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1

Advanced maternal age and obstetric outcome.  

PubMed

Advanced maternal age defined as age 35 years or more at estimated date of delivery is considered to have higher incidence of obstetric complications and adverse pregnancy outcome than younger women. The objective of this study was to compare the obstetric and perinatal outcome of pregnancies in women with advanced maternal age > or = 35 years with that of younger women < 35 years. A prospective comparative study was carried out in department of obstetrics and gynecology at Nepal Medical College and Teaching Hospital over the period of one year from October 2012 to September 2013. The obstetric and perinatal outcome of 90 women with advanced maternal age (study group) were compared with those of 90 younger women aged 20-34 years (control group). Among antenatal complications, women of advanced maternal age had increased incidence of hypertensive disorder of pregnancy (26.6% vs 4.4%; p = 0.00009) and breech presentation (8.8% vs 1.1%; p = 0.04). There were no significant difference between two groups in incidence of antepartum hemorrhage, gestational diabetes mellitus, prelabor rupture of membrane and preterm delivery. The rate of caesarean delivery was significantly higher in advanced maternal age (28.8% vs 17.7%; p = 0.05). In perinatal outcome, older women had significantly higher incidence of perinatal death (7.7% vs 0%; p = 0.01). There were no significant differences in low birth weight rate and apgar score less than 7 at five minutes of life in two groups. Thus from this study, it can be concluded that advanced age women had higher incidence of hypertensive disorder of pregnancies and malpresentation, were more likely to deliver by caesarean section and had increased incidence of perinatal death. PMID:24696922

Giri, A; Srivastav, V R; Suwal, A; Tuladhar, A S

2013-06-01

2

Mitochondria, maternal inheritance, and male aging.  

PubMed

The maternal transmission of mitochondrial genomes invokes a sex-specific selective sieve, whereby mutations in mitochondrial DNA can only respond to selection acting directly on females. In theory, this enables male-harming mutations to accumulate in mitochondrial genomes when these same mutations are neutral, beneficial, or only slightly deleterious in their effects on females. Ultimately, this evolutionary process could result in the evolution of male-specific mitochondrial mutation loads; an idea previously termed Mother's Curse. Here, we present evidence that the effects of this process are broader than hitherto realized, and that it has resulted in mutation loads affecting patterns of aging in male, but not female Drosophila melanogaster. Furthermore, our results indicate that the mitochondrial mutation loads affecting male aging generally comprise numerous mutations over multiple sites. Our findings thus suggest that males are subject to dramatic consequences that result from the maternal transmission of mitochondrial genomes. They implicate the diminutive mitochondrial genome as a hotspot for mutations that affect sex-specific patterns of aging, thus promoting the idea that a sex-specific selective sieve in mitochondrial genome evolution is a contributing factor to sexual dimorphism in aging, commonly observed across species. PMID:22863313

Camus, M Florencia; Clancy, David J; Dowling, Damian K

2012-09-25

3

Maternal Age at Holocaust Exposure and Maternal PTSD Independently Influence Urinary Cortisol Levels in Adult Offspring  

PubMed Central

Background: Parental traumatization has been associated with increased risk for the expression of psychopathology in offspring, and maternal posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) appears to increase the risk for the development of offspring PTSD. In this study, Holocaust-related maternal age of exposure and PTSD were evaluated for their association with offspring ambient cortisol and PTSD-associated symptom expression. Method: Ninety-five Holocaust offspring and Jewish comparison subjects received diagnostic and psychological evaluations, and 24?h urinary cortisol was assayed by RIA. Offspring completed the parental PTSD questionnaire to assess maternal PTSD status. Maternal Holocaust exposure was identified as having occurred in childhood, adolescence, or adulthood and examined in relation to offspring psychobiology. Results: Urinary cortisol levels did not differ for Holocaust offspring and comparison subjects but differed significantly in offspring based on maternal age of exposure and maternal PTSD status. Increased maternal age of exposure and maternal PTSD were each associated with lower urinary cortisol in offspring, but did not exhibit a significant interaction. In addition, offspring PTSD-associated symptom severity increased with maternal age at exposure and PTSD diagnosis. A regression analysis of correlates of offspring cortisol indicated that both maternal age of exposure and maternal PTSD were significant predictors of lower offspring urinary cortisol, whereas childhood adversity and offspring PTSD symptoms were not. Conclusion: Offspring low cortisol and PTSD-associated symptom expression are related to maternal age of exposure, with the greatest effects associated with increased age at exposure. These effects are relatively independent of the negative consequences of being raised by a trauma survivor. These observations highlight the importance of maternal age of exposure in determining a psychobiology in offspring that is consistent with increased risk for stress-related pathology. PMID:25071719

Bader, Heather N.; Bierer, Linda M.; Lehrner, Amy; Makotkine, Iouri; Daskalakis, Nikolaos P.; Yehuda, Rachel

2014-01-01

4

Maternal caloric restriction partially rescues the deleterious effects of advanced maternal age on offspring  

PubMed Central

SUMMARY While many studies have focused on the detrimental effects of advanced maternal age and harmful prenatal environments on progeny, little is known about the role of beneficial non-Mendelian maternal inheritance on aging. Here we report the effects of maternal age and maternal caloric restriction (CR) on the lifespan and healthspan of offspring for a clonal culture of the monogonont rotifer Brachionus manjavacas. Mothers on CR regimens of chronic CR (CCR) or intermittent fasting (IF) had increased lifespan compared to mothers fed ad libitum (AL). With increasing maternal age, lifespan and fecundity of female offspring of AL fed mothers decreased significantly and lifespan of male offspring was unchanged, while body size of both male and female offspring increased. Maternal CR partially rescued these effects, increasing the mean lifespan of AL fed female offspring but not male offspring and increasing the fecundity of AL fed female offspring compared to offspring of mothers of the same age. Both maternal CR regimens decreased male offspring body size, but only maternal IF decreased body size of female offspring, while maternal CCR caused a slight increase. Understanding the genetic and biochemical basis of these different maternal effects on aging may guide effective interventions to improve healthspan and lifespan. PMID:24661622

Gribble, Kristin E.; Jarvis, George; Bock, Martha; Mark Welch, David B.

2014-01-01

5

Performance of a repetitive task by aged rats leads to median neuropathy and spinal cord inflammation with associated sensorimotor declines  

Microsoft Academic Search

Epidemiological studies have demonstrated a relationship between advancing age and susceptibility to risk factors for median neuropathies and musculoskeletal disorders. In this study, we determined if performance of a voluntary reaching task by aged rats induced sensorimotor declines, median nerve dysfunction and increased inflammatory cytokines in peripheral nerves, muscle and spinal cord neurons. Aged (14 mon) rats were trained for

M. B. Elliott; Ann E. Barr; Brian D. Clark; Christine K. Wade; Mary F. Barbe

2010-01-01

6

Maternal age and risk of stillbirth: a systematic review  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: The number of women who delay childbirth to their late 30s and beyond has increased significantly over the past several decades. Studies regarding the relation between older maternal age and the risk of stillbirth have yielded in- consistent conclusions. In this systematic review we explored whether older maternal age is associated with an increased risk of stillbirth. Methods: We

Ling Huang; Reg Sauve; Dean Fergusson MHA; Carl van Walraven

2008-01-01

7

Stability of Maternal Autonomy Support between Infancy and Preschool Age  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The goals of this article were to examine (1) the relative and absolute stability of maternal autonomy support between infancy and preschool age, and (2) the moderating role of child gender, maternal attachment state of mind, and stressful life events. Sixty-nine mother-child dyads participated in five visits when the child was 8, 15, and 18…

Matte-Gagne, Celia; Bernier, Annie; Gagne, Christine

2013-01-01

8

Association of Maternal Age to Development and Progression of Retinopathy of Prematurity in Infants of Gestational Age under 33 Weeks  

PubMed Central

Aim. To find predictive and indicative markers of risk for development of retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) and its progression to the stage requiring laser treatment, in premature infants whose gestational age (GA) was under 33 weeks. Methods. We retrospectively reviewed medical records of 197 premature infants born in 2005–2010 whose GA < 33 weeks and underwent eye screening at Keio University Hospital. The association between candidate risk factors and development or progression of ROP was assessed. Results. Among the 182 eligible infants (median GA, 29.1 weeks; median birth weight (BW), 1028?g), 84 (46%) developed any stage of ROP, of which 45 (25%) required laser treatment. Multivariate analysis using a stepwise method showed that GA (P = 0.002; 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.508–0.858), BW (P < 0.001; 95% CI, 0.994–0.998), and lower maternal age (P = 0.032; 95% CI, 0.819–0.991) were the risk factors for ROP development and GA (P < 0.001; 95% CI, 0.387–0.609) and lower maternal age (P = 0.012; 95% CI, 0.795–0.973) were for laser treatment. The odds ratio of requiring laser treatment was 3.3 when the maternal age was <33 years. Conclusion. ROP was more likely to be developed and progressed in infants born from younger mother and low GA. PMID:24876945

Koto, Takashi; Nagai, Norihiro; Mochimaru, Hiroshi; Tomita, Yohei; Ikeda, Kazushige; Ozawa, Yoko

2014-01-01

9

Maternal body mass index and daughters' age at menarche  

PubMed Central

Background The role of inter-generational influences on age at menarche has not been explored far beyond the association between mothers’ and daughters’ menarcheal ages. Small size at birth and childhood obesity have been associated with younger age at menarche, but the influence of maternal overweight or obesity on daughters’ age at menarche has not been thoroughly examined. Methods In a follow-up study of the prospective Collaborative Perinatal Project grown daughters were asked in 1987-1991 for their age at menarche. Data from the original Collaborative Perinatal Project (1959-1966) included their mothers’ height and pre-pregnancy weight. In the follow-up study, 597 of 627 daughters had complete menarche and maternal data available and were included in the present analysis. We used polytomous logistic regression to examine the association between maternal overweight (body mass index [BMI] = 25-29.9 km/m2) or obesity (BMI ? 30) and daughter’s age at menarche (< 12, 12, 13, > 13 years). Results Compared with those whose mothers had a BMI less than 25, daughters of obese mothers experienced younger age at menarche (OR for menarche at < 12 years=3.1 [1.1 - 9.2]). This association remained after adjusting for maternal age at menarche, maternal parity, socioeconomic status, race, and study site (OR=3.3 [1.1 - 10.0]). Effect estimates for maternal overweight were close to the null. There was limited evidence of mediation by small-for-gestational age or BMI at age 7. Conclusions Maternal obesity is associated with younger menarcheal age among daughters in this study, possibly via unmeasured shared factors. PMID:19602980

Keim, Sarah A.; Branum, Amy M.; Klebanoff, Mark A.; Zemel, Babette S.

2011-01-01

10

Is Routine Amniocentesis for Advanced Maternal Age Still Indicated?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To evaluate a policy of selective rather than routine use of amniocentesis for advanced maternal age. Method: A consecutive series of 359 pregnant women aged 38–47 underwent nuchal translucency measurement (NTM) at 10–14 weeks, maternal serum screening (MSS) by ?-fetoprotein (AFP) and human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) at 15–17 weeks, and second trimester ultrasound at 21–23 weeks. Women with NTM

Marc Dommergues; François Audibert; Clarisse Benattar; Catherine Champagne; Victor Gomel; René Frydman

2001-01-01

11

Medians for second-trimester maternal serum a-fetoprotein, human chorionic gonadotropin, and unconjugated estriol; differences between races or ethnic groups  

Microsoft Academic Search

Second-trimester maternal serum a-fetoprotein (AFP), human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG), and unconju- gated estriol (uE3) are routinely measured in screening fetuses at high risk for Down syndrome or open neural tube defects (ONTD). For test interpretation, individual patient values of these three analytes are related to population-derived median values. We evaluated data from >21 000 pregnancies to determine the extent of

Peter A. Benn; Jonathan M. Clive; Roxanne Collins

12

Maternal age-specific rates of fetal chromosomal abnormalities in Korean pregnant women of advanced maternal age  

PubMed Central

Objective To evaluate the association of maternal age with occurrence of fetal chromosomal abnormalities in Korean pregnant women of advanced maternal age (AMA). Methods A retrospective review of the amniocentesis or chorionic villous sampling (CVS) database at Gangnam and Bundang CHA Medical Centers, between January 2001 and February 2012, was conducted. This study analyzed the incidence of fetal chromosomal abnormalities according to maternal age and the correlation between maternal age and fetal chromosomal abnormalities in Korean pregnant women ?35 years of age. In addition, we compared the prevalence of fetal chromosomal abnormalities between women of AMA only and the others as the indication for amniocentesis or CVS. Results A total of 15,381 pregnant women were selected for this study. The incidence of aneuploidies increased exponentially with maternal age (P<0.0001). In particular, the risk of trisomy 21 (standard error [SE], 0.0378; odds ratio, 1.177; P<0.001) and trisomy 18 (SE, 0.0583; odds ratio, 1.182; P=0.0040) showed significant correlation with maternal age. Comparison between women of AMA only and the others as the indication for amniocentesis or CVS showed a significantly lower rate of fetal chromosomal abnormalities only in the AMA group, compared with the others (P<0.0001). Conclusion This study demonstrates that AMA is no longer used as a threshold for determination of who is offered prenatal diagnosis, but is a common risk factor for fetal chromosomal abnormalities. PMID:24327996

Kim, Young Joo; Lee, Jee Eun; Kim, Soo Hyun; Cha, Dong Hyun

2013-01-01

13

Maternal and grandmaternal age influence offspring fitness in Drosophila.  

PubMed Central

The influence of maternal and grandmaternal age on progeny egg-to-adult viability was assessed in Drosophila serrata. Viability in progeny decreased with increasing maternal age. The potential for cumulative age effects was investigated in two environments, one of which involved nutrient and cold stress. Environment influenced viability and female age influenced progeny egg-to-adult viability across one generation. The influence on viability was cumulative across two generations. Females from old mothers, who also had old grandmothers, had the lowest viability in both environments. Grandmaternal effects were associated with a decrease in egg hatch rate whereas maternal effects also involved larval-to-adult viability. The age of the mother and grandmother should be taken into account when evaluating life-history traits in Drosophila. PMID:11416916

Hercus, M J; Hoffmann, A A

2000-01-01

14

Maternal Age at First Birth and Boys' Risk for Conduct Disorder.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Studied multigenerational links between maternal history of problem behavior, mother's age at birth of first child, and child conduct disorder in boys. Found that maternal age at first birth was associated with child's conduct disorder, and maternal history of problem behavior was also associated with early maternal age at first birth and the…

Wakschlag, Lauren S.; Gordon, Rachel A.; Lahey, Benjamin B.; Loeber, Rolf; Green, Stephanie M.; Leventhal, Bennett L.

2000-01-01

15

Maternal Self-confidence Postpartum and at Pre-school Age: The Role of Depression, Anxiety Disorders, Maternal Attachment Insecurity.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to analyze the impact of maternal postpartum depression and/or anxiety disorders according to DMS-IV on maternal self-confidence throughout infancy and early childhood. Exploratively, associations between maternal attachment insecurity and maternal self-confidence at pre-school age were examined. The sample (N = 54) of this prospective longitudinal study was comprised of n = 27 women with postpartum depression and/or anxiety disorders according to DSM-IV criteria and n = 27 healthy women without present or history of mental health disorders or psychotherapy. Data was collected in the postpartum period (M = 60.08 days) and at pre-school age (M = 4.7 years). Subjects were recruited between 2004 and 2011 in South Germany. Data revealed a significant difference in maternal self-confidence between clinical and control group at child's pre-school age: Women with postpartum depression and/or anxiety disorder scored lower on maternal self-confidence than healthy controls, but only if they had current SCID-diagnoses or partly remitted symptoms. According to explorative analyses maternal attachment insecurity turned out to be the strongest predictor of maternal self-confidence at pre-school age besides maternal mental health status. The results emphasize the impact of attachment insecurity and maternal mental health regarding maternal self-confidence leading to potential adverse long-term consequences for the mother-child relationship. Attachment based interventions taking maternal self-confidence into account are needed. PMID:24474591

Zietlow, Anna-Lena; Schlüter, Myriam Kim; Nonnenmacher, Nora; Müller, Mitho; Reck, Corinna

2014-10-01

16

Maternal age, development time, position effect variegation in Drosophila melanogaster  

E-print Network

Note Maternal age, development time, position effect variegation in Drosophila melanogaster A effet de position (type « variegation ») chez Drosophila melanogaster Chez la Drosophile, l of Drosophila melanogaster (LINDSLEY & GRELL, 1968), hereafter refered to as w m 2GS- 21, position

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

17

Down Syndrome: Parental Origin, Recombination, and Maternal Age  

PubMed Central

The aims of the present study were to assess (1) the parental origin of trisomy 21 and the stage in which nondisjunction occurs and (2) the relationship between altered genetic recombination and maternal age as risk factors for trisomy 21. The study included 102 cases with Down syndrome from the Croatian population. Genotyping analyses were performed by polymerase chain reaction using 11 short tandem repeat markers along chromosome 21q. The vast majority of trisomy 21 was of maternal origin (93%), followed by paternal (5%) and mitotic origin (2%). The frequencies of maternal meiotic I (MI) and meiotic II errors were 86% and 14%, respectively. The highest proportion of cases with zero recombination was observed among those with maternal MI derived trisomy 21. A higher proportion of telomeric exchanges were presented in cases with maternal MI errors and cases with young mothers, although these findings were not statistically significant. The present study is the first report examining parental origin and altered genetic recombination as a risk factor for trisomy 21 in a Croatian population. The results support that trisomy 21 has a universal genetic etiology across different human populations. PMID:21861707

Vranekovic, Jadranka; Bozovic, Ivana Babic; Grubic, Zorana; Wagner, Jasenka; Pavlinic, Dinko; Dahoun, Sophie; Bena, Frederique; Culic, Vida

2012-01-01

18

Behavioral ecology of the Jeju pony ( Equus caballus ): Effects of maternal age, maternal dominance hierarchy and foal age on mare aggression  

Microsoft Academic Search

On Jeju Island, Korea, dominance hierarchy and maternal care according to maternal age were studied in a herd of Jeju ponies ( Equus caballus), consisting of 73 mares, their foals and one stallion. Dominance ranks were nearly linear and increased significantly with the age of mares. Most aggressive encounters involved mares under 5?years old. Mares under the age of 5?years

Jeong Rae RHO; Robert Boxter SRYGLEY; Jae Chun CHOE

2004-01-01

19

Maternal Age, Multiple Birth and Extremely Low Birth Weight Infants  

PubMed Central

Objectives To compare the rates of adverse neurodevelopmental outcome or death at 18 to 22 months among extremely low birth weight (ELBW) infants born to mothers ? 40 years to the corresponding rates among infants of younger mothers. Study Design Prospective evaluation of ELBW infants to quantify the relative risks of maternal age and multiple birth for death or adverse neurodevelopmental outcome. Results The sample consisted of 14,671 live ELBW births divided into maternal age groups: <20; 20–29; 30–39; and ? 40 years. Of infants born to mothers ? 40 years, 20% were multiples. Mothers ? 40 years had high rates of obstetrical interventions and medical morbidities compared to mothers < 40 years. ELBW live births of mothers ? 40 years were 22 % more likely to survive and had a 13% decreased risk of neurodevelopmental impairment or death compared to mothers< 20. Multiple birth, however, was associated with a 10 % greater risk or neurodevelopmental impairment or death. Conclusion Although mothers ? 40 years had high pregnancy related morbidities, we found no overall increased risk of the composite outcome of death or NDI. Multiple birth, however, was a predictor of all adverse outcomes examined, regardless of maternal age. PMID:19111322

Vohr, Betty R.; Tyson, Jon E.; Wright, Linda L; Perritt, Rebecca L.; Li, Lei; Poole, W. Kenneth

2010-01-01

20

Can we define maternal age as a genetic disease?  

PubMed

>Maternal age is strongly associated with a decrease in the probability of achieving pregnancy and the birth of a healthy child. Among current theories of the mechanism of this decrease is the hypothesis that a progressive degeneration of the respiratory capacity of mitochondria in eggs of women of advanced age leads to an energy deficit and consequent secondary effects on the oocyte and developing embryo. Mitochondria are uniquely inherited through the female germ line and these organelles contain DNA sequences that are independent from the genome. It is therefore possible that offspring born to females of advanced age inherit suboptimal mitochondria and that these persist throughout the life of the new being. This could in turn lead to long-term consequences for the offspring of females of advanced age such as a reduced potential lifespan in relation to the age of the mother at conception. In this review and hypothesis, we discuss the evidence relating to this theory and suggest that on this basis the maternal age effect could be classified as an inheritable genetic disease. PMID:25009733

Wilding, M

2014-01-01

21

Maternal serum median levels of alpha-foetoprotein, human chorionic gonadotropin & unconjugated estriol in second trimester in pregnant women from north-west India  

PubMed Central

Background & objectives: Triple test as prenatal screening procedure does not form a part of routine health care of pregnant women in India. Hence, median values of triple test biomarkers are lacking for Indian population. This study was undertaken to establish population-specific medians for biomarkers viz. alpha-foetoprotien (AFP), human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG?), and unconjugated estriol (uE3) for detection of Down's syndrome, Edward's syndrome and neural tube defects (NTDs) in pregnant women in north-west India. Methods: Serum biomarker values were derived from 5420 pregnant women between 15-20 wk of gestation who were enrolled for triple test investigations at Department of Gynecology and Obstetrics, Government Medical College and Hospital, Chandigarh, India, between January, 2007 to December, 2009. Median values were calculated for rounded weeks using database comprising pregnancies with normal outcomes only. Simple statistical analysis and log-linear regression were used for median estimation of the biomarker values. Results: The levels of the three biomarkers were found to be ranging from 1.38 to 187.00 IU/ml for AFP, 1.06 to 315 ng/ml for hCG?, and 0.25 to 28.5 nmol/l for uE3. The age of women ranged from 18 to 47 yr and mean weight was 57.9 ± 9.8 kg. Data revealed that AFP, hCG? and uE3 medians in our study population were not significantly different from those reported from other countries or when compared ethnically. Interpretation & conclusion: The population-specific median values for the three biomarkers (AFP, hCG?, uE3) may be used as reference values during prenatal screening in Indian pregnant women. PMID:24056560

Kaur, Gurjit; Srivastav, Jyoti; Sharma, Suresh; Huria, Anju; Goel, Poonam; Chavan, Bir Singh

2013-01-01

22

Advanced maternal age and the risk of perinatal death due to intrapartum anoxia at term  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundAdvanced maternal age is associated with higher risks of intrapartum complications. However, the effect of maternal age on the risk of perinatal death due to these complications is unclear. The aim of the present study was to determine the association between maternal age and delivery-related perinatal death at term.MethodsIn this retrospective cohort study, birth records of 1 043 002 singleton

Dharmintra Pasupathy; Angela M Wood; Jill P Pell; Michael Fleming; Gordon C S Smith

2010-01-01

23

Inbreeding depression increases with maternal age in a seed-feeding beetle  

E-print Network

Inbreeding depression increases with maternal age in a seed-feeding beetle Charles W. Fox 1 on inbreeding depression in offspring has been almost entirely neglected. Maternal age affects allocation-lasting effects on population dynamics and evolutionary trajectories. Hypothesis: Inbreeding depression

Fox, Charles W.

24

Effect of Maternal Age on Milk Production Traits, Fertility, and Longevity in Cattle  

Microsoft Academic Search

Longevity is the economically most important func- tional trait in cattle populations. However, with an in- creased productive lifespan, the number of offspring born by older dams increases. A higher maternal age might have negative effects on the performance of off- spring.Theobjectiveofthisstudywastoinvestigatethe effect of maternal age on production (energy-corrected milk yield (ECM)) and functional traits (fertility; so- matic cell score,

B. Fuerst-Waltl; A. Reichl; C. Fuerst; R. Baumung; J. Sölkner

2004-01-01

25

Maternal age, investment, and parent-child conflict: a mediational test of the terminal investment hypothesis.  

PubMed

Drawing on the evolutionary terminal investment hypothesis and Trivers' (1974) parent-offspring conflict theory, we advance and evaluate a mediational model specifying why and how maternal age, via mating effort and parental investment, affects mother-child conflict. Data from a longitudinal study of 757 families indicate that (a) older maternal age predicts lower mating effort during the child's first 5 years of life, and (b) thereby, higher maternal investment in middle childhood when the child is around 10 years old. (c) Higher maternal investment, in turn, forecasts less child-perceived mother-child conflict in adolescence (age 15). These results proved robust against theoretically relevant covariates (family resources, parity, maternal education, and maternal personality characteristics) and in the context of an autoregressive model. Study limitations are noted and results are discussed in terms of the unique contributions of an evolutionary perspective to the determinants-of-parenting literature. PMID:22468690

Schlomer, Gabriel L; Belsky, Jay

2012-06-01

26

Maternal age and parity influence ultrasonographic measurements of fetal growth in Dutch Warmblood mares  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ultrasonographic examination of the equine fetus in mid-late gestation is usually performed only if there are concerns about fetal or maternal health. Even then it is difficult to determine whether development is ‘normal’ for gestational age because the reference values include considerable error margins. This study examined maternal factors that influence fetal growth with the aim of producing more precise

W. K. Hendriks; B. Colenbrander; G. C. van der Weijden; T. A. E. Stout

2009-01-01

27

Maternal-age effect in aneuploidy: Does altered embryonic selection play a role?  

PubMed Central

The age of mothers of children with trisomy 21 (47,+21) is elevated no matter if the extra chromosome is of maternal or paternal origin, and it has been postulated that decreasing maternal selection against affected conceptuses with advancing age might explain this observation. Since the absence of sufficient data on 47,+21 abortuses precludes a direct test of this hypothesis, we have taken an indirect approach. Pooled data from spontaneous abortions and live births with autosomal trisomies, XXY and XXX, were examined to determine the natural history of these aneuploid conceptuses and its relation to maternal age. The results are consistent with decreasing embryonic selection in older women. PMID:6213153

Ayme, Segolene; Lippman-Hand, Abby

1982-01-01

28

MATERNAL AGE EFFECT: THE ENIGMA OF DOWN SYNDROME AND OTHER TRISOMIC CONDITIONS  

EPA Science Inventory

Aneuploidy is the most frequently observed chromosome abnormality in human liveborn, abortuses, and oocytes. he only etiological factor that has been established is advanced maternal age for the occurrence of trisomies, particularly trisomy 21 which causes Down syndrome. he mater...

29

Development and Evaluation of a Decision Aid About Prenatal Testing for Women of Advanced Maternal Age  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective:To develop and evaluate a decision aid designed to prepare patients of advanced maternal age for counseling about prenatal diagnostic testing.Setting:A regional genetics center.Design:A before\\/after study.Interventions:Participants used an audioguided workbook to learn about options and outcomes and to clarify personal risks, values, questions, and predispositions.Subjects:21 women of advanced maternal age and 17 spouses.Main outcome measures:Knowledge of prenatal testing alternatives, decisional

Elizabeth R. Drake; Lori Engler-Todd; Annette M. O'Connor; Linda C. Surh; Alasdair Hunter

1999-01-01

30

Maternal drug abuse versus maternal depression: Vulnerability and resilience among school-age and adolescent offspring  

PubMed Central

In this study of 360 low-income mother-child dyads, our primary goal was to disentangle risks linked with commonly co-occurring maternal diagnoses: substance abuse and affective/anxiety disorders. Variable- and person-based analyses suggest that, at least through children’s early adolescence, maternal drug use is no more inimical for them than is maternal depression. A second goal was to illuminate vulnerability and protective processes linked with mothers’ everyday functioning, and results showed that negative parenting behaviors were linked with multiple adverse child outcomes. Conversely, the other parenting dimensions showed more domain specificity; parenting stress was linked with children’s lifetime diagnoses, and limit setting and closeness with children’s externalizing problems and everyday competence, respectively. Results are discussed in terms of implications for resilience theory, interventions, and social policy. PMID:17241491

LUTHAR, SUNIYA S.; SEXTON, CHRIS C.

2007-01-01

31

Infant Formula with Docosahexaenoic Acid, Maternal Smoking, and Body Mass Index of Children To Six Years of Age  

E-print Network

supplementation on growth of term infants to age six. The study aim was to determine if DHA supplementation in formula consumed from birth to one year and maternal smoking affects growth of children through six years. Anthropometric measures and maternal...

Currie, Lindsey Marie

2012-05-31

32

Maternal age-specific rates of numerical chromosome abnormalities with special reference to trisomy  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of maternal age on the incidence of chromosomally normal spontaneous abortion and different categories of chromosome abnormality among all clinically recognized human pregnancies was evaluated. The results provide no evidence for a significant association of age with sex chromosome monosomy or polyploidy, but clearly demonstrate an effect of age on the frequency of trisomy and chromosomally normal spontaneous

T. Hassold; D. Chiu

1985-01-01

33

Maternal and Paternal Age Are Jointly Associated with Childhood Autism in Jamaica  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Several studies have reported maternal and paternal age as risk factors for having a child with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD), yet the results remain inconsistent. We used data for 68 age- and sex-matched case-control pairs collected from Jamaica. Using Multivariate General Linear Models (MGLM) and controlling for parity, gestational age, and…

Rahbar, Mohammad H.; Samms-Vaughan, Maureen; Loveland, Katherine A.; Pearson, Deborah A.; Bressler, Jan; Chen, Zhongxue; Ardjomand-Hessabi, Manouchehr; Shakespeare-Pellington, Sydonnie; Grove, Megan L.; Beecher, Compton; Bloom, Kari; Boerwinkle, Eric

2012-01-01

34

Effects of chronic bromocriptine treatment on tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) mRNA expression, TH activity and median eminence dopamine concentrations in ageing rats.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to investigate the age-related changes in the responsiveness of tuberoinfundibular dopamine (TIDA) neurones to chronic hypoprolactinemia induced by treatment with bromocriptine, a dopamine receptor agonist. In one experiment, TIDA neuronal activity after acute hypoprolactinemia or exogenous prolactin was monitored by measuring tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) activity in the stalk median eminence of middle-aged cycling female rats (10-12 months), old constant oestrous rats (18-20 months) and old pseudopregnant rats (22-24 months). In another experiment, middle-aged cycling (10-12 months) rats were treated with bromocriptine for 6 or 12 months. TH activity was measured in the stalk median eminence, TH mRNA levels were measured in the arcuate nucleus and dopamine concentrations were measured in the arcuate nucleus and median eminence. Responsiveness of TIDA neurones to exogenous prolactin and to the withdrawal of bromocriptine in these rats was also tested. While the TIDA neurones in all three age groups responded to acute hypoprolactinemia by showing a reduction in TH activity, older rats failed to respond to exogenous prolactin administration. In contrast, chronic hypoprolactinemia for 12 months enabled the rats to retain TIDA neuronal responsiveness to exogenous prolactin. It also decreased TIDA neuronal function as measured by dopamine concentrations in the median eminence, TH activity in the stalk median eminence and TH mRNA in the arcuate nucleus of ageing rats. The restoration of the responsiveness of these neurones to prolactin stimulation in older rats demonstrates for the first time that hypoprolactinemia produced by chronic bromocriptine treatment indeed provides a neuroprotective effect on TIDA neurones. These results indicate that maintaining a low level of neuronal activity by lowering prolactin levels may be a contributing factor in retaining the plasticity of TIDA neurones. PMID:11207940

MohanKumar, P S; MohanKumar, S M; Quadri, S K; Voogt, J L

2001-03-01

35

When does maternal age-dependent trisomy 21 arise relative to meiosis?  

SciTech Connect

Polymorphic DNA markers have recently been used to estimate the fraction of trisomy 21 (Down syndrome) cases that may be attributable to postzygotic nondisjunction - indicative of a loss in the fidelity of the first few cell divisions after fertilization. In these studies, a postzygotic nondisjunction is defined as a case in which two chromosomes of the trisomic set are homozygous for all informative markers (i.e., for those markers that were heterozygous in their parent of origin). These studies estimate that the postzygotic mutation mechanism accounts for 4.5% (11/238) and 3.5% (9/255) of their cases, respectively, but their estimates may actually be conservative, since all noninformative haplotypes (frequency not reported) are arbitrarily attributed to meiosis II-type nondisjunction. Nevertheless, even the conservative estimates would, if confirmed, constitute a new and nonnegligible source of chromosomal segregation errors leading to trisomy. These studies` conclusions are supported by the observation that the 20 reported {open_quotes}postzygotic{close_quotes} cases (5 paternal and 15 maternal) appear to be less dependent on maternal age (mean maternal age 28.4 years) than maternal meiosis I-type failures (mean maternal age 31.2 years). However, given the limited sample size involved, one should be cautious in positing the absence of a maternal age effect. 5 refs., 1 fig.

Chang-Jiang Zheng [National Inst. of Deafness and Other Communication Disorders, Bethesda, MD (United States); Byers, B. [Univ. of Washington, Seattle, WA (United States)

1996-07-01

36

Maternal age affects brain metabolism in adult children of mothers affected by Alzheimer's disease  

PubMed Central

Cognitively normal (NL) individuals with a maternal history of late-onset Alzheimer’s disease (MH) show reduced brain glucose metabolism on FDG-PET as compared to those with a paternal history (PH) and those with negative family history (NH) of Alzheimer’s disease (AD). This FDG-PET study investigates whether metabolic deficits in NL MH are associated with advancing maternal age at birth. Ninety-six NL individuals with FDG-PET were examined, including 36 MH, 24 PH, and 36 NH. Regional-to-whole brain gray matter standardized FDG uptake value ratios were examined for associations with parental age across groups using automated regions-of-interest and statistical parametric mapping. Groups were comparable for clinical and neuropsychological measures. Brain metabolism in AD-vulnerable regions was lower in MH compared to NH and PH, and negatively correlated with maternal age at birth only in MH. There were no associations between paternal age and metabolism in any group. Evidence for a maternally inherited, maternal age-related mechanism provides further insight on risk factors and genetic transmission in late-onset AD. PMID:21514691

Mosconi, Lisa; Tsui, Wai; Murray, John; McHugh, Pauline; Li, Yi; Williams, Schantel; Pirraglia, Elizabeth; Glodzik, Lidia; De Santi, Susan; Vallabhajosula, Shankar; de Leon, Mony J.

2011-01-01

37

Increasing Maternal Age Is Associated with Taller Stature and Reduced Abdominal Fat in Their Children  

PubMed Central

Background Maternal age at childbirth continues to increase worldwide. We aimed to assess whether increasing maternal age is associated with changes in childhood height, body composition, and metabolism. Methods 277 healthy pre-pubertal children, born 37–41 weeks gestation were studied. Assessments included: height and weight corrected for parental measurements, DEXA-derived body composition, fasting lipids, glucose, insulin, and hormonal profiles. Subjects were separated according to maternal age at childbirth: <30, 30–35, and >35 years. Results Our cohort consisted of 126 girls and 151 boys, aged 7.4±2.2 years (range 3–10); maternal age at childbirth was 33.3±4.7 years (range 19–44). Children of mothers aged >35 and 30–35 years at childbirth were taller than children of mothers aged <30 years by 0.26 (p?=?0.002) and 0.23 (p?=?0.042) SDS, respectively. There was a reduction in childhood BMISDS with increasing maternal age at childbirth, and children of mothers aged >35 years at childbirth were 0.61 SDS slimmer than those of mothers <30 years (p?=?0.049). Children of mothers aged 30–35 (p?=?0.022) and >35 (p?=?0.036) years at childbirth had abdominal adiposity reduced by 10% and 13%, respectively, compared to those in the <30 group. Children of mothers aged 30–35 years at childbirth displayed a 19% increase in IGF-I concentrations compared to offspring in <30 group (p?=?0.042). Conversely, IGF-II concentrations were lower among the children born to mothers aged 30–35 (6.5%; p?=?0.004) and >35 (8.1%; p?=?0.005) compared to those of mothers aged <30 years. Girls of mothers aged 30–35 years at childbirth also displayed improved HOMA-IR insulin sensitivity (p?=?0.010) compared to girls born to mothers aged <30 years. Conclusions Increasing maternal age at childbirth is associated with a more favourable phenotype (taller stature and reduced abdominal fat) in their children, as well as improved insulin sensitivity in girls. PMID:23527040

Savage, Tim; Derraik, Jose G. B.; Miles, Harriet L.; Mouat, Fran; Hofman, Paul L.; Cutfield, Wayne S.

2013-01-01

38

Migration and maternity in the age of superdiversity.  

PubMed

The UK has entered an era of superdiversity with our communities being more diverse than ever before. Migration has contributed to rising birth rates, and poor birth outcomes have been increasingly associated with ethnicity, often in areas with high concentrations of migrants. This article sets out the findings of a study looking at the maternity needs and experiences of migrant women and professionals living in the West Midlands. The study found that migrant women tended to book late or drop out of the maternity system due to a range of barriers including lack of understanding of the system, lack of information, poor language skills and poverty. Migrant women often had negative birth experiences and did not receive the follow on care they needed. Professionals recognised many of the problems migrant women experienced but lacked the time and resources to meet needs. The article concludes by recognising that additional training and time are needed to help professionals to address those needs and signposts the reader to good practice. PMID:22324128

Newall, Dave; Phillimore, Jenny; Sharpe, Hilary

2012-01-01

39

New Findings for Maternal Mortality Age Patterns: Aggregated Results for 38 Countries  

PubMed Central

Background With recent results showing a global decline in overall maternal mortality during the last two decades and with the target date for achieving the Millennium Development Goals only four years away, the question of how to continue or even accelerate the decline has become more pressing. By knowing where the risk is highest as well as where the numbers of deaths are greatest, it may be possible to re-direct resources and fine-tune strategies for greater effectiveness in efforts to reduce maternal mortality. Methods We aggregate data from 38 Demographic and Health Surveys that included a maternal mortality module and were conducted in 2000 or later to produce maternal mortality ratios, rates, and numbers of deaths by five year age groups, separately by residence, region, and overall mortality level. Findings The age pattern of maternal mortality is broadly similar across regions, type of place of residence, and overall level of maternal mortality. A “J” shaped curve, with markedly higher risk after age 30, is evident in all groups. We find that the excess risk among adolescents is of a much lower magnitude than is generally assumed. The oldest age groups appear to be especially resistant to change. We also find evidence of extremely elevated risk among older mothers in countries with high levels of HIV prevalence. Conclusions The largest number of deaths occurs in the age groups from 20-34, largely because those are the ages at which women are most likely to give birth so efforts directed at this group would most effectively reduce the number of deaths. Yet equity considerations suggest that efforts also be directed toward those most at risk, i.e., older women and adolescents. Because women are at risk each time they become pregnant, fulfilling the substantial unmet need for contraception is a cross-cutting strategy that can address both effectiveness and equity concerns. PMID:23613716

Blanc, Ann K.; Winfrey, William; Ross, John

2013-01-01

40

Fetal Exposure to Maternal Type 1 Diabetes Is Associated With Renal Dysfunction at Adult Age  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE In animal studies, hyperglycemia during fetal development reduces nephron numbers. We tested whether this observation translates into renal dysfunction in humans by studying renal functional reserve in adult offspring exposed in utero to maternal type 1 diabetes. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS We compared 19 nondiabetic offspring of type 1 diabetic mothers with 18 offspring of type 1 diabetic fathers (control subjects). Glomerular filtration rate (51Cr-EDTA clearance), effective renal plasma flow (123I-hippurate clearance), mean arterial pressure, and renal vascular resistances were measured at baseline and during amino acid infusion, which mobilizes renal functional reserve. RESULTS Offspring of type 1 diabetic mothers were similar to control subjects for age (median 27, range 18–41, years), sex, BMI (23.1 ± 3.7 kg/m2), and birth weight (3,288 ± 550 vs. 3,440 ± 489 g). During amino acid infusion, glomerular filtration rate and effective renal plasma flow increased less in offspring of type 1 diabetic mothers than in control subjects: from 103 ± 14 to 111 ± 17 ml/min (8 ± 13%) vs. from 108 ± 17 to 128 ± 23 ml/min (19 ± 7%, P = 0.009) and from 509 ± 58 to 536 ± 80 ml/min (5 ± 9%) vs. from 536 ± 114 to 620 ± 140 ml/min (16 ± 11%, P = 0.0035). Mean arterial pressure and renal vascular resistances declined less than in control subjects: 2 ± 5 vs. ?2 ± 3% (P = 0.019) and 3 ± 9 vs. ?14 ± 8% (P = 0.001). CONCLUSIONS Reduced functional reserve may reflect a reduced number of nephrons undergoing individual hyperfiltration. If so, offspring of type 1 diabetic mothers may be predisposed to glomerular and vascular diseases. PMID:20622173

Khalil, Charbel Abi; Travert, Florence; Fetita, Sabrina; Rouzet, Francois; Porcher, Raphael; Riveline, Jean-Pierre; Hadjadj, Samy; Larger, Etienne; Roussel, Ronan; Vexiau, Patrick; Le Guludec, Dominique; Gautier, Jean-Francois; Marre, Michel

2010-01-01

41

Obstetric Complications, Neonatal Morbidity, and Indications for Cesarean Delivery by Maternal Age  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE To delineate adverse obstetric and neonatal outcomes as well as indications for cesarean delivery by maternal age in a contemporaneous large national cohort. METHODS This was a retrospective analysis of electronic medical records from 12 centers and 203,517 (30,673 women aged 35 years or older) women with singleton gestations stratified by maternal age. Logistic regression was performed to investigate maternal and neonatal outcomes for each maternal age strata (referent group, age 25.0–29.9 years), adjusting for race, parity, body mass index, insurance, pre-existing medical conditions, substance and tobacco use, and site. Documented indications for cesarean delivery were analyzed. RESULTS Neonates born to women aged 25.0–29.9 years had the lowest risk of birth weight less than 2,500 g (7.2%; P<.001), admission to neonatal intensive care unit (11.5%; P<.001), and perinatal mortality (0.7%; P<.001). Hypertensive disorders of pregnancy were higher in women aged 35 years or older (cumulative rate 8.5% compared with 7.8%; 25.0–29.9 years; P<.001). Previous uterine scar was the leading indication for cesarean delivery in women aged 25.0 years or older (36.9%; P<.001). For younger women, failure to progress or cephalopelvic disproportion (37.0% for those younger than age 20.0 years and 31.1% for those aged 20.0– 24.9-years; P<.001) and nonreassuring fetal heart tracing (28.7% for those younger than 20.0 years and 21.2% for those aged 20.0–24.9-years; P<.001) predominated as indications. Truly elective cesarean delivery rate was 20.2% for women aged 45.0 years or older (adjusted odds ratio 1.85 [99% confidence interval 1.03–3.32] compared with the referent age group of 25.0–29.9 years). CONCLUSIONS Maternal and obstetric complications differed by maternal age, as did rates of elective cesarean delivery. Women aged 25.0–29.9 years had the lowest rate of serious neonatal morbidity. PMID:24201681

Timofeev, Julia; Reddy, Uma M.; Huang, Chun-Chih; Driggers, Rita W.; Landy, Helain J.; Laughon, S. Katherine

2014-01-01

42

Prenatal and postnatal maternal mental health and school-age child development: a systematic review.  

PubMed

One in six children entering school experiences developmental delay. Maternal mental health represents one of the earliest, modifiable influences in a child's life. The objective of the review was to evaluate the association between maternal mental health and school-age child development, and we hypothesized there would be a negative association. Five databases were searched (Embase, CINAHL, Eric, PsycInfo, Medline). Key journals and reference lists were hand-searched. Two reviewers assessed studies based on inclusion criteria: (1) the exposure was any form of maternal mental health occurring during pregnancy or postpartum periods; (2) the outcome was child development (>48 months to 8 years); (3) the study recruited participants from developed countries; and (4) publication was in English between January, 1990 and December, 2012. Disagreements were resolved by consensus. Study quality was assessed by two reviewers using the Scottish Intercollegiate Guideline Network and disagreements were resolved by consensus. Data extraction was conducted by one reviewer using standardized forms. Maternal mental health problems in pregnancy and/or the postpartum period increased the likelihood that school-age children experienced suboptimal global, behavioral, cognitive, and socio-emotional development. The findings highlight the need for maternal mental health assessment during the prenatal, postnatal, and early childhood periods. PMID:24352625

Kingston, Dawn; Tough, Suzanne

2014-09-01

43

Maternal Effects Underlie Ageing Costs of Growth in the Zebra Finch (Taeniopygia guttata)  

PubMed Central

Maternal effects provide a mechanism to adapt offspring phenotype and optimize the mother’s fitness to current environmental conditions. Transferring steroids to the yolk is one way mothers can translate environmental information into potential adaptive signals for offspring. However, maternally-derived hormones might also have adverse effects for offspring. For example, recent data in zebra finch chicks suggested that ageing related-processes (i.e. oxidative stress and telomere loss) were increased after egg-injection of corticosterone (CORT). Still, we have few experimental data describing the effect of maternal effects on the growth-ageing trade-off in offspring. Here, we chronically treated pre-laying zebra finch females (Taeniopygia guttata) with 17-?-estradiol (E2) or CORT, and followed offspring growth and cellular ageing rates (oxidative stress and telomere loss). CORT treatment decreased growth rate in male chicks and increased rate of telomere loss in mothers and female offspring. E2 increased body mass gain in male offspring, while reducing oxidative stress in both sexes but without affecting telomere loss. Since shorter telomeres were previously found to be a proxy of individual lifespan in zebra finches, maternal effects may, through pleiotropic effects, be important determinants of offspring life-expectancy by modulating ageing rate during embryo and post-natal growth. PMID:24828412

Tissier, Mathilde L.; Williams, Tony D.; Criscuolo, Francois

2014-01-01

44

Maternal Age and Depressive Symptoms in a Low-Income Sample  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this study, depressive symptoms of 2,011 European-American, African-American, and Latina low-income mothers at approximately 14 months after birth of the child were examined. Maternal age was used as a predictor of depressive symptoms. Overall, 31.9% of mothers were classified as depressed using the Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression…

Eshbaugh, Elaine M.

2008-01-01

45

Maternal Effects Underlie Ageing Costs of Growth in the Zebra Finch (Taeniopygia guttata)  

E-print Network

increased body mass gain in male offspring, while reducing oxidative stress in both sexes but without, affecting final body size in all organisms and can affect subsequent fitness, e.g. through effects on sizeMaternal Effects Underlie Ageing Costs of Growth in the Zebra Finch (Taeniopygia guttata) Mathilde

Boyer, Edmond

46

Advancing Maternal Age Is Associated with Increasing Risk for Autism: A Review and Meta-Analysis  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: We conducted a meta-analysis of epidemiological studies investigating the association between maternal age and autism. Method: Using recommended guidelines for performing meta-analyses, we systematically selected, and extracted results from, epidemiological scientific studies reported before January 2012. We calculated pooled risk…

Sandin, Sven; Hultman, Christina M.; Kolevzon, Alexander; Gross, Raz; MacCabe, James H.; Reichenberg, Abraham

2012-01-01

47

Effects of Maternal Education, Age, and Parity of Fatal Infant Accidents.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Analysis of computerized linked birth and death record information found that maternal age and education are inversely related to infant mortality, while mother's parity is directly related. Accident mortality rate differentials by educational level were more evident for certain categories of accident (suffocation, death by fire). (Author/GC)

Wicklund, Kristine; And Others

1984-01-01

48

Offspring sex ratio in relation to maternal age and social rank in mountain goats ( Oreamnos americanus )  

Microsoft Academic Search

In polygynous mammals, high-quality females may increase their fitness by producing a high proportion of sons. During a 9-year study of marked mountain goats (Oreamnos americanus), we assessed the relative effects of maternal age, social rank and reproductive status on offspring sex ratio. The sex ratio of kids in the population did not differ from unity (75 males, 85 females).

Steeve D. Côté; Marco Festa-Bianchet

2001-01-01

49

Maternal Serum Caffeine Metabolites and Small-for-Gestational Age Birth  

Microsoft Academic Search

To determine whether the third-trimester maternal serum concentration of paraxanthine, caffeine's primary metabolite, is associated with delivery of a small-for-gestational age infant (birth weight less than the 10th percentile for gestational age, gender, and ethnicity) and whether this association differs by smoking, the authors studied 2,515 women who participated in the Collaborative Perinatal Project from 1959 to 1966. The women

Mark A. Klebanoff; Richard J. Levine; John D. Clemens; Diana G. Wilkins

50

Effects of maternal and paternal age on Caucasian and Native American preterm births and birth weights.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to compare the effects of maternal and paternal age on Native American and Caucasian infants. Data were abstracted from birth records compiled in North Dakota from 1978 to 1992. Native Americans had a 45% higher risk for preterm births, a 140% higher risk for low birth weight (LBW) (<2500 g), and a 131% higher risk for very LBW (<1500 g) compared with Caucasians. Maternal and paternal age both had a "U-shaped" effect on preterm birth. However, while the risk for preterm birth was increased for both teenage mothers and fathers, the risk was also significantly increased only for mothers between the ages of 36-40 and 41-45. There was also a "U-shaped" relationship between LBW and parental age, and again the risk was statistically significant for different age groups. For mothers, the risk was decreased significantly for those 26 to 30 years of age, whereas for fathers, it was increased significantly for those <20 years of age. There was also a significant interaction between paternal age and race, with teenage Native American fathers having a slight (4%), but statistically significant, increased risk for having LBW children compared with teenage Caucasian fathers. The relationship between parental age and very LBW was also "U-shaped," but while the odds ratios for each maternal age group were significant, none of the odds ratios for any of the paternal age groups was statistically significant. The influence of teenage fathers on preterm and LBWs has not been previously reported, and the finding that paternal age has a greater influence among Native Americans is especially intriguing and deserving of further investigation. PMID:11857096

Abel, Ernest L; Kruger, Michael; Burd, Larry

2002-01-01

51

Maternal age effect on mouse oocytes: new biological insight from proteomic analysis.  

PubMed

The long-standing view of 'immortal germline vs mortal soma' poses a fundamental question in biology concerning how oocytes age in molecular terms. A mainstream hypothesis is that maternal ageing of oocytes has its roots in gene transcription. Investigating the proteins resulting from mRNA translation would reveal how far the levels of functionally available proteins correlate with mRNAs and would offer novel insights into the changes oocytes undergo during maternal ageing. Gene ontology (GO) semantic analysis revealed a high similarity of the detected proteome (2324 proteins) to the transcriptome (22?334 mRNAs), although not all proteins had a cognate mRNA. Concerning their dynamics, fourfold changes of abundance were more frequent in the proteome (3%) than the transcriptome (0.05%), with no correlation. Whereas proteins associated with the nucleus (e.g. structural maintenance of chromosomes and spindle-assembly checkpoints) were largely represented among those that change in oocytes during maternal ageing; proteins associated with oxidative stress/damage (e.g. superoxide dismutase) were infrequent. These quantitative alterations are either impoverishing or enriching. Using GO analysis, these alterations do not relate in any simple way to the classic signature of ageing known from somatic tissues. Given the lack of correlation, we conclude that proteome analysis of mouse oocytes may not be surrogated with transcriptome analysis. Furthermore, we conclude that the classic features of ageing may not be transposed from somatic tissues to oocytes in a one-to-one fashion. Overall, there is more to the maternal ageing of oocytes than mere cellular deterioration exemplified by the notorious increase of meiotic aneuploidy. PMID:24686459

Schwarzer, Caroline; Siatkowski, Marcin; Pfeiffer, Martin J; Baeumer, Nicole; Drexler, Hannes C A; Wang, Bingyuan; Fuellen, Georg; Boiani, Michele

2014-07-01

52

Human uterine lower segment myometrial cell and nuclear volume at term: influence of maternal age.  

PubMed

Little is known about the cytoarchitecture of human myometrial cells in pregnancy, and whether or not this may be influenced by maternal characteristics such as age, parity and body mass index (BMI). The aim of this study was primarily to evaluate human myometrial smooth muscle cell (SMC) and nuclear volume in the third trimester of human pregnancy, and secondarily to investigate if these parameters are altered in relation to the maternal characteristics outlined above. Myometrial biopsies were obtained from 30 women undergoing elective caesarean delivery at term. One-micrometer sections were prepared for light microscopy and 100-nm sections for electron microscopy. The nucleator technique was used to assess nuclear volume from the light microscopy images. Point-counting methodology was used on transmission electron micrographs to assess the percentage of the cell volume occupied by the nucleus. Cell volume was calculated from these measurements. The euchromatin to heterochromatin (Eu/Het) ratio was determined to ascertain whether differences in nuclear volume were due to an increased range of genes being transcribed. The mean (±?SEM) nuclear volume was 175?±?10??m(3) , the nucleus occupied 1.5?±?0.1% of the SMC and the mean cell size was 14?047?±?1352??m(3) . The Eu/Het ratio was 7.54?±?0.4. The mean volume of heterochromatin and euchromatin in the nucleus was 21.5?±?1.7 and 149?±?9??m(3) , respectively. A multivariate regression analysis revealed that advanced maternal age was associated with an increase in the percentage of the cell occupied by nucleus (R(2) ?=?0.32, P?=?0.004). There were no other significant effects of maternal age, BMI or parity on the measured parameters. These findings provide reliable volumes for human myometrial cells and their nuclei at term gestation, and show that nuclear volume fraction may be influenced by maternal age. PMID:25265023

Sweeney, Eva M; Dockery, Peter; Crankshaw, Denis J; O'Brien, Yvonne M; Walsh, Jennifer M; Morrison, John J

2014-12-01

53

Age and group residence but not maternal dominance affect dominance rank in young domestic horses.  

PubMed

We present a study focused on those factors influencing dominance position in young horses, with emphasis on the role of the mother. Horses, as other group-living polygynous mammals, form stable linear dominance hierarchies based on agonistic interactions. Higher dominance positions are believed to be connected, in both sexes, to better condition and higher reproductive success. Many variables play a role in forming the dominant-submissive relationships between horses; however, the maternal effect on the dominance position of the offspring still remains unclear, as do the possible mechanisms of transference ("inheritance"). We hypothesized that the maternal dominance position, plus differences in suckling parameters or maternal style, may be responsible for later outcome of the offspring's dominance position, characterized by 2 variables: index of fighting success (CB); and rate of winning encounters (RW). Our study animals were 8 groups of Kladruby horses, loose-housed lactating mares with foals (n = 66 mare-foal pairs); and subsequently 4 groups of the same foals at 3 yr of age. Our results revealed the impact of age on the dominance position of the young horses (P < 0.001 for CB, and P < 0.01 for RW), and residence in the group (P < 0.01, P < 0.01, respectively); not the maternal dominance position. Older foals reached higher dominance positions, independent of the dominance position, age, or experience of the mother; therefore, we did not find support for direct inheritance of maternal rank. Nevertheless, the foals born to the same mare in 2 consecutive seasons (n = 16 mares) revealed fair repeatability in the dominance position they obtained at 3 yr of age (intraclass correlation coefficient = 0.46). This suggests an important constant effect of the mother on the social success of her progeny; however, we did not find a significant effect of any of the tested variables describing maternal characteristics or maternal care. Dominance position depended significantly on the foal's age at observation, and the residence in the herd formed via sequential introducing of later-weaned groups of foals. The most dominant horses were mainly recruited from the first-weaned group of the season, and thus were also the oldest individuals in the herd. Further research is needed to discover the role of foal personality and mare style, and their links to possible dominance behaviors in a herd. PMID:25253810

Komárková, M; Bartošová, J; Dubcová, J

2014-11-01

54

Human Prenatal Investment Affected by Maternal Age and Parity  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper investigates the effects of mother's age and parity on the prenatal allocation of resources in sons and daughters using a sample of 6994 in 20- to 34-year-old mothers from Granada (Spain). This study tests the Trivers–Willard allocation model, which predicts that, depending on the mother's condition, there can be a bias from 50\\/50 expected investment in the sexes.

Francisco Braza

2004-01-01

55

Maternal serum caffeine metabolites and small-for-gestational age birth.  

PubMed

To determine whether the third-trimester maternal serum concentration of paraxanthine, caffeine's primary metabolite, is associated with delivery of a small-for-gestational age infant (birth weight less than the 10th percentile for gestational age, gender, and ethnicity) and whether this association differs by smoking, the authors studied 2,515 women who participated in the Collaborative Perinatal Project from 1959 to 1966. The women provided a third-trimester serum sample and had been controls for a nested case-control study of spontaneous abortion. The mean serum paraxanthine concentration was greater in women who gave birth to small-for-gestational age infants (754 ng/ml) than to appropriately grown infants (653 ng/ml, p = 0.02). However, the linear trend for increasing serum paraxanthine concentration to be associated with increasing risk of small-for-gestational age birth was confined to women who also smoked (p = 0.03). There was no association between paraxanthine and fetal growth in nonsmokers (p = 0.48). Adjustment for maternal age, pre-pregnant weight, education, parity, ethnicity, and the number of cigarettes smoked per day did not alter the results substantially, although the p value for trend among smokers increased to 0.07. The authors conclude that maternal third-trimester serum paraxanthine concentration, which reflects caffeine consumption, was associated with a higher risk of reduced fetal growth, particularly among women who smoked. PMID:11772782

Klebanoff, Mark A; Levine, Richard J; Clemens, John D; Wilkins, Diana G

2002-01-01

56

Age Affects the Expression of Maternal Care and Subsequent Behavioural Development of Offspring in a Precocial Bird  

PubMed Central

Variations of breeding success with age have been studied largely in iteroparous species and particularly in birds: survival of offspring increases with parental age until senescence. Nevertheless, these results are from observations of free-living individuals and therefore, it remains impossible to determine whether these variations result from parental investment or efficiency or both, and whether these variations occur during the prenatal or the postnatal stage or during both. Our study aimed first, to determine whether age had an impact on the expression of maternal breeding care by comparing inexperienced female birds of two different ages, and second, to define how these potential differences impact chicks’ growth and behavioural development. We made 22 2-month-old and 22 8-month-old female Japanese quail foster 1-day-old chicks. We observed their maternal behaviour until the chicks were 11 days old and then tested these chicks after separation from their mothers. Several behavioural tests estimated their fearfulness and their sociality. We observed first that a longer induction was required for young females to express maternal behaviour. Subsequently as many young females as elder females expressed maternal behaviour, but young females warmed chicks less, expressed less covering postures and rejected their chicks more. Chicks brooded by elder females presented higher growth rates and more fearfulness and sociality. Our results reveal that maternal investment increased with age independently of maternal experience, suggesting modification of hormone levels implied in maternal behaviour. Isolated effects of maternal experience should now be assessed in females of the same age. In addition, our results show, for first time in birds, that variations in maternal care directly induce important differences in the behavioural development of chicks. Finally, our results confirm that Japanese quail remains a great laboratory model of avian maternal behaviour and that the way we sample maternal behaviour is highly productive. PMID:22701515

Pittet, Florent; Coignard, Maud; Houdelier, Cecilia; Richard-Yris, Marie-Annick; Lumineau, Sophie

2012-01-01

57

Maternal support in early childhood predicts larger hippocampal volumes at school age  

PubMed Central

Early maternal support has been shown to promote specific gene expression, neurogenesis, adaptive stress responses, and larger hippocampal volumes in developing animals. In humans, a relationship between psychosocial factors in early childhood and later amygdala volumes based on prospective data has been demonstrated, providing a key link between early experience and brain development. Although much retrospective data suggests a link between early psychosocial factors and hippocampal volumes in humans, to date there has been no prospective data to inform this potentially important public health issue. In a longitudinal study of depressed and healthy preschool children who underwent neuroimaging at school age, we investigated whether early maternal support predicted later hippocampal volumes. Maternal support observed in early childhood was strongly predictive of hippocampal volume measured at school age. The positive effect of maternal support on hippocampal volumes was greater in nondepressed children. These findings provide prospective evidence in humans of the positive effect of early supportive parenting on healthy hippocampal development, a brain region key to memory and stress modulation. PMID:22308421

Luby, Joan L.; Barch, Deanna M.; Belden, Andy; Gaffrey, Michael S.; Tillman, Rebecca; Babb, Casey; Nishino, Tomoyuki; Suzuki, Hideo; Botteron, Kelly N.

2012-01-01

58

Behavior problems at 5 years of age and maternal mental health in autism and intellectual disability.  

PubMed

We examined child behavior problems and maternal mental health in a British population-representative sample of 5 year-old children with an autism spectrum disorder (ASD), controlling for the presence of an intellectual disability (ID). Behavior problems were significantly higher in children with ASD with/out ID compared to typically developing children, but compared to children with ID only hyperactivity was significantly higher in children with ASD/ID. After controlling for ID and maternal mental health, the presence of ASD significantly increased the odds for hyperactivity, conduct problems and emotional symptoms. Negative maternal outcomes (serious mental illness, psychological distress, and physical health limitations) were not consistently elevated in ASD. The findings highlight the early age at which behavior problems emerge in ASD, and suggest that at this age , there may not be a clear disadvantage for maternal mental health associated with having a child with ASD in the family, over and above that conferred by child behavior problems. PMID:21710136

Totsika, Vasiliki; Hastings, Richard P; Emerson, Eric; Berridge, Damon M; Lancaster, Gillian A

2011-11-01

59

Aneuploidy involving chromosome 1 in failed-fertilized human oocytes is unrelated to maternal age  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: To study whether maternal meiotic errors in failed-fertilized oocytes involving chromosome 1 occur at frequencies similar to those involving other autosomes, and whether their frequency is affected by maternal age. Methods: Using fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH), frequencies of aneusomy and chromatid pre-division involving chromosomes 1, 16, 18, and 21 were determined for 273 failed-fertilized oocytes. Results: The aneuploidy rate for chromosome 1 was 15.8 percent, and was neither age-dependent nor significantly different from that for chromosomes 16,18 or 21. Only chromosome 16 exhibited an age-dependent increase in aneusomy rates. The frequency of chromatid pre-division was lower for chromosome 1 than for chromosome 18 (11.9 percent vs. 25.4 percent; P=0.01), but not different from that for chromosomes 16 or 21. Conclusion: Aneuploidy involving chromosome 1 in failed-fertilized oocytes is unrelated to maternal age and occurs at a frequency similar to that for chromosomes 16, 18 and 21.

Weier, Jingly Fung; Weier, Heinz-Ulrich G.; Nureddin, Aida.; Pedersen, Roger A.; Racowsky, Catherine

2004-12-04

60

The risks and outcome of pregnancy in an advanced maternal age in oocyte donation cycles.  

PubMed

Abstract The maternal age at the first and repeated deliveries constantly rises in developed countries due to current social trends that favor values of personal achievements upon procreation. Assisted reproduction technologies and especially the availability of oocyte donation programs extend the age of fecundity to the fifth and sixth decades of life. The ability to conceive and deliver at such age raises serious medical, moral, social and legal concerns regarding the health and welfare of the mother and child will be presented and discussed here. PMID:24299057

Shufaro, Yoel; Schenker, Joseph G

2014-11-01

61

Median Stabilization Degree of a Median Algebra.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The median stabilization degree (msd, for short) of a median algebra measures the largest possible number of steps needed to generate a subalgebra with an arbitrary set of generators. The authors determine the value of msd of a graphic n-cube Q(sub n) and...

H. J. Bandelt, M. van de Vel

1992-01-01

62

Advanced Maternal Age and Adverse Pregnancy Outcome: Evidence from a Large Contemporary Cohort  

PubMed Central

Background Recent decades have witnessed an increase in mean maternal age at childbirth in most high-resourced countries. Advanced maternal age has been associated with several adverse maternal and perinatal outcomes. Although there are many studies on this topic, data from large contemporary population-based cohorts that controls for demographic variables known to influence perinatal outcomes is limited. Methods We performed a population-based cohort study using data on all singleton births in 2004–2008 from the North Western Perinatal Survey based at The University of Manchester, UK. We compared pregnancy outcomes in women aged 30–34, 35–39 and ?40 years with women aged 20–29 years using log-linear binomial regression. Models were adjusted for parity, ethnicity, social deprivation score and body mass index. Results The final study cohort consisted of 215,344 births; 122,307 mothers (54.19%) were aged 20–29 years, 62,371(27.63%) were aged 30–34 years, 33,966(15.05%) were aged 35–39 years and 7,066(3.13%) were aged ?40 years. Women aged 40+ at delivery were at increased risk of stillbirth (RR?=?1.83, [95% CI 1.37–2.43]), pre-term (RR?=?1.25, [95% CI: 1.14–1.36]) and very pre-term birth (RR?=?1.29, [95% CI:1.08–1.55]), Macrosomia (RR?=?1.31, [95% CI: 1.12–1.54]), extremely large for gestational age (RR?=?1.40, [95% CI: 1.25–1.58]) and Caesarean delivery (RR?=?1.83, [95% CI: 1.77–1.90]). Conclusions Advanced maternal age is associated with a range of adverse pregnancy outcomes. These risks are independent of parity and remain after adjusting for the ameliorating effects of higher socioeconomic status. The data from this large contemporary cohort will be of interest to healthcare providers and women and will facilitate evidence based counselling of older expectant mothers. PMID:23437176

Kenny, Louise C.; Lavender, Tina; McNamee, Roseanne; O'Neill, Sinead M.; Mills, Tracey; Khashan, Ali S.

2013-01-01

63

Maternal Weight Gain During Pregnancy and Child Weight at Age 3 Years  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives To determine the importance of pregnancy weight gain as a predictor of overweight (Body Mass Index [BMI] >85th percentile)\\u000a in offspring at age 3 years and if its influence varies by maternal BMI. Methods Chi-square and logistic regression analyses were conducted on a sample of 208 mother-child pairs from an earlier observational\\u000a cohort study on postpartum weight retention. Results In the

Christine M. Olson; Myla S. Strawderman; Barbara A. Dennison

2009-01-01

64

Black-White Differences in Maternal Age, Maternal Birth Cohort, and Period Effects on Infant Mortality in the U.S. (1983-2002)1  

PubMed Central

We investigate three interrelated sources of change in infant mortality rates over a 20 year period using the National Center for Health Statistics (NCHS) linked birth and infant death cohort files. The effects of maternal age, maternal birth cohort, and time period of childbirth on infant mortality are estimated using a modified age/period/cohort (APC) model that identifies age, period, cohort effects. We document black-white differences in the patterning of these effects and find that maternal age effects follow the predictable U-shaped pattern, net of period and cohort, but with a less steep gradient in the black population. The largest relative maternal age-specific disparity in IMR occurs among older African American mothers. Cohort effects, while considerably smaller than age and period effects, present an interesting pattern of a modest decline in IMR among later cohorts of African American mothers coupled with an increasing IMR among the same cohorts of non-Hispanic whites. However, period effects dominate the time trends, implying that period-related technologies overwhelmingly shape U.S. infant survival in today’s population. These general findings are mirrored in APC analyses carried out for several leading underlying causes of infant mortality. PMID:23721672

Powers, Daniel A.

2013-01-01

65

Developmental Defects of the Thyroid Gland: Relationship with Advanced Maternal Age  

PubMed Central

Objective: Developmental defects of the thyroid gland are the most frequent causes of permanent congenital hypothyroidism. This study aimed to investigate the epidemiological features of patients with thyroid dysgenesis (TD). Methods: Medical records of 234 patients with TD followed between the years 2008 and 2010 were evaluated retrospectively. Diagnosis was made by ultrasonography. Results: Of 234 patients, 120 (51.3%) were male and 114 (48.7%) were female. Male to female ratio was 1.08 and there were no significant differences in epidemiologic and clinical findings between girls and boys. One hundred eighty-three patients (78.2%) were diagnosed as hypoplasia, 35 (14.9%) as thyroid agenesis, 4 as ectopic thyroid gland and 12 as hemiagenesis. The mean maternal age of the group was 28.9±0.4 years (range 18 to 45 years), which is significantly higher than the recently reported mean maternal ages for Turkish women. Conclusions: Advanced maternal age was more prevalent in patients with TD. Our clinical and epidemiologic findings suggested no evidence of sexual dimorphism. Conflict of interest:None declared. PMID:22672863

Guven, Ayla; Y?ld?z, Metin; Cebeci, Ayse Nurcan; Dursun, Fatma

2012-01-01

66

Potential Gains in Reproductive-Aged Life Expectancy by Eliminating Maternal Mortality: A Demographic Bonus of Achieving MDG 5  

PubMed Central

Objective We assessed the change over time in the contribution of maternal mortality to a life expectancy calculated between ages 15 and 49, or Reproductive-Aged Life Expectancy (RALE). Our goal was to estimate the increase in RALE in developed countries over the twentieth century and the hypothetical gains in African countries today by eliminating maternal mortality. Methods Analogous to life expectancy, RALE is calculated from a life table of ages 15 to 49. Specifically, RALE is the average number of years that women at age 15 would be expected to live between 15 and 49 with current mortality rates. Associated single decrement life tables of causes of death other than maternal mortality are explored to assess the possible gains in RALE by reducing or eliminating maternal mortality. We used population-based data from the Human Mortality Database and the Demographic and Health Surveys. Findings In developed countries, five years in RALE were gained over the twentieth century, of which approximately 10%, or half a year, was attributable to reductions in maternal mortality. In sub-Saharan African countries, the possible achievable gains fluctuate between 0.24 and 1.47 years, or 6% and 44% of potential gains in RALE. Conclusions Maternal mortality is a rare event, yet it is still a very important component of RALE. Averting the burden of maternal deaths could return a significant increase in the most productive ages of human life. PMID:24551040

Canudas-Romo, Vladimir; Liu, Li; Zimmerman, Linnea; Ahmed, Saifuddin; Tsui, Amy

2014-01-01

67

Maternal iron intake and iron status during pregnancy and child blood pressure at age 3 years  

PubMed Central

Background Animal data suggest that maternal iron deficiency during pregnancy leads to lower birth weight and sustained blood pressure elevation in the offspring. In humans, iron deficiency during pregnancy is common and is associated with adverse birth outcomes such as low birth weight. Data are lacking, however, regarding the effects of maternal iron intake and iron status during pregnancy on offspring blood pressure. Our aim was to examine the extent to which lower maternal iron intake, haemoglobin level and mean cell volume (MCV) during pregnancy are associated with higher child systolic blood pressure (SBP) at age 3 years. Methods We studied 1167 participants in Project Viva, a longitudinal cohort study of pregnant women and their children. We estimated first and second trimester maternal iron intake from food frequency questionnaires. We used an electronic laboratory database to identify haemoglobin and MCV levels in pregnancy. We measured child BP up to five times with a Dinamap and used mixed-effects regression models in our analysis. Results Mean (SD) child SBP at 3 years was 92.0 (9.9) mmHg. Adjusting for confounders, for each 10 mg increase in first trimester iron intake, child SBP was not lower, but was in fact 0.4 mmHg higher (95% CI 0.1, 0.7). For second trimester iron intake, and for first or second trimester haemoglobin and MCV levels, we did not find any appreciable association with 3 year SBP. Conclusions In contrast to animal studies, we did not find that lower maternal iron status during pregnancy was associated with higher offspring BP. PMID:18263646

Belfort, Mandy B; Rifas-Shiman, Sheryl L; Rich-Edwards, Janet W; Kleinman, Ken P; Oken, Emily; Gillman, Matthew W

2008-01-01

68

Effect of birth weight, maternal education and prenatal smoking on offspring intelligence at school age.  

PubMed

To examine the combined effect of birth weight, mothers' education and prenatal smoking on psychometrically measured intelligence at school age 1,822 children born in 1992-1999 and attending the first six grades from 45 schools representing all of the fifteen Estonian counties with information on birth weight, gestational age and mother's age, marital status, education, parity and smoking in pregnancy, and intelligence tests were studied. The scores of Raven's Standard Progressive Matrices were related to the birth weight: in the normal range of birth weight (>or=2500 g) every 500 g increase in birth weight was accompanied by around 0.7-point increase in IQ scores. A strong association between birth weight and IQ remained even if gestational age and mother's age, marital status, education, place of residence, parity and smoking during pregnancy have been taken into account. Maternal prenatal smoking was accompanied by a 3.3-point deficit in children's intellectual abilities. Marriage and mother's education had an independent positive correlation with offspring intelligence. We concluded that the statistical effect of birth weight, maternal education and smoking in pregnancy on offspring's IQ scores was remarkable and remained even if other factors have been taken into account. PMID:20634008

Rahu, Kaja; Rahu, Mati; Pullmann, Helle; Allik, Jüri

2010-08-01

69

Association between nondisjunction and maternal age in meiosis-II human oocytes  

SciTech Connect

The relationship between advanced maternal age and increased risk of trisomic offspring is well know clinically but not clearly understood at the level of the oocyte. A total of 383 oocytes that failed fertilization from 107 patients undergoing in vitro fertilization were analyzed by FISH using X-, 18-, and 13/21-chromosome probes simultaneously. The corresponding polar bodies were also analyzed in 188 of these oocytes. The chromosomes in the oocyte and first polar body complement each other and provide an internal control to differentiate between aneuploidy and technical errors. Two mechanisms of nondisjunction were determined. First, nondisjunction of bivalent chromosomes resulting in two univalents going to the same pole and, second, nondisjunction by premature chromatid separation (predivision) of univalent chromsomes producing either a balanced (2 + 2) or unbalanced (3 + 1) distribution of chromatids into the first polar body and M-II oocytes. Balanced predivision of chromatids, previously proposed as a major mechanism of aneuploidy, was found to increase significantly with time in culture (P < .005), which suggests that this phenomenon should be interpreted carefully. Unbalanced predivision and classical nondisjunction were unaffected by oocyte aging. In comparing oocytes from women <35 years of age with oocytes from women {ge}40 years of age, a significant increase (P < .001) in nondisjunction of full dyads was found in the oocytes with analyzable polar bodies and no FISH errors. Premature predivision of chromatids was also found to cause nondisjunction, but it did not increase with maternal age. 44 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs.

Dailey, T.; Cohen, J.; Munne, S.; Dale, B.

1996-07-01

70

Schizencephaly: Association With Young Maternal Age, Alcohol Use, and Lack of Prenatal Care  

PubMed Central

Schizencephaly is a rare malformation of cortical development characterized by congenital clefts extending from the pial surface to the lateral ventricle that are lined by heterotopic gray matter. The clinical presentation is variable and can include motor or cognitive impairment and epilepsy. The causes of schizencephaly are heterogeneous and can include teratogens, prenatal infection, or maternal trauma. Reported genetic causes include chromosomal aneuploidy, EMX2 mutations, and possible autosomal recessive familial cases based on recurrence in siblings. In an effort to identify risk factors for schizencephaly, we conducted a survey of 48 parents or primary caretakers of patients with schizencephaly born between 1983 and 2004. We discovered that young maternal age, lack of prenatal care, and alcohol use were all significantly associated with risk of schizencephaly. Our results suggest that there are important nongenetic, intrauterine events that predispose to schizencephaly. PMID:23266945

Dies, Kira A.; Bodell, Adria; Hisama, Fuki M.; Guo, Chao-Yu; Barry, Brenda; Chang, Bernard S.; Barkovich, A. James; Walsh, Christopher A.

2013-01-01

71

Maternal urine ?-core hCG fragment level and small for gestational age neonates  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To determine whether second-trimester urine ?-core fragments of hCG predict small for gestational age (SGA) neonates.Methods: Spot urine ?-core levels were measured in 733 nonhypertensive women with singleton pregnancies who presented for amniocentesis and had karyotypically normal fetuses. The ?-core level was standardized to urine creatinine and expressed as multiples of the median. The area under a receiver operating

Ray Bahado-Singh; Utku Oz; Divina Flores; Chaur-Dong Hsu; Giancarlo Mari; Laurence Cole

2000-01-01

72

Prenatal maternal emotional complaints are associated with cortisol responses in toddler and preschool aged girls.  

PubMed

Associations between prenatal maternal emotional complaints and child behavioral and cognitive problems have been reported, with different relations for boys and girls. Fetal programming hypotheses underline these associations and state that the early development of the HPA-axis of the children may have been affected. In the present study, differences in cortisol responses of prenatally exposed and nonexposed children are examined for both sexes separately. Cortisol response patterns of a group preschool aged children that were prenatally exposed to high levels of maternal emotional complaints (N = 51) were compared to a nonexposed group (N = 52). Child saliva was collected at the start of a home visit (T1), 22 min after a mother-child interaction episode (T2), and 22 min after a potentially frustrating task (T3). Repeated measures analyses showed that prenatally exposed girls showed higher cortisol levels across the three episodes compared to nonexposed girls. No differences were found in boys. Maternal prenatal emotional complaints might be related to child HPA-axis functioning differently for boys and girls. PMID:19688770

de Bruijn, Anouk T C E; van Bakel, Hedwig J A; Wijnen, Hennie; Pop, Victor J M; van Baar, Anneloes L

2009-11-01

73

Telomere length is associated with types of chromosome 21 nondisjunction: a new insight into the maternal age effect on Down syndrome birth  

Microsoft Academic Search

Advanced maternal age is a well-documented risk factor of chromosome 21 nondisjunction in humans, but understanding of this\\u000a association at the genetic level is still limited. In particular, the state of maternal genetic age is unclear. In the present\\u000a study, we estimated maternal genetic age by measuring telomere length of peripheral blood lymphocytes among age-matched mothers\\u000a of children with Down

Sujoy Ghosh; Eleanor Feingold; Sumita Chakraborty; Subrata Kumar Dey

2010-01-01

74

Maternal and neonatal outcomes by labor onset type and gestational age  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE We sought to determine maternal and neonatal outcomes by labor onset type and gestational age. STUDY DESIGN We used electronic medical records data from 10 US institutions in the Consortium on Safe Labor on 115,528 deliveries from 2002 through 2008. Deliveries were divided by labor onset type (spontaneous, elective induction, indicated induction, unlabored cesarean). Neonatal and maternal outcomes were calculated by labor onset type and gestational age. RESULTS Neonatal intensive care unit admissions and sepsis improved with each week of gestational age until 39 weeks (P < .001). After adjusting for complications, elective induction of labor was associated with a lower risk of ventilator use (odds ratio [OR], 0.38; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.28 – 0.53), sepsis (OR, 0.36; 95% CI, 0.26 – 0.49), and neonatal intensive care unit admissions (OR, 0.52; 95% CI, 0.48 – 0.57) compared to spontaneous labor. The relative risk of hysterectomy at term was 3.21 (95% CI, 1.08 – 9.54) with elective induction, 1.16 (95% CI, 0.24 – 5.58) with indicated induction, and 6.57 (95% CI, 1.78 – 24.30) with cesarean without labor compared to spontaneous labor. CONCLUSION Some neonatal outcomes improved until 39 weeks. Babies born with elective induction are associated with better neonatal outcomes compared to spontaneous labor. Elective induction may be associated with an increased hysterectomy risk. PMID:20207242

Bailit, Jennifer L.; Gregory, Kimberly D.; Reddy, Uma M.; Gonzalez-Quintero, Victor H.; Hibbard, Judith U.; Ramirez, Mildred M.; Branch, D. Ware; Burkman, Ronald; Haberman, Shoshana; Hatjis, Christos G.; Hoffman, Matthew K.; Kominiarek, Michelle; Landy, Helain J.; Learman, Lee A.; Troendle, James; Van Veldhuisen, Paul; Wilkins, Isabelle; Sun, Liping; Zhang, Jun

2010-01-01

75

The impact of advanced maternal age and parity on obstetric and perinatal outcomes in singleton gestations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective  To investigate the effect of advanced maternal age (AMA) separately in nulliparous and multiparous women on obstetric and\\u000a perinatal outcomes in singleton gestations.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Study design  A historical cohort study on data from 6,619 singleton pregnancies between 2004 and May 2007 was performed. AMA was defined\\u000a as 35 years and older. Obstetric and perinatal outcomes in AMA versus women younger than 35 years (non-AMA)

Yun Wang; Tom Tanbo; Thomas Åbyholm; Tore Henriksen

2011-01-01

76

Maternal intake of methyl-donor nutrients and child cognition at 3 years of age.  

PubMed

Methyl-donor nutrients are substrates for methylation reactions involved in neurodevelopment processes. The role of maternal intake of these nutrients on cognitive performance of the offspring is poorly understood. We examined the associations of maternal intake of folate, vitamin B12, choline, betaine and methionine during the first and second trimesters of pregnancy, with tests of cognitive performance in the offspring at 3 years of age using data from 1210 participants in Project Viva, a prospective pre-birth cohort study in Massachusetts. We assessed nutrient intake with the use of food frequency questionnaires. Children's cognition at age 3 years was evaluated with the Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test III (PPVT-III) and visual-motor skills with the Wide Range Assessment of Visual Motor Abilities test. In multivariable models adjusting for potential sociobehavioural and nutritional confounders, for each 600 µg/day increment in total folate intake during the first trimester, PPVT-III score at age 3 years was 1.6 points [95% confidence interval (CI) 0.1, 3.1; P = 0.04] higher. There was a weak inverse association between vitamin B12 intake during the second trimester and PPVT-III scores [-0.4 points per 2.6 µg/day; 95% CI -0.8, -0.1; P = 0.01]. We did not find associations between choline, betaine or methionine and cognitive outcomes at this age. Results of this study suggest that higher intake of folate in early pregnancy is associated with higher scores on the PPVT-III, a test of receptive language that predicts overall intelligence, at age 3 years. PMID:22686384

Villamor, Eduardo; Rifas-Shiman, Sheryl L; Gillman, Matthew W; Oken, Emily

2012-07-01

77

Infant size at 8 months of age: relationship to maternal use of alcohol, nicotine, and caffeine during pregnancy.  

PubMed

To examine the relationship of maternal alcohol consumption, caffeine use, and smoking to infant size at 8 months of age, a follow-up cohort of 453 infants was examined at birth and again at their 8-month birthday. Even after adjustment for other relevant variables, maternal alcohol use during early pregnancy (average ounces of absolute alcohol by self-report) was significantly related to infant weight and length at 8 months of age but not as strongly related to head circumference. Maternal smoking and caffeine use during pregnancy were not significantly related to infant size at 8 months, although nicotine use had been highly related to the birth size in this sample. Maternal use of marijuana was significantly and negatively related to infant length at 8 months of age, but not to weight or head circumference. The magnitude of the growth retardation is smaller at 8 months than at birth in this sample of infants whose mothers are primarily white, married, and well-educated, and who report a variety of alcohol use patterns. Significance was tested using multiple regression analyses that adjusted for the effects of nicotine use, caffeine use, birth order, maternal height, and gestational age as well as sex and age of infant at examination. PMID:6472964

Barr, H M; Streissguth, A P; Martin, D C; Herman, C S

1984-09-01

78

Size at Birth, Maternal Nutritional Status in Pregnancy, and Blood Pressure at Age 17: Population Based Analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To assess the effect of size at birth, maternal nutrition, and body mass index on blood pressure in late adolescence. Design: Population based analysis of birth weight corrected for gestational age, mother's weight before pregnancy and weight gain in pregnancy, obtained from the Jerusalem perinatal study, and blood pressure and body mass index at age 17, available from military

Arie Laor; David K. Stevenson; Jeoshua Shemer; Rena Gale; Daniel S. Seidman

1997-01-01

79

Maternal mortality in Kassala State - Eastern Sudan: community-based study using Reproductive age mortality survey (RAMOS)  

PubMed Central

Background The maternal mortality ratio in Sudan was estimated at 750/100,000 live births. Sudan was one of eleven countries that are responsible for 65% of global maternal deaths according to a recent World Health Organization (WHO) estimate. Maternal mortality in Kassala State was high in national demographic surveys. This study was conducted to investigate the causes and contributing factors of maternal deaths and to identify any discrepancies in rates and causes between different areas. Methods A reproductive age mortality survey (RAMOS) was conducted to study maternal mortality in Kassala State. Deaths of women of reproductive age (WRA) in four purposively selected areas were identified by interviewing key informants in each village followed by verbal autopsy. Results Over a three-year period, 168 maternal deaths were identified among 26,066 WRA. Verbal autopsies were conducted in 148 (88.1%) of these cases. Of these, 64 (43.2%) were due to pregnancy and childbirth complications. Maternal mortality rates and ratios were 80.6 per 100,000 WRA and 713.6 per 100,000 live births (LB), respectively. There was a wide discrepancy between urban and rural maternal mortality ratios (369 and 872\\100,000 LB, respectively). Direct obstetric causes were responsible for 58.4% of deaths. Severe anemia (20.3%) and acute febrile illness (9.4%) were the major indirect causes of maternal death whereas obstetric hemorrhage (15.6%), obstructed labor (14.1%) and puerperal sepsis (10.9%) were the major obstetric causes. Of the contributing factors, we found delay of referral in 73.4% of cases in spite of a high problem recognition rate (75%). 67.2% of deaths occurred at home, indicating under utilization of health facilities, and transportation problems were found in 54.7% of deaths. There was a high illiteracy rate among the deceased and their husbands (62.5% and 48.4%, respectively). Conclusions Maternal mortality rates and ratios were found to be high, with a wide variation between urban and rural populations. Direct causes of maternal death were similar to those in developing countries. To reduce this high maternal mortality rate we recommend improving provision of emergency obstetric care (Emoc) in all health facilities, expanding midwifery training and coverage especially in rural areas. PMID:22171988

2011-01-01

80

Mode, Median, and Mean  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This application requires students to sort buildings by height to find the Median, Mode, and Mean of each data set. The application works through 6 different data sets and provides feedback for correct and incorrect responses.

2012-01-01

81

Effects of maternal education on diet, anemia, and iron deficiency in Korean school-aged children  

PubMed Central

Background We investigated the relationship among socioeconomic status factors, the risk of anemia, and iron deficiency among school-aged children in Korea. Methods The sample consisted of fourth-grade students aged 10 y recruited from nine elementary schools in Korean urban areas in 2008 (n = 717). Anthropometric and blood biochemistry data were obtained for this cross-sectional observational study. Anemia was defined as hemoglobin levels lower than 11.5 g/dl. Iron deficiency was defined as serum iron levels lower than 40 ug/dl. We also obtained data on parental education from questionnaires and on children's diets from 3-day food diaries. Parental education was categorized as low or high, with the latter representing an educational level beyond high school. Results Children with more educated mothers were less likely to develop anemia (P = 0.0324) and iron deficiency (P = 0.0577) than were those with less educated mothers. This group consumed more protein (P = 0.0004) and iron (P = 0.0012) from animal sources than did the children of less educated mothers, as reflected by their greater consumption of meat, poultry, and derivatives (P < 0.0001). Logistic regression analysis revealed a significant inverse relationship between maternal education and the prevalence of anemia (odds ratio: 0.52; 95% confidence interval: 0.32, 0.85). Conclusions As a contributor to socioeconomic status, maternal education is important in reducing the risk of anemia and iron deficiency and in increasing children's consumption of animal food sources. PMID:22087564

2011-01-01

82

The differential effects of maternal age, race/ethnicity and insurance on neonatal intensive care unit admission rates  

PubMed Central

Background Maternal race/ethnicity, age, and socioeconomic status (SES) are important factors determining birth outcome. Previous studies have demonstrated that, teenagers, and mothers with advanced maternal age (AMA), and Black/Non-Hispanic race/ethnicity can independently increase the risk for a poor pregnancy outcome. Similarly, public insurance has been associated with suboptimal health outcomes. The interaction and impact on the risk of a pregnancy resulting in a NICU admission has not been studied. Our aim was, to analyze the simultaneous interactions of teen/advanced maternal age (AMA), race/ethnicity and socioeconomic status on the odds of NICU admission. Methods The Consortium of Safe Labor Database (subset of n = 167,160 live births) was used to determine NICU admission and maternal factors: age, race/ethnicity, insurance, previous c-section, and gestational age. Results AMA mothers were more likely than teenaged mothers to have a pregnancy result in a NICU admission. Black/Non-Hispanic mothers with private insurance had increased odds for NICU admission. This is in contrast to the lower odds of NICU admission seen with Hispanic and White/Non-Hispanic pregnancies with private insurance. Conclusions Private insurance is protective against a pregnancy resulting in a NICU admission for Hispanic and White/Non-Hispanic mothers, but not for Black/Non-Hispanic mothers. The health disparity seen between Black and White/Non-Hispanics for the risk of NICU admission is most evident among pregnancies covered by private insurance. These study findings demonstrate that adverse pregnancy outcomes are mitigated differently across race, maternal age, and insurance status. PMID:22985092

2012-01-01

83

Trends in maternal age distribution and the live birth prevalence of Down's syndrome in England and Wales: 1938-2010.  

PubMed

There have been concerns about the effects of increases in maternal age since the 1980s on the prevalence of Down's syndrome. This study examined changes in the distribution of maternal age in England and Wales from 1938 to 2010. The live birth prevalence of Down's syndrome in the absence of screening and subsequent termination was estimated using the numbers of babies born in England and Wales according to maternal age and the maternal age-related risk of a birth with Down's syndrome. The proportion of women age 35 years or older at the time of giving birth reached a peak of 20% in 1945, declined to 5.5% in 1977 and rose to 20% in 2007. In the absence of screening and subsequent termination, the estimated live birth prevalence of Down's syndrome would have mirrored these changes (2.3 per 1000 births in 1945, 1.2 per 1000 in 1976 and 2.2 per 1000 in 2007). The observed live birth prevalence (recorded by the National Down Syndrome Cytogenetic Register) was1.0 per 1000 from 1989 to 2010, due to screening and subsequent termination. In conclusion since the 1980s there has been an increase in the mean maternal age and in the expected prevalence of Down's syndrome. When put in a longer historical context the current expected live birth prevalence is similar to that in the 1940s and the observed live birth prevalence is about 54% less than expected, due to screening and subsequent termination, and has remained reasonably constant since 1989 at 1.0 per 1000 births. PMID:23361224

Wu, Jianhua; Morris, Joan K

2013-09-01

84

Trends in maternal age distribution and the live birth prevalence of Down's syndrome in England and Wales: 1938-2010  

PubMed Central

There have been concerns about the effects of increases in maternal age since the 1980s on the prevalence of Down's syndrome. This study examined changes in the distribution of maternal age in England and Wales from 1938 to 2010. The live birth prevalence of Down's syndrome in the absence of screening and subsequent termination was estimated using the numbers of babies born in England and Wales according to maternal age and the maternal age-related risk of a birth with Down's syndrome. The proportion of women age 35 years or older at the time of giving birth reached a peak of 20% in 1945, declined to 5.5% in 1977 and rose to 20% in 2007. In the absence of screening and subsequent termination, the estimated live birth prevalence of Down's syndrome would have mirrored these changes (2.3 per 1000 births in 1945, 1.2 per 1000 in 1976 and 2.2 per 1000 in 2007). The observed live birth prevalence (recorded by the National Down Syndrome Cytogenetic Register) was1.0 per 1000 from 1989 to 2010, due to screening and subsequent termination. In conclusion since the 1980s there has been an increase in the mean maternal age and in the expected prevalence of Down's syndrome. When put in a longer historical context the current expected live birth prevalence is similar to that in the 1940s and the observed live birth prevalence is about 54% less than expected, due to screening and subsequent termination, and has remained reasonably constant since 1989 at 1.0 per 1000 births. PMID:23361224

Wu, Jianhua; Morris, Joan K

2013-01-01

85

Maternal Glycemia and Risk of Large-for-Gestational-Age Babies in a Population-Based Screening  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVE — Gestational diabetes is a risk factor for large-for-gestational-age (LGA) new- borns, but many LGA babies are born to mothers with normal glucose tolerance. We aimed to clarify the association of maternal glycemia across the whole distribution with birth weight and risk of LGA births in mothers with normal glucose tolerance. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS — We undertook a

ZSUZSA KERENYI; G. Tamas; M. Kivimaki; ANDREA PETERFALVI; E. Madarasz; ZSOLT BOSNYAK; A. G. Tabak

2009-01-01

86

Preterm behavior, maternal adjustment, and competencies in the newborn period: What influence do they have at 12 months postnatal age?  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article examines whether preterm newborns' behavior and their mother's adjustment to the premature birth and infant hospitalization have an influence on subsequent infant development and behavior, maternal adjustment, and mother- infant relationship. The behavioral competencies of 42 well, singleton preterminfants (m ean gestational age 31 weeks) were assessed, as were their mothers' adjustment (depression and coping) and competencies (knowledge

M. Veddovi; F. Gibson; D. T. Kenny; J. Bowen; D. Starte

2004-01-01

87

The Effects of Age and Infant Hearing Status on Maternal Use of Prosodic Cues for Clause Boundaries in Speech  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: The present study examined the effects of age and hearing status of a child on maternal use of pitch change, preboundary vowel lengthening, and pause duration, all of which are prosodic cues correlated with clause boundaries in infant-directed speech. Method: Mothers' speech to infants with normal hearing (NH; n = 18), infants who are…

Kondaurova, Maria V.; Bergeson, Tonya R.

2011-01-01

88

The Associations of Prenatal Substance Use To Birth Outcomes and Infant Death: Do They Vary by Maternal Age and Race?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examined whether associations between prenatal substance use and birth and infant outcomes varied by maternal age and race. Data on all singleton live births in Minnesota from 1990-98 indicated that poor birth outcomes and infant death were generally lower for whites than for African Americans and American Indians. Prenatal substance use varied by…

Hellerstedt, Wendy L.; Johnson, Pamela Jo; Oswald, John W.

2002-01-01

89

Risk of Low Birth Weight Associated with Advanced Maternal Age Among Four Ethnic Groups in the United States  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives: To examine and compare the risk of low birth weight associated with delayed childbearing in four ethnic groups using nationally representative data in the United States. Methods: We compared the risk of low (Results: African Americans and Puerto Ricans, and to a lesser extent Mexican Americans, had higher risk differences associated with advanced maternal age. For first births, the

Babak Khoshnood; Stephen Wall; Kwang-sun Lee

2005-01-01

90

Is older maternal age a risk factor for preterm birth and fetal growth restriction? A systematic review.  

PubMed

To determine if there was an association between advancing maternal age and adverse pregnancy outcomes (preterm delivery and small-for-gestational-age births), a systematic review was conducted based on a comprehensive search of the literature from 1985 to 2002. Ten studies met the following inclusion criteria: (1) assessed risk factors for preterm birth by subtype (i.e., idiopathic preterm labor, preterm premature rupture of membranes) and small-for-gestational-age (SGA) birth (fetal growth restriction); (2) used acceptable definitions of these outcomes; (3) were published between January 1985 and December 2002; (4) were restricted to studies that have considered preterm birth due to idiopathic preterm labor or premature rupture of membranes or both; (5) were restricted to singleton live births; (6) were conducted in a developed country; and (7) were published in English. The majority of the studies reviewed found that older maternal age was associated with preterm birth. There is insufficient evidence to determine if older maternal age is an independent and direct risk factor for preterm birth and SGA birth, or a risk marker that exerts its influence on gestational age or birth weight or both through its association with age-dependent confounders. Future research is needed to quantify the independent and unconfounded impact of delayed childbearing on neonatal outcomes, as well as to identify the pathways involved. PMID:16214797

Newburn-Cook, Christine V; Onyskiw, Judee E

2005-10-01

91

Mean and Median  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This applet, created by Rice University's Virtual Lab in Statistics, allows students to manipulate a histogram and observe changes in the mean and median. The site includes links to exercises and descriptions of measures of center and spread. Overall, this is a nice learning device to teach students about statistics, and more specifically, histograms.

Lane, David M.

2008-12-16

92

Mean and Median  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

"This applet allows the user to investigate the mean, median, and box-and-whisker plot for a set of data that they create. The data set may contain up to 15 integers, each with a value from 0 to 100." from NCTM Illuminations.

Mathematics, Illuminations N.

2010-05-26

93

Predicting Elements of Early Maternal Elaborative Discourse from 12 to 18 Months of Age  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

To date, much of the research investigating maternal-child discourse has focused on the preschool period of children's development, with little attention paid to how these styles develop. The current study aimed to assess whether maternal elaborative discourse elements seen in preschool are also evident during the toddler years, and whether the…

Ontai, Lenna L.; Virmani, Elita Amini

2010-01-01

94

Placental DNA methylation alterations associated with maternal tobacco smoking at the RUNX3 gene are also associated with gestational age  

PubMed Central

Aims The developmental origins of health and disease hypothesis states that later-life disease may be influenced by the quality of the in utero environment. Environmental toxicants can have detrimental effects on fetal development, potentially through effects on placental development and function. Maternal smoking during pregnancy is associated with low birth weight, preterm birth and other complications, and exposure to cigarette smoke in utero has been linked to gross pathologic and molecular changes to the placenta, including differential DNA methylation in placental tissue. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between maternal smoking during pregnancy, methylation changes in the placenta and gestational age. Materials & methods We used Illumina®’s (CA, USA) Human Methylation27 BeadChip technology platform to investigate the methylation status of 21,551 autosomal, non-SNP-associated CpG loci in DNA extracted from 206 human placentas and examined loci whose variation in methylation was associated with maternal smoking during pregnancy. Results We found that methylation patterns of a number of loci within the RUNX3 gene were significantly associated with smoking during pregnancy, and one of these loci was associated with decreased gestational age (p = 0.04). Conclusion Our findings, demonstrating maternal smoking-induced changes in DNA methylation at specific loci, suggest a mechanism by which in utero tobacco smoke exposure could exert its detrimental effects upon the health of the fetus. PMID:24283877

Maccani, Jennifer ZJ; Koestler, Devin C; Houseman, Eugene Andres; Marsit, Carmen J; Kelsey, Karl T

2014-01-01

95

Maternal age effect and severe germ-line bottleneck in the inheritance of human mitochondrial DNA  

PubMed Central

The manifestation of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) diseases depends on the frequency of heteroplasmy (the presence of several alleles in an individual), yet its transmission across generations cannot be readily predicted owing to a lack of data on the size of the mtDNA bottleneck during oogenesis. For deleterious heteroplasmies, a severe bottleneck may abruptly transform a benign (low) frequency in a mother into a disease-causing (high) frequency in her child. Here we present a high-resolution study of heteroplasmy transmission conducted on blood and buccal mtDNA of 39 healthy mother–child pairs of European ancestry (a total of 156 samples, each sequenced at ?20,000× per site). On average, each individual carried one heteroplasmy, and one in eight individuals carried a disease-associated heteroplasmy, with minor allele frequency ?1%. We observed frequent drastic heteroplasmy frequency shifts between generations and estimated the effective size of the germ-line mtDNA bottleneck at only ?30–35 (interquartile range from 9 to 141). Accounting for heteroplasmies, we estimated the mtDNA germ-line mutation rate at 1.3 × 10?8 (interquartile range from 4.2 × 10?9 to 4.1 × 10?8) mutations per site per year, an order of magnitude higher than for nuclear DNA. Notably, we found a positive association between the number of heteroplasmies in a child and maternal age at fertilization, likely attributable to oocyte aging. This study also took advantage of droplet digital PCR (ddPCR) to validate heteroplasmies and confirm a de novo mutation. Our results can be used to predict the transmission of disease-causing mtDNA variants and illuminate evolutionary dynamics of the mitochondrial genome. PMID:25313049

Rebolledo-Jaramillo, Boris; Su, Marcia Shu-Wei; Stoler, Nicholas; McElhoe, Jennifer A.; Dickins, Benjamin; Blankenberg, Daniel; Chiaromonte, Francesca; Nielsen, Rasmus; Holland, Mitchell M.; Paul, Ian M.; Nekrutenko, Anton; Makova, Kateryna D.

2014-01-01

96

Maternal age effect and severe germ-line bottleneck in the inheritance of human mitochondrial DNA.  

PubMed

The manifestation of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) diseases depends on the frequency of heteroplasmy (the presence of several alleles in an individual), yet its transmission across generations cannot be readily predicted owing to a lack of data on the size of the mtDNA bottleneck during oogenesis. For deleterious heteroplasmies, a severe bottleneck may abruptly transform a benign (low) frequency in a mother into a disease-causing (high) frequency in her child. Here we present a high-resolution study of heteroplasmy transmission conducted on blood and buccal mtDNA of 39 healthy mother-child pairs of European ancestry (a total of 156 samples, each sequenced at ?20,000× per site). On average, each individual carried one heteroplasmy, and one in eight individuals carried a disease-associated heteroplasmy, with minor allele frequency ?1%. We observed frequent drastic heteroplasmy frequency shifts between generations and estimated the effective size of the germ-line mtDNA bottleneck at only ?30-35 (interquartile range from 9 to 141). Accounting for heteroplasmies, we estimated the mtDNA germ-line mutation rate at 1.3 × 10(-8) (interquartile range from 4.2 × 10(-9) to 4.1 × 10(-8)) mutations per site per year, an order of magnitude higher than for nuclear DNA. Notably, we found a positive association between the number of heteroplasmies in a child and maternal age at fertilization, likely attributable to oocyte aging. This study also took advantage of droplet digital PCR (ddPCR) to validate heteroplasmies and confirm a de novo mutation. Our results can be used to predict the transmission of disease-causing mtDNA variants and illuminate evolutionary dynamics of the mitochondrial genome. PMID:25313049

Rebolledo-Jaramillo, Boris; Su, Marcia Shu-Wei; Stoler, Nicholas; McElhoe, Jennifer A; Dickins, Benjamin; Blankenberg, Daniel; Korneliussen, Thorfinn S; Chiaromonte, Francesca; Nielsen, Rasmus; Holland, Mitchell M; Paul, Ian M; Nekrutenko, Anton; Makova, Kateryna D

2014-10-28

97

Maternal selenium, copper and zinc concentrations in pregnancy associated with small-for-gestational-age infants.  

PubMed

Pregnancy during adolescence increases the risk of adverse pregnancy outcome, especially small-for-gestational-age (SGA) birth, which has been linked to micronutrient deficiencies. Smoking has been shown to be related to lower micronutrient concentrations. Different ethnicities have not been examined. We used a subset from a prospective observational study, the About Teenage Eating study consisting of 126 pregnant adolescents (14-18-year-olds) between 28 and 32 weeks gestation. Micronutrient status was assessed by inductively coupled mass spectrometry. Smoking was assessed by self-report and plasma cotinine, and SGA was defined as infants born <10th corrected birthweight centile. The main outcome measures were as follows: (1) maternal plasma selenium, copper and zinc concentrations in adolescent mothers giving birth to SGA vs. appropriate-for-gestational-age (AGA) infants; and (2) comparison of micronutrient concentrations between women of different ethnicities and smoking habits. The plasma selenium {mean ± standard deviation (SD) [95% confidence interval (CI)]} concentration was lower in the SGA [n = 19: 49.4 ± 7.3 (CI: 45.9, 52.9) µg L(-1)] compared with the AGA [n = 107: 65.1 ± 12.5 (CI: 62.7, 67.5) µg L(-1); P < 0.0001] group. Smoking mothers had a lower selenium concentration compared with non-smokers (P = 0.01) and Afro-Caribbean women had higher selenium concentrations compared with White Europeans (P = 0.02). Neither copper nor zinc concentrations varied between groups. Low plasma selenium concentration in adolescent mothers could contribute to the risk of delivering an SGA infant, possibly through lowering placental antioxidant defence, thus directly affecting fetal growth. Differences in plasma selenium between ethnicities may relate to variation in nutritional intake, requiring further investigation. PMID:22784110

Mistry, Hiten D; Kurlak, Lesia O; Young, Scott D; Briley, Annette L; Pipkin, Fiona Broughton; Baker, Philip N; Poston, Lucilla

2014-07-01

98

Mapping for maternal and newborn health: the distributions of women of childbearing age, pregnancies and births  

PubMed Central

Background The health and survival of women and their new-born babies in low income countries has been a key priority in public health since the 1990s. However, basic planning data, such as numbers of pregnancies and births, remain difficult to obtain and information is also lacking on geographic access to key services, such as facilities with skilled health workers. For maternal and newborn health and survival, planning for safer births and healthier newborns could be improved by more accurate estimations of the distributions of women of childbearing age. Moreover, subnational estimates of projected future numbers of pregnancies are needed for more effective strategies on human resources and infrastructure, while there is a need to link information on pregnancies to better information on health facilities in districts and regions so that coverage of services can be assessed. Methods This paper outlines demographic mapping methods based on freely available data for the production of high resolution datasets depicting estimates of numbers of people, women of childbearing age, live births and pregnancies, and distribution of comprehensive EmONC facilities in four large high burden countries: Afghanistan, Bangladesh, Ethiopia and Tanzania. Satellite derived maps of settlements and land cover were constructed and used to redistribute areal census counts to produce detailed maps of the distributions of women of childbearing age. Household survey data, UN statistics and other sources on growth rates, age specific fertility rates, live births, stillbirths and abortions were then integrated to convert the population distribution datasets to gridded estimates of births and pregnancies. Results and conclusions These estimates, which can be produced for current, past or future years based on standard demographic projections, can provide the basis for strategic intelligence, planning services, and provide denominators for subnational indicators to track progress. The datasets produced are part of national midwifery workforce assessments conducted in collaboration with the respective Ministries of Health and the United Nations Population Fund (UNFPA) to identify disparities between population needs, health infrastructure and workforce supply. The datasets are available to the respective Ministries as part of the UNFPA programme to inform midwifery workforce planning and also publicly available through the WorldPop population mapping project. PMID:24387010

2014-01-01

99

Maternal body mass index, duration of exclusive breastfeeding and children's developmental status at the age of 6 years  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective:To investigate whether the duration of exclusive breastfeeding and maternal body mass index (BMI) are associated with children's developmental status at the time of beginning elementary school.Design and subjects:The subjects in the sample came from a longitudinal study on infant nutrition in Iceland. Food records were made once a month from birth to the age of 12 months, from which

I Thorsdottir; I Gunnarsdottir; M A Kvaran; S J Gretarsson

2005-01-01

100

Chronic Maternal Depression Is Associated with Reduced Weight Gain in Latino Infants from Birth to 2 Years of Age  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundLatino children are at increased risk for mirconutrient deficiencies and problems of overweight and obesity. Exposures in pregnancy and early postpartum may impact future growth trajectories.ObjectivesTo evaluate the relationship between prenatal and postnatal maternal depressive symptoms experienced in pregnancy and infant growth from birth to 2 years of age in a cohort of Latino infants.MethodsWe recruited pregnant Latina mothers at

Janet M. Wojcicki; Katherine Holbrook; Robert H. Lustig; Elissa Epel; Aaron B. Caughey; Ricardo F. Muñoz; Stephen C. Shiboski; Melvin B. Heyman; Virginia Vitzthum

2011-01-01

101

Influence of Second-Trimester Ultrasound Markers for Down Syndrome in Pregnant Women of Advanced Maternal Age  

PubMed Central

The objective of the present study was to evaluate the influence of second-trimester ultrasound markers on the incidence of Down syndrome among pregnant women of advanced maternal age. This was a retrospective cohort study on 889 singleton pregnancies between the 14th and 30th weeks, with maternal age ? 35 years, which would undergo genetic amniocentesis. The second-trimester ultrasound assessed the following markers: increased nuchal fold thickness, cardiac hyperechogenic focus, mild ventriculomegaly, choroid plexus cysts, uni- or bilateral renal pyelectasis, intestinal hyperechogenicity, single umbilical artery, short femur and humerus length, hand/foot alterations, structural fetal malformation, and congenital heart disease. To investigate differences between the groups with and without markers, nonparametric tests consisting of the chi-square test or Fisher's exact test were used. Moreover, odds ratios with their respective 95% confidence intervals were calculated. Out of the 889 pregnant women, 131 (17.3%) presented markers and 758 (82.7%) did not present markers on the second-trimester ultrasound. Increased nuchal fold (P < 0.001) and structural malformation (P < 0.001) were the markers most associated with Down syndrome. The presence of one marker increased the relative risk 10.5-fold, while the presence of two or more markers increased the risk 13.5-fold. The presence of markers on the second-trimester ultrasound, especially thickened nuchal fold and structural malformation, increased the risk of Down syndrome among pregnant women with advanced maternal age. PMID:24795825

Rumi Kataguiri, Mariza; Silva Bussamra, Luiz Claudio; Machado Nardozza, Luciano Marcondes; Fernandes Moron, Antonio

2014-01-01

102

Fetal and Maternal Genes' Influence on Gestational Age in a Quantitative Genetic Analysis of 244,000 Swedish Births  

PubMed Central

Although there is increasing evidence that genetic factors influence gestational age, it is unclear to what extent this is due to fetal and/or maternal genes. In this study, we apply a novel analytical model to estimate genetic and environmental contributions to pregnancy history records obtained from 165,952 Swedish families consisting of offspring of twins, full siblings, and half-siblings (1987–2008). Results indicated that fetal genetic factors explained 13.1% (95% confidence interval (CI): 6.8, 19.4) of the variation in gestational age at delivery, while maternal genetic factors accounted for 20.6% (95% CI: 18.1, 23.2). The largest contribution to differences in the timing of birth were environmental factors, of which 10.1% (95% CI: 7.0, 13.2) was due to factors shared by births of the same mother, and 56.2% (95% CI: 53.0, 59.4) was pregnancy specific. Similar models fit to the same data dichotomized at clinically meaningful thresholds (e.g., preterm birth) resulted in less stable parameter estimates, but the collective results supported a model of homogeneous genetic and environmental effects across the range of gestational age. Since environmental factors explained most differences in the timing of birth, genetic studies may benefit from understanding the specific effect of fetal and maternal genes in the context of these yet-unidentified factors. PMID:23568591

York, Timothy P.; Eaves, Lindon J.; Lichtenstein, Paul; Neale, Michael C.; Svensson, Anna; Latendresse, Shawn; Langstrom, Niklas; Strauss, Jerome F.

2013-01-01

103

Influence of second-trimester ultrasound markers for Down syndrome in pregnant women of advanced maternal age.  

PubMed

The objective of the present study was to evaluate the influence of second-trimester ultrasound markers on the incidence of Down syndrome among pregnant women of advanced maternal age. This was a retrospective cohort study on 889 singleton pregnancies between the 14th and 30th weeks, with maternal age ? 35 years, which would undergo genetic amniocentesis. The second-trimester ultrasound assessed the following markers: increased nuchal fold thickness, cardiac hyperechogenic focus, mild ventriculomegaly, choroid plexus cysts, uni- or bilateral renal pyelectasis, intestinal hyperechogenicity, single umbilical artery, short femur and humerus length, hand/foot alterations, structural fetal malformation, and congenital heart disease. To investigate differences between the groups with and without markers, nonparametric tests consisting of the chi-square test or Fisher's exact test were used. Moreover, odds ratios with their respective 95% confidence intervals were calculated. Out of the 889 pregnant women, 131 (17.3%) presented markers and 758 (82.7%) did not present markers on the second-trimester ultrasound. Increased nuchal fold (P < 0.001) and structural malformation (P < 0.001) were the markers most associated with Down syndrome. The presence of one marker increased the relative risk 10.5-fold, while the presence of two or more markers increased the risk 13.5-fold. The presence of markers on the second-trimester ultrasound, especially thickened nuchal fold and structural malformation, increased the risk of Down syndrome among pregnant women with advanced maternal age. PMID:24795825

Rumi Kataguiri, Mariza; Araujo Júnior, Edward; Silva Bussamra, Luiz Claudio; Nardozza, Luciano Marcondes Machado; Fernandes Moron, Antonio

2014-01-01

104

Maternal Education and Micro-Geographic Disparities in Nutritional Status among School-Aged Children in Rural Northwestern China  

PubMed Central

Objectives Prior evidence suggests geographic disparities in the effect of maternal education on child nutritional status between countries, between regions and between urban and rural areas. We postulated its effect would also vary by micro-geographic locations (indicated by mountain areas, plain areas and the edge areas) in a Chinese minority area. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted with a multistage random sample of 1474 school children aged 5-12 years in Guyuan, China. Child nutritional status was measured by height-for-age z scores (HAZ). Linear mixed models were used to examine its association with place of residence and maternal education. Results Micro-geographic disparities in child nutritional status and the level of socioeconomic composition were found. Children living in mountain areas had poorer nutritional status, even after adjusting for demographic (plain versus mountain, ??=?0.16, P?=?0.033; edge versus mountain, ??=?0.29, P?=?0.002) and socioeconomic factors (plain versus mountain, ??=?0.12, P?=?0.137; edge versus mountain, ??=?0.25, P?=?0.009). The disparities significantly widened with increasing years of mothers’ schooling (maternal education*plain versus mountain: ??=?0.06, P?=?0.007; maternal education*edge versus mountain: ??=?0.07, P?=?0.005). Moreover, the association between maternal education and child nutrition was negative (??=?-0.03, P?=?0.056) in mountain areas but positive in plain areas (??=?0.02, P?=?0.094) or in the edge areas (??=?0.04, P?=?0.055). Conclusions Micro-geographic disparities in child nutritional status increase with increasing level of maternal education and the effect of maternal education varies by micro-geographic locations, which exacerbates child health inequity. Educating rural girls alone is not sufficient; improving unfavorable conditions in mountain areas might make such investments more effective in promoting child health. Nutrition programs targeting to the least educated groups in plain and in edge areas would be critical to their cost-effectiveness. PMID:24340034

Wang, Cuili; Kane, Robert L.; Xu, Dongjuan; Li, Lingui; Guan, Weihua; Li, Hui; Meng, Qingyue

2013-01-01

105

The Effects of Maternal Employment on the Academic Attitudes and Performance of School-Aged Children.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This review concentrates on the effects of maternal employment on the academic attitudes and performance of children in elementary and secondary schools. Related research is reviewed, hypotheses about the relationship are developed, and research needs are indicated. (Author/GK)

Hoffman, Lois Wladis

1980-01-01

106

Maternal Factors Influencing Infant Total Body Iron at Birth and Four Months of Age  

E-print Network

Iron is necessary in fetal development, however little research has been conducted to assess factors that affect both maternal and fetal total body iron. The objective of this research is to investigate infant iron status at birth and 4 months...

Scroggs, Sarah Catherine

2011-05-31

107

Young maternal age and low birth weight risk: An exploration of racial/ethnic disparities in the birth outcomes of mothers in the United States1  

PubMed Central

This study considers how low birth weight (LBW) prevalence varies by race/ethnicity and maternal age and explores mechanisms that explain disparities. Results show that maternal age patterns in LBW risk for African Americans differ from whites and foreign- and U.S.-born Hispanics. Background socioeconomic disadvantage, together with current socioeconomic status and smoking during pregnancy, explain almost all of the LBW disparity between white teenage mothers and their older counterparts. These findings suggest that social disadvantage is a primary driver in unfavorable birth outcomes among white teenage mothers compared to older white mothers. Alternatively, background disadvantage and other social characteristics explain very little of the LBW disparities among African Americans and U.S.- and foreign-born Hispanics. Overall, these results indicate LBW disparities by maternal age are a complex product of socioeconomic disadvantage and current social and behavioral factors, such that LBW risk does not operate uniformly by race/ethnicity or maternal age. PMID:25328275

Dennis, Jeff A.; Mollborn, Stefanie

2014-01-01

108

Maternal caffeine consumption and small for gestational age births: results from a population-based case-control study.  

PubMed

Caffeine is consumed in various forms during pregnancy, has increased half-life during pregnancy and crosses the placental barrier. Small for gestational age (SGA) is an important perinatal outcome and has been associated with long term complications. We examined the association between maternal caffeine intake and SGA using National Birth Defects Prevention Study data. Non-malformed live born infants with an estimated date of delivery from 1997-2007 (n = 7,943) were included in this analysis. Maternal caffeine exposure was examined as total caffeine intake and individual caffeinated beverage type (coffee, tea, and soda); sex-, race/ethnic-, and parity-specific growth curves were constructed to estimate SGA births. Crude and adjusted odds ratios (aORs) and 95% confidence intervals were estimated using unconditional logistic regression. Interaction with caffeine exposures was assessed for maternal smoking, vasoconstrictor medication use, and folic acid. Six hundred forty-eight infants (8.2%) were found to be SGA in this analysis. Increasing aORs were observed for increasing intakes of total caffeine and for each caffeinated beverage with aORs (adjusting for maternal education, high blood pressure, and smoking) ranging from 1.3 to 2.1 for the highest intake categories (300+ mg/day total caffeine and 3+ servings/day for each beverage type). Little indication of additive interaction by maternal smoking, vasoconstrictor medication use, or folic acid intake was observed. We observed an increase in SGA births for mothers with higher caffeine intake, particularly for those consuming 300+ mg of caffeine per day. Increased aORs were also observed for tea intake but were more attenuated for coffee and soda intake. PMID:24288144

Hoyt, Adrienne T; Browne, Marilyn; Richardson, Sandra; Romitti, Paul; Druschel, Charlotte

2014-08-01

109

The associations of parity and maternal age with small-for-gestational-age, preterm, and neonatal and infant mortality: a meta-analysis  

PubMed Central

Background Previous studies have reported on adverse neonatal outcomes associated with parity and maternal age. Many of these studies have relied on cross-sectional data, from which drawing causal inference is complex. We explore the associations between parity/maternal age and adverse neonatal outcomes using data from cohort studies conducted in low- and middle-income countries (LMIC). Methods Data from 14 cohort studies were included. Parity (nulliparous, parity 1-2, parity ?3) and maternal age (<18 years, 18-<35 years, ?35 years) categories were matched with each other to create exposure categories, with those who are parity 1-2 and age 18-<35 years as the reference. Outcomes included small-for-gestational-age (SGA), preterm, neonatal and infant mortality. Adjusted odds ratios (aOR) were calculated per study and meta-analyzed. Results Nulliparous, age <18 year women, compared with women who were parity 1-2 and age 18-<35 years had the highest odds of SGA (pooled adjusted OR: 1.80), preterm (pooled aOR: 1.52), neonatal mortality (pooled aOR: 2.07), and infant mortality (pooled aOR: 1.49). Increased odds were also noted for SGA and neonatal mortality for nulliparous/age 18-<35 years, preterm, neonatal, and infant mortality for parity ?3/age 18-<35 years, and preterm and neonatal mortality for parity ?3/?35 years. Conclusions Nulliparous women <18 years of age have the highest odds of adverse neonatal outcomes. Family planning has traditionally been the least successful in addressing young age as a risk factor; a renewed focus must be placed on finding effective interventions that delay age at first birth. Higher odds of adverse outcomes are also seen among parity ?3 / age ?35 mothers, suggesting that reproductive health interventions need to address the entirety of a woman’s reproductive period. Funding Funding was provided by the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation (810-2054) by a grant to the US Fund for UNICEF to support the activities of the Child Health Epidemiology Reference Group. PMID:24564800

2013-01-01

110

Fetal nucleated cells in maternal peripheral blood: frequency and relationship to gestational age  

Microsoft Academic Search

To determine the frequency of fetal nucleated cells in maternal peripheral blood during different stages of pregnancy, 50 primigravidas were investigated by determining the frequency of cells with the Y chromosome using fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) of Y-specific repetitive sequences of the DYZ1 family. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplifying the same part of the DYZ1 used as the probe

Hiromi Hamada; Tadao Arinami; Takeshi Kubo; Hideo Hamaguchi; Hirokazu Iwasaki

1993-01-01

111

Behavior Problems at 5 Years of Age and Maternal Mental Health in Autism and Intellectual Disability  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

We examined child behavior problems and maternal mental health in a British population-representative sample of 5 year-old children with an autism spectrum disorder (ASD), controlling for the presence of an intellectual disability (ID). Behavior problems were significantly higher in children with ASD with/out ID compared to typically developing…

Totsika, Vasiliki; Hastings, Richard P.; Emerson, Eric; Berridge, Damon M.; Lancaster, Gillian A.

2011-01-01

112

Maternal support in early childhood predicts larger hippocampal volumes at school age  

E-print Network

) Early maternal support has been shown to promote specific gene expression, neurogenesis, adaptive stress responses, and larger hippocampal volumes in developing animals. In humans, a relation- ship between data suggests a link between early psychosocial factors and hippocampal volumes in humans, to date

113

Prenatal maternal blood pressure response to stress predicts birth weight and gestational age: A preliminary study  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVE: The objective was to test the prospective association between prenatal maternal circulatory responses to a standardized psychologic challenge and birth outcome. STUDY DESIGN: We examined the relationship between blood pressure responses to a cognitive arithmetic stressor and birth outcome in 40 healthy primigravid women. Pregnant women between 18 and 37 years old were recruited from the University of Kentucky

McCubbin; Cox

1996-01-01

114

Paradox Revisited: A Further Investigation of Race/Ethnic Differences in Infant Mortality by Maternal Age1  

PubMed Central

We reexamine the epidemiological paradox of lower overall infant mortality rates in the Mexican-origin population relative to US-born non-Hispanic whites using the 1995–2002 U.S. NCHS linked cohort birth-infant death files. A comparison of infant mortality rates among US-born non-Hispanic white and Mexican-origin mothers by maternal age reveals an infant survival advantage at younger maternal ages when compared to non-Hispanic whites, which is consistent with the Hispanic infant mortality paradox. However, this is accompanied by higher infant mortality at older ages for Mexican-origin women, which is consistent with the weathering framework. These patterns vary by nativity of the mother and do not change when rates are adjusted for risk factors. The relative infant survival disadvantage among Mexican-origin infants born to older mothers may be attributed to differences in the socioeconomic attributes of US-born non-Hispanic white and Mexican-origin women. PMID:23055238

Powers, Daniel A.

2013-01-01

115

A maternal serum screen for trisomy 18: an extension of maternal serum screening for Down syndrome.  

PubMed Central

The feasibility of extending second-trimester maternal blood screening for Down syndrome so as to include screening for trisomy 18 was examined using stored maternal serum samples collected for neural tube-defect screening. There were 12 samples from trisomy 18 pregnancies and 390 controls. The median maternal serum concentration of alpha-fetoprotein, free alpha-subunit human chorionic gonadotrophin, free beta-subunit human chorionic gonadotrophin, intact human chorionic gonadotrophin, total estriol, unconjugated estriol, estradiol, human placental lactogen, and progesterone were lowered in those pregnancies affected by trisomy 18 when compared with unaffected pregnancies matched for racial origin, maternal age, gestational age, and sample-storage duration. At an estimated odds risk of 1:400, 83.3% of affected pregnancies were detected using an algorithm which combines the maternal age-related risk with the maternal serum concentrations of unconjugated estriol, free alpha-subunit human chorionic gonadotrophin, free beta-subunit human chorionic gonadotrophin, estradiol, and human placental lactogen. The associated false-positive rate was 2.6%. At high risk odds of 1:10, the detection rate was 58.3%, with an associated false-positive rate of 0.3%. beta-Subunit human chorionic gonadotrophin and unconjugated estriol were the most powerful discriminators. It is possible to incorporate into existing Down syndrome screening programs an algorithm for detecting trisomy 18 with high sensitivity and specificity. PMID:1833973

Staples, A J; Robertson, E F; Ranieri, E; Ryall, R G; Haan, E A

1991-01-01

116

Maternal PUFA status but not prenatal methylmercury exposure is associated with children's language functions at age five years in the Seychelles.  

PubMed

Evidence from the Seychelles Child Development Nutrition Study suggests that maternal nutritional status can modulate the relationship between prenatal methylmercury (MeHg) exposure and developmental outcomes in children. The aim of this study was to investigate whether maternal PUFA status was a confounding factor in any possible associations between prenatal MeHg exposure and developmental outcomes at 5 y of age in the Republic of Seychelles. Maternal status of (n-3) and (n-6) PUFA were measured in serum collected at 28 wk gestation and delivery. Prenatal MeHg exposure was determined in maternal hair collected at delivery. At 5 y of age, the children completed a comprehensive range of sensitive developmental assessments. Complete data from 225 mothers and their children were available for analysis. Multiple linear regression analyses revealed Preschool Language Scale scores of the children improved with increasing maternal serum DHA [22:6(n-3)] concentrations and decreased with increasing arachidonic acid [20:4(n-6)] concentrations, albeit verbal intelligence improved with increasing (n-6) PUFA concentrations in maternal serum. There were no adverse associations between MeHg exposure and developmental outcomes. These findings suggest that higher fish consumption, resulting in higher maternal (n-3) PUFA status, during pregnancy is associated with beneficial developmental effects rather than detrimental effects resulting from the higher concomitant exposures of the fetus to MeHg. The association of maternal (n-3) PUFA status with improved child language development may partially explain the authors' previous finding of improving language scores, as prenatal MeHg exposure increased in an earlier mother-child cohort in the Seychelles where maternal PUFA status was not measured. PMID:23014496

Strain, J J; Davidson, Philip W; Thurston, Sally W; Harrington, Donald; Mulhern, Maria S; McAfee, Alison J; van Wijngaarden, Edwin; Shamlaye, Conrad F; Henderson, Juliette; Watson, Gene E; Zareba, Grazyna; Cory-Slechta, Deborah A; Lynch, Miranda; Wallace, Julie M W; McSorley, Emeir M; Bonham, Maxine P; Stokes-Riner, Abbie; Sloane-Reeves, Jean; Janciuras, Joanne; Wong, Rosa; Clarkson, Thomas W; Myers, Gary J

2012-11-01

117

Association Between Maternal Diabetes in Utero and Age at Offspring’s Diagnosis of Type 2 Diabetes  

E-print Network

OBJECTIVE — The purpose of this study was to examine age of diabetes diagnosis in youth who have a parent with diabetes by diabetes type and whether the parent’s diabetes was diagnosed before or after the youth’s birth. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS — The cohort comprised SEARCH for Diabetes in Youth Study participants (diabetes diagnosis 2001–2005) with a diabetic parent. SEARCH is a multicenter survey of youth with diabetes diagnosed before age 20 years. RESULTS — Youth with type 2 diabetes were more likely to have a parent with either type 1 or type 2 diabetes (mother 39.3%; father 21.2%) than youth with type 1 diabetes (5.3 and 6.7%, respectively, P ? 0.001 for each). Type 2 diabetes was diagnosed 1.68 years earlier among those exposed to diabetes in utero (n ? 174) than among those whose mothers ’ diabetes was diagnosed later (P ? 0.018, controlled for maternal diagnosis age, paternal diabetes, sex, and race/ ethnicity). Age at diagnosis of type 1 diabetes for 269 youth with and without in utero exposure did not differ significantly (difference 0.96 year, P ? 0.403 after adjustment). Controlled for the father’s age of diagnosis, father’s diabetes before the child’s birth was not associated with age at diagnosis (P ? 0.078 for type 1 diabetes; P ? 0.140 for type 2 diabetes).

David J. Pettitt; Teresa A. Hillier; Angela D. Liese

118

MEDIAN ESTIMATION USING AUXILIARY INFORMATION  

E-print Network

well in a variety of situations. Key Words: sample survey, estimation, median, auxiliary variable of these estimators depend directly on the probability of `concordance' rather than on the validity of an assumptionMEDIAN ESTIMATION USING AUXILIARY INFORMATION Glen Meeden School of Statistics University

Meeden, Glen

119

Fibrolipoma of the median nerve  

Microsoft Academic Search

Neural fibrolipoma or fibrolipomatous hamartoma is an uncommon benign tumor that usually arises in the median nerve. Fibrofatty tissue proliferates around the nerve and infiltrates the epineurium and perineurium. We report a case of fibrolipomatous hamartoma of the left median nerve in an 18-year-old woman. Our objective was to describe the pathognomonic magnetic resonance imaging features, whose presence obviates the

Kais Nouira; Hend Belhiba; Sofiène Baccar; Anissa Miaaoui; Monia Ben Messaoud; Imène Turki; Ilhem Cheour; Emna Menif

2007-01-01

120

An Association of Maternal Age and Birth Weight with End-Stage Renal Disease in Saskatchewan. Sub-Analysis of Registered Indians and Those with Diabetes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aims: To determine links between birth related factors and end-stage renal disease (ESRD). Methods: This 1:3 age, sex, and source population (registered Indians [SkRI] and other Saskatchewan people [OSkP]) matched case-control study, compared maternal age and parity, gestational age, low birth weight (LBW), and high birth weight (HBW), between subjects with and without ESRD. Results: Of 1,162 subjects, 277 cases

Roland Dyck; Helena Klomp; Leonard Tan; Mary Rose Stang

2003-01-01

121

Maternal Calcium Intake During Pregnancy and Blood Pressure in the Offspring at Age 3 Years: A Follow-up Analysis of the Project Viva Cohort  

PubMed Central

A previous analysis of the Project Viva cohort (eastern Massachusetts, 1999?2002 recruitment) found an association between higher second-trimester supplemental maternal calcium intake and lower systolic blood pressure in offspring at 6 months. The authors analyzed 5,527 systolic blood pressure measurements from 1,173 mother-child pairs from this same cohort when the children were aged 3 years. They estimated the change in offspring blood pressure for a 500-mg difference in maternal total, dietary-only, and supplemental-only calcium intake during the first 2 trimesters of pregnancy. Mean daily total calcium intake was 1,311 mg (standard deviation, 421) in the first trimester and 1,440 mg (standard deviation, 386) in the second trimester. Mean systolic blood pressure of the offspring at age 3 years was 92.1 mm Hg (standard deviation, 10.3). None of the maternal calcium intake measures during the first and second trimesters was associated with systolic blood pressure in the offspring. For example, for each 500-mg increment in maternal total elemental calcium intake in the second trimester, child's 3-year systolic blood pressure was 0.1 mm Hg lower (95% confidence interval: ?0.9, 0.6). Maternal calcium intake during pregnancy was not associated with offspring blood pressure at the age of 3 years. PMID:18945693

Rifas-Shiman, Sheryl L.; Kleinman, Ken P.; Lipshultz, Steven E.; Gillman, Matthew W.

2008-01-01

122

Influence of age on the effectiveness of PCV2 vaccination in piglets with high levels of maternally derived antibodies.  

PubMed

Two field studies were conducted to investigate the influence of age on the efficacy of vaccination against Porcine Circovirus Diseases (PCVD) in animals with high levels of maternally derived antibodies (MDA). A total of 416 piglets (Study 1) and 600 piglets (Study 2) were randomly allocated to one of three groups. Two groups in each study received a single dose of a PCV2 subunit vaccine, one group at 1 week old and the other at 3 weeks of age. The third group was left untreated. Animals vaccinated at 3 weeks of age showed a significantly higher average daily weight gain and significantly reduced viraemia following PCV2 infection than the respective control groups. This difference was not observed in pigs vaccinated at 1 week of age. Furthermore, only animals vaccinated at 3 weeks of age showed an increased serological response and a higher frequency of IgM-positive animals compared with controls. The data indicated that PCV2 vaccination in the presence of high MDA levels is efficacious when used in 3-week old but not in 1-week old pigs. As the range of MDA titres of pigs vaccinated at both 1 and 3 weeks of age were comparable, the data suggest that PCV2 vaccine efficacy was independent of the level of MDA. It appears that other age-related factors affecting the active and passive transfer of immunity may perhaps have interfered with the efficacy of the vaccine in 1-week old piglets. These findings have implications for future PCV2 vaccine testing and administration strategies. PMID:24315042

Haake, Michael; Palzer, Andreas; Rist, Beate; Weissenbacher-Lang, Christiane; Fachinger, Vicky; Eggen, Alex; Ritzmann, Mathias; Eddicks, Matthias

2014-01-31

123

Advanced maternal age and the risk of Down syndrome characterized by the meiotic stage of the chromosomal error: A population-based study  

SciTech Connect

The identification of DNA polymorphisms makes it possible to classify trisomy 21 according to the parental origin and stage (meiosis I [MI], meiosis II [MII], or postzygotic mitotic) of the chromosomal error. Studying the effect of parental age on these subgroups could shed light on parental exposures and their timing. From 1989 through 1993, 170 infants with trisomy 21 and 267 randomly selected control infants were ascertained in a population-based, case-control study in metropolitan Atlanta. Blood samples for genetic studies were obtained from case infants and their parents. Using logistic regression, we independently examined the association between maternal and paternal age and subgroups of trisomy 21 defined by parental origin and meiotic stage. The distribution of trisomy 21 by origin was 86% maternal (75% MI and 25% MII), 9% paternal (50% MI and 50% MII), and 5% mitotic. Compared with women <25 years of age, women {>=}40 years old had an odds ratio of 5.2 (95% confidence interval, 1.0-27.4) for maternal MI (MMI) errors and 51.4 (95% confidence interval, 2.3-999.0) for maternal MII (MMII) errors. Birth-prevalence rates for women {>=}40 years old were 4.2/1,000 births for MMI errors and 1.9/1,000 births for MMII errors. These results support an association between advanced maternal age and both MMI and MMII errors. The association with MI does not pinpoint the timing of the error; however, the association with MII implies that there is at least one maternal age-related mechanism acting around the time of conception. 16 refs., 1 fig., 2 tabs.

Yoon, P.W.; Khoury, M.J.; Freeman, S.B. [and others

1996-03-01

124

Age at Menarche in Relation to Maternal Use of Tobacco, Alcohol, Coffee, and Tea during Pregnancy  

Microsoft Academic Search

To investigate the potential effects of common early life exposures on age at menarche, the authors examined data collected in a follow-up study of pregnancies that occurred during the 1960s in California. Among 994 female offspring interviewed as adolescents, 98% had started their menstrual periods at a mean age of 12.96 years. After adjustment, the mean age at menarche was

Gayle C. Windham; Christian Bottomley; Cecilie Birner; Laura Fenster

2004-01-01

125

Maternal immune activation causes age- and region-specific changes in brain cytokines in offspring throughout development.  

PubMed

Maternal infection is a risk factor for autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and schizophrenia (SZ). Indeed, modeling this risk factor in mice through maternal immune activation (MIA) causes ASD- and SZ-like neuropathologies and behaviors in the offspring. Although MIA upregulates pro-inflammatory cytokines in the fetal brain, whether MIA leads to long-lasting changes in brain cytokines during postnatal development remains unknown. Here, we tested this possibility by measuring protein levels of 23 cytokines in the blood and three brain regions from offspring of poly(I:C)- and saline-injected mice at five postnatal ages using multiplex arrays. Most cytokines examined are present in sera and brains throughout development. MIA induces changes in the levels of many cytokines in the brains and sera of offspring in a region- and age-specific manner. These MIA-induced changes follow a few, unexpected and distinct patterns. In frontal and cingulate cortices, several, mostly pro-inflammatory, cytokines are elevated at birth, followed by decreases during periods of synaptogenesis and plasticity, and increases again in the adult. Cytokines are also altered in postnatal hippocampus, but in a pattern distinct from the other regions. The MIA-induced changes in brain cytokines do not correlate with changes in serum cytokines from the same animals. Finally, these MIA-induced cytokine changes are not accompanied by breaches in the blood-brain barrier, immune cell infiltration or increases in microglial density. Together, these data indicate that MIA leads to long-lasting, region-specific changes in brain cytokines in offspring-similar to those reported for ASD and SZ-that may alter CNS development and behavior. PMID:22841693

Garay, Paula A; Hsiao, Elaine Y; Patterson, Paul H; McAllister, A K

2013-07-01

126

Maternal gestational zinc supplementation does not influence multiple aspects of child development at 54 mo of age in Peru123  

PubMed Central

Background: Zinc is necessary for central nervous system development, and maternal zinc status has been associated with developmental differences in offspring. Objective: The objective was to evaluate differences in cognitive, social, and behavioral function in Peruvian children at 54 mo of age whose mothers participated during pregnancy in a zinc supplementation trial. Design: We attempted to follow up 205 children from a prenatal zinc supplementation trial and present data on 184 (90%) children—86 whose mothers took 25 mg zinc/d in addition to 60 mg iron and 250 ?g folic acid and 98 whose mothers took iron and folic acid only. Following a standardized protocol, we assessed children's intelligence, language and number skills, representational ability, interpersonal understanding, and adaptive behavior and behavioral adjustment. We also assessed aspects of the mother (eg, age, education, verbal intelligence, stresses, and social support in parenting) and the home environment [HOME (Home Observation for the Measurement of the Environment) inventory]. Results: No differences were observed between any of the tests used to characterize cognitive, social, or behavioral development (P > 0.05). Child sex, parity, or treatment compliance did not modify the effects of supplementation on any outcomes. Conclusion: The addition of zinc to prenatal supplements did not influence developmental outcomes in Peruvian children when assessed at 4.5 y of age. PMID:20484451

Putnick, Diane L; Zavaleta, Nelly; Lazarte, Fabiola; Albornoz, Carla; Chen, Ping; DiPietro, Janet A; Bornstein, Marc H

2010-01-01

127

An IIR median hybrid filter  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A new class of nonlinear filters, the so-called class of multidirectional infinite impulse response median hybrid filters, is presented and analyzed. The input signal is processed twice using a linear shift-invariant infinite impulse response filtering module: once with normal causality and a second time with inverted causality. The final output of the MIMH filter is the median of the two-directional outputs and the original input signal. Thus, the MIMH filter is a concatenation of linear filtering and nonlinear filtering (a median filtering module). Because of this unique scheme, the MIMH filter possesses many desirable properties which are both proven and analyzed (including impulse removal, step preservation, and noise suppression). A comparison to other existing median type filters is also provided.

Bauer, Peter H.; Sartori, Michael A.; Bryden, Timothy M.

1992-01-01

128

Central Tendency: Mean, Mode, Median  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This learning unit from Regents Exam Prep Center will help students learning to calculate mean, mode and median. The unit includes a lesson plan, practice examples, a teacher's guide and a worksheet. The term "measures of central tendency" is explained as finding the mean, median and mode of a set of data. The example of a set of test scores is used to demonstrate finding these measures. Links are also included which explain how to find these measurements using a graphing calculator.

2012-01-01

129

Fibrolipoma of the median nerve.  

PubMed

Neural fibrolipoma or fibrolipomatous hamartoma is an uncommon benign tumor that usually arises in the median nerve. Fibrofatty tissue proliferates around the nerve and infiltrates the epineurium and perineurium. We report a case of fibrolipomatous hamartoma of the left median nerve in an 18-year-old woman. Our objective was to describe the pathognomonic magnetic resonance imaging features, whose presence obviates the need for a diagnostic biopsy. PMID:17178460

Nouira, Kais; Belhiba, Hend; Baccar, Sofiène; Miaaoui, Anissa; Ben Messaoud, Monia; Turki, Imène; Cheour, Ilhem; Menif, Emna

2007-01-01

130

Maternal body weight and first trimester screening for chromosomal anomalies.  

PubMed

Prenatal risk ratios for Down syndrome adjust for maternal weight because maternal serum biomarker levels decrease with increasing maternal weight. This is accomplished by converting serum biomarker values into a multiple of the expected median (MoM) for women of the same gestational age. Weight is frequently not recorded, and the impact of using MoMs not adjusted for weight for calculating risk ratios is unknown. The aim of this study is to examine the effect of missing weight on first trimester Down syndrome risk ratios by comparing risk ratios calculated using weight-unadjusted-and-adjusted MoMs. Findings at the population level indicate that the impact of not adjusting for maternal weight on first trimester screening results for chromosomal anomalies would lead to under-identification of 84 per 10 000 pregnancies. PMID:25287568

Khambalia, Amina Z; Roberts, Christine L; Morris, Jonathan; Tasevski, Vitomir; Nassar, Natasha

2014-10-01

131

Early maternal undernutrition programs increased feed intake, altered glucose metabolism and insulin secretion, and liver function in aged female offspring  

PubMed Central

Insulin resistance and obesity are components of the metabolic syndrome that includes development of cardiovascular disease and diabetes with advancing age. The thrifty phenotype hypothesis suggests that offspring of poorly nourished mothers are predisposed to the various components of the metabolic syndrome due to adaptations made during fetal development. We assessed the effects of maternal nutrient restriction in early gestation on feeding behavior, insulin and glucose dynamics, body composition, and liver function in aged female offspring of ewes fed either a nutrient-restricted [NR 50% National Research Council (NRC) recommendations] or control (C: 100% NRC) diet from 28 to 78 days of gestation, after which both groups were fed at 100% of NRC from day 79 to lambing and through lactation. Female lambs born to NR and C dams were reared as a single group from weaning, and thereafter, they were fed 100% NRC recommendations until assigned to this study at 6 yr of age. These female offspring were evaluated by a frequently sampled intravenous glucose tolerance test, followed by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry for body composition analysis prior to and after ad libitum feeding of a highly palatable pelleted diet for 11 wk with automated monitoring of feed intake (GrowSafe Systems). Aged female offspring born to NR ewes demonstrated greater and more rapid feed intake, greater body weight gain, and efficiency of gain, lower insulin sensitivity, higher insulin secretion, and greater hepatic lipid and glycogen content than offspring from C ewes. These data confirm an increased metabolic “thriftiness” of offspring born to NR mothers, which continues into advanced age, possibly predisposing these offspring to metabolic disease. PMID:22277936

George, Lindsey A.; Zhang, Liren; Tuersunjiang, Nuermaimaiti; Ma, Yan; Long, Nathan M.; Uthlaut, Adam B.; Smith, Derek T.; Nathanielsz, Peter W.

2012-01-01

132

The impact of maternal age on clinical pregnancy and spontaneous abortion in women undergoing in vitro fertilization and gamete intra-fallopian transfer.  

PubMed

The age at which women should be advised against proceeding with initial or further infertility treatment is one of the many unresolved questions in this area of women's health and was the subject of investigation in this study. One of the major difficulties in determining the impact of maternal age on outcomes is the practice of researchers (publishing in journals) and infertility practitioners (reporting to national registers) of coding age as a categorical rather than a continuous variable. In this study, groups of younger (< 30 years) and older (> 35 years) women undergoing assisted reproduction treatments were compared with regards to clinical pregnancy and spontaneous abortion rates following in vitro fertilization (IVF) or gamete intra-Fallopian transfer (GIFT). Response to different ovarian stimulation protocols was also assessed for the 2 groups. The significance of the relationship between maternal age, clinical pregnancy rates, spontaneous abortion rates and the type of treatment and stimulation protocol employed, was tested using a series of binomial distributions. The results indicated that maternal age adversely affects both clinical pregnancy rates and rates of spontaneous abortion, when summed across treatments and stimulation protocols. However, while the age/outcome relationship held for IVF, the GIFT by age relationship was not significant. Stimulation protocols using clomiphene citrate (CC) or gonadotrophin agonists (GnRHa) may impact negatively on older women.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:7848237

Kenny, D T

1994-08-01

133

Association of maternal and intrauterine characteristics with age at menarche in a multiethnic population in Hawaii  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study seeks to further elucidate the mother–daughter hormonal relationship and its effects on daughter’s breast cancer\\u000a risk through the association with early age at menarche. Four hundred and thirty-eight healthy girls, age 9–18 and of White,\\u000a Asian, and\\/or Polynesian race\\/ethnicity, were recruited from an HMO on Oahu, Hawaii. Anthropometric measures were taken at\\u000a a clinic visit, and family background

Meira EppleinRachel; Rachel Novotny; Yihe Daida; Vinutha Vijayadeva; Alvin T. Onaka; Loïc Le Marchand

2010-01-01

134

Patterns of Adolescent Depression to Age 20: The Role of Maternal Depression and Youth Interpersonal Dysfunction  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Considerable research has focused on youth depression, but further information is needed to characterize different patterns of onset and recurrence during adolescence. Four outcome groups by age 20 were defined (early onset-recurrent, early-onset-desisting, later-onset, never depressed) and compared on three variables predictive of youth…

Hammen, Constance; Brennan, Patricia A.; Keenan-Miller, Danielle

2008-01-01

135

First Mothering Over 35 Years: Questioning the Association of Maternal Age and Pregnancy Risk  

Microsoft Academic Search

Women having a first baby at 35+ years are commonly considered to be “at risk” for pregnancy complications. This understanding appears to be based primarily on age, and curerntly many healthy women are included in this category. There is clear evidence to suggest that, for these women, being considered “at risk” is anxiety provoking.In this Australian qualitative study of first

M. Carolan; S. Nelson

2007-01-01

136

Cognitive assessment of school-age children infected with maternally transmitted human immunodeficiency virus type 1  

Microsoft Academic Search

Thirty-three children vertically infected with human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1), who were born before 1985, were followed in a single center, and had reached the age of 6 years, were studied and tested for school achievement. Of these 33 children, 24 were also tested for cognitive abilities, fine motor and language skills, and emotional adaptation. Of the 33 patients,

Marc Tardieu; Marie-Jeanne Mayaux; Nathalie Seibel; Isabelle Funck-Brentano; Elisabeth Straub; Jean-Paul Teglas; Stéphane Blanche

1995-01-01

137

Trimester of Maternal Gestational Weight Gain and Offspring Body Weight at Birth and Age Five  

Microsoft Academic Search

To investigate associations of trimester-specific GWG with fetal birth size and BMI at age 5 years. We examined 3,015 singleton\\u000a births to women without pregnancy complications from the Child Health and Development Studies prospective cohort with measured\\u000a weights during pregnancy. We used multivariable regression to examine the associations between total and trimester gestational\\u000a weight gain (GWG) and birth weight for gestational

Claire E. Margerison-Zilko; Bina P. Shrimali; Brenda Eskenazi; Maureen Lahiff; Allison R. Lindquist; Barbara F. Abrams

138

Maternal serum screening for Down's syndrome in early pregnancy  

Microsoft Academic Search

The possibility of improving the effectiveness of antenatal screening for Down's syndrome by measuring human chorionic gonadotrophin concentrations in maternal serum during the second trimester to select women for diagnostic amniocentesis was examined. The median maternal serum human chorionic gonadotrophin concentration in 77 pregnancies associated with Down's syndrome was twice the median concentration in 385 unaffected pregnancies matched for maternal

N. J. Wald; H. S. Cuckle; J. W. Densem; K. Nanchahal; P. Royston; T. Chard; J. E. Haddow; G. J. Knight; G. E. Palomaki; J. A. Canick

1988-01-01

139

Maternal Pre-Pregnancy Body Mass Index and Offspring Temperament and Behavior at 1 and 2 Years of Age  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Recent research suggests that fetal exposure to increased maternal body mass index (BMI) during pregnancy may be associated with psychopathology later in life. When this link first emerges, and if it is due to intrauterine exposures or confounding variables is not known. We therefore assessed associations between maternal pre-pregnancy BMI and:…

Van Lieshout, Ryan J.; Schmidt, Louis A.; Robinson, Monique; Niccols, Alison; Boyle, Michael H.

2013-01-01

140

Maternal feeding practices and feeding behaviors of Australian children aged 12-36 months.  

PubMed

To explore parents' perceptions of the eating behaviors and related feeding practices of their young children. Mothers (N=740) of children aged 12-36 months and born in South Australia were randomly selected by birth date in four 6-month age bands from a centralized statewide database and invited to complete a postal questionnaire. Valid completed questionnaires were returned for 374 children (51% response rate; 54% female). Although mothers generally reported being confident and happy in feeding their children, 23% often worried that they gave their child the right amount of food. Based on a checklist of 36 specified items, 15% of children consumed no vegetables in the previous 24 h, 11% no fruit and for a further 8% juice was the only fruit. Of 12 specified high fat/sugar foods and drinks, 11% of children consumed none, 20% one, 26% two, and 43% three or more. Six of eight child-feeding practices that promote healthy eating behaviors were undertaken by 75% parents 'often' or 'all of the time'. However, 8 of 11 practices that do not promote healthy eating were undertaken by a third of mothers at least 'sometimes'. In this representative sample, dietary quality issues emerge early and inappropriate feeding practices are prevalent thus identifying the need for very early interventions that promote healthy food preferences and positive feeding practices. Such programs should focus not just on the 'what', but also the 'how' of early feeding, including the feeding relationship and processes appropriate to developmental stage. PMID:20872057

Chan, L; Magarey, A M; Daniels, L A

2011-11-01

141

Higher maternal prenatal cortisol and younger age predict greater infant reactivity to novelty at 4 months: an observation-based study.  

PubMed

Distress-linked activation of the maternal hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA)-axis is considered a pathway by which affect regulation impacts the fetal milieu and neurodevelopment. There is little direct evidence for this conceptual model. In 103 women [mean age 27.45 (±5.65) years] at 36-38 weeks gestation, salivary cortisol was measured before/after stress tasks; distress questionnaires were completed. At 18.49 (±1.83) weeks, infants underwent the Harvard Infant Behavioral Reactivity Protocol assessing cry/motor responses to novelty; women reported on infant behavior and postnatal distress. Prenatal cortisol and distress were not significantly correlated (all ps?>?.10). Proportional odds logistic regressions showed that neither prenatal nor postnatal distress was associated with infant responses to the Harvard Protocol yet pre-stress cortisol and maternal age were: The odds of being classified as High Reactive were 1.60 times higher [95% CI: 1.04, 2.46] for each unit of added cortisol and .90 times lower [95% CI: .82, .99] for every additional year in maternal age. No associations were found between cortisol or prenatal distress and mother-rated infant behavior; postnatal distress was positively associated with mother-rated infant negative behavior (p?=?.03). Observer and mother-rated infant behavior were not associated (all ps?>?.05). Based on independent observations of infants in contrast to maternal perceptions, these results lend support to the hypothesis that pregnant women's HPA-axis activity influences infant behavior. The impact of maternal distress was not supported, except in so far as postnatal distress may increase the likelihood of making negative judgments about infant behavior. PMID:22778036

Werner, Elizabeth; Zhao, Yihong; Evans, Lynn; Kinsella, Michael; Kurzius, Laura; Altincatal, Arman; McDonough, Laraine; Monk, Catherine

2013-11-01

142

Maternal age at first birth and offspring criminality: using the children of twins design to test causal hypotheses.  

PubMed

Teenage childbirth is a risk factor for poor offspring outcomes, particularly offspring antisocial behavior. It is not clear, however, if maternal age at first birth (MAFB) is causally associated with offspring antisocial behavior or if this association is due to selection factors that influence both the likelihood that a young woman gives birth early and that her offspring engage in antisocial behavior. The current study addresses the limitations of previous research by using longitudinal data from Swedish national registries and children of siblings and children of twins comparisons to identify the extent to which the association between MAFB and offspring criminal convictions is consistent with a causal influence and confounded by genetic or environmental factors that make cousins similar. We found offspring born to mothers who began childbearing earlier were more likely to be convicted of a crime than offspring born to mothers who delayed childbearing. The results from comparisons of differentially exposed cousins, especially born to discordant monozygotic twin sisters, provide support for a causal association between MAFB and offspring criminal convictions. The analyses also found little evidence for genetic confounding due to passive gene-environment correlation. Future studies are needed to replicate these findings and to identify environmental risk factors that mediate this causal association. PMID:23398750

Coyne, Claire A; Långström, Niklas; Rickert, Martin E; Lichtenstein, Paul; D'Onofrio, Brian M

2013-02-01

143

Maternal age at first birth and offspring criminality: Using the children-of-twins design to test causal hypotheses  

PubMed Central

Teenage childbirth is a risk factor for poor offspring outcomes, particularly offspring antisocial behaviour. It is not clear if maternal age at first birth (MAFB) is causally associated with offspring antisocial behavior or if this association is due to selection factors that influence both the likelihood that a young woman gives birth early and that her offspring engage in antisocial behavior. The current study addresses the limitations of previous research by using longitudinal data from Swedish national registries and children-of-siblings and children-of-twins comparisons to identify the extent to which the association between MAFB and offspring criminal convictions is consistent with a causal influence and confounded by genetic or environmental factors that make cousins similar. We found offspring born to mothers who began childbearing earlier were more likely to be convicted of a crime than offspring born to mothers who delayed childbearing. The results from comparisons of differentially exposed cousins, especially born to discordant MZ twin sisters, provide support for a causal association between MAFB and offspring criminal convictions. The analyses also found little evidence for genetic confounding due to passive gene-environment correlation. Future studies are needed to replicate these findings and to identify environmental risk factors that mediate this causal association. PMID:23398750

Coyne, Claire A; Langstrom, Niklas; Rickert, Martin E; Lichtenstein, Paul; D'Onofrio, Brian M

2013-01-01

144

Cerebral blood flow is diminished in asymptomatic middle-aged adults with maternal history of Alzheimer's disease.  

PubMed

Cerebral blood flow (CBF) provides an indication of the metabolic status of the cortex and may have utility in elucidating preclinical brain changes in persons at risk for Alzheimer's disease (AD) and related diseases. In this study, we investigated CBF in 327 well-characterized adults including patients with AD (n = 28), patients with amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI, n = 23), older cognitively normal (OCN, n = 24) adults, and asymptomatic middle-aged adults (n = 252) with and without a family history (FH) of AD. Compared with the asymptomatic cohort, AD patients displayed significant hypoperfusion in the precuneus, posterior cingulate, lateral parietal cortex, and the hippocampal region. Patients with aMCI exhibited a similar but less marked pattern of hypoperfusion. Perfusion deficits within the OCN adults were primarily localized to the inferior parietal lobules. Asymptomatic participants with a maternal FH of AD showed hypoperfusion in hippocampal and parietofrontal regions compared with those without a FH of AD or those with only a paternal FH of AD. These observations persisted when gray matter volume was included as a voxel-wise covariate. Our findings suggest that having a mother with AD might confer a particular risk for AD-related cerebral hypoperfusion in midlife. In addition, they provide further support for the potential utility of arterial spin labeling for the measurement of AD-related neurometabolic dysfunction, particularly in situations where [18F]fluorodeoxyglucose imaging is infeasible or clinically contraindicated. PMID:23236200

Okonkwo, Ozioma C; Xu, Guofan; Oh, Jennifer M; Dowling, N Maritza; Carlsson, Cynthia M; Gallagher, Catherine L; Birdsill, Alex C; Palotti, Matthew; Wharton, Whitney; Hermann, Bruce P; LaRue, Asenath; Bendlin, Barbara B; Rowley, Howard A; Asthana, Sanjay; Sager, Mark A; Johnson, Sterling C

2014-04-01

145

Pre- and Postovulatory Aging of Murine Oocytes Affect the Transcript Level and Poly(A) Tail Length of Maternal Effect Genes  

PubMed Central

Maternal effect genes code for oocyte proteins that are important for early embryogenesis. Transcription in oocytes does not take place from the onset of meiotic progression until zygotic genome activation. During this period, protein levels are regulated posttranscriptionally, for example by poly(A) tail length. Posttranscriptional regulation may be impaired in preovulatory and postovulatory aged oocytes, caused by delayed ovulation or delayed fertilization, respectively, and may lead to developmental defects. We investigated transcript levels and poly(A) tail length of ten maternal effect genes in in vivo- and in vitro- (follicle culture) grown oocytes after pre- and postovulatory aging. Quantitative RT-PCR was performed using random hexamer-primed cDNA to determine total transcript levels and oligo(dT)16-primed cDNA to analyze poly(A) tail length. Transcript levels of in vivo preovulatory-aged oocytes remained stable except for decreases in Brg1 and Tet3. Most genes investigated showed a tendency towards increased poly(A) content. Polyadenylation of in vitro preovulatory-aged oocytes was also increased, along with transcript level declines of Trim28, Nlrp2, Nlrp14 and Zar1. In contrast to preovulatory aging, postovulatory aging of in vivo- and in vitro-grown oocytes led to a shortening of poly(A) tails. Postovulatory aging of in vivo-grown oocytes resulted in deadenylation of Nlrp5 after 12 h, and deadenylation of 4 further genes (Tet3, Trim28, Dnmt1, Oct4) after 24 h. Similarly, transcripts of in vitro-grown oocytes were deadenylated after 12 h of postovulatory aging (Tet3, Trim28, Zfp57, Dnmt1, Nlrp5, Zar1). This impact of aging on poly(A) tail length may affect the timed translation of maternal effect gene transcripts and thereby contribute to developmental defects. PMID:25271735

Trapphoff, Tom; Heiligentag, Martyna; Rademacher, Katrin; Eichenlaub-Ritter, Ursula; Horsthemke, Bernhard; Grummer, Ruth

2014-01-01

146

Cumulative effects of maternal age and unintended pregnancy on offspring aggression.  

PubMed

Research on physical aggression often points to teen motherhood as being a primary contributor in the development of aggressive tendencies among young children. As a result of poor parenting practices, limited education, and a lack of emotional, physical, and financial resources, children born to young mothers often exhibit high levels of aggression across the life course. Meanwhile, unintentional pregnancy and young motherhood are likely to share many of the same risk factors and negative consequences for offspring, yet there is a dearth of research examining pregnancy intentionality and offspring aggression. Using the Fragile Families and Wellbeing Study, our study examines how mother's age and pregnancy intention status influence aggression among their 5-year-old children. We find that young motherhood and unintended births, despite being likely to co-occur, each provide distinct mechanisms for the formation of aggressive behavior in childhood. PMID:24664252

Mack, Julia M; Chavez, Jorge M

2014-11-01

147

Maternal Zinc Supplementation during Pregnancy Affects Autonomic Function of Peruvian Children Assessed at 54 Months of Age12  

PubMed Central

Maternal prenatal zinc supplementation improved fetal autonomic regulation in a nutrient-deficient population in Peru. To evaluate whether differences in autonomic regulation existed in early childhood, we studied 165 children from a zinc supplementation trial (80% of original sample) as part of a comprehensive evaluation at age 54 mo. Electrocardiogram (ECG) data were collected from the children at rest and while they underwent a cognitive testing battery following a standardized protocol. Of these, 79 were born to mothers receiving 25 mg/d zinc in addition to 60 mg/d iron and 250 ?g/d folic acid during pregnancy, and 86 were born to mothers receiving iron and folic acid only. Derived cardiac measures included heart period (HP), range, HP variability (HPV), mean square of successive differences (MSSD), and a measure of vagal tone (V). Children in the zinc supplementation group had greater HP (i.e. slower heart rate), greater range, higher time-independent (HPV) and time-dependent (MSSD) variability in HP, and higher V (P < 0.05) during baseline. Analyses conducted across the cognitive testing period revealed similar effects of prenatal zinc supplementation on cardiac patterns. Concurrent child zinc plasma concentration was also associated with longer HP, greater variability, and marginally higher range and V (P < 0.10). Differences in cardiac patterns due to prenatal zinc supplementation were detectable in children at 54 mo of age during conditions of both rest and challenge, indicating that supplementing zinc-deficient pregnant women has beneficial long-term consequences for neural development associated with autonomic regulation. PMID:21178078

Caulfield, Laura E.; Zavaleta, Nelly; Chen, Ping; Lazarte, Fabiola; Albornoz, Carla; Putnick, Diane L.; Bornstein, Marc H.; DiPietro, Janet A.

2011-01-01

148

Neurobehavioral deficits at age 7 years associated with prenatal exposure to toxicants from maternal seafood diet  

PubMed Central

To determine the possible neurotoxic impact of prenatal exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), we analyzed banked cord blood from a Faroese birth cohort for PCBs. The subjects were born in 1986–1987, and 917 cohort members had completed a series of neuropsychological tests at age 7 years. Major PCB congeners (118, 138, 153, and 180), the calculated total PCB concentration, and the PCB exposure estimated in a structural equation model showed weak associations with test deficits, with statistically significant negative associations only with the Boston Naming test. Likewise, neither hexachlorobenzene nor p,p'-dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene showed clear links to neurobehavioral deficits. Thus, these associations were much weaker than those associated with the cord-blood mercury concentration, and adjustment for mercury substantially attenuated the regression coefficients for PCB exposure. When the outcomes were joined into motor and verbally mediated functions in a structural equation model, the PCB effects remained weak and virtually disappeared after adjustment for methylmercury exposure, while mercury remained statistically significant. Thus, in the presence of elevated methylmercury exposure, PCB neurotoxicity may be difficult to detect, and PCB exposure does not explain the methylmercury neurotoxicity previously reported in this cohort. PMID:22705177

Grandjean, Philippe; Weihe, Pal; Nielsen, Flemming; Heinzow, Birger; Debes, Frodi; Budtz-J?rgensen, Esben

2012-01-01

149

Pharmacological anti-thrombotic prophylaxis after elective caesarean delivery in thrombophilia unscreened women: should maternal age have a role in decision making?  

PubMed

In obstetrical practice, the best prevention strategy for pregnant women aged >35 years without known thrombosis risk factors who underwent elective caesarean delivery (CD) is controversial. We performed an observational-longitudinal cohort study on pregnant women aged >35 years who delivered at term by elective caesarean section after a physiological single pregnancy to evaluate the role of maternal age in the decision-making process of whether or not to perform low-molecular-weight heparin (LMWH) prophylaxis during the post-partum period after elective CD in healthy women with unknown inherited thrombophilia status. During the 6 post-partum weeks, we followed two groups: GROUP-A (349 women treated for 7 days with low-molecular-weight heparin) and GROUP-B (180 women not treated with LMWH treatment). The outcomes were as follows: onset of thromboembolic events during the post-partum period; non-obstetrical-linked maternal haemorrhage; blood transfusion; re-laparotomy; detection of a surgical site haematoma; length of hospitalisation; and treatment suspension because of decreased platelet count. Except for the parity number, the two groups were homogeneous with regard to general features. In both the groups, we reported no cases of thromboembolic events during the follow-up period. Maternal haemorrhage requiring transfusion occurred in 16 women in GROUP-A and none in GROUP-B. Among the GROUP-A women, 11 demonstrated a surgical site haematoma and 4 required re-laparotomy. No cases of treatment suspension were reported. Pneumatic compression stockings represent a better, low cost and safe way to prevent post-partum venous thromboembolic episodes after elective caesarean section in an unscreened population. Pharmacological prophylaxis after elective caesarean section should be performed only in case of clear and known adjunctive risk factors, independent of maternal age. PMID:24246285

Gizzo, Salvatore; Noventa, Marco; Anis, Omar; Saccardi, Carlo; Zambon, Alessandra; Di Gangi, Stefania; Tormene, Daniela; Gangemi, Michele; D'Antona, Donato; Nardelli, Giovanni Battista

2014-05-01

150

Twenty-year trends in the prevalence of Down syndrome and other trisomies in Europe: impact of maternal age and prenatal screening.  

PubMed

This study examines trends and geographical differences in total and live birth prevalence of trisomies 21, 18 and 13 with regard to increasing maternal age and prenatal diagnosis in Europe. Twenty-one population-based EUROCAT registries covering 6.1 million births between 1990 and 2009 participated. Trisomy cases included live births, fetal deaths from 20 weeks gestational age and terminations of pregnancy for fetal anomaly. We present correction to 20 weeks gestational age (ie, correcting early terminations for the probability of fetal survival to 20 weeks) to allow for artefactual screening-related differences in total prevalence. Poisson regression was used. The proportion of births in the population to mothers aged 35+ years in the participating registries increased from 13% in 1990 to 19% in 2009. Total prevalence per 10000 births was 22.0 (95% CI 21.7-22.4) for trisomy 21, 5.0 (95% CI 4.8-5.1) for trisomy 18 and 2.0 (95% CI 1.9-2.2) for trisomy 13; live birth prevalence was 11.2 (95% CI 10.9-11.5) for trisomy 21, 1.04 (95% CI 0.96-1.12) for trisomy 18 and 0.48 (95% CI 0.43-0.54) for trisomy 13. There was an increase in total and total corrected prevalence of all three trisomies over time, mainly explained by increasing maternal age. Live birth prevalence remained stable over time. For trisomy 21, there was a three-fold variation in live birth prevalence between countries. The rise in maternal age has led to an increase in the number of trisomy-affected pregnancies in Europe. Live birth prevalence has remained stable overall. Differences in prenatal screening and termination between countries lead to wide variation in live birth prevalence. PMID:22713804

Loane, Maria; Morris, Joan K; Addor, Marie-Claude; Arriola, Larraitz; Budd, Judith; Doray, Berenice; Garne, Ester; Gatt, Miriam; Haeusler, Martin; Khoshnood, Babak; Klungsøyr Melve, Kari; Latos-Bielenska, Anna; McDonnell, Bob; Mullaney, Carmel; O'Mahony, Mary; Queisser-Wahrendorf, Annette; Rankin, Judith; Rissmann, Anke; Rounding, Catherine; Salvador, Joaquin; Tucker, David; Wellesley, Diana; Yevtushok, Lyubov; Dolk, Helen

2013-01-01

151

Socio-occupational class, region of birth and maternal age: influence on time to detection of cryptorchidism (undescended testes): a Danish nationwide register study  

PubMed Central

Background Cryptorchidism (undescended testes) is associated with poor male fertility, but can be alleviated and fertility preserved to some degree by early detection and treatment. Here we assess the influence of socio-occupational class, geographical region, maternal age and birth cohort on time to detection and correction of cryptorchidism. Methods All boys born in Denmark, 1981 to 1987 or 1988 to 1994, with a diagnosis of cryptorchidism were identified in nationwide registers. The boys were followed for a diagnosis until their 16th birthday. The age at first diagnosis was noted and used as proxy for time to detection of cryptorchidism. Parental employment in the calendar year preceding birth was grouped into one of five socio-occupational classes. Geographical region was defined by place of birth in one of 15 Danish counties. Detection rate ratios of cryptorchidism were analyzed as a function of parental socio-occupational group, county, maternal age and birth cohort by use of Poisson regression. Results Some 6,059 boys in the early and 5,947 boys in the late cohort received a diagnosis of cryptorchidism. Time to detection was independent of parental socio-occupational group and maternal age but differed slightly between geographical regions. A similar pattern was obtained for surgical correction after a diagnosis. Age at diagnosis decreased by 2.7 years from the early to the late cohort. Conclusions These results indicate that childhood socio-occupational inequality in detection and correction of cryptorchidism would play a negligible role in male infertility in a life course perspective. Geographical region may have exerted some influence, especially for the oldest cohort. PMID:24581337

2014-01-01

152

Plasmodium falciparum exposure in utero, maternal age and parity influence the innate activation of foetal antigen presenting cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Malaria in pregnancy is associated with immunological abnormalities in the newborns, such as hampered T-helper 1 responses and increased T-regulatory responses, while the effect of maternal Plasmodium falciparum infection on foetal innate immunity is still controversial. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The immunophenotype and cytokine release by dendritic cells (DC) and monocytes were evaluated in cord blood from 59 Beninese women

Nadine Fievet; Stefania Varani; Samad Ibitokou; Valérie Briand; Stéphanie Louis; René Xavier Perrin; Achille Massougbogji; Anne Hosmalin; Marita Troye-Blomberg; Philippe Deloron

2009-01-01

153

Maternal Responsiveness to Young Children at Three Ages: Longitudinal Analysis of a Multidimensional, Modular, and Specific Parenting Construct  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Responsiveness defines the prompt, contingent, and appropriate reactions parents display to their children in the context of everyday exchanges. Maternal responsiveness occupies a theoretically central position in developmental science and possesses meaningful predictive validity over diverse domains of children's development, yet basic…

Bornstein, Marc H.; Tamis-LeMonda, Catherine S.; Hahn, Chun-Shin; Haynes, O. Maurice

2008-01-01

154

The association of maternal prenatal psychosocial stress with vascular function in the child at age 10–11 years: findings from the Avon longitudinal study of parents and children  

PubMed Central

Objective To investigate whether (1) maternal psychosocial stress (depression/anxiety) during pregnancy is associated with offspring vascular function and (2) whether any association differs depending on the gestational timing of exposure to stress. We also investigated whether any association is likely to be due to intrauterine mechanisms by (3) comparing with the association of paternal stress with offspring vascular function and (4) examining whether any prenatal association is explained by maternal postnatal stress. Methods and results Associations were examined in a UK birth cohort, with offspring outcomes (systolic and diastolic blood pressure, SBP and DBP, endothelial function assessed by brachial artery flow-mediated dilatation (FMD); arterial stiffness assessed by carotid to radial pulse wave velocity (PWV), brachial artery distensibility (DC), and brachial artery diameter (BD) assessed at age 10–11 years (n?=?4318). Maternal depressive symptoms and anxiety were assessed at 18 and 32 weeks gestation and 8 months postnatally. Paternal symptoms were assessed at week 19. With the exception of DBP and BD, there were no associations of maternal depressive symptoms with any of the vascular outcomes. Maternal depressive and anxiety symptoms were associated with lower offspring DBP and wider BD, though the latter attenuated to the null with adjustment for confounding factors. Paternal symptoms were not associated with offspring outcomes. Maternal postnatal depressive symptoms were associated with lower offspring SBP. Conclusions We found no evidence to support the hypothesis that maternal stress during pregnancy adversely affects offspring vascular function at age 10–12 years via intrauterine mechanisms. PMID:23559536

Dawe, Karen; Deanfield, John; Stronks, Karien; Gemke, Reinoud JBJ; Vrijkotte, Tanja GM; Lawlor, Debbie A

2014-01-01

155

Bifid median nerve: Report of two cases  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary The median nerve divides into its terminal branches at or proximal to the distal edge of the flexor retinaculum. An anatomy of the median nerve within the carpal tunnel is reported in two separate cases. Emphasis has been given to the value of direct vision when incising the flexor retinaculum in order to avoid injure of the median nerve.

M. Artico; L. Cervoni; G. Stevanato; V. D. Andrea; F. Nucci

1995-01-01

156

Passive West Nile virus antibody transfer from maternal Eastern screech-owls (Megascops asio) to progeny.  

PubMed

Transovarial antibody transfer in owls has not been demonstrated for West Nile virus (WNV). We sampled chicks from captive adult WNV-antibody-positive Eastern Screech-Owls (Megascops asio) to evaluate the prevalence of transovarial maternal antibody transfer, as well as titers and duration of maternal antibodies. Twenty-four owlets aged 1 to 27 days old circulated detectable antibodies with neutralizing antibody titers ranging from 20 to 1600 (median 1:40). Demonstrating that WNV antibodies are passively transferred transovarially is important for accurate interpretation of serologic data from young birds. PMID:17039850

Hahn, D C; Nemeth, Nicole M; Edwards, Eric; Bright, Patricia R; Komar, Nicholas

2006-09-01

157

Passive West Nile virus antibody transfer from maternal Eastern Screech-Owls (Megascops asio) to progeny  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Transovarial antibody transfer in owls has not been demonstrated for West Nile virus (WNV). We sampled chicks from captive adult WNV-antibody-positive Eastern Screech-Owls (Megascops asio) to evaluate the prevalence of transovarial maternal antibody transfer, as well as titers and duration of maternal antibodies. Twenty-four owlets aged 1 to 27 days old circulated detectable antibodies with neutralizing antibody titers ranging from 20 to 1600 (median 1:40). Demonstrating that WNV antibodies are passively transferred transovarially is important for accurate interpretation of serologic data from young birds.

Hahn, D.C.; Nemeth, N.M.; Edwards, E.; Bright, P.R,.; Komar, N.

2006-01-01

158

Investigating maternal risk factors as potential targets of intervention to reduce socioeconomic inequality in small for gestational age: a population-based study  

PubMed Central

Background The major aim of this study was to investigate whether maternal risk factors associated with socioeconomic status and small for gestational age (SGA) might be viable targets of interventions to reduce differential risk of SGA by socioeconomic status (socioeconomic SGA inequality) in the metropolitan area of Vancouver, Canada. Methods This study included 59,039 live, singleton births in the Vancouver Census Metropolitan Area (Vancouver) from January 1, 2006 to September 17, 2009. To identify an indicator of socioeconomic SGA inequality, we used hierarchical logistic regression to model SGA by area-level variables from the Canadian census. We then modelled SGA by area-level average income plus established maternal risk factors for SGA and calculated population attributable SGA risk percentages (PAR%) for each variable. Associations of maternal risk factors for SGA with average income were investigated to identify those that might contribute to SGA inequality. Finally, we estimated crude reductions in the percentage and absolute differences in SGA risks between highest and lowest average income quintiles that would result if interventions on maternal risk factors successfully equalized them across income levels or eliminated them altogether. Results Average income produced the most linear and statistically significant indicator of socioeconomic SGA inequality with 8.9% prevalence of SGA in the lowest income quintile compared to 5.6% in the highest. The adjusted PAR% of SGA for variables were: bottom four quintiles of height (51%), first birth (32%), bottom four quintiles of average income (14%), oligohydramnios (7%), underweight or hypertension, (6% each), smoking (3%) and placental disorder (1%). Shorter height, underweight and smoking during pregnancy had higher prevalence in lower income groups. Crude models assuming equalization of risk factors across income levels or elimination altogether indicated little potential change in relative socioeconomic SGA inequality and reduction in absolute SGA inequality for shorter height only. Conclusions Our findings regarding maternal height may indicate trans-generational aetiology for socioeconomic SGA inequalities and/or that adult height influences social mobility. Conditions affecting foetal and childhood growth might be viable targets to reduce absolute socioeconomic SGA inequality in future generations, but more research is needed to determine whether such an approach is appropriate. PMID:22569183

2012-01-01

159

Correlation between subclinical median neuropathy and the cross-sectional area of the median nerve at the wrist.  

PubMed

Although subclinical median neuropathy is not uncommon, its correlation with sonographic changes to the median nerve at the wrist has not been studied. We included 62 subjects (with 107 wrists) who reported experiencing no hand numbness. All subjects underwent nerve conduction studies (NCS) and sonography for median nerve at the pisiform level. The cross-sectional area (CSA), perimeter, long axis and short axis of median nerve were obtained off-line by manual tracing with a mouse and computed by one algorithm written in MatLab. Eighteen wrists met the inclusion criteria of subclinical median neuropathy. The CSA, perimeter and long axis of the median nerve were significantly different between normal and abnormal NCS wrists. Mixed model analysis showed that subclinical neuropathy was associated with enlarged CSA, but the other demographic variables (gender, age and body mass index and occupational categories) were not. Our findings support the use of both patient symptoms and NCS to define normal subjects during further studies. In addition, enlarged CSA within asymptomatic individuals should raise concern for subclinical median neuropathy. PMID:23499346

Su, Po-Hsien; Chen, Wen-Shiang; Wang, Tyng-Guey; Liang, Huey-Wen

2013-06-01

160

Impact of maternal age on obstetric and neonatal outcome with emphasis on primiparous adolescents and older women: a Swedish Medical Birth Register Study  

PubMed Central

Objectives To evaluate the associations between maternal age and obstetric and neonatal outcomes in primiparous women with emphasis on teenagers and older women. Design A population-based cohort study. Setting The Swedish Medical Birth Register. Participants Primiparous women with singleton births from 1992 through 2010 (N=798?674) were divided into seven age groups: <17?years, 17–19?years and an additional five 5-year classes. The reference group consisted of the women aged 25–29?years. Primary outcome Obstetric and neonatal outcome. Results The teenager groups had significantly more vaginal births (adjusted OR (aOR) 2.04 (1.79 to 2.32) and 1.95 (1.88 to 2.02) for age <17?years and 17–19?years, respectively); fewer caesarean sections (aOR 0.57 (0.48 to 0.67) and 0.55 (0.53 to 0.58)), and instrumental vaginal births (aOR 0.43 (0.36 to 0.52) and 0.50 (0.48 to 0.53)) compared with the reference group. The opposite was found among older women reaching a fourfold increased OR for caesarean section. The teenagers showed no increased risk of adverse neonatal outcome but presented an increased risk of prematurity <32?weeks (aOR 1.66 (1.10 to 2.51) and 1.20 (1.04 to 1.38)). Women with advancing age (?30?years) revealed significantly increased risk of prematurity, perineal lacerations, preeclampsia, abruption, placenta previa, postpartum haemorrhage and unfavourable neonatal outcomes compared with the reference group. Conclusions For clinicians counselling young women it is of importance to highlight the obstetrically positive consequences that fewer maternal complications and favourable neonatal outcomes are expected. The results imply that there is a need for individualising antenatal surveillance programmes and obstetric care based on age grouping in order to attempt to improve the outcomes in the age groups with less favourable obstetric and neonatal outcomes. Such changes in surveillance programmes and obstetric interventions need to be evaluated in further studies. PMID:25387756

Blomberg, Marie; Birch Tyrberg, Rasmus; Kjølhede, Preben

2014-01-01

161

Maternal exposure to perfluorinated acids and fetal growth.  

PubMed

The widespread detection of perfluorinated acids (PFAs) in humans and known developmental toxicity in animals has raised concern about their potential effects on human reproductive health. Our objective was to determine whether increasing maternal exposure to PFAs is associated with adverse effects on fetal growth and length of gestation in women giving birth in Alberta, Canada. We examined the concentrations of perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS), and perfluorohexane sulfonate (PFHxS) in a cohort of 252 pregnant women who gave birth to live singletons. Each of the women had undergone an early second trimester prenatal screen, and her serum was analyzed for PFA concentrations. Data on infant and maternal variables were collected from the delivery record completed at birth. Adjusted changes in birth weight per natural log (ng/ml) of PFOA (median 1.5 ng/ml), PFHxS (median 0.97 ng/ml), and PFOS (median 7.8 ng/ml) were -37.4 g (95% confidence interval (CI): -86.0 to 11.2 g), 21.9 g (-23.4 to 67.2 g), and 31.3 g (-43.3 to 105.9 g), respectively. Mean birth weight z-score, standardized for gestational age and gender, length of gestation, and risk of preterm birth did not appear to be influenced by maternal PFA exposure. When PFA concentrations were divided into tertiles, similar patterns were observed. These results suggest that maternal PFA exposure has no substantial effect on fetal weight and length of gestation at the concentrations observed in this population. PMID:19865074

Hamm, Michele P; Cherry, Nicola M; Chan, Emily; Martin, Jonathan W; Burstyn, Igor

2010-11-01

162

REGRESSION ON MEDIANS OF PROBABILITY DISTRIBUTIONS  

EPA Science Inventory

The median is a fundamental parameter in the area of lifetime and survival statistics. n toxicodynamics the LD50, lethal dose that results in 50% mortality, is frequently used. he median is also used to describe the incidence of cancer and other disease states. Factors such as nu...

163

Senescence of maternal effects: aging influences egg quality and rearing capacities of a long-lived bird.  

PubMed

Senescence could depress prenatal and postnatal capacities of mothers to invest in offspring. Longitudinal observations on the blue-footed booby (Sula nebouxii) revealed a quadratic effect of female age on fledgling production and cohort differences in rate of reproductive decline. By swapping clutches between females of different ages, we tested whether reproductive senescence is due to decline in egg quality or capacity to care. As laying mothers aged, egg size, ulna length of 5-day-old chicks, and ulna growth of second chicks up to age 30 days declined, and as rearing mothers aged, ulna growth and cellular mediated immune response of second chicks diminished. Oddly, senescent females (>11 years) produced more fledglings when rearing offspring of middle-aged females (8-11 years) than when rearing offspring of senescent or young females. Thus, senescence reduced egg quality and rearing capacities, and reproductive success of senescent mothers depended on prenatal effects associated with the age of the laying mother. Reproductive senescence of boobies may involve constraints on resources allocated to reproduction as well as adaptive adjustment of provision and care according to offspring value, implying that negative effects of senescence on offspring survival can be ameliorated by plasticity in postlaying or postnatal care. PMID:20175680

Beamonte-Barrientos, René; Velando, Alberto; Drummond, Hugh; Torres, Roxana

2010-04-01

164

Effect of Maternal Schistosoma mansoni Infection and Praziquantel Treatment During Pregnancy on Schistosoma mansoni Infection and Immune Responsiveness among Offspring at Age Five Years  

PubMed Central

Introduction Offspring of Schistosoma mansoni-infected women in schistosomiasis-endemic areas may be sensitised in-utero. This may influence their immune responsiveness to schistosome infection and schistosomiasis-associated morbidity. Effects of praziquantel treatment of S. mansoni during pregnancy on risk of S. mansoni infection among offspring, and on their immune responsiveness when they become exposed to S. mansoni, are unknown. Here we examined effects of praziquantel treatment of S. mansoni during pregnancy on prevalence of S. mansoni and immune responsiveness among offspring at age five years. Methods In a trial in Uganda (ISRCTN32849447, http://www.controlled-trials.com/ISRCTN32849447/elliott), offspring of women treated with praziquantel or placebo during pregnancy were examined for S. mansoni infection and for cytokine and antibody responses to SWA and SEA, as well as for T cell expression of FoxP3, at age five years. Results Of the 1343 children examined, 32 (2.4%) had S. mansoni infection at age five years based on a single stool sample. Infection prevalence did not differ between children of treated or untreated mothers. Cytokine (IFN?, IL-5, IL-10 and IL-13) and antibody (IgG1, Ig4 and IgE) responses to SWA and SEA, and FoxP3 expression, were higher among infected than uninfected children. Praziquantel treatment of S. mansoni during pregnancy had no effect on immune responses, with the exception of IL-10 responses to SWA, which was higher in offspring of women that received praziquantel during pregnancy than those who did not. Conclusion We found no evidence that maternal S. mansoni infection and its treatment during pregnancy influence prevalence and intensity of S. mansoni infection or effector immune response to S. mansoni infection among offspring at age five years, but the observed effects on IL-10 responses to SWA suggest that maternal S. mansoni and its treatment during pregnancy may affect immunoregulatory responsiveness in childhood schistosomiasis. This might have implications for pathogenesis of the disease. PMID:24147175

Tweyongyere, Robert; Naniima, Peter; Mawa, Patrice A.; Jones, Frances M.; Webb, Emily L.; Cose, Stephen; Dunne, David W.; Elliott, Alison M.

2013-01-01

165

Mental Health in Low-to-Moderate Risk Preterm, Low Birth Weight, and Small for Gestational Age Children at 4 to 5 Years: The Role of Early Maternal Parenting  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objectives: The majority of children born preterm, with low birth weight, or small for gestational age are born with low-to-moderate risk (LTM), yet most research focuses on the high-risk group. Little is known about whether children with LTM perinatal risk are at greater risk for mental health problems, or what the role of early maternal

Westrupp, Elizabeth M.; Mensah, Fiona K.; Giallo, Rebecca; Cooklin, Amanda; Nicholson, Jan M.

2012-01-01

166

Maternal toxicity.  

PubMed

Although demonstration of some degree of maternal toxicity is required in regulatory developmental toxicology studies, marked maternal toxicity may be a confounding factor in data interpretation. Reduction in maternal body weight gain is the far most frequently used endpoint of toxicity, but alternative endpoints, like organ toxicity or exaggerated pharmacological response, can also be taken into consideration. The following conclusions are based on literature data and discussions at maternal toxicity workshops attended by representatives from regulatory agencies, academia, and industry: (1) Available results do not support that maternal toxicity (defined as clinical signs, decreased body weight gain or absolute body weight loss of up to 15% in rats or 7% in rabbits) can be used to explain the occurrence of major malformations. (2) There is clear evidence that substantial reductions in maternal weight gain (or absolute weight loss) are linked with other manifestations of developmental toxicity. Among these can be mentioned decreased fetal weight, and skeletal anomalies (e.g., wavy ribs) in rats and decreased fetal weights, post implantation loss, abortions, and some skeletal anomalies in rabbits. (3) There are several examples of misinterpretation among companies, where it was incorrectly expected that regulatory authorities would not label chemicals/drugs as "teratogens/developmental toxicants" because embryo fetal adverse effects were only observed at doses also causing signs of maternal toxicity. (4) Similarly, even if mechanistic studies indicate that a substance causes developmental toxicity via exaggerated pharmacological effects in the mother, such a mechanism does not automatically negate the observed fetal adverse effects.From a regulatory perspective, an observed developmental toxic finding is considered to be of potential human relevance (even if it is mediated via maternal pharmacological effects or occur at doses causing signs of maternal toxicity) unless the company can provide appropriate mechanistic and/or other convincing evidence to the contrary. PMID:23138914

Danielsson, Bengt R

2013-01-01

167

Coenzyme Q10 prevents accelerated cardiac aging in a rat model of poor maternal nutrition and accelerated postnatal growth?  

PubMed Central

Studies in human and animals have demonstrated that nutritionally induced low birth-weight followed by rapid postnatal growth increases the risk of metabolic syndrome and cardiovascular disease. Although the mechanisms underlying such nutritional programming are not clearly defined, increased oxidative-stress leading to accelerated cellular aging has been proposed to play an important role. Using an established rodent model of low birth-weight and catch-up growth, we show here that post-weaning dietary supplementation with coenzyme Q10, a key component of the electron transport chain and a potent antioxidant rescued many of the detrimental effects of nutritional programming on cardiac aging. This included a reduction in nitrosative and oxidative-stress, telomere shortening, DNA damage, cellular senescence and apoptosis. These findings demonstrate the potential for postnatal antioxidant intervention to reverse deleterious phenotypes of developmental programming and therefore provide insight into a potential translatable therapy to prevent cardiovascular disease in at risk humans. PMID:24327963

Tarry-Adkins, Jane L.; Blackmore, Heather L.; Martin-Gronert, Malgorzata S.; Fernandez-Twinn, Denise S.; McConnell, Josie M.; Hargreaves, Iain P.; Giussani, Dino A.; Ozanne, Susan E.

2013-01-01

168

Psychological responses to prenatal NTS counseling and the uptake of invasive testing in women of advanced maternal age  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examines women’s psychological responses to prenatal group genetic counseling, and to subsequent individualized risk counseling. All women (N=123) aged 35 and older underwent nuchal translucency screening (NTS), a prenatal ultrasound screening test. After group counseling, decisional conflict decreased significantly among those reporting at baseline having made a decision about invasive testing (t(222)=2.00, P=0.014) and for those who were

Amy S Kaiser; Lorraine E. Ferris; Randy Katz; Anne Pastuszak; Hilary Llewellyn-Thomas; Jo-Ann Johnson; Brian F Shaw

2004-01-01

169

Premature dyad separation in meiosis II is the major segregation error with maternal age in mouse oocytes.  

PubMed

As women get older their oocytes become susceptible to chromosome mis-segregation. This generates aneuploid embryos, leading to increased infertility and birth defects. Here we examined the provenance of aneuploidy by tracking chromosomes and their kinetochores in oocytes from young and aged mice. Changes consistent with chromosome cohesion deterioration were found with age, including increased interkinetochore distance and loss of the centromeric protector of cohesion SGO2 in metaphase II arrested (metII) eggs, as well as a rise in the number of weakly attached bivalents in meiosis I (MI) and lagging chromosomes at anaphase I. However, there were no MI errors in congression or biorientation. Instead, premature separation of dyads in meiosis II was the major segregation defect in aged eggs and these were associated with very low levels of SGO2. These data show that although considerable cohesion loss occurs during MI, its consequences are observed during meiosis II, when centromeric cohesion is needed to maintain dyad integrity. PMID:24346700

Yun, Yan; Lane, Simon I R; Jones, Keith T

2014-01-01

170

Differential Effects of Exposure to Maternal Obesity or Maternal Weight Loss during the Periconceptional Period in the Sheep on Insulin Signalling Molecules in Skeletal Muscle of the Offspring at 4 Months of Age  

PubMed Central

Exposure to maternal obesity before and/or throughout pregnancy may increase the risk of obesity and insulin resistance in the offspring in childhood and adult life, therefore, resulting in its transmission into subsequent generations. We have previously shown that exposure to maternal obesity around the time of conception alone resulted in increased adiposity in female lambs. Changes in the abundance of insulin signalling molecules in skeletal muscle and adipose tissue precede the development of insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes. It is not clear, however, whether exposure to maternal obesity results in insulin resistance in her offspring as a consequence of the impact of increased adiposity on skeletal muscle or as a consequence of the programming of specific changes in the abundance of insulin signalling molecules in this tissue. We have used an embryo transfer model in the sheep to investigate the effects of exposure to either maternal obesity or to weight loss in normal and obese mothers preceding and for one week after conception on the expression and abundance of insulin signalling molecules in muscle in the offspring. We found that exposure to maternal obesity resulted in lower muscle GLUT-4 and Ser 9 phospho-GSK3? and higher muscle GSK3? abundance in lambs when compared to lambs conceived in normally nourished ewes. Exposure to maternal weight loss in normal or obese mothers, however, resulted in lower muscle IRS1, PI3K, p110?, aPKC?, Thr 642 phospho-AS160 and GLUT-4 abundance in the offspring. In conclusion, maternal obesity or weight loss around conception have each programmed specific changes on subsets of molecules in the insulin signalling, glucose transport and glycogen synthesis pathways in offspring. There is a need for a stronger evidence base to ensure that weight loss regimes in obese women seeking to become pregnant minimize the metabolic costs for the next generation. PMID:24386400

Nicholas, Lisa M.; Morrison, Janna L.; Rattanatray, Leewen; Ozanne, Susan E.; Kleemann, Dave O.; Walker, Simon K.; MacLaughlin, Severence M.; Zhang, Song; Martin-Gronert, Malgorzata S.; McMillen, Isabella C.

2013-01-01

171

Maternal immunization.  

PubMed

Maternal immunization has the potential to protect the pregnant woman, fetus, and infant from vaccine-preventable diseases. Maternal immunoglobulin G is actively transported across the placenta, providing passive immunity to the neonate and infant prior to the infant's ability to respond to vaccines. Currently inactivated influenza, tetanus toxoid, and acellular pertussis vaccines are recommended during pregnancy. Several other vaccines have been studied in pregnancy and found to be safe and immunogenic and to provide antibody to infants. These include pneumococcus, group B Streptococcus, Haemophilus influenzae type b, and meningococcus vaccines. Other vaccines in development for potential maternal immunization include respiratory syncytial virus, herpes simplex virus, and cytomegalovirus vaccines. PMID:24799324

Chu, Helen Y; Englund, Janet A

2014-08-15

172

The impact of prenatal serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SRI) antidepressant exposure and maternal mood on mother-infant interactions at 3 months of age.  

PubMed

Exposure to maternal depression increases risks for altered mother-infant interactions. Serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SRI) antidepressants are increasingly prescribed to manage antenatal maternal illness. The impact of SRIs on early mother-infant interactions was unknown. Three-month-old infants of 32 depressed mothers treated with SRI medications during pregnancy and 43 non-medicated mothers were studied. Using an established face-to-face mother-infant interaction paradigm, dyad interactions were studied with and without a toy. Videotaped sessions yielded 4 measures: maternal sensitivity, dyadic organization, infant readiness to interact, and maternal interruptive behaviors. Even with prenatal SRI treatment, depressed mothers interrupted their infants more during toy play. In the absence of prenatal SRI treatment, maternal postnatal depression adversely influenced infant behavior. Higher levels of maternal depression symptoms at 3 months predicted poorer infant readiness to interact during the toy session. Conversely, in the SRI-exposed group, higher prenatal depression scores predicted greater infant readiness to interact at 3 months. Increased infant readiness with SRI exposure suggests a "fetal programming effect" whereby prenatal maternal mood disturbances shaped a future response to a postnatal depressed maternal environment. PMID:23728194

Weikum, Whitney M; Mayes, Linda C; Grunau, Ruth E; Brain, Ursula; Oberlander, Tim F

2013-12-01

173

Maternity care in China.  

PubMed

China's 1-child policy has intensified couple's desire for the safe delivery of a healthy infant and necessitated improvements in maternity care. Since the late 1970s, systematic maternity care has been available to women in China from early pregnancy to 42 days after delivery. In addition, over 50 major cities offer sophisticated perinatal care services, including prenatal intrauterine diagnosis and genetic consultations. The maternal mortality rate has declined from 15/1000 in 1949 to the present rate of 0.5/1000 while infant mortality dropped from about 200/1000 to 35/1000 in this same period. 15-20% of current deliveries are by cesarean section, often through the use of acupuncture which minimizes blood loss. To encourage rural women to deliver in hospitals, a 50% discount is provided for surgical costs. To encourage better infant care and raise the breast-feeding rate among working mothers, the Ministry of Labor and Personnel has proposed a 90-day maternity leave regulation. The Chinese Government pays a 5-yuan allowance to only children until they reach the age of 15 years and 1-child families are given priorities in kindergarten, school, housing, and employment assignments. China's well-organized maternity care network consists of 3 levels: on-the-street stations, clinics that keep detailed records on pregnant patients, and hospitals that handle high-risk pregnancies. PMID:3367797

Zhang, N H

1988-04-01

174

Compression neuropathies of the median nerve  

Microsoft Academic Search

Specific compression syndromes of the median nerve are known in the proximal forearm and at the wrist. Carpal tunnel syndrome is the best known and most common, but pronator teres syndrome and anterior interosseous nerve syndrome also are clinically significant. In this discussion, we review the history, relevant anatomy, diagnosis, and treatment modalities for these compression syndromes.

Jason T. Koo; Robert M. Szabo

2004-01-01

175

Bamzooki: Median, Mode, Mean, and Range  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this application students must use the Bamzooki creatures to find the Median, Mode, Mean, and Range. Students receive a score for the amount correct and are given tips when they complete a task incorrectly. The application is accompanied by a link to definitions for each term and a link to a multiple choice quiz.

2012-01-01

176

Generalization of median root prior reconstruction.  

PubMed

Penalized iterative algorithms for image reconstruction in emission tomography contain conditions on which kind of images are accepted as solutions. The penalty term has commonly been a function of pairwise pixel differences in the activity in a local neighborhood, such that smooth images are favored. Attempts to ensure better edge and detail preservation involve difficult tailoring of parameter values or the penalty function itself. The previously introduced median root prior (MRP) favors locally monotonic images. MRP preserves sharp edges while reducing locally nonmonotonic noise at the same time. Quantitative properties of MRP are good, because differences in the neighboring pixel values are not penalized as such. The median is used as an estimate for a penalty reference, against which the pixel value is compared when setting the penalty. In order to generalize the class of MRP-type of priors, the standard median was replaced by other order statistic operations, the L and finite-impluse-response median hybrid (FMH) filters. They allow for smoother appearance as they apply linear weighting together with robust nonlinear operations. The images reconstructed using the new MRP-L and MRP-FMH priors are visually more conventional. Good quantitative properties of MRP are not significantly altered by the new priors. PMID:12575878

Alenius, Sakari; Ruotsalainen, Ulla

2002-11-01

177

The Effect of Maternal Depressive Symptomatology on Maternal Behaviors Associated With Child Health  

Microsoft Academic Search

National prevalence rates for depression among women are twofold compared with those of men, with women of childbearing age at greatest risk. Maternal depression not only negatively affects the health of the mother but may also influence the health and development of her offspring. This study examined the relationship between maternal depression and its influence on certain maternal behaviors associated

Jenn Leiferman

2002-01-01

178

Maternal Characteristics Predicting Young Girls' Disruptive Behavior  

PubMed Central

Little is known about the relative predictive utility of maternal characteristics and parenting skills on the development of girls’ disruptive behavior. The current study used five waves of parent and child-report data from the ongoing Pittsburgh Girls Study to examine these relationships in a sample of 1,942 girls from age 7 to 12 years. Multivariate Generalized Estimating Equation (GEE) analyses indicated that European American race, mother’s prenatal nicotine use, maternal depression, maternal conduct problems prior to age 15, and low maternal warmth explained unique variance. Maladaptive parenting partly mediated the effects of maternal depression and maternal conduct problems. Both current and early maternal risk factors have an impact on young girls’ disruptive behavior, providing support for the timing and focus of the prevention of girls’ disruptive behavior. PMID:21391016

van der Molen, Elsa; Hipwell, Alison E.; Vermeiren, Robert; Loeber, Rolf

2011-01-01

179

Effects of maternal vitamin E and selenium status during the perinatal period on age-related changes in tissue concentration of vitamin E in rat pups.  

PubMed

Long-Evans hooded female rats previously acclimated to one of four experimental diets differing in their vitamin E (E) and selenium (Se) contents were used in these studies. The basal diet (-E -Se) was marginal in E (15 IU/kg) and Se (0.03 mg/kg) content. Three additional diets, -E, +Se, +E-Se and +E +Se were prepared by supplementing the basal diet with dl-alpha-tocopheryl acetate to contain 150 IU/kg or with sodium selenite to contain 0.5 mg/kg, as required. The rats were mated and the pups born were used to provide plasma, heart, lung and liver tissue for E analyses at postpartum intervals from birth (prior to nursing) to 21 days of age. Differences in Se nutrition of the dams during the perinatal period did not affect the E content of tissues of the rat pups. There were no significant differences (P > 0.05) in E content of plasma or liver tissue at birth in rat pups regardless of the maternal E status. Heart and lung tissue, however, were significantly higher (P < 0.05) in E concentration at birth in pups whose dams were fed the +E diets. Rat pups nursing -E dams had consistently low E content in each of the tissues throughout the postpartum period which did not differ from levels determined prior to nursing. Pups nursing +E dams had elevated E concentration in each of the tissues during the postpartum period. Liver tissue provided the most remarkable response in that E concentration increased approximately 30-fold within 4 days postpartum and then decreased abruptly. The results of these studies suggest a differential transfer of E to rat tissues during gestation. Net placental transfer of E to fetal liver appeared to be very low and was not influenced by marked differences in maternal dietary E. In contrast, preferential incorporation into heart and lung tissue during gestation was shown by the data. In all tissues, increased E content following birth was attributed to ingestion of colostrum and milk containing elevated amounts of the vitamin. PMID:8843987

Pazak, H E; Scholz, R W

1996-01-01

180

Maternal fatness and viability of preterm infants  

Microsoft Academic Search

To investigate the effect of maternal fatness on the mortality of infants born preterm up to the corrected age of 18 months 795 mother-infant pairs were studied. Maternal fatness was defined by Quetelet's index (weight\\/(height2)) and all infants weighed less than 1850 g at birth. In 771 mother-infant pairs maternal age, complications of pregnancy, mode of delivery, parity, social class,

A Lucas; R Morley; T J Cole; M F Bamford; A Boon; P Crowle; J F B Dossetor; R Pearse

1988-01-01

181

Bifid median nerve causing carpal tunnel syndrome: MRI and surgical correlation.  

PubMed

Carpal tunnel syndrome can be secondary in some patients, and vascular anomalies (usually a persistent median artery), median nerve variations, or both are among the etiologic factors. High division of the median nerve proximal to the carpal tunnel (known as a bifid median nerve) is a median nerve anomaly that has an incidence rate of 2.8%. This rare entity is often associated with various abnormalities that are clinically relevant, such as vascular malformations (persistent median artery), aberrant muscles, and carpal tunnel syndrome. The bifid median nerve is one cause of carpal tunnel syndrome because of its relatively higher cross-sectional area compared with a nonbifid median nerve. Obtaining magnetic resonance imaging and ultrasounds of bifid median nerves has helped surgeons avoid potential surgical hazards.This article describes 3 men with 4 bifid median nerves associated with a persistent median artery. Mean patient age was 38 years (range, 37-40 years). Mean follow-up was 7 years (range, 3-11 years). Patients were diagnosed with carpal tunnel syndrome and underwent open carpal tunnel release. To reveal a morphological etiology in patients in whom it the possibility of having idiopathic carpal tunnel syndrome is unlikely, preoperative imaging studies should be obtained. Bifid median nerves associated with a persistent median artery in the carpal tunnel are important to understand for their clinical and surgical significance. A secondary nature should be suspected in patients with unilateral symptoms, especially those with a history of symptoms and when the symptomatic hand shows severe neurophysiologic impairment but the contralateral hand is neurophysiologically intact. Inadvertent injury to the median nerve during carpal tunnel surgery can be minimized if the variations of the median nerve are recognized. PMID:23590784

Bagatur, A Erdem; Yalcinkaya, Merter; Atca, Ali Onder

2013-04-01

182

Maternal attitudes and behaviors regarding feeding practices in elementary school-aged Latino children: a pilot qualitative study on the impact of the cultural role of mothers in the US-Mexican border region of San Diego, California.  

PubMed

This study aimed to explore the attitudes and behaviors of Latino mothers around feeding their children. Using qualitative methods, we conducted four focus groups in Spanish with 41 Latino mothers of elementary school-age children in San Diego County, CA. Latino mothers' mean age was 41 years; 90% were foreign-born; and 74% had a high school education or less. We explored cultural viewpoints around feeding and cooking and feeding strategies used. Focus groups were analyzed based on a priori and emergent themes. The following themes around feeding emerged: feeding attitudes central to the maternal responsibility of having well-fed children and feeding behaviors that centered on cooking methods, supportive behaviors, and reinforcement strategies for "eating well." These findings increase our understanding of the Latino maternal role to feed children and can help to inform more culturally appropriate research to effectively address nutritional issues and obesity prevention in Latino children. PMID:24315129

Martinez, Suzanna M; Rhee, Kyung; Blanco, Estela; Boutelle, Kerri

2014-02-01

183

Cadaveric study of anatomical variations of the median nerve and persistent median artery at wrist  

PubMed Central

Background: Awareness of anatomical variations of the median nerve at wrist is important in repair of traumatic injuries and treatments of compression syndrome because in these situations precise dissection of the nerve is mandatory and such variations are not infrequent. Materials and Methods: In this study, 52 hands of 52 fresh cadavers were dissected and median nerve anatomy along with the presence of persistent median artery (PMA) was noted. Results: A total of 26 hands (50%) had the deviation from the standard text book anatomy of the median nerve. There was early division of the median nerve into the medial and lateral branches in 11.53% hands. There was early branching of the 2nd common digital nerve in 9.6% hands. The transligamentous motor branch to the thenar muscle was most prevalent (42.3% hands). The single motor branch to the thenar muscles was found in the majority of hands (84.6%). The PMA was present in 11.53% hands and it was associated with variations in the median nerve anatomy in all cases. Conclusions: This study shows a high percentage of deviation from standard anatomy as well as a high percentage of transligamentous thenar muscle motor branch. The presence of PMA was associated with variations in the median nerve anatomy in all cases. Therefore if PMA is present there are very high chances of associated median nerve anomalies. PMID:24987212

Agarwal, Pawan; Gupta, Shivkant; Yadav, Prashant; Sharma, D.

2014-01-01

184

Humeral diaphyseal osteochondroma causing median nerve injury.  

PubMed

Osteochondromas are the most common benign tumours of the bone. They are solitary or multiple, pedunculated or sessile exophytic outgrowths from the bone surface that are composed of cortical and medullary component with an overlying hyaline cartilage cap. Marrow and cortical continuity with the underlying parent bone is the characteristic of the lesion; they mostly arise from the metaphysis of the bone. Osteochondromas arising from the diaphysis are rare; and nerve palsy arising in the setting of a diaphyseal osteochondroma is even rarer. This is a report of solitary osteochondroma arising from diaphysis of left humerus in a 10 years old boy, which resulted in median nerve palsy. Surgical excision relieved the symptoms completely. The aim of this case report was to draw attention to an unusual etiology of median nerve palsy caused by an osteochondroma arising from the diaphysis of humerus which is a rare site, and to emphasize its importance. PMID:24718003

Mohindra, Mukul; Tiwari, Anurag; Gogna, Paritosh; Thora, Ankit

2014-03-01

185

Inference with the Median of a Prior  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We consider the problem of inference on one of the two parameters of a probability distribution when we have some prior information on a nuisance parameter. When a prior probability distribution on this nuisance parameter is given, the marginal distribution is the classical tool to account for it. If the prior distribution is not given, but we have partial knowledge such as a fixed number of moments, we can use the maximum entropy principle to assign a prior law and thus go back to the previous case. In this work, we consider the case where we only know the median of the prior and propose a new tool for this case. This new inference tool looks like a marginal distribution. It is obtained by first remarking that the marginal distribution can be considered as the mean value of the original distribution with respect to the prior probability law of the nuisance parameter, and then, by using the median in place of the mean.

Mohammadpour, Adel; Mohammad-Djafari, Ali

2006-06-01

186

Median facial cleft in amniotic band syndrome.  

PubMed

Amniotic band syndrome manifests at birth with a variety of malformations ranging from constriction ring to defects incompatible to life, in various parts of the body. Although some theories have been proposed for the development of this syndrome, the exact cause remains unknown. The median facial cleft is an extremely rare manifestation of amniotic band syndrome with a relative paucity of reports available in the literature. Here, we report one such case. PMID:21731335

Das, Debabrata; Das, Gobinda; Gayen, Sibnath; Konar, Arpita

2011-04-01

187

Solitary median maxillary central incisor (SMMCI) syndrome  

Microsoft Academic Search

Solitary median maxillary central incisor syndrome (SMMCI) is a complex disorder consisting of multiple, mainly midline defects of development resulting from unknown factor(s) operating in utero about the 35th–38th day(s) from conception. It is estimated to occur in 1:50,000 live births. Aetiology is uncertain. Missense mutation in the SHH gene (I111F) at 7q36 may be associated with SMMCI. The SMMCI

Roger K Hall

2006-01-01

188

Development of heart block in SSA\\/SSB autoantibody-positive pregnancies is associated with maternal age and display a season-of-birth pattern  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background and objectivesCongenital heart block (CHB) may develop in the fetus of anti-Ro\\/SSA and anti-La\\/SSB positive mothers. Reported recurrence rates of only 10–20% despite persisting maternal antibodies indicate that additional factors are critical for establishment of the heart block. The authors therefore investigated the influence of other maternal and fetal factors on heart block development in a Swedish population-based cohort.Material

Aurélie Ambrosi; Stina Salomonsson; Häkan Eliasson; Elisabeth Zeffer; Vijole Dzikaite; Gunnar Bergman; Eva Fernlund; Elke Theander; Annika Rydberg; Thomas Skogh; Solveig Wällberg-Jonsson; Annika Öhman; Ulla Lundström; Mats Mellander; Ola Winqvist; Michael Fored; Anders Ekbom; Lars Alfredsson; Henrik Källberg; Fredrik Gadler; Anders Jonzon; Sven-Erik Sonesson; Marie Wahren-Herlenius

2011-01-01

189

Maternal sepsis.  

PubMed

Maternal sepsis is relatively common. Most of these infections are the result of tissue damage during labor and delivery and physiologic changes normally occurring during pregnancy. These infections, whether directly pregnancy-related or simply aggravated by normal pregnancy physiology, ultimately have the potential to progress to severe sepsis and septic shock. This article discusses commonly encountered entities and septic shock. The expeditious recognition of common maternal sepsis and meticulous attention to appropriate management to prevent the progression to severe sepsis and septic shock are emphasized. Also discussed are principles and new approaches for the management of septic shock. PMID:23466138

Morgan, Jamie; Roberts, Scott

2013-03-01

190

Plasmodium falciparum Malaria in Children Aged 0-2 Years: The Role of Foetal Haemoglobin and Maternal Antibodies to Two Asexual Malaria Vaccine Candidates (MSP3 and GLURP)  

PubMed Central

Background Children below six months are reported to be less susceptible to clinical malaria. Maternally derived antibodies and foetal haemoglobin are important putative protective factors. We examined antibodies to Plasmodium falciparum merozoite surface protein 3 (MSP3) and glutamate-rich protein (GLURP), in children in their first two years of life in Burkina Faso and their risk of malaria. Methods A cohort of 140 infants aged between four and six weeks was recruited in a stable transmission area of south-western Burkina Faso and monitored for 24 months by active and passive surveillance. Malaria infections were detected by examining blood smears using light microscopy. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay was used to quantify total Immunoglobulin G to Plasmodium falciparum antigens MSP3 and two regions of GLURP (R0 and R2) on blood samples collected at baseline, three, six, nine, 12, 18 and 24 months. Foetal haemoglobin and variant haemoglobin fractions were measured at the baseline visit using high pressure liquid chromatography. Results A total of 79.6% of children experienced one or more episodes of febrile malaria during monitoring. Antibody titres to MSP3 were prospectively associated with an increased risk of malaria while antibody responses to GLURP (R0 and R2) did not alter the risk. Antibody titres to MSP3 were higher among children in areas of high malaria risk. Foetal haemoglobin was associated with delayed first episode of febrile malaria and haemoglobin CC type was associated with reduced incidence of febrile malaria. Conclusions We did not find any evidence of association between titres of antibodies to MSP3, GLURP-R0 or GLURP-R2 as measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and early protection against malaria, although anti-MSP3 antibody titres may reflect increased exposure to malaria and therefore greater risk. Foetal haemoglobin was associated with protection against febrile malaria despite the study limitations and its role is therefore worthy further investigation.

Kangoye, David Tiga; Nebie, Issa; Yaro, Jean-Baptiste; Debe, Siaka; Traore, Safiatou; Ouedraogo, Oumarou; Sanou, Guillaume; Soulama, Issiaka; Diarra, Amidou; Tiono, Alfred; Marsh, Kevin

2014-01-01

191

Maternal Employment  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The overwhelming evidence from years of research is that maternal employment, by itself, has little influence on the behaviors of children. More relevant issues are: mother's reasons for working, family's acceptance of mother's employment, quality of substitute child care, family's social and emotional health, and economic conditions. (Author/AJ)

Clark, Sam

1975-01-01

192

Maternal Sensitivity and Child Responsiveness: Associations with Social Context, Maternal Characteristics, and Child Characteristics in a Multivariate Analysis  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined unique associations of multiple distal context variables (family socioeconomic status [SES], maternal employment, and paternal parenting) and proximal maternal (personality, intelligence, and knowledge; behavior, self-perceptions, and attributions) and child (age, gender, representation, language, and sociability)…

Bornstein, Marc H.; Hendricks, Charlene; Haynes, O. Maurice; Painter, Kathleen M.

2007-01-01

193

Maternal and Littermate Deprivation Disrupts Maternal  

E-print Network

Maternal and Littermate Deprivation Disrupts Maternal Behavior and Social-Learning of Food, Inc. Dev Psychobiol 48: 209�219, 2006. Keywords: maternal and littermate deprivation; maternal; Wiesner & Sheard, 1933). In this way, the pups receive warmth, nutrients, protection, and sensory

Sokolowski, Marla

194

State reduction of recursive median filters  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We will discuss the simplified implementation of Recursive Median (RM) filters. It will be shown that every RM filter an alternative implementation. This implies a fast algorithm, [O(1) per pixel on average], for the one-dimensional RM filter. We also consider the case when RM filters are applied in a cascade of increasing filter window lengths, that is, the RM sieve. We will show that the RM sieve can be implemented in constant time per scale by applying only 3-point median operations. Both of the above mentioned fast implementations are viewed in a new light by constructing the corresponding Finite State Machines (FSM), and observing the achievable state reduction. Radical reduction of complexity takes place by implementing standard state reduction techniques. FSM models also open new possibilities for the analysis of these systems. Finally we discuss the benefits of using the RM sieve instead of the RM filter. We consider the streaking problem of the RM filter. It is demonstrated that the RM filter is not in itself a reliable estimator of location. As the cascading element in the structure of the sieve, however, it is very useful. It turns out that the use of RM sieve reduces the streaking problem to manageable level.

Yli-Harja, Olli P.; Bangham, J. Andrew; Harvey, Richard W.

1999-03-01

195

Neonatal abstinence syndrome after maternal methadone treatment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Thirty two infants born to mothers taking methadone and 32 matched controls were studied to determine the incidence, timing, and frequency of persistence of withdrawal signs in infants born to maternal methadone users. Twelve (37%) infants received treatment for symptoms of withdrawal. The median length of time from birth to initiation of treatment was 23 hours (range 15-64 hours), the

N J Shaw; L McIvor

1994-01-01

196

A hybrid schwannoma of median nerve.  

PubMed

Schwannomas are the most common benign neoplasms of the peripheral nerves in the upper extremity originating from the schwann cells of nerve sheath. They account for 5% of all tumours in upper extremity. Schwannomas are usually solitary, encapsulated and homogeneous masses and present with slowly growing masses, sometimes associated with pain and paresthesia. Pre-operative evaluation is based on ultrasonography and magnetic resonance imaging, but final diagnosis requires histopathology. It is important to distinguish plexiform schwannoma from plexiform neurofibroma because of the possibility of malignant transformation in plexiform neurofibroma. Plexiform schwannoma may be confused with neurofibromatosis and this can lead to overtreatment. We present a very rare case of solitary mass which had a plexiform type multicentric extension: hybrid schwannoma of the median nerve of a 20-year-old young girl. PMID:24717998

Komurcu, Erkam; Kaymaz, Burak; Adam, Gurhan; Gokmen, Ferhat; Murath, Asli

2014-03-01

197

Mutans Streptococci and Caries Prevalence in Children after Early Maternal Caries Prevention: A Follow-Up at Eleven and Fifteen Years of Age  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aim: The efficacy of early maternal caries prevention in children was evaluated. Methods: First-time mothers selected on the basis of a high level of salivary mutans streptococci (MS) and mothers excluded at screening due to a low level of MS (‘low’) were recalled when their children were 11 years old. The salivary MS level was determined in the mothers. Their

B. Köhler; I. Andréen

2010-01-01

198

Mutans Streptococci and Caries Prevalence in Children after Early Maternal Caries Prevention: A Follow-Up at 19 Years of Age  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aim: The efficacy of early maternal caries prevention was evaluated. Furthermore, the difference between children colonised with mutans streptococci (MS) at an early or late stage with regard to the prevalence of carious lesions was determined. Methods: The children of first-time mothers selected on the basis of high salivary levels of MS for participation in a caries prevention programme were

B. Köhler; I. Andréen

2012-01-01

199

Effects of domestic violence on behavior problems of preschool-aged children: Do maternal mental health and parenting mediate the effects?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Using the first four waves of the Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing Study, this article examined the effects of mothers who experienced domestic violence at Year 1 on the externalizing and internalizing behavior problems of children at Year 5 and investigated whether maternal mental health and parenting at Year 3 mediated those effects. Findings from structural equation modeling showed partial

Chien-Chung Huang; Lih-Rong Wang; Corinne Warrener

2010-01-01

200

Maternal intake of vitamin D during pregnancy and risk of recurrent wheeze in children a t3yo f age1-3  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Vitamin D deficiency and asthma are common at higher latitudes. Although vitamin D has important immunologic effects, its relation with asthma is unknown. Objective: We hypothesized that a higher maternal intake of vita- min D during pregnancy is associated with a lower risk of recurrent wheeze in children a t3yo fage. Design: The participants were 1194 mother-child pairs in

Carlos A Camargo Jr; Sheryl L Rifas-Shiman; Augusto A Litonjua; Janet W Rich-Edwards; Scott T Weiss; Diane R Gold; Ken Kleinman; Matthew W Gillman

201

The effect of maternal smoking status, educational level and age on food and nutrient intakes in preschool children: results from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: Studies in adults have demonstrated that smoking status is associated with dietary quality, with smokers tending to have diets that conform less closely to guidelines on healthy eating than nonsmokers. However, there is very little information on the relation between children's dietary quality and parental smoking status. The objective of this study was to investigate the relation between maternal

I Rogers; P Emmett

2003-01-01

202

Occurrence of Dental Decay in Children after Maternal Consumption of Xylitol Chewing Gum, a Follow-up from 0 to 5 Years of Age  

Microsoft Academic Search

Studies have shown that prevention of mutans streptococci (MS) colonization in early childhood can lead to prevention of dental decay. In the microbiological part of the present study in Ylivieska, Finland, with 195 mothers with high salivary MS levels, regular maternal use of xylitol chewing gum resulted in a statistically significant reduction in MS colonization in their children's teeth at

P. Isokangas; E. Soderling; K. Pienihakkinen; P. Alanen

2000-01-01

203

The association of maternal ACE A11860G with small for gestational age babies is modulated by the environment and by fetal sex: a multicentre prospective case-control study  

PubMed Central

We aimed to determine whether the ACE A11860G genotype is associated with small for gestational age babies (SGA) and to determine whether the association is affected by environmental factors and fetal sex. Overall, 3234 healthy nulliparous women with singleton pregnancies, their partners and babies were prospectively recruited in Adelaide, Australia and Auckland, New Zealand. Data analyses were confined to 2121 Caucasian parent–infant trios, among which 216 were pregnancies with SGA infants and 1185 were uncomplicated pregnancies. Women with the ACE A11860G GG genotype in the combined and Adelaide cohorts had increased risk for SGA [odds ratios (OR) 1.5, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.1–2.1 and OR 2.0, 95% CI 1.3–3.3, respectively) and delivered lighter babies (P = 0.02; P = 0.007, respectively) compared with those with AA/AG genotypes. The maternal ACE A11860G GG genotype was associated with higher maternal plasma ACE concentration at 15 weeks' gestation than AA/AG genotypes (P < 0.001). When the Adelaide cohort was stratified by maternal socio-economic index (SEI) and pre-pregnancy green leafy vegetable intake, the ACE A11860G GG genotype was only associated with an increased risk for SGA (OR 4.9, 95% CI 1.8–13.4 and OR 3.3, 95% CI 1.6–7.0, respectively) and a reduction in customized birthweight centile (P = 0.006 and P = 0.03) if superimposed on maternal SEI <34 or pre-pregnancy green leafy vegetable intake <1 serve/day. Furthermore, the associations of maternal ACE A11860G with customized birthweight centile observed among Adelaide women with SEI <34 or pre-pregnancy green leafy vegetable intake <1 serve/day were female specific. The current study identified a novel association of maternal ACE A11860G with SGA. More interestingly, this association was modified by environmental factors and fetal sex, suggesting ACE A11860G–environment–fetal sex interactions. Trial Registry Name: Screening nulliparous women to identify the combinations of clinical risk factors and/or biomarkers required to predict pre-eclampsia, SGA babies and spontaneous preterm birth. URL: http://www.anzctr.org.au. Registration number: ACTRN12607000551493. PMID:23615722

Zhou, Ang; Dekker, Gustaaf A.; Lumbers, Eugenie R.; Leemaqz, Shalem Y.; Thompson, Steven D.; Heinemann, Gary; McCowan, Lesley M.E.; Roberts, Claire T.

2013-01-01

204

Median nerve somatosensory evoked potentials in medical students: Normative data  

PubMed Central

Background: The median nerve N20 component constitutes the initial response of the primary somatosensory cortex to somatosensory stimulation of the upper extremity. Knowledge of the underlying generators is important for basic understanding of the initial sequence of cortical activation. Materials and Methods: In the present study, normative data of cortical evoked potentials in particular of N20 wave onset and peak latencies by median nerve stimulation in a group of 100 medical students aged between 18 and 30 years were documented and the effect of physiological variables were studied. Descriptive statistics and Student t-test were used to analyze the healthy subjects and to compare N20 latencies for handedness, respectively. Regression analysis was used to show association between average N20 latencies and physiological variables from which regression formulae were calculated to predict normative values of these parameters. Results: The results of the study indicated that N20 onset and peak latency values are significantly affected by limb length at 95% confidence level. Height is showing as a significant factor affecting N20 onset latencies but it is probably because of high correlation of height with limb length. Age though on linear regression showed some significant correlation with N20 onset and peak latency, multiple regressions showed that it does not affect N20 onset and peak latencies in the presence of other variables. Handedness did not affect both N20 onset and peak latency values. Conclusion: Physiological variables do affect the N20 latencies and these should be standardized before usage for research in basic sciences at all age groups. PMID:24223371

Poornima, Siddaraju; Ali, Syed Sadat; Balaji, Pishey Ashwathnarayan; Shankar, Vinutha; Kutty, Karthiyanee

2013-01-01

205

[Solitary median maxillary central incisor syndrome].  

PubMed

Solitary Median Maxillary Central Incisor syndrome is a rare condition (prevalence 1:50,000), with the characteristic dental feature of a solitary central incisor in the maxilla, positioned exactly in the midline. This single incisor is symmetrical and can be present in the deciduous as well as in the permanent dentition. The syndrome can occur as a mild form of the broad holoprosencephaly-spectrum, but can also be associated with other characteristics. The etiology is still largely unknown, but the syndrome is probably based especially on genetic causes. Early recognition of the syndrome is of great importance for establishing the diagnosis, for additional investigation, for possible treatment of associated anomalies and for the correct advice concerning the risk of inheritance of severe congenital birth defects, related to holoprosencephaly. Dentists and orthodontists can play an important role in this regard and should therefore be able to recognise the clinical features of this condition and know how to refer a patient for further diagnostic counselling. PMID:25296470

Scholtes, E; Kawamoto, T; Ockeloen, C W; Kleefstra, T; Carels, C E L

2014-09-01

206

Infant Outcomes After Maternal Antiretroviral Exposure in Resource-Limited Settings  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: The impact of maternal antiretrovirals (ARVs) during pregnancy, labor, and postpartum on infant outcomes is unclear. METHODS: Infants born to HIV-infected mothers in ARV studies were followed for 18 months. RESULTS: Between June 2006 and December 2008, 236 infants enrolled from Africa (n = 36), India (n = 47), Thailand (n = 152), and Brazil (n = 1). Exposure to ARVs in pregnancy included ?3 ARVs (10%), zidovudine/intrapartum ARV (81%), and intrapartum ARV (9%). There were 4 infant infections (1 in utero, 3 late postpartum) and 4 deaths with 1.8% mortality (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.1%–3.5%) and 96.4% HIV-1–free survival (95% CI, 94.0%–98.9%). Birth weight was ?2.5 kg in 86%. In the first 6 months, Indian infants (nonbreastfed) had lowest median weights and lengths and smallest increases in growth. After 6 months, African infants had the lowest median weight and weight-for-age z scores. Infants exposed to highest maternal viral load had the lowest height and height-for-age z scores. Serious adverse events occurred in 38% of infants, did not differ by country, and correlated with less maternal ARV exposure. Clinical diagnoses were seen in 84% of Thai, 31% of African, and 9% of Indian infants. Congenital defects/inborn errors of metabolism were seen in 18 (7.6%) infants, of which 17 were Thai (11%: 95% CI, 6.7%–17.0%); none had first trimester ARV exposure. CONCLUSIONS: Infant follow-up in large international cohorts is feasible and provides important safety and HIV transmission data following maternal ARV exposure. Increased surveillance increases identification of congenital/inborn errors. PMID:22585772

Komarow, Lauren; Cu-Uvin, Susan; Jourdain, Gonzague; Klingman, Karin L.; Shapiro, David E.; Mofenson, Lynne; Moran, Laura; Campbell, Thomas B.; Hitti, Jane; Fiscus, Susan; Currier, Judith

2012-01-01

207

Effects of Maternal Employment on Adolescent Substance Use.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

As levels of maternal employment increase (71% for mothers with school-age children), there is concern for both the short- and long-term consequences of maternal employment on children and families. This study examined the influence of maternal employment in two-parent families on the substance use of adolescents. Subjects were male and female…

Hillman, Stephen B.; And Others

208

Mediating Links between Maternal Childhood Trauma and Preadolescent Behavioral Adjustment  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Structural equation modeling was used to simultaneously examine maternal psychological distress and social support as mediators linking maternal childhood trauma (MCT) to both maternal and child-reported behavior at 9 years of age in 231 birth mother-child dyads, who were primarily poor, urban, and African American. One half of the mothers…

Min, Meeyoung O.; Singer, Lynn T.; Minnes, Sonia; Kim, Hyunsoo; Short, Elizabeth

2013-01-01

209

Metabolizing enzyme localization and activities in the first trimester human placenta: the effect of maternal and gestational age, smoking and alcohol consumption  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: The rationale for this study was to assess the expression, activity and localization of the enzymes uridine diphosphate glucuronosyltransferase (UGT), ?-glucuronidase, cytochrome P450 1A (CYP1A) and cytochrome P450 2E1 (CYP2E1) in first trimester human placenta and to gauge the effects of maternal variables on placental metabolism. METHODS: CYP1A, CYP2E1, UGT and ?-glucuronidase activities were assessed in 25 placentas using

Abby C. Collier; Malcolm D. Tingle; James W. Paxton; Murray D. Mitchell; Jeffrey A. Keelan

210

Chemical and mechanical defenses vary among maternal lines and leaf ages in Verbascum thapsus L. (Scrophulariaceae) and reduce palatability to a generalist insect.  

PubMed

Intra-specific variation in host-plant quality affects herbivore foraging decisions and, in turn, herbivore foraging decisions mediate plant fitness. In particular, variation in defenses against herbivores, both among and within plants, shapes herbivore behavior. If variation in defenses is genetically based, it can respond to natural selection by herbivores. We quantified intra-specific variation in iridoid glycosides, trichome length, and leaf strength in common mullein (Verbascum thapsus L, Scrophulariaceae) among maternal lines within a population and among leaves within plants, and related this variation to feeding preferences of a generalist herbivore, Trichopulsia ni Hübner. We found significant variation in all three defenses among maternal lines, with T. ni preferring plants with lower investment in chemical, but not mechanical, defense. Within plants, old leaves had lower levels of all defenses than young leaves, and were strongly preferred by T. ni. Caterpillars also preferred leaves with trichomes removed to leaves with trichomes intact. Differences among maternal lines indicate that phenotypic variation in defenses likely has a genetic basis. Furthermore, these results reveal that the feeding behaviors of T. ni map onto variation in plant defense in a predictable way. This work highlights the importance of variation in host-plant quality in driving interactions between plants and their herbivores. PMID:25127229

Alba, Christina; Bowers, M Deane; Blumenthal, Dana; Hufbauer, Ruth A

2014-01-01

211

Effect of maternal hydration on the increase of amniotic fluid index.  

PubMed

The objective of this study was to determine the effect of maternal hydration with oral isotonic solution and water on the amniotic fluid (AF) index of women with normohydramnios. Women with a normal AF index and gestational age between 33 and 36 weeks without maternal complications were randomized into three groups [isotonic solution (Gatorade(®)), water, control]. The isotonic solution and water groups were instructed to drink 1.5 L of the respective solution and the control group was instructed to drink 200 mL water over a period of 2 to 4 h. AF index was measured before and after hydration by Doppler ultrasonography. The investigator performing the AF index measurement was blind to the subject's group. Ninety-nine women completed the study without any adverse maternal effects. The median increase in AF index after hydration was significantly greater for the isotonic solution and water groups than for the control group. There was no significant difference between the isotonic solution and water groups. Hydration with isotonic solution and water caused a 10-fold (95%CI: 2.09-49.89) and 6-fold (95%CI: 1.16-30.95) increase in the chance of a 20% increase of AF index, respectively. Maternal hydration with isotonic solution or water increased the AF index in women with normohydramnios. PMID:21271182

Borges, V T M; Rososchansky, J; Abbade, J F; Dias, A; Peraçoli, J C; Rudge, M V C

2011-03-01

212

Maternal cocaine use and mother–toddler aggression  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examined the direct and indirect associations between maternal cocaine use during pregnancy and mother–toddler aggression in an interactive context at 2years of child age. We hypothesized that in addition to direct effects of cocaine exposure on maternal and child aggression, the association between maternal cocaine use and mother–toddler aggression may be indirect via higher maternal psychiatric symptoms, negative

Rina D. Eiden; Pamela Schuetze; Craig R. Colder; Yvette Veira

2011-01-01

213

Approximation schemes for Euclidean k -medians and related problems  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the k-median problem we are given a set S of n points in a metric space and a positive integer k. We desire to locate k medians in space, such that the sum of the distances from each of the points of S to the nearest median is minimized. This paper gives an approximation scheme for the plane that

Sanjeev Arora; Prabhakar Raghavant; Satish Rao

1998-01-01

214

The Heterogeneous P-Median Problem for Categorization Based Clustering  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The p-median offers an alternative to centroid-based clustering algorithms for identifying unobserved categories. However, existing p-median formulations typically require data aggregation into a single proximity matrix, resulting in masked respondent heterogeneity. A proposed three-way formulation of the p-median problem explicitly considers…

Blanchard, Simon J.; Aloise, Daniel; DeSarbo, Wayne S.

2012-01-01

215

Maternal and neonatal behavior.  

PubMed

Maternal and neonatal behavior differs among food-producing mammals, and our management must reflect these differences. Sows will show more elaborate preparturient behavior than the other species as they attempt to build a nest that will last for several days. Because the nest is the focal point of maternal behavior for several days, the sow does not need to recognize her piglets until they are about 1 week of age. Although this facilitates the fostering of piglets between litters, the teat order developed by piglets during the first day or two makes it difficult for alien piglets to suckle when first fostered. Piglets are weaned at a relatively early age, and this results in conflict as neonatal behavior persists in an environment that requires better developed feeding patterns. Restrictions placed on ewes and cows by confinement at the time of parturition may result in their being unable to select an appropriate birth site. Our management must accommodate these needs by providing sites that are protected from the harsh environment and also allow separation from the rest of the flock. This is particularly important for ewes bearing multiple young, for lambs frequently become separated from the ewe while she is caring for another lamb. Both cows and ewes must be allowed to bond to their offspring soon after birth if they are to provide adequate maternal care. Fostering in these species involves manipulation of identifying stimuli to overcome the dam's ability to recognize her own young shortly after birth. Suckling problems, due to pendulous udders on cows and multiple lambs in sheep, may require attention by the stockman shortly after birth. Weaning does not result in major behavioral problems in sheep or beef cattle that are weaned after the young are consuming solid feed on a regular basis. Dairy calves, which are initially weaned onto milk replacer at a very early age, may develop inappropriate sucking behaviors that persist beyond weaning onto a solid diet. Despite our growing knowledge of maternal and neonatal behavior, mortality among piglets, lambs, and calves is still high. However, many of the most recent findings have yet to be incorporated into management procedures or standard practice. As this occurs, we should be able to reduce losses of young animals. PMID:3304573

Gonyou, H W; Stookey, J M

1987-07-01

216

Relationship Between Maternal Behavior During Pregnancy, Birth Outcome, and Early Childhood Development: An Exploratory Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examines the relationship between maternal behavior during pregnancy, birth outcomes, and early childhood development. Specifically, in the context of four measures of maternal behavior during pregnancy (maternal smoking, drinking, prenatal care, and maternal weight gain), three measures of birth outcome (gestational age, birth length, and birth weight), and 32 exogenous covariates observed during pregnancy, we investigate the importance

Kai Li; Dale J. Poirier

2003-01-01

217

MRI of the median nerve and median artery in the carpal tunnel: prevalence of their anatomical variations and clinical significance  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective  Anatomical variations of the median nerve and the persistent median artery (PMA) in the carpal tunnel (CT) are important to\\u000a understand for their clinical and surgical significance. The aim of this cohort retrospective study was to investigate the\\u000a prevalence of aberrant median nerve branches and persistent median artery in the CT in a selected population using magnetic\\u000a resonance imaging (MRI).

Claude Pierre-Jerome; Robert D. Smitson; Raj K. Shah; Valeria Moncayo; Michael Abdelnoor; Michael R. Terk

2010-01-01

218

The Relations among Maternal Depressive Disorder, Maternal Expressed Emotion, and Toddler Behavior Problems and Attachment  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Direct and indirect relations among maternal depression, maternal Expressed Emotion (EE: Self- and Child-Criticism), child internalizing and externalizing symptoms, and child attachment were examined. Participants were mothers with depression (n = 130) and comparison mothers (n = 68) and their toddlers (M age = 20 mo.; 53% male). Assessments…

Gravener, Julie A.; Rogosch, Fred A.; Oshri, Assaf; Narayan, Angela J.; Cicchetti, Dante; Toth, Sheree L.

2012-01-01

219

Maternal Psychopathology and Infant Development at 18 Months: The Impact of Maternal Personality Disorder and Depression  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: No previous longitudinal study has examined the impact of comorbid maternal personality disorder (PD) and depression on child development. We set out to examine whether maternal PD and depression assessed at 2 months post partum would be independently associated with adverse developmental outcomes at 18 months of age. Method: Women were…

Conroy, Susan; Pariante, Carmine M.; Marks, Maureen N.; Davies, Helen A.; Farrelly, Simone; Schacht, Robin; Moran, Paul

2012-01-01

220

The Relations among Maternal Depression, Maternal Criticism, and Adolescents' Externalizing and Internalizing Symptoms.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined the relations between maternal criticism and externalizing and internalizing symptoms in adolescents who varied in their risk for psychopathology. Both maternal-effects and child-effects models were examined. The sample consisted of 194 adolescents (mean age = 11.8 years) and their mothers: 146 mothers had a history of…

Frye, Alice A.; Garber, Judy

2005-01-01

221

Trajectories of Maternal Depressive Symptoms, Maternal Sensitivity, and Children's Functioning at School Entry  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Using data from the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development Study of Early Child Care and Youth Development, the authors modeled trajectories of maternal depressive symptoms from infant age 1 month to 7 years. The authors identified 6 trajectories of maternal depressive symptoms: high-chronic, moderate-increasing, high-decreasing,…

Campbell, Susan B.; Matestic, Patricia; von Stauffenberg, Camilla; Mohan, Roli; Kirchner, Thomas

2007-01-01

222

Current and Past Maternal Depression, Maternal Interaction Behaviors, and Children's Externalizing and Internalizing Symptoms  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Relations among past maternal depressive disorder, current depressive symptoms, current maternal interaction behaviors, and children's adjustment were examined in a sample of 204 women and their young adolescent offspring (mean age = 11.86, SD = 0.55). Mothers either had (n = 157) or had not (n = 57) experienced at least one depressive disorder…

Foster, Cynthia J. Ewell; Garber, Judy; Durlak, Joseph A.

2008-01-01

223

Median Arcuate Ligament Syndrome in the Pediatric Population  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVES Median arcuate ligament syndrome (MALS) is a vascular compression syndrome with symptoms that overlap chronic functional abdominal pain (CFAP). We report our experience treating MALS in a pediatric cohort previously diagnosed with CFAP. PATIENTS AND METHODS We prospectively evaluated 46 pediatric (<21 years of age) patients diagnosed with MALS at a tertiary care referral center from 2008 to 2012. All patients had previously been diagnosed with CFAP. Patients were evaluated for celiac artery compression by duplex ultrasound and diagnosis was confirmed by computed tomography. Quality of life (QOL) was determined by pre- and post-surgical administration of PedsQLtm questionnaire. The patients underwent laparoscopic release of the median arcuate ligament overlying the celiac artery which included surgical neurolysis. We examined the hemodynamic changes in parameters of the celiac artery and peri-operative QOL outcomes to determine correlation. RESULTS All patients had studies suggestive of MALS on duplex and computed tomography. 91% (n=42) positive for MALS were females. All patients underwent a technically satisfactory laparoscopic surgical release resulting in a significant improvement in blood flow through the celiac artery. There were no deaths and a total of 9 complications, 8 requiring a secondary procedure. 33 patients were administered QOL surveys. 18 patients completed the survey with 15 (83%) patients reporting overall improvement in the QOL. Overall, 31/46 patients (67%) reported improvement of symptoms since the time of surgery. CONCLUSIONS MALS was found to be more common in pediatric females than males. Laparoscopic release of the celiac artery can be performed safely in the pediatric population. Surgical release of the artery and resultant neurolysis resulted in significant improvement in the blood flow, symptoms, and overall QOL in this cohort. The overall improvement in QOL outcome measures after surgery leads us to conclude that MALS might be earlier diagnosed and possibly treated in patients with CFAP. We recommend a multidisciplinary team approach to care for these complex patients. PMID:24210197

Mak, Grace Z.; Speaker, Christopher; Anderson, Kristen; Stiles-Shields, Colleen; Lorenz, Jonathan; Drossos, Tina; Liu, Donald C.; Skelly, Christopher L.

2013-01-01

224

Cognitive and motor skills in school-aged children following maternal vitamin A supplementation during pregnancy in rural Nepal: a follow-up of a placebo-controlled, randomised cohort  

PubMed Central

Objective To determine the effects of maternal vitamin A supplementation from preconception through postpartum on cognitive and motor development of children at 10–13?years of age in rural Nepal. Design Follow-up assessment of children born to women randomly assigned by a village to receive either supplemental vitamin A (7000?µg retinol equivalents) or placebo weekly during a continuous 3.5-year period from 1994–1997. The participants came from 12 wards, a subset of 270 wards in the original trial. Trained staff tested children for cognition by the Universal Nonverbal Intelligence Test (UNIT) and motor ability using four subtests from the Movement Assessment Battery for Children (MABC). Data on schooling, home environment and nutritional and socioeconomic status were also collected. Setting Southern plains district of Sarlahi, Nepal. Participants 390 Nepalese children 10–13?years of age. Main outcome measures Raw scores on UNIT and square-root transformed scores on an abridged version of the MABC tests, expressed as cluster-summarised (mean±SD) values to account for the design of the original trial. Results There were no differences in UNIT (79.61±5.99 vs 80.69±6.71) or MABC (2.64±0.07 vs 2.49±0.09) test scores in children whose mothers were exposed to vitamin A vs placebo (mean differences: ?1.07, 95% CI ?7.10 to 9.26, p=0.78; 0.15, 95% CI 0.43 to ?0.08, p=0.15), respectively. More children in the placebo group had repeated a grade in school (28% of placebo vs 16.7% of vitamin A, p=0.01). Conclusions Preconceptional to postpartum maternal vitamin A supplementation, in an undernourished setting, does not improve cognition or motor development at ages 10–13?years. PMID:23667158

Buckley, Gillian J; Murray-Kolb, Laura E; Khatry, Subarna K; LeClerq, Steven C; Wu, Lee; West, Keith P; Christian, Parul

2013-01-01

225

Parsing the Construct of Maternal Insensitivity: Distinct Longitudinal Pathways Associated with Early Maternal Withdrawal  

PubMed Central

The current paper expands on Ainsworth’s seminal construct of maternal sensitivity by exploring the developmental pathways associated with one particular form of insensitivity, maternal withdrawal. Drawing on longitudinal data from infancy to age 20 in a high-risk cohort, we highlight how maternal withdrawal over the first eight years of life is associated with child caregiving behavior and with maternal role confusion, as well as with features of borderline and antisocial personality disorders. We also present evidence for the specificity of this pathway in relation to other aspects of maternal insensitivity and other aspects of child adaptation. To illuminate these pathways we both review recent published work and report new findings on the middle childhood and adolescent components of these trajectories. Finally, we consider the implications for assessment of maternal behavior in high-risk samples and indicate directions for productive future work. PMID:24299135

Lyons-Ruth, Karlen; Bureau, Jean-Francois; Easterbrooks, M. Ann; Obsuth, Ingrid; Hennighausen, Kate

2013-01-01

226

Maternal anxiety and infants' hippocampal development: timing matters  

PubMed Central

Exposure to maternal anxiety predicts offspring brain development. However, because children's brains are commonly assessed years after birth, the timing of such maternal influences in humans is unclear. This study aimed to examine the consequences of antenatal and postnatal exposure to maternal anxiety upon early infant development of the hippocampus, a key structure for stress regulation. A total of 175 neonates underwent magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) at birth and among them 35 had repeated scans at 6 months of age. Maternal anxiety was assessed using the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI) at week 26 of pregnancy and 3 months after delivery. Regression analyses showed that antenatal maternal anxiety did not influence bilateral hippocampal volume at birth. However, children of mothers reporting increased anxiety during pregnancy showed slower growth of both the left and right hippocampus over the first 6 months of life. This effect of antenatal maternal anxiety upon right hippocampal growth became statistically stronger when controlling for postnatal maternal anxiety. Furthermore, a strong positive association between postnatal maternal anxiety and right hippocampal growth was detected, whereas a strong negative association between postnatal maternal anxiety and the left hippocampal volume at 6 months of life was found. Hence, the postnatal growth of bilateral hippocampi shows distinct responses to postnatal maternal anxiety. The size of the left hippocampus during early development is likely to reflect the influence of the exposure to perinatal maternal anxiety, whereas right hippocampal growth is constrained by antenatal maternal anxiety, but enhanced in response to increased postnatal maternal anxiety. PMID:24064710

Qiu, A; Rifkin-Graboi, A; Chen, H; Chong, Y-S; Kwek, K; Gluckman, P D; Fortier, M V; Meaney, M J

2013-01-01

227

Maternal Predictors of Rejecting Parenting and Early Adolescent Antisocial Behavior  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study examined relations among maternal psychological resources, rejecting parenting, and early adolescent antisocial\\u000a behavior in a sample of 231 low-income mothers and their sons with longitudinal assessments from age 18 months to 12 years.\\u000a The maternal resources examined were age at first birth, aggressive personality, and empathy. Each of the maternal resources\\u000a predicted rejecting parenting during early childhood in structural

Christopher J. Trentacosta; Daniel S. Shaw

2008-01-01

228

Maternal Asthma, Diabetes, and High Blood Pressure are Associated with Low Birth Weight and Increased Hospital Birth and Delivery Charges; Hawai'i Hospital Discharge Data 2003-2008  

PubMed Central

Asthma, diabetes, and high blood pressure are common maternal conditions that can impact birth outcomes. Data from hospital discharges in Hawai‘i were analyzed for 107,034 singleton births from 2003–2008. Categories were determined using the International Statistical Classification of Diseases, ninth revision (ICD-9) from linked delivery records of mother and infant. Prevalence estimates of asthma (ICD-9: 493), diabetes (ICD-9: 250,648.0, 648.8), high blood pressure (ICD-9: 401–405,642) as coded on the delivery record, low birth weight (<2500 grams), high birth weight (>4500 grams), Cesarean delivery, and median hospital charges were calculated. Median regression analysis assessed total hospital charges adjusting for maternal age, maternal race, insurance, and Cesarean delivery. Maternal asthma was present in 4.3% (95% confidence interval=4.1–4.4%), maternal diabetes was present in 7.7% (95% CI=7.6–7.9%), and maternal high blood pressure was present in 9.2% (95% CI=9.0–9.3%) of births. In the adjusted median regression analysis, mothers with asthma had $999 (95% CI: $886 to $1,112) higher hospital charges compared to those without; mothers with diabetes had $743 (95% CI: $636 to $850) higher charges compared to those without; and mothers with high blood pressure had $2,314 (95% CI: $2,194 to $2,434) higher charges compared to those without. Asthma, diabetes, and high blood pressure are associated with higher hospital delivery charges and low birth weight. Diabetes and high blood pressure were also associated with Cesarean delivery. An increased awareness of the impact of these conditions on both adverse birth outcomes and the development of chronic disease is needed. PMID:24567868

Feigal, David W; Smith, Ruben A; Fuddy, Loretta J

2014-01-01

229

A Genetic Algorithm for Solving a Capacitated p Median Problem  

Microsoft Academic Search

Facility-location problems have several applications, such as telecommunications, industrial transportation and distribution. One of the most well-known facility-location problems is the p-median problem. This work addresses an application of the capacitated p-median problem to a real-world problem. We propose a genetic algorithm (GA) to solve the capacitated p-median problem. The proposed GA uses not only conventional genetic operators, but also

Elon Santos Correa; Maria Teresinha A. Steiner; Alex A. Freitas; Celso Carnieri

2004-01-01

230

A Genetic Algorithm for the P-Median Problem  

Microsoft Academic Search

Facility-location problems have several applications in telecommunications, industrial transportation and distribution, etc. One of the most well-known facility-location problems is the p-median problem. This work addresses an application of the capacitated p-median problem to a real-world problem. We propose a genetic algorithm (GA) to solve the capacitated p- median problem. The proposed GA uses not only conventional genetic operators but

Elon Santos Correa; Maria Teresinha; A. Steiner; Alex A. Freitas; Celso Carnieri; Centro Politecnico

2001-01-01

231

On cube-free median graphs Bo stjan Bre sar  

E-print Network

On cube-free median graphs Bo#20;stjan Bre#20;sar #3; FEECS, University of Maribor Smetanova 17 G be a cube-free median graph. It is proved that k 2 #21; p n 1 #21; m 2 p n #21; p s #21; r 1 trees of the same order. The cube polynomial of cube-free median graphs is also considered

Klavzar, Sandi

232

Marfan syndrome and pregnancy: maternal and neonatal outcomes  

PubMed Central

Objective To report outcomes in a recent series of pregnancies in women with Marfan syndrome (MFS). Design Retrospective case note review. Setting Tertiary referral unit (Chelsea and Westminster and Royal Brompton Hospitals). Sample Twenty-nine pregnancies in 21 women with MFS between 1995 and 2010. Methods Multidisciplinary review of case records. Main outcome measures Maternal and neonatal mortality and morbidity of patients with MFS and healthy controls. Results There were no maternal deaths. Significant cardiac complications occurred in five pregnancies (17%): one woman experienced a type–A aortic dissection; two women required cardiac surgery within 6 months of delivery; and a further two women developed impaired left ventricular function during the pregnancy. Women with MFS were also more likely to have obstetric complications (OR 3.29, 95% CI 1.30–8.34), the most frequent of which was postpartum haemorrhage (OR 8.46, 95% CI 2.52–28.38). There were no perinatal deaths, although babies born to mothers with MFS were delivered significantly earlier than those born to the control group (median 39 versus 40 weeks of gestation, Mann–Whitney U–test, P = 0.04). These babies were also significantly more likely to be small for gestational age (24% in the MFS group versus 6% in the controls; OR 4.95, 95% CI 1.58–15.55). Conclusions Pregnancy in women with MFS continues to be associated with significant rates of maternal, fetal, and neonatal complications. Effective pre-pregnancy counselling and meticulous surveillance during pregnancy, delivery, and the puerperium by an experienced multidisciplinary team are warranted for women with MFS. PMID:24418012

Curry, RA; Gelson, E; Swan, L; Dob, D; Babu-Narayan, SV; Gatzoulis, MA; Steer, PJ; Johnson, MR

2014-01-01

233

Maternal Predictors of Rejecting Parenting and Early Adolescent Antisocial Behavior  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The present study examined relations among maternal psychological resources, rejecting parenting, and early adolescent antisocial behavior in a sample of 231 low-income mothers and their sons with longitudinal assessments from age 18 months to 12 years. The maternal resources examined were age at first birth, aggressive personality, and empathy.…

Trentacosta, Christopher J.; Shaw, Daniel S.

2008-01-01

234

Papillary Carcinoma in Median Aberrant Thyroid (Ectopic) - Case Report  

PubMed Central

Median ectopic thyroid may be encountered anywhere from the foramen caecum to the diaphragm. Non lingual median aberrant thyroid (incomplete descent) usually found in the infrahyoid region and malignant transformation in this ectopic thyroid tissue is very rare. We report an extremely rare case of papillary carcinoma in non lingual median aberrant thyroid in a 25-year-old female. The differentiation between a carcinoma arising in the median ectopic thyroid tissue and a metastatic papillary carcinoma from an occult primary in the main thyroid gland is also discussed. PMID:25121039

K, Shashidhar; Deshmane, Vijaya Laxmi; Kumar, Veerendra; Arjunan, Ravi

2014-01-01

235

The incidence of low birth weight and intrauterine growth restriction in relationship to maternal ethnicity and gestational age at birth - A PEARL study analysis from the State of Qatar  

PubMed Central

Objective: To analyze the association between maternal ethnicity and gestational age with the incidence of low birth weight and intrauterine growth restriction. Study Design: Prospective, analytic study Methods: The study was conducted between March 14th and April 4th 2011 in Women's Hospital HMC. The data was ascertained from the delivery register of labor ward on daily basis using predesigned, structured questionnaire. Data was stratified according to the maternal ethnicity groups and gestational age at birth (term and preterm). Results: The total deliveries during the study period were 890; 35.5% Qatari (n 316) and 64.5% non-Qatari (n 574). The incidence of LBW was 12.36% (n 110). The difference of LBW incidence between Qatari (13.6% n 43) and non-Qatari (11.67% n 67) groups was non significant (RR 1.17, 95% CI 0.82-1.67, p = 0.401). The same was between non-Qatari sub groups (p < 0.05). The incidence of IUGR was 6% (n 54; 49.09% of LBW). The incidence of IUGR between Qatari (5.7% n 18) and non-Qatari (6.27% n 36) groups was significant (RR 0.45, 95% CI 0.3-0.6 p>0.05). The incidence of LBW was 7.85% (n 60) in term babies and 39.68% (n 50) in preterm babies. The incidence if IUGR was 3.79% (n 29) in term babies and 19.84% (n 25) in preterm babies. Preterm babies had a five times higher risk of both being LBW (RR 5.05; 95%CI 3.65-6.99; p < 0.001) and IUGR (RR 5.23; 95% CI 3.17-8.62; p < 0.001). Conclusion: The incidence of low birth weight is independent of maternal ethnicity in Qatar. However, the incidence of IUGR is significantly higher among the non-Qatari population. The relative risk of being LBW or IUGR is five times higher in preterm babies. Further in depth studies are indicated. PMID:25003038

Abdulkader, Zeyad Mohannad; ur Rahman, Sajjad; Nimeri, Nuha

2012-01-01

236

[Optimization of surgical treatment of median postoperative abdominal hernias].  

PubMed

The analysis surgical treatment results in 1187 patients. ageing 30-80 yrs old, in 2000-2009 period, for median postoperative abdominal hernia (MPOAH) is presented. Autoplasty was performed in 43 (3.6%) patients, suffering MPOAH of small and middle size without mm. recti abdomini diastasis. The "sub lay" method constitutes an optimal variant of alloplasty for MPOAH of small and middle size with mm. recti abdomini diastasis and of big size, and for giant MPOAH - the operations according to Ramirez method in our modification together with the net implants application. Intraabdominal hypertension was noted in 2 (0.8%) of 231 patients, suffering giant MPOAH, seroma--in 86 (7.2%), the wound suppuration - in 16 (1.3%). Pulmonary thromboembolism had constituted the cause of death in 2 (0.8%) patients, suffering giant MPOAH. Late results in terms 1-5 yrs were studied up in 520 patients. Chronic pain in the abdominal wall portion was noted by 17 (3.2%) patients and the hernia recurrence--7 (1.3%). PMID:20491258

Feleshtyns'ky?, Ia P; Vatamaniuk, V F; Dubenets', V O; Svyrydovs'ky?, S A

2010-03-01

237

Maternal Smoking during Pregnancy and Childhood Obesity  

Microsoft Academic Search

A recent cohort study suggested that maternal smoking during pregnancy might be a risk factor for childhood obesity. Data from the obligatory school entry health examination in six Bavarian (Germany) public health offices in 1999-2000 were used to assess the relation between maternal smoking during pregnancy and childhood obesity (n = 6,483 German children aged 5.00-6.99 years). A body mass

Rüdiger von Kries; André Michael Toschke; Berthold Koletzko; William Slikker

2002-01-01

238

Perinatal maternal life events and psychotic experiences in children at twelve years in a birth cohort study?  

PubMed Central

Background International studies indicate that the median prevalence of psychotic experiences in children is 7%. It has been proposed that environmental stress during pregnancy may affect the neurodevelopment of the foetus and lead to a vulnerability in the child to later stressors and psychopathology. Aim In this study we explore the relationship between environmental stress during pregnancy and psychotic experiences in children in the general population at 12 years. Methods We analysed a birth cohort of 5038 children from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children. Environmental stress was measured as life event exposure. Data on life events were collected on women during their pregnancy, whilst psychotic experiences in the offspring were assessed at age 12. Results There was a weak association between maternal exposure to life events and psychotic experiences at twelve years (crude OR 1.10 95% CI 1.02–1.18) per quartile of life event score. This association was not reduced after adjustment for socio-economic status, family history of schizophrenia, maternal education or birth weight but after adjustment for maternal anxiety and depression and smoking in early pregnancy there was no longer any evidence for an association (OR 1.01 95% CI 0.93–1.10). Conclusion This study provides some evidence to suggest that stressful life events may affect child psychotic experiences through effects on maternal psychopathology, and possibly physiology, during pregnancy. PMID:24275580

Dorrington, Sarah; Zammit, Stan; Asher, Laura; Evans, Jonathan; Heron, Jonathan; Lewis, Glyn

2014-01-01

239

Estimation of Median Streamflows at Perennial Stream Sites in Hawaii  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The most accurate estimates of median streamflows at perennial stream sites in Hawaii are those made at streamflow-gaging stations. Two alternative methods for estimating median streamflows at ungaged sites are described in this report. Multiple-regression equations were developed for estimating median streamflows at ungaged, unregulated, perennial stream sites. The equations relate combinations of drainage area, mean altitude of the main stream channel, and mean annual precipitation to median streamflow. Streamflow data from 56 long-term continuous-record gaging stations were used in the analysis. Median-streamflow data for all 56 sites were adjusted using record-extension techniques to reflect base period (1912 through 1986) conditions. Hawaii was subdivided into two geographic groups and multiple-regression equations were developed for each. The standard error of predication for the equation developed for the first group, the islands of Oahu, Molokai, and Hawaii, is 41 percent. The standard error of predication for the equation developed for the second group, the islands of Kauai and Maui, is 54 percent. A method for estimating median-streamflow, based on discharge measurements and data from nearby streamflow-gaging stations, was also developed for 27 regulated, perennial windward Oahu sites. Standard errors of prediction for 23 of the sites range from 5 to 34 percent. Median-streamflow estimates for the four remaining sites were considered poor and no measures of accuracy are provided. Discharge measurements can be used to make estimates of median streamflows at ungaged, regulated sites where the regression equations developed in this report are not applicable. Discharge measurements can also be used to make estimates of median streamflows at ungaged, unregulated sites. Estimates of median streamflows based on discharge measurements have greater standard errors than estimates based on continuous streamflow records and in general have smaller standard errors than estimates based on regression equations.

Fontaine, Richard A.; Wong, Michael F.; Matsuoka, Iwao

1992-01-01

240

Examining the relationship between maternal central fat patterning and infant body composition  

E-print Network

(dependent variable) and maternal peripheral and central FM (independent variables). Next, the analyses were repeated using multiple linear regression with the following maternal covariates: age, parity, race, socioeconomic status (SES), GWG, weight loss 2...

Li, Cheng

2013-05-31

241

Maternal plasma fetal DNA fractions in pregnancies with low and high risks for fetal chromosomal aneuploidies.  

PubMed

Recently published international guidelines recommend the clinical use of noninvasive prenatal test (NIPT) for aneuploidy screening only among pregnant women whose fetuses are deemed at high risk. The applicability of NIPT to aneuploidy screening among average risk pregnancies requires additional supportive evidence. A key determinant of the reliability of aneuploidy NIPT is the fetal DNA fraction in maternal plasma. In this report, we investigated if differences in fetal DNA fractions existed between different pregnancy risk groups. One hundred and ninety-five singleton pregnancies with male fetuses divided into 3 groups according to first trimester screening parameters were examined for fetal DNA percentage by counting Y chromosome DNA sequences using massively parallel sequencing. Fetal DNA fractions were compared between risk groups and assessed for correlations with first trimester screening parameters. There was no statistically significant difference in fetal DNA fractions across the high, intermediate and low risk groups. Fetal DNA fraction showed a strong negative correlation with maternal weight. Fetal DNA fraction also showed weak but significant correlations with gestational age, crown-rump length, multiple of medians of free ?-subunit of human chorionic gonadotropin and pregnancy-associated plasma protein A. Similar fetal DNA fractions in maternal plasma between high, intermediate and low risk pregnant women is a precondition for uniform performance of the aneuploidy NIPTs for the general population. This study thus shows that the aneuploidy screening by NIPT is likely to offer similar analytical reliability without respect to the a priori fetal aneuploidy risk. PMID:24586333

Hudecova, Irena; Sahota, Daljit; Heung, Macy M S; Jin, Yongjie; Lee, Wing S; Leung, Tak Y; Lo, Yuk Ming Dennis; Chiu, Rossa W K

2014-01-01

242

Does warmth moderate longitudinal associations between maternal spanking and child aggression in early childhood?  

PubMed

This study examines whether maternal warmth moderates the association between maternal use of spanking and increased child aggression between ages 1 and 5. Participants were 3,279 pairs of mothers and their children from a cohort study of urban families from 20 U.S. cities. Maternal spanking was assessed when the child was 1 year, 3 years, and 5 years of age. Maternal warmth and child aggressive behavior were measured at 3 years and 5 years of age. Models controlled for demographic characteristics (measured at the child's birth), child emotionality (measured at age 1), and maternal psychosocial risk factors (measured when children were 3 years old). Cross-lagged path models examined the within-time and longitudinal associations between spanking and child aggression. Results indicated that maternal spanking at age 1 was associated with higher levels of child aggression at age 3; similarly, maternal spanking at age 3 predicted increases in child aggression by age 5. Maternal warmth when children were 3 years old did not predict changes in child aggression between 3 and 5 years old. Furthermore, maternal warmth did not moderate the association between spanking and increased child aggression over time. Beginning as early as age 1, maternal spanking is predictive of child behavior problems, and maternal warmth does not counteract the negative consequences of the use of spanking. PMID:23339588

Lee, Shawna J; Altschul, Inna; Gershoff, Elizabeth T

2013-11-01

243

Dual pathology proximal median nerve compression of the forearm.  

PubMed

We report an unusual case of synchronous pathology in the forearm- the coexistence of a large lipoma of the median nerve together with an osteochondroma of the proximal ulna, giving rise to a dual proximal median nerve compression. Proximal median nerve compression neuropathies in the forearm are uncommon compared to the prevalence of distal compression neuropathies (eg Carpal Tunnel Syndrome). Both neural fibrolipomas (Refs. 1,2) and osteochondromas of the proximal ulna (Ref. 3) in isolation are rare but well documented. Unlike that of a distal compression, a proximal compression of the median nerve will often have a definite cause. Neural fibrolipoma, also called fibrolipomatous hamartoma are rare, slow-growing, benign tumours of peripheral nerves, most often occurring in the median nerve of younger patients. To our knowledge, this is the first report of such dual pathology in the same forearm, giving rise to a severe proximal compression of the median nerve. In this case, the nerve was being pushed anteriorly by the osteochondroma, and was being compressed from within by the intraneural lipoma. This unusual case highlights the advantage of preoperative imaging as part of the workup of proximal median nerve compression. PMID:23707555

Murphy, Siun M; Browne, Katherine; Tuite, David J; O'Shaughnessy, Michael

2013-12-01

244

Maternal Predictors of Rejecting Parenting and Early Adolescent Antisocial Behavior  

PubMed Central

The present study examined relations among maternal psychological resources, rejecting parenting, and early adolescent antisocial behavior in a sample of 231 low-income mothers and their sons with longitudinal assessments from age 18 months to 12 years. The maternal resources examined were age at first birth, aggressive personality, and empathy. Each of the maternal resources predicted rejecting parenting during early childhood in structural equation models that controlled for toddler difficult temperament, and rejecting parenting in early childhood predicted antisocial behavior in early adolescence. Rejecting parenting accounted for the indirect effect of each of the maternal resources on antisocial behavior, but a direct effect was also supported between maternal aggressive personality and youth antisocial behavior. Results highlight the importance of these relatively understudied maternal resources and have implications for prevention and intervention programs that focus on parenting during early childhood. PMID:17805957

Shaw, Daniel S.

2009-01-01

245

The importance of maternal state of mind regarding attachment and infant age at placement to foster mothers' representations of their foster infants  

Microsoft Academic Search

Previous research has found that foster mother state of mind with respect to attachment and infant age at placement into foster care influence the developing foster mother- foster child relationship (Dozier, Albus, Stovall, & Bates, 2000; Stovall & Dozier, 2000). This study extends prior research by assessing factors related to foster mothers' representations of their foster infants. Participants were 48

Brady C. Bates; Mary Dozier

2002-01-01

246

The effects of early maternal employment on child cognitive development  

Microsoft Academic Search

We investigated the effects of early maternal employment on children’s cognitive outcomes, using data from the National Longitudinal\\u000a Survey of Youth on 1,872 children who can be followed from birth to age 7 or 8. We found some persistent adverse effects of\\u000a first-year maternal employment and some positive effects of second- and third-year maternal employment on cognitive outcomes\\u000a for non-Hispanic

Jane Waldfogel; Wen-Jui Han; Jeanne Brooks-Gunn

2002-01-01

247

Postpartum feeding attitudes, maternal depression, and breastfeeding in Barbados  

Microsoft Academic Search

Maternal feeding attitudes, maternal moods and infant feeding practices during the first 6 months postpartum were assessed in 226 healthy, well-nourished Barbadian mother–infant dyads. Factor analysis of the feeding attitudes questionnaire resulted in six independent factors. The belief that breastfeeding was better than bottle-feeding was associated with higher family income, more information seeking behavior and older maternal age at the

Janina R. Galler; Robert H. Harrison; Frank Ramsey; Sonia Chawla; John Taylor

2006-01-01

248

Schmallenberg virus antibody persistence in adult cattle after natural infection and decay of maternal antibodies in calves  

PubMed Central

Background Schmallenberg virus (SBV) has swept through the major part of Europe in the period 2011–2013. A vaccine against SBV has been developed and may be a possible preventive instrument against infection. Presently, there is no data available to refute the assumption that natural SBV infection results in long-term immunity. In that respect, it is of interest to know how long (protecting) virus-neutralizing antibodies are present in naturally infected animals. New-born calves acquire passive immunity from their dams by ingestion and absorption of antibodies present in colostrum, which can block the production of serum antibodies when vaccine is administered to calves with maternally derived antibodies. In that respect, it is useful to know how long it takes for maternal antibodies against SBV to disappear in young animals born from infected dams. Results Longitudinal whole-herd serological monitoring using virus neutralization test (VNT) indicated that 80% of adult dairy cows still had measurable antibodies against SBV at least 24 months after the estimated introduction of the virus into the herd. Median 2Log VNT titer of the adult dairy cows (?1 year) dropped from 8.6 to 5.6 in a period of 17 months. Median 2Log VNT maternal antibodies titers of calves sampled within 30 days after birth was 8. Calves lost their maternally-derived antibodies after 5–6 months. There was a definite positive relationship between the VNT titer of the dam and the VNT titer of the corresponding calf (age ? 30 days) of dam-calf combinations sampled on the same day: the higher the VNT titer of the dam, the higher the VNT titer (maternal antibodies) of the calf. Conclusions Our field data support the assumption that natural SBV infection in adult cows results in persistence of specific antibodies for at least two years. Based on the observed decay of maternally-derived antibodies in calves, it is presumed safe to vaccinate calves against SBV at an age of approximately 6 months. PMID:24885026

2014-01-01

249

Decay of maternal antibodies in broiler chickens.  

PubMed

The objective of this study was to determine the decay rate of maternal antibodies against major broiler chicken pathogens. A total of 30 one-day-old broiler chicks were obtained from a commercial hatchery and reared in isolation. These chicks were retrieved from a parent flock that received a routine vaccination program. Chicks were bled at hatch and sequentially thereafter every 5 d through 30 d of age. Maternal antibody titers were measured by ELISA for avian encephalomyelitis (AEV), avian influenza virus (AIV), chicken anemia virus (CAV), infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV), infectious bronchitis virus (IBV), infectious laryngotracheitis virus (ILTV), Mycoplasma gallisepticum (MG), Mycoplasma synoviae (MS), and reovirus (Reo). Maternal antibody titers for Newcastle disease virus (NDV) were measured using a hemagglutination inhibition test. Half-life estimates of maternal antibody titers were 5.3, 4.2, 7, 5.1, 3.9, 3.8, 4.9, 4.1, 6.3, and 4.7 d for AEV, AIV, CAV, IBDV, IBV, ILTV, MG, MS, NDV, and Reo, respectively. The statistical analysis revealed significant differences among half-lives of maternal antibody titers against certain pathogens. Furthermore, all maternal antibody titers were depleted by 10 d of age except for IBDV. PMID:23960115

Gharaibeh, Saad; Mahmoud, Kamel

2013-09-01

250

Evaluation of Concrete Median Barrier Delineation Under Poor Visibility Conditions.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In this research, a nationwide survey, durability test, and visibility test were conducted for concrete median barrier delineation. This research was in response to problems PENNDOT was encountering with delineators becoming detached due to harsh conditio...

L. J. French, K. A. French

2002-01-01

251

Adaptive median filtering for preprocessing of time series measurements  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A median (L1-norm) filtering program using polynomials was developed. This program was used in automatic recycling data screening. Additionally, a special adaptive program to work with asymmetric distributions was developed. Examples of adaptive median filtering of satellite laser range observations and TV satellite time measurements are given. The program proved to be versatile and time saving in data screening of time series measurements.

Paunonen, Matti

1993-01-01

252

Surgical utility of the Lanz classification of median nerve ramification.  

PubMed

The authors comment on the Lanz classification of the median nerve ramification at wrist level. The authors outline the importance of having very good knowledge of this classification for hand surgeons, plastic surgeons and neurosurgeons, in order to prevent iatrogenic lesions of the median nerve branches at wrist level. The regional anatomy is of utmost importance for carpal tunnel syndrome surgery, especially the mini-invasive and endoscopic techniques. PMID:23958082

B?doiu, Sc; Strâmbu, V; Lasc?r, I

2013-01-01

253

Changes in Median Household Income: 1969 to 1996  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Census Bureau report Changes in Median Household Income: 1969 to 1996 by Jack McNeil indicates that the US median household income rose six percent overall between 1969 and 1996. This modest increase does not reflect the more dynamic changes experienced by a variety of the household types studied, however, as selected measures in the seventeen statistical appendices included in the report reveal.

Mcneil, John.

1998-01-01

254

Raltegravir pharmacokinetics in neonates following maternal dosing.  

PubMed

: International Maternal Pediatric Adolescent AIDS Clinical Trials P1097 was a multicenter trial to determine washout pharmacokinetics and safety of in utero/intrapartum exposure to raltegravir in infants born to HIV-infected pregnant women receiving raltegravir-based antiretroviral therapy. Twenty-two mother-infant pairs were enrolled; evaluable pharmacokinetic data were available from 19 mother-infant pairs. Raltegravir readily crossed the placenta, with a median cord blood/maternal delivery plasma raltegravir concentration ratio of 1.48 (range, 0.32-4.33). Raltegravir elimination was highly variable and extremely prolonged in some infants; [median t1/2 26.6 (range, 9.3-184) hours]. Prolonged raltegravir elimination likely reflects low neonatal UGT1A1 enzyme activity and enterohepatic recirculation. Excessive raltegravir concentrations must be avoided in the neonate because raltegravir at high plasma concentrations may increase the risk of bilirubin neurotoxicity. Subtherapeutic concentrations, which could lead to inadequate viral suppression and development of raltegravir resistance, must also be avoided. Two ongoing International Maternal Pediatric Adolescent AIDS Clinical Trials studies are further investigating the pharmacology of raltegravir in neonates. PMID:25162819

Clarke, Diana F; Acosta, Edward P; Rizk, Matthew L; Bryson, Yvonne J; Spector, Stephen A; Mofenson, Lynne M; Handelsman, Edward; Teppler, Hedy; Welebob, Carolee; Persaud, Deborah; Cababasay, Mae P; Wang, JiaJia; Mirochnick, Mark

2014-11-01

255

Elemental analysis of human amniotic fluid and placenta by total-reflection X-ray fluorescence and energy-dispersive X-ray fluorescence: child weight and maternal age dependence  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This work is an attempt to evaluate the possible influence of the mother's age in trace element concentrations in human amniotic fluid and placenta and whether these concentrations are correlated to the weight of the newborn infants. Total-reflection X-ray fluorescence (TXRF) was used to analyze 16 amniotic fluid samples, and the placenta samples were analyzed by energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence (EDXRF). The whole samples were collected during delivery from healthy mothers and healthy infants and full-term pregnancies. According to the age of the mother, three different groups were considered: 20-25, 25-30 and 30-40 years old. Only two mothers were aged more than 35 years. The weight of the infants ranged from 2.56 to 4.05 kg and three groups were also considered: 2.5-3, 3-3.5 and 3.5-4 kg. The organic matrix of the amniotic fluid samples was removed by treatment with HNO 3 followed by oxygen plasma ashing. Yttrium was used as the internal standard for TXRF analysis. Placenta samples were lyophilized and analyzed by EDXRF without any chemical treatment. Very low levels of Ni and Sr were found in the amniotic fluid samples, and were independent of the age of the mother and weight of the child. Cr, Mn, Se and Pb were at the level of the detection limit. Zn, considered one of the key elements in neonatal health, was not significantly different in the samples analyzed; however, it was weakly related to birth weigh. The concentrations obtained ranged from 0.11 to 0.92 mg/l and 30 to 65 ?g/g in amniotic fluid and placenta, respectively. The only two elements which seemed to be significantly correlated with mother's age and newborn weight were Ca and Fe for both types of sample: Ca levels were increased in heavier children and older mothers; however, Fe increased with increasing maternal age, but decreased for heavier babies. The same conclusions were obtained for placenta and amniotic fluid samples. Cu is closely associated with Fe in its function in the organism and has a similar behavior to this element, but not as pronounced.

Carvalho, M. L.; Custódio, P. J.; Reus, U.; Prange, A.

2001-11-01

256

HIV and maternal mortality.  

PubMed

The majority of the 17million women globally that are estimated to be infected with HIV live in Sub-Saharan Africa. Worldwide, HIV-related causes contributed to 19 000-56 000 maternal deaths in 2011 (6%-20% of maternal deaths). HIV-infected pregnant women have two to 10 times the risk of dying during pregnancy and the postpartum period compared with uninfected pregnant women. Many of these deaths can be prevented with the implementation of high-quality obstetric care, prevention and treatment of common co-infections, and treatment of HIV with ART. The paper summarizes what is known about HIV disease progression in pregnancy, specific causes of HIV-related maternal deaths, and the potential impact of treatment with antiretroviral therapy on maternal mortality. Recommendations are proposed for improving maternal health and decreasing maternal mortality among HIV-infected women based on existing evidence. PMID:25097142

Lathrop, Eva; Jamieson, Denise J; Danel, Isabella

2014-11-01

257

Maternal effects and larval survival of marbled sole Pseudopleuronectes yokohamae  

Microsoft Academic Search

Maternal effects of animals are the phenotypic influences of age, size, and condition of spawners on the survival and phenotypic traits of offspring. To clarify the maternal effects for marbled sole Pseudopleuronectes yokohamae, we investigated the effects of body size, nutrient condition, and growth history of adult females on egg size, larval size, and starvation tolerance, growth, and feeding ability

Tomomi Higashitani; Tetsuya Takatsu; Mitsuhiro Nakaya; Mikimasa Joh; Toyomi Takahashi

2007-01-01

258

Maternal Depression and Children's Attachment Representations during the Preschool Years  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This longitudinal study aimed to investigate the impact of chronic and transient maternal depression on children's attachment representations at 4 years of age measured with the Attachment Story Completion Task (Bretherton, Ridgeway, & Cassidy, 1990). The impact of concurrent maternal depressive symptoms was also considered. A secondary aim was to…

Trapolini, T.; Ungerer, J. A.; McMahon, C. A.

2007-01-01

259

Fetal DNA detection in maternal plasma throughout gestation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The presence of fetal DNA in maternal plasma may represent a source of genetic material which can be obtained noninvasively. We wanted to assess whether fetal DNA is detectable in all pregnant women, to define the range and distribution of fetal DNA concentration at different gestational ages, to identify the optimal period to obtain a maternal blood sample yielding an

Silvia Galbiati; Maddalena Smid; Dania Gambini; Augusto Ferrari; Gabriella Restagno; Elsa Viora; Mario Campogrande; Simona Bastonero; Marco Pagliano; Stefano Calza; Maurizio Ferrari; Laura Cremonesi

2005-01-01

260

Relationship between Newborn and Maternal Iron Status and Haematological Indices  

Microsoft Academic Search

The haemoglobin, mean corpuscular volume, mean corpuscular haemoglobin, haematocrit, serum iron and total iron binding capacity, and serum ferritin concentrations in umbilical cord blood samples taken from 96 appropriate-for-gestational age infants delivered at term were measured and compared to the respective maternal values measured at 36 weeks’ gestation. All the values were higher in cord blood. Only maternal mean corpuscular

T. T. Lao; R. K. H. Chin; C. W. K. Lam; Y. M. Lam

1991-01-01

261

Young Mother-Father Dyads and Maternal Harsh Parenting Behavior  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: This study examined whether the age of parents predicted maternal harsh parenting behavior, specifically whether younger mothers might be at higher risk than older mothers, and which paternal characteristics might be associated with maternal parenting behavior. Methodology: This study used data from the Fragile Families and Child…

Lee, Yookyong; Guterman, Neil B.

2010-01-01

262

Infant Stunting Is Associated With Short Maternal Stature  

PubMed Central

The objectives were to determine the range of maternal height associated with growth velocity of older infants and the magnitude of this association in an indigent population. Maternal height and infant length-for-age z scores (LAZ) were positively correlated at both 6 (n=412, r=0.324) and 12 (n=388, r=0.335) months (P<0.0001) and for maternal heights from 131 to 164 cm. Maternal height is independently associated with infant LAZ and stunting (LAZ

Hambidge, K. Michael; Mazariegos, Manolo; Kindem, Mark; Wright, Linda L.; Cristobal-Perez, Christina; Juarez-Garcia, Lucrecia; Westcott, Jamie E.; Goco, Norman; Krebs, Nancy F.

2013-01-01

263

Median Arcuate Ligament Syndrome in a patient with Crohn's disease  

PubMed Central

INTRODUCTION The Median Arcuate Ligament Syndrome is a rare condition characterized by postprandial abdominal pain, bowel function disorder and weight loss. We report the first case to our knowledge of Crohn's disease and Median Arcuate Ligament Syndrome. PRESENTATION OF CASE The patient was a 33 year-old female with a previous diagnosis of Crohn's disease. Acute postprandial abdominal pain affected the patient every day; she was, therefore, referred to US-Doppler and magnetic resonance angiography of the abdominal vessels and received a diagnosis of Median Arcuate Ligament Syndrome. Consequently, the patient was surgically treated, releasing the vascular compression. After the operation, she reported a complete relief from postprandial pain which was one of her major concerns. Subocclusive symptoms occurred after six months due to the inflammatory reactivation of the terminal ileitis. DISCUSSION The diagnosis of Median Arcuate Ligament Syndrome is mainly based on the exclusion of other intestinal disorders but it should be always confirmed using noninvasive tests such as US-Doppler, angio-CT or magnetic resonance angiography. CONCLUSION This case demonstrates that the Median Arcuate Ligament Syndrome could be the major cause of symptoms, even in presence of other abdominal disorders. PMID:23500743

Sturiale, Alessandro; Alemanno, Giovanni; Giudici, Francesco; Addasi, Rami; Bellucci, Francesco; Tonelli, Francesco

2013-01-01

264

Woman-Centered Maternity Nursing Education and Practice  

PubMed Central

The purpose of this Heideggerian phenomenological study was to uncover the meanings of the clinical experiences of registered nurses working in maternity settings after they studied maternity nursing from a woman-centered, feminist perspective in a generic baccalaureate nursing program. Purposeful sampling was conducted to locate and recruit nurses who had graduated from this nursing program between the December 1996 and December 1998 semesters and were currently working in a maternal-newborn clinical setting. Each participant had taken the required woman-centered, maternity-nursing course during her/his undergraduate education. Data collection included an individual, open-ended interview that focused on the nurses' descriptions of their everyday practices as maternity nurses. Nineteen maternal-newborn nurses between the ages of 23 and 43 years who had been in practice from six months to three years were interviewed. The constitutive patterns identified from the interviews were: “Otherness,” “Being and Becoming Woman-Centered,” and “Tensions in Practicing Woman-Centered Care.” Findings revealed that the nurses had a raised awareness of oppressive maternity care practices and applied ideology of woman-centeredness as a framework for providing more humanistic care. Creating woman-centered maternity care meant negotiating tensions and barriers in medically focused maternity settings and looking for opportunities for advocacy and woman-empowerment. The barriers the nurses faced in implementing woman-centered care exposed limitations to childbearing choices and nursing practices that remain problematic in maternity care. PMID:17273327

Giarratano, Gloria

2003-01-01

265

Maternal hormones during early pregnancy: a cross-sectional study  

PubMed Central

Background Little is known about correlates of first trimester pregnancy hormones as in most studies maternal hormones have been measured later in gestation. We examined the associations of maternal characteristics and child sex with first trimester maternal concentrations of 4 hormones implicated in breast cancer: human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG), ?-fetoprotein (AFP), insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-I and IGF-II. Methods 338 serum samples donated to the Northern Sweden Maternity Cohort (NSMC), 1975–2001, during the first trimester of uncomplicated pregnancies were analyzed for the hormones of interest as a part of a case-control study. The associations between maternal characteristics and child sex with hormone concentrations were investigated by correlation, general linear regression, and multivariate regression models. Results In the first trimester, greater maternal age was inversely correlated with IGF-I and IGF-II. In comparison with women carrying their first child, already parous women had higher IGF-I but lower hCG. Greater maternal weight and smoking were inversely correlated with hCG. No differences in hormone levels by child sex were observed. Conclusions Our analyses indicated that potentially modifiable maternal characteristics (maternal weight and smoking) influence first trimester pregnancy maternal hormone concentrations. PMID:20084544

Chen, Tianhui; Lundin, Eva; Grankvist, Kjell; Zeleniuch-Jacquotte, Anne; Wulff, Marianne; Afanasyeva, Yelena; Schock, Helena; Johansson, Robert; Lenner, Per; Hallmans, Goran; Wadell, Goran; Toniolo, Paolo; Lukanova, Annekatrin

2010-01-01

266

MATERNAL SELF-ESTEEM, EXPOSURE TO LEAD, AND CHILD NEURODEVELOPMENT  

PubMed Central

The notion that maternal personality characteristics influence cognitive development in their children has been grounded in stress moderation theory. Maternal personality traits, such as self-esteem, may buffer maternal stressors or lead to improved maternal-child interactions that directly impact neurodevelopment. This can be extended to suggest that maternal personality may serve to attenuate or exacerbate the effects of other neurotoxicants, although this has not been studied directly. We examined whether mothers’ self-esteem had a direct or main effect on their children's cognitive outcomes. We also explored the modifying effects of maternal self-esteem on the association between exposure to lead and neurodevelopment in these children. Study participants included 379 mother-child pairs from Mexico City. Data included the Coopersmith self-esteem scale in mothers, children's Bayley's Scale of Infant Development (BSID) scores, and sociodemographic information. Linear regression was used to model the relationship between maternal self-esteem and the Bayley's Mental Development Index (MDI) and Psychomotor Development Index (PDI) scores at age 24 months using regression models stratified by levels of maternal self-esteem. In adjusted models, each point increase in maternal self-esteem was associated with children having 0.2 higher score on the Bayley's MDI (p=0.04). Similar results were observed using the PDI outcome. Moreover, there was evidence that maternal self-esteem attenuated the negative effects of lead exposure, although the interaction fell short of conventional levels of statistical significance. PMID:18261800

Surkan, Pamela J.; Schnaas, Lourdes; Wright, Rosalind J.; Tellez-Rojo, Martha M.; Lamadrid-Figueroa, Hector; Hu, Howard; Hernandez-Avila, E. Mauricio; Bellinger, David C.; Schwartz, Joel; Perroni, Estela; Wright, Robert O.

2008-01-01

267

The Median Mechanism: Interactive and Efficient Privacy with Multiple Queries  

E-print Network

We define a new interactive differentially private mechanism -- the median mechanism -- for answering arbitrary predicate queries that arrive online. Relative to fixed accuracy and privacy constraints, this mechanism can answer exponentially more queries than the previously best known interactive privacy mechanism (the Laplace mechanism, which independently perturbs each query result). Our guarantee is almost the best possible, even for non-interactive privacy mechanisms. Conceptually, the median mechanism is the first privacy mechanism capable of identifying and exploiting correlations among queries in an interactive setting. We also give an efficient implementation of the median mechanism, with running time polynomial in the number of queries, the database size, and the domain size. This efficient implementation guarantees privacy for all input databases, and accurate query results for almost all input databases. The dependence of the privacy on the number of queries in this mechanism improves over that of ...

Roth, Aaron

2009-01-01

268

Discrepancies among mother, child, and teacher reports: Examining the contributions of maternal depression and anxiety  

Microsoft Academic Search

The relationship between maternal affective symptomatology and discrepancies in maternal reports of child symptoms, relative to teacher and child reports, was evaluated in a community sample of 188 children ages 9–12 years. Mothers, teachers, and children were administered a structured interview about child psychopathology. In general, mothers reported more child behavior problems than children and teachers, regardless of maternal symptomatology.

Margaret J. Briggs-Gowan; Alice S. Carter; Mary Schwab-Stone

1996-01-01

269

Maternal child-rearing practices and social problem-solving strategies among preschoolers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Examined the relation of nurturant and restrictive maternal childrearing practices and maternal education to the types of social problem-solving strategies used by 72 preschoolers (mean age 4 yrs 7 mo). Children were administered the Preschool Interpersonal Problem Solving Test, and mothers completed the Child Rearing Practices Report. Maternal variables successfully predicted 5 out of 9 strategies identified. Restrictiveness was positively

Diane C. Jones; Annette U. Rickel; Richard L. Smith

1980-01-01

270

Infant and parent factors associated with early maternal sensitivity: A caregiver-attachment systems approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

We examined variations in maternal sensitivity at 6 months of child age as a function of child negativity and maternal physiology. We expected maternal vagal withdrawal in response to infant negative affect to facilitate the maintenance of sensitivity, but only for mothers of securely attached children. One hundred and forty-eight infant-mother dyads were observed in multiple contexts at 6 months

W. Roger Mills-Koonce; Jean-Louis Gariépy; Cathi Propper; Kelly Suttona; Susan Calkins; Ginger Moore; Martha Cox

2007-01-01

271

Maternal determinants of birth weight: A population?based sample from Qingdao, China  

Microsoft Academic Search

This analysis examines the relationship between maternal determinants and birth weight in a population?based birth cohort of 5,284 mothers with singleton births of 28 completed gestational weeks in Qingdao, China, in 1992. Multiple linear regression models suggest that the length of the menstrual cycle, age at menarche, maternal weight, maternal height, parity, and number of antenatal visits had independent effects

Baizhuang Xu; Huiling Lü; Xiaoxing Xu; Arja Rimpelä

1995-01-01

272

Myofibroma in the Palm Presenting with Median Nerve Compression Symptoms  

PubMed Central

Summary: A myofibroma is a benign proliferation of myofibroblasts in the connective tissue. Solitary myofibromas are a rare finding especially in an adult. We report a case of a 23-year-old man presenting with an enlarging mass over his right palm. The patient is an active weight lifter. He reported numbness and tingling in the median nerve distribution. Nerve conduction studies and magnetic resonance imaging scans suggested a tumor involving or compressing the median nerve. The final diagnosis of myofibroma was made only after the histopathological diagnosis. PMID:25426387

Sarkozy, Heidi

2014-01-01

273

Some Student Ideas on the Median and the Mode  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This article, created by G.V. Barr, proposes to make a "tentative contribution to the knowledge of students' understanding of the statistical concepts; median and mode." It relates to a pilot study and tries to answer questions connected with the mistakes students tend to make: 1.What are the difficulties, 2.How many students have difficulties of this kind, 3.íHow does the statistical vocabulary develop with respect to concept? The author first provides a general introduction, then an introduction to the median, an introduction to the mode and finally discussion questions/conclusions. This is a nice overview of these different statistical concepts.

Barr, G. V.

2009-03-23

274

Maternal effects and the endocrine regulation of mandrill growth.  

PubMed

Maternal effects can influence offspring growth and development, and thus fitness. However, the physiological factors mediating these effects in nonhuman primates are not well understood. We investigated the impact of maternal effects on variation in three important components of the endocrine regulation of growth in male and female mandrills (Mandrillus sphinx), from birth to 9 years of age. Using a mixed longitudinal set (N = 252) of plasma samples, we measured concentrations of insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I), growth hormone binding protein (GHBP), and free testosterone (free T). We evaluated the relationship of ontogenetic patterns of changes in hormone concentration to patterns of growth in body mass and body length, and determined that these endocrine factors play a significant role in growth of both young (infant and juvenile) and adolescent male mandrills, but only in growth of young female mandrills. We also use mixed models analysis to determine the relative contribution of the effects of maternal rank, parity, and age on variation in hormone and binding protein concentrations. Our results suggest that all of these maternal effects account for significant variation in hormone and binding protein concentrations in all male age groups. Of the maternal effects measured, maternal rank was the most frequently identified significant maternal effect on variation in hormone and binding protein concentrations. We suggest that these endocrine factors provide mechanisms that contribute to the maternal effects on offspring growth previously noted in this population. PMID:22696170

Bernstein, Robin M; Setchell, Joanna M; Verrier, Delphine; Knapp, Leslie A

2012-10-01

275

Maternal history of parentification, maternal warm responsiveness, and children's externalizing behavior.  

PubMed

Destructive parentification occurs when children are expected to provide instrumental or emotional caregiving within the family system that overtaxes their developmental capacity. According to parentification theory, destructive parentification in family of origin poses a risk to child development in subsequent generations; however, there is a paucity of empirical research examining the impact of a maternal history of destructive parentification on parenting quality and child outcomes in subsequent generations. The present study examined the potential risk of maternal history of parentification on child adjustment by hypothesizing that a maternal history of parentification in family of origin would have a negative impact on quality of maternal warm responsiveness at 18 months of age which would, in turn, be associated with increased children's externalizing symptoms at 36 months. Results indicated that there was a significant indirect effect of maternal history of destructive parentification in family of origin on child externalizing behavior in the next generation through maternal warm responsiveness, supporting the hypothesized model. This finding suggests that facilitating the development of maternal contingent responsiveness among mothers with a history of destructive parentification may promote more adaptive child development in the next generation. PMID:22888779

Nuttall, Amy K; Valentino, Kristin; Borkowski, John G

2012-10-01

276

Neonatal abstinence syndrome after maternal methadone treatment.  

PubMed Central

Thirty two infants born to mothers taking methadone and 32 matched controls were studied to determine the incidence, timing, and frequency of persistence of withdrawal signs in infants born to maternal methadone users. Twelve (37%) infants received treatment for symptoms of withdrawal. The median length of time from birth to initiation of treatment was 23 hours (range 15-64 hours), the median length of treatment was six days (range 1-22 days). In the first six weeks after birth there was no significant difference in minor withdrawal symptoms and signs, general practitioner or accident and emergency visits between the group who did not receive treatment for withdrawal and the control group. If immediate treatment for withdrawal is not required major symptoms do not subsequently occur with great frequency. Late withdrawal signs were not seen in this study. PMID:7820717

Shaw, N J; McIvor, L

1994-01-01

277

Improving Reversal Median Computation Using Commuting Reversals and Cycle Information  

PubMed Central

Abstract In the past decade, genome rearrangements have attracted increasing attention from both biologists and computer scientists as a new type of data for phylogenetic analysis. Methods for reconstructing phylogeny from genome rearrangements include distance-based methods, MCMC methods, and direct optimization methods. The latter, pioneered by Sankoff and extended with the software suites GRAPPA and MGR, is the most accurate approach, but is very limited due to the difficulty of its scoring procedure—it must solve multiple instances of the reversal median problem to compute the score of a given tree. The reversal median problem is known to be NP-hard and all existing solvers are extremely slow when the genomes are distant. In this paper, we present a new reversal median heuristic for unichromosomal genomes. The new method works by applying sets of reversals in a batch where all such reversals both commute and do not break the cycle of any other. Our testing using simulated datasets shows that this method is much faster than the leading solver for difficult datasets with only a slight accuracy penalty, yet retains better accuracy than other heuristics with comparable speed, and provides the additional option of searching for multiple medians. This method dramatically increases the speed of current direct optimization methods and enables us to extend the range of their applicability to organellar and small nuclear genomes with more than 50 reversals along each edge. PMID:18774904

Arndt, William

2008-01-01

278

Robust state estimator based on least median of squares method  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to reduce the computing time required by the weighted least median square (WLMS) estimator, in this paper a procedure to determine the minimum redundancy of a measurement set and the non-redundant samples of measurement is proposed. The proposed procedure is based on the analysis of the structure of the HDelta matrix, obtained through triangular factorization of the Jacobian

M. Nanni; A. Delbem; N. G. Bretas

2008-01-01

279

[Fibrolipoma of the median nerve. A case report].  

PubMed

The authors report a case of fibrolipoma of the median nerve in a 6-year old boy presenting as macrodactyly with clinodactyly. The causal relationship between the nerve lesion and the deformities is discussed. The difficulties of diagnosis of the condition are presented as are the difficulties of management where a balance has to be struck between conservative treatment and amputation. PMID:18842445

Kossoko, H; Allah, C K; Richard Kadio, M; Yéo, S; Assi-Djè Bi Djè, V; Gueu, M

2008-12-01

280

Article: CJB/2011/207 The Median Conic  

E-print Network

Article: CJB/2011/207 The Median Conic Christopher Bradley Abstract: Given a triangle ABC and its centroid G, the midpoints of AG, BG, CG are denoted by U, V, W. Conics BCUVW, CAUVW, ABUVW are drawn and meet the sides again at point D, D', E, E', F, F'. It is proved that D, D', E, E', F, F' lie on a conic

Smith, Geoff

281

Elementary School Teachers' Understanding of the Mean and Median  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study provides a snapshot of elementary school teachers' understanding of the mean and median. The research is presented in light of recent work regarding preservice teachers' understanding of the mean. Common misconceptions are identified which lead to potential implications for teacher preparation programs. One of the primary concerns…

Jacobbe, Tim

2012-01-01

282

Anatomical variations of the median nerve in the carpal tunnel  

Microsoft Academic Search

The median nerve was explored in 100 hands and the variations classified by the Lanz system. Only 47.7% of hands showed the standard anatomy described in textbooks. Rare variations were also found. Knowledge of the variable anatomy of the nerve could help to avoid incomplete decompression at operations for carpal tunnel entrapment and injury to the thenar branch of the

M. F. Stan?i?; N. Eškinja; A. Stoši?

1995-01-01

283

Complexity of the Network Median Problem A. A. Ageev  

E-print Network

median problem (NMP). The NMP is, given a connected undirected graph G whose vertices have nonnegative-closed set of graphs. Then (a) if does not contain all planar graphs then the NMP is polynomially solvable; (b) if contains all planar graphs then the NMP is NP-hard. The

Ageev, Alexandr

284

Median Light Rail Crossings: Accident Causation And Countermeasures  

Microsoft Academic Search

ABSTRACT This paper focuses on accident causation and countermeasures,at arterial median light rail grade crossings. Unlike conventional railroad grade crossings, light rail systems often incorporate a grade crossing into an intersection environment. These complex,intersections can be confusing to drivers and lead to a high proportion of accidents where drivers turn into or in front of an LRV traveling the same

Benjamin Coifman; Robert L. Bertini

285

Electroacupuncture and Acupuncture Promote the Rat's Transected Median Nerve Regeneration  

PubMed Central

Background. Acupuncture and electroacupuncture treatments of damaged nerves may aid nerve regeneration related to hindlimb function, but the effects on the forelimb-related median nerve were not known. Methods. A gap was made in the median nerve of each rat by suturing the stumps into silicone rubber tubes. The influences of acupuncture and electroacupuncture treatments on transected median nerve regeneration were evaluated from morphological, electrophysiological, and functional angles. Results. Morphologically, the group receiving acupuncture and electroacupuncture treatments had larger total nerve area and blood vessel number compared with the controls. Electrophysiologically, the group receiving electroacupuncture had significantly larger amplitude and larger area of the evoked muscle action potentials compared with the controls. Functionally, the acupuncture and electroacupuncture treatments enhanced the injured paw's ability to regain its grasping power and resulted in a faster efficiency to a new bilateral balance. Conclusion. Our findings provide multiapproach evidence of the efficacy of acupuncture and electroacupuncture treatments to the regeneration of median nerve. Indeed, acupuncture and electroacupuncture appear to have positive effects on the regeneration processes. This platform is beneficial to further study the clinical application of acupuncture and electroacupuncture alternative treatments on nerve-injured patients. PMID:23573131

Ho, C. Y.; Yao, C. H.; Chen, W. C.; Shen, W. C.; Bau, D. T.

2013-01-01

286

Candy Colors: Figuring the Mean, Median & Mode  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this lesson, students will count candy of different colors and use the data to calculate mean, median, and mode. Groups of students will work together to share their data and calculate the measures of central tendency again. At the end of the lesson, they will apply their learning to another collection of data.

Association, National E.

2009-07-16

287

Placement of Traffic Barriers on Roadside and Median Slopes  

E-print Network

on the findings obtained from crash tests performed on flat terrain. For barriers placed on roadside and median slopes, vehicle impact height varies depending on the trajectory of the vehicle along the ditch section and lateral offset of the barrier. Thus...

Ferdous, Md Rubiat

2011-08-08

288

Infant Attractiveness Predicts Maternal Behaviors and Attitudes.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examined the relationship between infant attractiveness and maternal behavior by observing mothers feeding and playing with their firstborn infants immediately after giving birth and when the infants were three months of age. Found that mothers of more attractive infants were more affectionate and playful compared with mothers of less attractive…

Langlois, Judith H.; And Others

1995-01-01

289

NEW RESEARCH Maternal Early Life Experiences and  

E-print Network

to support the notion that the way one was parented in childhood influences later parenting.3-4,7 Proposed and their infants (2�6 months of age). Maternal ELE consisted of self-reports of consistency of care and childhood exists, less is known about pathways influencing the develop- ment of parenting. In humans, proposed

Sokolowski, Marla

290

Modeling rates of infection with transient maternal antibodies and ...  

E-print Network

Jan 1, 2014 ... We modeled age-specific forces of infection when immunity wanes using ... acquired maternal antibodies that decay or active immunity that wanes, permitting re-infection. ... Hospital, Box 7193, S-402 34 Göteborg, Sweden.

Zhilan Feng

2014-05-09

291

Characterization of Cardiac Teratogenicity in a Mouse Model of Maternal Phenylketonuria.  

E-print Network

?? Maternal phenylketonuria [MPKU] is a syndrome of cardiovascular malformations [CVMs], microcephaly, intellectual impairment, and small size for gestational age caused by in-utero exposure to… (more)

Seagraves, Nikki Jo

2012-01-01

292

August median streamflow on ungaged streams in Eastern Coastal Maine  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Methods for estimating August median streamflow were developed for ungaged, unregulated streams in eastern coastal Maine. The methods apply to streams with drainage areas ranging in size from 0.04 to 73.2 square miles and fraction of basin underlain by a sand and gravel aquifer ranging from 0 to 71 percent. The equations were developed with data from three long-term (greater than or equal to 10 years of record) continuous-record streamflow-gaging stations, 23 partial-record streamflow- gaging stations, and 5 short-term (less than 10 years of record) continuous-record streamflow-gaging stations. A mathematical technique for estimating a standard low-flow statistic, August median streamflow, at partial-record streamflow-gaging stations and short-term continuous-record streamflow-gaging stations was applied by relating base-flow measurements at these stations to concurrent daily streamflows at nearby long-term continuous-record streamflow-gaging stations (index stations). Generalized least-squares regression analysis (GLS) was used to relate estimates of August median streamflow at streamflow-gaging stations to basin characteristics at these same stations to develop equations that can be applied to estimate August median streamflow on ungaged streams. GLS accounts for different periods of record at the gaging stations and the cross correlation of concurrent streamflows among gaging stations. Thirty-one stations were used for the final regression equations. Two basin characteristics?drainage area and fraction of basin underlain by a sand and gravel aquifer?are used in the calculated regression equation to estimate August median streamflow for ungaged streams. The equation has an average standard error of prediction from -27 to 38 percent. A one-variable equation uses only drainage area to estimate August median streamflow when less accuracy is acceptable. This equation has an average standard error of prediction from -30 to 43 percent. Model error is larger than sampling error for both equations, indicating that additional or improved estimates of basin characteristics could be important to improved estimates of low-flow statistics. Weighted estimates of August median streamflow at partial- record or continuous-record gaging stations range from 0.003 to 31.0 cubic feet per second or from 0.1 to 0.6 cubic feet per second per square mile. Estimates of August median streamflow on ungaged streams in eastern coastal Maine, within the range of acceptable explanatory variables, range from 0.003 to 45 cubic feet per second or 0.1 to 0.6 cubic feet per second per square mile. Estimates of August median streamflow per square mile of drainage area generally increase as drainage area and fraction of basin underlain by a sand and gravel aquifer increase.

Lombard, Pamela J.

2004-01-01

293

A review of the Median Tectonic Zone: Terrane boundaries and terrane amalgamation near the Median Tectonic Line  

Microsoft Academic Search

The pre?Late Cretaceous basement rocks of New Zealand are divided into a Western Province and an Eastern Province along a tectonic boundary called the Median Tectonic Line. The two provinces comprise assemblages of terranes of fundamentally different origin. The Western Province attained continental?type thickness and structure by the end of the Carboniferous. The Eastern Province developed as a result of

J. D. Bradshaw

1993-01-01

294

The maternal autopsy  

PubMed Central

Careful study of reports prepared for the Confidential Enquiries into Maternal Deaths in England and Wales has made it clear that many maternal autopsy reports are not as informative as they might be. This is, in part at least, because no pathologist who does not work in a maternity unit can expect to see more than a handful of such deaths in a working lifetime. This paper describes briefly the particular features to look for at autopsy, stresses the importance of taking adequate material for histology and discusses some of the more significant histological findings, both of conditions which cause death and of those commonly associated with it. Images PMID:7119126

Rushton, DI; Dawson, IMP

1982-01-01

295

On detection of median filtering in digital images  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In digital image forensics, it is generally accepted that intentional manipulations of the image content are most critical and hence numerous forensic methods focus on the detection of such 'malicious' post-processing. However, it is also beneficial to know as much as possible about the general processing history of an image, including content-preserving operations, since they can affect the reliability of forensic methods in various ways. In this paper, we present a simple yet effective technique to detect median filtering in digital images-a widely used denoising and smoothing operator. As a great variety of forensic methods relies on some kind of a linearity assumption, a detection of non-linear median filtering is of particular interest. The effectiveness of our method is backed with experimental evidence on a large image database.

Kirchner, Matthias; Fridrich, Jessica

2010-01-01

296

The hardness of Median in the synchronized bit communication model  

E-print Network

The synchronized bit communication model, defined recently by Impagliazzo and Williams in \\emph{Communication complexity with synchronized clocks}, CCC '10, is a communication model which allows the participants to share a common clock. The main open problem posed in this paper was the following: does the synchronized bit model allow a logarithmic speed-up for all functions over the standard deterministic model of communication? We resolve this question in the negative by showing that the Median function, whose communication complexity is $O(\\log n)$, does not admit polytime synchronized bit protocol with communication complexity $O\\left(\\log^{1-\\epsilon} n\\right)$ for any $\\epsilon > 0$. Our results follow by a new round-communication trade-off for the Median function in the standard model, which easily translates to its hardness in the synchronized bit model.

So?tys, Karolina

2011-01-01

297

Median Nerve Injuries Caused by Carpal Tunnel Injections  

PubMed Central

Local steroid injections are widely used for diagnostic and therapeutic purposes in the management of carpal tunnel syndrome. The median nerve injury is the most serious complication in association with carpal tunnel injections although the incidence is low. A median nerve injury will be presented with shooting pain at the injection time along with other sensory distortion, motor weakness and muscle atrophy. The management includes a conservative treatment and a surgical exploration. Carpal tunnel injections should be used at a minimum only. If such steroid injection is required, an appropriate needle positioning is vital for the nerve injury prevention. The patient should not be heavily sedated and should be encouraged to inform experiences of numbness/paresthesia during the procedure immediately. PMID:24748938

Kim, Hyun Jung

2014-01-01

298

Roundworm-associated median nerve compression: a case report.  

PubMed

Human dirofilariasis is a rare zoonotic infection caused by the bite of a blood-feeding mosquito infected with a filarial nematode (roundworm). these infections can manifest as stationary or migratory subcutaneous or conjunctival nodules. We report an unusual case of Dirofilaria tenuis (D.tenuis) infection that developed into a space- occupying lesion in the wrist leading to median nerve compression pathology in an otherwise healthy young woman. We also comment on the natural history of the disease and report the outcome after surgical excision. To our knowledge, we are the first to report a case of median nerve compression caused by a growing subcutaneous nodule from a D.tenuis infection. PMID:24027489

Ramirez, Jose M; Ramirez, Miguel A; Essilfie, Anthony; Taylor, Cristina E; Stearns, Harry C; Mollano, Anthony

2013-01-01

299

Roundworm-Associated Median Nerve Compression: A Case Report  

PubMed Central

Human dirofilariasis is a rare zoonotic infection caused by the bite of a blood-feeding mosquito infected with a filarial nematode (roundworm). these infections can manifest as stationary or migratory subcutaneous or conjunctival nodules. We report an unusual case of Dirofilaria tenuis (D.tenuis) infection that developed into a space- occupying lesion in the wrist leading to median nerve compression pathology in an otherwise healthy young woman. We also comment on the natural history of the disease and report the outcome after surgical excision. To our knowledge, we are the first to report a case of median nerve compression caused by a growing subcutaneous nodule from a D.tenuis infection. PMID:24027489

Ramirez, Jose M; Ramirez, Miguel A; Essilfie, Anthony; Taylor, Cristina E; Stearns, Harry C; Mollano, Anthony

2013-01-01

300

Schwannoma of the Median Nerve: Diagnosis Sometimes Delayed  

PubMed Central

Schwannoma is a tumor that develops from nerve sheath. The authors report an unusual case of schwannoma of the median nerve (MN) that remained asymptomatic for four years. The diagnosis was based on MRI (magnetic resonance imaging) and histopathological examination. Surgical removal is usually curative. The asymptomatic character of the tumor and its slow evolution remain an essential factor in diagnosis delays. This tumor has a good prognosis with a low recurrence rate and potential for malignant transformation. PMID:25125990

Boufettal, Monsef; Azouz, Mohamed; Rhanim, Abdelkarim; Abouzahir, Mohamed; Mahfoud, Mustapha; Bardouni, Ahmed El; Berrada, Mohamed S; Yaacoubi, Moradh El

2014-01-01

301

Faster Algorithms for k-Medians in Trees (Extended Abstract)  

E-print Network

;nd a set F of k vertices that minimizes cost F (G) = P x2G min u2F w x d xu . The optimal cost of G, Simon Fraser University, Burnaby, BC, V5A 1S6, Canada { Research supported by NSERC and MITACS. 2) undirected trees with k = 3. 1 Introduction In the k-median problem we are given a graph G in which each node

Chrobak, Marek

302

Centers and medians of distance-hereditary graphs  

Microsoft Academic Search

A graph is distance-hereditary if the distance between any two vertices in a connected induced subgraph is the same as in the original graph. In this paper, we study metric properties of distance-hereditary graphs. In particular, we determine the structures of centers and medians of distance-hereditary and related graphs. The relations between eccentricity, radius, and diameter of such graphs are

Hong-gwa Yeh; Gerard J. Chang

2003-01-01

303

Bayesian approach based blind image deconvolution with fuzzy median filter  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The inverse problem associated with reconstruction of Poisson blurred images has attracted attention in recent years. In this paper, we propose an alternative unified approach to blind image deconvolution problem using fuzzy median filter as Gibbs prior to model the nature of inter pixel interaction for better edge preserving reconstruction. The performance of the algorithm at various SNR levels has been studied quantitatively using PSNR, RMSE and universal quality index (UQI). Comparative analysis with existing methods has also been carried out.

Mohan, S. Chandra; Rajan, K.; Srinivasan, R.

2011-10-01

304

Assessment of maternal mortality in Tanzania.  

PubMed

The results from a prospective community survey, a sisterhood method survey, and a hospital survey were compared in order to ascertain a reliable and inexpensive method for estimating direct deaths from obstetric complications of pregnancy. The maternal mortality ratio was used to express risk of dying during pregnancy. The surveys were conducted in Kwimba District in Mwanza region of northwestern Tanzania: in August 1989 to March 1991 in the community study within the primary health care area of Sumve Hospital, which supplied data on maternal mortality between 1986 and 1990. The sisterhood survey was conducted in 2 villages in 1990, of which 1 village was included in the community survey. The village study included 447 women, of whom 421 remained in the survey and delivered 427 infants (415 live born); there was 1 maternal death. The sisterhood method engaged 2865 respondents and the lifetime risk of maternal death was estimated at 297 and the proportional maternal mortality rate was 13.9%. There were 82 maternal deaths and 589 deaths from all causes among sisters aged 15 years and older. 7526 women were included in the hospital survey, of which 7335 births were represented; there were 62 maternal deaths. The maternal mortality risk was 845 among hospital admissions. 69% of all maternal deaths were accounted for by direct causes. Most deaths were attributed to the top 5 worldwide causes: obstructed labor, puerperal sepsis, postpartum hemorrhage, complications of abortion, and preeclampsia. There were few reports of abortions and abortion-related mortality. Relapsing fever or Borrelia infection was an indirect cause of death common to the region and particularly hazardous to pregnant women. Many hospital deaths were emergency admissions. The conclusion was that the sisterhood method provided a better indication of the extent of maternal mortality within the community. Other advantages were the small sample and the speed, quickness, and low cost. Hospital data provided more detailed causes of death and substandard care factors. Community data would require a very large sample in order to achieve greater reliability. PMID:8018613

Walraven, G E; Mkanje, R J; van Roosmalen, J; van Dongen, P W; Dolmans, W M

1994-05-01

305

Median recoil direction as a WIMP directional detection signal  

SciTech Connect

Direct detection experiments have reached the sensitivity to detect dark matter weakly interacting massive particles (WIMPs). Demonstrating that a putative signal is due to WIMPs, and not backgrounds, is a major challenge, however. The direction dependence of the WIMP scattering rate provides a potential WIMP 'smoking gun'. If the WIMP distribution is predominantly smooth, the Galactic recoil distribution is peaked in the direction opposite to the direction of Solar motion. Previous studies have found that, for an ideal detector, of order 10 WIMP events would be sufficient to reject isotropy, and rule out an isotropic background. We examine how the median recoil direction could be used to confirm the WIMP origin of an anisotropic recoil signal. Specifically, we determine the number of events required to confirm the direction of solar motion as the median inverse recoil direction at 95% confidence. We find that for zero background 31 events are required, a factor of {approx}2 more than are required to simply reject isotropy. We also investigate the effect of a nonzero isotropic background. As the background rate is increased the number of events required increases, initially fairly gradually and then more rapidly, once the signal becomes subdominant. We also discuss the effect of features in the speed distribution at large speeds, as found in recent high resolution simulations, on the median recoil direction.

Green, Anne M. [School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Nottingham, University Park, Nottingham, NG7 2RD (United Kingdom); Morgan, Ben [Department of Physics, University of Warwick, Coventry, CV4 7AL (United Kingdom)

2010-03-15

306

Male median raphe cysts: serial retrospective analysis and histopathological classification  

PubMed Central

Background To review the clinical and pathological characteristics of median raphe cysts and to classify the lesions according to pathogenesis and histopathological findings. Methods The medical records of patients who were diagnosed with median raphe cysts between 2001 and 2010 were reviewed to document the clinical presentation and pathological findings of the cysts. Results Most patients were asymptomatic; however, 9 patients had inflammatory or infectious cysts that were tender or painful. Four patients who had cysts on the parameatus and distal prepuce had difficulty voiding. Hematuria and hematospermia were noted in 2 cases. Thirty-one cysts were lined with an urothelium-like epithelium, and a squamous epithelium lining was found in 3 cases. In 2 cases, a well-formed mucinous glandular structure was observed. The other 20 cysts consisted of mixed epithelia. After excision of the cysts under local or general anesthesia, an urethral fistula developed as a complication in only 1 case. Conclusions Median raphe cysts are benign lesions formed due to tissue trapping during the development of urethral folds. The cysts can be defined into 4 types based on pathological findings: urethral, epidermoid, glandular, and mixed. The associated symptoms and signs should be taken into consideration when determining the treatment for the cysts. Virtual slides The virtual slide(s) for this article can be found here: http//http://www.diagnosticpathology.diagnomx.eu/vs/7727074877500751 PMID:22978603

2012-01-01

307

Weighted median image sharpeners for the World Wide Web.  

PubMed

A class of robust weighted median (WM) sharpening algorithms is developed in this paper. Unlike traditional linear sharpening methods, weighted median sharpeners are shown to be less sensitive to background random noise or to image artifacts introduced by JPEG and other compression algorithms. These concepts are extended to include data dependent weights under the framework of permutation weighted medians leading to tunable sharpeners that, in essence, are insensitive to noise and compression artifacts. Permutation WM sharpeners are subsequently generalized to smoother/sharpener structures that can sharpen edges and image details while simultaneously filter out background random noise. A statistical analysis of the various algorithms is presented, theoretically validating the characteristics of the proposed sharpening structures. A number of experiments are shown for the sharpening of JPEG compressed images and sharpening of images with background film-grain noise. These algorithms can prove useful in the enhancement of compressed or noisy images posted on the World Wide Web (WWW) as well as in other applications where the underlying images are unavoidably acquired with noise. PMID:18244668

Fischer, Marco; Paredes, José L; Arce, Gonzalo R

2002-01-01

308

Maternal hormone levels and perinatal characteristics: implications for testicular cancer  

PubMed Central

Purpose It has been hypothesized that the risk of testicular germ cell tumors (TGCT) is associated with maternal hormone levels. To examine the hypothesis, some studies have used perinatal factors as surrogates for hormone levels. To determine the validity of this assumption, hormone-perinatal factor relationships were examined in the Collaborative Perinatal Project. Methods Maternal estradiol, estriol and testosterone levels in first and third trimester serum samples were correlated with perinatal factors among 300 mothers representative of populations at high (white Americans) or low (black Americans) risk of TGCT. Results Among white participants, testosterone levels, were negatively associated with maternal height (p<0.01) and age (p=0.02), and positively associated with maternal weight (p=0.02) and BMI (p<0.01), while estradiol levels were negatively associated with height (p=0.03) and positively associated with son’s birthweight (p=0.04). Among black participants, estriol levels were negatively associated with maternal weight (p=0.01), BMI (p=0.02) and gestational age p<0.01), and positively associated with son’s birthweight (p<0.01), length (p=0.04) and head circumference (p=0.03). Conclusions These findings indicate that the use of perinatal characteristics as surrogates for hormone levels should be limited to a specific ethnic group. Among white men, previously reported associations of TGCT with maternal weight and age may be due to lower maternal testosterone levels. PMID:16882463

Zhang, Yawei; Graubard, Barry I.; Longnecker, Matthew P.; Stanczyk, Frank Z.; Klebanoff, Mark A.; McGlynn, Katherine A.

2013-01-01

309

Maternal misconceptions of weight status among Nepean adolescents.  

PubMed

Adolescence is characterized by rapid physical growth and sexual maturation. These changes may alter parents' beliefs about their adolescent's weight status. This study aimed to examine the changes between early and mid-adolescence in: (a) the accuracy of maternal perception regarding her adolescent's weight status, (b) the degree of maternal concern about her adolescent's weight status, and (c) the predictors of maternal misclassification of adolescent overweight as average weight. A secondary analysis of the longitudinal Nepean Study data was conducted. Participants were Australian, free-living 13-year-olds in 2002-2003 (n=347) followed up at age 15 years (n=279) and their mothers. Participants' body mass index (BMI) status (overweight, normal, or underweight) was calculated from measured height and weight. Maternal perceptions and concerns about adolescent's weight status were determined by items adapted from the Child Feeding Questionnaire. Sex-adjusted binary logistic regression models assessed potential predictors of maternal misclassification of adolescent overweight. Data were available on 224 adolescent-mother dyads. Approximately one fourth of mothers misclassified their adolescent's weight status, but this varied across groups (age 13 years [%]; age 15 years [%], respectively) underweight (75%; 70%), overweight (54%; 59%), and normal weight (12%; 9%). The endpoint data show that between 13 and 15 years of age, maternal concern regarding their adolescent's weight decreased in all weight-status groups. Predictors of maternal misclassification of adolescent overweight were adolescent BMI z score, recent weight-management practices, weight history, sex, and maternal concern regarding her adolescent's weight. These results reinforce the need for strategies in primary care that are implemented throughout adolescence to improve maternal awareness of childhood overweight. PMID:23174687

Shrewsbury, Vanessa A; Garnett, Sarah P; Campbell, Karen; Carver, Alison; Torvaldsen, Siranda; Steinbeck, Katharine S; Cowell, Chris T; Baur, Louise A

2012-12-01

310

[Alloplastics of median ventral hernias with polypropylene gauze].  

PubMed

The article summarizes an experience with 83 alloplastics with polypropylene gauze performed in 75 patients with median ventral hernias. An original method is described of confrontation and retention of the rectal abdominal muscles in the middle position with the help of prosthesis. The proposed method of operation improves its results: postoperative complications developed two times rarer, less amount of the implanted synthetic material used, the patients were at the hospital for a shorter time. In these patients there were no recurrent hernias and diastasis recti abdominis. PMID:18942434

Moshkova, T A

2008-01-01

311

The Relation of Maternal Sensitivity to Children's Internalizing and Externalizing Problems Within the Context of Maternal Depressive Symptoms  

PubMed Central

Maternal depression has been linked to deficits in parenting that contribute to youth’s development of externalizing and/or internalizing problems. Maternal sensitivity has been implicated within the infant literature as a foundational aspect of parenting contributing to a child’s adjustment. This study examines the main and moderating effects of a construct labeled maternal sensitivity, within the context of depressive symptoms, on youth externalizing and internalizing problems in a sample of 65 mothers with a history of depression and their 84 children ages 9–15 years. Sensitivity was related to child externalizing problems. Although two-way interactions were not significant, exploratory moderation analyses indicated a significant three-way interaction among maternal depressive symptoms, maternal sensitivity, and youth gender for internalizing problems: among girls only, high depressive symptoms, low sensitivity, and the combination of these two variables were each associated with high levels of internalizing problems. PMID:19654336

Garai, Emily Priscilla; Forehand, Rex L.; Colletti, Christina J. M.; Reeslund, Kristen; Potts, Jennifer; Compas, Bruce

2009-01-01

312

Evidence for extended age dependent maternal immunity in infected children: mother to child transmission of HIV infection and potential interventions including sulfatides of the human fetal adnexa and complementary or alternative medicines.  

PubMed

The two neighboring southwestern states of India, Karnataka and Maharashtra, have high incidence of HIV/AIDS and are among the six most high prevalence HIV infected states. In Karnataka state, the northern districts of Bagalkot, Belgaum and Bijapur (the three Bs) and in Maharashtra state, the southern districts of Sangli, Satara, and Solapur (the three Ss) are the areas with the highest incidence of HIV/AIDS. We have evaluated the incidence of maternal to child transmission (MTCT) of HIV-1 infection in Belgaum District which is more than 500 kilometers distance by road from the campus in greater Bangalore (Karnataka State). We have obtained the prenatal CD4 counts of HIV infected pregnant mothers. We have also screened the HIV infected children in two orphanages (rehabilitation centres for HIV infected children) in Belgaum District. The clinical conditions of these infected children were assessed for their CD4 counts, anti-retroviral therapy (ART) intake status, outpatient illnesses and body composition. We have observed that there is an influence of the age factor on the CD4 counts of the HIV infected children. Further, in view of the role of our recently found involvement of sulfatide, 3-O- galactosylceramide, in inhibition of HIV-1 replication and enhancement of hematopoiesis which is otherwise inhibited due to such infection, we have discussed the possible role of sulfatides that biologically occur in the fetal adnexa (placentatrophoblasts /amnion/chorion-umbilical cord), in containing HIV infection as a potential safer alternative to the ART regimens currently approved to be clinically practiced. Lastly, we have discussed the complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) therapies such as evidence based yoga and ayurveda as add-on to ART in potential elimination of MTCT of HIV infection. Out of a total of 150 children delivered by HIV infected mothers, 13 children were found to be positive as determined by the dried blood smear (DBS) for virological testing, giving an incidence of about 8.66% in the Belgaum district during the last two years, in spite of the prescription of currently available ART regimens. All the 13 HIV-transmitting mothers had normal vaginal deliveries. Though 12% of the total 150 deliveries required lower segment caesarean section (LSCS), none among them resulted in MTCT of HIV. Comparison of the prenatal CD4 counts between transmitting and non-transmitting mothers did not show significant differences (p=0.25) thus suggesting indirectly that HIV-1 proviral loads (undetermined / unavailable) need not necessarily determine the fate of incidence of vertical transmission. The mean age of 44 HIV infected children (14 females, 30 males) that were screened in two orphanages was 10.8±3.1 years. Out of these 44 children, 27 were taking ART (61.36%) with mean duration of consumption being 2.8±2.28 years. Fifty percent (n=22) of the children were suffering from at least one outpatient illness, out of which 13 were taking ART. Their mean basal metabolic rate (BMR), body mass index (BMI), muscle mass, fat mass and fat % were 795.45±106.9, 14.55±1.9 kg/m(2), 9.54±3.4 kg, 3.69±2.24 kg and 15.04±7.8% respectively. Comparison between the children taking ART (on-ART, n=27) and those not taking ART (non-ART, n= 17) showed that though there was no significant difference in the average age of the two groups, on-ART children had significantly higher BMR (p=0.05), and muscle mass (p=0.004), than non-ART. The CD4 counts, BMI, fat mass and fat percentage did not show significant statistical differences between the two groups. The CD4 counts of the children (both on-ART and non-ART) of age 8 years and below (n=12) were found to be significantly higher (p=0.04) than those of age 14 and above (n=10). All the children in age group of 14 years and above (n=10) except one child were on ART, whereas 7 out of 12 children in age group of 8 years and below were on-ART. In one of the rehabilitation centers called Aadhar, among non-ART children, a significant correlation was observed between the age of the child and CD4 count

Bhargav, Hemant; Huilgol, Vidya; Metri, Kashinath; Sundell, I Birgitta; Tripathi, Satyam; Ramagouda, Nagaratna; Jadhav, Mahesh; Raghuram, Nagarathna; Ramarao, Nagendra Hongasandra; Koka, Prasad S

2012-01-01

313

Is maternal PTSD associated with greater exposure of very young children to violent media?  

PubMed

This study examined media viewing by mothers with violence-related posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and related media exposure of their preschool-age children. Mothers (N = 67) recruited from community pediatric clinics participated in a protocol involving a media-preference survey. Severity of maternal PTSD and dissociation were significantly associated with child exposure to violent media. Family poverty and maternal viewing behavior were also associated. Maternal viewing behavior mediated the effects specifically of maternal PTSD severity on child exposure. Clinicians should assess maternal and child media viewing practices in families with histories of violent trauma exposure and related psychopathology. PMID:19924819

Schechter, Daniel S; Gross, Anna; Willheim, Erica; McCaw, Jaime; Turner, J Blake; Myers, Michael M; Zeanah, Charles H; Gleason, Mary Margaret

2009-12-01

314

The Mouse Median Nerve Experimental Model in Regenerative Research  

PubMed Central

Sciatic nerve crush injury in rat animal model is one of the most common experimental models used in regenerative research. However, the availability of transgenic mouse for nerve regeneration studies is constantly increasing and, therefore, the shift from rat model to mouse model is, in some cases, necessary. Moreover, since most of the human nerve lesions occur in the upper limb, it is also advantageous to shift from sciatic nerve to median nerve. In this study we described an experimental model which involves lesions of the median nerve in the mouse. Data showed that the finger flexor muscle contraction strength, assessed to evaluate the motor function recovery, and reached values not different from the control already 20 days after injury. The degree of nerve regeneration evaluated with stereological methods in light microscopy showed that, 25 days after injury, the number of regenerated myelinated fibers was comparable to the control, but they were smaller with a thinner myelin thickness. Stereological analysis made in electron microscopy confirmed these results, although the total number of fibers quantified was significantly higher compared to light microscopy analysis, due to the very small size of some fibers that can be detected only in electron microscopy.

Buskbjerg Jager, Sara

2014-01-01

315

Prostate brachytherapy in patients with median lobe hyperplasia.  

PubMed

Our aim was to document the technical and clinical course of prostate brachytherapy patients with radiographic evidence of median lobe hyperplasia (MLH). Eight patients with MLH were identified during our routine brachytherapy practice, representing 9% of the 87 brachytherapy patients treated during a 6-month period. No effort was made to avoid brachytherapy in patients noted to have MLH on diagnostic work-up. Cystoscopic evaluation was not routinely performed. Postimplant axial computed tomographic (CT) images of the prostate were obtained at 0.5 cm intervals. Preimplant urinary obstructive symptoms were quantified by the criteria of the American Urologic Association (AUA). Each patient was contacted during the writing of this report to update postimplant morbidity information. There was no apparent association between the degree of MLH and preimplant prostate volume or AUA score. Intraoperatively, we were able to visualize MLH by transrectal ultrasound and did not notice any particular difficulty placing sources in the MLH tissue or migration of sources out of the tissue. The prescription isodose covered from 81% to 99% of the postimplant CT-defined target volume, achieving adequate dose to the median lobe tissue in all patients. Two of the eight patients developed acute, postimplant urinary retention. The first patient required intermittent self-catheterization for 3 months and then resumed spontaneous urination. MLH does not appear to be a strong contraindication to prostate brachytherapy, and prophylactic resection of hypertrophic tissue in such patients is probably not warranted. Int. J. Cancer (Radiat. Oncol. Invest.) 90, 152-156 (2000). PMID:10900427

Wallner, K; Smathers, S; Sutlief, S; Corman, J; Ellis, W

2000-06-20

316

Maternal effects on offspring mortality in rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta)  

PubMed Central

The genetics of primate life histories are poorly understood, but quantitative genetic patterns in other mammals suggest phenotypic differences among individuals early in life can be strongly affected by interactions with mothers or other caretakers. I used generalized linear mixed model extensions of complex pedigree quantitative genetic techniques to explore regression coefficients and variance components for infant and juvenile mortality rates across pre-reproductive age classes in the semi-free ranging Cayo Santiago rhesus macaques. Using a large set of records (max. n=977 mothers, 6240 offspring), strong maternal effects can be identified early in development but they rapidly “burn off” as offspring age and mothers become less consistent buffers from increasingly prominent environmental variation. The different ways behavioral ecologists and animal breeders have defined and studied maternal effects can be subsumed, and even blended, within the quantitative genetic framework. Regression coefficients identify loss of the mother, maternal age, and offspring age within their birth cohort as having significant maternal effects on offspring mortality, while variance components for maternal identity record significant maternal influence in the first month of life. PMID:23315583

Blomquist, Gregory E.

2012-01-01

317

Maternal Alcohol Use and Neonatal Habituation Assessed with the Brazelton Scale.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Maternal alcohol use in mid-pregnancy was significantly related to poorer habituation and increased low arousal in newborn infants, even after adjusting for smoking and caffeine use by mothers, maternal age and nutrition during pregnancy, sex and age of the infant, and obstetric medication. (Author/RH)

Streissguth, Ann Pytkowicz; And Others

1983-01-01

318

Maternal cocaine use and mother-toddler aggression.  

PubMed

This study examined the direct and indirect associations between maternal cocaine use during pregnancy and mother-toddler aggression in an interactive context at 2 years of child age. We hypothesized that in addition to direct effects of cocaine exposure on maternal and child aggression, the association between maternal cocaine use and mother-toddler aggression may be indirect via higher maternal psychiatric symptoms, negative affect, or poor infant autonomic regulation at 13 months. Participants consisted of 220 (119 cocaine exposed, 101 non-cocaine exposed) mother-toddler dyads participating in an ongoing longitudinal study of prenatal cocaine exposure. Results indicated that mothers who used cocaine during pregnancy displayed higher levels of aggression toward their toddlers compared to mothers in the control group. Results from model testing indicated significant indirect associations between maternal cocaine use and maternal aggression via higher maternal negative affect as well as lower infant autonomic regulation at 13 months. Although there were no direct associations between cocaine exposure and toddler aggression, there was a significant indirect effect via lower infant autonomic regulation at 13 months. Results highlight the importance of including maternal aggression in predictive models of prenatal cocaine exposure examining child aggression. Results also emphasize the important role of infant regulation as a mechanism partially explaining associations between cocaine exposure and mother-toddler aggression. PMID:21396441

Eiden, Rina D; Schuetze, Pamela; Colder, Craig R; Veira, Yvette

2011-01-01

319

Maternal Cocaine Use and Mother-Toddler Aggression  

PubMed Central

This study examined the direct and indirect associations between maternal cocaine use during pregnancy and mother-toddler aggression in an interactive context at 2 years of child age. We hypothesized that in addition to direct effects of cocaine exposure on maternal and child aggression, the association between maternal cocaine use and mother-toddler aggression may be indirect via higher maternal psychiatric symptoms, negative affect, or poor infant autonomic regulation at 13 months. Participants consisted of 220 (119 cocaine exposed, 101 non-cocaine exposed) mother-toddler dyads participating in an ongoing longitudinal study of prenatal cocaine exposure. Results indicated that mothers who used cocaine during pregnancy displayed higher levels of aggression toward their toddlers compared to mothers in the control group. Results from model testing indicated significant indirect associations between maternal cocaine use and maternal aggression via higher maternal negative affect as well as lower infant autonomic regulation at 13 months. Although there were no direct associations between cocaine exposure and toddler aggression, there was a significant indirect effect via lower infant autonomic regulation at 13 months. Results highlight the importance of including maternal aggression in predictive models of prenatal cocaine exposure examining child aggression. Results also emphasize the important role of infant regulation as a mechanism partially explaining associations between cocaine exposure and mother-toddler aggression. PMID:21396441

Eiden, Rina D.; Schuetze, Pamela; Colder, Craig; Veira, Yvette

2011-01-01

320

Mediating links between maternal childhood trauma and preadolescent behavioral adjustment.  

PubMed

Structural equation modeling was used to simultaneously examine maternal psychological distress and social support as mediators linking maternal childhood trauma (MCT) to both maternal and child-reported behavior at 9 years of age in 231 birth mother-child dyads, who were primarily poor, urban, and African American. One half of the mothers (n = 116) reported a history of childhood abuse and neglect. Although MCT was associated with both increased maternal psychological distress and limited social support at 6 years, the pathway to child behavior ratings at 9 years was informant dependent. MCT influenced maternal ratings of her child's behavior, with some effects mediated through psychological distress. MCT indirectly influenced children's self-perception of behavior through maternal experience of social support. Maternal ratings and child self-ratings of child behavior problems were moderately correlated. No significant gender interaction was found. Findings suggest a need for understanding trauma histories in the lives of mothers who seek assistance for parenting and child behavior problems, especially in urban low income communities. Interventions targeting both increasing maternal social support and reducing psychological distress may promote competency and resiliency among children for whom MCT poses a risk to optimal development. PMID:22935951

Min, Meeyoung O; Singer, Lynn T; Minnes, Sonia; Kim, Hyunsoo; Short, Elizabeth

2013-03-01

321

Maternal Corticosteroid Use and Hypospadias  

PubMed Central

Objective To explore whether women who reported corticosteroid use during pregnancy were more likely to deliver an infant with hypospadias than women who did not. Study design The analysis encompassed data on deliveries with an estimated due date between 1997 and 2004 from the National Birth Defects Prevention Study, a large population-based, case-control study conducted in the United States. Included were 1165 cases of moderate to severe hypospadias and 3000 nonmalformed male controls. Results The mothers of 39 cases (3.3%) and 62 controls (2.1%) reported using a corticosteroid medication during the period extending from 4 weeks before conception to 14 weeks after conception. The odds ratio (OR) for any corticosteroid exposure versus no corticosteroid exposure was 1.6 (95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.1 to 2.5); after adjustment for maternal race/ethnicity, education, age, and study site, it was 1.3 (95% CI = 0.8 to 2.0). Analyses by route of administration and specific component suggest that elevated ORs occurred only for nasal spray/inhaled corticosteroids (OR = 1.5; 95% CI = 0.9 to 2.6). Conclusions Maternal use of corticosteroid medications was weakly associated with risk of hypospadias, but the association was negligible after adjustment for potential confounders. PMID:19394038

Carmichael, Suzan L.; Ma, Chen; Werler, Martha M.; Olney, Richard S.; Shaw, Gary M.

2009-01-01

322

Risk factors for adverse maternal outcomes among women with HELLP (hemolysis, elevated liver enzymes, and low platelet count) syndrome  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: This study was undertake to determine risk factors for adverse maternal outcomes among women with HELLP (hemolysis, elevated liver enzymes, and low platelet count) syndrome. Study Design: Maternal medical records of pregnancies complicated by HELLP syndrome managed between July 1, 1992, and April 30, 1999, were reviewed. Risk factors evaluated included maternal age, parity, race, previous preeclampsia, chronic hypertension,

Bassam Haddad; John R. Barton; Jeffrey C. Livingston; Rabih Chahine; Baha M. Sibai

2000-01-01

323

A Conceptual Model for Maternal Behavior Among Polydrug Cocaine-Using Mothers: The Role of Postnatal Cocaine Use and Maternal Depression  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examined the association between maternal cocaine use and maternal behavior and tested a conceptual model predicting maternal insensitivity during mother-infant interactions. Participants included 130 mother-infant dyads (68 cocaine-exposed and 62 noncocaine-exposed) who were recruited after birth and assessed at 4–8 weeks of infant age. Results of model testing indicated that when the effects of prenatal cocaine use were

Rina D. Eiden; Arianne Stevens; Pamela Schuetze; Laura E. Dombkowski

2006-01-01

324

Media representation of maternal neonaticide  

E-print Network

of mothers who commit neonaticide. Both fictional and non-fictional media sources exhibited aspects of the monstrous maternal theme and the strain defense theme. The monstrous maternal theme consists of words and statements that indicate the descriptions...

Lewis, Jocelyn Renee

2008-10-10

325

Investigating maternal effects on production traits in Duroc pigs using animal and sire models.  

PubMed

Variance components for production traits were estimated using different models to evaluate maternal effects. Data analysed were records from the South African pig performance testing scheme on 22 224 pigs from 18 herds, tested between 1990 and 2008. The traits analysed were backfat thickness (BFAT), test period weight gain (TPG), lifetime weight gain (LTG), test period feed conversion ratio (FCR) and age at slaughter (AGES). Data analyses were performed by REML procedures in ASREML, where random effects were successively fitted into animal and sire models to produce different models. The first animal model had one random effect, the direct genetic effects, while the additional random effects were maternal genetic and maternal permanent environmental effects. In the sire model, the random effects fitted were sire and maternal grand sire effects. The best model considered the covariance between direct and maternal genetic effects or between sire and maternal grand sire effects. Fitting maternal genetic effects into the animal model reduced total additive variance, while the total additive variance increased when maternal grand sire effects were fitted into the sire model. The correlations between direct and maternal genetic effects were all negative, indicating antagonism between these effects, hence the need to consider both effects in selection programmes. Direct genetic correlations were higher than other correlations, except for maternal genetic correlations of FCR with TPG, LTG and AGES. There has been direct genetic improvement and almost constant maternal ability in production traits as shown by trends for estimated (EBVs) and maternal breeding values (MBVs), while phenotypic trends were similar to those for EBVs. These results suggest that maternal genetic effects should be included in selection programmes for these production traits. Therefore, the animal-maternal model may be the most appropriate model to use when estimating genetic parameters for production traits in this population. PMID:24476043

Dube, B; Mulugeta, S D; Dzama, K

2014-08-01

326

Current and Past Maternal Depression, Maternal Interaction Behaviors, and Children’s Externalizing and Internalizing Symptoms  

Microsoft Academic Search

Relations among past maternal depressive disorder, current depressive symptoms, current maternal interaction behaviors, and\\u000a children’s adjustment were examined in a sample of 204 women and their young adolescent offspring (mean age?=?11.86, SD?=?0.55).\\u000a Mothers either had (n?=?157) or had not (n?=?57) experienced at least one depressive disorder during the child’s life. Mothers and children participated in a problem-solving\\u000a task, video-taped for

Cynthia J. Ewell Foster; Judy Garber; Joseph A. Durlak

2008-01-01

327

Maternal belief systems: Linchpin in the home reading process  

Microsoft Academic Search

A hypothetical model of the determinants and outcomes of reading aloud was tested using two samples of families of preschool-aged children and their parents. Study 1 involved 60 low-income families. Study 2 involved 56 predominantly working-class families. The majority of subjects in both samples were African American. Measures were taken of SES, maternal literacy, maternal beliefs about reading aloud, the

Barbara D. DeBaryshe

1995-01-01

328

Coexistence of maternal central adiposity and child stunting in Mexico  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective:To assess the coexistence of maternal adiposity and child stunting (CS) in Mexico, estimate its national prevalence and identify the associated socio-demographic factors.Methods:A secondary analysis from the Mexican Nutrition Survey 1999, a nationally representative survey, was conducted. Mother and children subsamples were matched and a total of 6225 mother\\/child pairs were obtained. Stunting was defined as height-for-age z-scores Maternal

S Barquera; K E Peterson; A Must; B L Rogers; M Flores; R Houser; E Monterrubio; J A Rivera-Dommarco

2007-01-01

329

Using hierarchical P-median problem for public school allocation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Student's orientation from primary to the secondary schools is a vital process and need to be considered as yearly problem by The District Education Office of Ministry of Education Malaysia. The allocation of students to the right schools becomes complicated due to several constraints like capacity of seats in secondary schools, widespread demand areas as well as preferences by the parents. Considering all the constraints, this study proposes the application of location model to allocate students the right school. The allocation of student from primary to secondary school is based on total number of students, the availability of seats from primary and at the secondary schools, and distance from student's home to the nearest schools, both primary and secondary schools. The problem is modelled as hierarchical P-median problem as there are two hierarchical levels in this orientation. An alternative Genetic Algorithm (GA) based heuristic is applied to solve the problem and results are compared with Excel Solver.

Nasir, Noryanti; Shariff, S. Sarifah Radiah

2014-09-01

330

Fingerprint image enhancement method using directional median filter  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The performance of any fingerprint recognizer highly depends on the fingerprint image quality. Different types of noises in the fingerprint images pose greater difficulty for recognizers. Most Automatic Fingerprint Identification Systems (AFIS) use some form of image enhancement. Although several methods have been described in the literature, there is still scope for improvement. In particular, effective methodology of cleaning the valleys between the ridge contours are lacking. We observe that noisy valley pixels and the pixels in the interrupted ridge flow gap are "impulse noises". Therefore, this paper describes a new approach to fingerprint image enhancement, which is based on integration of Anisotropic Filter and directional median filter(DMF). Gaussian-distributed noises are reduced effectively by Anisotropic Filter, "impulse noises" are reduced efficiently by DMF. Usually, traditional median filter is the most effective method to remove pepper-and-salt noise and other small artifacts, the proposed DMF can not only finish its original tasks, it can also join broken fingerprint ridges, fill out the holes of fingerprint images, smooth irregular ridges as well as remove some annoying small artifacts between ridges. The enhancement algorithm has been implemented and tested on fingerprint images from FVC2002. Images of varying quality have been used to evaluate the performance of our approach. We have compared our method with other methods described in the literature in terms of matched minutiae, missed minutiae, spurious minutiae, and flipped minutiae(between end points and bifurcation points). Experimental results show our method to be superior to those described in the literature.

Wu, Chaohong; Shi, Zhixin; Govindaraju, Venu

2004-08-01

331

Maternal immunization against viral disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

The protective effect of maternal antibody against many viral diseases has been recognized. The use of maternal immunization has been considered as a means to augment this protection in the young infant against disease. Advantages of maternal immunization include the fact that young infants are most susceptible to infections but least responsive to vaccines, that pregnant women are accessible to

Janet Englund; W. Paul Glezen; Pedro A. Piedra

1998-01-01

332

Maternally transmitted mitochondrial DNA mutations can reduce lifespan  

PubMed Central

We recently showed that germline transmission of mitochondrial DNA mutations via the oocyte cause aggravation of aging phenotypes in prematurely aging mtDNA mutator (PolgAmut/mut) mice. We discovered that 32% of these mice also exhibit stochastic disturbances of brain development, when maternal mtDNA mutations were combined with homozygosity for the PolgA mutation, leading to de novo somatic mtDNA mutations. Surprisingly, we also found that maternally transmitted mtDNA mutations can cause mild premature aging phenotypes also in mice with a wild-type nuclear DNA background. We now report that in addition to the early onset of aging phenotypes, these mice, burdened only by low levels of mtDNA mutations transmitted via the germline, also exhibit reduced longevity. Our data thus demonstrate that low levels of maternally inherited mtDNA mutations when present during development can affect both overall health and lifespan negatively. PMID:25299268

Ross, Jaime M.; Coppotelli, Giuseppe; Hoffer, Barry J.; Olson, Lars

2014-01-01

333

Maternally transmitted mitochondrial DNA mutations can reduce lifespan.  

PubMed

We recently showed that germline transmission of mitochondrial DNA mutations via the oocyte cause aggravation of aging phenotypes in prematurely aging mtDNA mutator (PolgA(mut/mut)) mice. We discovered that 32% of these mice also exhibit stochastic disturbances of brain development, when maternal mtDNA mutations were combined with homozygosity for the PolgA mutation, leading to de novo somatic mtDNA mutations. Surprisingly, we also found that maternally transmitted mtDNA mutations can cause mild premature aging phenotypes also in mice with a wild-type nuclear DNA background. We now report that in addition to the early onset of aging phenotypes, these mice, burdened only by low levels of mtDNA mutations transmitted via the germline, also exhibit reduced longevity. Our data thus demonstrate that low levels of maternally inherited mtDNA mutations when present during development can affect both overall health and lifespan negatively. PMID:25299268

Ross, Jaime M; Coppotelli, Giuseppe; Hoffer, Barry J; Olson, Lars

2014-01-01

334

Maternal and Paternal Psychological Control as Moderators of the Link between Peer Attitudes and Adolescents' Risky Sexual Behavior  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Maternal and paternal psychological control, peer attitudes, and the interaction of psychological control and peer attitudes at age 13 were examined as predictors of risky sexual behavior before age 16 in a community sample of 181 youth followed from age 13 to 16. Maternal psychological control moderated the link between peer attitudes and sexual…

Oudekerk, Barbara A.; Allen, Joseph P.; Hafen, Christopher A.; Hessel, Elenda T.; Szwedo, David E.; Spilker, Ann

2014-01-01

335

Maternity Leave in Taiwan  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Using the first nationally representative birth cohort study in Taiwan, this paper examines the role that maternity leave policy in Taiwan plays in the timing of mothers returning to work after giving birth, as well as the extent to which this timing is linked to the amount of time mothers spend with their children and their use of breast milk…

Feng, Joyce Yen; Han, Wen-Jui

2010-01-01

336

The politics of maternity.  

PubMed

Changes in the culture of health care require that, to be effective, midwifery practice should become more woman-centred. This may be facilitated by adopting a stronger community orientation. In this way the hegemony of maternity care may be addressed. This paper seeks to draw readers' attention to political developments and to inspire midwives to greater awareness and, possibly, activity. PMID:24600828

Mander, Rosemary; Edwards, Nadine; McHugh, Nessa; Murphy-Lawless, Jo; Patterson, Jenny

2014-02-01

337

The vitamin E-binding protein afamin increases in maternal serum during pregnancy  

PubMed Central

Background Afamin is a liver-derived plasma glycoprotein with vitamin E-binding properties and a putative function in fertility. This study evaluated serum afamin concentrations during and postpartum to uncomplicated pregnancies and investigated a potential association between afamin concentrations and pregnancy outcome. Methods Afamin serum concentrations were measured in women with uncomplicated pregnancies in a retrospective cohort (n = 466) at different gestational ages and a prospective observational study (n = 76) in the first, second and third trimester. Furthermore, afamin was determined in the first trimester in a cross-sectional pilot study including women with preeclampsia (PE), pregnancy-induced hypertension (PIH) and women without pregnancy complications (n = 13 each). Finally, expression of afamin was investigated in human placental tissue by RT-PCR and immunohistochemistry. Results Afamin concentrations increased linearly almost two-fold during pregnancy in both retrospective and prospective studies in women without pregnancy complications with median afamin serum concentrations of 61.9 mg/l, 79.6 mg/l, and 98.6 mg/l in the first, second, and third trimester, respectively. After delivery, median afamin concentrations decreased to baseline values of 54.6 mg/l. In the pilot study with pregnancy complications, women with PE displayed significantly higher median afamin concentrations than did women with uncomplicated pregnancy (70.0 mg/l vs. 55.4 mg/l, P = 0.007). Expression analyses revealed no placental afamin expression at either mRNA or protein level in uncomplicated pregnancy. Conclusion A linear increase in the maternally expressed glycoprotein afamin during pregnancy may serve as basic reference for subsequent investigations of afamin in pregnancy-related disorders. PMID:24768783

Hubalek, Michael; Buchner, Hannes; Mortl, Manfred G.; Schlembach, Dietmar; Huppertz, Berthold; Firulovic, Branka; Kohler, Wolfgang; Hafner, Erich; Dieplinger, Benjamin; Wildt, Ludwig; Dieplinger, Hans

2014-01-01

338

Infection and smoking are associated with decreased plasma concentration of the anti-aging protein, soluble ?-klotho  

PubMed Central

Objective The objective of this study was to determine whether maternal plasma concentrations of soluble ?-klotho are different between women with microbial invasion of the intra-amniotic cavity (MIAC) and those without MIAC among preterm labor and intact membranes (PTL) or preterm prelabor rupture of membranes (pPROM). Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted to include women in the following groups:1) PTL with MIAC (n=14); 2) PTL without MIAC (n=79); 3) pPROM with MIAC (n=30); and 4) pPROM without MIAC (n=33). MIAC was defined as a positive amniotic fluid culture for microorganisms (aerobic/anaerobic bacteria or genital mycoplasmas). Amniotic fluid samples were obtained within 48 hours from maternal blood collection. Plasma concentration of soluble ?-klotho was determined by ELISA. Results 1) The median plasma concentration (pg/mL) of soluble ?-klotho was significantly lower in patients with MIAC than in those without MIAC (787.0 vs. 1117.8; p <0.001); 2) Among patients with PTL, those with MIAC had a lower median plasma concentration (pg/mL) of soluble ?-klotho than those without MIAC (787.0 vs. 1138.9; p=0.007); 3) Among patients with pPROM, those with MIAC had a lower median plasma concentration (pg/mL) of soluble ?-klotho than those without MIAC (766.4 vs. 1001.6; p=0.045); 4) There was no significant difference in the median plasma concentration of soluble ?-klotho between PPROM without MIAC and PTL without MIAC (1001.6 pg/mL vs. 1138.9 pg/mL, respectively; p=0.5); 5) After adjustment for potential confounders (maternal age, tobacco use, gestational age at venipuncture), soluble ?-klotho remained significantly associated with MIAC (p= 0.02); and 6) Among patients without MIAC, smoking was significantly associated with a lower median plasma concentration soluble ?-klotho than in non-smokers (794.2 pg/mL vs. 1382.0 pg/mL, respectively; p<0.001); however, this difference was not observed in patients with MIAC. Conclusions Intra-amniotic infection occurring at preterm gestations (regardless of membrane status) was associated with a decrease in maternal plasma concentrations of soluble ?-klotho. Moreover, among patients without infection, the plasma concentration of soluble ?-klotho was lower in smokers. PMID:23770558

Lam-Rachlin, Jennifer; Romero, Roberto; Korzeniewski, Steven J.; Schwartz, Alyse G.; Chaemsaithong, Piya; Hernandez-Andrade, Edgar; Dong, Zhong; Yeo, Lami; Hassan, Sonia S.; Chaiworapongsa, Tinnakorn

2014-01-01

339

Maternal Endocrine Adaptation throughout Pregnancy to Nutritional Manipulation: Consequences for Maternal Plasma Leptin and Cortisol and the Programming of Fetal Adipose Tissue Development  

Microsoft Academic Search

Maternal nutrient restriction at specific stages of gestation has differential effects on fetal development such that the offspring are programmed to be at increased risk of adult disease. We investigated the effect of gestational age and ma- ternal nutrition on the maternal plasma concentration of lep- tin and cortisol together with effects on fetal adipose tissue deposition plus leptin, IGF-I,

J. Bispham; G. S. GOPALAKRISHNAN; J. DANDREA; V. WILSON; H. BUDGE; D. H. KEISLER; F. BROUGHTON PIPKIN; T. STEPHENSON; M. E. SYMONDS

2003-01-01

340

Duration of Lactation and Risk Factors for Maternal Cardiovascular Disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

disease. METHODS: We examined data from 139,681 postmeno- pausal women (median age 63 years) who reported at least one live birth on enrolling in the Women's Health Initiative observational study or controlled trials. Multi- variable models were used to control for sociodemo- graphic (age, parity, race, education, income, age at menopause), lifestyle, and family history variables when examining the effect

Eleanor Bimla Schwarz; Roberta M. Ray; Alison M. Stuebe; Matthew A. Allison; Roberta B. Ness; Matthew S. Freiberg; Jane A. Cauley

2009-01-01

341

Maternal and offspring fasting glucose and type 2 diabetes-associated genetic variants and cognitive function at age 8: a Mendelian randomization study in the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children  

PubMed Central

Background In observational epidemiological studies type 2 diabetes (T2D) and both low and high plasma concentrations of fasting glucose have been found to be associated with lower cognitive performance. These associations could be explained by confounding. Methods In this study we looked at the association between genetic variants, known to be robustly associated with fasting glucose and T2D risk, in the mother and her offspring to determine whether there is likely to be a causal link between early life exposure to glucose and child’s intelligence quotient (IQ) scores in the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC) cohort. We generated a fasting glucose (FGGRS) and a T2D (T2DGRS) genetic risk score and used them in a Mendelian randomization approach. Results We found a strong correlation between the FGGRS and fasting glucose plasma measurements that were available for a subset of children, but no association of either the maternal or the offspring FGGRS with child’s IQ was observed. In contrast, the maternal T2DGRS was positively associated with offspring IQ. Conclusions Maternal and offspring genetic variants which are associated with glucose levels are not associated with offspring IQ, suggesting that there is unlikely to be a causal link between glucose exposure in utero and IQ in childhood. Further exploration in even larger cohorts is required to exclude the possibility that our null findings were due to a lack of statistical power. PMID:23013243

2012-01-01

342

Evaluation of the Abbott system in maternal serum screening for Down syndrome: the AxSym analyzer, AFP and hCG reagents and Maciel Prenatal Interpretive Software  

Microsoft Academic Search

Multi-marker maternal serum screening for Down syndrome in the second trimester is now part of routine care in many centers. Most protocols use a combination of hCG (or its free ?-subunit) and ?-fetoprotein (AFP) or unconjugated estriol (UE3), or both. Risk calculation is based on these maternal serum marker values combined with maternal age and trisomy 21 maternal age-related risk.

Françoise Muller; Sandrine Ngo; Philippe Aegerter; Saga Le Bourdellès; Valérie Taguel; Maryneige Rebiffé; Sébastien Faïna; Paul Giraudet

1998-01-01

343

Links between Maternal and Child Psychopathology Symptoms: Mediation through Child Emotion Regulation and Moderation through Maternal Behavior  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined the intergenerational transmission of psychopathology symptoms with 7-12 year-old children (N = 97; 44 boys, 53 girls, M age = 9.14, SD = 1.38) and their mothers (M age = 38.46, SD = 6.86). Child emotion regulation mediated the links between maternal psychopathology and child internalizing and externalizing symptoms. In turn,…

Suveg, Cynthia; Shaffer, Anne; Morelen, Diana; Thomassin, Kristel

2011-01-01

344

Marginal median SOM for document organization and retrieval.  

PubMed

The self-organizing map algorithm has been used successfully in document organization. We now propose using the same algorithm for document retrieval. Moreover, we test the performance of the self-organizing map by replacing the linear Least Mean Squares adaptation rule with the marginal median. We present two implementations of the latter variant of the self-organizing map by either quantifying the real valued feature vectors to integer valued ones or not. Experiments performed using both implementations demonstrate a superior performance against the self-organizing map based method in terms of the number of training iterations needed so that the mean square error (i.e. the average distortion) drops to the e(-1) = 36.788% of its initial value. Furthermore, the performance of a document organization and retrieval system employing the self-organizing map architecture and its variant is assessed using the average recall-precision curves evaluated on two corpora; the first comprises of manually selected web pages over the Internet having touristic content and the second one is the Reuters-21578, Distribution 1.0. PMID:15037354

Georgakis, A; Kotropoulos, C; Xafopoulos, A; Pitas, I

2004-04-01

345

Life course variation in the relation between maternal marital status and preterm birth  

PubMed Central

Purpose Maternal marriage is protective against preterm birth (PTB), while advanced maternal age is associated with increased PTB risk. As relations between social factors and health may vary over the life course, we assessed how the relation between marital status and PTB risk may change with maternal age. Methods We assessed the interaction between marital status and maternal age as a determinant of PTB among all live singleton births in Michigan between 1995-2006. We also fit stratified models by race. We calculated absolute differences in predicted PTB as well as odds ratios of PTB by marital status for each age group. Results In adjusted models, there was a significant interaction (pinteraction<0.001) between marital status and maternal age. The predicted probability of PTB by marital status was marginally different among mothers aged 20-25 years (absolute difference of 1.5%); this difference was substantially higher (3.9% or higher) after 31 years of age. Odds of PTB followed a similar trajectory. Findings were similar among Black and White mothers. Conclusion The relationship between marriage and PTB may vary with maternal age suggesting that the influence of social factors on risk for adverse birth outcomes may differ through the maternal life trajectory. We discuss plausible explanations for these findings. PMID:22285870

El-Sayed, Abdulrahman M.; Tracy, Melissa; Galea, Sandro

2012-01-01

346

Human chorionic gonadotropin and alpha-fetoprotein concentrations in pregnancy and maternal risk of breast cancer: a nested case-control study.  

PubMed

Pregnancy hormones are believed to be involved in the protection against breast cancer conferred by pregnancy. The authors explored the association of maternal breast cancer with human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) and alpha-fetoprotein (AFP). In 2001, a case-control study was nested within the Northern Sweden Maternity Cohort, an ongoing study in which blood samples have been collected from first-trimester pregnant women since 1975. Cases (n = 210) and controls (n = 357) were matched for age, parity, and date of blood donation. Concentrations of hCG and AFP were measured by immunoassay. No overall significant association of breast cancer with either hCG or AFP was observed. However, women with hCG levels in the top tertile tended to be at lower risk of breast cancer than women with hCG levels in the lowest tertile in the whole study population and in subgroups of age at sampling, parity, and age at cancer diagnosis. A borderline-significant decrease in risk with high hCG levels was observed in women who developed breast cancer after the median lag time to cancer diagnosis (> or =14 years; odds ratio = 0.53, 95% confidence interval: 0.27, 1.03; P = 0.06). These findings, though very preliminary, are consistent with a possible long-term protective association of breast cancer risk with elevated levels of circulating hCG in the early stages of pregnancy. PMID:18936438

Lukanova, Annekatrin; Andersson, Ritu; Wulff, Marianne; Zeleniuch-Jacquotte, Anne; Grankvist, Kjell; Dossus, Laure; Afanasyeva, Yelena; Johansson, Robert; Arslan, Alan A; Lenner, Per; Wadell, Göran; Hallmans, Göran; Toniolo, Paolo; Lundin, Eva

2008-12-01

347

Human Chorionic Gonadotropin and Alpha-Fetoprotein Concentrations in Pregnancy and Maternal Risk of Breast Cancer: A Nested Case-Control Study  

PubMed Central

Pregnancy hormones are believed to be involved in the protection against breast cancer conferred by pregnancy. The authors explored the association of maternal breast cancer with human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) and ?-fetoprotein (AFP). In 2001, a case-control study was nested within the Northern Sweden Maternity Cohort, an ongoing study in which blood samples have been collected from first-trimester pregnant women since 1975. Cases (n = 210) and controls (n = 357) were matched for age, parity, and date of blood donation. Concentrations of hCG and AFP were measured by immunoassay. No overall significant association of breast cancer with either hCG or AFP was observed. However, women with hCG levels in the top tertile tended to be at lower risk of breast cancer than women with hCG levels in the lowest tertile in the whole study population and in subgroups of age at sampling, parity, and age at cancer diagnosis. A borderline-significant decrease in risk with high hCG levels was observed in women who developed breast cancer after the median lag time to cancer diagnosis (?14 years; odds ratio = 0.53, 95% confidence interval: 0.27, 1.03; P = 0.06). These findings, though very preliminary, are consistent with a possible long-term protective association of breast cancer risk with elevated levels of circulating hCG in the early stages of pregnancy. PMID:18936438

Andersson, Ritu; Wulff, Marianne; Zeleniuch-Jacquotte, Anne; Grankvist, Kjell; Dossus, Laure; Afanasyeva, Yelena; Johansson, Robert; Arslan, Alan A.; Lenner, Per; Wadell, Goran; Hallmans, Goran; Toniolo, Paolo; Lundin, Eva

2008-01-01

348

Impact of Maternal Smoking on Birth Size: Effect of Parity and Sex Dimorphism  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Maternal smoking during pregnancy causes a delay of intrauterine growth. Objective: To examine the effect of maternal smoking during pregnancy on fetal growth in relationship to maternal parity, age and number of cigarettes smoked\\/day, and offspring’s gender. Subjects: We studied 2,108 term newborns (1,102 male, 1,006 female) delivered at the General University Hospital of Patras from 1994 to 2004.

Anastasia A. Varvarigou; Aspasia Asimakopoulou; Nicholas G. Beratis

2009-01-01

349

Maternal Health Literacy and Late Initiation of Immunizations Among an Inner-City Birth Cohort  

Microsoft Academic Search

To determine if maternal health literacy influences early infant immunization status. Longitudinal prospective cohort study\\u000a of 506 Medicaid-eligible mother-infant dyads. Immunization status at age 3 and 7 months was assessed in relation to maternal\\u000a health literacy measured at birth using the Test of Functional Health Literacy in Adults (short version). Multivariable logistic\\u000a regression quantified the effect of maternal health literacy on

Susmita Pati; Kristen A. Feemster; Zeinab Mohamad; Alex Fiks; Robert Grundmeier; Avital Cnaan

2011-01-01

350

Maternal effects on post-weaning physical and social development in juvenile mountain goats ( Oreamnos americanus )  

Microsoft Academic Search

Little is known about maternal effects on post-weaning development, yet they may be important because maternal care could have long-term consequences only evident when offspring approach adulthood. We have assessed the effects of maternal age, current reproduction (presence of a kid of the year) and social rank on the body mass, horn length and social rank of 1- and 2-year-old

Yanick Gendreau; Steeve D. Côté; Marco Festa-Bianchet

2005-01-01

351

Maternal mortality in India: estimates from a regression model.  

PubMed

This report outlines a new technique for the estimation of maternal mortality by relating the sex differentials in mortality for people of reproductive age to the age schedule of fertility. The application of this method to the data from the Sample Registration System for 1982-86 indicates a level of maternal mortality of 580 deaths per 100,000 live births for India as a whole, 638 deaths in rural areas, and 389 deaths in urban areas. Estimates derived for the major states suggest relatively high maternal mortality in the eastern and northern parts of the country. They also indicate a substantial decline in maternal mortality since the 1960s. The decline in the birth rate is estimated to have accounted for nearly one-fourth of the decrease in the maternal death rate and 5 percent of the fall in the maternal mortality ratio in the 10-year period between 1972-76 and 1982-86. The method of estimation described here is well-suited to the data circumstances in India. PMID:7482679

Bhat, P N; Navaneetham, K; Rajan, S I

1995-01-01

352

Child Health, Maternal Marital and Socioeconomic Factors, and Maternal Health  

PubMed Central

While maternal socioeconomic status and health predict in part children’s future health and socioeconomic prospects, it is possible that the intergenerational association flows in the other direction such that child health affects maternal outcomes. Previous research demonstrates that poor child health increases the risk of adverse maternal physical and mental health outcomes. We hypothesize that poor child health may also increase the risk of poor maternal health outcomes through an interaction between child health and factors associated with health outcomes, such as marital status, marital quality, and socioeconomic status. Using data on women in the National Longitudinal Study of Youth 1979 cohort (N = 2,279), we find evidence that the effects of certain maternal marital quality and socioeconomic factors on maternal physical and mental health depend on child health status and vice versa. PMID:23788824

Witt, Whitney P.

2012-01-01

353

Preterm delivery and low maternal serum cholesterol level: Any correlation?  

PubMed Central

Background: The study assessed whether low maternal serum cholesterol during early pregnancy is associated with preterm delivery. Patients and Methods: It was a prospective observational cohort study involving pregnant women at gestational age of 14-20 weeks over a period of 12 months. Blood samples were obtained to measure total serum cholesterol concentrations and the sera were then analysed enzymatically by the cholesterol oxidase: p-aminophenazone (CHOD PAP) method. Results: The study showed an incidence of 5.0% for preterm delivery in the low risk study patients. Preterm birth was 4.83-times more common with low total maternal cholesterol than with midrange total cholesterol (11.8% versus 2.2%, P = 0.024). Conclusion: Low maternal serum cholesterol (hypocholesterolaemia) is associated with preterm delivery. Optimal maternal serum cholesterol during pregnancy may have merit, therefore pregnant women should be encouraged to follow a healthy, balanced diet.

Oluwole, Ayodeji A.; Adegbesan-Omilabu, Maymunah A.; Okunade, Kehinde S.

2014-01-01

354

Maternal ingestion of locoweed  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study investigated whether exposure of ewes to locoweed (Oxytropis sericea; Leguminosae) during gestation would affect ewe behaviour during parturition, ewe–lamb bonding and related behaviours postpartum, and maternal responsiveness of ewes to alien and own lambs. Twenty-nine nulliparous Columbia-Targhee ewes bearing a single fetus were divided into two feeding treatments: (1) locoweed (L, n=15), fed as a 10% locoweed pellet

J. A. Pfister; J. B. Astorga; K. E. Panter; B. L. Stegelmeier; R. J. Molyneux

2006-01-01

355

Maternal Health and HIV  

Microsoft Academic Search

The HIV\\/AIDS epidemic is one of the major factors affecting women's health, with 20 million women living with HIV and more than two million pregnancies in HIV-positive women each year. Most HIV infections in women are in resource-constrained settings where the risk of maternal morbidity and mortality is also unacceptably high, and where most of the 529,000 deaths from complications

James McIntyre

2005-01-01

356

[Maternal and perinatal health].  

PubMed

After a year-long diagnosis of Chile's health situation, the Ministry of Health in 1991 formulated a new maternal-child health program designed to assure that all pregnancies would be desired and would occur under optimal conditions. Orientation for responsible parenthood will be an important part of the process. Other objectives include reducing the incidence of adolescent pregnancy and of sexually transmitted diseases. The pregnancy rate for young women 15-19 changed very little in Chile between 1952-82, because of the lack of sex education and family planning services. Family planning programs designed especially for adolescents would help to combat unwanted pregnancies and could offer the methods most suitable for young women. The well-known longitudinal study in Czechoslovakia which followed the development of children whose mothers were denied legal abortions in the 1960s showed the children to be at increased risk of unsatisfactory social adjustment in later life and suggested some consequences of unwanted pregnancy. A study of unwanted pregnancy in Chile was initiated in 4 prenatal care centers in a working class area of Santiago in 1984. 2485 women in the 6th or 7th month of pregnancy were classified according to their existing family sizes. Only 33.1% of the women desired the pregnancy at that time and 38.4% desired it but at a later time. 28.5% did not desire it at all. Women who did not desire the pregnancy waited significantly longer to obtain prenatal care than women who desired it. Age, economic problems, being single, family conflicts, already having the desired number of children, and short intervals since the most recent birth were associated with not desiring the current pregnancy. Of the 1663 women who did not desire the pregnancy, only 13.1% of those single, 35.8% of those in union, and 44.0% of those married used a contraceptive method. 2133 of the mothers were interviewed 6 months and 1977 12 months after delivery. Birth weights did not vary according to the mother's expressed desire for the child. Low birth weights were significantly more common in children of nulliparas and women with 3 or more previous births. Of the 2133 women reinterviewed at 6 months, 72 had not yet reported the child's birth to the Civil Register, 132 were registered by the mother only, 482 were registered as illegitimate but recognized by the father, and 1447 were registered as legitimate. The proportion of mothers not initially desiring the pregnancy who stated that if they were able to decide they would not have had the pregnancy or would be indifferent declined form 58.4% at 6 months to 42.0% at 12 months. Mothers initially desiring the pregnancy had higher rates of attendance at routine well-child clinic appointments and of completion of immunization requirements. The proportion of women not using a contraceptive method declined form 54.9% at the prenatal interview to 14.1% among 1879 women interviewed at 12 months. PMID:12317327

1991-01-01

357

Autopsy-certified maternal mortality at Ile-Ife, Nigeria  

PubMed Central

Aim Maternal mortality is a major health problem, especially in Nigeria, where accurate autopsy-based data on the prevalent causes are not readily available. The aim of this study was therefore to accurately determine the causes of maternal death as seen in a tertiary health facility in Nigeria. Materials and methods This was a descriptive, retrospective review of the postmortem autopsy findings from cases of maternal death at the Obafemi Awolowo University Teaching Hospitals Complex, Ile-Ife, Nigeria over a 5-year period. Analyses were performed for differences in proportions using PEPI computer programs for epidemiologists (P is significant at <0.05). Results A total of 84 cases of maternal deaths were used for the study. Approximately 71.4% of the maternal deaths were due to direct causes and 28.6% were due to indirect causes. The mean age at the time of death was 27.9±7.5 years. Overall, the three leading causes of death were obstetric hemorrhage (30.9%), complications of abortion (23.8%), and nongenital (nonobstetric) infections (14.2%). Of the direct causes of maternal death, obstetric hemorrhage (43.3%) was the leading cause, with postpartum hemorrhage accounting for most (65.0%) of such deaths; other causes included complications of unsafe induced abortion (33.3%) and of labor (11.7%). Of the indirect causes, nongenital infections (50.0%), anemia (25.0%), and preexisting hypertension (20.8%) accounted for the majority of the maternal deaths. There was disparity between the clinical and autopsy diagnoses in 34 of the 84 cases (38.1%). Conclusion The leading causes of maternal death in this study are similar to those in other developing countries. Autopsy is an invaluable tool in accurately determining the cause of maternal death. PMID:24403844

Dinyain, Amatare; Omoniyi-Esan, G Olutoyin; Olaofe, Olaejirinde O; Sabageh, Donatus; Komolafe, Akinwumi O; Ojo, Olusegun S

2014-01-01

358

Expectant fathers' knowledge of maternal morbidity: a Sri Lankan experience  

PubMed Central

Background: Male partners play an important and vital role in the decision-making process regarding pregnant women’s health. The purpose of the present study was to assess the knowledge and awareness of expectant fathers about Gestational Diabetes Mellitus (GDM), Pregnancy Induced Hypertension (PIH), and anaemia during pregnancy. Methods: A cross sectional descriptive study was carried out among expectant fathers whose partners were attending antenatal clinics at the Anuradhapura Teaching Hospital, Sri Lanka. All consenting participants were interviewed by investigators using an interviewer administered questionnaire to collect data on knowledge of risk factors, symptoms, complications and their control. Statistical analysis was performed using the Kruskal Wallis test.  Results: Of the 246 expectant fathers studied, 192 (78%) were aware of GDM, 183 (74.4%) and 154 (62.6%) were aware of PIH and anaemia during pregnancy, respectively. The total number of answers provided by expectant fathers ranged from 0 to 33 (of 41 questions). There were 44 fathers who could not answer even a single question. For GDM, anaemia, and PIH, the percentages of expectant fathers who failed to provide at least a single correct answer were 24.8%, 40.2%, and 31.3%, respectively. The median number of total correct answers provided increased steadily along with the average income (chi-square 31.24, p<0.001) and educational level (chi-square 33.57, p<0.001). Expectant fathers in the 25-34 age group had significantly higher scores, compared to younger and older fathers (chi-square 15.11, p=0.001). Fathers experiencing the second pregnancy of their spouses also had higher scores. Conclusions: Expectant father’s knowledge of the selected morbidities was limited. To improve maternal health, any health promotional programmes should include expectant fathers.

Weekrakkody, Amaya; Weerasinghe, Gihan M; Weerasinghe, Mayumi P; Weerasekara, Gayan L; Agampodi, Suneth B

2013-01-01

359

Maternal socialization of emotion : child, maternal, and relational factors.  

E-print Network

??"Previous research has implicated maternal emotion socialization as an important predictor of children's future social competence and behavior. However, the factors related to emotion socialization… (more)

Stone, Caitlin Elizabeth

2005-01-01

360

Understanding Relations Among Children's Shy and Antisocial\\/Aggressive Behaviors and Mothers' Parenting: The Role of Maternal Beliefs  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study assesses the relationships between children's shy and antisocial\\/aggressive behaviors and maternal beliefs, and concomitant parenting behaviors. Structural equation models examined 199 mothers' perceptions of aggression and shyness in their preschool-age children (average age = 59.63 months); maternal beliefs (i.e., locus of control, perceived harm, efficacy) about shyness and aggression, respectively; and maternal reported parenting behaviors (i.e., authoritarian, authoritative,

Cortney A. Evans; Larry J. Nelson; Christin L. Porter; David A. Nelson; Craig H. Hart

2012-01-01

361

The effect of maternal depression on maternal ratings of child behavior  

Microsoft Academic Search

There have been continuing concerns about the extent to which maternal depression may influence maternal reports of child behavior. To examine this issue, a series of structural equation models of the relationships between maternal depression and errors in maternal reports of child behavior was proposed and tested. These models assumed that (a) maternal depression was unrelated to maternal reporting behavior;

David M. Fergusson; Michael T. Lynskey; L. John Horwood

1993-01-01

362

Reciprocal influences between maternal language and children's language and cognitive development in low-income families.  

PubMed

We examined reciprocal associations between early maternal language use and children's language and cognitive development in seventy ethnically diverse, low-income families. Mother-child dyads were videotaped when children were aged 2;0 and 3;0. Video transcripts were analyzed for quantity and lexical diversity of maternal and child language. Child cognitive development was assessed at both ages and child receptive vocabulary was assessed at age 3;0. Maternal language related to children's lexical diversity at each age, and maternal language at age 2;0, was associated with children's receptive vocabulary and cognitive development at age 3;0. Furthermore, children's cognitive development at age 2;0 was associated with maternal language at age 3;0 controlling for maternal language at age 2;0, suggesting bi-directionality in mother-child associations. The quantity and diversity of the language children hear at home has developmental implications for children from low-income households. In addition, children's early cognitive skills further feed into their subsequent language experiences. PMID:23360640

Song, Lulu; Spier, Elizabeth T; Tamis-Lemonda, Catherine S

2014-03-01

363

Early maternal separation, nightmares, and bad dreams: Results from the Hungarostudy Epidemiological Panel  

Microsoft Academic Search

Early maternal separation is a particularly stressful experience. Current models of nightmare production emphasize negative emotionality as having a central role in determining dream affect. Our aim is to test the hypothesis that persons who experienced early maternal separation (before one year of age and lasting at least one month) report more frequent nightmare experiences and bad dreams as adults.

Szilvia Csóka; Péter Simor; Gábor Szabó; Mária S. Kopp; Róbert Bódizs

2011-01-01

364

Maternal Characteristics Associated with Television Viewing Habits of Low-Income Preschool Children  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Few studies have examined maternal characteristics associated with heavy or inappropriate television viewing on the part of their children. We investigated the relationship between children's television viewing habits and maternal depressive symptoms and parenting beliefs. The participants were 175 low income children (mean age = 62.1 months) and…

Conners, Nicola A.; Tripathi, Shanti P.; Clubb, Richard; Bradley, Robert H.

2007-01-01

365

Maternal Structure and Autonomy Support in Conversations About the Past: Contributions to Children's Autobiographical Memory  

Microsoft Academic Search

The authors examined the contributions of maternal structure and autonomy support to children's collaborative and independent reminiscing. Fifty mother-child dyads discussed past experiences when the children were 40 and 65 months old. Children also discussed past events with an experimenter at each age. Maternal structure and autonomy support appeared as 2 distinct and separable components of mothers' reminiscing style and

Emily Sutcliffe Cleveland; Elaine Reese

2005-01-01

366

Community Diagnosis of Maternal Exposure to Risk Factors for Congenital Defects  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives: This paper describes a community diagnosis of maternal exposure to risk factors for congenital defects in the population of Pelotas, RS, Brazil (400,000 inhabitants). The authors investigated biological and demographic factors (maternal age, alcohol ingestion and smoking), social and economic factors (family income and type of work), and welfare factors (prenatal care, illnesses during pregnancy, drug therapy, and vaccinations).

Gilberto de Lima Garcias; Lavínia Schüler-Faccini

2003-01-01

367

Associations among Maternal Behavior, Delay of Gratification, and School Readiness across the Early Childhood Years  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined the developmental pathways from maternal behavior to school readiness within a sample of 1007 children, with a specific focus on the mediating role of delay of gratification (DoG). Maternal behavior across the first 36 months of age was explored as a predictor of children's DoG at 54 months as well as their behavioral and…

Razza, Rachel A.; Raymond, Kimberly

2013-01-01

368

Maternal passive smoking during pregnancy and foetal developmental toxicity. Part 2: histological changes  

Microsoft Academic Search

1 Evidence has been accumulating on the growth suppressing effects of maternal passive smoking on foetus. Reviewing all literature released during the last two decades and screening for all possible variables such as previous smoking history, maternal age and weight gain, parity and length of gestation, placental weight, and diet, we found no reason to doubt the role of passive

Ed Nelson; Carla Goubet-Wiemers; Yuanjian Guo; Karin Jodscheit

1999-01-01

369

Maternal Structure and Autonomy Support in Conversations about the Past: Contributions to Children's Autobiographical Memory  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The authors examined the contributions of maternal structure and autonomy support to children's collaborative and independent reminiscing. Fifty mother-child dyads discussed past experiences when the children were 40 and 65 months old. Children also discussed past events with an experimenter at each age. Maternal structure and autonomy support…

Cleveland, Emily Sutcliffe; Reese, Elaine

2005-01-01

370

Maternal and Adolescent Ratings of Psychopathology in Young Offender and Non-Clinical Males  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent research has started to examine the effect of clinical status on the correspondence between maternal and adolescent ratings of emotional and behavioural problems. This study compared maternal and youth ratings of the youths' adjustment using the Child Behaviour Checklist and Youth Self-Report in young offender (n = 50) and non-clinical males (n = 51) 12–16 years of age. In

STEPHEN M. BUTLER; SHERRI A. MACKAY; SUSAN E. DICKENS

1995-01-01

371

Prediction of Early Childhood Negative Emotionality and Inhibition from Maternal Distress during Pregnancy.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examined associations between early childhood temperament and factors during mothers' pregnancy. Responses to maternal questionnaires of psychological distress during pregnancy and maternal observations of infants at 6 months and 5 years of age indicated a connection between first-trimester distress and negative emotionality in 5-year-old…

Martin, Roy P.; Noyes, Jennifer; Wisenbaker, Joseph; Huttenen, Matti O.

1999-01-01

372

Maternal Support for Autonomy: Relationships with Persistence for Children with Down Syndrome and Typically Developing Children  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Maternal behaviors and child mastery behaviors were examined in 25 children with Down syndrome and 43 typically developing children matched for mental age (24-36 months). During a shared problem-solving task, there were no group differences in maternal directiveness or support for autonomy, and mothers in the two groups used similar verbal…

Gilmore, Linda; Cuskelly, Monica; Jobling, Anne; Hayes, Alan

2009-01-01

373

The Moderating Effects of Maternal Psychopathology on Children's Adjustment Post–Hurricane Katrina  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study investigated the role of maternal psychopathology in predicting children's psychological distress in a disaster-exposed sample. Participants consisted of 260 children (ages 8–16) recruited from public schools and their mothers. These families were displaced from New Orleans because of Hurricane Katrina in 2005. Assessment took place 3 to 7 months postdisaster. Hierarchical regression analyses revealed that global maternal psychological

Annie W. Spell; Mary Lou Kelley; Jing Wang; Shannon Self-Brown; Karen L. Davidson; Angie Pellegrin; Jeannette L. Palcic; Kara Meyer; Valerie Paasch; Audrey Baumeister

2008-01-01

374

Developmental Trajectories of Maternal and Paternal Attachment and Delinquency in Adolescence  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study sought to address two research questions: (1) Are there distinct trajectories of maternal and paternal attachment among adolescents? And if so, (2) How do these trajectories of maternal and paternal attachment relate to delinquent trajectories over the ages of 12 to 16? Using a subsample (n = 383) of the longitudinal Gang Resistance Education and Training (GREAT) data, the

George E. Higgins; Wesley G. Jennings; Margaret Mahoney

2010-01-01

375

Maternal Socialization and Child Temperament as Predictors of Emotion Regulation in Turkish Preschoolers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study investigated the role of maternal socialization and temperament in Turkish preschool children's emotion regulation. Participants consisted of 145 preschoolers (79 boys, 69 girls; M[subscript age]= 62 months), their mothers, and daycare teachers from middle-high socioeconomic suburbs of Istanbul. Maternal child-rearing practices and…

Yagmurlu, Bilge; Altan, Ozge

2010-01-01

376

The Link Between Daycare Experience and Attitudes Toward Daycare and Maternal Employment  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Participants (n = 308; mean age = 20 years) completed questionnaires about their history, attitudes, and expectations regarding childcare, maternal employment and future parenting. Participants who experienced non-parental care as children had more favorable attitudes toward such care and toward maternal employment than did home-reared…

Shpancer, Noam; Bennett-Murphy, Laura

2006-01-01

377

Neonatal Cuddliness and Maternal Handling Patterns in the First Month of Life.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The effects of "cuddliness" on proximal and distal maternal stimulation and on maternal attachment were examined in 32 healthy mother/infant pairs. All mothers were black, inner-city, of low socioeconomic status, primaparous, bottle-feeding, and between 16 and 24 years of age. All also had adequate prenatal care, no complications, and low levels…

Will, Jerrie Ann

378

Maternal Appraisal Styles, Family Risk Status and Anger Biases of Children  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study investigated the relationship between maternal appraisal styles, family risk status, and anger biases in children. Participants included 90 mothers and their children between 3–6 years of age. Eighty families were followed up 1 year later. Maternal appraisal styles were assessed via a naturalistic story-reading method, and Time 1 and Time 2 emotion biases included teacher ratings of

Carol A. Root; Jennifer M. Jenkins

2005-01-01

379

Reported maternal styles and substance use: a cross-sectional study among educated Albanian young adults.  

PubMed

The study explored a predictive model of substance use including perceived maternal parenting style, age and gender. Participants were 347 Albanian young adults (144 males and 203 females) aged 18 to 28 years. They completed the Parental Authority Questionnaire and the Adolescent Alcohol and Drug Involvement Scale. Gender, perceived authoritative maternal style, and age predicted a proportion of substance use involvement. Gender and perceived authoritative maternal style also predicted the proportion of young people at risk for substance use or abuse. Implications of the findings and limitations of the study are discussed. PMID:24245766

Kalyva, Efrosini; Melonashi, Erika

2014-05-01

380

The intrinsic arterial vascularity and morphology of the median nerve within the carpal tunnel: a microscopic study.  

PubMed

Carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS) is the commonest peripheral nerve entrapment neuropathy and is more prevalent in females for reasons that are not fully understood. The aim of this study was to investigate the intrinsic arterial supply of the median nerve in the region of the carpal tunnel to determine if there are significant individual variations. The median nerve was excised intact from 34 cadaver hands (7 male, 13 female; 18 right, 16 left; age 66-100 years) and sectioned at three levels: 1 cm proximal to the transverse carpal ligament; at the entrance to the carpal tunnel; and 1 cm distal to the latter site. Photomicrographs of histological sections were analyzed using ImageJ and the following recorded: the shape and cross-sectional area (CSA) of the nerve and the total CSA of small arteries/arterioles (>80 ?m(2)) within the nerve. The proportion of the nerve's CSA occupied by arteries/arterioles was expressed as a ratio to compare vascularity at the three levels. There were no significant differences between hands or levels in males, but in right hands from female cadavers there was a statistically significant reduction in the intrinsic arterial vascularity of the median nerve at the entrance to the carpal tunnel as compared to proximal and distal levels and left hands (p < 0.05). Gender-based differences in the intrinsic arterial supply of the median nerve could be a factor predisposing to CTS. PMID:23907725

Perumal, Vivek; Stringer, Mark D

2014-01-01

381

Complexities of the Centre and Median String Francois Nicolas and Eric Rivals  

E-print Network

string problem [1], the star alignment problem [13] and also the Steiner string problem [7]. The medianComplexities of the Centre and Median String Problems Fran¸cois Nicolas and Eric Rivals L. Given a finite set of strings, the median string problem consists in finding a string that minimizes

Rivals, Eric

382

Comparison of 2D Median Filter Hardware Implementations for Real-Time Stereo Video  

E-print Network

a system that includes stereo visible near infrared sensors; both require a 5x5 median filter to handleComparison of 2D Median Filter Hardware Implementations for Real-Time Stereo Video Jesse Scott Hammond Building, University Park, PA 16802 Abstract- The two-dimensional spatial median filter is a core

383

Salt-and-Pepper Noise Removal by Median-type Noise Detectors and  

E-print Network

1 Salt-and-Pepper Noise Removal by Median-type Noise Detectors and Detail-preserving Regularization for removing salt-and-pepper impulse noise. In the first phase, an adaptive median filter is used to identify remove salt-and-pepper-noise with noise level as high as 90%. Index Terms Impulse noise, adaptive median

Chan, Raymond

384

Using Asymptotic Results to Obtain a Confidence Interval for the Population Median  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Almost all introductory and intermediate level statistics textbooks include the topic of confidence interval for the population mean. Almost all these texts introduce the median as a robust measure of central tendency. Only a few of these books, however, cover inference on the population median and in particular confidence interval for the median.…

Jamshidian, M.; Khatoonabadi, M.

2007-01-01

385

Magnetic resonance neurography studies of the median nerve before and after carpal tunnel decompression  

Microsoft Academic Search

Object. Recently developed novel MR protocols called MR neurography, which feature conspicuity for nerve, have been shown to demonstrate signal change and altered median nerve configuration in patients with median nerve com- pression. The postoperative course following median nerve decompression can be problematic, with persistent symp- toms and abnormal results on electrophysiological studies for some months, despite successful surgical decompression.

Simon A. Cudlip; Franklyn A. Howe; Andrew Clifton; Martin S. Schwartz; B. Anthony Bell

2002-01-01

386

Ultrastructural changes in the median eminence of the rat following deafferentation of the basal hypothalamus  

Microsoft Academic Search

This report concerns a light and electron microscopic investigation of the median eminence and dorsal infundibular stem of the rat following surgical isolation (deafferentation). Using a modification of the Halász technique, the basal hypothalamus, including the arcuate nucleus and median eminence were surgically isolated from surrounding structures. Special attention was directed to the contact (external) zone of the median eminence

David E. Scott; Karl M. Knigge

1970-01-01

387

Clinical complications in pregnant women with sickle cell disease: prospective study of factors predicting maternal death or near miss  

PubMed Central

Objective To evaluate complications in pregnant women with sickle cell disease, especially those leading to maternal death or near miss (severe obstetric complications). Methods A prospective cohort of 104 pregnant women registered in the Blood Center of Belo Horizonte (Hemominas Foundation) was followed up at high-risk prenatal units. They belonged to Group I (51 hemoglobin SS and three hemoglobin S/?0-thalassemia) or Group II (49 hemoglobin SC and one hemoglobin S/?+-thalassemia). Both groups had similar median ages. Predictive factors for ‘near miss’ or maternal death with p-value ? 0.25 in the univariate analysis were included in a multivariate logistic model (significance set for p-value ? 0.05). Results Group I had more frequent episodes of vaso-occlusive crises, more transfusions in the antepartum and postpartum, and higher percentage of preterm deliveries than Group II. Infections and painful crises during the postpartum period were similar in both the groups. The mortality rate was 4.8%: three deaths in Group I and two in Group II. One-third of the women in both the groups experienced near miss. The most frequent event was pneumonia/acute chest syndrome. Alpha-thalassemia co-inheritance and ?-gene haplotypes were not associated with near miss or maternal death. In multivariate analysis predictors of near miss or death were parity above one and baseline red blood cell macrocytosis. In Group I, baseline hypoxemia (saturation < 94%) was also predictive of near miss or death. Conclusion One-third of pregnant women had near miss and 4.8% died. Both hemoglobin SS and SC pregnant women shared the same risk of death or of severe complications, especially pulmonary events. PMID:25031164

Resende Cardoso, Patricia Santos; Lopes Pessoa de Aguiar, Regina Amelia; Viana, Marcos Borato

2014-01-01

388

The Role of Maternal Stress in Early Pregnancy in the Aetiology of Gastroschisis: An Incident Case Control Study  

PubMed Central

Objective The incidence of gastroschisis, a congenital anomaly where the infant abdominal wall is defective and intestines protrude from the abdominal cavity, is increasing in many countries. The role of maternal stress in some adverse birth outcomes is now well established. We tested the hypothesis that major stressful life events in the first trimester are risk factors for gastroschisis, and social support protective, in a case-control study in the United Kingdom. Methods Gastroschisis cases and three controls per case (matched for maternal age) were identified at routine 18-20 week fetal anomaly ultrasound scan, in 2007-2010. Face to face questionnaire interviews were carried out during the antenatal period (median 24 weeks gestation) asking about serious stressful events and social support in the first trimester. Data were analysed using conditional logistic regression. Results Two or more stressful life events in the first trimester (adjusted OR 4.9; 95% CI 1.2-19.4), and moving address in the first trimester (aOR 4.9; 95% CI 1.7-13.9) were strongly associated with risk of gastroschisis, independent of behavioural risk factors including smoking, alcohol, and poor diet. Perceived availability of social support was not associated with reduced risk of gastroschisis (aOR 0.8; 95% CI 0.2-3.1). Conclusions Stressful maternal life events in the first trimester of pregnancy including change of address were strongly associated with a substantial increase in the risk of gastroschisis, independent of stress related high risk behaviours such as smoking, alcohol consumption and poor diet. This suggests that stress pathways are involved in the aetiology of gastroschisis. PMID:24260340

Palmer, Stephen R.; Evans, Annette; Broughton, Hannah; Huddart, Simon; Drayton, Mark; Rankin, Judith; Draper, Elizabeth S.; Cameron, Alan; Paranjothy, Shantini

2013-01-01

389

Understanding Relations among Children's Shy and Antisocial/Aggressive Behaviors and Mothers' Parenting: The Role of Maternal Beliefs  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study assesses the relationships between children's shy and antisocial/aggressive behaviors and maternal beliefs, and concomitant parenting behaviors. Structural equation models examined 199 mothers' perceptions of aggression and shyness in their preschool-age children (average age = 59.63 months); maternal beliefs (i.e., locus of control,…

Evans, Cortney A.; Nelson, Larry J.; Porter, Christin L.; Nelson, David A.; Hart, Craig H.

2012-01-01

390

Maternal Depression, Maternal Expressed Emotion, and Youth Psychopathology  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Across development, maternal depression has been found to be a risk factor for youth psychopathology generally and youth depression specifically. Maternal Expressed Emotion (EE) has been examined as a predictor of outcome among youth with depression. The present study explored the associations between youth psychopathology and two…

Tompson, Martha C.; Pierre, Claudette B.; Boger, Kathryn Dingman; McKowen, James W.; Chan, Priscilla T.; Freed, Rachel D.

2010-01-01

391

Transitioning to Family Centered Maternity Care from Traditional Maternity Care  

Microsoft Academic Search

United States perinatal statistics indicate that maternity care needs improvement. In this evidence-based project, guided by the promoting action on research implementation in health services (PARIHS) framework, it is posited that no practice change will occur unless nurses understand and appreciate the relevance of evidence-based maternity care. A within-group design was used to address the clinical question, \\

Kathleen Kleefisch

2011-01-01

392

Maternal employment, breastfeeding, and health: Evidence from maternity leave mandates  

Microsoft Academic Search

Public health agencies around the world have renewed efforts to increase the incidence and duration of breastfeeding. Maternity leave mandates present an economic policy that could help achieve these goals. We study their efficacy focusing on a significant increase in maternity leave mandates in Canada. We find very large increases in mothers' time away from work post-birth and in the

Michael Baker; Kevin S. Milligan

2007-01-01

393

The neglected role of insulin-like growth factors in the maternal circulation regulating fetal growth  

PubMed Central

Maternal insulin-like growth factors (IGFs) play a pivotal role in modulating fetal growth via their actions on both the mother and the placenta. Circulating IGFs influence maternal tissue growth and metabolism, thereby regulating nutrient availability for the growth of the conceptus. Maternal IGFs also regulate placental morphogenesis, substrate transport and hormone secretion, all of which influence fetal growth either via indirect effects on maternal substrate availability, or through direct effects on the placenta and its capacity to supply nutrients to the fetus. The extent to which IGFs influence the mother and/or placenta are dependent on the species and maternal factors, including age and nutrition. As altered fetal growth is associated with increased perinatal morbidity and mortality and a greater risk of developing degenerative diseases in adult life, understanding the role of maternal IGFs during pregnancy is essential in order to identify mechanisms underlying altered fetal growth and offspring programming. PMID:20921199

Sferruzzi-Perri, A N; Owens, J A; Pringle, K G; Roberts, C T

2011-01-01

394

Sets of medians in the non-geodesic pseudometric space of unsigned genomes with breakpoints  

PubMed Central

Background The breakpoint median in the set Sn of permutations on n terms is known to have some unusual behavior, especially if the input genomes are maximally different to each other. The mathematical study of the set of medians is complicated by the facts that breakpoint distance is not a metric but a pseudo-metric, and that it does not define a geodesic space. Results We introduce the notion of partial geodesic, or geodesic patch between two permutations, and show that if two permutations are medians, then every permutation on a geodesic patch between them is also a median. We also prove the conjecture that the input permutations themselves are medians.

2014-01-01

395

Perinatal outcomes following maternal asthma and cigarette smoking during pregnancy.  

PubMed

Does cigarette smoking in pregnancy explain the increased risk of adverse perinatal outcomes that occur with maternal asthma or does it compound the effect? Using population based birth records, a retrospective analysis was conducted of all singleton pregnancies in South Australia over 10 years (1999-2008; n=172 305), examining maternal asthma, cigarette smoking and quantity of smoking to estimate odds ratios. Compared with nonasthmatic females who did not smoke during pregnancy, both asthmatic females who smoked and those who did not smoke during pregnancy had a significantly increased risk of gestational diabetes, antepartum haemorrhage, polyhydramnios, premature rupture of membranes, emergency Caesarean section, and the child being small for gestational age and having congenital abnormalities. These associations suggest that asthma, independently of maternal smoking, increases the risk of these adverse perinatal outcomes. Maternal smoking was itself associated with an increased risk of a number of poor neonatal outcomes, with a dose-response relationship observed. Notably, maternal asthma combined with cigarette smoking significantly increased the risk of preterm birth and urinary tract infections to a greater degree than with either exposure alone. Maternal asthma and cigarette smoking during pregnancy are both independently associated with adverse perinatal outcomes and, combined, compound the risk of preterm birth and urinary tract infections. PMID:23900987

Hodyl, Nicolette A; Stark, Michael J; Scheil, Wendy; Grzeskowiak, Luke E; Clifton, Vicki L

2014-03-01

396

Maternal Plasma Soluble TRAIL is Decreased in Preeclampsia  

PubMed Central

Objective Preeclampsia (PE) is characterized by systemic intravascular inflammation. Women who develop PE are at an increased risk for cardiovascular disease in later life. Tumor necrosis factor related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) has anti-atherosclerotic effects in endothelial cells and can mediate neutrophil apoptosis. Low soluble TRAIL (sTRAIL) and high C-reactive protein (CRP) concentrations are associated with an increased risk of future cardiovascular disease in non-pregnant individuals. The aim of this study was to determine whether maternal plasma concentrations of sTRAIL and CRP differ between women with PE and those with uncomplicated pregnancies. Methods This cross-sectional study included women with an uncomplicated pregnancy (n=93) and those with PE (n=52). Maternal plasma concentrations of sTRAIL and CRP concentrations were determined by ELISA. Results 1) The median plasma sTRAIL concentration (pg/mL) was significantly lower and the median plasma CRP concentration was significantly higher in women with PE than in those with an uncomplicated pregnancy (25.55 vs. 29.17; p = 0.03 and 8.0 vs. 4.1; p=0.001, respectively); 2) the median plasma concentration sTRAIL/CRP ratio was twofold lower in women with PE than in those with an uncomplicated pregnancy (p<0.001); and 3) women with plasma sTRAIL and CRP ratio in the lowest quartile were eight times more likely to have PE than women with concentrations in the upper three quartiles (OR 8.9; 95% CI: 2.8–27.8). Conclusion Maternal plasma sTRAIL concentrations are lower (while those of CRP are higher) in women with PE than in those with uncomplicated pregnancies. These findings are consistent with the evidence of intravascular inflammation in this disorder. PMID:23688319

Chaemsaithong, Piya; Chaiworapongsa, Tinnakorn; Romero, Roberto; Korzeniewski, Steven J.; Stampalija, Tamara; Than, Nandor Gabor; Dong, Zhong; Miranda, Jezid; Yeo, Lami; Hassan, Sonia S

2014-01-01

397

Maternal exposure to brominated flame retardants and infant Apgar scores.  

PubMed

Brominated flame retardants (BFRs) and other persistent organic pollutants have been associated with adverse health outcomes in humans and may be particularly toxic to the developing fetus. We investigated the association between in utero polybrominated biphenyl (PBB) and polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) exposures and infant Apgar scores in a cohort of Michigan residents exposed to PBB through contaminated food after an industrial accident. PBB and PCB concentrations were measured in serum at the time the women were enrolled in the cohort. PBB concentrations were also estimated at the time of conception for each pregnancy using a validated elimination model. Apgar scores, a universal measure of infant health at birth, measured at 1 and 5min, were taken from birth certificates for 613 offspring born to 330 women. Maternal PCB concentrations at enrollment were not associated with below-median Apgar scores in this cohort. However, maternal PBB exposure was associated with a dose-related increase in the odds of a below-median Apgar score at 1min and 5min. Among infants whose mothers had an estimated PBB at conception above the limit of detection of 1 part per billion (ppb) to <2.5ppb, the odds ratio=2.32 (95% CI: 1.22-4.40); for those with PBB?2.5ppb the OR=2.62 (95% CI: 1.38-4.96; test for trend p<0.01). Likewise, the odds of a below-median 5min Apgar score increased with higher maternal PBB at conception. It remains critical that future studies examine possible relationships between in utero exposures to brominated compounds and adverse health outcomes. PMID:25203650

Terrell, Metrecia L; Hartnett, Kathleen P; Lim, Hyeyeun; Wirth, Julie; Marcus, Michele

2015-01-01

398

Differences in BMI z-Scores between Offspring of Smoking and Nonsmoking Mothers: A Longitudinal Study of German Children from Birth through 14 Years of Age  

PubMed Central

Background: Children of mothers who smoked during pregnancy have a lower birth weight but have a higher chance to become overweight during childhood. Objectives: We followed children longitudinally to assess the age when higher body mass index (BMI) z-scores became evident in the children of mothers who smoked during pregnancy, and to evaluate the trajectory of changes until adolescence. Methods: We pooled data from two German cohort studies that included repeated anthropometric measurements until 14 years of age and information on smoking during pregnancy and other risk factors for overweight. We used longitudinal quantile regression to estimate age- and sex-specific associations between maternal smoking and the 10th, 25th, 50th, 75th, and 90th quantiles of the BMI z-score distribution in study participants from birth through 14 years of age, adjusted for potential confounders. We used additive mixed models to estimate associations with mean BMI z-scores. Results: Mean and median (50th quantile) BMI z-scores at birth were smaller in the children of mothers who smoked during pregnancy compared with children of nonsmoking mothers, but BMI z-scores were significantly associated with maternal smoking beginning at the age of 4–5 years, and differences increased over time. For example, the difference in the median BMI z-score between the daughters of smokers versus nonsmokers was 0.12 (95% CI: 0.01, 0.21) at 5 years, and 0.30 (95% CI: 0.08, 0.39) at 14 years of age. For lower BMI z-score quantiles, the association with smoking was more pronounced in girls, whereas in boys the association was more pronounced for higher BMI z-score quantiles. Conclusions: A clear difference in BMI z-score (mean and median) between children of smoking and nonsmoking mothers emerged at 4–5 years of age. The shape and size of age-specific effect estimates for maternal smoking during pregnancy varied by age and sex across the BMI z-score distribution. Citation: Riedel C, Fenske N, Müller MJ, Plachta-Danielzik S, Keil T, Grabenhenrich L, von Kries R. 2014. Differences in BMI z-scores between offspring of smoking and nonsmoking mothers: a longitudinal study of German children from birth through 14 years of age. Environ Health Perspect 122:761–767;?http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/ehp.1307139 PMID:24695368

Fenske, Nora; Muller, Manfred J.; Plachta-Danielzik, Sandra; Keil, Thomas; Grabenhenrich, Linus; von Kries, Rudiger

2014-01-01

399

Epidemiology and aetiology of maternal bacterial and viral infections in low- and middle-income countries  

PubMed Central

Background Maternal morbidity and mortality in low- and middle-income countries has remained exceedingly high. However, information on bacterial and viral maternal infections, which are important contributors to poor pregnancy outcomes, is sparse and poorly characterised. This review aims to describe the epidemiology and aetiology of bacterial and viral maternal infections in low- and middle-income countries. Methods A systematic search of published literature was conducted and data on aetiology and epidemiology of maternal infections was extracted from relevant studies for analysis. Searches were conducted in parallel by two reviewers (using OVID) in the following databases: Medline (1950 to 2010), EMBASE (1980 to 2010) and Global Health (1973 to 2010). Results Data from 158 relevant studies was used to characterise the epidemiology of the 10 most extensively reported maternal infections with the following median prevalence rates: Treponema pallidum (2.6%), Neisseria gonorrhoeae (1.5%), Chlamydia trachomatis (5.8%), Group B Streptococcus (8.6%), bacterial vaginosis (20.9%), hepatitis B virus (4.3%), hepatitis C virus (1.4%), Cytomegalovirus (95.7% past infection), Rubella (8.9% susceptible) and Herpes simplex (20.7%). Large variations in the prevalence of these infections between countries and regions were noted. Conclusion This review confirms the suspected high prevalence of maternal bacterial and viral infections and identifies particular diseases and regions requiring urgent attention in public health policy planning, setting research priorities and donor funding towards reducing maternal morbidity and mortality in low- and middle-income countries. PMID:23198117

Velu, Prasad Palani; Gravett, Courtney A.; Roberts, Tom K.; Wagner, Thor A.; Zhang, Jian Shayne F.; Rubens, Craig E.; Gravett, Michael G.; Campbell, Harry; Rudan, Igor

2011-01-01

400

Maternal Gatekeeping: Antecedents and Consequences  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined maternal gatekeeping, its background and psychological antecedents, and its consequences for paternal and maternal involvement in child care. In sum, 209 couples with 6- to 36-month-old children completed extensive questionnaires. Analyses revealed that various dimensions of gate-keeping were differentially associated with the…

Gaunt, Ruth

2008-01-01

401

Maternal mortality in southern Israel.  

PubMed

Between 1969 and 1991 there were 166,410 births in Southern Israel with 13 maternal deaths (7.8/100,000). In the Jewish population there were 119,130 deliveries with 7 maternal deaths (5.9/100,000), and the Bedouins had 47,280 deliveries with 6 maternal deaths (12.7/100,000). Prenatal care was an important preventive factor. 7 maternal deaths occurred among 151,088 women who had received prenatal care (4.6/100,000), whereas 6 such deaths occurred among 15,322 without prenatal care (39.1/100,000) (P value 0.0005). Ten of the 13 women who died were over 24 years old. Eight of the 13 patients were multiparous. Live births occurred in 6 patients and stillbirths in 5 patients. Hemorrhage, preeclampsia-eclampsia and pulmonary embolism were the leading causes of maternal death. PMID:8512350

Leiberman, J R; Fraser, D; Mazor, M; Glezerman, M

1993-01-01

402

Association between energy-dense food consumption at 2 years of age and diet quality at 4 years of age.  

PubMed

The present study aimed to evaluate the association between the consumption of energy-dense foods at 2 years of age and the consumption of foods and diet quality at 4 years of age. The sample included 705 children evaluated at 2 and 4 years of age, as part of the population-based birth cohort Generation XXI (Porto, Portugal). Data on sociodemographic and lifestyle factors of both children and mothers were collected by face-to-face interviews. The weight and height of children were measured by trained professionals. Based on FFQ, four energy-dense food groups were defined: soft drinks; sweets; cakes; salty snacks. A healthy eating index was developed using the WHO dietary recommendations for children (2006) aged 4 years. The associations were evaluated through Poisson regression models. After adjustment for maternal age and education, child's carer, child's siblings and child's BMI, higher consumption of energy-dense foods at 2 years of age was found to be associated with higher consumption of the same foods 2 years later. An inverse association was found between the intake (? median) of soft drinks (incidence rate ratio (IRR) = 0.74, 95% CI 0.58, 0.95), salty snacks (IRR = 0.80, 95% CI 0.65, 1.00) and sweets (IRR = 0.73, 95% CI 0.58, 0.91) at 2 years of age and the consumption of fruit and vegetables at 4 years of age (? 5 times/d). Weekly and daily consumption of energy-dense foods at 2 years of age was associated with a lower healthy eating score at 4 years of age (IRR = 0.75, 95% CI 0.58, 0.96; IRR = 0.56, 95% CI 0.41, 0.77, respectively). The consumption of energy-dense foods at young ages is negatively associated with the diet quality of children a few years later. PMID:24229473

Vilela, Sofia; Oliveira, Andreia; Ramos, Elisabete; Moreira, Pedro; Barros, Henrique; Lopes, Carla

2014-04-14

403

The influence of context-dependent maternal effects on population dynamics: an experimental test  

PubMed Central

Parental effects arise when either the maternal or paternal phenotype influences the phenotypes of subsequent generations. Simple analytical models assume maternal effects are a mechanism creating delayed density dependence. Such models predict that maternal effects can very easily lead to population cycles. Despite this, unambiguous maternal-effect mediated cycles have not been demonstrated in any system. Additionally, much evidence has arisen to invalidate the underlying assumption that there is a simple positive correlation between maternal performance and offspring performance. A key issue in understanding how maternal effects may affect population dynamics is determining how the expression of parental effects changes in different environments. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that maternal effects influence population dynamics in a context-dependent way. Populations of the soil mite, Sancassania berlesei, were set up at high density (500 eggs) or low density (50 eggs), with eggs that were either laid by young mothers or old mothers (a previously documented maternal effect in this system). The influence of maternal age on both population and egg and body-size dynamics was only observed in the populations initiated under low density rather than high density. This difference was attributable to the context-dependence of maternal effects at the individual level. In low-density (high food) conditions, maternal effects have an impact on offspring reproductive performance, creating an impact on the population growth rate. In high density (low food), maternal effects impact more on juvenile survival (not adult size or reproduction), creating a smaller impact on the population growth rate. This context dependence of effects at the population level means that, in fluctuating populations, maternal effects cause intermittent delayed density dependence that does not lead to persistent cycles. PMID:19324610

Plaistow, S.J.; Benton, T.G.

2009-01-01

404

Mitochondrial genome function and maternal inheritance.  

PubMed

The persistence of mtDNA to encode a small subset of mitochondrial proteins reflects the selective advantage of co-location of key respiratory chain subunit genes with their gene products. The disadvantage of this co-location is exposure of mtDNA to mutagenic ROS (reactive oxygen species), which are by-products of aerobic respiration. The resulting 'vicious circle' of mitochondrial mutation has been proposed to underlie aging and its associated degenerative diseases. Recent evidence is consistent with the hypothesis that oocyte mitochondria escape the aging process by acting as quiescent genetic templates, transcriptionally and bioenergetically repressed. Transmission of unexpressed mtDNA in the female germline is considered as a reason for the existence of separate sexes, i.e. male and female. Maternal inheritance then circumvents incremental accumulation of age-related disease in each new generation. PMID:24059523

Allen, John F; de Paula, Wilson B M

2013-10-01

405

Poverty Duration, Maternal Psychological Resources, and Adolescent Socioemotional Outcomes  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study seeks to assess the impact of maternal psychological well-being on the depression and anxiety levels and social withdrawal in a sample of young African American and Caucasian adolescents between the ages of 10 and 14 (N = 854) using data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1979 child sample. Analyses using structural equation…

Goosby, Bridget J.

2007-01-01

406

Preschoolers perceptions of the unfairness of maternal disciplinary practices  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: The aim of this study was to examine preschoolers’ perceptions of maternal discipline’s unfairness. The participants’ gender, age, SES, family intactness and sibship size were examined for their possible relevance to such perceptions.Method: Five vignettes, describing forms of discipline the literature suggests constitute psychological maltreatment, were presented to 57 preschoolers (27 boys and 30 girls). They included excessive withdrawal

M. M. Konstantareas; Nancy Desbois

2001-01-01

407

Parentification and Maternal HIV Infection: Beneficial Role or Pathological Burden?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Parentification, along with parenting and child adjustment, were examined in 23 9-through 16-year-old youth from families affected by maternal HIV infection and 20 same-age peers whose mothers were not infected. Children whose mothers were HIV-positive reported to more often engage in parental role behaviors, relative to children of HIV-negative…

Tompkins, Tanya L.

2007-01-01

408

Reforming maternity: Childbirth, religion, and the Renaissance stage  

Microsoft Academic Search

The goal of this study is to examine the intersection of religion and maternity in early modern English drama. Throughout the Middle Ages, pregnancy and childbirth belonged to the realm of women. Parturient women were encouraged to find strength and encouragement in images of the Virgin Mary. They experienced temporary relief from the constraints of patriarchy, but they were then

Laura Dawn Eilar Ward

2010-01-01

409

Maternal Influences on Youth Responses to Peer Stress  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Understanding how youths develop particular styles of responding to stress is critical for promoting effective coping. This research examined the prospective, interactive contribution of maternal socialization of coping and peer stress to youth responses to peer stress. A sample of 144 early adolescents (mean age = 12.44 years, SD = 1.22) and…

Abaied, Jamie L.; Rudolph, Karen D.

2011-01-01

410

Effects of Maternal Job Quality on Children's Reading Achievement  

Microsoft Academic Search

I explore the relationship between quality of maternal employment and children’s reading achievement between six to thirteen years of age using data from the Panel Study of Income Dynamics. The hypotheses assert that job quality in terms of level of autonomy, supervisory power, complexity with people, data and things, and family benefits have significant positive effects on children’s reading achievement.

Ayse Yetis Bayraktar

2008-01-01

411

The development and prediction of atopy in high-risk children: Follow-up at age seven years in a prospective randomized study of combined maternal and infant food allergen avoidance  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: The natural history of allergic disease and its potential for prevention merit close examination because of the explosive worldwide increase in the prevalence and morbidity of atopic disorders. This study examines the development of atopy at age 7 years in 165 children in a high-risk cohort, previously reported from birth to age 4 years. Methods: In this prospective, randomized,

Robert S. Zeiger; Susan Heller

1995-01-01

412

Early-Occurring Maternal Depression and Maternal Negativity in Predicting Young Children's Emotion Regulation and Socioemotional Difficulties  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This longitudinal investigation examined the effects of maternal depression and concomitant negative parenting behaviors on children's emotion regulation patterns and socioemotional functioning. One hundred fifty-one mothers and their children were assessed when children were approximately 1 1/2-, 3-, 4-, and 5-years of age. Ninety-three of the…

Maughan, Angeline; Cicchetti, Dante; Toth, Sheree L.; Rogosch, Fred A.

2007-01-01

413

Maternal protein intake is not associated with infant blood pressure  

PubMed Central

Background Animal data show that low protein intake in pregnancy programs higher offspring blood pressure, but similar data in humans are limited. We examined the associations of first and second trimester maternal protein intake with offspring blood pressure (BP) at the age of six months. Methods In a prospective US cohort study, called Project Viva, pregnant women completed validated semi-quantitative food-frequency questionnaires (FFQ) to measure gestational protein intake. Among 947 mother-offspring pairs with first trimester dietary data and 910 pairs with second trimester data, we measured systolic blood pressure (SBP) up to five times with an automated device in the offspring at the age of six months. Controlling for blood pressure measurement conditions, maternal and infant characteristics, we examined the effect of energy-adjusted maternal protein intake on infant SBP using multivariable mixed effects models. Results Mean daily second trimester maternal protein intake was 17.6% of energy (mean 2111 kcal/day). First trimester nutrient intakes were similar. Mean SBP at age 6 months was 90.0 mm Hg (SD 12.9). Consistent with prior reports, adjusted SBP was 1.94 mm Hg lower [95% confidence interval (CI) ?3.45 to ?0.42] for each kg increase in birth weight. However, we did not find an association between maternal protein intake and infant SBP. After adjusting for covariates, the effect estimates were 0.14 mm Hg (95% CI ?0.12 to ?0.40) for a 1% increase in energy from protein during the second trimester, and ?0.01 mm Hg (95% CI ?0.24 to ?0.23) for a 1% increase in energy from protein in the first trimester. Conclusions Variation in maternal total protein intake during pregnancy does not appear to program offspring blood pressure. PMID:15576466

Huh, Susanna Y; Rifas-Shiman, Sheryl L; Kleinman, Ken P; Rich-Edwards, Janet W; Lipshultz, Steven E; Gillman, Matthew W

2007-01-01

414

Externalizing disorders in adolescence mediate the effects of maternal depression on substance use disorders.  

PubMed

Maternal depression has been linked to increased risk of substance use disorders (SUDs) in offspring. Cross-sectional studies have identified relationships among maternal depression, externalizing disorders and SUDs, but no longitudinal examination of causality has been undertaken. In order to address this gap in the literature, depression and externalizing disorders at or prior to age 15 were tested as mediators of the relationship between maternal depression and SUDs diagnosed between ages 16 and 20 in a sample of 702 Australian youth (363 women) using path models. Mothers' and fathers' substance diagnoses and earlier onset of substance abuse in youth were controlled for in all analyses. Consistent with previous work, maternal depression predicted SUDs between ages 16 and 20. An indirect effect of maternal depression through youth externalizing disorders diagnosed by age 16 was detected for alcohol and cannabis use disorders, but not drug disorders. Early adolescent depression was not a mediator of the relationship between maternal depression and any of the substance outcomes measured. To our knowledge, this study is the first to examine depression and externalizing disorders in early adolescence as mediators of the effect of maternal depression on psychopathology in later adolescence. Further work is needed to understand how family environment and genetic factors may explain the mediation by externalizing disorders. PMID:23975078

Tartter, Molly; Hammen, Constance; Brennan, Patricia

2014-02-01

415

Microearthquakes beneath median valley of Mid-Atlantic Ridge near 23°N: Tomography and tectonics  

Microsoft Academic Search

Data from a microearthquake experiment in the median valley of the Mid-Atlantic Ridge near 23°N in 1982 are used to measure earthquake source parameters, to determine the laterally heterogeneous seismic velocity structure across the inner floor, and to develop a kinematic tectonic model for this portion of the median valley. Fifty-three microearthquakes occurred over a 10-day period beneath the median

Douglas R. Toomey; Sean C. Solomon; G. M. Purdy

1988-01-01

416

Chronic opioid use during pregnancy: maternal and fetal implications.  

PubMed

Current trends in the United States suggest that chronic narcotic use has increased in reproductive aged women over the past 10 years. Regular exposure to such substances during pregnancy has maternal and fetal implications. Appropriate prenatal care is critical to optimizing outcomes. Management options for narcotic dependence should be patient-specific and may include discontinuation of narcotics with careful observation, limitation of prescription dispensing, or substitution therapy with methadone or buprenorphine. A multidisciplinary, collaborative approach is highly recommended. This review discusses usage of narcotic medications, associated maternal and fetal risks, and management strategies for the antepartum, intrapartum, and postpartum periods. PMID:23972743

Stanhope, Todd J; Gill, Lisa A; Rose, Carl

2013-09-01

417

The role of transplacental microtransfusions of maternal lymphocytes in HIV transmission to newborns  

PubMed Central

Background Perinatal HIV transmission could occur via microtransfused maternal blood during delivery. If so, detecting maternal cells in umbilical cord blood should correlate with infection risk. Objective To develop sensitive assays for maternal DNA in infant's blood stored as dried blood spots (DBS) and examine the correlation between microtransfusion and perinatal HIV infection risk. Methods Blood-in-blood serial dilutions were prepared as DBS. Extracted DNA was amplified for unique minor-population sequences using 24 allele-specific polymerase-chain-reaction (AS-PCR) assays. Using newborns born to HIV+ mothers, paired mother-infant samples were similarly examined to identify unique maternal sequences targeted by AS-PCR of DNA extracted from cord blood DBS. Cord-blood PCR-negative infants were categorized as uninfected or perinatally infected by HIV PCR on samples collected 4–8 weeks after birth. Results Sequences from added cells were detected at ?1:1000 dilutions in 19 of 20 aliquots, and ?1:10,000 dilutions in 7 of 20 aliquots; the median limit of detection (probit analysis) was 1 added genomic sequence in 9500 background sequences of amplifiable DNA. Maternal sequences were detected in cord-blood DBS of 50% of infected infants (N=18) and 44% of uninfected infants (N=43). Infection did not correlate with more frequent detection of maternal sequences. Conclusion This semi-quantitative assay reliably detected maternal DNA sequences in DBS at levels of less than 1:1000 cells. Maternal sequences were frequently detected but did not correlate infection risk with detection or level of maternal DNA in umbilical cord blood. Therefore we could not demonstrate that microtransfusions at parturition were responsible for perinatal HIV transmission. PMID:18981764

Biggar, Robert J.; Lee, Tzong-Hae; Wen, Li; Broadhead, Robin; Kumwenda, Newton; Taha, Taha E.; Busch, Michael P.

2012-01-01

418

Maternal, Perinatal, and Postneonatal Outcomes in Women With Chronic Heart Disease in Washington State  

PubMed Central

Objective To explore the association between the presence of maternal heart disease and maternal, perinatal, and infant outcomes. Methods We conducted a population-based retrospective cohort study using Washington State birth certificates linked with hospital discharge records of mothers noted to have maternal congenital heart disease, ischemic heart disease, heart failure or pulmonary hypertension. Women who gave birth between 1987 and 2009 (n=2,171) were compared to a sample of mothers without these conditions (n=21,710). We described characteristics of pregnant women with heart disease over time. Logistic regression estimated the association between reported chronic maternal heart disease and small for gestational age (SGA) birth, as well as perinatal, post-neonatal and maternal death. Results The proportion of births to women with reported heart disease increased 224% between the 1987-1994 and 2002-2009 calendar periods. Chronic maternal heart disease was associated with increased risk of SGA birth (62 additional SGA infants per 1,000 births, 95% CI 46-78, p <0.001), perinatal death (14 additional deaths per 1,000 births, 95% CI 8-20, p <0.001), postneonatal death (five additional deaths per 1,000 births, 95% CI 2-9, p<0.001) and maternal death (five additional deaths per 1,000 births, 95% CI 2-9, p<0.001). Conclusion The presence of chronic maternal heart disease is associated with elevated risk for poor maternal, perinatal, and postneonatal outcomes. PMID:23168751

Leary, Peter J; Leary, Sarah ES; Stout, Karen K; Schwartz, Stephen M; Easterling, Thomas R

2014-01-01

419

A practical approach to identifying maternal deaths missed from routine hospital reports: lessons from Indonesia  

PubMed Central

Background Accurate estimates of the number of maternal deaths in both the community and facility are important, in order to allocate adequate resources to address such deaths. On the other hand, current studies show that routine methods of identifying maternal deaths in facilities underestimate the number by more than one-half. Objective To assess the utility of a new approach to identifying maternal deaths in hospitals. Method Deaths of women of reproductive age were retrospectively identified from registers in two district hospitals in Indonesia over a 24-month period. Based on information retrieved, deaths were classified as ‘maternal’ or ‘non-maternal’ where possible. For deaths that remained unclassified, a detailed case note review was undertaken and the extracted data were used to facilitate classification. Results One hundred and fifty-five maternal deaths were identified, mainly from the register review. Only 67 maternal deaths were recorded in the hospitals’ routine reports over the same period. This underestimation of maternal deaths was partly due to the incomplete coverage of the routine reporting system; however, even in the wards where routine reports were made, the study identified twice as many deaths. Conclusion The RAPID method is a practical method that provides a more complete estimate of hospital maternal mortality than routine reporting systems. PMID:20027272

Qomariyah, Siti Nurul; Bell, Jacqueline S.; Pambudi, Eko S.; Anggondowati, Trisari; Latief, Kamaluddin; Achadi, Endang L.; Graham, Wendy J.

2009-01-01

420

Maternal Mortality in a Tertiary Care Hospital: A 10-year Review  

PubMed Central

Background: Epidemiological data pertaining to maternal mortality is valuable in each set up to design interventional programs to favourably reduce the ratio. This study was done to evaluate the maternal mortality rate in our hospital, to assess the epidemiological aspects and causes of maternal mortality, and to suggest recommendations for improvement. Methods: This was a 10 year retrospective study. Epidemiological data was collected from the hospital register and maternal mortality ratio, epidemiological factors and causes affecting maternal mortality were assessed. Results: A total of 120 maternal deaths occurred. Most maternal deaths occurred in the age group of 20–24 years, multiparous women (56.66%), women from rural areas (69.16%), illiterate women (65%), unbooked patients (83.33%), and patients of low socioeconomic status (83.33%). Direct causes accounted for 72.5% of matern