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1

Median  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, students explore median as the middle value of an ordered data set. The mechanics of locating the median are emphasized through visual images, voice explanation, interactive work with even-numbered sets of data, and multiple-choice questions.

2007-01-01

2

RETINOPATHY OF PREMATURITY AND MATERNAL AGE  

PubMed Central

Purpose To determine the risk factors, especially maternal risk factors, associated with the development of retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) in premature babies. Methods A matched case–control study involving premature patients was undertaken retrospectively. The case group consisted of premature babies with the subsequent development of ROP. The control group consisted of gestational age-matched and sex-matched premature babies that did not develop ROP during the follow-up period. Risk factors involving patient demographics and maternal characteristics were compared between the case and control groups. Results A total of 144 patients were included in this study (72 patients in the case group and 72 patients in the control group). Among the 66 possible risk factors compared, only birth weight and maternal age were found to be significant risk factors. Birth weight was significantly lower in the case group (1,248.7 ± 257.8 g vs. 1,335.5 ± 297.2 g, P = 0.01), and maternal age was significantly older in the case group compared with that in the control group (31.2 ± 5.1 years vs. 28.2 ± 5.3 years, P < 0.001). The odds ratio of having babies with ROP was 2.9 when the maternal age was >30 years. Conclusion Older maternal age is a newly identified risk factor for the development of ROP in premature babies. PMID:20010455

WU, WEI-CHI; ONG, FRANK SHIH-CHANG; KUO, JANE ZEA-CHIN; LAI, CHI-CHUN; WANG, NING-CHIA; CHEN, KUAN-JEN; HWANG, YIH-SHIOU; CHEN, TUN-LU; SHIH, CHIA-PANG

2010-01-01

3

Mitochondria, maternal inheritance, and male aging.  

PubMed

The maternal transmission of mitochondrial genomes invokes a sex-specific selective sieve, whereby mutations in mitochondrial DNA can only respond to selection acting directly on females. In theory, this enables male-harming mutations to accumulate in mitochondrial genomes when these same mutations are neutral, beneficial, or only slightly deleterious in their effects on females. Ultimately, this evolutionary process could result in the evolution of male-specific mitochondrial mutation loads; an idea previously termed Mother's Curse. Here, we present evidence that the effects of this process are broader than hitherto realized, and that it has resulted in mutation loads affecting patterns of aging in male, but not female Drosophila melanogaster. Furthermore, our results indicate that the mitochondrial mutation loads affecting male aging generally comprise numerous mutations over multiple sites. Our findings thus suggest that males are subject to dramatic consequences that result from the maternal transmission of mitochondrial genomes. They implicate the diminutive mitochondrial genome as a hotspot for mutations that affect sex-specific patterns of aging, thus promoting the idea that a sex-specific selective sieve in mitochondrial genome evolution is a contributing factor to sexual dimorphism in aging, commonly observed across species. PMID:22863313

Camus, M Florencia; Clancy, David J; Dowling, Damian K

2012-09-25

4

Advancing maternal age: the actual risks.  

PubMed

A growing number of US women are delaying childbirth until their late 30s. Pregnant women 35 years old face various risks including genetic disorders, prenatal medical and obstetric complications, intrapartum complications, and perinatal and neonatal morbidity and mortality. With each passing year, the risk of chromosomal abnormality such as Down's syndrome increases. Physicians perform chorionic villus sampling (CVS) between 9-11 weeks gestation and amniocentesis between 16-18 weeks to detect chromosomal abnormalities. CVS carries the higher risk of spontaneous abortion (1-2%). 35-year old pregnant women are more likely to suffer from hypertension and gestational diabetes than younger women. Yet their incidence remains at an acceptable level. Older pregnant women tend to also be at risk of several antepartum obstetric complications such as gestational bleeding, abruptio placentae, and placenta previa. The likelihood of cesarean section and dysfunctional labor is greater among 35-year old pregnant women. Between 1974 and 1978, older mothers were 4 times more likely to die than young mothers, but by 1982 the overall maternal mortality rate fell by 50%. The main causes of death among older mothers were hemorrhage, embolism, and hypertensive conditions. Positive effects of advanced maternal age were less worry about and better adjustment to pregnancy, cautiousness, and more likely to consult their physicians. Advanced maternal age tends not to effect neonatal outcome other than chromosomal anomalies. Physicians should not allow the pregnancy of 35-year old mothers to go beyond 42 weeks' gestation. Despite the minimal increased risks, 35-year old women should not allow their advanced age to be an absolute barrier to reproductive decisions. Obstetricians should conduct thorough and appropriate antepartum testing and surveillance, however. PMID:12317779

Chervenak, J L; Kardon, N B

1991-11-01

5

Maternal Age at Holocaust Exposure and Maternal PTSD Independently Influence Urinary Cortisol Levels in Adult Offspring  

PubMed Central

Background: Parental traumatization has been associated with increased risk for the expression of psychopathology in offspring, and maternal posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) appears to increase the risk for the development of offspring PTSD. In this study, Holocaust-related maternal age of exposure and PTSD were evaluated for their association with offspring ambient cortisol and PTSD-associated symptom expression. Method: Ninety-five Holocaust offspring and Jewish comparison subjects received diagnostic and psychological evaluations, and 24?h urinary cortisol was assayed by RIA. Offspring completed the parental PTSD questionnaire to assess maternal PTSD status. Maternal Holocaust exposure was identified as having occurred in childhood, adolescence, or adulthood and examined in relation to offspring psychobiology. Results: Urinary cortisol levels did not differ for Holocaust offspring and comparison subjects but differed significantly in offspring based on maternal age of exposure and maternal PTSD status. Increased maternal age of exposure and maternal PTSD were each associated with lower urinary cortisol in offspring, but did not exhibit a significant interaction. In addition, offspring PTSD-associated symptom severity increased with maternal age at exposure and PTSD diagnosis. A regression analysis of correlates of offspring cortisol indicated that both maternal age of exposure and maternal PTSD were significant predictors of lower offspring urinary cortisol, whereas childhood adversity and offspring PTSD symptoms were not. Conclusion: Offspring low cortisol and PTSD-associated symptom expression are related to maternal age of exposure, with the greatest effects associated with increased age at exposure. These effects are relatively independent of the negative consequences of being raised by a trauma survivor. These observations highlight the importance of maternal age of exposure in determining a psychobiology in offspring that is consistent with increased risk for stress-related pathology. PMID:25071719

Bader, Heather N.; Bierer, Linda M.; Lehrner, Amy; Makotkine, Iouri; Daskalakis, Nikolaos P.; Yehuda, Rachel

2014-01-01

6

Maternal caloric restriction partially rescues the deleterious effects of advanced maternal age on offspring.  

PubMed

While many studies have focused on the detrimental effects of advanced maternal age and harmful prenatal environments on progeny, little is known about the role of beneficial non-Mendelian maternal inheritance on aging. Here, we report the effects of maternal age and maternal caloric restriction (CR) on the life span and health span of offspring for a clonal culture of the monogonont rotifer Brachionus manjavacas. Mothers on regimens of chronic CR (CCR) or intermittent fasting (IF) had increased life span compared with mothers fed ad libitum (AL). With increasing maternal age, life span and fecundity of female offspring of AL-fed mothers decreased significantly and life span of male offspring was unchanged, whereas body size of both male and female offspring increased. Maternal CR partially rescued these effects, increasing the mean life span of AL-fed female offspring but not male offspring and increasing the fecundity of AL-fed female offspring compared with offspring of mothers of the same age. Both maternal CR regimens decreased male offspring body size, but only maternal IF decreased body size of female offspring, whereas maternal CCR caused a slight increase. Understanding the genetic and biochemical basis of these different maternal effects on aging may guide effective interventions to improve health span and life span. PMID:24661622

Gribble, Kristin E; Jarvis, George; Bock, Martha; Mark Welch, David B

2014-08-01

7

Maternal caloric restriction partially rescues the deleterious effects of advanced maternal age on offspring  

PubMed Central

While many studies have focused on the detrimental effects of advanced maternal age and harmful prenatal environments on progeny, little is known about the role of beneficial non-Mendelian maternal inheritance on aging. Here, we report the effects of maternal age and maternal caloric restriction (CR) on the life span and health span of offspring for a clonal culture of the monogonont rotifer Brachionus manjavacas. Mothers on regimens of chronic CR (CCR) or intermittent fasting (IF) had increased life span compared with mothers fed ad libitum (AL). With increasing maternal age, life span and fecundity of female offspring of AL-fed mothers decreased significantly and life span of male offspring was unchanged, whereas body size of both male and female offspring increased. Maternal CR partially rescued these effects, increasing the mean life span of AL-fed female offspring but not male offspring and increasing the fecundity of AL-fed female offspring compared with offspring of mothers of the same age. Both maternal CR regimens decreased male offspring body size, but only maternal IF decreased body size of female offspring, whereas maternal CCR caused a slight increase. Understanding the genetic and biochemical basis of these different maternal effects on aging may guide effective interventions to improve health span and life span. PMID:24661622

Gribble, Kristin E; Jarvis, George; Bock, Martha; Mark Welch, David B

2014-01-01

8

Maternal age, development time, position effect variegation in Drosophila melanogaster  

E-print Network

Note Maternal age, development time, position effect variegation in Drosophila melanogaster ATN, Great Britain Summary In Drosophila expression of position-effect variegation is enhanced :Maternal age, development time, Drosophila, position-effect. Résumé Age maternel, durée de développement et

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

9

Median ages at stages of sexual maturity and excess weight in school children  

PubMed Central

Background We aimed to estimate the median ages at specific stages of sexual maturity stratified by excess weight in boys and girls. Materials and method This was a cross-sectional study made in 2007 in Florianopolis, Brazil, with 2,339 schoolchildren between 8 to 14 years of age (1,107 boys) selected at random in two steps (by region and type of school). The schoolchildren were divided into: i) those with excess weight and ii) those without excess weight, according to the WHO 2007 cut-off points for gender and age. Sexual maturity was self-evaluated by the subjects according to the Tanner sexual development stages, and utilizing median ages for the genitalia, breasts, and pubic hair stages. Results In the boys with excess weight, precocity was observed in the stages 4 for genitals and pubic hair and 2 for pubic hair, with the values for excess and normal weight. The median ages at the beginning of puberty (stage 2–sexual development) for boys and girls in Florianopolis were 10.8 and 10.3 years, respectively. Conclusion Excess weight is associated with lower median ages in the sexual maturity stages in boys and girls and that it should be taken into account when evaluating sexual maturity in children and adolescents. PMID:24139334

2013-01-01

10

Maternal age-specific rates of fetal chromosomal abnormalities in Korean pregnant women of advanced maternal age  

PubMed Central

Objective To evaluate the association of maternal age with occurrence of fetal chromosomal abnormalities in Korean pregnant women of advanced maternal age (AMA). Methods A retrospective review of the amniocentesis or chorionic villous sampling (CVS) database at Gangnam and Bundang CHA Medical Centers, between January 2001 and February 2012, was conducted. This study analyzed the incidence of fetal chromosomal abnormalities according to maternal age and the correlation between maternal age and fetal chromosomal abnormalities in Korean pregnant women ?35 years of age. In addition, we compared the prevalence of fetal chromosomal abnormalities between women of AMA only and the others as the indication for amniocentesis or CVS. Results A total of 15,381 pregnant women were selected for this study. The incidence of aneuploidies increased exponentially with maternal age (P<0.0001). In particular, the risk of trisomy 21 (standard error [SE], 0.0378; odds ratio, 1.177; P<0.001) and trisomy 18 (SE, 0.0583; odds ratio, 1.182; P=0.0040) showed significant correlation with maternal age. Comparison between women of AMA only and the others as the indication for amniocentesis or CVS showed a significantly lower rate of fetal chromosomal abnormalities only in the AMA group, compared with the others (P<0.0001). Conclusion This study demonstrates that AMA is no longer used as a threshold for determination of who is offered prenatal diagnosis, but is a common risk factor for fetal chromosomal abnormalities. PMID:24327996

Kim, Young Joo; Lee, Jee Eun; Kim, Soo Hyun; Cha, Dong Hyun

2013-01-01

11

Maternal and grandmaternal age influence offspring fitness in Drosophila.  

PubMed Central

The influence of maternal and grandmaternal age on progeny egg-to-adult viability was assessed in Drosophila serrata. Viability in progeny decreased with increasing maternal age. The potential for cumulative age effects was investigated in two environments, one of which involved nutrient and cold stress. Environment influenced viability and female age influenced progeny egg-to-adult viability across one generation. The influence on viability was cumulative across two generations. Females from old mothers, who also had old grandmothers, had the lowest viability in both environments. Grandmaternal effects were associated with a decrease in egg hatch rate whereas maternal effects also involved larval-to-adult viability. The age of the mother and grandmother should be taken into account when evaluating life-history traits in Drosophila. PMID:11416916

Hercus, M J; Hoffmann, A A

2000-01-01

12

Maternal age and origin of non-disjunction in trisomy 21  

Microsoft Academic Search

The role of maternal age in chromosomal non-disjunction was investigated by studying 51 families in whom the origin of the meiotic anomaly had been identified. Results of this study were compared with previously published data. This comparison did not show any difference in mean maternal age, nor in distribution of maternal ages when the origin of non-disjunction was maternal, or

J F Mattei; S Ayme; M G Mattei; F Giraud

1980-01-01

13

Medians for second-trimester maternal serum a-fetoprotein, human chorionic gonadotropin, and unconjugated estriol; differences between races or ethnic groups  

Microsoft Academic Search

Second-trimester maternal serum a-fetoprotein (AFP), human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG), and unconju- gated estriol (uE3) are routinely measured in screening fetuses at high risk for Down syndrome or open neural tube defects (ONTD). For test interpretation, individual patient values of these three analytes are related to population-derived median values. We evaluated data from >21 000 pregnancies to determine the extent of

Peter A. Benn; Jonathan M. Clive; Roxanne Collins

14

Escape from crossover interference increases with maternal age  

PubMed Central

Recombination plays a fundamental role in meiosis, ensuring the proper segregation of chromosomes and contributing to genetic diversity by generating novel combinations of alleles. Here, we use data derived from direct-to-consumer genetic testing to investigate patterns of recombination in over 4,200 families. Our analysis reveals a number of sex differences in the distribution of recombination. We find the fraction of male events occurring within hotspots to be 4.6% higher than for females. We confirm that the recombination rate increases with maternal age, while hotspot usage decreases, with no such effects observed in males. Finally, we show that the placement of female recombination events appears to become increasingly deregulated with maternal age, with an increasing fraction of events observed within closer proximity to each other than would be expected under simple models of crossover interference. PMID:25695863

Campbell, Christopher L.; Furlotte, Nicholas A.; Eriksson, Nick; Hinds, David; Auton, Adam

2015-01-01

15

Polyploidies in abortion material decrease with maternal age  

Microsoft Academic Search

Among 639 spontaneous abortions between the 8th and 14th week of gestation 342 (53.5%) revealed an abnormal karyotype. While the rate of trisomies distinctly increased with advancing maternal age, a decrease in the rate of 45,X conceptuses and polyploidies was observed among abortions from older women. The overall relation of XXXX:XXYY among the tetraploidies was 14:11 and that of XXX:XXY:XYY

Miriam Neuber; Helga Rehder; Cornelia Zuther; Reinhardt Lettau; Eberhard Schwinger I

1993-01-01

16

Maternal Age, Multiple Birth and Extremely Low Birth Weight Infants  

PubMed Central

Objectives To compare the rates of adverse neurodevelopmental outcome or death at 18 to 22 months among extremely low birth weight (ELBW) infants born to mothers ? 40 years to the corresponding rates among infants of younger mothers. Study Design Prospective evaluation of ELBW infants to quantify the relative risks of maternal age and multiple birth for death or adverse neurodevelopmental outcome. Results The sample consisted of 14,671 live ELBW births divided into maternal age groups: <20; 20–29; 30–39; and ? 40 years. Of infants born to mothers ? 40 years, 20% were multiples. Mothers ? 40 years had high rates of obstetrical interventions and medical morbidities compared to mothers < 40 years. ELBW live births of mothers ? 40 years were 22 % more likely to survive and had a 13% decreased risk of neurodevelopmental impairment or death compared to mothers< 20. Multiple birth, however, was associated with a 10 % greater risk or neurodevelopmental impairment or death. Conclusion Although mothers ? 40 years had high pregnancy related morbidities, we found no overall increased risk of the composite outcome of death or NDI. Multiple birth, however, was a predictor of all adverse outcomes examined, regardless of maternal age. PMID:19111322

Vohr, Betty R.; Tyson, Jon E.; Wright, Linda L; Perritt, Rebecca L.; Li, Lei; Poole, W. Kenneth

2010-01-01

17

Can we define maternal age as a genetic disease?  

PubMed

>Maternal age is strongly associated with a decrease in the probability of achieving pregnancy and the birth of a healthy child. Among current theories of the mechanism of this decrease is the hypothesis that a progressive degeneration of the respiratory capacity of mitochondria in eggs of women of advanced age leads to an energy deficit and consequent secondary effects on the oocyte and developing embryo. Mitochondria are uniquely inherited through the female germ line and these organelles contain DNA sequences that are independent from the genome. It is therefore possible that offspring born to females of advanced age inherit suboptimal mitochondria and that these persist throughout the life of the new being. This could in turn lead to long-term consequences for the offspring of females of advanced age such as a reduced potential lifespan in relation to the age of the mother at conception. In this review and hypothesis, we discuss the evidence relating to this theory and suggest that on this basis the maternal age effect could be classified as an inheritable genetic disease. PMID:25009733

Wilding, M

2014-01-01

18

Maternal Serum Alpha-Fetoprotein Screening: The Need to Use Race\\/Ethnic Specific Medians in Asians  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives. We questioned whether race-specific databases for maternal serum alphafetoprotein (MSAFP) screening should be added to those already available for African-American and white patients. Study design. We analyzed 138,272 MSAFP samples. The geographic origin of the samples was New York metropolitan area. Patients were classified as white, African-American, Hispanic or Asian. The usual adjustments were made and groups compared. Statistical

Joseph E. O’Brien; Arie Drugan; Frank A. Chervenak; Mark P. Johnson; Nelson B. Isada; Mordechai Hallak; Mark I. Evans

1993-01-01

19

Pedophiles: mental retardation, maternal age, and sexual orientation.  

PubMed

Intellectual functioning, parental age, and sexual orientation in 991 male sexual offenders were investigated. Sources of data included semistructured interviews, clinical charts, phallometric tests, and self-administered questionnaires. The results suggest two main conclusions: (i) Among pedophiles in general, erotic preference moves away from adult women along two dimensions: age and sex. The extent of this movement is greater, along both dimensions, for pedophiles with lower levels of intellectual functioning. (ii) High maternal age (or some factor it represents) increases the likelihood of exclusive sexual interest in boys. Intellectual deficiency (or some factor it represents) decreases the likelihood of exclusive sexual interest in girls. These two factors summate, so that a pedophile with both factors is more likely to be sexually interested in boys than a pedophile with only one. PMID:10483505

Blanchard, R; Watson, M S; Choy, A; Dickey, R; Klassen, P; Kuban, M; Ferren, D J

1999-04-01

20

The Association of Maternal Age with Birthweight and Gestational Age: A Cross-Cohort Comparison  

PubMed Central

Background We examined the associations of maternal age with low birthweight (LBW) and preterm birth in four cohorts from a middle- and a high-income country, where the patterning of maternal age by socio-economic position (SEP) is likely to differ. Methods Population-based birth cohort studies were carried out in the city of Pelotas, Brazil in 1982, 1993, and 2004, and in Avon, UK in 1991 [Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC)]. Adjustment for multiple indicators of SEP were applied. Results Low SEP was associated with younger age at childbearing in all cohorts, but the magnitudes of these associations were stronger in ALSPAC. Inverse associations of SEP with LBW and preterm birth were observed in all cohorts. U-shaped associations were observed between maternal age and odds of LBW in all cohorts. After adjustment for SEP, increased odds of LBW for young mothers (<20 years) attenuated to the null but remained or increased for older mothers (?35 years). Very young (<16 years) maternal age was also associated with both outcomes even after full SEP adjustment. SEP adjusted odds ratio of having a LBW infant in women <16 years and ?35 years, compared with 25–29 years, were 1.48 [95% confidence interval (CI) 1.00, 2.20] and 1.66 [95% CI 1.36, 2.02], respectively. The corresponding results for preterm birth were 1.80 [95% CI 1.23, 2.64)] and 1.38 [95% CI 1.15, 1.67], respectively. Conclusion Confounding by SEP explains much of the excess risk of LBW and preterm among babies born to teenage mothers as a whole, but not for mothers aged <16 or ?35 years. Given that the proportion of women becoming pregnant at <16 years is smaller than for those ?35 years, the population burden is greater for older age. PMID:25405673

Restrepo-Méndez, María Clara; Lawlor, Debbie A; Horta, Bernardo L; Matijasevich, Alicia; Santos, Iná S; Menezes, Ana M B; Barros, Fernando C; Victora, Cesar G

2015-01-01

21

Risk Assessment of Adverse Birth Outcomes in Relation to Maternal Age  

PubMed Central

Background Although a number of studies have investigated correlations of maternal age with birth outcomes, an extensive assessment using age as a continuous variable is lacking. In the current study, we estimated age-specific risks of adverse birth outcomes in childbearing women. Method National population-based data containing maternal and neonatal information were derived from the Health Promotion Administration, Taiwan. A composite adverse birth outcome was defined as at least anyone of stillbirth, preterm birth, low birth weight, macrosomia, neonatal death, congenital anomaly, and small for gestational age (SGA). Singletons were further analyzed for outcomes of live birth in relation to each year of maternal age. A log-binomial model was used to adjust for possible confounders of maternal and neonatal factors. Results In total, 2,123,751 births between 2001 and 2010 were utilized in the analysis. The risk of a composite adverse birth outcome was significantly higher at extreme maternal ages. In specific, risks of stillbirth, neonatal death, preterm birth, congenital anomaly, and low birth weight were higher at the extremes of maternal age. Furthermore, risk of macrosomia rose proportionally with an increasing maternal age. In contrast, risk of SGA declined proportionally with an increasing maternal age. The log-binomial model showed greater risks at the maternal ages of <26 and > 30 years for a composite adverse birth outcome. Conclusions Infants born to teenagers and women at advanced age possess greater risks for stillbirth, preterm birth, neonatal death, congenital anomaly, and low birth weight. Pregnancies at advanced age carry an additional risk for macrosomia, while teenage pregnancies carry an additional risk for SGA. The data suggest that the optimal maternal ages to minimize adverse birth outcomes are 26?30 years. PMID:25494176

Weng, Yi-Hao; Yang, Chun-Yuh; Chiu, Ya-Wen

2014-01-01

22

Birth weight and gestational age in newborns exposed to maternal obsessive-compulsive disorder.  

PubMed

We examined the impact of maternal obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) on gestational age and birth weight of infants. The sample included 63 mothers (28 patient and 35 controls). OCD and other psychiatric diagnoses were determined with a structured clinical interview. Birth weight and gestational age were lower in the newborns exposed to maternal OCD compared to ones who were not exposed. The results suggest that maternal OCD may negatively affect fetal weight growth and gestational duration. PMID:25660733

Uguz, Faruk; Yuksel, Goksen; Karsidag, Cagatay; Guncu, Hatice; Konak, Murat

2015-03-30

23

Inbreeding depression increases with maternal age in a seed-feeding beetle  

E-print Network

Inbreeding depression increases with maternal age in a seed-feeding beetle Charles W. Fox 1 on inbreeding depression in offspring has been almost entirely neglected. Maternal age affects allocation-lasting effects on population dynamics and evolutionary trajectories. Hypothesis: Inbreeding depression

Fox, Charles W.

24

Maternal age, investment, and parent-child conflict: a mediational test of the terminal investment hypothesis.  

PubMed

Drawing on the evolutionary terminal investment hypothesis and Trivers' (1974) parent-offspring conflict theory, we advance and evaluate a mediational model specifying why and how maternal age, via mating effort and parental investment, affects mother-child conflict. Data from a longitudinal study of 757 families indicate that (a) older maternal age predicts lower mating effort during the child's first 5 years of life, and (b) thereby, higher maternal investment in middle childhood when the child is around 10 years old. (c) Higher maternal investment, in turn, forecasts less child-perceived mother-child conflict in adolescence (age 15). These results proved robust against theoretically relevant covariates (family resources, parity, maternal education, and maternal personality characteristics) and in the context of an autoregressive model. Study limitations are noted and results are discussed in terms of the unique contributions of an evolutionary perspective to the determinants-of-parenting literature. PMID:22468690

Schlomer, Gabriel L; Belsky, Jay

2012-06-01

25

Heat stress and age induced maternal effects on wing size and shape in parthenogenetic Drosophila mercatorum.  

PubMed

Maternal effects on progeny wing size and shape in a homozygous parthenogenetic strain of Drosophila mercatorum were investigated. The impact of external maternal factors (heat stress) and the impact of internal maternal factors (different maternal and grand maternal age) were studied. The offspring developed under identical environmental conditions, and due to lack of genetic variation any phenotypic difference among offspring could be ascribed to maternal effects. Wing size was estimated by centroid size, shape was analysed with the Procrustes geometric morphometric method and variation in landmark displacement was visualized by principal component analysis. Both kinds of maternal effects had a significant impact on progeny wing size and shape. Maternal heat stress led to the same pattern of response in size and shape among the progeny, with increased difference between the control group and progeny from heat stressed flies in both size and shape with increased maternal heat stress temperature. The effects of maternal age, however, led to different responses in size and shape between the different progeny groups. The observed variation in landmark displacements was similar, and in both cases mainly associated with shape differences of the posterior part of the wing. Finally, our results suggest that maternal effect has some evolutionary implications by altering the genetic correlations among traits, which can affect the response to selective pressures. PMID:16033560

Andersen, D H; Pertoldi, C; Scali, V; Loeschcke, V

2005-07-01

26

Growth curve analyses of the relationship between early maternal age and children's mathematics and reading performance.  

PubMed

Regarding the methods used to examine the early maternal age-child academic outcomes relationship, the extant literature has tended to examine change using statistical analyses that fail to appreciate that individuals vary in their rates of growth. Of the one study I have been able to find that employs a true growth model to estimate this relationship, the authors only controlled for characteristics of the maternal household after family formation; confounding background factors of mothers that might select them into early childbearing, a possible source of bias, were ignored. The authors' findings nonetheless suggested an inverse relationship between early maternal age, i.e., a first birth between the ages of 13 and 17, and Canadian adolescents' mean math performance at age 10. Early maternal age was not related to the linear slope of age. To elucidate whether the early maternal age-child academic outcomes association, treated in a growth context, is consistent with this finding, the present study built on it using US data and explored children's mathematics and reading trajectories from age 5 on. Its unique contribution is that it further explicitly controlled for maternal background factors and employed a three-level growth model with repeated measures of children nested within their mothers. Though the strength of the relationship varied between mean initial academic performance and mean academic growth, results confirmed that early maternal age was negatively related to children's mathematics and reading achievement, net of post-teen first birth child-specific and maternal household factors. Once maternal background factors were included, there was no statistically significant relationship between early maternal age and either children's mean initial mathematics and reading scores or their mean mathematics and reading growth. PMID:25592941

Torres, D Diego

2015-03-01

27

Maternal patterns of postpartum alcohol consumption by age: a longitudinal analysis of adult urban mothers.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study is to investigate a) longitudinal patterns of maternal postpartum alcohol use as well as its variation by maternal age at child birth and b) within maternal age groups, the association between other maternal characteristics and alcohol use patterns for the purposes of informed prevention design. Study sample consists of 3397 mothers from the Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing Study representing medium and large US urban areas. Maternal drinking and binge drinking were measured at child age 1, 3, and 5 years. We conducted separate longitudinal latent class analysis within each of the three pre-determined maternal age groups (ages 20-25, n?=?1717; ages 26-35, n?=?1367; ages 36+, n?=?313). Results revealed different class structures for maternal age groups. While two classes (NB [non-binge]-drinkers and LL [low-level]-drinkers) were identified for mothers in each age group, a third class (binge drinkers) was separately distinguished for the two older age groups. Whereas binge drinking rates appear to remain stable over the 5 years postdelivery for mothers who gave birth in their early twenties, mothers ages 26 and older increasingly engaged in binge drinking over time, surpassing the binge drinking behavior of younger mothers. Depression significantly increases the odds of being a NB-drinker for the 20-25 age group and that of being a binge drinker for the 36+ age group, whereas smoking during pregnancy is associated with subsequent binge drinking only for mothers ages 20-25. Findings highlight the importance of distinguishing risk factors by maternal age groups for drinking while parenting a young child, to inform the design of intervention strategies tailored to mothers of particular ages. PMID:25344349

Liu, Weiwei; Mumford, Elizabeth A; Petras, Hanno

2015-04-01

28

Maternal Chronological Age, Prenatal and Perinatal History, Social Support, and Parenting of Infants  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The role of maternal chronological age in prenatal and perinatal history, social support, and parenting practices of new mothers (N=335) was examined. Primiparas of 5-month-old infants ranged in age from 13 to 42 years. Age effects were zero, linear, and nonlinear. Nonlinear age effects were significantly associated up to a certain age with little…

Bornstein, Marc H.; Putnick, Diane L.; Suwalsky, Joan T. D.; Gini, Motti

2006-01-01

29

Cumulative impact of early maternal marital age during the childbearing period.  

PubMed

Early marriage of girls, close to age of menarche, is a widespread practice in Arab countries. Knowledge on the cumulative effect of early maternal marriage on maternal and infant health during the childbearing period is insufficient. The objectives of this study were to estimate the prevalence of early maternal marriage in Jeddah, identify its relation with other maternal risk factors, and investigate the cumulative impact of early maternal marriage on subsequent maternal health and pregnancy outcomes throughout the reproductive period. Data were collected from six randomly selected primary health care units in Jeddah City. Married women with an infant < or = 12 completed months of age were interviewed and information on sociodemographic characteristics, maternal health and previous pregnancy outcomes were collected. Early marriage of girls before the age of 16 years accounted for 26.5% of the study population and was reported by a third of mothers currently below the age of 20 years. Illiterate mothers, housewives, multiparae, smokers and those married to a relative reported the highest proportion of marriages before their sixteenth birthday. Those who married before the age of 16 were at about double the risk of developing chronic diseases and experiencing miscarriage, stillbirths and infant deaths. These results suggest that early maternal marriage still exists in our community and is intimately related to other maternal risk factors. Maternal marriage < 16 years appears to be fraught with insecurities for the mother and infant throughout the whole length of the childbearing period and not merely the first pregnancy. Thus, even if culture norms claim early marriage of girls, it should be discouraged before the age of 16 years. Moreover, it is recommended that future research on maternal and infant health considers the cumulative effect of the various risk factors during the whole reproductive period and not only a single pregnancy outcome. PMID:11237111

Shawky, S; Milaat, W

2001-01-01

30

Aging in inbred strains of mice: study design and interim report on median lifespans and circulating IGF1 levels.  

PubMed

To better characterize aging in mice, the Jackson Aging Center carried out a lifespan study of 31 genetically-diverse inbred mouse strains housed in a specific pathogen-free facility. Clinical assessments were carried out every 6 months, measuring multiple age-related phenotypes including neuromuscular, kidney and heart function, body composition, bone density, hematology, hormonal levels, and immune system parameters. In a concurrent cross-sectional study of the same 31 strains at 6, 12, and 20 months, more invasive measurements were carried out followed by necropsy to assess apoptosis, DNA repair, chromosome fragility, and histopathology. In this report, which is the initial paper of a series, the study design, median lifespans, and circulating insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF1) levels at 6, 12, and 18 months are described for the first cohort of 32 females and 32 males of each strain. Survival curves varied dramatically among strains with the median lifespans ranging from 251 to 964 days. Plasma IGF1 levels, which also varied considerably at each time point, showed an inverse correlation with a median lifespan at 6 months (R = -0.33, P = 0.01). This correlation became stronger if the short-lived strains with a median lifespan < 600 days were removed from the analysis (R = -0.53, P < 0.01). These results support the hypothesis that the IGF1 pathway plays a key role in regulating longevity in mice and indicates that common genetic mechanisms may exist for regulating IGF1 levels and lifespan. PMID:19627267

Yuan, Rong; Tsaih, Shirng-Wern; Petkova, Stefka B; Marin de Evsikova, Caralina; Xing, Shuqin; Marion, Michael A; Bogue, Molly A; Mills, Kevin D; Peters, Luanne L; Bult, Carol J; Rosen, Clifford J; Sundberg, John P; Harrison, David E; Churchill, Gary A; Paigen, Beverly

2009-06-01

31

MATERNAL AGE EFFECT: THE ENIGMA OF DOWN SYNDROME AND OTHER TRISOMIC CONDITIONS  

EPA Science Inventory

Aneuploidy is the most frequently observed chromosome abnormality in human liveborn, abortuses, and oocytes. he only etiological factor that has been established is advanced maternal age for the occurrence of trisomies, particularly trisomy 21 which causes Down syndrome. he mater...

32

The Role of Autonomy and Pubertal Status in Understanding Age Differences in Maternal Involvement in Diabetes Responsibility across Adolescence  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective To examine how autonomy and pubertal status explain age decreases in maternal involvement in type 1 diabetes management across adolescence, how they relate to metabolic control, and the reasons that guide declines in maternal involvement. Methods One hundred twenty-seven children ages 10-15 years with type 1 diabetes and their mothers participated. Data included maternal and child report of diabetes

Debra L. Palmer; Cynthia A. Berg; Deborah J. Wiebe; Ryan M. Beveridge; Carolyn D. Korbel; Renn Upchurch; Michael T. Swinyard; Rob Lindsay; David L. Donaldson

2004-01-01

33

Development and Evaluation of a Decision Aid About Prenatal Testing for Women of Advanced Maternal Age  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective:To develop and evaluate a decision aid designed to prepare patients of advanced maternal age for counseling about prenatal diagnostic testing.Setting:A regional genetics center.Design:A before\\/after study.Interventions:Participants used an audioguided workbook to learn about options and outcomes and to clarify personal risks, values, questions, and predispositions.Subjects:21 women of advanced maternal age and 17 spouses.Main outcome measures:Knowledge of prenatal testing alternatives, decisional

Elizabeth R. Drake; Lori Engler-Todd; Annette M. O'Connor; Linda C. Surh; Alasdair Hunter

1999-01-01

34

Maternal and Paternal Age Are Jointly Associated with Childhood Autism in Jamaica  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Several studies have reported maternal and paternal age as risk factors for having a child with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD), yet the results remain inconsistent. We used data for 68 age- and sex-matched case-control pairs collected from Jamaica. Using Multivariate General Linear Models (MGLM) and controlling for parity, gestational age, and…

Rahbar, Mohammad H.; Samms-Vaughan, Maureen; Loveland, Katherine A.; Pearson, Deborah A.; Bressler, Jan; Chen, Zhongxue; Ardjomand-Hessabi, Manouchehr; Shakespeare-Pellington, Sydonnie; Grove, Megan L.; Beecher, Compton; Bloom, Kari; Boerwinkle, Eric

2012-01-01

35

Association of maternal and intrauterine characteristics with age at menarche in a multiethnic population in Hawaii.  

PubMed

This study seeks to further elucidate the mother-daughter hormonal relationship and its effects on daughter's breast cancer risk through the association with early age at menarche. Four hundred and thirty-eight healthy girls, age 9-18 and of White, Asian, and/or Polynesian race/ethnicity, were recruited from an HMO on Oahu, Hawaii. Anthropometric measures were taken at a clinic visit, and family background questionnaires were completed. Cox proportional hazards regression was used to test the association of maternal and intrauterine hormone-related exposures with age at menarche. Weight and gestational age at birth and maternal pregnancy-induced nausea were not associated with age at menarche. Each year older of the mother's age at menarche was associated with a 21% reduced risk of an early age at menarche for the daughter (95% CI: 0.73-0.86). This association between mother's and daughter's menarcheal age was statistically significant for girls of Asian, White, and Mixed, Asian/White race/ethnicity, but not for girls of Mixed, part-Polynesian race/ethnicity (p (interaction) = 0.01). There was a suggestion that maternal history of breast cancer was associated with an increased risk of early age at menarche (HR = 2.18, 95% CI: 0.95-4.98); there was no association with second-degree family history. These findings support the hypothesis that maternal and intrauterine hormone-related exposures are associated with age at menarche. PMID:19862633

Epplein, Meira; Novotny, Rachel; Daida, Yihe; Vijayadeva, Vinutha; Onaka, Alvin T; Le Marchand, Loïc

2010-02-01

36

When does maternal age-dependent trisomy 21 arise relative to meiosis?  

SciTech Connect

Polymorphic DNA markers have recently been used to estimate the fraction of trisomy 21 (Down syndrome) cases that may be attributable to postzygotic nondisjunction - indicative of a loss in the fidelity of the first few cell divisions after fertilization. In these studies, a postzygotic nondisjunction is defined as a case in which two chromosomes of the trisomic set are homozygous for all informative markers (i.e., for those markers that were heterozygous in their parent of origin). These studies estimate that the postzygotic mutation mechanism accounts for 4.5% (11/238) and 3.5% (9/255) of their cases, respectively, but their estimates may actually be conservative, since all noninformative haplotypes (frequency not reported) are arbitrarily attributed to meiosis II-type nondisjunction. Nevertheless, even the conservative estimates would, if confirmed, constitute a new and nonnegligible source of chromosomal segregation errors leading to trisomy. These studies` conclusions are supported by the observation that the 20 reported {open_quotes}postzygotic{close_quotes} cases (5 paternal and 15 maternal) appear to be less dependent on maternal age (mean maternal age 28.4 years) than maternal meiosis I-type failures (mean maternal age 31.2 years). However, given the limited sample size involved, one should be cautious in positing the absence of a maternal age effect. 5 refs., 1 fig.

Chang-Jiang Zheng [National Inst. of Deafness and Other Communication Disorders, Bethesda, MD (United States); Byers, B. [Univ. of Washington, Seattle, WA (United States)

1996-07-01

37

Perceived and Observed Maternal Relationship Quality Predict Sexual Debut by Age 15  

Microsoft Academic Search

Early sexual behaviors during adolescence have the potential to lead to unhealthy outcomes. This study explored the association\\u000a between specific dimensions of maternal relationship quality and adolescent sexual debut by age 15. We hypothesized that adolescents\\u000a who have poor maternal relationships are at greater risk of early sexual debut than those who have a more supportive relationship.\\u000a These hypotheses were

Myeshia N. PriceJanet; Janet Shibley Hyde

38

Maternal age and infant mortality: a test of the Wilcox-Russell hypothesis.  

PubMed

It has been argued (e.g., the Wilcox-Russell hypothesis) that (low) birth weight is a correlate of adverse birth outcomes but is not on the "causal" pathway to infant mortality. However, the US national policy for reducing infant mortality is to reduce low birth weight. If these theoretical views are correct, lowering the rate of low birth weight may have little effect on infant mortality. In this paper, the authors use the "covariate density defined mixture of logistic regressions" method to formally test the Wilcox-Russell hypothesis that a covariate which influences birth weight, in this case maternal age, can influence infant mortality directly but not indirectly through birth weight. The authors analyze data from 8 populations in New York State (1985-1988). The results indicate that among the populations examined, 1) maternal age significantly influences the birth weight distribution and 2) maternal age also affects infant mortality directly, but 3) the influence of maternal age on the birth weight distribution has little or no effect on infant mortality, because the birth-weight-specific mortality curve shifts accordingly to compensate for changes in the birth weight distribution. These results tend to support the Wilcox-Russell hypothesis for maternal age. PMID:19029004

Gage, Timothy B; Fang, Fu; O'Neill, Erin; Stratton, Howard

2009-02-01

39

Maternal Size and Age Shape Offspring Size in a Live-Bearing Fish, Xiphophorus birchmanni  

PubMed Central

Many studies of offspring size focus on differences in maternal investment that arise from ecological factors such as predation or competition. Classic theory predicts that these ecological factors will select for an optimal offspring size, and therefore that variation in a given environment will be minimized. Yet recent evidence suggests maternal traits such as size or age could also drive meaningful variation in offspring size. The generality of this pattern is unclear, as some studies suggest that it may represent non-adaptive variation or be an artifact of temporal or spatial differences in maternal environments. To clarify this pattern, we asked how maternal size, age and condition are related to each other in several populations of the swordtail Xiphophorus birchmanni. We then determined how these traits are related to offspring size, and whether they could resolve unexplained intra-population variation in this trait. We found that female size, age, and condition are correlated within populations; at some of these sites, older, larger females produce larger offspring than do younger females. The pattern was robust to differences among most, but not all, sites. Our results document a pattern that is consistent with recent theory predicting adaptive age- and size-dependence in maternal investment. Further work is needed to rule out non-adaptive explanations for this variation. Our results suggest that female size and age could play an under-appreciated role in population growth and evolution. PMID:23139785

Kindsvater, Holly K.; Rosenthal, Gil G.; Alonzo, Suzanne H.

2012-01-01

40

Maternal size and age shape offspring size in a live-bearing fish, Xiphophorus birchmanni.  

PubMed

Many studies of offspring size focus on differences in maternal investment that arise from ecological factors such as predation or competition. Classic theory predicts that these ecological factors will select for an optimal offspring size, and therefore that variation in a given environment will be minimized. Yet recent evidence suggests maternal traits such as size or age could also drive meaningful variation in offspring size. The generality of this pattern is unclear, as some studies suggest that it may represent non-adaptive variation or be an artifact of temporal or spatial differences in maternal environments. To clarify this pattern, we asked how maternal size, age and condition are related to each other in several populations of the swordtail Xiphophorus birchmanni. We then determined how these traits are related to offspring size, and whether they could resolve unexplained intra-population variation in this trait. We found that female size, age, and condition are correlated within populations; at some of these sites, older, larger females produce larger offspring than do younger females. The pattern was robust to differences among most, but not all, sites. Our results document a pattern that is consistent with recent theory predicting adaptive age- and size-dependence in maternal investment. Further work is needed to rule out non-adaptive explanations for this variation. Our results suggest that female size and age could play an under-appreciated role in population growth and evolution. PMID:23139785

Kindsvater, Holly K; Rosenthal, Gil G; Alonzo, Suzanne H

2012-01-01

41

Sex ratio of congenital abnormalities in the function of maternal age: A population-based study.  

PubMed

Maternal age effect is well-known in the origin of numerical chromosomal aberrations and some isolated congenital abnormalities (CAs). The sex ratio (SR), i.e. number of males divided by the number of males and females together, of most CAs deviates from the SR of newborn population (0.51). The objective of this analysis was to evaluate the possible association of maternal age with the SR of isolated CAs in a population-based large dataset of the Hungarian Case-Control Surveillance of Congenital Abnormalities, 1980-1996. First, SR of 24 CA entities/groups was estimated in 21?494 patients with isolated CA. In the next step SR of different maternal age groups was compared to the mean SR of the given CA-groups. The SR of four CA-groups showed some deviation in certain maternal age groups. Cases with anencephaly had female excess in young mothers (<25 years). Cases with skull's CAs particularly craniosynostosis had a male excess in cases born to women over 30 years. Two other CA groups (cleft lip?±?palate and valvar pulmonic stenosis within the group of right-sided obstructive defect of heart) had significant deviation in SR of certain maternal age groups from the mean SR, but these deviations were not harmonized with joining age groups and thus were considered as a chance effect due to multiple testing. In conclusion, our study did not suggest that in general SR of isolated CAs might be modified by certain maternal age groups with some exception such as anencephaly and craniosynostosis. PMID:25354028

Csermely, Gyula; Urbán, Robert; Czeizel, Andrew E; Veszprémi, Béla

2015-05-01

42

New Findings for Maternal Mortality Age Patterns: Aggregated Results for 38 Countries  

PubMed Central

Background With recent results showing a global decline in overall maternal mortality during the last two decades and with the target date for achieving the Millennium Development Goals only four years away, the question of how to continue or even accelerate the decline has become more pressing. By knowing where the risk is highest as well as where the numbers of deaths are greatest, it may be possible to re-direct resources and fine-tune strategies for greater effectiveness in efforts to reduce maternal mortality. Methods We aggregate data from 38 Demographic and Health Surveys that included a maternal mortality module and were conducted in 2000 or later to produce maternal mortality ratios, rates, and numbers of deaths by five year age groups, separately by residence, region, and overall mortality level. Findings The age pattern of maternal mortality is broadly similar across regions, type of place of residence, and overall level of maternal mortality. A “J” shaped curve, with markedly higher risk after age 30, is evident in all groups. We find that the excess risk among adolescents is of a much lower magnitude than is generally assumed. The oldest age groups appear to be especially resistant to change. We also find evidence of extremely elevated risk among older mothers in countries with high levels of HIV prevalence. Conclusions The largest number of deaths occurs in the age groups from 20-34, largely because those are the ages at which women are most likely to give birth so efforts directed at this group would most effectively reduce the number of deaths. Yet equity considerations suggest that efforts also be directed toward those most at risk, i.e., older women and adolescents. Because women are at risk each time they become pregnant, fulfilling the substantial unmet need for contraception is a cross-cutting strategy that can address both effectiveness and equity concerns. PMID:23613716

Blanc, Ann K.; Winfrey, William; Ross, John

2013-01-01

43

The maternal-age-associated risk of congenital heart disease is modifiable.  

PubMed

Maternal age is a risk factor for congenital heart disease even in the absence of any chromosomal abnormality in the newborn. Whether the basis of this risk resides with the mother or oocyte is unknown. The impact of maternal age on congenital heart disease can be modelled in mouse pups that harbour a mutation of the cardiac transcription factor gene Nkx2-5 (ref. 8). Here, reciprocal ovarian transplants between young and old mothers establish a maternal basis for the age-associated risk in mice. A high-fat diet does not accelerate the effect of maternal ageing, so hyperglycaemia and obesity do not simply explain the mechanism. The age-associated risk varies with the mother's strain background, making it a quantitative genetic trait. Most remarkably, voluntary exercise, whether begun by mothers at a young age or later in life, can mitigate the risk when they are older. Thus, even when the offspring carry a causal mutation, an intervention aimed at the mother can meaningfully reduce their risk of congenital heart disease. PMID:25830876

Schulkey, Claire E; Regmi, Suk D; Magnan, Rachel A; Danzo, Megan T; Luther, Herman; Hutchinson, Alayna K; Panzer, Adam A; Grady, Mary M; Wilson, David B; Jay, Patrick Y

2015-04-01

44

Why is Chromosome Segregation Error in Oocytes Increased With Maternal Aging?  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

It is well documented that female fertility is decreased with advanced maternal age due to chromosome abnormality in oocytes. Increased chromosome missegregation is mainly caused by centromeric cohesion reduction. Other factors such as weakened homologous recombination, improper spindle organization, spindle assembly checkpoint (SAC) malfunction, chromatin epigenetic changes, and extra-oocyte factors may also cause chromosome errors....Here, we review the potential mechanisms, especially the molecular basis associated with increased chromosome missegregation with advanced maternal age, mainly based on studies in humans and rodents. The related factors are classified into two categories: intrinsic factors within oocytes and the extrinsic causes.

Zhen-Bo Wang (Chinese Academy of Sciences State Key Laboratory of Reproductive Biology, Institute of Zoology)

2011-10-01

45

Maternal Pre-Pregnancy BMI, Gestational Weight Gain, and Age at Menarche in Daughters  

PubMed Central

Objectives Life course theory suggests that early life experiences can shape health over a lifetime and across generations. Associations between maternal pregnancy experience and daughters’ age at menarche are not well understood. We examined whether maternal pre-pregnancy BMI and gestational weight gain (GWG) were independently related to daughters’ age at menarche. Consistent with a life course perspective, we also examined whether maternal GWG, birth weight, and prepubertal BMI mediated the relationship between pre-pregnancy BMI and daughter's menarcheal age. Methods We examined 2,497 mother-daughter pairs from the 1979 National Longitudinal Survey of Youth. Survival analysis with Cox proportional hazards was used to estimate whether maternal pre-pregnancy overweight/obesity (BMI 25.0 kg/m2) and GWG adequacy (inadequate, recommended, and excessive) were associated with risk for earlier menarche among girls, controlling for important covariates. Analyses were conducted to examine the mediating roles of GWG adequacy, child birth weight and prepubertal BMI. Results Adjusting for covariates, pre-pregnancy overweight/obesity (HR= 1.20, 95% CI 1.06, 1.36) and excess GWG (HR=1.13, 95% CI 1.01, 1.27) were associated with daughters’ earlier menarche, while inadequate GWG was not. The association between maternal pre-pregnancy weight and daughters’ menarcheal timing was not mediated by daughter's birth weight, prepubertal BMI or maternal GWG. Conclusions Maternal factors, before and during pregnancy, are potentially important determinants of daughters’ menarcheal timing and are amenable to intervention. Further research is needed to better understand pathways through which these factors operate. PMID:23054446

Deardorff, Julianna; Berry-Millett, Rachel; Rehkopf, David; Luecke, Ellen; Lahiff, Maureen; Abrams, Barbara

2012-01-01

46

Maternal pre-pregnancy BMI, gestational weight gain, and age at menarche in daughters.  

PubMed

Life course theory suggests that early life experiences can shape health over a lifetime and across generations. Associations between maternal pregnancy experience and daughters' age at menarche are not well understood. We examined whether maternal pre-pregnancy BMI and gestational weight gain (GWG) were independently related to daughters' age at menarche. Consistent with a life course perspective, we also examined whether maternal GWG, birth weight, and prepubertal BMI mediated the relationship between pre-pregnancy BMI and daughter's menarcheal age. We examined 2,497 mother-daughter pairs from the 1979 National Longitudinal Survey of Youth. Survival analysis with Cox proportional hazards was used to estimate whether maternal pre-pregnancy overweight/obesity (BMI ? 25.0 kg/m(2)) and GWG adequacy (inadequate, recommended, and excessive) were associated with risk for earlier menarche among girls, controlling for important covariates. Analyses were conducted to examine the mediating roles of GWG adequacy, child birth weight and prepubertal BMI. Adjusting for covariates, pre-pregnancy overweight/obesity (HR = 1.20, 95 % CI 1.06, 1.36) and excess GWG (HR = 1.13, 95 % CI 1.01, 1.27) were associated with daughters' earlier menarche, while inadequate GWG was not. The association between maternal pre-pregnancy weight and daughters' menarcheal timing was not mediated by daughter's birth weight, prepubertal BMI or maternal GWG. Maternal factors, before and during pregnancy, are potentially important determinants of daughters' menarcheal timing and are amenable to intervention. Further research is needed to better understand pathways through which these factors operate. PMID:23054446

Deardorff, Julianna; Berry-Millett, Rachel; Rehkopf, David; Luecke, Ellen; Lahiff, Maureen; Abrams, Barbara

2013-10-01

47

Maternal Effects Underlie Ageing Costs of Growth in the Zebra Finch (Taeniopygia guttata)  

PubMed Central

Maternal effects provide a mechanism to adapt offspring phenotype and optimize the mother’s fitness to current environmental conditions. Transferring steroids to the yolk is one way mothers can translate environmental information into potential adaptive signals for offspring. However, maternally-derived hormones might also have adverse effects for offspring. For example, recent data in zebra finch chicks suggested that ageing related-processes (i.e. oxidative stress and telomere loss) were increased after egg-injection of corticosterone (CORT). Still, we have few experimental data describing the effect of maternal effects on the growth-ageing trade-off in offspring. Here, we chronically treated pre-laying zebra finch females (Taeniopygia guttata) with 17-?-estradiol (E2) or CORT, and followed offspring growth and cellular ageing rates (oxidative stress and telomere loss). CORT treatment decreased growth rate in male chicks and increased rate of telomere loss in mothers and female offspring. E2 increased body mass gain in male offspring, while reducing oxidative stress in both sexes but without affecting telomere loss. Since shorter telomeres were previously found to be a proxy of individual lifespan in zebra finches, maternal effects may, through pleiotropic effects, be important determinants of offspring life-expectancy by modulating ageing rate during embryo and post-natal growth. PMID:24828412

Tissier, Mathilde L.; Williams, Tony D.; Criscuolo, François

2014-01-01

48

Maternal Age at Childbirth and Offspring Disruptive Behaviors: Testing the Causal Hypothesis  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: Recent studies suggest that the association between maternal age at childbearing (MAC) and children's disruptive behaviors is the result of family factors that are confounded with both variables, rather than a casual effect of environmental factors specifically related to MAC. These studies, however, relied on restricted samples and…

D'Onofrio, Brian M.; Goodnight, Jackson A.; Van Hulle, Carol A.; Rodgers, Joseph Lee; Rathouz, Paul J.; Waldman, Irwin D.; Lahey, Benjamin B.

2009-01-01

49

Consanguinity and advanced maternal age as risk factors for reproductive losses in Alexandria, Egypt  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Consanguinity has been a long-standing social habit among Egyptians. Estimates of consanguinity ratios in different parts of Egypt ranged from 29 to 50%. This study aimed at delineating the role of consanguinity and advanced maternal age on reproductive losses in Alexandria, Egypt. Methods: A case-control study, on 730 couples with history of reproductive losses and 2081 normal couples, was

Mohamed M. Mokhtar; Moataz M. Abdel-Fattah

2001-01-01

50

Advancing Maternal Age Is Associated with Increasing Risk for Autism: A Review and Meta-Analysis  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: We conducted a meta-analysis of epidemiological studies investigating the association between maternal age and autism. Method: Using recommended guidelines for performing meta-analyses, we systematically selected, and extracted results from, epidemiological scientific studies reported before January 2012. We calculated pooled risk…

Sandin, Sven; Hultman, Christina M.; Kolevzon, Alexander; Gross, Raz; MacCabe, James H.; Reichenberg, Abraham

2012-01-01

51

Joint and Maternal Custody: The Outcome for Boys Aged 6-11 and Their Parents.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Although divorcing parents have a variety of child custody arrangements from which to choose, opinions are mixed as to which children benefit from which arrangements. To compare the adjustment of boys in joint and maternal physical custody and to investigate factors related to their adjustment, 20 joint custody families with a boy aged 6-11 and a…

Shiller, Virginia

52

Offspring sex ratio in relation to maternal age and social rank in mountain goats ( Oreamnos americanus )  

Microsoft Academic Search

In polygynous mammals, high-quality females may increase their fitness by producing a high proportion of sons. During a 9-year study of marked mountain goats (Oreamnos americanus), we assessed the relative effects of maternal age, social rank and reproductive status on offspring sex ratio. The sex ratio of kids in the population did not differ from unity (75 males, 85 females).

Steeve D. Côté; Marco Festa-Bianchet

2001-01-01

53

Maternal Factors Influencing Infant Total Body Iron at Birth and Four Months of Age  

E-print Network

is secondary to the primary research. Post-partum and cord blood samples were collected at birth and an additional sample was collected from the infant at 4 months of age. Transferrin receptor and ferritin were analyzed from all blood samples obtained. Maternal...

Scroggs, Sarah Catherine

2011-05-31

54

Pedophiles: Mental Retardation, Maternal Age, and Sexual Orientation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Intellectual functioning, parental age, andsexual orientation in 991 male sexual offenders wereinvestigated. Sources of data included semistructuredinterviews, clinical charts, phallometric tests, and self-administered questionnaires. The resultssuggest two main conclusions: (i) Among pedophiles ingeneral, erotic preference moves away from adult womenalong two dimensions: age and sex. The extent ofthis movementis greater, along both dimensions,forpedophiles with lower levels of intellectualfunctioning. (ii) High

Ray Blanchard; Mark S. Watson; Alberto Choy; Robert Dickey; Philip Klassen; Michael Kuban; Donald J. Ferren

1999-01-01

55

Recombination and maternal age-dependent nondisjunction: Molecular studies of trisomy 16  

SciTech Connect

Trisomy 16 is the most common human trisomy, occurring in {ge} 1% of all clinically recognized pregnancies. It is thought to be completely dependent on maternal age and thus provides a useful model for studying the association of increasing maternal age and nondisjunction. We have been conducting a study to determine the parent and meiotic stage of origin of trisorny 16 and the possible association of nondisjunction and aberrant recombination. In the present report, we summarize our observations on 62 spontaneous abortions with trisomy 16. All trisomies were maternally derived, and in virtually all the error occurred at meiosis I. In studies of genetic recombination, we observed a highly significant reduction in recombination in the trisomy-generating meioses by comparison with normal female meioses. However, most cases of trisomy 16 had at least one detectable crossover between the nondisjoined chromosomes, indicating that it is reduced-and not absent-recombination that is the important predisposing factor. Additionally, our data indicate an altered distribution of crossing-over in trisomy 16, as we rarely observed crossovers in the proximal long and short arms. Thus, it may be that, at least for trisomy 16, the association between maternal age and trisomy is due to diminished recombination, particularly in the proximal regions of the chromosome. 34 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs.

Hassold, T.; Merrill, M.; Adkins, K. [Case Western Univ., and Univ. Hospitals, Cleveland, OH (United States)] [and others

1995-10-01

56

Influence of maternal angiogenic factors during pregnancy on microvascular structure in school-age children.  

PubMed

Reduced placental growth factor (PlGF) levels and higher soluble fms-like tyrosine kinase (sFlt-1) levels in mothers during pregnancy may have persistent effects on vascular structures in their offspring. We examined whether angiogenic factors during pregnancy also affect childhood retinal microvasculature in a population-based prospective cohort study among 3505 mothers and their children. We measured maternal PlGF and sFlt-1 in the first and second trimester of pregnancy. At the age of 6, we measured childhood retinal arteriolar and venular calibers from digitized retinal photographs. We performed multiple linear regression models, taking maternal and childhood sociodemographic and lifestyle-related characteristics, birth characteristics, and childhood current body mass index and blood pressure into account. We observed that first trimester maternal PlGF and sFlt-1 levels were not associated with childhood retinal arteriolar caliber. Lower second trimester maternal PlGF levels, but not sFlt-1 levels, were associated with narrower childhood retinal arteriolar caliber (difference: -0.09 SD score [95% confidence interval, -0.16 to 0.01], per SD score decrease in PlGF). This association was not explained by maternal and childhood sociodemographic and lifestyle-related characteristics, birth characteristics, or childhood current body mass index and blood pressure. Maternal PlGF and sFlt-1 levels in the first or second trimester were not associated with childhood retinal venular caliber. Our results suggest that lower maternal second trimester PlGF levels affect the microvascular development in the offspring, leading to narrower retinal arteriolar caliber in childhood. Further studies are needed to confirm these findings and to explore the underlying mechanisms and long-term cardiovascular consequences. PMID:25691621

Gishti, Olta; Jaddoe, Vincent W V; Felix, Janine F; Reiss, Irwin; Hofman, Albert; Ikram, Mohammad Kamran; Steegers, Eric A P; Gaillard, Romy

2015-04-01

57

Age and group residence but not maternal dominance affect dominance rank in young domestic horses.  

PubMed

We present a study focused on those factors influencing dominance position in young horses, with emphasis on the role of the mother. Horses, as other group-living polygynous mammals, form stable linear dominance hierarchies based on agonistic interactions. Higher dominance positions are believed to be connected, in both sexes, to better condition and higher reproductive success. Many variables play a role in forming the dominant-submissive relationships between horses; however, the maternal effect on the dominance position of the offspring still remains unclear, as do the possible mechanisms of transference ("inheritance"). We hypothesized that the maternal dominance position, plus differences in suckling parameters or maternal style, may be responsible for later outcome of the offspring's dominance position, characterized by 2 variables: index of fighting success (CB); and rate of winning encounters (RW). Our study animals were 8 groups of Kladruby horses, loose-housed lactating mares with foals (n = 66 mare-foal pairs); and subsequently 4 groups of the same foals at 3 yr of age. Our results revealed the impact of age on the dominance position of the young horses (P < 0.001 for CB, and P < 0.01 for RW), and residence in the group (P < 0.01, P < 0.01, respectively); not the maternal dominance position. Older foals reached higher dominance positions, independent of the dominance position, age, or experience of the mother; therefore, we did not find support for direct inheritance of maternal rank. Nevertheless, the foals born to the same mare in 2 consecutive seasons (n = 16 mares) revealed fair repeatability in the dominance position they obtained at 3 yr of age (intraclass correlation coefficient = 0.46). This suggests an important constant effect of the mother on the social success of her progeny; however, we did not find a significant effect of any of the tested variables describing maternal characteristics or maternal care. Dominance position depended significantly on the foal's age at observation, and the residence in the herd formed via sequential introducing of later-weaned groups of foals. The most dominant horses were mainly recruited from the first-weaned group of the season, and thus were also the oldest individuals in the herd. Further research is needed to discover the role of foal personality and mare style, and their links to possible dominance behaviors in a herd. PMID:25253810

Komárková, M; Bartošová, J; Dubcová, J

2014-11-01

58

Age Affects the Expression of Maternal Care and Subsequent Behavioural Development of Offspring in a Precocial Bird  

PubMed Central

Variations of breeding success with age have been studied largely in iteroparous species and particularly in birds: survival of offspring increases with parental age until senescence. Nevertheless, these results are from observations of free-living individuals and therefore, it remains impossible to determine whether these variations result from parental investment or efficiency or both, and whether these variations occur during the prenatal or the postnatal stage or during both. Our study aimed first, to determine whether age had an impact on the expression of maternal breeding care by comparing inexperienced female birds of two different ages, and second, to define how these potential differences impact chicks’ growth and behavioural development. We made 22 2-month-old and 22 8-month-old female Japanese quail foster 1-day-old chicks. We observed their maternal behaviour until the chicks were 11 days old and then tested these chicks after separation from their mothers. Several behavioural tests estimated their fearfulness and their sociality. We observed first that a longer induction was required for young females to express maternal behaviour. Subsequently as many young females as elder females expressed maternal behaviour, but young females warmed chicks less, expressed less covering postures and rejected their chicks more. Chicks brooded by elder females presented higher growth rates and more fearfulness and sociality. Our results reveal that maternal investment increased with age independently of maternal experience, suggesting modification of hormone levels implied in maternal behaviour. Isolated effects of maternal experience should now be assessed in females of the same age. In addition, our results show, for first time in birds, that variations in maternal care directly induce important differences in the behavioural development of chicks. Finally, our results confirm that Japanese quail remains a great laboratory model of avian maternal behaviour and that the way we sample maternal behaviour is highly productive. PMID:22701515

Pittet, Florent; Coignard, Maud; Houdelier, Cécilia; Richard-Yris, Marie-Annick; Lumineau, Sophie

2012-01-01

59

Maternal Age at Childbirth and Social Development in Infancy  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Difficulties in social communication are not necessarily observed only in individuals with autism spectrum disorders (ASD), and there are many subclinical cases in the general populations. Although advanced parental age at childbirth has often been considered a possible risk factor of ASD, it might contribute to poor social functioning in…

Koyama, Tomonori; Kamio, Yoko; Inada, Naoko; Inokuchi, Eiko

2011-01-01

60

Measuring heights to crown base and crown median with LiDAR in a mature, even-aged loblolly pine stand  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study evaluated the possibility of measuring the height to the base of the live crown and the height to the median of canopy elements with airborne scanning LiDAR (Light Detection And Ranging) in a simple, even-aged stand of loblolly pine. The first step in determining these heights was fitting truncated Weibull functions to the vertical distribution of elevations where

Thomas J. Dean; Quang V. Cao; Scott D. Roberts; David L. Evans

2009-01-01

61

Measuring heights to crown base and crown median with LiDAR in a mature, even-aged loblolly pine stand  

E-print Network

Measuring heights to crown base and crown median with LiDAR in a mature, even-aged loblolly pine to measure the vertical distribution of canopy elements (mostly branches and leaves) directly over large-wing aircraft that emitted discrete laser pulses (904 nm wavelength) at 4 kHz. Since the direction of the laser

Cao, Quang V.

62

Nerve Conduction Study Among Healthy Malays. The Influence of Age, Height and Body Mass Index on Median, Ulnar, Common Peroneal and Sural Nerves  

PubMed Central

Nerve conduction study is essential in the diagnosis of focal neuropathies and diffuse polyneuropathies. Age, height and body mass index (BMI) can affect nerve velocities as reported by previous studies. We studied the effect of these factors on median, ulnar, common peroneal and sural nerves among healthy Malay subjects. We observed slowing of nerve conduction velocities (NCVs) with increasing age and BMI (except ulnar sensory velocities). No demonstrable trend can be seen across different height groups except in common peroneal nerve. PMID:22589600

Awang, Mohamed Saufi; Abdullah, Jafri Malin; Abdullah, Mohd Rusli; Tharakan, John; Prasad, Atul; Husin, Zabidi Azhar; Hussin, Ahmad Munawir; Tahir, Adnan; Razak, Salmi Abdul

2006-01-01

63

A 1st-trimester combined screening test in pregnant women of advanced maternal age in a Chinese population.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to evaluate the performance of the 1st-trimester combined screening test for trisomy 21 in different maternal age groups in a Chinese population. In this retrospective study, data on the 1st-trimester combined screening test (maternal age, fetal nuchal translucency, free ?-human chorionic gonadotrophin, pregnancy-associated plasma protein-A) were analysed. The study population of 17,556 pregnant women was subdivided into three groups according to maternal age: 16,113 were < 35 years of age; 1,228 were 35-39 years of age; and 215 were ? 40 years of age. The detection and false-positive rates of the 1st-trimester screening test for trisomy 21 or trisomy 18 in the three groups of women were 89.5 and 1.7%; 90.9 and 6.8%; and 100 and 22.3%, respectively. With increasing maternal age, the odds of being affected given a positive result (OAPR) were increased. The balance between the detection rate and false-positive rate of the 1st-trimester combined screening test is more favourable in women < 36 years with comparable OAPR. Although the false-positive rate increases with increasing maternal age, the performance of the 1st-trimester combined screening test in women ? 35 years is more effective than screening based on maternal age alone. PMID:25057869

Pan, M; Han, J; Yang, X; Zhen, L; Liao, C; Li, D Z

2015-02-01

64

Aneuploidy involving chromosome 1 in failed-fertilized human oocytes is unrelated to maternal age  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: To study whether maternal meiotic errors in failed-fertilized oocytes involving chromosome 1 occur at frequencies similar to those involving other autosomes, and whether their frequency is affected by maternal age. Methods: Using fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH), frequencies of aneusomy and chromatid pre-division involving chromosomes 1, 16, 18, and 21 were determined for 273 failed-fertilized oocytes. Results: The aneuploidy rate for chromosome 1 was 15.8 percent, and was neither age-dependent nor significantly different from that for chromosomes 16,18 or 21. Only chromosome 16 exhibited an age-dependent increase in aneusomy rates. The frequency of chromatid pre-division was lower for chromosome 1 than for chromosome 18 (11.9 percent vs. 25.4 percent; P=0.01), but not different from that for chromosomes 16 or 21. Conclusion: Aneuploidy involving chromosome 1 in failed-fertilized oocytes is unrelated to maternal age and occurs at a frequency similar to that for chromosomes 16, 18 and 21.

Weier, Jingly Fung; Weier, Heinz-Ulrich G.; Nureddin, Aida.; Pedersen, Roger A.; Racowsky, Catherine

2004-12-04

65

Advanced maternal age as a risk factor for stress urinary incontinence: a review of the literature.  

PubMed

The pathophysiology of stress urinary incontinence (SUI) is multifactorial and evidence supports a critical role of pregnancy and vaginal delivery. This review dissects epidemiologic literature to determine the weight of evidence on the role of advanced maternal age (AMA) as a risk factor for the development of subsequent or persistent SUI. We conducted a Medline search using the keywords postpartum, SUI, maternal age, pregnancy, and incontinence. The published literature was critically analyzed. Evidence supports that childbirth trauma contributes to the development and severity of SUI. Yet, there is contradicting evidence as to whether AMA increases the risk. AMA clearly represents an independent risk factor for postpartum SUI. However, long-term studies did not confirm this observation. Whether this finding is suggestive of a true biologic signal that is lost with competing risk factors over time warrants further research. PMID:21901435

Hijaz, Adonis; Sadeghi, Zhina; Byrne, Lauren; Hou, Jack Cheng-Tsung; Daneshgari, Firouz

2012-04-01

66

Neural tube defects, maternal cohorts, and age: a pointer to aetiology.  

PubMed Central

The effects of maternal year of birth and age on the declining prevalence of neural tube defects after 1972-3 were examined using 403 cases ascertained in a prospective study in the Fylde of Lancashire during 1957-89. Matched case-control data were analysed using conditional logistic regression analysis. The risk of an anencephalic baby was significantly greater for older mothers, but changes in the maternal age distribution in the population did not appear to be relevant to the recent decline in prevalence. Antenatal diagnosis and termination of pregnancy was the major cause. Mothers born before 1950 were at significantly greater risk of producing a baby with spina bifida or cranium bifidum. We suggest that abandonment of mercury as a therapeutic agent for infants in the early 1950s is a possible factor in the current decline of these malformations. PMID:1953007

Bound, J P; Francis, B J; Harvey, P W

1991-01-01

67

AGG interruptions and maternal age affect FMR1 CGG repeat allele stability during transmission  

PubMed Central

Background The presence of AGG interruptions in the CGG repeat locus of the fragile X mental retardation 1 (FMR1) gene decreases the instability of the allele during transmission from parent to child, and decreases the risk of expansion of a premutation allele to a full mutation allele (the predominant cause of fragile X syndrome) during maternal transmission. Methods To strengthen recent findings on the utility of AGG interruptions in predicting instability or expansion to a full mutation of FMR1 CGG repeat alleles, we assessed the outcomes of 108 intermediate (also named gray zone) and 710 premutation alleles that were transmitted from parent to child, and collected from four international clinical sites. We have used the results to revise our initial model that predicted the risk of a maternal premutation allele expanding to a full mutation during transmission and to test the effect of AGG interruptions on the magnitude of expanded allele instability of intermediate or premutation alleles that did not expand to a full mutation. Results Consistent with previous studies, the number of AGG triplets that interrupts the CGG repeat locus was found to influence the risk of allele instability, including expansion to a full mutation. The total length of the CGG repeat allele remains the best predictor of instability or expansion to a full mutation, but the number of AGG interruptions and, to a much lesser degree, maternal age are also factors when considering the risk of transmission of the premutation allele to a full mutation. Conclusions Our findings demonstrate that a model with total CGG length, number of AGG interruptions, and maternal age is recommended for calculating the risk of expansion to a full mutation during maternal transmission. Taken together, the results of this study provide relevant information for the genetic counseling of female premutation carriers, and improve the current predictive models which calculate risk of expansion to a full mutation using only total CGG repeat length. PMID:25110527

2014-01-01

68

Potential Gains in Reproductive-Aged Life Expectancy by Eliminating Maternal Mortality: A Demographic Bonus of Achieving MDG 5  

PubMed Central

Objective We assessed the change over time in the contribution of maternal mortality to a life expectancy calculated between ages 15 and 49, or Reproductive-Aged Life Expectancy (RALE). Our goal was to estimate the increase in RALE in developed countries over the twentieth century and the hypothetical gains in African countries today by eliminating maternal mortality. Methods Analogous to life expectancy, RALE is calculated from a life table of ages 15 to 49. Specifically, RALE is the average number of years that women at age 15 would be expected to live between 15 and 49 with current mortality rates. Associated single decrement life tables of causes of death other than maternal mortality are explored to assess the possible gains in RALE by reducing or eliminating maternal mortality. We used population-based data from the Human Mortality Database and the Demographic and Health Surveys. Findings In developed countries, five years in RALE were gained over the twentieth century, of which approximately 10%, or half a year, was attributable to reductions in maternal mortality. In sub-Saharan African countries, the possible achievable gains fluctuate between 0.24 and 1.47 years, or 6% and 44% of potential gains in RALE. Conclusions Maternal mortality is a rare event, yet it is still a very important component of RALE. Averting the burden of maternal deaths could return a significant increase in the most productive ages of human life. PMID:24551040

Canudas-Romo, Vladimir; Liu, Li; Zimmerman, Linnea; Ahmed, Saifuddin; Tsui, Amy

2014-01-01

69

Extremes of maternal age and child mortality: analysis between 2000 and 2009?  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE: To analyze the characteristics of infant mortality at the extremes of maternal age. METHOD: Retrospective, cross-sectional quantitative study using data from Live Birth Certificates, Death Certificates and from Child Death Investigation records in Londrina, Paraná, in the years of 2000-2009. RESULTS: During the 10-year study period , there were 176 infant deaths among mothers up to 19 years of age, and 113 deaths among mothers aged 35 years or more. The infant mortality rate among young mothers was 14.4 deaths per thousand births, compared to 12.9 deaths in the other age group. For adolescent mothers, the following conditions prevailed: lack of a stable partner (p<0.001), lack of a paid job (p<0.001), late start of prenatal care in the second trimester of pregnancy (p<0.001), fewer prenatal visits (p<0.001) and urinary tract infections (p<0.001). On the other hand, women aged 35 or more had a higher occurrence of hypertension during pregnancy (p<0.001), and of surgical delivery (p<0.001). Regarding the underlying cause of infant death, congenital anomalies prevailed in the group of older mothers (p=0.002), and external causes were predominant in the group of young mothers (p=0.019). CONCLUSION: Both age groups deserve the attention of social services for maternal and child health, especially adolescent mothers, who presented a higher combination of factors deemed hazardous to the child's health. PMID:25511003

Ribeiro, Fanciele Dinis; Ferrari, Rosângela Aparecida Pimenta; Sant'Anna, Flávia Lopes; Dalmas, José Carlos; Girotto, Edmarlon

2014-01-01

70

Reexamining the effects of gestational age, fetal growth, and maternal smoking on neonatal mortality  

PubMed Central

Background Low birth weight (<2,500 g) is a strong predictor of infant mortality. Yet low birth weight, in isolation, is uninformative since it is comprised of two intertwined components: preterm delivery and reduced fetal growth. Through nonparametric logistic regression models, we examine the effects of gestational age, fetal growth, and maternal smoking on neonatal mortality. Methods We derived data on over 10 million singleton live births delivered at ? 24 weeks from the 1998–2000 U.S. natality data files. Nonparametric multivariable logistic regression based on generalized additive models was used to examine neonatal mortality (deaths within the first 28 days) in relation to fetal growth (gestational age-specific standardized birth weight), gestational age, and number of cigarettes smoked per day. All analyses were further adjusted for the confounding effects due to maternal age and gravidity. Results The relationship between standardized birth weight and neonatal mortality is nonlinear; mortality is high at low z-score birth weights, drops precipitously with increasing z-score birth weight, and begins to flatten for heavier infants. Gestational age is also strongly associated with mortality, with patterns similar to those of z-score birth weight. Although the direct effect of smoking on neonatal mortality is weak, its effects (on mortality) appear to be largely mediated through reduced fetal growth and, to a lesser extent, through shortened gestation. In fact, the association between smoking and reduced fetal growth gets stronger as pregnancies approach term. Conclusions Our study provides important insights regarding the combined effects of fetal growth, gestational age, and smoking on neonatal mortality. The findings suggest that the effect of maternal smoking on neonatal mortality is largely mediated through reduced fetal growth. PMID:15574192

Ananth, Cande V; Platt, Robert W

2004-01-01

71

Maternal and paternal stress in families with school-aged children with disabilities.  

PubMed

This study examined stress factors in families with a school-aged child with a disability. Path analyses revealed that children's demandingness and neediness for care was related more to maternal stress and that child's acceptability was related more to paternal stress. Professionals who serve families with children with disabilities may need to devise more specialized support programs to help fathers become emotionally close to their atypical children and may need to provide more respite services for mothers. To assist parents of school-aged children with disabilities, support services may also need to extend beyond the usual early childhood period. PMID:15291710

Keller, Diane; Honig, Alice Sterling

2004-07-01

72

Association between nondisjunction and maternal age in meiosis-II human oocytes  

SciTech Connect

The relationship between advanced maternal age and increased risk of trisomic offspring is well know clinically but not clearly understood at the level of the oocyte. A total of 383 oocytes that failed fertilization from 107 patients undergoing in vitro fertilization were analyzed by FISH using X-, 18-, and 13/21-chromosome probes simultaneously. The corresponding polar bodies were also analyzed in 188 of these oocytes. The chromosomes in the oocyte and first polar body complement each other and provide an internal control to differentiate between aneuploidy and technical errors. Two mechanisms of nondisjunction were determined. First, nondisjunction of bivalent chromosomes resulting in two univalents going to the same pole and, second, nondisjunction by premature chromatid separation (predivision) of univalent chromsomes producing either a balanced (2 + 2) or unbalanced (3 + 1) distribution of chromatids into the first polar body and M-II oocytes. Balanced predivision of chromatids, previously proposed as a major mechanism of aneuploidy, was found to increase significantly with time in culture (P < .005), which suggests that this phenomenon should be interpreted carefully. Unbalanced predivision and classical nondisjunction were unaffected by oocyte aging. In comparing oocytes from women <35 years of age with oocytes from women {ge}40 years of age, a significant increase (P < .001) in nondisjunction of full dyads was found in the oocytes with analyzable polar bodies and no FISH errors. Premature predivision of chromatids was also found to cause nondisjunction, but it did not increase with maternal age. 44 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs.

Dailey, T.; Cohen, J.; Munne, S.; Dale, B.

1996-07-01

73

Low female birth weight and advanced maternal age programme alterations in next-generation blastocyst development.  

PubMed

Low birth weight is associated with an increased risk for adult disease development with recent studies highlighting transmission to subsequent generations. However, the mechanisms and timing of programming of disease transmission to the next generation remain unknown. The aim of this study was to examine the effects of low birth weight and advanced maternal age on second-generation preimplantation blastocysts. Uteroplacental insufficiency or sham surgery was performed in late-gestation WKY pregnant rats, giving rise to first-generation (F1) restricted (born small) and control offspring respectively. F1 control and restricted females, at 4 or 12 months of age, were naturally mated with normal males. Second-generation (F2) blastocysts from restricted females displayed reduced expression of genes related to growth compared with F2 control (P<0.05). Following 24?h culture, F2 restricted blastocysts had accelerated development, with increased total cell number, a result of increased trophectoderm cells compared with control (P<0.05). There were alterations in carbohydrate and serine utilisation in F2 restricted blastocysts and F2 restricted outgrowths from 4-month-old females respectively (P<0.05). F2 blastocysts from aged restricted females were developmentally delayed at retrieval, with reduced total cell number attributable to reduced trophectoderm number with changes in carbohydrate utilisation (P<0.05). Advanced maternal age resulted in alterations in a number of amino acids in media obtained from F2 blastocyst outgrowths (P<0.05). These findings demonstrate that growth restriction and advanced maternal age can alter F2 preimplantation embryo physiology and the subsequent offspring growth. PMID:25667431

Master, Jordanna S; Thouas, George A; Harvey, Alexandra J; Sheedy, John R; Hannan, Natalie J; Gardner, David K; Wlodek, Mary E

2015-05-01

74

Schizencephaly: Association With Young Maternal Age, Alcohol Use, and Lack of Prenatal Care  

PubMed Central

Schizencephaly is a rare malformation of cortical development characterized by congenital clefts extending from the pial surface to the lateral ventricle that are lined by heterotopic gray matter. The clinical presentation is variable and can include motor or cognitive impairment and epilepsy. The causes of schizencephaly are heterogeneous and can include teratogens, prenatal infection, or maternal trauma. Reported genetic causes include chromosomal aneuploidy, EMX2 mutations, and possible autosomal recessive familial cases based on recurrence in siblings. In an effort to identify risk factors for schizencephaly, we conducted a survey of 48 parents or primary caretakers of patients with schizencephaly born between 1983 and 2004. We discovered that young maternal age, lack of prenatal care, and alcohol use were all significantly associated with risk of schizencephaly. Our results suggest that there are important nongenetic, intrauterine events that predispose to schizencephaly. PMID:23266945

Dies, Kira A.; Bodell, Adria; Hisama, Fuki M.; Guo, Chao-Yu; Barry, Brenda; Chang, Bernard S.; Barkovich, A. James; Walsh, Christopher A.

2013-01-01

75

Maternal intake of vitamin D during pregnancy and risk of recurrent wheeze in children at 3 y of age1–3  

PubMed Central

Background Vitamin D deficiency and asthma are common at higher latitudes. Although vitamin D has important immunologic effects, its relation with asthma is unknown. Objective We hypothesized that a higher maternal intake of vitamin D during pregnancy is associated with a lower risk of recurrent wheeze in children at 3 y of age. Design The participants were 1194 mother-child pairs in Project Viva—a prospective prebirth cohort study in Massachusetts. We assessed the maternal intake of vitamin D during pregnancy from a validated food-frequency questionnaire. The primary outcome was recurrent wheeze, ie, a positive asthma predictive index (?2 wheezing attacks among children with a personal diagnosis of eczema or a parental history of asthma). Results The mean (±SD) total vitamin D intake during pregnancy was 548 ± 167 IU/d. By age 3 y, 186 children (16%) had recurrent wheeze. Compared with mothers in the lowest quartile of daily intake (median: 356 IU), those in the highest quartile (724 IU) had a lower risk of having a child with recurrent wheeze [odds ratio (OR): 0.39; 95% CI: 0.25, 0.62; P for trend <0.001]. A 100-IU increase in vitamin D intake was associated with lower risk (OR: 0.81; 95% CI: 0.74, 0.89), regardless of whether vitamin D was from the diet (OR: 0.81; 95% CI: 0.69, 0.96) or supplements (OR: 0.82; 95% CI: 0.73, 0.92). Adjustment for 12 potential confounders, including maternal intake of other dietary factors, did not change the results. Conclusion In the northeastern United States, a higher maternal intake of vitamin D during pregnancy may decrease the risk of recurrent wheeze in early childhood. PMID:17344501

Camargo, Carlos A; Rifas-Shiman, Sheryl L; Litonjua, Augusto A; Rich-Edwards, Janet W; Weiss, Scott T; Gold, Diane R; Kleinman, Ken; Gillman, Matthew W

2015-01-01

76

Persistent Associations between Maternal Prenatal Exposure to Phthalates on Child IQ at Age 7 Years  

PubMed Central

Background Prior research reports inverse associations between maternal prenatal urinary phthalate metabolite concentrations and mental and motor development in preschoolers. No study evaluated whether these associations persist into school age. Methods In a follow up of 328 inner-city mothers and their children, we measured prenatal urinary metabolites of di-n-butyl phthalate (DnBP), butylbenzyl phthalate (BBzP), di-isobutyl phthalate (DiBP), di-2-ethylhexyl phthalate and diethyl phthalate in late pregnancy. The Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children, 4th edition was administered at child age 7 years and evaluates four areas of cognitive function associated with overall intelligence quotient (IQ). Results Child full-scale IQ was inversely associated with prenatal urinary metabolite concentrations of DnBP and DiBP: b?=??2.69 (95% confidence interval [CI]?=??4.33, ?1.05) and b?=??2.69 (95% CI?=??4.22, ?1.16) per log unit increase. Among children of mothers with the highest versus lowest quartile DnBP and DiBP metabolite concentrations, IQ was 6.7 (95% CI?=?1.9, 11.4) and 7.6 (95% CI?=?3.2, 12.1) points lower, respectively. Associations were unchanged after control for cognition at age 3 years. Significant inverse associations were also seen between maternal prenatal metabolite concentrations of DnBP and DiBP and child processing speed, perceptual reasoning and working memory; DiBP and child verbal comprehension; and BBzP and child perceptual reasoning. Conclusion Maternal prenatal urinary metabolite concentrations measured in late pregnancy of DnBP and DiBP are associated with deficits in children’s intellectual development at age 7 years. Because phthalate exposures are ubiquitous and concentrations seen here within the range previously observed among general populations, results are of public health significance. PMID:25493564

Factor-Litvak, Pam; Insel, Beverly; Calafat, Antonia M.; Liu, Xinhua; Perera, Frederica; Rauh, Virginia A.; Whyatt, Robin M.

2014-01-01

77

Effect of Maternal Age on Pregnancy Outcome and Cesarean Delivery Rate  

PubMed Central

Background The aims of this retrospective study were to evaluate the maternal and prenatal outcomes between 35 years and older pregnancies and younger pregnancies, and the effects of the age of pregnancy, mother and newborn. Methods Pregnant women who gave birth in Vakif Gureba Training and Research Hospital, Clinic of Obstetrics and Gynecology in 2006 were retrospectively screened. Pregnant women aged 35 years and over were included in this study and the pregnant women between age range of 30 - 34 years were included in the control group. Results Pregnancy rate was found as 7.1% in 35 years and older women in all the deliveries, cesarean delivery rate was found as 46.1% in this group at 1 year period. However, cesarean delivery rate was 40.9% in the control group. Cesarean delivery rate was found as 31.6% in all the deliveries. The most common cause of cesarean section indication was fetal distress in advanced maternal age (AMA) (11.7%), whereas previous cesarean section was found as the most common cause in the control group (15.1%). Conclusion No significant difference was found between AMA group and normal pregnancies in terms of preterm labor, caesarian section, morbidity, mortality and chronic diseases such as hypertension and diabetes mellitus. PMID:25436026

Benli, Ali Ramazan; Cetin Benli, Neriman; Usta, Abdullah Taner; Atakul, Tolga; Koroglu, Mustafa

2015-01-01

78

Maternal Smoking, Demographic and Lifestyle Factors in Relation to Daughter’s Age at Menarche  

PubMed Central

Summary A previous study suggested a younger age at menarche among daughters of heavy prenatal smokers, especially among non-Whites. The present study was designed to evaluate that association in another population and to examine other factors that might be related to age at menarche. We analyzed data from the Collaborative Perinatal Project, a nationwide longitudinal study of pregnant women and their children conducted in 1959–1966. At three sites, with a predominance of Black participants (80%), age at menarche (AAM) was ascertained in the offspring when they were young adults. We included data on 1,556 daughters who had a mean age at menarche of 12.7 years (standard deviation (SD) 1.8). Amount smoked by the mothers was obtained from a baseline interview and subsequent prenatal visits. Regression models were run including maternal smoking and other co-variates, for only the prenatal period, as well as in models with some childhood characteristics. In the prenatal factor model, younger mean age at menarche in daughters was found with the maternal characteristics of earlier age at menarche, being married, and lower parity. Examining childhood variables, earlier AAM was found among girls with few or no siblings or with higher SES. Unlike our previous findings, mean AAM was later in daughters of heavy smokers (20+cigs/day), with a delay of 0.31 years [95% confidence interval (CI) 0.008, 0.61], or about 3.7 months, in the prenatal model, and 0.34 years [95% CI ?0.02, 0.66] in the model with childhood variables included. The pattern was consistent by race. A number of prenatal and childhood factors related to age at menarche were identified that should be considered when examining exogenous exposures in relation to pubertal onset. PMID:19000293

Windham, Gayle C.; Zhang, Lixia; Longnecker, Matthew P; Klebanoff, Mark

2007-01-01

79

Pregnancy, maternal exposure to analgesic medicines, and leukemia in Brazilian children below 2 years of age.  

PubMed

Childhood leukemia etiology, and mainly the interactions of genetic and environmental risk factors, remains largely unexplored. This national hospital-based case-control study was carried out in Brazil among children aged 0-23 months who were recruited at cancer and general hospitals in 13 states. Maternal medicine intake during pregnancy, including analgesic intake, was assessed by face-to-face interviews with the mothers of 231 leukemia patients and 411 controls. Unconditional logistic regression was used to ascertain crude and adjusted odds ratios (ORs), and their 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for the association between maternal analgesic use during pregnancy and early age leukemia. Acetaminophen use during the first trimester of pregnancy showed an OR=0.39 (95% CI 0.17-0.93) for acute lymphocytic leukemia and an OR=0.37 (95% CI 0.16-0.88) for use in the second trimester. For acute myeloid leukemia, an OR=0.11 (95% CI 0.02-0.97) was found following acetaminophen use in the second trimester. For acute lymphocytic leukemia, the exclusive use of dipyrone during preconception showed an OR=1.63 (95% CI 1.06-2.53) and dipyrone intake during lactation showed an OR=2.00 (95% CI 1.18-3.39). These results suggest that acetaminophen use during pregnancy may protect against development of early age leukemia in the offspring, whereas dipyrone use may act as a risk factor for such an outcome. PMID:25121973

Couto, Arnaldo C; Ferreira, Jeniffer D; Pombo-de-Oliveira, Maria S; Koifman, Sérgio

2015-05-01

80

Maternal pre-pregnancy body mass index and offspring temperament and behavior at 1 and 2 years of age.  

PubMed

Recent research suggests that fetal exposure to increased maternal body mass index (BMI) during pregnancy may be associated with psychopathology later in life. When this link first emerges, and if it is due to intrauterine exposures or confounding variables is not known. We therefore assessed associations between maternal pre-pregnancy BMI and: (1) temperament at 1 year of age, and (2) Child Behavior Checklist internalizing and externalizing scales at age 2 in the 2900 mothers and infants enrolled in the Western Australian Pregnancy Study. Pre-pregnancy BMI was positively associated with externalizing scores (? = 0.131, 95 % CI 0.013-0.249) at age 2, even after adjustment for confounders, but not with internalizing scores or an increased risk of difficult temperament. These data suggest that fetal exposure to increased maternal BMI is associated with elevated levels of behavior problems as early as age 2, and that this may be linked to the intrauterine environment. PMID:22983494

Van Lieshout, Ryan J; Schmidt, Louis A; Robinson, Monique; Niccols, Alison; Boyle, Michael H

2013-06-01

81

Determining infants' age for measles vaccination based on persistence of protective level of maternal measles antibody.  

PubMed

The present study was conducted over a period of one year to find the right time for measles vaccination when maternal antibody titer in infants was decayed rendering them susceptible to wild virus infection. Blood samples were collected from the cord of new born (147), 2-5 months (47) and 5 to 7.5 months (24) of age. The mean measles IgG antibody titer detected in cord blood at birth (0 months) was 348.8 mlU/mL which steeply decreased to 155.6 mlU/mL by the age of 2-3 months. After that the fall in antibody becomes relatively slower and decreased to 101.6 mIU/mL by the age of 3-5 months and 38.8 mlU/mL by the age of 5-6 months and to 19.2 mIU/mL between the age of 6 to 7.5 months. The fall in antibody level with the advance of age was statistically significant (p < 0.001 ). Majority of the subjects (97.6%) exhibited protective level of antibody at birth. But only a little above one-quarter (25.5%) of them persisted the protective level between the age of 2-5 months and none had protective level from 5 months onwards. PMID:20922913

Shilpi, Tanjida; Sattar, Humayun; Miah, Md Ruhul Amin

2009-12-01

82

Maternal body mass index in early pregnancy and offspring asthma, rhinitis and eczema up to 16 years of age  

PubMed Central

Background Maternal obesity has been linked to offspring asthma; however, other allergy-related diseases, as well as the association beyond early school age, are largely unstudied. Objective To examine the associations between maternal body mass index (BMI) in pregnancy and offspring asthma, rhinitis, eczema and sensitization up to 16 years of age. Methods A total of 3294 children from the Swedish birth cohort BAMSE were included in the analyses. Maternal BMI was assessed around week 10 in pregnancy. Information on asthma, rhinitis, eczema, lifestyle factors and environmental exposures was obtained by parental questionnaires at 1, 2, 4, 8, 12 and 16 years. Sensitization was defined from IgE levels of inhalant allergens at 4, 8 and 16 years in a subsample of 2850 children. Generalized estimated equation models were used to analyse the associations between maternal BMI and the outcomes at 1–16 years. Results Maternal BMI was positively associated with overall risk of asthma up to age of 16 years (adj OR per 5 kg/m2 increase: 1.23; 95% CI 1.07–1.40 for prevalent asthma) excluding underweight mothers. In contrast, no significant associations were found for rhinitis, eczema or sensitization. The association with asthma was restricted to obese, rather than overweight mothers, but was attenuated when adjusting for overweight in the offspring. A causal inference test at 16 years further indicated that the child’s own overweight is a mediator in the suggested association between maternal BMI and offspring asthma at 16 years. Conclusions and Clinical Relevance Maternal BMI is associated with an increased risk of asthma, but not rhinitis, eczema or sensitization; however, overweight in the offspring seems to have a mediating role. Prevention strategies of maternal pre-pregnancy and childhood obesity might be important to reduce the prevalence of childhood asthma. PMID:24807420

Ekström, S; Magnusson, J; Kull, I; Lind, T; Almqvist, C; Melén, E; Bergström, A

2015-01-01

83

Socio-Cultural Disparities in GDM Burden Differ by Maternal Age at First Delivery  

PubMed Central

Aims Several socio-cultural and biomedical risk factors for gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) are modifiable. However, few studies globally have examined socio-cultural associations. To eliminate confounding of increased risk of diabetes in subsequent pregnancies, elucidating socio-cultural associations requires examination only of first pregnancies. Methods Data for all women who delivered their first child in Victoria, Australia between 1999 and 2008 were extracted from the Victorian Perinatal Data Collection. Crude and adjusted GDM rates were calculated. Multivariate logistic regression was used to examine odds of GDM within and between socio-cultural groups. Results From 1999 to 2008, 269,682 women delivered their first child in Victoria. GDM complicated 11,763 (4.4%) pregnancies and burden increased with maternal age, from 2.1% among women aged below 25 years at delivery to 7.0% among those aged 35 years or more. Among younger women, GDM rates were relatively stable across socioeconomic levels. Amongst older women GDM rates were highest in those living in most deprived areas, with a strong social gradient. Asian-born mothers had highest GDM rates. All migrant groups except women born in North-West Europe had higher odds of GDM than Australian-born non-Indigenous women. In all ethnic groups, these differences were not pronounced among younger mothers, but became increasingly apparent amongst older women. Conclusions Socio-cultural disparities in GDM burden differ by maternal age at first delivery. Socio-cultural gradients were not evident among younger women. Health and social programs should seek to reduce the risk amongst all older women to that of the least deprived older mothers. PMID:25679221

Abouzeid, Marion; Versace, Vincent L.; Janus, Edward D.; Davey, Mary-Ann; Philpot, Benjamin; Oats, Jeremy; Dunbar, James A.

2015-01-01

84

Maternal mortality in Kassala State - Eastern Sudan: community-based study using Reproductive age mortality survey (RAMOS)  

PubMed Central

Background The maternal mortality ratio in Sudan was estimated at 750/100,000 live births. Sudan was one of eleven countries that are responsible for 65% of global maternal deaths according to a recent World Health Organization (WHO) estimate. Maternal mortality in Kassala State was high in national demographic surveys. This study was conducted to investigate the causes and contributing factors of maternal deaths and to identify any discrepancies in rates and causes between different areas. Methods A reproductive age mortality survey (RAMOS) was conducted to study maternal mortality in Kassala State. Deaths of women of reproductive age (WRA) in four purposively selected areas were identified by interviewing key informants in each village followed by verbal autopsy. Results Over a three-year period, 168 maternal deaths were identified among 26,066 WRA. Verbal autopsies were conducted in 148 (88.1%) of these cases. Of these, 64 (43.2%) were due to pregnancy and childbirth complications. Maternal mortality rates and ratios were 80.6 per 100,000 WRA and 713.6 per 100,000 live births (LB), respectively. There was a wide discrepancy between urban and rural maternal mortality ratios (369 and 872\\100,000 LB, respectively). Direct obstetric causes were responsible for 58.4% of deaths. Severe anemia (20.3%) and acute febrile illness (9.4%) were the major indirect causes of maternal death whereas obstetric hemorrhage (15.6%), obstructed labor (14.1%) and puerperal sepsis (10.9%) were the major obstetric causes. Of the contributing factors, we found delay of referral in 73.4% of cases in spite of a high problem recognition rate (75%). 67.2% of deaths occurred at home, indicating under utilization of health facilities, and transportation problems were found in 54.7% of deaths. There was a high illiteracy rate among the deceased and their husbands (62.5% and 48.4%, respectively). Conclusions Maternal mortality rates and ratios were found to be high, with a wide variation between urban and rural populations. Direct causes of maternal death were similar to those in developing countries. To reduce this high maternal mortality rate we recommend improving provision of emergency obstetric care (Emoc) in all health facilities, expanding midwifery training and coverage especially in rural areas. PMID:22171988

2011-01-01

85

Impact of maternal breast cancer on school-aged children in Saudi Arabia  

PubMed Central

Background We examine whether mothers with breast cancer told their children about the diagnosis, explore mothers’ perceptions of the impact of doing so on the mother-child relationship, and assess perceptions of how this affected the children. Methods A convenience sample of 28 women with breast cancer ages 35 to 60 was interviewed using a 39-item close-ended questionnaire at the Al-Amoudi Breast Cancer Center of Excellence, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia. Inclusion criteria were having a diagnosis of breast cancer and having school-aged children (ages 5 to 16 years). Questions were asked concerning each child (n?=?99). Results The majority of women (75%) told their children about the diagnosis, and explained the treatment (61%). In most cases, telling the children had a positive effect on how the children treated their mothers (84%), on the maternal-child relationship (80%), and on the personality and behavior of the child (90%). The most common negative reaction by children was increased clinging behavior to the mother (15%). Despite the perceived positive impact on the mother-child relationship and on the child’s overall behavior towards the mother, school performance suffered as a result (77%). Conclusions These preliminary results suggest that when a mother with breast cancer tells a child about the diagnosis and discusses it with them, this often results in an improvement in the maternal-child relationship. However, the knowing the mother’s diagnosis may adversely affect the child’s school performance, which will need to be anticipated and addressed with formal counseling if it persists. PMID:24758552

2014-01-01

86

Does Maternal Prenatal Stress Adversely Affect the Child's Learning and Memory at Age Six?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Prenatal maternal stress has been shown to affect postnatal development in animals and humans. In animals, the morphology and function of the offspring's hippocampus is negatively affected by prenatal maternal stress. The present study prospectively investigated the influence of prenatal maternal stress on learning and memory of 112 children (50…

Gutteling, Barbara M.; de Weerth, Carolina; Zandbelt, Noortje; Mulder, Eduard J. H.; Visser, Gerard H. A.; Buitelaar, Jan K.

2006-01-01

87

The Effects of Age and Infant Hearing Status on Maternal Use of Prosodic Cues for Clause Boundaries in Speech  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: The present study examined the effects of age and hearing status of a child on maternal use of pitch change, preboundary vowel lengthening, and pause duration, all of which are prosodic cues correlated with clause boundaries in infant-directed speech. Method: Mothers' speech to infants with normal hearing (NH; n = 18), infants who are…

Kondaurova, Maria V.; Bergeson, Tonya R.

2011-01-01

88

A longitudinal investigation of maternal touching across the first 6 months of life: Age and context effects  

Microsoft Academic Search

The types of touch used by 12 mothers with their 1-, 3- and 5.5-month-old infants were examined longitudinally during two different interaction contexts lasting 5min each. Changes in maternal touching as a function of infants’ age and interaction context were revealed.

Amélie D. L. Jean; Dale M. Stack; Alan Fogel

2009-01-01

89

A Longitudinal Investigation of Maternal Touching across the First Six Months of Life: Age and Context Effects  

PubMed Central

The types of touch used by 12 mothers with their 1, 3 and 5½ month-old infants were examined longitudinally during two different interaction contexts lasting 5 minutes each. Changes in maternal touching as a function of infants’ age and interaction context were revealed. PMID:19477019

Jean, Amélie D. L.; Stack, Dale M.; Fogel, Alan

2009-01-01

90

The Associations of Prenatal Substance Use To Birth Outcomes and Infant Death: Do They Vary by Maternal Age and Race?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examined whether associations between prenatal substance use and birth and infant outcomes varied by maternal age and race. Data on all singleton live births in Minnesota from 1990-98 indicated that poor birth outcomes and infant death were generally lower for whites than for African Americans and American Indians. Prenatal substance use varied by…

Hellerstedt, Wendy L.; Johnson, Pamela Jo; Oswald, John W.

2002-01-01

91

Maternal smoking, demographic and lifestyle factors in relation to daughter's age at menarche.  

PubMed

A previous study suggested a younger age at menarche (AAM) among daughters of heavy prenatal smokers, especially among non-Whites. The present study was designed to evaluate that association in another population and to examine other factors that may be related to AAM. We analysed data from the Collaborative Perinatal Project, a nationwide longitudinal study of pregnant women and their children conducted in 1959-66. At three sites, with a predominance of Black participants (80%), AAM was ascertained in the offspring when they were young adults. We included data on 1556 daughters who had a mean AAM of 12.7 years (standard deviation 1.8). Amount smoked by the mothers was obtained from a baseline interview and subsequent prenatal visits. Regression models were run including maternal smoking and other covariates, for only the prenatal period, as well as in models with some childhood characteristics. In the prenatal factor model, younger mean AAM in daughters was found with maternal characteristics of earlier AAM, being married, and of lower parity. Examining childhood variables, earlier AAM was found among girls with few or no siblings or with higher socio-economic status. Unlike our previous findings, mean AAM was later in daughters of heavy smokers (20+ cigarettes/day), with a delay of 0.31 years [95% confidence interval (CI) 0.008, 0.61], or about 3.7 months in the prenatal model, and 0.34 years [95% CI -0.02, 0.66] in the model with childhood variables included. The pattern was consistent by race. A number of prenatal and childhood factors related to AAM were identified that should be considered when examining exogenous exposures in relation to pubertal onset. PMID:19000293

Windham, Gayle C; Zhang, Lixia; Longnecker, Matthew P; Klebanoff, Mark

2008-11-01

92

STUDIES ON DOWN'S SYNDROME AND MATERNAL AGE S.K. SUBBEGOWDA 1 H.S. NARAYANAN 1  

E-print Network

Details of clinical, genetic and karyotyping investigations carried out on thirty patients with Down's syndrome are described. All the patients showed Trisomy- 21,The information relating to the maternal age revealed that women in the age group of 15-35 also had cases of Down's syndrome which is in contrast to the findings made in western countries. Langdon Down, in 1866 was the first to single out 'Mongols ' from a heterogenous collection of mentally retarded (MR) subjects and this enabled physicians to undertake a detailed study of their physical character (Down 1866). A number of workers reported on various physical features viz., head and face, jaws, eyes, heart, among others. The occurrence of'Mongolism ' was established to be independent of the father's age (Kirman 1975) and of birth order (Penrose 1951). Dermatoglyphic studies showed a tendency to transverse arrangement of dermal ridges, with a high axial triradius (Richards 1970). Biochemical studies carried out have revealed low blood calcium, reduced excretion of tryptophan, increased UDG galactose transferase and immunoglobulin A levels were found to be high in Mongols (Kirman 1975, Mellan et al. 1964). After the introduction of karyotyping by Tjio and Levan the studies of Lejuene established the trisomy state in Down's cases (Tjio & Levan 1956, Subbegowda 1984). Thus, if one summarises the salient observations made in cases of Down's syndrome in the past one hundred years, three discoveries have been of outstanding importance; it is recognisable at sight, it is associated with late maternal age, and affected subjects have an extra chromosome. There have been a number of reports from India and abroad indicating that maternal age has an influence on the occurrence of Down's syndrome. This paper reports a study conducted at this centre to determine the influence of maternal age on the occurrence of Down's syndrome. Material and Methods The clinical material was obtained from patients coming for consultation to the mental retardation clinic at the department

93

Chronic Maternal Depression Is Associated with Reduced Weight Gain in Latino Infants from Birth to 2 Years of Age  

PubMed Central

Background Latino children are at increased risk for mirconutrient deficiencies and problems of overweight and obesity. Exposures in pregnancy and early postpartum may impact future growth trajectories. Objectives To evaluate the relationship between prenatal and postnatal maternal depressive symptoms experienced in pregnancy and infant growth from birth to 2 years of age in a cohort of Latino infants. Methods We recruited pregnant Latina mothers at two San Francisco hospitals and followed their healthy infants to 24 months of age. At 6, 12 and 24 months of age, infants were weighed and measured. Maternal depressive symptoms were assessed prenatally and at 4-6 weeks postpartum. Women who had high depressive symptoms at both time periods were defined as having chronic depression. Logistic mixed models were applied to compare growth curves and risk for overweight and underweight based on exposure to maternal depression. Results We followed 181 infants to 24 months. At 12 and 24 months, respectively, 27.4% and 40.5% were overweight, and 5.6% and 2.2% were underweight. Exposure to chronic maternal depression was associated with underweight (OR?=?12.12, 95%CI 1.86-78.78) and with reduced weight gain in the first 2 years of life (Coef?=?-0.48, 95% CI -0.94—0.01) compared with unexposed infants or infants exposed to episodic depression (depression at one time point). Exposure to chronic depression was also associated with reduced risk for overweight in the first 2 years of life (OR 0.28, 95%CI 0.03-0.92). Conclusions Exposure to chronic maternal depression in the pre- and postnatal period was associated with reduced weight gain in the first two years of life and greater risk for failure to thrive, in comparison with unexposed infants or those exposed episodically. The infants of mothers with chronic depression may need additional nutritional monitoring and intervention. PMID:21373638

Wojcicki, Janet M.; Holbrook, Katherine; Lustig, Robert H.; Epel, Elissa; Caughey, Aaron B.; Muñoz, Ricardo F.; Shiboski, Stephen C.; Heyman, Melvin B.

2011-01-01

94

Higher Maternal Prenatal Cortisol and Younger Age Predict Greater Infant Reactivity to Novelty at 4 Months: An Observation Based Study  

PubMed Central

Objective Distress–linked activation of the maternal HPA–axis is considered a pathway by which affect regulation impacts the fetal milieu and neurodevelopment. There is little direct evidence for this conceptual model. Methods In 103 women (mean age 27.45 (±5.65) years) at 36 – 38 weeks gestation, salivary cortisol was measured before/after stress tasks; distress questionnaires were completed. At 18.49 (±1.83) weeks, infants underwent the Harvard Infant Behavioral Reactivity Protocol assessing cry/motor responses to novelty; women reported on infant behavior and postnatal distress. Results Prenatal cortisol and distress were not significantly correlated (all ps >.10). Proportional odds logistic regressions showed that neither prenatal nor postnatal distress was associated with infant responses to the Harvard Protocol yet pre–stress cortisol and maternal age were: The odds of being classified as High Reactive were 1.60 times higher [95% CI: 1.04, 2.46] for each unit of added cortisol and 0.90 times lower [95% CI: 0.82, 0.99] for every additional year in maternal age. No associations were found between cortisol or prenatal distress and mother–rated infant behavior; postnatal distress was positively associated with mother–rated infant negative behavior (p = .03). Observer and mother–rated infant behavior were not associated (all ps > .05). Conclusions Based on independent observations of infants in contrast to maternal perceptions, these results lend support to the hypothesis that pregnant women’s HPA–axis activity influences infant behavior. The impact of maternal distress was not supported, except in so far as postnatal distress may increase the likelihood of making negative judgments about infant behavior. PMID:22778036

Werner, Elizabeth; Zhao, Yihong; Evans, Lynn; Kinsella, Michael; Kurzius, Laura; Altincatal, Arman; McDonough, Laraine; Monk, Catherine

2012-01-01

95

Maternal Depression and Warmth During Childhood Predict Age 20 Neural Response to Reward  

PubMed Central

Objective Early parenting experiences likely shape children’s brain development, with consequences potentially extending into adulthood. Parents’ affective disorders and expressions of positive affect could exert an influence on affect-related circuitry. The current study evaluated how maternal depression and maternal warmth assessed in early childhood and early adolescence were related to boys’ reward function during early adulthood. Method Participants were 120 boys at socioeconomic risk for emotional problems. Mothers’ history of depression during the child’s lifetime was measured when boys were 42 months old and 10/11 years old. Maternal warmth was observed during mother–child interactions at 18 and 24 months and at 10 and 11 years. Results Maternal warmth during early childhood was associated with less activation in the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) when anticipating and experiencing reward loss. Maternal warmth during early adolescence was associated with less activation in the mPFC when winning rewards and greater activation in the caudate when experiencing loss. The association between maternal warmth during early childhood and early adolescence and reward function in the striatum and mPFC was stronger for boys exposed to maternal depression relative to boys who were not. Conclusions The experience of warmth and affection from mothers may be a protective factor for reward function in boys exposed to maternal depression, possibly by engaging vulnerable neural reward systems through affiliation. PMID:24342390

Morgan, Judith K.; Shaw, Daniel S.; Forbes, Erika E.

2014-01-01

96

Predicting Elements of Early Maternal Elaborative Discourse from 12 to 18 Months of Age  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

To date, much of the research investigating maternal-child discourse has focused on the preschool period of children's development, with little attention paid to how these styles develop. The current study aimed to assess whether maternal elaborative discourse elements seen in preschool are also evident during the toddler years, and whether the…

Ontai, Lenna L.; Virmani, Elita Amini

2010-01-01

97

Are Maternal Genitourinary Infection and Pre-Eclampsia Associated with ADHD in School-Aged Children?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: To investigate the hypothesis that maternal genitourinary infection (GU) infection is associated with increased risk of ADHD. Method: The authors obtained linked Medicaid billing data for pregnant women and their children in South Carolina, with births from 1996 through 2002 and follow-up data through 2008. Maternal GU infections and…

Mann, Joshua R.; McDermott, Suzanne

2011-01-01

98

Maternal Psychological Distress during Pregnancy in Relation to Child Development at Age Two  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Concern exists that a constellation of negative maternal emotions during pregnancy generates persistent negative consequences for child development. Maternal reports of anxiety, pregnancy-specific and nonspecific stress, and depressive symptoms were collected during mid-pregnancy and at 6 weeks and 24 months after birth in a sample of healthy…

DiPietro, Janet A.; Novak, Matthew F. S. X.; Costigan, Kathleen A.; Atella, Lara D.; Reusing, Sarah P.

2006-01-01

99

Implications of the relationship between maternal age and parity with hepatitis B carrier status in a high endemicity area.  

PubMed

This study aimed to examine the prevalence of maternal hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection in the past 10 years and the age- and parity-specific incidences for evidence of control of HBV infection in the female reproductive population. We conducted a retrospective cohort study on 58 736 consecutive pregnant women delivered from July 1998 to June 2008. Maternal HBV status and demographic data were retrieved from a computerized database for analysis by year, age, year of birth and parity. A total of 5788 (10.1%) women had HBV infection, and the annual prevalence was around 10% throughout. When categorized by maternal age into six 5-year cohorts, the incidence increased from 6.8% in the <20 years cohort to 10.8% in the 20-24 and 25-29 year cohorts, then declined to 9.3% in the > or =40 years cohort (P < 0.001). When categorized by year of birth into 5-year cohorts, the incidence varied from 9.2% for the 1965-1969 cohort to 11.3% in the 1980-1984 cohort, which then declined to 7.3% in the > or =1985 cohort (P < 0.001). Multiparas had higher incidence when compared with nulliparas overall (10.5% vs 9.6%, P = 0.001), and significantly higher incidences for the 25-29 year (P = 0.009), 30-34 year (P < 0.001) and 35-39 year (P = 0.032) cohorts when analysed by age. In conclusion, the prevalence of maternal HBV infection remained constant at 10% for the past decade. The changes in relation to age and parity suggested that horizontal transmission, probably by sexual contact, had played an important role in maintaining the same prevalence as reported from Hong Kong 20 years ago. PMID:19780946

Suen, S S H; Lao, T T; Sahota, D S; Lau, T K; Leung, T Y

2010-05-01

100

Genetic moderation of effects of maternal sensitivity on girl's age of menarche: Replication of the Manuck et al. study.  

PubMed

Manuck, Craig, Flory, Halder, and Ferrell (2011) reported that a theoretically anticipated effect of family rearing on girls' menarcheal age was genetically moderated by two single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of the estrogen receptor-? gene. We sought to replicate and extend these findings, studying 210 White females followed from birth. The replication was general because a different measure of the rearing environment was used in this inquiry (i.e., maternal sensitivity) than in the prior one (i.e., family cohesion). Extensions of the work included prospective rather than retrospective measurements of the rearing environment, reports of first menstruation within a year of its occurrence rather than decades later, accounting for some heritability of menarcheal age by controlling for maternal age of menarche, and using a new model-fitting approach to competitively compare diathesis-stress versus differential-susceptibility models of Gene × Environment interaction. The replication/extension effort proved successful in the case of both estrogen receptor-? SNPs, with the Gene × Environment interactions principally reflecting diathesis-stress: lower levels of maternal sensitivity predicted earlier age of menarche for girls homozygous for the minor alleles of either SNP but not for girls carrying other genotypes. Results are discussed in light of the new analytic methods adopted. PMID:25195863

Hartman, Sarah; Widaman, Keith F; Belsky, Jay

2014-09-01

101

EFFECTS OF MATERNAL EXPOSURE TO PHTHALATES AND BISPHENOL A DURING PREGNANCY ON GESTATIONAL AGE  

PubMed Central

Objective Phthalates and bisphenol A (BPA) are ubiquitous environmental toxicants, present in high concentrations in numerous consumer products. We hypothesized that maternal exposure to phthalates and BPA in pregnancy is associated with shortened gestation. Methods Urinary phthalate and BPA metabolites from 72 pregnant women were measured at the last obstetric clinic visit prior to delivery. Using linear regression models, we estimated the change in gestational age associated with each interquartile range (IQR) increase in phthalate and BPA metabolite concentration. Results IQR increases in urinary mono(2-ethyl-5-hydroxyhexyl) phthalate (MEHHP) and BPA concentrations were associated with 4.2 and 1.1 day decreases in gestation, respectively. When stratified by gender, these alterations were found only in male infants. Conclusions We conclude that MEHHP and BPA (free + glucuronide) are associated with reductions in gestation, with effects observed only in males. Our findings are consistent with the idea that these agents induce gender-specific alterations in signaling via PPAR-? transcription factor, androgen precursors, and/or inflammatory mediators during the initiation of labor. PMID:23795657

Weinberger, Barry; Vetrano, Anna M.; Archer, Faith E.; Marcella, Stephen W.; Buckley, Brian; Wartenberg, Daniel; Robson, Mark G.; Klim, Jammie; Azhar, Sana; Cavin, Sarah; Wang, Lu; Rich, David Q.

2014-01-01

102

Maternal age effect and severe germ-line bottleneck in the inheritance of human mitochondrial DNA  

PubMed Central

The manifestation of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) diseases depends on the frequency of heteroplasmy (the presence of several alleles in an individual), yet its transmission across generations cannot be readily predicted owing to a lack of data on the size of the mtDNA bottleneck during oogenesis. For deleterious heteroplasmies, a severe bottleneck may abruptly transform a benign (low) frequency in a mother into a disease-causing (high) frequency in her child. Here we present a high-resolution study of heteroplasmy transmission conducted on blood and buccal mtDNA of 39 healthy mother–child pairs of European ancestry (a total of 156 samples, each sequenced at ?20,000× per site). On average, each individual carried one heteroplasmy, and one in eight individuals carried a disease-associated heteroplasmy, with minor allele frequency ?1%. We observed frequent drastic heteroplasmy frequency shifts between generations and estimated the effective size of the germ-line mtDNA bottleneck at only ?30–35 (interquartile range from 9 to 141). Accounting for heteroplasmies, we estimated the mtDNA germ-line mutation rate at 1.3 × 10?8 (interquartile range from 4.2 × 10?9 to 4.1 × 10?8) mutations per site per year, an order of magnitude higher than for nuclear DNA. Notably, we found a positive association between the number of heteroplasmies in a child and maternal age at fertilization, likely attributable to oocyte aging. This study also took advantage of droplet digital PCR (ddPCR) to validate heteroplasmies and confirm a de novo mutation. Our results can be used to predict the transmission of disease-causing mtDNA variants and illuminate evolutionary dynamics of the mitochondrial genome. PMID:25313049

Rebolledo-Jaramillo, Boris; Su, Marcia Shu-Wei; Stoler, Nicholas; McElhoe, Jennifer A.; Dickins, Benjamin; Blankenberg, Daniel; Chiaromonte, Francesca; Nielsen, Rasmus; Holland, Mitchell M.; Paul, Ian M.; Nekrutenko, Anton; Makova, Kateryna D.

2014-01-01

103

Prenatal maternal stress predicts stress reactivity at 2½ years of age: The Iowa Flood Study.  

PubMed

Prenatal maternal stress (PNMS) predicts psychosocial development in offspring. It has been hypothesized that during PNMS, glucocorticoids pass the placenta, reaching the foetus, leading to a long-term reprogramming and dysregulation of the foetal hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis. However, results are inconsistent across PNMS studies. One problem may be the confounding of objective degrees of hardship due to the stressor and subjective degrees of distress in the mother. The present study investigated the association between objective and subjective PNMS due to a natural disaster, the June 2008 Iowa floods, and stress reactivity in the offspring at 2½ years of age. Women who were pregnant during the floods were recruited, on average, within three months of the floods and their stress levels assessed. Mothers and their toddlers (n=94dyads) participated in a brief mother-toddler separation to induce physiological stress responses in the offspring. Salivary cortisol samples were collected four times during the procedure. We computed absolute change in cortisol (baseline to 20-minute post-stressor; baseline to 45-minute post-stressor) and Area Under the Curve with respect to increase and ground (AUCi; AUCg). Objective and subjective PNMS were positively correlated with AUCi, as was timing in gestation: the later in pregnancy the exposure occurred, the greater the cortisol increase. Controlling for objective hardship and other covariates, sex-by-subjective PNMS interactions showed a significant and positive association between subjective PNMS and Absolute Increase (45min) and AUCi in females only, with little effect in males. These results suggest that PNMS leads to long-term alterations in the functioning of the HPA axis, evident as early as 30-months of age. PMID:25800150

Yong Ping, Erin; Laplante, David P; Elgbeili, Guillaume; Hillerer, Katharina M; Brunet, Alain; O'Hara, Michael W; King, Suzanne

2015-06-01

104

Temporal Trends in Chorioamnionitis by Maternal Race/Ethnicity and Gestational Age (1995–2010)  

PubMed Central

Objective. To characterize trends in chorioamnionitis (CAM) by maternal race/ethnicity and gestational age. Study Design. We examined trends in CAM from 1995–2010 among singleton births in all Kaiser Permanente Southern California hospitals (n = 471,821). Data were extracted from Perinatal Service System and clinical utilization records. Gestational age- and race/ethnicity-specific biannual diagnosis rates were estimated using the Poisson regression after adjusting for potential confounding factors. Results. Overall diagnosis rates of CAM increased from 2.7% in 1995-1996 to 6.0% in 2009-2010 with a relative increase of 126% (95% confidence intervals [CI] 113%–149%). From 1995-1996 to 2009-2010, CAM increased among the Whites (1.8% to 4.3%, P-value for trend <.001), Blacks (2.2% to 3.7%, P-value for trend <.001), Hispanics (2.4% to 5.8%, P-value for trend <.001), and Asian/Pacific Islanders (3.6% to 9.0%, P-value for trend <.001). The adjusted relative percentage change in CAM from 1995-1996 to 2009-2010 was for Whites [preterm 21% (9%–78%), term 138% (108%–173%)], for Blacks [preterm 24% (?9%–81%), term 62% (30%–101%)], for Hispanics [preterm 31% (3%–66%), term 135% (114%–159%)], and for Asian/Pacific Islanders [preterm 44% (9%–127%), term 145% (109%–188%)]. Conclusion. The findings suggest that CAM diagnosis rate has increased for all race/ethnic groups. This increase is primarily due to increased diagnosis at term gestation.

Wing, Deborah A.

2013-01-01

105

Maternal age effect and severe germ-line bottleneck in the inheritance of human mitochondrial DNA.  

PubMed

The manifestation of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) diseases depends on the frequency of heteroplasmy (the presence of several alleles in an individual), yet its transmission across generations cannot be readily predicted owing to a lack of data on the size of the mtDNA bottleneck during oogenesis. For deleterious heteroplasmies, a severe bottleneck may abruptly transform a benign (low) frequency in a mother into a disease-causing (high) frequency in her child. Here we present a high-resolution study of heteroplasmy transmission conducted on blood and buccal mtDNA of 39 healthy mother-child pairs of European ancestry (a total of 156 samples, each sequenced at ?20,000× per site). On average, each individual carried one heteroplasmy, and one in eight individuals carried a disease-associated heteroplasmy, with minor allele frequency ?1%. We observed frequent drastic heteroplasmy frequency shifts between generations and estimated the effective size of the germ-line mtDNA bottleneck at only ?30-35 (interquartile range from 9 to 141). Accounting for heteroplasmies, we estimated the mtDNA germ-line mutation rate at 1.3 × 10(-8) (interquartile range from 4.2 × 10(-9) to 4.1 × 10(-8)) mutations per site per year, an order of magnitude higher than for nuclear DNA. Notably, we found a positive association between the number of heteroplasmies in a child and maternal age at fertilization, likely attributable to oocyte aging. This study also took advantage of droplet digital PCR (ddPCR) to validate heteroplasmies and confirm a de novo mutation. Our results can be used to predict the transmission of disease-causing mtDNA variants and illuminate evolutionary dynamics of the mitochondrial genome. PMID:25313049

Rebolledo-Jaramillo, Boris; Su, Marcia Shu-Wei; Stoler, Nicholas; McElhoe, Jennifer A; Dickins, Benjamin; Blankenberg, Daniel; Korneliussen, Thorfinn S; Chiaromonte, Francesca; Nielsen, Rasmus; Holland, Mitchell M; Paul, Ian M; Nekrutenko, Anton; Makova, Kateryna D

2014-10-28

106

Maternal Education and Micro-Geographic Disparities in Nutritional Status among School-Aged Children in Rural Northwestern China  

PubMed Central

Objectives Prior evidence suggests geographic disparities in the effect of maternal education on child nutritional status between countries, between regions and between urban and rural areas. We postulated its effect would also vary by micro-geographic locations (indicated by mountain areas, plain areas and the edge areas) in a Chinese minority area. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted with a multistage random sample of 1474 school children aged 5-12 years in Guyuan, China. Child nutritional status was measured by height-for-age z scores (HAZ). Linear mixed models were used to examine its association with place of residence and maternal education. Results Micro-geographic disparities in child nutritional status and the level of socioeconomic composition were found. Children living in mountain areas had poorer nutritional status, even after adjusting for demographic (plain versus mountain, ??=?0.16, P?=?0.033; edge versus mountain, ??=?0.29, P?=?0.002) and socioeconomic factors (plain versus mountain, ??=?0.12, P?=?0.137; edge versus mountain, ??=?0.25, P?=?0.009). The disparities significantly widened with increasing years of mothers’ schooling (maternal education*plain versus mountain: ??=?0.06, P?=?0.007; maternal education*edge versus mountain: ??=?0.07, P?=?0.005). Moreover, the association between maternal education and child nutrition was negative (??=?-0.03, P?=?0.056) in mountain areas but positive in plain areas (??=?0.02, P?=?0.094) or in the edge areas (??=?0.04, P?=?0.055). Conclusions Micro-geographic disparities in child nutritional status increase with increasing level of maternal education and the effect of maternal education varies by micro-geographic locations, which exacerbates child health inequity. Educating rural girls alone is not sufficient; improving unfavorable conditions in mountain areas might make such investments more effective in promoting child health. Nutrition programs targeting to the least educated groups in plain and in edge areas would be critical to their cost-effectiveness. PMID:24340034

Wang, Cuili; Kane, Robert L.; Xu, Dongjuan; Li, Lingui; Guan, Weihua; Li, Hui; Meng, Qingyue

2013-01-01

107

Six year survey of screening for Down's syndrome by maternal age and mid-trimester ultrasound scans  

PubMed Central

Objective To assess the effectiveness of antenatal screening for Down's syndrome by maternal age and routine mid-pregnancy ultrasound scanning. Design Retrospective six year survey. Setting Maternity units of a district general hospital. Subjects Pregnant women booked for delivery in hospital between 1 January 1993 and 31 December 1998. Main outcome measures All cases of Down's syndrome occurring in district identified from regional congenital anomaly register and cytogenetic laboratory records. Women's case notes were examined to identify indication for karyotyping, gestation at diagnosis, and outcome of pregnancy. Results 31?259 deliveries occurred during study period, and 57 cases of Down's syndrome were identified, four in failed pregnancies and 53 in ongoing pregnancies or in neonates. The analysis was confined to ongoing pregnancies or liveborn children. Invasive antenatal tests were performed in 6.6% (2053/31?259), and 68% (95% confidence interval 56% to 80%) of cases of Down's syndrome were detected antenatally, giving a positive predictive value of 1.8%. There were 17 undetected cases, and in seven of these the women had declined an offer of invasive testing. In women aged less than 35 years the detection rate was 53% (30% to 76%). Most of the cases detected in younger women followed identification of ultrasound anomalies. Conclusions The overall detection rate was considerably higher than assumed in demonstration projects for serum screening. As a result, the benefits of serum screening are much less than supposed. Before any new methods to identify Down's syndrome are introduced, such as nuchal translucency or first trimester serum screening, the techniques should be tested in properly controlled trials. Key messagesSerum screening for Down's syndrome has never been compared with screening by maternal age in a controlled trialThis study examined the effectiveness of screening by maternal age in combination with mid-trimester ultrasound scanningThe overall detection rate was 68%, considerably more effective than assumed in demonstration projects of serum screeningThe benefits of serum screening, compared with screening by maternal age in conjunction with routine fetal anomaly scanning, may be much less than supposedA higher standard of evidence should be demanded before proposed new screening methods are adopted PMID:10698877

Howe, David T; Gornall, Robert; Wellesley, Diana; Boyle, Tracy; Barber, John

2000-01-01

108

Evolutionary perspectives on pregnancy: maternal age at menarche and infant birth weight.  

PubMed

We present a novel evolutionary analysis of low birth weight (LBW). LBW is a well-known risk factor for increased infant morbidity and mortality. Its causes, however, remain obscure and there is a vital need for new approaches. Life history theory, the most dynamic branch of evolutionary ecology, provides important insights into the potential role of LBW in human reproductive strategies. Life history theory's primary rationale for LBW is the trade-off between current and future reproduction. This trade-off underlies the prediction that under conditions of environmental risk and uncertainty (experienced subjectively as psychosocial stress) it can be evolutionarily adaptive to reproduce at a young age. One component of early reproduction is early menarche. Early reproduction tends to maximise offspring quantity, but parental investment theory's assumption of a quantity-quality trade-off holds that maximizing offspring quantity reduces quality, of which LBW may be the major component. We therefore predict that women who experienced early psychosocial stress and had early menarche are more likely to produce LBW babies. Furthermore, the extension of parent-offspring conflict theory in utero suggests that the fetus will attempt to resist its mother's efforts to reduce its resources, allocating more of what it does receive to the placenta in order to extract more maternal resources to increase its own quality. We propose that LBW babies born to mothers who experience early psychosocial stress and have early menarche are more likely to have a higher placental/fetal weight ratio. We review evidence in support of these hypotheses and discuss the implications for public health. PMID:14499504

Coall, David A; Chisholm, James S

2003-11-01

109

Maternal caffeine consumption and small for gestational age births: results from a population-based case-control study.  

PubMed

Caffeine is consumed in various forms during pregnancy, has increased half-life during pregnancy and crosses the placental barrier. Small for gestational age (SGA) is an important perinatal outcome and has been associated with long term complications. We examined the association between maternal caffeine intake and SGA using National Birth Defects Prevention Study data. Non-malformed live born infants with an estimated date of delivery from 1997-2007 (n = 7,943) were included in this analysis. Maternal caffeine exposure was examined as total caffeine intake and individual caffeinated beverage type (coffee, tea, and soda); sex-, race/ethnic-, and parity-specific growth curves were constructed to estimate SGA births. Crude and adjusted odds ratios (aORs) and 95% confidence intervals were estimated using unconditional logistic regression. Interaction with caffeine exposures was assessed for maternal smoking, vasoconstrictor medication use, and folic acid. Six hundred forty-eight infants (8.2%) were found to be SGA in this analysis. Increasing aORs were observed for increasing intakes of total caffeine and for each caffeinated beverage with aORs (adjusting for maternal education, high blood pressure, and smoking) ranging from 1.3 to 2.1 for the highest intake categories (300+ mg/day total caffeine and 3+ servings/day for each beverage type). Little indication of additive interaction by maternal smoking, vasoconstrictor medication use, or folic acid intake was observed. We observed an increase in SGA births for mothers with higher caffeine intake, particularly for those consuming 300+ mg of caffeine per day. Increased aORs were also observed for tea intake but were more attenuated for coffee and soda intake. PMID:24288144

Hoyt, Adrienne T; Browne, Marilyn; Richardson, Sandra; Romitti, Paul; Druschel, Charlotte

2014-08-01

110

The associations of parity and maternal age with small-for-gestational-age, preterm, and neonatal and infant mortality: a meta-analysis  

PubMed Central

Background Previous studies have reported on adverse neonatal outcomes associated with parity and maternal age. Many of these studies have relied on cross-sectional data, from which drawing causal inference is complex. We explore the associations between parity/maternal age and adverse neonatal outcomes using data from cohort studies conducted in low- and middle-income countries (LMIC). Methods Data from 14 cohort studies were included. Parity (nulliparous, parity 1-2, parity ?3) and maternal age (<18 years, 18-<35 years, ?35 years) categories were matched with each other to create exposure categories, with those who are parity 1-2 and age 18-<35 years as the reference. Outcomes included small-for-gestational-age (SGA), preterm, neonatal and infant mortality. Adjusted odds ratios (aOR) were calculated per study and meta-analyzed. Results Nulliparous, age <18 year women, compared with women who were parity 1-2 and age 18-<35 years had the highest odds of SGA (pooled adjusted OR: 1.80), preterm (pooled aOR: 1.52), neonatal mortality (pooled aOR: 2.07), and infant mortality (pooled aOR: 1.49). Increased odds were also noted for SGA and neonatal mortality for nulliparous/age 18-<35 years, preterm, neonatal, and infant mortality for parity ?3/age 18-<35 years, and preterm and neonatal mortality for parity ?3/?35 years. Conclusions Nulliparous women <18 years of age have the highest odds of adverse neonatal outcomes. Family planning has traditionally been the least successful in addressing young age as a risk factor; a renewed focus must be placed on finding effective interventions that delay age at first birth. Higher odds of adverse outcomes are also seen among parity ?3 / age ?35 mothers, suggesting that reproductive health interventions need to address the entirety of a woman’s reproductive period. Funding Funding was provided by the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation (810-2054) by a grant to the US Fund for UNICEF to support the activities of the Child Health Epidemiology Reference Group. PMID:24564800

2013-01-01

111

Median Logic Alexander Sakharov  

E-print Network

SPb. Math. Society Preprint 2004­12 13 Dec 2004 Median Logic Alexander Sakharov alex@sakharov.net http://alex.sakharov.net Abstract Median logic introduced here is a minimal intermediate logic not containing propositional symbols. A sequent calculus and other formulations are presented for median logic

112

Maternal Age, Parity and Isolated Birth Defects: A Population-Based Case-Control Study in Shenzhen, China  

PubMed Central

Background The etiology of birth defects has been widely studied but is not yet fully clarified, previously published data had suggested that maternal age or parity maybe involved, but without consistent conclusions. Methods A population-based, case-control study was nested in a cohort of perinatal infants born from 2010 to 2012 in Baoan District, Shenzhen. Four categories of isolated birth defects were defined as cases: congenital heart defects (CHD, n?=?693), polydactyly (n?=?352), cleft lip with or without palate (CL/P, n?=?159) and equinovarus (n?=?119). Controls were non-malformed infants (n?=?11,307) randomly selected from the same area and period. Odds ratios (ORs) and the 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were computed by multivariable unconditional logistic regression analysis. Results Young maternal age (<25 years old) was associated with a reduced risk of CHD (adjusted OR?=?0.73, 95% CI 0.59–0.90), while with an elevated risk of polydactyly (adjusted OR?=?1.42, 95% CI 1.09-1.84). Increased risk of CL/P-affected pregnancy was observed in mothers older than 35 years old (adjusted OR?=?2.12, 95% CI 1.26–3.57). Compared to primipara, those having their second, and third or more delivery were less likely to have infants with equinovarus, with significant adjusted ORs of 0.59 (0.40–0.89) and 0.42 (0.19–0.93), respectively. Conclusion Maternal age was significantly associated with CHD, polydactyly and CL/P relevant pregnancy. Mothers with higher parity might have lower risk of equinovarus occurrence in offsprings. PMID:24282587

Gao, Xiao Hui; Tan, Shu Qin; Li, Jian Mei; Wang, Wei; Chen, Qing

2013-01-01

113

Maternal Effects Underlie Ageing Costs of Growth in the Zebra Finch (Taeniopygia guttata)  

E-print Network

for offspring. However, maternally-derived hormones might also have adverse effects for offspring. For example increased body mass gain in male offspring, while reducing oxidative stress in both sexes but without of growth itself associated with cell proliferation, cell differentiation and cell growth. Numerous studies

Boyer, Edmond

114

Within-litter sibling aggression in spotted hyaenas: effect of maternal nursing, sex and age  

Microsoft Academic Search

Models that address facultative siblicide in avian species predict that the costs and benefits of sibling aggression will change in relation to the level of food provisioning by parents. In spotted hyaenas, Crocuta crocuta, one of the few mammalian species in which facultative siblicide occurs, aggression rates between siblings were highest when cubs competed for access to maternal milk. In

WALTRAUD GOLLA; HERIBERT HOFER; MARION L. EAST

1999-01-01

115

Behavior Problems at 5 Years of Age and Maternal Mental Health in Autism and Intellectual Disability  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

We examined child behavior problems and maternal mental health in a British population-representative sample of 5 year-old children with an autism spectrum disorder (ASD), controlling for the presence of an intellectual disability (ID). Behavior problems were significantly higher in children with ASD with/out ID compared to typically developing…

Totsika, Vasiliki; Hastings, Richard P.; Emerson, Eric; Berridge, Damon M.; Lancaster, Gillian A.

2011-01-01

116

Branchless vectorized median filtering  

Microsoft Academic Search

Median filtering is an important tool in signal or image processing. Based on the vector capabilities of modern hardware, which allows for vectorized min, max and mask operations, we provide a median algorithm of complexity O(NM) that is both branchless and vectorized. In contrast to conventional fast median filters, whose run-time is data-dependent and that can operate only on scalar

M. Kachelriess

2009-01-01

117

Early maternal age at first birth is associated with chronic diseases and poor physical performance in older age: cross-sectional analysis from the International Mobility in Aging Study  

PubMed Central

Background Early maternal age at first birth and elevated parity may have long-term consequences for the health of women as they age. Both are known risk factors for obstetrical complications with lifelong associated morbidities. They may also be related to diabetes and cardiovascular disease development. Methods We examine the relationship between early maternal age at first birth, defined as ?18 years of age, multiparity (>2 births), and poor physical performance (Short Physical Performance Battery ?8) in community samples of women between 65 and 74 years of age from Canada, Albania, Colombia, and Brazil (N?=?1040). Data were collected in 2012 to provide a baseline assessment for a longitudinal cohort called the International Mobility in Aging Study. We used logistic regression and general linear models to analyse the data. Results Early maternal age at first birth is significantly associated with diabetes, chronic lung disease, high blood pressure, and poor physical performance in women at older ages. Parity was not independently associated with chronic conditions and physical performance in older age. After adjustment for study site, age, education, childhood economic adversity and lifetime births, women who gave birth at a young age had 1.75 (95% CI: 1.17 – 2.64) the odds of poor SPPB compared to women who gave birth?>?18 years of age. Adjustment for chronic diseases attenuated the association between early first birth and physical performance. Results were weaker in Colombia and Brazil, than Canada and Albania. Conclusions This study provides evidence that adolescent childbirth may increase the risk of developing chronic diseases and physical limitations in older age. Results likely reflect both the biological and social consequences of early childbearing and if the observed relationship is causal, it reinforces the importance of providing contraception and sex education to young women, as the consequences of early pregnancy may be life-long. PMID:24684705

2014-01-01

118

Maternal and Early Childhood Risk Factors for Overweight and Obesity among Low-Income Predominantly Black Children at Age Five Years: A Prospective Cohort Study  

PubMed Central

Objective. To identify maternal and early childhood risk factors for obesity and overweight among children at age 5 in the state of Alabama. Methods. We recruited 740 mothers during early pregnancy from University of Alabama Prenatal Clinics in a prospective cohort study and followed them throughout pregnancy. We followed their children from birth until 5 years of age. The main outcome measure was obesity (BMI for age and sex ? 95th percentile) at 5 years of age. We used poisson regression with robust variance estimation to compute risk ratio (RR). Results. At the 5th year of followup, 71 (9.6%) of the children were obese and 85 (11.5%) were overweight (BMI ? 85th–<95th percentile). In multivariable analysis, maternal prepregnancy overweight (RR: 2.30, 95% CI: 1.29–4.11) and obesity (RR: 2.53, 95% CI: 1.49–4.31), and child's birth weight >85th percentile (RR: 2.04, 95% CI: 1.13–3.68) were associated with childhood obesity. Maternal prepregnancy BMI, birth weight, and maternal smoking were associated with the child being overweight 1–12 cigarettes/day versus 0 cigarettes/day (RR: 1.40, 95% CI: 1.02–1.91). Conclusion. Children of overweight and obese mothers, and children with higher birth weight, are more likely to be obese and overweight at age 5. Maternal smoking 1–12 cigarettes per day is associated with the child being overweight. PMID:23056928

Janjua, Naveed Zafar; Mahmood, Bushra; Islam, M. Aminul; Goldenberg, Robert L.

2012-01-01

119

Maternal PUFA Status but Not Prenatal Methylmercury Exposure Is Associated with Children’s Language Functions at Age Five Years in the Seychelles12  

PubMed Central

Evidence from the Seychelles Child Development Nutrition Study suggests that maternal nutritional status can modulate the relationship between prenatal methylmercury (MeHg) exposure and developmental outcomes in children. The aim of this study was to investigate whether maternal PUFA status was a confounding factor in any possible associations between prenatal MeHg exposure and developmental outcomes at 5 y of age in the Republic of Seychelles. Maternal status of (n-3) and (n-6) PUFA were measured in serum collected at 28 wk gestation and delivery. Prenatal MeHg exposure was determined in maternal hair collected at delivery. At 5 y of age, the children completed a comprehensive range of sensitive developmental assessments. Complete data from 225 mothers and their children were available for analysis. Multiple linear regression analyses revealed Preschool Language Scale scores of the children improved with increasing maternal serum DHA [22:6(n-3)] concentrations and decreased with increasing arachidonic acid [20:4(n-6)] concentrations, albeit verbal intelligence improved with increasing (n-6) PUFA concentrations in maternal serum. There were no adverse associations between MeHg exposure and developmental outcomes. These findings suggest that higher fish consumption, resulting in higher maternal (n-3) PUFA status, during pregnancy is associated with beneficial developmental effects rather than detrimental effects resulting from the higher concomitant exposures of the fetus to MeHg. The association of maternal (n-3) PUFA status with improved child language development may partially explain the authors’ previous finding of improving language scores, as prenatal MeHg exposure increased in an earlier mother-child cohort in the Seychelles where maternal PUFA status was not measured. PMID:23014496

Strain, J. J.; Davidson, Philip W.; Thurston, Sally W.; Harrington, Donald; Mulhern, Maria S.; McAfee, Alison J.; van Wijngaarden, Edwin; Shamlaye, Conrad F.; Henderson, Juliette; Watson, Gene E.; Zareba, Grazyna; Cory-Slechta, Deborah A.; Lynch, Miranda; Wallace, Julie M. W.; McSorley, Emeir M.; Bonham, Maxine P.; Stokes-Riner, Abbie; Sloane-Reeves, Jean; Janciuras, Joanne; Wong, Rosa; Clarkson, Thomas W.; Myers, Gary J.

2012-01-01

120

Female parity, maternal kinship, infant age and sex influence natal attraction and infant handling in a wild colobine (Colobus vellerosus).  

PubMed

Primate females often inspect, touch and groom others' infants (natal attraction) and they may hold and carry these infants in a manner resembling maternal care (infant handling). While natal attraction and infant handling occur in most wild colobines, little is known about the factors influencing the expression of these behaviors. We examined the effects of female parity, kinship, and dominance rank, as well as infant age and sex in wild Colobus vellerosus at Boabeng-Fiema Monkey Sanctuary, Ghana. We collected data via focal sampling of females in 2008 and 2009 (N?=?61) and of infants in 2010 (N?=?12). Accounting for the individuals who interacted with our focal subjects, this study includes 74 females and 66 infants in 8 groups. We recorded female agonistic interactions ad libitum to determine dominance ranks. We used partial pedigree information and genotypes at 17 short tandem repeat loci to determine kinship. We knew female parity, infant age and sex from demographic records. Nulliparous females showed more natal attraction and infant handling than parous females, which may suggest that interactions with infants are more adaptive for nulliparous females because they learn mothering skills through these behaviors. Compared to non-kin, maternal kin were more likely to handle infants. Maternal kin may be permitted greater access to infants because mothers are most familiar with them. Handlers may incur inclusive fitness benefits from infant handling. Dominance rank did not affect female interactions with infants. The youngest infants received the most natal attraction and infant handling, and male infants were handled more than female infants. The potential benefits of learning to mother and inclusive fitness, in combination with the relatively low costs of natal attraction and infant handling, may explain the high rates of these behaviors in many colobines. Am. J. Primatol. 77:376-387, 2015. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:25399677

B?descu, Iulia; Sicotte, Pascale; Ting, Nelson; Wikberg, Eva C

2015-04-01

121

Trends in the incidence and mortality of multiple births by socioeconomic deprivation and maternal age in England: population-based cohort study  

PubMed Central

Objective To investigate temporal trends in multiple birth rates and associated stillbirth and neonatal mortality by socioeconomic deprivation and maternal age in England. Design Population cohort study. Setting England. Participants All live births and stillbirths (1 January 1997 to 31 December 2008). Main outcome measures Multiple maternity rate, stillbirth and neonatal death rate by year of birth, decile of socioeconomic deprivation and maternal age. Results The overall rate of multiple maternities increased over time (+0.64% per annum 95% CI (0.47% to 0.81%)) with an increase in twin maternities (+0.85% per annum 95% CI (0.67% to 1.0%)) but a large decrease in triplet and higher order maternities (?8.32% per annum 95% CI (?9.39% to ?7.25%)). Multiple maternities were significantly lower in the most deprived areas, and this was most evident in the older age groups. Women over 40?years of age from the most deprived areas had a 34% lower rate of multiple births compared with similar aged women from the most deprived areas (rate ratio (RR) 0.66 95% CI (0.61 to 0.73)). Multiple births remain at substantially higher risk of neonatal mortality (RR 6.30 95% CI (6.07 to 6.53)). However, for stillbirths, while twins remain at higher risk, this has decreased over time (1997–2000: RR 2.89 (2.69 to 3.10); 2005–2008: RR 2.22 95% CI (2.06 to 2.40)). Socioeconomic inequalities existed in mortality for singletons and multiple births. Conclusions This period has seen increasing rates of twin pregnancies and decreasing rates of higher order births which have coincided with changes in recommendations regarding assisted reproductive techniques. Socioeconomic differences in multiple births may reflect differential access to these treatments. Improved monitoring of multiple pregnancies is likely to have led to the reductions in stillbirths over this time. PMID:24699461

Smith, Lucy K; Manktelow, Bradley N; Draper, Elizabeth S; Boyle, Elaine M; Johnson, Samantha J; Field, David J

2014-01-01

122

Association Between Maternal Diabetes in Utero and Age at Offspring’s Diagnosis of Type 2 Diabetes  

E-print Network

OBJECTIVE — The purpose of this study was to examine age of diabetes diagnosis in youth who have a parent with diabetes by diabetes type and whether the parent’s diabetes was diagnosed before or after the youth’s birth. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS — The cohort comprised SEARCH for Diabetes in Youth Study participants (diabetes diagnosis 2001–2005) with a diabetic parent. SEARCH is a multicenter survey of youth with diabetes diagnosed before age 20 years. RESULTS — Youth with type 2 diabetes were more likely to have a parent with either type 1 or type 2 diabetes (mother 39.3%; father 21.2%) than youth with type 1 diabetes (5.3 and 6.7%, respectively, P ? 0.001 for each). Type 2 diabetes was diagnosed 1.68 years earlier among those exposed to diabetes in utero (n ? 174) than among those whose mothers ’ diabetes was diagnosed later (P ? 0.018, controlled for maternal diagnosis age, paternal diabetes, sex, and race/ ethnicity). Age at diagnosis of type 1 diabetes for 269 youth with and without in utero exposure did not differ significantly (difference 0.96 year, P ? 0.403 after adjustment). Controlled for the father’s age of diagnosis, father’s diabetes before the child’s birth was not associated with age at diagnosis (P ? 0.078 for type 1 diabetes; P ? 0.140 for type 2 diabetes).

David J. Pettitt; Teresa A. Hillier; Angela D. Liese

123

Maternal Vitamin D Status and Small-for-Gestational-Age Offspring in Women at High Risk for Preeclampsia  

PubMed Central

Objective To examine the association between second-trimester maternal serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25[OH]D) concentrations and risk of small for gestational age (SGA) in singleton, live births. Methods We assayed serum samples at 12 to 26 weeks of gestation for 25(OH)D in a sample of participants in a multicenter clinical trial of low-dose aspirin for the prevention of preeclampsia in high-risk women (n=792). Multivariable log-binomial regression models were used to assess the association between 25(OH)D and risk of SGA (birth weight less than the 10th percentile of gestational age) after adjustment for confounders including maternal prepregnancy obesity, race, treatment allocation, and risk group. Results Thirteen percent of infants were SGA at birth. Mean (SD) 25(OH)D concentrations were lower in women who delivered SGA (57.9 [29.9] nmol/L0 vs. non-SGA infants (64.8 [29.3] nmol/L, P=0.028). In adjusted models, 25(OH)D concentrations of 50-74 nmol/L and ?75 nmol/L compared with <30 nmol/L were associated with 43% (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.33-0.99) and 54% (95% CI 0.24-0.87) reductions in risk of SGA, respectively. Race and maternal obesity each modified this association. White women with 25(OH)D ?50 vs. <50 nmol/L had a 68% reduction in SGA risk (adjusted risk ratio [RR] 0.32, 95% CI 0.17-0.63) and nonobese women 25(OH)D ?50 vs. <50 nmol/L had a 50% reduction in SGA risk (adjusted RR 0.50, 95% CI 0.31-0.82). There was no association between 25(OH)D and risk of SGA in black or obese mothers. Conclusion Maternal vitamin D status in the second trimester is associated with risk of SGA among all women, and in the subgroups of white and nonobese women. PMID:24463662

Gernand, Alison D.; Simhan, Hyagriv N.; Caritis, Steve; Bodnar, Lisa M.

2014-01-01

124

Mode, Median, and Mean  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This application requires students to sort buildings by height to find the Median, Mode, and Mean of each data set. The application works through 6 different data sets and provides feedback for correct and incorrect responses.

2012-01-01

125

The Congested Median Problem  

E-print Network

The median problem has been generalized to include queueing-like congestion of facilities (which are assumed to have finite numbers of servers). In one statement of the problem, a closest available server is assumed to ...

Berman, Oded

126

Effects of aging and maternal protein restriction on the muscle fibers morphology and neuromuscular junctions of rats after nutritional recovery.  

PubMed

Changes in the nutritional status of mothers may predispose their offspring to neuromuscular disorders in the long term. This study evaluated the effects of maternal protein restriction during pregnancy and lactation on the muscle fibers and neuromuscular junctions (NMJs) of the soleus muscle in the offspring of rats at 365 days of age that had undergone nutritional recovery. Wistar rats were divided into two groups: control (CG) - the offspring of mothers fed a normal protein diet (17%) and restricted (RG) - offspring of mothers fed a low protein diet (6%). After lactation, the male pups received standard chow ad libitum. At 365 days, samples of soleus muscle were collected for muscle fiber analysis (HE staining, NADH-TR reaction and ultrastructure), intramuscular collagen quantification (picrosirius red staining) and NMJs analysis (non-specific esterase technique). The cross-sectional area of type I fibers was reduced by 20% and type IIa fibers by 5% while type IIb fibers increased by 5% in the RG compared to the CG. The percentage of intramuscular collagen was 19% lower in the RG. Disorganization of the myofibrils and Z line was observed, with the presence of clusters of mitochondria in both groups. Regarding the NMJs, in the RG there was a reduction of 10% in the area and 17% in the small diameter and an increase of 7% in the large diameter. The results indicate that the effects of maternal protein restriction on muscle fibers and NMJs seem to be long-lasting and irreversible. PMID:25597842

Confortim, Heloisa Deola; Jerônimo, Leslie Cazetta; Centenaro, Lígia Aline; Felipe Pinheiro, Patrícia Fernanda; Brancalhão, Rose Meire Costa; Michelin Matheus, Selma Maria; Torrejais, Marcia Miranda

2015-04-01

127

Intrauterine Exposure to Maternal Diabetes is Associated with Adiposity in Children at 6 Years of Age in China.  

PubMed

Children born to mothers with gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) are more likely to exhibit congenital malformations, high birth weight, and obesity and have an increased risk of developing type 2 diabetes in later life. Children who are exposed to maternal diabetes in utero may be 'programmed' for later development of obesity at a critical period of development. Therefore, the purpose of the present study was to examine the associations among adiposity and systolic blood pressure in children and abnormal maternal glucose levels during pregnancy. A total of 856 mother-child pairs were included in the present retrospective study. Eligible pregnant women underwent a standard 75 g oral glucose tolerance test between 24 and 28 weeks' gestation. Anthropometric characteristics of their children were measured at 6 years of age, including body mass index, the sum of subscapular and tricep skinfold thickness, and systolic blood pressure. The result suggests that children exposed to GDM have higher adiposity; prevention of childhood obesity needs to begin early in life for these children. PMID:25716565

Chang, Ying; Chen, Xu; Zhang, Zhi Kun

2015-02-01

128

Advanced maternal age and the risk of Down syndrome characterized by the meiotic stage of the chromosomal error: A population-based study  

SciTech Connect

The identification of DNA polymorphisms makes it possible to classify trisomy 21 according to the parental origin and stage (meiosis I [MI], meiosis II [MII], or postzygotic mitotic) of the chromosomal error. Studying the effect of parental age on these subgroups could shed light on parental exposures and their timing. From 1989 through 1993, 170 infants with trisomy 21 and 267 randomly selected control infants were ascertained in a population-based, case-control study in metropolitan Atlanta. Blood samples for genetic studies were obtained from case infants and their parents. Using logistic regression, we independently examined the association between maternal and paternal age and subgroups of trisomy 21 defined by parental origin and meiotic stage. The distribution of trisomy 21 by origin was 86% maternal (75% MI and 25% MII), 9% paternal (50% MI and 50% MII), and 5% mitotic. Compared with women <25 years of age, women {>=}40 years old had an odds ratio of 5.2 (95% confidence interval, 1.0-27.4) for maternal MI (MMI) errors and 51.4 (95% confidence interval, 2.3-999.0) for maternal MII (MMII) errors. Birth-prevalence rates for women {>=}40 years old were 4.2/1,000 births for MMI errors and 1.9/1,000 births for MMII errors. These results support an association between advanced maternal age and both MMI and MMII errors. The association with MI does not pinpoint the timing of the error; however, the association with MII implies that there is at least one maternal age-related mechanism acting around the time of conception. 16 refs., 1 fig., 2 tabs.

Yoon, P.W.; Khoury, M.J.; Freeman, S.B. [and others

1996-03-01

129

Influence of maternal age on the outcome of PGD for aneuploidy screening in patients with recurrent implantation failure.  

PubMed

This study assessed the influence of maternal age on the outcome of aneuploidy screening (AS) cycles for recurrent implantation failure (RIF). One hundred and sixteen couples with a history of RIF underwent 130 cycles of AS. Group A included 78 patients aged < or = 40 years (range 25-40 years) who underwent 86 cycles, while group B included 38 couples aged > or = 41 (range 41-47) who underwent 44 cycles. Fluorescence in-situ hybridization (FISH) analysis of the first and second polar bodies using probes specific for chromosomes 13, 16, 18, 21 and 22 was conducted. Euploid oocytes that cleaved were subsequently tested using the same probes on a single blastomere obtained from day 3 embryos. Chromosomally normal embryos were replaced on day 5 of culture. There was no significant difference between the two groups in the mean numbers of oocytes fertilized normally and oocytes (7.5 +/- 3.2 versus 7.2 +/- 3.6) and embryos tested (4.1 +/- 3 versus 3.4 +/-3). However, the younger age group had a significantly higher proportion of euploid oocytes/embryos, cycles reaching embryo transfer, pregnancy (43 versus 25%), clinical pregnancy (36.1 versus 16.6%) and ongoing delivery (32 versus 12.5%) rates per transfer. Preimplantation genetic diagnosis with AS for recurrent IVF implantation failure using FISH probes is therefore associated with improved outcome in women under 41 years, but has a high cancellation rate and low cycle outcome in older women. PMID:15949221

Taranissi, Mohamed; El-Toukhy, Tarek; Gorgy, Amin; Verlinsky, Yuri

2005-05-01

130

Effects of maternal ageing on ICSI outcomes and embryo development in relation to oocytes morphological characteristics of birefringent structures.  

PubMed

Summary The aim of this study was to determine the morphological characteristics of the older reproductive aged women's oocytes and to reveal the influence of these characteristics on intra-cytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) outcomes. The oocytes of women older than 35 years of age were evaluated retrospectively. Non-invasive polarization microscopy (PolScope) examinations of mature oocytes were performed by measurement of meiotic spindles' length, area and retardance and zona pellucida thickness and retardance. Fertilization and conception competence and the correlation with the birefringent structures were assessed. Two hundred and thirteen mature oocytes from 54 women were evaluated with a PolScope. Length of the meiotic spindle was shown to be related to fertilization success of women with advanced maternal age. In conclusion, the PolScope is a useful device used to identify the oocyte quality. Quantitative measurements of meiotic spindle parameters may be valuable for the selection of high-quality oocytes that have the potential for embryo development in the in vitro fertilization (IVF) laboratory of women older than 35 years of age who are mostly poor responders. PMID:24869767

Korkmaz, Cem; Tekin, Yesim Bayoglu; Sakinci, Mehmet; Ercan, Cihangir Mutlu

2014-05-29

131

Maternal immune activation causes age- and region-specific changes in brain cytokines in offspring throughout development  

PubMed Central

Maternal infection is a risk factor for autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and schizophrenia (SZ). Indeed, modeling this risk factor in mice through maternal immune activation (MIA) causes ASD- and SZ-like neuropathologies and behaviors in the offspring. Although MIA upregulates pro-inflammatory cytokines in the fetal brain, whether MIA leads to long-lasting changes in brain cytokines during postnatal development remains unknown. Here, we tested this possibility by measuring protein levels of 23 cytokines in the blood and three brain regions from offspring of poly(I:C)- and saline-injected mice at five postnatal ages using multiplex arrays. Most cytokines examined are present in sera and brains throughout development. MIA induces changes in the levels of many cytokines in the brains and sera of offspring in a region- and age-specific manner. These MIA-induced changes follow a few, unexpected and distinct patterns. In frontal and cingulate cortices, several, mostly pro-inflammatory, cytokines are elevated at birth, followed by decreases during periods of synaptogenesis and plasticity, and increases again in the adult. Cytokines are also altered in postnatal hippocampus, but in a pattern distinct from the other regions. The MIA-induced changes in brain cytokines do not correlate with changes in serum cytokines from the same animals. Finally, these MIA-induced cytokine changes are not accompanied by breaches in the blood-brain barrier, immune cell infiltration or increases in microglial density. Together, these data indicate that MIA leads to long-lasting, region-specific changes in brain cytokines in offspring—similar to those reported for ASD and SZ—that may alter CNS development and behavior. PMID:22841693

Garay, Paula A.; Hsiao, Elaine Y.; Patterson, Paul H.; McAllister, A. Kimberley

2012-01-01

132

Age at Menarche in Relation to Maternal Use of Tobacco, Alcohol, Coffee, and Tea during Pregnancy  

Microsoft Academic Search

To investigate the potential effects of common early life exposures on age at menarche, the authors examined data collected in a follow-up study of pregnancies that occurred during the 1960s in California. Among 994 female offspring interviewed as adolescents, 98% had started their menstrual periods at a mean age of 12.96 years. After adjustment, the mean age at menarche was

Gayle C. Windham; Christian Bottomley; Cecilie Birner; Laura Fenster

2004-01-01

133

Association between maternal depressive symptoms in the early post-natal period and responsiveness in feeding at child age 2 years.  

PubMed

Maternal depression is a known risk factor for poor outcomes for children. Pathways to these poor outcomes relate to reduced maternal responsiveness or sensitivity to the child. Impaired responsiveness potentially impacts the feeding relationship and thus may be a risk factor for inappropriate feeding practices. The aim of this study was to examine the longitudinal relationships between self-reported maternal post-natal depressive symptoms at child age 4 months and feeding practices at child age 2 years in a community sample. Participants were Australian first-time mothers allocated to the control group of the NOURISH randomized controlled trial when infants were 4 months old. Complete data from 211 mothers (of 346 allocated) followed up when their children were 2 years of age (51% girls) were available for analysis. The relationship between Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS) score (child age 4 months) and child feeding practices (child age 2 years) was tested using hierarchical linear regression analysis adjusted for maternal and child characteristics. Higher EPDS score was associated with less responsive feeding practices at child age 2 years: greater pressure [??=?0.18, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.04-0.32, P?=?0.01], restriction (??=?0.14, 95% CI: 0.001-0.28, P?=?0.05), instrumental (??=?0.14, 95% CI: 0.005-0.27, P?=?0.04) and emotional (??=?0.15, 95% CI: 0.01-0.29, P?=?0.03) feeding practices (?R(2) values: 0.02-0.03, P?maternal post-natal depressive symptoms and lower responsiveness in child feeding. These findings suggest that the provision of support to mothers experiencing some levels of depressive symptomatology in the early post-natal period may improve responsiveness in the child feeding relationship. PMID:24784325

Mallan, Kimberley M; Daniels, Lynne A; Wilson, Jacinda L; Jansen, Elena; Nicholson, Jan M

2014-05-01

134

Mean and Median  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

"This applet allows the user to investigate the mean, median, and box-and-whisker plot for a set of data that they create. The data set may contain up to 15 integers, each with a value from 0 to 100." from NCTM Illuminations.

Illuminations National Council of Teachers of Mathematics

2010-05-26

135

Means, Modes and Medians  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students experience data collection, analysis and inquiry in this LEGO® MINDSTORMS® NXT -based activity. They measure the position of an oscillating platform using a ultrasonic sensor and perform statistical analysis to determine the mean, mode, median, percent difference and percent error for the collected data.

2014-09-18

136

Maternal Serum Adiponectin at 11–13 Weeks of Gestation in Pregnancies Delivering Small for Gestation Neonates  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To investigate whether maternal serum levels of adiponectin in the first trimester are altered in pregnancies that subsequently deliver small for gestational age (SGA) neonates. Methods: Maternal serum adiponectin and pregnancy-associated plasma protein A (PAPP-A) were measured at 11–13 weeks’ gestation in 50 singleton normotensive pregnancies that delivered SGA neonates and 300 non-SGA controls. The median adiponectin and PAPP-A

Surabhi Nanda; Ranjit Akolekar; Danielle Sodre; Eirini Vaikousi; Kypros H. Nicolaides

2011-01-01

137

Median artery revisited  

PubMed Central

This study confirms that the median artery may persist in adult life in 2 different patterns, palmar and antebrachial, based on their vascular territory. The palmar type, which represents the embryonic pattern, is large, long and reaches the palm. The antebrachial type, which represents a partial regression of the embryonic artery is slender, short, and terminates before reaching the wrist. These 2 arterial patterns appear with a different incidence. The palmar pattern was studied in the whole sample (120 cadavers) and had an incidence of 20%, being more frequent in females than in males (1.3?1), occurring unilaterally more often than bilaterally (4?1) and slightly more frequently on the right than on the left (1.1?1). The antebrachial pattern was studied in only 79 cadavers and had an incidence of 76%, being more frequent in females than in males (1.6?1); it was commoner unilaterally than bilaterally (1.5?1) and was again slightly more prevalent on the right than on the left (1.2?1). The origin of the median artery was variable in both patterns. The palmar type most frequently arose from the caudal angle between the ulnar artery and its common interosseous trunk (59%). The antebrachial pattern most frequently originated from the anterior interosseous artery (55%). Other origins, for both patterns, were from the ulnar artery or from the common interosseous trunk. The median artery in the antebrachial pattern terminated in the upper third (74%) or in the distal third of the forearm (26%). However, the palmar pattern ended as the 1st, 2nd or 1st and 2nd common digital arteries (65%) or joined the superficial palmar arch (35%). The median artery passed either anterior (67%) or posterior (25%) to the anterior interosseous nerve. It pierced the median nerve in the upper third of the forearm in 41% of cases with the palmar pattern and in none of the antebrachial cases. In 1 case the artery pierced both the anterior interosseous and median nerves. PMID:10473293

RODRÍGUEZ-NIEDENFÜHR, M.; SAÑUDO, J. R.; VÁZQUEZ, T.; NEARN, L.; LOGAN, B.; PARKIN, I.

1999-01-01

138

Median artery revisited.  

PubMed

This study confirms that the median artery may persist in adult life in 2 different patterns, palmar and antebrachial, based on their vascular territory. The palmar type, which represents the embryonic pattern, is large, long and reaches the palm. The antebrachial type,which represents a partial regression of the embryonic artery is slender, short, and terminates before reaching the wrist. These 2 arterial patterns appear with a different incidence. The palmar pattern was studied in the whole sample (120 cadavers) and had an incidence of 20%, being more frequent in females than in males (1.3:1), occurring unilaterally more often than bilaterally (4:1) and slightly more frequently on the right than on the left (1.1:1). The antebrachial pattern was studied in only 79 cadavers and had an incidence of 76%, being more frequent in females than in males (1.6:1); it was commoner unilaterally than bilaterally (1.5:1) and was again slightly more prevalent on the right than on the left (1.2:1). The origin of the median artery was variable in both patterns. The palmar type most frequently arose from the caudal angle between the ulnar artery and its common interosseous trunk (59%). The antebrachial pattern most frequently originated from the anterior interosseous artery (55%). Other origins, for both patterns, were from the ulnar artery or from the common interosseous trunk. The median artery in the antebrachial pattern terminated in the upper third (74%) or in the distal third of the forearm (26%). However, the palmar pattern ended as the 1st, 2nd or 1st and 2nd common digital arteries (65%) or joined the superficial palmar arch (35%). The median artery passed either anterior (67%) or posterior (25%) to the anterior interosseous nerve. It pierced the median nerve in the upper third of the forearm in 41% of cases with the palmar pattern and in none of the antebrachial cases. In 1 case the artery pierced both the anterior interosseous and median nerves. PMID:10473293

Rodríguez-Niedenführ, M; Sañudo, J R; Vázquez, T; Nearn, L; Logan, B; Parkin, I

1999-07-01

139

Maternal Feeding Practices and Feeding Behaviors of Australian Children Aged 12–36 Months  

Microsoft Academic Search

To explore parents’ perceptions of the eating behaviors and related feeding practices of their young children. Mothers (N = 740)\\u000a of children aged 12–36 months and born in South Australia were randomly selected by birth date in four 6-month age bands from\\u000a a centralized statewide database and invited to complete a postal questionnaire. Valid completed questionnaires were returned\\u000a for 374 children (51% response

L. ChanA; A. M. Magarey; L. A. Daniels

140

Maternal mental health predicts risk of developmental problems at 3 years of age: follow up of a community based trial  

PubMed Central

Background Undetected and untreated developmental problems can have a significant economic and social impact on society. Intervention to ameliorate potential developmental problems requires early identification of children at risk of future learning and behaviour difficulties. The objective of this study was to estimate the prevalence of risk for developmental problems among preschool children born to medically low risk women and identify factors that influence outcomes. Methods Mothers who had participated in a prenatal trial were followed up three years post partum to answer a telephone questionnaire. Questions were related to child health and development, child care, medical care, mother's lifestyle, well-being, and parenting style. The main outcome measure was risk for developmental problems using the Parents' Evaluation of Developmental Status (PEDS). Results Of 791 children, 11% were screened by the PEDS to be at high risk for developmental problems at age three. Of these, 43% had previously been referred for assessment. Children most likely to have been referred were those born preterm. Risk factors for delay included: male gender, history of ear infections, a low income environment, and a mother with poor emotional health and a history of abuse. A child with these risk factors was predicted to have a 53% chance of screening at high risk for developmental problems. This predicted probability was reduced to 19% if the child had a mother with good emotional health and no history of abuse. Conclusion Over 10% of children were identified as high risk for developmental problems by the screening, and more than half of those had not received a specialist referral. Risk factors for problems included prenatal and perinatal maternal and child factors. Assessment of maternal health and effective screening of child development may increase detection of children at high risk who would benefit from early intervention. Trial registration Current Controlled Trials ISRCTN64070727 PMID:18460217

Tough, Suzanne C; Siever, Jodi E; Leew, Shirley; Johnston, David W; Benzies, Karen; Clark, Dawne

2008-01-01

141

Maternal serum screening for Down's syndrome in early pregnancy  

Microsoft Academic Search

The possibility of improving the effectiveness of antenatal screening for Down's syndrome by measuring human chorionic gonadotrophin concentrations in maternal serum during the second trimester to select women for diagnostic amniocentesis was examined. The median maternal serum human chorionic gonadotrophin concentration in 77 pregnancies associated with Down's syndrome was twice the median concentration in 385 unaffected pregnancies matched for maternal

N. J. Wald; H. S. Cuckle; J. W. Densem; K. Nanchahal; P. Royston; T. Chard; J. E. Haddow; G. J. Knight; G. E. Palomaki; J. A. Canick

1988-01-01

142

Association of maternal and intrauterine characteristics with age at menarche in a multiethnic population in Hawaii  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study seeks to further elucidate the mother–daughter hormonal relationship and its effects on daughter’s breast cancer\\u000a risk through the association with early age at menarche. Four hundred and thirty-eight healthy girls, age 9–18 and of White,\\u000a Asian, and\\/or Polynesian race\\/ethnicity, were recruited from an HMO on Oahu, Hawaii. Anthropometric measures were taken at\\u000a a clinic visit, and family background

Meira EppleinRachel; Rachel Novotny; Yihe Daida; Vinutha Vijayadeva; Alvin T. Onaka; Loïc Le Marchand

2010-01-01

143

Prediction of Anxiety Symptoms in Preschool-Aged Children: Examination of Maternal and Paternal Perspectives  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: Little is known about risk factors for anxiety in young children. The current study investigated the value of a set of theoretically derived risk factors to predict symptoms of anxiety in a sample of preschool-aged children. Methods: Mothers (n = 632) and fathers (n = 249) completed questionnaires twice, 12 months apart. Measures were…

Edwards, Susan L.; Rapee, Ronald M.; Kennedy, Susan

2010-01-01

144

Patterns of Adolescent Depression to Age 20: The Role of Maternal Depression and Youth Interpersonal Dysfunction  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Considerable research has focused on youth depression, but further information is needed to characterize different patterns of onset and recurrence during adolescence. Four outcome groups by age 20 were defined (early onset-recurrent, early-onset-desisting, later-onset, never depressed) and compared on three variables predictive of youth…

Hammen, Constance; Brennan, Patricia A.; Keenan-Miller, Danielle

2008-01-01

145

Cognitive assessment of school-age children infected with maternally transmitted human immunodeficiency virus type 1  

Microsoft Academic Search

Thirty-three children vertically infected with human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1), who were born before 1985, were followed in a single center, and had reached the age of 6 years, were studied and tested for school achievement. Of these 33 children, 24 were also tested for cognitive abilities, fine motor and language skills, and emotional adaptation. Of the 33 patients,

Marc Tardieu; Marie-Jeanne Mayaux; Nathalie Seibel; Isabelle Funck-Brentano; Elisabeth Straub; Jean-Paul Teglas; Stéphane Blanche

1995-01-01

146

Maternal Reminiscing Style during Early Childhood Predicts the Age of Adolescents' Earliest Memories  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Individual differences in parental reminiscing style are hypothesized to have long-lasting effects on children's autobiographical memory development, including the age of their earliest memories. This study represents the first prospective test of this hypothesis. Conversations about past events between 17 mother-child dyads were recorded on…

Jack, Fiona; MacDonald, Shelley; Reese, Elaine; Hayne, Harlene

2009-01-01

147

Maternal reminiscing style during early childhood predicts the age of adolescents' earliest memories.  

PubMed

Individual differences in parental reminiscing style are hypothesized to have long-lasting effects on children's autobiographical memory development, including the age of their earliest memories. This study represents the first prospective test of this hypothesis. Conversations about past events between 17 mother-child dyads were recorded on multiple occasions between the children's 2nd and 4th birthdays. When these children were aged 12-13 years, they were interviewed about their early memories. Adolescents whose mothers used a greater ratio of elaborations to repetitions during the early childhood conversations had earlier memories than adolescents whose mothers used a smaller ratio of elaborations to repetitions. This finding is consistent with the hypothesis that past-event conversations during early childhood have long-lasting effects on autobiographical memory. PMID:19467006

Jack, Fiona; MacDonald, Shelley; Reese, Elaine; Hayne, Harlene

2009-01-01

148

Evaluation of the role of maternal serum high-sensitivity C-reactive protein in predicting early pregnancy failure.  

PubMed

Maternal serum high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (HSCRP) was evaluated in predicting spontaneous abortion in spontaneous pregnancies presenting with threatened spontaneous abortion. Seventy-one cases of threatened spontaneous abortion (group A) and 71 asymptomatic controls (group B), matched for gestational and maternal age, body mass index and smoking status, were included. Maternal serum samples were evaluated for HCG, progesterone, pregnancy-associated plasma protein-A (PAPP-A) and HSCRP using standard bio-assays. No difference was observed in ultrasound measurements, and median progesterone maternal serum level was significantly lower (P < 0.05) in group A compared with group B. In group A, the median of all ultrasound and maternal serum parameters was significantly lower (P < 0.01) compared with group B. The median gestational sac diameter, volume and median HSCRP and PAPP-A levels were significantly increased (P < 0.05) in group A, with a normal outcome compared with group B, probably owing to the inflammatory reaction associated with intrauterine bleeding. In group A patients destined to abortion, the gestational sac development and corresponding protein synthesis fell before the fetal heart activity stopped; in spontaneous pregnancies, maternal serum HSCRP did not provide additional information for the management of threatened spontaneous abortion but warrants further research in assisted reproduction pregnancies. PMID:25596909

Jauniaux, Eric; Gulbis, Béatrice; Jamil, Amna; Jurkovic, Davor

2015-03-01

149

IQ at Age 4 in Relation to Maternal Alcohol Use and Smoking During Pregnancy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Examined the relationship of prenatal alcohol exposure to the IQ of children at age 4 in a longitudinal prospective, population-based study. Multiple-regression analyses on data from 421 children indicated that use of more than 1.5 oz (44 ml, or approximately 3 drinks) of alcohol per day during pregnancy was significantly related to an average IQ decrement of almost 5 IQ

Ann Pytkowicz Streissguth; Helen M. Barr; Paul D. Sampson; Betty L. Darby; Donald C. Martin

1989-01-01

150

Effects of Maternal Age and Egg Quality on Mass Rearing of Mediterranean Fruit Flies (Diptera: Tephritidae)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tests were conducted to determine if age of mass reared adult female Medi- terranean fruit flies, Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann), affected the viability of their offspring. Samples of eggs (0.4 g each) were collected on five consecutive days (4 to 8 d past adult emergence) from individual 660-liter adult colony screen cages and were reared in separate trays containing 0.5 liter

D. R. Lance; J. I. Nishimoto

151

Pre- and Postovulatory Aging of Murine Oocytes Affect the Transcript Level and Poly(A) Tail Length of Maternal Effect Genes  

PubMed Central

Maternal effect genes code for oocyte proteins that are important for early embryogenesis. Transcription in oocytes does not take place from the onset of meiotic progression until zygotic genome activation. During this period, protein levels are regulated posttranscriptionally, for example by poly(A) tail length. Posttranscriptional regulation may be impaired in preovulatory and postovulatory aged oocytes, caused by delayed ovulation or delayed fertilization, respectively, and may lead to developmental defects. We investigated transcript levels and poly(A) tail length of ten maternal effect genes in in vivo- and in vitro- (follicle culture) grown oocytes after pre- and postovulatory aging. Quantitative RT-PCR was performed using random hexamer-primed cDNA to determine total transcript levels and oligo(dT)16-primed cDNA to analyze poly(A) tail length. Transcript levels of in vivo preovulatory-aged oocytes remained stable except for decreases in Brg1 and Tet3. Most genes investigated showed a tendency towards increased poly(A) content. Polyadenylation of in vitro preovulatory-aged oocytes was also increased, along with transcript level declines of Trim28, Nlrp2, Nlrp14 and Zar1. In contrast to preovulatory aging, postovulatory aging of in vivo- and in vitro-grown oocytes led to a shortening of poly(A) tails. Postovulatory aging of in vivo-grown oocytes resulted in deadenylation of Nlrp5 after 12 h, and deadenylation of 4 further genes (Tet3, Trim28, Dnmt1, Oct4) after 24 h. Similarly, transcripts of in vitro-grown oocytes were deadenylated after 12 h of postovulatory aging (Tet3, Trim28, Zfp57, Dnmt1, Nlrp5, Zar1). This impact of aging on poly(A) tail length may affect the timed translation of maternal effect gene transcripts and thereby contribute to developmental defects. PMID:25271735

Trapphoff, Tom; Heiligentag, Martyna; Rademacher, Katrin; Eichenlaub-Ritter, Ursula; Horsthemke, Bernhard; Grümmer, Ruth

2014-01-01

152

Maternal Pre-Pregnancy Body Mass Index and Offspring Temperament and Behavior at 1 and 2 Years of Age  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Recent research suggests that fetal exposure to increased maternal body mass index (BMI) during pregnancy may be associated with psychopathology later in life. When this link first emerges, and if it is due to intrauterine exposures or confounding variables is not known. We therefore assessed associations between maternal pre-pregnancy BMI and:…

Van Lieshout, Ryan J.; Schmidt, Louis A.; Robinson, Monique; Niccols, Alison; Boyle, Michael H.

2013-01-01

153

Maternal Zinc Supplementation during Pregnancy Affects Autonomic Function of Peruvian Children Assessed at 54 Months of Age12  

PubMed Central

Maternal prenatal zinc supplementation improved fetal autonomic regulation in a nutrient-deficient population in Peru. To evaluate whether differences in autonomic regulation existed in early childhood, we studied 165 children from a zinc supplementation trial (80% of original sample) as part of a comprehensive evaluation at age 54 mo. Electrocardiogram (ECG) data were collected from the children at rest and while they underwent a cognitive testing battery following a standardized protocol. Of these, 79 were born to mothers receiving 25 mg/d zinc in addition to 60 mg/d iron and 250 ?g/d folic acid during pregnancy, and 86 were born to mothers receiving iron and folic acid only. Derived cardiac measures included heart period (HP), range, HP variability (HPV), mean square of successive differences (MSSD), and a measure of vagal tone (V). Children in the zinc supplementation group had greater HP (i.e. slower heart rate), greater range, higher time-independent (HPV) and time-dependent (MSSD) variability in HP, and higher V (P < 0.05) during baseline. Analyses conducted across the cognitive testing period revealed similar effects of prenatal zinc supplementation on cardiac patterns. Concurrent child zinc plasma concentration was also associated with longer HP, greater variability, and marginally higher range and V (P < 0.10). Differences in cardiac patterns due to prenatal zinc supplementation were detectable in children at 54 mo of age during conditions of both rest and challenge, indicating that supplementing zinc-deficient pregnant women has beneficial long-term consequences for neural development associated with autonomic regulation. PMID:21178078

Caulfield, Laura E.; Zavaleta, Nelly; Chen, Ping; Lazarte, Fabiola; Albornoz, Carla; Putnick, Diane L.; Bornstein, Marc H.; DiPietro, Janet A.

2011-01-01

154

Mean, Median and Mode  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

During the last sunspot cycle between 1996-2008, over 21,000 flares and 13,000 clouds of plasma exploded from the Sun's magnetically active surface. Students will learn more about space weather through reading a NASA press release and viewing a NASA eClips video segment. Then students will explore the statistics of various types of space weather storms by determining the mean, median and mode of different samples of storm events. This activity is part of the Space Math multimedia modules that integrate NASA press releases, NASA archival video, and mathematics problems targeted at specific math standards commonly encountered in middle school textbooks. The modules cover specific math topics at multiple levels of difficulty with real-world data and use the 5E instructional sequence.

155

Cumulative effects of maternal age and unintended pregnancy on offspring aggression.  

PubMed

Research on physical aggression often points to teen motherhood as being a primary contributor in the development of aggressive tendencies among young children. As a result of poor parenting practices, limited education, and a lack of emotional, physical, and financial resources, children born to young mothers often exhibit high levels of aggression across the life course. Meanwhile, unintentional pregnancy and young motherhood are likely to share many of the same risk factors and negative consequences for offspring, yet there is a dearth of research examining pregnancy intentionality and offspring aggression. Using the Fragile Families and Wellbeing Study, our study examines how mother's age and pregnancy intention status influence aggression among their 5-year-old children. We find that young motherhood and unintended births, despite being likely to co-occur, each provide distinct mechanisms for the formation of aggressive behavior in childhood. PMID:24664252

Mack, Julia M; Chavez, Jorge M

2014-11-01

156

Screening for trisomy 21 by maternal age, fetal nuchal translucency thickness, free beta-human chorionic gonadotropin and pregnancy-associated plasma protein-A  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives To derive a model and examine the perfor- mance of first-trimester combined screening by mater- nal age, fetal nuchal translucency (NT) thickness and maternal serum free beta-human chorionic gonadotropin (?-hCG) and pregnancy-associated plasma protein-A (PAPP-A). Methods Prospective combined screening for trisomy 21 was carried out at 11 + 0t o 13+ 6 weeks in 56 771 singleton pregnancies, including

K. O. Kagan; D. Wright; A. Baker; D. Sahota; K. H. Nicolaides

2008-01-01

157

Neurobehavioral deficits at age 7 years associated with prenatal exposure to toxicants from maternal seafood diet  

PubMed Central

To determine the possible neurotoxic impact of prenatal exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), we analyzed banked cord blood from a Faroese birth cohort for PCBs. The subjects were born in 1986–1987, and 917 cohort members had completed a series of neuropsychological tests at age 7 years. Major PCB congeners (118, 138, 153, and 180), the calculated total PCB concentration, and the PCB exposure estimated in a structural equation model showed weak associations with test deficits, with statistically significant negative associations only with the Boston Naming test. Likewise, neither hexachlorobenzene nor p,p'-dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene showed clear links to neurobehavioral deficits. Thus, these associations were much weaker than those associated with the cord-blood mercury concentration, and adjustment for mercury substantially attenuated the regression coefficients for PCB exposure. When the outcomes were joined into motor and verbally mediated functions in a structural equation model, the PCB effects remained weak and virtually disappeared after adjustment for methylmercury exposure, while mercury remained statistically significant. Thus, in the presence of elevated methylmercury exposure, PCB neurotoxicity may be difficult to detect, and PCB exposure does not explain the methylmercury neurotoxicity previously reported in this cohort. PMID:22705177

Grandjean, Philippe; Weihe, Pal; Nielsen, Flemming; Heinzow, Birger; Debes, Frodi; Budtz-Jørgensen, Esben

2012-01-01

158

Maternal Prepregancy BMI and Lipid Profile during Early Pregnancy Are Independently Associated with Offspring's Body Composition at Age 5–6 Years: The ABCD Study  

PubMed Central

Background There is growing evidence that disturbances in maternal metabolism and, subsequently, intrauterine conditions affect foetal metabolism. Whether this has metabolic consequences in offspring later in life is not fully elucidated. We investigated whether maternal pre-pregnancy body mass index (pBMI) is associated with offspring's adiposity at age 5–6 years and whether this association is mediated by the mother's lipid profile during early pregnancy. Methods Data were derived from a multi-ethnic birth cohort, the Amsterdam Born Children and their Development (ABCD) study (inclusion 2003–2004). During early gestation mothers completed a questionnaire during pregnancy (pBMI) and random non-fasting blood samples were analysed for total cholesterol (TC), triglycerides (TG), apolipoprotein A1 (ApoA1), apolipoprotein B (ApoB) and total free fatty acids (FFA) in early gestation. At age 5–6 years, child's BMI, waist-to-height-ratio (WHtR) and fat% were assessed. Results Only non-diabetic mothers with at term-born children were included(n?=?1727). Of all women, 15.1% were overweight(BMI: 25–29.9 kg/m2) and 4.3% were obese(BMI?30 kg/m2). After adjustments for confounders, every unit increase in pBMI was linearly associated with various offspring variables: BMI(? 0.10; 95% CI 0.08–0.12), WHtR*100(? 0.13; 95% CI 0.09–0.17), fat%(? 0.21; 95% CI 0.13–0.29) and increased risk for overweight(OR:1.15; 95% CI 1.10–1.20). No convincing proof for mediation by maternal lipid profile during early gestation was found. Moreover, maternal FFA was associated with the child's fat percentage, BMI and risk for overweight. Maternal ApoB and TC were positively associated with the offspring's fat percentage and maternal TG was positively associated with their children's WHtR. Conclusions Both pBMI and maternal lipids during early pregnancy are independently related to offspring adiposity. PMID:24740157

Oostvogels, Adriëtte J. J. M.; Roseboom, Tessa J.; Visscher, Tommy L. S.; van Eijsden, Manon; Twickler, Marcel T. B.; Vrijkotte, Tanja G. M.

2014-01-01

159

Median Confidence Intervals Extended Abstract  

E-print Network

Median Confidence Intervals Extended Abstract Johann Christoph Strelen Rheinische Friedrich motivates us to consider confidence intervals around the median as a substitute of confidence intervals (CI). These median confidence intervals (MCI) are easier to obtain than usual confidence intervals: No variance

Strelen, Christoph

160

Median filtering by threshold decomposition  

Microsoft Academic Search

Median filters are a special class of ranked order filters used for smoothing signals. Repeated application of the filter on a quantized signal of finite length ultimately results in a sequence, termed a root signal, which is invariant to further passes of the median filter. In this paper, it is shown that median filtering an arbitrary level signal to its

J. PATRICK FITCH; EDWARD J. COYLE; NEAL C. GALLAGHER

1984-01-01

161

Fetal Gender and Several Cytokines Are Associated with the Number of Fetal Cells in Maternal Blood – An Observational Study  

PubMed Central

Objective To identify factors influencing the number of fetal cells in maternal blood. Methods A total of 57 pregnant women at a gestational age of weeks 11–14 were included. The number of fetal cells in maternal blood was assessed in 30 ml of blood using specific markers for both enrichment and subsequent identification. Results Participants carrying male fetuses had a higher median number of fetal cells in maternal blood than those carrying female fetuses (5 vs. 3, p?=?0.04). Certain cytokines (RANTES, IL-2 and IL-5) were significantly associated with the number of fetal cells in maternal blood. Conclusion The number of fetal cells in maternal blood is associated with certain cytokines and fetal gender. PMID:25188498

Schlütter, Jacob Mørup; Kirkegaard, Ida; Petersen, Olav Bjørn; Larsen, Nanna; Christensen, Britta; Hougaard, David M.; Kølvraa, Steen; Uldbjerg, Niels

2014-01-01

162

What patterns of postpartum psychological distress are associated with maternal concerns about their children's emotional and behavioural problems at the age of three years?  

PubMed Central

Mothers experiencing psychological distress in the postpartum period may have difficulties parenting their children. Inconsistent and unresponsive parenting may increase the risk of later emotional and behavioural problems in children. The purpose of this study was to identify how maternal psychological characteristics cluster at eight weeks postpartum, and whether these clusters were associated with maternal-reported child emotional and behavioural problems at the age of three years, as measured by the Parents' Evaluation of Developmental Status (PEDS) questionnaire. In a longitudinal pregnancy cohort (N?=?647), three clusters of postpartum psychological characteristics were identified. Contrary to expectations, mothers with the greatest psychological distress did not report concerns about their child's emotional and behavioural problems; rather, they reported concerns about global developmental delay. These findings suggest that infants of mothers experiencing postpartum psychological distress should receive additional follow-up to reduce the risk for global developmental delay. PMID:25544794

Benzies, Karen; Mychasiuk, Richelle; Tough, Suzanne

2015-01-01

163

The maternal Age Related Patterns of Infant Low Birth Weight Rates Among Non-Latino Whites and African-Americans: The Effect of Maternal Birth Weight and Neighborhood Income.  

PubMed

To determine the age related patterns of low birth weight (<2,500 g, LBW) and small for gestational age (weight <10th percentile for gestational age, SGA) among former LBW and non-LBW White and African-American mothers. We performed stratified analyses on an Illinois transgenerational dataset of non-Latina White (n = 31,616) and African-American (n = 38,964) infants born in Chicago or Suburban Cook County (1989-1991) and their mothers (1956-1976) with appended US census income information. In both races, LBW and SGA rates were unrelated to age among former LBW 14-35 year old mothers. LBW and SGA rates decreased with advancing age only among former non-LBW White mothers (p < 0.0001). Former non-LBW 30-35 year old White women (n = 11,096) had an infant LBW rate of only 4.3 % compared to 6.8 % for their teen counterparts (n = 1,383), RR (95 % CI) = 0.6 (0.5, 0.8). In contrast, a weathering pattern of rising LBW and SGA rates with advancing age occurred only among former non-LBW African-American mothers (p < 0.0001). Former non-LBW 30-35 year old African-American mothers (N = 4,807) had a LBW rate of 15.0 % compared to 10.8 % for their teen counterparts (N = 8,627), RR (95 % CI) = 1.4 (1.3, 1.5). The same trend occurred among the subgroup of African-American mothers with an early-life and adulthood residence in impoverished neighborhoods. Maternal low birth weight does not contribute to the disparate maternal age related patterns of adverse birth outcome between the races. Moreover, it is not associated with a weathering a pattern of rising rates of LBW with advancing age among African-American mothers with a lifelong residence in impoverished neighborhoods. PMID:24990125

Collins, James W; Rankin, Kristin M; Hibbs, Shayna

2015-04-01

164

Maternal Responsiveness to Young Children at Three Ages: Longitudinal Analysis of a Multidimensional, Modular, and Specific Parenting Construct  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Responsiveness defines the prompt, contingent, and appropriate reactions parents display to their children in the context of everyday exchanges. Maternal responsiveness occupies a theoretically central position in developmental science and possesses meaningful predictive validity over diverse domains of children's development, yet basic…

Bornstein, Marc H.; Tamis-LeMonda, Catherine S.; Hahn, Chun-Shin; Haynes, O. Maurice

2008-01-01

165

The Effects of Postpartum Contact and Early Maternal Language Patterns on Development and Learning at Age Eight.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Differences in classroom behavior and adjustment between two groups of low-income, black children were investigated in a continuing study, as subjects approached their eighth birthday. Eight experimental and nine control subjects, who had been differentially exposed to postpartum contact with their mothers and who differed in maternal language…

Ringler, Norma M.; Finlon, Mary Ann

166

Predicting Mothers' Beliefs about Preschool-Aged Children's Social Behavior: Evidence for Maternal Attitudes Moderating Child Effects.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Assessed mothers' childrearing attitudes and toddler behavior to predict mothers' emotions, attributions, parenting goals, and socialization strategies in response to vignettes depicting aggressive and withdrawn child behaviors two years later. Found that most child effects were moderated by maternal attitudes or gender effects. Authoritarian…

Hastings, Paul D.; Rubin, Kenneth H.

1999-01-01

167

Are birth weight and maternal smoking during pregnancy associated with malnutrition and excess weight among school age children?  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the late 1980's child malnutrition was still prevalent in Brazil, and child obesity was beginning to rise in the richest regions of the country. To assess the extent of the nutritional transition during the period and the influence of birth weight and maternal smoking on the nutritional condition of schoolchildren, we estimated the prevalence of excess weight and malnutrition

F. S. Tomé; V. C. Cardoso; M. A. Barbieri; A. A. M. da Silva; V. M. F. Simões; C. A. Garcia; H. Bettiol

2007-01-01

168

The association of maternal prenatal psychosocial stress with vascular function in the child at age 10–11 years: findings from the Avon longitudinal study of parents and children  

PubMed Central

Objective To investigate whether (1) maternal psychosocial stress (depression/anxiety) during pregnancy is associated with offspring vascular function and (2) whether any association differs depending on the gestational timing of exposure to stress. We also investigated whether any association is likely to be due to intrauterine mechanisms by (3) comparing with the association of paternal stress with offspring vascular function and (4) examining whether any prenatal association is explained by maternal postnatal stress. Methods and results Associations were examined in a UK birth cohort, with offspring outcomes (systolic and diastolic blood pressure, SBP and DBP, endothelial function assessed by brachial artery flow-mediated dilatation (FMD); arterial stiffness assessed by carotid to radial pulse wave velocity (PWV), brachial artery distensibility (DC), and brachial artery diameter (BD) assessed at age 10–11 years (n?=?4318). Maternal depressive symptoms and anxiety were assessed at 18 and 32 weeks gestation and 8 months postnatally. Paternal symptoms were assessed at week 19. With the exception of DBP and BD, there were no associations of maternal depressive symptoms with any of the vascular outcomes. Maternal depressive and anxiety symptoms were associated with lower offspring DBP and wider BD, though the latter attenuated to the null with adjustment for confounding factors. Paternal symptoms were not associated with offspring outcomes. Maternal postnatal depressive symptoms were associated with lower offspring SBP. Conclusions We found no evidence to support the hypothesis that maternal stress during pregnancy adversely affects offspring vascular function at age 10–12 years via intrauterine mechanisms. PMID:23559536

Dawe, Karen; Deanfield, John; Stronks, Karien; Gemke, Reinoud JBJ; Vrijkotte, Tanja GM; Lawlor, Debbie A

2014-01-01

169

Passive West Nile virus antibody transfer from maternal Eastern Screech-Owls (Megascops asio) to progeny  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Transovarial antibody transfer in owls has not been demonstrated for West Nile virus (WNV). We sampled chicks from captive adult WNV-antibody-positive Eastern Screech-Owls (Megascops asio) to evaluate the prevalence of transovarial maternal antibody transfer, as well as titers and duration of maternal antibodies. Twenty-four owlets aged 1 to 27 days old circulated detectable antibodies with neutralizing antibody titers ranging from 20 to 1600 (median 1:40). Demonstrating that WNV antibodies are passively transferred transovarially is important for accurate interpretation of serologic data from young birds.

Hahn, D.C.; Nemeth, N.M.; Edwards, E.; Bright, P.R.; Komar, N.

2006-01-01

170

Maternal non-phenylketonuric mild hyperphenylalaninemia.  

PubMed

Unlike maternal phenylketonuria (PKU) which produces severe birth defects when untreated during pregnancy, maternal non-PKU mild hyperphenylalaninemia (MHP) has a less severe impact but whether it is benign or may have long-term consequences for offspring has been unclear. From an international survey of maternal MHP we obtained information about 86 mothers (blood phenylalanine (Phe) 150-720 mumol/l), their 219 untreated pregnancies and 173 offspring. Spontaneous fetal loss and congenital anomalies were no more frequent than normally expected. Median Z-scores for birth length and birth head circumference and offspring IQ (100), however, were significantly lower for maternal Phe > 400 mumol/l than for maternal Phe < 400 mumol/l, in which the median offspring IQ was 108. Data on maternal MHP from the prospective Maternal PKU Collaborative Study (MPKUCS) are as yet incomplete but seem to be conforming to the general pattern of the international survey. We conclude that maternal blood Phe levels above 400 mumol/l in maternal MHP are associated with lower birth measurements and slightly lower offspring IQ. It would seem that dietary intervention to lower the maternal Phe levels to below 400 mumol/l might be indicated in maternal MHP pregnancies with the higher blood Phe levels. PMID:8828603

Levy, H L; Waisbren, S E; Lobbregt, D; Allred, E; Leviton, A; Koch, R; Hanley, W B; Rouse, B; Matalon, R; de la Cruz, F

1996-07-01

171

Maternal feeding practices, child eating behaviour and body mass index in preschool-aged children: a prospective analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Previous research has found associations between parental feeding practices and children's eating behaviour and weight status. Prospective research is needed to elucidate these relationships. METHODS: One hundred and fifty-six mothers of 2- to 4-year-old children completed questionnaires including measures of maternal feeding practices (pressure to eat, restriction, monitoring and modelling of healthy eating), child eating behaviour (food responsiveness, food

Jane E Gregory; Susan J Paxton; Anna M Brozovic

2010-01-01

172

Maternal choline supplementation improves spatial mapping and increases basal forebrain cholinergic neuron number and size in aged Ts65Dn mice.  

PubMed

Down syndrome (DS) is marked by intellectual disability (ID) and early-onset of Alzheimer's disease (AD) neuropathology, including basal forebrain cholinergic neuron (BFCN) degeneration. The present study tested the hypothesis that maternal choline supplementation (MCS) improves spatial mapping and protects against BFCN degeneration in the Ts65Dn mouse model of DS and AD. During pregnancy and lactation, dams were assigned to either a choline sufficient (1.1g/kg choline chloride) or choline supplemented (5.0g/kg choline chloride) diet. Between 13 and 17months of age, offspring were tested in the radial arm water maze (RAWM) to examine spatial mapping followed by unbiased quantitative morphometry of BFCNs. Spatial mapping was significantly impaired in unsupplemented Ts65Dn mice relative to normal disomic (2N) littermates. Additionally, a significantly lower number and density of medial septum (MS) hippocampal projection BFCNs was also found in unsupplemented Ts65Dn mice. Notably, MCS significantly improved spatial mapping and increased number, density, and size of MS BFCNs in Ts65Dn offspring. Moreover, the density and number of MS BFCNs correlated significantly with spatial memory proficiency, providing support for a functional relationship between these behavioral and morphometric effects of MCS for trisomic offspring. Thus, increasing maternal choline intake during pregnancy may represent a safe and effective treatment approach for expectant mothers carrying a DS fetus, as well as a possible means of BFCN neuroprotection during aging for the population at large. PMID:24932939

Ash, Jessica A; Velazquez, Ramon; Kelley, Christy M; Powers, Brian E; Ginsberg, Stephen D; Mufson, Elliott J; Strupp, Barbara J

2014-10-01

173

Giant median nerve in bilateral carpal tunnel syndrome  

PubMed Central

We introduce a middle age healthy man with sequential bilateral carpal tunnel syndrome. At the surgery, we encountered a wide median nerve in both wrists. Although enlargement of median nerve in carpal tunnel has been well documented, 25 mm width of the nerve is a rare scene, underscoring that leaving the nerve under the unyielding pressure would lead to a fibrous atrophic median nerve. PMID:23960323

Chabok, Hosein Ahmadzadeh

2013-01-01

174

Central Tendency: Mean, Mode, Median  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This learning unit from Regents Exam Prep Center will help students learning to calculate mean, mode and median. The unit includes a lesson plan, practice examples, a teacher's guide and a worksheet. The term "measures of central tendency" is explained as finding the mean, median and mode of a set of data. The example of a set of test scores is used to demonstrate finding these measures. Links are also included which explain how to find these measurements using a graphing calculator.

2012-01-01

175

Pulsed Radiofrequency of the Median Nerve under Ultrasound Guidance  

Microsoft Academic Search

Neuropathy of the median nerve within the carpal tunnel (carpal tunnel syn- drome) has an age adjusted incidence of 105 cases per 100,000 person years. Treatment of carpal tunnel syndrome ranges from conservative management with medication and exercise to surgical release of the median nerve. Conser- vative treatment accounts for a significant portion of resources utilized and in- cludes splinting,

Naeem Haider; Daniel Mekasha; Srinivas Chiravuri; Ronald Wasserman

2007-01-01

176

Impact of maternal age on obstetric and neonatal outcome with emphasis on primiparous adolescents and older women: a Swedish Medical Birth Register Study  

PubMed Central

Objectives To evaluate the associations between maternal age and obstetric and neonatal outcomes in primiparous women with emphasis on teenagers and older women. Design A population-based cohort study. Setting The Swedish Medical Birth Register. Participants Primiparous women with singleton births from 1992 through 2010 (N=798?674) were divided into seven age groups: <17?years, 17–19?years and an additional five 5-year classes. The reference group consisted of the women aged 25–29?years. Primary outcome Obstetric and neonatal outcome. Results The teenager groups had significantly more vaginal births (adjusted OR (aOR) 2.04 (1.79 to 2.32) and 1.95 (1.88 to 2.02) for age <17?years and 17–19?years, respectively); fewer caesarean sections (aOR 0.57 (0.48 to 0.67) and 0.55 (0.53 to 0.58)), and instrumental vaginal births (aOR 0.43 (0.36 to 0.52) and 0.50 (0.48 to 0.53)) compared with the reference group. The opposite was found among older women reaching a fourfold increased OR for caesarean section. The teenagers showed no increased risk of adverse neonatal outcome but presented an increased risk of prematurity <32?weeks (aOR 1.66 (1.10 to 2.51) and 1.20 (1.04 to 1.38)). Women with advancing age (?30?years) revealed significantly increased risk of prematurity, perineal lacerations, preeclampsia, abruption, placenta previa, postpartum haemorrhage and unfavourable neonatal outcomes compared with the reference group. Conclusions For clinicians counselling young women it is of importance to highlight the obstetrically positive consequences that fewer maternal complications and favourable neonatal outcomes are expected. The results imply that there is a need for individualising antenatal surveillance programmes and obstetric care based on age grouping in order to attempt to improve the outcomes in the age groups with less favourable obstetric and neonatal outcomes. Such changes in surveillance programmes and obstetric interventions need to be evaluated in further studies. PMID:25387756

Blomberg, Marie; Birch Tyrberg, Rasmus; Kjølhede, Preben

2014-01-01

177

Maternal and Adolescent Temperament as Predictors of Maternal Affective Behavior during Mother-Adolescent Interactions  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined maternal and early adolescent temperament dimensions as predictors of maternal emotional behavior during mother-adolescent interactions. The sample comprised 151 early adolescents (aged 11-13) and their mothers (aged 29-57). Adolescent- and mother-reports of adolescent temperament and self-reports of maternal temperament were…

Davenport, Emily; Yap, Marie B. H.; Simmons, Julian G.; Sheeber, Lisa B.; Allen, Nicholas B.

2011-01-01

178

Batch and median neural gas.  

PubMed

Neural Gas (NG) constitutes a very robust clustering algorithm given Euclidean data which does not suffer from the problem of local minima like simple vector quantization, or topological restrictions like the self-organizing map. Based on the cost function of NG, we introduce a batch variant of NG which shows much faster convergence and which can be interpreted as an optimization of the cost function by the Newton method. This formulation has the additional benefit that, based on the notion of the generalized median in analogy to Median SOM, a variant for non-vectorial proximity data can be introduced. We prove convergence of batch and median versions of NG, SOM, and k-means in a unified formulation, and we investigate the behavior of the algorithms in several experiments. PMID:16782307

Cottrell, Marie; Hammer, Barbara; Hasenfuss, Alexander; Villmann, Thomas

2006-01-01

179

Least Median of Squares Regression  

Microsoft Academic Search

Classical least squares regression consists of minimizing the sum of the squared residuals. Many authors have produced more robust versions of this estimator by replacing the square by something else, such as the absolute value. In this article a different approach is introduced in which the sum is replaced by the median of the squared residuals. The resulting estimator can

Peter J. Rousseeuw

1984-01-01

180

Fetal exposure to maternal stress influences leptin receptor gene expression during development and age at puberty in gilts  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Various factors influence age at puberty, such as stress and leptin. Stress delays age at puberty and absence of leptin, or lack of central perception of leptin leads to perpetual sexual immaturity. The environment in which a fetus develops is believed to play a role in the development of various ph...

181

Mean, Median, Mode, and Range  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this lesson plan students must use a frequency chart to describe a set of data, including the mean, median, mode, and range of the data set. The lesson plan includes a pre-assessment, whole class activity, collaborative learning activity, and formative assessment. To be successful at this lesson students will need to be able to interpret the frequency chart for the mean, median, mode, and range, but also be able to fill in a frequency chart with a possible solution when given these data landmarks. Additional resources include the lesson plan in a 26-page PDF, the teacher slides in a 4-slide PowerPoint presentation, and a 16-page PDF guide for teachers and administrators.

Shell Center Team

2013-01-17

182

Maternal toxicity.  

PubMed

Although demonstration of some degree of maternal toxicity is required in regulatory developmental toxicology studies, marked maternal toxicity may be a confounding factor in data interpretation. Reduction in maternal body weight gain is the far most frequently used endpoint of toxicity, but alternative endpoints, like organ toxicity or exaggerated pharmacological response, can also be taken into consideration. The following conclusions are based on literature data and discussions at maternal toxicity workshops attended by representatives from regulatory agencies, academia, and industry: (1) Available results do not support that maternal toxicity (defined as clinical signs, decreased body weight gain or absolute body weight loss of up to 15% in rats or 7% in rabbits) can be used to explain the occurrence of major malformations. (2) There is clear evidence that substantial reductions in maternal weight gain (or absolute weight loss) are linked with other manifestations of developmental toxicity. Among these can be mentioned decreased fetal weight, and skeletal anomalies (e.g., wavy ribs) in rats and decreased fetal weights, post implantation loss, abortions, and some skeletal anomalies in rabbits. (3) There are several examples of misinterpretation among companies, where it was incorrectly expected that regulatory authorities would not label chemicals/drugs as "teratogens/developmental toxicants" because embryo fetal adverse effects were only observed at doses also causing signs of maternal toxicity. (4) Similarly, even if mechanistic studies indicate that a substance causes developmental toxicity via exaggerated pharmacological effects in the mother, such a mechanism does not automatically negate the observed fetal adverse effects.From a regulatory perspective, an observed developmental toxic finding is considered to be of potential human relevance (even if it is mediated via maternal pharmacological effects or occur at doses causing signs of maternal toxicity) unless the company can provide appropriate mechanistic and/or other convincing evidence to the contrary. PMID:23138914

Danielsson, Bengt R

2013-01-01

183

Maternal immunization.  

PubMed

Maternal immunization has the potential to protect the pregnant woman, fetus, and infant from vaccine-preventable diseases. Maternal immunoglobulin G is actively transported across the placenta, providing passive immunity to the neonate and infant prior to the infant's ability to respond to vaccines. Currently inactivated influenza, tetanus toxoid, and acellular pertussis vaccines are recommended during pregnancy. Several other vaccines have been studied in pregnancy and found to be safe and immunogenic and to provide antibody to infants. These include pneumococcus, group B Streptococcus, Haemophilus influenzae type b, and meningococcus vaccines. Other vaccines in development for potential maternal immunization include respiratory syncytial virus, herpes simplex virus, and cytomegalovirus vaccines. PMID:24799324

Chu, Helen Y; Englund, Janet A

2014-08-15

184

The Effect of Maternal Depressive Symptomatology on Maternal Behaviors Associated With Child Health  

Microsoft Academic Search

National prevalence rates for depression among women are twofold compared with those of men, with women of childbearing age at greatest risk. Maternal depression not only negatively affects the health of the mother but may also influence the health and development of her offspring. This study examined the relationship between maternal depression and its influence on certain maternal behaviors associated

Jenn Leiferman

2002-01-01

185

A prospective, randomized, double-blind study for the evaluation of assisted hatching in patients with advanced maternal age  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of this study was to determine if assisted hatching improved the rates of implantation, clinical preg- nancy and ongoing pregnancy for in-vitro fertilization (IVF) patients aged ø36 years. On the day of oocyte aspiration, consenting patients were randomized according to whether all embryos underwent the hatching procedure (hatched; n J 41) or all embryos remained unhatched (controls; n

Susan E. Lanzendorf; Fariba Nehchiri; Jacob F. Mayer; Sergio Oehninger; Suheil J. Muasher

1998-01-01

186

Maternal iron levels early in pregnancy are not associated with offspring IQ score at age 8, findings from a Mendelian randomization study  

PubMed Central

Background/Objectives: Iron is fundamental to many basic biological functions, and animal studies suggest that iron deficiency early in life can have a lasting impact on the developing brain. Subjects/Methods: We used a population-based cohort of mothers and their children to assess the effect of iron status among pregnant women on the cognitive ability of their offspring. But to avoid the inherent confounding that occurs within observational epidemiology studies we examined the association of maternal genotype at single-nucleotide polymorphisms in the genes HFE (rs1799945) and (rs1800562), TF (rs3811647) and TMPRSS6 (rs1800562), which are related to iron, haemoglobin or transferrin levels, on their child's cognitive test scores at age 8. Results: We found strong associations between HFE and TMPRSS6 genotypes and mother's haemoglobin levels early in pregnancy (P-values are all ?4.1 × 10?5) and a genetic score comprised of alleles at these loci was even more strongly associated with haemoglobin levels (P=3.0 × 10?18), suggesting that this was a good instrument to use to look at the effect of prenatal iron levels on offspring cognition. However, mother's genotype at the above loci was not associated with offspring IQ at age 8. Conclusions: We therefore concluded that there is no evidence of an effect of exposure to low levels of iron (within the normal range) in pregnancy on offspring cognition at age 8. However, pregnant women in the UK with low haemoglobin levels are prescribed iron supplements and so we were unable to look at the effect of iron deficiency in our study. PMID:24398642

Lewis, S J; Bonilla, C; Brion, M-J; Lawlor, D A; Gunnell, D; Ben-Shlomo, Y; Ness, A; Smith, G D

2014-01-01

187

Coenzyme Q10 prevents accelerated cardiac aging in a rat model of poor maternal nutrition and accelerated postnatal growth.  

PubMed

Studies in human and animals have demonstrated that nutritionally induced low birth-weight followed by rapid postnatal growth increases the risk of metabolic syndrome and cardiovascular disease. Although the mechanisms underlying such nutritional programming are not clearly defined, increased oxidative-stress leading to accelerated cellular aging has been proposed to play an important role. Using an established rodent model of low birth-weight and catch-up growth, we show here that post-weaning dietary supplementation with coenzyme Q10, a key component of the electron transport chain and a potent antioxidant rescued many of the detrimental effects of nutritional programming on cardiac aging. This included a reduction in nitrosative and oxidative-stress, telomere shortening, DNA damage, cellular senescence and apoptosis. These findings demonstrate the potential for postnatal antioxidant intervention to reverse deleterious phenotypes of developmental programming and therefore provide insight into a potential translatable therapy to prevent cardiovascular disease in at risk humans. PMID:24327963

Tarry-Adkins, Jane L; Blackmore, Heather L; Martin-Gronert, Malgorzata S; Fernandez-Twinn, Denise S; McConnell, Josie M; Hargreaves, Iain P; Giussani, Dino A; Ozanne, Susan E

2013-01-01

188

Negative Effects of Paternal Age on Children's Neurocognitive Outcomes Can Be Explained by Maternal Education and Number of Siblings  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundRecent findings suggest advanced paternal age may be associated with impaired child outcomes, in particular, neurocognitive skills. Such patterns are worrisome given relatively universal trends in advanced countries toward delayed nuptiality and fertility. But nature and nurture are both important for child outcomes, and it is important to control for both when drawing inferences about either pathway.Methods and FindingsWe examined

Ryan D. Edwards; Jennifer Roff; Carol Brayne

2010-01-01

189

Maternal Responsiveness Predicts Child Language at Ages 3 and 4 in a Community-Based Sample of Slow-to-Talk Toddlers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: Maternal responsiveness has been shown to predict child language outcomes in clinical samples of children with language delay and non-representative samples of typically developing children. An effective and timely measure of maternal responsiveness for use at the population level has not yet been established. Aims: To determine…

Hudson, Sophie; Levickis, Penny; Down, Kate; Nicholls, Ruth; Wake, Melissa

2015-01-01

190

The impact of prenatal serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SRI) antidepressant exposure and maternal mood on mother-infant interactions at 3 months of age.  

PubMed

Exposure to maternal depression increases risks for altered mother-infant interactions. Serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SRI) antidepressants are increasingly prescribed to manage antenatal maternal illness. The impact of SRIs on early mother-infant interactions was unknown. Three-month-old infants of 32 depressed mothers treated with SRI medications during pregnancy and 43 non-medicated mothers were studied. Using an established face-to-face mother-infant interaction paradigm, dyad interactions were studied with and without a toy. Videotaped sessions yielded 4 measures: maternal sensitivity, dyadic organization, infant readiness to interact, and maternal interruptive behaviors. Even with prenatal SRI treatment, depressed mothers interrupted their infants more during toy play. In the absence of prenatal SRI treatment, maternal postnatal depression adversely influenced infant behavior. Higher levels of maternal depression symptoms at 3 months predicted poorer infant readiness to interact during the toy session. Conversely, in the SRI-exposed group, higher prenatal depression scores predicted greater infant readiness to interact at 3 months. Increased infant readiness with SRI exposure suggests a "fetal programming effect" whereby prenatal maternal mood disturbances shaped a future response to a postnatal depressed maternal environment. PMID:23728194

Weikum, Whitney M; Mayes, Linda C; Grunau, Ruth E; Brain, Ursula; Oberlander, Tim F

2013-12-01

191

Temperature, age of mating and starvation determine the role of maternal effects on sex allocation in the mealybug Planococcus citri.  

PubMed

Environmental effects on sex allocation are common, yet the evolutionary significance of these effects remains poorly understood. Environmental effects might influence parents, such that their condition directly influences sex allocation by altering the relative benefits of producing sons versus daughters. Alternatively, the environment might influence the offspring themselves, such that the conditions they find themselves in influence their contribution to parental fitness. In both cases, parents might be selected to bias their sex ratio according to the prevailing environmental conditions. Here, we consider sex allocation in the citrus mealybug Planococcus citri, a species with an unusual genetic system in which paternal genes are lost from the germline in males. We test environmental factors that may influence either female condition directly (rearing temperature and food restriction) or that may be used as cues of the future environment (age at mating). Using cytological techniques to obtain primary sex ratios, we show that high temperature, older age at mating and starvation all affect sex allocation, resulting in female-biased sex ratios. However, the effect of temperature is rather weak, and food restriction appears to be strongly associated with reduced longevity and a truncation of the usual schedule of male and offspring production across a female's reproductive lifetime. Instead, facultative sex allocation seems most convincingly affected by age at mating, supporting previous work that suggests that social interactions experienced by adult P. citri females are used when allocating sex. Our results highlight that, even within one species, different aspects of the environment may have conflicting effects on sex allocation. PMID:21625649

Ross, Laura; Dealey, Elizabeth J; Beukeboom, Leo W; Shuker, David M

2011-05-01

192

How hot are drosophila hotspots? examining recombination rate variation and associations with nucleotide diversity, divergence, and maternal age in Drosophila pseudoobscura.  

PubMed

Fine scale meiotic recombination maps have uncovered a large amount of variation in crossover rate across the genomes of many species, and such variation in mammalian and yeast genomes is concentrated to <5kb regions of highly elevated recombination rates (10-100x the background rate) called "hotspots." Drosophila exhibit substantial recombination rate heterogeneity across their genome, but evidence for these highly-localized hotspots is lacking. We assayed recombination across a 40Kb region of Drosophila pseudoobscura chromosome 2, with one 20kb interval assayed every 5Kb and the adjacent 20kb interval bisected into 10kb pieces. We found that recombination events across the 40kb stretch were relatively evenly distributed across each of the 5kb and 10kb intervals, rather than concentrated in a single 5kb region. This, in combination with other recent work, indicates that the recombination landscape of Drosophila may differ from the punctate recombination pattern observed in many mammals and yeast. Additionally, we found no correlation of average pairwise nucleotide diversity and divergence with recombination rate across the 20kb intervals, nor any effect of maternal age in weeks on recombination rate in our sample. PMID:23967224

Manzano-Winkler, Brenda; McGaugh, Suzanne E; Noor, Mohamed A F

2013-01-01

193

Maternal attitudes and behaviors regarding feeding practices in elementary-school age Latino children: A pilot qualitative study on the impact of the cultural role of mothers in the U.S.-Mexican border region of San Diego, California  

PubMed Central

This study aimed to explore the attitudes and behaviors of Latino mothers around feeding their children. Using qualitative methods, we conducted 4 focus groups in Spanish with 41 Latino mothers of elementary school-age children in San Diego County (CA). Latino mothers’ mean age was 41 years; 90% were foreign-born; 74% had a high school education or less. We explored cultural viewpoints around feeding and cooking and feeding strategies used. Focus groups were analyzed based on a priori and emergent themes. Two themes around feeding emerged, including: 1) feeding attitudes central to the maternal responsibility of having well-fed children; and 2) feeding behaviors that centered on cooking methods, supportive behaviors and reinforcement strategies for “eating well”. These findings increase our understanding of the Latino maternal role to feed children and may help to inform more culturally appropriate research to effectively address nutritional issues and obesity prevention in Latino children. PMID:24315129

Rhee, Kyung; Blanco, Estela; Boutelle, Kerri

2014-01-01

194

Vaccination of Piglets up to 1 Week of Age with a Single-Dose Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae Vaccine Induces Protective Immunity within 2 Weeks against Virulent Challenge in the Presence of Maternally Derived Antibodies  

PubMed Central

Enzootic pneumonia, resulting from infection with Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae, is of considerable economic importance to the pig industry and normally is controlled through active vaccination of piglets. We have demonstrated that administration of an inactivated Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae vaccine to piglets less than 1 week old is efficacious under field conditions and reduces the level of lung lesions observed in comparison to that in control pigs. Here, the results of two separate studies, one in piglets with and the second one in piglets without maternal antibodies, conducted to satisfy the requirements of the European Pharmacopoeia (monograph no. 07/2009:2448), are reported. Piglets received either minimal titer Suvaxyn MH-One or saline at less than 1 week of age and were challenged with Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae 2 weeks later. The number of lung lesions was recorded 4 weeks after challenge, and bronchial swab and lung tissue specimens were analyzed for quantification of Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae DNA. In the presence and absence of maternal antibodies, vaccination of piglets at less than 1 week of age was efficacious, with vaccinated piglets having significantly lower percentages of lung with lesions and lower Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae counts detected in bronchial swab and lung tissue specimens at necropsy. In conclusion, the vaccination of piglets at 1 week of age with Suvaxyn MH-One is efficacious in the presence of high levels of maternal antibodies. PMID:23486417

Van Brussel, Leen; Saunders, Gillian; Runnels, Paul; Taylor, Lucas; Fredrickson, Dan; Salt, Jeremy

2013-01-01

195

Maternal Sensitivity and Child Responsiveness: Associations with Social Context, Maternal Characteristics, and Child Characteristics in a Multivariate Analysis  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined unique associations of multiple distal context variables (family socioeconomic status [SES], maternal employment, and paternal parenting) and proximal maternal (personality, intelligence, and knowledge; behavior, self-perceptions, and attributions) and child (age, gender, representation, language, and sociability)…

Bornstein, Marc H.; Hendricks, Charlene; Haynes, O. Maurice; Painter, Kathleen M.

2007-01-01

196

Plasmodium falciparum Malaria in Children Aged 0-2 Years: The Role of Foetal Haemoglobin and Maternal Antibodies to Two Asexual Malaria Vaccine Candidates (MSP3 and GLURP)  

PubMed Central

Background Children below six months are reported to be less susceptible to clinical malaria. Maternally derived antibodies and foetal haemoglobin are important putative protective factors. We examined antibodies to Plasmodium falciparum merozoite surface protein 3 (MSP3) and glutamate-rich protein (GLURP), in children in their first two years of life in Burkina Faso and their risk of malaria. Methods A cohort of 140 infants aged between four and six weeks was recruited in a stable transmission area of south-western Burkina Faso and monitored for 24 months by active and passive surveillance. Malaria infections were detected by examining blood smears using light microscopy. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay was used to quantify total Immunoglobulin G to Plasmodium falciparum antigens MSP3 and two regions of GLURP (R0 and R2) on blood samples collected at baseline, three, six, nine, 12, 18 and 24 months. Foetal haemoglobin and variant haemoglobin fractions were measured at the baseline visit using high pressure liquid chromatography. Results A total of 79.6% of children experienced one or more episodes of febrile malaria during monitoring. Antibody titres to MSP3 were prospectively associated with an increased risk of malaria while antibody responses to GLURP (R0 and R2) did not alter the risk. Antibody titres to MSP3 were higher among children in areas of high malaria risk. Foetal haemoglobin was associated with delayed first episode of febrile malaria and haemoglobin CC type was associated with reduced incidence of febrile malaria. Conclusions We did not find any evidence of association between titres of antibodies to MSP3, GLURP-R0 or GLURP-R2 as measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and early protection against malaria, although anti-MSP3 antibody titres may reflect increased exposure to malaria and therefore greater risk. Foetal haemoglobin was associated with protection against febrile malaria despite the study limitations and its role is therefore worthy further investigation. PMID:25238160

Kangoye, David Tiga; Nebie, Issa; Yaro, Jean-Baptiste; Debe, Siaka; Traore, Safiatou; Ouedraogo, Oumarou; Sanou, Guillaume; Soulama, Issiaka; Diarra, Amidou; Tiono, Alfred; Marsh, Kevin

2014-01-01

197

Infant and Maternal Sensitivity to Interpersonal Timing  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A perturbation paradigm was employed to assess 3- and 6-month-old infants' and their mothers' sensitivity to a 3-s temporal delay implemented in an ongoing televised interaction. At both ages, the temporal delay affected infant but not maternal behavior and only when implementing the temporal delay in maternal (Experiment 1, N = 64) but not infant…

Henning, Anne; Striano, Tricia

2011-01-01

198

[Laparoscopic management of median arcuate ligament syndrome].  

PubMed

Median arcuate ligament syndrome is a rare disorder resulting from luminal narrowing of the celiac trunk. The classic management of median arcuate ligament syndrome involves the surgical division of the median arcuate ligament fibers in order to decompress the celiac trunk. This has traditionally required an upper midline incision. A few authors have described a successful laparoscopic release of celiac artery compression syndrome. Laparoscopy provides a less invasive, but equally effective method for decompressing the celiac trunk. PMID:18313874

Jarry, J; Berard, X; Ducasse, E; Biscay, D; Pailler, A; Sassoust, G; Midy, D; Baste, J-C

2008-02-01

199

RESEARCH Open Access Choice in maternity care: associations with unit  

E-print Network

European countries, current trends in maternity unit closures create a context in which user choice may they must travel to give birth, individual socioeconomic characteristics and the supply of maternity units adjusting for supply factors, maternal age and socioeconomic status. Conclusions: Choice seems

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

200

Mediating Links between Maternal Childhood Trauma and Preadolescent Behavioral Adjustment  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Structural equation modeling was used to simultaneously examine maternal psychological distress and social support as mediators linking maternal childhood trauma (MCT) to both maternal and child-reported behavior at 9 years of age in 231 birth mother-child dyads, who were primarily poor, urban, and African American. One half of the mothers…

Min, Meeyoung O.; Singer, Lynn T.; Minnes, Sonia; Kim, Hyunsoo; Short, Elizabeth

2013-01-01

201

The association of maternal ACE A11860G with small for gestational age babies is modulated by the environment and by fetal sex: a multicentre prospective case–control study  

PubMed Central

We aimed to determine whether the ACE A11860G genotype is associated with small for gestational age babies (SGA) and to determine whether the association is affected by environmental factors and fetal sex. Overall, 3234 healthy nulliparous women with singleton pregnancies, their partners and babies were prospectively recruited in Adelaide, Australia and Auckland, New Zealand. Data analyses were confined to 2121 Caucasian parent–infant trios, among which 216 were pregnancies with SGA infants and 1185 were uncomplicated pregnancies. Women with the ACE A11860G GG genotype in the combined and Adelaide cohorts had increased risk for SGA [odds ratios (OR) 1.5, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.1–2.1 and OR 2.0, 95% CI 1.3–3.3, respectively) and delivered lighter babies (P = 0.02; P = 0.007, respectively) compared with those with AA/AG genotypes. The maternal ACE A11860G GG genotype was associated with higher maternal plasma ACE concentration at 15 weeks' gestation than AA/AG genotypes (P < 0.001). When the Adelaide cohort was stratified by maternal socio-economic index (SEI) and pre-pregnancy green leafy vegetable intake, the ACE A11860G GG genotype was only associated with an increased risk for SGA (OR 4.9, 95% CI 1.8–13.4 and OR 3.3, 95% CI 1.6–7.0, respectively) and a reduction in customized birthweight centile (P = 0.006 and P = 0.03) if superimposed on maternal SEI <34 or pre-pregnancy green leafy vegetable intake <1 serve/day. Furthermore, the associations of maternal ACE A11860G with customized birthweight centile observed among Adelaide women with SEI <34 or pre-pregnancy green leafy vegetable intake <1 serve/day were female specific. The current study identified a novel association of maternal ACE A11860G with SGA. More interestingly, this association was modified by environmental factors and fetal sex, suggesting ACE A11860G–environment–fetal sex interactions. Trial Registry Name: Screening nulliparous women to identify the combinations of clinical risk factors and/or biomarkers required to predict pre-eclampsia, SGA babies and spontaneous preterm birth. URL: http://www.anzctr.org.au. Registration number: ACTRN12607000551493. PMID:23615722

Zhou, Ang; Dekker, Gustaaf A.; Lumbers, Eugenie R.; Leemaqz, Shalem Y.; Thompson, Steven D.; Heinemann, Gary; McCowan, Lesley M.E.; Roberts, Claire T.

2013-01-01

202

C57BL/6J male offspring exposed "in utero" and during weaning to a maternal low protein diet have reduced muscle weight by 12 months of age  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Objective: C57BL/6J mice are predisposed to obesity and type 2 diabetes (T2DM) and may be a sensitive model for fetal programming of T2DM. The "maternal low protein diet" (MLP) rat model is well established to study fetal growth restriction effects on programming of T2DM. How data from C57BL/6J mice...

203

Sudden expansion of a single brown bear maternal lineage across northern continental Eurasia after the last ice age: a general demographic model for mammals?  

Microsoft Academic Search

The brown bear has proved a useful model for studying Late Quaternary mammalian phylogeography. However, information is lacking from northern continental Eurasia, which constitutes a large part of the species' current distribution. We analysed mitochondrial DNA sequences (totalling 1943 bp) from 205 bears from northeast Europe and Russia in order to characterize the maternal phylogeography of bears in this region.

MARJU KORSTEN; SIMON Y. W. HO; JOHN DAVISON; BERIT PÄHN; EGLE VULLA; MARIS ROHT; IGOR L. TUMANOV; ILPO KOJOLA; ZANETE ANDERSONE-LILLEY; JANIS OZOLINS; MALGORZATA PILOT; YORGOS MERTZANIS; ALEXIOS GIANNAKOPOULOS; ALEX A. VOROBIEV; NIKOLAI I. MARKOV; ALEXANDER P. SAVELJEV; ELENA A. LYAPUNOVA; ALEXEI V. ABRAMOV; PEEP MÄNNIL; HARRI VALDMANN; SERGEI V. PAZETNOV; VALENTIN S. PAZETNOV; ALEXANDER M. RÕKOV; URMAS SAARMA

2009-01-01

204

Effects of maternal and pre-weaning undernutrition in rat offspring: Age at reproductive senescence and intergenerational pup growth and viability  

EPA Science Inventory

Maternal and/or postnatal undernutrition are widespread in human populations and are components of many experimental developmental and reproductive toxicology bio-assays. This study investigated in utero and/or pre-weaning undernutrition effects on reproductive maturation and se...

205

What Patterns of Postpartum Psychological Distress Are Associated with Maternal Concerns about Their Children's Emotional and Behavioural Problems at the Age of Three Years?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Mothers experiencing psychological distress in the postpartum period may have difficulties parenting their children. Inconsistent and unresponsive parenting may increase the risk of later emotional and behavioural problems in children. The purpose of this study was to identify how maternal psychological characteristics cluster at eight weeks…

Benzies, Karen; Mychasiuk, Richelle; Tough, Suzanne

2015-01-01

206

REGRESSION ON MEDIANS OF PROBABILITY DISTRIBUTIONS  

EPA Science Inventory

The median is a fundamental parameter in the area of lifetime and survival statistics. n toxicodynamics the LD50, lethal dose that results in 50% mortality, is frequently used. he median is also used to describe the incidence of cancer and other disease states. Factors such as nu...

207

Dynamic computation of generalised median strings  

Microsoft Academic Search

The generalised median string is defined as a string that has the smallest sum of distances to the elements of a given set of strings. It is a valuable tool in representing a whole set of objects by a single prototype, and has interesting applications in pattern recognition. All algorithms for computing generalised median strings known from the literature are

Xiaoyi Jiang; Karin Abegglen; Horst Bunke; János Csirik

2003-01-01

208

Median Nerve as Free Tendon Graft  

Microsoft Academic Search

Four patients are described, all of whom bad tendon injuries in which the median nerve was used as a free tendon graft. Three cases involved the repair of a flexor tendon injury, and one the repair of an extensor tendon. In all cases, reconstruction of the median nerve was performed with a free sural nerve graft. The difficulty was that

1987-01-01

209

Maternally Transmitted and Food-Derived Glycotoxins  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE Proinflammatory advanced glycation end products (AGEs) found in thermally processed foods correlate with serum AGEs (sAGEs) and promote type 1 and type 2 diabetes in mice. Herein we assess the relationship of maternal blood and food AGEs to circulating glycoxidants, inflammatory markers, and insulin levels in infants up to age 1 year. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS AGEs (N?-carboxymethyllysine [CML] and methylglyoxal derivatives) were tested in sera of healthy mothers in labor (n = 60), their infants, and infant foods. Plasma 8-isoprostane, fasting glucose, insulin, leptin, and adiponectin levels were assessed in 12-month-old infants. RESULTS Significant correlations were found between newborn and maternal serum CML (sCML) (r = 0.734, P = 0.001) serum methylglyoxal derivatives (sMGs) (r = 0.593, P = 0.001), and 8-isoprostanes (r = 0.644, P = 0.001). Infant adiponectin at 12 months negatively correlated with maternal sCML (r = ?0.467, P = 0.011), whereas high maternal sMGs predicted higher infant insulin or homeostasis model assessment (P = 0.027). Infant sAGEs significantly increased with the initiation of processed infant food intake, raising daily AGE consumption by ?7.5-fold in year 1. CONCLUSIONS Maternal blood and food-derived AGEs prematurely raise AGEs in children to adult norms, preconditioning them to abnormally high oxidant stress and inflammation and thus possibly to early onset of disease, such as diabetes. PMID:20628088

Mericq, Veronica; Piccardo, Cecilia; Cai, Weijing; Chen, Xue; Zhu, Li; Striker, Gary E.; Vlassara, Helen; Uribarri, Jaime

2010-01-01

210

Maternal Depression and Adolescent Behavior  

MedlinePLUS

... child pairs, tracking their general health and social environment from the child’s preschool years until they reached the age of 16 to 17. They looked closely at exposure to maternal depressive symptoms at various stages of youth development. At the start, only mothers filled out questionnaires. ...

211

Periodontal Disease Early in Pregnancy Is Associated With Maternal Systemic Inflammation Among African American Women  

PubMed Central

Background Maternal periodontal disease is a chronic oral infection with local and systemic inflammatory responses and may be associated with adverse pregnancy outcomes. This study determined whether maternal periodontal disease in early pregnancy is associated with elevated serum C-reactive protein (CRP) levels and whether maternal race influences the relationship between maternal periodontal disease and systemic inflammatory responses. Methods A secondary analysis of prospectively collected data from the Oral Conditions and Pregnancy study was conducted. Healthy women at <26 weeks of gestation underwent an oral health examination and had blood collected. Periodontal disease was categorized by clinical criteria, and maternal serum was analyzed for CRP levels using highly sensitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay kits. An elevated CRP level was defined as >75th percentile. Demographic and medical data were obtained from the women’s charts. Chi-square and multivariable logistic regression models were used to determine maternal factors associated with an elevated CRP. An adjusted odds ratio (OR) for elevated CRP levels was calculated and stratified by race and periodontal disease category. Results The median (interquartile) CRP level was 4.8 (0.6 to 15.7) ?g/ml, and an elevated CRP level (>75th percentile) was 15.7 ?g/ml. African American race and moderate/severe periodontal disease were significantly associated with elevated CRP levels. When stratified by race, moderate/severe periodontal disease remained associated with an elevated CRP level among African American women (adjusted OR: 4.0; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.2 to 8.5) but not among white women (adjusted OR: 0.9; 95% CI: 0.2 to 3.6) after adjusting for age, smoking, parity, marital status, insurance status, and weight. Conclusion Among African American women, moderate/severe periodontal disease is associated with elevated CRP levels early in pregnancy. PMID:18597593

Horton, Amanda L.; Boggess, Kim A.; Moss, Kevin L.; Jared, Heather L.; Beck, James; Offenbacher, Steven

2015-01-01

212

Metabolizing enzyme localization and activities in the first trimester human placenta: the effect of maternal and gestational age, smoking and alcohol consumption  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: The rationale for this study was to assess the expression, activity and localization of the enzymes uridine diphosphate glucuronosyltransferase (UGT), ?-glucuronidase, cytochrome P450 1A (CYP1A) and cytochrome P450 2E1 (CYP2E1) in first trimester human placenta and to gauge the effects of maternal variables on placental metabolism. METHODS: CYP1A, CYP2E1, UGT and ?-glucuronidase activities were assessed in 25 placentas using

Abby C. Collier; Malcolm D. Tingle; James W. Paxton; Murray D. Mitchell; Jeffrey A. Keelan

213

Maternal Psychopathology and Infant Development at 18 Months: The Impact of Maternal Personality Disorder and Depression  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: No previous longitudinal study has examined the impact of comorbid maternal personality disorder (PD) and depression on child development. We set out to examine whether maternal PD and depression assessed at 2 months post partum would be independently associated with adverse developmental outcomes at 18 months of age. Method: Women were…

Conroy, Susan; Pariante, Carmine M.; Marks, Maureen N.; Davies, Helen A.; Farrelly, Simone; Schacht, Robin; Moran, Paul

2012-01-01

214

The Relations among Maternal Depressive Disorder, Maternal Expressed Emotion, and Toddler Behavior Problems and Attachment  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Direct and indirect relations among maternal depression, maternal Expressed Emotion (EE: Self- and Child-Criticism), child internalizing and externalizing symptoms, and child attachment were examined. Participants were mothers with depression (n = 130) and comparison mothers (n = 68) and their toddlers (M age = 20 mo.; 53% male). Assessments…

Gravener, Julie A.; Rogosch, Fred A.; Oshri, Assaf; Narayan, Angela J.; Cicchetti, Dante; Toth, Sheree L.

2012-01-01

215

Chemical and mechanical defenses vary among maternal lines and leaf ages in Verbascum thapsus L. (Scrophulariaceae) and reduce palatability to a generalist insect.  

PubMed

Intra-specific variation in host-plant quality affects herbivore foraging decisions and, in turn, herbivore foraging decisions mediate plant fitness. In particular, variation in defenses against herbivores, both among and within plants, shapes herbivore behavior. If variation in defenses is genetically based, it can respond to natural selection by herbivores. We quantified intra-specific variation in iridoid glycosides, trichome length, and leaf strength in common mullein (Verbascum thapsus L, Scrophulariaceae) among maternal lines within a population and among leaves within plants, and related this variation to feeding preferences of a generalist herbivore, Trichopulsia ni Hübner. We found significant variation in all three defenses among maternal lines, with T. ni preferring plants with lower investment in chemical, but not mechanical, defense. Within plants, old leaves had lower levels of all defenses than young leaves, and were strongly preferred by T. ni. Caterpillars also preferred leaves with trichomes removed to leaves with trichomes intact. Differences among maternal lines indicate that phenotypic variation in defenses likely has a genetic basis. Furthermore, these results reveal that the feeding behaviors of T. ni map onto variation in plant defense in a predictable way. This work highlights the importance of variation in host-plant quality in driving interactions between plants and their herbivores. PMID:25127229

Alba, Christina; Bowers, M Deane; Blumenthal, Dana; Hufbauer, Ruth A

2014-01-01

216

Chemical and Mechanical Defenses Vary among Maternal Lines and Leaf Ages in Verbascum thapsus L. (Scrophulariaceae) and Reduce Palatability to a Generalist Insect  

PubMed Central

Intra-specific variation in host-plant quality affects herbivore foraging decisions and, in turn, herbivore foraging decisions mediate plant fitness. In particular, variation in defenses against herbivores, both among and within plants, shapes herbivore behavior. If variation in defenses is genetically based, it can respond to natural selection by herbivores. We quantified intra-specific variation in iridoid glycosides, trichome length, and leaf strength in common mullein (Verbascum thapsus L, Scrophulariaceae) among maternal lines within a population and among leaves within plants, and related this variation to feeding preferences of a generalist herbivore, Trichopulsia ni Hübner. We found significant variation in all three defenses among maternal lines, with T. ni preferring plants with lower investment in chemical, but not mechanical, defense. Within plants, old leaves had lower levels of all defenses than young leaves, and were strongly preferred by T. ni. Caterpillars also preferred leaves with trichomes removed to leaves with trichomes intact. Differences among maternal lines indicate that phenotypic variation in defenses likely has a genetic basis. Furthermore, these results reveal that the feeding behaviors of T. ni map onto variation in plant defense in a predictable way. This work highlights the importance of variation in host-plant quality in driving interactions between plants and their herbivores. PMID:25127229

Alba, Christina; Bowers, M. Deane; Blumenthal, Dana; Hufbauer, Ruth A.

2014-01-01

217

Timing of maternal HIV testing and uptake of Prevention of Mother-to-Child Transmission interventions among women and their infected infants in Johannesburg, South Africa  

PubMed Central

Background By 2011, South African prevention of mother-to-child transmission of HIV (PMTCT) programmes had reduced perinatal HIV transmission at 6-weeks of age to 2.7%. We investigated the profile of newly-diagnosed vertically-infected children and their mothers to identify short-falls in the PMTCT programme. Methods In this operational follow-up study, fieldworkers enrolled mothers of newly-diagnosed HIV-infected children up to 2 years of age at 5 major healthcare facilities in Johannesburg. Structured questionnaires and clinical record reviews were conducted and analysed to describe the population and assess factors associated with PMTCT uptake. Results 289 mother-child pairs were enrolled. Timing of maternal HIV diagnosis influenced PMTCT access and feeding choices, and was associated with infants’ age at HIV diagnosis (7 weeks vs. 11 weeks vs. 31 weeks where mothers tested before, during or after the pregnancy respectively; p <0.0001). Women diagnosed before pregnancy (12%) were older (median 31 years) than those diagnosed during the index pregnancy (53% - median 27 years). Women diagnosed after delivery (35%) were younger (median 25 years, p<0.0001), of lower parity, and less likely to be South African citizens. In 81 cases (29%) late maternal diagnosis precluded any PMTCT access. Where women were diagnosed during or before pregnancy, the recommended PMTCT guidelines for mother and infant were followed in 86 (61%) pairs. Conclusion Failure to diagnose maternal HIV infection before delivery was the main reason for missing PMTCT prophylaxis and early infant testing. Timely maternal diagnosis enables PMTCT uptake, but implementation and follow-up gaps require attention to improve infant outcomes. PMID:24759066

Technau, Karl-Günter; Kalk, Emma; Coovadia, Ashraf; Black, Vivian; Pickerill, Sam; Mellins, Claude A.; Abrams, Elaine J.; Strehlau, Renate; Kuhn, Louise

2013-01-01

218

Median Arcuate Ligament Syndrome: A Case Report  

PubMed Central

Background The median arcuate ligament passes superior to the origin of the celiac artery and is a continuation of the posterior diaphragm that wraps over the aorta. If it lies too low on the aorta, the ligament may cause symptoms of abdominal pain related to compression of the celiac artery. Case Report An abdominal ultrasound in a 22-year-old woman with longstanding abdominal pain after eating showed elevated celiac artery velocities of >300 cm/s upon inspiration. Computed tomography angiography of the abdomen showed stenosis of the origin of the celiac artery and confirmed the diagnosis of median arcuate ligament syndrome. Laparoscopic release of the median arcuate ligament resulted in relief of the patient's symptoms. Conclusion The diagnosis of median arcuate ligament syndrome should be considered in patients with postprandial abdominal pain that does not have a clearly established etiology. PMID:24358009

Lainez, Romeo A.; Richardson, William S.

2013-01-01

219

A Median Voter Model of Social Security  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a theoretical median voter analysis of the determination of the level of social security. The framework for the analysis is a continuous-time, overlapping-generations model with nonaltruistic households facing borrowing constraints in the capital market. A majority voting equilibrium is shown to exist in which the median voter is liquidity-constrained. The desired level of social security for each

Robin W Boadway; David E Wildasin

1989-01-01

220

[Median arcuate ligament syndrome: a controversial entity.].  

PubMed

Median arcuate ligament syndrome is a disorder resulting from compression of the origin of the celiac trunk by the arcuate ligament, a fibrous arch that connects the right and left diaphragmatic crura. This is a controversial entity because the clinical manifestations are often nonspecific and isolated compression of the celiac trunk is relatively common in asymptomatic individuals. We report two cases of median arcuate ligament syndrome and review the radiographic features necessary for the imaging workup of this entity. PMID:19361828

Meilán Martínez, A; Jiménez de la Peña, M; Recio Rodríguez, M; Carrascoso Arranz, J

2009-01-01

221

Prevalence of bifid median nerves and persistent median arteries and their association with carpal tunnel syndrome in a sample of latino poultry processors and other manual workers  

PubMed Central

Introduction The prevalence of bifid median nerves and persistent median arteries, their co-occurrence, and their relationship to carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS) are only understood partially. Methods We screened 1026 wrists of 513 Latino manual laborers in North Carolina for bifid median nerves and persistent median arteries using electrodiagnosis and ultrasound. Results A total of 8.6% of wrists had a bifid median nerve, and 3.7% of wrists had a persistent median artery independent of subgroup ethnicity, age, gender, or type of work. An association with definite carpal tunnel syndrome was not found. The presence of either anatomic variant was associated with a high likelihood of co-occurrence of another variant in the same or the contralateral wrist. Conclusions The occurrence of median anatomic variants can be determined in field studies using ultrasound. Persistent median arteries and bifid median nerves tend to co-occur but do not put manual laborers at additional risk of developing CTS. PMID:24037717

WALKER, FRANCIS O.; CARTWRIGHT, MICHAEL S.; BLOCKER, JILL N.; ARCURY, THOMAS A.; SUK, JUNG IM; CHEN, HAIYING; SCHULTZ, MARK R.; GRZYWACZ, JOSEPH G.; MORA, DANA C.; QUANDT, SARA A.

2013-01-01

222

Integer-Sided Triangles with integral medians  

E-print Network

In this work, we prove that any triangle whose three sidelengths are integers, cannot have all of its three medians also having integral lengths.This is done in Proposition 2.In Section 5, we give precise(i.e.necessary and sufficient)conditions for a nonisosceles, integer-sided triangle to have two integral medians.In Section 3, we offer parametric descriptions of three special families of integer-sided triangles.The first family consists of all Pythagorean triangles whose medians to their hypotenuses is integral. The other two medians (to the two legs)of any Pythagorean triangle are irrational, a proof of this fact can be found in reference 4 of this paper.The second family consists of all integer-sided isosceles triangles, whose only integral median is the one contained between the two sides of equal length. Finally, the third family consists of all isosceles integer-sided triangles with the two medians of equal length;having integer length.

Konstantine Zelator

2013-08-15

223

How do Maternal PTSD and Alexithymia Interact to Impact Maternal Behavior?  

PubMed

Maternal interpersonal violence-related post-traumatic stress disorder (IPV-PTSD) is known to be associated with impairment of a mother's capacity to participate in mutual emotion regulation during her child's first years of life. This study tested the hypothesis that maternal difficulty in identifying feelings in self and other, as an important dimension of the construct of alexithymia, together with maternal IPV-PTSD, would be negatively associated with maternal sensitivity. Maternal sensitivity to child emotional communication is a marker of maternal capacity to engage in mutual regulation of emotion and arousal. Following diagnostic interviews and administration of the Toronto Alexithymia Scale, 56 mothers and their toddlers (ages 12-42 months) were filmed during free-play and separation/novelty-exposure. Observed maternal sensitivity was coded via the CARE-Index. Maternal IPV-PTSD severity, difficulty in identifying emotions, and lower socio-economic status were all associated with less maternal sensitivity, and also with more maternal controlling and unresponsive behavior on the CARE-Index. PMID:25008189

Schechter, Daniel S; Suardi, Francesca; Manini, Aurelia; Cordero, Maria Isabel; Rossignol, Ana Sancho; Merminod, Gaëlle; Gex-Fabry, Marianne; Moser, Dominik A; Serpa, Sandra Rusconi

2014-07-10

224

Electrophysiological findings in entrapment of the median nerve at wrist and elbow  

Microsoft Academic Search

In 117 consecutive patients with carpal tunnel syndrome and 11 patients with a compression syndrome of the median nerve at elbow, motor and sensory conduction along the median and ulnar nerves and quantitative electromyography were compared with findings in 190 normal controls of the same age. In 25% of patients with carpal tunnel syndrome in whom motor conduction and EMG

Fritz Buchthal; Annelise Rosenfalck; Werner Trojaborg

1974-01-01

225

Social Security: a financial appraisal for the median voter.  

PubMed

Several explanations have been proposed for why voters continue to support unfunded social security systems. Browning (1975) suggests that the extremely large unfunded pension systems of most democracies depend on the existence of a voting majority composed of middle-aged and older people who fail to fully internalize the cost of financing the system. In fact, when voting, economically rational workers consider only their current and future contributions to the system and their expected pension benefits--not their past contributions, which they regard as sunk costs. If, for a majority of voters, the expected continuation return from social security exceeds the return from alternative assets, an unfunded social security system is politically sustainable. This article explores the validity of Browning's proposition by quantifying the returns that U.S. voters in presidential elections from 1964 to 1996 have obtained, or expect to obtain, from Social Security. Did "investments" in Social Security outperform alternative forms of investment, such as mutual funds or pension funds, for a majority of the voters? What can be expected for the future? The U.S. Social Security system redistributes income within age cohorts on the basis of sex, income, and marital status. To account for some of these features, the median voter is represented by a family unit whose members--a husband who accounts for 70 percent of household earnings and a wife who accounts for 30 percent--make joint economic and voting decisions. Thus, retirement and survival benefits paid out to the spouse of an insured worker can be included in the calculation of Social Security returns. Interval estimates of voters' family incomes from the U.S. Census Bureau were used to obtain the median voter's household earnings. The median voter's age is derived from the ages of those who voted in presidential elections, not from the ages of the entire electorate. The median voter's contributions to Social Security are the product of the joint employer/employee Old-Age and Survivors Insurance (OASI) tax rate and employee earnings. Data on actual contributions are available for median voters in the 1964 to 1976 elections; Social Security Administration (SSA) estimates are used for future tax rates and average wage growth rates. Data on actual old-age, retirement, and survivor benefits, as well as estimates of future benefits, are also available from SSA. Analysis of ex-post returns from "investing" in Social Security and from a buy-and-hold strategy applied to three alternative assets--the Standard & Poor's Composite Index (S&P), the Dow Jones Industrial Average (DJIA), and U.S. government bonds--shows surprising results. In 1964 and 1968, Social Security largely outperformed the other three assets. In 1972, Social Security and the stock market performed almost equally. In 1976, however, the median voter would have been better off in the stock market. The expected returns for median voters in later elections cannot be directly compared with realized returns from alternative assets. However, estimates range from 5.7 percent in 1984 to 7.0 percent in 1996 and thus compare favorably with average returns of 5.6 percent for S&P, 5.3 percent for DJIA, and 2.1 percent for government bonds over the 1964-1996 period. Although these findings must be taken with caution since they compare ex-post returns, they show that, despite a continuous reduction in profitability, Social Security still represents a safe, high-return asset for a majority of families. PMID:12428510

Galasso, V

226

Maternal Predictors of Rejecting Parenting and Early Adolescent Antisocial Behavior  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The present study examined relations among maternal psychological resources, rejecting parenting, and early adolescent antisocial behavior in a sample of 231 low-income mothers and their sons with longitudinal assessments from age 18 months to 12 years. The maternal resources examined were age at first birth, aggressive personality, and empathy.…

Trentacosta, Christopher J.; Shaw, Daniel S.

2008-01-01

227

The Relation Between Maternal Symptoms of Attention-Deficit\\/Hyperactivity Disorder and Mother–Infant Interaction  

Microsoft Academic Search

The relationship between maternal symptoms of attention-deficit\\/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and specific maternal behaviors\\u000a was examined in a community sample of 40 mothers of infants aged 3–8 months. It was hypothesized that maternal ADHD symptoms\\u000a would be related to lower levels of maternal sensitivity, and higher levels of maternal intrusiveness and negative regard.\\u000a Mothers and their infants were observed and video-recorded in

Deborah L. Semple; Eric J. Mash; Jerilyn E. Ninowski; Karen M. Benzies

228

Stronger influence of maternal than paternal obesity on infant and early childhood BMI: The Fels Longitudinal Study  

PubMed Central

Background/Objective Parental obesity influences infant body size. To fully characterize their relative effects on infant adiposity, associations between maternal and paternal body mass index (BMI) category (normal: ?25 kg/m2, overweight: 25–<30 kg/m2, obese: ?30 kg/m2) and infant BMI were compared in Fels Longitudinal Study participants. Methods A median of 9 serial weight and length measures from birth-3.5 years were obtained from 912 European American children born in 1928–2008. Using multivariable mixed effects regression, contributions of maternal versus paternal BMI status to infant BMI growth curves were evaluated. Cubic spline models also included parental covariates, infant sex, age, and birth variables, and interactions with child’s age. Results Infant BMI curves were significantly different across the three maternal BMI categories (POverall<0.0001), and offspring of obese mothers had greater mean BMI at birth and between 1.5–3.5 years than those of over- and normal weight mothers (P?0.02). Average differences between offspring of obese and normal weight mothers were similar at birth (0.8 kg/m2, P=0.0009) and between 2–3.5 years (0.7–0.8 kg/m2, P<0.0001). Infants of obese fathers also had BMI growth curves distinct from those of normal weight fathers (P=0.02). Infant BMI was more strongly associated with maternal than paternal obesity overall (P<0.0001); significant differences were observed at birth (1.11 kg/m2, P=0.006) and from 2–3 years (0.62 kg/m2, P3years=0.02). Conclusion At birth and in later infancy, maternal BMI has a stronger influence on BMI growth than paternal BMI, suggesting weight control in reproductive age women may be of particular benefit for preventing excess infant BMI. PMID:23042783

Linabery, Amy M.; Nahhas, Ramzi W.; Johnson, William; Choh, Audrey C.; Towne, Bradford; Odegaard, Andrew O.; Czerwinski, Stefan A.; Demerath, Ellen W.

2013-01-01

229

Maternal Personal Exposure to Airborne Benzene and Intrauterine Growth  

PubMed Central

Background Studies relying on outdoor pollutants measures have reported associations between air pollutants and birth weight. Objective Our aim was to assess the relation between maternal personal exposure to airborne benzene during pregnancy and fetal growth. Methods We recruited pregnant women in two French maternity hospitals in 2005–2006 as part of the EDEN mother–child cohort. A subsample of 271 nonsmoking women carried a diffusive air sampler for a week during the 27th gestational week, allowing assessment of benzene exposure. We estimated head circumference of the offspring by ultrasound measurements during the second and third trimesters of pregnancy and at birth. Results Median benzene exposure was 1.8 ?g/m3 (5th, 95th percentiles, 0.5, 7.5 ?g/m3). Log-transformed benzene exposure was associated with a gestational age–adjusted decrease of 68 g in mean birth weight [95% confidence interval (CI), ?135 to ?1 g] and of 1.9 mm in mean head circumference at birth (95% CI, ?3.8 to 0.0 mm). It was associated with an adjusted decrease of 1.9 mm in head circumference assessed during the third trimester (95% CI, ?4.0 to 0.3 mm) and of 1.5 mm in head circumference assessed at the end of the second trimester of pregnancy (95% CI, ?3.1 to 0 mm). Conclusions Our prospective study among pregnant women is one of the first to rely on personal monitoring of exposure; a limitation is that exposure was assessed during 1 week only. Maternal benzene exposure was associated with decreases in birth weight and head circumference during pregnancy and at birth. This association could be attributable to benzene and a mixture of associated traffic-related air pollutants. PMID:19672414

Slama, Rémy; Thiebaugeorges, Olivier; Goua, Valérie; Aussel, Lucette; Sacco, Paolo; Bohet, Aline; Forhan, Anne; Ducot, Béatrice; Annesi-Maesano, Isabella; Heinrich, Joachim; Magnin, Guillaume; Schweitzer, Michel; Kaminski, Monique; Charles, Marie-Aline

2009-01-01

230

Median palmar digital neuropathy in a cheerleader.  

PubMed

Median palmar digital neuropathy developed in a 16-year-old girl as a result of chronic trauma to the palm during cheerleading activities. The clinical findings on examination, which included paresthesias in the distribution of a palmar digital nerve and exacerbation of symptoms with compression of the palm, were consistent with this diagnosis. Nerve conduction studies documented a lesion of the median palmar digital nerve. Avoidance of cheerleading activities resulted in nearly total resolution of the symptoms. Awareness of this entity and the value of nerve conduction studies in establishing the diagnosis may avoid confusion and facilitate correct diagnosis and management. PMID:3778181

Shields, R W; Jacobs, I B

1986-11-01

231

Robotic-assisted median arcuate ligament release.  

PubMed

Median arcuate ligament syndrome results from external compression of the celiac axis by attachments of the diaphragmatic crura. It has been treated with open or laparoscopic surgical decompression of the celiac axis with neurolysis. We describe our initial experience treating three patients using a robotic-assisted technique with median arcuate ligament release and celiac neurolysis. Average operative time was 2.2 hours. No intraoperative complications occurred. At an average of 11 months postoperative (14, 11, and 8 months), two patients continue with resolution of preoperative symptoms. Our experience affirms that further study using the robotic approach appears warranted. PMID:22726754

Relles, Daniel; Moudgill, Neil; Rao, Atul; Rosato, Francis; DiMuzio, Paul; Eisenberg, Joshua

2012-08-01

232

Introduction to Statistics: Mean, Median, Mode  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This lesson is designed to introduce students to statistical measures of central tendency (i.e., mean, median, and mode). The lesson provides links to discussions and activities related to mean, median, and mode, as well as suggested ways to integrate them into the lesson. Upon completion of the lesson, students should understand the differences in the three measures and be able to compute each. Finally, the lesson provides links to follow-up lessons designed for use in succession with learning about the measures of central tendency.

2011-01-20

233

Maternal filicide in Turkey.  

PubMed

Filicide occurs in every socioeconomic stratum around the world. This study was conducted to evaluate motives, psychopathological aspects, and socio-demographic factors of 74 filicide cases of women in Turkey. Mean age of mothers, most of whom committed infanticide, was 26 years, and breakdown of criminal offenses are as follows: "to get rid of unwanted babies" (24.3%), "acute psychotic-type filicide" (21.6%), "fatal child abuse and neglect" (17.6%), "to get revenge" (12.2%), "protect the lonely child from the harm and badness after suicide" (10.8%), and "pity" (9.5%) motives. Results showed that maternal filicide cannot be reduced to only mental instability or environmental factors and indicates deficiencies in the capacity of the mothers' role in connecting with their child and with parenting skills. Finally, with regard to defendants' motives, similar factors that contribute to committing maternal filicide should be considered while making an assessment of the data and determining employee risk groups. PMID:25066272

Eke, Salih Murat; Basoglu, Saba; Bakar, Bulent; Oral, Gokhan

2015-01-01

234

Breastfeeding and maternal employment: results from three national nutritional surveys in Mexico.  

PubMed

To evaluate the association between maternal employment and breastfeeding (both duration and status) in Mexican mothers using data from three National Health and Nutrition Surveys conducted in 1999, 2006 and 2012. We analyzed data from the 1999 National Nutrition Survey, the 2006 National Nutrition and Health Survey, and the 2012 National Nutrition and Health Survey (NNS-1999, NHNS-2006 and NHNS-2012) on 5,385 mothers aged 12-49 years, with infants under 1 year. Multivariate logistic regression models were used to analyze the association between breastfeeding and maternal employment adjusted for maternal and infant's socio-demographic covariates. Maternal formal employment was negatively associated with breastfeeding in Mexican mothers with infants under 1 year. Formally employed mothers were 20 % less likely to breastfeed compared to non-formally employed mothers and 27 % less likely to breastfeed compared to unemployed mothers. Difference in median duration of breastfeeding between formally employed and unemployed mothers was 5.7 months for NNS-1999, 4.7 months for NNHS-2006 and 6.7 months for NNHS-2012 respectively (p < 0.05). In NHNS-2006 and NHNS-2012, health care access was associated with longer breastfeeding duration. Maternal employment has been negatively associated with breastfeeding in Mexican mothers of <1 year infants at least for the last 15 years. For Mexicans involved in policy design, implementation or modification, these data might offer robust evidence on this negative association, and can be used confidently as basis for conceiving a more just legislation for working lactating women. PMID:25366099

Rivera-Pasquel, Marta; Escobar-Zaragoza, Leticia; González de Cosío, Teresita

2015-05-01

235

The sisterhood method for estimating maternal mortality.  

PubMed

Currently, 3 main sources of information are available on maternal deaths: vital registration, health service statistics, and community-based surveys. These vary in availability and suitability for studying various aspects of maternal mortality. A new indirect technique for deriving population-based estimates called the sisterhood method provides an approach for estimating maternal mortality at a national and subnational level. This method uses the proportion of adult sisters dying during pregnancy, childbirth, or the puerperium to derive a variety of indicators of maternal mortality. The information is collected during a census or survey, by interviewing all adults over age 15. 4 questions, together with the age of the adult respondent (grouped into 5-year intervals) form the basic data required. The questions ascertain the total number of sisters now dead or alive, who ever reached age 15 (or menarche) or who were ever married, and the number of sisters who have died while pregnant, during a delivery, or up to 6 weeks after the end of a pregnancy. The wording of questions is critical and needs to be culturally appropriate for each situation to ensure that all sisters at risk of maternal death are accounted for. The 1st field trial of the method was carried out in The Gambia in late 1987. Over 5 days, interviews were carried out with 2163 man and women over age 15 living in 6 rural villages. The results were compared with those of earlier prospective studies in the same area to assess accuracy. The lifetime risk of maternal mortality among this rural population was found to be 0.058 or 1 in 17 chance of death from pregnancy-related causes during the reproductive period, or a maternal mortality ratio of about 1005 maternal deaths/100,000 live births. The previous study estimates were 1050 and 950/100,000 live births covering the period 1951-75 for 2 nearby villages. PMID:12315920

Graham, W

1989-01-01

236

Bamzooki: Median, Mode, Mean, and Range  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this application students must use the Bamzooki creatures to find the Median, Mode, Mean, and Range. Students receive a score for the amount correct and are given tips when they complete a task incorrectly. The application is accompanied by a link to definitions for each term and a link to a multiple choice quiz.

2012-01-01

237

Candy Colors: Figuring the Mean, Median & Mode  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this lesson, students will count candy of different colors and use the data to calculate mean, median, and mode. Groups of students will work together to share their data and calculate the measures of central tendency again. At the end of the lesson, they will apply their learning to another collection of data.

National Education Association

2009-07-16

238

Does warmth moderate longitudinal associations between maternal spanking and child aggression in early childhood?  

PubMed

This study examines whether maternal warmth moderates the association between maternal use of spanking and increased child aggression between ages 1 and 5. Participants were 3,279 pairs of mothers and their children from a cohort study of urban families from 20 U.S. cities. Maternal spanking was assessed when the child was 1 year, 3 years, and 5 years of age. Maternal warmth and child aggressive behavior were measured at 3 years and 5 years of age. Models controlled for demographic characteristics (measured at the child's birth), child emotionality (measured at age 1), and maternal psychosocial risk factors (measured when children were 3 years old). Cross-lagged path models examined the within-time and longitudinal associations between spanking and child aggression. Results indicated that maternal spanking at age 1 was associated with higher levels of child aggression at age 3; similarly, maternal spanking at age 3 predicted increases in child aggression by age 5. Maternal warmth when children were 3 years old did not predict changes in child aggression between 3 and 5 years old. Furthermore, maternal warmth did not moderate the association between spanking and increased child aggression over time. Beginning as early as age 1, maternal spanking is predictive of child behavior problems, and maternal warmth does not counteract the negative consequences of the use of spanking. PMID:23339588

Lee, Shawna J; Altschul, Inna; Gershoff, Elizabeth T

2013-11-01

239

Maternal and Child nutrition  

E-print Network

Maternal and Child nutrition Earn an advanced degree in a highly specialized field Taught #12;Courses: Nutrition During Pregnancy Lactation and Infant Nutrition Child and Adolescent Nutrition Applied Research Methods in Maternal and Child Nutrition Topics in Epidemiology of Maternal and Child

Schladow, S. Geoffrey

240

Effects of maternal body morphology, morning sickness, gestational diabetes and hypertension on fluctuating asymmetry in young women  

Microsoft Academic Search

The magnitude of fluctuating asymmetry (FA)—an indicator of genetic and phenotypic quality—can be affected by genetic perturbations, environmental stressors, and maternal effect (maternal age, diseases, dietary deficiency). Maternal effect on human FA has been typically investigated in newborns or very young children. There are no studies investigating whether maternal effect can disrupt developmental mechanisms responsible for the secondary sexual traits

Devendra Singh; Valerie C. Rosen

2001-01-01

241

Environmental and maternal correlates of foetal sex ratios in the African buffalo (Syncerus caffer) and savanna elephant (Loxodonta africana)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many species exhibit skewed sex ratios at birth. Here we investigate the relationships between environmental and maternal variables (as surrogates for maternal condition) and foetal sex in African buffalo Syncerus caffer and elephant Loxodonta africana of the Kruger National Park, South Africa. Using logistic regression no significant effect was found of year, maternal lactational status, maternal age, rainfall or density

D. R. Visscher; R. J. van Aarde; I. Whyte

2004-01-01

242

Maternal mild hyperphenylalaninaemia: an international survey of offspring outcome.  

PubMed

Maternal phenylketonuria (PKU) has adverse effects on the offspring including microcephaly, mental retardation, congenital heart disease, and intrauterine growth retardation. Maternal non-PKU mild hyperphenylalaninaemia (MHP) is believed to be benign, but whether there may be long-term consequences to offspring is unclear. In an international survey we have obtained information about 86 mothers with MHP (blood phenylalanine 167-715 mumol/L), their 219 untreated pregnancies, and 173 offspring. Spontaneous fetal loss (13% of pregnancies), congenital heart disease (2.3% of offspring), and severe non-cardiac anomalies (2.9% of offspring) occurred at frequencies within expected limits for the general population. For weight and length at birth the median percentile was the 50th but that for birth head circumference was the 25th. Median z-scores for birth length and head circumference were significantly lower for offspring of mothers with phenylalanine concentrations above 400 mumol/L than for those whose mothers had lower values (p = 0.05 and p = 0.005, respectively). The median intelligence quotient (IQ) of the offspring (3-27 years) was 100 for those whose mothers had higher phenylalanine concentrations and 108 for those of the lower phenylalaninaemia group. However, offspring IQ correlated slightly more closely with maternal IQ (r = 0.53, p < 0.001) than with maternal phenylalanine concentration (r = 0.45, p = 0.02). Maternal MHP does not seem to have serious consequences for the fetus. A maternal phenylalanine concentration of less than 400 mumol/L does not warrant intervention. Nevertheless, maternal blood phenylalanine above this value is associated with slightly lower birth measurements and offspring IQ than lower maternal blood phenylalanine concentrations. PMID:7983992

Levy, H L; Waisbren, S E; Lobbregt, D; Allred, E; Schuler, A; Trefz, F K; Schweitzer, S M; Sardharwalla, I B; Walter, J H; Barwell, B E

1994-12-10

243

Collagen nerve wrap for median nerve scarring.  

PubMed

Nerve wrapping materials have been manufactured to inhibit nerve tissue adhesions and diminish inflammatory and immunologic reactions in nerve surgery. Collagen nerve wrap is a biodegradable type I collagen material that acts as an interface between the nerve and the surrounding tissues. Its main advantage is that it stays in place during the period of tissue healing and is then gradually absorbed once tissue healing is completed. This article presents a surgical technique that used a collagen nerve wrap for the management of median nerve tissue adhesions in 2 patients with advanced carpal tunnel syndrome due to median nerve scarring and adhesions. At last follow-up, both patients had complete resolution with no recurrence of their symptoms. Complications related to the biodegradable material were not observed. PMID:25665110

Kokkalis, Zinon T; Mavrogenis, Andreas F; Ballas, Efstathios G; Papagelopoulos, Panayiotis J; Soucacos, Panayotis N

2015-02-01

244

Pulsed radiofrequency of the median nerve under ultrasound guidance.  

PubMed

Neuropathy of the median nerve within the carpal tunnel (carpal tunnel syndrome) has an age adjusted incidence of 105 cases per 100,000 person years. Treatment of carpal tunnel syndrome ranges from conservative management with medication and exercise to surgical release of the median nerve. Conservative treatment accounts for a significant portion of resources utilized and includes splinting, nerve gliding, ultrasound, and carpal bone mobilization. Recurrent symptoms of carpal tunnel syndrome have been shown to occur in 0% to 19% of patients following carpal tunnel release, with up to 12% requiring re-exploration. Prognosis for re-exploration is not as good as for primary carpal tunnel release, with a high recurrence rate in some populations. Ultrasound has seen increasing use in regional anesthesia and has been shown to improve the quality of regional anesthetic blocks. Pulsed radiofrequency was developed with the goal of providing reduction in pain from the use of electrical fields in the absence of neural injury. The use of ultrasound guidance for positioning radiofrequency probes over peripheral nerves has not been reported. This case report describes the use of ultrasound guided pulsed radiofrequency in the treatment of recurrent carpal tunnel syndrome. Following revision carpal tunnel surgery, the patient in this report was unable to obtain relief of pain in either hand with medication therapy alone. After a successful diagnostic median nerve block at the cubital fossa, pulsed radiofrequency of the median nerve was performed on the left side at the cubital fossa, under ultrasound guidance. Radiofrequency probe adjustment around the nerve was conducted under live ultrasound guidance and multiple pulsed treatments were applied at anatomically distinct sites over the nerve. A 70% reduction in pain was reported over the follow up period of 12 weeks. PMID:17987099

Haider, Naeem; Mekasha, Daniel; Chiravuri, Srinivas; Wasserman, Ronald

2007-11-01

245

A semblance-guided median filter  

SciTech Connect

A slowness selective median filter based on information from a local set of traces is described and implemented. The filter is constructed in two steps, the first being an estimation of a preferred slowness and the second, the selection of a median or trimmed mean value to replace the original data point. A symmetric window of traces defining the filter aperture is selected about each trace to be filtered and the filter applied repeatedly to each time point. The preferred slowness is determined by scanning a range of linear moveouts within the user-specified slowness passband. Semblance is computed for each trial slowness and the preferred slowness selected from the peak semblance value. Data points collected along this preferred slowness are then sorted from lowest to highest and in the case of a pure median filter, the middle point(s) selected to replace the original data point. This approach may be sued as a velocity filter to estimate coherent signal within a specified slowness passband and reject coherent energy outside this range. For applications of this type, other velocity estimators may be used in place of the authors semblance measure to provide improved velocity estimation and better filter performance. The filter aperture may also be extended to provide increased velocity estimation, but will result in additional lateral smearing of signal. The authors show that, in addition to a velocity filter, their approach may be used to improve signal-to-noise ratios in noisy data. The median filter tends to suppress the amplitude of random background noise and semblance weighting may be used to reduce the amplitude of background noise further while enhancing coherent signal.

Reiter, E.C. (New England Research Geoscience, Quincy, MA (United States)); Toksoz, M.N. (Massachusetts Inst. of Tech., Cambridge (United States)); Purdy, G.M. (Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, MA (United States))

1993-01-01

246

Portfolio optimization using median-variance approach  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Optimization models have been applied in many decision-making problems particularly in portfolio selection. Since the introduction of Markowitz's theory of portfolio selection, various approaches based on mathematical programming have been introduced such as mean-variance, mean-absolute deviation, mean-variance-skewness and conditional value-at-risk (CVaR) mainly to maximize return and minimize risk. However most of the approaches assume that the distribution of data is normal and this is not generally true. As an alternative, in this paper, we employ the median-variance approach to improve the portfolio optimization. This approach has successfully catered both types of normal and non-normal distribution of data. With this actual representation, we analyze and compare the rate of return and risk between the mean-variance and the median-variance based portfolio which consist of 30 stocks from Bursa Malaysia. The results in this study show that the median-variance approach is capable to produce a lower risk for each return earning as compared to the mean-variance approach.

Wan Mohd, Wan Rosanisah; Mohamad, Daud; Mohamed, Zulkifli

2013-04-01

247

Sudden expansion of a single brown bear maternal lineage across northern continental Eurasia after the last ice age: a general demographic model for mammals?  

PubMed

The brown bear has proved a useful model for studying Late Quaternary mammalian phylogeography. However, information is lacking from northern continental Eurasia, which constitutes a large part of the species' current distribution. We analysed mitochondrial DNA sequences (totalling 1943 bp) from 205 bears from northeast Europe and Russia in order to characterize the maternal phylogeography of bears in this region. We also estimated the formation times of the sampled brown bear lineages and those of its extinct relative, the cave bear. Four closely related haplogroups belonging to a single mitochondrial subclade were identified in northern continental Eurasia. Several haplotypes were found throughout the whole study area, while one haplogroup was restricted to Kamchatka. The haplotype network, estimated divergence times and various statistical tests indicated that bears in northern continental Eurasia recently underwent a sudden expansion, preceded by a severe bottleneck. This brown bear population was therefore most likely founded by a small number of bears that were restricted to a single refuge area during the last glacial maximum. This pattern has been described previously for other mammal species and as such may represent one general model for the phylogeography of Eurasian mammals. Bayesian divergence time estimates are presented for different brown and cave bear clades. Moreover, our results demonstrate the extent of substitution rate variation occurring throughout the phylogenetic tree, highlighting the need for appropriate calibration when estimating divergence times. PMID:19434812

Korsten, Marju; Ho, Simon Y W; Davison, John; Pähn, Berit; Vulla, Egle; Roht, Maris; Tumanov, Igor L; Kojola, Ilpo; Andersone-Lilley, Zanete; Ozolins, Janis; Pilot, Malgorzata; Mertzanis, Yorgos; Giannakopoulos, Alexios; Vorobiev, Alex A; Markov, Nikolai I; Saveljev, Alexander P; Lyapunova, Elena A; Abramov, Alexei V; Männil, Peep; Valdmann, Harri; Pazetnov, Sergei V; Pazetnov, Valentin S; Rõkov, Alexander M; Saarma, Urmas

2009-05-01

248

Decay of maternal antibodies in broiler chickens.  

PubMed

The objective of this study was to determine the decay rate of maternal antibodies against major broiler chicken pathogens. A total of 30 one-day-old broiler chicks were obtained from a commercial hatchery and reared in isolation. These chicks were retrieved from a parent flock that received a routine vaccination program. Chicks were bled at hatch and sequentially thereafter every 5 d through 30 d of age. Maternal antibody titers were measured by ELISA for avian encephalomyelitis (AEV), avian influenza virus (AIV), chicken anemia virus (CAV), infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV), infectious bronchitis virus (IBV), infectious laryngotracheitis virus (ILTV), Mycoplasma gallisepticum (MG), Mycoplasma synoviae (MS), and reovirus (Reo). Maternal antibody titers for Newcastle disease virus (NDV) were measured using a hemagglutination inhibition test. Half-life estimates of maternal antibody titers were 5.3, 4.2, 7, 5.1, 3.9, 3.8, 4.9, 4.1, 6.3, and 4.7 d for AEV, AIV, CAV, IBDV, IBV, ILTV, MG, MS, NDV, and Reo, respectively. The statistical analysis revealed significant differences among half-lives of maternal antibody titers against certain pathogens. Furthermore, all maternal antibody titers were depleted by 10 d of age except for IBDV. PMID:23960115

Gharaibeh, Saad; Mahmoud, Kamel

2013-09-01

249

Schmallenberg virus antibody persistence in adult cattle after natural infection and decay of maternal antibodies in calves  

PubMed Central

Background Schmallenberg virus (SBV) has swept through the major part of Europe in the period 2011–2013. A vaccine against SBV has been developed and may be a possible preventive instrument against infection. Presently, there is no data available to refute the assumption that natural SBV infection results in long-term immunity. In that respect, it is of interest to know how long (protecting) virus-neutralizing antibodies are present in naturally infected animals. New-born calves acquire passive immunity from their dams by ingestion and absorption of antibodies present in colostrum, which can block the production of serum antibodies when vaccine is administered to calves with maternally derived antibodies. In that respect, it is useful to know how long it takes for maternal antibodies against SBV to disappear in young animals born from infected dams. Results Longitudinal whole-herd serological monitoring using virus neutralization test (VNT) indicated that 80% of adult dairy cows still had measurable antibodies against SBV at least 24 months after the estimated introduction of the virus into the herd. Median 2Log VNT titer of the adult dairy cows (?1 year) dropped from 8.6 to 5.6 in a period of 17 months. Median 2Log VNT maternal antibodies titers of calves sampled within 30 days after birth was 8. Calves lost their maternally-derived antibodies after 5–6 months. There was a definite positive relationship between the VNT titer of the dam and the VNT titer of the corresponding calf (age ? 30 days) of dam-calf combinations sampled on the same day: the higher the VNT titer of the dam, the higher the VNT titer (maternal antibodies) of the calf. Conclusions Our field data support the assumption that natural SBV infection in adult cows results in persistence of specific antibodies for at least two years. Based on the observed decay of maternally-derived antibodies in calves, it is presumed safe to vaccinate calves against SBV at an age of approximately 6 months. PMID:24885026

2014-01-01

250

Prenatal Exposure to Maternal Cigarette Smoking and DNA Methylation: Epigenome-Wide Association in a Discovery Sample of Adolescents and Replication in an Independent Cohort at Birth through 17 Years of Age  

PubMed Central

Background: Prenatal exposure to maternal cigarette smoking (prenatal smoke exposure) had been associated with altered DNA methylation (DNAm) at birth. Objective: We examined whether such alterations are present from birth through adolescence. Methods: We used the Infinium HumanMethylation450K BeadChip to search across 473,395 CpGs for differential DNAm associated with prenatal smoke exposure during adolescence in a discovery cohort (n = 132) and at birth, during childhood, and during adolescence in a replication cohort (n = 447). Results: In the discovery cohort, we found five CpGs in MYO1G (top-ranking CpG: cg12803068, p = 3.3 × 10–11) and CNTNAP2 (cg25949550, p = 4.0 × 10–9) to be differentially methylated between exposed and nonexposed individuals during adolescence. The CpGs in MYO1G and CNTNAP2 were associated, respectively, with higher and lower DNAm in exposed versus nonexposed adolescents. The same CpGs were differentially methylated at birth, during childhood, and during adolescence in the replication cohort. In both cohorts and at all developmental time points, the differential DNAm was in the same direction and of a similar magnitude, and was not altered appreciably by adjustment for current smoking by the participants or their parents. In addition, four of the five EWAS (epigenome-wide association study)–significant CpGs in the adolescent discovery cohort were also among the top sites of differential methylation in a previous birth cohort, and differential methylation of CpGs in CYP1A1, AHRR, and GFI1 observed in that study was also evident in our discovery cohort. Conclusions: Our findings suggest that modifications of DNAm associated with prenatal maternal smoking may persist in exposed offspring for many years—at least until adolescence. Citation: Lee KW, Richmond R, Hu P, French L, Shin J, Bourdon C, Reischl E, Waldenberger M, Zeilinger S, Gaunt T, McArdle W, Ring S, Woodward G, Bouchard L, Gaudet D, Davey Smith G, Relton C, Paus T, Pausova Z. 2015. Prenatal exposure to maternal cigarette smoking and DNA methylation: epigenome-wide association in a discovery sample of adolescents and replication in an independent cohort at birth through 17 years of age. Environ Health Perspect 123:193–199;?http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/ehp.1408614 PMID:25325234

Lee, Ken W.K.; Richmond, Rebecca; Hu, Pingzhao; French, Leon; Shin, Jean; Bourdon, Celine; Reischl, Eva; Waldenberger, Melanie; Zeilinger, Sonja; Gaunt, Tom; McArdle, Wendy; Ring, Susan; Woodward, Geoff; Bouchard, Luigi; Gaudet, Daniel; Smith, George Davey; Relton, Caroline; Paus, Tomas

2014-01-01

251

Estimates of maternal mortality for 1995.  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE: To present estimates of maternal mortality in 188 countries, areas, and territories for 1995 using methodologies that attempt to improve comparability. METHODS: For countries having data directly relevant to the measurement of maternal mortality, a variety of adjustment procedures can be applied depending on the nature of the data used. Estimates for countries lacking relevant data may be made using a statistical model fitted to the information from countries that have data judged to be of good quality. Rather than estimate the Maternal Mortality Ratio (MMRatio) directly, this model estimates the proportion of deaths of women of reproductive age that are due to maternal causes. Estimates of the number of maternal deaths are then obtained by applying this proportion to the best available figure of the total number of deaths among women of reproductive age. FINDINGS: On the basis of this exercise, we have obtained a global estimate of 515,000 maternal deaths in 1995, with a worldwide MMRatio of 397 per 100,000 live births. The differences, by region, were very great, with over half (273,000 maternal deaths) occurring in Africa (MMRatio: > 1000 per 100,000), compared with a total of only 2000 maternal deaths in Europe (MMRatio: 28 per 100,000). Lower and upper uncertainty bounds were also estimated, on the basis of which the global MMRatio was unlikely to be less than 234 or more than 635 per 100,000 live births. These uncertainty bounds and those of national estimates are so wide that comparisons between countries must be made with caution, and no valid conclusions can be drawn about trends over a period of time. CONCLUSION: The MMRatio is thus an imperfect indicator of reproductive health because it is hard to measure precisely. It is preferable to use process indicators for comparing reproductive health between countries or across time periods, and for monitoring and evaluation purposes. PMID:11285661

Hill, K.; AbouZhar, C.; Wardlaw, T.

2001-01-01

252

Paying for maternity care.  

PubMed

The costs of prenatal care and the delivery of newborns are continuously increasing. In the 3 years since 1982 alone, the cost of a hospital delivery has increased approximately 40%. 40% of all births in the US are to women aged 18-24. These women compose the highest risk group for having complications of pregnancy. It is alarming that in 1984 more than 25% of these women had no form of insurance to cover the costs. Poor, minority, and unemployed women are most likely to lack coverage. The 3 basic types of coverage are individual or direct, employer's or indirect, and federal. Direct insurance is not always affordable and often provides incomplete coverage. Employer's insurance is often able to cover the costs of maternity care for many young women. However, a high rate of job turnover and the loss of a husband due to death or divorce excludes teenagers, widows, and divorcees from maintaining this type of indirect insurance. Federal insurance in the form of Medicaid has strict eligibility requirements. In nearly 1/2 the states one must be below the poverty level in order to be eligible, and the benefits vary among the states. In addition, many practitioners will not accept Medicaid as payment. The Aid to Families With Dependent Children is available in lieu of Medicaid, but only to single mothers who already have dependent children. The Maternal Child Health block grant is designed to equalize the differences in Medicaid eligibility among states and to give coverage to poor women who are ineligible for Medicaid. The individual states are allowed to allot the monies for this grant without qualifications for minimum services, with the result that it is unknown which women receive necessary services. PMID:3916182

Gold, R B; Kenney, A M

1985-01-01

253

Young Mother-Father Dyads and Maternal Harsh Parenting Behavior  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: This study examined whether the age of parents predicted maternal harsh parenting behavior, specifically whether younger mothers might be at higher risk than older mothers, and which paternal characteristics might be associated with maternal parenting behavior. Methodology: This study used data from the Fragile Families and Child…

Lee, Yookyong; Guterman, Neil B.

2010-01-01

254

Prenatal Development of Intrafetal and Maternal–Fetal Synchrony  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fetal and maternal data were monitored serially at 6 gestational ages from 20 to 38 weeks in 195 Peruvian fetuses. Digitized data included fetal heart rate and motor activity, as well as maternal heart rate and electrodermal conductance. Time series analysis evaluated the development of synchrony in 2 streams of fetal functioning and between mothers and fetuses. Intrafetal synchrony between

Janet A. DiPietro; Laura E. Caulfield; Rafael A. Irizarry; Ping Chen; Mario Merialdi; Nelly Zavaleta

2006-01-01

255

Raltegravir pharmacokinetics in neonates following maternal dosing.  

PubMed

: International Maternal Pediatric Adolescent AIDS Clinical Trials P1097 was a multicenter trial to determine washout pharmacokinetics and safety of in utero/intrapartum exposure to raltegravir in infants born to HIV-infected pregnant women receiving raltegravir-based antiretroviral therapy. Twenty-two mother-infant pairs were enrolled; evaluable pharmacokinetic data were available from 19 mother-infant pairs. Raltegravir readily crossed the placenta, with a median cord blood/maternal delivery plasma raltegravir concentration ratio of 1.48 (range, 0.32-4.33). Raltegravir elimination was highly variable and extremely prolonged in some infants; [median t1/2 26.6 (range, 9.3-184) hours]. Prolonged raltegravir elimination likely reflects low neonatal UGT1A1 enzyme activity and enterohepatic recirculation. Excessive raltegravir concentrations must be avoided in the neonate because raltegravir at high plasma concentrations may increase the risk of bilirubin neurotoxicity. Subtherapeutic concentrations, which could lead to inadequate viral suppression and development of raltegravir resistance, must also be avoided. Two ongoing International Maternal Pediatric Adolescent AIDS Clinical Trials studies are further investigating the pharmacology of raltegravir in neonates. PMID:25162819

Clarke, Diana F; Acosta, Edward P; Rizk, Matthew L; Bryson, Yvonne J; Spector, Stephen A; Mofenson, Lynne M; Handelsman, Edward; Teppler, Hedy; Welebob, Carolee; Persaud, Deborah; Cababasay, Mae P; Wang, JiaJia; Mirochnick, Mark

2014-11-01

256

Stability and change of maternal speech to Italian infants from 7 to 21 months of age: a longitudinal study of its influence on early stages of language acquisition  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fourteen Italian infants were observed during play-interaction with their mothers in six laboratory sessions taking place about every two months from 7 to 21 months of age. They were video- recorded and transcribed to obtain data on the frequency of mothers' verbal behaviour and its pragmatic and semantic charac teristics. Infants' productions were also classified as babbling, words or multi-word

Laura DOdorico; Nicoletta Salerni; Rosalinda Cassibba; Valentina Jacob

1999-01-01

257

Does Warmth Moderate Longitudinal Associations between Maternal Spanking and Child Aggression in Early Childhood?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examines whether maternal warmth moderates the association between maternal use of spanking and increased child aggression between ages 1 and 5. Participants were 3,279 pairs of mothers and their children from a cohort study of urban families from 20 U.S. cities. Maternal spanking was assessed when the child was 1 year, 3 years, and 5…

Lee, Shawna J.; Altschul, Inna; Gershoff, Elizabeth T.

2013-01-01

258

Maternal child-rearing practices and social problem-solving strategies among preschoolers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Examined the relation of nurturant and restrictive maternal childrearing practices and maternal education to the types of social problem-solving strategies used by 72 preschoolers (mean age 4 yrs 7 mo). Children were administered the Preschool Interpersonal Problem Solving Test, and mothers completed the Child Rearing Practices Report. Maternal variables successfully predicted 5 out of 9 strategies identified. Restrictiveness was positively

Diane C. Jones; Annette U. Rickel; Richard L. Smith

1980-01-01

259

Maternal plasma leptin is increased in preeclampsia and positively correlates with fetal cord concentration  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: We tested the hypothesis that the maternal leptin concentration would be increased in preeclampsia, independent of maternal obesity. Study Design: Maternal and cord plasma leptin concentrations were compared in 2 groups of women with either preeclampsia (n = 24) or normal pregnancy (n = 24), matched 1:1 for prepregnancy body mass index and fetal gestational age at sampling. Results:

John F. McCarthy; Dhirendra N. Misra; James M. Roberts

1999-01-01

260

Woman-Centered Maternity Nursing Education and Practice  

PubMed Central

The purpose of this Heideggerian phenomenological study was to uncover the meanings of the clinical experiences of registered nurses working in maternity settings after they studied maternity nursing from a woman-centered, feminist perspective in a generic baccalaureate nursing program. Purposeful sampling was conducted to locate and recruit nurses who had graduated from this nursing program between the December 1996 and December 1998 semesters and were currently working in a maternal-newborn clinical setting. Each participant had taken the required woman-centered, maternity-nursing course during her/his undergraduate education. Data collection included an individual, open-ended interview that focused on the nurses' descriptions of their everyday practices as maternity nurses. Nineteen maternal-newborn nurses between the ages of 23 and 43 years who had been in practice from six months to three years were interviewed. The constitutive patterns identified from the interviews were: “Otherness,” “Being and Becoming Woman-Centered,” and “Tensions in Practicing Woman-Centered Care.” Findings revealed that the nurses had a raised awareness of oppressive maternity care practices and applied ideology of woman-centeredness as a framework for providing more humanistic care. Creating woman-centered maternity care meant negotiating tensions and barriers in medically focused maternity settings and looking for opportunities for advocacy and woman-empowerment. The barriers the nurses faced in implementing woman-centered care exposed limitations to childbearing choices and nursing practices that remain problematic in maternity care. PMID:17273327

Giarratano, Gloria

2003-01-01

261

Maternal Height and Child Growth Patterns  

PubMed Central

Objective To examine associations between maternal height and child growth during 4 developmental periods: intrauterine, birth to age 2 years, age 2 years to mid-childhood (MC), and MC to adulthood. Study design Pooled analysis of maternal height and offspring growth using 7630 mother–child pairs from 5 birth cohorts (Brazil, Guatemala, India, the Philippines, and South Africa). We used conditional height measures that control for collinearity in height across periods. We estimated associations between maternal height and offspring growth using multivariate regression models adjusted for household income, child sex, birth order, and study site. Results Maternal height was associated with birth weight and with both height and conditional height at each age examined. The strongest associations with conditional heights were for adulthood and 2 years of age. A 1-cm increase in maternal height predicted a 0.024 (95% CI: 0.021-0.028) SD increase in offspring birth weight, a 0.037 (95% CI: 0.033-0.040) SD increase in conditional height at 2 years, a 0.025 (95% CI: 0.021-0.029 SD increase in conditional height in MC, and a 0.044 (95% CI: 0.040-0.048) SD increase in conditional height in adulthood. Short mothers (<150.1 cm) were more likely to have a child who was stunted at 2 years (prevalence ratio = 3.20 (95% CI: 2.80-3.60) and as an adult (prevalence ratio = 4.74, (95% CI: 4.13-5.44). There was no evidence of heterogeneity by site or sex. Conclusion Maternal height influences offspring linear growth over the growing period. These influences likely include genetic and non-genetic factors, including nutrition-related intergenerational influences on growth that prevent the attainment of genetic height potential in low- and middle-income countries. PMID:23477997

Addo, O. Yaw; Stein, Aryeh D.; Fall, Caroline H.; Gigante, Denise P.; Guntupalli, Aravinda M.; Horta, Bernardo L.; Kuzawa, Christopher W.; Lee, Nanette; Norris, Shane A.; Prabhakaran, Poornima; Richter, Linda M.; Sachdev, Harshpal S.; Martorell, Reynaldo

2013-01-01

262

Maternal History of Parentification, Maternal Warm Responsiveness, and Children’s Externalizing Behavior  

PubMed Central

Destructive parentification occurs when children are expected to provide instrumental or emotional caregiving within the family system that overtaxes their developmental capacity. According to parentification theory, destructive parentification in family of origin poses a risk to child development in subsequent generations; however, there is a paucity of empirical research examining the impact of a maternal history of destructive parentification on parenting quality and child outcomes in subsequent generations. The present study examined the potential risk of maternal history of parentification on child adjustment by hypothesizing that a maternal history of parentification in family of origin would have a negative impact on quality of maternal warm responsiveness at 18 months of age which would, in turn, be associated with increased children’s externalizing symptoms at 36 months. Results indicated that there was a significant indirect effect of maternal history of destructive parentification in family of origin on child externalizing behavior in the next generation through maternal warm responsiveness, supporting the hypothesized model. This finding suggests that facilitating the development of maternal contingent responsiveness among mothers with a history of destructive parentification may promote more adaptive child development in the next generation. PMID:22888779

Nuttall, Amy K.; Valentino, Kristin; Borkowski, John G.

2012-01-01

263

Maternal Characteristics Predicting Young Girls' Disruptive Behavior  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Little is known about the relative predictive utility of maternal characteristics and parenting skills on the development of girls' disruptive behavior. The current study used five waves of parent- and child-report data from the ongoing Pittsburgh Girls Study to examine these relationships in a sample of 1,942 girls from age 7 to 12 years.…

van der Molen, Elsa; Hipwell, Alison E.; Vermeiren, Robert; Loeber, Rolf

2011-01-01

264

Distance, transportation cost, and mode of transport in the utilization of facility-based maternity services: evidence from rural Bangladesh.  

PubMed

Although the maternal mortality ratio in Bangladesh has decreased, significant underutilization of facilities continues to be a persistent challenge to policy makers. Women face long distances and significant transportation cost to deliver at health facilities. This study identifies the distance traveled to utilize facilities, associated transportation cost, and transport mode used for maternal healthcare services. A total of 3,300 mothers aged 18-49 years, who had given birth in the year before the survey, were interviewed from 22 sub-districts in 2010. Findings suggest that facility-based maternal healthcare service utilization was very poor. Only 53% of women received antenatal care, 20% used delivery care. and 10% used postnatal care from health centers. Median distance traveled for antenatal and postnatal check-ups was 2 kilometers but 4 kilometers for complication management care and delivery. Most women used non-motorized rickshaw or van to reach a health facility. On average, women spent Taka 100 (US$1.40) as transportation cost for antenatal care, Taka 432 (US$6.17) for delivery, and Taka 132 (US$1.89) for postnatal check-up. For each additional kilometer, the cost increased by Taka 9 (US$0.13) for antenatal, Taka 31 (US$0.44) for delivery, and Taka 8 (US$0.11) for postnatal care. PMID:25416431

Keya, Kaji Tamanna; Rob, Ubaidur; Rahman, Moshiur; Bajracharya, Ashish; Bellows, Benjamin

2014-01-01

265

Transcriptomics of Maternal and Fetal Membranes Can Discriminate between Gestational-Age Matched Preterm Neonates with and without Cognitive Impairment Diagnosed at 18–24 Months  

PubMed Central

Background Neurocognitive impairment among children born preterm may arise from complex interactions between genes and the intra-uterine environment. Objectives (1) To characterize the transcriptomic profiles of chorioamniotic membranes in preterm neonates with and without neurocognitive impairment via microarrays and (2) to determine if neonates with neurocognitive impairment can be identified at birth. Materials/Methods A retrospective case-control study was conducted to examine the chorioamniotic transcriptome of gestational-age matched very preterm neonates with and without neurocognitive impairment at 18–24 months’ corrected-age defined by a Bayley-III Cognitive Composite Score <80 (n = 14 each). Pathway analysis with down-weighting of overlapping genes (PADOG) was performed to identify KEGG pathways relevant to the phenotype. Select differentially expressed genes were profiled using qRT-PCR and a multi-gene disease prediction model was developed using linear discriminant analysis. The model’s predictive performance was tested on a new set of cases and controls (n = 19 each). Results 1) 117 genes were differentially expressed among neonates with and without subsequent neurocognitive impairment (p<0.05 and fold change >1.5); 2) Gene ontology analysis indicated enrichment of 19 biological processes and 3 molecular functions; 3)PADOG identified 4 significantly perturbed KEGG pathways: oxidative phosphorylation, Parkinson’s disease, Alzheimer’s disease and Huntington’s disease (q-value <0.1); 4) 48 of 90 selected differentially expressed genes were confirmed by qRT-PCR, including genes implicated in energy metabolism, neuronal signaling, vascular permeability and response to injury (e.g., up-regulation of SEPP1, APOE, DAB2, CD163, CXCL12, VWF; down-regulation of HAND1, OSR1)(p<0.05); and 5) a multi-gene model predicted 18–24 month neurocognitive impairment (using the ratios of OSR1/VWF and HAND1/VWF at birth) in a larger, independent set (sensitivity = 74%, at specificity = 83%). Conclusions Gene expression patterns in the chorioamniotic membranes link neurocognitive impairment in preterm infants to neurodegenerative disease pathways and might be used to predict neurocognitive impairment. Further prospective studies are needed. PMID:25822971

Pappas, Athina; Chaiworapongsa, Tinnakorn; Romero, Roberto; Korzeniewski, Steven J.; Cortez, Josef C.; Bhatti, Gaurav; Gomez-Lopez, Nardhy; Hassan, Sonia S.; Shankaran, Seetha; Tarca, Adi L.

2015-01-01

266

Neonatal thyrotoxicosis caused by maternal autoimmune hyperthyroidism.  

PubMed

Neonatal immune hyperthyroidism is a rare but potentially fatal condition. It occurs in 1-5% of infants born to women with Graves' disease (GD). In most of the cases it is due to maternal antibodies transferred from the mother into the fetal compartment, stimulating the fetal thyroid by binding thyrotropin (thyroid-stimulating hormone, TSH) receptor. We present a case of neonatal thyrotoxicosis due to maternal GD detected at 25?days of age and discuss the potential pitfalls in the diagnosis. PMID:25750228

Correia, Miguel Fragata; Maria, Ana Teresa; Prado, Sara; Limbert, Catarina

2015-01-01

267

Approximate Graph Matching and Computing Median Graph for Graph Clustering  

Microsoft Academic Search

We propose in this paper a new algorithm for computing the median of a set of graphs. The median graph is a useful tool for the clustering problem. The concept of median allows the extension of conventional algorithms such as the k-means to graph clustering, helping to bridge the gap between statistical and structural approaches to pattern recognition. An experimental

Adel Hlaoui; Shengrui Wang

268

Maternal Obesity, Inflammation, and Developmental Programming  

PubMed Central

The prevalence of obesity, especially in women of child-bearing age, is a global health concern. In addition to increasing the immediate risk of gestational complications, there is accumulating evidence that maternal obesity also has long-term consequences for the offspring. The concept of developmental programming describes the process in which an environmental stimulus, including altered nutrition, during critical periods of development can program alterations in organogenesis, tissue development, and metabolism, predisposing offspring to obesity and metabolic and cardiovascular disorders in later life. Although the mechanisms underpinning programming of metabolic disorders remain poorly defined, it has become increasingly clear that low-grade inflammation is associated with obesity and its comorbidities. This review will discuss maternal metainflammation as a mediator of programming in insulin sensitive tissues in offspring. Use of nutritional anti-inflammatories in pregnancy including omega 3 fatty acids, resveratrol, curcumin, and taurine may provide beneficial intervention strategies to ameliorate maternal obesity-induced programming. PMID:24967364

Segovia, Stephanie A.; Vickers, Mark H.; Reynolds, Clare M.

2014-01-01

269

MRI of the median nerve and median artery in the carpal tunnel: prevalence of their anatomical variations and clinical significance  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective  Anatomical variations of the median nerve and the persistent median artery (PMA) in the carpal tunnel (CT) are important to\\u000a understand for their clinical and surgical significance. The aim of this cohort retrospective study was to investigate the\\u000a prevalence of aberrant median nerve branches and persistent median artery in the CT in a selected population using magnetic\\u000a resonance imaging (MRI).

Claude Pierre-Jerome; Robert D. Smitson; Raj K. Shah; Valeria Moncayo; Michael Abdelnoor; Michael R. Terk

2010-01-01

270

Maternal Serum Disintegrin and Metalloprotease Protein-12 in Early Pregnancy as a Potential Marker of Adverse Pregnancy Outcomes  

PubMed Central

Objectives The aim of this study was to determine whether the concentration of disintegrin and metalloprotease protein12 (ADAM12) in first trimester maternal serum can be used as a marker for first-trimester complete spontaneous abortions, missed abortions, ectopic pregnancies and hydatidiform moles. Methods The maternal serum concentrations of ADAM12 were measured in the range of 5–9+6 weeks of gestation using an automated AutoDelfia immunoassay platform in 9 cases of complete spontaneous abortion, 27 cases of missed abortions, 56 cases of ectopic pregnancies, 12 cases of hydatidiform moles, and 100 controls. Logistic regression analysis was used to determine significant factors for predicting adverse pregnancy outcomes in early pregnancy. Screening performance was assessed using receiver operating characteristic curves. Results Two hundred and four women were enrolled in the study. In the control group, the level of ADAM12 increased with gestational age. The median ADAM12 levels in the spontaneous abortion (0.430 MoM), ectopic pregnancy (0.460 MoM) and hydatidiform mole (0.037 MoM) groups were lower than that in the control group, while the median ADAM12 level in the missed abortion group (1.062 MoM) was not significant from the controls (1.002 MoM). Logistic regression analysis demonstrated that the level of ADAM12 in maternal serum facilitated the detection of ectopic pregnancies (OR?=?0.909; 95% CI?=?0.841?0.982) and complete spontaneous abortion (OR?=?0.863; 95% CI?=?0.787?0.946). Conclusions In complete spontaneous abortion and ectopic pregnancy, ADAM12 maintained at low levels in early pregnancies, and there were significant differences compared to normal pregnancies. ADAM12 is a promising marker for the diagnosis of complete spontaneous abortion and ectopic pregnancy in symptomatic women, and under certain conditions, ADAM12 can diagnose ectopic pregnancy and spontaneous abortion before an ultrasonographic detection of the conditions. PMID:24830297

Yang, Jiexia; Wu, Jing; Guo, Fangfang; Wang, Dongmei; Chen, Keyi; Li, Jie; Du, Li; Yin, Aihua

2014-01-01

271

Levels of maternal care.  

PubMed

In the 1970s, studies demonstrated that timely access to risk-appropriate neonatal and obstetric care could reduce perinatal mortality. Since the publication of the Toward Improving the Outcome of Pregnancy report, more than 3 decades ago, the conceptual framework of regionalization of care of the woman and the newborn has been gradually separated with recent focus almost entirely on the newborn. In this current document, maternal care refers to all aspects of antepartum, intrapartum, and postpartum care of the pregnant woman. The proposed classification system for levels of maternal care pertains to birth centers, basic care (level I), specialty care (level II), subspecialty care (level III), and regional perinatal health care centers (level IV). The goal of regionalized maternal care is for pregnant women at high risk to receive care in facilities that are prepared to provide the required level of specialized care, thereby reducing maternal morbidity and mortality in the United States. PMID:25620372

Menard, M Kathryn; Kilpatrick, Sarah; Saade, George; Hollier, Lisa M; Joseph, Gerald F; Barfield, Wanda; Callaghan, William; Jennings, John; Conry, Jeanne

2015-03-01

272

Median Arcuate Ligament Syndrome in the Pediatric Population  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVES Median arcuate ligament syndrome (MALS) is a vascular compression syndrome with symptoms that overlap chronic functional abdominal pain (CFAP). We report our experience treating MALS in a pediatric cohort previously diagnosed with CFAP. PATIENTS AND METHODS We prospectively evaluated 46 pediatric (<21 years of age) patients diagnosed with MALS at a tertiary care referral center from 2008 to 2012. All patients had previously been diagnosed with CFAP. Patients were evaluated for celiac artery compression by duplex ultrasound and diagnosis was confirmed by computed tomography. Quality of life (QOL) was determined by pre- and post-surgical administration of PedsQLtm questionnaire. The patients underwent laparoscopic release of the median arcuate ligament overlying the celiac artery which included surgical neurolysis. We examined the hemodynamic changes in parameters of the celiac artery and peri-operative QOL outcomes to determine correlation. RESULTS All patients had studies suggestive of MALS on duplex and computed tomography. 91% (n=42) positive for MALS were females. All patients underwent a technically satisfactory laparoscopic surgical release resulting in a significant improvement in blood flow through the celiac artery. There were no deaths and a total of 9 complications, 8 requiring a secondary procedure. 33 patients were administered QOL surveys. 18 patients completed the survey with 15 (83%) patients reporting overall improvement in the QOL. Overall, 31/46 patients (67%) reported improvement of symptoms since the time of surgery. CONCLUSIONS MALS was found to be more common in pediatric females than males. Laparoscopic release of the celiac artery can be performed safely in the pediatric population. Surgical release of the artery and resultant neurolysis resulted in significant improvement in the blood flow, symptoms, and overall QOL in this cohort. The overall improvement in QOL outcome measures after surgery leads us to conclude that MALS might be earlier diagnosed and possibly treated in patients with CFAP. We recommend a multidisciplinary team approach to care for these complex patients. PMID:24210197

Mak, Grace Z.; Speaker, Christopher; Anderson, Kristen; Stiles-Shields, Colleen; Lorenz, Jonathan; Drossos, Tina; Liu, Donald C.; Skelly, Christopher L.

2013-01-01

273

Use of adjunctive palmaris longus abductorplasty (Camitz) tendon transfer in pediatric median nerve injury.  

PubMed

A number of tendon transfers have been described for opponensplasty. Transfer of the palmaris longus (PL) tendon with a palmar fascial extension was initially described by Camitz. This technique has mostly been combined with carpal tunnel release in patients with long standing median neuropathy with atrophy of the thenar muscles. However, the Camitz transfer has not been previously described in the setting of pediatric median nerve injury. We report 4 cases of Camitz transfer in pediatric patients with median nerve injuries. Four children (all female; age range 3-15 yrs) underwent PL tendon transfer following median nerve injury. The causes of injury included trauma, iatrogenic injury, and neuritis of the brachial plexus. The Camitz procedure was performed at the time of median nerve decompression and/or reconstruction. All patients had excellent early return of function. Transfer of the palmaris longus tendon reliably restores palmar abduction, with minimal to no additional morbidity, in carefully selected pediatric patients with median nerve injury undergoing release of the carpal tunnel. PMID:22981385

Baluch, Narges; Borschel, Gregory H

2013-05-01

274

Maternal Vitamin D Status and Offspring Bone Fractures: Prospective Study over Two Decades in Aarhus City, Denmark  

PubMed Central

Background Studies investigating the association between maternal vitamin D status and offspring bone mass measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) during childhood have shown conflicting results. Purpose We used occurrence of bone fractures up to the age of 18 as a measure reflecting offspring bone mass and related that to maternal vitamin D status. Methods The Danish Fetal Origins 1988 Cohort recruited 965 pregnant women during 1988–89 at their 30th gestation week antenatal midwife visit. A blood sample was drawn and serum was stored, which later was analyzed for the concentration of 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) by the liquid chromatography coupled with a tandem mass spectrometric method (LC-MS/MS). Outcome was diagnosis of first time bone fractures extracted from the Danish National Patient Register. Results Vitamin D status was available for 850 women. The median (5th–95th percentile) 25(OH)D was 76.2 (23.0–152.1) nmol/l. During follow up 294 children were registered with at least one bone fracture diagnosis. Multivariable Cox regression models using age as the underlying time scale indicated no overall association between maternal vitamin D status and first time bone fractures. However, there was a significantly increased hazard ratio (HR) during childhood for those who had maternal blood drawn in Dec/Jan/Feb compared with Jun/Jul/Aug (HR: 1.75, 95%CI: 1.11–2.74). Adjustment for vitamin D status strengthened this association (1.82, 1.12–2.97), which indicated a potential seasonal impact on offspring fractures independent of maternal vitamin D status. In a sensitivity analysis we found a borderline significant inverse association between continuous concentrations of 25(OH)D and offspring forearm fractures (P?=?0.054). Conclusion Overall, our results did not substantiate an association between maternal vitamin D status and offspring bone fractures. Further studies on this subject are needed, but the study populations must be large enough to allow for subdivision of fractures. PMID:25474409

Petersen, Sesilje Bondo; Olsen, Sjurdur Frodi; Mølgaard, Christian; Granström, Charlotta; Cohen, Arieh; Vestergaard, Peter; Strøm, Marin

2014-01-01

275

Effects of maternal dietary EPA and DHA supplementation and breeder age on embryonic and post-hatch performance of broiler offspring: Age and n-3 pufa affect embryonic and post-hatch performance.  

PubMed

Breeder age and nutrition are amongst the most important factors affecting progeny growth and development. The present experiment was carried out to evaluate the effects of n-3 fatty acid (FA), with special emphasis on the ratio of eicosapentaenoic (EPA, 20:5 n-3) and docosahexaenoic (DHA, 22:6 n-3) acid, provided to the diet of ageing broiler breeder hens at different ratios, on the incubation parameters and the performance of the offspring. Four hundred and eighty Ross-308 broiler breeder hens were fed one of four different diets (120/treatment), with an equal fat content. The control diet was a basal diet, rich in n-6 FAs (CON). Blends of fish oil were used to enrich the three other diets in n-3 FA and to obtain different EPA/DHA ratios of 1/1 (EPA=DHA), 1/2 (DHA) or 2/1 (EPA). Every 5 weeks, incubation parameters were assessed. Every 15 weeks, offspring was reared until slaughter age on a standard diet. Breeder age affected almost all incubation and post-hatch parameters, whereas n-3 FA treatment only lowered egg weight (p < 0.0001) and consequently hatched chick weight (p < 0.0001). Supplementation of EPA resulted in a higher proportional liver weight (p = 0.0219) at hatch, a lower body weight up to 28 days post-hatch (p = 0.0418), a lower daily weight gain (p = 0.0498) and a higher feed conversion ratio (p = 0.0395) during the starter period (p = 0.0498), resulting in a higher overall offspring feed conversion ratio (p = 0.0317) compared to the control diet. DHA supplementation, on the other hand, resulted in a lower residual yolk weight (p = 0.0220) and a higher overall offspring mortality (p = 0.0125). In conclusion, supplementation of n-3 FA could not counter the adverse effect of breeder flock age, but did not harm incubation or improve post-hatch performance, either. EPA and DHA affected offspring development differently during early post-hatch life. PMID:25865421

Koppenol, A; Delezie, E; Wang, Y; Franssens, L; Willems, E; Ampe, B; Buyse, J; Everaert, N

2015-04-01

276

Prolonged median sensory latency as a predictor of future carpal tunnel syndrome.  

PubMed

The purpose of the study was to determine whether abnormal median sensory nerve conduction among asymptomatic workers was predictive of future symptoms suggestive of carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS). This was a prospective study involving 77 workers who were identified as asymptomatic cases with electrodiagnostic findings of median mononeuropathy compared to an age- and sex-matched control group. Follow-up was completed an average of 70 months later, and subjects who reported pain, numbness, tingling, or burning in the distribution of the median nerve, based upon a hand diagram, were classified as having CTS symptoms. The follow-up participation rate was 70%. Among subjects with abnormal median sensory latencies, 23% went on to develop symptoms consistent with CTS within the follow-up period, compared with 6% in the control group (P= .010). Age and hand repetition were also risk factors for CTS, but the majority of asymptomatic workers with a median mononeuropathy do not become symptomatic over an extended time. PMID:11745947

Werner, R A; Gell, N; Franzblau, A; Armstrong, T J

2001-11-01

277

Risk Factors and Adverse Perinatal Outcomes among Term and Preterm Infants Born Small-for-Gestational-Age: Secondary Analyses of the WHO Multi-Country Survey on Maternal and Newborn Health  

PubMed Central

Background Small for gestational age (SGA) is not only a major indicator of perinatal mortality and morbidity, but also the morbidity risks in later in life. We aim to estimate the association between the birth of SGA infants and the risk factors and adverse perinatal outcomes among twenty-nine countries in Africa, Latin America, the Middle East and Asia in 359 health facilities in 2010–11. Methods We analysed facility-based, cross-sectional data from the WHO Multi-country Survey on Maternal and Newborn Health. We constructed multilevel logistic regression models with random effects for facilities and countries to estimate the risk factors for SGA infants using country-specific birthweight reference standards in preterm and term delivery, and SGA’s association with adverse perinatal outcomes. We compared the risks and adverse perinatal outcomes with appropriate for gestational age (AGA) infants categorized by preterm and term delivery. Results A total of 295,829 singleton infants delivered were analysed. The overall prevalence of SGA was highest in Cambodia (18.8%), Nepal (17.9%), the Occupied Palestinian Territory (16.1%), and Japan (16.0%), while the lowest was observed in Afghanistan (4.8%), Uganda (6.6%) and Thailand (9.7%). The risk of preterm SGA infants was significantly higher among nulliparous mothers and mothers with chronic hypertension and preeclampsia/eclampsia (aOR: 2.89; 95% CI: 2.55–3.28) compared with AGA infants. Higher risks of term SGA were observed among sociodemographic factors and women with preeclampsia/eclampsia, anaemia and other medical conditions. Multiparity (>?=?3) (AOR: 0.88; 95% CI: 0.83–0.92) was a protective factor for term SGA. The risk of perinatal mortality was significantly higher in preterm SGA deliveries in low to high HDI countries. Conclusion Preterm SGA is associated with medical conditions related to preeclampsia, but not with sociodemographic status. Term SGA is associated with sociodemographic status and various medical conditions. PMID:25119107

Ota, Erika; Ganchimeg, Togoobaatar; Morisaki, Naho; Vogel, Joshua P.; Pileggi, Cynthia; Ortiz-Panozo, Eduardo; Souza, João P.; Mori, Rintaro

2014-01-01

278

Is maternal PTSD associated with greater exposure of very young children to violent media?  

PubMed

This study examined media viewing by mothers with violence-related posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and related media exposure of their preschool-age children. Mothers (N = 67) recruited from community pediatric clinics participated in a protocol involving a media-preference survey. Severity of maternal PTSD and dissociation were significantly associated with child exposure to violent media. Family poverty and maternal viewing behavior were also associated. Maternal viewing behavior mediated the effects specifically of maternal PTSD severity on child exposure. Clinicians should assess maternal and child media viewing practices in families with histories of violent trauma exposure and related psychopathology. PMID:19924819

Schechter, Daniel S; Gross, Anna; Willheim, Erica; McCaw, Jaime; Turner, J Blake; Myers, Michael M; Zeanah, Charles H; Gleason, Mary Margaret

2009-12-01

279

Maternal Alcohol Use and Neonatal Habituation Assessed with the Brazelton Scale.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Maternal alcohol use in mid-pregnancy was significantly related to poorer habituation and increased low arousal in newborn infants, even after adjusting for smoking and caffeine use by mothers, maternal age and nutrition during pregnancy, sex and age of the infant, and obstetric medication. (Author/RH)

Streissguth, Ann Pytkowicz; And Others

1983-01-01

280

ESTIMATION OF ADDITIVE AND NONADDITIVE DIRECT AND MATERNAL GENETIC EFFECTS FROM CROSSBREEDING BEEF CATTLE 1  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Data from straightbred and crossbred cattle involving Angus, Charolais and Hereford breeds were analyzed to obtain fitted constants for each of 22 breed groups and to estimate breed additive, heterotic, breed maternal and average maternal heterosis effects for birth weight, pre- weaning average daily gain, weaning weight and type score. Year, sex, age of dam and age of calf

E. U. Dillard; Oswaldo Rodriguez; O. W. Robison

2010-01-01

281

Memory, Maternal Representations, and Internalizing Symptomatology among Abused, Neglected, and Nonmaltreated Children  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A depth-of-processing incidental recall task for maternal-referent stimuli was utilized to assess basic memory processes and the affective valence of maternal representations among abused (N = 63), neglected (N = 33), and nonmaltreated (N = 128) school-aged children (ages 8-13.5 years old). Self-reported and observer-rated indices of internalizing…

Valentino, Kristin; Cicchetti, Dante; Rogosch, Fred A.; Toth, Sheree L.

2008-01-01

282

Maternal Speech to Japanese Children with and without Severe Mental Retardation.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Maternal speech to seven Japanese children (ages three to eight) with severe mental retardation and five controls matched for mental age and language ability was compared. Subjects' vocalizations were less spontaneous and less adequate than controls'. Maternal utterances to subjects were less responsive, more negative in content, and characterized…

Matsuo-Muto, Hisae; Kato, Takamasa

1994-01-01

283

Maternal effects on offspring mortality in rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta).  

PubMed

The genetics of primate life histories are poorly understood, but quantitative genetic patterns in other mammals suggest phenotypic differences among individuals early in life can be strongly affected by interactions with mothers or other caretakers. I used generalized linear mixed model extensions of complex pedigree quantitative genetic techniques to explore regression coefficients and variance components for infant and juvenile mortality rates across prereproductive age classes in the semifree ranging Cayo Santiago rhesus macaques. Using a large set of records (maximum n = 977 mothers, 6,240 offspring), strong maternal effects can be identified early in development but they rapidly "burn off" as offspring age and mothers become less consistent buffers from increasingly prominent environmental variation. The different ways behavioral ecologists and animal breeders have defined and studied maternal effects can be subsumed, and even blended, within the quantitative genetic framework. Regression coefficients identify loss of the mother, maternal age, and offspring age within their birth cohort as having significant maternal effects on offspring mortality, while variance components for maternal identity record significant maternal influence in the first month of life. PMID:23315583

Blomquist, Gregory E

2013-03-01

284

Incidence and correlates of maternal near miss in southeast iran.  

PubMed

This prospective study aimed to estimate the incidence and associated factors of severe maternal morbidity in southeast Iran. During a 9-month period in 2013, all women referring to eight hospitals for termination of pregnancy as well as women admitted during 42 days after the termination of pregnancy were enrolled into the study. Maternal near miss conditions were defined based on Say et al.'s recommendations. Five hundred and one cases of maternal near miss and 19,908 live births occurred in the study period, yielding a maternal near miss ratio of 25.2 per 1000 live births. This rate was 7.5 and 105 per 1000 in private and tertiary care settings, respectively. The rate of maternal death in near miss cases was 0.40% with a case:fatality ratio of 250?:?1. The most prevalent causes of near miss were severe preeclampsia (27.3%), ectopic pregnancy (18.4%), and abruptio placentae (16.2%). Higher age, higher education, and being primiparous were associated with a higher risk of near miss. Considering the high rate of maternal near miss in referral hospitals, maternal near miss surveillance system should be set up in these hospitals to identify cases of severe maternal morbidity as soon as possible. PMID:25763409

Naderi, Tayebeh; Foroodnia, Shohreh; Omidi, Samaneh; Samadani, Faezeh; Nakhaee, Nouzar

2015-01-01

285

Maternal Cocaine Use and Mother-Toddler Aggression  

PubMed Central

This study examined the direct and indirect associations between maternal cocaine use during pregnancy and mother-toddler aggression in an interactive context at 2 years of child age. We hypothesized that in addition to direct effects of cocaine exposure on maternal and child aggression, the association between maternal cocaine use and mother-toddler aggression may be indirect via higher maternal psychiatric symptoms, negative affect, or poor infant autonomic regulation at 13 months. Participants consisted of 220 (119 cocaine exposed, 101 non-cocaine exposed) mother-toddler dyads participating in an ongoing longitudinal study of prenatal cocaine exposure. Results indicated that mothers who used cocaine during pregnancy displayed higher levels of aggression toward their toddlers compared to mothers in the control group. Results from model testing indicated significant indirect associations between maternal cocaine use and maternal aggression via higher maternal negative affect as well as lower infant autonomic regulation at 13 months. Although there were no direct associations between cocaine exposure and toddler aggression, there was a significant indirect effect via lower infant autonomic regulation at 13 months. Results highlight the importance of including maternal aggression in predictive models of prenatal cocaine exposure examining child aggression. Results also emphasize the important role of infant regulation as a mechanism partially explaining associations between cocaine exposure and mother-toddler aggression. PMID:21396441

Eiden, Rina D.; Schuetze, Pamela; Colder, Craig; Veira, Yvette

2011-01-01

286

Incidence and Correlates of Maternal Near Miss in Southeast Iran  

PubMed Central

This prospective study aimed to estimate the incidence and associated factors of severe maternal morbidity in southeast Iran. During a 9-month period in 2013, all women referring to eight hospitals for termination of pregnancy as well as women admitted during 42 days after the termination of pregnancy were enrolled into the study. Maternal near miss conditions were defined based on Say et al.'s recommendations. Five hundred and one cases of maternal near miss and 19,908 live births occurred in the study period, yielding a maternal near miss ratio of 25.2 per 1000 live births. This rate was 7.5 and 105 per 1000 in private and tertiary care settings, respectively. The rate of maternal death in near miss cases was 0.40% with a case:fatality ratio of 250?:?1. The most prevalent causes of near miss were severe preeclampsia (27.3%), ectopic pregnancy (18.4%), and abruptio placentae (16.2%). Higher age, higher education, and being primiparous were associated with a higher risk of near miss. Considering the high rate of maternal near miss in referral hospitals, maternal near miss surveillance system should be set up in these hospitals to identify cases of severe maternal morbidity as soon as possible.

Naderi, Tayebeh; Foroodnia, Shohreh; Omidi, Samaneh; Samadani, Faezeh

2015-01-01

287

Mediating Links Between Maternal Childhood Trauma and Preadolescent Behavioral Adjustment  

PubMed Central

Structural equation modeling was used to simultaneously examine maternal psychological distress and social support as mediators linking maternal childhood trauma (MCT) to both maternal and child-reported behavior at 9 years of age in 231 birth mother-child dyads, who were primarily poor, urban, and African American. One half of the mothers (n = 116) reported a history of childhood abuse and neglect. Although MCT was associated with both increased maternal psychological distress and limited social support at 6 years, the pathway to child behavior ratings at 9 years was informant dependent. MCT influenced maternal ratings of her child’s behavior, with some effects mediated through psychological distress. MCT indirectly influenced children’s self-perception of behavior through maternal experience of social support. Maternal ratings and child self-ratings of child behavior problems were moderately correlated. No significant gender interaction was found. Findings suggest a need for understanding trauma histories in the lives of mothers who seek assistance for parenting and child behavior problems, especially in urban low income communities. Interventions targeting both increasing maternal social support and reducing psychological distress may promote competency and resiliency among children for whom MCT poses a risk to optimal development. PMID:22935951

Min, Meeyoung O.; Singer, Lynn T.; Minnes, Sonia; Kim, Hyunsoo; Short, Elizabeth

2013-01-01

288

Persistence of maternal effects in baboons: Mother's dominance rank at son's conception predicts stress hormone levels in subadult males  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dominance status and reproductive experience are maternal characteristics that affect offspring traits in diverse taxa, including some cercopithecine primates. Maternal effects of this sort are widespread and are sources of variability in offspring fitness. We tested the hypothesis that maternal dominance rank and reproductive experience as well as a male's own age and dominance rank predicted chronic fecal glucocorticoid (fGC)

Patrick Ogola Onyango; Laurence R. Gesquiere; Emmanuel O. Wango; Susan C. Alberts; Jeanne Altmann

2008-01-01

289

Maternal Control Behavior and Locus of Control: Examining Mechanisms in the Relation Between Maternal Anxiety Disorders and Anxiety Symptomatology in Children  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study tested components of a proposed model of child anxiety and examined the mediational roles of (1) maternal control\\u000a behavior, (2) maternal external locus of control, and (3) child external locus of control in the association between maternal\\u000a and child anxiety. Thirty-eight clinically anxious mothers and 37 nonanxious mothers participated along with one of their\\u000a children aged 6 to

Kimberly D. Becker; Golda S. Ginsburg; Janine Domingues; Jenn-Yun Tein

2010-01-01

290

A Conceptual Model for Maternal Behavior Among Polydrug Cocaine-Using Mothers: The Role of Postnatal Cocaine Use and Maternal Depression  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examined the association between maternal cocaine use and maternal behavior and tested a conceptual model predicting maternal insensitivity during mother-infant interactions. Participants included 130 mother-infant dyads (68 cocaine-exposed and 62 noncocaine-exposed) who were recruited after birth and assessed at 4–8 weeks of infant age. Results of model testing indicated that when the effects of prenatal cocaine use were

Rina D. Eiden; Arianne Stevens; Pamela Schuetze; Laura E. Dombkowski

2006-01-01

291

Medical and Psychologic Risks of Maternal Cocaine Use  

PubMed Central

The growing use of crack-cocaine by women of child-bearing age poses significant management problems for physicians. Both animal and human studies suggest that cocaine exerts significant negative effects on maternal health, the course of pregnancy, and infant developmental outcome. Maternal pregnancy complications and increased rates of low birth weight and prematurity in infants who are fetally exposed are well documented. However, available studies of neurobehavioral outcomes for cocaine-exposed infants are still inconclusive. Physicians need to become knowledgeable about the potential effects of maternal drug addiction during pregnancy to provide appropriate medical care. PMID:25568499

Singer, Lynn; Arendt, Robert E.; Minnes, Sonia; Garber, Rachel M.

2014-01-01

292

Maternal cortisol and offspring birthweight: results from a large prospective cohort study.  

PubMed

Maternal psychosocial problems may affect fetal growth through maternal cortisol. This large prospective cohort study examined among 2810 women (1) the association of maternal cortisol levels with offspring birthweight and small for gestational age (SGA) risk and (2) the mediating role of maternal cortisol on the relation between maternal psychosocial problems and fetal growth. Pregnant women in Amsterdam were approached during their first prepartum visit (+/-13 weeks gestation). Total maternal cortisol level was determined in serum and maternal psychosocial indicators were collected through a questionnaire. Maternal cortisol levels were negatively related to offspring birthweight (B=-0.35; p<.001) and positively to SGA (OR=1.00; p=.027); after adjustment (for gestational age at birth, infant gender, ethnicity, maternal age, parity, BMI, and smoking), these effects were statistically insignificant. Post hoc analysis revealed a moderation effect by time of day: only in those women who provided a blood sample < or =09:00h (n=94), higher maternal cortisol levels were independently related to lower birthweights (B=-0.94; p=.025) and a higher SGA risk (OR=1.01; p=.032). Maternal psychosocial problems were not associated with cortisol levels. In conclusion, although an independent association between maternal cortisol levels in early pregnancy and offspring birthweight and SGA risk was not observed, exploratory post hoc analysis suggested that the association was moderated by time of day, such that the association was only present in the early morning. The hypothesis that maternal psychosocial problems affect fetal growth through elevated maternal cortisol levels could not be supported. PMID:19889503

Goedhart, Geertje; Vrijkotte, Tanja G M; Roseboom, Tessa J; van der Wal, Marcel F; Cuijpers, Pim; Bonsel, Gouke J

2010-06-01

293

Papillary Carcinoma in Median Aberrant Thyroid (Ectopic) - Case Report  

PubMed Central

Median ectopic thyroid may be encountered anywhere from the foramen caecum to the diaphragm. Non lingual median aberrant thyroid (incomplete descent) usually found in the infrahyoid region and malignant transformation in this ectopic thyroid tissue is very rare. We report an extremely rare case of papillary carcinoma in non lingual median aberrant thyroid in a 25-year-old female. The differentiation between a carcinoma arising in the median ectopic thyroid tissue and a metastatic papillary carcinoma from an occult primary in the main thyroid gland is also discussed. PMID:25121039

K, Shashidhar; Deshmane, Vijaya Laxmi; Kumar, Veerendra; Arjunan, Ravi

2014-01-01

294

Relationship between maternal dietary patterns and hypospadias.  

PubMed

Little is known about the role of maternal nutrition in the development of hypospadias, which is the most common urogenital congenital anomaly. This study investigated the relationship between maternal nutrition and the risk of hypospadias, particularly focusing on maternal food patterns. We compared 471 hypospadias cases with 490 controls in the United Kingdom. A questionnaire including information on life style, occupation, usual maternal diet and dietary supplements was administered using telephone interviews. Cases and controls were compared for individual food item intake and food patterns derived by cluster analysis. Multivariable logistic regression analysis adjusted for income, maternal age, low birthweight, smoking and folic acid supplement use was used to assess the relationship between maternal nutrition and hypospadias. Three food patterns were created with the labels 'health conscious', 'mixed' and 'non-health conscious'. 'Non-health conscious' subjects (low frequency of consumption of yoghurt, cheese, eggs, fruit and vegetables, fish, beans and pulses, olive oil and organic food) had a higher risk of hypospadias (odds ratio 1.54; 95% confidence interval 1.06, 2.26) compared with 'health conscious' subjects (high frequency of consumption of fresh fruit and vegetables, dried fruit, fresh or frozen fish, beans, pulses, soya products, olive oil and organic food), after adjustment for potential confounders. Intakes of individual foods were not strongly associated with hypospadias. We could not exclude the possibility of residual confounding, and this needs to be further investigated. We found an association between food pattern and hypospadias, with those with less health conscious food patterns having a higher risk. Further study is needed to confirm this association. PMID:21470265

de Kort, Christianne A R; Nieuwenhuijsen, Mark J; Mendez, Michelle A

2011-05-01

295

Maternal Depression, Maternal Expressed Emotion, and Youth Psychopathology  

Microsoft Academic Search

Across development, maternal depression has been found to be a risk factor for youth psychopathology generally and youth depression\\u000a specifically. Maternal Expressed Emotion (EE) has been examined as a predictor of outcome among youth with depression. The\\u000a present study explored the associations between youth psychopathology and two predictors–maternal depression within the child’s\\u000a lifetime and maternal EE–in a study of children

Martha C. Tompson; Claudette B. Pierre; Kathryn Dingman Boger; James W. McKowen; Priscilla T. Chan; Rachel D. Freed

2010-01-01

296

Early-life hepatitis e infection in pigs: the importance of maternally-derived antibodies.  

PubMed

Passive immunity (PI), acquired through colostrum intake, is essential for piglet protection against pathogens. Maternally-derived antibodies (MDAs) can decrease the transmission of pathogens between individuals by reducing shedding from infected animals and/or susceptibility of naïve animals. Only a limited number of studies, however, have been carried out to quantify the level of protection conferred by PI in terms of transmission. In the present study, an original modeling framework was designed to estimate parameters governing the transmission of infectious agents in the presence and absence of PI. This epidemiological model accounts for the distribution of PI duration and two different forces of infection depending on the serological status of animals after colostrum intake. A Bayesian approach (Metropolis-Hastings algorithm) was used for parameter estimation. The impact of PI on hepatitis E virus transmission in piglets was investigated using longitudinal serological data from six pig farms. A strong impact of PI was highlighted, the efficiency of transmission being on average 13 times lower in piglets with maternally-derived antibodies than in fully susceptible animals (range: 5-21). Median infection-free survival ages, based on herd-specific estimates, ranged between 8.7 and 13.8 weeks in all but one herd. Indeed, this herd exhibited a different profile with a relatively low prevalence of infected pigs (50% at slaughter age) despite the similar proportions of passively immune individuals after colostrum intake. These results suggest that the age at HEV infection is not strictly dependent upon the proportion of piglets with PI but is also linked to farm-specific husbandry (mingling of piglets after weaning) and hygiene practices. The original methodology developed here, using population-based longitudinal serological data, was able to demonstrate the relative impact of MDAs on the transmission of infectious agents. PMID:25144763

Andraud, Mathieu; Casas, Maribel; Pavio, Nicole; Rose, Nicolas

2014-01-01

297

Early-Life Hepatitis E Infection in Pigs: The Importance of Maternally-Derived Antibodies  

PubMed Central

Passive immunity (PI), acquired through colostrum intake, is essential for piglet protection against pathogens. Maternally-derived antibodies (MDAs) can decrease the transmission of pathogens between individuals by reducing shedding from infected animals and/or susceptibility of naïve animals. Only a limited number of studies, however, have been carried out to quantify the level of protection conferred by PI in terms of transmission. In the present study, an original modeling framework was designed to estimate parameters governing the transmission of infectious agents in the presence and absence of PI. This epidemiological model accounts for the distribution of PI duration and two different forces of infection depending on the serological status of animals after colostrum intake. A Bayesian approach (Metropolis-Hastings algorithm) was used for parameter estimation. The impact of PI on hepatitis E virus transmission in piglets was investigated using longitudinal serological data from six pig farms. A strong impact of PI was highlighted, the efficiency of transmission being on average 13 times lower in piglets with maternally-derived antibodies than in fully susceptible animals (range: 5–21). Median infection-free survival ages, based on herd-specific estimates, ranged between 8.7 and 13.8 weeks in all but one herd. Indeed, this herd exhibited a different profile with a relatively low prevalence of infected pigs (50% at slaughter age) despite the similar proportions of passively immune individuals after colostrum intake. These results suggest that the age at HEV infection is not strictly dependent upon the proportion of piglets with PI but is also linked to farm-specific husbandry (mingling of piglets after weaning) and hygiene practices. The original methodology developed here, using population-based longitudinal serological data, was able to demonstrate the relative impact of MDAs on the transmission of infectious agents. PMID:25144763

Andraud, Mathieu; Casas, Maribel; Pavio, Nicole; Rose, Nicolas

2014-01-01

298

Maternal and Paternal Psychological Control as Moderators of the Link between Peer Attitudes and Adolescents' Risky Sexual Behavior  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Maternal and paternal psychological control, peer attitudes, and the interaction of psychological control and peer attitudes at age 13 were examined as predictors of risky sexual behavior before age 16 in a community sample of 181 youth followed from age 13 to 16. Maternal psychological control moderated the link between peer attitudes and sexual…

Oudekerk, Barbara A.; Allen, Joseph P.; Hafen, Christopher A.; Hessel, Elenda T.; Szwedo, David E.; Spilker, Ann

2014-01-01

299

Evidence for extended age dependent maternal immunity in infected children: mother to child transmission of HIV infection and potential interventions including sulfatides of the human fetal adnexa and complementary or alternative medicines.  

PubMed

The two neighboring southwestern states of India, Karnataka and Maharashtra, have high incidence of HIV/AIDS and are among the six most high prevalence HIV infected states. In Karnataka state, the northern districts of Bagalkot, Belgaum and Bijapur (the three Bs) and in Maharashtra state, the southern districts of Sangli, Satara, and Solapur (the three Ss) are the areas with the highest incidence of HIV/AIDS. We have evaluated the incidence of maternal to child transmission (MTCT) of HIV-1 infection in Belgaum District which is more than 500 kilometers distance by road from the campus in greater Bangalore (Karnataka State). We have obtained the prenatal CD4 counts of HIV infected pregnant mothers. We have also screened the HIV infected children in two orphanages (rehabilitation centres for HIV infected children) in Belgaum District. The clinical conditions of these infected children were assessed for their CD4 counts, anti-retroviral therapy (ART) intake status, outpatient illnesses and body composition. We have observed that there is an influence of the age factor on the CD4 counts of the HIV infected children. Further, in view of the role of our recently found involvement of sulfatide, 3-O- galactosylceramide, in inhibition of HIV-1 replication and enhancement of hematopoiesis which is otherwise inhibited due to such infection, we have discussed the possible role of sulfatides that biologically occur in the fetal adnexa (placentatrophoblasts /amnion/chorion-umbilical cord), in containing HIV infection as a potential safer alternative to the ART regimens currently approved to be clinically practiced. Lastly, we have discussed the complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) therapies such as evidence based yoga and ayurveda as add-on to ART in potential elimination of MTCT of HIV infection. Out of a total of 150 children delivered by HIV infected mothers, 13 children were found to be positive as determined by the dried blood smear (DBS) for virological testing, giving an incidence of about 8.66% in the Belgaum district during the last two years, in spite of the prescription of currently available ART regimens. All the 13 HIV-transmitting mothers had normal vaginal deliveries. Though 12% of the total 150 deliveries required lower segment caesarean section (LSCS), none among them resulted in MTCT of HIV. Comparison of the prenatal CD4 counts between transmitting and non-transmitting mothers did not show significant differences (p=0.25) thus suggesting indirectly that HIV-1 proviral loads (undetermined / unavailable) need not necessarily determine the fate of incidence of vertical transmission. The mean age of 44 HIV infected children (14 females, 30 males) that were screened in two orphanages was 10.8±3.1 years. Out of these 44 children, 27 were taking ART (61.36%) with mean duration of consumption being 2.8±2.28 years. Fifty percent (n=22) of the children were suffering from at least one outpatient illness, out of which 13 were taking ART. Their mean basal metabolic rate (BMR), body mass index (BMI), muscle mass, fat mass and fat % were 795.45±106.9, 14.55±1.9 kg/m(2), 9.54±3.4 kg, 3.69±2.24 kg and 15.04±7.8% respectively. Comparison between the children taking ART (on-ART, n=27) and those not taking ART (non-ART, n= 17) showed that though there was no significant difference in the average age of the two groups, on-ART children had significantly higher BMR (p=0.05), and muscle mass (p=0.004), than non-ART. The CD4 counts, BMI, fat mass and fat percentage did not show significant statistical differences between the two groups. The CD4 counts of the children (both on-ART and non-ART) of age 8 years and below (n=12) were found to be significantly higher (p=0.04) than those of age 14 and above (n=10). All the children in age group of 14 years and above (n=10) except one child were on ART, whereas 7 out of 12 children in age group of 8 years and below were on-ART. In one of the rehabilitation centers called Aadhar, among non-ART children, a significant correlation was observed between the age of the child and CD4 count

Bhargav, Hemant; Huilgol, Vidya; Metri, Kashinath; Sundell, I Birgitta; Tripathi, Satyam; Ramagouda, Nagaratna; Jadhav, Mahesh; Raghuram, Nagarathna; Ramarao, Nagendra Hongasandra; Koka, Prasad S

2012-01-01

300

Media representation of maternal neonaticide  

E-print Network

of mothers who commit neonaticide. Both fictional and non-fictional media sources exhibited aspects of the monstrous maternal theme and the strain defense theme. The monstrous maternal theme consists of words and statements that indicate the descriptions...

Lewis, Jocelyn Renee

2008-10-10

301

Short latency evoked somatosensory potentials after stimulation of the median nerve in children: normative data.  

PubMed

Purpose of the present study was to investigate the early cortical somatosensory evoked potentials after median nerve stimulation and to determine normative data as a function of age. Two hundred forty subjects aged 1 day to 18 years were studied to determine standards of normality during maturation to establish the growth curve. The N9, N13, and N20 components were present in all patients. These components decreased in latency until 4 to 5 years of age because of central nervous system maturation after which latencies increased until adulthood, on the basis of brain and body growth. PMID:19424081

Doria-Lamba, Laura; Montaldi, Luciano; Grosso, Paolo; Veneselli, Edvige; Giribaldi, Gaia

2009-06-01

302

Maternal weight gain in different periods of pregnancy and childhood cardio-metabolic outcomes. The Generation R Study.  

PubMed

Background:Excessive gestational weight gain seems to be associated with offspring cardio-metabolic risk factors. Little is known about the critical periods of gestational weight gain. We examined the associations of maternal weight gain in different periods of pregnancy with childhood cardio-metabolic risk factors.Methods:In a population-based prospective cohort study from early pregnancy onwards among 5908 mothers and their children, we obtained maternal prepregnancy weight and weight in early, mid and late pregnancy. At the age of 6 years (median: 72.6 months; 95% range: 67.9, 95.8), we measured childhood body mass index (BMI), total body and abdominal fat distribution, blood pressure and blood levels of lipids, insulin and c-peptide.Results:Overall, the associations of maternal prepregnancy weight with childhood outcomes were stronger than the associations of maternal gestational weight gain. Independent from maternal prepregnancy weight and weight gain in other periods, higher weight gain in early pregnancy was associated with higher childhood BMI, total fat mass, android/gynoid fat mass ratio, abdominal subcutaneous fat mass and systolic blood pressure (P-values<0.05). Independent associations of maternal weight gain in early pregnancy with childhood abdominal preperitoneal fat mass, insulin and c-peptide were of borderline significance. Higher weight gain in mid pregnancy was independently associated with higher childhood BMI, total and abdominal subcutaneous fat mass and systolic blood pressure (P-values<0.05). The associations for childhood cardio-metabolic outcomes attenuated after adjustment for childhood BMI. Weight gain in late pregnancy was not associated with childhood outcomes. Higher weight gain in early, but not in mid or late pregnancy, was associated with increased risks of childhood overweight and clustering of cardio-metabolic risk factors (odds ratio (OR) 1.19 (95% confidence interval (CI): 1.10, 1.29) and OR 1.20 (95% CI: 1.07, 1.35) per standard deviation increase in early gestational weight gain, respectively).Conclusions:Higher weight gain in early pregnancy is associated with an adverse cardio-metabolic profile in offspring. This association is largely mediated by childhood adiposity.International Journal of Obesity advance online publication, 11 November 2014; doi:10.1038/ijo.2014.175. PMID:25287752

Gaillard, R; Steegers, E A P; Franco, O H; Hofman, A; Jaddoe, V W V

2014-10-01

303

Maternal effects and epidemiological traits in a planktonic hostparasite system  

E-print Network

not influence her daughter's ability to resist infection. Furthermore, daughters raised from infected mothers maternal disease exposure alter resistance of offspring to disease? (3) Does a mother's age (controlling bicuspidata. Methods: Laboratory-based infection assays and life tables. Results: A mother's age did

Hall, Spencer

304

Comparative Study of Confidence Intervals for Population Median  

E-print Network

Comparative Study of Confidence Intervals for Population Median Submitted by Sagnika Chakraborty for determining the confidence interval for Population Median. For comparison purpose we have taken random samples and t2. Ideally a confidence interval should reflect the shape of a distribution, specially when

Bandyopadhyay, Antar

305

A rare case of proboscis lateralis with median cleft lip.  

PubMed

A very rare case of proboscis lateralis is reported. This case is different from previously reported cases due to proboscis lateralis, single nostril, loss of columella, and median cleft lip without holoprosencephaly. In addition, this is considered the first surviving individual with proboscis lateralis accompanied by median cleft lip. PMID:20509764

Sakamoto, Yoshiaki; Nakajima, Tatsuo; Miyamoto, Junpei

2010-09-01

306

The Online Median Problem Ramgopal R. Mettu C. Greg Plaxton  

E-print Network

-median problem involves optimizing the simultaneous placement of k facilities, the online median problem imposes of an online placement to that of an optimal offline placement. Our main result is a linear-time constant product in each neighborhood. In determining where to locate the stores, our high-level strategy

Mettu, Ramgopal

307

The Online Median Problem Ramgopal R. Mettu C. Greg Plaxton  

E-print Network

the k­median problem involves optimizing the simultaneous placement of k facilities, the online median, the worst­case ratio of the cost of an online placement to that of an optimal offline placement. Our main estimate of the demand for our product in each neighborhood. In determining where to locate the stores, our

Mettu, Ramgopal

308

The Effect of Median Filtering on Edge Estimation and Detection  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we consider the effect of median prefiltering on the subsequent estimation and detection of edges in digital images. Where possible, a quantitative statistical comparison is made for a number of filters defined with two-dimensional geometries; in some cases one-dimensional analyses are required to illustrate certain points. Noise images prefiltered by median filters defined with a variety of

Alan Conrad Bovik; Thomas S. Huang; David C. Munson

1987-01-01

309

Multichromosomal median and halving problems under different genomic distances  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Genome median and genome halving are combinatorial optimization problems that aim at reconstructing ancestral genomes as well as the evolutionary events leading from the ancestor to extant species. Exploring complexity issues is a first step towards devising efficient algorithms. The complexity of the median problem for unichromosomal genomes (permutations) has been settled for both the breakpoint distance and the

Eric Tannier; Chunfang Zheng; David Sankoff

2009-01-01

310

Maternal Factors and Disparities Associated with Oral Clefts  

PubMed Central

Introduction The epidemiology of oral clefts continually unfolds. Researchers have not reached consensus concerning the significance of maternal smoking, weight gain, diabetes, age, and education and the risk of oral clefts. The purpose of this study was to examine these factors associated with oral clefts in the US population. Methods The 2005 US Natality Data File was utilized for this study. Bivariate analyses compared the characteristics of mothers of infants with and without oral clefts. Multivariate analysis calculated adjusted odds ratios for various maternal characteristics overall and for each race/ethnic group. Results Significant bivariate associations with oral clefts were found for maternal age, race/ethnicity, education, tobacco use, and pregnancy-associated hypertension. Multivariate models found maternal age (OR=0.98), race/ethnicity (OR=0.36) for non-Hispanic Blacks (OR=0.79 for Hispanics), and tobacco use (OR=1.66) significant after adjustment for covariates. Across all race/ethnic groups maternal age (OR=0.98) and smoking (OR=1.66) were significantly associated with increased risk for oral cleft (OC). Non-Hispanic Blacks and Hispanics were at lower risk for OC regardless of the presence or absence of pregnancy-associated hypertension. Conclusions Consistent with previous studies, maternal smoking was found to be associated with an increased risk of oral clefts. This association was significant for non-Hispanic Whites but not for non-Hispanic Blacks and Hispanics. A small inverse association was observed between maternal age, pregnancy-associated hypertension and the risk of oral clefts. This study confirms relationships found in previous studies but cannot establish causality. Further investigations of the risk factors for oral clefts would benefit from the study of gene-environment interactions. PMID:20521404

Lebby, Kimberly D.; Tan, Fei; Brown, C. Perry

2010-01-01

311

Estimation of Median Streamflows at Perennial Stream Sites in Hawaii  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The most accurate estimates of median streamflows at perennial stream sites in Hawaii are those made at streamflow-gaging stations. Two alternative methods for estimating median streamflows at ungaged sites are described in this report. Multiple-regression equations were developed for estimating median streamflows at ungaged, unregulated, perennial stream sites. The equations relate combinations of drainage area, mean altitude of the main stream channel, and mean annual precipitation to median streamflow. Streamflow data from 56 long-term continuous-record gaging stations were used in the analysis. Median-streamflow data for all 56 sites were adjusted using record-extension techniques to reflect base period (1912 through 1986) conditions. Hawaii was subdivided into two geographic groups and multiple-regression equations were developed for each. The standard error of predication for the equation developed for the first group, the islands of Oahu, Molokai, and Hawaii, is 41 percent. The standard error of predication for the equation developed for the second group, the islands of Kauai and Maui, is 54 percent. A method for estimating median-streamflow, based on discharge measurements and data from nearby streamflow-gaging stations, was also developed for 27 regulated, perennial windward Oahu sites. Standard errors of prediction for 23 of the sites range from 5 to 34 percent. Median-streamflow estimates for the four remaining sites were considered poor and no measures of accuracy are provided. Discharge measurements can be used to make estimates of median streamflows at ungaged, regulated sites where the regression equations developed in this report are not applicable. Discharge measurements can also be used to make estimates of median streamflows at ungaged, unregulated sites. Estimates of median streamflows based on discharge measurements have greater standard errors than estimates based on continuous streamflow records and in general have smaller standard errors than estimates based on regression equations.

Fontaine, Richard A.; Wong, Michael F.; Matsuoka, Iwao

1992-01-01

312

Links between Maternal and Child Psychopathology Symptoms: Mediation through Child Emotion Regulation and Moderation through Maternal Behavior  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined the intergenerational transmission of psychopathology symptoms with 7-12 year-old children (N = 97; 44 boys, 53 girls, M age = 9.14, SD = 1.38) and their mothers (M age = 38.46, SD = 6.86). Child emotion regulation mediated the links between maternal psychopathology and child internalizing and externalizing symptoms. In turn,…

Suveg, Cynthia; Shaffer, Anne; Morelen, Diana; Thomassin, Kristel

2011-01-01

313

Maternal Sexuality and Breastfeeding  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this paper I consider the ways in which lactation has been discussed as a form of maternal sexuality, and the implications this carries for our understanding of breastfeeding practices and sexuality. Drawing on knowledge constructed in the western world during the last half of the twentieth century, the paper identifies a shift between the…

Bartlett, Alison

2005-01-01

314

Maternity Leave in Taiwan  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Using the first nationally representative birth cohort study in Taiwan, this paper examines the role that maternity leave policy in Taiwan plays in the timing of mothers returning to work after giving birth, as well as the extent to which this timing is linked to the amount of time mothers spend with their children and their use of breast milk…

Feng, Joyce Yen; Han, Wen-Jui

2010-01-01

315

Maternal sexuality and breastfeeding  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper I consider the ways in which lactation has been discussed as a form of maternal sexuality, and the implications this carries for our understanding of breastfeeding practices and sexuality. Drawing on knowledge constructed in the western world during the last half of the twentieth century, the paper identifies a shift between the radical ideologies of the 1960s

Alison Bartlett

2005-01-01

316

Maternal abuse history and self-regulation difficulties in preadolescence.  

PubMed

Although poor parenting is known to be closely linked to self-regulation difficulties in early childhood, comparatively little is understood about the role of other risk factors in the early caregiving environment (such as a parent's own experiences of childhood abuse) in developmental pathways of self-regulation into adolescence. Using a longitudinal design, this study aimed to examine how a mother's history of abuse in childhood relates to her offspring's self-regulation difficulties in preadolescence. Maternal controlling parenting and exposure to intimate partner aggression in the child's first 24-36 months were examined as important early social and environmental influences that may explain the proposed connection between maternal abuse history and preadolescent self-regulation. An ethnically diverse sample of mothers (N=488) who were identified as at-risk for child maltreatment was recruited at the time of their children's birth. Mothers and their children were assessed annually from the child's birth through 36 months, and at age 9-11 years. Structural equation modeling and bootstrap tests of indirect effects were conducted to address the study aims. Findings indicated that maternal abuse history indirectly predicted their children's self-regulation difficulties in preadolescence mainly through maternal controlling parenting in early childhood, but not through maternal exposure to aggression by an intimate partner. Maternal history of childhood abuse and maternal controlling parenting in her child's early life may have long-term developmental implications for child self-regulation. PMID:25459984

Delker, Brianna C; Noll, Laura K; Kim, Hyoun K; Fisher, Philip A

2014-12-01

317

Detecting maternal-effect loci by statistical cross-fostering.  

PubMed

Great progress has been made in understanding the genetic architecture of phenotypic variation, but it is almost entirely focused on how the genotype of an individual affects the phenotype of that same individual. However, in many species the genotype of the mother is a major determinant of the phenotype of her offspring. Therefore, a complete picture of genetic architecture must include these maternal genetic effects, but they can be difficult to identify because maternal and offspring genotypes are correlated and therefore, partially confounded. We present a conceptual framework that overcomes this challenge to separate direct and maternal effects in intact families through an analysis that we call "statistical cross-fostering." Our approach combines genotype data from mothers and their offspring to remove the confounding effects of the offspring's own genotype on measures of maternal genetic effects. We formalize our approach in an orthogonal model and apply this model to an experimental population of mice. We identify a set of six maternal genetic effect loci that explain a substantial portion of variation in body size at all ages. This variation would be missed in an approach focused solely on direct genetic effects, but is clearly a major component of genetic architecture. Our approach can easily be adapted to examine maternal effects in different systems, and because it does not require experimental manipulation, it provides a framework that can be used to understand the contribution of maternal genetic effects in both natural and experimental populations. PMID:22377636

Wolf, Jason; Cheverud, James M

2012-05-01

318

The sisterhood method of estimating maternal mortality: the Matlab experience.  

PubMed

This study reports the results of a test of validation of the sisterhood method of measuring the level of maternal mortality using data from a Demographic Surveillance System (DSS) operating since 1966 in Matlab, Bangladesh. The records of maternal deaths that occurred during 1976-90 in the Matlab DSS area were used. One of the deceased woman's surviving brothers or sisters, aged 15 or older and born to the same mother, was asked if the deceased sister had died of maternity-related causes. Of the 384 maternal deaths for which siblings were interviewed, 305 deaths were correctly reported, 16 deaths were underreported, and the remaining 63 were misreported as nonmaternal deaths. Information on maternity-related deaths obtained in a sisterhood survey conducted in the Matlab DSS area was compared with the information recorded in the DSS. Results suggest that in places similar to Matlab, the sisterhood method can be used to provide an indication of the level of maternal mortality if no other data exist, though the method will produce negative bias in maternal mortality estimates. PMID:7618193

Shahidullah, M

1995-01-01

319

Maternal effects on post-weaning physical and social development in juvenile mountain goats ( Oreamnos americanus )  

Microsoft Academic Search

Little is known about maternal effects on post-weaning development, yet they may be important because maternal care could have long-term consequences only evident when offspring approach adulthood. We have assessed the effects of maternal age, current reproduction (presence of a kid of the year) and social rank on the body mass, horn length and social rank of 1- and 2-year-old

Yanick Gendreau; Steeve D. Côté; Marco Festa-Bianchet

2005-01-01

320

Ultrasonographic Diagnosis of Lipofibromatous Hamartoma of the Median Nerve  

PubMed Central

Lipofibromatous hamartoma (LFH) is an extremely rare benign tumor, which is characterized by an excessive infiltration of the epineurium and perineurium by fibroadipose tissues.A 27-year-old woman was diagnosed with left carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS) due to (LFH) of the median nerve. LFH was diagnosed by MRI and sonography; the characteristic ultrasonographic feature of LFH showed a good correlation with pathognomonic MRI findings. The median nerve was involved along its course in the forearm; however, the patient needed carpal tunnel release because of severe compression of the median nerve under the flexor retinaculum.Radiologic evaluation of patient with CTS to evaluate probable secondary CTS is recommended.

Afshar, Ahmadreza; Assadzadeh, Omid; Mohammadi, Afshin

2015-01-01

321

Median model for background subtraction in intelligent transportation system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This research is generally divided into two phases: the first phase deals with background image generation and vehicle detection, the second phase deals with vehicle tracking and video handoff. In the first phase we view the image as a mixture of three data distributions: vehicle, background and shadow. Thus the problem is modeled as a mixture of Gaussian problem and our goal is to separate the background data from other data distributions. We proposed a median model and an improved median model to separate the background data from mixture data and to generate background reference images. In median model we keep track of deviation between the median and its neighbors in a reordered pixel sequence. When sample size is big enough, the reordered pixel sequence is in what we called balanced-median model. This model is indicated by a very small deviation value. In this case the median of the pixel sequence falls in background set and could be used for background estimation. When sample size is not big enough, the reordered pixel sequence is in what we called shifted-median model. This model is indicated by a much bigger deviation value. In this case the median falls out of background set and are excluded for background estimation. This median model has an impressive performance to handle slow moving or even stationary vehicles. But the time complexity is still expensive for real time image processing. The improved median model is proposed to reduce the time complexity to a reasonable level. In improved median model, we take samples in a bigger time interval to make it capable of dealing with slow moving and stationary vehicles. The sample size from experimentation is obtained as a small constant value between 5 and 20. This small sample constant size could dramatically reduce the time complexity. As a complementary to this improved median model, a mask-classified updating method is introduced to update the background image in a short term and only classified background pixels are being used for updating. Threshold, erosion, dilation and connected components labeling are used for noise removing and object labeling. After the first phase, the vehicle information is separated from image and input to the second phase for video hand-off and vehicle tracking. In the second phase, the weighted intensity information and shape information for each vehicle is scored and minimum-distance classification method is used for vehicle match. More than 400 vehicles are tested. An overall detection rate of 100% and tracking rate of 74% are obtained in this system.

Shi, Peijun; Jones, Elizabeth G.; Zhu, Qiuming

2004-05-01

322

The multivariate L1-median and associated data depth  

PubMed Central

This paper gives three related results: (i) a new, simple, fast, monotonically converging algorithm for deriving the L1-median of a data cloud in ?d, a problem that can be traced to Fermat and has fascinated applied mathematicians for over three centuries; (ii) a new general definition for depth functions, as functions of multivariate medians, so that different definitions of medians will, correspondingly, give rise to different dept functions; and (iii) a simple closed-form formula of the L1-depth function for a given data cloud in ?d. PMID:10677477

Vardi, Yehuda; Zhang, Cun-Hui

2000-01-01

323

The multivariate L1-median and associated data depth.  

PubMed

This paper gives three related results: (i) a new, simple, fast, monotonically converging algorithm for deriving the L1-median of a data cloud in Rd, a problem that can be traced to Fermat and has fascinated applied mathematicians for over three centuries; (ii) a new general definition for depth functions, as functions of multivariate medians, so that different definitions of medians will, correspondingly, give rise to different dept functions; and (iii) a simple closed-form formula of the L1-depth function for a given data cloud in Rd. PMID:10677477

Vardi, Y; Zhang, C H

2000-02-15

324

Maternal mortality among the Kassena-Nankana of northern Ghana.  

PubMed

This report presents key findings from a maternal mortality study conducted in the Kassena-Nankana District of northern Ghana in 1997-98. Sibling history data collected in the course of this survey are analyzed together with longitudinal data from the Navrongo Demographic Surveillance System (NDSS). A comparison between mortality data from these two sources indicates that obtaining reasonably accurate estimates of age-specific death rates is possible by using the sisterhood method. Direct and indirect estimates from the maternal mortality study and the NDSS suggest a decline in the maternal mortality ratio for the Kassena-Nankana District from 800 to 600 maternal deaths per 100,000 live births over the past 14 years. PMID:16617548

Ngom, P; Akweongo, P; Adongo, P; Bawah, A A; Binka, F

1999-06-01

325

Impact of breastfeeding duration on age at menarche.  

PubMed

The study aims to assess the relation between breastfeeding duration and age at menarche. Analysis was based on a cohort of 994 Filipino girls born in 1983-1984 and followed up from infancy to adulthood by the Cebu Longitudinal Health and Nutrition Survey. The main outcome was self-reported age at menarche. Cox regression was used to investigate the relation between duration of exclusive and any breastfeeding with age at menarche with adjustment sequentially for specific sets of known socioeconomic, maternal, genetic, and prenatal confounders. The estimated median of age at menarche was 13.08 years. After adjustment for potential confounders of the association of breastfeeding with age at menarche, exclusive breastfeeding duration retained an independent and significant association with age at menarche. An increase in 1 month of exclusive breastfeeding decreases the hazard of attaining earlier menarche by 6% (hazard ratio = 0.94, 95% confidence interval: 0.90, 0.98). Any breastfeeding duration was not associated with age at menarche. Although this is the first longitudinal study that reveals a negative association between exclusive breastfeeding and early menarche, the relation is still elusive. Further longitudinal studies within different contexts are warranted to assess the generalizability of these findings. PMID:21430189

Al-Sahab, Ban; Adair, Linda; Hamadeh, Mazen J; Ardern, Chris I; Tamim, Hala

2011-05-01

326

Maternal Smoking, Xenobiotic Metabolizing Enzyme Gene Variants, and Gastroschisis Risk  

PubMed Central

Maternal smoking during pregnancy is one proposed risk factor for gastroschisis, but reported associations have been modest, suggesting that differences in genetic susceptibility might play a role. We included 108 non-Hispanic white and 62 Hispanic families who had infants with gastroschisis, and 1147 non-Hispanic white and 337 Hispanic families who had liveborn infants with no major structural birth defects (controls) in these analyses. DNA was extracted from buccal cells collected from infants and mothers, and information on periconceptional smoking history was obtained from maternal interviews, as part of the National Birth Defects Prevention Study. We analyzed five polymorphisms in three genes that code for enzymes involved in metabolism of some cigarette smoke constituents (CYP1A1, CYP1A2, and NAT2). Logistic regression models were used to estimate odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) independently for maternal smoking and maternal and infant gene variants, and to assess joint associations of maternal smoking and maternal or infant gene variants with gastroschisis. In analyses adjusted for maternal age at delivery and stratified by maternal race-ethnicity, we identified three suggestive associations among 30 potential associations with sufficient numbers to calculate ORs: CYP1A1*2A for non-Hispanic white mothers who smoked periconceptionally (aOR=0.38, 95% CI 0.15-0.98), and NAT2*6 for Hispanic non-smoking mothers (aOR=2.17, 95% CI 1.12-4.19) and their infants (aOR=2.11, 95% CI 1.00-4.48). This analysis does not support the occurrence of effect modification between periconceptional maternal smoking and most of the xenobiotic metabolizing enzyme gene variants assessed. PMID:24668907

Jenkins, Mary M.; Reefhuis, Jennita; Gallagher, Margaret L.; Mulle, Jennifer G.; Hoffmann, Thomas J.; Koontz, Deborah A.; Sturchio, Cynthia; Rasmussen, Sonja A.; Witte, John S.; Richter, Patricia; Honein, Margaret A.

2015-01-01

327

Maternal smoking, xenobiotic metabolizing enzyme gene variants, and gastroschisis risk.  

PubMed

Maternal smoking during pregnancy is one proposed risk factor for gastroschisis, but reported associations have been modest, suggesting that differences in genetic susceptibility might play a role. We included 108 non-Hispanic white and 62 Hispanic families who had infants with gastroschisis, and 1,147 non-Hispanic white and 337 Hispanic families who had liveborn infants with no major structural birth defects (controls) in these analyses. DNA was extracted from buccal cells collected from infants and mothers, and information on periconceptional smoking history was obtained from maternal interviews, as part of the National Birth Defects Prevention Study. We analyzed five polymorphisms in three genes that code for enzymes involved in metabolism of some cigarette smoke constituents (CYP1A1, CYP1A2, and NAT2). Logistic regression models were used to estimate odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) independently for maternal smoking and maternal and infant gene variants, and to assess joint associations of maternal smoking and maternal or infant gene variants with gastroschisis. In analyses adjusted for maternal age at delivery and stratified by maternal race-ethnicity, we identified three suggestive associations among 30 potential associations with sufficient numbers to calculate ORs: CYP1A1*2A for non-Hispanic white mothers who smoked periconceptionally (aOR = 0.38, 95% CI 0.15-0.98), and NAT2*6 for Hispanic non-smoking mothers (aOR = 2.17, 95% CI 1.12-4.19) and their infants (aOR = 2.11, 95% CI 1.00-4.48). This analysis does not support the occurrence of effect modification between periconceptional maternal smoking and most of the xenobiotic metabolizing enzyme gene variants assessed. PMID:24668907

Jenkins, Mary M; Reefhuis, Jennita; Gallagher, Margaret L; Mulle, Jennifer G; Hoffmann, Thomas J; Koontz, Deborah A; Sturchio, Cynthia; Rasmussen, Sonja A; Witte, John S; Richter, Patricia; Honein, Margaret A

2014-06-01

328

2. HISTORIC PHOTOGRAPH, VIEW FROM MEDIAN OF MERRITT PARKWAY TO ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

2. HISTORIC PHOTOGRAPH, VIEW FROM MEDIAN OF MERRITT PARKWAY TO EAST ROCKS ROAD BRIDGE, CA. 1940. COLLECTION CONNECTICUT DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION. - Merritt Parkway, East Rocks Road Bridge, Spanning Merritt Parkway, Norwalk, Fairfield County, CT

329

1. VIEW OF MEDIAN FROM GORDON HIGHWAY OVERPASS, LOOKING WEST ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

1. VIEW OF MEDIAN FROM GORDON HIGHWAY OVERPASS, LOOKING WEST SHOWING REVOLUTIONARY WAR MONUMENT 56/1 - Greene Street Historic District, Greene Street, Gordon Highway to Augusta Canal Bridge, Augusta, Richmond County, GA

330

Changes in Median Household Income: 1969 to 1996  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Census Bureau report Changes in Median Household Income: 1969 to 1996 by Jack McNeil indicates that the US median household income rose six percent overall between 1969 and 1996. This modest increase does not reflect the more dynamic changes experienced by a variety of the household types studied, however, as selected measures in the seventeen statistical appendices included in the report reveal.

McNeil, John.

1998-01-01

331

Computational study of large-scale p Median problems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Given a directed graph G(V,A), the p-Median problem consists of determining p nodes (the median nodes) minimizing the total distance from the other nodes of the graph. We present a Branch-and-Cut-and-Price algorithm yielding\\u000a provably good solutions for instances with |V|?3795. Key ingredients of the algorithm are a delayed column-and-row generation technique, exploiting the special structure\\u000a of the formulation, to solve

Pasquale Avella; Antonio Sassano; Igor Vasil'ev

2007-01-01

332

Maternal Hartnup disorder.  

PubMed

We describe childbearing in two unrelated women with Hartnup disorder, an inborn error of neutral amino acid transport. Two living, unaffected offspring born after untreated and uneventful pregnancies, one from each woman, have had normal growth and development. The older one had an IQ of 92 at 4 years while the younger one at 4 months had a Development Quotient of 107 on the Mental Scale and 102 on the Motor Scale. A third offspring had a neural tube defect complicated by hydrocephalus and died at 3 months. This mother had a family history of major congenital anomalies. We think that this experience supports the view that Hartnup disorder in the mother, unlike phenylketonuria, does not have an adverse effect on the fetus. The presence of normal ratios of the amino acid concentrations between maternal and umbilical veins in one mother also suggests that placental transport of free amino acids, unlike renal transport, may not be reduced in maternal Hartnup disorder. PMID:3728570

Mahon, B E; Levy, H L

1986-07-01

333

Maternal risk factors for neonatal necrotizing enterocolitis.  

PubMed

Abstract Objective: This study aimed to investigate the relationship between maternal hypertensive disease and other risk factors and the neonatal development of necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC). Methods: This was a retrospective case-control study of infants with NEC from 2008 to 2012. The primary exposure of interest was maternal hypertensive disease, which has been hypothesized to put infants at risk for NEC. Other variables collected included demographics, pregnancy complications, medications and neonatal hospital course. Data were abstracted from medical records. Results: Twenty-eight cases of singleton neonates with NEC and 81 matched controls were identified and analyzed. There was no significant difference in the primary outcome. Fetuses with an antenatal diagnosis of growth restriction were more likely to develop NEC (p?=?0.008). Infants with NEC had lower median birth weight than infants without NEC (p?=?0.009). Infants with NEC had more late-onset sepsis (p?=?0.01) and mortality before discharge (p?=?0.001). Conclusions: The factors identified by this case-control study that increased the risk of neonatal NEC included intrauterine growth restriction and lower neonatal birth weight. The primary exposure, hypertensive disease, did not show a significantly increased risk of neonatal NEC; however, there was a nearly two-fold difference observed. Our study was underpowered to detect the observed difference. PMID:25162307

March, Melissa I; Gupta, Munish; Modest, Anna M; Wu, Lily; Hacker, Michele R; Martin, Camilia R; Rana, Sarosh

2014-08-27

334

Maternal Appraisal Styles, Family Risk Status and Anger Biases of Children.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The present study investigated the relationship between maternal appraisal styles, family risk status, and anger biases in children. Participants included 90 mothers and their children between 3-6 years of age. Eighty families were followed up 1 year later. Maternal appraisal styles were assessed via a naturalistic story-reading method, and Time 1…

Root, Carol A.; Jenkins, Jennifer M.

2005-01-01

335

Circulating leptin during ovine pregnancy in relation to maternal nutrition, body composition and pregnancy outcome  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examined the pattern of circulating leptin in age-matched sheep during adolescent pregnancy, and its relationship with maternal dietary intake, body com- position and tissue expression of the leptin gene. Over- feeding the adolescent pregnant ewe results in rapid maternal growth at the expense of the placenta, leading to growth restriction in the fetus, compared with normal fed controls.

L Thomas; J M Wallace; R P Aitken; J G Mercer; P Trayhurn; N Hoggard

2001-01-01

336

Early maternal separation, nightmares, and bad dreams: Results from the Hungarostudy Epidemiological Panel  

Microsoft Academic Search

Early maternal separation is a particularly stressful experience. Current models of nightmare production emphasize negative emotionality as having a central role in determining dream affect. Our aim is to test the hypothesis that persons who experienced early maternal separation (before one year of age and lasting at least one month) report more frequent nightmare experiences and bad dreams as adults.

Szilvia Csóka; Péter Simor; Gábor Szabó; Mária S. Kopp; Róbert Bódizs

2011-01-01

337

Maternal deaths in the city of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, 2000-2003.  

PubMed

The study describes the characteristics of maternal deaths in the city of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, during 2000-2003. After investigation by public-health services, 217 maternal deaths were identified among predominantly non-white (48.9%), single (57.1%) women aged 29.6 +/- 7.3 years on average. Direct obstetric causes corresponded to 77.4% of the maternal deaths, mainly due to hypertensive disorders. HIV-related diseases accounted for 4% of the maternal deaths. Almost three-fourths of the mothers who died were aged 20-39 years, although the highest risk of maternal death corresponded to the age-group of 40-49 years (248.9 per 100,000 livebirths). The socioeconomic and demographic profiles of maternal deaths in the city of Rio de Janeiro reflected a vulnerable social situation. Appropriate interventions aimed at reducing maternal mortality need to encompass all women of childbearing age, irrespective of the magnitude of the risk of maternal death. PMID:20099763

Kale, Pauline Lorena; Costa, Antonio Jose Leal

2009-12-01

338

Dynamic Associations between Maternal Depressive Symptoms and Adolescents' Depressive and Externalizing Symptoms  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The current prospective study investigated transactional relations between maternal depressive symptoms and children's depressive and externalizing symptoms. Participants included 240 children (M age = 11.86 years, SD = 0.56; 53.9% female) and their mothers who were part of a 6-year longitudinal study. Measures of maternal depression (Beck…

Kouros, Chrystyna D.; Garber, Judy

2010-01-01

339

The Moderating Effects of Maternal Psychopathology on Children's Adjustment Post–Hurricane Katrina  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study investigated the role of maternal psychopathology in predicting children's psychological distress in a disaster-exposed sample. Participants consisted of 260 children (ages 8–16) recruited from public schools and their mothers. These families were displaced from New Orleans because of Hurricane Katrina in 2005. Assessment took place 3 to 7 months postdisaster. Hierarchical regression analyses revealed that global maternal psychological

Annie W. Spell; Mary Lou Kelley; Jing Wang; Shannon Self-Brown; Karen L. Davidson; Angie Pellegrin; Jeannette L. Palcic; Kara Meyer; Valerie Paasch; Audrey Baumeister

2008-01-01

340

Neonatal Cuddliness and Maternal Handling Patterns in the First Month of Life.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The effects of "cuddliness" on proximal and distal maternal stimulation and on maternal attachment were examined in 32 healthy mother/infant pairs. All mothers were black, inner-city, of low socioeconomic status, primaparous, bottle-feeding, and between 16 and 24 years of age. All also had adequate prenatal care, no complications, and low levels…

Will, Jerrie Ann

341

Early Maternal Language Use during Book Sharing in Families from Low-Income Environments  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: The authors examined the language used by mothers from low-income and rural environments with their infants at ages 6 and 15 months to identify predictors of maternal language use at the 15-month time point. Method: Maternal language use by 82 mothers with their children was documented during book-sharing interactions within the home in a…

Abraham, Linzy M.; Crais, Elizabeth; Vernon-Feagans, Lynne; Cox, Martha; Blair, Clancy; Burchinal, Peg; Crnic, Keith; Crouter, Ann; Garrett-Peters, Patricia; Greenberg, Mark; Lanza, Stephanie; Mills-Koonce, Roger; Werner, Emily; Willoughby, Michael

2013-01-01

342

Maternal Socialization and Child Temperament as Predictors of Emotion Regulation in Turkish Preschoolers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study investigated the role of maternal socialization and temperament in Turkish preschool children's emotion regulation. Participants consisted of 145 preschoolers (79 boys, 69 girls; M[subscript age]= 62 months), their mothers, and daycare teachers from middle-high socioeconomic suburbs of Istanbul. Maternal child-rearing practices and…

Yagmurlu, Bilge; Altan, Ozge

2010-01-01

343

Maternal Appraisal Styles, Family Risk Status and Anger Biases of Children  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study investigated the relationship between maternal appraisal styles, family risk status, and anger biases in children. Participants included 90 mothers and their children between 3–6 years of age. Eighty families were followed up 1 year later. Maternal appraisal styles were assessed via a naturalistic story-reading method, and Time 1 and Time 2 emotion biases included teacher ratings of

Carol A. Root; Jennifer M. Jenkins

2005-01-01

344

Maternal Structure and Autonomy Support in Conversations about the Past: Contributions to Children's Autobiographical Memory  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The authors examined the contributions of maternal structure and autonomy support to children's collaborative and independent reminiscing. Fifty mother-child dyads discussed past experiences when the children were 40 and 65 months old. Children also discussed past events with an experimenter at each age. Maternal structure and autonomy support…

Cleveland, Emily Sutcliffe; Reese, Elaine

2005-01-01

345

Associations among Maternal Behavior, Delay of Gratification, and School Readiness across the Early Childhood Years  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined the developmental pathways from maternal behavior to school readiness within a sample of 1007 children, with a specific focus on the mediating role of delay of gratification (DoG). Maternal behavior across the first 36 months of age was explored as a predictor of children's DoG at 54 months as well as their behavioral and…

Razza, Rachel A.; Raymond, Kimberly

2013-01-01

346

The Link Between Daycare Experience and Attitudes Toward Daycare and Maternal Employment  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Participants (n = 308; mean age = 20 years) completed questionnaires about their history, attitudes, and expectations regarding childcare, maternal employment and future parenting. Participants who experienced non-parental care as children had more favorable attitudes toward such care and toward maternal employment than did home-reared…

Shpancer, Noam; Bennett-Murphy, Laura

2006-01-01

347

Understanding Relations among Children's Shy and Antisocial/Aggressive Behaviors and Mothers' Parenting: The Role of Maternal Beliefs  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study assesses the relationships between children's shy and antisocial/aggressive behaviors and maternal beliefs, and concomitant parenting behaviors. Structural equation models examined 199 mothers' perceptions of aggression and shyness in their preschool-age children (average age = 59.63 months); maternal beliefs (i.e., locus of control,…

Evans, Cortney A.; Nelson, Larry J.; Porter, Christin L.; Nelson, David A.; Hart, Craig H.

2012-01-01

348

The effect of maternal depression on maternal ratings of child behavior  

Microsoft Academic Search

There have been continuing concerns about the extent to which maternal depression may influence maternal reports of child behavior. To examine this issue, a series of structural equation models of the relationships between maternal depression and errors in maternal reports of child behavior was proposed and tested. These models assumed that (a) maternal depression was unrelated to maternal reporting behavior;

David M. Fergusson; Michael T. Lynskey; L. John Horwood

1993-01-01

349

Maternal cardiac metabolism in pregnancy  

PubMed Central

Pregnancy causes dramatic physiological changes in the expectant mother. The placenta, mostly foetal in origin, invades maternal uterine tissue early in pregnancy and unleashes a barrage of hormones and other factors. This foetal ‘invasion’ profoundly reprogrammes maternal physiology, affecting nearly every organ, including the heart and its metabolism. We briefly review here maternal systemic metabolic changes during pregnancy and cardiac metabolism in general. We then discuss changes in cardiac haemodynamic during pregnancy and review what is known about maternal cardiac metabolism during pregnancy. Lastly, we discuss cardiac diseases during pregnancy, including peripartum cardiomyopathy, and the potential contribution of aberrant cardiac metabolism to disease aetiology. PMID:24448314

Liu, Laura X.; Arany, Zolt

2014-01-01

350

Maternal mortality in rural Zambia.  

PubMed

The only prospective population-based study of maternal mortality in rural Zambia recorded a ratio of 889 per 100,000 births, about 8 times higher than that found in an urban hospital-based study. To obtain an accurate assessment of maternal mortality in Zambia's rural Kalabo district, both the sisterhood survey method and a review of hospital data were utilized. The maternal mortality ratio derived from the sisterhood survey (August-September 1994) of 1978 respondents was 1238 per 100,000 live births. Data from Kalabo Hospital on 2474 deliveries during 1990-94 revealed a ratio of 548 per 100,000 live births; however, when the latter ratio was corrected for an additional 15 maternal deaths that were not recorded as such, it rose to 1179 per 100,000 live births. The major causes of the 20 (71%) direct maternal deaths were obstructed labor and sepsis. Substandard hospital care factors (primarily inappropriate choice and/or lack of antibiotics, poor monitoring of vital signs, and poor provision of blood products by the laboratory) contributed to 71% of maternal deaths. Delay in seeking care played a role in 29% of all maternal deaths, and poor accessibility to the hospital was implicated in at least 25% of cases. These findings indicate that maternal mortality in rural Zambia is among the highest in the world. The sisterhood method survey appears to be an efficient indirect means of assessing maternal mortality in rural areas of developing countries. PMID:9292638

Vork, F C; Kyanamina, S; van Roosmalen, J

1997-08-01

351

Clinical complications in pregnant women with sickle cell disease: prospective study of factors predicting maternal death or near miss  

PubMed Central

Objective To evaluate complications in pregnant women with sickle cell disease, especially those leading to maternal death or near miss (severe obstetric complications). Methods A prospective cohort of 104 pregnant women registered in the Blood Center of Belo Horizonte (Hemominas Foundation) was followed up at high-risk prenatal units. They belonged to Group I (51 hemoglobin SS and three hemoglobin S/?0-thalassemia) or Group II (49 hemoglobin SC and one hemoglobin S/?+-thalassemia). Both groups had similar median ages. Predictive factors for ‘near miss’ or maternal death with p-value ? 0.25 in the univariate analysis were included in a multivariate logistic model (significance set for p-value ? 0.05). Results Group I had more frequent episodes of vaso-occlusive crises, more transfusions in the antepartum and postpartum, and higher percentage of preterm deliveries than Group II. Infections and painful crises during the postpartum period were similar in both the groups. The mortality rate was 4.8%: three deaths in Group I and two in Group II. One-third of the women in both the groups experienced near miss. The most frequent event was pneumonia/acute chest syndrome. Alpha-thalassemia co-inheritance and ?-gene haplotypes were not associated with near miss or maternal death. In multivariate analysis predictors of near miss or death were parity above one and baseline red blood cell macrocytosis. In Group I, baseline hypoxemia (saturation < 94%) was also predictive of near miss or death. Conclusion One-third of pregnant women had near miss and 4.8% died. Both hemoglobin SS and SC pregnant women shared the same risk of death or of severe complications, especially pulmonary events. PMID:25031164

Resende Cardoso, Patrícia Santos; Lopes Pessoa de Aguiar, Regina Amélia; Viana, Marcos Borato

2014-01-01

352

Maternal Smoking in Pregnancy, Fetal Development, and Childhood Asthma  

PubMed Central

Objectives. We examined the relationships among maternal smoking in pregnancy, fetal development, and the risk of asthma in childhood. Methods. We conducted a population-based cohort study, where all 58 841 singleton births were followed for 7 years using nationwide registries. Results. Maternal smoking increased the risk of asthma (adjusted odds ratio = 1.35; 95% confidence interval = 1.13, 1.62 for high exposure). Low birthweight and preterm delivery increased the risk of asthma at the age of 7, whereas being small for gestational age did not. Conclusions. Maternal smoking in pregnancy increases the risk of asthma during the first 7 years of life, and only a small fraction of the effect seems to be mediated through fetal growth. PMID:14713711

Jaakkola, Jouni J. K.; Gissler, Mika

2004-01-01

353

Xylitol gum and maternal transmission of mutans streptococci.  

PubMed

An important caries prevention strategy for children includes measures to interfere with transmission of mutans streptococci (MS). This study confirmed the effectiveness of maternal early exposure to xylitol chewing gum on mother-child transmission of MS. After screening, 107 pregnant women with high salivary MS were randomized into two groups: xylitol gum (Xylitol; n = 56) and no gum (Control; n = 51) groups. Maternal chewing started at the sixth month of pregnancy and terminated 13 months later in the Xylitol group. Outcome measures were the presence of MS in saliva or plaque of the children until age 24 months. The Xylitol-group children were significantly less likely to show MS colonization than Control-group children aged 9-24 months. The Control-group children acquired MS 8.8 months earlier than those in the Xylitol group, suggesting that maternal xylitol gum chewing in Japan shows beneficial effects similar to those demonstrated in Nordic countries. PMID:19948944

Nakai, Y; Shinga-Ishihara, C; Kaji, M; Moriya, K; Murakami-Yamanaka, K; Takimura, M

2010-01-01

354

Median Arcuate Ligament Syndrome in a patient with Crohn's disease  

PubMed Central

INTRODUCTION The Median Arcuate Ligament Syndrome is a rare condition characterized by postprandial abdominal pain, bowel function disorder and weight loss. We report the first case to our knowledge of Crohn's disease and Median Arcuate Ligament Syndrome. PRESENTATION OF CASE The patient was a 33 year-old female with a previous diagnosis of Crohn's disease. Acute postprandial abdominal pain affected the patient every day; she was, therefore, referred to US-Doppler and magnetic resonance angiography of the abdominal vessels and received a diagnosis of Median Arcuate Ligament Syndrome. Consequently, the patient was surgically treated, releasing the vascular compression. After the operation, she reported a complete relief from postprandial pain which was one of her major concerns. Subocclusive symptoms occurred after six months due to the inflammatory reactivation of the terminal ileitis. DISCUSSION The diagnosis of Median Arcuate Ligament Syndrome is mainly based on the exclusion of other intestinal disorders but it should be always confirmed using noninvasive tests such as US-Doppler, angio-CT or magnetic resonance angiography. CONCLUSION This case demonstrates that the Median Arcuate Ligament Syndrome could be the major cause of symptoms, even in presence of other abdominal disorders. PMID:23500743

Sturiale, Alessandro; Alemanno, Giovanni; Giudici, Francesco; Addasi, Rami; Bellucci, Francesco; Tonelli, Francesco

2013-01-01

355

Society for Maternal-Fetal Medicine  

MedlinePLUS

... the un-routine The Society for Maternal-Fetal Medicine We partner with referring providers, medical societies, payers ... moms and babies. View Find a Maternal-Fetal Medicine Specialist More than 2,000 Maternal-Fetal Medicine ...

356

Maternal psychopathology and early child temperament predict young children's salivary cortisol 3 years later.  

PubMed

Neuroendocrine dysfunction is hypothesized to be an early emerging vulnerability marker for depression. We tested whether the main and interactive effects of maternal psychopathology and early child temperamental vulnerability for depression assessed at age three predicted offspring's basal cortisol function at age 6 years. 228 (122 males) children participated in the baseline and follow-up assessments. At age three, maternal lifetime psychopathology was assessed with a diagnostic clinical interview, and child temperamental positive affectivity (PA) and negative affectivity (NA) were assessed using laboratory observations. At age six, children's waking and evening cortisol were assessed on 2 days. Maternal lifetime anxiety predicted offspring's higher morning cortisol at age six. Child temperamental NA at age three predicted higher evening cortisol at age six. There was a significant interaction between maternal lifetime depression and child temperamental PA at age three in predicting offspring's morning cortisol at age six. For the offspring of mothers with lifetime depression, higher PA at age 3 predicted lower morning cortisol at age 6. These findings highlight the importance of examining the main and interactive effects of maternal psychopathology and early child temperamental vulnerability in predicting the development of offspring's stress physiology. Findings hold significance in identifying etiological mechanisms of risk and delineating the complex developmental pathways to psychopathology. PMID:23192743

Dougherty, Lea R; Smith, Victoria C; Olino, Thomas M; Dyson, Margaret W; Bufferd, Sara J; Rose, Suzanne A; Klein, Daniel N

2013-05-01

357

Maternal intestinal flora and wheeze in early childhood  

PubMed Central

Background Increasing evidence links altered intestinal flora in infancy to eczema and asthma. No studies have investigated the influence of maternal intestinal flora on wheezing and eczema in early childhood. Objective To investigate the link between maternal intestinal flora during pregnancy and development of wheeze and eczema in infancy. Methods Sixty pregnant women from the Boston area gave stool samples during the third trimester of their pregnancy and answered questions during pregnancy about their own health, and about their children’s health when the child was 2 and 6 months of age. Quantitative culture was performed on stool samples and measured in log10colony-forming units(CFU)/gram stool. Primary outcomes included infant wheeze and eczema in the first 6 months of life. Atopic wheeze, defined as wheeze and eczema, was analyzed as a secondary outcome. Results In multivariate models adjusted for breastfeeding, daycare attendance and maternal atopy, higher counts of maternal total aerobes (TA) and enterococci (E) were associated with increased risk of infant wheeze (TA: OR 2.32 for 1 log increase in CFU/g stool [95% CI 1.22, 4.42]; E: OR 1.57 [95% CI 1.06, 2.31]). No organisms were associated with either eczema or atopic wheeze. Conclusions & Clinical Relevance In our cohort, higher maternal total aerobes and enterococci were related to increased risk of infant wheeze. Maternal intestinal flora may be an important environmental exposure in early immune system development. PMID:22909161

Lange, Nancy E.; Celedón, Juan C.; Forno, Erick; Ly, Ngoc P.; Onderdonk, Andrew; Bry, Lynn; Delaney, Mary L.; DuBois, Andrea M.; Gold, Diane R.; Weiss, Scott T.; Litonjua, Augusto A.

2012-01-01

358

Maternal ethanol ingestion: effect on maternal and neonatal glucose balance  

SciTech Connect

Liver glycogen availability in the newborn is of major importance for the maintenance of postnatal blood glucose levels. This study examined the effect of maternal ethanol ingestion on maternal and neonatal glucose balance in the rate. Female rats were placed on 1) the Lieber-DeCarli liquid ethanol diet, 2) an isocaloric liquid pair-diet, or 3) an ad libitum rat chow diet at 3 wk before mating and throughout gestation. Blood and livers were obtained from dams and rat pups on gestational days 21 and 22. The pups were studied up to 6 h in the fasted state and up to 24 h in the fed state. Maternal ethanol ingestion significantly decreased litter size, birth weight, and growth. A significantly higher mortality during the early postnatal period was seen in the prenatal ethanol exposed pups. Ethanol significantly decreased fed maternal liver glycogen stores but not maternal plasma glucose levels. The newborn rats from ethanol ingesting dams also had significantly decreased liver glycogen stores. Despite mobilizing their available glycogen, these prenatal ethanol exposed pups became hypoglycemic by 6 h postnatal. This was more marked in the fasted pups. Ethanol did not affect maternal nor neonatal plasma insulin levels. Thus maternal ethanol ingestion reduces maternal and neonatal liver glycogen stores and leads to postnatal hypoglycemia in the newborn rat.

Witek-Janusek, L.

1986-08-01

359

Child Health, Maternal Marital and Socioeconomic Factors, and Maternal Health  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Although maternal socioeconomic status and health predict in part children's future health and socioeconomic prospects, it is possible that the intergenerational association flows in the other direction such that child health affects maternal outcomes. Previous research demonstrates that poor child health increases the risk of adverse…

Garbarski, Dana; Witt, Whitney P.

2013-01-01

360

Maternal Depression, Maternal Expressed Emotion, and Youth Psychopathology  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Across development, maternal depression has been found to be a risk factor for youth psychopathology generally and youth depression specifically. Maternal Expressed Emotion (EE) has been examined as a predictor of outcome among youth with depression. The present study explored the associations between youth psychopathology and two…

Tompson, Martha C.; Pierre, Claudette B.; Boger, Kathryn Dingman; McKowen, James W.; Chan, Priscilla T.; Freed, Rachel D.

2010-01-01

361

Protective Effects of Maternal and Peer Support on Depressive Symptoms during Adolescence  

PubMed Central

The current study examined the contributions of maternal and peer support to depressive symptoms in early to mid-adolescence and variation in these contributions across age, gender, and race. Five waves of data on maternal support, peer support, and depressive symptoms were collected on rural youth (N = 3,444) at six month intervals. Multilevel modeling was used to evaluate within and between-person effects of maternal and peer support on depressive symptoms. Within-person effects of peer support did not vary by age, gender, or race. At the between-person level, peer support predicted levels of depressive symptoms at age 12, but this effect became nonsignificant after controlling for maternal support. Within-person effects of maternal support did not vary with age but were qualified by gender and race. Between-person effects of maternal support on depressive symptom levels at age 12 and slopes varied across race and gender, respectively. Findings highlight the robustness of the protective effects of maternal and peer support during adolescence among girls and white youth. PMID:19908140

Vaughan, Christine A.; Foshee, Vangie A.; Ennett, Susan T.

2014-01-01

362

Feto-maternal outcomes of pregnancy complicated by epithelial ovarian cancer: a systematic review of literature.  

PubMed

Although cancer diagnosed during pregnancy is rare, epithelial cell type ovarian cancers (EOCs) comprise approximately one quarter to one half of cases of ovarian malignancy diagnosed during pregnancy. The behavior of EOC during pregnancy and its implications for maternal and fetal outcomes is not well understood. In order to better define these outcomes, a systematic literature search was conducted in PubMed/MEDLINE using entry keywords "pregnancy" and "ovarian cancer" for the period from 1955 to 2013. The literature search identified 105 cases eligible for analysis. Clinical characteristics, pregnancy outcome, tumor characteristics, clinical management, and survival outcomes were all evaluated. Serious adverse events were defined as complications related to EOC that resulted in severe morbidity or mortality for the mother and/or fetus. The mean age of cases was 31.6 years. The most common histology was serous (47.6%), followed by mucinous (27.6%) and endometrioid types (10.5%). The most common presenting symptom was abdominal or pelvic pain (26.7%) while incidentally detected tumors accounted for one third of cases. The majority of cases were stage I at diagnosis (63.8%) followed by stage III disease (24.8%), and the median tumor size was 12cm. Live births occurred in 81.3% of cases, and of the remainder 72.2% were due to elective termination. Intrapartum surgery primarily took place in the second trimester (43%) with fetal conservation in 61.9% of operations. Over half of cases received chemotherapy (55.2%), approximately one third of which received it during the pregnancy (36.2%). Among the 21 cases treated with chemotherapy during pregnancy, there was no association with small for gestational age or fetal malformations. Serious adverse events occurred in 21.9% of cases, of which the most common was tumor rupture during pregnancy (10.5%). Three (2.9%) maternal death following surgery during pregnancy and five (6.4%) neonatal deaths were reported. Gestational age at tumor diagnosis (2-year overall survival rate, 1st trimester 94.6%, 2nd trimester 88.8%, and 3rd trimester 72.9%, p=0.041) type of histology (serous 88.1%, mucinous 84.6%, endometrioid 89.5%, clear cell 100%, mixed type 75.0%, and undifferentiated 30.0%, p<0.01), stage (stage I 96.9%, stage II 85.7%, stage III 56.3%, and stage IV 25.0%, p<0.01), and serious adverse events (yes versus no, 68.1% versus 92.2%, p=0.041) were significantly related to maternal overall survival in univariate analysis. In multivariate analysis, stage III/IV disease remained the independent prognostic factor associated with decreased maternal overall survival (stage III, hazard ratio 44.6, p<0.01; and stage IV, hazard ratio 399, p<0.01). In conclusion, although the majority of EOC cases during pregnancy resulted in live birth, maternal and neonatal mortality needs to be considered in the counseling and management of these pregnancies. PMID:25668134

Blake, Erin A; Kodama, Michiko; Yunokawa, Mayu; Ross, Malcolm S; Ueda, Yutaka; Grubbs, Brendan H; Matsuo, Koji

2015-03-01

363

Deep palmar communications between the ulnar and median nerves.  

PubMed

Innervation of the hand is supplied via the radial, median, and ulnar nerves. A common border of sensory distribution between the ulnar and median nerves is along the fourth digit. However, this sensory distribution may be affected by communication between these two nerves. Among the known communications between the median and ulnar nerves, the deep anastomotic branch in the hand is the least described and rarely illustrated in the literature. This study aims to provide data on the prevalence of a deep communicating branch via cadaveric dissection. We examined 50 hands taken from 25 adult cadavers. Communicating branches were found in 16% of the hands examined, with rami occurring bilaterally in two specimens. By describing the origin and pathway of this communicating branch, we hope to provide surgeons and clinicians with knowledge that may help avoid iatrogenic injuries. PMID:21322041

Loukas, Marios; Bellary, Sharath S; Tubbs, R Shane; Shoja, Mohammadali M; Cohen Gadol, Aaron A

2011-03-01

364

On Two Variations of the Reversal Median Problem  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have developed an exact algorithm that solves certain instances of the Reversal Median Problem (RMP) when provided with additional input - the optimal sorting sequences between every pair of genomes. Our algorithm is able to provide an exact solution (the median genome) or determine that it is not able to do so for every instance of the problem. We have also proven the correctness of the algorithm in a theorem. RMP is the problem of finding an ancestral genome (the median) given the gene orders of three genomes. It is commonly encountered when constructing phylogeny, and is NP-hard. Two variations of the RMP were considered. In the first variation, we are given one sorting sequence for each pair of genomes. And in the second variation, we make use of a compact representation of all possible optimal sorting sequences for each pair of genomes that was developed by Braga et al.

Zhou, Zhong; Zhang, Melvin; Hao, Fanchang; Leong, Hon Wai

365

Every death counts: measurement of maternal mortality via a census.  

PubMed Central

Methods for measuring maternal mortality at national and subnational levels in the developing world lag far behind the demand for estimates. We evaluated use of the national population census as a means of measuring maternal mortality by assessing data from five countries (Benin, Islamic Republic of Iran, Lao People's Democratic Republic, Madagascar, and Zimbabwe) which identified maternal deaths in their censuses. Standard demographic methods were used to evaluate the completeness of reporting of adult female deaths and births in the year prior to the census. The results from these exercises were used to adjust the data. In four countries, the numbers of adult female deaths needed to be increased and three countries required upward adjustment of the numbers of recent births. The number of maternal deaths was increased by the same factor as that used for adult female deaths on the assumption that the proportion of adult female deaths due to maternal causes was correct. Age patterns of the various maternal mortality indicators were plausible and consistent with external sources of data for other populations. Our data suggest that under favourable conditions a national census is a feasible and promising approach for the measurement of maternal mortality. Moreover, use of the census circumvents several of the weaknesses of methods currently in use. However, it should also be noted that careful evaluation of the data and adjustment, if necessary, are essential. The public health community is urged to encourage governments to learn from the experience of these five countries and to place maternal mortality estimation in the hands of statistical agencies. PMID:11477969

Stanton, C.; Hobcraft, J.; Hill, K.; Kodjogbé, N.; Mapeta, W. T.; Munene, F.; Naghavi, M.; Rabeza, V.; Sisouphanthong, B.; Campbell, O.

2001-01-01

366

Myofibroma in the Palm Presenting with Median Nerve Compression Symptoms  

PubMed Central

Summary: A myofibroma is a benign proliferation of myofibroblasts in the connective tissue. Solitary myofibromas are a rare finding especially in an adult. We report a case of a 23-year-old man presenting with an enlarging mass over his right palm. The patient is an active weight lifter. He reported numbness and tingling in the median nerve distribution. Nerve conduction studies and magnetic resonance imaging scans suggested a tumor involving or compressing the median nerve. The final diagnosis of myofibroma was made only after the histopathological diagnosis. PMID:25426387

Sarkozy, Heidi

2014-01-01

367

Some Student Ideas on the Median and the Mode  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This article, created by G.V. Barr, proposes to make a "tentative contribution to the knowledge of students' understanding of the statistical concepts; median and mode." It relates to a pilot study and tries to answer questions connected with the mistakes students tend to make: 1.What are the difficulties, 2.How many students have difficulties of this kind, 3.­How does the statistical vocabulary develop with respect to concept? The author first provides a general introduction, then an introduction to the median, an introduction to the mode and finally discussion questions/conclusions. This is a nice overview of these different statistical concepts.

Barr, G.V.

368

Differences in BMI z-Scores between Offspring of Smoking and Nonsmoking Mothers: A Longitudinal Study of German Children from Birth through 14 Years of Age  

PubMed Central

Background: Children of mothers who smoked during pregnancy have a lower birth weight but have a higher chance to become overweight during childhood. Objectives: We followed children longitudinally to assess the age when higher body mass index (BMI) z-scores became evident in the children of mothers who smoked during pregnancy, and to evaluate the trajectory of changes until adolescence. Methods: We pooled data from two German cohort studies that included repeated anthropometric measurements until 14 years of age and information on smoking during pregnancy and other risk factors for overweight. We used longitudinal quantile regression to estimate age- and sex-specific associations between maternal smoking and the 10th, 25th, 50th, 75th, and 90th quantiles of the BMI z-score distribution in study participants from birth through 14 years of age, adjusted for potential confounders. We used additive mixed models to estimate associations with mean BMI z-scores. Results: Mean and median (50th quantile) BMI z-scores at birth were smaller in the children of mothers who smoked during pregnancy compared with children of nonsmoking mothers, but BMI z-scores were significantly associated with maternal smoking beginning at the age of 4–5 years, and differences increased over time. For example, the difference in the median BMI z-score between the daughters of smokers versus nonsmokers was 0.12 (95% CI: 0.01, 0.21) at 5 years, and 0.30 (95% CI: 0.08, 0.39) at 14 years of age. For lower BMI z-score quantiles, the association with smoking was more pronounced in girls, whereas in boys the association was more pronounced for higher BMI z-score quantiles. Conclusions: A clear difference in BMI z-score (mean and median) between children of smoking and nonsmoking mothers emerged at 4–5 years of age. The shape and size of age-specific effect estimates for maternal smoking during pregnancy varied by age and sex across the BMI z-score distribution. Citation: Riedel C, Fenske N, Müller MJ, Plachta-Danielzik S, Keil T, Grabenhenrich L, von Kries R. 2014. Differences in BMI z-scores between offspring of smoking and nonsmoking mothers: a longitudinal study of German children from birth through 14 years of age. Environ Health Perspect 122:761–767;?http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/ehp.1307139 PMID:24695368

Fenske, Nora; Müller, Manfred J.; Plachta-Danielzik, Sandra; Keil, Thomas; Grabenhenrich, Linus; von Kries, Rüdiger

2014-01-01

369

Race, Socioeconomic Status, and Age: Exploring Intersections in Preterm Birth Disparities among Teen Mothers  

PubMed Central

Few studies have examined disparities in adverse birth outcomes and compared contributing socioeconomic factors specifically between African-American and White teen mothers. This study examined intersections between neighborhood socioeconomic status (as defined by census-tract median household income), maternal age, and racial disparities in preterm birth (PTB) outcomes between African-American and White teen mothers in North Carolina. Using a linked dataset with state birth record data and socioeconomic information from the 2010 US Census, disparities in preterm birth outcomes for 16,472 teen mothers were examined through bivariate and multilevel analyses. African-American teens had significantly greater odds of PTB outcomes than White teens (OR = 1.38, 95% CI 1.21, 1.56). Racial disparities in PTB rates significantly varied by neighborhood income; PTB rates were 2.1 times higher for African-American teens in higher income neighborhoods compared to White teens in similar neighborhoods. Disparities in PTB did not vary significantly between teens younger than age 17 and teens ages 17-19, although the magnitude of racial disparities was larger between younger African-American and White teens. These results justify further investigations using intersectional frameworks to test the effects of racial status, neighborhood socioeconomic factors, and maternal age on birth outcome disparities among infants born to teen mothers. PMID:25729614

Coley, Sheryl L.; Nichols, Tracy R.; Rulison, Kelly L.; Aronson, Robert E.; Brown-Jeffy, Shelly L.; Morrison, Sharon D.

2015-01-01

370

Maternal mortality in rural Gambia: levels, causes and contributing factors.  

PubMed Central

A demographic study carried out in a rural area of the Gambia between January 1993 and December 1998 recorded 74 deaths among women aged 15-49 years. Reported here is an estimation of maternal mortality among these 74 deaths based on a survey of reproductive age mortality, which identified 18 maternal deaths by verbal autopsy. Over the same period there were 4245 live births in the study area, giving a maternal mortality ratio of 424 per 100,000 live births. This maternal mortality estimate is substantially lower than estimates made in the 1980s, which ranged from 1005 to 2362 per 100,000 live births, in the same area. A total of 9 of the 18 deaths had a direct obstetric cause--haemorrhage (6 deaths), early pregnancy (2), and obstructed labour (1). Indirect causes of obstetric deaths were anaemia (4 deaths), hepatitis (1), and undetermined (4). Low standards of health care for obstetric referrals, failure to recognize the severity of the problem at the community level, delays in starting the decision-making process to seek health care, lack of transport, and substandard primary health care were identified more than once as probable or possible contributing factors to these maternal deaths. PMID:10859854

Walraven, G.; Telfer, M.; Rowley, J.; Ronsmans, C.

2000-01-01

371

FROM MOTHERHOOD TO MATERNAL SUBJECTIVITY  

Microsoft Academic Search

In moving from concepts of motherhood and mothers to a theorisation of maternal subjectivity that emphasises unconscious intersubjectivity, this paper casts light on the following questions: ? What is meant by maternal and who qualifies? ? Do gender and sex of parents and carers make any systematic difference to an infant, child or adolescent's experience of parenting and their own

Wendy Hollway

2001-01-01

372

Ego identity and maternal identification  

Microsoft Academic Search

The relationship between ego identity and maternal identification was studied within the framework of Erikson's psychosocial theory of ego development. Because maternal identification is an important childhood identification contributing to ego identity, it was hypothesized that it would be positively related to ego identity. This hypothesis was tested on 245 college women in late adolescence, and results showed that the

M. Howard Dignan

1965-01-01

373

Maternal exposure to brominated flame retardants and infant Apgar scores.  

PubMed

Brominated flame retardants (BFRs) and other persistent organic pollutants have been associated with adverse health outcomes in humans and may be particularly toxic to the developing fetus. We investigated the association between in utero polybrominated biphenyl (PBB) and polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) exposures and infant Apgar scores in a cohort of Michigan residents exposed to PBB through contaminated food after an industrial accident. PBB and PCB concentrations were measured in serum at the time the women were enrolled in the cohort. PBB concentrations were also estimated at the time of conception for each pregnancy using a validated elimination model. Apgar scores, a universal measure of infant health at birth, measured at 1 and 5min, were taken from birth certificates for 613 offspring born to 330 women. Maternal PCB concentrations at enrollment were not associated with below-median Apgar scores in this cohort. However, maternal PBB exposure was associated with a dose-related increase in the odds of a below-median Apgar score at 1min and 5min. Among infants whose mothers had an estimated PBB at conception above the limit of detection of 1 part per billion (ppb) to <2.5ppb, the odds ratio=2.32 (95% CI: 1.22-4.40); for those with PBB?2.5ppb the OR=2.62 (95% CI: 1.38-4.96; test for trend p<0.01). Likewise, the odds of a below-median 5min Apgar score increased with higher maternal PBB at conception. It remains critical that future studies examine possible relationships between in utero exposures to brominated compounds and adverse health outcomes. PMID:25203650

Terrell, Metrecia L; Hartnett, Kathleen P; Lim, Hyeyeun; Wirth, Julie; Marcus, Michele

2015-01-01

374

Mitochondrial genome function and maternal inheritance.  

PubMed

The persistence of mtDNA to encode a small subset of mitochondrial proteins reflects the selective advantage of co-location of key respiratory chain subunit genes with their gene products. The disadvantage of this co-location is exposure of mtDNA to mutagenic ROS (reactive oxygen species), which are by-products of aerobic respiration. The resulting 'vicious circle' of mitochondrial mutation has been proposed to underlie aging and its associated degenerative diseases. Recent evidence is consistent with the hypothesis that oocyte mitochondria escape the aging process by acting as quiescent genetic templates, transcriptionally and bioenergetically repressed. Transmission of unexpressed mtDNA in the female germline is considered as a reason for the existence of separate sexes, i.e. male and female. Maternal inheritance then circumvents incremental accumulation of age-related disease in each new generation. PMID:24059523

Allen, John F; de Paula, Wilson B M

2013-10-01

375

The North American Maternal Phenylketonuria Collaborative Study, developmental assessment of the offspring: preliminary report.  

PubMed

Preliminary results of 2-year Bayley and 4-year McCarthy test scores are presented. To date numbers are too small to statistically correlate:- offspring from pregnancies in which diet was started prior to conception, offspring from pregnancies with phenylalanine (Phe) levels of 120-360 mumol/l versus 360-600 mumol/l, influence of home environment, influence of maternal nutrition, language development, behaviour/hyperactivity, Revised Wechsler Intelligence Score, school performance and learning disabilities. Two-year Bayley scores (mental and motor) revealed a median developmental quotient of 113 in 58 offspring from control pregnancies, 104 in 19 offspring from untreated "non-phenylketonuria (PKU) mild hyperphenylalaninaemia" (natural Phe levels < 600 mumol/l) pregnancies, 104 in 32 offspring from pregnancies whose Phe levels decreased on treatment to < 600 mumol/l by 10 weeks gestation and remained in that range for the remainder of the pregnancy, 98 in offspring from 32 pregnancies where permanent control was not achieved until 10-20 weeks and 72 in offspring from 51 pregnancies where control was not attained until after 20 weeks gestation. IQ scores determined by the McCarthy test at age 4-5 years revealed a mean of 112 in 43 offspring of control mothers, 99 in 12 offspring of "non PKU mild hyperphenylalaninaemia" women, 93 in 14 offspring whose mother's Phe levels were continuously under 600 mumol/l by 10 weeks gestation, 88 in 24 offspring from pregnancies in metabolic control by 10-20 weeks and 73 in 28 offspring of pregnancies not in metabolic control until after 20 weeks gestation. These preliminary results suggest that early and adequate dietary treatment during pregnancy in maternal PKU may provide some protection to the fetus for later intellectual development but much more data is required before definitive statements about cognition can be made. PMID:8828638

Hanley, W B; Koch, R; Levy, H L; Matalon, R; Rouse, B; Azen, C; de la Cruz, F

1996-07-01

376

Children's Family Environments and Intellectual Outcomes during Maternal Incarceration  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Despite the dramatic increase in incarcerated mothers that has occurred in the past decades, there is a paucity of family research focusing on the children affected by maternal imprisonment. The present study investigated family environments and intellectual outcomes in 60 children between the ages of 2 and 7 years during their mothers'…

Poehlmann, Julie

2005-01-01

377

Pregnancy increases mobilization of lead from maternal skeleton  

Microsoft Academic Search

The question of the extent of lead mobilization from the maternal skeleton during pregnancy and lactation is one of the most outstanding problems of lead toxicity. We have undertaken a longitudinal cohort study in an urban environment of European female immigrants of child-bearing age (18 to 35 years) to Australia whose skeletal lead isotopic composition has been determined to be

B. L. Gulson; C. W. Jameson; K. R. Mahaffey; K. J. Mizon; M. J. Korsch; G. Vimpani

1997-01-01

378

Maternal Affection Moderates Friend Influence on Schoolwork Engagement  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study investigated friend influence over adolescent schoolwork engagement in 160 same-sex friend dyads (94 female dyads and 66 male dyads). Participants were approximately 16 years of age at the outset. Each friend described his or her own schoolwork engagement, school burnout, and perceptions of maternal affection. The results revealed that…

Marion, Donna; Laursen, Brett; Kiuru, Noona; Nurmi, Jari-Erik; Salmela-Aro, Katariina

2014-01-01

379

Maternal Conjugal Multiplicity and Child Development in Rural Jamaica  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Using field-based observations and standardized measures of the home environment and child development, the authors followed 59 rural Jamaican women and their offspring from birth to age 5. The findings suggest that conjugal multiplicity, a female reproductive pattern characterized by multiple unions, maternal unmarried status, and absent father,…

Dreher, Melanie; Hudgins, Rebekah

2010-01-01

380

Maternal Influences on Youth Responses to Peer Stress  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Understanding how youths develop particular styles of responding to stress is critical for promoting effective coping. This research examined the prospective, interactive contribution of maternal socialization of coping and peer stress to youth responses to peer stress. A sample of 144 early adolescents (mean age = 12.44 years, SD = 1.22) and…

Abaied, Jamie L.; Rudolph, Karen D.

2011-01-01

381

VIEW OF STONE STAIR DETAIL IN MEDIAN FROM WEST SIDE ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

VIEW OF STONE STAIR DETAIL IN MEDIAN FROM WEST SIDE OF PIEDMONT NORTH OF BANCROFT WAY LOOKING TOWARDS CALIFORNIA MEMORIAL STADIUM TO THE EAST. Photograph by Fredrica Drotos and Michael Kelly, July 16, 2006 - Piedmont Way & the Berkeley Property Tract, East of College Avenue between Dwight Way & U.C. Memorial Stadium, Berkeley, Alameda County, CA

382

Median arcuate ligament compression of the celiomesenteric trunk.  

PubMed

Median arcuate ligament (MAL) syndrome is a controversial condition characterized by compression of the celiac trunk and symptoms of intestinal angina. We present a case of MAL compressing the celiomesenteric trunk, a rare variation. We report computed tomography (CT) angiography and three-dimensional reconstructions of this rare phenomenon. PMID:21915389

Lee, Victor; Alvarez, Mauricio Daniel; Bhatt, Shweta; Dogra, Vikram S

2011-01-01

383

Confidence intervals for median survival time with recurrent event data  

Microsoft Academic Search

Several methods of constructing confidence intervals for the median survival time of a recurrent event data are developed. One of them is based on asymptotic variances estimated using some transformations. Others are based on bootstrap techniques. Two types of recurrent event models are considered: the first one is a model where the inter-event times are independent and identically distributed, and

Juan R. Gonzalez; Edsel A. Peña; Pedro Delicado

2010-01-01

384

Maternal nutrition interventions to improve maternal, newborn, and child health outcomes.  

PubMed

Maternal undernutrition affects a large proportion of women in many developing countries, but has received little attention as an important determinant of poor maternal, newborn, and child health (MNCH) outcomes such as intrauterine growth restriction, preterm birth (PTB), and maternal and infant morbidity and mortality. We recently evaluated the scientific evidence on the effects of maternal nutrition interventions on MNCH outcomes as part of a project funded by the Gates Foundation to identify critical knowledge gaps and priority research needs. A standardized tool was used for study data abstraction, and the effect of nutrition interventions during pregnancy or of factors such as interpregnancy interval on MNCH outcomes was assessed by meta-analysis, when possible. Several nutrient interventions provided during pregnancy have beneficial effects on MNCH outcomes, but are not widely adopted. For example, prenatal calcium supplementation decreases the risk of PTB and increases birthweight; prenatal zinc, omega-3 fatty acids and multiple micronutrient supplements reduce the risk of PTB (<37 weeks), early PTB (<34 weeks) and low birthweight (LBW), respectively. Among currently implemented interventions, balanced protein-energy and iron-folic acid supplementation during pregnancy significantly reduce the risk of LBW by 20-30% in controlled settings, but variable programmatic experiences have led to questionable effectiveness. Early age at pregnancy and short interpregnancy intervals were also associated with increased risk of PTB, LBW and neonatal death, but major gaps remain on the role of women's nutrition before and during early pregnancy and nutrition education and counseling. These findings emphasize the need to examine the benefits of improving maternal nutrition before and during pregnancy both in research and program delivery. PMID:24504208

Ramakrishnan, Usha; Imhoff-Kunsch, Beth; Martorell, Reynaldo

2014-01-01

385

Early-Occurring Maternal Depression and Maternal Negativity in Predicting Young Children's Emotion Regulation and Socioemotional Difficulties  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This longitudinal investigation examined the effects of maternal depression and concomitant negative parenting behaviors on children's emotion regulation patterns and socioemotional functioning. One hundred fifty-one mothers and their children were assessed when children were approximately 1 1/2-, 3-, 4-, and 5-years of age. Ninety-three of the…

Maughan, Angeline; Cicchetti, Dante; Toth, Sheree L.; Rogosch, Fred A.

2007-01-01

386

Towards elimination of maternal deaths: maternal deaths surveillance and response.  

PubMed

Current methods for estimating maternal mortality lack precision, and are not suitable for monitoring progress in the short run. In addition, national maternal mortality ratios (MMRs) alone do not provide useful information on where the greatest burden of mortality is located, who is concerned, what are the causes, and more importantly what sub-national variations occur. This paper discusses a maternal death surveillance and response (MDSR) system. MDSR systems are not yet established in most countries and have potential added value for policy making and accountability and can build on existing efforts to conduct maternal death reviews, verbal autopsies and confidential enquiries. Accountability at national and sub-national levels cannot rely on global, regional and national retrospective estimates periodically generated from academia or United Nations organizations but on routine counting, investigation, sub national data analysis, long term investments in vital registration and national health information systems. Establishing effective maternal death surveillance and response will help achieve MDG 5, improve quality of maternity care and eliminate maternal mortality (MMR???30 per 100,000 by 2030). PMID:23279882

Hounton, Sennen; De Bernis, Luc; Hussein, Julia; Graham, Wendy J; Danel, Isabella; Byass, Peter; Mason, Elizabeth M

2013-01-01

387

Externalizing disorders in adolescence mediate the effects of maternal depression on substance use disorders.  

PubMed

Maternal depression has been linked to increased risk of substance use disorders (SUDs) in offspring. Cross-sectional studies have identified relationships among maternal depression, externalizing disorders and SUDs, but no longitudinal examination of causality has been undertaken. In order to address this gap in the literature, depression and externalizing disorders at or prior to age 15 were tested as mediators of the relationship between maternal depression and SUDs diagnosed between ages 16 and 20 in a sample of 702 Australian youth (363 women) using path models. Mothers' and fathers' substance diagnoses and earlier onset of substance abuse in youth were controlled for in all analyses. Consistent with previous work, maternal depression predicted SUDs between ages 16 and 20. An indirect effect of maternal depression through youth externalizing disorders diagnosed by age 16 was detected for alcohol and cannabis use disorders, but not drug disorders. Early adolescent depression was not a mediator of the relationship between maternal depression and any of the substance outcomes measured. To our knowledge, this study is the first to examine depression and externalizing disorders in early adolescence as mediators of the effect of maternal depression on psychopathology in later adolescence. Further work is needed to understand how family environment and genetic factors may explain the mediation by externalizing disorders. PMID:23975078

Tartter, Molly; Hammen, Constance; Brennan, Patricia

2014-02-01

388

Maternal Obesity and Increased Risk for Autism and Developmental Delay among Very Preterm Infants  

PubMed Central

Objective Thirty-five percent of women of child-bearing age are obese, and there is evidence that maternal obesity may increase the risk for adverse neurodevelopmental outcome. However, research regarding obesity and neurodevelopment among children born preterm is limited. This study aimed to determine associations between maternal obesity and neurodevelopment in very preterm children at age 2 years. Study Design Maternal/infant dyads (n=62) born ?30 weeks gestation were enrolled in a prospective cohort study at a level-III neonatal intensive care unit. Mothers were classified as obese or non-obese based on pre-pregnancy body mass index. Infants underwent magnetic resonance imaging at term equivalent and developmental testing at age 2. Maternal obesity was investigated for associations with neurodevelopment. Results Maternal obesity was associated with positive screen for autism (OR=9.88, p=0.002) and lower composite language scores (?=-9.36, [CI=-15.11, -3.61], p=0.002). Conclusion Maternal obesity was associated with adverse neurodevelopmental outcome at age 2 in this cohort of very preterm children. This study requires replication, but may support targeted surveillance of infants born to women with maternal obesity. PMID:24811227

Reynolds, Lauren C.; Inder, Terrie E.; Neil, Jeffrey J.; Pineda, Roberta G.; Rogers, Cynthia E.

2014-01-01

389

Maternal obesity, associated complications and risk of prematurity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective:We aimed at (a) examining the rates of obesity over a 12-year period; (b) studying the effect of obesity and morbid obesity on gestational age and birth weight and (c) determining the influence of race on the association between maternal obesity and the gestational age of a newborn.Study Design:We conducted a retrospective analysis using data from the perinatal data set

H Aly; T Hammad; A Nada; M Mohamed; S Bathgate; A El-Mohandes

2010-01-01

390

August median streamflow on ungaged streams in Eastern Coastal Maine  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Methods for estimating August median streamflow were developed for ungaged, unregulated streams in eastern coastal Maine. The methods apply to streams with drainage areas ranging in size from 0.04 to 73.2 square miles and fraction of basin underlain by a sand and gravel aquifer ranging from 0 to 71 percent. The equations were developed with data from three long-term (greater than or equal to 10 years of record) continuous-record streamflow-gaging stations, 23 partial-record streamflow- gaging stations, and 5 short-term (less than 10 years of record) continuous-record streamflow-gaging stations. A mathematical technique for estimating a standard low-flow statistic, August median streamflow, at partial-record streamflow-gaging stations and short-term continuous-record streamflow-gaging stations was applied by relating base-flow measurements at these stations to concurrent daily streamflows at nearby long-term continuous-record streamflow-gaging stations (index stations). Generalized least-squares regression analysis (GLS) was used to relate estimates of August median streamflow at streamflow-gaging stations to basin characteristics at these same stations to develop equations that can be applied to estimate August median streamflow on ungaged streams. GLS accounts for different periods of record at the gaging stations and the cross correlation of concurrent streamflows among gaging stations. Thirty-one stations were used for the final regression equations. Two basin characteristics?drainage area and fraction of basin underlain by a sand and gravel aquifer?are used in the calculated regression equation to estimate August median streamflow for ungaged streams. The equation has an average standard error of prediction from -27 to 38 percent. A one-variable equation uses only drainage area to estimate August median streamflow when less accuracy is acceptable. This equation has an average standard error of prediction from -30 to 43 percent. Model error is larger than sampling error for both equations, indicating that additional or improved estimates of basin characteristics could be important to improved estimates of low-flow statistics. Weighted estimates of August median streamflow at partial- record or continuous-record gaging stations range from 0.003 to 31.0 cubic feet per second or from 0.1 to 0.6 cubic feet per second per square mile. Estimates of August median streamflow on ungaged streams in eastern coastal Maine, within the range of acceptable explanatory variables, range from 0.003 to 45 cubic feet per second or 0.1 to 0.6 cubic feet per second per square mile. Estimates of August median streamflow per square mile of drainage area generally increase as drainage area and fraction of basin underlain by a sand and gravel aquifer increase.

Lombard, Pamela J.

2004-01-01

391

Maternal Smoking During Pregnancy and Growth in Infancy: a Covariance Structure Analysis  

PubMed Central

Background Smoking during pregnancy is related to fetal constraint and accelerated postnatal growth. However, the pathways between these factors have not been clarified. Pathway analyses that link these factors can help us better understand the mechanisms involved in this association. Therefore, this study aimed to examine pathways between maternal smoking during pregnancy and growth in infancy. Methods Participants were singletons born between 1993 and 2006 in rural Japan. The outcome was the change in weight z-score between birth and 3 years of age. Pathways from maternal smoking and other maternal factors (such as maternal body mass index and work status) to growth in infancy via birth factors (such as birth weight and gestational age) and breastfeeding were examined using structural equation modeling. Results Complete data were available for 1524 children (775 boys and 749 girls). The model fit appeared adequate. Lower birth weight and non-exclusive breastfeeding mediated the association between maternal smoking during pregnancy and rapid growth in infancy. Maternal smoking was also directly linked to rapid growth in infancy (standardized direct effects 0.06, P = 0.002). Taking all pathways into account, the standardized total effect of maternal smoking on growth in infancy was 0.11. Conclusions Maternal smoking during pregnancy may both indirectly, through birth weight and breastfeeding status, and directly influence growth during infancy; however, there may be other pathways that have not yet been identified. PMID:25327186

Zheng, Wei; Suzuki, Kohta; Shinohara, Ryoji; Sato, Miri; Yokomichi, Hiroshi; Yamagata, Zentaro

2015-01-01

392

Sensory nerve conduction velocities of median, ulnar and radial nerves in patients with vibration syndrome  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective  The present study aimed to clarify the range of involvement for hand-arm vibration syndrome (VS) in the median, ulnar and\\u000a radial nerves of the hand.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  Sensory nerve conduction velocities (SCVs) for 3 nerves in the hands and arms were examined for 34 patients with VS and 23\\u000a age-matched controls. Neuropathy types were classified by possible carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS), Guyon’s

Mamoru Hirata; Hisataka Sakakibara

2007-01-01

393

Median nerve to biceps nerve transfer to restore elbow flexion in obstetric brachial plexus palsy.  

PubMed

Median nerve to biceps nerve transfer in the arm has been reported only in adults. The following paper reports on 10 cases of this transfer in obstetric brachial plexus palsy. All patients had upper palsy (ERb's or extended ERb's palsy) and presented to the author late (13-19 months of age) with poor or no recovery of elbow flexion. Following the nerve transfer, nine children recovered elbow flexion (a score of 6 in one child and a score of 7 in eight children by the Toronto scale). The remaining child did not recover elbow flexion. PMID:24511548

Al-Qattan, M M; Al-Kharfy, T M

2014-01-01

394

Median Nerve to Biceps Nerve Transfer to Restore Elbow Flexion in Obstetric Brachial Plexus Palsy  

PubMed Central

Median nerve to biceps nerve transfer in the arm has been reported only in adults. The following paper reports on 10 cases of this transfer in obstetric brachial plexus palsy. All patients had upper palsy (ERb's or extended ERb's palsy) and presented to the author late (13–19 months of age) with poor or no recovery of elbow flexion. Following the nerve transfer, nine children recovered elbow flexion (a score of 6 in one child and a score of 7 in eight children by the Toronto scale). The remaining child did not recover elbow flexion. PMID:24511548

Al-Qattan, M. M.; Al-Kharfy, T. M.

2014-01-01

395

Maternal endothelial function and serum concentrations of placental growth factor and soluble endoglin in women with abnormal placentation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives To determine whether maternal serum con- centrations of placental growth factor (PlGF) and soluble endoglin (sEng) are altered in women who subsequently develop pre-eclampsia (PE) or have small-for-gestational- age (SGA) infants, and whether these changes are associ- ated with maternal endothelial dysfunction. Methods Maternal serum PlGF and sEng were measured in two groups of pregnant women at 23-25 weeks'

M. D. Savvidou; M. Noori; J. M. Anderson; A. D. Hingorani; K. H. Nicolaides

2008-01-01

396

Nerve Conduction Studies of Median Motor Nerve and Median Sensory Branches According to the Severity of Carpal Tunnel Syndrome  

PubMed Central

Objective To evaluate each digital branch of the median sensory nerve and motor nerves to abductor pollicis brevis (APB) and 2nd lumbrical (2L) according to the severity of carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS). Methods A prospective study was performed in 67 hands of 41 patients with CTS consisting of mild, 23; moderate, 27; and severe cases, 17. Compound muscle action potentials (CMAPs) were obtained from APB and 2L, and median sensory nerve action potentials (SNAPs) were recorded from the thumb to the 4th digit. Parameters analyzed were latency of the median CMAP, latency difference of 2L and first palmar interosseous (PI), as well as latency and baseline to peak amplitude of the median SNAPs. Results The onset and peak latencies of the median SNAPs revealed significant differences only in the 2nd digit, according to the severity of CTS, and abnormal rates of the latencies were significantly lower in the 2nd digit to a mild degree. The amplitude of SNAP and sensory nerve conduction velocities were more preserved in the 2nd digit in mild CTS and more affected in the 4th digit in severe CTS. CMAPs were not evoked with APB recording in 4 patients with severe CTS, but obtained in all patients with 2L recording. 2L-PI showed statistical significance according to the severity of CTS. Conclusion The branch to the 4th digit was mostly involved and the branch to the 2nd digit and 2L were less affected in the progress of CTS. The second digit recorded SNAPs and 2L recorded CMAPs would be valuable in the evaluation of severe CTS. PMID:23705122

Lee, Hye Jin; Kim, Dong Hwee; Pyun, Sung Bom

2013-01-01

397

Obesity and age at menarche.  

PubMed

A cohort study of 3,169 girls born in April 1984-April 1987 in Odense and Aalborg, Denmark, was performed to examine whether maternal prepregnancy body mass index (BMI) accounted for daughter's age of menarche (AOM) and, if so, whether it accounted for part or all of the association between daughter's BMI and AOM. Multiple regression analyses adjusted for covariates indicated a weak inverse association between maternal BMI and AOM and a much stronger inverse association between offspring BMI and AOM independent of maternal BMI. PMID:21392743

Shrestha, Anshu; Olsen, Jørn; Ramlau-Hansen, Cecilia Høst; Bech, Bodil Hammer; Nohr, Ellen Aagaard

2011-06-30

398

[Maternal death: an avoidable tragedy].  

PubMed

Although statistics show that maternal mortality has declined during this century, high levels persist in the developing world. There are 100 to 1000 maternal deaths per 100,000 live births in developing countries, compared to 7 to 15 deaths per 100,000 live births in developed countries. Most of these deaths in developing countries are avoidable by effective maternal care interventions. A book edited by Unicamp on maternal mortality has made an important contribution to the debate that has been going on in scientific circles and among planners and health professionals. The quality of data for analysis of maternal mortality is implicated also because of erroneous classification of maternal deaths as nonmaternal, imprecision in the death certification, and omission of the status of pregnancy associated with illegal abortion. The identification of these errors means that medical files, hospital registers, family interviews, and autopsies have to be consulted. Research carried out in Sao Paulo demonstrated that at the end of the 1980s the maternal mortality rate was in fact 99.5/100,000 live births, whereas original records showed only 44.5/100,000 live births. Even in the United States during 1980-85, 33% of maternal deaths were underreported. In England the level of underreporting amounted to 41% during 1970-72. The World Health Organization has encouraged the formation of committees to study the prevention of maternal mortality. Two such committees were started in the state of Sao Paulo with the objectives of making professionals aware of the importance of accurate death records; immediate notification of maternal deaths to the regional committee; means from the proper authorities for the correction of deficiencies detected; and continuous evaluation of maternal mortality rates. The committee of Marilia, in the interior of the state of Sao Paulo, demonstrated that 72% of maternal deaths during 1986-88 were avoidable by medical-obstetrical means, prenatal care, or social assistance. 61% of deaths were attributed to cesarean section, which indicates the major risk of surgical complications. PMID:12286240

Ferreira, C E

1992-01-01

399

A boy with developmental delay and a maternally inherited deletion in 15q11q13.  

PubMed Central

A boy was referred at 8 weeks of age for failure to thrive. Cytogenetic and molecular studies showed that he had a large proximal deletion of the maternally derived chromosome 15q. He did not have Angelman syndrome, but at 2 years of age was severely globally delayed. He died at 2 1/2 years of age. Images PMID:8733057

King, M; Hardy, C; Asenbauer, B; Kilpatrick, M; Webb, T

1996-01-01

400

A Transactional Analysis of the Relation between Maternal Sensitivity and Child Vagal Regulation  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A transactional model examining the longitudinal association between vagal regulation (as indexed by vagal withdrawal) and maternal sensitivity from age 2.5 to age 5.5 was assessed. The sample included 356 children (171 male, 185 female) and their mothers who participated in a laboratory visit at age 2.5, 4.5, and 5.5. Cardiac vagal tone was…

Perry, Nicole B.; Mackler, Jennifer S.; Calkins, Susan D.; Keane, Susan P.

2014-01-01

401

Maternal serum alpha-fetoprotein screening: report of a Canadian pilot project.  

PubMed Central

A pilot project of maternal serum alpha-fetoprotein (MSAFP) screening was carried out in Ontario from 1982 to 1985 to examine the feasibility and acceptability of screening a prenatal population for open fetal neural tube defects. A total of 8140 patients at low genetic risk were screened. Patient acceptance was excellent. Blood samples were taken at 16 to 18 weeks' gestation. If the MSAFP level was elevated, the assay was repeated and an ultrasound examination performed. Amniocentesis was offered to 67 women with unexplained persistently elevated levels. The outcome of pregnancy was known in 7473 patients (91.8%). Seven of nine known open fetal neural tube defects were detected. All were confirmed, and no unaffected fetuses were aborted on the basis of the screening results. The rates of perinatal death (6.7%), intrauterine growth retardation (11.7%) and prematurity (23.3%) were significantly higher among the patients with unexplained elevated MSAFP levels than among those with normal levels (p less than 0.001). Of 20 patients with unexplained low levels, 10 subsequently had spontaneous abortions and 10 gave birth to term appropriate-for-gestational-age infants. Seven of nine patients who gave birth to infants with autosomal trisomy had MSAFP values below the median. The findings indicate that MSAFP screening is feasible, accurate and acceptable in a low-risk area. PMID:2440547

Doran, T A; Valentine, G H; Wong, P Y; Wielgosz, G; Benzie, R J; Soltan, H C; Jenner, M R; Morland, P A; Montgomery, R J; Allen, L C

1987-01-01

402

Median Statistics and the Mass Density of the Universe  

E-print Network

We use weighted mean and median statistics techniques to combine individual estimates of Omega_m0, the present mean mass density in non-relativistic matter, and determine the observed values and ranges of Omega_m0 from different combinations of data. The derived weighted mean Omega_m0 values are not good representatives of the individual measurements, under the assumptions of Gaussianity and negligible correlation between the individual measurements. This could mean that some observational error bars are under-estimated. Discarding the most discrepant about 5% of the measurements generally alleviates but does not completely resolve this problem. While the results derived from the different combinations of data are not identical, they are mostly consistent, and a reasonable summary of the median statistics analyses is 0.2 <= Omega_m0 <= 0.35 at two standard deviations.

Gang Chen; Bharat Ratra

2003-02-03

403

Geometry of Covariance Matrices and Computation of Median  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper, we consider the manifold of covariance matrices of order n parametrized by reflection coefficients which are derived from Levinson's recursion of autoregressive model. The explicit expression of the reparametrization and its inverse are obtained. With the Riemannian metric given by the Hessian of a Kähler potential, we show that the manifold is in fact a Cartan-Hadamard manifold with lower sectional curvature bound -4. The explicit expressions of geodesics are also obtained. After that we introduce the notion of Riemannian median of points lying on a Riemannian manifold and give a simple algorithm to compute it. Finally, some simulation examples are given to illustrate the applications of the median method to radar signal processing.

Yang, Le; Arnaudon, Marc; Barbaresco, Frédéric

2011-03-01

404

Median Nerve Injuries Caused by Carpal Tunnel Injections  

PubMed Central

Local steroid injections are widely used for diagnostic and therapeutic purposes in the management of carpal tunnel syndrome. The median nerve injury is the most serious complication in association with carpal tunnel injections although the incidence is low. A median nerve injury will be presented with shooting pain at the injection time along with other sensory distortion, motor weakness and muscle atrophy. The management includes a conservative treatment and a surgical exploration. Carpal tunnel injections should be used at a minimum only. If such steroid injection is required, an appropriate needle positioning is vital for the nerve injury prevention. The patient should not be heavily sedated and should be encouraged to inform experiences of numbness/paresthesia during the procedure immediately. PMID:24748938

Kim, Hyun Jung

2014-01-01

405

Bayesian median regression for temporal gene expression data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Most of the existing methods for the identification of biologically interesting genes in a temporal expression profiling dataset do not fully exploit the temporal ordering in the dataset and are based on normality assumptions for the gene expression. In this paper, we introduce a Bayesian median regression model to detect genes whose temporal profile is significantly different across a number of biological conditions. The regression model is defined by a polynomial function where both time and condition effects as well as interactions between the two are included. MCMC-based inference returns the posterior distribution of the polynomial coefficients. From this a simple Bayes factor test is proposed to test for significance. The estimation of the median rather than the mean, and within a Bayesian framework, increases the robustness of the method compared to a Hotelling T2-test previously suggested. This is shown on simulated data and on muscular dystrophy gene expression data.

Yu, Keming; Vinciotti, Veronica; Liu, Xiaohui; 't Hoen, Peter A. C.

2007-09-01

406

Inequity in India: the case of maternal and reproductive health  

PubMed Central

Background Millennium Development Goal (MDG) 5 is focused on reducing maternal mortality and achieving universal access to reproductive health care. India has made extensive efforts to achieve MDG 5 and in some regions much progress has been achieved. Progress has been uneven and inequitable however, and many women still lack access to maternal and reproductive health care. Objective In this review, a framework developed by the Commission on Social Determinants of Health (CSDH) is used to categorize and explain determinants of inequity in maternal and reproductive health in India. Design A review of peer-reviewed, published literature was conducted using the electronic databases PubMed and Popline. The search was performed using a carefully developed list of search terms designed to capture published papers from India on: 1) maternal and reproductive health, and 2) equity, including disadvantaged populations. A matrix was developed to sort the relevant information, which was extracted and categorized based on the CSDH framework. In this way, the main sources of inequity in maternal and reproductive health in India and their inter-relationships were determined. Results Five main structural determinants emerged from the analysis as important in understanding equity in India: economic status, gender, education, social status (registered caste or tribe), and age (adolescents). These five determinants were found to be closely interrelated, a feature which was reflected in the literature. Conclusion In India, economic status, gender, and social status are all closely interrelated when influencing use of and access to maternal and reproductive health care. Appropriate attention should be given to how these social determinants interplay in generating and sustaining inequity when designing policies and programs to reach equitable progress toward improved maternal and reproductive health. PMID:23561028

Sanneving, Linda; Trygg, Nadja; Saxena, Deepak; Mavalankar, Dileep; Thomsen, Sarah

2013-01-01

407

Maternal Risk Factors for Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders  

PubMed Central

Gathering information about drinking during pregnancy is one of the most difficult aspects of studying fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD). This information is critical to linking specific risk factors to any particular diagnosis within the FASD continuum. This article reviews highlights from the literature on maternal risk factors for FASD and illustrates that maternal risk is multidimensional, including factors related to quantity, frequency, and timing of alcohol exposure; maternal age; number of pregnancies; number of times the mother has given birth; the mother’s body size; nutrition; socioeconomic status; metabolism; religion; spirituality; depression; other drug use; and social relationships. More research is needed to more clearly define what type of individual behavioral, physical, and genetic factors are most likely to lead to having children with FASD. PMID:23580036

May, Philip A.; Gossage, J. Phillip

2011-01-01

408

Median labiomandibular glossotomy approach to the craniocervical region  

Microsoft Academic Search

Introduction  In children as well as adults, adequate access to the craniocervical junction and upper cervical vertebra can usually be achieved\\u000a with a transoral–transpalatopharyngeal route. However, when access is necessary to achieve the C5 level and the upper cervical\\u000a spine in children, this is very difficult. This is particularly so when the incisor opening is less than 2.5 cm. The median\\u000a labiomandibular

James T. Brookes; Richard J. H. Smith; Arnold H. Menezes; M. C. Smith

2008-01-01

409

Bayesian approach based blind image deconvolution with fuzzy median filter  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The inverse problem associated with reconstruction of Poisson blurred images has attracted attention in recent years. In this paper, we propose an alternative unified approach to blind image deconvolution problem using fuzzy median filter as Gibbs prior to model the nature of inter pixel interaction for better edge preserving reconstruction. The performance of the algorithm at various SNR levels has been studied quantitatively using PSNR, RMSE and universal quality index (UQI). Comparative analysis with existing methods has also been carried out.

Mohan, S. Chandra; Rajan, K.; Srinivasan, R.

2011-10-01

410

The Second-Language Vocabulary Trajectories of Turkish Immigrant Children in Norway from Ages Five to Ten: The Role of Preschool Talk Exposure, Maternal Education, and Coethnic Concentration in the Neighborhood  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Little research has explored how preschools can support children's second-language (L2) vocabulary development. This study keenly followed the progress of twenty-six Turkish immigrant children growing up in Norway from preschool (age five) to fifth grade (age ten). Four different measures of preschool talk exposure (amount and diversity of…

Rydland, Veslemoy; Grover, Vibeke; Lawrence, Joshua

2014-01-01

411

The development and prediction of atopy in high-risk children: Follow-up at age seven years in a prospective randomized study of combined maternal and infant food allergen avoidance  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: The natural history of allergic disease and its potential for prevention merit close examination because of the explosive worldwide increase in the prevalence and morbidity of atopic disorders. This study examines the development of atopy at age 7 years in 165 children in a high-risk cohort, previously reported from birth to age 4 years. Methods: In this prospective, randomized,

Robert S. Zeiger; Susan Heller

1995-01-01

412

Median recoil direction as a WIMP directional detection signal  

SciTech Connect

Direct detection experiments have reached the sensitivity to detect dark matter weakly interacting massive particles (WIMPs). Demonstrating that a putative signal is due to WIMPs, and not backgrounds, is a major challenge, however. The direction dependence of the WIMP scattering rate provides a potential WIMP 'smoking gun'. If the WIMP distribution is predominantly smooth, the Galactic recoil distribution is peaked in the direction opposite to the direction of Solar motion. Previous studies have found that, for an ideal detector, of order 10 WIMP events would be sufficient to reject isotropy, and rule out an isotropic background. We examine how the median recoil direction could be used to confirm the WIMP origin of an anisotropic recoil signal. Specifically, we determine the number of events required to confirm the direction of solar motion as the median inverse recoil direction at 95% confidence. We find that for zero background 31 events are required, a factor of {approx}2 more than are required to simply reject isotropy. We also investigate the effect of a nonzero isotropic background. As the background rate is increased the number of events required increases, initially fairly gradually and then more rapidly, once the signal becomes subdominant. We also discuss the effect of features in the speed distribution at large speeds, as found in recent high resolution simulations, on the median recoil direction.

Green, Anne M. [School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Nottingham, University Park, Nottingham, NG7 2RD (United Kingdom); Morgan, Ben [Department of Physics, University of Warwick, Coventry, CV4 7AL (United Kingdom)

2010-03-15

413

In-utero exposure to DDT and cognitive development among infants and school-aged children  

PubMed Central

Background Dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) continues to be used for control of infectious diseases in several countries. In-utero exposure to DDT and dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (DDE) has been associated with developmental and cognitive impairment among children. We examined this association in an historical cohort in which the level of exposure was greater than in previous studies. Methods The association of in-utero DDT and DDE exposure with infant and child neurodevelopment was examined in approximately 1100 subjects in the Collaborative Perinatal Project, a prospective birth cohort enrolling pregnant women from 12 study centers in the U.S. from 1959 to 1965. Maternal DDT and DDE concentrations were measured in archived serum specimens. Infant mental and motor development was assessed at age 8 months using the Bayley Scales of Infant Development, and child cognitive development was assessed at age 7 years using the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children. Results Although levels of both DDT and DDE were relatively high in this population (median DDT concentration, 8.9 µg/L; DDE, 24.5 µg/L), neither was related to Mental or Psychomotor Development scores on the Bayley Scales or to Full-Scale IQ at 7 years of age. Categorical analyses showed no evidence of dose-response for either maternal DDT or DDE, and estimates of the association between continuous measures of exposure and neurodevelopment were indistinguishable from 0. Conclusions Adverse associations were not observed between maternal serum DDT and DDE concentrations and offspring neurodevelopment at 8 months or 7 years of age in this cohort. PMID:22766752

Jusko, Todd A.; Klebanoff, Mark A.; Brock, John W.; Longnecker, Matthew P.

2012-01-01

414

High maternal mortality estimated by the sisterhood method in a rural area of Mali  

PubMed Central

Background Maternal mortality is high in Mali. Nevertheless, there are few studies on this topic from rural areas, and current estimates are mostly based on studies from urban settings. Our objective was to estimate the maternal mortality ratio in Kita, rural Mali. Methods Using the "sisterhood method", we interviewed participants aged 15-50 years from 20 villages in Kita, Mali, and thereby created a retrospective cohort of their sisters in reproductive age. Based on population and fertility estimates, we calculated the lifetime risk of maternal death, and from that the estimated approximate maternal mortality ratio. Results The 2,039 respondents reported 4,628 sisters who had reached reproductive age. Of these 4,628 sisters, almost a third (1,233; 27%) had died, and 429 (9%) had died during pregnancy or childbirth. This corresponded to a lifetime risk of maternal death of 20% and a maternal mortality ratio of 3,131 per 100,000 live births (95% confidence interval 2,967-3,296), with a time reference around 1999. Conclusions We found a very high maternal mortality in rural Mali and this highlights the urgent need for obstetric services in the remote rural areas. PMID:21812951

2011-01-01

415

Reproductive success in female mountain goats: the influence of age and social rank  

Microsoft Academic Search

In mammals, reproductive success may be positively correlated with both maternal age and social rank. Because social rank often increases with age, however, the effects of rank and age on reproductive success are difficult to separate. We studied a marked population of mountain goats, Oreamnos americanus ,t o assess the relative effects of maternal age and social rank on kid

STEEVE D. CO; MARCO FESTA-BIANCHET

2001-01-01

416

Reproductive success in female mountain goats: the influence of age and social rank  

Microsoft Academic Search

In mammals, reproductive success may be positively correlated with both maternal age and social rank. Because social rank often increases with age, however, the effects of rank and age on reproductive success are difficult to separate. We studied a marked population of mountain goats, Oreamnos americanus, to assess the relative effects of maternal age and social rank on kid production

Steeve D. Côté; Marco Festa-Bianchet

2001-01-01

417

[Embryofetopathy caused by postnatally detected maternal phenylketonuria].  

PubMed

A case of a now 10-month-old female infant is reported, who presented at birth with microcephalus, growth retardation, dystrophia, facial dysplasia and cardiac defect. Etiologically a classical phenylketonuria of the mother with very high levels of serum phenylalanine (51 and 41 mg/dl, respectively), which was not known until then, was diagnosed already after her confinement. The mother, aged 26, originates from Roumania. She had never been treated by any phenylalanine-limited diet. Psychological testing revealed a severely reduced intelligence (IQ = 63). The child, having normal levels of serum phenylalanine, presented with mild statomotor retardation at the age of ten months. Even in countries with a general neonatal screening program, a hitherto undiagnosed maternal phenylketonuria has to be considered within the differential diagnosis of a dystrophic microcephalic newborn, beside more common causes like the fetal alcohol syndrome. PMID:3454352

Bode, H; Urbanek, R; Henglein, D; Niederhoff, H

1987-06-01

418

Prenatal maternal depression symptoms and nutrition, and child cognitive function  

PubMed Central

Background Little is currently known about how maternal depression symptoms and unhealthy nutrition during pregnancy may developmentally interrelate to negatively affect child cognitive function. Aims To test whether prenatal maternal depression symptoms predict poor prenatal nutrition, and whether this in turn prospectively associates with reduced postnatal child cognitive function. Method In 6979 mother-offspring pairs participating in the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC) in the UK, maternal depression symptoms were assessed five times between 18 weeks gestation and 33 months old. Maternal reports of the nutritional environment were assessed at 32 weeks gestation and 47 months old, and child cognitive function was assessed at age 8 years. Results During gestation, higher depressive symptoms were related to lower levels of healthy nutrition and higher levels of unhealthy nutrition, each of which in turn was prospectively associated with reduced cognitive function. These results were robust to postnatal depression symptoms and nutrition, as well as a range of potential prenatal and postnatal confounds (i.e. poverty, teenage mother, low maternal education, parity, birth complications, substance use, criminal lifestyle, partner cruelty towards mother). Conclusions Prenatal interventions aimed at the well-being of children of parents with depression should consider targeting the nutritional environment. PMID:24115347

Barker, Edward D.; Kirkham, Natasha; Ng, Jane; Jensen, Sarah K. G.

2013-01-01

419

Prolactin, neurogenesis, and maternal behaviors.  

PubMed

Elevated prolactin during pregnancy increases neurogenesis in the subventricular zone of the lateral ventricle (SVZ) of the maternal brain. Evidence from our laboratory has shown that low prolactin in early pregnancy, and the consequent suppression of neurogenesis in the SVZ in the adult brain, is associated with increased postpartum anxiety and markedly impaired maternal behavior. Daughters of low prolactin mothers also display increased anxiety and a significant delay in the onset of puberty, which is associated with epigenetic changes in neuronal development (see Fig. 1). This suggests that, in rodents, low prolactin in early pregnancy exerts long-term effects that influence maternal mood postpartum, and offspring development. This mini-review aims to summarize the evidence showing that the prolactin-induced increase in SVZ neurogenesis during pregnancy underlies normal postpartum maternal interactions with pups. PMID:21820505

Larsen, C M; Grattan, D R

2012-02-01

420

Interactive Fly: Maternally transcribed genes  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The maternally transcribed genes section of the award-winning and comprehensive site: Interactive fly. It thoroughly discusses genes, tissues, biochemical paths, and developmental processes in the fruit fly, Drosophila.

PhD Thomas B Brody (NIH Laboratory of Neurochemistry)

2006-11-13