant women who were ?35 years old had greater odds for preterm delivery, hypertension, superimposed preeclampsia, severe preeclampsia, and decreased risk for chorioamnionitis. Older women (?40 years old) had increased odds for mild preeclampsia, fetal distress, and poor fetal growth. Our findings underscore the need for pregnant women to be aware of the risks associated with extremes of age so that they can watch for signs and symptoms of such complications. PMID:25366100

  16. Selenium and maternal blood pressure during childbirth

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ellen M Wells; Lynn R Goldman; Jeffery M Jarrett; Benjamin J Apelberg; Julie B Herbstman; Kathleen L Caldwell; Rolf U Halden; Frank R Witter

    2012-01-01

    Evidence suggests selenium concentrations outside the nutritional range may worsen cardiovascular health. This paper examines the relationship between selenium and maternal blood pressure (BP) among 270 deliveries using umbilical cord serum as a proxy for maternal exposure levels. Multivariable models used linear splines for selenium and controlled for gestational age, maternal age, race, median household income, parity, smoking, and prepregnancy

  17. Escape from crossover interference increases with maternal age

    PubMed Central

    Campbell, Christopher L.; Furlotte, Nicholas A.; Eriksson, Nick; Hinds, David; Auton, Adam

    2015-01-01

    Recombination plays a fundamental role in meiosis, ensuring the proper segregation of chromosomes and contributing to genetic diversity by generating novel combinations of alleles. Here, we use data derived from direct-to-consumer genetic testing to investigate patterns of recombination in over 4,200 families. Our analysis reveals a number of sex differences in the distribution of recombination. We find the fraction of male events occurring within hotspots to be 4.6% higher than for females. We confirm that the recombination rate increases with maternal age, while hotspot usage decreases, with no such effects observed in males. Finally, we show that the placement of female recombination events appears to become increasingly deregulated with maternal age, with an increasing fraction of events observed within closer proximity to each other than would be expected under simple models of crossover interference. PMID:25695863

  18. Can we define maternal age as a genetic disease?

    PubMed

    Wilding, M

    2014-01-01

    >Maternal age is strongly associated with a decrease in the probability of achieving pregnancy and the birth of a healthy child. Among current theories of the mechanism of this decrease is the hypothesis that a progressive degeneration of the respiratory capacity of mitochondria in eggs of women of advanced age leads to an energy deficit and consequent secondary effects on the oocyte and developing embryo. Mitochondria are uniquely inherited through the female germ line and these organelles contain DNA sequences that are independent from the genome. It is therefore possible that offspring born to females of advanced age inherit suboptimal mitochondria and that these persist throughout the life of the new being. This could in turn lead to long-term consequences for the offspring of females of advanced age such as a reduced potential lifespan in relation to the age of the mother at conception. In this review and hypothesis, we discuss the evidence relating to this theory and suggest that on this basis the maternal age effect could be classified as an inheritable genetic disease. PMID:25009733

  19. Pregnancy, Maternal Tobacco Smoking, and Early Age Leukemia in Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Ferreira, Jeniffer Dantas; Couto, Arnaldo Cézar; Pombo-de-Oliveira, Maria S.; Koifman, Sergio

    2012-01-01

    Background: Cigarette smoking has been associated with acute myeloid leukemia (AML) but hypothesis on the association between maternal smoking during pregnancy and childhood leukemia remains unclear. Objectives: To investigate the association between maternal exposure to tobacco smoking during pregnancy and early age (<2?year) leukemia (EAL). Methods: A hospital-based multicenter case-control study aiming to explore EAL risk factors was carried out in Brazil during 1999–2007. Data were collected by direct interview with the biological mothers using a standardized questionnaire. The present study included 675 children (193 acute lymphoid leukemia – ALL, 59 AML and 423 controls), being the latter age frequency matched and paired by area of residence with the cases. Unconditional logistic regression was performed, and odds ratios (OR) on the association between tobacco smoking (3?months before pregnancy, during pregnancy, and 3?months after delivery) and EAL were ascertained after adjustment for selected variables (maternal age at birth and education, birth weight, infant skin color, and oral contraceptives use during pregnancy). Results: Smoking was reported by 17.5% of case mothers and 20.6% of controls. Among women who reported to have smoked 20 or more cigarettes during the index pregnancy, an adjusted OR?=?5.28 (95% CI 1.40–19.95) for ALL was observed. Heavy smoking during breastfeeding yielded an adjusted risk estimate for ALL, OR?=?7.78 (95% CI 1.33–45.5). No dose-response effect was observed according to smoking exposure during pregnancy and EAL. An association between secondhand smoking during pregnancy or breastfeeding was not observed. Conclusion: An association between maternal smoking and EAL in the offspring was restricted to women who have reported an intense exposure to tobacco smoke during pregnancy and breastfeeding. PMID:23162789

  20. VARIABILITY IN MEDIAN SIZE AND AGE AT SEXUAL MATURITY OF ATLANTIC COD, GADUS MORHUA, ON THE SCOTIAN SHELF IN

    E-print Network

    VARIABILITY IN MEDIAN SIZE AND AGE AT SEXUAL MATURITY OF ATLANTIC COD, GADUS MORHUA, ON THE SCOTIAN maturity of Atlantic cod on the Scotian Shelf declined about 50% in most stocks between 1959 and 1979. Atlantic cod in more northerly stocks matured at older ages than did those in more southerly stocks. Males

  1. Influence of maternal age at delivery and birth order on risk of type 1 diabetes in childhood: prospective population based family study

    PubMed Central

    Bingley, Polly J; Douek, Isabelle F; Rogers, Christine A; Gale, Edwin A M

    2000-01-01

    Objectives To examine the influence of parental age at delivery and birth order on subsequent risk of childhood diabetes. Design Prospective population based family study. Setting Area formerly administered by the Oxford Regional Health Authority. Participants 1375 families in which one child or more had diabetes. Of 3221 offspring, 1431 had diabetes (median age at diagnosis 10.5 years, range 0.4-28.5) and 1790 remained non-diabetic at a median age of 16.1 years. Main outcome measures Disease free survival and hazard ratios for the development of type 1 diabetes in all offspring, assessed by Cox proportional hazard regression. Results Maternal age at delivery was strongly related to risk of type 1 diabetes in the offspring; risk increased by 25% (95% confidence interval 17% to 34%) for each five year band of maternal age, so that maternal age at delivery of 45 years or more was associated with a relative risk of 3.11 (2.07 to 4.66) compared with a maternal age of less than 20 years. Paternal age was also associated with a 9% (3% to 16%) increase for each five year increase in paternal age. The relative risk of diabetes, adjusted for parental age at delivery and sex of offspring, decreased with increasing birth order; the overall effect was a 15% risk reduction (10% to 21%) per child born. Conclusions A strong association was found between increasing maternal age at delivery and risk of diabetes in the child. Risk was highest in firstborn children and decreased progressively with higher birth order. The fetal environment seems to have a strong influence on risk of type 1 diabetes in the child. The increase in maternal age at delivery in the United Kingdom over the past two decades could partly account for the increase in incidence of childhood diabetes over this period. PMID:10938050

  2. Maternal Effects Underlie Ageing Costs of Growth in the Zebra Finch (Taeniopygia guttata)

    E-print Network

    Boyer, Edmond

    Maternal Effects Underlie Ageing Costs of Growth in the Zebra Finch (Taeniopygia guttata) Mathilde, recent data in zebra finch chicks suggested that ageing related-processes (i.e. oxidative stress data describing the effect of maternal effects on the growth-ageing trade-off in offspring. Here, we

  3. Maternal age at first birth and adolescent education in Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Marteleto, Letícia J.; Dondero, Molly

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND Brazil has witnessed dramatic changes in its fertility patterns in recent decades. The decline to below-replacement fertility has been accompanied by increases in the proportion of children born to young mothers. Yet we know little about the well-being of children born to young mothers in Brazil. OBJECTIVE and METHODS Using data from the 2006 Pesquisa Nacional de Demografia e Saúde and a quasi-natural experimental approach, this study examines the implications of maternal age at first birth for the education of Brazilian adolescents. RESULTS We find that being born to a young mother is associated with educational disadvantages in adolescence, but that these disadvantages are attenuated once we account for mothers’ selection into early childbearing. We also find that, in southern Brazil, adolescents born to young mothers have poorer educational outcomes compared with their peers born to older mothers, but that in northern Brazil no such disparities exist. CONCLUSIONS Adolescent educational disadvantages associated with being born to a young mother are not an artifact of selectivity, at least in southern Brazil. Regional variation in the effect of maternal age at first birth on adolescent education suggests the important role of the extended family and the father’s presence as mechanisms through which disadvantages operate. PMID:24382945

  4. Maternal age at child birth, birth order, and suicide at a young age: a sibling comparison.

    PubMed

    Bjørngaard, Johan Håkon; Bjerkeset, Ottar; Vatten, Lars; Janszky, Imre; Gunnell, David; Romundstad, Pål

    2013-04-01

    Previous studies have reported strong associations between birth order, maternal age, and suicide, but these results might have been confounded by socioeconomic and other factors. To control for such factors, we compared suicide risk between siblings and studied how maternal age at child birth and birth order influenced risk in a cohort study of 1,690,306 Norwegians born in 1967-1996 who were followed up until 2008. Using stratified Cox regression, we compared suicide risk within families with 2 or more children in which one died from suicide. Altogether, 3,005 suicides occurred over a mean follow-up period of 15 years; 2,458 of these suicides occurred among 6,741 siblings within families of 2 or more siblings. Among siblings, a higher position in the birth order was positively associated with risk; each increase in birth order was associated with a 46% (adjusted hazard ratio = 1.46, 95% confidence interval: 1.29, 1.66) higher risk of suicide. For each 10-year increase in maternal age at child birth, the offspring's suicide risk was reduced by 57% (adjusted hazard ratio = 0.43, 95% confidence interval: 0.30, 0.62). Our study suggests that confounding due to familial factors is not likely to explain the associations of birth order and maternal age at child birth with suicide risk. PMID:23479347

  5. Weight Gain in Pregnancy, Maternal Age and Gestational Age in Relation to Fetal Macrosomia

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yi; Liu, Qi-Fei; Zhang, Dan; Shen, Ying; Ye, Kui; Lai, Han-Lin; Wang, Hai-Qing; Hu, Chuan-Lai; Zhao, Qi-Hong

    2015-01-01

    To investigate the possible risk factors related to macrosomia. Pregnant women and their newborns (n = 1041) were recruited from a cohort study in Maternal and Child Care Center of Hefei from January 2011 to July 2012. Questionnaires were applied to collect the demographic data besides the medical records. Detailed health records of the entire pregnancy were obtained using retrospective study. Meanwhile the data of neonatal outcomes was prospectively tracked. Associations between exposure risk factors and macrosomia were analyzed using Pearson's chi squared test. Logistic regression models were used to assess the independent association between these potential predictors and macrosomia. The incidence of macrosomia of this cohort was 11.24% of which male: female = 2.55:1. Male incidence (8.07%) of macrosomia was higher than female (3.17%), p < 0.001. Body mass index (BMI) before pregnancy (pre-BMI), maternal height, parity were not independently associated with macrosomia; multiple logistic regression analysis indicated that macrosomia was mainly independently associated with weight gain in pregnancy (OR=1.14, 95% CI [1.10-1.19]), maternal age (OR = 1.09, 95% CI [1.03-1.15]) and gestational age (OR = 1.62, 95% CI [1.31-1.99]), respectively. Our findings indicate that weight gain in pregnancy, maternal age and gestational age should be considered as independent risk factors for macrosomia. PMID:25954731

  6. Early maternal sensitivity and child behaviour at toddler age: Does low maternal sensitivity hinder identification of behavioural problems?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kaarina Kemppinen; Hanna Ebeling; Leila Paavola; Irma Moilanen; Kirsti Kumpulainen

    2007-01-01

    In our well?baby clinic study, we investigated how early maternal sensitivity predicted child behaviour two years later. On the basis of the early (6–8 weeks) maternal sensitivity (the CARE?Index I), 74 dyads were divided into the groups ‘good enough’ (73.0%), ‘moderate problems’ (13.5%) and ‘at risk’ (13.5%). At child age of 24 months, the mother–child interactive style was assessed using

  7. Inbreeding depression increases with maternal age in a seed-feeding beetle

    E-print Network

    Fox, Charles W.

    Inbreeding depression increases with maternal age in a seed-feeding beetle Charles W. Fox 1 on inbreeding depression in offspring has been almost entirely neglected. Maternal age affects allocation-lasting effects on population dynamics and evolutionary trajectories. Hypothesis: Inbreeding depression

  8. Growth curve analyses of the relationship between early maternal age and children's mathematics and reading performance.

    PubMed

    Torres, D Diego

    2015-03-01

    Regarding the methods used to examine the early maternal age-child academic outcomes relationship, the extant literature has tended to examine change using statistical analyses that fail to appreciate that individuals vary in their rates of growth. Of the one study I have been able to find that employs a true growth model to estimate this relationship, the authors only controlled for characteristics of the maternal household after family formation; confounding background factors of mothers that might select them into early childbearing, a possible source of bias, were ignored. The authors' findings nonetheless suggested an inverse relationship between early maternal age, i.e., a first birth between the ages of 13 and 17, and Canadian adolescents' mean math performance at age 10. Early maternal age was not related to the linear slope of age. To elucidate whether the early maternal age-child academic outcomes association, treated in a growth context, is consistent with this finding, the present study built on it using US data and explored children's mathematics and reading trajectories from age 5 on. Its unique contribution is that it further explicitly controlled for maternal background factors and employed a three-level growth model with repeated measures of children nested within their mothers. Though the strength of the relationship varied between mean initial academic performance and mean academic growth, results confirmed that early maternal age was negatively related to children's mathematics and reading achievement, net of post-teen first birth child-specific and maternal household factors. Once maternal background factors were included, there was no statistically significant relationship between early maternal age and either children's mean initial mathematics and reading scores or their mean mathematics and reading growth. PMID:25592941

  9. Maternal patterns of postpartum alcohol consumption by age: a longitudinal analysis of adult urban mothers.

    PubMed

    Liu, Weiwei; Mumford, Elizabeth A; Petras, Hanno

    2015-04-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate a) longitudinal patterns of maternal postpartum alcohol use as well as its variation by maternal age at child birth and b) within maternal age groups, the association between other maternal characteristics and alcohol use patterns for the purposes of informed prevention design. Study sample consists of 3397 mothers from the Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing Study representing medium and large US urban areas. Maternal drinking and binge drinking were measured at child age 1, 3, and 5 years. We conducted separate longitudinal latent class analysis within each of the three pre-determined maternal age groups (ages 20-25, n?=?1717; ages 26-35, n?=?1367; ages 36+, n?=?313). Results revealed different class structures for maternal age groups. While two classes (NB [non-binge]-drinkers and LL [low-level]-drinkers) were identified for mothers in each age group, a third class (binge drinkers) was separately distinguished for the two older age groups. Whereas binge drinking rates appear to remain stable over the 5 years postdelivery for mothers who gave birth in their early twenties, mothers ages 26 and older increasingly engaged in binge drinking over time, surpassing the binge drinking behavior of younger mothers. Depression significantly increases the odds of being a NB-drinker for the 20-25 age group and that of being a binge drinker for the 36+ age group, whereas smoking during pregnancy is associated with subsequent binge drinking only for mothers ages 20-25. Findings highlight the importance of distinguishing risk factors by maternal age groups for drinking while parenting a young child, to inform the design of intervention strategies tailored to mothers of particular ages. PMID:25344349

  10. Maternal patterns of postpartum alcohol consumption by age: A longitudinal analysis of adult urban mothers

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Weiwei; Mumford, Elizabeth A.; Petras, Hanno

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate a) longitudinal patterns of maternal postpartum alcohol use as well as its variation by maternal age at child birth; b) within maternal age groups, the association between other maternal characteristics and alcohol use patterns for the purposes of informed prevention design. Study sample consists of 3,397 mothers from the Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing Study representing medium and large U.S. urban areas. Maternal drinking and binge drinking were measured at child age one, three, and five years. We conducted separate longitudinal latent class analysis within each of the three pre-determined maternal age groups (ages 20–25: n=1,717; ages 26–35: n=1,367; ages 36+: n=313). Results revealed different class structures for maternal age groups. While two classes (NB [non-binge]-drinkers and LL [low-level]-drinkers) were identified for mothers in each age group, a third class (binge drinkers) was separately distinguished for the two older age groups. Whereas binge drinking rates appear to remain stable over the five years post-delivery for mothers who gave birth in their early twenties, mothers ages 26 and older increasingly engaged in binge drinking over time, surpassing the binge drinking behavior of younger mothers. Depression significantly increases the odds of being a NB-drinker for the 20–25 age group and that of being a binge drinker for the 36+ age group, whereas smoking during pregnancy is associated with subsequent binge drinking only for mothers ages 20–25. Findings highlight the importance of distinguishing risk factors by maternal age groups for drinking while parenting a young child, to inform the design of intervention strategies tailored to mothers of particular ages. PMID:25344349

  11. Mother–child disagreement in reports of child anxiety: Effects of child age and maternal anxiety

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Laura A. Niditch; R. Enrique Varela

    2011-01-01

    The present study examined effects of maternal anxiety, child age, and their interaction on mother–child anxiety reporting disagreement while taking into account the direction of each informant's report relative to the other. Participants were 41 dyads of mothers and clinically anxious children aged 7–13. A hierarchical regression revealed a significant interaction between maternal anxiety and child age (?=.30, p<.05). A

  12. Changes in the kinetics of ( sup 3 H)dopamine release from median eminence and striatal synaptosomes during aging

    SciTech Connect

    Gregerson, K.A.; Selmanoff, M. (Univ. of Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore (USA))

    1990-01-01

    The release of preaccumulated tritium-labeled dopamine was examined in isolated nerve terminals prepared from the median eminence (ME) and corpus striatum (CS) of young, middle-aged, and old male rats. Fractional release of (3H)DA was measured over 1- to 10-sec time intervals under basal and depolarizing conditions in the presence of calcium. No differences in the rate of basal efflux between the age groups were observed in either ME or CS preparations. Fast-phase evoked (3H)DA release from CS synaptosomes was unchanged from young to middle-aged, but was decreased in old preparations. These data demonstrate that the nigrostriatal nerve terminal has a diminished ability to respond fully to depolarizing stimuli in advanced age. Mean serum PRL levels in old rats were 2.3-fold greater than those in both young and middle-aged rats, while serum LH levels were decreased 2.0-fold in middle-aged and old compared with those in young rats. The fact that LH levels were already decreased in middle-aged rats while PRL levels had not yet increased suggests that decreased gonadotropin titers in old rats do not result from the coincident hyperprolactinemia. In ME synaptosomes, depolarization-induced (3H)DA release was decreased at all time points in middle-aged preparations compared to that in young preparations. The reduced fractional release from the middle-aged ME synaptosomes was due to a depressed rate of release during the initial second of depolarization. Evoked release from ME terminals of old rats was comparable to that measured in the young group. Thus, there occurred an age-related biphasic change in the initial rate of evoked DA release from ME synaptosomes. Diminished response of ME dopaminergic terminals to depolarizing stimuli during middle age may be important in the later development of hyperprolactinemia in aging male rats.

  13. Maternal-age effect in aneuploidy: does altered embryonic selection play a role?

    PubMed

    Aymé, S; Lippman-Hand, A

    1982-07-01

    The age of mothers of children with trisomy 21 (47,+21) is elevated no matter if the extra chromosome is of maternal or paternal origin, and it has been postulated that decreasing maternal selection against affected conceptuses with advancing age might explain this observation. Since the absence of sufficient data on 47,+21 abortuses precludes a direct test of this hypothesis, we have taken an indirect approach. Pooled data from spontaneous abortions and live births with autosomal trisomies, XXY and XXX, were examined to determine the natural history of these aneuploid conceptuses and its relation to maternal age. The results are consistent with decreasing embryonic selection in older women. PMID:6213153

  14. Advancing maternal age is associated with lower bone mineral density in young adult male offspring

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. Rudäng; D. Mellström; E. Clark; C. Ohlsson; M. Lorentzon

    Summary  Advancing maternal age has been related to increased risk of fetal death and morbidity, as well as higher fracture risk during\\u000a childhood, in the offspring. In the present study, we demonstrate that advancing maternal age is independently associated\\u000a with reduced bone mass in the young adult male offspring.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Introduction  In Sweden the maternal age in both primi- and multipara mothers has

  15. The Enduring Predictive Significance of Early Maternal Sensitivity: Social and Academic Competence through Age 32 Years

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raby, K. Lee; Roisman, Glenn I.; Fraley, R. Chris; Simpson, Jeffry A.

    2015-01-01

    This study leveraged data from the Minnesota Longitudinal Study of Risk and Adaptation (N = 243) to investigate the predictive significance of maternal sensitivity during the first 3 years of life for social and academic competence through age 32 years. Structural model comparisons replicated previous findings that early maternal sensitivity…

  16. Perceived and Observed Maternal Relationship Quality Predict Sexual Debut by Age 15

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Price, Myeshia N.; Hyde, Janet Shibley

    2011-01-01

    Early sexual behaviors during adolescence have the potential to lead to unhealthy outcomes. This study explored the association between specific dimensions of maternal relationship quality and adolescent sexual debut by age 15. We hypothesized that adolescents who have poor maternal relationships are at greater risk of early sexual debut than…

  17. Patterns of adolescent depression to age 20: the role of maternal depression and youth interpersonal dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Hammen, Constance; Brennan, Patricia A; Keenan-Miller, Danielle

    2008-11-01

    Considerable research has focused on youth depression, but further information is needed to characterize different patterns of onset and recurrence during adolescence. Four outcome groups by age 20 were defined (early onset-recurrent, early-onset-desisting, later-onset, never depressed) and compared on three variables predictive of youth depression: gender, maternal depression, and interpersonal functioning. Further, it was hypothesized that the association between maternal depression and youth depression between 15 and 20 is mediated by early-onset depression and interpersonal dysfunction by age 15. Eight hundred sixteen community youth selected for depression risk by history (or absence) of maternal depression were interviewed at age 15, and 699 were included in the 5-year follow-up. Controlling for gender, early onset and interpersonal dysfunction mediated the link between maternal depression and late adolescent major depression. Different patterns for males and females were observed. For males maternal depression's effect was mediated by early onset but not interpersonal difficulties, while for females maternal depression's effect was mediated by interpersonal difficulties but not early onset. Maternal depression did not predict first onset of major depression after age 15. The results suggest the need for targeting the impact of maternal depression's gender-specific effects on early youth outcomes, and also highlight the different patterns of major depression in youth and their likely implications for future course of depression. PMID:18473162

  18. MATERNAL AGE EFFECT: THE ENIGMA OF DOWN SYNDROME AND OTHER TRISOMIC CONDITIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Aneuploidy is the most frequently observed chromosome abnormality in human liveborn, abortuses, and oocytes. he only etiological factor that has been established is advanced maternal age for the occurrence of trisomies, particularly trisomy 21 which causes Down syndrome. he mater...

  19. When does maternal age-dependent trisomy 21 arise relative to meiosis?

    SciTech Connect

    Chang-Jiang Zheng [National Inst. of Deafness and Other Communication Disorders, Bethesda, MD (United States); Byers, B. [Univ. of Washington, Seattle, WA (United States)

    1996-07-01

    Polymorphic DNA markers have recently been used to estimate the fraction of trisomy 21 (Down syndrome) cases that may be attributable to postzygotic nondisjunction - indicative of a loss in the fidelity of the first few cell divisions after fertilization. In these studies, a postzygotic nondisjunction is defined as a case in which two chromosomes of the trisomic set are homozygous for all informative markers (i.e., for those markers that were heterozygous in their parent of origin). These studies estimate that the postzygotic mutation mechanism accounts for 4.5% (11/238) and 3.5% (9/255) of their cases, respectively, but their estimates may actually be conservative, since all noninformative haplotypes (frequency not reported) are arbitrarily attributed to meiosis II-type nondisjunction. Nevertheless, even the conservative estimates would, if confirmed, constitute a new and nonnegligible source of chromosomal segregation errors leading to trisomy. These studies` conclusions are supported by the observation that the 20 reported {open_quotes}postzygotic{close_quotes} cases (5 paternal and 15 maternal) appear to be less dependent on maternal age (mean maternal age 28.4 years) than maternal meiosis I-type failures (mean maternal age 31.2 years). However, given the limited sample size involved, one should be cautious in positing the absence of a maternal age effect. 5 refs., 1 fig.

  20. Maternal Size and Age Shape Offspring Size in a Live-Bearing Fish, Xiphophorus birchmanni

    PubMed Central

    Kindsvater, Holly K.; Rosenthal, Gil G.; Alonzo, Suzanne H.

    2012-01-01

    Many studies of offspring size focus on differences in maternal investment that arise from ecological factors such as predation or competition. Classic theory predicts that these ecological factors will select for an optimal offspring size, and therefore that variation in a given environment will be minimized. Yet recent evidence suggests maternal traits such as size or age could also drive meaningful variation in offspring size. The generality of this pattern is unclear, as some studies suggest that it may represent non-adaptive variation or be an artifact of temporal or spatial differences in maternal environments. To clarify this pattern, we asked how maternal size, age and condition are related to each other in several populations of the swordtail Xiphophorus birchmanni. We then determined how these traits are related to offspring size, and whether they could resolve unexplained intra-population variation in this trait. We found that female size, age, and condition are correlated within populations; at some of these sites, older, larger females produce larger offspring than do younger females. The pattern was robust to differences among most, but not all, sites. Our results document a pattern that is consistent with recent theory predicting adaptive age- and size-dependence in maternal investment. Further work is needed to rule out non-adaptive explanations for this variation. Our results suggest that female size and age could play an under-appreciated role in population growth and evolution. PMID:23139785

  1. Paternal and maternal age as risk factors for psychosis: findings from Denmark, Sweden and Australia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ossama El-Saadi; Carsten B. Pedersen; Thomas F. McNeil; Sukanta Saha; Joy Welham; Eadbhard O'Callaghan; Elizabeth Cantor-Graae; David Chant; Preben Bo Mortensen; John McGrath

    2004-01-01

    Background: While the association between increased maternal age and congenital disorders has long been recognized, the offspring of older fathers are also at increased risk of congenital disorders related to DNA errors during spermatogenesis. Recent studies have drawn attention to an association between increased paternal age and increased risk of schizophrenia. The aim of the current study was to examine

  2. Sex ratio of congenital abnormalities in the function of maternal age: A population-based study.

    PubMed

    Csermely, Gyula; Urbán, Robert; Czeizel, Andrew E; Veszprémi, Béla

    2015-05-01

    Maternal age effect is well-known in the origin of numerical chromosomal aberrations and some isolated congenital abnormalities (CAs). The sex ratio (SR), i.e. number of males divided by the number of males and females together, of most CAs deviates from the SR of newborn population (0.51). The objective of this analysis was to evaluate the possible association of maternal age with the SR of isolated CAs in a population-based large dataset of the Hungarian Case-Control Surveillance of Congenital Abnormalities, 1980-1996. First, SR of 24 CA entities/groups was estimated in 21?494 patients with isolated CA. In the next step SR of different maternal age groups was compared to the mean SR of the given CA-groups. The SR of four CA-groups showed some deviation in certain maternal age groups. Cases with anencephaly had female excess in young mothers (<25 years). Cases with skull's CAs particularly craniosynostosis had a male excess in cases born to women over 30 years. Two other CA groups (cleft lip?±?palate and valvar pulmonic stenosis within the group of right-sided obstructive defect of heart) had significant deviation in SR of certain maternal age groups from the mean SR, but these deviations were not harmonized with joining age groups and thus were considered as a chance effect due to multiple testing. In conclusion, our study did not suggest that in general SR of isolated CAs might be modified by certain maternal age groups with some exception such as anencephaly and craniosynostosis. PMID:25354028

  3. The effects of maternal immunity and age structure on population immunity to measles

    PubMed Central

    Ferrari, M. J.; Shea, K.

    2015-01-01

    Measles was successfully eradicated in the Pan-American Health Region in 2002. However, maintenance of elimination in parts of Africa, Europe, the USA, and other regions is proving difficult, despite apparently high vaccine coverage. This may be due to the different age structure in developed and developing populations, as well as to differences in the duration of maternal immunity. We explore the interaction between maternal immunity and age structure and quantify the resulting immunity gap between vaccine coverage and population immunity; we use this immunity gap as a novel metric of vaccine program success as it highlights the difference between actual and estimated immunity. We find that, for some combinations of maternal immunity and age structure, the accepted herd immunity threshold is not maintainable with a single-dose vaccine strategy for any combination of target age and coverage. In all cases, the herd immunity threshold is more difficult to maintain in a population with developing age structure. True population immunity is always improved if the target age at vaccination is chosen for the specific combination of maternal immunity and age structure.

  4. Measuring heights to crown base and crown median with LiDAR in a mature, even-aged loblolly pine stand

    E-print Network

    Cao, Quang V.

    of vertical structure on plants and animals in the forest (Brokaw and Lent, 1999). Airborne laser scanning elements with airborne scanning LiDAR (Light Detection And Ranging) in a simple, even-aged standMeasuring heights to crown base and crown median with LiDAR in a mature, even-aged loblolly pine

  5. The maternal-age-associated risk of congenital heart disease is modifiable.

    PubMed

    Schulkey, Claire E; Regmi, Suk D; Magnan, Rachel A; Danzo, Megan T; Luther, Herman; Hutchinson, Alayna K; Panzer, Adam A; Grady, Mary M; Wilson, David B; Jay, Patrick Y

    2015-04-01

    Maternal age is a risk factor for congenital heart disease even in the absence of any chromosomal abnormality in the newborn. Whether the basis of this risk resides with the mother or oocyte is unknown. The impact of maternal age on congenital heart disease can be modelled in mouse pups that harbour a mutation of the cardiac transcription factor gene Nkx2-5 (ref. 8). Here, reciprocal ovarian transplants between young and old mothers establish a maternal basis for the age-associated risk in mice. A high-fat diet does not accelerate the effect of maternal ageing, so hyperglycaemia and obesity do not simply explain the mechanism. The age-associated risk varies with the mother's strain background, making it a quantitative genetic trait. Most remarkably, voluntary exercise, whether begun by mothers at a young age or later in life, can mitigate the risk when they are older. Thus, even when the offspring carry a causal mutation, an intervention aimed at the mother can meaningfully reduce their risk of congenital heart disease. PMID:25830876

  6. Maternal and paternal age at delivery, birth order, and risk of childhood onset type 1 diabetes: population based cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Stene, Lars C; Magnus, Per; Lie, Rolv T; Søvik, Oddmund; Joner, Geir

    2001-01-01

    Objective To estimate the associations of maternal and paternal age at delivery and of birth order with the risk of childhood onset type 1 diabetes. Design Cohort study by record linkage of the medical birth registry and the national childhood diabetes registry in Norway. Setting Norway. Subjects All live births in Norway between 1974 and 1998 (1.4 million people) were followed for a maximum of 15 years, contributing 8.2 million person years of observation during 1989-98. 1824 cases of type 1 diabetes diagnosed between 1989 and 1998 were identified. Main outcome measures Incidence of type 1 diabetes. Results There was no association between maternal age at delivery and type 1 diabetes among firstborn children, but among fourthborn children there was a 43.2% increase in incidence of diabetes for each five year increase in maternal age (95% confidence interval 6.4% to 92.6%). Each increase in birth order was associated with a 17.9% reduction in incidence (3.2% to 30.4%) when maternal age was 20-24 years, but the association was weaker when maternal age was 30 years or more. Paternal age was not associated with type 1 diabetes after maternal age was adjusted for. Conclusions Intrauterine factors and early life environment may influence the risk of type 1 diabetes. The relation of maternal age and birth order to risk of type 1 diabetes is complex. What is already known on this topicMaternal age at birth is positively associated with risk of childhood onset type 1 diabetesStudies of the effect of birth order on risk of type 1 diabetes have given inconsistent resultsWhat does this study add?In a national cohort, risk of diabetes in firstborn children was not associated with maternal ageIncreasing maternal age was a risk factor in children born second or laterThe strength of the association increased with increasing birth order PMID:11509426

  7. Advancing Maternal Age Is Associated with Increasing Risk for Autism: A Review and Meta-Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sandin, Sven; Hultman, Christina M.; Kolevzon, Alexander; Gross, Raz; MacCabe, James H.; Reichenberg, Abraham

    2012-01-01

    Objective: We conducted a meta-analysis of epidemiological studies investigating the association between maternal age and autism. Method: Using recommended guidelines for performing meta-analyses, we systematically selected, and extracted results from, epidemiological scientific studies reported before January 2012. We calculated pooled risk…

  8. Offspring sex ratio in relation to maternal age and social rank in mountain goats ( Oreamnos americanus )

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Steeve D. Côté; Marco Festa-Bianchet

    2001-01-01

    In polygynous mammals, high-quality females may increase their fitness by producing a high proportion of sons. During a 9-year study of marked mountain goats (Oreamnos americanus), we assessed the relative effects of maternal age, social rank and reproductive status on offspring sex ratio. The sex ratio of kids in the population did not differ from unity (75 males, 85 females).

  9. Maternal Effects Underlie Ageing Costs of Growth in the Zebra Finch (Taeniopygia guttata)

    PubMed Central

    Tissier, Mathilde L.; Williams, Tony D.; Criscuolo, François

    2014-01-01

    Maternal effects provide a mechanism to adapt offspring phenotype and optimize the mother’s fitness to current environmental conditions. Transferring steroids to the yolk is one way mothers can translate environmental information into potential adaptive signals for offspring. However, maternally-derived hormones might also have adverse effects for offspring. For example, recent data in zebra finch chicks suggested that ageing related-processes (i.e. oxidative stress and telomere loss) were increased after egg-injection of corticosterone (CORT). Still, we have few experimental data describing the effect of maternal effects on the growth-ageing trade-off in offspring. Here, we chronically treated pre-laying zebra finch females (Taeniopygia guttata) with 17-?-estradiol (E2) or CORT, and followed offspring growth and cellular ageing rates (oxidative stress and telomere loss). CORT treatment decreased growth rate in male chicks and increased rate of telomere loss in mothers and female offspring. E2 increased body mass gain in male offspring, while reducing oxidative stress in both sexes but without affecting telomere loss. Since shorter telomeres were previously found to be a proxy of individual lifespan in zebra finches, maternal effects may, through pleiotropic effects, be important determinants of offspring life-expectancy by modulating ageing rate during embryo and post-natal growth. PMID:24828412

  10. Influence of honey and maternal age on egg load of lab-cultured Cotesia marginiventris

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Abstract Laboratory experiments were conducted to determine the impact of feeding status and maternal age on egg load of Cotesia marginiventris (Cresson) (Hymenoptera: Braconidae), a solitary, koinobiont endoparasitoid of noctuid pests. Egg load was defined as the number of mature (i. e., fully-ch...

  11. Maternal Age at Childbirth and Offspring Disruptive Behaviors: Testing the Causal Hypothesis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    D'Onofrio, Brian M.; Goodnight, Jackson A.; Van Hulle, Carol A.; Rodgers, Joseph Lee; Rathouz, Paul J.; Waldman, Irwin D.; Lahey, Benjamin B.

    2009-01-01

    Background: Recent studies suggest that the association between maternal age at childbearing (MAC) and children's disruptive behaviors is the result of family factors that are confounded with both variables, rather than a casual effect of environmental factors specifically related to MAC. These studies, however, relied on restricted samples and…

  12. Squamous carcinoma of the head and neck: cured fraction and median survival time as functions of age, sex, histologic type, and node status.

    PubMed Central

    Gamel, J. W.; Jones, A. S.

    1993-01-01

    The multivariate lognormal survival model can be used to determine the relationship of prognostic covariates to two important parameters of malignancy. Cured fraction and median survival time among uncured patients. Analysis with this model revealed that cured fraction is primarily a function of histologic type and node status, while median survival time is primarily a function of age and node status. Patient sex was also related to likelihood of cure, but this association was of marginal significance. The symmetric impact of node status on both cured fraction and median survival time is consistent with known biologic principles. The strongly asymmetric relationships of histologic grade to cured fraction and age to survival time suggest, however, that likelihood of cure and survival time may not operate by identical biologic mechanisms. PMID:8494700

  13. Maternal Serum Caffeine Metabolites and Small-for-Gestational Age Birth

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mark A. Klebanoff; Richard J. Levine; John D. Clemens; Diana G. Wilkins

    To determine whether the third-trimester maternal serum concentration of paraxanthine, caffeine's primary metabolite, is associated with delivery of a small-for-gestational age infant (birth weight less than the 10th percentile for gestational age, gender, and ethnicity) and whether this association differs by smoking, the authors studied 2,515 women who participated in the Collaborative Perinatal Project from 1959 to 1966. The women

  14. Recombination and maternal age-dependent nondisjunction: Molecular studies of trisomy 16

    SciTech Connect

    Hassold, T.; Merrill, M.; Adkins, K. [Case Western Univ., and Univ. Hospitals, Cleveland, OH (United States)] [and others

    1995-10-01

    Trisomy 16 is the most common human trisomy, occurring in {ge} 1% of all clinically recognized pregnancies. It is thought to be completely dependent on maternal age and thus provides a useful model for studying the association of increasing maternal age and nondisjunction. We have been conducting a study to determine the parent and meiotic stage of origin of trisorny 16 and the possible association of nondisjunction and aberrant recombination. In the present report, we summarize our observations on 62 spontaneous abortions with trisomy 16. All trisomies were maternally derived, and in virtually all the error occurred at meiosis I. In studies of genetic recombination, we observed a highly significant reduction in recombination in the trisomy-generating meioses by comparison with normal female meioses. However, most cases of trisomy 16 had at least one detectable crossover between the nondisjoined chromosomes, indicating that it is reduced-and not absent-recombination that is the important predisposing factor. Additionally, our data indicate an altered distribution of crossing-over in trisomy 16, as we rarely observed crossovers in the proximal long and short arms. Thus, it may be that, at least for trisomy 16, the association between maternal age and trisomy is due to diminished recombination, particularly in the proximal regions of the chromosome. 34 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs.

  15. Influence of maternal angiogenic factors during pregnancy on microvascular structure in school-age children.

    PubMed

    Gishti, Olta; Jaddoe, Vincent W V; Felix, Janine F; Reiss, Irwin; Hofman, Albert; Ikram, Mohammad Kamran; Steegers, Eric A P; Gaillard, Romy

    2015-04-01

    Reduced placental growth factor (PlGF) levels and higher soluble fms-like tyrosine kinase (sFlt-1) levels in mothers during pregnancy may have persistent effects on vascular structures in their offspring. We examined whether angiogenic factors during pregnancy also affect childhood retinal microvasculature in a population-based prospective cohort study among 3505 mothers and their children. We measured maternal PlGF and sFlt-1 in the first and second trimester of pregnancy. At the age of 6, we measured childhood retinal arteriolar and venular calibers from digitized retinal photographs. We performed multiple linear regression models, taking maternal and childhood sociodemographic and lifestyle-related characteristics, birth characteristics, and childhood current body mass index and blood pressure into account. We observed that first trimester maternal PlGF and sFlt-1 levels were not associated with childhood retinal arteriolar caliber. Lower second trimester maternal PlGF levels, but not sFlt-1 levels, were associated with narrower childhood retinal arteriolar caliber (difference: -0.09 SD score [95% confidence interval, -0.16 to 0.01], per SD score decrease in PlGF). This association was not explained by maternal and childhood sociodemographic and lifestyle-related characteristics, birth characteristics, or childhood current body mass index and blood pressure. Maternal PlGF and sFlt-1 levels in the first or second trimester were not associated with childhood retinal venular caliber. Our results suggest that lower maternal second trimester PlGF levels affect the microvascular development in the offspring, leading to narrower retinal arteriolar caliber in childhood. Further studies are needed to confirm these findings and to explore the underlying mechanisms and long-term cardiovascular consequences. PMID:25691621

  16. The enduring predictive significance of early maternal sensitivity: social and academic competence through age 32 years.

    PubMed

    Raby, K Lee; Roisman, Glenn I; Fraley, R Chris; Simpson, Jeffry A

    2015-05-01

    This study leveraged data from the Minnesota Longitudinal Study of Risk and Adaptation (N = 243) to investigate the predictive significance of maternal sensitivity during the first 3 years of life for social and academic competence through age 32 years. Structural model comparisons replicated previous findings that early maternal sensitivity predicts social skills and academic achievement through midadolescence in a manner consistent with an enduring effects model of development and extended these findings using heterotypic indicators of social competence (effectiveness of romantic engagement) and academic competence (educational attainment) during adulthood. Although early socioeconomic factors and child gender accounted for the predictive significance of maternal sensitivity for social competence, covariates did not fully account for associations between early sensitivity and academic outcomes. PMID:25521785

  17. Age Affects the Expression of Maternal Care and Subsequent Behavioural Development of Offspring in a Precocial Bird

    PubMed Central

    Pittet, Florent; Coignard, Maud; Houdelier, Cécilia; Richard-Yris, Marie-Annick; Lumineau, Sophie

    2012-01-01

    Variations of breeding success with age have been studied largely in iteroparous species and particularly in birds: survival of offspring increases with parental age until senescence. Nevertheless, these results are from observations of free-living individuals and therefore, it remains impossible to determine whether these variations result from parental investment or efficiency or both, and whether these variations occur during the prenatal or the postnatal stage or during both. Our study aimed first, to determine whether age had an impact on the expression of maternal breeding care by comparing inexperienced female birds of two different ages, and second, to define how these potential differences impact chicks’ growth and behavioural development. We made 22 2-month-old and 22 8-month-old female Japanese quail foster 1-day-old chicks. We observed their maternal behaviour until the chicks were 11 days old and then tested these chicks after separation from their mothers. Several behavioural tests estimated their fearfulness and their sociality. We observed first that a longer induction was required for young females to express maternal behaviour. Subsequently as many young females as elder females expressed maternal behaviour, but young females warmed chicks less, expressed less covering postures and rejected their chicks more. Chicks brooded by elder females presented higher growth rates and more fearfulness and sociality. Our results reveal that maternal investment increased with age independently of maternal experience, suggesting modification of hormone levels implied in maternal behaviour. Isolated effects of maternal experience should now be assessed in females of the same age. In addition, our results show, for first time in birds, that variations in maternal care directly induce important differences in the behavioural development of chicks. Finally, our results confirm that Japanese quail remains a great laboratory model of avian maternal behaviour and that the way we sample maternal behaviour is highly productive. PMID:22701515

  18. The Impact of Maternal Age on the Effects of Prenatal Alcohol Exposure on Attention

    PubMed Central

    Chiodo, Lisa M.; da Costa, David E.; Hannigan, John H.; Covington, Chandice Y.; Sokol, Robert J.; Janisse, James; Greenwald, Mark; Ager, Joel; Delaney-Black, Virginia

    2015-01-01

    Background Prenatal exposure to alcohol has a variety of morphologic and neurobehavioral consequences, yet more than 10% of women continue to drink during pregnancy, placing their offspring at risk for fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD). Identification of at-risk pregnancies has been difficult, in part, because the presence and severity of FASD are influenced by factors beyond the pattern of alcohol consumption. Establishing maternal characteristics, such as maternal age, that increase the risk of FASD is critical for targeted pregnancy intervention. Methods We examined the moderating effect of maternal age on measures of attention in 462 children from a longitudinal cohort born to women with known alcohol consumption levels (absolute ounces of alcohol per day at conception) who were recruited during pregnancy. Analyses examined the impact of binge drinking, as average ounces of absolute alcohol per drinking day. Smoking and use of cocaine, marijuana, and opiates were also assessed. At 7 years of age, the children completed the Continuous Performance Test, and their teachers completed the Achenbach Teacher Report Form. Results After controlling for covariates, stepwise multiple regression analyses revealed a negative relation between levels of prenatal binge drinking and several measures of attention. The interaction between alcohol consumption and maternal age was also significant, indicating that the impact of maternal binge drinking during pregnancy on attention was greater among children born to older drinking mothers. Conclusion These findings are consistent with previous findings that children born to older alcohol-using women have more deleterious effects of prenatal alcohol exposure on other neurobehavioral outcomes. PMID:20645933

  19. The baboon model (Papio hamadryas) of fetal loss: Maternal weight, age, reproductive history and pregnancy outcome

    PubMed Central

    Schlabritz-Loutsevitch, Natalia; Moore, Charleen M.; Lopez-Alvarenga, Juan Carlos; Dunn, Betty G.; Dudley, Donald; Hubbard, Gene B.

    2010-01-01

    Background Several risk factors are associated with the incidence of human stillbirths. The prevention of stillbirths in women is a pressing clinical problem. Methods We reviewed 402 pathology records of fetal loss occurring in a large baboon (Papio spp.) colony during a 15-year period. Clinical histories of 565 female baboons with one or more fetal losses during a 20-year period were analyzed for weight, age, and reproductive history. Results Fetal loss was most common at term (35.57%) and preterm (28.61%) and less common in the first half of gestation (11.20%) and post-term (5.22%). Greater maternal weight, older age, history of stillbirth and higher parity were independent predictors for stillbirth. An exponential increase in the incidence of fetal loss was observed beginning at age 14 years in baboons. Conclusion Fetal loss and maternal risk factors associated with stillbirths in baboons were similar to those documented in women. PMID:19017195

  20. Maternal support in early childhood predicts larger hippocampal volumes at school age

    PubMed Central

    Luby, Joan L.; Barch, Deanna M.; Belden, Andy; Gaffrey, Michael S.; Tillman, Rebecca; Babb, Casey; Nishino, Tomoyuki; Suzuki, Hideo; Botteron, Kelly N.

    2012-01-01

    Early maternal support has been shown to promote specific gene expression, neurogenesis, adaptive stress responses, and larger hippocampal volumes in developing animals. In humans, a relationship between psychosocial factors in early childhood and later amygdala volumes based on prospective data has been demonstrated, providing a key link between early experience and brain development. Although much retrospective data suggests a link between early psychosocial factors and hippocampal volumes in humans, to date there has been no prospective data to inform this potentially important public health issue. In a longitudinal study of depressed and healthy preschool children who underwent neuroimaging at school age, we investigated whether early maternal support predicted later hippocampal volumes. Maternal support observed in early childhood was strongly predictive of hippocampal volume measured at school age. The positive effect of maternal support on hippocampal volumes was greater in nondepressed children. These findings provide prospective evidence in humans of the positive effect of early supportive parenting on healthy hippocampal development, a brain region key to memory and stress modulation. PMID:22308421

  1. Longitudinal Association of Maternal Attempt to Lose Weight During the Postpartum Period and Child Obesity at Age 3 Years

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kendrin R. Sonneville; Sheryl L. Rifas-Shiman; Emily Oken; Karen E. Peterson; Steven L. Gortmaker; Matthew W. Gillman; Elsie M. Taveras

    2011-01-01

    The effect of maternal attempt to lose weight during the postpartum period on later child weight has not been explored. Among 1,044 mother–infant pairs in Project Viva, we estimated longitudinal associations of maternal attempt to lose weight during the postpartum period with child weight and adiposity at age 3 years and examined differences in associations by type of weight loss

  2. Predicting children's separation anxiety at age 6: the contributions of infant-mother attachment security, maternal sensitivity, and maternal separation anxiety.

    PubMed

    Dallaire, Danielle Horvath; Weinraub, Marsha

    2005-12-01

    The purpose of the present investigation was to examine the precursors and familial conditions which sustain school-aged children's separation anxiety. In a prospective, longitudinal study of 99 mother-child dyads, infancy measures of infant-mother attachment security, maternal separation anxiety, and maternal sensitivity were used to predict children's self-reported symptoms of separation anxiety at age 6. Insecurely attached children reported more separation anxiety than securely attached children. Insecure-ambivalent children reported marginally more separation anxiety than securely attached children, but not more than insecure-avoidant attached children. Regression analysis showed infant-mother attachment security and mother's sensitivity added uniquely to the prediction of children's separation anxiety, but mother's separation anxiety did not. Mediation tests show that the effect of mother's separation anxiety on children's separation anxiety may be mediated by maternal sensitivity. Research and clinical implications are discussed. PMID:16332583

  3. Low female birth weight and advanced maternal age programme alterations in next-generation blastocyst development.

    PubMed

    Master, Jordanna S; Thouas, George A; Harvey, Alexandra J; Sheedy, John R; Hannan, Natalie J; Gardner, David K; Wlodek, Mary E

    2015-05-01

    Low birth weight is associated with an increased risk for adult disease development with recent studies highlighting transmission to subsequent generations. However, the mechanisms and timing of programming of disease transmission to the next generation remain unknown. The aim of this study was to examine the effects of low birth weight and advanced maternal age on second-generation preimplantation blastocysts. Uteroplacental insufficiency or sham surgery was performed in late-gestation WKY pregnant rats, giving rise to first-generation (F1) restricted (born small) and control offspring respectively. F1 control and restricted females, at 4 or 12 months of age, were naturally mated with normal males. Second-generation (F2) blastocysts from restricted females displayed reduced expression of genes related to growth compared with F2 control (P<0.05). Following 24 h culture, F2 restricted blastocysts had accelerated development, with increased total cell number, a result of increased trophectoderm cells compared with control (P<0.05). There were alterations in carbohydrate and serine utilisation in F2 restricted blastocysts and F2 restricted outgrowths from 4-month-old females respectively (P<0.05). F2 blastocysts from aged restricted females were developmentally delayed at retrieval, with reduced total cell number attributable to reduced trophectoderm number with changes in carbohydrate utilisation (P<0.05). Advanced maternal age resulted in alterations in a number of amino acids in media obtained from F2 blastocyst outgrowths (P<0.05). These findings demonstrate that growth restriction and advanced maternal age can alter F2 preimplantation embryo physiology and the subsequent offspring growth. PMID:25667431

  4. Maternal psychological distress during pregnancy in relation to child development at age two.

    PubMed

    DiPietro, Janet A; Novak, Matthew F S X; Costigan, Kathleen A; Atella, Lara D; Reusing, Sarah P

    2006-01-01

    Concern exists that a constellation of negative maternal emotions during pregnancy generates persistent negative consequences for child development. Maternal reports of anxiety, pregnancy-specific and nonspecific stress, and depressive symptoms were collected during mid-pregnancy and at 6 weeks and 24 months after birth in a sample of healthy women with low risk pregnancies. Developmental assessment and cardiac vagal tone monitoring were administered to 94 children at age 2. Higher levels of prenatal anxiety, nonspecific stress, and depressive symptoms were associated with more advanced motor development in children after postnatal control for each psychological measure; anxiety and depression were also significantly and positively associated with mental development. Mild to moderate levels of psychological distress may enhance fetal maturation in healthy populations. PMID:16686789

  5. Maternal occupational exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and small for gestational age offspring

    PubMed Central

    Langlois, Peter H.; Hoyt, Adrienne T.; Desrosiers, Tania A.; Lupo, Philip J.; Lawson, Christina C.; Waters, Martha A.; Rocheleau, Carissa M.; Shaw, Gary M.; Romitti, Paul A.; Gilboa, Suzanne M.; Malik, Sadia

    2015-01-01

    Objectives While some of the highest maternal exposures to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) occur in the workplace, there is only one previous study of occupational PAH exposure and adverse pregnancy outcomes. We sought to extend this literature using interview data combined with detailed exposure assessment. Methods Data for 1997–2002 were analysed from mothers of infants without major birth defects in the National Birth Defects Prevention Study, a large population-based case-control study in the USA. Maternal telephone interviews yielded information on jobs held in the month before conception through delivery. From 6252 eligible control mothers, 2803 completed the interview, had a job, met other selection criteria, and were included in the analysis. Two industrial hygienists independently assessed occupational exposure to PAHs from the interview and reviewed results with a third to reach consensus. Small for gestational age (SGA) was the only adverse pregnancy outcome with enough exposed cases to yield meaningful results. Logistic regression estimated crude and adjusted ORs. Results Of the 2803 mothers, 221 (7.9%) had infants who were SGA. Occupational PAH exposure was found for 17 (7.7%) of the mothers with SGA offspring and 102 (4.0%) of the remaining mothers. Almost half the jobs with exposure were related to food preparation and serving. After adjustment for maternal age, there was a significant association of occupational exposure with SGA (OR=2.2, 95% CI 1.3 to 3.8). Conclusions Maternal occupational exposure to PAHs was found to be associated with increased risk of SGA offspring. PMID:24893704

  6. Persistent Associations between Maternal Prenatal Exposure to Phthalates on Child IQ at Age 7 Years

    PubMed Central

    Factor-Litvak, Pam; Insel, Beverly; Calafat, Antonia M.; Liu, Xinhua; Perera, Frederica; Rauh, Virginia A.; Whyatt, Robin M.

    2014-01-01

    Background Prior research reports inverse associations between maternal prenatal urinary phthalate metabolite concentrations and mental and motor development in preschoolers. No study evaluated whether these associations persist into school age. Methods In a follow up of 328 inner-city mothers and their children, we measured prenatal urinary metabolites of di-n-butyl phthalate (DnBP), butylbenzyl phthalate (BBzP), di-isobutyl phthalate (DiBP), di-2-ethylhexyl phthalate and diethyl phthalate in late pregnancy. The Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children, 4th edition was administered at child age 7 years and evaluates four areas of cognitive function associated with overall intelligence quotient (IQ). Results Child full-scale IQ was inversely associated with prenatal urinary metabolite concentrations of DnBP and DiBP: b?=??2.69 (95% confidence interval [CI]?=??4.33, ?1.05) and b?=??2.69 (95% CI?=??4.22, ?1.16) per log unit increase. Among children of mothers with the highest versus lowest quartile DnBP and DiBP metabolite concentrations, IQ was 6.7 (95% CI?=?1.9, 11.4) and 7.6 (95% CI?=?3.2, 12.1) points lower, respectively. Associations were unchanged after control for cognition at age 3 years. Significant inverse associations were also seen between maternal prenatal metabolite concentrations of DnBP and DiBP and child processing speed, perceptual reasoning and working memory; DiBP and child verbal comprehension; and BBzP and child perceptual reasoning. Conclusion Maternal prenatal urinary metabolite concentrations measured in late pregnancy of DnBP and DiBP are associated with deficits in children’s intellectual development at age 7 years. Because phthalate exposures are ubiquitous and concentrations seen here within the range previously observed among general populations, results are of public health significance. PMID:25493564

  7. Birth weight, maternal age, and education: new observations from Connecticut and Virginia.

    PubMed

    Shmueli, A; Cullen, M R

    1999-01-01

    It has been well established that increased maternal education, income, and social status contribute to increased birth weight, as well as reduced risk for low or very low birth weight offspring. However, there remains controversy about the mechanism(s) for this effect, as well as the interactions between these factors, maternal age, and race. Presented here is the analysis of a large, recent sample of over 20,000 consecutive live births in 12 hospitals, about half in Connecticut and half in Virginia, including a maternal population that is educationally and racially diverse. Although information on potentially relevant details such as prenatal care, smoking, occupation, and neighborhood is lacking the data set, there is sufficient information to explore the previously noted strong effect of maternal education on birth weight, as well as the large racial difference in outcome at every educational level after adjustment for the effects of age, marital status, state of residence, and gender of the offspring. However, this relationship was not monotonic, and there were differences in the effect between the white and black families, with black women showing a linear and consistent benefit from education across the range, while whites show a sharp benefit from completion of primary education, less from subsequent schooling. A surprising result was the apparent negative impact of very advanced education (>16 years), with lowered birth weights and higher risk of low birth weight offspring in the women with post-college training. The data also shed some addition light on the effect of age and birth weight. Whites show established improvement in birth outcome to about age 30, with slight decline thereafter, whereas in blacks there was progressive decline in birth weight with rising age starting in adolescence, as previously demonstrated by Geronimus. An additional unexpected observation was a sizable difference between births in Connecticut (larger, fewer low birth weight) than Virginia, correcting for all other covariates. It is hypothesized that this may reflect differences in services used, prenatal care in particular given similarities in smoking rates and other predictors. Because of the non-representativeness of and the limited information available in the present study, the conclusions should be taken as hypotheses for further research rather than definitive. PMID:10907775

  8. Maternal Smoking, Demographic and Lifestyle Factors in Relation to Daughter’s Age at Menarche

    PubMed Central

    Windham, Gayle C.; Zhang, Lixia; Longnecker, Matthew P; Klebanoff, Mark

    2007-01-01

    Summary A previous study suggested a younger age at menarche among daughters of heavy prenatal smokers, especially among non-Whites. The present study was designed to evaluate that association in another population and to examine other factors that might be related to age at menarche. We analyzed data from the Collaborative Perinatal Project, a nationwide longitudinal study of pregnant women and their children conducted in 1959–1966. At three sites, with a predominance of Black participants (80%), age at menarche (AAM) was ascertained in the offspring when they were young adults. We included data on 1,556 daughters who had a mean age at menarche of 12.7 years (standard deviation (SD) 1.8). Amount smoked by the mothers was obtained from a baseline interview and subsequent prenatal visits. Regression models were run including maternal smoking and other co-variates, for only the prenatal period, as well as in models with some childhood characteristics. In the prenatal factor model, younger mean age at menarche in daughters was found with the maternal characteristics of earlier age at menarche, being married, and lower parity. Examining childhood variables, earlier AAM was found among girls with few or no siblings or with higher SES. Unlike our previous findings, mean AAM was later in daughters of heavy smokers (20+cigs/day), with a delay of 0.31 years [95% confidence interval (CI) 0.008, 0.61], or about 3.7 months, in the prenatal model, and 0.34 years [95% CI ?0.02, 0.66] in the model with childhood variables included. The pattern was consistent by race. A number of prenatal and childhood factors related to age at menarche were identified that should be considered when examining exogenous exposures in relation to pubertal onset. PMID:19000293

  9. Maternal Alcohol Consumption during Pregnancy and Early Age Leukemia Risk in Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Ferreira, Jeniffer Dantas; Couto, Arnaldo Cézar; Pombo-de-Oliveira, Maria S.; Koifman, Sergio

    2015-01-01

    Objectives. To investigate the association between the maternal alcohol consumption during pregnancy and early age leukemia (EAL) in offspring. Methods. Datasets were analyzed from a case-control study carried out in Brazil during 1999–2007. Data were obtained by maternal interviews using a standardized questionnaire. The present study included 675 children (193 acute lymphoid leukemia (ALL), 59 acute myeloid leukemia (AML), and 423 controls). Unconditional logistic regression was performed, and adjusted odds ratios (adj. OR) on the association between alcohol consumption and EAL were ascertained. Results. Alcohol consumption was reported by 43% of ALL and 39% of AML case mothers and 35.5% of controls'. Beer consumption before and during pregnancy was associated with ALL in crude analysis (OR = 1.54, 95% CI, 1.08–2.19), although in adjusted analysis no statistical significance was found. For weekly intake of ?1 glass (adj. OR = 1.30, 95% CI, 0.71–2.36) and ?1 glass/week (adj. OR = 1.47, 95% CI, 0.88–2.46) a potential dose-response was observed (P trend < 0.03). Conclusion. This study failed to support the hypothesis of an increased risk of EAL associated with maternal alcohol intake during pregnancy, neither with the interaction with tobacco nor with alcohol consumption.

  10. Pregnancy, maternal exposure to analgesic medicines, and leukemia in Brazilian children below 2 years of age.

    PubMed

    Couto, Arnaldo C; Ferreira, Jeniffer D; Pombo-de-Oliveira, Maria S; Koifman, Sérgio

    2015-05-01

    Childhood leukemia etiology, and mainly the interactions of genetic and environmental risk factors, remains largely unexplored. This national hospital-based case-control study was carried out in Brazil among children aged 0-23 months who were recruited at cancer and general hospitals in 13 states. Maternal medicine intake during pregnancy, including analgesic intake, was assessed by face-to-face interviews with the mothers of 231 leukemia patients and 411 controls. Unconditional logistic regression was used to ascertain crude and adjusted odds ratios (ORs), and their 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for the association between maternal analgesic use during pregnancy and early age leukemia. Acetaminophen use during the first trimester of pregnancy showed an OR=0.39 (95% CI 0.17-0.93) for acute lymphocytic leukemia and an OR=0.37 (95% CI 0.16-0.88) for use in the second trimester. For acute myeloid leukemia, an OR=0.11 (95% CI 0.02-0.97) was found following acetaminophen use in the second trimester. For acute lymphocytic leukemia, the exclusive use of dipyrone during preconception showed an OR=1.63 (95% CI 1.06-2.53) and dipyrone intake during lactation showed an OR=2.00 (95% CI 1.18-3.39). These results suggest that acetaminophen use during pregnancy may protect against development of early age leukemia in the offspring, whereas dipyrone use may act as a risk factor for such an outcome. PMID:25121973

  11. Determining infants' age for measles vaccination based on persistence of protective level of maternal measles antibody.

    PubMed

    Shilpi, Tanjida; Sattar, Humayun; Miah, Md Ruhul Amin

    2009-12-01

    The present study was conducted over a period of one year to find the right time for measles vaccination when maternal antibody titer in infants was decayed rendering them susceptible to wild virus infection. Blood samples were collected from the cord of new born (147), 2-5 months (47) and 5 to 7.5 months (24) of age. The mean measles IgG antibody titer detected in cord blood at birth (0 months) was 348.8 mlU/mL which steeply decreased to 155.6 mlU/mL by the age of 2-3 months. After that the fall in antibody becomes relatively slower and decreased to 101.6 mIU/mL by the age of 3-5 months and 38.8 mlU/mL by the age of 5-6 months and to 19.2 mIU/mL between the age of 6 to 7.5 months. The fall in antibody level with the advance of age was statistically significant (p < 0.001 ). Majority of the subjects (97.6%) exhibited protective level of antibody at birth. But only a little above one-quarter (25.5%) of them persisted the protective level between the age of 2-5 months and none had protective level from 5 months onwards. PMID:20922913

  12. Developmental ORIgins of Healthy and Unhealthy AgeiNg: the role of maternal obesity--introduction to DORIAN.

    PubMed

    Iozzo, Patricia; Holmes, Megan; Schmidt, Mathias V; Cirulli, Francesca; Guzzardi, Maria Angela; Berry, Alessandra; Balsevich, Georgia; Andreassi, Maria Grazia; Wesselink, Jan-Jaap; Liistro, Tiziana; Gómez-Puertas, Paulino; Eriksson, Johan G; Seckl, Jonathan

    2014-01-01

    Europe has the highest proportion of elderly people in the world. Cardiovascular disease, type 2 diabetes, sarcopenia and cognitive decline frequently coexist in the same aged individual, sharing common early risk factors and being mutually reinforcing. Among conditions which may contribute to establish early risk factors, this review focuses on maternal obesity, since the epidemic of obesity involves an ever growing number of women of reproductive age and children, calling for appropriate studies to understand the consequences of maternal obesity on the offspring's health and for developing effective measures and policies to improve people's health before their conception and birth. Though the current knowledge suggests that the long-term impact of maternal obesity on the offspring's health may be substantial, the outcomes of maternal obesity over the lifespan have not been quantified, and the molecular changes induced by maternal obesity remain poorly characterized. We hypothesize that maternal insulin resistance and reduced placental glucocorticoid catabolism, leading to oxidative stress, may damage the DNA, either in its structure (telomere shortening) or in its function (via epigenetic changes), resulting in altered gene expression/repair, disease during life, and pathological ageing. This review illustrates the background to the EU-FP7-HEALTH-DORIAN project. PMID:24801105

  13. Maternal body mass index in early pregnancy and offspring asthma, rhinitis and eczema up to 16 years of age

    PubMed Central

    Ekström, S; Magnusson, J; Kull, I; Lind, T; Almqvist, C; Melén, E; Bergström, A

    2015-01-01

    Background Maternal obesity has been linked to offspring asthma; however, other allergy-related diseases, as well as the association beyond early school age, are largely unstudied. Objective To examine the associations between maternal body mass index (BMI) in pregnancy and offspring asthma, rhinitis, eczema and sensitization up to 16 years of age. Methods A total of 3294 children from the Swedish birth cohort BAMSE were included in the analyses. Maternal BMI was assessed around week 10 in pregnancy. Information on asthma, rhinitis, eczema, lifestyle factors and environmental exposures was obtained by parental questionnaires at 1, 2, 4, 8, 12 and 16 years. Sensitization was defined from IgE levels of inhalant allergens at 4, 8 and 16 years in a subsample of 2850 children. Generalized estimated equation models were used to analyse the associations between maternal BMI and the outcomes at 1–16 years. Results Maternal BMI was positively associated with overall risk of asthma up to age of 16 years (adj OR per 5 kg/m2 increase: 1.23; 95% CI 1.07–1.40 for prevalent asthma) excluding underweight mothers. In contrast, no significant associations were found for rhinitis, eczema or sensitization. The association with asthma was restricted to obese, rather than overweight mothers, but was attenuated when adjusting for overweight in the offspring. A causal inference test at 16 years further indicated that the child’s own overweight is a mediator in the suggested association between maternal BMI and offspring asthma at 16 years. Conclusions and Clinical Relevance Maternal BMI is associated with an increased risk of asthma, but not rhinitis, eczema or sensitization; however, overweight in the offspring seems to have a mediating role. Prevention strategies of maternal pre-pregnancy and childhood obesity might be important to reduce the prevalence of childhood asthma. PMID:24807420

  14. Age at menarche in relation to maternal use of tobacco, alcohol, coffee, and tea during pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Windham, Gayle C; Bottomley, Christian; Birner, Cecilie; Fenster, Laura

    2004-05-01

    To investigate the potential effects of common early life exposures on age at menarche, the authors examined data collected in a follow-up study of pregnancies that occurred during the 1960s in California. Among 994 female offspring interviewed as adolescents, 98% had started their menstrual periods at a mean age of 12.96 years. After adjustment, the mean age at menarche was a few months earlier among girls whose mothers smoked a pack or more of cigarettes daily during pregnancy compared with unexposed girls (difference = -0.22 years, 95% confidence interval (CI): -0.49, 0.05) and more so among girls who were not White (difference = -0.52 years, 95% CI: -1.1, 0.08). Girls with both high prenatal and childhood passive smoke exposure had an adjusted mean age at menarche about 4 months earlier than those unexposed. The daughter's mean age at menarche varied little by maternal prenatal alcohol consumption. Daughters of tea consumers had a later mean age (difference = 0.41 years at >/= 3 cups (0.7 liter)/day, 95% CI: 0.03, 0.80) and were more likely to start menarche later (>13 years) (odds ratio = 1.7, 95% CI: 0.91, 3.2), but daughters of coffee consumers did not. These suggestive findings, which merit further investigation, may be related to hormonal effects. PMID:15105179

  15. Differential Gene Expression at the Maternal-Fetal Interface in Preeclampsia Is Influenced by Gestational Age

    PubMed Central

    Lian, Ingrid A.; Langaas, Mette; Moses, Eric; Johansson, Åsa

    2013-01-01

    Genome-wide transcription data of utero-placental tissue has been used to identify altered gene expression associated with preeclampsia (PE). As many women with PE deliver preterm, there is often a difference in gestational age between PE women and healthy pregnant controls. This may pose a potential bias since gestational age has been shown to dramatically influence gene expression in utero-placental tissue. By pooling data from three genome-wide transcription studies of the maternal-fetal interface, we have evaluated the relative effect of gestational age and PE on gene expression. A total of 18,180 transcripts were evaluated in 49 PE cases and 105 controls, with gestational age ranging from week 14 to 42. A total of 22 transcripts were associated with PE, whereas 92 transcripts with gestational age (nominal P value <1.51*10?6, Bonferroni adjusted P value <0.05). Our results indicate that gestational age has a great influence on gene expression both in normal and PE-complicated pregnancies. This effect might introduce serious bias in data analyses and needs to be carefully assessed in future genome-wide transcription studies. PMID:23936112

  16. Maternal-infant relationship quality and risk of obesity at age 5.5 years in a national US cohort

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Poor quality relationships between mothers and toddlers have been associated with higher risk for childhood obesity, but few prospective studies of obesity have assessed maternal-child relationship quality in infancy. In addition it is not known whether the increased risk is associated with the mother’s or the child’s contribution to the relationship quality. Methods We analyzed data (n?=?5650) from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study, Birth Cohort, a national study of U.S. children born in 2001 and followed until they entered kindergarten. At 9 months of age, the Nursing Child Assessment Teaching Scale (NCATS) was used to assess the quality of observed playtime interactions between mothers and infants, yielding separate scores for maternal and infant behaviors. Obesity (BMI ?95th percentile) at age 5.5 years was based on measured weight and height. Results The prevalence (95% confidence interval) of obesity at 5.5 years of age was higher among children in the lowest quartile of maternal NCATS score (20.2% [95% CI: 17.2%, 23.2%]) than in the highest quartile (13.9% [11.3%, 16.5%]), but maternal NCATS score was not significantly associated with obesity after adjustment for race/ethnicity, maternal education and household income. The prevalence of obesity at 5.5 years of age was similar among children in the lowest quartile of infant NCATS score (17.4% [14.4%, 20.3%]) and in the highest quartile (17.6% 14.4%, 20.8%]), and was not changed with covariate adjustment. Conclusions Maternal-infant relationship quality, assessed by direct observation at 9 months of age in a national sample, was not associated with an increased risk of obesity at age 5.5 years after controlling for sociodemographic characteristics. PMID:24564412

  17. Maternal aging affects life performance of progeny in a Holstein dairy cow model.

    PubMed

    Astiz, S; Gonzalez-Bulnes, A; Sebastian, F; Fargas, O; Cano, I; Cuesta, P

    2014-08-01

    The development and life performance of 404 high-producing Holstein dairy cows was studied from birth onwards and during two lactations. The management, environment and parental genetics of the cows were known in detail. Cluster analysis identified four performance 'types': high-yielding (HY) cows and persistently high-yielding (PHY) cows, which accounted for 33% of the animals; medium-yielding (MY) cows, 41%; and low-yielding (LY) cows, 26%. Prenatal determinants of the life performance of the progeny were analyzed. Developmental and environmental factors were excluded as determinants of performance (including birth weight, level of passive immunity transfer, growth rate, age at first parturition and reproductive efficiency). Life performance did show minor seasonal effects, with more HY cows but less PHY being born during the cold season (90.1% in HY; 58.3% in PHY v. 81.5%). Instead, the single most important factor influencing life performance of daughters was maternal age. HY cows were born from the youngest mothers (1.89±1.14 parturitions, 3.12±1.42-year old), whereas LY cows were born from the oldest (2.72±1.80 parturitions, 3.97±2.01-year old; P<0.001). Life performance of the dams did not differ among clusters. In addition, metabolic parameters (fat and protein yield) were found to correlate significantly with yields between the first and second lactations (milk yield: r=0.357; fat yield: r=0.211; protein yield: r=0.277; P<0.0001), suggesting the influence of the individual. These results suggest that under optimal health, nutritional and environmental conditions, maternal aging is an important determinant of the life performance of progeny and argue for the need to identify conditions that contribute to health and disease in progeny according to the Developmental Origin of Health and Disease or DOHaD concept. Our findings may help the development of novel management guidelines for dairy farms. PMID:25084160

  18. Advancing maternal age predisposes to mitochondrial damage and loss during maturation of equine oocytes in vitro.

    PubMed

    Rambags, B P B; van Boxtel, D C J; Tharasanit, T; Lenstra, J A; Colenbrander, B; Stout, T A E

    2014-04-15

    In many mammalian species, reproductive success decreases with maternal age. One proposed contributor to this age-related decrease in fertility is a reduction in the quantity or functionality of mitochondria in oocytes. This study examined whether maternal age or (in vitro maturation). IVM affect the quantity of mitochondria in equine oocytes. Oocytes were collected from the ovaries of slaughtered mares categorized as young (<12 years) or aged (?12 years) and either denuded and prepared for analysis immediately (not-IVM) or matured in vitro for 30 hours before preparation (IVM). The mean oocyte mitochondrial DNA copy number was estimated by quantitative polymerase chain reaction and found to be significantly lower in oocytes from aged mares and that had been subjected to IVM than in any other group. Transmission electron microscopy demonstrated that mitochondria in aged mare oocytes subjected to IVM experienced significantly more swelling and loss of cristae than in other groups. We conclude that maternal aging is associated with a heightened susceptibility to mitochondrial damage and loss in equine oocytes, which manifests during IVM. This predisposition to mitochondrial degeneration probably contributes to reduced fertility in aged mares. PMID:24576711

  19. Does Maternal Prenatal Stress Adversely Affect the Child's Learning and Memory at Age Six?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gutteling, Barbara M.; de Weerth, Carolina; Zandbelt, Noortje; Mulder, Eduard J. H.; Visser, Gerard H. A.; Buitelaar, Jan K.

    2006-01-01

    Prenatal maternal stress has been shown to affect postnatal development in animals and humans. In animals, the morphology and function of the offspring's hippocampus is negatively affected by prenatal maternal stress. The present study prospectively investigated the influence of prenatal maternal stress on learning and memory of 112 children (50…

  20. Some essential elements in maternal and cord blood in relation to birth weight and gestational age of the baby.

    PubMed

    Srivastava, S; Mehrotra, P K; Srivastava, S P; Siddiqui, M K J

    2002-05-01

    Maternal and cord blood were collected from 54 Indian women at parturition and analyzed for Zn, Cu, and Fe by flame atomic absorption spectrophotometry to determine the relationship between levels of these elements in mother's and infant's blood and maternal age, birth weight, and gestational age of the baby. The blood Zn level of mothers in the age group 24-28 yr was significantly higher than those of mothers in the age group of 18-23 yr (p<0.05). Similarly, mothers in the 24 to 28-yr group also had higher blood Fe level than mothers in the group 29-38 yr (p<0.05). The levels of Zn, Cu, and Fe were higher in the maternal blood and lower, but not significantly, in the cord blood of low-birth-weight babies than in those of normal-birth-weight babies. However, differences in the levels of Zn, Cu, and Fe between maternal and cord blood of the two birth-weight groups was statistically significant. There were no significant differences in the levels of the three elements in maternal or cord blood by the gestational age of the baby. A weak but significant correlation was found between the birth weight of the baby and the Fe level in the cord blood (r=0.26; p<0.05). Also, weak significant correlations were observed between gestational age of the baby and Fe (r=0.23; p<0.05) and Cu (r=0.31; p<0.05) levels in the cord blood. Although, there are many confounders of low birth weight and preterm deliveries, a diminished placental transfer of these essential elements could be one of the several etiological factors for low birth weight of newborns. PMID:12008981

  1. Maternal but not paternal fat mass is positively associated with infant fat mass at age 2 weeks

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Maternal programming of fetal metabolism has been demonstrated in animal studies, while clinical studies have shown an association between pre-pregnancy body mass index (BMI) and anthropometric measures in infants. Here we report on the association between infant body composition at age 2 weeks and ...

  2. Normative Scores and Factor Structure of the Profile of Mood States for Women Seeking Prenatal Diagnosis for Advanced Maternal Age.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tunis, Sandra L.; And Others

    1990-01-01

    A sample of pregnant women (N=705) was given the monopolar version of the Profile of Mood States (POMS) in prenatal counseling for advanced maternal age to develop normative data and to determine the factor structure of the POMS for this group of women in the first trimester of pregnancy. (SLD)

  3. The Associations of Prenatal Substance Use To Birth Outcomes and Infant Death: Do They Vary by Maternal Age and Race?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hellerstedt, Wendy L.; Johnson, Pamela Jo; Oswald, John W.

    2002-01-01

    Examined whether associations between prenatal substance use and birth and infant outcomes varied by maternal age and race. Data on all singleton live births in Minnesota from 1990-98 indicated that poor birth outcomes and infant death were generally lower for whites than for African Americans and American Indians. Prenatal substance use varied by…

  4. Maternal smoking, demographic and lifestyle factors in relation to daughter's age at menarche.

    PubMed

    Windham, Gayle C; Zhang, Lixia; Longnecker, Matthew P; Klebanoff, Mark

    2008-11-01

    A previous study suggested a younger age at menarche (AAM) among daughters of heavy prenatal smokers, especially among non-Whites. The present study was designed to evaluate that association in another population and to examine other factors that may be related to AAM. We analysed data from the Collaborative Perinatal Project, a nationwide longitudinal study of pregnant women and their children conducted in 1959-66. At three sites, with a predominance of Black participants (80%), AAM was ascertained in the offspring when they were young adults. We included data on 1556 daughters who had a mean AAM of 12.7 years (standard deviation 1.8). Amount smoked by the mothers was obtained from a baseline interview and subsequent prenatal visits. Regression models were run including maternal smoking and other covariates, for only the prenatal period, as well as in models with some childhood characteristics. In the prenatal factor model, younger mean AAM in daughters was found with maternal characteristics of earlier AAM, being married, and of lower parity. Examining childhood variables, earlier AAM was found among girls with few or no siblings or with higher socio-economic status. Unlike our previous findings, mean AAM was later in daughters of heavy smokers (20+ cigarettes/day), with a delay of 0.31 years [95% confidence interval (CI) 0.008, 0.61], or about 3.7 months in the prenatal model, and 0.34 years [95% CI -0.02, 0.66] in the model with childhood variables included. The pattern was consistent by race. A number of prenatal and childhood factors related to AAM were identified that should be considered when examining exogenous exposures in relation to pubertal onset. PMID:19000293

  5. Maternal Plasma Phosphatidylcholine Fatty Acids and Atopy and Wheeze in the Offspring at Age of 6 Years

    PubMed Central

    Pike, Katharine C.; Calder, Philip C.; Inskip, Hazel M.; Robinson, Sian M.; Roberts, Graham C.; Cooper, Cyrus; Godfrey, Keith M.; Lucas, Jane S. A.

    2012-01-01

    Variation in exposure to polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) might influence the development of atopy, asthma, and wheeze. This study aimed to determine whether differences in PUFA concentrations in maternal plasma phosphatidylcholine are associated with the risk of childhood wheeze or atopy. For 865 term-born children, we measured phosphatidylcholine fatty acid composition in maternal plasma collected at 34 weeks' gestation. Wheezing was classified using questionnaires at 6, 12, 24, and 36 months and 6 years. At age of 6 years, the children underwent skin prick testing, fractional exhaled nitric oxide (FENO) measurement, and spirometry. Maternal n-6 fatty acids and the ratio of n-3 to n-6 fatty acids were not associated with childhood wheeze. However, higher maternal eicosapentaenoic acid, docosahexaenoic acid, and total n-3 fatty acids were associated with reduced risk of non-atopic persistent/late wheeze (RR 0.57, 0.67 and 0.69, resp. P = 0.01, 0.015, and 0.021, resp.). Maternal arachidonic acid was positively associated with FENO (P = 0.024). A higher ratio of linoleic acid to its unsaturated metabolic products was associated with reduced risk of skin sensitisation (RR 0.82, P = 0.013). These associations provide some support for the hypothesis that variation in exposure to n-6 and n-3 fatty acids during pregnancy influences the risk of childhood wheeze and atopy. PMID:23049600

  6. Effects of Advanced Maternal Age and Race/Ethnicity on Placental Weight and Placental Weight/Birthweight Ratio in Very Low Birthweight Infants.

    PubMed

    de Jongh, B E; Mackley, A; Jain, N; Locke, R; Paul, D A

    2015-07-01

    To study the association of advanced maternal age (AMA) and race/ethnicity on placental pathology in very low birthweight (VLBW) infants. Retrospective analysis of placental pathology of inborn singleton VLBW infants from a regional level 3 NICU between July, 2002 and June, 2009. Subjects were stratified by age and race/ethnicity. Statistical analysis included One-way ANOVA, Chi Square and multivariable analyses. A total of 739 mother/infant dyads were included. AMA was associated with a decrease in placental weight and placental weight/birthweight ratio. Black/Non-Hispanic mothers ?35 had a lower placental weight (p = 0.01) and lower placental weight/birth weight ratio (z-score, -0.45 ± 0.71 vs -0.04 ± 1.1, p = 0.01) compared to Black/Non-Hispanic mothers <35 years of age. After controlling for gestational age, race/ethnicity, maternal diabetes, maternal smoking, maternal hypertension and clinical chorioamnionitis, AMA, but not race/ethnicity, remained independently associated with placental weight/birthweight ratio z score (full model r(2) = 0.22, p < 0.01). In our study sample of VLBW infants, placental weight and placental weight/birthweight ratio were lower in mothers of advanced maternal age compared to mothers <35 years of age. Our data suggest that maternal age affects placentation in VLBW infants, which could influence maternal and neonatal outcomes. PMID:25567078

  7. Placental DNA methylation alterations associated with maternal tobacco smoking at the RUNX3 gene are also associated with gestational age

    PubMed Central

    Maccani, Jennifer ZJ; Koestler, Devin C; Houseman, Eugene Andrés; Marsit, Carmen J; Kelsey, Karl T

    2014-01-01

    Aims The developmental origins of health and disease hypothesis states that later-life disease may be influenced by the quality of the in utero environment. Environmental toxicants can have detrimental effects on fetal development, potentially through effects on placental development and function. Maternal smoking during pregnancy is associated with low birth weight, preterm birth and other complications, and exposure to cigarette smoke in utero has been linked to gross pathologic and molecular changes to the placenta, including differential DNA methylation in placental tissue. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between maternal smoking during pregnancy, methylation changes in the placenta and gestational age. Materials & methods We used Illumina®’s (CA, USA) Human Methylation27 BeadChip technology platform to investigate the methylation status of 21,551 autosomal, non-SNP-associated CpG loci in DNA extracted from 206 human placentas and examined loci whose variation in methylation was associated with maternal smoking during pregnancy. Results We found that methylation patterns of a number of loci within the RUNX3 gene were significantly associated with smoking during pregnancy, and one of these loci was associated with decreased gestational age (p = 0.04). Conclusion Our findings, demonstrating maternal smoking-induced changes in DNA methylation at specific loci, suggest a mechanism by which in utero tobacco smoke exposure could exert its detrimental effects upon the health of the fetus. PMID:24283877

  8. Breast cancer risk associations with birth order and maternal age according to breast-feeding status in infancy

    PubMed Central

    Nichols, Hazel B.; Trentham-Dietz, Amy; Sprague, Brian L.; Hampton, John M.; Titus-Ernstoff, Linda; Newcomb, Polly A.

    2009-01-01

    Background Early life risk factors for breast cancer have been investigated in relation to hormonal, nutritional, infectious, and/or genetic hypotheses. Recently, studies of potential health effects associated with exposure to environmental contaminants in breastmilk have been considered. Methods We analyzed data from a population-based case-control study of female Wisconsin residents. Cases (N=2,016) had an incident diagnosis of invasive breast cancer in 2002?2006 reported to the statewide tumor registry. Controls (N=1,960) of similar ages were randomly selected from driver's license lists. Risk factor information was collected during structured telephone interviews. Odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were estimated from multivariable logistic regression. Results In multivariable models, maternal age and birth order were not associated with breast cancer risk in the full study population. The odds ratio for breast cancer risk associated with having been breastfed in infancy was 0.83 (95% CI 0.72?0.96). In analyses restricted to breastfed women, maternal age associations with breast cancer were null (p-value=0.2). Increasing maternal age was negatively associated with breast cancer risk among women who were not breastfed; the odds ratio for breast cancer associated with each 5-year increase in maternal age was 0.90 (95% CI 0.82?1.00). Higher birth order was inversely associated with breast cancer risk among breastfed women (OR=0.58; 95% CI 0.39?0.86 for women with ?3 older siblings compared to first-born women) but not among non-breastfed women (OR=1.13; 95% CI 0.81?1.57). Conclusion These findings suggest that early life risk factor associations for breast cancer may differ according to breastfeeding status in infancy. PMID:18379425

  9. Genetic moderation of effects of maternal sensitivity on girl's age of menarche: Replication of the Manuck et al. study.

    PubMed

    Hartman, Sarah; Widaman, Keith F; Belsky, Jay

    2015-08-01

    Manuck, Craig, Flory, Halder, and Ferrell (2011) reported that a theoretically anticipated effect of family rearing on girls' menarcheal age was genetically moderated by two single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of the estrogen receptor-? gene. We sought to replicate and extend these findings, studying 210 White females followed from birth. The replication was general because a different measure of the rearing environment was used in this inquiry (i.e., maternal sensitivity) than in the prior one (i.e., family cohesion). Extensions of the work included prospective rather than retrospective measurements of the rearing environment, reports of first menstruation within a year of its occurrence rather than decades later, accounting for some heritability of menarcheal age by controlling for maternal age of menarche, and using a new model-fitting approach to competitively compare diathesis-stress versus differential-susceptibility models of Gene × Environment interaction. The replication/extension effort proved successful in the case of both estrogen receptor-? SNPs, with the Gene × Environment interactions principally reflecting diathesis-stress: lower levels of maternal sensitivity predicted earlier age of menarche for girls homozygous for the minor alleles of either SNP but not for girls carrying other genotypes. Results are discussed in light of the new analytic methods adopted. PMID:25195863

  10. Predicting Elements of Early Maternal Elaborative Discourse from 12 to 18 Months of Age

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ontai, Lenna L.; Virmani, Elita Amini

    2010-01-01

    To date, much of the research investigating maternal-child discourse has focused on the preschool period of children's development, with little attention paid to how these styles develop. The current study aimed to assess whether maternal elaborative discourse elements seen in preschool are also evident during the toddler years, and whether the…

  11. Maternal Psychological Distress during Pregnancy in Relation to Child Development at Age Two

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DiPietro, Janet A.; Novak, Matthew F. S. X.; Costigan, Kathleen A.; Atella, Lara D.; Reusing, Sarah P.

    2006-01-01

    Concern exists that a constellation of negative maternal emotions during pregnancy generates persistent negative consequences for child development. Maternal reports of anxiety, pregnancy-specific and nonspecific stress, and depressive symptoms were collected during mid-pregnancy and at 6 weeks and 24 months after birth in a sample of healthy…

  12. What is the association between maternal age and neonatal mortality? An analysis of the 2007 Bangladesh Demographic and Health Survey.

    PubMed

    Kamal, S M Mostafa

    2015-03-01

    This study aims to investigate the effect of adolescent motherhood on neonatal mortality in Bangladesh using data from the nationally representative 2007 Bangladesh Demographic and Health Survey. Both univariate and multivariate statistical analyses were used to assess the relationship between neonatal mortality and sociodemographic contextual factors focusing on maternal age, in particular, adolescent and adult motherhood. The statistical analyses yielded quantitatively important and reliable estimates of neonatal death. The sequential multivariate logistic regression analyses yielded significantly increased risk of neonatal mortality among children of adolescent mothers than of adult mothers. Maternal education, religion, birth rank, and antenatal care seeking are also important determinants of neonatal death. Programs should aim to support girls to stay in schooling for a longer period to be higher educated. Delaying the age at first marriage may be also a valuable strategy to promote and improve infants' health and survival status. PMID:22186392

  13. Maternal age effect and severe germ-line bottleneck in the inheritance of human mitochondrial DNA.

    PubMed

    Rebolledo-Jaramillo, Boris; Su, Marcia Shu-Wei; Stoler, Nicholas; McElhoe, Jennifer A; Dickins, Benjamin; Blankenberg, Daniel; Korneliussen, Thorfinn S; Chiaromonte, Francesca; Nielsen, Rasmus; Holland, Mitchell M; Paul, Ian M; Nekrutenko, Anton; Makova, Kateryna D

    2014-10-28

    The manifestation of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) diseases depends on the frequency of heteroplasmy (the presence of several alleles in an individual), yet its transmission across generations cannot be readily predicted owing to a lack of data on the size of the mtDNA bottleneck during oogenesis. For deleterious heteroplasmies, a severe bottleneck may abruptly transform a benign (low) frequency in a mother into a disease-causing (high) frequency in her child. Here we present a high-resolution study of heteroplasmy transmission conducted on blood and buccal mtDNA of 39 healthy mother-child pairs of European ancestry (a total of 156 samples, each sequenced at ?20,000× per site). On average, each individual carried one heteroplasmy, and one in eight individuals carried a disease-associated heteroplasmy, with minor allele frequency ?1%. We observed frequent drastic heteroplasmy frequency shifts between generations and estimated the effective size of the germ-line mtDNA bottleneck at only ?30-35 (interquartile range from 9 to 141). Accounting for heteroplasmies, we estimated the mtDNA germ-line mutation rate at 1.3 × 10(-8) (interquartile range from 4.2 × 10(-9) to 4.1 × 10(-8)) mutations per site per year, an order of magnitude higher than for nuclear DNA. Notably, we found a positive association between the number of heteroplasmies in a child and maternal age at fertilization, likely attributable to oocyte aging. This study also took advantage of droplet digital PCR (ddPCR) to validate heteroplasmies and confirm a de novo mutation. Our results can be used to predict the transmission of disease-causing mtDNA variants and illuminate evolutionary dynamics of the mitochondrial genome. PMID:25313049

  14. Maternal age effect and severe germ-line bottleneck in the inheritance of human mitochondrial DNA

    PubMed Central

    Rebolledo-Jaramillo, Boris; Su, Marcia Shu-Wei; Stoler, Nicholas; McElhoe, Jennifer A.; Dickins, Benjamin; Blankenberg, Daniel; Chiaromonte, Francesca; Nielsen, Rasmus; Holland, Mitchell M.; Paul, Ian M.; Nekrutenko, Anton; Makova, Kateryna D.

    2014-01-01

    The manifestation of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) diseases depends on the frequency of heteroplasmy (the presence of several alleles in an individual), yet its transmission across generations cannot be readily predicted owing to a lack of data on the size of the mtDNA bottleneck during oogenesis. For deleterious heteroplasmies, a severe bottleneck may abruptly transform a benign (low) frequency in a mother into a disease-causing (high) frequency in her child. Here we present a high-resolution study of heteroplasmy transmission conducted on blood and buccal mtDNA of 39 healthy mother–child pairs of European ancestry (a total of 156 samples, each sequenced at ?20,000× per site). On average, each individual carried one heteroplasmy, and one in eight individuals carried a disease-associated heteroplasmy, with minor allele frequency ?1%. We observed frequent drastic heteroplasmy frequency shifts between generations and estimated the effective size of the germ-line mtDNA bottleneck at only ?30–35 (interquartile range from 9 to 141). Accounting for heteroplasmies, we estimated the mtDNA germ-line mutation rate at 1.3 × 10?8 (interquartile range from 4.2 × 10?9 to 4.1 × 10?8) mutations per site per year, an order of magnitude higher than for nuclear DNA. Notably, we found a positive association between the number of heteroplasmies in a child and maternal age at fertilization, likely attributable to oocyte aging. This study also took advantage of droplet digital PCR (ddPCR) to validate heteroplasmies and confirm a de novo mutation. Our results can be used to predict the transmission of disease-causing mtDNA variants and illuminate evolutionary dynamics of the mitochondrial genome. PMID:25313049

  15. Temporal Trends in Chorioamnionitis by Maternal Race/Ethnicity and Gestational Age (1995–2010)

    PubMed Central

    Wing, Deborah A.

    2013-01-01

    Objective. To characterize trends in chorioamnionitis (CAM) by maternal race/ethnicity and gestational age. Study Design. We examined trends in CAM from 1995–2010 among singleton births in all Kaiser Permanente Southern California hospitals (n = 471,821). Data were extracted from Perinatal Service System and clinical utilization records. Gestational age- and race/ethnicity-specific biannual diagnosis rates were estimated using the Poisson regression after adjusting for potential confounding factors. Results. Overall diagnosis rates of CAM increased from 2.7% in 1995-1996 to 6.0% in 2009-2010 with a relative increase of 126% (95% confidence intervals [CI] 113%–149%). From 1995-1996 to 2009-2010, CAM increased among the Whites (1.8% to 4.3%, P-value for trend <.001), Blacks (2.2% to 3.7%, P-value for trend <.001), Hispanics (2.4% to 5.8%, P-value for trend <.001), and Asian/Pacific Islanders (3.6% to 9.0%, P-value for trend <.001). The adjusted relative percentage change in CAM from 1995-1996 to 2009-2010 was for Whites [preterm 21% (9%–78%), term 138% (108%–173%)], for Blacks [preterm 24% (?9%–81%), term 62% (30%–101%)], for Hispanics [preterm 31% (3%–66%), term 135% (114%–159%)], and for Asian/Pacific Islanders [preterm 44% (9%–127%), term 145% (109%–188%)]. Conclusion. The findings suggest that CAM diagnosis rate has increased for all race/ethnic groups. This increase is primarily due to increased diagnosis at term gestation. PMID:25815375

  16. Prenatal maternal stress predicts stress reactivity at 2½ years of age: The Iowa Flood Study.

    PubMed

    Yong Ping, Erin; Laplante, David P; Elgbeili, Guillaume; Hillerer, Katharina M; Brunet, Alain; O'Hara, Michael W; King, Suzanne

    2015-06-01

    Prenatal maternal stress (PNMS) predicts psychosocial development in offspring. It has been hypothesized that during PNMS, glucocorticoids pass the placenta, reaching the foetus, leading to a long-term reprogramming and dysregulation of the foetal hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis. However, results are inconsistent across PNMS studies. One problem may be the confounding of objective degrees of hardship due to the stressor and subjective degrees of distress in the mother. The present study investigated the association between objective and subjective PNMS due to a natural disaster, the June 2008 Iowa floods, and stress reactivity in the offspring at 2½ years of age. Women who were pregnant during the floods were recruited, on average, within three months of the floods and their stress levels assessed. Mothers and their toddlers (n=94dyads) participated in a brief mother-toddler separation to induce physiological stress responses in the offspring. Salivary cortisol samples were collected four times during the procedure. We computed absolute change in cortisol (baseline to 20-minute post-stressor; baseline to 45-minute post-stressor) and Area Under the Curve with respect to increase and ground (AUCi; AUCg). Objective and subjective PNMS were positively correlated with AUCi, as was timing in gestation: the later in pregnancy the exposure occurred, the greater the cortisol increase. Controlling for objective hardship and other covariates, sex-by-subjective PNMS interactions showed a significant and positive association between subjective PNMS and Absolute Increase (45min) and AUCi in females only, with little effect in males. These results suggest that PNMS leads to long-term alterations in the functioning of the HPA axis, evident as early as 30-months of age. PMID:25800150

  17. Median Logic Alexander Sakharov

    E-print Network

    SPb. Math. Society Preprint 2004­12 13 Dec 2004 Median Logic Alexander Sakharov alex@sakharov.net http://alex.sakharov.net Abstract Median logic introduced here is a minimal intermediate logic not containing propositional symbols. A sequent calculus and other formulations are presented for median logic

  18. Mapping for maternal and newborn health: the distributions of women of childbearing age, pregnancies and births

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The health and survival of women and their new-born babies in low income countries has been a key priority in public health since the 1990s. However, basic planning data, such as numbers of pregnancies and births, remain difficult to obtain and information is also lacking on geographic access to key services, such as facilities with skilled health workers. For maternal and newborn health and survival, planning for safer births and healthier newborns could be improved by more accurate estimations of the distributions of women of childbearing age. Moreover, subnational estimates of projected future numbers of pregnancies are needed for more effective strategies on human resources and infrastructure, while there is a need to link information on pregnancies to better information on health facilities in districts and regions so that coverage of services can be assessed. Methods This paper outlines demographic mapping methods based on freely available data for the production of high resolution datasets depicting estimates of numbers of people, women of childbearing age, live births and pregnancies, and distribution of comprehensive EmONC facilities in four large high burden countries: Afghanistan, Bangladesh, Ethiopia and Tanzania. Satellite derived maps of settlements and land cover were constructed and used to redistribute areal census counts to produce detailed maps of the distributions of women of childbearing age. Household survey data, UN statistics and other sources on growth rates, age specific fertility rates, live births, stillbirths and abortions were then integrated to convert the population distribution datasets to gridded estimates of births and pregnancies. Results and conclusions These estimates, which can be produced for current, past or future years based on standard demographic projections, can provide the basis for strategic intelligence, planning services, and provide denominators for subnational indicators to track progress. The datasets produced are part of national midwifery workforce assessments conducted in collaboration with the respective Ministries of Health and the United Nations Population Fund (UNFPA) to identify disparities between population needs, health infrastructure and workforce supply. The datasets are available to the respective Ministries as part of the UNFPA programme to inform midwifery workforce planning and also publicly available through the WorldPop population mapping project. PMID:24387010

  19. Maternal and early life factors of tooth emergence patterns and number of teeth at 1 and 2 years of age.

    PubMed

    Ntani, G; Day, P F; Baird, J; Godfrey, K M; Robinson, S M; Cooper, C; Inskip, H M

    2015-08-01

    Various environmental factors have been associated with the timing of eruption of primary dentition, but the evidence to date comes from small studies with limited information on potential risk factors. We aimed to investigate associations between tooth emergence patterns and pre-conception, pregnancy and postnatal influences. Dentition patterns were recorded at ages 1 and 2 years in 2915 children born to women in the Southampton Women's Survey from whom information had been collected on maternal factors before conception and during pregnancy. In mutually adjusted regression models we found that: children were more dentally advanced at ages 1 and 2 years if their mothers had smoked during pregnancy or they were longer at birth; mothers of children whose dental development was advanced at age 2 years tended to have poorer socioeconomic circumstances, and to have reported a slower walking speed pre-pregnancy; and children of mothers of Asian ethnicity had later tooth development than those of white mothers. The findings add to the evidence of environmental impacts on the timing of the eruption of primary dentition in indicating that maternal smoking during pregnancy, socio-economic status and physical activity (assessed by reported walking speed) may influence the child's primary dentition. Early life factors, including size at birth are also associated with dentition patterns, as is maternal ethnicity. PMID:25936832

  20. Influence of Second-Trimester Ultrasound Markers for Down Syndrome in Pregnant Women of Advanced Maternal Age

    PubMed Central

    Rumi Kataguiri, Mariza; Silva Bussamra, Luiz Claudio; Machado Nardozza, Luciano Marcondes; Fernandes Moron, Antonio

    2014-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to evaluate the influence of second-trimester ultrasound markers on the incidence of Down syndrome among pregnant women of advanced maternal age. This was a retrospective cohort study on 889 singleton pregnancies between the 14th and 30th weeks, with maternal age ? 35 years, which would undergo genetic amniocentesis. The second-trimester ultrasound assessed the following markers: increased nuchal fold thickness, cardiac hyperechogenic focus, mild ventriculomegaly, choroid plexus cysts, uni- or bilateral renal pyelectasis, intestinal hyperechogenicity, single umbilical artery, short femur and humerus length, hand/foot alterations, structural fetal malformation, and congenital heart disease. To investigate differences between the groups with and without markers, nonparametric tests consisting of the chi-square test or Fisher's exact test were used. Moreover, odds ratios with their respective 95% confidence intervals were calculated. Out of the 889 pregnant women, 131 (17.3%) presented markers and 758 (82.7%) did not present markers on the second-trimester ultrasound. Increased nuchal fold (P < 0.001) and structural malformation (P < 0.001) were the markers most associated with Down syndrome. The presence of one marker increased the relative risk 10.5-fold, while the presence of two or more markers increased the risk 13.5-fold. The presence of markers on the second-trimester ultrasound, especially thickened nuchal fold and structural malformation, increased the risk of Down syndrome among pregnant women with advanced maternal age. PMID:24795825

  1. Maternal fish intake during pregnancy, blood mercury, and child cognition at age 3 years in a US cohort

    PubMed Central

    Oken, Emily; Radesky, Jenny S.; Wright, Robert O.; Bellinger, David C.; Amarasiriwardena, Chitra J.; Kleinman, Ken P.; Hu, Howard; Gillman, Matthew W.

    2008-01-01

    The balance of contaminant risk and nutritional benefit from maternal prenatal fish consumption for child cognitive development is not known. Using data from a prospective cohort study of 341 mother-child pairs, authors studied associations of maternal 2nd trimester fish intake and erythrocyte mercury levels with child age 3 year scores on the Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test (PPVT) and Wide-Range Assessment of Visual Motor Abilities (WRAVMA). Mean maternal total fish intake was 1.5 (SD 1.4) servings/month, and 40 (12%) of mothers consumed > 2 weekly fish servings. Mean (SD) maternal mercury was 3.8 (3.8) ng/g. After adjustment using multivariable linear regression, higher fish intake was associated with better child cognitive test performance, and higher mercury levels with poorer test scores. Associations strengthened with inclusion of both fish and mercury: effect estimates (95% CI) for fish intake > 2 servings/week vs. never were 2.2 (?2.6, 7.0) for PPVT and 6.4 (2.0, 10.8) for WRAVMA; and for mercury in the top decile, ?4.5 (?8.5, ?0.4) for PPVT and ?4.6 (?8.3, ?0.9) for WRAVMA. Fish consumption <= 2 weekly servings was not associated with a benefit. Dietary recommendations for pregnant women should incorporate the nutritional benefits as well as the risks of fish intake. PMID:18353804

  2. Young maternal age and low birth weight risk: An exploration of racial/ethnic disparities in the birth outcomes of mothers in the United States.

    PubMed

    Dennis, Jeff A; Mollborn, Stefanie

    2013-12-01

    This study considers how low birth weight (LBW) prevalence varies by race/ethnicity and maternal age and explores mechanisms that explain disparities. Results show that maternal age patterns in LBW risk for African Americans differ from whites and foreign- and U.S.-born Hispanics. Background socioeconomic disadvantage, together with current socioeconomic status and smoking during pregnancy, explain almost all of the LBW disparity between white teenage mothers and their older counterparts. These findings suggest that social disadvantage is a primary driver in unfavorable birth outcomes among white teenage mothers compared to older white mothers. Alternatively, background disadvantage and other social characteristics explain very little of the LBW disparities among African Americans and U.S.- and foreign-born Hispanics. Overall, these results indicate LBW disparities by maternal age are a complex product of socioeconomic disadvantage and current social and behavioral factors, such that LBW risk does not operate uniformly by race/ethnicity or maternal age. PMID:25328275

  3. Assessing the relationship between maternal cigarette smoking during pregnancy and age at first police contact

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Chris L. Gibson; Alex R. Piquero; Stephen G. Tibbetts

    2000-01-01

    Several types of pre- and perinatal risk factors, such as maternal cigarette smoking, are related to various manifestations of life-course-persistent criminal offending. Studies have reported evidence of a relationship between maternal prenatal cigarette smoking and antisocial\\/criminal behavior. All of these studies, however, used white male samles, thus limiting the generalizability of research findings. In an attempt to overcome this problem,

  4. The associations of parity and maternal age with small-for-gestational-age, preterm, and neonatal and infant mortality: a meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Previous studies have reported on adverse neonatal outcomes associated with parity and maternal age. Many of these studies have relied on cross-sectional data, from which drawing causal inference is complex. We explore the associations between parity/maternal age and adverse neonatal outcomes using data from cohort studies conducted in low- and middle-income countries (LMIC). Methods Data from 14 cohort studies were included. Parity (nulliparous, parity 1-2, parity ?3) and maternal age (<18 years, 18-<35 years, ?35 years) categories were matched with each other to create exposure categories, with those who are parity 1-2 and age 18-<35 years as the reference. Outcomes included small-for-gestational-age (SGA), preterm, neonatal and infant mortality. Adjusted odds ratios (aOR) were calculated per study and meta-analyzed. Results Nulliparous, age <18 year women, compared with women who were parity 1-2 and age 18-<35 years had the highest odds of SGA (pooled adjusted OR: 1.80), preterm (pooled aOR: 1.52), neonatal mortality (pooled aOR: 2.07), and infant mortality (pooled aOR: 1.49). Increased odds were also noted for SGA and neonatal mortality for nulliparous/age 18-<35 years, preterm, neonatal, and infant mortality for parity ?3/age 18-<35 years, and preterm and neonatal mortality for parity ?3/?35 years. Conclusions Nulliparous women <18 years of age have the highest odds of adverse neonatal outcomes. Family planning has traditionally been the least successful in addressing young age as a risk factor; a renewed focus must be placed on finding effective interventions that delay age at first birth. Higher odds of adverse outcomes are also seen among parity ?3 / age ?35 mothers, suggesting that reproductive health interventions need to address the entirety of a woman’s reproductive period. Funding Funding was provided by the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation (810-2054) by a grant to the US Fund for UNICEF to support the activities of the Child Health Epidemiology Reference Group. PMID:24564800

  5. Preterm Birth in the United States: The Impact of Stressful Life Events Prior to Conception and Maternal Age

    PubMed Central

    Witt, Whitney P.; Cheng, Erika R.; Wisk, Lauren E.; Litzelman, Kristin; Chatterjee, Debanjana; Mandell, Kara; Wakeel, Fathima

    2014-01-01

    Objectives We determined whether and to what extent a woman’s exposure to stressful life events prior to conception (PSLEs) was associated with preterm birth and whether maternal age modified this relationship. Methods We examined 9350 mothers and infants participating in the first wave of the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study, Birth Cohort, a nationally representative sample of US women and children born in 2001, to investigate the impact of PSLEs on preterm birth in the United States. We estimated the effect of exposure on preterm birth with weighted logistic regression, adjusting for maternal sociodemographic and health factors and stress during pregnancy. Results Of the women examined, 10.9% had a preterm birth. In adjusted analyses, women aged 15 to 19 years who experienced any PSLE had over a 4-fold increased risk for having a preterm birth. This association differed on the basis of the timing of the PSLE. Conclusions Findings suggest that adolescence may be a sensitive period for the risk of preterm birth among adolescents exposed to PSLEs. Clinical, programmatic, and policy interventions should address upstream PSLEs, especially for adolescents, to reduce the prevalence of preterm birth and improve maternal and child health. PMID:24354830

  6. Vector median filters

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. Astola; P. Haavisto; Y. Neuvo

    1990-01-01

    Two nonlinear algorithms for processing vector-valued signals are introduced. The algorithms, called vector median operations, are derived from two multidimensional probability density functions using the maximum-likelihood-estimate approach. The underlying probability densities are exponential, and the resulting operations have properties very similar to those of the median filter. In the vector median approach, the samples of the vector-valued input signal are

  7. Distal median nerve dysfunction

    MedlinePLUS

    ... type of distal median nerve dysfunction is carpal tunnel syndrome . ... repetitive movements increase the chance of developing carpal tunnel entrapment. Conditions that affect connective tissue or cause ...

  8. Amniotic fluid amino acid concentrations are modified by maternal dietary glucose, gestational age, and fetal growth in rats.

    PubMed

    Gurekian, Christine N; Koski, Kristine G

    2005-09-01

    Amniotic fluid (AF) contains free amino acids that enter via transplacental and transmembranous routes from maternal sources; subsequently, the developing fetus "ingests" these amino acids early in gestation through unkeratinized skin and later through continuous AF swallowing. Our objectives were as follows: 1) to determine whether a restriction of maternal dietary glucose modulates the free AF amino acid pool, and 2) to establish whether any diet-induced changes were predictive of fetal weight near term (d 21.5). To produce varying in utero growth rates, pregnant rat dams were fed varying levels of glucose (0, 12, 24, 60%) throughout pregnancy. AF samples, collected on gestational days 18-21, were precolumn derivatized by 9-fluorenylmethyloxychloroformate to produce stable primary and secondary amino acid derivatives required for HPLC detection at low amino acid concentrations. Eighteen amino acids were identified. A 2-way ANOVA with main effects of diet (< or =12% and > or =24% glucose) and gestational age (d 18/19 and 20/21) showed that 2 AF amino acids, methionine and phenylalanine, and 12 AF amino acids were independently modified by diet and gestational age, respectively. Of note were the 364% increase in AF methionine and the constant decline in AF taurine as both gestational age lengthened and fetal weight increased. Multiple regression demonstrated that in addition to methionine, 3 specific AF amino acids, cysteine, lysine, and tyrosine, predicted fetal weight. These results demonstrate that the AF amino acid pool can be modified by the glucose content of the maternal diet and that specific AF amino acids are associated with gestational age and fetal growth. PMID:16140901

  9. HIV infection and its impact on fetal outcomes among women of advanced maternal age: a propensity score weighted matching approach.

    PubMed

    Salihu, Hamisu M; Mogos, Mulubrhan F; August, Euna M; Dejoy, Sharon; de la Cruz, Cara; Alio, Amina P; Marty, Phillip J

    2013-03-01

    Advanced maternal age (AMA) and HIV status have been investigated separately for their influence on infant outcomes. Both are associated with adverse fetal growth outcomes, including low birth weight (LBW) and preterm birth (PTB). However, the impact of the cooccurrence of these factors in relation to birth outcomes remains relatively understudied. We analyzed Florida hospital discharge data linked to vital records. The study population consisted of women who had a singleton live birth between 1998 and 2007 (N=1,687,176). The exposure variables were HIV infection and maternal age, while the outcomes of interest were LBW, PTB, and small for gestational age (SGA). We matched HIV-positive women to HIV-negative women on selected variables using propensity scores. To approximate relative risks, we computed adjusted odds ratios (AOR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) generated from logistic regression models and accounted for the matched design using the generalized estimating equations framework. After adjusting for demographic variables, clinical conditions, and route of birth, the risks of LBW, PTB, and SGA remained significant for HIV-positive women, regardless of age. HIV-positive women of AMA (?35 years) were more likely to have infants of LBW (AOR=1.73, 95% CI=1.37-2.18), PTB (AOR=1.35, 95% CI: 1.06-1.71), and SGA (AOR=1.52, 95% CI=1.22-1.89), compared to uninfected mothers of younger age (<35 years). For women of advanced age, HIV positivity elevates their risk for LBW and PTB. The interplay of HIV status and age should be considered by healthcare providers when determining appropriate interconception strategies for women and their families. PMID:23074988

  10. Mean and Median Applet

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    The concepts of median and mean are key to understanding statistics, and this rather novel applet from the Mathematical Association of America (MAA) Mathematical Sciences Digital Library is quite a find. The applet was created by Kady Schneiter of Utah State University and it consists of two windows. In the first, the user fills in a grid to create a distribution of numbers and to investigate the mean and median of the distribution. The second window enables users to test their knowledge about the mean and the median. In this window, the applet will display a hypothetical distribution and an unspecified marker. The user will then determine whether the marker indicates the position of the mean of the distribution, the median, both or neither. It's a well-designed instructional tool, and one that can be used in the classroom with ease.

  11. Mode, Median, and Mean

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2012-01-01

    This application requires students to sort buildings by height to find the Median, Mode, and Mean of each data set. The application works through 6 different data sets and provides feedback for correct and incorrect responses.

  12. Maternal PUFA Status but Not Prenatal Methylmercury Exposure Is Associated with Children’s Language Functions at Age Five Years in the Seychelles12

    PubMed Central

    Strain, J. J.; Davidson, Philip W.; Thurston, Sally W.; Harrington, Donald; Mulhern, Maria S.; McAfee, Alison J.; van Wijngaarden, Edwin; Shamlaye, Conrad F.; Henderson, Juliette; Watson, Gene E.; Zareba, Grazyna; Cory-Slechta, Deborah A.; Lynch, Miranda; Wallace, Julie M. W.; McSorley, Emeir M.; Bonham, Maxine P.; Stokes-Riner, Abbie; Sloane-Reeves, Jean; Janciuras, Joanne; Wong, Rosa; Clarkson, Thomas W.; Myers, Gary J.

    2012-01-01

    Evidence from the Seychelles Child Development Nutrition Study suggests that maternal nutritional status can modulate the relationship between prenatal methylmercury (MeHg) exposure and developmental outcomes in children. The aim of this study was to investigate whether maternal PUFA status was a confounding factor in any possible associations between prenatal MeHg exposure and developmental outcomes at 5 y of age in the Republic of Seychelles. Maternal status of (n-3) and (n-6) PUFA were measured in serum collected at 28 wk gestation and delivery. Prenatal MeHg exposure was determined in maternal hair collected at delivery. At 5 y of age, the children completed a comprehensive range of sensitive developmental assessments. Complete data from 225 mothers and their children were available for analysis. Multiple linear regression analyses revealed Preschool Language Scale scores of the children improved with increasing maternal serum DHA [22:6(n-3)] concentrations and decreased with increasing arachidonic acid [20:4(n-6)] concentrations, albeit verbal intelligence improved with increasing (n-6) PUFA concentrations in maternal serum. There were no adverse associations between MeHg exposure and developmental outcomes. These findings suggest that higher fish consumption, resulting in higher maternal (n-3) PUFA status, during pregnancy is associated with beneficial developmental effects rather than detrimental effects resulting from the higher concomitant exposures of the fetus to MeHg. The association of maternal (n-3) PUFA status with improved child language development may partially explain the authors’ previous finding of improving language scores, as prenatal MeHg exposure increased in an earlier mother-child cohort in the Seychelles where maternal PUFA status was not measured. PMID:23014496

  13. Maternal Plane of Nutrition during Late Gestation and Weaning Age Alter Angus × Simmental Offspring Longissimus Muscle Transcriptome and Intramuscular Fat

    PubMed Central

    Moisá, Sonia J.; Shike, Daniel W.; Shoup, Lindsay; Rodriguez-Zas, Sandra L.; Loor, Juan J.

    2015-01-01

    In model organisms both the nutrition of the mother and the young offspring could induce long-lasting transcriptional changes in tissues. In livestock, such changes could have important roles in determining nutrient use and meat quality. The main objective was to evaluate if plane of maternal nutrition during late-gestation and weaning age alter the offspring’s Longissimus muscle (LM) transcriptome, animal performance, and metabolic hormones. Whole-transcriptome microarray analysis was performed on LM samples of early (EW) and normal weaned (NW) Angus × Simmental calves born to grazing cows receiving no supplement [low plane of nutrition (LPN)] or 2.3 kg high-grain mix/day [medium plane of nutrition (MPN)] during the last 105 days of gestation. Biopsies of LM were harvested at 78 (EW), 187 (NW) and 354 (before slaughter) days of age. Despite greater feed intake in MPN offspring, blood insulin was greater in LPN offspring. Carcass intramuscular fat content was greater in EW offspring. Bioinformatics analysis of the transcriptome highlighted a modest overall response to maternal plane of nutrition, resulting in only 35 differentially expressed genes (DEG). However, weaning age and a high-grain diet (EW) strongly impacted the transcriptome (DEG = 167), especially causing a lipogenic program activation. In addition, between 78 and 187 days of age, EW steers had an activation of the innate immune system due presumably to macrophage infiltration of intramuscular fat. Between 187 and 354 days of age (the “finishing” phase), NW steers had an activation of the lipogenic transcriptome machinery, while EW steers had a clear inhibition through the epigenetic control of histone acetylases. Results underscored the need to conduct further studies to understand better the functional outcome of transcriptome changes induced in the offspring by pre- and post-natal nutrition. Additional knowledge on molecular and functional outcomes would help produce more efficient beef cattle. PMID:26153887

  14. Female parity, maternal kinship, infant age and sex influence natal attraction and infant handling in a wild colobine (Colobus vellerosus).

    PubMed

    B?descu, Iulia; Sicotte, Pascale; Ting, Nelson; Wikberg, Eva C

    2015-04-01

    Primate females often inspect, touch and groom others' infants (natal attraction) and they may hold and carry these infants in a manner resembling maternal care (infant handling). While natal attraction and infant handling occur in most wild colobines, little is known about the factors influencing the expression of these behaviors. We examined the effects of female parity, kinship, and dominance rank, as well as infant age and sex in wild Colobus vellerosus at Boabeng-Fiema Monkey Sanctuary, Ghana. We collected data via focal sampling of females in 2008 and 2009 (N = 61) and of infants in 2010 (N = 12). Accounting for the individuals who interacted with our focal subjects, this study includes 74 females and 66 infants in 8 groups. We recorded female agonistic interactions ad libitum to determine dominance ranks. We used partial pedigree information and genotypes at 17 short tandem repeat loci to determine kinship. We knew female parity, infant age and sex from demographic records. Nulliparous females showed more natal attraction and infant handling than parous females, which may suggest that interactions with infants are more adaptive for nulliparous females because they learn mothering skills through these behaviors. Compared to non-kin, maternal kin were more likely to handle infants. Maternal kin may be permitted greater access to infants because mothers are most familiar with them. Handlers may incur inclusive fitness benefits from infant handling. Dominance rank did not affect female interactions with infants. The youngest infants received the most natal attraction and infant handling, and male infants were handled more than female infants. The potential benefits of learning to mother and inclusive fitness, in combination with the relatively low costs of natal attraction and infant handling, may explain the high rates of these behaviors in many colobines. PMID:25399677

  15. Trends in the incidence and mortality of multiple births by socioeconomic deprivation and maternal age in England: population-based cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Lucy K; Manktelow, Bradley N; Draper, Elizabeth S; Boyle, Elaine M; Johnson, Samantha J; Field, David J

    2014-01-01

    Objective To investigate temporal trends in multiple birth rates and associated stillbirth and neonatal mortality by socioeconomic deprivation and maternal age in England. Design Population cohort study. Setting England. Participants All live births and stillbirths (1 January 1997 to 31 December 2008). Main outcome measures Multiple maternity rate, stillbirth and neonatal death rate by year of birth, decile of socioeconomic deprivation and maternal age. Results The overall rate of multiple maternities increased over time (+0.64% per annum 95% CI (0.47% to 0.81%)) with an increase in twin maternities (+0.85% per annum 95% CI (0.67% to 1.0%)) but a large decrease in triplet and higher order maternities (?8.32% per annum 95% CI (?9.39% to ?7.25%)). Multiple maternities were significantly lower in the most deprived areas, and this was most evident in the older age groups. Women over 40?years of age from the most deprived areas had a 34% lower rate of multiple births compared with similar aged women from the most deprived areas (rate ratio (RR) 0.66 95% CI (0.61 to 0.73)). Multiple births remain at substantially higher risk of neonatal mortality (RR 6.30 95% CI (6.07 to 6.53)). However, for stillbirths, while twins remain at higher risk, this has decreased over time (1997–2000: RR 2.89 (2.69 to 3.10); 2005–2008: RR 2.22 95% CI (2.06 to 2.40)). Socioeconomic inequalities existed in mortality for singletons and multiple births. Conclusions This period has seen increasing rates of twin pregnancies and decreasing rates of higher order births which have coincided with changes in recommendations regarding assisted reproductive techniques. Socioeconomic differences in multiple births may reflect differential access to these treatments. Improved monitoring of multiple pregnancies is likely to have led to the reductions in stillbirths over this time. PMID:24699461

  16. Prevention of maternal aging-associated oocyte aneuploidy and meiotic spindle defects in mice by dietary and genetic strategies.

    PubMed

    Selesniemi, Kaisa; Lee, Ho-Joon; Muhlhauser, Ailene; Tilly, Jonathan L

    2011-07-26

    Increased meiotic spindle abnormalities and aneuploidy in oocytes of women of advanced maternal ages lead to elevated rates of infertility, miscarriage, and trisomic conceptions. Despite the significance of the problem, strategies to sustain oocyte quality with age have remained elusive. Here we report that adult female mice maintained under 40% caloric restriction (CR) did not exhibit aging-related increases in oocyte aneuploidy, chromosomal misalignment on the metaphase plate, meiotic spindle abnormalities, or mitochondrial dysfunction (aggregation, impaired ATP production), all of which occurred in oocytes of age-matched ad libitum-fed controls. The effects of CR on oocyte quality in aging females were reproduced by deletion of the metabolic regulator, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor ? coactivator-1? (PGC-1?). Thus, CR during adulthood or loss of PGC-1? function maintains female germline chromosomal stability and its proper segregation during meiosis, such that ovulated oocytes of aged female mice previously maintained on CR or lacking PGC-1? are comparable to those of young females during prime reproductive life. PMID:21730149

  17. Mean and Median

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Lane, David M.

    This applet, created by Rice University's Virtual Lab in Statistics, allows students to manipulate a histogram and observe changes in the mean and median. The site includes links to exercises and descriptions of measures of center and spread. Overall, this is a nice learning device to teach students about statistics, and more specifically, histograms.

  18. Advanced maternal age and the risk of Down syndrome characterized by the meiotic stage of the chromosomal error: A population-based study

    SciTech Connect

    Yoon, P.W.; Khoury, M.J.; Freeman, S.B. [and others

    1996-03-01

    The identification of DNA polymorphisms makes it possible to classify trisomy 21 according to the parental origin and stage (meiosis I [MI], meiosis II [MII], or postzygotic mitotic) of the chromosomal error. Studying the effect of parental age on these subgroups could shed light on parental exposures and their timing. From 1989 through 1993, 170 infants with trisomy 21 and 267 randomly selected control infants were ascertained in a population-based, case-control study in metropolitan Atlanta. Blood samples for genetic studies were obtained from case infants and their parents. Using logistic regression, we independently examined the association between maternal and paternal age and subgroups of trisomy 21 defined by parental origin and meiotic stage. The distribution of trisomy 21 by origin was 86% maternal (75% MI and 25% MII), 9% paternal (50% MI and 50% MII), and 5% mitotic. Compared with women <25 years of age, women {>=}40 years old had an odds ratio of 5.2 (95% confidence interval, 1.0-27.4) for maternal MI (MMI) errors and 51.4 (95% confidence interval, 2.3-999.0) for maternal MII (MMII) errors. Birth-prevalence rates for women {>=}40 years old were 4.2/1,000 births for MMI errors and 1.9/1,000 births for MMII errors. These results support an association between advanced maternal age and both MMI and MMII errors. The association with MI does not pinpoint the timing of the error; however, the association with MII implies that there is at least one maternal age-related mechanism acting around the time of conception. 16 refs., 1 fig., 2 tabs.

  19. Intrauterine Exposure to Maternal Diabetes is Associated with Adiposity in Children at 6 Years of Age in China.

    PubMed

    Chang, Ying; Chen, Xu; Zhang, Zhi Kun

    2015-02-01

    Children born to mothers with gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) are more likely to exhibit congenital malformations, high birth weight, and obesity and have an increased risk of developing type 2 diabetes in later life. Children who are exposed to maternal diabetes in utero may be 'programmed' for later development of obesity at a critical period of development. Therefore, the purpose of the present study was to examine the associations among adiposity and systolic blood pressure in children and abnormal maternal glucose levels during pregnancy. A total of 856 mother-child pairs were included in the present retrospective study. Eligible pregnant women underwent a standard 75 g oral glucose tolerance test between 24 and 28 weeks' gestation. Anthropometric characteristics of their children were measured at 6 years of age, including body mass index, the sum of subscapular and tricep skinfold thickness, and systolic blood pressure. The result suggests that children exposed to GDM have higher adiposity; prevention of childhood obesity needs to begin early in life for these children. PMID:25716565

  20. Maternal pregnancy-specific anxiety is associated with child executive function at 6–9 years age

    PubMed Central

    BUSS, C.; DAVIS, E. P.; HOBEL, C. J.; SANDMAN, C. A.

    2011-01-01

    Because fetal brain development proceeds at an extremely rapid pace, early life experiences have the potential to alter the trajectory of neurodevelopment, which may increase susceptibility for developmental and neuropsychiatric disorders. There is evidence that prenatal maternal stress and anxiety, especially worries specifically related to being pregnant, influence neurodevelopmental outcomes. In the current prospective longitudinal study, we included 89 women for whom serial data were available for pregnancy-specific anxiety, state anxiety, and depression at 15, 19, 25, 31, and 37 weeks gestation. When the offspring from the target pregnancy were between 6 and 9 years of age, their executive function was assessed. High levels of mean maternal pregnancy-specific anxiety over the course of gestation were associated with lower inhibitory control in girls only and lower visuospatial working memory performance in boys and girls. Higher-state anxiety and depression also were associated with lower visuospatial working memory performance. However, neither state anxiety nor depression explained any additional variance after accounting for pregnancy-specific anxiety. The findings contribute to the literature supporting an association between pregnancy-specific anxiety and cognitive development and extend our knowledge about the persistence of this effect until middle childhood. PMID:21995526

  1. Effects of maternal ageing on ICSI outcomes and embryo development in relation to oocytes morphological characteristics of birefringent structures.

    PubMed

    Korkmaz, Cem; Tekin, Yesim Bayoglu; Sakinci, Mehmet; Ercan, Cihangir Mutlu

    2015-08-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the morphological characteristics of the older reproductive aged women's oocytes and to reveal the influence of these characteristics on intra-cytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) outcomes. The oocytes of women older than 35 years of age were evaluated retrospectively. Non-invasive polarization microscopy (PolScope) examinations of mature oocytes were performed by measurement of meiotic spindles' length, area and retardance and zona pellucida thickness and retardance. Fertilization and conception competence and the correlation with the birefringent structures were assessed. Two hundred and thirteen mature oocytes from 54 women were evaluated with a PolScope. Length of the meiotic spindle was shown to be related to fertilization success of women with advanced maternal age. In conclusion, the PolScope is a useful device used to identify the oocyte quality. Quantitative measurements of meiotic spindle parameters may be valuable for the selection of high-quality oocytes that have the potential for embryo development in the in vitro fertilization (IVF) laboratory of women older than 35 years of age who are mostly poor responders. PMID:24869767

  2. Maternal Thyroid Function during the Second Half of Pregnancy and Child Neurodevelopment at 6, 12, 24, and 60 Months of Age

    PubMed Central

    Chevrier, Jonathan; Harley, Kim G.; Kogut, Katherine; Holland, Nina; Johnson, Caroline; Eskenazi, Brenda

    2011-01-01

    Although evidence suggests that maternal hypothyroidism and mild hypothyroxinemia during the first half of pregnancy alters fetal neurodevelopment among euthyroid offspring, little data are available from later in gestation. In this study, we measured free T4 using direct equilibrium dialysis, as well as total T4 and TSH in 287 pregnant women at 27 weeks' gestation. We also assessed cognition, memory, language, motor functioning, and behavior in their children at 6, 12, 24, and 60 months of age. Increasing maternal TSH was related to better performance on tests of cognition and language at 12 months but not at later ages. At 60 months, there was inconsistent evidence that higher TSH was related to improved attention. We found no convincing evidence that maternal TH during the second half of pregnancy was related to impaired child neurodevelopment. PMID:22132346

  3. Does induction of labor for constitutionally large-for-gestational-age fetuses identified in utero reduce maternal morbidity?

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The number of infants with a birth weight?>?97th percentile for gestational age has increased over the years. Although some studies have examined the interest of inducing labor for fetuses with macrosomia suspected in utero, only a few have analyzed this suspected macrosomia according to estimated weight at each gestational age. Most studies have focused principally on neonatal rather than on maternal (and still less on perineal) outcomes. The principal aim of this study was to assess whether a policy of induction of labor for women with a constitutionally large-for-gestational-age fetus might reduce the occurrence of severe perineal tears; the secondary aims of this work were to assess whether this policy would reduce either recourse to cesarean delivery during labor or neonatal complications. Methods This historical cohort study (n?=?3077) analyzed records from a French perinatal database. Women without diabetes and with a cephalic singleton term pregnancy were eligible for the study. We excluded medically indicated terminations of pregnancy and in utero fetal deaths. Among the pregnancies with fetuses suspected, before birth, of being large-for-gestational-age, we compared those for whom labor was induced from???37 weeks to???38 weeks+ 6 days (n?=?199) to those with expectant obstetrical management (n?=?2878). In this intention-to-treat analysis, results were expressed as crude and adjusted relative risks. Results The mean birth weight was 4012 g?±?421 g. The rate of perineal lesions did not differ between the two groups in either primiparas (aRR: 1.06; 95% CI: 0.86-1.31) or multiparas (aRR: 0.94; 95% CI: 0.84-1.05). Similarly, neither the cesarean rate (aRR: 1.11; 95% CI: 0.82-1.50) nor the risks of resuscitation in the delivery room or of death in the delivery room or in the immediate postpartum or of neonatal transfer to the NICU (aRR?=?0.94; 95% CI: 0.59-1.50) differed between the two groups. Conclusions A policy of induction of labor for women with a constitutionally large-for-gestational-age fetus among women without diabetes does not reduce maternal morbidity. PMID:24885981

  4. Impact of Joint versus Maternal Legal Custody, Sex and Age of Adolescent, and Family Structure Complexity on Adolescents in Remarried Families.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crosbie-Burnett, Margaret

    No published research has investigated the impact of joint custody on the adjustment of children of divorce who become stepchildren. This research examined the differential effects of joint versus maternal custody, structural complexity (presence or absence of stepfather's children from a prior marriage), and sex and age of adolescent on…

  5. Early maternal undernutrition programs increased feed intake, altered glucose metabolism and insulin secretion, and liver function in aged female offspring

    PubMed Central

    George, Lindsey A.; Zhang, Liren; Tuersunjiang, Nuermaimaiti; Ma, Yan; Long, Nathan M.; Uthlaut, Adam B.; Smith, Derek T.; Nathanielsz, Peter W.

    2012-01-01

    Insulin resistance and obesity are components of the metabolic syndrome that includes development of cardiovascular disease and diabetes with advancing age. The thrifty phenotype hypothesis suggests that offspring of poorly nourished mothers are predisposed to the various components of the metabolic syndrome due to adaptations made during fetal development. We assessed the effects of maternal nutrient restriction in early gestation on feeding behavior, insulin and glucose dynamics, body composition, and liver function in aged female offspring of ewes fed either a nutrient-restricted [NR 50% National Research Council (NRC) recommendations] or control (C: 100% NRC) diet from 28 to 78 days of gestation, after which both groups were fed at 100% of NRC from day 79 to lambing and through lactation. Female lambs born to NR and C dams were reared as a single group from weaning, and thereafter, they were fed 100% NRC recommendations until assigned to this study at 6 yr of age. These female offspring were evaluated by a frequently sampled intravenous glucose tolerance test, followed by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry for body composition analysis prior to and after ad libitum feeding of a highly palatable pelleted diet for 11 wk with automated monitoring of feed intake (GrowSafe Systems). Aged female offspring born to NR ewes demonstrated greater and more rapid feed intake, greater body weight gain, and efficiency of gain, lower insulin sensitivity, higher insulin secretion, and greater hepatic lipid and glycogen content than offspring from C ewes. These data confirm an increased metabolic “thriftiness” of offspring born to NR mothers, which continues into advanced age, possibly predisposing these offspring to metabolic disease. PMID:22277936

  6. Aging of Xenopus tropicalis Eggs Leads to Deadenylation of a Specific Set of Maternal mRNAs and Loss of Developmental Potential

    PubMed Central

    Kosubek, Anna; Klein-Hitpass, Ludger; Rademacher, Katrin; Horsthemke, Bernhard; Ryffel, Gerhart U.

    2010-01-01

    As first shown more than 100 years ago, fertilization of an aged (overripe) egg increases the rate of malformations and embryonic loss in several vertebrates, including possibly humans as well. Since the molecular events in aging eggs may be similar in these species, we established in the frog Xenopus tropicalis a defined protocol for delayed fertilization of eggs. A three-hour delayed fertilization led to a dramatic increase in malformation and mortality. Gene expression profiling revealed that 14% of the polyadenylated maternal transcripts were downregulated upon aging. These transcripts were not degraded, but rather deadenylated as shown for specific maternal mRNAs. The affected transcripts are characterized by a relatively short 3?UTR and a paucity of cytoplasmic polyadenylation elements (CPE) and polyadenylation signals (PAS). Furthermore, maternal mRNAs known to be deadenylated during egg maturation as well as after fertilization were preferentially deadenylated in aged eggs. Taken together our analysis of aging eggs reveals that unfertilized eggs are in a dynamic state that was previously not realized. On the one hand deadenylation of transcripts that are typically deadenylated during egg maturation continues and this implies overripeness of the aged egg in the truest sense of the word. On the other hand transcripts that normally are deadenylated after fertilization loose their poly(A) in the aged egg and this implies that the egg awaiting fertilization starts processes that are normally only observed after fertilization. Based on our novel finding we postulate that the imbalance of the polyadenylated maternal transcripts upon egg aging contributes to the loss of developmental potential. Based on this hypothesis the developmental consequences of downregulation of specific transcripts can be analyzed in future. PMID:21042572

  7. Cause of Death in Women of Reproductive Age in Rural Nepal Obtained Through Community-Based Surveillance: Is Reducing Maternal Mortality the Right Priority for Women's Health Programs?

    PubMed

    Pyakurel, Ram; Sharma, Nirmala; Paudel, Deepak; Coghill, Anna; Sinden, Laura; Bost, Liberty; Larkin, Melissa; Burrus, Carla Jean; Roy, Khrist

    2015-06-01

    We used a community surveillance system to gather information regarding pregnancy outcomes and the cause of death for women of reproductive age (WRA) in Kanchanpur, Nepal. A total of 784 mother groups participated in the collection of pregnancy outcomes and mortality data. Of the 273 deaths among WRA, the leading causes of death reported were chronic diseases (94, 34.4%) poisoning, snake bites, and suicide (grouped together; 55, 20.1%), and accidents (29, 10.6%), while maternal mortality accounted for 7%. Nevertheless, the calculated maternal mortality ratio was quite high (259.3 per 100,000 live births). PMID:24690028

  8. Maternal serum screening for Down's syndrome in early pregnancy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    N. J. Wald; H. S. Cuckle; J. W. Densem; K. Nanchahal; P. Royston; T. Chard; J. E. Haddow; G. J. Knight; G. E. Palomaki; J. A. Canick

    1988-01-01

    The possibility of improving the effectiveness of antenatal screening for Down's syndrome by measuring human chorionic gonadotrophin concentrations in maternal serum during the second trimester to select women for diagnostic amniocentesis was examined. The median maternal serum human chorionic gonadotrophin concentration in 77 pregnancies associated with Down's syndrome was twice the median concentration in 385 unaffected pregnancies matched for maternal

  9. The assessment of combined first trimester screening in women of advanced maternal age in an Asian cohort

    PubMed Central

    Li, Sarah Weiling; Barrett, Angela Natalie; Gole, Leena; Tan, Wei Ching; Biswas, Arijit; Tan, Hak Koon; Choolani, Mahesh

    2015-01-01

    INTRODUCTION First trimester screening (FTS) is a validated screening tool that has been shown to achieve detection rates of 84%–90% for trisomies 21, 18 and 13. However, its effectiveness for different maternal ages has not been assessed. The present study aimed to assess the performance of FTS in an Asian population, and to compare its effectiveness in older (? 35 years) and younger (< 35 years) women. The potential use of noninvasive prenatal test (NIPT) as a contingent screening test is also examined. METHODS Data on cases of FTS performed on singleton pregnancies over a six-year period was collated from two Singapore maternal centres, National University Hospital and Singapore General Hospital. Cases that had a 1:250 risk of trisomy were considered to be screen-positive. Pregnancy outcomes were obtained from birth records or karyotype test results. RESULTS From 10,289 FTS cases, we obtained a sensitivity of 87.8%, a specificity of 97.6%, a false positive rate of 2.4% and a false negative rate of 0.06% for the detection of aneuploidy. The overall detection rate for trisomy 21 was 86.5%–85.7% for older women and 87.5% for younger women. The mean number of invasive tests required per case of trisomy 21 was 9.3 in younger women, 8.6 in older women and 13.5 in women with intermediate risk (1:250–1,000). CONCLUSION While the performance of FTS was similar in younger and older women, more invasive procedures were required to diagnose trisomy 21 in women with intermediate risk. It may be advantageous to offer contingent NIPT to this group of women to reduce the risk of iatrogenic fetal loss. PMID:25640099

  10. Maternal obesity disturbs the postnatal development of gonocytes in the rat without impairment of testis structure at prepubertal age.

    PubMed

    Christante, Caroline Maria; Taboga, Sebastião Roberto; Pinto-Fochi, Maria Etelvina; Góes, Rejane Maira

    2013-12-01

    In this study, we evaluated whether maternal obesity (MO) affects testis development and gonocyte differentiation in the rat from 0.5 to 14.5 postnatal days. Male Wistar rats were used at 0.5, 4.5, 7.5, and 14.5 days post partum (dpp). These rats were born from obese mothers, previously fed with a high-fat diet (20% saturated fat), for 15 weeks, or normal mothers that had received a balanced murine diet (4% lipids). MO did not affect testis weight or histology at birth but changed the migratory behavior of gonocytes. The density of relocated cells was higher in MO pups at 0.5 dpp, decreased at 4.5 dpp, and differed from those of control pups, where density increased exponentially from 0.5 to 7.5 dpp. The numerical density of gonocytes within seminiferous cords did not vary in MO, in relation to control neonates, for any age considered, but the testis weight was 50% lower at 4.5 dpp. A wide variation in plasmatic testosterone and estrogen levels was observed among the groups during the first week of age and MO pups exhibited higher steroid concentrations at 4.5 dpp, in comparison with controls. At this age, higher estrogen levels of MO pups impaired the gonocyte proliferation. At 7.5 dpp, the testicular size and other parameters of gonocyte development are retrieved. In conclusion, MO and saturated lipid diets disturb gonocyte development and sexual steroid levels during the first days of life, with recovery at prepubertal age. PMID:24043845

  11. Polymorphisms in Maternal and Fetal Genes Encoding for Proteins Involved in Extracellular Matrix Metabolism Alter the Risk for Small-for-Gestational-Age

    PubMed Central

    Edwards, Digna R. Velez; Romero, Roberto; Kusanovic, Juan Pedro; Hassan, Sonia S.; Mazaki-Tovi, Shali; Vaisbuch, Edi; Kim, Chong Jai; Erez, Offer; Chaiworapongsa, Tinnakorn; Pearce, Brad D.; Bartlett, Jacquelaine; Friel, Lara A.; Salisbury, Benjamin A.; Anant, Madan Kumar; Vovis, Gerald F.; Lee, Min Seob; Gomez, Ricardo; Behnke, Ernesto; Oyarzun, Enrique; Tromp, Gerard; Menon, Ramkumar; Williams, Scott M.

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To examine the association between maternal and fetal genetic variants and small-for-gestational-age (SGA). METHODS A case-control study was conducted in patients with SGA neonates (530 maternal and 436 fetal) and controls (599 maternal and 628 fetal); 190 candidate genes and 775 SNPs were studied. Single locus, multilocus and haplotype association analyses were performed on maternal and fetal data with logistic regression, multifactor dimensionality reduction (MDR) analysis, and haplotype-based association with 2 and 3 marker sliding windows, respectively. Ingenuity Pathway Analysis (IPA) software was used to assess pathways that associate with SGA. RESULTS The most significant single locus association in maternal data was with a SNP in tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase 2 (TIMP2) (rs2277698 OR = 1.71 95% CI [1.26-2.32], p = 0.0006) while in the fetus it was with a SNP in fibronectin 1 isoform 3 preproprotein (FN1) (rs3796123, OR = 1.46 95% CI [1.20-1.78], p = 0.0001). Both SNPs were adjusted for potential confounders (maternal body mass index and fetal sex). Haplotype analyses resulted in associations in alpha 1 type I collagen preproprotein (COL1A1, rs1007086-rs2141279-rs17639446, global p = 0.006) in mothers and FN1 (rs2304573-rs1250204-rs1250215, global p = 0.045) in fetuses. Multilocus analyses with MDR identified a two SNP model with maternal variants collagen type V alpha 2 (COL5A2) and plasminogen activator urokinase (PLAU) predicting SGA outcome correctly 59% of the time (p = 0.035). CONCLUSIONS Genetic variants in extracellular matrix related genes showed significant single locus association with SGA. These data are consistent with other studies that have observed elevated circulating fibronectin concentrations in association with increased risk of SGA. The present study supports the hypothesis that DNA variants can partially explain risk of SGA in a cohort of Hispanic women. PMID:20617897

  12. Associations of Maternal Iron Intake and Hemoglobin in Pregnancy with Offspring Vascular Phenotypes and Adiposity at Age 10: Findings from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children

    PubMed Central

    Alwan, Nisreen A.; Cade, Janet E.; Greenwood, Darren C.; Deanfield, John; Lawlor, Debbie A.

    2014-01-01

    Background Iron deficiency is common during pregnancy. Experimental animal studies suggest that it increases cardiovascular risk in the offspring. Objective To examine the relationship between maternal pregnancy dietary and supplement iron intake and hemoglobin, with offspring’s arterial stiffness (measured by carotid-radial pulse wave velocity), endothelial function (measured by brachial artery flow mediated dilatation), blood pressure, and adiposity (measured by body mass index), test for mediation by cord ferritin, birth weight, gestational age, and child dietary iron intake, and for effect modification by maternal vitamin C intake and offspring sex. Design Prospective data from 2958 mothers and children pairs at 10 years of age enrolled in an English birth cohort, the Avon Longitudinal Study for Parents and Children (ALSPAC), was analysed. Results 2639 (89.2%) mothers reported dietary iron intake in pregnancy below the UK reference nutrient intake of 14.8 mg/day. 1328 (44.9%) reported taking iron supplements, and 129 (4.4%) were anemic by 18 weeks gestation. No associations were observed apart from maternal iron intake from supplements with offspring systolic blood pressure (?0.8 mmHg, 99% CI ?1.7 to 0, P?=?0.01 in the sample with all relevant data observed, and ?0.7 mmHg, 99% CI ?1.3 to 0, P?=?0.008 in the sample with missing data imputed). Conclusion There was no evidence of association between maternal pregnancy dietary iron intake, or maternal hemoglobin concentration (which is less likely to be biased by subjective reporting) with offspring outcomes. There was a modest inverse association between maternal iron supplement intake during pregnancy with offspring systolic blood pressure at 10 years. PMID:24400110

  13. Selenium and maternal blood pressure during childbirth

    PubMed Central

    Wells, Ellen M.; Goldman, Lynn R.; Jarrett, Jeffery M.; Apelberg, Benjamin J.; Herbstman, Julie B.; Caldwell, Kathleen L.; Halden, Rolf U.; Witter, Frank R.

    2013-01-01

    Evidence suggests selenium concentrations outside the nutritional range may worsen cardiovascular health. This paper examines the relationship between selenium and maternal blood pressure among 270 deliveries using umbilical cord serum as a proxy for maternal exposure levels. Multivariable models used linear splines for selenium and controlled for gestational age, maternal age, race, median household income, parity, smoking, and prepregnancy body mass index. Nonparametric analysis of this dataset was used to select spline knots for selenium at 70 and 90 ?g/L. When selenium was <70 ?g/L, increasing selenium levels were related to a non-statistically significant decrease in blood pressure. For selenium 70 – 90 ?g/L, a 1-?g/L increase was related to a 0.37 mmHg (95% confidence interval (CI): 0.005, 0.73) change in systolic and a 0.35 mmHg (0.07, 0.64) change in diastolic blood pressure. There were very few selenium values >90 ?g/L. Other studies indicate that the maternal/cord selenium ratio is 1.46 (95% CI: 1.28, 1.65). This u-shaped relationship between selenium and blood pressure is consistent with a dual role of selenium as an essential micronutrient that is nonetheless a toxicant at higher concentrations; however this needs to be studied further. PMID:22108761

  14. Mean, Median and Mode

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    During the last sunspot cycle between 1996-2008, over 21,000 flares and 13,000 clouds of plasma exploded from the Sun's magnetically active surface. Students will learn more about space weather through reading a NASA press release and viewing a NASA eClips video segment. Then students will explore the statistics of various types of space weather storms by determining the mean, median and mode of different samples of storm events. This activity is part of the Space Math multimedia modules that integrate NASA press releases, NASA archival video, and mathematics problems targeted at specific math standards commonly encountered in middle school textbooks. The modules cover specific math topics at multiple levels of difficulty with real-world data and use the 5E instructional sequence.

  15. Patterns of Adolescent Depression to Age 20: The Role of Maternal Depression and Youth Interpersonal Dysfunction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hammen, Constance; Brennan, Patricia A.; Keenan-Miller, Danielle

    2008-01-01

    Considerable research has focused on youth depression, but further information is needed to characterize different patterns of onset and recurrence during adolescence. Four outcome groups by age 20 were defined (early onset-recurrent, early-onset-desisting, later-onset, never depressed) and compared on three variables predictive of youth…

  16. Maternal Reminiscing Style during Early Childhood Predicts the Age of Adolescents' Earliest Memories

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jack, Fiona; MacDonald, Shelley; Reese, Elaine; Hayne, Harlene

    2009-01-01

    Individual differences in parental reminiscing style are hypothesized to have long-lasting effects on children's autobiographical memory development, including the age of their earliest memories. This study represents the first prospective test of this hypothesis. Conversations about past events between 17 mother-child dyads were recorded on…

  17. Maternal Prenatal Urinary Phthalate Metabolite Concentrations and Child Mental, Psychomotor, and Behavioral Development at 3 Years of Age

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Xinhua; Rauh, Virginia A.; Calafat, Antonia M.; Just, Allan C.; Hoepner, Lori; Diaz, Diurka; Quinn, James; Adibi, Jennifer; Perera, Frederica P.; Factor-Litvak, Pam

    2011-01-01

    Background: Research suggests that prenatal phthalate exposures affect child executive function and behavior. Objective: We evaluated associations between phthalate metabolite concentrations in maternal prenatal urine and mental, motor, and behavioral development in children at 3 years of age. Methods: Mono-n-butyl phthalate (MnBP), monobenzyl phthalate (MBzP), monoisobutyl phthalate (MiBP), and four di-2-ethylhexyl phthalate metabolites were measured in a spot urine sample collected from 319 women during the third trimester. When children were 3 years of age, the Mental Development Index (MDI) and Psychomotor Development Index (PDI) were measured using the Bayley Scales of Infant Development II, and behavior problems were assessed by maternal report on the Child Behavior Checklist. Results: Child PDI scores decreased with increasing loge MnBP [estimated adjusted ?-coefficient = –2.81; 95% confidence interval (CI): –4.63, –1.0] and loge MiBP (? = –2.28; 95% CI: –3.90, –0.67); odds of motor delay increased significantly [per loge MnBP: estimated adjusted odds ratio (OR) = 1.64; 95% CI: 1.10, 2.44; per loge MiBP: adjusted OR =1.82; 95% CI: 1.24, 2.66]. In girls, MDI scores decreased with increasing loge MnBP (? = –2.67; 95% CI: –4.70, –0.65); the child sex difference in odds of mental delay was significant (p = 0.037). The ORs for clinically withdrawn behavior were 2.23 (95% CI: 1.27, 3.92) and 1.57 (95% CI: 1.07, 2.31) per loge unit increase in MnBP and MBzP, respectively; for clinically internalizing behaviors, the OR was 1.43 (95% CI: 1.01, 1.90) per loge unit increase in MBzP. Significant child sex differences were seen in associations between MnBP and MBzP and behaviors in internalizing domains (p < 0.05). Conclusion: Certain prenatal phthalate exposures may decrease child mental and motor development and increase internalizing behaviors. PMID:21893441

  18. Maternal Age at First Delivery Is Associated with the Risk of Metabolic Syndrome in Postmenopausal Women: From 2008–2010 Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey

    PubMed Central

    Sim, Jeong Han; Chung, Dawn; Lim, Jung Soo; Lee, Mi Young; Chung, Choon Hee; Shin, Jang Yel; Huh, Ji Hye

    2015-01-01

    Background Recent cross-sectional studies demonstrated that earlier maternal age at first childbirth is correlated with a higher risk of diabetes in postmenopausal women. In this study, we evaluated whether the age at first delivery is associated with the risk of metabolic syndrome (MetS) in postmenopausal women. Methods A total of 4,261 postmenopausal women aged 45 years or older were analyzed using data generated from Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys (2008–2010). Subjects were divided into three groups according to the maternal age at first delivery as follows: ? 20 years (n=878), 21-25 years (n=2314), and ? 26 years (n=1069). Results Approximately 37% of subjects had MetS. The prevalence of MetS showed a gradual increase as maternal age at first delivery decreased (? 26 years = 30.9% vs. 21-25 years = 39.9% vs. ? 20 years = 50.8%, respectively, p < 0.001). Central obesity indices such as trunk fat mass and waist circumference were significantly higher in the group aged ? 20 years than other groups. After adjustments for confounding factors, the odds ratios (ORs) for predicting the presence of MetS increased gradually as first delivery age decreased (? 26 years vs. 21-25 years vs. ? 20 years: OR [95% CI] = 1 vs. 1.324 [1.118-1.567] vs. 1.641 [1.322-2.036], respectively). Among components of MetS, younger maternal age at first delivery (? 20 years) was significantly associated with increased waist circumference (OR [95% CI] = 1.735 [1.41-2.13]), elevated blood pressure (1.261 [1.02-1.57]), high triglyceride (1.333 [1.072-1.659]), and low HDL-cholesterol (1.335[1.084-1.643]). Conclusions Our findings suggest that younger maternal age at first delivery is independently associated with a higher risk of central obesity and MetS in postmenopausal women. PMID:26010910

  19. Effects of Maternal Age and Egg Quality on Mass Rearing of Mediterranean Fruit Flies (Diptera: Tephritidae)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. R. Lance; J. I. Nishimoto

    Tests were conducted to determine if age of mass reared adult female Medi- terranean fruit flies, Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann), affected the viability of their offspring. Samples of eggs (0.4 g each) were collected on five consecutive days (4 to 8 d past adult emergence) from individual 660-liter adult colony screen cages and were reared in separate trays containing 0.5 liter

  20. Maternal Pre-Pregnancy Body Mass Index and Offspring Temperament and Behavior at 1 and 2 Years of Age

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Lieshout, Ryan J.; Schmidt, Louis A.; Robinson, Monique; Niccols, Alison; Boyle, Michael H.

    2013-01-01

    Recent research suggests that fetal exposure to increased maternal body mass index (BMI) during pregnancy may be associated with psychopathology later in life. When this link first emerges, and if it is due to intrauterine exposures or confounding variables is not known. We therefore assessed associations between maternal pre-pregnancy BMI and:…

  1. Maternal Microbe-Specific Modulation of Inflammatory Response in Extremely Low-Gestational-Age Newborns

    PubMed Central

    Fichorova, Raina N.; Onderdonk, Andrew B.; Yamamoto, Hidemi; Delaney, Mary L.; DuBois, Andrea M.; Allred, Elizabeth; Leviton, Alan

    2011-01-01

    The fetal response to intrauterine inflammatory stimuli appears to contribute to the onset of preterm labor as well as fetal injury, especially affecting newborns of extremely low gestational age. To investigate the role of placental colonization by specific groups of microorganisms in the development of inflammatory responses present at birth, we analyzed 25 protein biomarkers in dry blood spots obtained from 527 newborns delivered by Caesarean section in the 23rd to 27th gestation weeks. Bacteria were detected in placentas and characterized by culture techniques. Odds ratios for having protein concentrations in the top quartile for gestation age for individual and groups of microorganisms were calculated. Mixed bacterial vaginosis (BV) organisms were associated with a proinflammatory pattern similar to those of infectious facultative anaerobes. Prevotella and Gardnerella species, anaerobic streptococci, peptostreptococci, and genital mycoplasmas each appeared to be associated with a different pattern of elevated blood levels of inflammation-related proteins. Lactobacillus was associated with low odds of an inflammatory response. This study provides evidence that microorganisms colonizing the placenta provoke distinctive newborn inflammatory responses and that Lactobacillus may suppress these responses. PMID:21264056

  2. Cumulative effects of maternal age and unintended pregnancy on offspring aggression.

    PubMed

    Mack, Julia M; Chavez, Jorge M

    2014-11-01

    Research on physical aggression often points to teen motherhood as being a primary contributor in the development of aggressive tendencies among young children. As a result of poor parenting practices, limited education, and a lack of emotional, physical, and financial resources, children born to young mothers often exhibit high levels of aggression across the life course. Meanwhile, unintentional pregnancy and young motherhood are likely to share many of the same risk factors and negative consequences for offspring, yet there is a dearth of research examining pregnancy intentionality and offspring aggression. Using the Fragile Families and Wellbeing Study, our study examines how mother's age and pregnancy intention status influence aggression among their 5-year-old children. We find that young motherhood and unintended births, despite being likely to co-occur, each provide distinct mechanisms for the formation of aggressive behavior in childhood. PMID:24664252

  3. Meiosis and maternal aging: insights from aneuploid oocytes and trisomy births.

    PubMed

    Herbert, Mary; Kalleas, Dimitrios; Cooney, Daniel; Lamb, Mahdi; Lister, Lisa

    2015-04-01

    In most organisms, genome haploidization requires reciprocal DNA exchanges (crossovers) between replicated parental homologs to form bivalent chromosomes. These are resolved to their four constituent chromatids during two meiotic divisions. In female mammals, bivalents are formed during fetal life and remain intact until shortly before ovulation. Extending this period beyond ?35 years greatly increases the risk of aneuploidy in human oocytes, resulting in a dramatic increase in infertility, miscarriage, and birth defects, most notably trisomy 21. Bivalent chromosomes are stabilized by cohesion between sister chromatids, which is mediated by the cohesin complex. In mouse oocytes, cohesin becomes depleted from chromosomes during female aging. Consistent with this, premature loss of centromeric cohesion is a major source of aneuploidy in oocytes from older women. Here, we propose a mechanistic framework to reconcile data from genetic studies on human trisomy and oocytes with recent advances in our understanding of the molecular mechanisms of chromosome segregation during meiosis in model organisms. PMID:25833844

  4. Maternal Nrf2 and gluthathione-S-transferase polymorphisms do not modify associations of prenatal tobacco smoke exposure with asthma and lung function in school-aged children

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. J. Henderson; R. B. Newson; M. Rose-Zerilli; S. M. Ring; J. W. Holloway; S. O. Shaheen

    2010-01-01

    BackgroundMaternal smoking during pregnancy has detrimental effects on the respiratory health of infants and children. Polymorphisms of antioxidant genes including glutathione-S-transferases (GSTs) have been proposed as candidates for asthma and reduced lung function in children.MethodsWomen enrolled in the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children reported smoking habits during pregnancy. Asthma status in their children was established at age 7.5

  5. Screening for trisomy 21 by maternal age, fetal nuchal translucency thickness, free beta-human chorionic gonadotropin and pregnancy-associated plasma protein-A

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. O. Kagan; D. Wright; A. Baker; D. Sahota; K. H. Nicolaides

    2008-01-01

    Objectives To derive a model and examine the perfor- mance of first-trimester combined screening by mater- nal age, fetal nuchal translucency (NT) thickness and maternal serum free beta-human chorionic gonadotropin (?-hCG) and pregnancy-associated plasma protein-A (PAPP-A). Methods Prospective combined screening for trisomy 21 was carried out at 11 + 0t o 13+ 6 weeks in 56 771 singleton pregnancies, including

  6. Maternal passive smoking during pregnancy and age of menarche in daughters: a study of elementary and middle school students in Shanghai.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Bolin; Shi, Huijing; Wang, Qun; Zhang, Zhe; Li, Mengna

    2015-03-01

    The objective of this study was to estimate the prevalence and determinants of passive smoking in pregnancy and to examine its association with an earlier age of menarche in offspring. This retrospective study enrolled 751 students 8 to 20 years old in Shanghai selected by stratified cluster sampling. Data were obtained through structured self-administered questionnaires and physical examinations. It was found that daughters with maternal tobacco exposure experienced relatively earlier menarche and had shorter cycle lengths, although both findings were not statistically significant. The unadjusted odds ratio for prenatal tobacco smoke exposure on the relatively earlier onset of menarche was 1.84 (95% confidence interval = 1.05-3.22) compared with no exposure, and the associations remained statistically significant after adjusting for birth weight, birth length, maternal age of menarche, and present height and weight. In conclusion, our study provides limited evidence supporting the hypothesis that maternal passive smoking during pregnancy leads to an earlier age of menarche of daughters. PMID:25667229

  7. Maternal and newborn infants amino acid concentrations in obese women born themselves with normal and small for gestational age birth weight.

    PubMed

    Tsyvian, P B; Bashmakova, N V; Kovtun, O P; Makarenko, L V; Pestryaeva, L A

    2015-08-01

    This study was undertaken to compare amino acid concentrations in maternal and newborn infants' serum in normal pregnancy and two groups of obese women who were born themselves with normal and small for gestational age (SGA) birth weight. Maternal cholesterol, lipoproteins concentrations and maternal and infants amino acid concentrations were evaluated at the time of delivery in 28 normal pregnancies, 46 obese pregnant women with normal birth weight (Ob-AGA group) and 44 obese pregnant women born themselves SGA (Ob-SGA group). Mean birth weight of newborn infants in Ob-SGA group was significantly less than in normal and Ob-AGA groups. Cholesterol and lipoproteins were significantly elevated in obese women (more prominent in Ob-SGA group). Most amino acid concentrations and fetal-maternal amino acid gradients were significantly lower in Ob-SGA group. These data suggest significant changes in placental amino acid transport/synthetic function in obese women who were born themselves SGA. PMID:26126860

  8. Twenty-year trends in the prevalence of Down syndrome and other trisomies in Europe: impact of maternal age and prenatal screening.

    PubMed

    Loane, Maria; Morris, Joan K; Addor, Marie-Claude; Arriola, Larraitz; Budd, Judith; Doray, Berenice; Garne, Ester; Gatt, Miriam; Haeusler, Martin; Khoshnood, Babak; Klungsøyr Melve, Kari; Latos-Bielenska, Anna; McDonnell, Bob; Mullaney, Carmel; O'Mahony, Mary; Queisser-Wahrendorf, Annette; Rankin, Judith; Rissmann, Anke; Rounding, Catherine; Salvador, Joaquin; Tucker, David; Wellesley, Diana; Yevtushok, Lyubov; Dolk, Helen

    2013-01-01

    This study examines trends and geographical differences in total and live birth prevalence of trisomies 21, 18 and 13 with regard to increasing maternal age and prenatal diagnosis in Europe. Twenty-one population-based EUROCAT registries covering 6.1 million births between 1990 and 2009 participated. Trisomy cases included live births, fetal deaths from 20 weeks gestational age and terminations of pregnancy for fetal anomaly. We present correction to 20 weeks gestational age (ie, correcting early terminations for the probability of fetal survival to 20 weeks) to allow for artefactual screening-related differences in total prevalence. Poisson regression was used. The proportion of births in the population to mothers aged 35+ years in the participating registries increased from 13% in 1990 to 19% in 2009. Total prevalence per 10000 births was 22.0 (95% CI 21.7-22.4) for trisomy 21, 5.0 (95% CI 4.8-5.1) for trisomy 18 and 2.0 (95% CI 1.9-2.2) for trisomy 13; live birth prevalence was 11.2 (95% CI 10.9-11.5) for trisomy 21, 1.04 (95% CI 0.96-1.12) for trisomy 18 and 0.48 (95% CI 0.43-0.54) for trisomy 13. There was an increase in total and total corrected prevalence of all three trisomies over time, mainly explained by increasing maternal age. Live birth prevalence remained stable over time. For trisomy 21, there was a three-fold variation in live birth prevalence between countries. The rise in maternal age has led to an increase in the number of trisomy-affected pregnancies in Europe. Live birth prevalence has remained stable overall. Differences in prenatal screening and termination between countries lead to wide variation in live birth prevalence. PMID:22713804

  9. Fetal Gender and Several Cytokines Are Associated with the Number of Fetal Cells in Maternal Blood – An Observational Study

    PubMed Central

    Schlütter, Jacob Mørup; Kirkegaard, Ida; Petersen, Olav Bjørn; Larsen, Nanna; Christensen, Britta; Hougaard, David M.; Kølvraa, Steen; Uldbjerg, Niels

    2014-01-01

    Objective To identify factors influencing the number of fetal cells in maternal blood. Methods A total of 57 pregnant women at a gestational age of weeks 11–14 were included. The number of fetal cells in maternal blood was assessed in 30 ml of blood using specific markers for both enrichment and subsequent identification. Results Participants carrying male fetuses had a higher median number of fetal cells in maternal blood than those carrying female fetuses (5 vs. 3, p?=?0.04). Certain cytokines (RANTES, IL-2 and IL-5) were significantly associated with the number of fetal cells in maternal blood. Conclusion The number of fetal cells in maternal blood is associated with certain cytokines and fetal gender. PMID:25188498

  10. 2-Hour Postload Serum Glucose Levels and Maternal Blood Pressure as Independent Predictors of Birth Weight in “Appropriate for Gestational Age” Neonates in Healthy Nondiabetic Pregnancies

    PubMed Central

    Saleh, Jumana; Machado, Lovina; Razvi, Zahra

    2013-01-01

    Introduction. Increased neonatal birth weight (NBW), often associated with diabetic pregnancies, is a recognized indicator of childhood obesity and future metabolic risk. Predictors of NBW in healthy non-diabetic pregnancies are not yet established. Here, we investigated the association of maternal parameters of healthy non-diabetic mothers with NBW of their “appropriate-for-gestational age” neonates. Methods. The study involved 36 healthy mother/infant pairs. Examined parameters included NBW, maternal age, first and last trimester (BMI), weight gain, fasting serum lipids and glucose, 2-hour postload glucose levels and blood pressure. Results. Postload-glucose levels were significantly higher in mothers of heavier neonates. ANOVA results indicated that 15% increase in postload-glucose levels corresponded to more than 0.5?Kg increase in NBW in the third tertile. NBW correlated positively with postload glucose levels, and negatively with systolic blood pressure. Regression analysis showed that the main predictors of NBW were postload-glucose levels (B = 0.455, P = 0.003), followed by systolic blood pressure (B = ?0.447, P = 0.004), together predicting 31.7% NBW variation. Conclusion. This study highlights that increased maternal postload sugar levels and blood pressure, within the normal range, highly predicts NBW of healthy mothers. These findings may provide focus for early dietary intervention measures to avoid future risks to the mother and baby. PMID:24151621

  11. What patterns of postpartum psychological distress are associated with maternal concerns about their children's emotional and behavioural problems at the age of three years?

    PubMed Central

    Benzies, Karen; Mychasiuk, Richelle; Tough, Suzanne

    2015-01-01

    Mothers experiencing psychological distress in the postpartum period may have difficulties parenting their children. Inconsistent and unresponsive parenting may increase the risk of later emotional and behavioural problems in children. The purpose of this study was to identify how maternal psychological characteristics cluster at eight weeks postpartum, and whether these clusters were associated with maternal-reported child emotional and behavioural problems at the age of three years, as measured by the Parents' Evaluation of Developmental Status (PEDS) questionnaire. In a longitudinal pregnancy cohort (N?=?647), three clusters of postpartum psychological characteristics were identified. Contrary to expectations, mothers with the greatest psychological distress did not report concerns about their child's emotional and behavioural problems; rather, they reported concerns about global developmental delay. These findings suggest that infants of mothers experiencing postpartum psychological distress should receive additional follow-up to reduce the risk for global developmental delay. PMID:25544794

  12. The maternal age related patterns of infant low birth weight rates among non-Latino Whites and African-Americans: the effect of maternal birth weight and neighborhood income.

    PubMed

    Collins, James W; Rankin, Kristin M; Hibbs, Shayna

    2015-04-01

    To determine the age related patterns of low birth weight (<2,500 g, LBW) and small for gestational age (weight <10th percentile for gestational age, SGA) among former LBW and non-LBW White and African-American mothers. We performed stratified analyses on an Illinois transgenerational dataset of non-Latina White (n = 31,616) and African-American (n = 38,964) infants born in Chicago or Suburban Cook County (1989-1991) and their mothers (1956-1976) with appended US census income information. In both races, LBW and SGA rates were unrelated to age among former LBW 14-35 year old mothers. LBW and SGA rates decreased with advancing age only among former non-LBW White mothers (p < 0.0001). Former non-LBW 30-35 year old White women (n = 11,096) had an infant LBW rate of only 4.3 % compared to 6.8 % for their teen counterparts (n = 1,383), RR (95 % CI) = 0.6 (0.5, 0.8). In contrast, a weathering pattern of rising LBW and SGA rates with advancing age occurred only among former non-LBW African-American mothers (p < 0.0001). Former non-LBW 30-35 year old African-American mothers (N = 4,807) had a LBW rate of 15.0 % compared to 10.8 % for their teen counterparts (N = 8,627), RR (95 % CI) = 1.4 (1.3, 1.5). The same trend occurred among the subgroup of African-American mothers with an early-life and adulthood residence in impoverished neighborhoods. Maternal low birth weight does not contribute to the disparate maternal age related patterns of adverse birth outcome between the races. Moreover, it is not associated with a weathering a pattern of rising rates of LBW with advancing age among African-American mothers with a lifelong residence in impoverished neighborhoods. PMID:24990125

  13. Responses to pain in school-aged children with experience in a neonatal intensive care unit: cognitive aspects and maternal influences.

    PubMed

    Hohmeister, Johanna; Demirakça, Süha; Zohsel, Katrin; Flor, Herta; Hermann, Christiane

    2009-01-01

    Previously, it was shown that school-aged (9-14 yr) preterm and fullterm children with neonatal pain exposure exhibit elevated heat pain thresholds and heightened perceptual sensitization to tonic painful heat when tested under standard conditions [Hermann C, Hohmeister J, Demirakca S, Zohsel K, Flor H. Long-term alteration of pain sensitivity in school-aged children with early pain experiences. Pain 2006;125:278-85]. Here, changes in the psychosocial context of pain responses in these children, who had been hospitalized >or=7 days after birth including >or=3 days of treatment in a neonatal intensive care unit (NICU), are reported. Nineteen preterm (age) and 20 fullterm children (>or=37 weeks gestational age) with NICU experience, recruited retrospectively and selected based on strict exclusion criteria, and 20 fullterm control children participated. Preterm NICU children endorsed more pain catastrophizing as compared to controls. Mothers of preterm children, who had been more severely ill and had been hospitalized longer than fullterm NICU children, were more likely to engage in solicitous pain-related behavior. Maternal influence was also assessed by comparing heat pain thresholds and perceptual sensitization to tonic painful heat obtained in the presence versus absence (i.e. standard testing conditions) of the mother. In all three groups, maternal presence was associated with increased heat pain thresholds. Control children habituated significantly more to tonic heat when their mother was present. The NICU children showed overall significantly less habituation than the controls; there was no modulating effect of maternal presence. Especially in highly vulnerable children such as preterms, neonatal pain exposure and prolonged hospitalization may, aside from neuronal plasticity, promote maladaptive pain-related cognitions and foster parental behavior that reinforces the child's pain response. PMID:18439861

  14. The Dopamine D2 Receptor Polymorphism (DRD2 TaqIA) Interacts with Maternal Parenting in Predicting Early Adolescent Depressive Symptoms: Evidence of Differential Susceptibility and Age Differences.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Wenxin; Cao, Yanmiao; Wang, Meiping; Ji, Linqin; Chen, Liang; Deater-Deckard, Kirby

    2015-07-01

    Most gene-environment interaction research on depression has largely focused on negative environment and to a lesser extent on positive environment. Moreover, to date few studies have directly examined G × E at different periods in development, particularly during early adolescence. The present study addressed these issues by examining the concurrent and prospective longitudinal effects of maternal parenting, DRD2 TaqIA polymorphism, and their interaction on adolescent depressive symptoms in a sample of 1026 Chinese adolescents (M age  = 11.33 ± 0.47 years at T1, 50.3 % girls) in a three-wave longitudinal study from age 11 to 13. Results indicated that maternal positive and negative parenting significantly concurrently predicted adolescent depressive symptoms at all three waves, whereas TaqIA polymorphism had no main effect on depressive symptoms. TaqIA polymorphism interacted with negative parenting in predicting concurrent depressive symptoms at age 11 and 12. A1 carriers were more susceptible to negative parenting compared to A2A2 homozygotes, such that adolescents carrying A1 alleles experiencing high negative parenting reported more depressive symptoms but fared better when experiencing low negative parenting. However, the interaction became nonsignificant at age 13, indicating the interaction of TaqIA polymorphism and maternal parenting may vary with development. Also, there was no G × E effect on longitudinal change in depression. The findings provided evidence in support of the differential susceptibility hypothesis and shed light on the potential for dynamic change in gene-environment interactions over development. PMID:25941120

  15. Do Maternal Living Arrangements Influence the Vaccination Status of Children Age 12–23 Months? A Data Analysis of Demographic Health Surveys 2010–11 from Zimbabwe

    PubMed Central

    Rossi, Rodolfo

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Although vaccination is an effective intervention to reduce childhood mortality and morbidity, reasons for incomplete vaccination, including maternal living arrangements, have been marginally explored. This study aims at assessing whether maternal living arrangements are associated with vaccination status of children aged 12–23 months in Zimbabwe. It also explores other variables that may be associated with having children not fully vaccinated. Materials and Methods A cross-sectional analysis was performed on the DHS-VI done in Zimbabwe in 2010–2011 (response rate 93%). Incomplete vaccination of children (outcome), was defined as not having received one dose of BCG and measles, 3 doses of polio and DPT/Pentavalent. Maternal living arrangements (main exposure), and other exposure variables were analysed. Survey logistic regression was used to calculate crude and adjusted OR for exposures against the outcome. Results The dataset included 1,031 children aged 12–23 months. 65.8% of children were fully vaccinated. 65.7% of the mothers were married and cohabitating with a partner, 20.3% were married/partnered but living separately and 14% were not married. Maternal living arrangements were not associated with the vaccination status of children both in crude and adjusted analysis. Factors associated with poorer vaccination status of the children included: no tetanus vaccination for mothers during pregnancy (adjusted OR = 2.1, 95%CI 1.5;3.0), child living away from mother (adjusted OR = 1.5, 95%CI 1.2;1.8), mother’s education (adjusted OR = 0.6, 95%CI 0.4;0.9), high number of children living in the household (adjusted OR = 1.5, 95%CI 1.1;2.2), child age (adjusted OR = 0.7, 95%CI 0.5;0.9). Discussion Maternal living arrangements were not associated with vaccination status of Zimbabwean children. Other factors, such as the mother’s health-seeking behaviour and education were major factors associated with the children’s vaccination status. Given the results of this study, it is strongly recommended that the vaccination coverage is increased by improving access to antenatal care and education for the parents. PMID:26167939

  16. Passive West Nile virus antibody transfer from maternal Eastern screech-owls (Megascops asio) to progeny.

    PubMed

    Hahn, D C; Nemeth, Nicole M; Edwards, Eric; Bright, Patricia R; Komar, Nicholas

    2006-09-01

    Transovarial antibody transfer in owls has not been demonstrated for West Nile virus (WNV). We sampled chicks from captive adult WNV-antibody-positive Eastern Screech-Owls (Megascops asio) to evaluate the prevalence of transovarial maternal antibody transfer, as well as titers and duration of maternal antibodies. Twenty-four owlets aged 1 to 27 days old circulated detectable antibodies with neutralizing antibody titers ranging from 20 to 1600 (median 1:40). Demonstrating that WNV antibodies are passively transferred transovarially is important for accurate interpretation of serologic data from young birds. PMID:17039850

  17. Passive West Nile virus antibody transfer from maternal Eastern Screech-Owls (Megascops asio) to progeny

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hahn, D.C.; Nemeth, N.M.; Edwards, E.; Bright, P.R.; Komar, N.

    2006-01-01

    Transovarial antibody transfer in owls has not been demonstrated for West Nile virus (WNV). We sampled chicks from captive adult WNV-antibody-positive Eastern Screech-Owls (Megascops asio) to evaluate the prevalence of transovarial maternal antibody transfer, as well as titers and duration of maternal antibodies. Twenty-four owlets aged 1 to 27 days old circulated detectable antibodies with neutralizing antibody titers ranging from 20 to 1600 (median 1:40). Demonstrating that WNV antibodies are passively transferred transovarially is important for accurate interpretation of serologic data from young birds.

  18. Maternal overweight predicts infant caloric intake from complimentary foods and weight-for-length at age 6 months

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We assessed the role of maternal overweight on infant dietary intake and body size during the first 6 months of life. Participants were from the Beginnings study, an on-going, longitudinal cohort. Trained research assistants measured infant weight and length; weight-for-length percentiles (WL perc...

  19. Maternal Responsiveness to Young Children at Three Ages: Longitudinal Analysis of a Multidimensional, Modular, and Specific Parenting Construct

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bornstein, Marc H.; Tamis-LeMonda, Catherine S.; Hahn, Chun-Shin; Haynes, O. Maurice

    2008-01-01

    Responsiveness defines the prompt, contingent, and appropriate reactions parents display to their children in the context of everyday exchanges. Maternal responsiveness occupies a theoretically central position in developmental science and possesses meaningful predictive validity over diverse domains of children's development, yet basic…

  20. Maternal Representations of Attachment during Pregnancy Predict the Organization ofInfant-Mother Attachment at One Year of Age.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fonagy, Peter; And Others

    1991-01-01

    The Adult Attachment Interview (AAI) was administered to 96 expecting mothers. In a one-year followup, mothers were seen with their child in the Strange Situation procedure. Maternal representations of attachment from the AAI predicted infant-mother attachment patterns in the Strange Situation. (BC)

  1. Allergic disease in infants up to 2 years of age in relation to plasma omega-3 fatty acids and maternal fish oil supplementation in pregnancy and lactation.

    PubMed

    Furuhjelm, Catrin; Warstedt, Kristina; Fagerås, Malin; Fälth-Magnusson, Karin; Larsson, Johanna; Fredriksson, Mats; Duchén, Karel

    2011-08-01

    We have previously reported a protective effect of maternal omega-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (?-3 LCPUFA) supplementation in pregnancy and lactation on IgE-associated eczema and food allergy in the infant during the first year of life. Here we investigate whether the effects of the LCPUFA supplementation on IgE-associated diseases last up to 2 yr of age and assess the relationship between plasma proportions of ?-3 PUFAs and the frequency and severity of infant allergic disease. 145 pregnant women, at risk of having an allergic infant, were randomized to daily supplementation with 1.6 g eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and 1.1 g docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) or placebo starting in the 25th gestational week and continuing through 3.5 months of breastfeeding. Clinical examinations, skin prick tests and analysis of maternal and infant plasma phospholipid fatty acids and infant specific IgE were performed. No difference in the prevalence of allergic symptoms was found between the intervention groups. The cumulative incidence of IgE-associated disease was lower in the ?-3-supplemented group (6/54, 13%) compared with the placebo group (19/62, 30%, p=0.01). Higher maternal and infant proportions of DHA and EPA were associated with lower prevalence of IgE associated disease (p=0.01-0.05) in a dose-dependent manner. Higher maternal and infant proportions of DHA and EPA were found if the infants presented none, when compared with multiple allergic symptoms, (p<0.05) regardless of sensitization. In summary, the ?-3 supplementation offered no obvious preventive effect on the prevalence of clinical symptoms of allergic disease, but the decrease in cumulative incidence of IgE-associated disease seen during the first year still remained until 2 yr of age. Furthermore, high proportions of DHA and EPA in maternal and infant plasma phospholipids were associated with less IgE-associated disease and a reduced severity of the allergic phenotype. PMID:21332799

  2. Lower Protein-to-Carbohydrate Ratio in Maternal Diet is Associated with Higher Childhood Systolic Blood Pressure up to Age Four Years

    PubMed Central

    Blumfield, Michelle L.; Nowson, Caryl; Hure, Alexis J.; Smith, Roger; Simpson, Stephen J.; Raubenheimer, David; MacDonald-Wicks, Lesley; Collins, Clare E.

    2015-01-01

    The prenatal environment can influence development of offspring blood pressure (BP), which tracks into adulthood. This prospective longitudinal study investigated whether maternal pregnancy dietary intake is associated with the development of child BP up to age four years. Data are from 129 mother-child dyads enrolled in the Women and Their Children’s Health study. Maternal diet was assessed using a validated 74-item food frequency questionnaire at 18 to 24 weeks and 36 to 40 weeks, with a reference period of the previous three months. Child systolic and diastolic BP were measured at 3, 6, 9, 12, 24, 36 and 48 months, using an automated BP monitor. Using mixed-model regression analyses adjusted for childhood growth indices, pregnancy intakes of percentage of energy (E%) polyunsaturated fat (? coefficient 0.73; 95% CI 0.003, 1.45; p = 0.045), E% omega-6 fatty acids (? coefficient 0.89; 95% CI 0.09, 1.69; p = 0.03) and protein-to-carbohydrate (P:C) ratio (? coefficient ?14.14; 95% CI ?27.68, ?0.60; p = 0.04) were associated with child systolic BP trajectory up to 4 years. Child systolic BP was greatest at low proportions of dietary protein (<16% of energy) and high carbohydrate (>40% of energy) intakes. There may be an ideal maternal macronutrient ratio associated with optimal infant BP. Maternal diet, which is potentially modifiable, may play an important role in influencing offspring risk of future hypertension. PMID:25919307

  3. Maternal Symptoms of Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder and Maternal Language: Implications for Infant Language Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kryski, Katie R.; Mash, Eric J.; Ninowski, Jerilyn E.; Semple, Deborah L.

    2010-01-01

    The relationship between maternal ADHD symptoms and maternal language was examined in a community sample of 50 mothers of infants age 3-12 months. It was hypothesized that higher maternal symptoms of ADHD would be related to lower quality of maternal language use. Recordings of mothers' speech were coded for complexity and elaboration of speech…

  4. Prenatal Exposure to Phthalate Esters and Behavioral Syndromes in Children at 8 Years of Age: Taiwan Maternal and Infant Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Lien, Yin-Ju; Ku, Hsiu-Ying; Su, Pen-Hua; Chen, Suh-Jen; Chen, Hsiao-Yen; Liao, Pao-Chi; Chen, Wei-J.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Few studies have shown an association between prenatal phthalate exposure and adverse effects on neurodevelopment and behavior in young children. Objectives: We aimed to assess the relationship between prenatal exposure to phthalate esters and behavior syndromes in children at 8 years of age. Methods: A total of 122 mother–child pairs from the general population in central Taiwan were studied from 2000 to 2009. Mono-methyl phthalate (MMP), mono-ethyl phthalate (MEP), mono-butyl phthalate (MBP), mono-benzyl phthalate (MBzP), and three di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) metabolites—mono-2-ethylhexyl, mono-2-ethyl-5-hydroxyhexyl, and mono-2-ethyl-5-oxohexyl phthalates (MEHP, MEHHP, and MEOHP)—were measured in maternal urine collected during the third trimester of pregnancy using liquid chromatography–electrospray ionization–tandem mass spectrometry. Behavioral syndromes of children at 8 years of age were evaluated using the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL). Associations between log10-transformed creatinine-corrected phthalate concentrations and standardized scores of the CBCL were estimated using linear regression models or multinomial logistic regressions with adjustments for potential confounders. Results: Externalizing problem scores were significantly higher in association with a 1-unit increase in log10-transformed creatinine-corrected concentrations of maternal MBP (? = 4.29; 95% CI: 0.59, 7.99), MEOHP (? = 3.74; 95% CI: 1.33, 6.15), and MEHP (? = 4.28 ; 95% CI: 0.03, 8.26) after adjusting for the child’s sex, intelligence, and family income. Meanwhile, MBP and MEOHP were significantly associated with Delinquent Behavior and Aggressive Behavior scores. The same pattern was found for borderline and/or clinical ranges. Conclusions: Our findings suggest positive associations between maternal DEHP and dibutyl phthalate (DBP) exposure and externalizing domain behavior problems in 8-year-old children. Citation: Lien YJ, Ku HY, Su PH, Chen SJ, Chen HY, Liao PC, Chen WJ, Wang SL. 2015. Prenatal exposure to phthalate esters and behavioral syndromes in children at 8 years of age: Taiwan Maternal and Infant Cohort Study. Environ Health Perspect 123:95–100;?http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/ehp.1307154 PMID:25280125

  5. Maternal feeding practices, child eating behaviour and body mass index in preschool-aged children: a prospective analysis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jane E Gregory; Susan J Paxton; Anna M Brozovic

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Previous research has found associations between parental feeding practices and children's eating behaviour and weight status. Prospective research is needed to elucidate these relationships. METHODS: One hundred and fifty-six mothers of 2- to 4-year-old children completed questionnaires including measures of maternal feeding practices (pressure to eat, restriction, monitoring and modelling of healthy eating), child eating behaviour (food responsiveness, food

  6. THE MEDIAN IS THE MESSAGE : TOWARD THE FR´ ECHET MEDIAN

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Roger KOENKER

    2006-01-01

    One could argue that the long-standing controversy over the relative merits of the median and mean is something of a touchstone of early statistics. The touchstone of medieval alchemy was basonite, a variety of quartz used to test the purity of gold alloys ; striking an alloy against the surface of the stone revealed the quality of the alloy by

  7. Effect of hen age and maternal vitamin D source on performance, hatchability, bone mineral density, and progeny in vitro early innate immune function.

    PubMed

    Saunders-Blades, J L; Korver, D R

    2015-06-01

    The metabolite 25-hydroxy vitamin D3 (25-OHD) can complement or replace vitamin D3 in poultry rations, and may influence broiler production and immune function traits. The effect of broiler breeder dietary 25-OHD on egg production, hatchability, and chick early innate immune function was studied. We hypothesized that maternal dietary 25-OHD would support normal broiler breeder production and a more mature innate immune system of young chicks. Twenty-three-week-old Ross 308 hens (n = 98) were placed in 4 floor pens and fed either 2,760 IU vitamin D3 (D) or 69 ?g 25-OHD/kg feed. Hen weights were managed according to the primary breeder management guide. At 29 to 31 wk (Early), 46 to 48 wk (Mid), and 61 to 63 wk (Late), hens were artificially inseminated and fertile eggs incubated and hatched. Chicks were placed in cages based on maternal treatment and grown to 7 d age. Innate immune function and plasma 25-OHD were assessed at 1 and 4 d post-hatch on 15 chicks/treatment. Egg production, hen BW, and chick hatch weight were not affected by diet (P > 0.05). Total in vitro Escherichia coli (E. coli) killing by 25-OHD chicks was greater than the D chicks at 4 d for the Early and Mid hatches, and 1 and 4 d for the Late hatch. This can be partly explained by the 25-OHD chicks from the Late hatch also having a greater E. coli phagocytic capability. No consistent pattern of oxidative burst response was observed. Chicks from the Mid hatch had greater percent phagocytosis, phagocytic capability, and E. coli killing than chicks from Early and Late hatches. Overall, maternal 25-OHD increased hatchability and in vitro chick innate immunity towards E. coli. Regardless of treatment, chicks from Late and Early hens had weaker early innate immune responses than chicks from Mid hens. The hen age effect tended to be the greatest factor influencing early chick innate immunity, but maternal 25-OHD also increased several measures relative to D. PMID:25743414

  8. Least Median of Squares Regression

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Peter J. Rousseeuw

    1984-01-01

    Classical least squares regression consists of minimizing the sum of the squared residuals. Many authors have produced more robust versions of this estimator by replacing the square by something else, such as the absolute value. In this article a different approach is introduced in which the sum is replaced by the median of the squared residuals. The resulting estimator can

  9. Impact of maternal age on obstetric and neonatal outcome with emphasis on primiparous adolescents and older women: a Swedish Medical Birth Register Study

    PubMed Central

    Blomberg, Marie; Birch Tyrberg, Rasmus; Kjølhede, Preben

    2014-01-01

    Objectives To evaluate the associations between maternal age and obstetric and neonatal outcomes in primiparous women with emphasis on teenagers and older women. Design A population-based cohort study. Setting The Swedish Medical Birth Register. Participants Primiparous women with singleton births from 1992 through 2010 (N=798?674) were divided into seven age groups: <17?years, 17–19?years and an additional five 5-year classes. The reference group consisted of the women aged 25–29?years. Primary outcome Obstetric and neonatal outcome. Results The teenager groups had significantly more vaginal births (adjusted OR (aOR) 2.04 (1.79 to 2.32) and 1.95 (1.88 to 2.02) for age <17?years and 17–19?years, respectively); fewer caesarean sections (aOR 0.57 (0.48 to 0.67) and 0.55 (0.53 to 0.58)), and instrumental vaginal births (aOR 0.43 (0.36 to 0.52) and 0.50 (0.48 to 0.53)) compared with the reference group. The opposite was found among older women reaching a fourfold increased OR for caesarean section. The teenagers showed no increased risk of adverse neonatal outcome but presented an increased risk of prematurity <32?weeks (aOR 1.66 (1.10 to 2.51) and 1.20 (1.04 to 1.38)). Women with advancing age (?30?years) revealed significantly increased risk of prematurity, perineal lacerations, preeclampsia, abruption, placenta previa, postpartum haemorrhage and unfavourable neonatal outcomes compared with the reference group. Conclusions For clinicians counselling young women it is of importance to highlight the obstetrically positive consequences that fewer maternal complications and favourable neonatal outcomes are expected. The results imply that there is a need for individualising antenatal surveillance programmes and obstetric care based on age grouping in order to attempt to improve the outcomes in the age groups with less favourable obstetric and neonatal outcomes. Such changes in surveillance programmes and obstetric interventions need to be evaluated in further studies. PMID:25387756

  10. Continuity and Change in Child Characteristics and Maternal Practices Between Ages 2 and 9: An Analysis of Interview Responses.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lytton, Hugh; And Others

    1988-01-01

    A sample of twin boys and their mothers was followed up from age 2 to age 9. Mothers' responses to interview questions were compared across these two ages in order to assess mothers' perceptions of continuity or change in given behaviors. Results indicated substantial continuity in mothers' reports of the presence or absence of given behaviors.…

  11. Synthesis of Median Spectral Graph

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Miquel Ferrer; Francesc Serratosa; Alberto Sanfeliu

    2005-01-01

    \\u000a In pattern recognition, median computation is an important technique for capturing the important information of a given set\\u000a of patterns but it has the main drawback of its exponential complexity. Moreover, the Spectral Graph techniques can be used\\u000a for the fast computation of the approximate graph matching error, with a considerably reduced execution complexity. In this\\u000a paper, we merge both

  12. Direct and maternal (co) variance components and heritability estimates for body weight at different ages and fleece traits in Afrino sheep

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. A. Snyman; G. J. Erasmus; J. B. van Wyk; J. J. Olivier

    1995-01-01

    Data, consisting of 4325 lamb records, the progeny of 146 sires and 946 dams, collected on the Carnarvon Afrino flock over the period 1975 to 1992, were used for this study. Variance components resulting from direct additive genetic effects, maternal additive genetic effects, maternal permanent environmental effects, as well as the relationship between direct and maternal effects for birth weight,

  13. Mental Health in Low-to-Moderate Risk Preterm, Low Birth Weight, and Small for Gestational Age Children at 4 to 5 Years: The Role of Early Maternal Parenting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Westrupp, Elizabeth M.; Mensah, Fiona K.; Giallo, Rebecca; Cooklin, Amanda; Nicholson, Jan M.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: The majority of children born preterm, with low birth weight, or small for gestational age are born with low-to-moderate risk (LTM), yet most research focuses on the high-risk group. Little is known about whether children with LTM perinatal risk are at greater risk for mental health problems, or what the role of early maternal

  14. Fetal and Childhood Exposure to Phthalate Diesters and Cognitive Function in Children Up to 12 Years of Age: Taiwanese Maternal and Infant Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Han-Bin; Chen, Hsin-Yi; Su, Pen-Hua; Huang, Po-Chin; Sun, Chien-Wen; Wang, Chien-Jen; Chen, Hsiao-Yen

    2015-01-01

    Few studies have examined the association between environmental phthalate exposure and children’s neurocognitive development. This longitudinal study examined cognitive function in relation to pre-and postnatal phthalate exposure in children 2–12 years old. We recruited 430 pregnant women in their third trimester in Taichung, Taiwan from 2001–2002. A total of 110, 79, 76, and 73 children were followed up at ages 2, 5, 8, and 11, respectively. We evaluated the children’s cognitive function at four different time points using the Bayley and Wechsler tests for assessing neurocognitive functions and intelligence (IQ). Urine samples were collected from mothers during pregnancy and from children at each follow-up visit. They were analyzed for seven metabolite concentrations of widely used phthalate esters. These esters included monomethyl phthalate, monoethyl phthalate, mono-butyl phthalate, mono-benzyl phthalate, and three metabolites of di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate, namely, mono-2-ethylhexyl phthalate, mono(2-ethyl-5-hydroxyhexyl) phthalate, and mono(2-ethyl-5-oxohexyl) phthalate. We constructed a linear mixed model to examine the relationships between the phthalate metabolite concentrations and the Bayley and IQ scores. We found significant inverse associations between the children’s levels of urinary mono(2-ethyl-5-oxohexyl) phthalate and the sum of the three metabolites of di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate and their IQ scores (? = -1.818; 95% CI: -3.061, -0.574, p = 0.004 for mono(2-ethyl-5-oxohexyl) phthalate; ? = -1.575; 95% CI: -3.037, -0.113, p = 0.035 for the sum of the three metabolites) after controlling for maternal phthalate levels and potential confounders. We did not observe significant associations between maternal phthalate exposure and the children’s IQ scores. Children’s but not prenatal phthalate exposure was associated with decreased cognitive development in the young children. Large-scale prospective cohort studies are needed to confirm these findings in the future. PMID:26121592

  15. Accumulation of mtDNA variations in human single CD34+ cells from maternally related individuals: effects of aging and family genetic background

    PubMed Central

    Yao, Yong-Gang; Kajigaya, Sachiko; Feng, Xingmin; Samsel, Leigh; McCoy, J. Philip; Torelli, Giuseppe; Young, Neal S.

    2014-01-01

    Marked sequence variation in the mtDNA control region has been observed in human single CD34+ cells, which persist in vivo and are present also in differentiated hematopoietic cells. In this study, we analyzed 5071 single CD34+ cells from 49 individuals (including 31 maternally related members from four families and 18 unrelated donors) in order to determine the mutation spectrum within the mtDNA control region in single cells, as related to aging and family genetic background. Many highly mutated sites among family members were hypervariable sites in the mtDNA control region. Further, CD34+ cells from members of the same family also shared several unique mtDNA variants, suggesting pedigree-specific occurrence of these variants. Overall age-related accumulation of mtDNA mutations in CD34+ cells varied in different families, suggesting a specific accumulation pattern, which might be modulated by family genetic background. Our current findings have implications for the occurrence of mtDNA mutations in hematopoietic stem cells and progenitors. PMID:23455392

  16. Maternal and Child Anxiety: Do Attachment Beliefs or Children's Perceptions of Maternal Control Mediate Their Association?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Costa, Natalie M.; Weems, Carl F.

    2005-01-01

    This study tested a model of the association between maternal and child anxiety that views mother and child attachment beliefs and children's perceptions of maternal control as mediators of the association. The study was conducted with mothers and their children aged 6 to 17 (N = 88). Maternal anxiety was significantly associated with child…

  17. Maternal Characteristics Predicting Young Girls’ Disruptive Behavior

    PubMed Central

    van der Molen, Elsa; Hipwell, Alison E.; Vermeiren, Robert; Loeber, Rolf

    2011-01-01

    Little is known about the relative predictive utility of maternal characteristics and parenting skills on the development of girls’ disruptive behavior. The current study used five waves of parent and child-report data from the ongoing Pittsburgh Girls Study to examine these relationships in a sample of 1,942 girls from age 7 to 12 years. Multivariate Generalized Estimating Equation (GEE) analyses indicated that European American race, mother’s prenatal nicotine use, maternal depression, maternal conduct problems prior to age 15, and low maternal warmth explained unique variance. Maladaptive parenting partly mediated the effects of maternal depression and maternal conduct problems. Both current and early maternal risk factors have an impact on young girls’ disruptive behavior, providing support for the timing and focus of the prevention of girls’ disruptive behavior. PMID:21391016

  18. Effects of Nurse Home Visiting on Maternal and Child Functioning: Age9 Follow-up of a Randomized Trial

    Microsoft Academic Search

    David L. Olds; Harriet Kitzman; Carole Hanks; Robert Cole; Elizabeth Anson; Kimberly Sidora-Arcoleo; Dennis W. Luckey; Charles R. Henderson; John Holmberg; Robin A. Tutt; Amanda J. Stevenson; Jessica Bondy; Louise Herrington

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVE. Our goal was to test the effect of prenatal and infancy home visits by nurses on mothers' fertility and children's functioning 7 years after the program ended at child age 2. METHODS. We conducted a randomized, controlled trial in a public system of obstetric and pediatric care. A total of 743 primarily black women 29 weeks' gestation, with previous

  19. Coenzyme Q10 prevents accelerated cardiac aging in a rat model of poor maternal nutrition and accelerated postnatal growth?

    PubMed Central

    Tarry-Adkins, Jane L.; Blackmore, Heather L.; Martin-Gronert, Malgorzata S.; Fernandez-Twinn, Denise S.; McConnell, Josie M.; Hargreaves, Iain P.; Giussani, Dino A.; Ozanne, Susan E.

    2013-01-01

    Studies in human and animals have demonstrated that nutritionally induced low birth-weight followed by rapid postnatal growth increases the risk of metabolic syndrome and cardiovascular disease. Although the mechanisms underlying such nutritional programming are not clearly defined, increased oxidative-stress leading to accelerated cellular aging has been proposed to play an important role. Using an established rodent model of low birth-weight and catch-up growth, we show here that post-weaning dietary supplementation with coenzyme Q10, a key component of the electron transport chain and a potent antioxidant rescued many of the detrimental effects of nutritional programming on cardiac aging. This included a reduction in nitrosative and oxidative-stress, telomere shortening, DNA damage, cellular senescence and apoptosis. These findings demonstrate the potential for postnatal antioxidant intervention to reverse deleterious phenotypes of developmental programming and therefore provide insight into a potential translatable therapy to prevent cardiovascular disease in at risk humans. PMID:24327963

  20. Negative Effects of Paternal Age on Children's Neurocognitive Outcomes Can Be Explained by Maternal Education and Number of Siblings

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ryan D. Edwards; Jennifer Roff; Carol Brayne

    2010-01-01

    BackgroundRecent findings suggest advanced paternal age may be associated with impaired child outcomes, in particular, neurocognitive skills. Such patterns are worrisome given relatively universal trends in advanced countries toward delayed nuptiality and fertility. But nature and nurture are both important for child outcomes, and it is important to control for both when drawing inferences about either pathway.Methods and FindingsWe examined

  1. The impact of prenatal serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SRI) antidepressant exposure and maternal mood on mother-infant interactions at 3 months of age.

    PubMed

    Weikum, Whitney M; Mayes, Linda C; Grunau, Ruth E; Brain, Ursula; Oberlander, Tim F

    2013-12-01

    Exposure to maternal depression increases risks for altered mother-infant interactions. Serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SRI) antidepressants are increasingly prescribed to manage antenatal maternal illness. The impact of SRIs on early mother-infant interactions was unknown. Three-month-old infants of 32 depressed mothers treated with SRI medications during pregnancy and 43 non-medicated mothers were studied. Using an established face-to-face mother-infant interaction paradigm, dyad interactions were studied with and without a toy. Videotaped sessions yielded 4 measures: maternal sensitivity, dyadic organization, infant readiness to interact, and maternal interruptive behaviors. Even with prenatal SRI treatment, depressed mothers interrupted their infants more during toy play. In the absence of prenatal SRI treatment, maternal postnatal depression adversely influenced infant behavior. Higher levels of maternal depression symptoms at 3 months predicted poorer infant readiness to interact during the toy session. Conversely, in the SRI-exposed group, higher prenatal depression scores predicted greater infant readiness to interact at 3 months. Increased infant readiness with SRI exposure suggests a "fetal programming effect" whereby prenatal maternal mood disturbances shaped a future response to a postnatal depressed maternal environment. PMID:23728194

  2. Maternal Responsiveness Predicts Child Language at Ages 3 and 4 in a Community-Based Sample of Slow-to-Talk Toddlers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hudson, Sophie; Levickis, Penny; Down, Kate; Nicholls, Ruth; Wake, Melissa

    2015-01-01

    Background: Maternal responsiveness has been shown to predict child language outcomes in clinical samples of children with language delay and non-representative samples of typically developing children. An effective and timely measure of maternal responsiveness for use at the population level has not yet been established. Aims: To determine…

  3. Effects of Nurse Home Visiting on Maternal and Child Functioning: Age-9 Follow-up of a Randomized Trial

    PubMed Central

    Olds, David L.; Kitzman, Harriet; Hanks, Carole; Cole, Robert; Anson, Elizabeth; Sidora-Arcoleo, Kimberly; Luckey, Dennis W.; Henderson, Charles R.; Holmberg, John; Tutt, Robin A.; Stevenson, Amanda J.; Bondy, Jessica

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Our goal was to test the effect of prenatal and infancy home visits by nurses on mothers’ fertility and children’s functioning 7 years after the program ended at child age 2. METHODS We conducted a randomized, controlled trial in a public system of obstetric and pediatric care. A total of 743 primarily black women <29 weeks’ gestation, with previous live births and at least 2 sociodemographic risk characteristics (unmarried, <12 years of education, unemployed), were randomly assigned to receive nurse home visits or comparison services. Primary outcomes consisted of intervals between births of first and second children and number of children born per year; mothers’ stability of relationships with partners and relationships with the biological father of the child; mothers’ use of welfare, food stamps, and Medicaid; mothers’ use of substances; mothers’ arrests and incarcerations; and children’s academic achievement, school conduct, and mental disorders. Secondary outcomes were the sequelae of subsequent pregnancies, women’s employment, experience of domestic violence, and children’s mortality. RESULTS Nurse-visited women had longer intervals between births of first and second children, fewer cumulative subsequent births per year, and longer relationships with current partners. From birth through child age 9, nurse-visited women used welfare and food stamps for fewer months. Nurse-visited children born to mothers with low psychological resources, compared with control-group counterparts, had better grade-point averages and achievement test scores in math and reading in grades 1 through 3. Nurse-visited children, as a trend, were less likely to die from birth through age 9, an effect accounted for by deaths that were attributable to potentially preventable causes. CONCLUSIONS By child age 9, the program reduced women’s rates of subsequent births, increased the intervals between the births of first and second children, increased the stability of their relationships with partners, facilitated children’s academic adjustment to elementary school, and seems to have reduced childhood mortality from preventable causes. PMID:17908740

  4. The Role of Breast Size and Areolar Pigmentation in Perceptions of Women's Sexual Attractiveness, Reproductive Health, Sexual Maturity, Maternal Nurturing Abilities, and Age.

    PubMed

    Dixson, Barnaby J; Duncan, Melanie; Dixson, Alan F

    2015-08-01

    Women's breast morphology is thought to have evolved via sexual selection as a signal of maturity, health, and fecundity. While research demonstrates that breast morphology is important in men's judgments of women's attractiveness, it remains to be determined how perceptions might differ when considering a larger suite of mate relevant attributes. Here, we tested how variation in breast size and areolar pigmentation affected perceptions of women's sexual attractiveness, reproductive health, sexual maturity, maternal nurturing abilities, and age. Participants (100 men; 100 women) rated images of female torsos modeled to vary in breast size (very small, small, medium, and large) and areolar pigmentation (light, medium, and dark) for each of the five attributes listed above. Sexual attractiveness ratings increased linearly with breast size, but large breasts were not judged to be significantly more attractive than medium-sized breasts. Small and medium-sized breasts were rated as most attractive if they included light or medium colored areolae, whereas large breasts were more attractive if they had medium or dark areolae. Ratings for perceived age, sexual maturity, and nurturing ability also increased with breast size. Darkening the areolae reduced ratings of the reproductive health of medium and small breasts, whereas it increased ratings for large breasts. There were no significant sex differences in ratings of any of the perceptual measures. These results demonstrate that breast size and areolar pigmentation interact to determine ratings for a suite of sociosexual attributes, each of which may be relevant to mate choice in men and intra-sexual competition in women. PMID:25828990

  5. Media representation of maternal neonaticide 

    E-print Network

    Lewis, Jocelyn Renee

    2008-10-10

    homicides occurring when the child is less than 1 year old (see Figure 3). In addition, a parent is the perpetrator in most homicides of children under age 5 (see Figure 4). Among children under age 5 in the United States who were murdered from 1976... (1984-1996). They defined maternal infanticide as “all killings by mothers of their own children who were newborn to one year in age” (Gauthier, et al. 2003: 398). The study found maternal infanticide to be the most typical form of female perpetrated...

  6. Noise adaptive soft-switching median filter

    Microsoft Academic Search

    How-Lung Eng; Kai-Kuang Ma

    2001-01-01

    Abstract—Existing state-of-the-art switching-based median filters are commonly,found to be nonadaptive to noise density variations and,prone to misclassifying pixel characteristics at high noise density interference. This reveals the critical need of having a sophisticated switching scheme and an adaptive weighted median filter. In this paper, we propose a novel switching-based median filter with incorporation of fuzzy-set concept, called the noise adaptive

  7. Abnormal maternal serum alpha fetoprotein and pregnancy outcome.

    PubMed

    Zarzour, S J; Gabert, H A; Diket, A L; St Amant, M; Miller, J M

    1998-01-01

    The objective was to assess the occurrence of miscarriages, low birth weight, and karyotype abnormalities found with low and elevated maternal serum alpha-fetoprotein (MSAFP) among women who had genetic amniocentesis performed. A retrospective study of 2,159 women who had MSAFP analysis prior to amniocentesis was conducted. Pregnancy outcomes were obtained from record review and physicians follow-up. Limits of MSAFP used in analysis were <0.5 adjusted multiples of the median (MOM) (lower levels) and >2.0 MOM (upper levels). Autosomal trisomy was found in 1.6% with low, 0.9% normal, and 0.6% with elevated MSAFP values. Sex chromosome abnormalities were present only in patients with normal MSAFP, [45X (n = 6), 47XXY (n = 2), 69XXX]. Of five open neural tube defects, four had elevated MSAFP and one had a normal value. Omphalocele was identified in four patients, two with normal and two with elevated MSAFP. Gastroschisis was found in one low and one elevated MSAFP. Amniotic fluid alpha-fetoprotein (AFAFP) values did not correlate with MSAFP values. Patients with low MSAFP levels had a greater prevalence of abnormal karyotype (19 of 249, prevalence = 0.076) than patients with an elevated MSAFP level (2 or 166, prevalence = 0.012 OR (odds ratio) = 0.20 (P value = 0.024) when unadjusted for maternal age, and OR = 0.09 (P value = 0.001) when adjusted for maternal age. Spontaneous abortion occurred more often in patients with elevated (4 of 166, or 4%) than normal or low (20 of 1948, or 1%) values of MSAFP (odds ratio 4.32, P = 0.020 when adjusted for maternal age). Birth weight below 2,500 g was present less frequently with low or normal MSAFP (136 of 1,760, or 7.7%) than in elevated MSAFP (21 of 144 or 14.6%) (odds ratio 2.04, P = 0.005, unadjusted; and odds ratio = 2.32, P = 0.003, adjusted for maternal age). Female fetuses were present more often with low MSAFP (136 of 249, or 55%) than elevated levels 43% (71 of 164, or 43%; P = 0.024). We conclude that patients undergoing genetic amniocentesis with MSAFP <.5 MOM are less likely to miscarry, deliver a low birth weight newborn, or have a male infant than patients with MSAFP levels >2.0 MOM. PMID:9848697

  8. TOWARDS A WELL-DEFINED MEDIAN

    Microsoft Academic Search

    AHMAD AL-SALMAN; MOWAFFAQ HAJJA

    2007-01-01

    The diagonal ? of Rn is Chebeshev with respect to the p-norm for every p ? (1, ?) but not for p = 1. As a result, the median is multi-valued, since the median of a data set {a1, ··· ,an} can be thought of as the number(s) ? for which the point (?, ··· ,?) is a point on

  9. Introduction to Statistics: Mean, Median, and Mode

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    The goal of this lesson is to introduce the concepts of mean, median and mode and to develop understanding and familiarity with these ideas. The activity lets students explore mean and median in an efficient way and the discussion helps them to formalize their knowledge of measures of center.

  10. Comparing Medians: A Monte Carlo Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilcox, Rand R.; Charlin, Ventura L.

    1986-01-01

    This paper investigates three methods for comparing medians rather than means in studying two independent treatment groups. The method that gave the best results is based on a normal approximation of the distribution of the sample median where the variance is estimated using results reported by Maritz and Jarrett. (Author/JAZ)

  11. The relations among maternal depressive disorder, maternal Expressed Emotion, and toddler behavior problems and attachment

    PubMed Central

    Gravener, Julie A.; Rogosch, Fred A.; Oshri, Assaf; Narayan, Angela J.; Cicchetti, Dante; Toth, Sheree L.

    2015-01-01

    Direct and indirect relations among maternal depression, maternal Expressed Emotion (EE: Self- and Child-Criticism), child internalizing and externalizing symptoms, and child attachment were examined. Participants were mothers with depression (n = 130) and comparison mothers (n = 68) and their toddlers (M age = 20 mo.; 53% male). Assessments included the Diagnostic Interview Schedule (maternal depression); the Five Minute Speech Sample (EE); the Child Behavior Checklist (toddler behavior problems); the Strange Situation (child attachment). Direct relations were significant linking: 1) maternal depression with both EE and child functioning; 2) Child-Criticism with child internalizing and externalizing symptoms; 3) Self-Criticism with child attachment. Significant indirect relations were found linking maternal depression with: 1) child externalizing behaviors via Child-Criticism; 2) child internalizing behaviors via Self- and Child-Criticism; and 3) child attachment via Self-Criticism. Findings are consistent with a conceptual model in which maternal EE mediates relations between maternal depression and toddler socio-emotional functioning. PMID:22146899

  12. The protective role of maternally derived antibodies against Bordetella pertussis in young infants.

    PubMed

    Heininger, Ulrich; Riffelmann, Marion; Bär, Gurli; Rudin, Christoph; von König, Carl-Heinz Wirsing

    2013-06-01

    In 20 infants with polymerase chain reaction-confirmed pertussis <6 months of age, median cord blood anti-pertussis toxin, anti-filamentous hemagglutinin and anti-pertactin IgG antibody values were lower than in 80 matched controls: 10.5 versus 13.5 anti-pertussis toxin IU/mL, 14.5/18.0 (anti-filamentous hemagglutinin) and 6.0/9.0 (anti-pertactin), respectively. Although differences of median (and mean) antibody values between groups were not significant, they are in line with the concept of infant protection by maternal antibodies and thus support the strategy of pertussis booster immunization in pregnant women. PMID:23429559

  13. Effects of maternal and pre-weaning undernutrition in rat offspring: Age at reproductive senescence and intergenerational pup growth and viability

    EPA Science Inventory

    Maternal and/or postnatal undernutrition are widespread in human populations and are components of many experimental developmental and reproductive toxicology bio-assays. This study investigated in utero and/or pre-weaning undernutrition effects on reproductive maturation and se...

  14. What Patterns of Postpartum Psychological Distress Are Associated with Maternal Concerns about Their Children's Emotional and Behavioural Problems at the Age of Three Years?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benzies, Karen; Mychasiuk, Richelle; Tough, Suzanne

    2015-01-01

    Mothers experiencing psychological distress in the postpartum period may have difficulties parenting their children. Inconsistent and unresponsive parenting may increase the risk of later emotional and behavioural problems in children. The purpose of this study was to identify how maternal psychological characteristics cluster at eight weeks…

  15. Occurrence of Dental Decay in Children after Maternal Consumption of Xylitol Chewing Gum, a Follow-up from 0 to 5 Years of Age

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. Isokangas; E. Soderling; K. Pienihakkinen; P. Alanen

    2000-01-01

    Studies have shown that prevention of mutans streptococci (MS) colonization in early childhood can lead to prevention of dental decay. In the microbiological part of the present study in Ylivieska, Finland, with 195 mothers with high salivary MS levels, regular maternal use of xylitol chewing gum resulted in a statistically significant reduction in MS colonization in their children's teeth at

  16. Switching non-local median filter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsuoka, Jyohei; Koga, Takanori; Suetake, Noriaki; Uchino, Eiji

    2015-04-01

    This paper describes a novel image filtering method for removal of random-valued impulse noise superimposed on grayscale images. Generally, it is well known that switching-type median filters are effective for impulse noise removal. In this paper, we propose a more sophisticated switching-type impulse noise removal method in terms of detail-preserving performance. Specifically, the noise detector of the proposed method finds out noise-corrupted pixels by focusing attention on the difference between the value of a pixel of interest (POI) and the median of its neighboring pixel values, and on the POI's isolation tendency from the surrounding pixels. Furthermore, the removal of the detected noise is performed by the newly proposed median filter based on non-local processing, which has superior detail-preservation capability compared to the conventional median filter. The effectiveness and the validity of the proposed method are verified by some experiments using natural grayscale images.

  17. Outer median triangles Arpad Benyi1

    E-print Network

    Curgus, Branko

    Outer median triangles ´Arp´ad B´enyi1 Department of Mathematics Western Washington University 516 of Mathematics Western Washington University 516 High Street, Bellingham Washington 98225, USA Branko

  18. Discovering an Optimal Property of the Median.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schwertman, Neil C.

    1999-01-01

    Encourages students to use reasoning and quantitative problem-solving skills to discover the solution to an important practical problem related to absolute-value function and statistical median. (ASK)

  19. Electrophysiological findings in entrapment of the median nerve at wrist and elbow

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Fritz Buchthal; Annelise Rosenfalck; Werner Trojaborg

    1974-01-01

    In 117 consecutive patients with carpal tunnel syndrome and 11 patients with a compression syndrome of the median nerve at elbow, motor and sensory conduction along the median and ulnar nerves and quantitative electromyography were compared with findings in 190 normal controls of the same age. In 25% of patients with carpal tunnel syndrome in whom motor conduction and EMG

  20. Nature, nurture or nutrition? Impact of maternal nutrition on maternal care, offspring development and reproductive function

    PubMed Central

    Connor, K L; Vickers, M H; Beltrand, J; Meaney, M J; Sloboda, D M

    2012-01-01

    We have previously reported that offspring of mothers fed a high fat (HF) diet during pregnancy and lactation enter puberty early and are hyperleptinaemic, hyperinsulinaemic and obese as adults. Poor maternal care and bonding can also impact offspring development and disease risk. We therefore hypothesized that prenatal nutrition would affect maternal care and that an interaction may exist between a maternal HF diet and maternal care, subsequently impacting on offspring phenotype. Wistar rats were mated and randomized to control dams fed a control diet (CON) or dams fed a HF diet from conception until the end of lactation (HF). Maternal care was assessed by observing maternal licking and grooming of pups between postnatal day (P)3 and P8. Postweaning (P22), offspring were fed a control (–con) or HF (–hf) diet. From P27, pubertal onset was assessed. At ?P105 oestrous cyclicity was investigated. Maternal HF diet reduced maternal care; HF-fed mothers licked and groomed pups less than CON dams. Maternal fat:lean ratio was higher in HF dams at weaning and was associated with higher maternal plasma leptin and insulin concentrations, but there was no effect of maternal care on fat:lean ratio or maternal hormone levels. Both female and male offspring of HF dams were lighter from birth to P11 than offspring of CON dams, but by P19, HF offspring were heavier than controls. Prepubertal retroperitoneal fat mass was greater in pups from HF-fed dams compared to CON and was associated with elevated circulating leptin concentrations in females only, but there was neither an effect of maternal care, nor an interaction between maternal diet and care on prepubertal fat mass. Pups from HF-fed dams went into puberty early and this effect was exacerbated by a postweaning HF diet. Maternal and postweaning HF diets independently altered oestrous cyclicity in females: female offspring of HF-fed mothers were more likely to have prolonged or persistent oestrus, whilst female offspring fed a HF diet postweaning were more likely to have irregular oestrous cycles and were more likely to have prolonged or persistent oestrus. These data indicate that maternal HF nutrition during pregnancy and lactation results in a maternal obese phenotype and has significant impact on maternal care during lactation. Maternal and postweaning nutritional signals, independent of maternal care, alter offspring body fat pre-puberty and female reproductive function in adulthood, which may be associated with advanced ovarian ageing and altered fertility. PMID:22411006

  1. Current and Past Maternal Depression, Maternal Interaction Behaviors, and Children's Externalizing and Internalizing Symptoms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foster, Cynthia J. Ewell; Garber, Judy; Durlak, Joseph A.

    2008-01-01

    Relations among past maternal depressive disorder, current depressive symptoms, current maternal interaction behaviors, and children's adjustment were examined in a sample of 204 women and their young adolescent offspring (mean age = 11.86, SD = 0.55). Mothers either had (n = 157) or had not (n = 57) experienced at least one depressive disorder…

  2. The Maternal Description of Child (MDoC): A New Audiotaped Measure of Maternal Affect

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Anne; Razza, Rachel A.; Brooks-Gunn, Jeanne

    2015-01-01

    We report on a new measure of maternal affect from an ongoing multi-site birth cohort study with primarily low-income families, the Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing Study. At child age of 5?years, mothers were asked to describe their child in a short, semi-structured home interview. One innovation of this measure--called the Maternal

  3. Social Security: a financial appraisal for the median voter.

    PubMed

    Galasso, V

    Several explanations have been proposed for why voters continue to support unfunded social security systems. Browning (1975) suggests that the extremely large unfunded pension systems of most democracies depend on the existence of a voting majority composed of middle-aged and older people who fail to fully internalize the cost of financing the system. In fact, when voting, economically rational workers consider only their current and future contributions to the system and their expected pension benefits--not their past contributions, which they regard as sunk costs. If, for a majority of voters, the expected continuation return from social security exceeds the return from alternative assets, an unfunded social security system is politically sustainable. This article explores the validity of Browning's proposition by quantifying the returns that U.S. voters in presidential elections from 1964 to 1996 have obtained, or expect to obtain, from Social Security. Did "investments" in Social Security outperform alternative forms of investment, such as mutual funds or pension funds, for a majority of the voters? What can be expected for the future? The U.S. Social Security system redistributes income within age cohorts on the basis of sex, income, and marital status. To account for some of these features, the median voter is represented by a family unit whose members--a husband who accounts for 70 percent of household earnings and a wife who accounts for 30 percent--make joint economic and voting decisions. Thus, retirement and survival benefits paid out to the spouse of an insured worker can be included in the calculation of Social Security returns. Interval estimates of voters' family incomes from the U.S. Census Bureau were used to obtain the median voter's household earnings. The median voter's age is derived from the ages of those who voted in presidential elections, not from the ages of the entire electorate. The median voter's contributions to Social Security are the product of the joint employer/employee Old-Age and Survivors Insurance (OASI) tax rate and employee earnings. Data on actual contributions are available for median voters in the 1964 to 1976 elections; Social Security Administration (SSA) estimates are used for future tax rates and average wage growth rates. Data on actual old-age, retirement, and survivor benefits, as well as estimates of future benefits, are also available from SSA. Analysis of ex-post returns from "investing" in Social Security and from a buy-and-hold strategy applied to three alternative assets--the Standard & Poor's Composite Index (S&P), the Dow Jones Industrial Average (DJIA), and U.S. government bonds--shows surprising results. In 1964 and 1968, Social Security largely outperformed the other three assets. In 1972, Social Security and the stock market performed almost equally. In 1976, however, the median voter would have been better off in the stock market. The expected returns for median voters in later elections cannot be directly compared with realized returns from alternative assets. However, estimates range from 5.7 percent in 1984 to 7.0 percent in 1996 and thus compare favorably with average returns of 5.6 percent for S&P, 5.3 percent for DJIA, and 2.1 percent for government bonds over the 1964-1996 period. Although these findings must be taken with caution since they compare ex-post returns, they show that, despite a continuous reduction in profitability, Social Security still represents a safe, high-return asset for a majority of families. PMID:12428510

  4. Maternal and Neonatal Tetanus

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Martha H Roper; Jos H Vandelaer; François L Gasse

    2008-01-01

    Maternal and neonatal tetanus are important causes of maternal and neonatal mortality, claiming about 180 000 lives worldwide every year, almost exclusively in developing countries. Although easily prevented by maternal immunisation with tetanus toxoid vaccine, and aseptic obstetric and postnatal umbilical-cord care practices, maternal and neonatal tetanus persist as public-health problems in 48 countries, mainly in Asia and Africa. Survival

  5. Metabolizing enzyme localization and activities in the first trimester human placenta: the effect of maternal and gestational age, smoking and alcohol consumption

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Abby C. Collier; Malcolm D. Tingle; James W. Paxton; Murray D. Mitchell; Jeffrey A. Keelan

    BACKGROUND: The rationale for this study was to assess the expression, activity and localization of the enzymes uridine diphosphate glucuronosyltransferase (UGT), ?-glucuronidase, cytochrome P450 1A (CYP1A) and cytochrome P450 2E1 (CYP2E1) in first trimester human placenta and to gauge the effects of maternal variables on placental metabolism. METHODS: CYP1A, CYP2E1, UGT and ?-glucuronidase activities were assessed in 25 placentas using

  6. The Effect of a Maternal Double Megadose of Vitamin A Supplement on Serum Levels of Retinol in Children Aged under Six Months

    PubMed Central

    dos Santos, Carmina Silva; Kruze, Ilma; Fernandes, Taciana; Andreto, Luciana Marques; Figueiroa, José Natal; Diniz, Alcides da Silva

    2013-01-01

    Objective. To measure concentrations of serum retinol in children after the use of maternal vitamin A double megadose supplements. Design. Randomized controlled clinical trial. Setting. The study was conducted at two maternity hospitals in the city of Recife, in the northeast region of Brazil between August 2007 and June 2009. Subjects and Methods. 276 children/mothers were recruited after birth and the women received a 200,000?IU capsule of vitamin A. After ten days they were randomly assigned to two treatment groups. One group received a second 200.000?IU capsule, while the other received a placebo. The concentrations of retinol in the serum of the children from each group were measured at 2, 4, and 6?months. Results. 173 children completed the study. There was no difference between the two treatment groups (P = 0.514). The mean base retinol level was lower than that at four and six months (P < 0.001). Conclusions. The maternal double megadose supplement had no additional effect on the serum retinol levels of the children, although concentrations of retinol in the children rose in the first six months of life. This trial is registered with NCT00742937. PMID:24455219

  7. [Maternal reflective functioning as a predictor of therapeutic success of psychoanalytic short-term therapy for children aged 4 to 10 years].

    PubMed

    Müller-Göttken, Tanja; White, Lars O; von Klitzing, Kai; Klein, Annette M

    2014-01-01

    Recent work implicates the capacity to mentalize as a predictor of therapeutic success of psychodynamically oriented psychotherapy for adults. However, little, if any, research focuses on similar associations in childhood. In the current study, we investigated the role of maternal reflective functioning (RF) in the treatment of 25 children with clinically diagnosed anxiety disorders and a high level of externalizing comorbidity in an outpatient setting. Before and after treatment of their children with short-term Psychoanalytic Child Therapy (PaCT), we assessed maternal RF using the Parent Development Interview and requested parents to report on symptoms of their 4-10-year-old children using the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL). RF proved highly stable and showed no significant change from pre- to post-treatment over an average treatment interval of 41 weeks. While remission in internalizing symptoms was unrelated to pretreatment maternal RF, children with high-RF mothers showed significant remission of externalizing comorbidity in comparison to children with low-RF mothers both immediately after treatment as well as at six-month follow-up. These preliminary results support parental RF as a valuable prognostic criterion for successful treatment of externalizing symptoms with PaCT. These findings call for replication in large-scale follow-up studies with children diagnosed with externalizing disorders. PMID:25523914

  8. Wavelet median denoising of ultrasound images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Macey, Katherine E.; Page, Wyatt H.

    2002-05-01

    Ultrasound images are contaminated with both additive and multiplicative noise, which is modeled by Gaussian and speckle noise respectively. Distinguishing small features such as fallopian tubes in the female genital tract in the noisy environment is problematic. A new method for noise reduction, Wavelet Median Denoising, is presented. Wavelet Median Denoising consists of performing a standard noise reduction technique, median filtering, in the wavelet domain. The new method is tested on 126 images, comprised of 9 original images each with 14 levels of Gaussian or speckle noise. Results for both separable and non-separable wavelets are evaluated, relative to soft-thresholding in the wavelet domain, using the signal-to-noise ratio and subjective assessment. The performance of Wavelet Median Denoising is comparable to that of soft-thresholding. Both methods are more successful in removing Gaussian noise than speckle noise. Wavelet Median Denoising outperforms soft-thresholding for a larger number of cases of speckle noise reduction than of Gaussian noise reduction. Noise reduction is more successful using non-separable wavelets than separable wavelets. When both methods are applied to ultrasound images obtained from a phantom of the female genital tract a small improvement is seen; however, a substantial improvement is required prior to clinical use.

  9. Maternally acquired IgG immunity in neonates born to renal transplanted women.

    PubMed

    Viana, Patrícia Oliveira; Ono, Erika; Dinelli, Maria Isabel Saraiva; Costa-Carvalho, Beatriz Tavares; Santos, Amélia Miyashiro Nunes Dos; Sass, Nelson; Moraes-Pinto, Maria Isabel de

    2015-06-17

    Neonates born to renal transplanted women are exposed in utero to immunosuppressors and to antenatal conditions that may predispose the neonate to a high risk of prematurity and intrauterine growth retardation. These factors might interfere with the transfer of maternal IgG immunity. Total IgG levels and specific antibodies to measles, varicella, tetanus, Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) and Streptococcus pneumoniae (serotypes 4,6B,9V,14,18C,19F and 23F) were evaluated on maternal and cord blood samples of 23 sets of renal transplanted women and their newborns and 32 sets of healthy women-newborns at term. Total IgG levels were measured by nephelometry and specific antibodies, by ELISA. Renal transplanted mothers had lower median tetanus antibodies (0.67IU/mL) than controls (1.53IU/mL; p=0.017). Neonates from renal transplanted mothers had lower median tetanus antibodies (0.95IU/mL) than controls (1.97IU/mL, p=0.008). Antibodies to measles, varicella, Hib and the 7 serotypes of S. pneumoniae were similar between groups. Maternal antibodies were associated with an increase in neonatal antibodies for all antigens; gestational age was associated with an increase in Hib neonatal antibodies. Preeclampsia was associated with a decrease in neonatal total IgG and serotype 4 S. pneumoniae antibodies; chronic hypertension was associated with a decrease in neonatal serotype 6B S. pneumoniae antibodies. As neonates from transplanted women may be born with lower tetanus antibodies than controls, efforts should be made to keep maternal vaccines up-to-date. Clinical antenatal care with control of preeclampsia, chronic hypertension and prevention of premature delivery might also contribute to neonatal antibody levels to specific antigens at birth. PMID:25987539

  10. Maternal anxiety and infants' hippocampal development: timing matters

    PubMed Central

    Qiu, A; Rifkin-Graboi, A; Chen, H; Chong, Y-S; Kwek, K; Gluckman, P D; Fortier, M V; Meaney, M J

    2013-01-01

    Exposure to maternal anxiety predicts offspring brain development. However, because children's brains are commonly assessed years after birth, the timing of such maternal influences in humans is unclear. This study aimed to examine the consequences of antenatal and postnatal exposure to maternal anxiety upon early infant development of the hippocampus, a key structure for stress regulation. A total of 175 neonates underwent magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) at birth and among them 35 had repeated scans at 6 months of age. Maternal anxiety was assessed using the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI) at week 26 of pregnancy and 3 months after delivery. Regression analyses showed that antenatal maternal anxiety did not influence bilateral hippocampal volume at birth. However, children of mothers reporting increased anxiety during pregnancy showed slower growth of both the left and right hippocampus over the first 6 months of life. This effect of antenatal maternal anxiety upon right hippocampal growth became statistically stronger when controlling for postnatal maternal anxiety. Furthermore, a strong positive association between postnatal maternal anxiety and right hippocampal growth was detected, whereas a strong negative association between postnatal maternal anxiety and the left hippocampal volume at 6 months of life was found. Hence, the postnatal growth of bilateral hippocampi shows distinct responses to postnatal maternal anxiety. The size of the left hippocampus during early development is likely to reflect the influence of the exposure to perinatal maternal anxiety, whereas right hippocampal growth is constrained by antenatal maternal anxiety, but enhanced in response to increased postnatal maternal anxiety. PMID:24064710

  11. Maternal Asthma, Diabetes, and High Blood Pressure are Associated with Low Birth Weight and Increased Hospital Birth and Delivery Charges; Hawai‘i Hospital Discharge Data 2003–2008

    PubMed Central

    Feigal, David W; Smith, Ruben A; Fuddy, Loretta J

    2014-01-01

    Asthma, diabetes, and high blood pressure are common maternal conditions that can impact birth outcomes. Data from hospital discharges in Hawai‘i were analyzed for 107,034 singleton births from 2003–2008. Categories were determined using the International Statistical Classification of Diseases, ninth revision (ICD-9) from linked delivery records of mother and infant. Prevalence estimates of asthma (ICD-9: 493), diabetes (ICD-9: 250,648.0, 648.8), high blood pressure (ICD-9: 401–405,642) as coded on the delivery record, low birth weight (<2500 grams), high birth weight (>4500 grams), Cesarean delivery, and median hospital charges were calculated. Median regression analysis assessed total hospital charges adjusting for maternal age, maternal race, insurance, and Cesarean delivery. Maternal asthma was present in 4.3% (95% confidence interval=4.1–4.4%), maternal diabetes was present in 7.7% (95% CI=7.6–7.9%), and maternal high blood pressure was present in 9.2% (95% CI=9.0–9.3%) of births. In the adjusted median regression analysis, mothers with asthma had $999 (95% CI: $886 to $1,112) higher hospital charges compared to those without; mothers with diabetes had $743 (95% CI: $636 to $850) higher charges compared to those without; and mothers with high blood pressure had $2,314 (95% CI: $2,194 to $2,434) higher charges compared to those without. Asthma, diabetes, and high blood pressure are associated with higher hospital delivery charges and low birth weight. Diabetes and high blood pressure were also associated with Cesarean delivery. An increased awareness of the impact of these conditions on both adverse birth outcomes and the development of chronic disease is needed. PMID:24567868

  12. Nonparametric prediction by conditional median and quantiles

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ali Gannoun; Jérôme Saracco; Keming Yu

    2003-01-01

    Two smooth nonparametric conditional median predictors, based on double kernel and local constant kernel methods, are defined for time series. Consistency and asymptotic normality are obtained for both of them. An extension to pth conditional quantiles is proposed in order to get predictive intervals. A rule-of-thumb selection for the smoothing parameters is developed. We illustrate the technique with a simulated

  13. Science Sampler: Mean, median, mode, and range

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Paige Jones

    2007-12-01

    A hands-on approach to mean, median, mode, and range turned a simple lab into a two-day opportunity for cooperation among lab-group members and among lab groups. The concepts of accuracy and precision were introduced and distinguished from each other.

  14. Age at motherhood in Japan.

    PubMed

    Ermisch, J; Ogawa, N

    1994-01-01

    This study analyzed the factors influencing maternal age in Japan. Data was obtained from the National Survey on Family Planning (20th round) conducted by the Mainichi Newspapers of Japan in June 1990 and from vital statistics records on first births over a 25-year period. Both time-series and cross-sectional data provided support for the link between educational attainment and wages and the rising age at childbearing. Proportional hazards models and accelerated-failure time models with unobserved heterogeneity of the Heckman and Walker and Greene types were constructed. The median age at first birth was estimated at 26.6 years, based on Kaplan-Meier methods. The log-logistic model with move-stayer heterogeneity (Heckman and Walker) revealed that women with a senior high school education delayed marriage 9 months longer than women with less education. Women with a junior college education had first births 15 months later than high school educated women. Women with a university degree had first births two years later than women with a junior college degree. Urban mothers started childbearing 5 months later than rural mothers. The Weibull model with unobserved heterogeneity indicated that the hazard of a first birth increased with the age of the woman, while the observed hazard in the population increased and then declined. The age pattern of the log-logistic model had a more concentrated hazard rate. The estimated childless rate among women at the age of 40 years was 10.6% in the log-logistic model and 6.9% in the Weibull model. The Cox proportional hazard model supported the findings from the log-logistic and Weibull models and the explanatory importance of childhood residence, recent age, and educational status. All three models showed similar estimates of the impacts of the explanatory variables on age at first marriage. Median first birth interval was found to be shorter among more recent cohorts. Women in arranged marriages were estimated to have a later median age at childbearing by 9 months, and living with husband's parents shortened the median age by about 7 months. Women who married men from large families tended to marry and bear children earlier. The time-series analysis indicated that the decline in first birth rates was related to the decline in traditional values, but when the tradition variable was excluded, wages appeared to be the significant determinant of decline in first birth rates. The findings suggested that other factors were involved in the sharp decline in first birth rates. PMID:12288506

  15. An Investigation of the Median-Median Method of Linear Regression

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walters, Elizabeth J.; Morrell, Christopher H.; Auer, Richard E.

    2006-01-01

    Least squares regression is the most common method of fitting a straight line to a set of bivariate data. Another less known method that is available on Texas Instruments graphing calculators is median-median regression. This method is proposed as a simple method that may be used with middle and high school students to motivate the idea of fitting…

  16. Cognitive and motor skills in school-aged children following maternal vitamin A supplementation during pregnancy in rural Nepal: a follow-up of a placebo-controlled, randomised cohort

    PubMed Central

    Buckley, Gillian J; Murray-Kolb, Laura E; Khatry, Subarna K; LeClerq, Steven C; Wu, Lee; West, Keith P; Christian, Parul

    2013-01-01

    Objective To determine the effects of maternal vitamin A supplementation from preconception through postpartum on cognitive and motor development of children at 10–13?years of age in rural Nepal. Design Follow-up assessment of children born to women randomly assigned by a village to receive either supplemental vitamin A (7000?µg retinol equivalents) or placebo weekly during a continuous 3.5-year period from 1994–1997. The participants came from 12 wards, a subset of 270 wards in the original trial. Trained staff tested children for cognition by the Universal Nonverbal Intelligence Test (UNIT) and motor ability using four subtests from the Movement Assessment Battery for Children (MABC). Data on schooling, home environment and nutritional and socioeconomic status were also collected. Setting Southern plains district of Sarlahi, Nepal. Participants 390 Nepalese children 10–13?years of age. Main outcome measures Raw scores on UNIT and square-root transformed scores on an abridged version of the MABC tests, expressed as cluster-summarised (mean±SD) values to account for the design of the original trial. Results There were no differences in UNIT (79.61±5.99 vs 80.69±6.71) or MABC (2.64±0.07 vs 2.49±0.09) test scores in children whose mothers were exposed to vitamin A vs placebo (mean differences: ?1.07, 95% CI ?7.10 to 9.26, p=0.78; 0.15, 95% CI 0.43 to ?0.08, p=0.15), respectively. More children in the placebo group had repeated a grade in school (28% of placebo vs 16.7% of vitamin A, p=0.01). Conclusions Preconceptional to postpartum maternal vitamin A supplementation, in an undernourished setting, does not improve cognition or motor development at ages 10–13?years. PMID:23667158

  17. Fears in Clinic-Referred Children: Relations with Child Anxiety Sensitivity, Maternal Overcontrol, and Maternal Phobic Anxiety

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ollendick, Thomas H.; Horsch, Laura M.

    2007-01-01

    Relations among maternal phobic anxiety, maternal overcontrol, child anxiety sensitivity, and child level of fear were explored in 156 children referred to an outpatient clinic for psychological evaluation. In addition, these relations were examined separately in analyses of age, gender, and diagnostic status. Overall, age, gender, and child…

  18. Risk Assessment of Various Median Treatments of Rural Interstates

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Natalie M. Villwock; Nicolas Paul Blond; Andrzej P. Tarko

    2008-01-01

    This report presents results of a comprehensive study that evaluates the safety impacts of alternative median treatments on rural freeways. Extensive data were obtained from Indiana, Colorado, Illinois, Iowa, Missouri, New York, Ohio, Oregon, Washington, and Wisconsin. The studied median treatments include AASHTO-recommended treatments: depressed medians, depressed medians with high and lowtensioned cable barriers, and flush medians with concrete barriers.

  19. Median and ulnar muscle and sensory evoked potentials.

    PubMed

    Felsenthal, G

    1978-08-01

    The medical literature was reviewed to find suggested clinical applications of the study of the amplitude of evoked muscle action potentials (MAP) and sensory action potentials (SAP). In addition, the literature was reviewed to ascertain the normal amplitude and duration of the evoked MAP and SAP as well as the factors affecting the amplitude: age, sex, temperature, ischemia. The present study determined the normal amplitude and duration of the median and ulnar MAP and SAP in fifty normal subjects. The amplitude of evoked muscle or sensory action potentials depends on multiple factors. Increased skin resistance, capacitance, and impedance at the surface of the recording electrode diminishes the amplitude. Similarly, increased distance from the source of the action potential diminishes its amplitude. Increased interelectrode distance increases the amplitude of the bipolarly recorded sensory action potential until a certain interelectrode distance is exceeded and the diphasic response becomes tri- or tetraphasic. Artifact or poor technique may reduce the potential difference between the recording electrodes or obscure the late positive phase of the action potential and thus diminish the peak to peak amplitude measurement. Intraindividual comparison indicated a marked difference of amplitude in opposite hands. The range of the MAP of the abductor pollicis brevis in one hand was 40.0--100% of the response in the opposite hand. For the abductor digiti minimi, the MAP was 58.5--100% of the response of the opposite hand. The median and ulnar SAP was between 50--100% of the opposite SAP. Consequent to these findings the effect of hand dominance on the amplitude of median and ulnar evoked muscle and sensory action potentials was studied in 41 right handed volunteers. The amplitudes of the median muscle action potential (p less than 0.02) and the median and ulnar sensory action potentials (p less than 0.001) were significantly less in the dominant hand. There was no significant difference between the ulnar muscle action potentials or for the median and ulnar distal motor and sensory latencies in the right and left hands of this group of volunteers. PMID:696811

  20. Maternal hepatitis B and infant infection among pregnant women living with HIV in South Africa

    PubMed Central

    Hoffmann, Christopher J; Mashabela, Fildah; Cohn, Silvia; Hoffmann, Jennifer D; Lala, Sanjay; Martinson, Neil A; Chaisson, Richard E

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Globally, hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection is the leading cause of liver-related mortality. Newborn vaccination, maternal antiviral therapy and administering hepatitis B immune globulin shortly after birth can greatly reduce the risk of perinatal and infant infection. However, evidence-based policy regarding these interventions in Africa is hampered by gaps in knowledge of HBV epidemiology. We describe maternal chronic hepatitis B (CHB) prevalence and infant infection during the first year of life within a cohort of women living with HIV. Methods We recruited and prospectively followed pregnant women living with HIV and their infants from prenatal clinics in an urban area of South Africa. Hepatitis B surface antigen, anti-hepatitis B surface antibodies and HBV DNA were assessed in all women. Hepatitis B testing was also performed at 6 and 52 weeks for all infants born to mothers with either positive surface antigen or detectable HBV DNA. Results We enrolled 189 women with a median age of 29 years and median CD4 count of 348 cells/mm3. Fourteen had a positive surface antigen (7.4%), of which six were positive for “e” antigen. An additional three had detectable HBV DNA without positive surface antigen. One infant developed CHB and three others had evidence of transmission based on positive HBV DNA assays. HBV vaccinations were delivered at six weeks of life to all infants. Conclusions Our findings highlight the risk of peripartum HBV transmission in this setting. Approaches to reducing this transmission should be considered. PMID:24855985

  1. Trisomic Pregnancy and Earlier Age at Menopause

    PubMed Central

    Kline, Jennie; Kinney, Ann; Levin, Bruce; Warburton, Dorothy

    2000-01-01

    We tested the hypothesis that the connection between advanced maternal age and autosomal trisomy reflects the diminution of the oocyte pool with age. Because menopause occurs when the number of oocytes falls below some threshold, our hypothesis is that menopause occurs at an earlier age among women with trisomic pregnancies than it does among women with chromosomally normal pregnancies. To determine their menstrual status, we interviewed women from our previous study of karyotyped spontaneous abortions who, in 1993, were age ?44 years. Premenopausal women completed interviews every 4–5 mo, until menopause or until the study ended in 1997. The primary analyses compare 111 women whose index pregnancy was a trisomic spontaneous abortion with two groups: women whose index pregnancy was a chromosomally normal loss (n=157) and women whose index pregnancy was a chromosomally normal birth (n=226). We used a parametric logistic survival analysis to compare median ages at menopause. The estimated median age at menopause was 0.96 years earlier (95% confidence interval ?0.18 to 2.10) among women with trisomic losses than it was among women with chromosomally normal losses and chromosomally normal births combined. Results were unaltered by adjustment for education, ethnicity, and cigarette smoking. Our results support the hypothesis that trisomy risk is increased with decreased numbers of oocytes. Decreased numbers may indicate accelerated oocyte atresia or fewer oocytes formed during fetal development. PMID:10873791

  2. Does warmth moderate longitudinal associations between maternal spanking and child aggression in early childhood?

    PubMed

    Lee, Shawna J; Altschul, Inna; Gershoff, Elizabeth T

    2013-11-01

    This study examines whether maternal warmth moderates the association between maternal use of spanking and increased child aggression between ages 1 and 5. Participants were 3,279 pairs of mothers and their children from a cohort study of urban families from 20 U.S. cities. Maternal spanking was assessed when the child was 1 year, 3 years, and 5 years of age. Maternal warmth and child aggressive behavior were measured at 3 years and 5 years of age. Models controlled for demographic characteristics (measured at the child's birth), child emotionality (measured at age 1), and maternal psychosocial risk factors (measured when children were 3 years old). Cross-lagged path models examined the within-time and longitudinal associations between spanking and child aggression. Results indicated that maternal spanking at age 1 was associated with higher levels of child aggression at age 3; similarly, maternal spanking at age 3 predicted increases in child aggression by age 5. Maternal warmth when children were 3 years old did not predict changes in child aggression between 3 and 5 years old. Furthermore, maternal warmth did not moderate the association between spanking and increased child aggression over time. Beginning as early as age 1, maternal spanking is predictive of child behavior problems, and maternal warmth does not counteract the negative consequences of the use of spanking. PMID:23339588

  3. Co-variables in first trimester maternal serum screening.

    PubMed

    de Graaf, I M; Cuckle, H S; Pajkrt, E; Leschot, N J; Bleker, O P; van Lith, J M

    2000-03-01

    The objective of this study was to determined the influence of maternal weight, maternal smoking habits, gravidity, parity and fetal gender on the level of maternal serum marker used in first trimester screening for Down syndrome. A total of 2449 singleton unaffected pregnancies from two centres were studied. Maternal serum free beta-human chorionic gonadotrophin (hCG) and alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) concentrations had been measured in all pregnancies, and pregnancy associated plasma protein (PAPP)-A levels had been measured in 924. All results were expressed as multiples of the gestation specific median (MoM) values after regression, using each centre's own medians. Information on maternal weight was available in 2259 pregnancies, on self-reported current cigarette smoking in 1364 (of whom 117 (8.6%) were smokers), on gravidity in 1371, parity in 1303 and fetal gender in 253. All three markers showed a statistically significant negative association with maternal weight (p<0.0005) and in the subsequent analyses MoM values were weight adjusted using standard methods. The median PAPP-A level in smokers was 0.81 MoM, a significant reduction (p<0.005); free beta-hCG was also reduced (median 0.89 MoM) but not significantly (p=0.17), and AFP was unaltered. The median AFP level in primagravidas was highly significantly greater than that in gravid women (p<0.0005). In PAPP-A the reverse effect was seen but it did not reach statistical significance (p=0.15) and there was no effect for free beta-hCG. Results of a similar magnitude and direction were found for parity. The median level of free beta-hCG was higher (p=0.0005), and the median AFP lower in female pregnancies. Maternal weight and, for PAPP-A, maternal smoking are important first trimester screening co-variables. Gravidity, parity and fetal gender also seem to influence one or more first trimester markers. PMID:10719318

  4. The incidence of low birth weight and intrauterine growth restriction in relationship to maternal ethnicity and gestational age at birth – A PEARL study analysis from the State of Qatar

    PubMed Central

    Abdulkader, Zeyad Mohannad; ur Rahman, Sajjad; Nimeri, Nuha

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To analyze the association between maternal ethnicity and gestational age with the incidence of low birth weight and intrauterine growth restriction. Study Design: Prospective, analytic study Methods: The study was conducted between March 14th and April 4th 2011 in Women's Hospital HMC. The data was ascertained from the delivery register of labor ward on daily basis using predesigned, structured questionnaire. Data was stratified according to the maternal ethnicity groups and gestational age at birth (term and preterm). Results: The total deliveries during the study period were 890; 35.5% Qatari (n 316) and 64.5% non-Qatari (n 574). The incidence of LBW was 12.36% (n 110). The difference of LBW incidence between Qatari (13.6% n 43) and non-Qatari (11.67% n 67) groups was non significant (RR 1.17, 95% CI 0.82-1.67, p = 0.401). The same was between non-Qatari sub groups (p < 0.05). The incidence of IUGR was 6% (n 54; 49.09% of LBW). The incidence of IUGR between Qatari (5.7% n 18) and non-Qatari (6.27% n 36) groups was significant (RR 0.45, 95% CI 0.3-0.6 p>0.05). The incidence of LBW was 7.85% (n 60) in term babies and 39.68% (n 50) in preterm babies. The incidence if IUGR was 3.79% (n 29) in term babies and 19.84% (n 25) in preterm babies. Preterm babies had a five times higher risk of both being LBW (RR 5.05; 95%CI 3.65-6.99; p < 0.001) and IUGR (RR 5.23; 95% CI 3.17-8.62; p < 0.001). Conclusion: The incidence of low birth weight is independent of maternal ethnicity in Qatar. However, the incidence of IUGR is significantly higher among the non-Qatari population. The relative risk of being LBW or IUGR is five times higher in preterm babies. Further in depth studies are indicated. PMID:25003038

  5. Maternal plasma fetal DNA fractions in pregnancies with low and high risks for fetal chromosomal aneuploidies.

    PubMed

    Hudecova, Irena; Sahota, Daljit; Heung, Macy M S; Jin, Yongjie; Lee, Wing S; Leung, Tak Y; Lo, Yuk Ming Dennis; Chiu, Rossa W K

    2014-01-01

    Recently published international guidelines recommend the clinical use of noninvasive prenatal test (NIPT) for aneuploidy screening only among pregnant women whose fetuses are deemed at high risk. The applicability of NIPT to aneuploidy screening among average risk pregnancies requires additional supportive evidence. A key determinant of the reliability of aneuploidy NIPT is the fetal DNA fraction in maternal plasma. In this report, we investigated if differences in fetal DNA fractions existed between different pregnancy risk groups. One hundred and ninety-five singleton pregnancies with male fetuses divided into 3 groups according to first trimester screening parameters were examined for fetal DNA percentage by counting Y chromosome DNA sequences using massively parallel sequencing. Fetal DNA fractions were compared between risk groups and assessed for correlations with first trimester screening parameters. There was no statistically significant difference in fetal DNA fractions across the high, intermediate and low risk groups. Fetal DNA fraction showed a strong negative correlation with maternal weight. Fetal DNA fraction also showed weak but significant correlations with gestational age, crown-rump length, multiple of medians of free ?-subunit of human chorionic gonadotropin and pregnancy-associated plasma protein A. Similar fetal DNA fractions in maternal plasma between high, intermediate and low risk pregnant women is a precondition for uniform performance of the aneuploidy NIPTs for the general population. This study thus shows that the aneuploidy screening by NIPT is likely to offer similar analytical reliability without respect to the a priori fetal aneuploidy risk. PMID:24586333

  6. Maternal Plasma Fetal DNA Fractions in Pregnancies with Low and High Risks for Fetal Chromosomal Aneuploidies

    PubMed Central

    Heung, Macy M. S.; Jin, Yongjie; Lee, Wing S.; Leung, Tak Y.; Lo, Yuk Ming Dennis; Chiu, Rossa W.K.

    2014-01-01

    Recently published international guidelines recommend the clinical use of noninvasive prenatal test (NIPT) for aneuploidy screening only among pregnant women whose fetuses are deemed at high risk. The applicability of NIPT to aneuploidy screening among average risk pregnancies requires additional supportive evidence. A key determinant of the reliability of aneuploidy NIPT is the fetal DNA fraction in maternal plasma. In this report, we investigated if differences in fetal DNA fractions existed between different pregnancy risk groups. One hundred and ninety-five singleton pregnancies with male fetuses divided into 3 groups according to first trimester screening parameters were examined for fetal DNA percentage by counting Y chromosome DNA sequences using massively parallel sequencing. Fetal DNA fractions were compared between risk groups and assessed for correlations with first trimester screening parameters. There was no statistically significant difference in fetal DNA fractions across the high, intermediate and low risk groups. Fetal DNA fraction showed a strong negative correlation with maternal weight. Fetal DNA fraction also showed weak but significant correlations with gestational age, crown-rump length, multiple of medians of free ?-subunit of human chorionic gonadotropin and pregnancy-associated plasma protein A. Similar fetal DNA fractions in maternal plasma between high, intermediate and low risk pregnant women is a precondition for uniform performance of the aneuploidy NIPTs for the general population. This study thus shows that the aneuploidy screening by NIPT is likely to offer similar analytical reliability without respect to the a priori fetal aneuploidy risk. PMID:24586333

  7. Effect of early maternal docosahexaenoic acid intake on neuropsychological status and visual acuity at five years of age of breast-fed infants

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We previously reported better psychomotor development at 30 months of age in infants whose mothers received a docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) supplement for the first 4 months of lactation. We now assess neuropsychological and visual function of the same children at 5 years of age. Breastfeeding women w...

  8. Intracranial Meningioma Diagnosed during Pregnancy Caused Maternal Death

    PubMed Central

    Kurdoglu, Zehra; Cetin, Orkun; Gulsen, Ismail; Bulut, M. Deniz

    2014-01-01

    Brain tumors are rarely diagnosed during pregnancy. Accelerated growth of intracranial meningiomas during pregnancy sometimes requires urgent surgical intervention. We describe a 41-year-old pregnant woman with severe neurological decompensation requiring immediate neurosurgery. Cesarean section resulted in maternal death. Meningioma diagnosed during a viable pregnancy should be managed according to the severity of maternal neurological symptoms and gestational age of pregnancy. Early intervention for intracranial tumors during pregnancy may save maternal and fetal lives. PMID:25295061

  9. Intracranial Meningioma Diagnosed during Pregnancy Caused Maternal Death.

    PubMed

    Kurdoglu, Zehra; Cetin, Orkun; Gulsen, Ismail; Dirik, Deniz; Bulut, M Deniz

    2014-01-01

    Brain tumors are rarely diagnosed during pregnancy. Accelerated growth of intracranial meningiomas during pregnancy sometimes requires urgent surgical intervention. We describe a 41-year-old pregnant woman with severe neurological decompensation requiring immediate neurosurgery. Cesarean section resulted in maternal death. Meningioma diagnosed during a viable pregnancy should be managed according to the severity of maternal neurological symptoms and gestational age of pregnancy. Early intervention for intracranial tumors during pregnancy may save maternal and fetal lives. PMID:25295061

  10. Microchimerism of maternal origin persists into adult life

    PubMed Central

    Maloney, Sean; Smith, Anajane; Furst, Daniel E.; Myerson, David; Rupert, Kate; Evans, Paul C.; Nelson, J. Lee

    1999-01-01

    Recent studies indicate that fetal cells persist in maternal blood for decades after pregnancy. Maternal cells are known to engraft and persist in infants with immunodeficiency, but whether maternal cells persist long-term in immunocompetent offspring has not specifically been investigated. We developed sensitive human leukocyte antigen–specific (HLA-specific) PCR assays and targeted nonshared maternal HLA genes to test for persistent maternal microchimerism in subjects with scleroderma and in healthy normal subjects. Nonshared maternal-specific DNA was found in 6 of 9 scleroderma patients. In situ hybridization with double labeling for X and Y chromosome–specific sequences revealed female cells in peripheral blood samples from 2 male scleroderma patients. HLA-specific PCR also frequently revealed persistent maternal microchimerism in healthy control subjects. The mean age of all subjects with maternal microchimerism was 28 years (range: 9–49 years). With few exceptions, mothers of subjects with persistent maternal microchimerism were HLA incompatible with subjects for class I and class II alleles. These results clearly indicate that HLA-disparate maternal cells can persist in immunocompetent offspring well into adult life. The biological significance of maternal microchimerism and whether it might contribute to autoimmune disease requires further investigation. PMID:10393697

  11. Decay of maternal antibodies in broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Gharaibeh, Saad; Mahmoud, Kamel

    2013-09-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the decay rate of maternal antibodies against major broiler chicken pathogens. A total of 30 one-day-old broiler chicks were obtained from a commercial hatchery and reared in isolation. These chicks were retrieved from a parent flock that received a routine vaccination program. Chicks were bled at hatch and sequentially thereafter every 5 d through 30 d of age. Maternal antibody titers were measured by ELISA for avian encephalomyelitis (AEV), avian influenza virus (AIV), chicken anemia virus (CAV), infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV), infectious bronchitis virus (IBV), infectious laryngotracheitis virus (ILTV), Mycoplasma gallisepticum (MG), Mycoplasma synoviae (MS), and reovirus (Reo). Maternal antibody titers for Newcastle disease virus (NDV) were measured using a hemagglutination inhibition test. Half-life estimates of maternal antibody titers were 5.3, 4.2, 7, 5.1, 3.9, 3.8, 4.9, 4.1, 6.3, and 4.7 d for AEV, AIV, CAV, IBDV, IBV, ILTV, MG, MS, NDV, and Reo, respectively. The statistical analysis revealed significant differences among half-lives of maternal antibody titers against certain pathogens. Furthermore, all maternal antibody titers were depleted by 10 d of age except for IBDV. PMID:23960115

  12. Responses to pain in school-aged children with experience in a neonatal intensive care unit: Cognitive aspects and maternal influences

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Johanna Hohmeister; Süha Demirakça; Katrin Zohsel; Herta Flor; Christiane Hermann

    2009-01-01

    Previously, it was shown that school-aged (9–14yr) preterm and fullterm children with neonatal pain exposure exhibit elevated heat pain thresholds and heightened perceptual sensitization to tonic painful heat when tested under standard conditions [Hermann C, Hohmeister J, Demirakca S, Zohsel K, Flor H. Long-term alteration of pain sensitivity in school-aged children with early pain experiences. Pain 2006;125:278–85]. Here, changes in

  13. Median nerve somatosensory evoked potentials in medical students: Normative data

    PubMed Central

    Poornima, Siddaraju; Ali, Syed Sadat; Balaji, Pishey Ashwathnarayan; Shankar, Vinutha; Kutty, Karthiyanee

    2013-01-01

    Background: The median nerve N20 component constitutes the initial response of the primary somatosensory cortex to somatosensory stimulation of the upper extremity. Knowledge of the underlying generators is important for basic understanding of the initial sequence of cortical activation. Materials and Methods: In the present study, normative data of cortical evoked potentials in particular of N20 wave onset and peak latencies by median nerve stimulation in a group of 100 medical students aged between 18 and 30 years were documented and the effect of physiological variables were studied. Descriptive statistics and Student t-test were used to analyze the healthy subjects and to compare N20 latencies for handedness, respectively. Regression analysis was used to show association between average N20 latencies and physiological variables from which regression formulae were calculated to predict normative values of these parameters. Results: The results of the study indicated that N20 onset and peak latency values are significantly affected by limb length at 95% confidence level. Height is showing as a significant factor affecting N20 onset latencies but it is probably because of high correlation of height with limb length. Age though on linear regression showed some significant correlation with N20 onset and peak latency, multiple regressions showed that it does not affect N20 onset and peak latencies in the presence of other variables. Handedness did not affect both N20 onset and peak latency values. Conclusion: Physiological variables do affect the N20 latencies and these should be standardized before usage for research in basic sciences at all age groups. PMID:24223371

  14. Estimates of maternal mortality for 1995.

    PubMed Central

    Hill, K.; AbouZhar, C.; Wardlaw, T.

    2001-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To present estimates of maternal mortality in 188 countries, areas, and territories for 1995 using methodologies that attempt to improve comparability. METHODS: For countries having data directly relevant to the measurement of maternal mortality, a variety of adjustment procedures can be applied depending on the nature of the data used. Estimates for countries lacking relevant data may be made using a statistical model fitted to the information from countries that have data judged to be of good quality. Rather than estimate the Maternal Mortality Ratio (MMRatio) directly, this model estimates the proportion of deaths of women of reproductive age that are due to maternal causes. Estimates of the number of maternal deaths are then obtained by applying this proportion to the best available figure of the total number of deaths among women of reproductive age. FINDINGS: On the basis of this exercise, we have obtained a global estimate of 515,000 maternal deaths in 1995, with a worldwide MMRatio of 397 per 100,000 live births. The differences, by region, were very great, with over half (273,000 maternal deaths) occurring in Africa (MMRatio: > 1000 per 100,000), compared with a total of only 2000 maternal deaths in Europe (MMRatio: 28 per 100,000). Lower and upper uncertainty bounds were also estimated, on the basis of which the global MMRatio was unlikely to be less than 234 or more than 635 per 100,000 live births. These uncertainty bounds and those of national estimates are so wide that comparisons between countries must be made with caution, and no valid conclusions can be drawn about trends over a period of time. CONCLUSION: The MMRatio is thus an imperfect indicator of reproductive health because it is hard to measure precisely. It is preferable to use process indicators for comparing reproductive health between countries or across time periods, and for monitoring and evaluation purposes. PMID:11285661

  15. Young Mother-Father Dyads and Maternal Harsh Parenting Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Yookyong; Guterman, Neil B.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: This study examined whether the age of parents predicted maternal harsh parenting behavior, specifically whether younger mothers might be at higher risk than older mothers, and which paternal characteristics might be associated with maternal parenting behavior. Methodology: This study used data from the Fragile Families and Child…

  16. Quantifying the Impact of Gestational Diabetes Mellitus, Maternal Weight and Race on Birthweight via Quantile Regression

    PubMed Central

    Ellerbe, Caitlyn N.; Gebregziabher, Mulugeta; Korte, Jeffrey E.; Mauldin, Jill; Hunt, Kelly J.

    2013-01-01

    Background Quantile regression, a robust semi-parametric approach, was used to examine the impact of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) across birthweight quantiles with a focus on maternal prepregnancy body mass index (BMI) and gestational weight gain (GWG). Methods Using linked birth certificate, inpatient hospital and prenatal claims data we examined live singleton births to non-Hispanic white (NHW, 135,119) and non-Hispanic black (NHB, 76,675) women in South Carolina who delivered 28–44 weeks gestation in 2004–2008. Results At a maternal BMI of 30 kg/m2 at the 90th quantile of birthweight, exposure to GDM was associated with birthweights 84 grams (95% CI 57, 112) higher in NHW and 132 grams (95% CI: 104, 161) higher in NHB. Results at the 50th quantile were 34 grams (95% CI: 17, 51) and 78 grams (95% CI: 56, 100), respectively. At a maternal GWG of 13.5 kg at the 90th quantile of birthweight, exposure to GDM was associated with birthweights 83 grams (95% CI: 57, 109) higher in NHW and 135 grams (95% CI: 103, 167) higher in NHB. Results at the 50th quantile were 55 grams (95% CI: 40, 71) and 69 grams (95% CI: 46, 92), respectively. Summary Our findings indicate that GDM, maternal prepregnancy BMI and GWG increase birthweight more in NHW and NHB infants who are already at the greatest risk of macrosomia or being large for gestational age (LGA), that is those at the 90th rather than the median of the birthweight distribution. PMID:23762279

  17. Does Warmth Moderate Longitudinal Associations between Maternal Spanking and Child Aggression in Early Childhood?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Shawna J.; Altschul, Inna; Gershoff, Elizabeth T.

    2013-01-01

    This study examines whether maternal warmth moderates the association between maternal use of spanking and increased child aggression between ages 1 and 5. Participants were 3,279 pairs of mothers and their children from a cohort study of urban families from 20 U.S. cities. Maternal spanking was assessed when the child was 1 year, 3 years, and 5…

  18. Maternal factors associated with the occurrence of gastroschisis.

    PubMed

    Baer, Rebecca J; Chambers, Christina D; Jones, Kenneth Lyons; Shew, Stephen B; MacKenzie, Tippi C; Shaw, Gary M; Jelliffe-Pawlowski, Laura L

    2015-07-01

    We sought to identify age group specific maternal risk factors for gastroschisis. Maternal characteristics and prenatal factors were compared for 1,279 live born infants with gastroschisis and 3,069,678 without. Data were obtained using the California database containing linked hospital discharge, birth certificate and death records from 1 year prior to the birth to 1 year after the birth. Backwards-stepwise logistic regression models were used with maternal factors where initial inclusion was determined by a threshold of p?maternal age, models were stratified by age groups and odds ratios were calculated. These final models identified maternal infection as the only risk factor common to all age groups and a protective effect of obesity and gestational hypertension. In addition, age specific risk factors were identified. Although gestation at the time of infection was not available, a sexually transmitted disease complicating pregnancy was associated with increased risk in the less than 20 years of age grouping whereas viral infection was associated with increased risk only in the 20-24 and more than 24 years of age groupings. Urinary tract infection remained in the final logistic model for women less than 20 years. Short interpregnancy interval was not found to be a risk factor for any age group. Our findings support the need to explore maternal infection by type and gestational timing. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:25913847

  19. Electrodiagnostic approach in entrapment neuropathies of the median and ulnar nerves

    PubMed Central

    Galamb, Ana Maria; Minea, Ioan Dan; Rogozea, Liliana

    2015-01-01

    Objective: The present study’s aim was to analyze the late responses’ parameters in order to determine the utility of each one. Methods: The study, conducted on a total of 325 patients with entrapment neuropathy of the median nerve and 36 with entrapment neuropathy of the ulnar nerve, included the bilateral evaluation of the median and the ulnar nerve and analysis of 20 F-wave and 4 A-wave parameters. Results: The authors emphasize the necessity of bilateral examination and that of examining the ipsilateral ulnar/median nerve, such as to calculate the difference in F-wave average latency of the median/ulnar and the ipsilateral ulnar/median nerve. This was the most sensitive parameter studied, altered in more than 70% of cases, significantly in more cases than when using only the M-wave distal latency. Also there was a statistically significant correlation between patient age and F-wave latency. Conclusions: The completed research yielded the recommendation for F-wave parameter studies to include the difference in F-wave average latency of the median/ulnar and the ipsilateral ulnar/median nerve. This parameter was also included in the composite score, along with the recommendations of the American Academy of Emergency Medicine (AAEM).

  20. Middle cerebral artery median peak systolic velocity validation: effect of measurement technique.

    PubMed

    Patterson, Tamula M; Alexander, Amy; Szychowski, Jeff M; Owen, John

    2010-09-01

    We sought to validate center-specific published medians and estimate the effects of sonologist and Doppler measurement techniques on middle cerebral artery (MCA) peak systolic velocity (PSV) values. We studied 154 gravidas with normal singletons who underwent MCA PSV measurement at 18 to 35 weeks' gestation by one of three experienced sonologists. Pregnancies complicated by a known fetal anomaly (structural or aneuploidy), amniotic fluid volume disturbance, intrauterine growth restriction, multiple gestation, or isoimmunization were excluded. MCA PSV was measured using both manual caliper and auto-trace techniques. Regression models of log-transformed PSV values and gestational age were developed. Although auto-trace medians were significantly lower than those obtained with manual calipers ( P < 0.0001), they more closely approximated published medians used in clinical practice. Minimal intersonologist differences (maximum mean difference <3 cm/s) were statistically significant ( P < 0.01). Compared with manual caliper, auto-trace measurement yielded significantly lower medians. However, center-specific medians obtained by our sonologists using auto-trace more closely approximated published standards. Estimated interobserver variability suggested that different sonologists may utilize the same median values. We suggest that centers that utilize Doppler velocimetry for the prediction of fetal anemia examine their measurement protocol and consider formal confirmation of their own center-specific median values. PMID:20225170

  1. Maternal hormones during early pregnancy: a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Tianhui; Lundin, Eva; Grankvist, Kjell; Zeleniuch-Jacquotte, Anne; Wulff, Marianne; Afanasyeva, Yelena; Schock, Helena; Johansson, Robert; Lenner, Per; Hallmans, Goran; Wadell, Goran; Toniolo, Paolo; Lukanova, Annekatrin

    2010-01-01

    Background Little is known about correlates of first trimester pregnancy hormones as in most studies maternal hormones have been measured later in gestation. We examined the associations of maternal characteristics and child sex with first trimester maternal concentrations of 4 hormones implicated in breast cancer: human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG), ?-fetoprotein (AFP), insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-I and IGF-II. Methods 338 serum samples donated to the Northern Sweden Maternity Cohort (NSMC), 1975–2001, during the first trimester of uncomplicated pregnancies were analyzed for the hormones of interest as a part of a case-control study. The associations between maternal characteristics and child sex with hormone concentrations were investigated by correlation, general linear regression, and multivariate regression models. Results In the first trimester, greater maternal age was inversely correlated with IGF-I and IGF-II. In comparison with women carrying their first child, already parous women had higher IGF-I but lower hCG. Greater maternal weight and smoking were inversely correlated with hCG. No differences in hormone levels by child sex were observed. Conclusions Our analyses indicated that potentially modifiable maternal characteristics (maternal weight and smoking) influence first trimester pregnancy maternal hormone concentrations. PMID:20084544

  2. Maternal effects and the endocrine regulation of mandrill growth.

    PubMed

    Bernstein, Robin M; Setchell, Joanna M; Verrier, Delphine; Knapp, Leslie A

    2012-10-01

    Maternal effects can influence offspring growth and development, and thus fitness. However, the physiological factors mediating these effects in nonhuman primates are not well understood. We investigated the impact of maternal effects on variation in three important components of the endocrine regulation of growth in male and female mandrills (Mandrillus sphinx), from birth to 9 years of age. Using a mixed longitudinal set (N = 252) of plasma samples, we measured concentrations of insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I), growth hormone binding protein (GHBP), and free testosterone (free T). We evaluated the relationship of ontogenetic patterns of changes in hormone concentration to patterns of growth in body mass and body length, and determined that these endocrine factors play a significant role in growth of both young (infant and juvenile) and adolescent male mandrills, but only in growth of young female mandrills. We also use mixed models analysis to determine the relative contribution of the effects of maternal rank, parity, and age on variation in hormone and binding protein concentrations. Our results suggest that all of these maternal effects account for significant variation in hormone and binding protein concentrations in all male age groups. Of the maternal effects measured, maternal rank was the most frequently identified significant maternal effect on variation in hormone and binding protein concentrations. We suggest that these endocrine factors provide mechanisms that contribute to the maternal effects on offspring growth previously noted in this population. PMID:22696170

  3. Maternal and cord blood LC-HRMS metabolomics reveal alterations in energy and polyamine metabolism, and oxidative stress in very-low birth weight infants.

    PubMed

    Alexandre-Gouabau, Marie-Cécile; Courant, Frédérique; Moyon, Thomas; Küster, Alice; Le Gall, Gwénaëlle; Tea, Illa; Antignac, Jean-Philippe; Darmaun, Dominique

    2013-06-01

    To assess the global effect of preterm birth on fetal metabolism and maternal-fetal nutrient transfer, we used a mass spectrometric-based chemical phenotyping approach on cord blood obtained at the time of birth. We sampled umbilical venous, umbilical arterial, and maternal blood from mothers delivering very-low birth weight (VLBW, with a median gestational age and weight of 29 weeks, and 1210 g, respectively) premature or full-term (FT) neonates. In VLBW group, we observed a significant elevation in the levels and maternal-fetal gradients of butyryl-, isovaleryl-, hexanoyl- and octanoyl-carnitines, suggesting enhanced short- and medium chain fatty acid ?-oxidation in human preterm feto-placental unit. The significant decrease in glutamine-glutamate in preterm arterial cord blood beside lower levels of amino acid precursors of Krebs cycle suggest increased glutamine utilization in the fast growing tissues of preterm fetus with a deregulation in placental glutamate-glutamine shuttling. Enhanced glutathione utilization is likely to account for the decrease in precursor amino acids (serine, betaine, glutamate and methionine) in arterial cord blood. An increase in both the circulating levels and maternal-fetal gradients of several polyamines in their acetylated form (diacetylspermine and acetylputrescine) suggests an enhanced polyamine metabolic cycling in extreme prematurity. Our metabolomics study allowed the identification of alterations in fetal energy, antioxidant defense, and polyamines and purines flux as a signature of premature birth. PMID:23527880

  4. The Heterogeneous P-Median Problem for Categorization Based Clustering

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blanchard, Simon J.; Aloise, Daniel; DeSarbo, Wayne S.

    2012-01-01

    The p-median offers an alternative to centroid-based clustering algorithms for identifying unobserved categories. However, existing p-median formulations typically require data aggregation into a single proximity matrix, resulting in masked respondent heterogeneity. A proposed three-way formulation of the p-median problem explicitly considers…

  5. Approximation schemes for Euclidean k -medians and related problems

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sanjeev Arora; Prabhakar Raghavant; Satish Rao

    1998-01-01

    In the k-median problem we are given a set S of n points in a metric space and a positive integer k. We desire to locate k medians in space, such that the sum of the distances from each of the points of S to the nearest median is minimized. This paper gives an approximation scheme for the plane that

  6. Developmental Regression in Autism: Maternal Perception.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davidovitch, Michael; Glick, Lilach; Holtzman, Gabriela; Tirosh, Emanuel; Safir, Marilyn P.

    2000-01-01

    This study interviewed 39 mothers of young children with autism of whom 19 reported their children had experienced developmental regression, especially in verbal and non-verbal communication and social skills. Mean age of regression was 24 months. There was little difference between children who regressed and those who did not in maternal

  7. Maternal Characteristics Predicting Young Girls' Disruptive Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van der Molen, Elsa; Hipwell, Alison E.; Vermeiren, Robert; Loeber, Rolf

    2011-01-01

    Little is known about the relative predictive utility of maternal characteristics and parenting skills on the development of girls' disruptive behavior. The current study used five waves of parent- and child-report data from the ongoing Pittsburgh Girls Study to examine these relationships in a sample of 1,942 girls from age 7 to 12 years.…

  8. Fetal male lineage determination by analysis of Y-chromosome STR haplotype in maternal plasma.

    PubMed

    Barra, Gustavo Barcelos; Santa Rita, Ticiane Henriques; Chianca, Camilla Figueiredo; Velasco, Lara Francielle Ribeiro; de Sousa, Claudia Ferreira; Nery, Lídia Freire Abdalla; Costa, Sandra Santana Soares

    2015-03-01

    The aim of this study is to determine the fetus Y-STR haplotype in maternal plasma during pregnancy and estimate, non-invasively, if the alleged father and fetus belong to the same male lineage. The study enrolled couples with singleton pregnancies and known paternity. All participants signed informed consent and the local ethics committee approved the study. Peripheral blood was collected in EDTA tubes (mother) and in FTA paper (father). Maternal plasma DNA was extracted by using NucliSens EasyMAG. Fetal gender was determined by qPCR targeting DYS-14 in maternal plasma and it was also confirmed after the delivery. From all included volunteers, the first consecutive 20 mothers bearing male fetuses and 10 mothers bearing female fetuses were selected for the Y-STR analysis. The median gestational age was 12 weeks (range 12-36). All DNA samples were subjected to PCR amplification by PowerPlex Y23, ampFLSTR Yfiler, and two in-house multiplexes, which together accounts for 27 different Y-STR. The PCR products were detected with 3500 Genetic Analyzer and they were analyzed using GeneMapper-IDX. Fetuses' haplotypes (Yfiler format) were compared to other 5328 Brazilian haplotypes available on Y-chromosome haplotypes reference database (YHRD). As a result, between 22 and 27 loci were successfully amplified from maternal plasma in all 20 cases of male fetuses. None of the women bearing female fetuses had a falsely amplified Y-STR haplotype. The haplotype detected in maternal plasma completely matched the alleged father haplotype in 16 out of the 20 cases. Four cases showed single mismatches and they did not configure exclusions; 1 case showed a mutation in the DYS 458 locus due to the loss of one repeat unit and 3 cases showed one DYS 385I/II locus dropout. All mismatches were confirmed after the delivery. Seventeen fetuses' haplotypes were not found in YHRD and one of them had a mutation, which corresponded to the paternity probability of 99.9812% and 95.7028%, respectively. Three fetuses' haplotypes occurred twice in YHRD, which corresponded to paternity probability of 99.9437%. In conclusion, high discriminatory fetal Y-STR haplotype could be determined from maternal plasma during pregnancy starting at 12 weeks of gestation. All male fetuses could be attributed to the alleged father male lineage early in pregnancy. The high probability of paternity associated with each case suggests that the relationship is not random and this strategy can be use as an alternative for male fetal kinship analysis. PMID:25434746

  9. The influence of year, laying date, egg fertility and incubation, individual hen, hen age and mass and clutch size on maternal immunoglobulin Y concentration in captive Steller's and spectacled eider egg yolk.

    PubMed

    Counihan, Katrina L; Maniscalco, John M; Bozza, Maryann; Hendon, Jill M; Hollmén, Tuula E

    2015-09-01

    Steller's eiders and spectacled eiders are sea duck species whose populations have declined significantly and infectious diseases could influence offspring survival. Therefore, the maternal transfer of immunoglobulin Y (IgY) into yolk was investigated in captive Steller's and spectacled eiders during the 2007-2013 breeding seasons. This project had two objectives: establish baseline IgY levels in Steller's and spectacled eider yolk under controlled captive conditions and evaluate the effect of year, laying date, egg fertility, egg incubation duration, individual hen, hen age and mass, and laying order to determine which variables influenced IgY levels. Average IgY concentrations were 0.03-0.48?mg?ml(-1) in Steller's eider yolk and 0.10-0.51?mg?ml(-1) in spectacled eider yolk. The year and individual hen influenced IgY concentration in Steller's and spectacled eider yolk. The laying date was negatively correlated with egg IgY levels for most Steller's eider hens, but laying order was positively correlated with egg IgY concentration for spectacled eiders. PMID:25892022

  10. Median Arcuate Ligament Syndrome in the Pediatric Population

    PubMed Central

    Mak, Grace Z.; Speaker, Christopher; Anderson, Kristen; Stiles-Shields, Colleen; Lorenz, Jonathan; Drossos, Tina; Liu, Donald C.; Skelly, Christopher L.

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVES Median arcuate ligament syndrome (MALS) is a vascular compression syndrome with symptoms that overlap chronic functional abdominal pain (CFAP). We report our experience treating MALS in a pediatric cohort previously diagnosed with CFAP. PATIENTS AND METHODS We prospectively evaluated 46 pediatric (<21 years of age) patients diagnosed with MALS at a tertiary care referral center from 2008 to 2012. All patients had previously been diagnosed with CFAP. Patients were evaluated for celiac artery compression by duplex ultrasound and diagnosis was confirmed by computed tomography. Quality of life (QOL) was determined by pre- and post-surgical administration of PedsQLtm questionnaire. The patients underwent laparoscopic release of the median arcuate ligament overlying the celiac artery which included surgical neurolysis. We examined the hemodynamic changes in parameters of the celiac artery and peri-operative QOL outcomes to determine correlation. RESULTS All patients had studies suggestive of MALS on duplex and computed tomography. 91% (n=42) positive for MALS were females. All patients underwent a technically satisfactory laparoscopic surgical release resulting in a significant improvement in blood flow through the celiac artery. There were no deaths and a total of 9 complications, 8 requiring a secondary procedure. 33 patients were administered QOL surveys. 18 patients completed the survey with 15 (83%) patients reporting overall improvement in the QOL. Overall, 31/46 patients (67%) reported improvement of symptoms since the time of surgery. CONCLUSIONS MALS was found to be more common in pediatric females than males. Laparoscopic release of the celiac artery can be performed safely in the pediatric population. Surgical release of the artery and resultant neurolysis resulted in significant improvement in the blood flow, symptoms, and overall QOL in this cohort. The overall improvement in QOL outcome measures after surgery leads us to conclude that MALS might be earlier diagnosed and possibly treated in patients with CFAP. We recommend a multidisciplinary team approach to care for these complex patients. PMID:24210197

  11. Use of adjunctive palmaris longus abductorplasty (Camitz) tendon transfer in pediatric median nerve injury.

    PubMed

    Baluch, Narges; Borschel, Gregory H

    2013-05-01

    A number of tendon transfers have been described for opponensplasty. Transfer of the palmaris longus (PL) tendon with a palmar fascial extension was initially described by Camitz. This technique has mostly been combined with carpal tunnel release in patients with long standing median neuropathy with atrophy of the thenar muscles. However, the Camitz transfer has not been previously described in the setting of pediatric median nerve injury. We report 4 cases of Camitz transfer in pediatric patients with median nerve injuries. Four children (all female; age range 3-15 yrs) underwent PL tendon transfer following median nerve injury. The causes of injury included trauma, iatrogenic injury, and neuritis of the brachial plexus. The Camitz procedure was performed at the time of median nerve decompression and/or reconstruction. All patients had excellent early return of function. Transfer of the palmaris longus tendon reliably restores palmar abduction, with minimal to no additional morbidity, in carefully selected pediatric patients with median nerve injury undergoing release of the carpal tunnel. PMID:22981385

  12. The Association between Early Childhood Overweight and Maternal Factors

    PubMed Central

    Roncancio, Angelica; Hinojosa, Martha B.; Reifsnider, Elizabeth

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Early childhood obesity, like other health disparities, disproportionately affects low-income populations. The purpose of this study is to determine the association between maternal sociodemographic factors and child overweight and obesity in a sample of low-income Mexican Americans. Methods The current study is a secondary analysis of baseline data that were collected as part of a longitudinal study of 374 children aged 12–24 months receiving Women, Infants, and Children (WIC) services in a large metropolitan area in central/south Texas. Measures used in this secondary analysis were: Measured weight and height of the child and mother to calculate weight-for-stature and BMI, respectively; maternal sociodemographic variables (age, education, marital status, employment status, and nativity); maternal acculturation level; and child breastfed status. Descriptive statistics are reported as frequencies, percentages, means, and standard deviations (SD). Chi-squared Fisher exact tests assessed differences in maternal factors by child weight (healthy weight and overweight). Odds ratios (OR), 95% confidence intervals (CI), and levels of significance are reported. Results Of the 372 mothers, most were young (mean age 26.1 years, SD=6.1), 47.3% had graduated high school, 33.6% were employed at the time of the study, and 72.1% were U.S. born. No significant differences were observed for the maternal factors by child weight-for-stature z-score. However, maternal BMI statistically differed by child weight. Healthy weight mothers were more likely to have healthy weight children than overweight mothers. Maternal nativity and maternal acculturation were not statistically associated with child weight in this sample of low-income Mexican Americans. Conclusions The findings of the current study reinforce the importance of addressing the influence of maternal sociodemographic factors on child weight, in particular, maternal weight. A more comprehensive investigation of ecological factors' influence on obesity onset and control in young Mexican-American children is needed. PMID:23181894

  13. Maternal Vitamin D Status and Offspring Bone Fractures: Prospective Study over Two Decades in Aarhus City, Denmark

    PubMed Central

    Petersen, Sesilje Bondo; Olsen, Sjurdur Frodi; Mølgaard, Christian; Granström, Charlotta; Cohen, Arieh; Vestergaard, Peter; Strøm, Marin

    2014-01-01

    Background Studies investigating the association between maternal vitamin D status and offspring bone mass measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) during childhood have shown conflicting results. Purpose We used occurrence of bone fractures up to the age of 18 as a measure reflecting offspring bone mass and related that to maternal vitamin D status. Methods The Danish Fetal Origins 1988 Cohort recruited 965 pregnant women during 1988–89 at their 30th gestation week antenatal midwife visit. A blood sample was drawn and serum was stored, which later was analyzed for the concentration of 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) by the liquid chromatography coupled with a tandem mass spectrometric method (LC-MS/MS). Outcome was diagnosis of first time bone fractures extracted from the Danish National Patient Register. Results Vitamin D status was available for 850 women. The median (5th–95th percentile) 25(OH)D was 76.2 (23.0–152.1) nmol/l. During follow up 294 children were registered with at least one bone fracture diagnosis. Multivariable Cox regression models using age as the underlying time scale indicated no overall association between maternal vitamin D status and first time bone fractures. However, there was a significantly increased hazard ratio (HR) during childhood for those who had maternal blood drawn in Dec/Jan/Feb compared with Jun/Jul/Aug (HR: 1.75, 95%CI: 1.11–2.74). Adjustment for vitamin D status strengthened this association (1.82, 1.12–2.97), which indicated a potential seasonal impact on offspring fractures independent of maternal vitamin D status. In a sensitivity analysis we found a borderline significant inverse association between continuous concentrations of 25(OH)D and offspring forearm fractures (P?=?0.054). Conclusion Overall, our results did not substantiate an association between maternal vitamin D status and offspring bone fractures. Further studies on this subject are needed, but the study populations must be large enough to allow for subdivision of fractures. PMID:25474409

  14. Use of serial maternal urine cytomegalovirus PCR to detect primary CMV infection in seronegative pregnant women.

    PubMed

    Khare, Milind; Sharland, Mike; Manyonda, Isaac; Rice, Phil; Bland, J Martin; Griffiths, Paul

    2004-07-01

    The aim of the study was to determine if serial maternal urine polymerase chain reaction (PCR) tests can detect primary CMV infection during pregnancy. This was a prospective study conducted from 1 January 1999 to 31 December 1999 in an antenatal clinic setting of a teaching hospital. The study group included women who were CMV IgG negative and aged <30 years or had a pre-school child. They were invited to self-collect urine samples monthly and send them to the laboratory by post. Cord bloods were tested for CMV IgG to detect seroconversion. An anxiety questionnaire was sent to all study participants. At first attendance, 1549 (42%) women were CMV IgG negative. Of the 696 eligible women, 609 (88%) participated in the urine PCR study. PCR was performed on 2263 urine samples (median of 4/pregnancy). Primary CMV infection was identified in one woman by urine PCR at 36 weeks (baby CMV negative). Cord blood samples were available from 152/609 infants (25%). Seroconversion was noted in only one woman. Replies to the questionnaire were received from 264/609 women (43%): 214 (81%) had little or no anxiety, and 220 (83%) felt reassured by their study participation. Serial urine PCR is a feasible method of detecting primary maternal CMV infection during pregnancy which has potential for evaluation in further studies. PMID:15109818

  15. Maternal serum alpha fetoprotein in monozygotic and dizygotic twin pregnancies.

    PubMed

    Thom, H; Buckland, C M; Campbell, A G; Thompson, B; Farr, V

    1984-01-01

    Maternal serum alpha-fetoprotein (MSAFP) values in the second trimester have been related to pregnancy outcome for 100 normal twin pairs, 42 monozygous (MZ) and 58 dizygous (DZ), liveborn after 28 weeks gestation. The median MSAFP value was 1.9 multiples of the median value (MOM) for uncomplicated singleton pregnancies. Both very low and very high MSAFP values were associated with twins of low birthweight. MSAFP values were higher in MZ than DZ twin pregnancies particularly those with dizygotes of like-sex. This effect was even more marked when only dichorionic like-sex twin pairs were compared. PMID:6209699

  16. Maternal serum free beta-hCG and PAPP-A in fetal sex chromosome defects in the first trimester.

    PubMed

    Spencer, K; Tul, N; Nicolaides, K H

    2000-05-01

    We have studied maternal serum free beta-hCG and PAPP-A, and fetal nuchal translucency (NT) in a series of 46 cases of fetal Turner's syndrome, 13 cases of other sex chromosomal anomalies and compared these with 947 control pregnancies in the first trimester. In cases of Turner's syndrome (45,X) the median fetal NT was significantly higher than in controls (4.76 MoM), the median PAPP-A was significantly lower (0.49 MoM), whilst the free beta-hCG was not significantly different (1.11 MoM). For NT, 93% (43/46) of cases were equal to or greater than the 95th centile of controls, for PAPP-A 35% (16/46) of cases were less than or equal to the 5th centile of controls and for free beta-hCG 15% (7/46) of cases were equal to or greater than the 95th centile of controls. For other sex chromosomal anomalies (47XXX, XXY, XYY) the median NT was increased (2.07 MoM) whilst PAPP-A was not significantly decreased (0.88 MoM) and free beta-hCG was not significantly different (1.07 MoM) from controls. Using a previously derived multivariate risk algorithm for trisomy 21, incorporating NT, PAPP-A, free beta-hCG and maternal age, 96% of the Turner's cases and 62% of the other sex chromosomal anomalies would have been identified. PMID:10820406

  17. Maternal smoking during pregnancy and offspring trajectories of height and adiposity: comparing maternal and paternal associations

    PubMed Central

    Howe, Laura D; Matijasevich, Alicia; Tilling, Kate; Brion, Marie-Jo; Leary, Sam D; Smith, George Davey; Lawlor, Debbie A

    2012-01-01

    Background Maternal smoking during pregnancy is associated with reduced offspring birth length and has been postulated as a risk factor for obesity. Causality for obesity is not established. Causality is well-supported for birth length, but evidence on persistence of height deficits is inconsistent. Methods We examined the association between maternal smoking during pregnancy and trajectories of offspring height (0–10 years, N?=?9424), ponderal index (PI) (0–2 years, N?=?9321) and body mass index (BMI) (2–10 years, N?=?8887) in the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children. To strengthen inference, measured confounders were controlled for, maternal and partner smoking associations were compared, dose–response and associations with post-natal smoking were examined. Results Maternal smoking during pregnancy was associated with shorter birth length, faster height growth in infancy and slower growth in later childhood. By 10 years, daughters of women who smoke during pregnancy are on average 1.11?cm (SE?=?0.27) shorter after adjustment for confounders and partner smoking; the difference is 0.22?cm (SE?=?0.22) for partner's smoking. Maternal smoking was associated with lower PI at birth, faster PI increase in infancy, but not with BMI changes 2–10 years. Associations were stronger for maternal than partner smoking for PI at birth and PI changes in infancy, but not for BMI changes after 2 years. A similar dose–response in both maternal and partner smoking was seen for BMI change 2–10 years. Conclusion Maternal smoking during pregnancy has an intrauterine effect on birth length, and possibly on adiposity at birth and changes in height and adiposity in infancy. We do not find evidence of a specific intrauterine effect on height or adiposity changes after the age of 2 years. PMID:22407859

  18. Is maternal PTSD associated with greater exposure of very young children to violent media?

    PubMed

    Schechter, Daniel S; Gross, Anna; Willheim, Erica; McCaw, Jaime; Turner, J Blake; Myers, Michael M; Zeanah, Charles H; Gleason, Mary Margaret

    2009-12-01

    This study examined media viewing by mothers with violence-related posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and related media exposure of their preschool-age children. Mothers (N = 67) recruited from community pediatric clinics participated in a protocol involving a media-preference survey. Severity of maternal PTSD and dissociation were significantly associated with child exposure to violent media. Family poverty and maternal viewing behavior were also associated. Maternal viewing behavior mediated the effects specifically of maternal PTSD severity on child exposure. Clinicians should assess maternal and child media viewing practices in families with histories of violent trauma exposure and related psychopathology. PMID:19924819

  19. Sibling Pretend Play in Early and Middle Childhood: The Role of Creativity and Maternal Context

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nina Howe; Andrea Bruno

    2010-01-01

    Research Findings: Sibling pretend play, collaboration, and creativity during maternal presence and absence were investigated in 24 dyads in early and middle childhood (younger siblings' M age = 5.3 years; older siblings' M age = 8.2 years). Associations between sibling behavior and maternal interaction (e.g., guidance, positive responses) were also examined. Creativity was assessed by (a) the number of object

  20. Memory, Maternal Representations, and Internalizing Symptomatology among Abused, Neglected, and Nonmaltreated Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Valentino, Kristin; Cicchetti, Dante; Rogosch, Fred A.; Toth, Sheree L.

    2008-01-01

    A depth-of-processing incidental recall task for maternal-referent stimuli was utilized to assess basic memory processes and the affective valence of maternal representations among abused (N = 63), neglected (N = 33), and nonmaltreated (N = 128) school-aged children (ages 8-13.5 years old). Self-reported and observer-rated indices of internalizing…

  1. Sibling Pretend Play in Early and Middle Childhood: The Role of Creativity and Maternal Context

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howe, Nina; Bruno, Andrea

    2010-01-01

    Research Findings: Sibling pretend play, collaboration, and creativity during maternal presence and absence were investigated in 24 dyads in early and middle childhood (younger siblings' M age = 5.3 years; older siblings' M age = 8.2 years). Associations between sibling behavior and maternal interaction (e.g., guidance, positive responses) were…

  2. Maternal Alcohol Use and Neonatal Habituation Assessed with the Brazelton Scale.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Streissguth, Ann Pytkowicz; And Others

    1983-01-01

    Maternal alcohol use in mid-pregnancy was significantly related to poorer habituation and increased low arousal in newborn infants, even after adjusting for smoking and caffeine use by mothers, maternal age and nutrition during pregnancy, sex and age of the infant, and obstetric medication. (Author/RH)

  3. The entrance to the maternal garden: environmental and personal variables that explain maternal gatekeeping

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Liat Kulik; Hani Tsoref

    2010-01-01

    This study examined variables that explain maternal gatekeeping (attitudes that restrict the involvement of fathers in child care) among a sample of Israeli women (n = 88) with young children aged between two and six. Based on a family systems approach, several main explanatory variables were examined: the mother's gender role ideology; desire for control; satisfaction with her husband's involvement in child

  4. Graph-Based k-Means Clustering: A Comparison of the Set Median versus the Generalized Median Graph

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Miquel Ferrer; Ernest Valveny; Francesc Serratosa; I. Bardají; Horst Bunke

    2009-01-01

    In this paper we propose the application of the generalized median graph in a graph-based k-means clustering algorithm. In the graph-based k-means algorithm, the centers of the clusters have been traditionally represented using the set median graph. We propose an\\u000a approximate method for the generalized median graph computation that allows to use it to represent the centers of the clusters.

  5. Mediating links between maternal childhood trauma and preadolescent behavioral adjustment.

    PubMed

    Min, Meeyoung O; Singer, Lynn T; Minnes, Sonia; Kim, Hyunsoo; Short, Elizabeth

    2013-03-01

    Structural equation modeling was used to simultaneously examine maternal psychological distress and social support as mediators linking maternal childhood trauma (MCT) to both maternal and child-reported behavior at 9 years of age in 231 birth mother-child dyads, who were primarily poor, urban, and African American. One half of the mothers (n = 116) reported a history of childhood abuse and neglect. Although MCT was associated with both increased maternal psychological distress and limited social support at 6 years, the pathway to child behavior ratings at 9 years was informant dependent. MCT influenced maternal ratings of her child's behavior, with some effects mediated through psychological distress. MCT indirectly influenced children's self-perception of behavior through maternal experience of social support. Maternal ratings and child self-ratings of child behavior problems were moderately correlated. No significant gender interaction was found. Findings suggest a need for understanding trauma histories in the lives of mothers who seek assistance for parenting and child behavior problems, especially in urban low income communities. Interventions targeting both increasing maternal social support and reducing psychological distress may promote competency and resiliency among children for whom MCT poses a risk to optimal development. PMID:22935951

  6. Relation Between Neighborhood Median Housing Value and Hypertension Risk Among Black Women in the United States

    PubMed Central

    Cozier, Yvette C.; Palmer, Julie R.; Horton, Nicholas J.; Fredman, Lisa; Wise, Lauren A.; Rosenberg, Lynn

    2007-01-01

    Objectives. We examined the relation between median housing value and hypertension risk among US Black women. Methods. We gathered data from the Black Women’s Health Study, a prospective follow-up of 59000 Black women aged 21 to 69 years in 1995. Median housing value from US census data was used to measure neighborhood socioeconomic status. Cases of hypertension were identified through postal questionnaires mailed in 1997, 1999, and 2001. Clustered survival regression models were used to estimate incidence rate ratios. Results. During 180294 person-years of observation, 3780 cases of hypertension were reported. A significant inverse, graded association was found between median housing value and hypertension. The incidence rate ratio for women living in low median housing value neighborhoods relative to high was 1.29 (95% confidence interval=1.14, 1.45) after adjustment for individual risk factors. The association was evident even at higher individual levels of income and education. Conclusions. Median housing value is inversely associated with hypertension in Black women, independent of individual risk factors. Lowering hypertension risk in Black women will require a greater understanding of the underlying social inequalities that adversely affect health. PMID:17329664

  7. Maternal and neonatal outcomes of macrosomic pregnancies

    PubMed Central

    Weissmann-Brenner, Alina; Simchen, Michal J.; Zilberberg, Eran; Kalter, Anat; Weisz, Boaz; Achiron, Reuven; Dulitzky, Mordechai

    2012-01-01

    Summary Background To compare maternal and neonatal outcomes of term macrosomic and adequate for gestational age (AGA) pregnancies. Material/Methods A retrospective analysis was performed on all term singleton macrosomic (birth weight ?4000 g) and AGA (birth weight >10th percentile and <4000 g) pregnancies delivered at our hospital between 2004 and 2008. Data collected included maternal age, gestational age at delivery, mode of delivery, birth weight, fetal gender, maternal and neonatal complications. Comparisons were made between macrosomic and AGA pregnancies and between different severities of macrosomia (4000–4250 g, 4250–4500 g and ?4500 g). Results The study population comprised of 34,685 pregnancies. 2077 neonates had birth weight ?4000 g. Maternal age and gestational age at delivery were significantly higher for macrosomic neonates. Significantly more macrosomic neonates were born by cesarean section, and were complicated with shoulder dystocia, neonatal hypoglycemia, and had longer hospitalization period (both in vaginal and cesarean deliveries). Specifically, the odds ratio (OR) relative to AGA pregnancies for each macrosomic category (4000–4250 g, 4250–4500 g and ?4500 g) of shoulder dystocia was 2.37, 2.24, 7.61, respectively, and for neonatal hypoglycemia 4.24, 4.41, 4.15, respectively. The risk of post partum hemorrhage was statistically increased when birth weight was >4500 g (OR=5.23) but not for birth weight between 4000–4500 g. No differences were found in the rates of extensive perineal lacerations between AGA and the different macrosomic groups. Conclusions Macrosomia is associated with increased rate of cesarean section, shoulder dystocia, neonatal hypoglycemia, and longer hospitalization, but not associated with excessive perineal tears. Increased risk of PPH was found in the >4500g group. PMID:22936200

  8. Median graphs: A genetic approach based on new theoretical properties

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Miquel Ferrer; Ernest Valveny; Francesc Serratosa

    2009-01-01

    Given a set of graphs, the median graph has been theoretically presented as a useful concept to infer a representative of the set. However, the computation of the median graph is a highly complex task and its practical application has been very limited up to now. In this work we present two major contributions. On one side, and from a

  9. Fiducial Generalized Confidence Interval for Median Lethal Dose (LD50)

    E-print Network

    Hannig, Jan

    Fiducial Generalized Confidence Interval for Median Lethal Dose (LD50) Lidong E , Jan Hannig and Hari Iyer§ July 20, 2009 Abstract Median lethal dose (LD50) is a common measure of acute toxicity lethal dose (LD50), Fiducial Generalized Confidence In- terval (FGCI), Gibbs sampling. This work

  10. The inverse 1-median problem on a cycle

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rainer E. Burkard; Carmen Pleschiutschnig; Jianzhong Zhang

    2008-01-01

    Let the graph G = (V;E) be a cycle with n+1 vertices, nonnega- tive vertex weights and positive edge lengths. The inverse 1-median problem on a cycle consists in changing the vertex weights at minimum cost such that a prespecifled vertex becomes the 1-median. The cost is proportional to the increase or decrease of the corresponding weight. We show that

  11. VECTOR MEDIAN-RATIONALHYBRID FILTERS FOR MULTICHANNELIMAGE Lazhar Khriji

    E-print Network

    Gabbouj, Moncef

    VECTOR MEDIAN-RATIONALHYBRID FILTERS FOR MULTICHANNELIMAGE PROCESSING Lazhar Khriji Electrical). The VMRHF is a two-stages filter, which exploits the features of the vector median filter (VM) and thoseof thevectorrationaloperator(VRF)(Theoutputisthe result of vector rational operation taking into account three sub

  12. Sorting Data Sets and Computing Medians for Skewed Distributions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ralph Mason Dreger

    1995-01-01

    Clusters derived from data sets require meaningful interpretation, for which standard statistical packages, major spreadsheets, numerical computation texts, as well as the specialized Journal of Classification provide little help. Interpretation can be made from a profile of summary scores, means, or medians, representing distributions of scores. For such a profile, medians are preferable to means where the distributions are highly

  13. APPROXIMATE RANGE MODE AND RANGE MEDIAN QUERIES Prosenjit Bose

    E-print Network

    Kranakis, Evangelos

    APPROXIMATE RANGE MODE AND RANGE MEDIAN QUERIES Prosenjit Bose Evangelos Kranakis Pat Morin Yihui Tang School of Computer Science, Carleton University 5302 Herzberg Building 1125 Colonel By Drive answer range median queries with a guaranteed accuracy of × |j - i + 1|/2 . 1 Introduction Let A = a1

  14. Hepatitis C Virus (HCV) Vertical Transmission in 12-Month-Old Infants Born to HCV-Infected Women and Assessment of Maternal Risk Factors

    PubMed Central

    Jhaveri, Ravi; Hashem, Mohamed; El-Kamary, Samer S.; Saleh, Doa'a A.; Sharaf, Sahar A.; El-Mougy, Fatma; Abdelsalam, Lobna; Ehab, Mohamed; El-Ghazaly, Hesham

    2015-01-01

    Background.?Hepatitis C virus (HCV) is an underappreciated cause of pediatric liver disease, most frequently acquired by vertical transmission (VT). Current guidelines that include the option of screening infants for HCV RNA at 1–2 months are based on data prior to current real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based testing. Previous studies have demonstrated VT rates of 4%–15% and an association with high maternal viral load. We evaluated HCV RNA in infants with HCV VT and assessed maternal risk factors in a prospective cohort in Cairo, Egypt. Methods.?Pregnant women were screened for HCV from December 2012 to March 2014. For those with HCV viremia, their infants were tested at 12 months for HCV RNA using real-time PCR. Maternal risk factors assessed for HCV VT association included HCV RNA levels, mode of delivery, and maternal IL28B genotype. Results.?Of 2514 women screened, a total of 54 women were viremic (2.1%) and delivered 56 infants. Of those, 51 infants of 49 women were tested at 12 months of age. Only 7 infants were viremic, with an HCV VT rate of 14.3% (7 of 49). Median HCV RNA in the infants was 2100 IU/mL. None of the maternal risk factors analyzed were associated with transmission. Conclusions.?In Egypt where HCV is highly endemic, we observed an overall 12-month HCV VT rate of 14.3%. Further studies should focus on better identification of pregnant women more likely to vertically transmit HCV and earlier testing of infants to identify those likely to develop chronicity.

  15. Early-Life Hepatitis E Infection in Pigs: The Importance of Maternally-Derived Antibodies

    PubMed Central

    Andraud, Mathieu; Casas, Maribel; Pavio, Nicole; Rose, Nicolas

    2014-01-01

    Passive immunity (PI), acquired through colostrum intake, is essential for piglet protection against pathogens. Maternally-derived antibodies (MDAs) can decrease the transmission of pathogens between individuals by reducing shedding from infected animals and/or susceptibility of naïve animals. Only a limited number of studies, however, have been carried out to quantify the level of protection conferred by PI in terms of transmission. In the present study, an original modeling framework was designed to estimate parameters governing the transmission of infectious agents in the presence and absence of PI. This epidemiological model accounts for the distribution of PI duration and two different forces of infection depending on the serological status of animals after colostrum intake. A Bayesian approach (Metropolis-Hastings algorithm) was used for parameter estimation. The impact of PI on hepatitis E virus transmission in piglets was investigated using longitudinal serological data from six pig farms. A strong impact of PI was highlighted, the efficiency of transmission being on average 13 times lower in piglets with maternally-derived antibodies than in fully susceptible animals (range: 5–21). Median infection-free survival ages, based on herd-specific estimates, ranged between 8.7 and 13.8 weeks in all but one herd. Indeed, this herd exhibited a different profile with a relatively low prevalence of infected pigs (50% at slaughter age) despite the similar proportions of passively immune individuals after colostrum intake. These results suggest that the age at HEV infection is not strictly dependent upon the proportion of piglets with PI but is also linked to farm-specific husbandry (mingling of piglets after weaning) and hygiene practices. The original methodology developed here, using population-based longitudinal serological data, was able to demonstrate the relative impact of MDAs on the transmission of infectious agents. PMID:25144763

  16. Estimation of Median Streamflows at Perennial Stream Sites in Hawaii

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fontaine, Richard A.; Wong, Michael F.; Matsuoka, Iwao

    1992-01-01

    The most accurate estimates of median streamflows at perennial stream sites in Hawaii are those made at streamflow-gaging stations. Two alternative methods for estimating median streamflows at ungaged sites are described in this report. Multiple-regression equations were developed for estimating median streamflows at ungaged, unregulated, perennial stream sites. The equations relate combinations of drainage area, mean altitude of the main stream channel, and mean annual precipitation to median streamflow. Streamflow data from 56 long-term continuous-record gaging stations were used in the analysis. Median-streamflow data for all 56 sites were adjusted using record-extension techniques to reflect base period (1912 through 1986) conditions. Hawaii was subdivided into two geographic groups and multiple-regression equations were developed for each. The standard error of predication for the equation developed for the first group, the islands of Oahu, Molokai, and Hawaii, is 41 percent. The standard error of predication for the equation developed for the second group, the islands of Kauai and Maui, is 54 percent. A method for estimating median-streamflow, based on discharge measurements and data from nearby streamflow-gaging stations, was also developed for 27 regulated, perennial windward Oahu sites. Standard errors of prediction for 23 of the sites range from 5 to 34 percent. Median-streamflow estimates for the four remaining sites were considered poor and no measures of accuracy are provided. Discharge measurements can be used to make estimates of median streamflows at ungaged, regulated sites where the regression equations developed in this report are not applicable. Discharge measurements can also be used to make estimates of median streamflows at ungaged, unregulated sites. Estimates of median streamflows based on discharge measurements have greater standard errors than estimates based on continuous streamflow records and in general have smaller standard errors than estimates based on regression equations.

  17. Maternal regulation of infant brain state.

    PubMed

    Sarro, Emma C; Wilson, Donald A; Sullivan, Regina M

    2014-07-21

    Patterns of neural activity are critical for sculpting the immature brain, and disrupting this activity is believed to underlie neurodevelopmental disorders [1-3]. Neural circuits undergo extensive activity-dependent postnatal structural and functional changes [4-6]. The different forms of neural plasticity [7-9] underlying these changes have been linked to specific patterns of spatiotemporal activity. Since maternal behavior is the mammalian infant's major source of sensory-driven environmental stimulation and the quality of this care can dramatically affect neurobehavioral development [10], we explored, for the first time, whether infant cortical activity is influenced directly by interactions with the mother within the natural nest environment. We recorded spontaneous neocortical local field potentials in freely behaving infant rats during natural interactions with their mother on postnatal days ?12-19. We showed that maternal absence from the nest increased cortical desynchrony. Further isolating the pup by removing littermates induced further desynchronization. The mother's return to the nest reduced this desynchrony, and nipple attachment induced a further reduction but increased slow-wave activity. However, maternal simulation of pups (e.g., grooming and milk ejection) consistently produced rapid, transient cortical desynchrony. The magnitude of these maternal effects decreased with age. Finally, systemic blockade of noradrenergic beta receptors led to reduced maternal regulation of infant cortical activity. Our results demonstrate that during early development, mother-infant interactions can immediately affect infant brain activity, in part via a noradrenergic mechanism, suggesting a powerful influence of the maternal behavior and presence on circuit development. PMID:24980504

  18. Maternal and Paternal Psychological Control as Moderators of the Link between Peer Attitudes and Adolescents' Risky Sexual Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oudekerk, Barbara A.; Allen, Joseph P.; Hafen, Christopher A.; Hessel, Elenda T.; Szwedo, David E.; Spilker, Ann

    2014-01-01

    Maternal and paternal psychological control, peer attitudes, and the interaction of psychological control and peer attitudes at age 13 were examined as predictors of risky sexual behavior before age 16 in a community sample of 181 youth followed from age 13 to 16. Maternal psychological control moderated the link between peer attitudes and sexual…

  19. Anthropometric estimation of maternal body composition in late gestation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Larraine Huston Presley; William W Wong; Noreen M Roman; Saeid B Amini; Patrick M Catalano

    2000-01-01

    Objective: To construct a model to estimate maternal body composition in late gestation using anthropometric measurements.Methods: Twenty healthy pregnant women at 30 weeks’ gestation had estimates of body composition using hydrodensitometry, with corrections for residual lung volume, and total body water using H218O (development group). Total body water was estimated from 18O abundances measured by gas-isotope-ratio mass spectrometry. Maternal age,

  20. Current and Past Maternal Depression, Maternal Interaction Behaviors, and Children’s Externalizing and Internalizing Symptoms

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Cynthia J. Ewell Foster; Judy Garber; Joseph A. Durlak

    2008-01-01

    Relations among past maternal depressive disorder, current depressive symptoms, current maternal interaction behaviors, and\\u000a children’s adjustment were examined in a sample of 204 women and their young adolescent offspring (mean age?=?11.86, SD?=?0.55).\\u000a Mothers either had (n?=?157) or had not (n?=?57) experienced at least one depressive disorder during the child’s life. Mothers and children participated in a problem-solving\\u000a task, video-taped for

  1. Maternal Scaffolding Behavior: Links With Parenting Style and Maternal Education

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Amanda Carr; Alison Pike

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to specify the relationship between positive and harsh parenting and maternal scaffolding behavior. A 2nd aim was to disentangle the effects of maternal education and parenting quality, and a 3rd aim was to test whether parenting quality mediated the association between maternal education and scaffolding practices. We examined associations between positive and harsh parenting

  2. Plant development:: Medea's maternal instinct

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Justin Goodrich

    1998-01-01

    The Arabidopsis MEDEA gene is required in maternal tissues to restrict cell proliferation in embryos. Molecular characterisation indicates that MEDEA encodes a Polycomb-group protein, particularly intriguing as MEDEA's maternal effects may be a consequence of genomic imprinting.

  3. Media representation of maternal neonaticide

    E-print Network

    Lewis, Jocelyn Renee

    2008-10-10

    committing the criminal act of maternal neonaticide. These media representations of maternal neonaticide could impact the criminal justice system and public policy. Questions of accuracy, gendered understandings of crime and gendered understanding...

  4. Maternal smoking and behavior problems of children.

    PubMed

    Weitzman, M; Gortmaker, S; Sobol, A

    1992-09-01

    Numerous health consequences of children's exposure to maternal smoking have been demonstrated, including increased rates of low birth weight, infant mortality, respiratory infections, asthma, and modest impairments of cognitive development. There is little evidence, however, linking maternal smoking and increased rates of children's behavior problems. Data from the population-based National Longitudinal Survey of Youth were used to investigate the possible association of maternal smoking and behavior problems among 2256 children aged 4 through 11 years. In multiple regression analyses the authors controlled for child's race, age, sex, birth weight, and chronic asthma; family structure, income, and divorce or separation in the prior 2 years; mother's education, intelligence, self-esteem, employment status, chronic disabling health conditions, and use of alcohol during pregnancy; and the quality of the home environment as assessed by the Home Observation for Measurement of the Environment-Short Form to investigate the relationship between maternal smoking and children's behavior problems. The measure of maternal smoking status reflected two levels of smoking intensity (less than a pack per day and a pack or more per day) for each of three different categories of children's exposure: prenatal only (mother smoked only during pregnancy), passive only (mother smoked only after pregnancy), and prenatal plus passive exposure (mother smoked both during and after pregnancy). Measures of children's behavior problems included the overall score on a 32-item parent-reported child Behavior Problem Index (PBI), scores on the BPI's subscales, and rates of extreme scores on the BPI.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:1518686

  5. Multimedia article. Laparoscopic management of median arcuate ligament syndrome.

    PubMed

    Carbonell, A M; Kercher, K W; Heniford, B T; Matthews, B D

    2005-05-01

    Median arcuate ligament syndrome is a rare disorder resulting from luminal narrowing of the celiac artery by the insertion of the diaphragmatic muscle fibers or fibrous bands of the celiac nervous plexus. The syndrome is characterized by weight loss, postprandial abdominal pain, nausea, vomiting, and an epigastric bruit. Surgical management entails complete division of the median arcuate ligament. The video demonstrates the laparoscopic release of the median arcuate ligament in a patient with median arcuate ligament syndrome. The patient is a 22-year-old male with a 6-month history of epigastric abdominal pain, nausea, vomiting, a 140-lb. weight loss, and an epigastric bruit on physical exam. Aortography demonstrated a >or=90% extrinsic compression of the celiac artery. A full laparoscopic skeletonization of the celiac artery and branch vessels was performed. Intraoperative duplex U/S demonstrated flow rate reduction after the median arcuate ligament release. A postoperative CT angiogram demonstrated no residual stenosis. The patient was discharged on postoperative day 3 and remained asymptomatic after 7 months of follow-up. Laparoscopic release of the median arcuate ligament is a novel approach to the management of celiac artery compression syndrome. The role of minimally invasive techniques to manage median arcuate ligament syndrome is evolving but they appear to be a safe alternative to open surgery. PMID:15965588

  6. [Maternal mortality in France, 2007-2009].

    PubMed

    Saucedo, M; Deneux-Tharaux, C; Bouvier-Colle, M-H

    2013-11-01

    To monitor the maternal mortality which is an indicator of the quality of obstetric and intensive care, France has a specific approach since 1996. Recently linkages have been introduced to improve the inclusion of cases. Here are the results for the 2007 to 2009 period. The identification of the pregnancy associated deaths is lying on different data bases that are medical causes of death, birth register and hospital discharges. To document the cases, confidential enquiries are conducted by two assessors on the field; a committee of medical experts analyses the documents, select the underlying cause and assess the quality of health care. Two hundred and fifty-four obstetric deaths were identified from 2007 to 2009 giving the maternal mortality ratio (MMR) of 10.3 per 100,000 births. The maternal age and nationality, the region of deaths are associated to the MMR. The haemorrhages are the leading cause but their ratio is 1.9 versus 2.5 previously; this decrease results from the postpartum haemorrhage by uterine atony going down. The suboptimal care are still frequent (60%) but slightly less than before. The linkage method should be pursued. Maternal mortality is rather stable in France. We may reach more reduction as deaths due to atony decreased as suboptimal care did. PMID:24035736

  7. The vitamin E-binding protein afamin increases in maternal serum during pregnancy

    PubMed Central

    Hubalek, Michael; Buchner, Hannes; Mörtl, Manfred G.; Schlembach, Dietmar; Huppertz, Berthold; Firulovic, Branka; Köhler, Wolfgang; Hafner, Erich; Dieplinger, Benjamin; Wildt, Ludwig; Dieplinger, Hans

    2014-01-01

    Background Afamin is a liver-derived plasma glycoprotein with vitamin E-binding properties and a putative function in fertility. This study evaluated serum afamin concentrations during and postpartum to uncomplicated pregnancies and investigated a potential association between afamin concentrations and pregnancy outcome. Methods Afamin serum concentrations were measured in women with uncomplicated pregnancies in a retrospective cohort (n = 466) at different gestational ages and a prospective observational study (n = 76) in the first, second and third trimester. Furthermore, afamin was determined in the first trimester in a cross-sectional pilot study including women with preeclampsia (PE), pregnancy-induced hypertension (PIH) and women without pregnancy complications (n = 13 each). Finally, expression of afamin was investigated in human placental tissue by RT-PCR and immunohistochemistry. Results Afamin concentrations increased linearly almost two-fold during pregnancy in both retrospective and prospective studies in women without pregnancy complications with median afamin serum concentrations of 61.9 mg/l, 79.6 mg/l, and 98.6 mg/l in the first, second, and third trimester, respectively. After delivery, median afamin concentrations decreased to baseline values of 54.6 mg/l. In the pilot study with pregnancy complications, women with PE displayed significantly higher median afamin concentrations than did women with uncomplicated pregnancy (70.0 mg/l vs. 55.4 mg/l, P = 0.007). Expression analyses revealed no placental afamin expression at either mRNA or protein level in uncomplicated pregnancy. Conclusion A linear increase in the maternally expressed glycoprotein afamin during pregnancy may serve as basic reference for subsequent investigations of afamin in pregnancy-related disorders. PMID:24768783

  8. Algorithms for the Bregman k-Median Problem

    E-print Network

    Algorithms for the Bregman k-Median Problem Dipl.-Math. Dipl.-Inform. Marcel R. Ackermann October to Gabriele Kappius, because she is the main reason I started all this. This document has been typeset using

  9. 2. HISTORIC PHOTOGRAPH, VIEW FROM MEDIAN OF MERRITT PARKWAY TO ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. HISTORIC PHOTOGRAPH, VIEW FROM MEDIAN OF MERRITT PARKWAY TO EAST ROCKS ROAD BRIDGE, CA. 1940. COLLECTION CONNECTICUT DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION. - Merritt Parkway, East Rocks Road Bridge, Spanning Merritt Parkway, Norwalk, Fairfield County, CT

  10. VOL. 87, NO. 3, JUNE 2014 185 Outer Median Triangles

    E-print Network

    Curgus, Branko

    VOL. 87, NO. 3, JUNE 2014 185 Outer Median Triangles ´ARPAD B ´ENYI Western Washington University Bellingham, WA 98225 Arpad.Benyi@wwu.edu BRANKO ´CURGUS Western Washington University Bellingham, WA 98225

  11. Modified Median Statistics and Type Ia Supernova Data

    E-print Network

    P. P. Avelino; C. J. A. P. Martins; P. Pinto

    2002-04-26

    The median statistic has recently been discussed by Gott \\textit{et al.} as a more reliable alternative to the standard $\\chi^2$ likelihood analysis, in the sense of requiring fewer assumptions about the data and being almost as constraining. We apply this statistic to the currently available combined dataset of 92 distant type Ia supernovae, and also to a mock SNAP-class dataset. We find that the performances of the modified median and $\\chi^2$ statistics are comparable, particularly in the latter case. We further extend the work of Gott \\textit{et al.} by modifying the median statistic to account for the number and size of sequences of consecutive points above or below the median. We also comment on how the performance of the statistic depends on the choice of free parameters that one is estimating.

  12. Alternative Formulation for the p-median Problem

    E-print Network

    1 Introduction. We consider the p-median problem which have been extensively studied in the literature. ... Many applications of this problem arise in the public sector. ..... OR-Library: distributing test problems by electronic mail. Journal of.

  13. A cramer-Rao analogue for median-unbiased estimators

    Microsoft Academic Search

    N. K. Sung; G. Stangenhaus; H. T. David

    1990-01-01

    Summary  Adopting a measure of dispersion proposed by Alamo [1964], and extending the analysis in Stangenhaus [1977] and Stangenhaus\\u000a and David [1978b], an analogue of the classical Cramér-Rao lower bound for median-unbiased estimators is developed for absolutely\\u000a continuous distributions with a single parameter, in which mean-unbiasedness, the Fisher information, and the variance are\\u000a replaced by median-unbiasedness, the first absolute moment of

  14. Indoleamine-containing nerve terminals in the rat median eminence

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H. G. Baumgarten; L. Lachenmayer

    1974-01-01

    Electron microscopical evidence for the existence of an important serotonergic input to the rat median eminence is presented. This evidence is based on the demonstration of degenerating nerve terminals in the external layer of the rat median eminence following the application of 5,6-dihydroxytryptamine or 5,7-dihydroxytryptamine, drugs known to exert more or less selective toxic effects on central serotonin neurons.

  15. Maternal Sexuality and Breastfeeding

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bartlett, Alison

    2005-01-01

    In this paper I consider the ways in which lactation has been discussed as a form of maternal sexuality, and the implications this carries for our understanding of breastfeeding practices and sexuality. Drawing on knowledge constructed in the western world during the last half of the twentieth century, the paper identifies a shift between the…

  16. Maternal effects on post-weaning physical and social development in juvenile mountain goats ( Oreamnos americanus )

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yanick Gendreau; Steeve D. Côté; Marco Festa-Bianchet

    2005-01-01

    Little is known about maternal effects on post-weaning development, yet they may be important because maternal care could have long-term consequences only evident when offspring approach adulthood. We have assessed the effects of maternal age, current reproduction (presence of a kid of the year) and social rank on the body mass, horn length and social rank of 1- and 2-year-old

  17. Tissue response to silicone tubes used to repair human median and ulnar nerves.

    PubMed

    Dahlin, L B; Anagnostaki, L; Lundborg, G

    2001-03-01

    Silicone tubes of appropriate sizes were used to enclose the injured zone of transsected ulnar and median nerves in the human forearm as an alternative to conventional microsurgical repair of the nerve trunk. A gap measuring 3-5 mm was left intentionally between the nerve ends inside the tube. The clinical early results from a prospective randomised study that compared these two principles have recently been presented. Seven patients (five men and two women), aged 15-49 years (median 20) were reexplored 12-44 months (median 22) after the initial procedure because of local discomfort from the tube in four patients. There was a new nerve structure bridging the former gap and in most cases it was impossible to distinguish the site of the injury. In all cases there was a thin capsule around the silicone tube that microscopically consisted of connective tissue with thin walls and no signs of inflammation, granuloma or macrophages (n = 4), while in two cases a mild foreign body reaction was seen at a single site (n = 1) or at patchy areas (n = 1). These results indicate that after more than one year there is a limited tissue reaction around silicone tubes used to repair median and ulnar nerves in humans. PMID:11291347

  18. Impact of Breastfeeding Duration on Age at Menarche

    PubMed Central

    Al-Sahab, Ban; Adair, Linda; Hamadeh, Mazen J.; Ardern, Chris I.; Tamim, Hala

    2011-01-01

    The study aims to assess the relation between breastfeeding duration and age at menarche. Analysis was based on a cohort of 994 Filipino girls born in 1983–1984 and followed up from infancy to adulthood by the Cebu Longitudinal Health and Nutrition Survey. The main outcome was self-reported age at menarche. Cox regression was used to investigate the relation between duration of exclusive and any breastfeeding with age at menarche with adjustment sequentially for specific sets of known socioeconomic, maternal, genetic, and prenatal confounders. The estimated median of age at menarche was 13.08 years. After adjustment for potential confounders of the association of breastfeeding with age at menarche, exclusive breastfeeding duration retained an independent and significant association with age at menarche. An increase in 1 month of exclusive breastfeeding decreases the hazard of attaining earlier menarche by 6% (hazard ratio = 0.94, 95% confidence interval: 0.90, 0.98). Any breastfeeding duration was not associated with age at menarche. Although this is the first longitudinal study that reveals a negative association between exclusive breastfeeding and early menarche, the relation is still elusive. Further longitudinal studies within different contexts are warranted to assess the generalizability of these findings. PMID:21430189

  19. The use of silicone tubing in the late repair of the median and ulnar nerves in the forearm.

    PubMed

    Braga-Silva, J

    1999-12-01

    A silicone tube segment was used for repairing the median and ulnar nerves in the forearm. This study includes 26 patients (20 male and six female), with a mean age of 23 years (range, 18-26). Injuries were caused by saw, knife and glass accidents, the latter being most frequent. The mean interval between the injury and repair was 101 days. Fourteen patients had median nerve injuries, eight had ulnar nerve injuries and four had both median and ulnar nerve injuries. The technique was effective in the repair of peripheral nerve injuries with gaps of up to 3 cm, with better results in the ulnar nerves than in the median nerves. PMID:10672808

  20. A variation in the formation of the median nerve: communicating branch between the musculocutaneous and median nerves in man.

    PubMed

    Uzun, A; Seelig, L L

    2001-01-01

    We encountered variation in the formation of the median nerve in a 66-year-old male cadaver during dissection of the upper extremity of 20 adult cadavers. The dissections were made at the Department of Cellular Biology and Anatomy, Louisiana State University Medical Center. The median nerve was formed by fusion of four branches, three of them coming from the lateral cord and one from the medial cord. The normal radix from the lateral cord followed a very close oblique course over the axillary artery. The first unusual radix to the median nerve had an anastomoses from the musculocutaneous nerve to the median nerve in the proximal part of the left arm. The second unusual radix also came from the musculocutaneous nerve after it had pierced the coracobrachialis muscle and then joined with the median nerve. These kinds of variations are vulnerable to damage in radical neck dissection and other surgical operations of the axilla and upper arm. The communicating branch can be explained on the basis of its embryologic development and also ought to be distinguished from the other nerve variations in the upper extremity. The aim of this paper is to provide additional information for the classification of previously found communications between the musculocutaneous and median nerves. PMID:11407150

  1. Understanding Relations Among Children's Shy and Antisocial\\/Aggressive Behaviors and Mothers' Parenting: The Role of Maternal Beliefs

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Cortney A. Evans; Larry J. Nelson; Christin L. Porter; David A. Nelson; Craig H. Hart

    2012-01-01

    This study assesses the relationships between children's shy and antisocial\\/aggressive behaviors and maternal beliefs, and concomitant parenting behaviors. Structural equation models examined 199 mothers' perceptions of aggression and shyness in their preschool-age children (average age = 59.63 months); maternal beliefs (i.e., locus of control, perceived harm, efficacy) about shyness and aggression, respectively; and maternal reported parenting behaviors (i.e., authoritarian, authoritative,

  2. Maternal employment and overweight children: does timing matter?

    PubMed

    von Hinke Kessler Scholder, Stephanie

    2008-08-01

    Recent literature has shown consistent evidence of a positive relationship between maternal employment and children's overweight status. These studies largely use average weekly work hours over the child's life to measure employment. This paper specifically aims at exploring the importance of the timing of employment. Using various econometric techniques to control for observable and unobservable child and family characteristics, the results show that full-time maternal employment during mid-childhood positively affects the probability of being overweight at age 16. There is no evidence that part-time or full-time employment at earlier/later ages affects this probability. PMID:18566969

  3. Median Arcuate Ligament Syndrome in a patient with Crohn's disease

    PubMed Central

    Sturiale, Alessandro; Alemanno, Giovanni; Giudici, Francesco; Addasi, Rami; Bellucci, Francesco; Tonelli, Francesco

    2013-01-01

    INTRODUCTION The Median Arcuate Ligament Syndrome is a rare condition characterized by postprandial abdominal pain, bowel function disorder and weight loss. We report the first case to our knowledge of Crohn's disease and Median Arcuate Ligament Syndrome. PRESENTATION OF CASE The patient was a 33 year-old female with a previous diagnosis of Crohn's disease. Acute postprandial abdominal pain affected the patient every day; she was, therefore, referred to US-Doppler and magnetic resonance angiography of the abdominal vessels and received a diagnosis of Median Arcuate Ligament Syndrome. Consequently, the patient was surgically treated, releasing the vascular compression. After the operation, she reported a complete relief from postprandial pain which was one of her major concerns. Subocclusive symptoms occurred after six months due to the inflammatory reactivation of the terminal ileitis. DISCUSSION The diagnosis of Median Arcuate Ligament Syndrome is mainly based on the exclusion of other intestinal disorders but it should be always confirmed using noninvasive tests such as US-Doppler, angio-CT or magnetic resonance angiography. CONCLUSION This case demonstrates that the Median Arcuate Ligament Syndrome could be the major cause of symptoms, even in presence of other abdominal disorders. PMID:23500743

  4. Reported maternal styles and substance use: a cross-sectional study among educated Albanian young adults.

    PubMed

    Kalyva, Efrosini; Melonashi, Erika

    2014-05-01

    The study explored a predictive model of substance use including perceived maternal parenting style, age and gender. Participants were 347 Albanian young adults (144 males and 203 females) aged 18 to 28 years. They completed the Parental Authority Questionnaire and the Adolescent Alcohol and Drug Involvement Scale. Gender, perceived authoritative maternal style, and age predicted a proportion of substance use involvement. Gender and perceived authoritative maternal style also predicted the proportion of young people at risk for substance use or abuse. Implications of the findings and limitations of the study are discussed. PMID:24245766

  5. The Link Between Daycare Experience and Attitudes Toward Daycare and Maternal Employment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shpancer, Noam; Bennett-Murphy, Laura

    2006-01-01

    Participants (n = 308; mean age = 20 years) completed questionnaires about their history, attitudes, and expectations regarding childcare, maternal employment and future parenting. Participants who experienced non-parental care as children had more favorable attitudes toward such care and toward maternal employment than did home-reared…

  6. Effects of ApoE4 and maternal history of dementia on hippocampal atrophy

    E-print Network

    Thompson, Paul

    Effects of ApoE4 and maternal history of dementia on hippocampal atrophy John P. Andrawisa , Kristy of positive maternal history of dementia on hippocampal atrophy in MCI and AD after controlling for age, ApoE4 genotype, and paternal history of dementia, respectively. ApoE4 showed an independent effect on hippocampal

  7. Maternal Support for Autonomy: Relationships with Persistence for Children with Down Syndrome and Typically Developing Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilmore, Linda; Cuskelly, Monica; Jobling, Anne; Hayes, Alan

    2009-01-01

    Maternal behaviors and child mastery behaviors were examined in 25 children with Down syndrome and 43 typically developing children matched for mental age (24-36 months). During a shared problem-solving task, there were no group differences in maternal directiveness or support for autonomy, and mothers in the two groups used similar verbal…

  8. Protective Effects of Maternal and Peer Support on Depressive Symptoms during Adolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vaughan, Christine A.; Foshee, Vangie A.; Ennett, Susan T.

    2010-01-01

    The current study examined the contributions of maternal and peer support to depressive symptoms in early to mid-adolescence and variation in these contributions across age, gender, and race. Five waves of data on maternal support, peer support, and depressive symptoms were collected on rural youth (N = 3,444) at 6 month intervals. Multilevel…

  9. Maternal Structure and Autonomy Support in Conversations about the Past: Contributions to Children's Autobiographical Memory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cleveland, Emily Sutcliffe; Reese, Elaine

    2005-01-01

    The authors examined the contributions of maternal structure and autonomy support to children's collaborative and independent reminiscing. Fifty mother-child dyads discussed past experiences when the children were 40 and 65 months old. Children also discussed past events with an experimenter at each age. Maternal structure and autonomy support…

  10. Circulating leptin during ovine pregnancy in relation to maternal nutrition, body composition and pregnancy outcome

    Microsoft Academic Search

    L Thomas; J M Wallace; R P Aitken; J G Mercer; P Trayhurn; N Hoggard

    2001-01-01

    This study examined the pattern of circulating leptin in age-matched sheep during adolescent pregnancy, and its relationship with maternal dietary intake, body com- position and tissue expression of the leptin gene. Over- feeding the adolescent pregnant ewe results in rapid maternal growth at the expense of the placenta, leading to growth restriction in the fetus, compared with normal fed controls.

  11. Maternal Characteristics Associated with Television Viewing Habits of Low-Income Preschool Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Conners, Nicola A.; Tripathi, Shanti P.; Clubb, Richard; Bradley, Robert H.

    2007-01-01

    Few studies have examined maternal characteristics associated with heavy or inappropriate television viewing on the part of their children. We investigated the relationship between children's television viewing habits and maternal depressive symptoms and parenting beliefs. The participants were 175 low income children (mean age = 62.1 months) and…

  12. Prediction of Early Childhood Negative Emotionality and Inhibition from Maternal Distress during Pregnancy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Roy P.; Noyes, Jennifer; Wisenbaker, Joseph; Huttenen, Matti O.

    1999-01-01

    Examined associations between early childhood temperament and factors during mothers' pregnancy. Responses to maternal questionnaires of psychological distress during pregnancy and maternal observations of infants at 6 months and 5 years of age indicated a connection between first-trimester distress and negative emotionality in 5-year-old…

  13. The Impact of Maternal Characteristics and Contextual Variables on Infant-Mother Attachment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huth-Bocks, Alissa C.; Levendosky, Alytia A.; Bogat, G. Anne; von Eye, Alexander

    2004-01-01

    This prospective study examined the effects of maternal characteristics, social support, and risk factors on infant-mother attachment in a heterogeneous sample. Two hundred and six women between the ages of 18 and 40 were interviewed during their last trimester of pregnancy and 1 year postpartum. Structural equation modeling revealed that maternal

  14. Phenylketonuria and maternal phenylketonuria.

    PubMed

    Purnell, H

    2001-07-01

    Phenylketonuria is a genetic disease affecting 1:10,000 to 14,000 live births. In NSW there is an average of nine cases diagnosed each year (Dietitians Working Party 1996). This paper discusses the management of phenylketonuria, and in particular the value of breastfeeding, complemented with a low phenylalanine infant formula, in facilitating easier maintenance of satisfactory phenylalanine blood levels. The 'diet for life' approach to managing phenylketonuria is to avoid long-term neurological deficits and, in particular, the risk that maternal PKU, which is not under strict dietary control, will have adverse effects on infants born of mothers with the disease. There have been 31 successful pregnancies to 1997 managed by the Nutrition and Dietetics Department of The Children's Hospital at Westmead, Sydney. The Maternal PKU diet is presented with the case of a client with phenylketonuria who has achieved two normal pregnancies and breastfed her second child for six months. PMID:11550601

  15. Understanding Relations among Children's Shy and Antisocial/Aggressive Behaviors and Mothers' Parenting: The Role of Maternal Beliefs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Evans, Cortney A.; Nelson, Larry J.; Porter, Christin L.; Nelson, David A.; Hart, Craig H.

    2012-01-01

    This study assesses the relationships between children's shy and antisocial/aggressive behaviors and maternal beliefs, and concomitant parenting behaviors. Structural equation models examined 199 mothers' perceptions of aggression and shyness in their preschool-age children (average age = 59.63 months); maternal beliefs (i.e., locus of control,…

  16. Electrophysiological findings in entrapment of the median nerve at wrist and elbow

    PubMed Central

    Buchthal, Fritz; Rosenfalck, Annelise; Trojaborg, Werner

    1974-01-01

    In 117 consecutive patients with carpal tunnel syndrome and 11 patients with a compression syndrome of the median nerve at elbow, motor and sensory conduction along the median and ulnar nerves and quantitative electromyography were compared with findings in 190 normal controls of the same age. In 25% of patients with carpal tunnel syndrome in whom motor conduction and EMG were normal, the lesion was located from abnormalities in sensory conduction. The fact that conduction along the same fibres was moderately slowed from digit to palm, severely slowed across the flexor retinaculum, and normal from wrist to elbow indicates that slowing was due to demyelination at the site of compression. Fifteen per cent of the patients with carpal tunnel syndrome had clinical and electrophysiological signs of ulnar involvement. In the other patients conduction along the ulnar nerve was as in 100 normal controls. Compression at the elbow was located by electromyographical findings rather than by abnormalities in conduction. PMID:4829536

  17. Maternal confidence in toddlerhood: its measurement for clinical practice and research.

    PubMed

    Gross, D; Rocissano, L

    1988-03-01

    There are currently no measures of maternal confidence specifically for the developmental issues that arise in children between 12 months and 36 months of age. Yet, maternal confidence has been correlated with indices of maternal and child competence. The purpose of this study was to assess the reliability and validity of the Toddler Care Questionnaire (TCQ), a measure of maternal confidence in toddlerhood, for use in clinical and research settings. The data provide strong evidence that the TCQ is a reliable instrument and has validity among middle-class mothers of toddlers. The data are discussed in terms of their clinical significance and directions for future research. PMID:3374866

  18. Change in Atypical Maternal Behavior Predicts Change in Attachment Disorganization from 12 to 24 Months in a High-Risk Sample

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Forbes, L. M.; Evans, E. M.; Moran, G.; Pederson, D. R.

    2007-01-01

    This longitudinal study examined links between disorganization and atypical maternal behavior at 12 and 24 months in 71 adolescent mother-child dyads. Organized attachment and maternal not disrupted behavior were more stable than disorganization and disrupted behavior, respectively. At both ages, disorganization and maternal disrupted behavior…

  19. Translational control of maternal RNAs

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Thomas C. Evans; Craig P. Hunter

    2005-01-01

    Early development of many species depends on the temporal and spatial control of maternal gene products. This review discusses the control of maternal mRNAs that encode regulators of C. elegans embryogenesis. In the C. elegans embryo, maternal mRNA regulation is crucial to the patterning of early cell fates. Translational control of key mRNAs spatially organizes cell signaling pathways, localizes transcription

  20. A Nonparametric Test for Equality of Survival Medians

    PubMed Central

    Rahbar, Mohammad H.; Chen, Zhongxue; Jeon, Sangchoon; Gardiner, Joseph C.; Ning, Jing

    2014-01-01

    In clinical trials researchers often encounter testing for equality of survival medians across study arms based on censored data. Even though Brookmeyer-Crowley (BC) introduced a method for comparing medians of several survival distributions, still some researchers misuse procedures which are designed for testing the homogeneity of survival curves. These procedures include the log-rank, Wilcoxon, and the Cox model. This practice leads to inflation of the probability of a type I error, particularly when the underlying assumptions of these procedures are not met. We propose a new nonparametric method for testing the equality of several survival medians based on Kaplan-Meier estimation from randomly right censored data. We derive asymptotic properties of this test statistic. Through simulations we compute and compare the empirical probabilities of type I errors and power of this new procedure with that of the Brookmeyer-Crowley (BC), the log-rank and the Wilcoxon method. Our simulation results indicate that performance of these test procedures depends on the level of censoring and appropriateness of the underlying assumptions. When the objective is to test homogeneity of survival medians rather than survival curves and the assumptions of these tests are not met, some of these procedures severely inflate the probability of a type I error. In these situations, our test statistic provides an alternative to the BC test. PMID:22302559

  1. Pseudogout of the Wrist Presenting as Acute Median Nerve Compression

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. R. A. GOODWIN; R. ARBEL

    1985-01-01

    Two cases are reported of acute median nerve compression due to calcium pyrophosphate deposition in the wrist, masquerading as a septic condition.There have been recent reports in the literature of the effects of calcium pyrophosphate in joints of the upper limb (Resnick 1983 and Hensley, 1983) These conditions are uncommon and the presentation and initial symptomatology of our case led

  2. A Bionomic Approach to the Capacitated p-Median Problem

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Vittorio Maniezzo; Aristide Mingozzi; Roberto Baldacci

    1998-01-01

    This paper advocates the use of the bionomic algorithm, a recently proposed metaheuristic technique, as an effective method to solve capacitated p-median problems (CPMP). Bionomic algorithms already proved to be an effective framework for finding good solutions to combinatorial optimization problems, when good local optimization algorithms are available. The paper also presents an effective local search technique for the CPMP.

  3. Statistical analysis of median type and morphological filters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neejarvi, Jukka; Koskinen, Lasse; Neuvo, Yrjo A.

    1992-11-01

    In this paper, we analyze statistical properties of 1-D median type and morphological filters. Analytical formulas for the expectation of the dilation and closing in the case of i.i.d. Laplacian noise and explicit formulas for the expectation and variance of the morphological filters in the case of i.i.d. uniformly distributed noise are given. Noise attenuation figures of the filters for Gaussian, Laplacian and uniformly distributed noise are shown. It is shown that noise attenuation of the morphological filters varies considerably depending on the distribution of the noise. We analyze also the five point Morphological-FIR-Median Hybrid (MFMH) filter and its special case, the three point Morphological-Median Hybrid (MMH) filter structure. Responses for rectangular pulses of the MFMH and MMH filters are shown, and the behavior of the filters around noisy edges is studied. The performance of the MFMH filter near noisy edges is better than that of the FMH filter and the properties of the filter are adjustable in larger detail. In addition, an illustrative example of the noise attenuation performance of median type and morphological filters with an image is shown.

  4. Sensory ReEducation after Median Nerve Lesions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. B. WYNN PARRY; M. SALTER

    1976-01-01

    Technique for re-educating sensory function after median nerve lesions at the wrist is described.Results of re-education of Twenty-three patients are presented. The functional results are good and belie the traditional view of sensory function after nerve suture.Recent advances in sensory neuro-physiology-are discussed which may explain the successes of this technique.

  5. A Fast, Small-Radius GPU Median Filter

    E-print Network

    Burgstaller, Bernd

    , Small-Radius GPU Median Filter · Prof. Morgan McGuire, Williams College · the chapter of book "Shader@Yonsei Univ.10 #12;Proposed technique of Prof. Mcguire Jongtae Park@Yonsei Univ.11 · No use of "if" statement · starting with a subset of size 6, remove the min and max each time #12;Proposed technique of Prof. Mcguire

  6. Pedestrian Safety Through a Raised Median and Redesigned Intersections

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michael King; Jon Carnegie; Reid Ewing

    2003-01-01

    This paper documents the effect of a raised median, signalized and redesigned intersections, curbs, and sidewalks on vehicle speed, pedestrian exposure risk, driver predictability, and vehicle volume along a four lane suburban roadway in central New Jersey. The analysis used both qualitative tools (speed and volume counts, timing runs) and qualitative methods (pedestrian tracking, video, before-after photography). The results are

  7. Median percent change: a robust alternative for assessing temporal trends.

    PubMed

    Geraci, Marco; Alston, Robert D; Birch, Jillian M

    2013-12-01

    A typical summary statistic for temporal trends is the average percent change (APC). The APC is estimated by using a generalized linear model, usually under the assumption of linearity on the logarithmic scale. A serious limitation of least-squares type estimators is their sensitivity to outliers. The goal of this study is twofold: firstly, we propose a robust and easy-to-compute measure of the temporal trend based on the median of the rates (median percent change - MPC), rather than their mean, under the hypothesis of constant relative change; secondly, we investigate the performance of several models for estimating the rate of change when some of the most common model assumptions are violated. We provide some guidance on the practices of the estimation of temporal trends when using different models under different circumstances. The robustness property of the median is assessed in a simulation study, which shows that the MPC provides strong reductions in estimation bias and variance in presence of outliers. We also demonstrate how a mathematical property of the median helps addressing the issue of zero counts when estimating trends on the log-scale. Finally, we analyzed an English cancer registration dataset to illustrate the proposed method. We believe that, as a good practice, both APC and MPC should be presented when sensitivity issues arise. PMID:24016682

  8. Forensic detection of median filtering in digital images

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gang Cao; Yao Zhao; Rongrong Ni; Lifang Yu; Huawei Tian

    2010-01-01

    In digital image forensics, prior works are prone to the detection of malicious tampering. However, there is also a need for developing techniques to identify general content-preserved manipulations, which are employed to conceal tampering trails frequently. In this paper, we propose a blind forensic algorithm to detect median filtering (MF), which is applied extensively for signal denoising and digital image

  9. The median voter hypothesis: Evidence from general purpose local governments

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Geoffrey K. Turnbull; Salpie S. Djoundourian

    1994-01-01

    The median voter hypothesis (MVH) represents a much-used as well as much-criticized tool in the hands of public finance economists. To evaluate the MVH, this paper applies the Cox specification test using data from general purpose municipal governments. The Cox test allows for possible simultaneous rejection of the MVH and all tested models, thus providing stricter criteria than applied to

  10. Maintaining variance and k-medians over data stream windows

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Brain Babcock; Mayur Datar; Rajeev Motwani; Liadan O'Callaghan

    2003-01-01

    The sliding window model is useful for discounting stale data in data stream applications. In this model, data elements arrive continually and only the most recent N elements are used when answering queries. We present a novel technique for solving two important and related problems in the sliding window model---maintaining variance and maintaining a k--median clustering. Our solution to the

  11. Testing Whether Independent Treatment Groups Have Equal Medians.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilcox, Rand R.

    1991-01-01

    New methods for comparing the medians corresponding to independent treatment groups are suggested. Procedures are based on the estimator of F. Harrell and C. Davis in conjunction with a modification and extension of the bootstrap calibration technique suggested by W. Loh. Data from two groups provide an illustration. (SLD)

  12. Electroacupuncture and Acupuncture Promote the Rat's Transected Median Nerve Regeneration.

    PubMed

    Ho, C Y; Yao, C H; Chen, W C; Shen, W C; Bau, D T

    2013-01-01

    Background. Acupuncture and electroacupuncture treatments of damaged nerves may aid nerve regeneration related to hindlimb function, but the effects on the forelimb-related median nerve were not known. Methods. A gap was made in the median nerve of each rat by suturing the stumps into silicone rubber tubes. The influences of acupuncture and electroacupuncture treatments on transected median nerve regeneration were evaluated from morphological, electrophysiological, and functional angles. Results. Morphologically, the group receiving acupuncture and electroacupuncture treatments had larger total nerve area and blood vessel number compared with the controls. Electrophysiologically, the group receiving electroacupuncture had significantly larger amplitude and larger area of the evoked muscle action potentials compared with the controls. Functionally, the acupuncture and electroacupuncture treatments enhanced the injured paw's ability to regain its grasping power and resulted in a faster efficiency to a new bilateral balance. Conclusion. Our findings provide multiapproach evidence of the efficacy of acupuncture and electroacupuncture treatments to the regeneration of median nerve. Indeed, acupuncture and electroacupuncture appear to have positive effects on the regeneration processes. This platform is beneficial to further study the clinical application of acupuncture and electroacupuncture alternative treatments on nerve-injured patients. PMID:23573131

  13. Elementary School Teachers' Understanding of the Mean and Median

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jacobbe, Tim

    2012-01-01

    This study provides a snapshot of elementary school teachers' understanding of the mean and median. The research is presented in light of recent work regarding preservice teachers' understanding of the mean. Common misconceptions are identified which lead to potential implications for teacher preparation programs. One of the primary concerns…

  14. Maternal intestinal flora and wheeze in early childhood

    PubMed Central

    Lange, Nancy E.; Celedón, Juan C.; Forno, Erick; Ly, Ngoc P.; Onderdonk, Andrew; Bry, Lynn; Delaney, Mary L.; DuBois, Andrea M.; Gold, Diane R.; Weiss, Scott T.; Litonjua, Augusto A.

    2012-01-01

    Background Increasing evidence links altered intestinal flora in infancy to eczema and asthma. No studies have investigated the influence of maternal intestinal flora on wheezing and eczema in early childhood. Objective To investigate the link between maternal intestinal flora during pregnancy and development of wheeze and eczema in infancy. Methods Sixty pregnant women from the Boston area gave stool samples during the third trimester of their pregnancy and answered questions during pregnancy about their own health, and about their children’s health when the child was 2 and 6 months of age. Quantitative culture was performed on stool samples and measured in log10colony-forming units(CFU)/gram stool. Primary outcomes included infant wheeze and eczema in the first 6 months of life. Atopic wheeze, defined as wheeze and eczema, was analyzed as a secondary outcome. Results In multivariate models adjusted for breastfeeding, daycare attendance and maternal atopy, higher counts of maternal total aerobes (TA) and enterococci (E) were associated with increased risk of infant wheeze (TA: OR 2.32 for 1 log increase in CFU/g stool [95% CI 1.22, 4.42]; E: OR 1.57 [95% CI 1.06, 2.31]). No organisms were associated with either eczema or atopic wheeze. Conclusions & Clinical Relevance In our cohort, higher maternal total aerobes and enterococci were related to increased risk of infant wheeze. Maternal intestinal flora may be an important environmental exposure in early immune system development. PMID:22909161

  15. The Impact of Maternal Smoking on Fast Auditory Brainstem Responses

    PubMed Central

    Kable, Julie A.; Coles, Claire D.; Lynch, Mary Ellen; Carroll, Julie

    2009-01-01

    Deficits in auditory processing have been posited as one of the underlying neurodevelopmental consequences of maternal smoking during pregnancy that leads to later language and reading deficits. Fast auditory brainstem responses were used to assess differences in the sensory processing of auditory stimuli among infants with varying degrees of prenatal cigarette exposure. Maternal report of consumption of cigarettes and blood samples were collected in the hospital to assess exposure levels and participants were then seen at 6-months. To participate in the study, all infants had to pass the newborn hearing exam or a clinically administered ABR and have no known health problems. After controlling for participant age, maternal smoking during pregnancy was negatively related to latency of auditory brainstem responses. Of several potential covariates, only perinatal complications and maternal alcohol use were also related to latency of the ABR responses and maternal smoking level accounted for significant unique variance after controlling for these factors. These results suggest that the relationship between maternal smoking may lead to disruption in the sensory encoding of auditory stimuli. PMID:19224709

  16. Child Health, Maternal Marital and Socioeconomic Factors, and Maternal Health

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garbarski, Dana; Witt, Whitney P.

    2013-01-01

    Although maternal socioeconomic status and health predict in part children's future health and socioeconomic prospects, it is possible that the intergenerational association flows in the other direction such that child health affects maternal outcomes. Previous research demonstrates that poor child health increases the risk of adverse…

  17. Prenatal and Postnatal Maternal Stress and Wheeze in Urban Children

    PubMed Central

    Mathilda Chiu, Yueh-Hsiu; Coull, Brent A.; Cohen, Sheldon; Wooley, Alana

    2012-01-01

    Rationale: Critical periods for programming early wheeze risk may include pregnancy and infancy. Effects of timing remain poorly understood. Objectives: Associations among prenatal and postnatal maternal stress and children’s wheeze were prospectively examined in 653 families. Effect modification by maternal sensitization was also examined. Methods: Stress was indexed by a maternal negative life events (NLEs) score (range, 0–9) ascertained during pregnancy and between 1 and 2 years postpartum. Mothers reported child wheeze every 3 months up to age 2 years. Relationships of prenatal and postnatal maternal NLEs with repeated wheeze (?2 episodes) were examined using logistic regression adjusting for covariates. Penalized splines were implemented to explore possible nonlinear associations. We also examined the interaction between prenatal stress and maternal sensitization indexed by allergen-specific IgE from maternal prenatal serum. Measurements and Main Results: Adjusted models considering prenatal or postnatal NLEs alone both showed an exposure-response relationship between higher stress and child wheeze. When considering prenatal and postnatal stress concurrently, only children of mothers with high stress in both periods were significantly more likely to wheeze (adjusted odds ratio, 3.04; 95% confidence interval, 1.67–5.53) than children of mothers reporting low stress in both periods. Associations between high prenatal stress and wheeze were significant in children born to nonsensitized mothers (any IgE <0.35 kU/L) but not in the sensitized group (P for interaction = 0.03). Conclusions: Although children have heightened sensitivity to maternal stress in utero and in early childhood, those with higher stress in both periods were particularly at risk for wheeze. The prenatal maternal immune milieu modified effects. PMID:22582161

  18. Race, Socioeconomic Status, and Age: Exploring Intersections in Preterm Birth Disparities among Teen Mothers

    PubMed Central

    Coley, Sheryl L.; Nichols, Tracy R.; Rulison, Kelly L.; Aronson, Robert E.; Brown-Jeffy, Shelly L.; Morrison, Sharon D.

    2015-01-01

    Few studies have examined disparities in adverse birth outcomes and compared contributing socioeconomic factors specifically between African-American and White teen mothers. This study examined intersections between neighborhood socioeconomic status (as defined by census-tract median household income), maternal age, and racial disparities in preterm birth (PTB) outcomes between African-American and White teen mothers in North Carolina. Using a linked dataset with state birth record data and socioeconomic information from the 2010 US Census, disparities in preterm birth outcomes for 16,472 teen mothers were examined through bivariate and multilevel analyses. African-American teens had significantly greater odds of PTB outcomes than White teens (OR = 1.38, 95% CI 1.21, 1.56). Racial disparities in PTB rates significantly varied by neighborhood income; PTB rates were 2.1 times higher for African-American teens in higher income neighborhoods compared to White teens in similar neighborhoods. Disparities in PTB did not vary significantly between teens younger than age 17 and teens ages 17-19, although the magnitude of racial disparities was larger between younger African-American and White teens. These results justify further investigations using intersectional frameworks to test the effects of racial status, neighborhood socioeconomic factors, and maternal age on birth outcome disparities among infants born to teen mothers. PMID:25729614

  19. The influence of context-dependent maternal effects on population dynamics: an experimental test

    PubMed Central

    Plaistow, S.J.; Benton, T.G.

    2009-01-01

    Parental effects arise when either the maternal or paternal phenotype influences the phenotypes of subsequent generations. Simple analytical models assume maternal effects are a mechanism creating delayed density dependence. Such models predict that maternal effects can very easily lead to population cycles. Despite this, unambiguous maternal-effect mediated cycles have not been demonstrated in any system. Additionally, much evidence has arisen to invalidate the underlying assumption that there is a simple positive correlation between maternal performance and offspring performance. A key issue in understanding how maternal effects may affect population dynamics is determining how the expression of parental effects changes in different environments. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that maternal effects influence population dynamics in a context-dependent way. Populations of the soil mite, Sancassania berlesei, were set up at high density (500 eggs) or low density (50 eggs), with eggs that were either laid by young mothers or old mothers (a previously documented maternal effect in this system). The influence of maternal age on both population and egg and body-size dynamics was only observed in the populations initiated under low density rather than high density. This difference was attributable to the context-dependence of maternal effects at the individual level. In low-density (high food) conditions, maternal effects have an impact on offspring reproductive performance, creating an impact on the population growth rate. In high density (low food), maternal effects impact more on juvenile survival (not adult size or reproduction), creating a smaller impact on the population growth rate. This context dependence of effects at the population level means that, in fluctuating populations, maternal effects cause intermittent delayed density dependence that does not lead to persistent cycles. PMID:19324610

  20. Maternal and child dietary patterns and their determinants in Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Nwaru, Bright I; Onyeka, Ifeoma N; Ndiokwelu, Chika; Esangbedo, Dorothy O; Ngwu, Elizabeth K; Okolo, Selina N

    2015-07-01

    Understanding the overall dietary patterns of a population is a key step in initiating appropriate nutritional interventions and policies. Studies characterising the dietary patterns of Nigerian mothers and children are lacking. Complete dietary data for 13?566 mothers and their 13?506 children were analysed from the 2008 Nigerian Demographic and Health Surveys (NDHS), a nationally representative sample, to identify the overall maternal and child dietary patterns and to study the potential determinants of such dietary patterns. The 2008 NDHS included questions that inquired about the food items mothers and their children had consumed during the 24?h preceding the day of the interview. Factor analysis with the principal component procedure was used to construct the dietary patterns, and multiple multilevel logistic regression was used to investigate the determinants of the dietary patterns. Four ('mixed', 'traditional', 'staple foods and milk products' and 'beverages') and five ('mixed', 'selective', 'beverages and candies', 'gruels, grains and semi-solids' and 'infant formula and cereals') distinct dietary patterns were obtained for the mothers and children, respectively. The key determinants of both maternal and child dietary patterns were month of interview, religion, region of residence, maternal education, maternal occupation, wealth index and maternal body mass index. Marital status additionally predicted maternal patterns, while sex of the child, number of siblings, child's age, maternal age and place of residence additionally determined the child's patterns. This study has identified four and five different dietary patterns to characterise the dietary habits of Nigerian mothers and their children, respectively, and has shown the important socio-economic/demographic factors influencing the dietary patterns, which can guide appropriate nutritional interventions among Nigerian mothers and children. PMID:23167662

  1. August median streamflow on ungaged streams in Eastern Coastal Maine

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lombard, Pamela J.

    2004-01-01

    Methods for estimating August median streamflow were developed for ungaged, unregulated streams in eastern coastal Maine. The methods apply to streams with drainage areas ranging in size from 0.04 to 73.2 square miles and fraction of basin underlain by a sand and gravel aquifer ranging from 0 to 71 percent. The equations were developed with data from three long-term (greater than or equal to 10 years of record) continuous-record streamflow-gaging stations, 23 partial-record streamflow- gaging stations, and 5 short-term (less than 10 years of record) continuous-record streamflow-gaging stations. A mathematical technique for estimating a standard low-flow statistic, August median streamflow, at partial-record streamflow-gaging stations and short-term continuous-record streamflow-gaging stations was applied by relating base-flow measurements at these stations to concurrent daily streamflows at nearby long-term continuous-record streamflow-gaging stations (index stations). Generalized least-squares regression analysis (GLS) was used to relate estimates of August median streamflow at streamflow-gaging stations to basin characteristics at these same stations to develop equations that can be applied to estimate August median streamflow on ungaged streams. GLS accounts for different periods of record at the gaging stations and the cross correlation of concurrent streamflows among gaging stations. Thirty-one stations were used for the final regression equations. Two basin characteristics?drainage area and fraction of basin underlain by a sand and gravel aquifer?are used in the calculated regression equation to estimate August median streamflow for ungaged streams. The equation has an average standard error of prediction from -27 to 38 percent. A one-variable equation uses only drainage area to estimate August median streamflow when less accuracy is acceptable. This equation has an average standard error of prediction from -30 to 43 percent. Model error is larger than sampling error for both equations, indicating that additional or improved estimates of basin characteristics could be important to improved estimates of low-flow statistics. Weighted estimates of August median streamflow at partial- record or continuous-record gaging stations range from 0.003 to 31.0 cubic feet per second or from 0.1 to 0.6 cubic feet per second per square mile. Estimates of August median streamflow on ungaged streams in eastern coastal Maine, within the range of acceptable explanatory variables, range from 0.003 to 45 cubic feet per second or 0.1 to 0.6 cubic feet per second per square mile. Estimates of August median streamflow per square mile of drainage area generally increase as drainage area and fraction of basin underlain by a sand and gravel aquifer increase.

  2. Maternal telomere length inheritance in the king penguin.

    PubMed

    Reichert, S; Rojas, E R; Zahn, S; Robin, J-P; Criscuolo, F; Massemin, S

    2015-01-01

    Telomeres are emerging as a biomarker for ageing and survival, and are likely important in shaping life-history trade-offs. In particular, telomere length with which one starts in life has been linked to lifelong survival, suggesting that early telomere dynamics are somehow related to life-history trajectories. This result highlights the importance of determining the extent to which telomere length is inherited, as a crucial factor determining early life telomere length. Given the scarcity of species for which telomere length inheritance has been studied, it is pressing to assess the generality of telomere length inheritance patterns. Further, information on how this pattern changes over the course of growth in individuals living under natural conditions should provide some insight on the extent to which environmental constraints also shape telomere dynamics. To fill this gap partly, we followed telomere inheritance in a population of king penguins (Aptenodytes patagonicus). We tested for paternal and maternal influence on chick initial telomere length (10 days old after hatching), and how these relationships changed with chick age (at 70, 200 and 300 days old). Based on a correlative approach, offspring telomere length was positively associated with maternal telomere length early in life (at 10 days old). However, this relationship was not significant at older ages. These data suggest that telomere length in birds is maternally inherited. Nonetheless, the influence of environmental conditions during growth remained an important factor shaping telomere length, as the maternal link disappeared with chicks' age. PMID:25052413

  3. Maternal Affection Moderates Friend Influence on Schoolwork Engagement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marion, Donna; Laursen, Brett; Kiuru, Noona; Nurmi, Jari-Erik; Salmela-Aro, Katariina

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated friend influence over adolescent schoolwork engagement in 160 same-sex friend dyads (94 female dyads and 66 male dyads). Participants were approximately 16 years of age at the outset. Each friend described his or her own schoolwork engagement, school burnout, and perceptions of maternal affection. The results revealed that…

  4. Maternal Beliefs and Children's Learning: A Developmental Perspective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cogan, Leland S.; Oka, Evelyn R.

    The developmental pattern in the relationships among mothers' beliefs about structure, autonomy, control, and intelligence was studied, addressing: (1) how mothers' scaffolding beliefs and conceptions of intelligence are related; (2) the relationship of these maternal beliefs to children's age and achievement; and (3) the relationship between…

  5. Father Absence, Perceived Maternal Behavior, and Moral Development in Boys

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Santrock, John W.

    1975-01-01

    Investigates the effects of father absence and perceived maternal behaviors on the moral behavior, judgment, and affect of preadolescent boys. Also tests for differences between sons of divorcees and widows and between boys who were at different ages at the onset of father absence. (CW)

  6. Mitochondrial genome function and maternal inheritance.

    PubMed

    Allen, John F; de Paula, Wilson B M

    2013-10-01

    The persistence of mtDNA to encode a small subset of mitochondrial proteins reflects the selective advantage of co-location of key respiratory chain subunit genes with their gene products. The disadvantage of this co-location is exposure of mtDNA to mutagenic ROS (reactive oxygen species), which are by-products of aerobic respiration. The resulting 'vicious circle' of mitochondrial mutation has been proposed to underlie aging and its associated degenerative diseases. Recent evidence is consistent with the hypothesis that oocyte mitochondria escape the aging process by acting as quiescent genetic templates, transcriptionally and bioenergetically repressed. Transmission of unexpressed mtDNA in the female germline is considered as a reason for the existence of separate sexes, i.e. male and female. Maternal inheritance then circumvents incremental accumulation of age-related disease in each new generation. PMID:24059523

  7. [Morphometric characterization of median brain structures using intravital magnetic resonance tomography].

    PubMed

    Kagan, I I; Levoshko, L I; Sizov, A Iu

    1998-01-01

    Linear parameters of corpus callosum and submucosal structures (transparent septum, cupula, thalamus, pineal body and the third ventricle choroid plexus) were measured using 80 MR tomograms and 40 craniograms of 20 patients aged 20-50. Linear parameters were compared with the cranium shape and statistically processed. The dependence of linear parameters of the structures mentioned upon the shape of the cranium was demonstrated. They were characterized morphometrically in dolychomeso- and brachiocephals. The data obtained are of interest in assessment of MR tomograms with pathological changes and individualization of surgical interventions in median structures of brain. PMID:9914985

  8. Effects of stimulus intensity on sound localization in the horizontal and upper-hemispheric median plane.

    PubMed

    Inoue, J

    2001-06-01

    Sound lateralization ability with headphones is known to be affected by stimulus intensity. However, there have been few studies on sound localization with loudspeakers in free field from the standpoint of stimulus intensity. The aim of this study is to obtain basic data for the tests with normal hearing and hearing-impaired subjects, and for the fitting of a hearing aid. The author investigated the relationship between stimulus intensities and sound localization ability of the broadband noise and pure tone bursts delivered in the horizontal and upper-hemispheric median planes. Subjects were ten volunteers, 5 males and 5 females, at the age of 18-19 years, with normal hearing. The results showed well how subjects perceived directions at all stimulus intensities. The percentage of correct response (%correct) for broadband noise stimuli was maximum at the intensity from 40 to 70 dB SPL (sound pressure level), and was minimum at 0 to 20 dB SPL in both the horizontal plane and the upper-hemispheric median plane. At lower stimulus intensity, examinee could not judge the direction, even if they could hear the stimuli. For pure tone bursts stimuli in the upper-hemispheric median plane, %correct was low irrespective of stimulus intensity. PMID:11431958

  9. A comparison of median hearing thresholds from U.S. Navy and U.S. Army audiometric data bases.

    PubMed

    Ridgley, C D; Wilkins, J R

    1991-07-01

    This study examined 1984 monitoring audiometric data from U.S. Navy (military and civilian) employees whose workplace required a mandatory hearing conservation program. Median hearing thresholds were compared in U.S. Navy employees, U.S. Army employees also monitored by a hearing conservation program, and a standard population from the First National Health and Nutrition Survey. Age group and frequency-specific comparisons were included. Results at 4 kHz and 6 kHz demonstrated higher median thresholds in the Navy populations that were significantly higher by clinical and statistical criteria. Possible reasons for the differences are given. PMID:1922844

  10. Split median raphe: case series and brief literature review.

    PubMed

    Valerio, Enrico; Cutrone, Mario

    2014-01-01

    We describe three cases of split median raphe of the penis (SMR) from our hospital newborn records from 2004 to 2013. One case was associated with median raphe cyst, one with skin hypochromia, and one with a scar-like aspect of the region of interest. SMR is thought to be the result of defective fusion of ectodermal tissue in the urethra and scrotum area or of defective growth of the perineal mesoderm around the urethra during gestation. Although SMR associated with other major penile congenital defects (epispadias, hypospadias, penile torsion, bifid scrotum, chordee) is common, isolated SMR is probably an underdiagnosed (although not rare) malformative condition. Recognizing SMR in a newborn may be of educational value to neonatologists because it leads to the search for and exclusion of the above-mentioned pathologic conditions. PMID:25236772

  11. On detection of median filtering in digital images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kirchner, Matthias; Fridrich, Jessica

    2010-01-01

    In digital image forensics, it is generally accepted that intentional manipulations of the image content are most critical and hence numerous forensic methods focus on the detection of such 'malicious' post-processing. However, it is also beneficial to know as much as possible about the general processing history of an image, including content-preserving operations, since they can affect the reliability of forensic methods in various ways. In this paper, we present a simple yet effective technique to detect median filtering in digital images-a widely used denoising and smoothing operator. As a great variety of forensic methods relies on some kind of a linearity assumption, a detection of non-linear median filtering is of particular interest. The effectiveness of our method is backed with experimental evidence on a large image database.

  12. Bayesian median regression for temporal gene expression data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Keming; Vinciotti, Veronica; Liu, Xiaohui; 't Hoen, Peter A. C.

    2007-09-01

    Most of the existing methods for the identification of biologically interesting genes in a temporal expression profiling dataset do not fully exploit the temporal ordering in the dataset and are based on normality assumptions for the gene expression. In this paper, we introduce a Bayesian median regression model to detect genes whose temporal profile is significantly different across a number of biological conditions. The regression model is defined by a polynomial function where both time and condition effects as well as interactions between the two are included. MCMC-based inference returns the posterior distribution of the polynomial coefficients. From this a simple Bayes factor test is proposed to test for significance. The estimation of the median rather than the mean, and within a Bayesian framework, increases the robustness of the method compared to a Hotelling T2-test previously suggested. This is shown on simulated data and on muscular dystrophy gene expression data.

  13. Maternal nutrition interventions to improve maternal, newborn, and child health outcomes.

    PubMed

    Ramakrishnan, Usha; Imhoff-Kunsch, Beth; Martorell, Reynaldo

    2014-01-01

    Maternal undernutrition affects a large proportion of women in many developing countries, but has received little attention as an important determinant of poor maternal, newborn, and child health (MNCH) outcomes such as intrauterine growth restriction, preterm birth (PTB), and maternal and infant morbidity and mortality. We recently evaluated the scientific evidence on the effects of maternal nutrition interventions on MNCH outcomes as part of a project funded by the Gates Foundation to identify critical knowledge gaps and priority research needs. A standardized tool was used for study data abstraction, and the effect of nutrition interventions during pregnancy or of factors such as interpregnancy interval on MNCH outcomes was assessed by meta-analysis, when possible. Several nutrient interventions provided during pregnancy have beneficial effects on MNCH outcomes, but are not widely adopted. For example, prenatal calcium supplementation decreases the risk of PTB and increases birthweight; prenatal zinc, omega-3 fatty acids and multiple micronutrient supplements reduce the risk of PTB (<37 weeks), early PTB (<34 weeks) and low birthweight (LBW), respectively. Among currently implemented interventions, balanced protein-energy and iron-folic acid supplementation during pregnancy significantly reduce the risk of LBW by 20-30% in controlled settings, but variable programmatic experiences have led to questionable effectiveness. Early age at pregnancy and short interpregnancy intervals were also associated with increased risk of PTB, LBW and neonatal death, but major gaps remain on the role of women's nutrition before and during early pregnancy and nutrition education and counseling. These findings emphasize the need to examine the benefits of improving maternal nutrition before and during pregnancy both in research and program delivery. PMID:24504208

  14. Active and passive maternal smoking during pregnancy and birth outcomes: the Kyushu Okinawa Maternal and Child Health Study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background In Western countries, active maternal smoking during pregnancy is recognized as the most important preventable risk factor for adverse birth outcomes. However, the effect of passive maternal smoking is less clear and has not been extensively studied. In Japan, there has been only one epidemiological study which examined the effects of active smoking during early pregnancy on birth outcomes although the effects of passive smoking were not assessed. Methods Study subjects were 1565 mothers with singleton pregnancies and the babies born from these pregnancies. Data on active maternal smoking status in the first, second, and third trimesters and maternal environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) exposure at home and work were collected with self-administered questionnaires. Results Compared with children born to mothers who had never smoked during pregnancy, children born to mothers who had smoked throughout their pregnancy had a significantly increased risk of small-for-gestational-age (SGA) (adjusted odd ratio [OR]?=?2.87; 95% confidence interval: 1.11???6.56). However, active maternal smoking only in the first trimester and active maternal smoking in the second and/or third trimesters but not throughout pregnancy were not significantly associated with SGA. With regard to the risk of preterm birth, the adjusted ORs for the above-mentioned three categories were not significant; however, the positive linear trend was significant (P for trend?=?0.048). No significant association was found between active maternal smoking during pregnancy and the risk of low birth weight. There was a significant inverse relationship between active maternal smoking during pregnancy and birth weight; newborns of mothers who had smoked throughout pregnancy had an adjusted mean birth weight reduction of 169.6 g. When classifying babies by gender, a significant positive association between active maternal smoking throughout pregnancy and the risk of SGA was found only in male newborns, however, the interaction was not significant. Maternal ETS exposure at home or work was not significantly associated with any birth outcomes. Conclusions This is the first study in Japan to show that active maternal smoking throughout pregnancy, but not during the first trimester, is significantly associated with an increased risk of SGA and a decrease in birth weight. Thus, women who smoke should quit smoking as soon as possible after conception. PMID:23919433

  15. New insights of the nature of the Porcupine Median Ridge using Refraction Seismic Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Watremez, Louise; Prada, Manel; Minshull, Tim; O'Reilly, Brian; Chen, Chen; Reston, Tim; Wagner, Gerlind; Gaw, Viola; Klaeschen, Dirk; Shannon, Patrick

    2015-04-01

    The Porcupine Basin is a narrow V-shaped failed rifted basin of Permo-Triassic to Cenozoic age, with the main rifting phase in the Late Jurassic to Early Cretaceous. It is located offshore SW Ireland, showing increasing stretching factors from less than 1.5 to the North to more than 6 to the South. A ridge feature, the Porcupine Median Ridge, has been identified in the middle of the southernmost part of the basin. During the last three decades, this ridge has been successively interpreted as a volcanic structure, a diapir of partially serpentinized mantle, or a block of continental crust. Its nature is still remains debated today. The most recent study uses velocity analysis of long streamer seismic reflection data to support the volcanic ridge hypothesis. In this study we use refraction seismic data acquired across the Porcupine Basin to derive a better constrained P-wave velocity structure across the basin, and in particular across the Porcupine Median Ridge. We use the data from a 300 km long shot line recorded on 32 ocean-bottom seismometers and an inline land seismometer. This profile is oriented West-East and crosses the entire basin in its southernmost part. Thus, we image the deep structure of the thinnest part of the basin, the geometry of the continental thinning from margin to margin, with a central focus on the Porcupine Median Ridge. Analysis of P-wave and S-wave seismic arrivals, together with gravity modelling, gives new insights into the nature of this structure and allows for a better understanding of the rifting process of Porcupine Basin and its thermal state during the rifting. Defining the nature of the Porcupine Median Ridge will also give us more information about when the ridge formed and its role in rifting processes. This project is funded by the Irish Shelf Programme Study Group (ISPSG) of the Petroleum Infrastructure Programme (PIP).

  16. Schwannoma of the Median Nerve: Diagnosis Sometimes Delayed

    PubMed Central

    Boufettal, Monsef; Azouz, Mohamed; Rhanim, Abdelkarim; Abouzahir, Mohamed; Mahfoud, Mustapha; Bardouni, Ahmed El; Berrada, Mohamed S; Yaacoubi, Moradh El

    2014-01-01

    Schwannoma is a tumor that develops from nerve sheath. The authors report an unusual case of schwannoma of the median nerve (MN) that remained asymptomatic for four years. The diagnosis was based on MRI (magnetic resonance imaging) and histopathological examination. Surgical removal is usually curative. The asymptomatic character of the tumor and its slow evolution remain an essential factor in diagnosis delays. This tumor has a good prognosis with a low recurrence rate and potential for malignant transformation. PMID:25125990

  17. Ultrastructure of the neurohaemal region of the toad median eminence

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E. M. Rodríguez

    1968-01-01

    According to the internal structure and size of the granules, six types of nerve endings can be distinguished in the toad median eminence: 1. Endings containing mostly dense granules of 600 Å in diameter; 2. Endings containing dense granules of about 800 Å in diameter; 3. Endings which contain dense granules 1,000–2,000 Å in diameter, with the peak at 1,200–1,400

  18. Tortuous axillary artery aneurysm causing median nerve compression.

    PubMed

    Ortiz-Pomales, Yan; Smith, Jennifer; Weiss, Jeffrey; Casey, Kevin

    2014-01-01

    Axillary artery aneurysms are rare entities that warrant surgical intervention. Reported complications include thrombosis, distal embolization, and debilitating neurologic symptoms caused by median nerve compression. Common etiologies include trauma or repetition injuries. Less recognized associations include atherosclerotic, connective tissue, or mycotic processes. We report a case of a rare tortuous axillary artery aneurysm causing neurologic symptoms in a woman with an unused arteriovenous fistula. PMID:24189011

  19. Fatigue testing of three peristernal median sternotomy closure techniques

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Cameron Wangsgard; David J Cohen; Lanny V Griffin

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Failure of a sternotomy closure because of closure system fatigue is a complication that may result in dehiscence and put the individual at risk for serious complications. The purpose of this study was to assess the fatigue performance of three peristernal median sternotomy closure techniques (figure-of-eight stainless-steel wires, figure-of-eight stainless-steel cables, or Pectofix Dynamic Sternal Fixation [DSF] stainless-steel plates)

  20. Bayesian approach based blind image deconvolution with fuzzy median filter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohan, S. Chandra; Rajan, K.; Srinivasan, R.

    2011-10-01

    The inverse problem associated with reconstruction of Poisson blurred images has attracted attention in recent years. In this paper, we propose an alternative unified approach to blind image deconvolution problem using fuzzy median filter as Gibbs prior to model the nature of inter pixel interaction for better edge preserving reconstruction. The performance of the algorithm at various SNR levels has been studied quantitatively using PSNR, RMSE and universal quality index (UQI). Comparative analysis with existing methods has also been carried out.

  1. Nonparametric inference for median costs with censored data.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Hongwei; Zuo, Chen; Chen, Shuai; Bang, Heejung

    2012-09-01

    Increasingly, estimations of health care costs are used to evaluate competing treatments or to assess the expected expenditures associated with certain diseases. In health policy and economics, the primary focus of these estimations has been on the mean cost, because the total cost can be derived directly from the mean cost, and because information about total resources utilized is highly relevant for policymakers. Yet, the median cost also could be important, both as an intuitive measure of central tendency in cost distribution and as a subject of interest to payers and consumers. In many prospective studies, cost data collection is sometimes incomplete for some subjects due to right censoring, which typically is caused by loss to follow-up or by limited study duration. Censoring poses a unique challenge for cost data analysis because of so-called induced informative censoring, in that traditional methods suited for survival data generally are invalid in censored cost estimation. In this article, we propose methods for estimating the median cost and its confidence interval (CI) when data are subject to right censoring. We also consider the estimation of the ratio and difference of two median costs and their CIs. These methods can be extended to the estimation of other quantiles and other informatively censored data. We conduct simulation and real data analysis in order to examine the performance of the proposed methods. PMID:22364557

  2. Testing the temporal relationship between maternal and adolescent depressive and anxiety symptoms in a community sample.

    PubMed

    Brown, Ruth C; Clark, Shaunna L; Dahne, Jennifer; Stratton, Kelcey J; MacPherson, Laura; Lejuez, C W; Amstadter, Ananda B

    2015-01-01

    Transactional models have been used to explain the relationship between maternal depression and child behavioral problems; however, few studies have examined transactional models for maternal depression and adolescent depression and anxiety. Using an autoregressive cross-lagged analysis, we examined the longitudinal association between maternal and adolescent depression to determine the extent to which maternal depression influences adolescent depression and anxiety, and vice versa, over the course of a 4-year period. Participants were a community sample of 277 mother-adolescent dyads with offspring 10 to 14 years of age at the 1st year used in the analyses (43.7% female; 35% African American, 2.9% Hispanic/Latino). Depressive symptoms were assessed using maternal self-report (Center for Epidemiological Studies-Depression Scale; Radloff, 1977 ), and adolescent depression and anxiety were assessed by self-report (Revised Child Anxiety and Depression Scale; Chorpita, Yim, Moffitt, Umemoto, & Francis, 2000). The final model, ?(2)(14) = 23.74, p = .05 (TLI = .97, CFI = .98, RMSEA = .05), indicated that maternal depression was significantly associated with adolescent depression 2 years later. Of interest, adolescent depression did not significantly predict maternal depression, and the association between maternal and adolescent depression was not moderated by gender, age, or ethnicity. The association between maternal depression and adolescent anxiety was weaker than that observed for adolescent depression. Results suggest that the transaction model of maternal depression may not extend to adolescent depression and anxiety. Furthermore, maternal depression can have an enduring effect on adolescent depression, and continued research and clinical monitoring over extended periods is warranted. PMID:24702257

  3. Telomere length is associated with oppositional defiant behavior and maternal clinical depression in Latino preschool children

    PubMed Central

    Wojcicki, J M; Heyman, M B; Elwan, D; Shiboski, S; Lin, J; Blackburn, E; Epel, E

    2015-01-01

    Exposure to psychological stress and depression are associated with shorter white blood cell telomere length (TL) in adults, possibly via associated lifelong oxidative stressors. Exposure to maternal depression increases risk for future depression and behavior problems in children, and Latino youth are at high risk. Few studies have evaluated the role of exposure to maternal depression or child behavior in relation to TL in children. We assessed early-childhood exposures to maternal depression from birth to the age of 5 years and child behavior from ages 3–5 years in a cohort of Latino children in relation to child leukocyte TL at ages 4 and 5 years. Children who had oppositional defiant behavior at 3, 4 or 5 years had shorter TL than those without by ~450 base pairs (P<0.01). In multivariate analyses, independent predictors for shorter TL at 4 and 5 years of age included oppositional defiant disorder at 3, 4 or 5 years (?=?359.25, 95% CI ?633.84 to 84.66; P=0.01), exposure to maternal clinical depression at 3 years of age (?=?363.99, 95% CI ?651.24 to 764.74; P=0.01), shorter maternal TL (?=502.92, 95% CI 189.21–816.63) and younger paternal age at the child's birth (?=24.63, 95% CI 1.14–48.12). Thus, exposure to maternal clinical depression (versus depressive symptoms) in early childhood was associated with deleterious consequences on child cellular health as indicated by shorter TL at 4 and 5 years of age. Similarly, children with oppositional defiant behavior also had shorter TL, possibly related to early exposures to maternal clinical depression. Our study is the first to link maternal clinical depression and oppositional defiant behavior with shorter TL in the preschool years in a relatively homogenous population of low-income Latino children. PMID:26080316

  4. Maternal cocaine use and mother-infant interactions: Direct and moderated associations

    PubMed Central

    Eiden, Rina D.; Schuetze, Pamela; Coles, Claire D.

    2010-01-01

    This study examined the associations between prenatal cocaine exposure and quality of mother-infant play interactions at 13 months of infant ages. We investigated whether maternal psychological distress and infant reactivity mediated or moderated this association. Participants consisted of 220 (119 cocaine exposed, 101 non-cocaine exposed) mother-infant dyads participating in an ongoing longitudinal study of prenatal cocaine exposure. Results indicated that mothers who used cocaine during pregnancy displayed higher negative affect and lower sensitivity toward their infant during play interactions at 13 months, and that their infants were less responsive toward them. Contrary to hypothesis, this association was not mediated by maternal psychological distress or by infant reactivity. However, results for both the cocaine and non-cocaine exposed infants were supportive of a transactional model where lower maternal sensitivity at 1 month was predictive of higher infant reactivity at 7 months, which in turn was predictive of lower maternal warmth/sensitivity at 13 months, controlling for potential stability in maternal behavior. Results also indicated that as hypothesized, infant reactivity moderated the association between maternal cocaine use during pregnancy and maternal warmth/sensitivity at 13 months of age. Cocaine using mothers who experienced their infants as being more reactive in early infancy were less warm/sensitive toward them in later infancy. Results have implications for parenting interventions that may be targeted toward improving maternal sensitivity among cocaine using mothers with more reactive infants. PMID:21256426

  5. Gestational weight gain, early pregnancy maternal adiposity distribution, and maternal hyperglycemia.

    PubMed

    Tomedi, Laura E; Simhan, Hyagriv N; Chang, Chung-Chou H; McTigue, Kathleen M; Bodnar, Lisa M

    2014-07-01

    To estimate the effects of gestational weight gain (GWG), central adiposity and subcutaneous fat on maternal post-load glucose concentration, pregnant women [n = 413, 62% black, 57% with pregravid body mass index (BMI) ?25] enrolled in a cohort study at ?13 weeks gestation. GWG was abstracted from medical records. In a sub-sample of women (n = 214), waist circumference (WC), and biceps and triceps skinfold thicknesses were measured at enrollment. At 24-28 weeks gestation, post-load glucose concentration was measured using a 50-g 1-h oral glucose tolerance test. After adjustment for pre-pregnancy BMI, age, parity, race/ethnicity, smoking, marital status, annual family income, education, family history of diabetes, and gestational age of GDM screening, each 0.3-kg/week increase in weight in the first trimester was associated with a 2.2 (95% CI 0.1, 4.3)-mg/dl increase in glucose concentration. Each 8.6-mm increase in biceps skinfold thickness and each 11.7-mm increase in triceps skinfold thickness was associated with 4.3 (95% CI 0.2, 8.5)-mg/dl increase in maternal glucose, independent of BMI and other confounders. Neither GWG in the second trimester nor WC at ?13 weeks was significantly associated with glucose concentration after confounder adjustment. Independent of pre-pregnancy BMI, high early pregnancy GWG and maternal subcutaneous body fat may be positively associated with maternal glucose concentrations at 24-28 weeks. PMID:24101436

  6. Trends in adverse maternal outcomes during childbirth: a population-based study of severe maternal morbidity

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Christine L Roberts; Jane B Ford; Charles S. Algert; Jane C Bell; Judy M Simpson; Jonathan M. Morris

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Maternal mortality is too rare in high income countries to be used as a marker of the quality of maternity care. Consequently severe maternal morbidity has been suggested as a better indicator. Using the maternal morbidity outcome indicator (MMOI) developed and validated for use in routinely collected population health data, we aimed to determine trends in severe adverse maternal

  7. A Transactional Analysis of the Relation between Maternal Sensitivity and Child Vagal Regulation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perry, Nicole B.; Mackler, Jennifer S.; Calkins, Susan D.; Keane, Susan P.

    2014-01-01

    A transactional model examining the longitudinal association between vagal regulation (as indexed by vagal withdrawal) and maternal sensitivity from age 2.5 to age 5.5 was assessed. The sample included 356 children (171 male, 185 female) and their mothers who participated in a laboratory visit at age 2.5, 4.5, and 5.5. Cardiac vagal tone was…

  8. Age at menarche in urban Argentinian girls: association with biological and socioeconomic factors.

    PubMed

    Orden, Alicia B; Vericat, Agustina; Apezteguía, Maria C

    2011-01-01

    Age at menarche is regarded as a sensitive indicator of physical, biological, and psychosocial environment. The aim of this study was to determine the age at menarche and its association with biological and socioeconomic factors in girls from Santa Rosa (La Pampa, Argentina). An observational cross-sectional study was carried out on 1,221 schoolgirls aged 9-15 years. Menarche data were obtained by the status-quo method. Height, sitting height, weight, arm circumference, tricipital and subscapular skinfolds were measured. We also calculated body mass index, measures of body composition and proportions, and fat distribution. To assess socioeconomic factors, parents completed a self-administered questionnaire about their occupation and education, family size, household, and other family characteristics. The median age at menarche - estimated by the logit method--was 12.84 years (95% CI: 12.71, 12.97). Compared with their premenarcheal age peers, postmenarcheal girls had greater anthropometric dimensions through age 12. After this age, only height was higher in the latter group. Data were processed by fitting two logistic regressions, both including age. The first model included anthropometric variables and birth weight, while the second model included the socioeconomic variables. The significant variables derived from each model were incorporated into a new regression: height, sitting height ratio (first model), and maternal education (second model). These three variables remained significantly associated with menarche. The results suggest a relationship between linear growth and menarche and agree with those found in other populations where the advancement of menarche is associated with improved living conditions. In relatively uniform urban contexts, maternal education may be a good proxy for the standard of living. PMID:21905419

  9. In-utero exposure to DDT and cognitive development among infants and school-aged children

    PubMed Central

    Jusko, Todd A.; Klebanoff, Mark A.; Brock, John W.; Longnecker, Matthew P.

    2012-01-01

    Background Dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) continues to be used for control of infectious diseases in several countries. In-utero exposure to DDT and dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (DDE) has been associated with developmental and cognitive impairment among children. We examined this association in an historical cohort in which the level of exposure was greater than in previous studies. Methods The association of in-utero DDT and DDE exposure with infant and child neurodevelopment was examined in approximately 1100 subjects in the Collaborative Perinatal Project, a prospective birth cohort enrolling pregnant women from 12 study centers in the U.S. from 1959 to 1965. Maternal DDT and DDE concentrations were measured in archived serum specimens. Infant mental and motor development was assessed at age 8 months using the Bayley Scales of Infant Development, and child cognitive development was assessed at age 7 years using the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children. Results Although levels of both DDT and DDE were relatively high in this population (median DDT concentration, 8.9 µg/L; DDE, 24.5 µg/L), neither was related to Mental or Psychomotor Development scores on the Bayley Scales or to Full-Scale IQ at 7 years of age. Categorical analyses showed no evidence of dose-response for either maternal DDT or DDE, and estimates of the association between continuous measures of exposure and neurodevelopment were indistinguishable from 0. Conclusions Adverse associations were not observed between maternal serum DDT and DDE concentrations and offspring neurodevelopment at 8 months or 7 years of age in this cohort. PMID:22766752

  10. Inequity in India: the case of maternal and reproductive health

    PubMed Central

    Sanneving, Linda; Trygg, Nadja; Saxena, Deepak; Mavalankar, Dileep; Thomsen, Sarah

    2013-01-01

    Background Millennium Development Goal (MDG) 5 is focused on reducing maternal mortality and achieving universal access to reproductive health care. India has made extensive efforts to achieve MDG 5 and in some regions much progress has been achieved. Progress has been uneven and inequitable however, and many women still lack access to maternal and reproductive health care. Objective In this review, a framework developed by the Commission on Social Determinants of Health (CSDH) is used to categorize and explain determinants of inequity in maternal and reproductive health in India. Design A review of peer-reviewed, published literature was conducted using the electronic databases PubMed and Popline. The search was performed using a carefully developed list of search terms designed to capture published papers from India on: 1) maternal and reproductive health, and 2) equity, including disadvantaged populations. A matrix was developed to sort the relevant information, which was extracted and categorized based on the CSDH framework. In this way, the main sources of inequity in maternal and reproductive health in India and their inter-relationships were determined. Results Five main structural determinants emerged from the analysis as important in understanding equity in India: economic status, gender, education, social status (registered caste or tribe), and age (adolescents). These five determinants were found to be closely interrelated, a feature which was reflected in the literature. Conclusion In India, economic status, gender, and social status are all closely interrelated when influencing use of and access to maternal and reproductive health care. Appropriate attention should be given to how these social determinants interplay in generating and sustaining inequity when designing policies and programs to reach equitable progress toward improved maternal and reproductive health. PMID:23561028

  11. Maternal employment and childhood obesity--a European perspective.

    PubMed

    Gwozdz, Wencke; Sousa-Poza, Alfonso; Reisch, Lucia A; Ahrens, Wolfgang; Eiben, Gabriele; M Fernandéz-Alvira, Juan; Hadjigeorgiou, Charalampos; De Henauw, Stefaan; Kovács, Eva; Lauria, Fabio; Veidebaum, Toomas; Williams, Garrath; Bammann, Karin

    2013-07-01

    The substantial increase in female employment rates in Europe over the past two decades has often been linked in political and public rhetoric to negative effects on child development, including obesity. We analyse this association between maternal employment and childhood obesity using rich objective reports of various anthropometric and other measures of fatness from the IDEFICS study of children aged 2-9 in 16 regions of eight European countries. Based on such data as accelerometer measures and information from nutritional diaries, we also investigate the effects of maternal employment on obesity's main drivers: calorie intake and physical activity. Our analysis provides little evidence for any association between maternal employment and childhood obesity, diet or physical activity. PMID:23721884

  12. Maternal Risk Factors for Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders

    PubMed Central

    May, Philip A.; Gossage, J. Phillip

    2011-01-01

    Gathering information about drinking during pregnancy is one of the most difficult aspects of studying fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD). This information is critical to linking specific risk factors to any particular diagnosis within the FASD continuum. This article reviews highlights from the literature on maternal risk factors for FASD and illustrates that maternal risk is multidimensional, including factors related to quantity, frequency, and timing of alcohol exposure; maternal age; number of pregnancies; number of times the mother has given birth; the mother’s body size; nutrition; socioeconomic status; metabolism; religion; spirituality; depression; other drug use; and social relationships. More research is needed to more clearly define what type of individual behavioral, physical, and genetic factors are most likely to lead to having children with FASD. PMID:23580036

  13. Maternal Influences on Youth Responses to Peer Stress

    PubMed Central

    Abaied, Jamie L.; Rudolph, Karen D.

    2011-01-01

    Understanding how youth develop particular styles of responding to stress is critical for promoting effective coping. This research examined the prospective, interactive contribution of maternal socialization of coping and peer stress to youth responses to peer stress. A sample of 144 early adolescents (M age = 12.44, SD = 1.22) and their maternal caregivers completed questionnaires and semi-structured interviews in two waves over a one-year period. Results revealed that mothers’ disengagement coping suggestions predicted maladaptive responses to stress, particularly for youth who received low levels of engagement suggestions, and engagement coping suggestions protected youth against maladaptive responses to stress. Importantly, these effects emerged only in the context of heightened peer stress. This research suggests that maternal socialization of coping has the potential to support or undermine youths’ development of an effective repertoire of responses to stress. PMID:21910532

  14. Reproductive success in female mountain goats: the influence of age and social rank

    Microsoft Academic Search

    STEEVE D. CO; MARCO FESTA-BIANCHET

    2001-01-01

    In mammals, reproductive success may be positively correlated with both maternal age and social rank. Because social rank often increases with age, however, the effects of rank and age on reproductive success are difficult to separate. We studied a marked population of mountain goats, Oreamnos americanus ,t o assess the relative effects of maternal age and social rank on kid

  15. Reproductive success in female mountain goats: the influence of age and social rank

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Steeve D. Côté; Marco Festa-Bianchet

    2001-01-01

    In mammals, reproductive success may be positively correlated with both maternal age and social rank. Because social rank often increases with age, however, the effects of rank and age on reproductive success are difficult to separate. We studied a marked population of mountain goats, Oreamnos americanus, to assess the relative effects of maternal age and social rank on kid production

  16. The development and prediction of atopy in high-risk children: Follow-up at age seven years in a prospective randomized study of combined maternal and infant food allergen avoidance

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Robert S. Zeiger; Susan Heller

    1995-01-01

    Background: The natural history of allergic disease and its potential for prevention merit close examination because of the explosive worldwide increase in the prevalence and morbidity of atopic disorders. This study examines the development of atopy at age 7 years in 165 children in a high-risk cohort, previously reported from birth to age 4 years. Methods: In this prospective, randomized,

  17. Impact of maternal seafood diet on fetal exposure to mercury, selenium, and lead

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. Grandjean; P. Weihe; T. Videroe; P. J. Joergensen; T. Clarkson; E. Cernichiari

    2009-01-01

    Umbilical cord blood from 1,023 consecutive births in the Faroe Islands showed a median blood-mercury concentration of 121 nmol\\/l (24.2 μg\\/l); 250 of those samples (25.1%) had blood-mercury concentrations that exceeded 200 nmol\\/l (40 μg\\/l). Maternal hair mercury concentrations showed a median of 22.5 nmol\\/g (4.5 μg\\/g), and 130 samples (12.7%) contained concentrations that exceeded 50 nmol\\/g (10 μg\\/g). Frequent

  18. Interactive Fly: Maternally transcribed genes

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    PhD Thomas B Brody (NIH Laboratory of Neurochemistry)

    2006-11-13

    The maternally transcribed genes section of the award-winning and comprehensive site: Interactive fly. It thoroughly discusses genes, tissues, biochemical paths, and developmental processes in the fruit fly, Drosophila.

  19. Taking stock of two decades of attachment transmission gap: broadening the assessment of maternal behavior.

    PubMed

    Bernier, Annie; Matte-Gagné, Célia; Bélanger, Marie-Ève; Whipple, Natasha

    2014-01-01

    This report aimed to investigate the capacity of maternal behaviors tailored to children's attachment and exploration systems to jointly explain the well-known mother-child transmission of attachment. Four home visits were conducted between ages 7 months and 2 years with 130 mother-child dyads to assess maternal attachment state of mind, sensitivity, autonomy support, and mother-child attachment security. Results showed that together, maternal sensitivity and autonomy support fully accounted for the relation between maternal and child attachment, that they each accounted for a unique portion of this relation, and that the magnitude of these mediated pathways was equivalent. These results suggest that the attachment transmission gap can be narrowed by the use of a theory-driven multidimensional approach to maternal behavior. PMID:24611791

  20. Memory, maternal representations and internalizing symptomatology among abused, neglected and nonmaltreated children

    PubMed Central

    Valentino, Kristin; Cicchetti, Dante; Rogosch, Fred A.; Toth, Sheree L.

    2009-01-01

    A depth-of-processing incidental recall task for maternal referent stimuli was utilized to assess basic memory processes and the affective valence of maternal-representations among abused (N = 63), neglected (N= 33) and nonmaltreated (N = 128) school-aged children. Self-reported and observer-rated indices of internalizing symptoms were also assessed. Abused children demonstrated impairments in recall compared to neglected and nonmaltreated children. Although abused, neglected, and nonmaltreated children did not differ in valence of maternal representations, positive- and negative-maternal schemas related to internalizing symptoms differently among subgroups of maltreated children. Valence of maternal schema was critical in differentiating those with high and low internalizing symptomatology among the neglected children only. Implications for clinical intervention and prevention efforts are underscored. PMID:18489422

  1. Maternal adaptation during pregnancy among adult early, middle, and late childbearers: similarities and differences.

    PubMed

    Gottesman, M M

    1992-01-01

    Women 20-24 (n = 10), 25-29 (n = 13), and 30 and over (n = 18) were interviewed and their responses compared on six variables: maternal-fetal relationship, quality of the marital relationship, preparation for motherhood, attitude towards the pregnancy, maternal role conceptualization, and motivation for motherhood. Later childbearing was significantly related to three variables: motivation for motherhood, maternal-fetal relationship, and maternal role conceptualization. Women 25-29 years old were more similar to women 30 years and older than to younger women. The data suggest that young adult women 20-24 years old may experience more difficulty in prenatal adjustment to the maternal role than those 25 and older. Data also suggest the need to reconsider the traditional age-comparative split of the 20s versus the 30s. PMID:1287372

  2. Electrophysiological Properties of Cells in the Median Ocellus of Limulus

    PubMed Central

    Nolte, John; Brown, Joel E.

    1972-01-01

    Two types of photoreceptors are found in the median ocellus of Limulus. One type is maximally sensitive to ultraviolet (UV) light, the other to green light; they are called UV and VIS cells, respectively. Biphasic receptor potentials, consisting of a small initial hyperpolarizing phase and a later slow depolarizing phase, can be recorded from both receptor types. These biphasic responses are elicited in UV cells in response to long-wavelength light, and in VIS cells in response to ultraviolet light. Another type of hyperpolarizing response can be recorded in UV cells: after a bright ultraviolet stimulus, the cell remains depolarized; long-wavelength light rapidly returns the membrane potential to its value preceding ultraviolet illumination (this long-wavelength-induced potential change is called a "repolarizing response"). Also, a long-wavelength stimulus superimposed during a UV stimulus elicits a sustained repolarizing response. A third cell type (arhabdomeric cell) found in the median ocellus generates large action potentials and is maximally sensitive to UV light. Biphasic responses and repolarizing responses also can be recorded from arhabdomeric cells. The retina is divided into groups of cells; both UV cells and VIS cells can occur in the same group. UV cells in the same group are electrically coupled to one another and to an arhabdomeric cell. PMID:5058473

  3. The Mouse Median Nerve Experimental Model in Regenerative Research

    PubMed Central

    Buskbjerg Jager, Sara

    2014-01-01

    Sciatic nerve crush injury in rat animal model is one of the most common experimental models used in regenerative research. However, the availability of transgenic mouse for nerve regeneration studies is constantly increasing and, therefore, the shift from rat model to mouse model is, in some cases, necessary. Moreover, since most of the human nerve lesions occur in the upper limb, it is also advantageous to shift from sciatic nerve to median nerve. In this study we described an experimental model which involves lesions of the median nerve in the mouse. Data showed that the finger flexor muscle contraction strength, assessed to evaluate the motor function recovery, and reached values not different from the control already 20 days after injury. The degree of nerve regeneration evaluated with stereological methods in light microscopy showed that, 25 days after injury, the number of regenerated myelinated fibers was comparable to the control, but they were smaller with a thinner myelin thickness. Stereological analysis made in electron microscopy confirmed these results, although the total number of fibers quantified was significantly higher compared to light microscopy analysis, due to the very small size of some fibers that can be detected only in electron microscopy. PMID:25180190

  4. Anatomical Variation: Median Nerve Formation – A Case Vignette

    PubMed Central

    Sinha, Pranoti; Tamang, Binod Kumar; Sarda, Rohit Kumar

    2014-01-01

    Variations in the arrangement and distribution of brachial plexus and its branches in the infraclavicular part are common and have been reported by several investigators since the 19th century. These variations are significant for the neurologists, surgeons, anesthetists and the anatomists. During routine anatomical dissection of the right axilla and infraclavicular region of a 45-year-old male cadaver, the medial root of the median nerve was found to receive a supplementary branch from the medial aspect of the terminal portion of the lateral cord of brachial plexus and the branch was passing infront of the axillary artery from lateral to medial side. The median nerve was formed by joining of the lateral and medial roots from the lateral and medial cords of brachial plexus, infront of brachial artery, lower down, at the junction of upper one-third and lower two-third of the arm, instead in the axilla. This variation could be one of the cause of pressure symptom which occurs on the axillary artery and also the injury which occurs on the lateral cord or upstream to the lateral cord, which may sometimes lead to an unexpected presentation of weakness of forearm flexors and thenar muscles. PMID:25120965

  5. Reciprocal Influences between Maternal Language and Children's Language and Cognitive Development in Low-Income Families

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Song, Lulu; Spier, Elizabeth T.; Tamis-Lemonda, Catherine S.

    2014-01-01

    We examined reciprocal associations between early maternal language use and children's language and cognitive development in seventy ethnically diverse, low-income families. Mother-child dyads were videotaped when children were aged 2;0 and 3;0. Video transcripts were analyzed for quantity and lexical diversity of maternal and child language.…

  6. Maternal Parenting Behaviors during Childhood Relate to Weight Status and Fruit and Vegetable Intake of College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murashima, Megumi; Hoerr, Sharon L.; Hughes, Sheryl O.; Kattelmann, Kendra K.; Phillips, Beatrice W.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Examine how maternal parenting behaviors in childhood, both general and feeding specific, relate to weight status and fruit and vegetable consumption in college students. Design: Retrospective surveys on maternal behaviors and assessments on the college-aged child's current anthropometric measures and dietary intakes. Participants:…

  7. Specific role of maternal weight change in the first trimester of1 pregnancy on birth size2

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    1 1 Specific role of maternal weight change in the first trimester of1 pregnancy on birth size2 birthweight after accounting for gestational age (Kramer et al., 2002). When BMI before38 pregnancy is taken into account, maternal weight gain during pregnancy has an independent39 positive effect on birthweight (Heude

  8. Effects of Maternal Intelligence, Marital Status, Income, and Home Environment on Cognitive Development of Low Birthweight Infants

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Verne R. Bacharach; Alfred A. Baumeister

    1998-01-01

    Objective: To examine direct and mediated effects of maternal IQ, marital status, family income, and quality of the home environment on the cognitive development of low birthweight infants. Methods: Secondary analyses on a large dataset using hierarchical regression identified factors correlated with cognitive outcomes in children at 3 years of age who were bom at low birthweight. Results: Maternal IQ

  9. The Timing of Prenatal Exposure to Maternal Cortisol and Psychosocial Stress Is Associated with Human Infant Cognitive Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Elysia P.; Sandman, Curt A.

    2010-01-01

    The consequences of prenatal maternal stress for development were examined in 125 full-term infants at 3, 6, and 12 months of age. Maternal cortisol and psychological state were evaluated 5 times during pregnancy. Exposure to elevated concentrations of cortisol early in gestation was associated with a slower rate of development over the 1st year…

  10. Maternal Dysphoric Mood, Stress, and Parenting Practices in Mothers of Head Start Preschoolers: The Role of Experiential Avoidance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shea, Sarah E.; Coyne, Lisa W.

    2011-01-01

    Maternal dysphoria predicts behavioral difficulties in preschool-aged children, and may contribute to negative child outcomes by exacerbating parenting stress. Parenting stress increases the likelihood of maladaptive parenting practices, especially when mothers face multiple contextual stressors. We explored maternal experiential avoidance (EA) as…

  11. Elevated Risk of Nicotine Dependence Among Sib-pairs Discordant for Maternal Smoking During Pregnancy

    PubMed Central

    Shenassa, Edmond D.; Papandonatos, George D.; Rogers, Michelle L.; Buka, Stephen L.

    2015-01-01

    Background Compelling evidence links maternal smoking during pregnancy with elevated risk of nicotine dependence among the offspring. However, no study to date has examined the maternal smoking during pregnancy-nicotine dependence link among sibling-pairs discordant for maternal smoking during pregnancy. We tested two hypotheses that, if supported, suggest that the maternal smoking during pregnancy-nicotine dependence link may be physiologically mediated. Methods Study participants were adult offspring of women enrolled in the Providence and Boston sites of the Collaborative Perinatal Project (1959–1966). Approximately 10% of these adult offspring (average age: 39.6 years) were enrolled in the New England Family Study (n = 1,783), a follow-up study that oversampled families with multiple siblings. Logistic regression models predicting maternal smoking during pregnancy risk on various prospectively collected smoking and marijuana use outcomes, including nicotine dependence, were fit using models that allowed between-mother effects of maternal smoking during pregnancy exposure to differ from within-mother effects. In the absence of significant effect heterogeneity, we calculated a combined estimate. Results Maternal smoking during pregnancy predicted progression from weekly smoking to nicotine dependence (odds ratio = 1.4 [95% confidence interval = 1.2, 1.8]), but not weekly smoking or progression to marijuana dependence. Conclusions Current evidence from sibling-pairs discordant for maternal smoking during pregnancy is consistent with previous reports of a dose–response association between maternal smoking during pregnancy and nicotine dependence, as well as of up-regulation of nicotine receptors among animals exposed to maternal smoking during pregnancy. Together, they provide support for the existence of a physiologically mediated link between maternal smoking during pregnancy and nicotine dependence. PMID:25767988

  12. Maternal Depression and the Intergenerational Transmission of Relational Impairment

    PubMed Central

    Katz, Shaina J.; Hammen, Constance L.; Brennan, Patricia A.

    2013-01-01

    Previous research has demonstrated that the offspring of depressed mothers are at greater risk for negative psychopathological and psychosocial outcomes than children of non-depressed mothers. The current study specifically examines offspring’s romantic relationship quality during the transition to adulthood as a function of maternal depression and three putative mechanisms for this association: youth depression history, mother-child relationship discord, and maternal romantic relationship difficulties. The study further explores the role of these factors in the risk for depressive symptoms during the transition to adulthood. Hypotheses were examined longitudinally in a community sample of 182 Australian youth who were followed from birth to age 20 and were in committed romantic relationships at age 20 with romantic partners willing to provide data regarding romantic relationship satisfaction. Structural equation modeling analyses found support for a direct effect of maternal depression on youth romantic relationship quality with significant mediation by mother-child relationship discord, as well as an association between mother-child relationship discord and later depressive symptoms that is mediated by youth romantic relationship quality. Findings also lend support for an indirect effect from maternal depression to youth depressive symptoms via mother-child relationship discord and youth romantic relationship quality. This study provides further evidence for the negative psychosocial and psychopathological outcomes of children of depressed mothers and the intergenerational transmission of relational difficulties. PMID:23421836

  13. The Role of Maternal Gesture Use in Speech Use by Children with Fragile X Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Hahn, Laura J.; Zimmer, B. Jean; Brady, Nancy C.; Swinburne Romine, Rebecca E.; Fleming, Kandace K.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of this study was to investigate how maternal gesture relates to speech production by children with fragile X syndrome (FXS). Method Participants were 27 young children with FXS (23 boys, 4 girls) and their mothers. Videotaped home observations were conducted between the ages of 25 and 37 months (toddler period), and again between the ages of 60 and 71 months (child period). The videos were later coded for types of maternal utterances and maternal gestures that preceded child speech productions. Children were also assessed with the Mullen Scales of Early Learning at both ages Results Maternal gesture use in the toddler period was positively related to expressive language scores at both age periods, and was related to receptive language scores in the child period. Maternal proximal pointing, in comparison to other gestures, evoked more speech responses from children during the mother-child interactions particularly when combined with wh-questions. Conclusion This study adds to the growing body of research on the importance of contextual variables, such as maternal gestures, in child language development. Parental gesture use may be an easily added ingredient to parent-focused early language intervention programs. PMID:24686460

  14. Preconception maternal nutrition: a multi-site randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Research directed to optimizing maternal nutrition commencing prior to conception remains very limited, despite suggestive evidence of its importance in addition to ensuring an optimal nutrition environment in the periconceptional period and throughout the first trimester of pregnancy. Methods/Study design This is an individually randomized controlled trial of the impact on birth length (primary outcome) of the time at which a maternal nutrition intervention is commenced: Arm 1: ? 3 mo preconception vs. Arm 2: 12-14 wk gestation vs. Arm 3: none. 192 (derived from 480) randomized mothers and living offspring in each arm in each of four research sites (Guatemala, India, Pakistan, Democratic Republic of the Congo). The intervention is a daily 20 g lipid-based (118 kcal) multi-micronutient (MMN) supplement. Women randomized to receive this intervention with body mass index (BMI) <20 or whose gestational weight gain is low will receive an additional 300 kcal/d as a balanced energy-protein supplement. Researchers will visit homes biweekly to deliver intervention and monitor compliance, pregnancy status and morbidity; ensure prenatal and delivery care; and promote breast feeding. The primary outcome is birth length. Secondary outcomes include: fetal length at 12 and 34 wk; incidence of low birth weight (LBW); neonatal/infant anthropometry 0-6 mo of age; infectious disease morbidity; maternal, fetal, newborn, and infant epigenetics; maternal and infant nutritional status; maternal and infant microbiome; gut inflammatory biomarkers and bioactive and nutritive compounds in breast milk. The primary analysis will compare birth Length-for-Age Z-score (LAZ) among trial arms (independently for each site, estimated effect size: 0.35). Additional statistical analyses will examine the secondary outcomes and a pooled analysis of data from all sites. Discussion Positive results of this trial will support a paradigm shift in attention to nutrition of all females of child-bearing age. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01883193. PMID:24650219

  15. Median nerve somatosensory evoked potentials. Apomorphine-induced transient potentiation of frontal components Clin. Parkinson's disease and in parkinsonism

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Paolo M. Rossini; M. Antonietta Bassetti; Patrizio Pasqualetti

    1995-01-01

    Somatosensory evoked potentials (SEPs) to median nerve stimulation have been recorded from parietal and frontal districts Clin. 43 parkinsonians, 17 patients with parkinsonism and 35 healthy controls matched for age and sex. Latency\\/ amplitude characteristics of the parietal P14-N20-P25 and of the frontal P20-N30-P40 wave complexes before and after (10, 20, 30 and 60 min) subcutaneous administration of apomorphine chloride

  16. Altered brain morphometry in carpal tunnel syndrome is associated with median nerve pathology???

    PubMed Central

    Maeda, Yumi; Kettner, Norman; Sheehan, James; Kim, Jieun; Cina, Stephen; Malatesta, Cristina; Gerber, Jessica; McManus, Claire; Mezzacappa, Pia; Morse, Leslie R.; Audette, Joseph; Napadow, Vitaly

    2013-01-01

    Objective Carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS) is a common median nerve entrapment neuropathy characterized by pain, paresthesias, diminished peripheral nerve conduction velocity (NCV) and maladaptive functional brain neuroplasticity. We evaluated structural reorganization in brain gray matter (GM) and white matter (WM) and whether such plasticity is linked to altered median nerve function in CTS. Methods We performed NCV testing, T1-weighted structural MRI, and diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) in 28 CTS and 28 age-matched healthy controls (HC). Voxel-based morphometry (VBM) contrasted regional GM volume for CTS versus HC. Significant clusters were correlated with clinical metrics and served as seeds to define associated WM tracts using DTI data and probabilistic tractography. Within these WM tracts, fractional anisotropy (FA), axial (AD) and radial (RD) diffusivity were evaluated for group differences and correlations with clinical metrics. Results For CTS subjects, GM volume was significantly reduced in contralesional S1 (hand-area), pulvinar and frontal pole. GM volume in contralesional S1 correlated with median NCV. NCV was also correlated with RD and was negatively correlated with FA within U-fiber cortico-cortical association tracts identified from the contralesional S1 VBM seed. Conclusions Our study identified clear morphometric changes in the CTS brain. This central morphometric change is likely secondary to peripheral nerve pathology and altered somatosensory afference. Enhanced axonal coherence and myelination within cortico-cortical tracts connecting primary somatosensory and motor areas may accompany peripheral nerve deafferentation. As structural plasticity was correlated with NCV and not symptomatology, the former may be a better determinant of appropriate clinical intervention for CTS, including surgery. PMID:23799199

  17. Are you what your mother weighs? Evaluating the impact of maternal weight trajectories on youth overweight.

    PubMed

    Kowaleski-Jones, Lori; Brown, Barbara B; Fan, Jessie X; Smith, Ken R; Zick, Cathleen D

    2010-09-01

    In this study, we investigate how three alternative measures of maternal body mass index (BMI) relate to youth overweight. We contrast the typical cross-sectional measure of maternal BMI with a longitudinal mean and a standard deviation in maternal BMI. Using National Longitudinal Survey of Youth data, we estimate logistic regressions that relate maternal BMI to the risk of a youth being overweight while controlling for other familial characteristics. Participants in this study are 918 males and 841 females who were age 16-21 and either healthy weight or overweight in 2006. To be eligible for inclusion, teens were 15 years old by December 2006. After comparing several measures of maternal weight, we find that higher mean maternal BMI measured over the life of the adolescent has the strongest relationship with the odds of youth overweight for both male and female adolescents. For boys, a one unit increase in mother's mean BMI increases the odds of being overweight by 16% (OR = 1.16, 95% CI 1.11-1.20) while for girls the increase in the odds of being overweight is 13% (OR = 1.13, 95% CI 1.09-1.18). Our findings suggest that researchers should move beyond static measures of maternal weight when examining the correlates of youth BMI. Maternal weight histories offer additional insights about the youth's home environment that are associated with the risk of a youth being overweight. PMID:19582561

  18. Prenatal maternal depression alters amygdala functional connectivity in 6-month-old infants

    PubMed Central

    Qiu, A; Anh, T T; Li, Y; Chen, H; Rifkin-Graboi, A; Broekman, B F P; Kwek, K; Saw, S-M; Chong, Y-S; Gluckman, P D; Fortier, M V; Meaney, M J

    2015-01-01

    Prenatal maternal depression is associated with alterations in the neonatal amygdala microstructure, shedding light on the timing for the influence of prenatal maternal depression on the brain structure of the offspring. This study aimed to examine the association between prenatal maternal depressive symptomatology and infant amygdala functional connectivity and to thus establish the neural functional basis for the transgenerational transmission of vulnerability for affective disorders during prenatal development. Twenty-four infants were included in this study with both structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and resting-state functional MRI (fMRI) at 6 months of age. Maternal depression was assessed at 26 weeks of gestation and 3 months after delivery using the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale. Linear regression was used to identify the amygdala functional networks and to examine the associations between prenatal maternal depressive symptoms and amygdala functional connectivity. Our results showed that at 6 months of age, the amygdala is functionally connected to widespread brain regions, forming the emotional regulation, sensory and perceptual, and emotional memory networks. After controlling for postnatal maternal depressive symptoms, infants born to mothers with higher prenatal maternal depressive symptoms showed greater functional connectivity of the amygdala with the left temporal cortex and insula, as well as the bilateral anterior cingulate, medial orbitofrontal and ventromedial prefrontal cortices, which are largely consistent with patterns of connectivity observed in adolescents and adults with major depressive disorder. Our study provides novel evidence that prenatal maternal depressive symptomatology alters the amygdala's functional connectivity in early postnatal life, which reveals that the neuroimaging correlates of the familial transmission of phenotypes associated with maternal mood are apparent in infants at 6 months of age. PMID:25689569

  19. Mesopontine median raphe regulates hippocampal ripple oscillation and memory consolidation.

    PubMed

    Wang, Dong V; Yau, Hau-Jie; Broker, Carl J; Tsou, Jen-Hui; Bonci, Antonello; Ikemoto, Satoshi

    2015-05-01

    Sharp wave-associated field oscillations (?200 Hz) of the hippocampus, referred to as ripples, are believed to be important for consolidation of explicit memory. Little is known about how ripples are regulated by other brain regions. We found that the median raphe region (MnR) is important for regulating hippocampal ripple activity and memory consolidation. We performed in vivo simultaneous recording in the MnR and hippocampus of mice and found that, when a group of MnR neurons was active, ripples were absent. Consistently, optogenetic stimulation of MnR neurons suppressed ripple activity and inhibition of these neurons increased ripple activity. Notably, using a fear conditioning procedure, we found that photostimulation of MnR neurons interfered with memory consolidation. Our results demonstrate a critical role of the MnR in regulating ripples and memory consolidation. PMID:25867120

  20. Using hierarchical P-median problem for public school allocation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nasir, Noryanti; Shariff, S. Sarifah Radiah

    2014-09-01

    Student's orientation from primary to the secondary schools is a vital process and need to be considered as yearly problem by The District Education Office of Ministry of Education Malaysia. The allocation of students to the right schools becomes complicated due to several constraints like capacity of seats in secondary schools, widespread demand areas as well as preferences by the parents. Considering all the constraints, this study proposes the application of location model to allocate students the right school. The allocation of student from primary to secondary school is based on total number of students, the availability of seats from primary and at the secondary schools, and distance from student's home to the nearest schools, both primary and secondary schools. The problem is modelled as hierarchical P-median problem as there are two hierarchical levels in this orientation. An alternative Genetic Algorithm (GA) based heuristic is applied to solve the problem and results are compared with Excel Solver.

  1. Maternal familism predicts birthweight and asthma symptoms three years later.

    PubMed

    Abdou, Cleopatra M; Dominguez, Tyan Parker; Myers, Hector F

    2013-01-01

    There are marked ethnic and socioeconomic differences in birthweight and childhood asthma, conditions which may be linked causally or via a third variable. Cultural resources are often credited with diminished health disparities in infancy and childhood among subsets of poor and minority populations; yet direct empirical tests of this hypothesis are needed. In this study, ethnicity, lifespan family socioeconomic position (FSEP), and the cultural resource of familism were compared as predictors of birthweight and expression of asthma symptoms (AE) by age three. Familism and lifespan FSEP were assessed in 4633 socioeconomically disadvantaged African Americans, White Americans, and Latinas upon giving birth, as was offspring birthweight. AE was assessed in offspring through age three. Asthma diagnosis by age three was likelier in very low (? 1500 g) and low (? 2500 g) birthweight infants compared to infants born at average (2501-3999 g) or larger (? 4000 g) birthweights. Asthma risk associated with lower birthweight was higher for Latinos (17-35%) and African Americans (19-23%) than for White Americans (13-14%). As predicted, maternal familism was higher among White Americans than among African Americans and Latinas, an effect that was largely driven by ethnic disparities in lifespan FSEP. Familism predicted continuous birthweight (p = .003) and AE (p = .001) by age three independently of ethnicity and lifespan FSEP accounting for appropriate control variables, including maternal biomedical risk, maternal acculturation, parental marital status, and infant sex. There was a 71-g gain in birthweight for every one-unit increase in familism. The protective effect of familism on AE by age three was strongest for participants of lower lifespan FSEP. Maternal familism is one cultural resource that may reduce reproductive and intergenerational health disparities in both U.S.- and foreign-born Americans. Consistent with our previous work, familism and other nonmaterial resources covary with material resources. Nevertheless, culture is distinguishable from lifespan FSEP and ethnicity, and has health implications beyond associations to ethnicity, lifespan FSEP, and related biomedical and sociodemographic factors. PMID:23142569

  2. Infant and parent factors associated with early maternal sensitivity: a caregiver-attachment systems approach.

    PubMed

    Mills-Koonce, W Roger; Gariépy, Jean-Louis; Propper, Cathi; Sutton, Kelly; Calkins, Susan; Moore, Ginger; Cox, Martha

    2007-02-01

    We examined variations in maternal sensitivity at 6 months of child age as a function of child negativity and maternal physiology. We expected maternal vagal withdrawal in response to infant negative affect to facilitate the maintenance of sensitivity, but only for mothers of securely attached children. One hundred and forty-eight infant-mother dyads were observed in multiple contexts at 6 months of child age, and associations among maternal and child variables were examined with respect to 12-month attachment quality. Mothers of later securely attached children were more sensitive than mothers of avoidant children. However, sensitivity decreased for all mothers at high levels of infant negative affect. Furthermore, for mothers of avoidant children, vagal withdrawal was associated with sensitivity to child distress. No association was found between vagal withdrawal and sensitivity for mothers of securely attached children. This suggests that mothers of avoidant children may be uniquely challenged by the affective demands of their infants. PMID:17292784

  3. No Association of Maternal Gestational Weight Gain with Offspring Blood Pressure and Hypertension at Age 18 Years in Male Sibling-Pairs: A Prospective Register-Based Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Scheers Andersson, Elina; Tynelius, Per; Nohr, Ellen Aagaard; Sørensen, Thorkild I. A.; Rasmussen, Finn

    2015-01-01

    Background Maternal gestational weight gain (GWG) is associated with birth weight, obesity, and possibly blood pressure (BP) and hypertension in the offspring. These associations may however be confounded by genetic and/or shared environmental factors. In contrast to previous studies based on non-siblings and self-reported data, we investigated whether GWG is associated with offspring BP and hypertension, in a register-based cohort of full brothers while controlling for fixed shared effects. Methods By using Swedish nation-wide record-linkage data, we identified women with at least two male children (full brothers) born 1982-1989. Their BP was obtained from the mandatory military conscription induction tests. We adopted linear and Poisson regression models with robust variance, using generalized estimating equations to analyze associations between GWG and BP, as well as with hypertension, within and between offspring sibling-pairs. Results Complete data on the mothers’ GWG and offspring BP was obtained for 9,816 brothers (4,908 brother-pairs). Adjusted regression models showed no significant associations between GWG and SBP (? = 0.03 mmHg per 1-kg GWG difference, [95% CI -0.08, 0.14], or DBP (? = -0.03 mmHg per 1-kg GWG difference [95% CI -0.11, 0.05]), or between GWG and offspring’s risk of hypertension (relative risk = 1.0 [95% CI 0.99, 1.02], neither within nor between siblings. Conclusions In this large sibling-pair study, we did not find any significant association between GWG and offspring BP or the risk of hypertension at 18y, when taking genetic and environmental factors shared within sibling pairs into account. Further large sibling studies are required to confirm a null association between GWG and other cardiovascular risk factors. PMID:25794174

  4. Maternal Depression and Childhood Aggression: Literature Review

    PubMed Central

    Hendricks, Katherine; Liu, Jianghong

    2012-01-01

    Introduction Childbearing depression (CBD) and childhood aggression are serious and international problems that encumber public health. Although maternal depression has received much attention in the literature in the last three decades, clinically it remains under-diagnosed and under-treated, especially during pregnancy. As a result, many mothers and families are left to suffer its long-lasting physical and psychosocial effects. This article's aim is to review the current literature on whether CBD increases the likelihood of childhood aggression in children ages six years and younger. Methods Using keywords, an electronic search was performed using Cumulative Index of Nursing and Allied Health, PsycINFO, and PubMed databases. Search limits included the following: 2000-2010, English, peer-review, human, All Child: 0-18. From more than 2,000 search results, 13 articles were reviewed based on relevance to paper's inquiry and sample size greater than 50. Results In all, the articles agreed that depression in women increases the likelihood of early childhood aggression by causing negative parenting behaviors. However, this finding is tempered by a number of weaknesses in the quality of articles reviewed and by the complexity of the topic. Conclusion More research is needed to determine the etiology and interplay of mediating factors between CBD and childhood aggression. This could inform the study and implementation of effective and early prevention, screening, and treatment measures and programs for maternal depression and childhood aggression. PMID:22739482

  5. Maternal consumption of cured meats and vitamins in relation to pediatric brain tumors.

    PubMed

    Preston-Martin, S; Pogoda, J M; Mueller, B A; Holly, E A; Lijinsky, W; Davis, R L

    1996-08-01

    Brain tumors are the leading cause of death from childhood cancer, yet the causes of most of these tumors remain obscure. Few chemicals are effective in causing brain tumors experimentally after systemic administration of low doses; a notable exception is one group of N-nitroso compounds, the nitrosamides (in particular the nitrosoureas). Feeding pregnant animals nitrosamide precursors (e.g., sodium nitrite and an alkylamide such as ethylurea) causes a high incidence of nervous system tumors in offspring. This population-based epidemiological study was designed to test the hypothesis that maternal consumption during pregnancy of meats cured with sodium nitrite increases the risk of brain tumors among offspring. The intake of vitamins C and E blocks endogenous formation of nitroso compounds and was expected to be protective. Mothers of 540 children under age 20 with a primary brain tumor diagnosed during 1984-1991 and 801 control children in the same 19 counties on the U.S. West Coast were interviewed. Risk increased with increasing frequency of eating processed meats [odds ratio (OR) = 2.1 for eating at least twice a day compared to not eating; 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.3-3.2; P = 0.003). Risk also increased with increasing average daily grams of cured meats or mg of nitrite from cured meats (P for each <0.005) but not with nitrate from vegetables. Daily use of prenatal vitamins throughout the pregnancy decreased risk (OR = 0.54; CI = 0.39-0.75). Risk among mothers who consumed above the median level of nitrite from cured meat was greater if vitamins were not taken (OR = 2.4; CI = 1.4-3.6) than if they were (OR = 1.3). These effects were evident for each of three major histological types and across social classes, age groups, and geographic areas. This largest study to date of maternal diet and childhood brain tumors suggests that exposure during gestation to endogenously formed nitroso compounds may be associated with tumor occurrence. Laboratory exploration is needed to: (a) define dietary sources of exposure to alkylamides; (b) investigate the reactivity of nitrite in high concentration such as around bits of cured meats in the stomach after ingestion compared to nitrite in dilute solution; and (c) confirm that simultaneous ingestion of alkylamides and cured meats leads to the endogenous formation of nitrosamides. PMID:8824361

  6. Predicting Change in Parenting Stress Across Early Childhood: Child and Maternal Factors

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Amanda P. Williford; Susan D. Calkins; Susan P. Keane

    2007-01-01

    This study examined maternal parenting stress in a sample of 430 boys and girls including those at risk for externalizing\\u000a behavior problems. Children and their mothers were assessed when the children were ages 2, 4, and 5. Hierarchical linear modeling\\u000a (HLM) was used to examine stability of parenting stress across early childhood and to examine child and maternal factors predicting

  7. Maternal smoking during pregnancy and child overweight: systematic review and meta-analysis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E Oken; E B Levitan; M W Gillman

    2008-01-01

    Objective:Perform a systematic review of studies reporting on the association between maternal prenatal cigarette smoking and child overweight.Design:Meta-analysis of observational studies.Data sources:Medline search and review of reference lists among studies published through June 2006.Review methods:Included studies reported an association between maternal smoking during pregnancy and risk of overweight among children at least 2 years of age. We did not include

  8. Differential ethnic associations between maternal flexibility and play sophistication in toddlers born very low birth weight.

    PubMed

    Erickson, Sarah J; Montague, Erica Q; Maclean, Peggy C; Bancroft, Mary E; Lowe, Jean R

    2012-12-01

    Children born very low birth weight (<1500 g, VLBW) are at increased risk for developmental delays. Play is an important developmental outcome to the extent that child's play and social communication are related to later development of self-regulation and effective functional skills, and play serves as an important avenue of early intervention. The current study investigated associations between maternal flexibility and toddler play sophistication in Caucasian, Spanish speaking Hispanic, English speaking Hispanic, and Native American toddlers (18-22 months adjusted age) in a cross-sectional cohort of 73 toddlers born VLBW and their mothers. We found that the association between maternal flexibility and toddler play sophistication differed by ethnicity (F(3,65) = 3.34, p = .02). In particular, Spanish speaking Hispanic dyads evidenced a significant positive association between maternal flexibility and play sophistication of medium effect size. Results for Native Americans were parallel to those of Spanish speaking Hispanic dyads: the relationship between flexibility and play sophistication was positive and of small-medium effect size. Findings indicate that for Caucasians and English speaking Hispanics, flexibility evidenced a non-significant (negative and small effect size) association with toddler play sophistication. Significant follow-up contrasts revealed that the associations for Caucasian and English speaking Hispanic dyads were significantly different from those of the other two ethnic groups. Results remained unchanged after adjusting for the amount of maternal language, an index of maternal engagement and stimulation; and after adjusting for birth weight, gestational age, gender, test age, cognitive ability, as well maternal age, education, and income. Our results provide preliminary evidence that ethnicity and acculturation may mediate the association between maternal interactive behavior such as flexibility and toddler developmental outcomes, as indexed by play sophistication. Addressing these association differences is particularly important in children born VLBW because interventions targeting parent interaction strategies such as maternal flexibility must account for ethnic-cultural differences in order to promote toddler developmental outcomes through play paradigms. PMID:22982287

  9. Maternal inheritance in cyclic vomiting syndrome.

    PubMed

    Boles, Richard G; Adams, Kathleen; Li, B U K

    2005-02-15

    Cyclic vomiting syndrome (CVS), characterized by severe discrete episodes of nausea, vomiting, and lethargy, is a fairly common, disabling, predominately-childhood condition most often associated with migraine and dysautonomic features. Our group recently reported that children with CVS and additional neuromuscular disease manifestations demonstrate strong maternal inheritance of multiple disease manifestations and abnormal urine organic acids, suggesting the presence of predisposing mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) sequence variants. In order to determine if maternal inheritance is present in CVS in general, a clinical interview was administered regarding 80 unrelated individuals with CVS ascertained randomly from the database of the Cyclic Vomiting Syndrome Association (CVSA). Disease manifestations consistent with potential mitochondrial dysfunction were far more common in matrilineal (sharing the same mtDNA sequence) versus in non-matrilineal relatives, including mothers versus fathers (P = 3 x 10(-9)) and maternal versus paternal grandmothers (P = 2 x 10(-6)). Maternal inheritance is suggested in 52% of the 23 subjects with two or more neuromuscular abnormalities ("CVS+") and in 54% of the 44 subjects without any neuromuscular abnormalities ("CVS-"). In both the CVS+ and CVS- sub-groups, subjects, and affected matrilineal relatives of all ages suffer at a far higher incidence from several dysautonomic-related conditions, including migraine and irritable bowel, as well as depression and hypothyroidism, while neuromuscular and cognitive disorders such as hypotonia and ADHD are common only in affected children. We conclude that mtDNA sequences predispose towards the development of protean disease manifestations in CVS patients ascertained through a disease-specific association, as well as among their matrilineal relatives, whether or not neuromuscular disease is present in the proband. Since CVS was absent in all but one matrilineal relative of our probands, CVS is apparently a rare clinical presentation in individuals carrying the predisposing mtDNA sequences. The four conditions reported most frequently among the matrilineal relatives of our cases, migraine, depression, irritable bowel, and hypothyroidism, are known to segregate together in families, and our findings suggest that a common predisposing genetic factor is likely present on the mtDNA. PMID:15643622

  10. Association between Maternal sensitivity and Externalizing Behavior from Preschool to Preadolescence

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Feihong; Christ, Sharon L.; Mills-Koonce, W. Roger; Garrett-Peters, Patricia; Cox, Martha J

    2014-01-01

    Using data from the longitudinal NICHD Study of Early Child Care and Youth Development (N=1364), this study examined the association between mothers’ sensitivity and children’s externalizing behavior from preschool to preadolescence. Externalizing behavior declined on average across this period with a slowing of this decline around middle childhood. Maternal sensitivity remained relatively stable on average, and there was significant variation across mothers. A decrease in maternal sensitivity from ages 3 to 11 was related to an increase in externalizing behavior from ages 4 to 12. A model-based test of the direction of the effect suggested that the association between changes in maternal sensitivity and externalizing behavior from ages 4 to 11 was driven by child effects on mothers and not vice-versa. Between late preschool age and preadolescence, the behavior problems of children appear to strongly influence the sensitive support of mothers. Practical implications were discussed in light of these findings. PMID:25018578

  11. Burns During Pregnancy - Effect on Maternal and Foetal Outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Subrahmanyam, M.

    2006-01-01

    Summary During a 5-yr period (1999-2004), of the 529 women of reproductive age admitted with burns, 44 (7.4%) were pregnant. Of these 44, 37 (84%) were in the age group 15-25 yr and 22 (50%) were in the second trimester; 33 burns (75%) were accidental and 11 (25%) the result of suicide attempts. Flame burns accounted for 42 out of the 44 cases (95.5%); two cases were due to scalds (4.5%). Maternal death occurred in 28 of the cases (63.6%) and foetal death in 29 (65.9%). The maternal complications that led to mortality were shock in 15 cases (53.6%), respiratory distress in 8 (28.6%) and sepsis in 14 (50.0%); one patient had corneal perforation. PMID:21991047

  12. Maternal eating disorders influence sex ratio at birth.

    PubMed

    Bulik, Cynthia M; Holle, Ann Von; Gendall, Kelly; Lie, Kari Kveim; Hoffman, Elizabeth; Mo, Xiaofei; Torgersen, Leila; Reichborn-Kjennerud, Ted

    2008-01-01

    We explored sex ratio at birth, defined as the proportion of male live births, in women with anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa, binge eating disorder, and eating disorders not otherwise specified-purging type (EDNOS-P) relative to a referent group in a large population-based sample of 38,340 pregnant women in Norway. Poisson regressions were adjusted for mother's age, pre-pregnancy BMI, lifetime smoking status, maternal education, income, marital status, gestational age, and parity. Lower proportions of male live births were observed in the anorexia and bulimia groups, while binge eating disorder and EDNOS-P were associated with a higher proportion of male births. These data suggest that maternal eating disorders may influence offspring sex and that the direction of effect may vary by eating disorder subtype. If confirmed, this finding could provide evidence in formulating hypotheses regarding the consequences of eating disorders and determinants of sex ratio at birth. PMID:18720046

  13. Low maternal vitamin B12 status during pregnancy is associated with reduced heart rate variability indices in young children.

    PubMed

    Sucharita, Sambashivaiah; Dwarkanath, Pratibha; Thomas, Tinku; Srinivasan, Krishnamachari; Kurpad, Anura V; Vaz, Mario

    2014-04-01

    Vitamin B12 plays a vital role in neuronal development, particularly in myelinogenesis. Demyelination of the autonomic nervous system occurs early in vitamin B12 deficiency. However, the impact of maternal vitamin B12 deficiency during pregnancy on neuronal function in the offspring is poorly documented. The objective of this study was to assess cardiac autonomic nervous activity in children born to mothers with low vitamin B12 status during pregnancy using heart rate variability (HRV) indices in the frequency domain. Seventy-nine healthy children between 3 and 8 years of age were evaluated from an ongoing birth cohort. The blood sample of the mother had been stored and was analysed for plasma vitamin B12 following enrolment of the child. Subjects were divided, based on the median maternal first trimester vitamin B12 status (114 pmol L(-1)), into lower (n = 40) and higher (n = 39) vitamin B12 status groups. A lead II electrocardiogram was recorded in the supine posture and subjected to HRV analysis. Low-frequency HRV in absolute units was reduced significantly in children of the lower vitamin B12 status group (P = 0.03) and was 53% that of the higher vitamin B12 status group. There was a significant association between low-frequency and total power HRV with cord blood vitamin B12 levels (? = 0.31 and 0.30, both P = 0.03). In summary, children born to mothers with a lower vitamin B12 status have a reduced cardiac sympathetic activity. The long-term implication of this needs to be evaluated by follow-up studies. PMID:22625423

  14. Maternal obesity from all sides.

    PubMed

    Hull, Kimmelin; Montgomery, Kristen S; Vireday, Pamela; Kendall-Tackett, Kathleen

    2011-01-01

    This column features excerpts from a recent series of articles from the Lamaze International research blog, Science & Sensibility. The eight-part series examined the issue of maternal obesity from various perspectives, incorporating writings from Kimmelin Hull, a physician assistant, a Lamaze Certified Childbirth Educator, and the community manager of Science & Sensibility; Kristen Montgomery, a nursing professor at the University of North Carolina-Charlotte; Pamela Vireday, a childbirth educator and blogger; and Kathleen Kendall-Tackett, a health psychologist, lactation consultant, and writer/speaker. The authors of the blog series, titled "Maternal Obesity from All Sides," reviewed current research about risks associated with maternal obesity as well as the humanistic issues and lived experiences of pregnant women of size. PMID:22942626

  15. Maternal Obesity From All Sides

    PubMed Central

    Hull, Kimmelin; Montgomery, Kristen S.; Vireday, Pamela; Kendall-Tackett, Kathleen

    2011-01-01

    This column features excerpts from a recent series of articles from the Lamaze International research blog, Science & Sensibility. The eight-part series examined the issue of maternal obesity from various perspectives, incorporating writings from Kimmelin Hull, a physician assistant, a Lamaze Certified Childbirth Educator, and the community manager of Science & Sensibility; Kristen Montgomery, a nursing professor at the University of North Carolina–Charlotte; Pamela Vireday, a childbirth educator and blogger; and Kathleen Kendall-Tackett, a health psychologist, lactation consultant, and writer/speaker. The authors of the blog series, titled “Maternal Obesity from All Sides,” reviewed current research about risks associated with maternal obesity as well as the humanistic issues and lived experiences of pregnant women of size. PMID:22942626

  16. Maternal Employment and Adolescent Development

    PubMed Central

    Ruhm, Christopher J.

    2009-01-01

    This study investigates how maternal employment is related to the cognitive development and body weight of 10 and 11 year olds, controlling for a wide variety of child, mother and family characteristics. The results suggest that limited market work benefits youths who are relatively “disadvantaged” and even long hours, which occur infrequently, are unlikely to leave them much worse off. By contrast, maternal labor supply is estimated to have more uniformly harmful consequences for “advantaged” adolescents. The negative cognitive effects for these youths probably partly occur because maternal labor supply reduces the time spent in enriching home environments. Some of the growth in obesity may be related to determinants of excess weight common to the child and mother. PMID:19830269

  17. Parentification and Maternal HIV Infection: Beneficial Role or Pathological Burden?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tanya L. Tompkins

    2007-01-01

    Parentification, along with parenting and child adjustment, were examined in 23 9-through 16-year-old youth from families\\u000a affected by maternal HIV infection and 20 same-age peers whose mothers were not infected. Children whose mothers were HIV-positive\\u000a reported to more often engage in parental role behaviors, relative to children of HIV-negative mothers. This difference remained\\u000a even after controlling for the effects of

  18. Nutrition and Maternal Survival in Developing Countries

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Parul Christian

    Maternal mortality continues to be high and maternal nutrition poor in the developing world. However, the specific role of\\u000a nutrition in affecting maternal health and survival remains unclear. Recent trials provide support for a specific and perhaps\\u000a important place for nutrition in reducing the burden of maternal mortality in developing countries. Specific nutrition interventions\\u000a have been shown to be efficacious

  19. Maternal phobic anxiety and child anxiety

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gail A. Bernstein; Ann E. Layne; Elizabeth A. Egan; Lara P. Nelson

    2005-01-01

    The present study examined the relation between maternal anxiety symptoms and child anxiety symptoms and evaluated whether a reporting bias is associated with maternal anxiety. Fifty-seven mother–child pairs participated. All children had features or diagnoses of separation anxiety disorder (SAD), generalized anxiety disorder, and\\/or social phobia. Measures of maternal symptomatology and child anxiety were administered. Higher levels of maternal phobic

  20. Maternal Psychopathology and Early Child Temperament Predict Young Children's Salivary Cortisol 3 Years Later

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dougherty, Lea R.; Smith, Victoria C.; Olino, Thomas M.; Dyson, Margaret W.; Bufferd, Sara J.; Rose, Suzanne A.; Klein, Daniel N.

    2013-01-01

    Neuroendocrine dysfunction is hypothesized to be an early emerging vulnerability marker for depression. We tested whether the main and interactive effects of maternal psychopathology and early child temperamental vulnerability for depression assessed at age three predicted offspring's basal cortisol function at age 6 years. 228 (122 males)…

  1. Early and late maternal effects on hatching phenology of heterocypris incongruens (crustacea: Ostracoda).

    PubMed

    Rossi, Valeria; Albini, Dania; Pellegri, Valerio; Menozzi, Paolo

    2015-06-01

    In ephemeral ponds, the hatching asynchrony of resting eggs may be adaptive and the result of a maternal bet-hedging strategy. A mother can influence the progeny phenology through conditions experienced during life cycle even in early development stages. We investigated the consequences of a hatching delay for offspring and compared early and late maternal effects in a clonal lineage of Heterocypris incongruens. We used females from genetically identical, 40 months old, resting eggs that hatched, asynchronically, after a first (FI) or a second (SI) inundation event. Maternal origin (FI or SI) was considered an early effect involving the maternal response to hatching stimuli during the embryological dormant stage. Maternal age at deposition and egg size were considered late effects that account for maternal conditions during active stage. We compared size and development time of eggs produced by FI and SI females under laboratory condition (24°C 12:12 L:D photoperiod). Maternal origin affected development time to adulthood which was later in FI than in SI females, and fecundity that was higher in FI than in SI females. SI eggs were smaller than FI eggs: size was affected by maternal age at deposition and was directly related to the egg development time. Development time varied from 1 to 117 days and was shorter in SI eggs than in FI eggs. Our results showed that maternal response during embryological stage affects the performance in successive active stages and suggested that hatching asynchrony may be considered a risk spread strategy. J. Exp. Zool. 323A: 382-391, 2015. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:25850699

  2. Marginal median SOM for document organization and retrieval.

    PubMed

    Georgakis, A; Kotropoulos, C; Xafopoulos, A; Pitas, I

    2004-04-01

    The self-organizing map algorithm has been used successfully in document organization. We now propose using the same algorithm for document retrieval. Moreover, we test the performance of the self-organizing map by replacing the linear Least Mean Squares adaptation rule with the marginal median. We present two implementations of the latter variant of the self-organizing map by either quantifying the real valued feature vectors to integer valued ones or not. Experiments performed using both implementations demonstrate a superior performance against the self-organizing map based method in terms of the number of training iterations needed so that the mean square error (i.e. the average distortion) drops to the e(-1) = 36.788% of its initial value. Furthermore, the performance of a document organization and retrieval system employing the self-organizing map architecture and its variant is assessed using the average recall-precision curves evaluated on two corpora; the first comprises of manually selected web pages over the Internet having touristic content and the second one is the Reuters-21578, Distribution 1.0. PMID:15037354

  3. Maternal Influences on Daughters' Restrained Eating Behavior

    PubMed Central

    Francis, Lori A.; Birch, Leann L.

    2008-01-01

    This study examined whether mothers' preoccupation with their own weight and eating was linked to daughters' restrained eating behavior. Participants included 173 non-Hispanic, White mother–daughter dyads, measured longitudinally when daughters were ages 5, 7, 9, and 11. Mothers who were preoccupied with their own weight and eating reported higher levels of restricting daughters' intake and encouraging daughters to lose weight over time. Mothers' encouragement of daughters' weight loss was linked to daughters' restrained eating behavior; this relationship was partially mediated by daughters' perception of maternal pressure to lose weight. These findings suggest that mothers' preoccupation with weight and eating, via attempts to influence daughters' weight and eating, may place daughters at risk for developing problematic eating behaviors. PMID:16287400

  4. Maternal alcohol consumption

    PubMed Central

    Ridout, D; Sandberg, S; Santosh, P

    2009-01-01

    Background Despite decades of research, the aetiology of attention deficit disorder with hyperactivity (ADHD) remains largely unknown. Next to a strong genetic component, increasing evidence suggests additional adverse impact of environmental factors, two of which have, although controversially, withstood meta-analysis: gestational exposure to smoking (OR 2.39) and low birth weight (OR 2.64). Several studies have investigated a possible association between prenatal exposure to alcohol and ADHD, although the matter is complicated due to foetal alcohol syndrome disorders (FASD) with ADHD-like symptoms. Questions Can an estimate of the effect of gestational exposure to alcohol for ADHD be determined? What is the relevance of primary care services in screening and intervention in mild to moderate drinking in pregnant women? Method MEDLINE, Cinahl, PsychInfo, EMBASE (1995–2008) were searched for articles in English, supplemented by a manual search. Out of 23 reviewed studies, three were included in the metaanalysis; one further study was added to undertake a sub-analysis comparing severe versus mild alcohol consumption. Summary odds ratios (OR) were extracted and fixed/random-effects meta-analysis were used for combining the OR's. Heterogeneity across the studies was formally assessed using Cochran's Q. Results An OR of 2.33 (95% CI, 1.18–4.61), (z = 2.43, p = 0.02) suggests that exposed children are 2.33 times more likely to have ADHD than non exposed children. Discussion Our meta-analysis suggests that children exposed to alcohol during pregnancy are at risk for ADHD. However, evidence is sparse and it remains uncertain whether a causal association exists. Further research is needed into dose–response relationship, timing of exposure, influence of genetic factors involved in maternal alcohol abuse and the role of FASD in ADHD-like symptoms. If a detrimental effect of mild to moderate drinking on the offspring is supported by stronger evidence, primary care services could have a major role in prevention and early intervention. This would be in addition to their already established role in helping heavy drinking mothers.

  5. Fetal and perinatal consequences of maternal obesity

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Chakrapani Vasudevan; Mary Renfrew; William McGuire

    2011-01-01

    In many industrialised countries, one in five women booking for antenatal care is obese. As well as affecting maternal health, maternal obesity may have important adverse consequences for fetal, neonatal and long-term health and well-being. Maternal obesity is associated with a higher risk of stillbirth, elective preterm birth and perinatal mortality. The incidence of severe birth defects, particularly neural tube

  6. Maternal Child Abuse and its Association with Maternal Anxiety in the Socio-Cultural Context of Iran

    PubMed Central

    Douki, Zahra Esmaeili; Esmaeili, Mohammad Reza; Vaezzadeh, Nazanin; Mohammadpour, Reza Ali; Azimi, Hamideh; Sabbaghi, Robabeh; Esmaeil, Mousa; Shahhosseini, Zohreh

    2013-01-01

    Objectives The prevalence of parental violence has been an area of major public concern. There are few available data detailing the ways parents and other caregivers discipline children, particularly in low and middle income countries. This study focuses on the prevalence of different types of maternal child abuse and its association with maternal anxiety in the socio-cultural context of Iran. Methods Participants in this cross-sectional study consisted of 562 mothers with the last child aged from 1 month to 12 years old who attended the Amirkola Children’s Referral Hospital in Mazandaran Province, Iran, seeking healthcare services for their children. Demographic characteristics of the mothers, their children and reactions to conflicts with children were evaluated by a validated version of Conflict Tactics Scale for Parent and Child. Also, the relationship between maternal anxiety and child abuse was assessed using the Spielberger State-Trait Anxiety Inventory. The association between variables was examined by Pearson correlation coefficient, independent t-test, one-way ANOVA, and multivariate regression. Results The prevalence of mother-to-child corporal punishment, severe physical abuse and very severe physical abuse were 436 (78%), 260 (46%) and 180 (32%), respectively. Verbal emotional abuse was reported by 506 (90%) participants and nonverbal emotional abuse was reported in 374 (67%) cases. A correlation was observed between child abuse and mothers’ age (p=0.02), as well as with the number of children in the family (p=0.03), and the mothers’ trait anxiety (p<0.001). Conclusion Overall, the assessment of maternal child abuse should be an important focus for evaluation in mothers with anxiety and vice versa, when child abuse is suspected, maternal psychological assessment should be essential. PMID:24223243

  7. Early-occurring Maternal Depression and Maternal Negativity in Predicting Young Children’s Emotion Regulation and Socioemotional Difficulties

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Angeline Maughan; Dante Cicchetti; Sheree L. Toth; Fred A. Rogosch

    2007-01-01

    This longitudinal investigation examined the effects of maternal depression and concomitant negative parenting behaviors on\\u000a children’s emotion regulation patterns and socioemotional functioning. One hundred fifty-one mothers and their children were\\u000a assessed when children were approximately 1 1\\/2-, 3-, 4-, and 5-years of age. Ninety-three of the children had mothers with\\u000a a history of Major Depressive Disorder (MDD) that had occurred

  8. A Nearly Linear-Time Approximation Scheme for the Euclidean kappa-median Problem

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Stavros G. Kolliopoulos; Satish Rao

    1999-01-01

    Abstract: In the k-median problem we are given a set N of n points in a metric space and a positiveinteger k: The objective is to locate k medians among the points so that the sum of the distancesfrom each point in N to its closest median is minimized. The k-median problem is awell-studied, NP-hard, basic clustering problem, which is

  9. Maternal Hypothyroidism in Early Pregnancy and Infant Structural Congenital Malformations

    PubMed Central

    Norstedt Wikner, Birgitta

    2014-01-01

    Background. The question is debated on whether maternal hypothyroidism or use of thyroxin in early pregnancy affects the risk for infant congenital malformations. Objectives. To expand the previously published study on maternal thyroxin use in early pregnancy and the risk for congenital malformations. Methods. Data from the Swedish Medical Birth Register were used for the years 1996–2011 and infant malformations were identified from national health registers. Women with preexisting diabetes or reporting the use of thyreostatics, anticonvulsants, or antihypertensives were excluded from analysis. Risk estimates were made as odds ratios (ORs) or risk ratios (RRs) after adjustment for year of delivery, maternal age, parity, smoking, and body mass index. Results. Among 23?259 infants whose mothers in early pregnancy used thyroxin, 730 had a major malformation; among all 1?567?736 infants, 48012 had such malformations. The adjusted OR was 1.06 (95% CI 0.98–1.14). For anal atresia the RR was 1.85 (95% CI 1.00–1.85) and for choanal atresia 3.14 (95% CI 1.26–6.47). The risk of some other malformations was also increased but statistical significance was not reached. Conclusions. Treated maternal hypothyroidism may be a weak risk factor for infant congenital malformations but an association with a few rare conditions is possible. PMID:24744955

  10. Adolescent adrenocortical activity and adiposity: differences by sex and exposure to early maternal depression.

    PubMed

    Ruttle, Paula L; Klein, Marjorie H; Slattery, Marcia J; Kalin, Ned H; Armstrong, Jeffrey M; Essex, Marilyn J

    2014-09-01

    Prior research has linked either basal cortisol levels or stress-induced cortisol responses to adiposity; however, it remains to be determined whether these distinct cortisol measures exert joint or independent effects. Further, it is unclear how they interact with individual and environmental characteristics to predict adiposity. The present study aims to address whether morning cortisol levels and cortisol responses to a psychosocial stressor independently and/or interactively influence body mass index (BMI) in 218 adolescents (117 female) participating in a longitudinal community study, and whether associations are moderated by sex and exposure to early maternal depression. Reports of maternal depressive symptoms were obtained in infancy and preschool. Salivary cortisol measures included a longitudinal morning cortisol measure comprising sampling points across ages 11, 13, 15, and 18 and measures of stress-induced cortisol responses assessed via the Trier Social Stress Test (TSST) at age 18. Lower morning cortisol and higher TSST cortisol reactivity independently predicted higher age 18 BMI. Morning cortisol also interacted with sex and exposure to early maternal depression to predict BMI. Specifically, girls exposed to lower levels of early maternal depression displayed a strong negative morning cortisol-BMI association, and girls exposed to higher levels of maternal depression demonstrated a weaker negative association. Among boys, those exposed to lower levels of maternal depression displayed no association, while those exposed to higher levels of maternal depression displayed a negative morning cortisol-BMI association. Results point to the independent, additive effects of morning and reactive cortisol in the prediction of BMI and suggest that exposure to early maternal depression may exert sexually dimorphic effects on normative cortisol-BMI associations. PMID:25001956

  11. Salt-and-Pepper Noise Removal by Median-type Noise Detectors and

    E-print Network

    Chan, Raymond

    1 Salt-and-Pepper Noise Removal by Median-type Noise Detectors and Detail-preserving Regularization for removing salt-and-pepper impulse noise. In the first phase, an adaptive median filter is used to identify remove salt-and-pepper-noise with noise level as high as 90%. Index Terms Impulse noise, adaptive median

  12. EVALUATION OF TWO MEDIAN-BASED METHODS FOR ESTIMATING ARRHENIUS PARAMETERS

    Microsoft Academic Search

    GADE PANDU RANGAIAH; SESHADRI HARI KRISHNAN

    1990-01-01

    The performance of two median-based methods, namely, median method (MM) and least median of squares (LMS), for parameter estimation in Arrhenius equation is investigated and compared with least sum of squares, through extensive Monte Carlo tests involving simulated data. Reweighted methods associated with LMS are also included in the study. Different types of experimental noise are considered for simulating variable

  13. Neurodevelopmental Outcomes at 5 Years in Children Exposed Prenatally to Maternal Dental Amalgam: The Seychelles Child Development Nutrition Study

    PubMed Central

    Watson, Gene E.; van Wijngaarden, Edwin; Love, Tanzy M.T.; McSorley, Emeir M.; Bonham, Maxine P.; Mulhern, Maria S.; Yeates, Alison J.; Davidson, Philip W.; Shamlaye, Conrad F.; Strain, J.J.; Thurston, Sally W.; Harrington, Donald; Zareba, Grazyna; Wallace, Julie M.W.; Myers, Gary J.

    2013-01-01

    Limited human data are available to assess the association between prenatal mercury vapor (Hg0) exposure from maternal dental amalgam restorations and neurodevelopment of children. We evaluated the association between maternal dental amalgam status during gestation and children’s neurodevelopmental outcomes at 5 years in the Seychelles Child Development Nutrition Study (SCDNS). Maternal amalgam status was determined prospectively in a longitudinal cohort study examining the associations of prenatal exposure to nutrients and methylmercury (MeHg) with neurodevelopment. A total of 236 mother-child pairs initially enrolled in the SCDNS in 2001 were eligible to participate. Maternal amalgam status was measured as number of amalgam surfaces (the primary metric) and number of occlusal points. The neurodevelopmental assessment battery was comprised of age-appropriate tests of cognitive, language, and perceptual functions, and scholastic achievement. Linear regression analysis controlled for MeHg exposure, maternal fatty acid status, and other covariates relevant to child development. Maternal amalgam status evaluation yielded an average of 7.0 surfaces (range 0–28) and 11.0 occlusal points (range 0–40) during pregnancy. Neither the number of maternal amalgam surfaces nor occlusal points were associated with any outcome. Our findings do not provide evidence to support a relationship between prenatal exposure to Hg0 from maternal dental amalgam and neurodevelopmental outcomes in children at 5 years of age. PMID:23856391

  14. Predictors of Maternal Parental Self-Efficacy Among Primiparas in the Early Postnatal Period.

    PubMed

    Shorey, Shefaly; Chan, Sally Wai-Chi; Chong, Yap Seng; He, Hong-Gu

    2014-06-01

    Maternal parental self-efficacy is a crucial factor for facilitating the smooth transition into motherhood, particularly for primiparas. The aims of this study were to examine the predictors of maternal parental self-efficacy and its relationship with social support, postnatal depression (PND), and socio-demographic variables of primiparas during the early postnatal period. A descriptive correlational study design was adopted. The instruments, Perceived Maternal Parental Self-Efficacy, Perinatal Infant Care Social Support, and Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale, were used to collect data from a purposive sample of 122 primiparas on the day of discharge (1-3 days post delivery) in a tertiary public hospital in Singapore. There were significant correlations among maternal parental self-efficacy, social support, and postnatal depression. The main predictors of maternal parental self-efficacy were social support, ethnicity, maternal age, and family income. The maternal parental self-efficacy, social support, and PND should be routinely assessed to provide necessary support to needy mothers. PMID:24906360

  15. Maternal regulation of child affect in externalizing and typically-developing children.

    PubMed

    Lougheed, Jessica P; Hollenstein, Tom; Lichtwarck-Aschoff, Anna; Granic, Isabela

    2015-02-01

    Temporal contingencies between children's affect and maternal behavior play a role in the development of children's externalizing problems. The goal of the current study was to use a microsocial approach to compare dyads with externalizing dysregulation (N =191) to healthy controls (N = 54) on maternal supportive regulation of children's negative and positive affect. Children were between the ages of 8 and 12 years. Mother-child dyads participated in conflict and positive discussions, and child affect and maternal supportive affect regulation were coded in real time. First, no group differences on overall levels of mother supportive regulation or child affect were found. Second, three event history analyses in a 2-level Cox hazard regression framework were used to predict the hazard rate of (a) maternal supportiveness, and of children's transitions (b) out of negative affect and (c) into positive affect. The hazard rate of maternal supportiveness, regardless of child affect, was not different between groups. However, as expected, the likelihood of mothers' supportive responses to children's negative affect was lower in externalizing than comparison dyads. In addition, children with externalizing problems were significantly less likely than typically developing children to transition out of negative affect in response to maternal supportiveness. The likelihood of both typically developing children and children with externalizing problems transitioning into positive affect were not related to specific occurrences of maternal supportiveness. Results of the current study show the importance of temporal dynamics in mother-child interactions in the emergence of children's externalizing problems. PMID:25401482

  16. Maternal influences on population dynamics: evidence from an exploited freshwater fish.

    PubMed

    Venturelli, Paul A; Murphy, Cheryl A; Shuter, Brian J; Johnston, Thomas A; Van Coeverden de Groot, Peter J; Boag, Peter T; Casselman, John M; Montgomerie, Robert; Wiegand, Murray D; Leggett, William C

    2010-07-01

    We used a field experiment, population modeling, and an analysis of 30 years of data from walleye (Sander vitreus; a freshwater fish) in Lake Erie to show that maternal influences on offspring survival can affect population dynamics. We first demonstrate experimentally that the survival of juvenile walleye increases with egg size (and, to a lesser degree, female energy reserves). Because egg size in this species tends to increase with maternal age, we then model these maternal influences on offspring survival as a function of maternal age to show that adult age structure can affect the maximum rate at which a population can produce new adults. Consistent with this hypothesis, we present empirical evidence that the maximum reproductive rate of an exploited population of walleye was approximately twice as high when older females were abundant as compared to when they were relatively scarce. Taken together, these results indicate that age- or size-based maternal influences on offspring survival can be an important mechanism driving population dynamics and that exploited populations could benefit from management strategies that protect, rather than target, reproductively valuable individuals. PMID:20715623

  17. Multiple environmental chemical exposures to lead, mercury and polychlorinated biphenyls among childbearing-aged women (NHANES 1999–2004): Body burden and risk factors

    PubMed Central

    Thompson, Marcella Remer; Boekelheide, Kim

    2013-01-01

    Background Lead, mercury and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are neurotoxicants with intergenerational health consequences from maternal body burden and gestational exposures. Little is known about multiple chemical exposures among childbearing-aged women. Objectives To determine the percentage of women aged 16–49 of diverse races and ethnicities whose body burdens for all three xenobiotics were at or above the median; to identify mixed exposures; and to describe those women disproportionately burdened by two or more of these chemicals based on susceptibility- and exposure-related attributes, socioeconomic factors and race-ethnicity. Methods Secondary data analysis of National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (1999–2004). Results The best-fit logistic regression model without interactions contained 12 variables. Four risk factors associated with body burden were notable (P ? 0.05). An exponential relationship was demonstrated with increasing age. Any fish consumption in past 30 days more than doubled the odds. Heavy alcohol consumption increased the relative risk. History of breastfeeding reduced this risk. These women were more likely to have two xenobiotics at or above the median than one. More than one-fifth of these childbearing-aged women had three xenobiotic levels at or above the median. Conclusions These findings are among the first description of US childbearing-aged women’s body burden and risk factors for multiple chemical exposures. This study supports increasing age, any fish consumption and heavy alcohol consumption as significant risk factors for body burden. History of breastfeeding lowered the body burden. Limited evidence was found of increased risk among minority women independent of other risk factors. PMID:23158727

  18. Maternal serum concentrations of per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances and their predictors in years with reduced production and use.

    PubMed

    Berg, Vivian; Nøst, Therese Haugdahl; Huber, Sandra; Rylander, Charlotta; Hansen, Solrunn; Veyhe, Anna Sofía; Fuskevåg, Ole Martin; Odland, Jon Øyvind; Sandanger, Torkjel Manning

    2014-08-01

    Determining maternal concentrations of per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) and the relative impact of various demographic and dietary predictors is important for assessing fetal exposure and for developing proper lifestyle advisories for pregnant women. This study was conducted to investigate maternal PFAS concentrations and their predictors in years when the production and use of several PFASs declined, and to assess the relative importance of significant predictors. Blood from 391 pregnant women participating in The Northern Norway Mother-and-Child Contaminant Cohort Study (MISA) was collected in the period 2007-2009 and serum analyses of 26 PFASs were conducted. Associations between PFAS concentrations, sampling date, and demographic and dietary variables were evaluated by multivariate analyses and linear models including relevant covariates. Parity was the strongest significant predictor for all the investigated PFASs, and nulliparous women had higher concentrations compared to multiparous women (10 ng/mL versus 4.5 ng/mL in median PFOS, respectively). Serum concentrations of PFOS and PFOA of women recruited day 1-100 were 25% and 26% higher, respectively, compared to those women recruited in the last 167 days of the study (day 601-867), and the concentrations of PFNA, PFDA and PFUnDA increased with age. Dietary predictors explained 0-17% of the variation in concentrations for the different PFASs. Significantly elevated concentrations of PFOS, PFNA, PFDA and PFUnDA were found among high consumers of marine food. The concentrations of PFHxS, PFHpS and PFNA were also increased in high consumers of game and elevated concentrations of PFHpS and PFOS were detected in high consumers of white meat. Study subjects with a high intake of salty snacks and beef had significantly higher concentrations of PFOA. The present study demonstrates that parity, sampling date and birth year are the most important predictors for maternal PFAS concentrations in years following a decrease in production and use of several PFASs. Further, dietary predictors of PFAS concentrations were identified and varied in importance according to compound. PMID:24815340

  19. Maternal nutrient restriction in the ewe from early to midgestation programs reduced steroidogenic enzyme expression and tended to reduce progesterone content of corpora lutea, as well as circulating progesterone in nonpregnant aged female offspring

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Previously we reported decreased circulating progesterone and fertility in one and two year old ewes born to undernourished mothers. This study was designed to investigate if this reduction in progesterone persisted into old age, and if it did, what mechanisms are involved. Methods Ewes were fed a nutrient restricted (NR, 50% of NRC recommendations) or control (C, 100% of NRC) diets from day 28 to 78 of gestation, then all were fed to requirements through parturition and weaning. Female offspring (4 per treatment group) were maintained as a group and fed to requirements from weaning until assigned to this study at 6 years of age. Ewes were synchronized for estrus (day 0) and blood samples were collected daily from day 0 to day 11 before necropsy on day 12. Blood serum and luteal tissue were assayed for progesterone concentrations by validated radioimmunoassay. Results Circulation progesterone concentrations tended to be lower (P = 0.06) in NR than C offspring from day 0 to 11 of the estrous cycle. While total luteal weight was similar across groups, total progesterone content also tended to be reduced (P = 0.07) in luteal tissue of NR than C offspring. Activity of hepatic progesterone catabolizing enzymes and selected angiogenic factors in luteal tissue were similar between groups. Messenger RNA expression of steroidogenic enzymes StAR and P450scc were reduced (P < 0.05), while protein expression of StAR tended to be reduced (P < 0.07) and P450scc was reduced (P < 0.05) in luteal tissue of NR versus C offspring. Conclusions There appears to be no difference in hepatic steroid catabolism that could have led to the decreased serum progesterone. However, these data are consistent with the programming of decreased steroidogenic enzyme expression in CL of NR offspring, leading to reduced synthesis and secretion of progesterone. PMID:23656912

  20. Early cognitive development and its relation to maternal physiologic and behavioral responsiveness.

    PubMed

    Donovan, W L; Leavitt, L A

    1978-12-01

    Data are presented which support the hypothesis that infant cognitive development is a function of maternal responsiveness to infant cues. 22 mothers whose physiologic responses to infant signals had been recorded at an earlier date participated in the follow-up study reported here. Mother-infant dyads were videotaped during a feeding session when the infant was 9 months of age. Behavioral data collected were the mother's responses to her infant's facial orientation. The statistic developed to index maternal sensitivity was the rate of maternal responding during infant gaze/the rate of responding during infant looking away. Development of the object concept was assessed at 15 months using the Uzgiris and Hunt scale. The data indicated that the development of the concept of the object is positively related to maternal behavioral sensitivity and that mothers who were behaviorally sensitive to infant cues earlier had exhibited physiologic responses to infant signals. PMID:738158

  1. Maternal obesity and immune dysregulation in mother and infant: A review of the evidence.

    PubMed

    Rizzo, Giulia S; Sen, Sarbattama

    2014-10-22

    Obesity is a worldwide public health epidemic. Increasing numbers of reproductive-age women enter pregnancy overweight or obese and there is now convincing data that this adverse in utero environment impacts both fetal and lifelong development. Epidemiologic evidence has shown a simultaneous increase in obesity and asthma rates in developed countries and maternal obesity is a risk factor for infant asthma and wheeze. Here we review the state of research linking maternal obesity and immunomodulation in both mother and infant, with specific attention to the relationship between maternal obesity and offspring asthma. We will also propose several different mechanisms by which maternal obesity may predispose offspring to this chronic condition and briefly summarize interventions that have been trialed to limit this association. PMID:25454382

  2. Predictors of early survival in Soay sheep: cohort-, maternal- and individual-level variation

    PubMed Central

    Jones, Owen R; Crawley, Michael J; Pilkington, Jill G; Pemberton, Josephine M

    2005-01-01

    A demographic understanding of population dynamics requires an appreciation of the processes influencing survival—a demographic rate influenced by parameters varying at the individual, maternal and cohort level. There have been few attempts to partition the variance in demography contributed by each of these parameter types. Here, we use data from a feral population of Soay sheep (Ovis aries), from the island of St Kilda, to explore the relative importance of these parameter types on early survival. We demonstrate that the importance of variation occurring at the level of the individual, and maternally, far outweighs that occurring at the cohort level. The most important variables within the individual and maternal levels were birth weight and maternal age class, respectively. This work underlines the importance of using individual based models in ecological demography and we, therefore, caution against studies that focus solely on population processes. PMID:16321784

  3. Intimate partner violence during pregnancy: maternal and neonatal outcomes.

    PubMed

    Alhusen, Jeanne L; Ray, Ellen; Sharps, Phyllis; Bullock, Linda

    2015-01-01

    The effects of intimate partner violence (IPV) on maternal and neonatal outcomes are multifaceted and largely preventable. During pregnancy, there are many opportunities within the current health care system for screening and early intervention during routine prenatal care or during episodic care in a hospital setting. This article describes the effects of IPV on maternal health (e.g., insufficient or inconsistent prenatal care, poor nutrition, inadequate weight gain, substance use, increased prevalence of depression), as well as adverse neonatal outcomes (e.g., low birth weight [LBW]), preterm birth [PTB], and small for gestational age [SGA]) and maternal and neonatal death. Discussion of the mechanisms of action are explored and include: maternal engagement in health behaviors that are considered "risky," including smoking and alcohol and substance use, and new evidence regarding the alteration of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis and resulting changes in hormones that may affect LBW and SGA infants and PTB. Clinical recommendations include a commitment for routine screening of IPV in all pregnant women who present for care using validated screening instruments. In addition, the provision of readily accessible prenatal care and the development of a trusting patient-provider relationship are first steps in addressing the problem of IPV in pregnancy. Early trials of targeted interventions such as a nurse-led home visitation program and the Domestic Violence Enhanced Home Visitation Program show promising results. Brief psychobehavioral interventions are also being explored. The approach of universal screening, patient engagement in prenatal care, and targeted individualized interventions has the ability to reduce the adverse effects of IPV and highlight the importance of this complex social disorder as a top priority in maternal and neonatal health. PMID:25265285

  4. Hospital units as social contexts: effects on maternal behavior.

    PubMed

    Moss, N

    1984-01-01

    This paper examines the impact of different styles of nursing in maternity units on maternal behavior. These styles are found to be independent of the units' formal organizational characteristics and to vary depending on specific nursing tasks. The degree to which unit management affords opportunities for individualized patient teaching probably has the greatest impact on maternal behavior. Forty-five mothers, closely matched on ethnicity, age, marital status, socioeconomic status and parity, who delivered in three different hospital units, were observed systematically while feeding their infants. The investigators' observations, supplemented by measures of nurse task conceptions and perceptions of work structure, were used to characterize each unit. Analyses of variance, in which each hospital represented a fixed level of treatment, showed that mothers in the moderately supportive unit were significantly more affectionate and responsive towards their infants, and behaved less passively towards them, than mothers in units where nursing work was highly routinized or where zeal for innovation predominated. The moderately supportive unit also significantly diminished the effects of social class and of prior experience with children on affectionate maternal behavior. The threat to validity posed by self-selection of mothers into hospital units was accounted for by the selection of hospitals owned by one prepaid group plan, each serving socioeconomically similar populations in different catchment areas, and by data from the mothers which showed that plan membership and hospital selection were governed by financial considerations and geographical convenience. The findings provide evidence that the social context of the hospital unit--particularly the opportunity for individualized interaction between nurse and patient--may have an effect on early maternal behavior which is independent of the mother's own characteristics. PMID:6484637

  5. Maternal Education and Immunization Status Among Children in Kenya.

    PubMed

    Onsomu, Elijah O; Abuya, Benta A; Okech, Irene N; Moore, DaKysha; Collins-McNeil, Janice

    2015-08-01

    Child morbidity and mortality due to infectious diseases continues to be a major threat and public health concern worldwide. Although global vaccination coverage reached 90 % for diphtheria, tetanus and pertussis (DTP3) across 129 countries, Kenya and other sub-Saharan countries continue to experience under-vaccination. The purpose of this study was to examine the association between maternal education and child immunization (12-23 months) in Kenya. This study used retrospective cross-sectional data from the 2008-2009 Kenya Demographic and Health Survey for women aged 15-49, who had children aged 12-23 months, and who answered questions about vaccination in the survey (n = 1,707). The majority of the children had received vaccinations, with 77 % for poliomyelitis, 74 % for measles, 94 % for tuberculosis, and 91 % for diphtheria, whooping cough (pertussis), and tetanus. After adjusting for other covariates, women with primary, secondary, and college/university education were between 2.21 (p < 0.01) and 9.10 (p < 0.001) times more likely to immunize their children than those who had less than a primary education. Maternal education is clearly crucial in ensuring good health outcomes among children, and integrating immunization knowledge with maternal and child health services is imperative. More research is needed to identify factors influencing immunization decisions among less-educated women in Kenya. PMID:25636652

  6. Maternal postpartum complications according to delivery mode in twin pregnancies

    PubMed Central

    Stach, Sonia Leme; Liao, Adolfo Wenjaw; de Lourdes Brizot, Maria; Francisco, Rossana Pulcineli Vieira; Zugaib, Marcelo

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: We aimed to examine maternal postpartum complications of twin deliveries according to mode of delivery and investigate the associated risk factors. METHODS: This was a retrospective cohort review of twin pregnancies with delivery after 26 weeks at a tertiary teaching hospital (1993-2008). The rates of maternal postpartum complications were compared among vaginal, elective cesarean and emergency cesarean deliveries. Significant predictors of complications were investigated with stepwise regression analysis and relative risks were calculated. RESULTS: A total of 90 complications were observed in 56/817 (6.9%) deliveries: 7/131 (5.3%) vaginal, 10/251 (4.0%) elective cesarean and 39/435 (9.0%) emergency cesarean deliveries. Significant predictors included high-risk pregnancy, gestational age at birth and delivery mode. The occurrence of complications was significantly increased in emergency compared to elective cesarean deliveries (RR?=?2.34). CONCLUSIONS: Maternal postpartum complications in twin pregnancies are higher in emergency compared to elective cesarean deliveries and are also related to preexisting complications and earlier gestational age at delivery. PMID:25029574

  7. The role of maternal and child ADHD symptoms in shaping interpersonal relationships.

    PubMed

    Griggs, Marissa Swaim; Mikami, Amori Yee

    2011-04-01

    The current study investigated the influence of maternal ADHD symptoms on: (a) mothers' own social functioning; (b) their child's social functioning; and (c) parent-child interactions following a lab-based playgroup involving children and their peers. Participants were 103 biological mothers of children ages 6-10. Approximately half of the children had ADHD, and the remainder were comparison youth. After statistical control of children's ADHD diagnostic status and mothers' educational attainment, mothers' own inattentive ADHD symptoms predicted poorer self-reported social skills. Children with ADHD were reported to have more social problems by parents and teachers, as well as received fewer positive sociometric nominations from playgroup peers relative to children without ADHD. After control of child ADHD status, higher maternal inattention and hyperactivity/impulsivity each predicted children having more parent-reported social problems; maternal inattention predicted children receiving more negative sociometric nominations from playgroup peers. There were interactions between maternal ADHD symptoms and children's ADHD diagnostic status in predicting some child behaviors and parent-child relationship measures. Specifically, maternal inattention was associated with decreased prosocial behavior for children without ADHD, but did not influence the prosocial behavior of children with ADHD. Maternal inattention was associated with mothers' decreased corrective feedback and, at a trend level, decreased irritability toward their children with ADHD, but there was no relationship between maternal inattention and maternal behaviors for children without ADHD. A similar pattern was observed for maternal hyperactivity/impulsivity and mothers' observed irritability towards their children. Treatment implications of findings are discussed. PMID:20931275

  8. Impacts of maternal mortality on living children and families: A qualitative study from Butajira, Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Background The consequences of maternal mortality on orphaned children and the family members who support them are dramatic, especially in countries that have high maternal mortality like Ethiopia. As part of a four country, mixed-methods study (Ethiopia, Malawi, South Africa, and Tanzania) qualitative data were collected in Butajira, Ethiopia with the aim of exploring the far reaching consequences of maternal deaths on families and children. Methods We conducted interviews with 28 adult family members of women who died from maternal causes, as well as 13 stakeholders (government officials, civil society, and a UN agency); and held 10 focus group discussions with 87 community members. Data were analyzed using NVivo10 software for qualitative analysis. Results We found that newborns and children whose mothers died from maternal causes face nutrition deficits, and are less likely to access needed health care than children with living mothers. Older children drop out of school to care for younger siblings and contribute to household and farm labor which may be beyond their capacity and age, and often choose migration in search of better opportunities. Family fragmentation is common following maternal death, leading to tenuous relationships within a household with the births and prioritization of additional children further stretching limited financial resources. Currently, there is no formal standardized support system for families caring for vulnerable children in Ethiopia. Conclusions Impacts of maternal mortality on children are far-reaching and have the potential to last into adulthood. Coordinated, multi-sectorial efforts towards mitigating the impacts on children and families following a maternal death are lacking. In order to prevent impacts on children and families, efforts targeting maternal mortality must address inequalities in access to care at the community, facility, and policy levels. PMID:26001276

  9. Infant and maternal predictors of early life feeding decisions. The timing of solid food introduction.

    PubMed

    Doub, Allison E; Moding, Kameron J; Stifter, Cynthia A

    2015-09-01

    There is limited research on the maternal and infant characteristics associated with the timing of solid food introduction. The current study examined how maternal feeding style and infant temperament independently and interactively predicted the age at which infants were introduced to solid food. Data from 115 predominately white, middle-class mothers were collected when infants were 4 and 6 months of age. The timing of solid food introduction was positively correlated with mothers' age, education, breastfeeding at 4 months, self-reported responsiveness to infants' hunger and satiety cues, and negatively correlated with mothers' pre-pregnancy body mass index (BMI), beliefs about feeding infants solid food prior to 6 months of age, and infants' temperamental motor reactivity. When controlling for maternal age, education, pre-pregnancy BMI, and milk feeding method at 4 months, the timing of solid food introduction was negatively predicted by mothers' beliefs about feeding solid food prior to 6 months of age. Exploratory interaction analyses suggested that infant temperament marginally moderated maternal feeding style in predicting the timing of solid food introduction. PMID:26025089

  10. Authoritarian parenting in individualist and collectivist groups: Associations with maternal emotion and cognition and children's self-esteem.

    PubMed

    Rudy, Duane; Grusec, Joan E

    2006-03-01

    Mothers and children between the ages of 7 and 12, from individualist (Western European) and collectivist (Egyptian, Iranian, Indian, and Pakistani) backgrounds, completed assessments of children's self-esteem, maternal authoritarianism, and mothers' thoughts and feelings about their children. Collectivist mothers endorsed authoritarian parenting more than did individualist mothers but did not feel or think more negatively about their children, and collectivist children were not lower in self-esteem. Within both groups, maternal negative affect and cognition were associated with lower self-esteem in children. However, maternal authoritarianism was associated with maternal negative emotion and cognition only in the individualist group. The results suggest that maternal negative thoughts and feelings, associated with authoritarianism in individualist but not collectivist groups, may be more detrimental to children's self-esteem than is authoritarianism in and of itself. PMID:16569091

  11. Improvement of multichannel seismic data through application of the median concept

    SciTech Connect

    Naess, O.E.; Bruland, L.

    1989-04-01

    Different types of median-based methods can be used to improve multichannel seismic data, particularly at the stacking stage in processing. Different applications of the median concept are described and discussed. The most direct application is the Simple Median Stack (SMS), i.e. to use as output the median value of the input amplitudes at each reflection time. By the Alpha-Trimmed Mean (ATM) method it is possible to exclude and optional amount of the input amplitudes that differ most from the median value. A more novel use of the median concept is the Weighted Median Stack (WMS). This method is based on a long-gapped median filter. The implicit weighting, which is purely statistical in nature, is due to the edge effects that occur when the gapped filter is applied. By shifting the traces around before filtering, the maximum weight may be given to, for example, the far-offset traces. The fourth method is the Iterative Median Stack (IMS). This method, which also includes a strong element of weighting, consists of a repeated use of a gapped median filter combined with a gradual shortening of the filter after each pass. Examples show how the seismic data can benefit from the application of these methods.

  12. Maternal influences on thiamine status of walleye Sander vitreus ova.

    PubMed

    Wiegand, M D; Johnston, T A; Brown, L R; Brown, S B; Casselman, J M; Leggett, W C

    2011-03-01

    Concentrations of the various forms of thiamine (vitamin B(1) ) were determined in walleye Sander vitreus ova from three central North American lakes. Total thiamine concentrations in ova from Lake Winnipeg S. vitreus were approximately three times greater (mean 12 nmol g(-1) ) than in those from Lakes Erie or Ontario. The percentage of thiamine in the active form (thiamine pyrophosphate, TPP) was highest in Lake Ontario ova (mean 88%) and lowest in those from Lake Winnipeg (mean 70%). Neither ova total thiamine concentration nor per cent ova thiamine as TPP showed any consistent relationships with maternal age, size, morphometric condition, somatic lipid concentrations or liver lipid concentrations. Ova total thiamine concentration, however, was negatively related to ovum size in some populations, as well as among populations, and was positively related to liver total thiamine concentration. Maternal transfer of thiamine to ova appears to be independent of female ontogenetic or conditional state in S. vitreus. PMID:21366574

  13. Maternal hair selenium levels as a possible long-term nutritional indicator of recurrent pregnancy loss

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Approximately 1% of all couples trying to conceive will suffer from recurrent pregnancy loss (RPL). Nutritional deficiencies have been postulated as a possible cause of RPL and in particular, selenium deficiency has been associated with reproductive failure in animal studies and more recently, in some human studies. This study was undertaken to assess the maternal hair selenium levels in women with RPL without an identified cause and to compare these results with those of women with successful reproductive histories. Methods Twenty four patients with RPL and twenty four control subjects with at least one successful pregnancy and no pregnancy failures, who were matched for age and ethnicity, were recruited. A questionnaire was completed, which included demographic and social information and a dietary history. Hair samples were collected and analyzed for selenium content by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. Results The control subjects had a higher mean income and had completed more years of education compared with the RPL patients. There was no significant difference in the intake of selenium rich foods between the 2 groups. The patients, however, consumed significantly more fruit, cheese, potatoes and chocolate than the controls. The median (range) selenium content was 0.80 ppm (0.19-4.15) and 0.68 ppm (0.43-3.76) in patients and controls respectively (Mann Whitney U test 209.5 p?=?0.74). Conclusions While there were significant differences in the 2 groups with regard to resources, education and diet our results show that hair selenium concentrations and dietary selenium intake, were similar in the two groups. Both groups had low levels of this important element. PMID:24148900

  14. Increased Waking Salivary Cortisol and Depression Risk in Preschoolers: The Role of Maternal History of Melancholic Depression and Early Child Temperament

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dougherty, Lea R.; Klein, Daniel N.; Olino, Thomas M.; Dyson, Margaret; Rose, Suzanne

    2009-01-01

    Background: Elevated morning cortisol is a prospective predictor of major depression and may serve as a vulnerability marker. We examined the relation between morning cortisol and two prominent risk factors for depression in preschool-aged children: maternal depression and child temperament. We also explored whether maternal depression during the…

  15. Maternity blues in Brazilian women.

    PubMed

    Rohde, L A; Busnello, E; Wolf, A; Zomer, A; Shansis, F; Martins, S; Tramontina, S

    1997-03-01

    In this prospective study, a sample of 86 postpartum women was compared with a sample of 75 women from a random period of 8 consecutive days out of puerperium. Symptoms were evaluated each day using the Blues Questionnaire. Postpartum women and women out of puerperium showed a different distribution of percentile scores on the scale on the third, fourth and fifth days. The postpartum symptom peak occurred on the fifth day. Symptoms more significantly associated with the third, fourth and fifth postpartum days were overemotionalism and oversensitivity. It is concluded that maternity blues in Brazilian women appear to be characterized by maternal mental state alterations occurring on the third, fourth and fifth days postpartum. MB seems to be better defined as an emotional oversensitivity syndrome of cross-cultural dimension than as depression. PMID:9111856

  16. Satiety responsiveness in toddlerhood predicts energy intake and weight status at four years of age.

    PubMed

    Mallan, Kimberley M; Nambiar, Smita; Magarey, Anthea M; Daniels, Lynne A

    2014-03-01

    The aim of this study was to examine whether maternal-report of child eating behaviour at two years predicted self-regulation of energy intake and weight status at four years. Using an 'eating in the absence of hunger' paradigm, children's energy intake (kJ) from a semi-standardized lunch meal and a standardized selection of snacks were measured. Participants were 37 mother-child dyads (16 boys, Median child age=4.4years, Inter-quartile range=3.7-4.5years) recruited from an existing longitudinal study (NOURISH randomised controlled trial). All participants were tested in their own home. Details of maternal characteristics, child eating behaviours (at age two years) reported by mothers on a validated questionnaire, and measured child height and weight (at age 3.5-4years) were sourced from existing NOURISH trial data. Correlation and partial correlation analyses were used to examine longitudinal relationships. Satiety responsiveness and Slowness in eating were inversely associated with energy intake of the lunch meal (partial r=-.40, p=.023, and partial r=-.40, p=.023) and the former was also negatively associated with BMI-for-age Z score (partial r=-.42, p=.015). Food responsiveness and Enjoyment of food were not related to energy intake or BMI Z score. None of the eating behaviours were significantly associated with energy intake of the snacks (i.e., eating in the absence of hunger). The small and predominantly 'healthy weight' sample of children may have limited the ability to detect some hypothesized effects. Nevertheless, the study provides evidence for the predictive validity of two eating behaviours and future research with a larger and more diverse sample should be able to better evaluate the predictive validity of other children's early eating behaviour styles. PMID:24316574

  17. Maternal 25-Hydroxyvitamin D and Preterm Birth in Twin Gestations

    PubMed Central

    Bodnar, Lisa M.; Rouse, Dwight J.; Momirova, Valerija; Peaceman, Alan M.; Sciscione, Anthony; Spong, Catherine Y.; Varner, Michael W.; Malone, Fergal D.; Iams, Jay D.; Mercer, Brian M.; Thorp, John M.; Sorokin, Yoram; Carpenter, Marshall W.; Lo, Julie; Ramin, Susan M.; Harper, Margaret

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To assess whether there was an independent association between maternal 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentrations at 24–28 weeks of gestation and preterm birth in a multicenter U.S. cohort of twin pregnancies. METHODS Serum samples from mothers who participated in a clinical trial of 17 ?-hydroxyprogesterone caproate for the prevention of preterm birth in twin gestations (2004–2006) were assayed for 25-hydroxyvitamin D using liquid-chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (n=211). Gestational age was determined early in pregnancy using a rigorous algorithm. Preterm birth was defined as delivery of the first twin or death of either twin at less than 35 weeks of gestation. RESULTS The mean (standard deviation) serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D was 82.7(31.5) nmol/L; 40.3% of women had 25-hydroxyvitamin Dless than 75 nmol/L. Preterm birth less than 35 weeks occurred in 49.4% of mothers with 25-hydroxyvitamin D less than 75 nmol/L compared with 26.2% among those with 25-hydroxyvitamin D 75 nmol/L or more (P<.001). After adjustment for maternal race and ethnicity, study site, parity, prepregnancy body mass index, season, marital status, education, gestational age at blood sampling, smoking status and 17 ?-hydroxyprogesterone caproate treatment, maternal 25-hydroxyvitamin D 75 nmol/L or more was associated with a 60% reduction in the odds of preterm birth compared with less than 75 nmol/L (adjusted odds ratio[OR] 0.4, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.2–0.8). A similar protective association was observed when studying preterm birth less than 32 weeks (OR 0.2, 95% CI 0.1–0.6) and after confounder adjustment. CONCLUSIONS Late second trimester maternal 25-hydroxyvitamin D less than 75 nmol/L is associated with an increase in the risk of preterm birth in this cohort of twin pregnancies. PMID:23743453

  18. A Longitudinal Examination of Maternal Emotions in Relation to Young Children's Developing Self-Regulation

    PubMed Central

    Cole, Pamela M.; LeDonne, Emily N.; Tan, Patricia Z.

    2012-01-01

    SYNOPSIS Objective This study examines how young children’s emotion and behavior relate to maternal emotions concurrently and as a function of children’s developmental changes in self-regulation. Design Mothers and their children (N = 120) participated in an 8 min waiting task at children’s ages 18, 24, 36, and 48 months. Children’s emotion expressions, misbehavior, and regulatory efforts were observed, and mothers rated their own emotions during the wait. Results Children’s emotion and behavior and maternal emotions related in expected directions at most time points. Over time, maternal positive emotion increased more if children were less angry, more content, or more engaged in regulatory efforts relative to age mates. Maternal negative emotion decreased more if children engaged more in regulatory efforts but less if children were angrier relative to age mates. Conclusions Individual differences in children’s emotions may influence parental emotions. Over time, only the intra-individual decline in children’s anger, not the decrease in their misbehavior or the increase in their regulatory efforts, predicted improvements in maternal emotions. PMID:23585731

  19. [DDT and related pesticides in maternal milk and other tissues of healthy women at term pregnancy].

    PubMed

    Terrones, M C; Llamas, J; Jaramillo, F; Espino, M G; León, J S

    2000-03-01

    Ten healthy patients with term pregnancy resolved by abdominal via. During the surgical procedure samples of umbilical chord serum and maternal adipose tissue, were taken. In all the samples, together with the maternal milk collected the day 10 of puerperium, the concentrations of the following organochlorine pesticides, were measured up: (PCC); beta-BHC; gamma-BHC; heptachloride; aldrin; dieldrin, DDE, DDD, DDT and methoxychloride. The identification and quantification of pesticides was done by the comparison with standards certified by NIST (National Institute of Standard Technology). The general characteristics of the participants were: primigestas of 24.1 years aged, married and of a low socioeconomical level. As to the neonates, of 39 weeks of gestational age, female sex; 3,311 g of corporal weight and size of 51.1 cm. In all the analyzed samples at least one of the organochlorine pesticides was present. The results of correlation analysis between DDT concentration, present in the maternal serum with those identified in the adipose tissue and serum from the umbilical chord were highly significant: a = 0.97 and 0.87, respectively. In the maternal milk the highest concentrations of total DDT, were found, average of 2053 ng/g lipidic base, which is 2.8 times more of daily accepted intake. Likewise, DDT concentration in maternal serum kept exponential relation, growing with age (a = 0.99). PMID:10808614

  20. Maternal nutrition and fetal development.

    PubMed

    Wu, Guoyao; Bazer, Fuller W; Cudd, Timothy A; Meininger, Cynthia J; Spencer, Thomas E

    2004-09-01

    Nutrition is the major intrauterine environmental factor that alters expression of the fetal genome and may have lifelong consequences. This phenomenon, termed "fetal programming," has led to the recent theory of "fetal origins of adult disease." Namely, alterations in fetal nutrition and endocrine status may result in developmental adaptations that permanently change the structure, physiology, and metabolism of the offspring, thereby predisposing individuals to metabolic, endocrine, and cardiovascular diseases in adult life. Animal studies show that both maternal undernutrition and overnutrition reduce placental-fetal blood flows and stunt fetal growth. Impaired placental syntheses of nitric oxide (a major vasodilator and angiogenesis factor) and polyamines (key regulators of DNA and protein synthesis) may provide a unified explanation for intrauterine growth retardation in response to the 2 extremes of nutritional problems with the same pregnancy outcome. There is growing evidence that maternal nutritional status can alter the epigenetic state (stable alterations of gene expression through DNA methylation and histone modifications) of the fetal genome. This may provide a molecular mechanism for the impact of maternal nutrition on both fetal programming and genomic imprinting. Promoting optimal nutrition will not only ensure optimal fetal development, but will also reduce the risk of chronic diseases in adults. PMID:15333699

  1. Risk factors for maternal mortality in the west of Iran: a nested case-control study

    PubMed Central

    Poorolajal, Jalal; Alafchi, Behnaz; Najafi Vosoogh, Roya; Hamzeh, Sahar; Ghahramani, Masoomeh

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: With a gradual decline in maternal mortality in recent years in Iran, this study was conducted to identify the remaining risk factors for maternal death. METHODS: This 8-year nested case-control study was conducted in Hamadan Province, in the west of Iran, from April 2006 to March 2014. It included 185 women (37 cases and 148 controls). All maternal deaths that occurred during the study period were considered cases. For every case, four women with a live birth were selected as controls from the same area and date. Conditional logistic regression analysis was performed and the odds ratio (OR) and its 95% confidence interval (CI) were obtained for each risk factor. RESULTS: The majority of cases were aged 20-34 years, died in hospital, and lived in urban areas. The most common causes of death were bleeding, systemic disease, infection, and pre-eclampsia. The OR estimate of maternal death was 8.48 (95% CI=1.26-56.99) for advanced maternal age (?35 years); 2.10 (95% CI=0.07-65.43) for underweight and 10.99 (95% CI=1.65-73.22) for overweight or obese women compared to those with normal weight; 1.56 (95% CI=1.08-2.25) for every unit increase in gravidity compared to those with one gravidity; 1.73 (95% CI=0.34-8.88) for preterm labors compared to term labors; and 17.54 (95% CI= 2.71-113.42) for women with systemic diseases. CONCLUSIONS: According to our results, advanced maternal age, abnormal body mass index, multiple gravidity, preterm labor, and systemic disease were the main risk factors for maternal death. However, more evidence based on large cohort studies in different settings is required to confirm our results. PMID:25381997

  2. Associations of Maternal and Neonatal Serum Trace Element Concentrations with Neonatal Birth Weight

    PubMed Central

    Tsuzuki, Shinya; Morimoto, Nao; Hosokawa, Shinichi; Matsushita, Takeji

    2013-01-01

    Background Trace elements play important nutritional roles in neonates. Our objective was to examine whether there are differences in maternal/neonatal serum trace element concentrations between mature infants and premature infants. Methods During 2012, 44 infants born at National Center for Global Health and Medicine, Tokyo, Japan, were enrolled. Serum samples were collected to measure serum iron, zinc, copper, and selenium concentrations 5 days after birth. Maternal serum samples were obtained before delivery and cord blood was taken at delivery to measure the same trace elements. We compared the results between term group whose birth weight were ?2500 g and gestational age were ?37 weeks and premature group whose birth weight were <2500 g or gestational age were <37 weeks. Variables significantly different between two groups were included in linear regression models to identify significant predictors of birth weight. Values of P<0.05 were considered statistically significant. Results Serum selenium concentrations were lower in premature group than in term group (43.3±7.0 µg/L vs. 52.0±8.9 µg/L, P?=?0.001). Maternal serum selenium concentrations were also significantly lower in the mothers of premature group than in the mothers of term group (79.3±19.3 µg/L vs. 94.1±18.1 µg/L, P?=?0.032). There were no significant differences in neonatal or maternal iron, zinc, or copper concentrations between two groups. Multivariate linear regression analysis showed that, except for gestational age, only maternal serum selenium was significantly associated with birth weight (P?=?0.015). Conclusions Serum selenium concentrations were lower in premature group and their mothers compared with the term group. The maternal serum selenium concentration was positively correlated with birth weight. These results suggest that maternal serum selenium concentration may influence neonatal birth weight. PMID:24086594

  3. Maternal deaths associated with eclampsia in South Africa: Lessons to learn from the confidential enquiries into maternal deaths, 2005 - 2007.

    PubMed

    Moodley, J

    2010-11-01

    Eclampsia is the commonest direct cause of maternal death in South Africa. The latest Saving Mothers Report (2005-2007) indicates that there were 622 maternal deaths due to hypertensive disorders of pregnancy. Of these, 334 (55.3%) were due to eclampsia; of the eclamptic deaths, 50 were over the age of 35 years and 83 were under 20 years old. Avoidable factors involved patient related factors (mainly delay in seeking help), administrative factors (mainly delay in transport) and health personnel issues (mainly due to delay in referring patients). The major causes of death were cerebrovascular accidents and cardiac failure. The majority of deaths due to cardiac failure were due to pulmonary oedema. To reduce deaths from eclampsia, more attention must be given to the detection of pre-eclampsia; the provision of information on the advantages of antenatal care to the population at large and training of health professions in the management of obstetric emergencies. PMID:21081020

  4. Gestational Weight Gain and Daughter's Age at Menarche

    PubMed Central

    Rich-Edwards, Janet; Fredman, Lisa; Hibert, Eileen Lividoti; Michels, Karin B.; Forman, Michele R.; Wright, Rosalind J.

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background Sexual development begins in utero and enters a dormant phase during infancy. The influence of maternal gestational weight gain (GWG) on daughter's age at menarche has not been explored. Methods We investigated the association between maternal GWG and age at menarche (<11 years, 11–15 years, >15 years of age) in a large cohort study of U.S. nurses, The Nurses' Health Study II (NHS II), and the Nurses' Mothers' Cohort Study. Results Among 32,218 respondents, 7% reported age at menarche aged 11–15 years, and 3% > age 15. Compared with women whose mothers gained 20–29?lbs during pregnancy, those whose mothers reported <10?lbs or >40?lbs of GWG were 30% more likely to report early onset menarche (<11 years of age) in logistic regression models adjusted for sociodemographic and maternal characteristics, and childhood body size and physical activity: adjusted odds ratio (OR) 1.31, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.05-1.62, and 1.27, 95% CI 1.06-1.56. Maternal GWG was not associated with late menarche in the fully adjusted model (ptrend=0.07). Conclusions These results suggest that either extreme of maternal GWG may influence risk for early age at menarche in daughters. Maternal GWG may be a modifiable risk factor for early menarche. PMID:21711153

  5. Pennsylvania's early discharge legislation: effect on maternity and infant lengths of stay and hospital charges in Philadelphia.

    PubMed Central

    Webb, D; Culhane, J F; Snyder, S; Greenspan, J

    2001-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To assess the effect of maternal length of stay (LOS) legislation on LOS and hospital charges associated with Philadelphia resident live births from 1994 through 1997. DATA SOURCE/STUDY SETTING: This was a descriptive epidemiological study involving secondary data analyses of linked birth record and hospital discharge data pertaining to all Philadelphia resident live births occurring between January 1, 1994 and December 31, 1997. STUDY DESIGN: Using these linked data, trends in median and mean maternal and infant LOS and hospital charges were described for three distinct time periods: (1) a "prelegislative" period (January 1, 1994 through June 30, 1995); (2) a one-year period during which LOS legislation was introduced, debated, modified, and eventually passed by Pennsylvania lawmakers (July 1, 1995 through June 30, 1996); and (3) a "post-LOS law" period immediately following enactment of Act 85 mandating minimum LOS for mothers and their newborns (July 1, 1996 through December 31, 1997). LOS variables for both mothers and infants were calculated based on the actual number of hours elapsing between birth and discharge; hospital charges were obtained directly from information available in the Hospital Discharge Survey data. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Maternal median charges and LOS per delivery for vaginal births rose from 5,270 dollars to 6,333 dollars and from 35 to 47 hours following the enactment of Pennsylvania maternal minimum LOS legislation. Median infant cost and LOS per delivery mirrored these trends. CONCLUSIONS: Pennsylvania LOS legislation had a profound effect on maternal and infant discharge practices in Philadelphia. As much as $20 million may have been added to annual health care costs associated with Philadelphia resident births. PMID:11775668

  6. Amniotic fluid and maternal serum levels of CA125 in pregnancies affected by Down syndrome: a re-evaluation of the role of CA125 in Down syndrome screening.

    PubMed

    Spencer, K; Muller, F; Aitken, D A

    1997-08-01

    In a study of amniotic fluid from 91 Down syndrome cases and 240 controls, we have shown that the median value of CA125 in pregnancies affected by Down syndrome on the whole reflects those observed in the maternal serum from 106 affected cases and 238 controls. The median MOM for CA125 in amniotic fluid from Down syndrome pregnancies was 1.04 and in maternal serum 1.06, neither value being significantly different from that for the control population. We confirm our previous observation that CA125 is not a marker of Down syndrome and conclude that CA125 has no role to play in Down syndrome screening. PMID:9267892

  7. Preliminary evaluation of a primary care intervention for cry-fuss behaviours in the first 3-4 months of life ('The Possums Approach'): effects on cry-fuss behaviours and maternal mood.

    PubMed

    Douglas, Pamela S; Miller, Yvette; Bucetti, Anne; Hill, Peter S; Creedy, Debra K

    2015-01-01

    Problem crying in the first few months of life is both common and complex, arising out of multiple interacting and co-evolving factors. Parents whose babies cry and fuss a lot receive conflicting advice as they seek help from multiple health providers and emergency departments, and may be admitted into tertiary residential services. Conflicting advice is costly, and arises out of discipline-specific interpretations of evidence. An integrated, interdisciplinary primary care intervention ('The Possums Approach') for cry-fuss problems in the first months of life was developed from available peer-reviewed evidence. This study reports on preliminary evaluation of delivery of the intervention. A total of 20 mothers who had crying babies under 16 weeks of age (average age 6.15 weeks) completed questionnaires, including the Crying Patterns Questionnaire and the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale, before and 3-4 weeks after their first consultation with trained primary care practitioners. Preliminary evaluation is promising. The Crying Patterns Questionnaire showed a significant decrease in crying and fussing duration, by 1h in the evening (P=0.001) and 30 min at night (P=0.009). The median total amount of crying and fussing in a 24-h period was reduced from 6.12 to 3h. The Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale showed a significant improvement in depressive symptoms, with the median score decreasing from 11 to 6 (P=0.005). These findings are corroborated by an analysis of results for the subset of 16 participants whose babies were under 12 weeks of age (average age 4.71 weeks). These preliminary results demonstrate significantly decreased infant crying in the evening and during the night and improved maternal mood, validating an innovative interdisciplinary clinical intervention for cry-fuss problems in the first few months of life. This intervention, delivered by trained health professionals, has the potential to mitigate the costly problem of health professionals giving discipline-specific and conflicting advice post-birth. PMID:23992773

  8. Choice in maternity care: associations with unit supply, geographic accessibility and user characteristics

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Despite national policies to promote user choice for health services in many European countries, current trends in maternity unit closures create a context in which user choice may be reduced, not expanded. Little attention has been paid to the potential impact of closures on pregnant women’s choice of maternity unit. We study here how pregnant women’s choices interact with the distance they must travel to give birth, individual socioeconomic characteristics and the supply of maternity units in France in 2003. Results Overall, about one-third of women chose their maternity units based on proximity. This proportion increased steeply as supply was constrained. Greater distances between the first and second closest maternity unit were strongly associated with increasing preferences for proximity; when these distances were???30 km, over 85% of women selected the closest unit (revealed preference) and over 70% reported that proximity was the reason for their choice (expressed preference). Women living at a short distance to the closest maternity unit appeared to be more sensitive to increases in distance between their first and second closest available maternity units. The preference for proximity, expressed and revealed, was related to demographic and social characteristics: women from households in the manual worker class chose a maternity unit based on its proximity more often and also went to the nearest unit when compared with women from professional and managerial households. These sociodemographic associations held true after adjusting for supply factors, maternal age and socioeconomic status. Conclusions Choice seems to be arbitrated in both absolute and relative terms. Taking changes in supply into consideration and how these affect choice is an important element for assessing the real impact of maternity unit closures on pregnant women’s experiences. An indicator measuring the proportion of women for whom the distance between the first and second maternity unit is greater than 30 km can provide a simple measure of choice to complement indicators of geographic accessibility in evaluations of the impact of maternity unit closures. PMID:22905951

  9. Divergent trends in maternal cigarette smoking during pregnancy: United States 1990-99.

    PubMed

    Ananth, Cande V; Kirby, Russell S; Kinzler, Wendy L

    2005-01-01

    While examination of causes for trends in smoking have largely focused on how changes have occurred with maternal age and, less commonly, time period, little is known as to how age, period and birth cohort interact on trends in the prevalence of smoking during pregnancy. We performed a population-based, retrospective cohort study based on the vital statistics records comprised of White (n=24,499,629) and Black (n = 5,096,625) women delivering in the United States in 1990-99. Smoking prevalence rates were derived by seven 5-year maternal age groups (15-19 to 45-49 years), two time periods (1990-94 and 1995-99), and eight 5-year maternal birth cohorts (1945-49 to 1980-84) after adjusting for the confounding effects of gravidity, education, marital status, and lack of prenatal care through multivariable logistic regression models. The prevalence of smoking was 17.3% among Whites, and 13.5% among Blacks, with substantial variations by age, time period, and birth cohort. The rate declined with increasing age among Whites during the 1990-94 and 1995-99 periods. Among Blacks, the rates increased steeply with advancing age up to 25-29 years and began to decline thereafter. Smoking rates declined among both Whites and Blacks with increasing birth cohort within each age strata. These rates were highest among multigravid women (gravida > or = 2), and lowest among primigravid women. The rates among Whites declined with increasing maternal age for each gravida. Among Blacks, smoking rates for each gravida increased with advancing age up to 25-29 years, and plateaued among older women. Variation in smoking prevalence by age, time period, and birth cohort provides impetus for designing interventions to reduce smoking. Such studies should not only consider cross-sectional trends, but also the divergent patterns by age and cohort among women of different race/ethnic groups and gravidity. PMID:15670104

  10. The Generally Weighted Moving Average Control Chart for Monitoring the Process Median

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Shey-Huei Sheu; Ling Yang

    2006-01-01

    The generally weighted moving average median (GWMA-[Xtilde]) control chart is employed to monitoring the process sample mean\\/median. From the statistical point of view, the simulation result reveals that the GWMA-[Xtilde] chart outperforms both the EWMA-[Xtilde] chart and the Shewhart-[Xtilde] chart in detecting small shifts of the process sample mean\\/median. In detecting the startup shifts, the GWMA-[Xtilde] chart is also more

  11. Association of Maternal Smoking With Child Cotinine Levels

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: Our aim was to understand the strength of association between parental smoking and child environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) exposure in order to inform the development of future tobacco control policies. ETS was measured using child cotinine levels below the active smoking threshold. Methods: Participants were drawn from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children and included 3,128 participants at age 7 years and 1,868 participants at age 15 years. The primary outcome was cotinine levels of nonsmoking children, to investigate the relationship between maternal smoking and child cotinine levels. The secondary outcome was cotinine levels of all individuals to investigate the relationship between child smoking and child cotinine levels. Maternal and child smoking behavior was assessed by self-report questionnaire. We adjusted for several sociodemographic variables. Results: We found an association between maternal smoking and child cotinine at age 7 years (mean cotinine = 1.16ng/ml serum, ratio of geometric means = 3.94, 95% CI = 2.86–5.42) and at age 15 years (mean cotinine = 0.94ng/ml serum, ratio of geometric means = 5.26, 95% CI = 3.06–9.03), after adjustment for potential confounders. Conclusions: The magnitude of this association for children whose mothers were heavy smokers was comparable with the quantity of half the levels of cotinine observed among children who were irregular (i.e., nonweekly) active smokers, and it was greater than five times higher than that seen in nonsmoking children whose mothers didn’t smoke. This provides further evidence for the importance of public health interventions to reduce smoking exposure in the home. PMID:23880896

  12. Paternal age and mortality in children

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jin Liang Zhu; Mogens Vestergaard; Kreesten M. Madsen; Jørn Olsen

    2008-01-01

    Background Since paternal age correlates with some diseases that have a high case-fatality, a paternal age effect on offspring’s survival\\u000a is expected but unsettled. We examined the association between paternal age and mortality in children in a large population-based\\u000a cohort taking maternal age and socioeconomic factors into account. Methods From the Danish Fertility Database (1980–1996), we identified 102,879 couples and

  13. Risk Factors for Progression from Severe Maternal Morbidity to Death: A National Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Kayem, Gilles; Kurinczuk, Jennifer; Lewis, Gwyneth; Golightly, Shona; Brocklehurst, Peter; Knight, Marian

    2011-01-01

    Background Women continue to die unnecessarily during or after pregnancy in the developed world. The aim of this analysis was to compare women with severe maternal morbidities who survived with those who died, to quantify the risk associated with identified factors to inform policy and practice to improve survival. Methods and Findings We conducted a national cohort analysis using data from two sources obtained between 2003 and 2009: the Centre for Maternal and Child Enquiries maternal deaths database and the United Kingdom Obstetric Surveillance System database. Included women had eclampsia, antenatal pulmonary embolism, amniotic fluid embolism, acute fatty liver of pregnancy or antenatal stroke. These conditions were chosen as major causes of maternal mortality and morbidity about which data were available through both sources, and include 42% of direct maternal deaths over the study period. Rates, risk ratios, crude and adjusted odd ratios were used to investigate risks factors for maternal death. Multiple imputation and sensitivity analysis were used to handle missing data. We identified 476 women who survived and 100 women who died. Maternal death was associated with older age (35+ years aOR 2.36, 95%CI 1.22–4.56), black ethnicity (aOR 2.38, 95%CI 1.15–4.92), and unemployed, routine or manual occupation (aOR 2.19, 95%CI 1.03–4.68). An association was also observed with obesity (BMI?30 kg/m2 aOR 2.73, 95%CI 1.15–6.46). Conclusions Ongoing high quality national surveillance programmes have an important place in addressing challenges in maternal health and care. There is a place for action to reverse the rising trends in maternal age at childbirth, and to reduce the burden of obesity in pregnancy, as well as ongoing recognition of the impact of older maternal age on the risks of pregnancy. Development and evaluation of services to mitigate the risk of dying associated with black ethnicity and lower socioeconomic status is also essential. PMID:22216171

  14. Public health approach to address maternal mortality.

    PubMed

    Rai, Sanjay K; Anand, K; Misra, Puneet; Kant, Shashi; Upadhyay, Ravi Prakash

    2012-01-01

    Reducing maternal mortality is one of the major challenges to health systems worldwide, more so in developing countries that account for nearly 99% of these maternal deaths. Lack of a standard method for reporting of maternal death poses a major hurdle in making global comparisons. Currently much of the focus is on documenting the "number" of maternal deaths and delineating the "medical causes" behind these deaths. There is a need to acknowledge the social correlates of maternal deaths as well. Investigating and in-depth understanding of each maternal death can provide indications on practical ways of addressing the problem. Death of a mother has serious implications for the child as well as other family members and to prevent the same, a comprehensive approach is required. This could include providing essential maternal care, early management of complications and good quality intrapartum care through the involvement of skilled birth attendants. Ensuring the availability, affordability, and accessibility of quality maternal health services, including emergency obstetric care (EmOC) would prove pivotal in reducing the maternal deaths. To increase perceived seriousness of the community regarding maternal health, a well-structured awareness campaign is needed with importance be given to avoid adolescent pregnancy as well. Initiatives like Janani Surakhsha Yojna (JSY) that have the potential to improve maternal health needs to be strengthened. Quality assessments should form an essential part of all services that are directed toward improving maternal health. Further, emphasis needs to be given on research by involving multiple allied partners, with the aim to develop a prioritized, coordinated, and innovative research agenda for women's health. PMID:23229211

  15. Maternal Feeding Controls Fetal Biological Clock

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hidenobu Ohta; Shanhai Xu; Takahiro Moriya; Masayuki Iigo; Tatsuya Watanabe; Norimichi Nakahata; Hiroshi Chisaka; Takushi Hanita; Tadashi Matsuda; Toshihiro Ohura; Yoshitaka Kimura; Nobuo Yaegashi; Shigeru Tsuchiya; Hajime Tei; Kunihiro Okamura; Naomi Rogers

    2008-01-01

    BackgroundIt is widely accepted that circadian physiological rhythms of the fetus are affected by oscillators in the maternal brain that are coupled to the environmental light-dark (LD) cycle.Methodology\\/Principal FindingsTo study the link between fetal and maternal biological clocks, we investigated the effects of cycles of maternal food availability on the rhythms of Per1 gene expression in the fetal suprachiasmatic nucleus

  16. Advanced paternal age and reproductive outcome

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Zofnat Wiener-Megnazi; Ron Auslender; Martha Dirnfeld

    2012-01-01

    Women have been increasingly delaying the start of motherhood in recent decades. The same trend is seen also for men. The influence of maternal age on fertility, chromosomal anomalies, pregnancy complications, and impaired perinatal and post-natal outcome of offspring, has been thoroughly investigated, and these aspects are clinically applied during fertility and pregestational counseling. Male aging and reproductive outcome has

  17. Paternal age and risk for schizophrenia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. ZAMMIT

    2003-01-01

    Results: Advanced paternal and maternal age was associated with increased risk of schizophrenia in uni- variate analyses. Controlling for socioeconomic factors and family psychiatric history, increased risk of schizophrenia was identified in those with a paternal age of 50 years or older. Sex-specific analyses revealed that the risk of schizophrenia was increased for males with fathers 55 years or older

  18. Maternal Psychiatric Disorders, Parenting, and Maternal Behavior in the Home during the Child Rearing Years

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Jeffrey G.; Cohen, Patricia; Kasen, Stephanie; Brook, Judith S.

    2006-01-01

    Data from the Children in the Community Study, a community-based longitudinal study, were used to investigate associations between maternal psychiatric disorders and child-rearing behaviors. Maternal psychiatric symptoms and behavior in the home were assessed in 782 families during the childhood and adolescence of the offspring. Maternal anxiety,…

  19. Evidence from Maternity Leave Expansions of the Impact of Maternal Care on Early Child Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baker, Michael; Milligan, Kevin

    2010-01-01

    We study the impact of maternal care on early child development using an expansion in Canadian maternity leave entitlements. Following the leave expansion, mothers who took leave spent 48-58 percent more time not working in their children's first year of life. This extra maternal care primarily crowded out home-based care by unlicensed…

  20. The Influence of Maternal Acculturation, Neighborhood Disadvantage, and Parenting on Chinese American Adolescents’ Conduct Problems: Testing the Segmented Assimilation Hypothesis

    PubMed Central

    Lau, Anna S.; Chen, Angela Chia-Chen; Dinh, Khanh T.; Kim, Su Yeong

    2009-01-01

    Associations among neighborhood disadvantage, maternal acculturation, parenting and conduct problems were investigated in a sample of 444 Chinese American adolescents. Adolescents (54% female, 46% male) ranged from 12 to 15 years of age (mean age = 13.0 years). Multilevel modeling was employed to test the hypothesis that the association between maternal acculturation and adolescents’ conduct problems could be explained by differences in mothers’ reliance on monitoring and harsh discipline. In addition, guided by segmented assimilation theory, measures of neighborhood disadvantage were expected not only to be related to differences in parenting, but also to moderate the effects of maternal acculturation on parenting. Results indicated that increased maternal acculturation was related to higher levels of maternal monitoring and lower levels of harsh discipline, which, in turn, were related to lower levels of adolescents’ conduct problems. Hierarchical linear modeling results revealed that neighborhood disadvantage was related to lower levels of maternal monitoring. However, neighborhood disadvantage did not moderate the link between maternal acculturation and parenting practices. PMID:19636764

  1. Immunization coverage and predictive factors for complete and age-appropriate vaccination among preschoolers in Athens, Greece: a cross- sectional study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background In Greece, several new childhood vaccines were introduced recently but were reimbursed gradually and at different time points. The aim of this study was to assess immunization coverage and identify factors influencing complete and age-appropriate vaccination among children attending public nurseries in the municipal district of Athens. Methods A cross-sectional study, using stratified sampling was performed. Immunization history was obtained from vaccination booklets. Demographic and socioeconomic data were obtained from school registries and telephone interviews. Vaccination rates were estimated by sample weighted proportions while associations between complete and age-appropriate immunization and potential determinants by logistic regression analysis. Results A total of 731 children (mean age: 46, median: 48, range: 10–65 months) were included. Overall immunization coverage with traditional vaccines (DTP, polio, Hib, HBV, 1st dose MMR) was satisfactory, exceeding 90%, but the administration of booster doses was delayed (range: 33.7- 97.4%, at 60 months of age). Complete vaccination rates were lower for new vaccines (Men C, PCV7, varicella, hepatitis A), ranging between 61-92%. In addition, a significant delay in timely administration of Men C, PCV7, as well as HBV was noted (22.9%, 16.0% and 27.7% at 12 months of age, respectively). Child’s age was strongly associated with incomplete vaccination with all vaccines (p< 0.001), while as immigrant status was a predictor of incomplete (p=0.034) and delayed vaccination (p<0.001) with traditional vaccines. Increasing household size and higher maternal education were negatively associated with the receipt of all and newly licensed vaccines, respectively (p=0.035). Conclusions Our findings highlight the need to monitor uptake of new vaccines and improve age- appropriate administration of booster doses as well as early vaccination against hepatitis B. Immigrant status, increased household size and high maternal education may warrant targeted intervention. PMID:24083352

  2. Maternal vitamin D and E intakes during pregnancy are associated with asthma in children.

    PubMed

    Allan, Keith M; Prabhu, Nanda; Craig, Leone C A; McNeill, Geraldine; Kirby, Bradley; McLay, James; Helms, Peter J; Ayres, Jon G; Seaton, Anthony; Turner, Stephen W; Devereux, Graham

    2015-04-01

    Are maternal vitamin D and E intakes during pregnancy associated with asthma in 10-year-old children? In a longitudinal study of 1924 children born to women recruited during pregnancy, maternal vitamin D intake during pregnancy was assessed by the Food Frequency Questionnaire (FFQ) and vitamin E by FFQ and plasma ?-tocopherol; respiratory questionnaires were completed for the 10-year-old children. Their treatment for asthma was also ascertained using administrative data. Longitudinal analyses included data collected at 1, 2, 5 and 10 years. Symptom data were available for 934 (49%) children and use of asthma medication for 1748 (91%). In the children maternal vitamin D intake during pregnancy was negatively associated with doctor-diagnosed asthma at 10 years of age (OR per intake quintile 0.86, 95% CI 0.74-0.99) and over the first 10 years (hazard ratio 0.90, 95% CI 0.81-1.00). Maternal plasma ?-tocopherol at 11 weeks gestation was negatively associated with children receiving asthma treatment (OR per standard deviation increase 0.52, 95% CI 0.31-0.87). Maternal vitamin E intake was negatively associated with doctor-diagnosed asthma (OR 0.89, 95% CI 0.81-0.99) in the first 10 years. Low maternal vitamin D and E intakes during pregnancy are associated with increased risk of children developing asthma in the first 10 years of life. These associations may have significant public health implications. PMID:25359350

  3. Infant face interest is associated with voice information and maternal psychological health.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Gemma; Slade, Pauline; Herbert, Jane S

    2014-11-01

    Early infant interest in their mother's face is driven by an experience based face processing system, and is associated with maternal psychological health, even within a non clinical community sample. The present study examined the role of the voice in eliciting infants' interest in mother and stranger faces and in the association between infant face interest and maternal psychological health. Infants aged 3.5-months were shown photographs of their mother's and a stranger's face paired with an audio recording of their mother's and a stranger's voice that was either matched (e.g., mother's face and voice) or mismatched (e.g., mother's face and stranger's voice). Infants spent more time attending to the stranger's matched face and voice than the mother's matched face and voice and the mismatched faces and voices. Thus, infants demonstrated an earlier preference for a stranger's face when given voice information than when the face is presented alone. In the present sample, maternal psychological health varied with 56.7% of mothers reporting mild mood symptoms (depression, anxiety or stress response to childbirth). Infants of mothers with significant mild maternal mood symptoms looked longer at the faces and voices compared to infants of mothers who did not report mild maternal mood symptoms. In sum, infants' experience based face processing system is sensitive to their mothers' maternal psychological health and the multimodal nature of faces. PMID:25195036

  4. Maternal predictors of neonatal bone size and geometry: the Southampton Women’s Survey

    PubMed Central

    Harvey, N. C.; Javaid, M. K.; Arden, N. K.; Poole, J. R.; Crozier, S. R.; Robinson, S. M.; Inskip, H. M.; Godfrey, K. M.; Dennison, E. M.; Cooper, C.

    2011-01-01

    Early growth is associated with later risk of osteoporosis and fractures. In this study, we aimed to evaluate the relationships between maternal lifestyle and body composition and neonatal bone size, geometry and density in the offspring. Participants were recruited from the Southampton Women’s Survey, a unique prospective cohort of 12,500 initially non-pregnant women aged 20–34 years, resident in Southampton, UK. These women were studied in detail before and during pregnancy, and the offspring underwent anthropometric and bone mineral assessment (using dual energy-X-ray absorptiometry) at birth. A total of 841 mother–baby pairs were studied (443 boys and 398 girls). The independent predictors of greater neonatal whole body bone area (BA) and bone mineral content included greater maternal birthweight, height, parity, triceps skinfold thickness and lower walking speed in late pregnancy. Maternal smoking was independently associated with lower neonatal bone mass. Neonatal BA adjusted for birth length (a measure of bone width) was predicted positively by maternal parity and late pregnancy triceps skinfold thickness and negatively by late pregnancy walking speed. These findings were similar in both genders. We have confirmed, in a large cohort, previous findings that maternal lifestyle and body build predict neonatal bone mineral; additionally, maternal parity and fat stores and walking speed in late pregnancy were associated with neonatal bone geometry. These findings may suggest novel public health strategies to reduce the burden of osteoporotic fracture in future generations. PMID:23750315

  5. Travel time to maternity care and its effect on utilization in rural Ghana: a multilevel analysis.

    PubMed

    Masters, Samuel H; Burstein, Roy; Amofah, George; Abaogye, Patrick; Kumar, Santosh; Hanlon, Michael

    2013-09-01

    Rates of neonatal and maternal mortality are high in Ghana. In-facility delivery and other maternal services could reduce this burden, yet utilization rates of key maternal services are relatively low, especially in rural areas. We tested a theoretical implication that travel time negatively affects the use of in-facility delivery and other maternal services. Empirically, we used geospatial techniques to estimate travel times between populations and health facilities. To account for uncertainty in Ghana Demographic and Health Survey cluster locations, we adopted a novel approach of treating the location selection as an imputation problem. We estimated a multilevel random-intercept logistic regression model. For rural households, we found that travel time had a significant effect on the likelihood of in-facility delivery and antenatal care visits, holding constant education, wealth, maternal age, facility capacity, female autonomy, and the season of birth. In contrast, a facility's capacity to provide sophisticated maternity care had no detectable effect on utilization. As the Ghanaian health network expands, our results suggest that increasing the availability of basic obstetric services and improving transport infrastructure may be important interventions. PMID:23906132

  6. Effect of fetal growth on maternal protein metabolism in postabsorptive rat

    SciTech Connect

    Ling, P.R.; Bistrian, B.R.; Blackburn, G.L.; Istfan, N.

    1987-03-01

    Rates of protein synthesis were measured in whole fetuses and maternal tissues at 17 and 20 days of gestation in postabsorptive rats using continuous infusion of L-(1-/sup 14/C)leucine. Fetal protein degradation rates were derived from the fractional rates of synthesis and growth. Whole-body (plasma) leucine kinetics in the mother showed a significant reduction of the fraction of plasma leucine oxidized in the mothers bearing older fetuses, a slight increase in the plasma flux, with total leucine oxidation and incorporation into protein remaining similar at the two gestational ages. Estimates of fractional protein synthesis in maternal tissues revealed an increase in placental and hepatic rates at 20 days of gestation, whereas the fractional synthetic rate in muscle remained unchanged. A model for estimation of the redistribution of leucine between plasma and tissues is described in detail. This model revealed a more efficient utilization of leucine in fetal protein synthesis in comparison with other maternal tissues, a greater dependency of the fetus on plasma supply of leucine, and a significant increase (2-fold) in the release of leucine from maternal muscle as the fetal requirements increased proportionately with its size. The latter conclusion, supported by nitrogen analysis and the ratio of bound-to-free leucine in maternal tissues, confirms the importance of maternal stores in maintaining the homeostasis of essential amino acids during late pregnancy.

  7. Fetal ECG extraction during labor using an adaptive maternal beat subtraction technique.

    PubMed

    Ungureanu, Mihaela; Bergmans, Johannes W M; Oei, Swan Guid; Strungaru, Rodica

    2007-02-01

    Fetal ECG (FECG) monitoring using abdominal maternal signals is a non-invasive technique that allows early detection of changes in fetal wellbeing. Several other signal components have stronger energy than the FECG, the most important being maternal ECG (MECG) and, especially during labor, uterine EMG. This study proposes a new method to subtract MECG after detecting and removing abdominal signal segments with high-amplitude variations due to uterine contractions. The method removes MECG from abdominal signals using an approximation of the current MECG segment based on a linear combination of previous MECG segments aligned on the R-peak. The coefficients of the linear model are computed so that the squared error of the approximation over the whole current segment is minimized. Abdominal signal segments strongly affected by uterine contractions are detected by applying median filtering. The methods proposed are tested on real abdominal data recorded during labor, with FECG recorded using scalp electrodes synchronously recorded for comparison. PMID:17313335

  8. Maternal Antibodies: Clinical Significance, Mechanism of Interference with Immune Responses, and Possible Vaccination Strategies

    PubMed Central

    Niewiesk, Stefan

    2014-01-01

    Neonates have an immature immune system, which cannot adequately protect against infectious diseases. Early in life, immune protection is accomplished by maternal antibodies transferred from mother to offspring. However, decaying maternal antibodies inhibit vaccination as is exemplified by the inhibition of seroconversion after measles vaccination. This phenomenon has been described in both human and veterinary medicine and is independent of the type of vaccine being used. This review will discuss the use of animal models for vaccine research. I will review clinical solutions for inhibition of vaccination by maternal antibodies, and the testing and development of potentially effective vaccines. These are based on new mechanistic insight about the inhibitory mechanism of maternal antibodies. Maternal antibodies inhibit the generation of antibodies whereas the T cell response is usually unaffected. B cell inhibition is mediated through a cross-link between B cell receptor (BCR) with the Fc?-receptor IIB by a vaccine–antibody complex. In animal experiments, this inhibition can be partially overcome by injection of a vaccine-specific monoclonal IgM antibody. IgM stimulates the B cell directly through cross-linking the BCR via complement protein C3d and antigen to the complement receptor 2 (CR2) signaling complex. In addition, it was shown that interferon alpha binds to the CD21 chain of CR2 as well as the interferon receptor and that this dual receptor usage drives B cell responses in the presence of maternal antibodies. In lieu of immunizing the infant, the concept of maternal immunization as a strategy to protect neonates has been proposed. This approach would still not solve the question of how to immunize in the presence of maternal antibodies but would defer the time of infection to an age where infection might not have such a detrimental outcome as in neonates. I will review successful examples and potential challenges of implementing this concept. PMID:25278941

  9. THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN MATERNAL ADIPOSITY AND INFANT WEIGHT GAIN AND CHILDHOOD WHEEZE AND ATOPY

    PubMed Central

    Pike, Katharine C; Inskip, Hazel M; Robinson, Sian M; Cooper, Cyrus; Godfrey, Keith M; Roberts, Graham; Lucas, Jane SA

    2013-01-01

    Background Obesity and asthma have increased in westernised countries. Maternal obesity may increase childhood asthma risk. If this relation is causal it may be mediated through factors associated with maternal adiposity, such as fetal development, pregnancy complications or infant adiposity. We investigated the relationships of maternal BMI and fat mass with childhood wheeze and examined the influences of infant weight gain and childhood obesity. Methods Maternal pre-pregnancy BMI and estimated fat mass (from skinfold thicknesses) were related to asthma, wheeze and atopy in 940 children. Transient or persistent/late wheeze was classified using questionnaire data collected at ages 6, 12, 24 and 36 months and 6 years. At 6 years, skin prick testing was conducted and exhaled nitric oxide and spirometry measured. Infant adiposity gain was calculated from skinfold thickness at birth and 6 months. Results Greater maternal BMI and fat mass were associated with increased childhood wheeze (RR 1.08 per 5 kg m?2, p=0.006; RR 1.09 per 10 kg, p=0.003); these reflected associations with transient wheeze (RR 1.11, p=0.003; RR 1.13, p=0.002, respectively) but not with persistent wheeze or asthma. Infant adiposity gain was associated with persistent wheeze but not significantly. Adjusting for infant adiposity gain or BMI at 3 or 6 years did not reduce the association between maternal adiposity and transient wheeze. Maternal adiposity was not associated with offspring atopy, exhaled nitric oxide, or spirometry. Discussion Greater maternal adiposity is associated with transient wheeze but not asthma or atopy, suggesting effects upon airway structure/function but not allergic predisposition. PMID:23291350

  10. Interparental violence and maternal mood disorders as predictors of adolescent physical aggression within the family.

    PubMed

    Narayan, Angela J; Chen, Muzi; Martinez, Pedro P; Gold, Philip W; Klimes-Dougan, Bonnie

    2014-11-22

    Although a wealth of research has examined the effects of parental mood disorders on offspring maladjustment, studies have not identified whether elevated interparental violence (IPV) may be an exacerbating influence in this pathway. This study examined levels of physical IPV perpetration and victimization in mothers with unipolar depression or Bipolar Disorder (BD) and the processes by which maternal physical IPV moderated adolescents' physical aggression in families with maternal mood disorders. Mothers with lifetime mood disorders were predicted to have elevated IPV compared to well mothers, and maternal IPV was expected to moderate the association between lifetime mood disorders and adolescent aggression. Participants included 61 intact families with maternal depression (n?=?24), BD (n?=?13), or well mothers (n?=?24) and two siblings (ages 10 to 18 years). Using the Conflict Tactics Scale, mothers reported on IPV perpetration and victimization, and adolescents reported on physical aggression. Mothers with BD reported significantly higher IPV perpetration, but not victimization, than depressed or well mothers. An interaction between maternal BD and IPV perpetration was a significant predictor of adolescent aggression. Main effects of maternal IPV victimization and interaction effects of maternal depression and either type of IPV on adolescent aggression were not significant. Adolescents of mothers who have BD and perpetrate IPV may be particularly vulnerable to being aggressive. Prevention and policy efforts to deter transmission of aggression in high-risk families should target families with maternal BD and intervene at the level of conflict resolution within the family. Aggr. Behav. 9999:XX-XX, 2014. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:25418790

  11. Maternal Obesity and Vitamin D Sufficiency Are Associated with Cord Blood Vitamin D Insufficiency

    PubMed Central

    Feinglass, Joseph; Rademaker, Alfred W.; Metzger, Boyd E.; Zeiss, Dinah M.; Price, Heather E.; Langman, Craig B.

    2013-01-01

    Context: An inverse relationship between total serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25-OH D) and increased adiposity has been established in children, adolescents, and adults. However, the relationship between neonatal adiposity and vitamin D status has not been reported. Both maternal obesity and vitamin D deficiency in pregnancy are common and are associated with adverse pregnancy outcomes. Objective: The aim of the study was to determine the relationship between vitamin D levels in mothers and newborns, as influenced by maternal obesity, and evaluate these associations with neonatal adiposity. Design, Setting, and Patients: Sixty-one maternal-neonatal pairs participated in this cross-sectional study at an academic medical center. Mothers had a prepregnancy body mass index that was normal or obese. Outcome Measures: Maternal and cord blood sera were assayed for 25-OH D, and neonatal body composition was measured by air displacement plethysmography. Results: Mothers had similar and sufficient levels of 25-OH D when measured at 36–38 wk gestation, irrespective of body mass index category (normal weight, 46.05, vs. obese, 49.84 ng/ml; P = not significant). However, cord blood 25-OH D was higher in neonates of normal-weight mothers compared to neonates of obese mothers (27.45 vs. 20.81 ng/ml; P = 0.02). The variance in cord blood 25-OH D was explained by four factors: maternal 25-OH D level, the presence of maternal obesity, maternal age, and neonatal adiposity (r2 = 0.66). Conclusion: Obese women transfer less 25-OH D to offspring than normal-weight women, despite similar serum levels. Cord blood 25-OH D levels directly correlate to neonatal percentage body fat. These novel findings underscore the evolving relationships between maternal obesity, vitamin D nutritional status, and adiposity in the neonatal period that may influence subsequent childhood and adulthood vitamin D-dependent processes. PMID:23144468

  12. Lactating Rats Retain Nursing Behavior and Maternal Care in Space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Daly, Megan E.; Ronca, April E.; Dalton, Bonnie (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    In 1997, suckling mammals were flown in space for the first time as part of the NIH.R3 experiment sponsored jointly by NIH (National Institutes of Health) and NASA. Six rat dams and litters (Rattus norvegicus) were launched on an eight-day Space Shuttle mission at each of three postnatal ages (P5, P8, and P15). Dams and litters (N = 10 pups/litter) were housed within modified Animal Enclosure Modules (AEMs). Comparisons were made to ground controls. Dams and litters were videotaped daily in flight. The P8 and P15 flight litters showed excellent survival (99%) and weight gain relative to AEM ground controls, whereas P5 litters showed reduced survival (0% and 60%, respectively) and weight gain (less than 40% AEM). To examine the possibility that failures of maternal care contributed to P5 results, we analyzed the dams' in-flight nursing, licking and retrieving from four video segments ranging from twelve to fifteen minutes in length with control data derived from multiple ground segments. Video analyses revealed clear evidence of maternal care in flight. For P5 dams, frequency and duration of nursing and licking bouts fell within or above one standard deviation of control values. Retrieving was noted in the P5 and P8 groups only. The observed results suggest that factors other than maternal care contributed to the low survival rates and body weight gains of the P5 flight offspring.

  13. Maternal feeding practices predict weight gain and obesogenic eating behaviors in young children: a prospective study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Maternal feeding practices have been proposed to play an important role in early child weight gain and obesogenic eating behaviors. However, to date longitudinal investigations in young children exploring these relationships have been lacking. The aim of the present study was to explore prospective relationships between maternal feeding practices, child weight gain and obesogenic eating behaviors in 2-year-old children. The competing hypothesis that child eating behaviors predict changes in maternal feeding practices was also examined. Methods A sample of 323 mother (mean age?=?35 years, ± 0.37) and child dyads (mean age?=?2.03 years, ± 0.37 at recruitment) were participants. Mothers completed a questionnaire assessing parental feeding practices and child eating behaviors at baseline and again one year later. Child BMI (predominantly objectively measured) was obtained at both time points. Results Increases in child BMI z-scores over the follow-up period were predicted by maternal instrumental feeding practices. Furthermore, restriction, emotional feeding, encouragement to eat, weight-based restriction and fat restriction were associated prospectively with the development of obesogenic eating behaviors in children including emotional eating, tendency to overeat and food approach behaviors (such as enjoyment of food and good appetite). Maternal monitoring, however, predicted decreases in food approach eating behaviors. Partial support was also observed for child eating behaviors predicting maternal feeding practices. Conclusions Maternal feeding practices play an important role in the development of weight gain and obesogenic eating behaviors in young children and are potential targets for effective prevention interventions aiming to decrease child obesity. PMID:23414332

  14. A median filtering de-interlacing algorithm convenient for hardware implementation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ning Luo; Yanbai Chai; Xiangzhong Fang

    2005-01-01

    A novel median filtering algorithm for de-interlacing is proposed in this paper. The algorithm distinguishes the motion part from the rest of one picture and adopts proper algorithm for de-interlacing: synthesized median filtering algorithm is applied to the motion part and the field replication algorithm is applied to the static part. The algorithm makes full use of correlative information between

  15. Novel methodology for construction and pruning of quasi-median networks

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sarah C. Ayling; Terence A. Brown

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Visualising the evolutionary history of a set of sequences is a challenge for molecular phylogenetics. One approach is to use undirected graphs, such as median networks, to visualise phylogenies where reticulate relationships such as recombination or homoplasy are displayed as cycles. Median networks contain binary representations of sequences as nodes, with edges connecting those sequences differing at one character;

  16. Generalized median graph computation by means of graph embedding in vector spaces

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Miquel Ferrer; Ernest Valveny; Francesc Serratosa; Kaspar Riesen; Horst Bunke

    2010-01-01

    The median graph has been presented as a useful tool to represent a set of graphs. Nevertheless its computation is very complex and the existing algorithms are restricted to use limited amount of data. In this paper we propose a new approach for the computation of the median graph based on graph embedding. Graphs are embedded into a vector space

  17. Design and implementation of a novel algorithm for general purpose median filtering on FPGAs

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Khaled Benkrid; Danny Crookes; Abdsamad Benkrid

    2002-01-01

    Median filtering has proved an effective way to remove impulse noise while preserving rapid signal changes. A classic general purpose Median filter is based on a 'Bubble Sort' approach. In this paper, we present a novel bit serial algorithm which is scalable and easily implemented on small FPGA chips. The basis of the algorithm is similar to that of Quicksort,

  18. Improved Approximation Algorithms for Matroid and Knapsack Median Problems and Applications

    E-print Network

    Swamy, Chaitanya

    Improved Approximation Algorithms for Matroid and Knapsack Median Problems and Applications Chaitanya Swamy # Abstract We consider the matroid median problem [11], wherein we are given a set of facilities with opening costs and a matroid on the facility­set, and clients with demands and connection

  19. Improved Approximation Algorithms for Matroid and Knapsack Median Problems and Applications

    E-print Network

    Swamy, Chaitanya

    Improved Approximation Algorithms for Matroid and Knapsack Median Problems and Applications Chaitanya Swamy Abstract We consider the matroid median problem [11], wherein we are given a set of facilities with opening costs and a matroid on the facility-set, and clients with demands and connection

  20. Improved Approximation Algorithms for Matroid and Knapsack Median Problems and Applications

    E-print Network

    Swamy, Chaitanya

    Improved Approximation Algorithms for Matroid and Knapsack Median Problems and Applications@math.uwaterloo.ca Abstract We consider the matroid median problem [11], wherein we are given a set of facilities with opening costs and a matroid on the facility-set, and clients with demands and connection costs, and we seek