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1

Median  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, students explore median as the middle value of an ordered data set. The mechanics of locating the median are emphasized through visual images, voice explanation, interactive work with even-numbered sets of data, and multiple-choice questions.

2007-01-01

2

Median age at death as an indicator of premature mortality  

PubMed Central

The median age at death from certain diseases was calculated for each year for 1969-85 and compared with that at death from all causes. The results indicated the impact of these diseases in terms of premature mortality and changes over time. Cancer was a more important cause of premature mortality among women than among men. For cancer of the cervix the median age at death increased appreciably whereas for cancer of the lung in women it slightly decreased. The median age at death is easy to calculate, does not require standardisation, and has a useful role.

Jannerfeldt, Eric; Horte, Lars-Gunnar

1988-01-01

3

Changes of Average Maternal Age  

Microsoft Academic Search

IN a report in NATURE of March 18 of an address delivered by Dr. L. S. Penrose to the Industrial Section of the British Psychological Society on February 8, the following sentence occurs: ``When the birth-rate is falling, the average maternal age [average age at child-birth] will probably become greater''. In support of this view it is stated that Dr.

R. S. Barclay; W. O. Kermack

1939-01-01

4

The Hypothalamic Median Eminence and its Role in Reproductive Aging  

PubMed Central

The median eminence at the base of the hypothalamus serves as an interface between the neural and peripheral endocrine systems. It is the site where hypothalamic releasing hormones are released into the portal capillary bed to be transported to the anterior pituitary, which provides further signals to target endocrine systems. Of specific relevance to reproduction, a group of about 1000 neurons in mammals release the gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) peptide from neuroterminals in the median eminence. During the life cycle, there are dramatic changes in reproductive demands, and we focus this review on how GnRH terminals in the median eminence change during reproductive senescence. We discuss morphological and functional properties of the median eminence, and how relationships among GnRH terminals and their microenvironment of nerve terminals, glial cells, and the portal capillary vasculature determine the ability of GnRH peptide to be secreted and to reach its target in the anterior pituitary gland.

Yin, Weiling; Gore, Andrea C.

2009-01-01

5

Maternal Age at Holocaust Exposure and Maternal PTSD Independently Influence Urinary Cortisol Levels in Adult Offspring  

PubMed Central

Background: Parental traumatization has been associated with increased risk for the expression of psychopathology in offspring, and maternal posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) appears to increase the risk for the development of offspring PTSD. In this study, Holocaust-related maternal age of exposure and PTSD were evaluated for their association with offspring ambient cortisol and PTSD-associated symptom expression. Method: Ninety-five Holocaust offspring and Jewish comparison subjects received diagnostic and psychological evaluations, and 24?h urinary cortisol was assayed by RIA. Offspring completed the parental PTSD questionnaire to assess maternal PTSD status. Maternal Holocaust exposure was identified as having occurred in childhood, adolescence, or adulthood and examined in relation to offspring psychobiology. Results: Urinary cortisol levels did not differ for Holocaust offspring and comparison subjects but differed significantly in offspring based on maternal age of exposure and maternal PTSD status. Increased maternal age of exposure and maternal PTSD were each associated with lower urinary cortisol in offspring, but did not exhibit a significant interaction. In addition, offspring PTSD-associated symptom severity increased with maternal age at exposure and PTSD diagnosis. A regression analysis of correlates of offspring cortisol indicated that both maternal age of exposure and maternal PTSD were significant predictors of lower offspring urinary cortisol, whereas childhood adversity and offspring PTSD symptoms were not. Conclusion: Offspring low cortisol and PTSD-associated symptom expression are related to maternal age of exposure, with the greatest effects associated with increased age at exposure. These effects are relatively independent of the negative consequences of being raised by a trauma survivor. These observations highlight the importance of maternal age of exposure in determining a psychobiology in offspring that is consistent with increased risk for stress-related pathology.

Bader, Heather N.; Bierer, Linda M.; Lehrner, Amy; Makotkine, Iouri; Daskalakis, Nikolaos P.; Yehuda, Rachel

2014-01-01

6

Maternal caloric restriction partially rescues the deleterious effects of advanced maternal age on offspring  

PubMed Central

SUMMARY While many studies have focused on the detrimental effects of advanced maternal age and harmful prenatal environments on progeny, little is known about the role of beneficial non-Mendelian maternal inheritance on aging. Here we report the effects of maternal age and maternal caloric restriction (CR) on the lifespan and healthspan of offspring for a clonal culture of the monogonont rotifer Brachionus manjavacas. Mothers on CR regimens of chronic CR (CCR) or intermittent fasting (IF) had increased lifespan compared to mothers fed ad libitum (AL). With increasing maternal age, lifespan and fecundity of female offspring of AL fed mothers decreased significantly and lifespan of male offspring was unchanged, while body size of both male and female offspring increased. Maternal CR partially rescued these effects, increasing the mean lifespan of AL fed female offspring but not male offspring and increasing the fecundity of AL fed female offspring compared to offspring of mothers of the same age. Both maternal CR regimens decreased male offspring body size, but only maternal IF decreased body size of female offspring, while maternal CCR caused a slight increase. Understanding the genetic and biochemical basis of these different maternal effects on aging may guide effective interventions to improve healthspan and lifespan.

Gribble, Kristin E.; Jarvis, George; Bock, Martha; Mark Welch, David B.

2014-01-01

7

Maternal caloric restriction partially rescues the deleterious effects of advanced maternal age on offspring.  

PubMed

While many studies have focused on the detrimental effects of advanced maternal age and harmful prenatal environments on progeny, little is known about the role of beneficial non-Mendelian maternal inheritance on aging. Here, we report the effects of maternal age and maternal caloric restriction (CR) on the life span and health span of offspring for a clonal culture of the monogonont rotifer Brachionus manjavacas. Mothers on regimens of chronic CR (CCR) or intermittent fasting (IF) had increased life span compared with mothers fed ad libitum (AL). With increasing maternal age, life span and fecundity of female offspring of AL-fed mothers decreased significantly and life span of male offspring was unchanged, whereas body size of both male and female offspring increased. Maternal CR partially rescued these effects, increasing the mean life span of AL-fed female offspring but not male offspring and increasing the fecundity of AL-fed female offspring compared with offspring of mothers of the same age. Both maternal CR regimens decreased male offspring body size, but only maternal IF decreased body size of female offspring, whereas maternal CCR caused a slight increase. Understanding the genetic and biochemical basis of these different maternal effects on aging may guide effective interventions to improve health span and life span. PMID:24661622

Gribble, Kristin E; Jarvis, George; Bock, Martha; Mark Welch, David B

2014-08-01

8

Median ages at stages of sexual maturity and excess weight in school children  

PubMed Central

Background We aimed to estimate the median ages at specific stages of sexual maturity stratified by excess weight in boys and girls. Materials and method This was a cross-sectional study made in 2007 in Florianopolis, Brazil, with 2,339 schoolchildren between 8 to 14 years of age (1,107 boys) selected at random in two steps (by region and type of school). The schoolchildren were divided into: i) those with excess weight and ii) those without excess weight, according to the WHO 2007 cut-off points for gender and age. Sexual maturity was self-evaluated by the subjects according to the Tanner sexual development stages, and utilizing median ages for the genitalia, breasts, and pubic hair stages. Results In the boys with excess weight, precocity was observed in the stages 4 for genitals and pubic hair and 2 for pubic hair, with the values for excess and normal weight. The median ages at the beginning of puberty (stage 2–sexual development) for boys and girls in Florianopolis were 10.8 and 10.3 years, respectively. Conclusion Excess weight is associated with lower median ages in the sexual maturity stages in boys and girls and that it should be taken into account when evaluating sexual maturity in children and adolescents.

2013-01-01

9

Rescue of cognitive aging by long-lasting environmental enrichment exposure initiated before median lifespan.  

PubMed

The rescue of cognitive function through environmental enrichment (EE) during aging has been extensively documented. However, the age at onset, the duration of EE, and the cerebral mechanisms required to obtain the greatest benefits still remain to be determined. We have recently shown that EE applied for 3 mo after the median lifespan, i.e., the age at which 50% of the population is still alive (from 17 to 20 mo in NMRI mice), failed to prevent cognitive deficits in senescent animals. In the present study, mice were exposed to EE prior to the median lifespan, and for a longer total duration (from 14 to 20 mo), before the assessment of memory performance and the electrophysiological properties of hippocampal neuronal networks. The EE prevented memory deficits and reduced anxiety as the animal aged. Moreover, EE attenuated the age-related impairment of basal glutamatergic neurotransmission in CA1 hippocampal slices, and reversed the decrease in isolated N-methyl-D-Aspartate receptor (NMDA-R)-dependent synaptic potentials. Surprisingly, EE did not prevent the age-related alteration of theta-burst-induced long-term potentiation (LTP). This study therefore suggests that EE needs to be initiated before the age corresponding to the median lifespan and/or required long duration (> 3 mo) to have an effect on cognitive aging. In addition, we show that EE probably acts through theta-burst-independent mechanisms of synaptic plasticity. PMID:22035592

Freret, T; Billard, J-M; Schumann-Bard, P; Dutar, P; Dauphin, F; Boulouard, M; Bouet, V

2012-05-01

10

Stability of Maternal Autonomy Support between Infancy and Preschool Age  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The goals of this article were to examine (1) the relative and absolute stability of maternal autonomy support between infancy and preschool age, and (2) the moderating role of child gender, maternal attachment state of mind, and stressful life events. Sixty-nine mother-child dyads participated in five visits when the child was 8, 15, and 18…

Matte-Gagne, Celia; Bernier, Annie; Gagne, Christine

2013-01-01

11

Maternal age, birth order, and race: differential effects on birthweight  

PubMed Central

Background Studies examining the influence of maternal age and birth order on birthweight have not effectively disentangled the relative contributions of each factor to birthweight, especially as they may differ by race. Methods A population-based, cross-sectional study of North Carolina births from 1999 to 2003 was performed. Analysis was restricted to 510 288 singleton births from 28 to 42 weeks’ gestation with no congenital anomalies. Multivariable linear regression was used to model maternal age and birth order on birthweight, adjusting for infant sex, education, marital status, tobacco use and race. Results Mean birthweight was lower for non-Hispanic black individuals (NHB, 3166 g) compared with non-Hispanic white individuals (NHW, 3409 g) and Hispanic individuals (3348 g). Controlling for covariates, birthweight increased with maternal age until the early 30s. Race-specific modelling showed that the upper extremes of maternal age had a significant depressive effect on birthweight for NHW and NHB (35+ years, p<0.001), but only age less than 25 years was a significant contributor to lower birthweights for Hispanic individuals, p<0.0001. Among all racial subgroups, birth order had a greater influence on birthweight than maternal age, with the largest incremental increase from first to second births. Among NHB, birth order accounted for a smaller increment in birthweight than for NHW and Hispanic women. Conclusion Birth order exerts a greater influence on birthweight than maternal age, with signficantly different effects across racial subgroups.

Swamy, Geeta K; Edwards, Sharon; Gelfand, Alan; James, Sherman A; Miranda, Marie Lynn

2014-01-01

12

Association of Maternal Age to Development and Progression of Retinopathy of Prematurity in Infants of Gestational Age under 33 Weeks  

PubMed Central

Aim. To find predictive and indicative markers of risk for development of retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) and its progression to the stage requiring laser treatment, in premature infants whose gestational age (GA) was under 33 weeks. Methods. We retrospectively reviewed medical records of 197 premature infants born in 2005–2010 whose GA < 33 weeks and underwent eye screening at Keio University Hospital. The association between candidate risk factors and development or progression of ROP was assessed. Results. Among the 182 eligible infants (median GA, 29.1 weeks; median birth weight (BW), 1028?g), 84 (46%) developed any stage of ROP, of which 45 (25%) required laser treatment. Multivariate analysis using a stepwise method showed that GA (P = 0.002; 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.508–0.858), BW (P < 0.001; 95% CI, 0.994–0.998), and lower maternal age (P = 0.032; 95% CI, 0.819–0.991) were the risk factors for ROP development and GA (P < 0.001; 95% CI, 0.387–0.609) and lower maternal age (P = 0.012; 95% CI, 0.795–0.973) were for laser treatment. The odds ratio of requiring laser treatment was 3.3 when the maternal age was <33 years. Conclusion. ROP was more likely to be developed and progressed in infants born from younger mother and low GA.

Koto, Takashi; Nagai, Norihiro; Mochimaru, Hiroshi; Tomita, Yohei; Ikeda, Kazushige; Ozawa, Yoko

2014-01-01

13

Maternal age-specific rates of fetal chromosomal abnormalities in Korean pregnant women of advanced maternal age  

PubMed Central

Objective To evaluate the association of maternal age with occurrence of fetal chromosomal abnormalities in Korean pregnant women of advanced maternal age (AMA). Methods A retrospective review of the amniocentesis or chorionic villous sampling (CVS) database at Gangnam and Bundang CHA Medical Centers, between January 2001 and February 2012, was conducted. This study analyzed the incidence of fetal chromosomal abnormalities according to maternal age and the correlation between maternal age and fetal chromosomal abnormalities in Korean pregnant women ?35 years of age. In addition, we compared the prevalence of fetal chromosomal abnormalities between women of AMA only and the others as the indication for amniocentesis or CVS. Results A total of 15,381 pregnant women were selected for this study. The incidence of aneuploidies increased exponentially with maternal age (P<0.0001). In particular, the risk of trisomy 21 (standard error [SE], 0.0378; odds ratio, 1.177; P<0.001) and trisomy 18 (SE, 0.0583; odds ratio, 1.182; P=0.0040) showed significant correlation with maternal age. Comparison between women of AMA only and the others as the indication for amniocentesis or CVS showed a significantly lower rate of fetal chromosomal abnormalities only in the AMA group, compared with the others (P<0.0001). Conclusion This study demonstrates that AMA is no longer used as a threshold for determination of who is offered prenatal diagnosis, but is a common risk factor for fetal chromosomal abnormalities.

Kim, Young Joo; Lee, Jee Eun; Kim, Soo Hyun; Cha, Dong Hyun

2013-01-01

14

Maternal age and fetal loss: population based register linkage study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective To estimate the association between maternal age and fetal death (spontaneous abortion, ectopic pregnancy, stillbirth), taking into account a woman's reproductive history. Design Prospective register linkage study. Subjects All women with a reproductive outcome (live birth, stillbirth, spontaneous abortion leading to admission to hospital, induced abortion, ectopic pregnancy, or hydatidiform mole) in Denmark from 1978 to 1992; a total

Marie Nybo Andersen; Jan Wohlfahrt; Peter Christens; Jrn Olsen; Mads Melbye; Marie Nybo

2000-01-01

15

Maternal age, social class, and the obstetric performance of teenagers  

Microsoft Academic Search

It has been widely reported that teenage mothers experience more complications of labor and delivery as well as higher rates of prematurity and low-birth weight infants than women 20–30 years old. However, a few studies have suggested that birth complications are related to social class, not maternal age. The purpose of this study was to examine the interaction of social

Mark W. Roosa

1984-01-01

16

A retrospective follow up study on maternal age and infant mortality in two Sicilian districts  

PubMed Central

Background Infant mortality rate (IMR) is a key public health indicator. Maternal age is a well-known determinant of pregnancy and delivery complications and of infant morbidity and mortality. In Italy the Infant Mortality Rate was 3.7/1000 during 2005, lower than the average IMR for the European Union (4.94/1000). Sicily is the Italian region with the highest IMR, 5/1000, and neonatal mortality rate (NMR), 3.8/1000, with substantial variation among its nine districts. The present study compared a high IMR/NMR district (Messina) with a low IMR/NMR district (Palermo) during the period 2004-2006 to evaluate potential determinants of the IMRs' differences between the two districts and specifically the impact of maternal age. Methods The Death Causes Registers identified all deaths during the first year of life recorded among infants born to residents of the two districts in 2004-2006. For every case, available hospital charts records were abstracted using a standardized form designed to capture information on potential determinants of infant death. For each district and for each year, IMRs and NMRs were computed. Chi-squared statistics tested the significance of differences between district-specific IMRs. A Poisson regression model was used to analyze the relationship between maternal age, district of residence and IMR. Results The 246 death registry-confirmed cases included 143 (58.1%) males and 103 (41.2%) females, with mean age at death of 33.3 days (SD: 64.5, median: 5.5). The average IMR for 2004-2006 was significantly higher for the Messina district than for the Palermo district (p = 0.0001). The IMR ratio was 1.6 (95%CI: 1.2 - 2.1). The IMRs declined from 2004 to 2006. A significant interaction (p = 0.04) between maternal age and district of residence was documented. Conclusion The association between advanced maternal age and infant deaths in the Messina district was due in part to the excess of newborns from advanced age mothers, but also to increased risk of death among such newborns. The significant interaction between district of residence and maternal age indicated that the IMR excess in the Messina district cannot be explained by disproportionately high live birth rates among older mothers and suggested the hypothesis that health care facilities in the Messina district could be less well prepared to provide assistance to the excess of high risk pregnancies and deliveries, as compared to Palermo district.

2011-01-01

17

Down syndrome: parental origin, recombination, and maternal age.  

PubMed

The aims of the present study were to assess (1) the parental origin of trisomy 21 and the stage in which nondisjunction occurs and (2) the relationship between altered genetic recombination and maternal age as risk factors for trisomy 21. The study included 102 cases with Down syndrome from the Croatian population. Genotyping analyses were performed by polymerase chain reaction using 11 short tandem repeat markers along chromosome 21q. The vast majority of trisomy 21 was of maternal origin (93%), followed by paternal (5%) and mitotic origin (2%). The frequencies of maternal meiotic I (MI) and meiotic II errors were 86% and 14%, respectively. The highest proportion of cases with zero recombination was observed among those with maternal MI derived trisomy 21. A higher proportion of telomeric exchanges were presented in cases with maternal MI errors and cases with young mothers, although these findings were not statistically significant. The present study is the first report examining parental origin and altered genetic recombination as a risk factor for trisomy 21 in a Croatian population. The results support that trisomy 21 has a universal genetic etiology across different human populations. PMID:21861707

Vranekovi?, Jadranka; Božovi?, Ivana Babi?; Grubi?, Zorana; Wagner, Jasenka; Pavlini?, Dinko; Dahoun, Sophie; Bena, Frédérique; Culi?, Vida; Brajenovi?-Mili?, Bojana

2012-01-01

18

Down Syndrome: Parental Origin, Recombination, and Maternal Age  

PubMed Central

The aims of the present study were to assess (1) the parental origin of trisomy 21 and the stage in which nondisjunction occurs and (2) the relationship between altered genetic recombination and maternal age as risk factors for trisomy 21. The study included 102 cases with Down syndrome from the Croatian population. Genotyping analyses were performed by polymerase chain reaction using 11 short tandem repeat markers along chromosome 21q. The vast majority of trisomy 21 was of maternal origin (93%), followed by paternal (5%) and mitotic origin (2%). The frequencies of maternal meiotic I (MI) and meiotic II errors were 86% and 14%, respectively. The highest proportion of cases with zero recombination was observed among those with maternal MI derived trisomy 21. A higher proportion of telomeric exchanges were presented in cases with maternal MI errors and cases with young mothers, although these findings were not statistically significant. The present study is the first report examining parental origin and altered genetic recombination as a risk factor for trisomy 21 in a Croatian population. The results support that trisomy 21 has a universal genetic etiology across different human populations.

Vranekovic, Jadranka; Bozovic, Ivana Babic; Grubic, Zorana; Wagner, Jasenka; Pavlinic, Dinko; Dahoun, Sophie; Bena, Frederique; Culic, Vida

2012-01-01

19

Maternal age-based prenatal screening for chromosomal disorders  

PubMed Central

Objective To explore views of women and health care providers (HCPs) about the changing recommendations regarding maternal age–based prenatal screening. Design Mixed-methods design. Setting Ontario. Participants A sample of women who had given birth within the previous 2 years and who had attended a family medicine centre, midwifery practice, or baby and mother wellness program (n = 42); and a random sample of family physicians (n = 1600), and all Ontario obstetricians (n = 694) and midwives (n = 334) who provided prenatal care. Methods We used focus groups (FGs) to explore women's views. Content analysis was used to uncover themes and delineate meaning. To explore HCPs' views, we conducted a cross-sectional self-completion survey. Main findings All FG participants (42 women in 6 FGs) expressed the importance of individual choice of prenatal screening modality, regardless of age. They described their perception that society considers women older than 35 to be at high obstetric risk and raised concerns that change in the maternal age–related screening policy would require education. The HCP survey response rate was 40%. Results showed 24% of HCPs agreed that women of any age should be eligible for invasive diagnostic testing regardless of prenatal screening results; 15% agreed that the age for diagnostic testing should be increased to 40 years, 14% agreed that diagnostic testing should be reserved for women with positive prenatal screening results, and 45% agreed that prenatal screening should remain unchanged. Conclusion Maternity care organizations have recommended that maternal age–based prenatal screening is no longer appropriate. Informed choice is of paramount importance to women and should be part of any change. Health care providers need to be engaged in and educated about any change to screening guidelines to offer women informed choices.

Carroll, June C.; Rideout, Andrea; Wilson, Brenda J.; Allanson, Judith; Blaine, Sean; Esplen, Mary Jane; Farrell, Sandra; Graham, Gail E.; MacKenzie, Jennifer; Meschino, Wendy S.; Prakash, Preeti; Shuman, Cheryl; Taylor, Sherry; Tobin, Stasey

2013-01-01

20

Maternal morbidity and near miss associated with maternal age: the innovative approach of the 2006 Brazilian demographic health survey  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE: To study the prevalence of potentially life-threatening maternal conditions and near miss in Brazil according to maternal age. METHODS: A secondary analysis of the 2006 Brazilian demographic health survey database using a validated questionnaire to evaluate maternal morbidity with a focus on age extremes. The study included 5,025 women with at least 1 live birth in the 5-year reference period preceding their interviews. Three age range periods were used: 15-19 years (younger age), 20-34 years (control), and 35-49 years (advanced maternal age). According to a pragmatic definition, any woman reporting eclampsia, hysterectomy, blood transfusion, or admission to the intensive care unit during her pregnancy/childbirth was considered a near-miss case. The associations between age and severe maternal morbidity were further assessed. RESULTS: For the 6,833 reported pregnancies, 73.7% of the women were 20-34 years old, 17.9% were of advanced maternal age, and only 8.4% were of younger age. More than 22% of the women had at least one of the complications appraised, and blood transfusion, which was more prevalent among the controls, was the only variable with a significant difference among the age groups. The overall rate of maternal near miss was 21.1 per 1000 live births. There was a trend of higher maternal near miss with increasing age. The only significant risk factor identified for maternal near miss was a lower literacy level among older women. CONCLUSIONS: There is a trend towards worse results with increasing age. The investigation of the determinants of maternal near miss at the community level using an innovative approach through a demographic health survey is an example suggested for under-resourced settings.

de Oliveira, Fernando Cesar; Costa, Maria Laura; Cecatti, Jose Guilherme; e Silva, Joao Luiz Pinto; Surita, Fernanda Garanhani

2013-01-01

21

The proportion of uniparental disomy is increased in Prader-Willi syndrome due to an advanced maternal childbearing age in Korea.  

PubMed

Prader-Willi syndrome (PWS) is a genetic disorder caused by the absence of expression of the paternal copy of maternally imprinted genes in chromosome region 15q11-13. The genetic subtypes of PWS are classified into deletion (~70%), maternal uniparental disomy (mUPD; 25-30%), imprinting center defects (3-5%) and rare unbalanced translocations. Recently, Matsubara et al. reported a significantly higher maternal age in a trisomy rescue (TR) or gamete complementation (GC) by nondisjunction at maternal meiosis 1 (M1) group than in a deletion group. In the present study, we try to confirm their findings in an ethnically different population. A total of 97 Korean PWS patients were classified into deletional type (n=66), TR/GC (M1) (n=15), TR/GC by nondisjunction at maternal meiosis 2 (n=2), monosomy rescue or postfertilization mitotic nondisjunction (n=4) and epimutation (n=2). Maternal ages at birth showed a significant difference between the deletion group (median age of 29, interquartile range (IQR)=(27,31)) and the TR/GC (M1) group (median age of 35, IQR=(31,38)) (P<0.0001). The relative birth frequency of the TR/GC (M1) group has substantially increased since 2006 when compared with the period before 2005. These findings support the hypothesis that the advanced maternal age at childbirth is a predisposing factor for the development of mUPD because of increased M1 errors. PMID:23303386

Cho, Sung Yoon; Ki, Chang-Seok; Sohn, Young Bae; Maeng, Se Hyun; Jung, You Jin; Kim, Su Jin; Jin, Dong-Kyu

2013-03-01

22

Maternal Age, Multiple Birth and Extremely Low Birth Weight Infants  

PubMed Central

Objectives To compare the rates of adverse neurodevelopmental outcome or death at 18 to 22 months among extremely low birth weight (ELBW) infants born to mothers ? 40 years to the corresponding rates among infants of younger mothers. Study Design Prospective evaluation of ELBW infants to quantify the relative risks of maternal age and multiple birth for death or adverse neurodevelopmental outcome. Results The sample consisted of 14,671 live ELBW births divided into maternal age groups: <20; 20–29; 30–39; and ? 40 years. Of infants born to mothers ? 40 years, 20% were multiples. Mothers ? 40 years had high rates of obstetrical interventions and medical morbidities compared to mothers < 40 years. ELBW live births of mothers ? 40 years were 22 % more likely to survive and had a 13% decreased risk of neurodevelopmental impairment or death compared to mothers< 20. Multiple birth, however, was associated with a 10 % greater risk or neurodevelopmental impairment or death. Conclusion Although mothers ? 40 years had high pregnancy related morbidities, we found no overall increased risk of the composite outcome of death or NDI. Multiple birth, however, was a predictor of all adverse outcomes examined, regardless of maternal age.

Vohr, Betty R.; Tyson, Jon E.; Wright, Linda L; Perritt, Rebecca L.; Li, Lei; Poole, W. Kenneth

2010-01-01

23

Gonadotropin-Releasing Hormone Neuroterminals and Their Microenvironment in the Median Eminence: Effects of Aging and Estradiol Treatment  

PubMed Central

The GnRH decapeptide controls reproductive function through its release from neuroendocrine terminals in the median eminence, a site where there is a convergence of numerous nerve terminals and glial cells. Previous work showed dynamic changes in the GnRH-glial-capillary network in the median eminence under different physiological conditions. Because aging in rats is associated with a diminution of GnRH release and responsiveness to estradiol feedback, we examined effects of age and estradiol treatment on these anatomical interactions. Rats were ovariectomized at young (4 months), middle-aged (11 months), or old (22–23 months) ages, allowed 4 wk to recover, and then treated with vehicle or estradiol for 72 h followed by perfusion. Immunofluorescence of GnRH was measured, and immunogold electron microscopic analyses were performed to study the ultrastructural properties of GnRH neuroterminals and their microenvironment. Although the GnRH immunofluorescent signal showed no significant changes with age and estradiol treatment, we found that the median eminence underwent both qualitative and quantitative structural changes with age, including a disorganization of cytoarchitecture with aging and a decrease in the apposition of GnRH neuroterminals to glia with age and estradiol treatment. Thus, although GnRH neurons can continue to synthesize and transport peptide, changes in the GnRH neuroterminal-glial-capillary machinery occur during reproductive senescence in a manner consistent with a disconnection of these elements and a potential dysregulation of GnRH neurosecretion.

Yin, Weiling; Wu, Di; Noel, Megan L.; Gore, Andrea C.

2009-01-01

24

Can we define maternal age as a genetic disease?  

PubMed Central

>Maternal age is strongly associated with a decrease in the probability of achieving pregnancy and the birth of a healthy child. Among current theories of the mechanism of this decrease is the hypothesis that a progressive degeneration of the respiratory capacity of mitochondria in eggs of women of advanced age leads to an energy deficit and consequent secondary effects on the oocyte and developing embryo. Mitochondria are uniquely inherited through the female germ line and these organelles contain DNA sequences that are independent from the genome. It is therefore possible that offspring born to females of advanced age inherit suboptimal mitochondria and that these persist throughout the life of the new being. This could in turn lead to long-term consequences for the offspring of females of advanced age such as a reduced potential lifespan in relation to the age of the mother at conception. In this review and hypothesis, we discuss the evidence relating to this theory and suggest that on this basis the maternal age effect could be classified as an inheritable genetic disease.

Wilding, M.

2014-01-01

25

Pregnancy, Maternal Tobacco Smoking, and Early Age Leukemia in Brazil  

PubMed Central

Background: Cigarette smoking has been associated with acute myeloid leukemia (AML) but hypothesis on the association between maternal smoking during pregnancy and childhood leukemia remains unclear. Objectives: To investigate the association between maternal exposure to tobacco smoking during pregnancy and early age (<2?year) leukemia (EAL). Methods: A hospital-based multicenter case-control study aiming to explore EAL risk factors was carried out in Brazil during 1999–2007. Data were collected by direct interview with the biological mothers using a standardized questionnaire. The present study included 675 children (193 acute lymphoid leukemia – ALL, 59 AML and 423 controls), being the latter age frequency matched and paired by area of residence with the cases. Unconditional logistic regression was performed, and odds ratios (OR) on the association between tobacco smoking (3?months before pregnancy, during pregnancy, and 3?months after delivery) and EAL were ascertained after adjustment for selected variables (maternal age at birth and education, birth weight, infant skin color, and oral contraceptives use during pregnancy). Results: Smoking was reported by 17.5% of case mothers and 20.6% of controls. Among women who reported to have smoked 20 or more cigarettes during the index pregnancy, an adjusted OR?=?5.28 (95% CI 1.40–19.95) for ALL was observed. Heavy smoking during breastfeeding yielded an adjusted risk estimate for ALL, OR?=?7.78 (95% CI 1.33–45.5). No dose-response effect was observed according to smoking exposure during pregnancy and EAL. An association between secondhand smoking during pregnancy or breastfeeding was not observed. Conclusion: An association between maternal smoking and EAL in the offspring was restricted to women who have reported an intense exposure to tobacco smoke during pregnancy and breastfeeding.

Ferreira, Jeniffer Dantas; Couto, Arnaldo Cezar; Pombo-de-Oliveira, Maria S.; Koifman, Sergio

2012-01-01

26

Maternal age at menarche and atopy among offspring at the age of 31 years  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUNDInfluences of female hormones on the occurrence of allergic disorders have been suggested. Age at menarche may be a marker of endogenous oestrogen levels. Data from a Finnish birth cohort followed to adulthood were analysed to determine whether there is any association between maternal age at menarche and the occurrence of atopy among offspring.METHODSThe study was conducted in 5188 subjects

Baizhuang Xu; Marjo-Riitta Järvelin; Anna-Liisa Hartikainen; Juha Pekkanen

2000-01-01

27

Aging in inbred strains of mice: study design and interim report on median lifespans and circulating IGF1 levels  

PubMed Central

Summary To better characterize aging in mice, the Jackson Aging Center carried out a lifespan study of 31 genetically-diverse inbred mouse strains housed in a specific pathogen-free facility. We carried out clinical assessments every 6 months, measuring multiple age-related phenotypes including neuromuscular, kidney and heart function, body composition, bone density, hematology, hormonal levels, and immune system parameters. In a concurrent cross-sectional study of the same 31 strains at 6, 12, and 20 months, we carried out more invasive measurements followed by necropsy to assess apoptosis, DNA repair, chromosome fragility, and histopathology. In this report, which is the initial paper of a series, we describe the study design, median lifespans, and circulating IGF1 levels at 6, 12 and 18 months for the first cohort of 32 females and 32 males of each strain. Survival curves varied dramatically among strains with median lifespans ranging from 251 to 964 days. Plasma IGF1 levels, which also varied considerably at each time point, showed an inverse correlation with median lifespan at 6 months (R=?0.33, P=0.01). This correlation became stronger if the short-lived strains with a median lifespan<600 days were removed from the analysis (R=?0.53, P<0.01). These results support the hypothesis that the IGF1 pathway plays a key role in regulating longevity in mice and indicates that common genetic mechanisms may exist for regulating IGF1 levels and lifespan.

Yuan, Rong; Tsaih, Shirng-Wern; Petkova, Stefka B.; de Evsikova, Caralina Marin; Xing, Shuqin; Marion, Michael A.; Bogue, Molly A.; Mills, Kevin D.; Peters, Luanne L.; Bult, Carol J.; Rosen, Clifford J.; Sundberg, John P.; Harrison, David E.; Churchill, Gary A.; Paigen, Beverly

2009-01-01

28

Maternal serum median levels of alpha-foetoprotein, human chorionic gonadotropin & unconjugated estriol in second trimester in pregnant women from north-west India  

PubMed Central

Background & objectives: Triple test as prenatal screening procedure does not form a part of routine health care of pregnant women in India. Hence, median values of triple test biomarkers are lacking for Indian population. This study was undertaken to establish population-specific medians for biomarkers viz. alpha-foetoprotien (AFP), human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG?), and unconjugated estriol (uE3) for detection of Down's syndrome, Edward's syndrome and neural tube defects (NTDs) in pregnant women in north-west India. Methods: Serum biomarker values were derived from 5420 pregnant women between 15-20 wk of gestation who were enrolled for triple test investigations at Department of Gynecology and Obstetrics, Government Medical College and Hospital, Chandigarh, India, between January, 2007 to December, 2009. Median values were calculated for rounded weeks using database comprising pregnancies with normal outcomes only. Simple statistical analysis and log-linear regression were used for median estimation of the biomarker values. Results: The levels of the three biomarkers were found to be ranging from 1.38 to 187.00 IU/ml for AFP, 1.06 to 315 ng/ml for hCG?, and 0.25 to 28.5 nmol/l for uE3. The age of women ranged from 18 to 47 yr and mean weight was 57.9 ± 9.8 kg. Data revealed that AFP, hCG? and uE3 medians in our study population were not significantly different from those reported from other countries or when compared ethnically. Interpretation & conclusion: The population-specific median values for the three biomarkers (AFP, hCG?, uE3) may be used as reference values during prenatal screening in Indian pregnant women.

Kaur, Gurjit; Srivastav, Jyoti; Sharma, Suresh; Huria, Anju; Goel, Poonam; Chavan, Bir Singh

2013-01-01

29

Maternal age at first birth and adolescent education in Brazil  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND Brazil has witnessed dramatic changes in its fertility patterns in recent decades. The decline to below-replacement fertility has been accompanied by increases in the proportion of children born to young mothers. Yet we know little about the well-being of children born to young mothers in Brazil. OBJECTIVE and METHODS Using data from the 2006 Pesquisa Nacional de Demografia e Saúde and a quasi-natural experimental approach, this study examines the implications of maternal age at first birth for the education of Brazilian adolescents. RESULTS We find that being born to a young mother is associated with educational disadvantages in adolescence, but that these disadvantages are attenuated once we account for mothers’ selection into early childbearing. We also find that, in southern Brazil, adolescents born to young mothers have poorer educational outcomes compared with their peers born to older mothers, but that in northern Brazil no such disparities exist. CONCLUSIONS Adolescent educational disadvantages associated with being born to a young mother are not an artifact of selectivity, at least in southern Brazil. Regional variation in the effect of maternal age at first birth on adolescent education suggests the important role of the extended family and the father’s presence as mechanisms through which disadvantages operate.

Marteleto, Leticia J.; Dondero, Molly

2013-01-01

30

The paradox of old maternal age in multiple pregnancies.  

PubMed

The study of multiple gestations in older mothers has been furthered by the analyses of large data sets published in recent years. These initial analyses are counterintuitive in that the obstetric and neonatal outcomes of the older mothers (>40 years) are better than those of their younger counterparts (aged 25-29). Currently, it is not clear if older mothers of multiples are advantaged or younger mothers of multiples are disadvantaged. It seems reasonable, however, to conclude that pregnancy after age 40 represents a new obstetric entity, one in which many women will have twins or triplets as a result of assisted reproductive technologies. Further study in this area is clearly warranted, preferably using databases that combine maternal and neonatal data. PMID:15644290

Oleszczuk, Jaroslaw J; Keith, Louis G; Oleszczuk, Agnieszka K

2005-03-01

31

Etiological implication of maternal age and birth order in infantile autism  

Microsoft Academic Search

Birth orders and maternal ages of the 113 autistic patients were compared with those of the general population. An excess of mothers aged 35 or older was observed in the autistic group, though the mean maternal age for the whole group was very similar to those of the general population. A deviation from average in birth order was observed in

Luke Y. Tsai; Mark A. Stewart

1983-01-01

32

Maternal Age and Offspring Adult Health: Evidence From the Health and Retirement Study  

PubMed Central

Advanced maternal age is associated with negative offspring health outcomes. This interpretation often relies on physiological processes related to aging, such as decreasing oocyte quality. We use a large, population-based sample of American adults to analyze how selection and lifespan overlap between generations influence the maternal age–offspring adult health association. We find that offspring born to mothers younger than age 25 or older than 35 have worse outcomes with respect to mortality, self-rated health, height, obesity, and the number of diagnosed conditions than those born to mothers aged 25–34. Controls for maternal education and age at which the child lost the mother eliminate the effect for advanced maternal age up to age 45. The association between young maternal age and negative offspring outcomes is robust to these controls. Our findings suggest that the advanced maternal age–offspring adult health association reflects selection and factors related to lifespan overlap. These may include shared frailty or parental investment but are not directly related to the physiological health of the mother during conception, fetal development, or birth. The results for young maternal age add to the evidence suggesting that children born to young mothers might be better off if the parents waited a few years.

Fenelon, Andrew

2013-01-01

33

Maternal age and offspring adult health: evidence from the health and retirement study.  

PubMed

Advanced maternal age is associated with negative offspring health outcomes. This interpretation often relies on physiological processes related to aging, such as decreasing oocyte quality. We use a large, population-based sample of American adults to analyze how selection and lifespan overlap between generations influence the maternal age-offspring adult health association. We find that offspring born to mothers younger than age 25 or older than 35 have worse outcomes with respect to mortality, self-rated health, height, obesity, and the number of diagnosed conditions than those born to mothers aged 25-34. Controls for maternal education and age at which the child lost the mother eliminate the effect for advanced maternal age up to age 45. The association between young maternal age and negative offspring outcomes is robust to these controls. Our findings suggest that the advanced maternal age-offspring adult health association reflects selection and factors related to lifespan overlap. These may include shared frailty or parental investment but are not directly related to the physiological health of the mother during conception, fetal development, or birth. The results for young maternal age add to the evidence suggesting that children born to young mothers might be better off if the parents waited a few years. PMID:22926440

Myrskylä, Mikko; Fenelon, Andrew

2012-11-01

34

Maternal age, investment, and parent-child conflict: a mediational test of the terminal investment hypothesis.  

PubMed

Drawing on the evolutionary terminal investment hypothesis and Trivers' (1974) parent-offspring conflict theory, we advance and evaluate a mediational model specifying why and how maternal age, via mating effort and parental investment, affects mother-child conflict. Data from a longitudinal study of 757 families indicate that (a) older maternal age predicts lower mating effort during the child's first 5 years of life, and (b) thereby, higher maternal investment in middle childhood when the child is around 10 years old. (c) Higher maternal investment, in turn, forecasts less child-perceived mother-child conflict in adolescence (age 15). These results proved robust against theoretically relevant covariates (family resources, parity, maternal education, and maternal personality characteristics) and in the context of an autoregressive model. Study limitations are noted and results are discussed in terms of the unique contributions of an evolutionary perspective to the determinants-of-parenting literature. PMID:22468690

Schlomer, Gabriel L; Belsky, Jay

2012-06-01

35

Middle Paleocene terrane juxtaposition along the Median Tectonic Line, southwest Japan: Evidence from 40Ar/ 39Ar mineral ages  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Median Tectonic Line (MTL) is a regional transcurrent fault separating anadalusite-sillimanite-type metamorphic rocks and granitic rocks within the Ryoke terrane from glaucophanic-type metamorphic rocks within the Sambagawa terrane in southwest Japan. The late Cretaceous Izumi Group unconformably overlies Ryoke metamorphic rocks and is tectonically separated from the Sambagawa terrane by the MTL. Recent 40Ar/ 39Ar mineral ages reported for the Sambagawa terrane in this area suggest extensive Late Cretaceous uplift; however, no Sambagawa erosional debris has been described from the Izumi Group. 40Ar/ 39Ar ages have been determined for hornblende and biotite separated from samples systematically collected along a traverse from the Ryoke terrane into the MTL (Kashio area, Chubu district). In addition whole-rock samples of protomylonite within the MTL have been analyzed. Similar 68-70 Ma isotope correlation ages are recorded by hornblende within massive (Ikuta) and foliated (Minakata) granite and protomylonite within the MTL. Biotite from these samples records ages ranging between 66 and 68 Ma. Together the mineral ages suggest relatively rapid post-magmatic cooling through appropriate argon closure temperatures. These also indicate that temperatures maintained during protomylonite formation within the MTL were less than those required to effect even partial rejuvenation of intracrystalline argon systems within hornblende. Protomylonite samples yielded well-defined whole-rock plateau ages of 62-63 Ma which are interpreted to closely date the last phase of ductile flow within the MTL. These results suggest that a significant ductile phase of movement occurred within the MTL in the Middle Paleocene. This may have been associated with significant sinistral displacement and resultant tectonic juxtaposition of previously separated portions of the Sambagawa and Ryoke belts (with unconformably overlying Izumi Group).

Dallmeyer, R. D.; Takasu, A.

1991-12-01

36

Perceived and Observed Maternal Relationship Quality Predict Sexual Debut by Age 15  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Early sexual behaviors during adolescence have the potential to lead to unhealthy outcomes. This study explored the association between specific dimensions of maternal relationship quality and adolescent sexual debut by age 15. We hypothesized that adolescents who have poor maternal relationships are at greater risk of early sexual debut than…

Price, Myeshia N.; Hyde, Janet Shibley

2011-01-01

37

Maternal-age effect in aneuploidy: Does altered embryonic selection play a role?  

PubMed Central

The age of mothers of children with trisomy 21 (47,+21) is elevated no matter if the extra chromosome is of maternal or paternal origin, and it has been postulated that decreasing maternal selection against affected conceptuses with advancing age might explain this observation. Since the absence of sufficient data on 47,+21 abortuses precludes a direct test of this hypothesis, we have taken an indirect approach. Pooled data from spontaneous abortions and live births with autosomal trisomies, XXY and XXX, were examined to determine the natural history of these aneuploid conceptuses and its relation to maternal age. The results are consistent with decreasing embryonic selection in older women.

Ayme, Segolene; Lippman-Hand, Abby

1982-01-01

38

Maternal Age Effect: The Enigma of Down Syndrome and Other Trisomic Conditions.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Aneuploidy is the most frequently observed chromosome abnormality in human liveborn, abortuses, and oocytes. The only etiological factor that has been established is advanced maternal age for the occurrence of trisomies, particularly trisomy 21 which caus...

M. E. Gaulden

1992-01-01

39

Maternal drug abuse versus maternal depression: Vulnerability and resilience among school-age and adolescent offspring  

PubMed Central

In this study of 360 low-income mother-child dyads, our primary goal was to disentangle risks linked with commonly co-occurring maternal diagnoses: substance abuse and affective/anxiety disorders. Variable- and person-based analyses suggest that, at least through children’s early adolescence, maternal drug use is no more inimical for them than is maternal depression. A second goal was to illuminate vulnerability and protective processes linked with mothers’ everyday functioning, and results showed that negative parenting behaviors were linked with multiple adverse child outcomes. Conversely, the other parenting dimensions showed more domain specificity; parenting stress was linked with children’s lifetime diagnoses, and limit setting and closeness with children’s externalizing problems and everyday competence, respectively. Results are discussed in terms of implications for resilience theory, interventions, and social policy.

LUTHAR, SUNIYA S.; SEXTON, CHRIS C.

2007-01-01

40

Maternal Serum Soluble CD30 Is Increased in Normal Pregnancy, but Decreased in Preeclampsia and Small for Gestational Age Pregnancies  

PubMed Central

Objective Women with preeclampsia and those who deliver small for gestational age (SGA) neonates are characterized by intravascular inflammation (T helper 1 (Th1)-biased immune response). There is controversy about the T helper 2 (Th2) response in preeclampsia and SGA. CD30, a member of the tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily, is preferentially expressed in vitro and in vivo by activated T cells producing Th2-type cytokines. Its soluble form (sCD30) has been proposed to be an index of Th2 immune response. The objective of this study was to determine whether maternal serum concentration of sCD30 changes with normal pregnancy, as well as in mothers with preeclampsia and those who deliver SGA neonates. Methods This cross-sectional study included patients in the following groups: (1) non-pregnant women (N=49); (2) patients with a normal pregnancy (N=89); (3) patients with preeclampsia (N=100); and (4) patients who delivered an SGA neonates (N=78). Maternal serum concentration of sCD30 was measured by a specific and sensitive enzyme-linked immunoassay. Non-parametric tests with post-hoc analysis were used for comparisons. A p value <0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results (1) The median sCD30 serum concentration of pregnant women was significantly higher than that of non-pregnant women (median: 29.7 U/mL, range: 12.2-313.2 vs. median: 23.2 U/mL, range: 14.6-195.1, respectively; p=0.01); (2) Patients with preeclampsia had a significantly lower median serum concentration of sCD30 than normal pregnant women (median: 24.7 U/mL, range: 7.6-71.2 vs. median: 29.7 U/mL, range: 12.2-313.2, respectively; p<0.05); (3) Mothers with SGA neonates had a lower median concentration of sCD30 than normal pregnant women (median: 23.4 U/mL, range: 7.1-105.3 vs. median: 29.7 U/mL, range: 12.2-313.2, respectively; p<0.05); and (4) There was no significant correlation (r=-0.059, p=0.5) between maternal serum sCD30 concentration and gestational age (19-38 weeks) in normal pregnant women. Conclusions (1) Patients with preeclampsia and those who deliver a SGA neonate had a significantly lower serum concentration of sCD30 than normal pregnant women; (2) This finding is consistent with the view that preeclampsia and SGA are associated with a polarized Th1 immune response and, perhaps, a reduced Th2 response.

Kusanovic, Juan Pedro; Romero, Roberto; Hassan, Sonia S.; Gotsch, Francesca; Edwin, Samuel; Erez, Offer; Mittal, Pooja; Mazaki-Tovi, Shali; Soto, Eleazar; Than, Nandor Gabor; Friel, Lara A.; Chaiworapongsa, Tinnakorn; Yoon, Bo Hyun; Espinoza, Jimmy

2008-01-01

41

Maternal and Paternal Age Are Jointly Associated with Childhood Autism in Jamaica  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Several studies have reported maternal and paternal age as risk factors for having a child with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD), yet the results remain inconsistent. We used data for 68 age- and sex-matched case-control pairs collected from Jamaica. Using Multivariate General Linear Models (MGLM) and controlling for parity, gestational age, and…

Rahbar, Mohammad H.; Samms-Vaughan, Maureen; Loveland, Katherine A.; Pearson, Deborah A.; Bressler, Jan; Chen, Zhongxue; Ardjomand-Hessabi, Manouchehr; Shakespeare-Pellington, Sydonnie; Grove, Megan L.; Beecher, Compton; Bloom, Kari; Boerwinkle, Eric

2012-01-01

42

Maternal-fetal disposition of glyburide in pregnant mice is dependent on gestational age.  

PubMed

Gestational diabetes mellitus is a major complication of human pregnancy. The oral clearance (CL) of glyburide, an oral antidiabetic drug, increases 2-fold in pregnant women during late gestation versus nonpregnant controls. In this study, we examined gestational age-dependent changes in maternal-fetal pharmacokinetics (PK) of glyburide and metabolites in a pregnant mouse model. Nonpregnant and pregnant FVB mice were given glyburide by retro-orbital injection. Maternal plasma was collected over 240 minutes on gestation days (gd) 0, 7.5, 10, 15, and 19; fetuses were collected on gd 15 and 19. Glyburide and metabolites were quantified using high-performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry, and PK analyses were performed using a pooled data bootstrap approach. Maternal CL of glyburide increased approximately 2-fold on gd 10, 15, and 19 compared with nonpregnant controls. Intrinsic CL of glyburide in maternal liver microsomes also increased as gestation progressed. Maternal metabolite/glyburide area under the curve ratios were generally unchanged or slightly decreased throughout gestation. Total fetal exposure to glyburide was <5% of maternal plasma exposure, and was doubled on gd 19 versus gd 15. Fetal metabolite concentrations were below the limit of assay detection. This is the first evidence of gestational age-dependent changes in glyburide PK. Increased maternal glyburide clearance during gestation is attributable to increased hepatic metabolism. Metabolite elimination may also increase during pregnancy. In the mouse model, fetal exposure to glyburide is gestational age-dependent and low compared with maternal plasma exposure. These results indicate that maternal glyburide therapeutic strategies may require adjustments in a gestational age-dependent manner if these same changes occur in humans. PMID:24898265

Shuster, Diana L; Risler, Linda J; Liang, Chao-Kang J; Rice, Kenneth M; Shen, Danny D; Hebert, Mary F; Thummel, Kenneth E; Mao, Qingcheng

2014-08-01

43

Impact of Maternal Depressive Symptoms on Growth of Preschool- and School-Aged Children  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE: The aim of our study was to examine whether maternal depressive symptoms at 9 months postpartum adversely affect growth in preschool- and school-aged children. METHODS: We used data from the US nationally representative Early Childhood Longitudinal Study, Birth Cohort. We fit multivariable logistic regression models to study maternal depressive symptoms at 9 months postpartum (using the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale) in relation to child growth outcomes, ?10% height-for-age, ?10% weight-for-height, and ?10% weight-for-age at 4 and 5 years. RESULTS: At 9 months, 24% of mothers reported mild depressive symptoms and 17% moderate/severe symptoms. After adjustment for household, maternal, and child factors, children of mothers with moderate to severe levels of depressive symptoms at 9 months’ postpartum had a 40% increased odds of being ?10% in height-for-age at age 4 (odds ratio = 1.40, 95% confidence interval: 1.04–1.89) and 48% increased odds of being ?10% in height-for-age at age 5 (odds ratio = 1.48, 95% confidence interval: 1.03–2.13) compared with children of women with few or no depressive symptoms. There was no statistically significant association between maternal depressive symptoms and children being ?10% in weight-for-height and weight-for-age at 4 or 5 years. CONCLUSIONS: Maternal depressive symptoms during infancy may affect physical growth in early childhood. Prevention, early detection, and treatment of maternal depressive symptoms during the first year postpartum may prevent childhood height-for-age ?10th percentile among preschool- and school-aged children.

Ettinger, Anna K.; Ahmed, Saifuddin; Minkovitz, Cynthia S.; Strobino, Donna

2012-01-01

44

Patterns of Adolescent Depression to Age 20: The Role of Maternal Depression and Youth Interpersonal Dysfunction  

Microsoft Academic Search

Considerable research has focused on youth depression, but further information is needed to characterize different patterns\\u000a of onset and recurrence during adolescence. Four outcome groups by age 20 were defined (early onset-recurrent, early-onset-desisting,\\u000a later-onset, never depressed) and compared on three variables predictive of youth depression: gender, maternal depression,\\u000a and interpersonal functioning. Further, it was hypothesized that the association between maternal

Constance Hammen; Patricia A. Brennan; Danielle Keenan-Miller

2008-01-01

45

Maternal age affects brain metabolism in adult children of mothers affected by Alzheimer's disease.  

PubMed

Cognitively normal (NL) individuals with a maternal history of late-onset Alzheimer's disease (MH) show reduced brain glucose metabolism on FDG-PET as compared to those with a paternal history (PH) and those with negative family history (NH) of Alzheimer's disease (AD). This FDG-PET study investigates whether metabolic deficits in NL MH are associated with advancing maternal age at birth. Ninety-six NL individuals with FDG-PET were examined, including 36 MH, 24 PH, and 36 NH. Regional-to-whole brain gray matter standardized FDG uptake value ratios were examined for associations with parental age across groups using automated regions-of-interest and statistical parametric mapping. Groups were comparable for clinical and neuropsychological measures. Brain metabolism in AD-vulnerable regions was lower in MH compared to NH and PH, and negatively correlated with maternal age at birth only in MH. There were no associations between paternal age and metabolism in any group. Evidence for a maternally inherited, maternal age-related mechanism provides further insight on risk factors and genetic transmission in late-onset AD. PMID:21514691

Mosconi, Lisa; Tsui, Wai; Murray, John; McHugh, Pauline; Li, Yi; Williams, Schantel; Pirraglia, Elizabeth; Glodzik, Lidia; De Santi, Susan; Vallabhajosula, Shankar; de Leon, Mony J

2012-03-01

46

Maternal age affects brain metabolism in adult children of mothers affected by Alzheimer's disease  

PubMed Central

Cognitively normal (NL) individuals with a maternal history of late-onset Alzheimer’s disease (MH) show reduced brain glucose metabolism on FDG-PET as compared to those with a paternal history (PH) and those with negative family history (NH) of Alzheimer’s disease (AD). This FDG-PET study investigates whether metabolic deficits in NL MH are associated with advancing maternal age at birth. Ninety-six NL individuals with FDG-PET were examined, including 36 MH, 24 PH, and 36 NH. Regional-to-whole brain gray matter standardized FDG uptake value ratios were examined for associations with parental age across groups using automated regions-of-interest and statistical parametric mapping. Groups were comparable for clinical and neuropsychological measures. Brain metabolism in AD-vulnerable regions was lower in MH compared to NH and PH, and negatively correlated with maternal age at birth only in MH. There were no associations between paternal age and metabolism in any group. Evidence for a maternally inherited, maternal age-related mechanism provides further insight on risk factors and genetic transmission in late-onset AD.

Mosconi, Lisa; Tsui, Wai; Murray, John; McHugh, Pauline; Li, Yi; Williams, Schantel; Pirraglia, Elizabeth; Glodzik, Lidia; De Santi, Susan; Vallabhajosula, Shankar; de Leon, Mony J.

2011-01-01

47

Maternal Size and Age Shape Offspring Size in a Live-Bearing Fish, Xiphophorus birchmanni  

PubMed Central

Many studies of offspring size focus on differences in maternal investment that arise from ecological factors such as predation or competition. Classic theory predicts that these ecological factors will select for an optimal offspring size, and therefore that variation in a given environment will be minimized. Yet recent evidence suggests maternal traits such as size or age could also drive meaningful variation in offspring size. The generality of this pattern is unclear, as some studies suggest that it may represent non-adaptive variation or be an artifact of temporal or spatial differences in maternal environments. To clarify this pattern, we asked how maternal size, age and condition are related to each other in several populations of the swordtail Xiphophorus birchmanni. We then determined how these traits are related to offspring size, and whether they could resolve unexplained intra-population variation in this trait. We found that female size, age, and condition are correlated within populations; at some of these sites, older, larger females produce larger offspring than do younger females. The pattern was robust to differences among most, but not all, sites. Our results document a pattern that is consistent with recent theory predicting adaptive age- and size-dependence in maternal investment. Further work is needed to rule out non-adaptive explanations for this variation. Our results suggest that female size and age could play an under-appreciated role in population growth and evolution.

Kindsvater, Holly K.; Rosenthal, Gil G.; Alonzo, Suzanne H.

2012-01-01

48

Modelling of the age-sex-structured population dynamics with maternal care  

Microsoft Academic Search

We consider an age–sex–structured population dynamics model taking into account spatial diffusion, temporal pairs (for period of mating) and child care. All individuals have pre-reproductive, reproductive, and post-reproductive age intervals. Females of reproductive age are divided into single, fertilized and taking child care classes. Individuals of pre-reproductive age are divided into young (under maternal care) and juvenile groups. Juveniles can

S. Repsys; Vladas Skakauskas

2008-01-01

49

Etiological Implication of Maternal Age and Birth Order in Infantile Autism.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Birth order and maternal ages at time of birth were compared for 113 autistic children (3 to 12 years old) and the Iowa general population. An excess of mothers aged 35 or older was observed in the autistic group. A deviation from average in birth order was observed in autistics. (Author/SEW)

Tsai, Luke Y.; Stewart, Mark A.

1983-01-01

50

Maternal age affects offspring lifespan of the seed beetle, Callosobruchus maculatus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary 1. Offspring from older parents often have shorter adult lifespans than offspring of younger mothers. We examine the effects of offspring genotype, maternal age and paternal age on offspring survival, development and adult lifespan in the seed beetle, Callosobruchus maculatus . 2. Females took about a quarter of a day longer to develop from an egg to an adult

C. W. Fox; M. L. Bush; W. G. Wallin

2003-01-01

51

Children's Understanding of Maternal Anger: Age and Source of Anger Differences.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Three studies investigated the understanding of maternal anger of 406 children aged 4 to 14 years. Children identified and explained the source of a story mother's anger. Age differences were found when stories involved more than one dimension or required displacement. (SKC)

Covell, Katherine; Abramovitch, Rona

1988-01-01

52

Changes in Maternal Age in England and Wales--Implications for Down Syndrome  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The risk of having a pregnancy with Down syndrome increases with maternal age. The percentage of all births in England and Wales to mothers aged 35 and over increased from 9% in 1989 to 19% in 2003. A 51% increase in the numbers of pregnancies with Down syndrome has been observed over the same time period (from 954 to 1440). Due to improvements in…

Crane, Elizabeth; Morris, Joan K.

2006-01-01

53

Mid-pregnancy maternal leptin levels, birthweight for gestational age and preterm delivery  

PubMed Central

Summary Objective Maternal blood leptin levels are positively associated with adiposity. Recent studies suggest that leptin is also abundantly produced by the placenta and may function as a regulator of fetal growth. Our goal was to examine mid-pregnancy levels of leptin in maternal blood in relation to birthweight for gestational age (BW/GA) and timing of delivery after accounting for maternal pre-pregnancy body mass index (prepreg-BMI) and pregnancy complications. Patients Data were from 1,304 sub-cohort mother/infant pairs who participated in the Pregnancy Outcomes and Community Health (POUCH) Study (1998–2004). Measurements Leptin levels, measured at 16–27 weeks’ gestation, were log-transformed. Geometric mean (GMean) leptin levels were estimated by weighted linear regression with gestational age at blood draw as a covariate. GMean was re-transformed to the original scale for reporting. Results Using the GMeans leptin in mothers of term appropriate-for-gestational age (AGA) neonates as the referent (25.2 ?g/L), we observed lower levels in mothers of preterm AGA (21.9 ?g/L), term small-for-gestational age (SGA) (20.3 ?g/L), and preterm SGA neonates (21.7 ?g/L). Results were largely unchanged after adjustment for prepreg-BMI. Leptin levels were higher in mothers who delivered large-for-gestational age (LGA) neonates, both preterm (33.6 ?g/L) and term (29.1 ?g/L), but the GMeans were markedly attenuated after adjustment for prepreg-BMI. Conclusion The association between BW/GA and maternal leptin levels after adjustment for prepreg-BMI may represent: 1) a residual effect of maternal adiposity that is not fully captured by BMI; and/or 2) variation in placental leptin levels entering the maternal circulation. In conclusion, mid-pregnancy maternal blood leptin levels may be an early indicator of fetal growth status.

Shroff, M.R.; Holzman, C.; Tian, Y.; Evans, R. W.; Sikorskii, A.

2014-01-01

54

Maternal diet during lactation and allergic sensitization in the offspring at age of 5.  

PubMed

The objective of this study was to examine the effect of maternal dietary intake during lactation on allergic sensitization at the age of 5 in children carrying HLA-DQB1-conferred susceptibility to type 1 diabetes. We analyzed data for 652 consecutively born children with complete information on maternal diet and allergen-specific immunoglobulin E (IgE) measurements who are participating in the Finnish Type 1 Diabetes Prediction and Prevention (DIPP) Nutrition and allergy study. Analysis was performed using logistic regression. In models that included the significant uncorrelated dietary variables, maternal intake of butters and saturated fatty acids was associated with increased risk, while margarine was associated with a decreased risk, of sensitization to wheat allergen in the offspring. Maternal intake of potatoes, milks, and margarine and low-fat spreads were associated with decreased risk of sensitization to birch allergen. On the other hand, intake of potatoes decreased the risk, while vitamin C and eggs increased the risk, of cat allergic sensitization. Maternal intake of butters and saturated fatty acids during lactation may increase the risk, while margarines may decrease the risk, of sensitization to wheat allergen in the offspring. Maternal intake of potatoes, milks, and margarines may decrease the risk of sensitization to birch allergen. On the other hand, intake of potatoes may decrease the risk, while vitamin C and eggs may increase the risk, of cat allergic sensitization. These effects may persist regardless of maternal or parental allergic status. PMID:21223376

Nwaru, Bright I; Erkkola, Maijaliisa; Ahonen, Suvi; Kaila, Minna; Lumia, Mirka; Prasad, Marianne; Haapala, Anna-Maija; Kronberg-Kippilä, Carina; Veijola, Riitta; Ilonen, Jorma; Simell, Olli; Knip, Mikael; Virtanen, Suvi M

2011-05-01

55

Maternal and Paternal Age are Jointly Associated with Childhood Autism in Jamaica  

PubMed Central

Several studies have reported maternal and paternal age as risk factors for having a child with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD), yet the results remain inconsistent. We used data for 68 age- and sex-matched case–control pairs collected from Jamaica. Using Multivariate General Linear Models (MGLM) and controlling for parity, gestational age, and parental education, we found a significant (p < 0.0001) joint effect of parental ages on having children with ASD indicating an adjusted mean paternal age difference between cases and controls of [5.9 years; 95% CI (2.6, 9.1)] and a difference for maternal age of [6.5 years; 95% CI (4.0, 8.9)]. To avoid multicollinearity in logistic regression, we recommend joint modeling of parental ages as a vector of outcome variables using MGLM.

Samms-Vaughan, Maureen; Loveland, Katherine A.; Pearson, Deborah A.; Bressler, Jan; Chen, Zhongxue; Ardjomand-Hessabi, Manouchehr; Shakespeare-Pellington, Sydonnie; Grove, Megan L.; Beecher, Compton; Bloom, Kari; Boerwinkle, Eric

2013-01-01

56

Maternal and paternal age are jointly associated with childhood autism in Jamaica.  

PubMed

Several studies have reported maternal and paternal age as risk factors for having a child with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD), yet the results remain inconsistent. We used data for 68 age- and sex-matched case-control pairs collected from Jamaica. Using Multivariate General Linear Models (MGLM) and controlling for parity, gestational age, and parental education, we found a significant (p < 0.0001) joint effect of parental ages on having children with ASD indicating an adjusted mean paternal age difference between cases and controls of [5.9 years; 95% CI (2.6, 9.1)] and a difference for maternal age of [6.5 years; 95% CI (4.0, 8.9)]. To avoid multicollinearity in logistic regression, we recommend joint modeling of parental ages as a vector of outcome variables using MGLM. PMID:22230961

Rahbar, Mohammad H; Samms-Vaughan, Maureen; Loveland, Katherine A; Pearson, Deborah A; Bressler, Jan; Chen, Zhongxue; Ardjomand-Hessabi, Manouchehr; Shakespeare-Pellington, Sydonnie; Grove, Megan L; Beecher, Compton; Bloom, Kari; Boerwinkle, Eric

2012-09-01

57

Late Quaternary uplift and subsidence of the west coast of Tanna, south Vanuatu, southwest Pacific: U–Th ages of raised coral reefs in the Median Sedimentary Basin  

Microsoft Academic Search

Twelve Late Quaternary TIMS U–Th ages are reported here from 10 coral samples collected in situ from five transgressive coral\\/algal raised reefs (height: max. 113 m, min. 8 m) and two raised lagoonal deposits (height: max. 18 m, min. 8 m) along and near the west coast of Tanna, which lies in the Median Sedimentary Basin of South Vanuatu, southwest

G. Neef; J. X. Zhao; K. D. Collerson; F. S. Zhang

2003-01-01

58

Maternal pre-pregnancy BMI, gestational weight gain, and age at menarche in daughters.  

PubMed

Life course theory suggests that early life experiences can shape health over a lifetime and across generations. Associations between maternal pregnancy experience and daughters' age at menarche are not well understood. We examined whether maternal pre-pregnancy BMI and gestational weight gain (GWG) were independently related to daughters' age at menarche. Consistent with a life course perspective, we also examined whether maternal GWG, birth weight, and prepubertal BMI mediated the relationship between pre-pregnancy BMI and daughter's menarcheal age. We examined 2,497 mother-daughter pairs from the 1979 National Longitudinal Survey of Youth. Survival analysis with Cox proportional hazards was used to estimate whether maternal pre-pregnancy overweight/obesity (BMI ? 25.0 kg/m(2)) and GWG adequacy (inadequate, recommended, and excessive) were associated with risk for earlier menarche among girls, controlling for important covariates. Analyses were conducted to examine the mediating roles of GWG adequacy, child birth weight and prepubertal BMI. Adjusting for covariates, pre-pregnancy overweight/obesity (HR = 1.20, 95 % CI 1.06, 1.36) and excess GWG (HR = 1.13, 95 % CI 1.01, 1.27) were associated with daughters' earlier menarche, while inadequate GWG was not. The association between maternal pre-pregnancy weight and daughters' menarcheal timing was not mediated by daughter's birth weight, prepubertal BMI or maternal GWG. Maternal factors, before and during pregnancy, are potentially important determinants of daughters' menarcheal timing and are amenable to intervention. Further research is needed to better understand pathways through which these factors operate. PMID:23054446

Deardorff, Julianna; Berry-Millett, Rachel; Rehkopf, David; Luecke, Ellen; Lahiff, Maureen; Abrams, Barbara

2013-10-01

59

Young Maternal Age and the Risk of Neonatal Mortality in Rural Nepal  

PubMed Central

Objective To investigate the relationship between adolescent pregnancy and neonatal mortality in a nutritionally deprived population in rural Nepal, and to determine mechanisms through which low maternal age may impact neonatal mortality. Design Nested cohort study using data from a population-based, cluster-randomized, placebo-controlled trial of newborn skin and umbilical cord cleansing with chlorhexidine. Setting Sarlahi District of Nepal. Participants Live-born singleton infants of parity 0 or 1 women under 25 years of age (n=10,745) were included in this analysis. Main Exposure Maternal age at birth of offspring. Outcome Measure Crude and adjusted odds ratios (OR) of neonatal mortality by maternal age category. Results Infants born to women aged 12?15 years were at a higher risk of neonatal mortality than those born to women aged 20?24 years (OR=2.24, 95% CI 1.40?3.59). After adjustment for confounders, there was a 53% excess risk of neonatal mortality among infants born to women in the youngest versus oldest age category (OR=1.53, 95% CI 0.90, 2.60). This association was attenuated upon further adjustment for low birthweight (LBW), preterm birth or small for gestational age (SGA). Conclusions The higher risk of neonatal mortality among adolescent women in this setting is partially explained by differences in socioeconomic factors in younger versus older women and is mediated primarily through preterm delivery, SGA and LBW or some interaction of these variables.

Sharma, Vandana; Katz, Joanne; Mullany, Luke C; Khatry, Subarna K; LeClerq, Steven C; Shrestha, Sharada R.; Darmstadt, Gary L; Tielsch, James M

2008-01-01

60

Severe maternal morbidity and maternal near miss in the extremes of reproductive age: results from a national cross- sectional multicenter study  

PubMed Central

Background The aim of this study was to assess severe maternal morbidity (SMM) and near miss (NM) cases among adolescent girls and women over 35 years of age in the Brazilian Network for Surveillance of Severe Maternal Morbidity, using a set of standard criteria, compared to pregnant women aged 20 to 34 years. Methods A cross-sectional multicenter study conducted in 27 referral obstetric units in Brazil. All pregnant women admitted to these centers during a one-year period of prospective surveillance were screened to identify cases of maternal death (MD), NM and other SMM. Indicators of maternal morbidity and mortality were evaluated for the three age groups. Sociodemographic, clinical and obstetric characteristics, gestational and perinatal outcomes, main causes of morbidity and delays in care were also compared. Two multiple analysis models were performed, to estimate the adjusted prevalence ratio for identified factors that were independently associated with the occurrence of severe maternal outcome (SMO?=?MNM?+?MD). Results Among SMM and MD cases identified, the proportion of adolescent girls and older women were 17% each. The risk of MNM or death was 25% higher among older women. Maternal near miss ratio and maternal mortality ratios increased with age, but these ratios were also higher among adolescents aged 10 to 14, although the absolute numbers were low. On multivariate analysis, younger age was not identified as an independent risk factor for SMO, while this was true for older age (PR 1.25; 1.07-1.45). Conclusions SMO was high among women below 14 years of age and increased with age in Brazilian pregnant women.

2014-01-01

61

Maternal Effects Underlie Ageing Costs of Growth in the Zebra Finch (Taeniopygia guttata)  

PubMed Central

Maternal effects provide a mechanism to adapt offspring phenotype and optimize the mother’s fitness to current environmental conditions. Transferring steroids to the yolk is one way mothers can translate environmental information into potential adaptive signals for offspring. However, maternally-derived hormones might also have adverse effects for offspring. For example, recent data in zebra finch chicks suggested that ageing related-processes (i.e. oxidative stress and telomere loss) were increased after egg-injection of corticosterone (CORT). Still, we have few experimental data describing the effect of maternal effects on the growth-ageing trade-off in offspring. Here, we chronically treated pre-laying zebra finch females (Taeniopygia guttata) with 17-?-estradiol (E2) or CORT, and followed offspring growth and cellular ageing rates (oxidative stress and telomere loss). CORT treatment decreased growth rate in male chicks and increased rate of telomere loss in mothers and female offspring. E2 increased body mass gain in male offspring, while reducing oxidative stress in both sexes but without affecting telomere loss. Since shorter telomeres were previously found to be a proxy of individual lifespan in zebra finches, maternal effects may, through pleiotropic effects, be important determinants of offspring life-expectancy by modulating ageing rate during embryo and post-natal growth.

Tissier, Mathilde L.; Williams, Tony D.; Criscuolo, Francois

2014-01-01

62

Maternal Age at Childbirth and Offspring Disruptive Behaviors: Testing the Causal Hypothesis  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: Recent studies suggest that the association between maternal age at childbearing (MAC) and children's disruptive behaviors is the result of family factors that are confounded with both variables, rather than a casual effect of environmental factors specifically related to MAC. These studies, however, relied on restricted samples and…

D'Onofrio, Brian M.; Goodnight, Jackson A.; Van Hulle, Carol A.; Rodgers, Joseph Lee; Rathouz, Paul J.; Waldman, Irwin D.; Lahey, Benjamin B.

2009-01-01

63

International variation in reported livebirth prevalence rates of Down syndrome, adjusted for maternal age  

PubMed Central

Reported livebirth prevalence of Down syndrome (DS) may be affected by the maternal age distribution of the population, completeness of ascertainment, accuracy of diagnosis, extent of selective prenatal termination of affected pregnancies, and as yet unidentified genetic and environmental factors. To search for evidence of the latter, we reviewed all published reports in which it was possible to adjust both for effects of maternal age and for selective termination (where relevant).?We constructed indices that allowed direct comparisons of prevalence rates after standardising for maternal age. Reference rates were derived from studies previously identified as having near complete ascertainment. An index value significantly different from 1 may result from random fluctuations, as well as from variations in the factors listed above. We found 49 population groups for which an index could be calculated. Methodological descriptions suggested that low values could often be attributed to underascertainment. A possible exception concerned African-American groups, though even among these most acceptable studies were compatible with an index value of 1. As we have reported elsewhere, there was also a suggestive increase in rates among US residents of Mexican or Central American origin. Nevertheless, our results suggest that "real" variation between population groups reported to date probably amounts to no more than ±25%. However, reliable data in many human populations are lacking including, surprisingly, some jurisdictions with relatively advanced health care systems. We suggest that future reports of DS livebirth prevalence should routinely present data that allow calculation of an index standardised for maternal age and adjusted for elective prenatal terminations.???Keywords: Down syndrome; prenatal diagnosis; maternal age standardisation; epidemiology

Carothers, A.; Hecht, C.; Hook, E.

1999-01-01

64

Maternal Age at Childbirth and Social Development in Infancy  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Difficulties in social communication are not necessarily observed only in individuals with autism spectrum disorders (ASD), and there are many subclinical cases in the general populations. Although advanced parental age at childbirth has often been considered a possible risk factor of ASD, it might contribute to poor social functioning in…

Koyama, Tomonori; Kamio, Yoko; Inada, Naoko; Inokuchi, Eiko

2011-01-01

65

Maternal age effect on mouse oocytes: new biological insight from proteomic analysis.  

PubMed

The long-standing view of 'immortal germline vs mortal soma' poses a fundamental question in biology concerning how oocytes age in molecular terms. A mainstream hypothesis is that maternal ageing of oocytes has its roots in gene transcription. Investigating the proteins resulting from mRNA translation would reveal how far the levels of functionally available proteins correlate with mRNAs and would offer novel insights into the changes oocytes undergo during maternal ageing. Gene ontology (GO) semantic analysis revealed a high similarity of the detected proteome (2324 proteins) to the transcriptome (22?334 mRNAs), although not all proteins had a cognate mRNA. Concerning their dynamics, fourfold changes of abundance were more frequent in the proteome (3%) than the transcriptome (0.05%), with no correlation. Whereas proteins associated with the nucleus (e.g. structural maintenance of chromosomes and spindle-assembly checkpoints) were largely represented among those that change in oocytes during maternal ageing; proteins associated with oxidative stress/damage (e.g. superoxide dismutase) were infrequent. These quantitative alterations are either impoverishing or enriching. Using GO analysis, these alterations do not relate in any simple way to the classic signature of ageing known from somatic tissues. Given the lack of correlation, we conclude that proteome analysis of mouse oocytes may not be surrogated with transcriptome analysis. Furthermore, we conclude that the classic features of ageing may not be transposed from somatic tissues to oocytes in a one-to-one fashion. Overall, there is more to the maternal ageing of oocytes than mere cellular deterioration exemplified by the notorious increase of meiotic aneuploidy. PMID:24686459

Schwarzer, Caroline; Siatkowski, Marcin; Pfeiffer, Martin J; Baeumer, Nicole; Drexler, Hannes C A; Wang, Bingyuan; Fuellen, Georg; Boiani, Michele

2014-07-01

66

The baboon model (Papio hamadryas) of fetal loss: Maternal weight, age, reproductive history and pregnancy outcome  

PubMed Central

Background Several risk factors are associated with the incidence of human stillbirths. The prevention of stillbirths in women is a pressing clinical problem. Methods We reviewed 402 pathology records of fetal loss occurring in a large baboon (Papio spp.) colony during a 15-year period. Clinical histories of 565 female baboons with one or more fetal losses during a 20-year period were analyzed for weight, age, and reproductive history. Results Fetal loss was most common at term (35.57%) and preterm (28.61%) and less common in the first half of gestation (11.20%) and post-term (5.22%). Greater maternal weight, older age, history of stillbirth and higher parity were independent predictors for stillbirth. An exponential increase in the incidence of fetal loss was observed beginning at age 14 years in baboons. Conclusion Fetal loss and maternal risk factors associated with stillbirths in baboons were similar to those documented in women.

Schlabritz-Loutsevitch, Natalia; Moore, Charleen M.; Lopez-Alvarenga, Juan Carlos; Dunn, Betty G.; Dudley, Donald; Hubbard, Gene B.

2010-01-01

67

Age affects the expression of maternal care and subsequent behavioural development of offspring in a precocial bird.  

PubMed

Variations of breeding success with age have been studied largely in iteroparous species and particularly in birds: survival of offspring increases with parental age until senescence. Nevertheless, these results are from observations of free-living individuals and therefore, it remains impossible to determine whether these variations result from parental investment or efficiency or both, and whether these variations occur during the prenatal or the postnatal stage or during both. Our study aimed first, to determine whether age had an impact on the expression of maternal breeding care by comparing inexperienced female birds of two different ages, and second, to define how these potential differences impact chicks' growth and behavioural development. We made 22 2-month-old and 22 8-month-old female Japanese quail foster 1-day-old chicks. We observed their maternal behaviour until the chicks were 11 days old and then tested these chicks after separation from their mothers. Several behavioural tests estimated their fearfulness and their sociality. We observed first that a longer induction was required for young females to express maternal behaviour. Subsequently as many young females as elder females expressed maternal behaviour, but young females warmed chicks less, expressed less covering postures and rejected their chicks more. Chicks brooded by elder females presented higher growth rates and more fearfulness and sociality. Our results reveal that maternal investment increased with age independently of maternal experience, suggesting modification of hormone levels implied in maternal behaviour. Isolated effects of maternal experience should now be assessed in females of the same age. In addition, our results show, for first time in birds, that variations in maternal care directly induce important differences in the behavioural development of chicks. Finally, our results confirm that Japanese quail remains a great laboratory model of avian maternal behaviour and that the way we sample maternal behaviour is highly productive. PMID:22701515

Pittet, Florent; Coignard, Maud; Houdelier, Cécilia; Richard-Yris, Marie-Annick; Lumineau, Sophie

2012-01-01

68

Age Affects the Expression of Maternal Care and Subsequent Behavioural Development of Offspring in a Precocial Bird  

PubMed Central

Variations of breeding success with age have been studied largely in iteroparous species and particularly in birds: survival of offspring increases with parental age until senescence. Nevertheless, these results are from observations of free-living individuals and therefore, it remains impossible to determine whether these variations result from parental investment or efficiency or both, and whether these variations occur during the prenatal or the postnatal stage or during both. Our study aimed first, to determine whether age had an impact on the expression of maternal breeding care by comparing inexperienced female birds of two different ages, and second, to define how these potential differences impact chicks’ growth and behavioural development. We made 22 2-month-old and 22 8-month-old female Japanese quail foster 1-day-old chicks. We observed their maternal behaviour until the chicks were 11 days old and then tested these chicks after separation from their mothers. Several behavioural tests estimated their fearfulness and their sociality. We observed first that a longer induction was required for young females to express maternal behaviour. Subsequently as many young females as elder females expressed maternal behaviour, but young females warmed chicks less, expressed less covering postures and rejected their chicks more. Chicks brooded by elder females presented higher growth rates and more fearfulness and sociality. Our results reveal that maternal investment increased with age independently of maternal experience, suggesting modification of hormone levels implied in maternal behaviour. Isolated effects of maternal experience should now be assessed in females of the same age. In addition, our results show, for first time in birds, that variations in maternal care directly induce important differences in the behavioural development of chicks. Finally, our results confirm that Japanese quail remains a great laboratory model of avian maternal behaviour and that the way we sample maternal behaviour is highly productive.

Pittet, Florent; Coignard, Maud; Houdelier, Cecilia; Richard-Yris, Marie-Annick; Lumineau, Sophie

2012-01-01

69

Mutation Risk Associated with Paternal and Maternal Age in a Cohort of Retinoblastoma Survivors  

PubMed Central

Autosomal dominant conditions are known to be associated with advanced paternal age, and it has been suggested that retinoblastoma (Rb) also exhibits a paternal age effect due to the paternal origin of most new germline RB1 mutations. To further our understanding of the association of parental age and risk of de novo germline Rb mutations, we evaluated the effect of parental age in a cohort of Rb survivors in the United States. A cohort of 262 retinoblastoma patients was retrospectively identified at one institution, and telephone interviews were conducted with parents of 160 survivors (65.3%). We built two sets of hierarchical stepwise logistic regression models to detect an increased odds of a de novo germline mutation related to older parental age compared to sporadic and familial Rb. The modeling strategy evaluated effects of continuous increasing maternal and paternal age and five-year age increases adjusted for the age of the other parent. Mean maternal ages for patients with de novo germline mutations and sporadic Rb were similar (28.3 and 28.5 respectively) as were mean paternal ages (31.9 and 31.2 respectively), and all were significantly higher than the weighted general U.S. population means. In contrast, maternal and paternal ages for familial Rb did not differ significantly from the weighted U.S. general population means. Although we noted no significant differences between mean maternal and paternal ages between each of the three Rb classification groups, we found increased odds of having a de novo germline mutation for each five-year increase in paternal age, but these findings were not statistically significant (de novo versus sporadic ORs: 30-34 = 1.65 [0.69-4], ?35 = 1.34 [0.54-3.3]; de novo versus familial ORs: 30-34 = 2.82 [0.95 – 8.4], ?35 = 1.61 [0.57-4.6]). Our study suggests a weak paternal age effect for Rb resulting from de novo germline mutations consistent with the paternal origin of most of these mutations.

Mills, Melissa B.; Hudgins, Louanne; Balise, Raymond R.; Abramson, David H.; Kleinerman, Ruth A.

2013-01-01

70

Mutation risk associated with paternal and maternal age in a cohort of retinoblastoma survivors.  

PubMed

Autosomal dominant conditions are known to be associated with advanced paternal age, and it has been suggested that retinoblastoma (Rb) also exhibits a paternal age effect due to the paternal origin of most new germline RB1 mutations. To further our understanding of the association of parental age and risk of de novo germline RB1 mutations, we evaluated the effect of parental age in a cohort of Rb survivors in the United States. A cohort of 262 Rb patients was retrospectively identified at one institution, and telephone interviews were conducted with parents of 160 survivors (65.3%). We classified Rb survivors into three groups: those with unilateral Rb were classified as sporadic if they had no or unknown family history of Rb, those with bilateral Rb were classified as having a de novo germline mutation if they had no or unknown family history of Rb, and those with unilateral or bilateral Rb, who had a family history of Rb, were classified as familial. We built two sets of nested logistic regression models to detect an increased odds of the de novo germline mutation classification related to older parental age compared to sporadic and familial Rb classifications. The modeling strategy evaluated effects of continuous increasing maternal and paternal age and 5-year age increases adjusted for the age of the other parent. Mean maternal ages for survivors classified as having de novo germline mutations and sporadic Rb were similar (28.3 and 28.5, respectively) as were mean paternal ages (31.9 and 31.2, respectively), and all were significantly higher than the weighted general US population means. In contrast, maternal and paternal ages for familial Rb did not differ significantly from the weighted US general population means. Although we noted no significant differences between mean maternal and paternal ages between each of the three Rb classification groups, we found increased odds of a survivor being in the de novo germline mutation group for each 5-year increase in paternal age, but these findings were not statistically significant (de novo vs. sporadic ORs 30-34 = 1.7 [0.7-4], ? 35 = 1.3 [0.5-3.3]; de novo vs. familial ORs 30-34 = 2.8 [1.0-8.4], ? 35 = 1.6 [0.6-4.6]). Our study suggests a weak paternal age effect for Rb resulting from de novo germline mutations consistent with the paternal origin of most of these mutations. PMID:22203219

Mills, Melissa B; Hudgins, Louanne; Balise, Raymond R; Abramson, David H; Kleinerman, Ruth A

2012-07-01

71

Association of maternal smoking with increased infant oxidative stress at 3 months of age  

PubMed Central

Background Cigarette smoke is a major source of free radicals and oxidative stress. With a significant proportion of women still smoking during pregnancy, this common and avoidable exposure has the potential to influence infant oxidative status, which is implicated in the increased propensity for airway inflammation and asthma. The aim of this study was to examine the effects of maternal smoking on markers of infant oxidative stress. Methods The level of oxidative stress (using urinary F2?isoprostanes as a marker of lipid peroxidation) was compared in infants of smokers (n?=?33) and non?smokers (n?=?54) at 3?months of age. These groups were balanced for maternal atopy and socioeconomic status. Infant urinary cotinine levels were also measured as an indicator of early postnatal cigarette smoke exposure. Results Maternal smoking was associated with significantly higher infant cotinine levels, despite the fact that most smoking mothers (83.8%) claimed not to smoke near their baby. Maternal smoking was associated with significantly higher markers of oxidative stress (F2?isoprostane) at 3?months of age. There was also a positive correlation between urinary F2?isoprostanes and infant urinary cotinine levels. Conclusions Although this study does not separate the prenatal and postnatal effects of smoking, these findings indicate that environmental tobacco smoke in the early postnatal period adversely affects pro?oxidative/antioxidative status within weeks of life in very early infancy.

Noakes, Paul S; Thomas, Richard; Lane, Catherine; Mori, Trevor A; Barden, Anne E; Devadason, Sunalene G; Prescott, Susan L

2007-01-01

72

Longitudinal Association of Maternal Attempt to Lose Weight During the Postpartum Period and Child Obesity at Age 3 Years  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of maternal attempt to lose weight during the postpartum period on later child weight has not been explored. Among 1,044 mother–infant pairs in Project Viva, we estimated longitudinal associations of maternal attempt to lose weight during the postpartum period with child weight and adiposity at age 3 years and examined differences in associations by type of weight loss

Kendrin R. Sonneville; Sheryl L. Rifas-Shiman; Emily Oken; Karen E. Peterson; Steven L. Gortmaker; Matthew W. Gillman; Elsie M. Taveras

2011-01-01

73

Maternal Age, Parity, and Reproductive Outcome in Captive Chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes)  

PubMed Central

As early as the 1970s, it was suggested that nonhuman primates may serve as models of human reproductive senescence. In the present study, the reproductive outcomes of 1,255 pregnancies in captive chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) were examined in relation to parity and its covariate, maternal age. The results show that the percentage of positive pregnancy outcomes was negatively correlated with increasing parity. In addition, spontaneous abortions, stillbirths, and caesarian sections (C-sections) were positively correlated with increasing parity. Maternal age, rather than parity, was found to be the most important predictor of negative birth outcome. This study supports research demonstrating reproductive decline and termination in nonhuman primates, and is the first to quantitatively account for this phenomenon in captive female chimpanzees.

ROOF, KATHERINE A.; HOPKINS, WILLIAM D.; IZARD, M. KAY; HOOK, MICHELLE; SCHAPIRO, STEVEN J.

2007-01-01

74

The Association Between Maternal Glucose Concentration and Child BMI at Age 3 Years  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE The objective of the study was to determine the association between child BMI at age 3 years and maternal glucose concentration among women without pre-existing diabetes or a gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) diagnosis. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS Data are from the Pregnancy Infection and Nutrition and Postpartum studies and include 263 mother-child pairs. Measured weights and heights at 3 years were used to calculate age- and sex-specific BMI z scores and percentiles. Multivariable linear regression models were used to examine associations of continuous BMI z scores with maternal glucose concentration. Modified Poisson regression estimated risk ratios of child overweight/obesity (BMI ?85th percentile). RESULTS The mean (SD) maternal glucose concentration and prepregnancy BMI were 103.8 (23.7) mg/dL and 24.3 (5.9) kg/m2, respectively. At 3 years, the mean (SD) child BMI z score was 0.29 (0.99), 20.9% were overweight/obese and 5.3% were obese. In the adjusted model, when compared with glucose concentration <100 mg/dL, a concentration ?130 mg/dL was associated with significantly higher child BMI z score at 3 years (estimated z score difference of 0.39 [95% CI: 0.03–0.75]). With the use of the same reference category, a concentration ?130 mg/dL was associated with an approximate twofold greater risk of child overweight/obesity (adjusted risk ratio 2.34 [95% CI: 1.25–4.38]). CONCLUSIONS Fetal exposure to high maternal glucose concentration in the absence of pre-existing diabetes or GDM may contribute to the development of overweight/obesity in the offspring, independent of maternal prepregnancy BMI.

Deierlein, Andrea L.; Siega-Riz, Anna Maria; Chantala, Kim; Herring, Amy H.

2011-01-01

75

Maternal antioxidant intake in pregnancy and wheezing illnesses in children at 2 y of age2  

PubMed Central

Background Low intakes of dietary antioxidants may contribute to increases in asthma and allergy. Objective We investigated the association of maternal total intakes (foods + supplements) of 10 antioxidant nutrients during pregnancy with wheezing and eczema in 2-y-old children. Design Subjects were 1290 mother-child pairs in an ongoing cohort study. Maternal dietary and supplement intakes were assessed by using a validated food-frequency questionnaire administered in the first and second trimesters. Antioxidant nutrient intakes were calculated, and the mean for each nutrient was considered to be the exposure during pregnancy. The outcomes of interest were any wheezing by the child during either the first or second year of life, recurrent wheezing in both years, and eczema in either the first or second year. Results No association was observed between maternal total intake of any antioxidant nutrient and eczema. In multivariate logistic regression models, the highest quartile compared with the lowest quartile of maternal total intakes of vitamin E [odds ratio (OR): 0.70; 95% CI: 0.48, 1.03] and zinc (OR: 0.59; 95% CI: 0.41, 0.88) was inversely associated with any wheezing at 2 y of age (P for trend = 0.06 and 0.01 over quartiles of intake for vitamin E and zinc, respectively). Similar results were obtained for recurrent wheezing at 2 y of age with vitamin E (OR: 0.49; 95% CI: 0.27, 0.90) and zinc (OR: 0.49; 95% CI: 0.27, 0.87) (P for trend = 0.05 and 0.06 over quartiles of intake for vitamin E and zinc, respectively). Conclusion Our results suggest that higher maternal total intakes of antioxidants during pregnancy may decrease the risks for wheezing illnesses in early childhood.

Litonjua, Augusto A; Rifas-Shiman, Sheryl L; Ly, Ngoc P; Tantisira, Kelan G; Rich-Edwards, Janet W; Camargo, Carlos A; Weiss, Scott T; Gillman, Matthew W; Gold, Diane R

2007-01-01

76

Effects of maternal education, age, and parity on fatal infant accidents.  

PubMed Central

Accidents are a major cause of death among children. Using computerized linked birth and death record information, this study examined the relationship of selected parental factors to the risk of infant accidental death. The analyses suggest that maternal age and education are inversely related to infant accident mortality while mother's parity is directly related. Accident mortality rate differentials by educational level were more evident for certain categories of accidents.

Wicklund, K; Moss, S; Frost, F

1984-01-01

77

Embryonic exposure to maternal testosterone influences age-specific mortality patterns in a captive passerine bird.  

PubMed

Hormones are potent mediators of developmental programming and maternal epigenetic effects. In vertebrates, developmental exposure to maternal androgen hormones has been shown to impact multiple behavioral and physiological traits of progeny, but the possible consequences of this early exposure in terms of aging-related changes in mortality and fitness remain largely unexplored. Avian eggs naturally contain variable doses of maternal hormones-in particular, androgens-which have documented effects on embryo growth and differentiation as well as adult behavior and physiology. Here, we report that injections of a physiological dose of testosterone (T) into yolks of freshly laid eggs of a small, seasonally breeding songbird, the house sparrow (Passer domesticus), increased survivorship in a semi-natural aviary environment. In addition, survival effects of developmental T exposure were sex-dependent, with males generally having a higher risk of death. Separate analyses for young birds in their first year of life (from hatching up to the first reproductive period the following calendar year) and in adulthood (after the first breeding season) showed similar effects. For first-year birds, mortality risk was higher during the winter than during the period after fledging; for adults, mortality risk was higher during the reproductive than the non-reproductive phase (post-breeding molt and winter). T treatment did not affect nestling body mass, but resulted in higher body mass at 3-4 months of age; T and body mass at this age interacted to influence mortality risk. Embryonic exposure to maternal testosterone may result in lower adult mortality by modifying intrinsic physiological processes involved in health or aging over the lifespan of adult birds. PMID:21409557

Schwabl, Hubert; Holmes, Donna; Strasser, Rosemary; Scheuerlein, Alex

2012-02-01

78

Maternal age and birth defects after the use of assisted reproductive technology in Japan, 2004-2010  

PubMed Central

Background Older mothers are becoming more common in Japan. One reason for this is the widespread use of assisted reproductive technology (ART). This study assesses the relationship between maternal age and the risk of birth defects after ART. Methods Nationwide data on ART between 2004 and 2010 in Japan were analyzed. Diseases that were classified as code Q00-Q99 (ie, congenital malformations, deformations, and chromosomal abnormalities) in the International Classification of Diseases, tenth edition, were selected. There were 219,185 pregnancies and 153,791 live births in total ART. Of these, 1943 abortions, stillbirths, or live births with birth defects were recorded. Percentage of multiple birth defects in total birth defects, the prevalence, crude relative risk and 95% confidence interval per 10,000 pregnancies and per 10,000 live births were analyzed according to the maternal age class (ie, 25–29, 30–34 (reference), 35–39, and 40+ years). Results Multiple birth defects were observed among 14% of the 25–29 year old class, and 8% among other classes when chromosomal abnormalities were excluded. The prevalence of chromosomal abnormalities per pregnancy and per live birth became significantly and rapidly higher in mothers in the age classes of 30–35 and 40+ years. Nonchromosomal birth defects per pregnancy decreased linearly with advanced maternal age, while the number of nonchromosomal birth defects per live birth formed a gradual U-shaped distribution. The prevalence per pregnancy of congenital malformations of the nervous system was significantly lower with advanced maternal age. The relative risk per live birth was significant regarding congenital malformations of the circulatory system for a maternal age of 40+ years. Some other significant associations between maternal age and birth defects were observed. Conclusion Maternal age is associated with several birth defects; however, older maternal age in itself does not produce noticeable extra risk for nonchromosomal birth defects overall.

Ooki, Syuichi

2013-01-01

79

Independent and Dependent Contributions of Advanced Maternal and Paternal Ages to Autism Risk  

PubMed Central

LAY ABSTRACT Previous reports on autism among children born to older parents have yielded conflicting results as to which parent, or whether neither, or both, contributes to the risk. We analyzed ten years of births in California, comprising approximately 5 million children. Autism cases were identified from the California Department of Developmental Services database and linked to birth files from 1990–1999. Due to the size of this population, we were able to observe the trend in autism risk for each parent’s age, restricted to a narrow age range of the other parent. Analysis was confined to singleton births with complete data on ages and educational levels of both parents (n=4,947,935, cases=12,159). We observed consistent stepwise increased risk for autism with advancing maternal age regardless of the father’s age, whereas increased risk with advancing paternal age was primarily observed among younger mothers, namely those <30 years of age. The different effects of father’s age depending on the mother’s age may indicate that the risk for autism from advancing maternal age past 30 years overwhelms the risk contributed by the father’s age. Additionally, we showed that if the distribution of mothers’ age had been the only factor to change between 1990 and 1999, then we would have expected the cumulative incidence to have risen only 4.6% during the decade from 1990 to 1999. SCIENTIFIC ABSTRACT Reports on autism and parental age have yielded conflicting results on whether mothers, fathers, or both, contribute to increased risk. We analyzed restricted strata of parental age in a ten-year California birth cohort to determine the independent or dependent effect from each parent. Autism cases from California Department of Developmental Services records were linked to State birth files (1990–1999). Only singleton births with complete data on parental age and education were included (n=4,947,935, cases=12,159). In multivariate logistic regression models, advancing maternal age increased risk for autism monotonically regardless of the paternal age. Compared with mothers 25–29 years of age, the adjusted odds ratio (aOR) for mothers 40+ years was 1.51 (95% CI: 1.35–1.70), or compared with mothers <25 years of age, aOR=1.77 (95% CI, 1.56–2.00). In contrast, autism risk was associated with advancing paternal age primarily among mothers <30: aOR =1.59 (95% CI, 1.37–1.85) comparing fathers 40+ vs. 25–29 years of age. However, among mothers > 30, the aOR was 1.13 (95% CI, 1.01–1.27) for fathers 40+ vs. 25–29 years of age, almost identical to the aOR for fathers <25 years. Based on the first examination of heterogeneity in parental age effects, it appears that women’s risk for delivering a child who develops autism increases throughout their reproductive years whereas father’s age confers increased risk for autism when mothers are <30, but has little effect when mothers are past age 30. We also calculated that the recent trend towards delayed childbearing contributed approximately a 4.6% increase in autism diagnoses in California over the decade.

Shelton, Janie F; Tancredi, Daniel J; Hertz-Picciotto, Irva

2010-01-01

80

Effect of birth weight, maternal education and prenatal smoking on offspring intelligence at school age.  

PubMed

To examine the combined effect of birth weight, mothers' education and prenatal smoking on psychometrically measured intelligence at school age 1,822 children born in 1992-1999 and attending the first six grades from 45 schools representing all of the fifteen Estonian counties with information on birth weight, gestational age and mother's age, marital status, education, parity and smoking in pregnancy, and intelligence tests were studied. The scores of Raven's Standard Progressive Matrices were related to the birth weight: in the normal range of birth weight (>or=2500 g) every 500 g increase in birth weight was accompanied by around 0.7-point increase in IQ scores. A strong association between birth weight and IQ remained even if gestational age and mother's age, marital status, education, place of residence, parity and smoking during pregnancy have been taken into account. Maternal prenatal smoking was accompanied by a 3.3-point deficit in children's intellectual abilities. Marriage and mother's education had an independent positive correlation with offspring intelligence. We concluded that the statistical effect of birth weight, maternal education and smoking in pregnancy on offspring's IQ scores was remarkable and remained even if other factors have been taken into account. PMID:20634008

Rahu, Kaja; Rahu, Mati; Pullmann, Helle; Allik, Jüri

2010-08-01

81

Association between nondisjunction and maternal age in meiosis-II human oocytes.  

PubMed Central

The relationship between advanced maternal age and increased risk of trisomic offspring is well known clinically but not clearly understood at the level of the oocyte. A total of 383 oocytes that failed fertilization from 107 patients undergoing in vitro fertilization were analyzed by FISH using X-, 18-, and 13/21-chromosome probes simultaneously. The corresponding polar bodies were also analyzed in 188 of these oocytes. The chromosomes in the oocyte and first polar body complement each other and provide an internal control to differentiate between aneuploidy and technical errors. Two mechanisms of nondisjunction were determined. First, nondisjunction of bivalent chromosomes resulting in two univalents going to the same pole and, second, nondisjunction by premature chromatid separation (predivision) of univalent chromosomes producing either a balanced (2 + 2) or unbalanced (3 + 1) distribution of chromatids into the first polar body and M-II oocytes. Balanced predivision of chromatids, previously proposed as a major mechanism of aneuploidy, was found to increase significantly with time in culture (P < .005), which suggests that this phenomenon should be interpreted carefully. Unbalanced predivision and classical nondisjunction were unaffected by oocyte aging. In comparing oocytes from women <35 years of age with oocytes from women > or = 40 years of age, a significant increase (P < .001) in nondisjunction of full dyads was found in the oocytes with analyzable polar bodies and no FISH errors. Premature predivision of chromatids was also found to cause nondisjunction, but it did not increase with maternal age. Images Figure 2 Figure 3

Dailey, T.; Dale, B.; Cohen, J.; Munne, S.

1996-01-01

82

Schizencephaly: Association With Young Maternal Age, Alcohol Use, and Lack of Prenatal Care  

PubMed Central

Schizencephaly is a rare malformation of cortical development characterized by congenital clefts extending from the pial surface to the lateral ventricle that are lined by heterotopic gray matter. The clinical presentation is variable and can include motor or cognitive impairment and epilepsy. The causes of schizencephaly are heterogeneous and can include teratogens, prenatal infection, or maternal trauma. Reported genetic causes include chromosomal aneuploidy, EMX2 mutations, and possible autosomal recessive familial cases based on recurrence in siblings. In an effort to identify risk factors for schizencephaly, we conducted a survey of 48 parents or primary caretakers of patients with schizencephaly born between 1983 and 2004. We discovered that young maternal age, lack of prenatal care, and alcohol use were all significantly associated with risk of schizencephaly. Our results suggest that there are important nongenetic, intrauterine events that predispose to schizencephaly.

Dies, Kira A.; Bodell, Adria; Hisama, Fuki M.; Guo, Chao-Yu; Barry, Brenda; Chang, Bernard S.; Barkovich, A. James; Walsh, Christopher A.

2013-01-01

83

Predictors of children's understandings of death: age, cognitive ability, death experience and maternal communicative competence.  

PubMed

A child's age, cognitive ability, and exposure to death in the environment have been documented as major factors affecting the formation of a mature death concept. The present study investigated the relationships between these three factors (age, cognitive ability, and death experience) and children's understandings of death, as well as the relationship between mothers' communicative competence and children's understandings of death. Thirty-seven children (ages 48-96 months) completed three cognitive tasks and answered four dichotomous questions about death. Their mothers (N = 37) responded in writing to 16 questions about death that children are likely to ask. Results showed significant relationships between age and understanding, between seriation ability and understanding, and between death experience and understanding. There was no statistically significant relationship between maternal response competence and children's understandings of death. Implications are discussed. PMID:18680887

Hunter, Sally B; Smith, Delores E

2008-01-01

84

Maternal meat and fat consumption during pregnancy and suspected atopic eczema in Japanese infants aged 3-4 months: the Osaka Maternal and Child Health Study.  

PubMed

Interest has increased in the possibility that maternal dietary intake during pregnancy might influence the development of allergic disorders in children. The present prospective study examined the association of maternal intake of selected foods high in fatty acids and specific types of fatty acids during pregnancy with the risk of suspected atopic eczema among Japanese infants aged 3-4 months. Subjects were 771 mother-child pairs. Information on maternal dietary intake during pregnancy was assessed with a validated self-administered diet history questionnaire. The term 'suspected atopic eczema' was used to define an outcome based on results of our questionnaire completed by mothers 3-4 months postpartum. The risk of suspected atopic eczema was 8.4% (n = 65). Higher maternal intake of meat during pregnancy was significantly associated with an increased risk of suspected atopic eczema in the offspring: the multivariate odds ratio (OR) for the highest vs. lowest quartile was 2.59 [95% confidence interval (CI): 1.15-6.17, p for trend = 0.01]. The positive association was strengthened when the definition of the outcome was confined to a definite physician's diagnosis of atopic eczema (n = 35): the multivariate OR between extreme quartiles was 3.53 (95% CI: 1.19-12.23, p for trend = 0.02). No material exposure-response relationships were observed between maternal intake of eggs, dairy products, fish, total fat, saturated fatty acids, monounsaturated fatty acids, n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids, alpha-linolenic acid, eicosapentaenoic acid, docosahexaenoic acid, n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids, linoleic acid, arachidonic acid and cholesterol and the ratio of n-3 to n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acid consumption and the risk of suspected atopic eczema. Higher maternal meat intake may increase the risk of infantile atopic eczema, whereas we found no evidence that maternal intake of fish and n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids are preventive against infantile atopic eczema. PMID:19552790

Saito, Kyoko; Yokoyama, Tetsuji; Miyake, Yoshihiro; Sasaki, Satoshi; Tanaka, Keiko; Ohya, Yukihiro; Hirota, Yoshio

2010-02-01

85

Organ and gestational age effects of maternal nutrient restriction on global methylation in fetal baboons  

PubMed Central

A sub-optimal intrauterine environment alters the trajectory of fetal development with profound effects on life-time health. Altered methylation, a proposed epigenetic mechanism responsible for these changes, has been studied in non-primate species but not nonhuman primates. We tested the hypotheses that global methylation in fetal baboon demonstrates organ specificity, gestational age specificity, and changes with maternal nutritional status. We measured global DNA methylation in fetuses of control fed (CTR) and nutrient restricted mothers fed 70% of controls (MNR) for brain, kidney, liver and heart at 0.5 and 0.9 gestation (G). We observed organ and gestation specific changes that were modified by maternal diet. Methylation in CTR fetuses was highest in frontal cortex and lowest in liver. MNR decreased methylation in 0.5G kidney and increased methylation in 0.9G kidney and frontal cortex. These results demonstrate a potential epigenetic mechanism whereby reduced maternal nutrition has long-term programming effects on fetal organ development.

Unterberger, Alexander; Szyf, Moshe; Nathanielsz, Peter W.; Cox, Laura A.

2010-01-01

86

The Influence of Maternal Health Literacy and Child's Age on Participation in Social Welfare Programs.  

PubMed

The objective of this study is to determine the influence of maternal health literacy and child's age on participation in social welfare programs benefiting children. In a longitudinal prospective cohort study of 560 Medicaid-eligible mother-infant dyads recruited in Philadelphia, maternal health literacy was assessed using the test of functional health literacy in adults (short version). Participation in social welfare programs [Temporary Assistance to Needy Families (TANF), Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP), Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children (WIC), child care subsidy, and public housing] was self-reported at child's birth, and at the 6, 12, 18, 24 month follow-up interviews. Generalized estimating equations quantified the strength of maternal health literacy as an estimator of program participation. The mothers were primarily African-Americans (83 %), single (87 %), with multiple children (62 %). Nearly 24 % of the mothers had inadequate or marginal health literacy. Children whose mothers had inadequate health literacy were less likely to receive child care subsidy (adjusted OR = 0.54, 95 % CI 0.34-0.85) than children whose mothers had adequate health literacy. Health literacy was not a significant predictor for TANF, SNAP, WIC or housing assistance. The predicted probability for participation in all programs decreased from birth to 24 months. Most notably, predicted WIC participation declined rapidly after age one. During the first 24 months, mothers with inadequate health literacy could benefit from simplified or facilitated child care subsidy application processes. Targeted outreach and enrollment efforts conducted by social welfare programs need to take into account the changing needs of families as children age. PMID:23990157

Pati, Susmita; Siewert, Elizabeth; Wong, Angie T; Bhatt, Suraj K; Calixte, Rose E; Cnaan, Avital

2014-07-01

87

Etiology of Down syndrome: Evidence for consistent association among altered meiotic recombination, nondisjunction, and maternal age across populations.  

PubMed

Down syndrome caused by meiotic nondisjunction of chromosome 21 in humans, is well known to be associated with advanced maternal age, but success in identifying and understanding other risk factors has been limited. Recently published work in a U.S. population suggested intriguing interactions between the maternal age effect and altered recombination patterns during meiosis, but some of the results were counter-intuitive. We have tested these hypotheses in a population sample from India, and found that essentially all of the results of the U.S. study are replicated even in our ethnically very different population. We examined meiotic recombination patterns in a total of 138 families from the eastern part of India, each with a single free trisomy 21 child. We genotyped each family with a set of STR markers using PCR and characterized the stage of origin of nondisjunction and the recombination pattern of maternal chromosome 21 during oogenesis. Our sample contains 107 maternal meiosis I errors and 31 maternal meiosis II errors and we subsequently stratified them with respect to maternal age and the number of detectable crossover events. We observed an association between meiosis I nondisjunction and recombination in the telomeric 5.1 Mb of chromosome 21. By contrast, in meiosis II cases we observed preferential pericentromeric exchanges covering the proximal 5.7 Mb region, with interaction between maternal age and the location of the crossover. Overall reduction of recombination irrespective of maternal age is also evident in meiosis I cases. Our findings are very consistent with previously reported data in a U.S. population and our results are the first independent confirmation of those previous reports. This not only provides much needed confirmation of previous results, but it suggests that the genetic etiology underlying the occurrence of trisomy 21 may be similar across human populations. PMID:19533770

Ghosh, Sujoy; Feingold, Eleanor; Dey, Subrata Kumar

2009-07-01

88

The incidence of Down's syndrome over a 19-year period with special reference to maternal age.  

PubMed Central

The incidence of Down's syndrome in the Liverpool and Bootle areas from 1961 to 1979 was investigated. A total of 319 liveborn cases was ascertained over this period. Using 3-year moving averages, the incidence of the condition fell gradually from 1.62 per 1000 livebirths for 1961 to 1963 to 1.09 per 1000 livebirths for 1977 to 1979. This trend is significant at the 0.1% level. Over the same period the mean maternal age of Down's syndrome births fell gradually from 36.7 years in 1961 to 29.0 years in 1979. This trend is significant at the 1% level. There was a contemporaneous decrease in the proportion of total births to women over 35 years in the study area. Cytogenetic analysis was performed on 175 out of the 319 index cases (54.9%). Of these, there were 161 trisomies (92%), 11 translocations (6.3%), and three mosaics (1.7%). Between 1969 and 1979 four terminations of pregnancy for Down's syndrome were performed, all for trisomy. Quinquennial age specific incidences for Down's syndrome were calculated for the years 1960 to 1964, 1965 to 1969, 1970 to 1974, and 1975 to 1979. There have been no statistically significant changes over this time. It is suggested that the fall in incidence of Down's syndrome can be explained by the fall in mean maternal age.

Owens, J R; Harris, F; Walker, S; McAllister, E; West, L

1983-01-01

89

Spontaneous abortion rate and advanced maternal age: consequences for prenatal diagnosis.  

PubMed

Maternal age related and procedure-related fetal abortion rates were studied in 384 women aged 36 and over scheduled for transabdominal chorionic villus sampling (TA-CVS) at 12-14 weeks of gestation. The pre-TA-CVS abortion rate within 30 days of intake (at 6-10 weeks of gestation) rose from 1.9% at age 35-36 years to 10.9% at 40 years and older. Women entering in the 6th week of gestation had a greater probability of aborting before TA-CVS than women entering after day 48. 26 women aborted spontaneously before TA-CVS, the majority of abortions occurring at 10-12 weeks. TA-CVS was done in 346 women. 11 pregnancies were terminated because of genetic anomalies, and 8 women had spontaneous fetal loss. These findings justify delaying prenatal diagnosis in older pregnant women until 12 weeks of gestation. PMID:1973216

Cohen-Overbeek, T E; Hop, W C; den Ouden, M; Pijpers, L; Jahoda, M G; Wladimiroff, J W

1990-07-01

90

Respiratory responses to hypoxia/hypercapnia in small for gestational age infants influenced by maternal smoking  

PubMed Central

Aim: To determine any variation in the respiratory responses to hypoxia/hypercapnia of infants born small for gestational age (SGA) to smoking and to non-smoking mothers. Methods: A total of 70 average for gestational age (AGA) infants (>36 weeks gestation, >2500 g, >25th centile for gestational age, and no maternal smoking), and 47 SGA infants (<10th centile for gestational age) were studied at 1 and 3 months of age, in quiet and active sleep. Respiratory test gases were delivered through a Perspex hood to simulate face down rebreathing by slowly allowing the inspired air to be altered to a CO2 maximum of 5% and O2 minimum of 13.5%. The change in ventilation with inspired CO2 was measured over 5–6 minutes of the test. The slope of a linear curve fit relating inspired CO2 to the logarithm of ventilation was taken as a quantitative measure of ventilatory asphyxial sensitivity (VAS). Results: There was no significant difference in VAS between the AGA and SGA infants (0.25 v 0.24). However within the SGA group, VAS was significantly higher (p = 0.048) in the infants whose mothers smoked during pregnancy (0.26 (0.01); n = 24) than in those that did not (0.23 (0.01); n = 23). The change in minute ventilation was significantly higher in the smokers than the non-smokers group (141% v 119%; p = 0.03) as the result of a significantly larger change in respiratory rate (8 v 4 breaths/min; p = 0.047) but not tidal volume. Conclusions: Maternal smoking appears to be the key factor in enhancing infants' respiratory responses to hypoxia/hypercapnia, irrespective of gestational age.

Galland, B; Taylor, B; Bolton, D; Sayers, R

2003-01-01

91

Maternal intake of methyl-donor nutrients and child cognition at 3 years of age  

PubMed Central

SUMMARY Methyl-donor nutrients are substrates for methylation reactions involved in neurodevelopment processes. The role of maternal intake of these nutrients on cognitive performance of the offspring is poorly understood. We examined the associations of maternal intake of folate, vitamin B12, choline, betaine, and methionine during the first and second trimesters of pregnancy, with tests of cognitive performance in the offspring at 3 y of age using data from 1210 participants in Project Viva, a prospective pre-birth cohort study in Massachusetts. We assessed nutrient intake with the use of food frequency questionnaires. Children’s cognition at age 3 y was evaluated with the Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test III (PPVT-III) and visual-motor skills with the Wide Range Assessment of Visual Motor Abilities (WRAVMA) test. In multivariable models adjusting for potential sociobehavioral and nutritional confounders, for each 600 µg/d increment in total folate intake during the first trimester, PPVT-III score at age 3 y was 1.6 points [95% CI: 0.1, 3.1; P = 0.04] higher. There was a weak inverse association between vitamin B12 intake during the second trimester and PPVT-III scores [?0.4 points per 2.6 µg/d; 95% CI: ?0.8, ?0.1; P = 0.01]. We did not find associations between choline, betaine, or methionine and cognitive outcomes at this age. Results of this study suggest that higher intake of folate in early pregnancy is associated with higher scores on the PPVT-III, a test of receptive language that predicts overall intelligence, at age 3 y.

Villamor, Eduardo; Rifas-Shiman, Sheryl L.; Gillman, Matthew W.; Oken, Emily

2012-01-01

92

Effects of maternal education on diet, anemia, and iron deficiency in Korean school-aged children  

PubMed Central

Background We investigated the relationship among socioeconomic status factors, the risk of anemia, and iron deficiency among school-aged children in Korea. Methods The sample consisted of fourth-grade students aged 10 y recruited from nine elementary schools in Korean urban areas in 2008 (n = 717). Anthropometric and blood biochemistry data were obtained for this cross-sectional observational study. Anemia was defined as hemoglobin levels lower than 11.5 g/dl. Iron deficiency was defined as serum iron levels lower than 40 ug/dl. We also obtained data on parental education from questionnaires and on children's diets from 3-day food diaries. Parental education was categorized as low or high, with the latter representing an educational level beyond high school. Results Children with more educated mothers were less likely to develop anemia (P = 0.0324) and iron deficiency (P = 0.0577) than were those with less educated mothers. This group consumed more protein (P = 0.0004) and iron (P = 0.0012) from animal sources than did the children of less educated mothers, as reflected by their greater consumption of meat, poultry, and derivatives (P < 0.0001). Logistic regression analysis revealed a significant inverse relationship between maternal education and the prevalence of anemia (odds ratio: 0.52; 95% confidence interval: 0.32, 0.85). Conclusions As a contributor to socioeconomic status, maternal education is important in reducing the risk of anemia and iron deficiency and in increasing children's consumption of animal food sources.

2011-01-01

93

The Role of Early Maternal Responsiveness in Supporting School-Aged Cognitive Development for Children Who Vary in Birth Status  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVES. To examine the relation between the pattern of maternal responsiveness that children experienced in the infancy, preschool, and school-age periods and growth in cognitive skills across 3-10 years of age and determine whether the relation differs by birth status. METHODS. In 1990 -1992, 360 children varying in birth status (very low birthweight (VLBW); demographically matched controls) were recruited to

Karen E. Smith; Susan H. Landry; Paul R. Swank

2009-01-01

94

Association Between Maternal Diabetes in Utero and Age at Offspring's Diagnosis of Type 2 Diabetes  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE—The purpose of this study was to examine age of diabetes diagnosis in youth who have a parent with diabetes by diabetes type and whether the parent's diabetes was diagnosed before or after the youth's birth. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS—The cohort comprised SEARCH for Diabetes in Youth Study participants (diabetes diagnosis 2001–2005) with a diabetic parent. SEARCH is a multicenter survey of youth with diabetes diagnosed before age 20 years. RESULTS—Youth with type 2 diabetes were more likely to have a parent with either type 1 or type 2 diabetes (mother 39.3%; father 21.2%) than youth with type 1 diabetes (5.3 and 6.7%, respectively, P < 0.001 for each). Type 2 diabetes was diagnosed 1.68 years earlier among those exposed to diabetes in utero (n = 174) than among those whose mothers’ diabetes was diagnosed later (P = 0.018, controlled for maternal diagnosis age, paternal diabetes, sex, and race/ethnicity). Age at diagnosis of type 1 diabetes for 269 youth with and without in utero exposure did not differ significantly (difference 0.96 year, P = 0.403 after adjustment). Controlled for the father's age of diagnosis, father's diabetes before the child's birth was not associated with age at diagnosis (P = 0.078 for type 1 diabetes; P = 0.140 for type 2 diabetes). CONCLUSIONS—Type 2 diabetes was diagnosed at younger ages among those exposed to hyperglycemia in utero. Among youth with type 1 diabetes, the effect of the intrauterine exposure was not significant when controlled for mother's age of diagnosis. This study helps explain why other studies have found higher age-specific rates of type 2 diabetes among offspring of women with diabetes.

Pettitt, David J.; Lawrence, Jean M.; Beyer, Jennifer; Hillier, Teresa A.; Liese, Angela D.; Mayer-Davis, Beth; Loots, Beth; Imperatore, Giuseppina; Liu, Lenna; Dolan, Lawrence M.; Linder, Barbara; Dabelea, Dana

2008-01-01

95

Maternal-infant relationship quality and risk of obesity at age 5.5 years in a national US cohort  

PubMed Central

Background Poor quality relationships between mothers and toddlers have been associated with higher risk for childhood obesity, but few prospective studies of obesity have assessed maternal-child relationship quality in infancy. In addition it is not known whether the increased risk is associated with the mother’s or the child’s contribution to the relationship quality. Methods We analyzed data (n?=?5650) from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study, Birth Cohort, a national study of U.S. children born in 2001 and followed until they entered kindergarten. At 9 months of age, the Nursing Child Assessment Teaching Scale (NCATS) was used to assess the quality of observed playtime interactions between mothers and infants, yielding separate scores for maternal and infant behaviors. Obesity (BMI ?95th percentile) at age 5.5 years was based on measured weight and height. Results The prevalence (95% confidence interval) of obesity at 5.5 years of age was higher among children in the lowest quartile of maternal NCATS score (20.2% [95% CI: 17.2%, 23.2%]) than in the highest quartile (13.9% [11.3%, 16.5%]), but maternal NCATS score was not significantly associated with obesity after adjustment for race/ethnicity, maternal education and household income. The prevalence of obesity at 5.5 years of age was similar among children in the lowest quartile of infant NCATS score (17.4% [14.4%, 20.3%]) and in the highest quartile (17.6% 14.4%, 20.8%]), and was not changed with covariate adjustment. Conclusions Maternal-infant relationship quality, assessed by direct observation at 9 months of age in a national sample, was not associated with an increased risk of obesity at age 5.5 years after controlling for sociodemographic characteristics.

2014-01-01

96

Preterm delivery but not intrauterine growth retardation is associated with young maternal age among primiparae in rural Nepal  

PubMed Central

Pregnancy during adolescence is associated with adverse birth outcomes, including preterm delivery and low birthweight. The nutrient availability to the fetus may be limited if the mother is still growing. This research aims to study the effects of pregnancy during adolescence in a nutritionally poor environment in rural Nepal. This study utilized data from a randomized controlled trial of micronutrient supplementation during pregnancy in south-eastern Nepal. Women of parity 0 or 1 and of age ? 25 years who gave birth to a singleton liveborn infant who was measured within 72 h of delivery were included (n = 1393). There was no difference in the risk of low birthweight (OR = 0.96; 95% CI = 0.90?1.02) or small for gestational age (OR = 1.01; 95% CI = 0.94?1.08) per year of increasing maternal age among primiparae. Young maternal age did not affect the anthropometry or gestational age of the offspring of parity 1 women. Each year of increasing maternal age among primiparae was associated with increases in birth length (0.07 cm; 95% CI = ?0.01 to 0.16), head (0.05 cm; 95% CI = 0.01?0.09) and chest circumference (0.07 cm; 95% CI = 0.01?0.12), but not weight (9.0 g; 95% CI = ?2.1 to 21.8) of their offspring. Young maternal age was associated with an increased risk of preterm delivery among primiparae (OR = 2.07; 95% CI = 1.26?3.38) that occurred at an age cut-off of ?18 years relative to those 19?25 years. Thus, we conclude that young maternal age (?18 years) increased the risk of preterm delivery, but not intrauterine growth retardation, for the first but not second liveborn infant.

Stewart, Christine P.; Katz, Joanne; Khatry, Subarna K.; LeClerq, Steven C.; Shrestha, Sharada Ram; West, Keith P.; Christian, Parul

2008-01-01

97

Impact of maternal breast cancer on school-aged children in Saudi Arabia  

PubMed Central

Background We examine whether mothers with breast cancer told their children about the diagnosis, explore mothers’ perceptions of the impact of doing so on the mother-child relationship, and assess perceptions of how this affected the children. Methods A convenience sample of 28 women with breast cancer ages 35 to 60 was interviewed using a 39-item close-ended questionnaire at the Al-Amoudi Breast Cancer Center of Excellence, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia. Inclusion criteria were having a diagnosis of breast cancer and having school-aged children (ages 5 to 16 years). Questions were asked concerning each child (n?=?99). Results The majority of women (75%) told their children about the diagnosis, and explained the treatment (61%). In most cases, telling the children had a positive effect on how the children treated their mothers (84%), on the maternal-child relationship (80%), and on the personality and behavior of the child (90%). The most common negative reaction by children was increased clinging behavior to the mother (15%). Despite the perceived positive impact on the mother-child relationship and on the child’s overall behavior towards the mother, school performance suffered as a result (77%). Conclusions These preliminary results suggest that when a mother with breast cancer tells a child about the diagnosis and discusses it with them, this often results in an improvement in the maternal-child relationship. However, the knowing the mother’s diagnosis may adversely affect the child’s school performance, which will need to be anticipated and addressed with formal counseling if it persists.

2014-01-01

98

Does Maternal Prenatal Stress Adversely Affect the Child's Learning and Memory at Age Six?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Prenatal maternal stress has been shown to affect postnatal development in animals and humans. In animals, the morphology and function of the offspring's hippocampus is negatively affected by prenatal maternal stress. The present study prospectively investigated the influence of prenatal maternal stress on learning and memory of 112 children (50…

Gutteling, Barbara M.; de Weerth, Carolina; Zandbelt, Noortje; Mulder, Eduard J. H.; Visser, Gerard H. A.; Buitelaar, Jan K.

2006-01-01

99

Preeclampsia complicated by advanced maternal age: a registry-based study on primiparous women in Finland 1997-2008  

PubMed Central

Background Preeclampsia is a frequent syndrome and its cause has been linked to multiple factors, making prevention of the syndrome a continuous challenge. One of the suggested risk factors for preeclampsia is advanced maternal age. In the Western countries, maternal age at first delivery has been steadily increasing, yet few studies have examined women of advanced maternal age with preeclampsia. The purpose of this registry-based study was to compare the obstetric outcomes in primiparous and preeclamptic women younger and older than 35 years. Methods The registry-based study used data from three Finnish health registries: Finnish Medical Birth Register, Finnish Hospital Discharge Register and Register of Congenital Malformations. The sample contained women under 35 years of age (N?=?15,437) compared with those 35 and over (N?=?2,387) who were diagnosed with preeclampsia and had their first singleton birth in Finland between 1997 and 2008. In multivariate modeling, the main outcome measures were Preterm delivery (before 34 and 37 weeks), low Apgar score (5 min.), small-for-gestational-age, fetal death, asphyxia, Cesarean delivery, induction, blood transfusion and admission to a Neonatal Intensive Care Unit. Results Women of advanced maternal age (AMA) exhibited more preeclampsia (9.4%) than younger women (6.4%). They had more prior terminations (<0.001), were more likely to have a body mass index (BMI) >25 (<0.001), had more in vitro fertilization (IVF) (<0.001) and other fertility treatments (<0.001) and a higher incidence of maternal diabetes (<0.001) and chronic hypertension (<0.001). Multivariate logistic regression indicated that women of AMA had higher rates of: preterm delivery before 37 weeks 19.2% (OR 1.39 CI 1.24 to 1.56) and before 34 weeks 8.7% (OR 1.68 CI 1.43 to 2.00) low Apgar scores at 5 min. 7.1% (OR 1.37 CI 1.00 to 1.88), Small-for-Gestational Age (SGA) 26.5% (OR 1.42 CI 1.28 to 1.57), Asphyxia 12.1% (OR 1.54 CI 1.34 to 1.77), Caesarean delivery 50% (OR 2.02 CI 1.84 to 2.20) and admission to a Neonatal Intensive Care Unit (NICU) 31.6% (OR 1.45 CI 1.32 to 1.60). Conclusions Preeclampsia is more common in women with advanced maternal age. Advanced maternal age is an independent risk factor for adverse outcomes in first-time mothers with preeclampsia.

2012-01-01

100

Maternal diet during pregnancy and allergic sensitization in the offspring by 5 yrs of age: a prospective cohort study.  

PubMed

To examine the effect of maternal diet during pregnancy on allergic sensitization in the offspring by 5 yrs of age. The Finnish type 1 Diabetes Prediction and Prevention Nutrition Study. A population-based cohort study with 5-yr follow-up. A total of 931 children with human leukocyte antigen-conferred susceptibility to type 1 diabetes for whom maternal pregnancy food frequency questionnaire data and allergen-specific immunoglobulin E measurement at 5 yrs were available. Increasing maternal consumption of citrus fruits [odds ratio (OR) = 1.14, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.05-1.25] and total fruit (OR = 1.36, 95% CI = 1.09-1.70) were positively associated with sensitization to inhalant allergens, after adjustment for potential confounders. Maternal intake of vitamin D (OR = 0.56, 95% CI = 0.35-0.91) was inversely associated with sensitization to food allergens. Maternal consumption of citrus fruits during pregnancy may increase the risk to allergic sensitization in the offspring, whereas vitamin D intake may have a beneficial effect. Further studies are required to define more closely the putative effect of maternal intake of polyunsaturated fatty acids on development of allergic diseases in the offspring. PMID:20003068

Nwaru, Bright I; Ahonen, Suvi; Kaila, Minna; Erkkola, Maijaliisa; Haapala, Anna-Maija; Kronberg-Kippilä, Carina; Veijola, Riitta; Ilonen, Jorma; Simell, Olli; Knip, Mikael; Virtanen, Suvi M

2010-02-01

101

Inverse median problems  

Microsoft Academic Search

The inverse p-median problem consists in changing the weights of the customers of a p-median location problem at minimum cost such that a set of p prespecified suppliers becomes the p-median. The cost is proportional to the increase or decrease of the corresponding weight. We show that the discrete version of an inverse p-median problem can be formulated as a

Rainer E. Burkard; Carmen Pleschiutschnig; Jianzhong Zhang

2004-01-01

102

Medians and Altitudes  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This unit will examine the points of concurrency that come from medians and altitudes and their properties. Here is the defintion of a median: Medians Here is the definition of an altitude: Altitudes in a triangle Now, lets discuss their points of concurrency: Concurrence ...

Neubert, Mrs.

2011-11-28

103

Maternal vitamin D status during pregnancy and bone mass in offspring at 20 years of age: a prospective cohort study.  

PubMed

It is uncertain whether the vitamin D status of pregnant women influences bone mass of their children. Cohort studies have yielded conflicting results; none have examined offspring at skeletal maturity. This longitudinal, prospective study investigated the association between maternal vitamin D status and peak bone mass of offspring in 341 mother and offspring pairs in the Western Australian Pregnancy Cohort (Raine) Study. Maternal serum samples collected at 18 weeks gestation were assayed for 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25OHD). Outcomes were total body bone mineral content (BMC) and bone mineral density (BMD) measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry in offspring at 20 years of age. The mean (±?SD) maternal serum 25OHD concentration was 57.2?±?19.2 nmol/L; 132 women (38.7%) were vitamin D-deficient (25OHD <50 nmol/L). After adjustment for season of sample collection, maternal factors, and offspring factors (sex, birth weight, and age, height, lean mass, and fat mass at 20 years), maternal 25OHD concentration was positively associated with total body BMC and BMD in offspring, with a mean difference of 19.2 (95% confidence interval [CI], 5.6-32.7) g for BMC and 4.6 (95% CI, 0.1-9.1) mg/cm(2) for BMD per 10.0 nmol/L of maternal 25OHD. Maternal vitamin D deficiency was associated with 2.7% lower total body BMC (mean?±?SE) (2846?±?20 versus 2924?±?16?g, p?=?0.004) and 1.7% lower total body BMD (1053?±?7 versus 1071?±?5?mg/cm(2) , p?=?0.043) in the offspring. We conclude that vitamin D deficiency in pregnant women is associated with lower peak bone mass in their children. This may increase fracture risk in the offspring in later life. PMID:24189972

Zhu, Kun; Whitehouse, Andrew J O; Hart, Prue H; Kusel, Merci; Mountain, Jenny; Lye, Stephen; Pennell, Craig; Walsh, John P

2014-05-01

104

A weight-gain-for-gestational-age z score chart for the assessment of maternal weight gain in pregnancy123  

PubMed Central

Background: To establish the unbiased relation between maternal weight gain in pregnancy and perinatal health, a classification for maternal weight gain is needed that is uncorrelated with gestational age. Objective: The goal of this study was to create a weight-gain-for-gestational-age percentile and z score chart to describe the mean, SD, and selected percentiles of maternal weight gain throughout pregnancy in a contemporary cohort of US women. Design: The study population was drawn from normal-weight women with uncomplicated, singleton pregnancies who delivered at the Magee-Womens Hospital in Pittsburgh, PA, 1998–2008. Analyses were based on a randomly selected subset of 648 women for whom serial prenatal weight measurements were available through medical chart record abstraction (6727 weight measurements). Results: The pattern of maternal weight gain throughout gestation was estimated by using a random-effects regression model. The estimates were used to create a chart with the smoothed means, percentiles, and SDs of gestational weight gain for each week of pregnancy. Conclusion: This chart allows researchers to express total weight gain as an age-standardized z score, which can be used in epidemiologic analyses to study the association between pregnancy weight gain and adverse or physiologic pregnancy outcomes independent of gestational age.

Platt, Robert W; Abrams, Barbara; Himes, Katherine P; Simhan, Hyagriv N; Bodnar, Lisa M

2013-01-01

105

The effect of maternal anthropometric characteristics and social factors on gestational age and birth weight in Sudanese newborn infants  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: In Africa low birth weight (LBW) (<2500 g), is the strongest determinant of infant morbidity and mortality. The aim of this study was to quantify the effect of maternal anthropometry, education and socio-economic status on gestational age and birth weight. METHODS: In 1000 Sudanese mothers with singleton births, anthropometric measurements (weight, height, mid-arm circumference) and newborn birth weight were

Eltahir M Elshibly; Gerd Schmalisch

2008-01-01

106

Preimplantation genetic screening in women of advanced maternal age caused a decrease in clinical pregnancy rate: a randomized controlled trial  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Advanced maternal age (AMA) is an important parameter that negatively influences the clinical pregnancy rate in IVF, in particular owing to the increased embryo aneuploidy rate. It has thus been suggested that only transferring euploid embryos in this patient group would improve the pregnancy rate. The purpose of this study was to test whether employing preimplantation genetic screening (PGS)

T. Hardarson; C. Hanson; K. Lundin; T. Hillensjo; L. Nilsson; J. Stevic; E. Reismer; K. Borg; M. Wikland; C. Bergh

2008-01-01

107

Normative Scores and Factor Structure of the Profile of Mood States for Women Seeking Prenatal Diagnosis for Advanced Maternal Age.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A sample of pregnant women (N=705) was given the monopolar version of the Profile of Mood States (POMS) in prenatal counseling for advanced maternal age to develop normative data and to determine the factor structure of the POMS for this group of women in the first trimester of pregnancy. (SLD)

Tunis, Sandra L.; And Others

1990-01-01

108

The Effects of Age and Infant Hearing Status on Maternal Use of Prosodic Cues for Clause Boundaries in Speech  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: The present study examined the effects of age and hearing status of a child on maternal use of pitch change, preboundary vowel lengthening, and pause duration, all of which are prosodic cues correlated with clause boundaries in infant-directed speech. Method: Mothers' speech to infants with normal hearing (NH; n = 18), infants who are…

Kondaurova, Maria V.; Bergeson, Tonya R.

2011-01-01

109

Maternal smoking, demographic and lifestyle factors in relation to daughter's age at menarche.  

PubMed

A previous study suggested a younger age at menarche (AAM) among daughters of heavy prenatal smokers, especially among non-Whites. The present study was designed to evaluate that association in another population and to examine other factors that may be related to AAM. We analysed data from the Collaborative Perinatal Project, a nationwide longitudinal study of pregnant women and their children conducted in 1959-66. At three sites, with a predominance of Black participants (80%), AAM was ascertained in the offspring when they were young adults. We included data on 1556 daughters who had a mean AAM of 12.7 years (standard deviation 1.8). Amount smoked by the mothers was obtained from a baseline interview and subsequent prenatal visits. Regression models were run including maternal smoking and other covariates, for only the prenatal period, as well as in models with some childhood characteristics. In the prenatal factor model, younger mean AAM in daughters was found with maternal characteristics of earlier AAM, being married, and of lower parity. Examining childhood variables, earlier AAM was found among girls with few or no siblings or with higher socio-economic status. Unlike our previous findings, mean AAM was later in daughters of heavy smokers (20+ cigarettes/day), with a delay of 0.31 years [95% confidence interval (CI) 0.008, 0.61], or about 3.7 months in the prenatal model, and 0.34 years [95% CI -0.02, 0.66] in the model with childhood variables included. The pattern was consistent by race. A number of prenatal and childhood factors related to AAM were identified that should be considered when examining exogenous exposures in relation to pubertal onset. PMID:19000293

Windham, Gayle C; Zhang, Lixia; Longnecker, Matthew P; Klebanoff, Mark

2008-11-01

110

Longitudinal association of maternal attempt to lose weight during the postpartum period and child obesity at age 3 years.  

PubMed

The effect of maternal attempt to lose weight during the postpartum period on later child weight has not been explored. Among 1,044 mother-infant pairs in Project Viva, we estimated longitudinal associations of maternal attempt to lose weight during the postpartum period with child weight and adiposity at age 3 years and examined differences in associations by type of weight loss strategy used. Using covariate-adjusted linear and logistic regression models, we estimated associations before and after adjusting for maternal weight-related variables including prepregnancy BMI. At 6 months postpartum, 53% mothers were trying to lose weight. At age 3 years, mean (s.d.) child BMI z-score was 0.44 (1.01) and 8.9% of children were obese. Children whose mothers were trying to lose weight at 6 months postpartum had higher BMI z-scores (0.30 (95% confidence interval (CI) 0.18, 0.42)) and were more likely to be obese (3.0 (95% CI 1.6, 5.8)) at 3 years of age. Addition of maternal prepregnancy BMI to the models attenuated but did not eliminate the associations seen for BMI z-score (0.24 (95% CI 0.12, 0.36) and obesity (2.4 (95% CI 1.2, 4.7)). Attempting to lose weight by exercising alone was the only weight loss strategy that consistently predicted higher child BMI z-score (0.36 (95% CI 0.14, 0.58)) and odds of obesity (6.0 (95% CI 2.2, 16.5)) at age 3 years. In conclusion, we observed an association between maternal attempt to lose weight at 6 months postpartum, particularly through exercise alone, measured using a single item and child adiposity at age 3 years. This association should be thoroughly examined in future studies. PMID:21350436

Sonneville, Kendrin R; Rifas-Shiman, Sheryl L; Oken, Emily; Peterson, Karen E; Gortmaker, Steven L; Gillman, Matthew W; Taveras, Elsie M

2011-10-01

111

Longitudinal Association of Maternal Attempt to Lose Weight During the Postpartum Period and Child Obesity at Age 3 Years  

PubMed Central

The effect of maternal attempt to lose weight during the postpartum period on later child weight has not been explored. Among 1,044 mother–infant pairs in Project Viva, we estimated longitudinal associations of maternal attempt to lose weight during the postpartum period with child weight and adiposity at age 3 years and examined differences in associations by type of weight loss strategy used. Using covariate-adjusted linear and logistic regression models, we estimated associations before and after adjusting for maternal weight-related variables including prepregnancy BMI. At 6 months postpartum, 53% mothers were trying to lose weight. At age 3 years, mean (s.d.) child BMI z-score was 0.44 (1.01) and 8.9% of children were obese. Children whose mothers were trying to lose weight at 6 months postpartum had higher BMI z-scores (0.30 (95% confidence interval (CI) 0.18, 0.42)) and were more likely to be obese (3.0 (95% CI 1.6, 5.8)) at 3 years of age. Addition of maternal prepregnancy BMI to the models attenuated but did not eliminate the associations seen for BMI z-score (0.24 (95% CI 0.12, 0.36) and obesity (2.4 (95% CI 1.2, 4.7)). Attempting to lose weight by exercising alone was the only weight loss strategy that consistently predicted higher child BMI z-score (0.36 (95% CI 0.14, 0.58)) and odds of obesity (6.0 (95% CI 2.2, 16.5)) at age 3 years. In conclusion, we observed an association between maternal attempt to lose weight at 6 months postpartum, particularly through exercise alone, measured using a single item and child adiposity at age 3 years. This association should be thoroughly examined in future studies.

Sonneville, Kendrin R.; Rifas-Shiman, Sheryl L.; Oken, Emily; Peterson, Karen E.; Gortmaker, Steven L.; Gillman, Matthew W.; Taveras, Elsie M.

2011-01-01

112

Topological median filters.  

PubMed

This paper describes the definition and testing of a new type of median filter for images. The topological median filter implements some existing ideas and some new ideas on fuzzy connectedness to improve, over a conventional median filter, the extraction of edges in noise. The concept of alpha-connectivity is defined and used to create an algorithm for computing the degree of connectedness of a pixel to all the other pixels in an arbitrary neighborhood. The resulting connectivity map of the neighborhood effectively disconnects peaks in the neighborhood that are separated from the center pixel by a valley in the brightness topology. The median of the connectivity map is an estimate of the median of the peak or plateau to which the center pixel belongs. Unlike the conventional median filter, the topological median is relatively unaffected by disconnected features in the neighborhood of the center pixel. Four topological median filters are defined. Qualitative and statistical analyses of the four filters are presented. It is demonstrated that edge detection can be more accurate on topologically median filtered images than on conventionally median filtered images. PMID:18244615

Senel, Hakan Güray; Peters, Richard Alan; Dawant, Benoit

2002-01-01

113

Germline Mosaicism Does Not Explain the Maternal Age Effect on Trisomy  

PubMed Central

A variety of hypotheses have been proposed to explain the association between trisomy and increasing maternal age in humans, virtually all of which assume that the underlying mechanisms involve meiotic errors. However, recently Hultén and colleagues [Hulten et al., 2010b] proposed a provocative model—the Oocyte Mosaicism Selection Model (OMSM)—that links age-dependent trisomy 21 to pre-meiotic errors in the ovary. Specifically, they propose that nondisjunctional events occur in a proportion of germ cells as they mitotically proliferate, resulting in mosaicism for trisomy 21. Assuming that the presence of an additional chromosome 21 delays meioticprogression, these cells would be ovulated later in reproductive life, resulting in an age-dependent increase in aneuploid eggs. Because this model has important clinical implications, we initiated studies to test it. We first analyzed oocytes from two trisomy 21 fetuses, combining immunostaining with FISH to determine the likelihood of detecting the additional chromosome 21 at different stages of meiosis. The detection of trisomy was enhanced during the earliest stage of prophase (leptotene), before homologs synapsed. Accordingly, in subsequent studies we examined the chromosome content of leptotene oocytes in seven second trimester female fetuses, analyzing three chromosomes commonly associated with human trisomies (i.e., 13, 16, and 21). In contrast to the prediction of the OMSM, we found no evidence of trisomy mosaicism for any chromosome. We conclude that errors in premeiotic germ cells are not a major contributor to human aneuploidy and do not provide an explanation for the age-related increase in trisomic conceptions.

Rowsey, Ross; Kashevarova, Anna; Murdoch, Brenda; Dickenson, Carrie; Woodruff, Tracey; Cheng, Edith; Hunt, Patricia; Hassold, Terry

2014-01-01

114

Maternal age and spine development in a rotifer: ecological implications and evolution.  

PubMed

Brachionus calyciflorus typically develops long, defensive spines only in response to a kairomone from the predatory rotifer, Asplanchna. However, in the absence of any environmental induction, females of some clones produce daughters with increasingly long spines as they age; late-born individuals can have posterolateral spines as long as those induced by Asplanchna: up to 50% or more of body length. Here, we construct a model using data from life-table and predator-prey experiments to assess how this maternal-age effect can influence the distribution of spine lengths in reproducing populations and provide defense against Asplanchna predation. When Asplanchna is absent, the frequency of individuals with late birth orders rapidly becomes extremely low; thus, any cost associated with the production of long-spined individuals is minimal. When Asplanchna is present at densities too low for spine induction, and preys selectively on individuals with no or short posterolateral spines, the frequency of long-spined individuals rapidly increases until a stable birth-order structure is reached. As a result, mortality from Asplanchna predation is greatly reduced. The pronounced and novel birth-order effect in this rotifer appears to be an effective bet-hedging strategy to limit predation by Asplanchna when its kairomone induces no or less than maximal spine development. PMID:24358702

Gilbert, John J; McPeek, Mark A

2013-10-01

115

Effect of intubation and mechanical ventilation on exhaled nitric oxide in preterm infants with and without bronchopulmonary dysplasia measured at a median postmenstrual age of 49 weeks  

PubMed Central

Background Exhaled nitric oxide (eNO) is a marker of established airway inflammation in adults and children, but conflicting results have been reported in preterm infants when postnatal eNO is measured during tidal breathing. This study investigated the extent to which intubation and mechanical ventilation (MV) affect eNO and NO production (V’NO) in preterm infants with and without bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD). Patients and methods A total of 176 very low birth weight (VLBW) infants (birth weight <1500 g), including 74 (42%) with and 102 (58%) without BPD, were examined at a median postmenstrual age of 49 weeks. Of the 176 infants, 84 (48%) did not require MV, 47 (27%) required MV for <7 days and 45 (26%) required MV for ?7 days. Exhaled NO and tidal breathing parameters were measured in sleeping infants during tidal breathing, respiratory mechanics were assessed by occlusion tests, and arterialized capillary blood gas was analyzed. Results eNO was significantly correlated with tidal breathing parameters, while V’NO was correlated with growth parameters, including age and body length (p?

2014-01-01

116

Reproductive age mortality survey to study under-reporting of maternal mortality in Surinam  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives: A nationwide confidential enquiry into maternal deaths was carried out in Surinam during the years 1991–1993. Preliminary analysis showed a maternal mortality ratio (MMR) of 240 per 100?000 live births, which was almost four times higher than the official MMR for the preceding decade. The question arose whether maternal deaths had been under-reported for the years 1981–1990. For these

A Mungra; S. C van Bokhoven; J Florie; R. W van Kanten; J van Roosmalen; H. H. H Kanhai

1998-01-01

117

Predicting Elements of Early Maternal Elaborative Discourse from 12 to 18 Months of Age  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

To date, much of the research investigating maternal-child discourse has focused on the preschool period of children's development, with little attention paid to how these styles develop. The current study aimed to assess whether maternal elaborative discourse elements seen in preschool are also evident during the toddler years, and whether the…

Ontai, Lenna L.; Virmani, Elita Amini

2010-01-01

118

Downstream Effects of Maternal Hypothyroxinemia in Early Pregnancy: Nonverbal IQ and Brain Morphology in School-Age Children.  

PubMed

Context: Although maternal hypothyroxinemia is suggested to be related to various adverse consequences in a child's neurodevelopment, the underlying neurobiology is largely unknown. Objective: The objective of the study was to examine the relationship between maternal hypothyroxinemia in early pregnancy and children's nonverbal intelligence quotient (IQ). Furthermore, we explored whether global brain volumes, cortical thickness, and brain surface area differed between children exposed prenatally to hypothyroxinemia and healthy controls. Design and Setting: The study included a large population-based prospective birth cohort in The Netherlands. Participants: A total of 3727 mother-child pairs with data on prenatal thyroid function at less than 18 weeks of gestation and nonverbal IQ at 6 years participated in the study. In 652 children, brain imaging was performed at 8 years of age. Main Measures: Maternal hypothyroxinemia was defined as free T4 in the lowest 5% of the sample, whereas TSH was in the normal range. At 6 years, children's IQ was assessed using a Dutch test battery. Global brain volumetric measures, cortical thickness, and surface area were assessed using high-resolution structural magnetic resonance imaging. Results: The children of mothers with hypothyroxinemia in early pregnancy scored 4.3 points IQ lower than the children of mothers with normal thyroid status (95% confidence interval -6.68, -1.81; P = .001). After adjustment for multiple testing, we did not find any differences in brain volumetric measures, cortical thickness, and surface area between children exposed prenatally to hypothyroxinemia and controls. Conclusions: Our findings confirm a large adverse effect of maternal hypothyroxinemia on children's nonverbal IQ at school age. However, we found no evidence that maternal hypothyroxinemia is associated with differences in brain morphology in school-age children. PMID:24684462

Ghassabian, Akhgar; El Marroun, Hanan; Peeters, Robin P; Jaddoe, Vincent W; Hofman, Albert; Verhulst, Frank C; Tiemeier, Henning; White, Tonya

2014-07-01

119

Chronic Maternal Depression Is Associated with Reduced Weight Gain in Latino Infants from Birth to 2 Years of Age  

PubMed Central

Background Latino children are at increased risk for mirconutrient deficiencies and problems of overweight and obesity. Exposures in pregnancy and early postpartum may impact future growth trajectories. Objectives To evaluate the relationship between prenatal and postnatal maternal depressive symptoms experienced in pregnancy and infant growth from birth to 2 years of age in a cohort of Latino infants. Methods We recruited pregnant Latina mothers at two San Francisco hospitals and followed their healthy infants to 24 months of age. At 6, 12 and 24 months of age, infants were weighed and measured. Maternal depressive symptoms were assessed prenatally and at 4-6 weeks postpartum. Women who had high depressive symptoms at both time periods were defined as having chronic depression. Logistic mixed models were applied to compare growth curves and risk for overweight and underweight based on exposure to maternal depression. Results We followed 181 infants to 24 months. At 12 and 24 months, respectively, 27.4% and 40.5% were overweight, and 5.6% and 2.2% were underweight. Exposure to chronic maternal depression was associated with underweight (OR?=?12.12, 95%CI 1.86-78.78) and with reduced weight gain in the first 2 years of life (Coef?=?-0.48, 95% CI -0.94—0.01) compared with unexposed infants or infants exposed to episodic depression (depression at one time point). Exposure to chronic depression was also associated with reduced risk for overweight in the first 2 years of life (OR 0.28, 95%CI 0.03-0.92). Conclusions Exposure to chronic maternal depression in the pre- and postnatal period was associated with reduced weight gain in the first two years of life and greater risk for failure to thrive, in comparison with unexposed infants or those exposed episodically. The infants of mothers with chronic depression may need additional nutritional monitoring and intervention.

Wojcicki, Janet M.; Holbrook, Katherine; Lustig, Robert H.; Epel, Elissa; Caughey, Aaron B.; Munoz, Ricardo F.; Shiboski, Stephen C.; Heyman, Melvin B.

2011-01-01

120

EFFECTS OF MATERNAL EXPOSURE TO PHTHALATES AND BISPHENOL A DURING PREGNANCY ON GESTATIONAL AGE  

PubMed Central

Objective Phthalates and bisphenol A (BPA) are ubiquitous environmental toxicants, present in high concentrations in numerous consumer products. We hypothesized that maternal exposure to phthalates and BPA in pregnancy is associated with shortened gestation. Methods Urinary phthalate and BPA metabolites from 72 pregnant women were measured at the last obstetric clinic visit prior to delivery. Using linear regression models, we estimated the change in gestational age associated with each interquartile range (IQR) increase in phthalate and BPA metabolite concentration. Results IQR increases in urinary mono(2-ethyl-5-hydroxyhexyl) phthalate (MEHHP) and BPA concentrations were associated with 4.2 and 1.1 day decreases in gestation, respectively. When stratified by gender, these alterations were found only in male infants. Conclusions We conclude that MEHHP and BPA (free + glucuronide) are associated with reductions in gestation, with effects observed only in males. Our findings are consistent with the idea that these agents induce gender-specific alterations in signaling via PPAR-? transcription factor, androgen precursors, and/or inflammatory mediators during the initiation of labor.

Weinberger, Barry; Vetrano, Anna M.; Archer, Faith E.; Marcella, Stephen W.; Buckley, Brian; Wartenberg, Daniel; Robson, Mark G.; Klim, Jammie; Azhar, Sana; Cavin, Sarah; Wang, Lu; Rich, David Q.

2014-01-01

121

The levels of measles antibodies in Nigerian children aged 0-12 months and its relationship with maternal parity.  

PubMed Central

Six hundred and fifty-seven children aged between 0 and 12 months were randomly chosen and studied for measles antibody titres by the haemagglutination inhibition (HAI) test. The results showed significant variations in HAI antibody titres. Children between 0-3 months showed high measles HAI antibody titres which declined to a trough between 4 and 6 months. A rise in HAI antibody titre was observed from 10 to 12 months age. Multiparity and higher age in the mothers were noted as probable factors influencing the titres of measles HAI antibody in children. The results indicated that with increased maternal parity, measles HAI antibody titres in the children declined.

Eghafona, N. O.; Ahmad, A. A.; Odama, L. E.; Onuora, C.; Gosham, L. T.; Emejuaiwe, S. O.; Woghiren, E. I.

1987-01-01

122

Maternal selenium, copper and zinc concentrations in pregnancy associated with small-for-gestational-age infants.  

PubMed

Pregnancy during adolescence increases the risk of adverse pregnancy outcome, especially small-for-gestational-age (SGA) birth, which has been linked to micronutrient deficiencies. Smoking has been shown to be related to lower micronutrient concentrations. Different ethnicities have not been examined. We used a subset from a prospective observational study, the About Teenage Eating study consisting of 126 pregnant adolescents (14-18-year-olds) between 28 and 32 weeks gestation. Micronutrient status was assessed by inductively coupled mass spectrometry. Smoking was assessed by self-report and plasma cotinine, and SGA was defined as infants born <10th corrected birthweight centile. The main outcome measures were as follows: (1) maternal plasma selenium, copper and zinc concentrations in adolescent mothers giving birth to SGA vs. appropriate-for-gestational-age (AGA) infants; and (2) comparison of micronutrient concentrations between women of different ethnicities and smoking habits. The plasma selenium {mean?±?standard deviation (SD) [95% confidence interval (CI)]} concentration was lower in the SGA [n?=?19: 49.4?±?7.3 (CI: 45.9, 52.9) µg?L(-1) ] compared with the AGA [n?=?107: 65.1?±?12.5 (CI: 62.7, 67.5) µg?L(-1) ; P?

Mistry, Hiten D; Kurlak, Lesia O; Young, Scott D; Briley, Annette L; Broughton Pipkin, Fiona; Baker, Philip N; Poston, Lucilla

2014-07-01

123

Economics of Disability Research Report #4: Estimates of the Prevalence of Disability, Employment Rates, and Median Household Size-Adjusted Income for People with Disabilities Aged 18 though 64 in the United States by State, 1980 through 2000  

Microsoft Academic Search

This report replicates Economics of Disability Reports 1, 2, and 3, with some minor changes. These reports contain the prevalence of a disability, employment rates, and median household size-adjusted income between states over the 1980s and 1990s. In response to the requests of state officials to generate statistics that reflect the population they serve, this report includes people aged 18

Andrew J. Houtenville; Adam F Adler

2001-01-01

124

Mapping for maternal and newborn health: the distributions of women of childbearing age, pregnancies and births  

PubMed Central

Background The health and survival of women and their new-born babies in low income countries has been a key priority in public health since the 1990s. However, basic planning data, such as numbers of pregnancies and births, remain difficult to obtain and information is also lacking on geographic access to key services, such as facilities with skilled health workers. For maternal and newborn health and survival, planning for safer births and healthier newborns could be improved by more accurate estimations of the distributions of women of childbearing age. Moreover, subnational estimates of projected future numbers of pregnancies are needed for more effective strategies on human resources and infrastructure, while there is a need to link information on pregnancies to better information on health facilities in districts and regions so that coverage of services can be assessed. Methods This paper outlines demographic mapping methods based on freely available data for the production of high resolution datasets depicting estimates of numbers of people, women of childbearing age, live births and pregnancies, and distribution of comprehensive EmONC facilities in four large high burden countries: Afghanistan, Bangladesh, Ethiopia and Tanzania. Satellite derived maps of settlements and land cover were constructed and used to redistribute areal census counts to produce detailed maps of the distributions of women of childbearing age. Household survey data, UN statistics and other sources on growth rates, age specific fertility rates, live births, stillbirths and abortions were then integrated to convert the population distribution datasets to gridded estimates of births and pregnancies. Results and conclusions These estimates, which can be produced for current, past or future years based on standard demographic projections, can provide the basis for strategic intelligence, planning services, and provide denominators for subnational indicators to track progress. The datasets produced are part of national midwifery workforce assessments conducted in collaboration with the respective Ministries of Health and the United Nations Population Fund (UNFPA) to identify disparities between population needs, health infrastructure and workforce supply. The datasets are available to the respective Ministries as part of the UNFPA programme to inform midwifery workforce planning and also publicly available through the WorldPop population mapping project.

2014-01-01

125

Chronic Maternal Depression Is Associated with Reduced Weight Gain in Latino Infants from Birth to 2 Years of Age  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundLatino children are at increased risk for mirconutrient deficiencies and problems of overweight and obesity. Exposures in pregnancy and early postpartum may impact future growth trajectories.ObjectivesTo evaluate the relationship between prenatal and postnatal maternal depressive symptoms experienced in pregnancy and infant growth from birth to 2 years of age in a cohort of Latino infants.MethodsWe recruited pregnant Latina mothers at

Janet M. Wojcicki; Katherine Holbrook; Robert H. Lustig; Elissa Epel; Aaron B. Caughey; Ricardo F. Muñoz; Stephen C. Shiboski; Melvin B. Heyman; Virginia Vitzthum

2011-01-01

126

Healthy births and ongoing pregnancies obtained by preimplantation genetic diagnosis in patients with advanced maternal age and recurrent implantation failure  

Microsoft Academic Search

Preimplantation genetic diagnosis (PGD) and subsequent embryo development was evaluated in 72 couples presenting at our centre for intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) due to severe male factor. The embryo biopsies were performed in Ca2\\/Mg2-free medium. These patients were further divided into those with advanced maternal age (AMA, n 49) and those with recurrent implantation failure (RIF, n 23). Fluorescence in-situ

S. Kahraman; M. Bahce; H. Samlõ; N. I úmirzalõog ùlu; K. Yakõsn; G. Cengiz; E. Donmez

2000-01-01

127

Mode, Median, and Mean  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This application requires students to sort buildings by height to find the Median, Mode, and Mean of each data set. The application works through 6 different data sets and provides feedback for correct and incorrect responses.

2012-01-01

128

Maternal diet amplifies the hepatic aging trajectory of Cidea in male mice and leads to the development of fatty liver.  

PubMed

The importance of the early environment on long-term heath and life span is well documented. However, the molecular mechanisms mediating these effects remain poorly understood. Male offspring from a maternal protein restriction model, in which animals are exposed to a low-protein diet while in utero and then are cross-fostered to normally fed dams, demonstrate low birth weight, catch-up growth, and reduced life span (recuperated offspring). In the current study, we used microarray analysis to identify hepatic genes that changed with age. Cell death-inducing DNA fragmentation factor, ? subunit-like effector A (Cidea), a transcriptional coactivator that has been implicated in lipid accumulation demonstrated one of the largest age-associated increases in expression (200-fold, P<0.001). This increase was exaggerated ?3-fold in recuperated offspring. These demonstrated increased hepatic lipid accumulation, higher levels of transcription factors important in lipid regulation, and greater oxidative stress. In vitro analysis revealed that Cidea expression was regulated by oxidative stress and DNA methylation. These findings suggest that maternal diet modulates the age-associated changes in Cidea expression through several mechanisms. This expression affects hepatic lipid metabolism in these animals and thus provides a mechanism by which maternal diet can contribute to the metabolic health and ultimately the life span of the offspring. PMID:24481968

Carr, Sarah K; Chen, Jian-Hua; Cooper, Wendy N; Constância, Miguel; Yeo, Giles S H; Ozanne, Susan E

2014-05-01

129

Effect of age and maternal antibodies on the systemic and mucosal immune response after neonatal immunization in a porcine model.  

PubMed

Newborn mammals are highly susceptible to respiratory infections. Although maternal antibodies (MatAb) offer them some protection, they may also interfere with their systemic immune response to vaccination. However, the impact of MatAb on the neonatal mucosal immune response remains incompletely described. This study was performed to determine the effect of ovalbumin (OVA) -specific MatAb on the anti- OVA antibody response in sera, nasal secretions and saliva from specific pathogen-free Vietnamese miniature piglets immunized at 7 or 14 days of age. Our results demonstrated that MatAb increased antigen-specific IgA and IgG responses in sera, and transiently enhanced an early secretory IgA response in nasal secretions of piglets immunized at 7 days of age. In contrast, we detected a lower mucosal (nasal secretion and saliva) anti- OVA IgG response in piglets with MatAb immunized at 14 days of age, compared with piglets with no MatAb, suggesting a modulatory effect of antigen-specific maternal factors on the isotype transfer to the mucosal immune exclusion system. In our porcine model, we demonstrated that passive maternal immunity positively modulated the systemic and nasal immune responses of animals immunized early in life. Our results, therefore, open the possibility of inducing systemic and respiratory mucosal immunity in the presence of MatAb through early vaccination. PMID:24754050

Guzman-Bautista, Edgar R; Garcia-Ruiz, Carlos E; Gama-Espinosa, Alicia l; Ramirez-Estudillo, Carmen; Rojas-Gomez, Oscar I; Vega-Lopez, Marco A

2014-04-01

130

Fetal and maternal genes' influence on gestational age in a quantitative genetic analysis of 244,000 Swedish births.  

PubMed

Although there is increasing evidence that genetic factors influence gestational age, it is unclear to what extent this is due to fetal and/or maternal genes. In this study, we apply a novel analytical model to estimate genetic and environmental contributions to pregnancy history records obtained from 165,952 Swedish families consisting of offspring of twins, full siblings, and half-siblings (1987-2008). Results indicated that fetal genetic factors explained 13.1% (95% confidence interval (CI): 6.8, 19.4) of the variation in gestational age at delivery, while maternal genetic factors accounted for 20.6% (95% CI: 18.1, 23.2). The largest contribution to differences in the timing of birth were environmental factors, of which 10.1% (95% CI: 7.0, 13.2) was due to factors shared by births of the same mother, and 56.2% (95% CI: 53.0, 59.4) was pregnancy specific. Similar models fit to the same data dichotomized at clinically meaningful thresholds (e.g., preterm birth) resulted in less stable parameter estimates, but the collective results supported a model of homogeneous genetic and environmental effects across the range of gestational age. Since environmental factors explained most differences in the timing of birth, genetic studies may benefit from understanding the specific effect of fetal and maternal genes in the context of these yet-unidentified factors. PMID:23568591

York, Timothy P; Eaves, Lindon J; Lichtenstein, Paul; Neale, Michael C; Svensson, Anna; Latendresse, Shawn; Långström, Niklas; Strauss, Jerome F

2013-08-15

131

Influence of Second-Trimester Ultrasound Markers for Down Syndrome in Pregnant Women of Advanced Maternal Age  

PubMed Central

The objective of the present study was to evaluate the influence of second-trimester ultrasound markers on the incidence of Down syndrome among pregnant women of advanced maternal age. This was a retrospective cohort study on 889 singleton pregnancies between the 14th and 30th weeks, with maternal age ? 35 years, which would undergo genetic amniocentesis. The second-trimester ultrasound assessed the following markers: increased nuchal fold thickness, cardiac hyperechogenic focus, mild ventriculomegaly, choroid plexus cysts, uni- or bilateral renal pyelectasis, intestinal hyperechogenicity, single umbilical artery, short femur and humerus length, hand/foot alterations, structural fetal malformation, and congenital heart disease. To investigate differences between the groups with and without markers, nonparametric tests consisting of the chi-square test or Fisher's exact test were used. Moreover, odds ratios with their respective 95% confidence intervals were calculated. Out of the 889 pregnant women, 131 (17.3%) presented markers and 758 (82.7%) did not present markers on the second-trimester ultrasound. Increased nuchal fold (P < 0.001) and structural malformation (P < 0.001) were the markers most associated with Down syndrome. The presence of one marker increased the relative risk 10.5-fold, while the presence of two or more markers increased the risk 13.5-fold. The presence of markers on the second-trimester ultrasound, especially thickened nuchal fold and structural malformation, increased the risk of Down syndrome among pregnant women with advanced maternal age.

Rumi Kataguiri, Mariza; Silva Bussamra, Luiz Claudio; Machado Nardozza, Luciano Marcondes; Fernandes Moron, Antonio

2014-01-01

132

Maternal caffeine consumption and small for gestational age births: results from a population-based case-control study.  

PubMed

Caffeine is consumed in various forms during pregnancy, has increased half-life during pregnancy and crosses the placental barrier. Small for gestational age (SGA) is an important perinatal outcome and has been associated with long term complications. We examined the association between maternal caffeine intake and SGA using National Birth Defects Prevention Study data. Non-malformed live born infants with an estimated date of delivery from 1997-2007 (n = 7,943) were included in this analysis. Maternal caffeine exposure was examined as total caffeine intake and individual caffeinated beverage type (coffee, tea, and soda); sex-, race/ethnic-, and parity-specific growth curves were constructed to estimate SGA births. Crude and adjusted odds ratios (aORs) and 95 % confidence intervals were estimated using unconditional logistic regression. Interaction with caffeine exposures was assessed for maternal smoking, vasoconstrictor medication use, and folic acid. Six hundred forty-eight infants (8.2 %) were found to be SGA in this analysis. Increasing aORs were observed for increasing intakes of total caffeine and for each caffeinated beverage with aORs (adjusting for maternal education, high blood pressure, and smoking) ranging from 1.3 to 2.1 for the highest intake categories (300+ mg/day total caffeine and 3+ servings/day for each beverage type). Little indication of additive interaction by maternal smoking, vasoconstrictor medication use, or folic acid intake was observed. We observed an increase in SGA births for mothers with higher caffeine intake, particularly for those consuming 300+ mg of caffeine per day. Increased aORs were also observed for tea intake but were more attenuated for coffee and soda intake. PMID:24288144

Hoyt, Adrienne T; Browne, Marilyn; Richardson, Sandra; Romitti, Paul; Druschel, Charlotte

2014-08-01

133

Maternal infection during late pregnancy increases anxiety- and depression-like behaviors with increasing age in male offspring.  

PubMed

Scientific reports suggest that the exposure to long-term stressors throughout or during late gestation increase anxiety- and depression-like behaviors of offspring in their later life. Moreover, several studies concluded that increasing age correlates with increased anxiety behaviors in humans and rodents. In the present study, we assessed the effects of prenatally administration of equal lipopolysaccharide (LPS) doses in various points of late gestation (days 15, 16, and 17) period, on neuroendocrine and immunological responses of pregnant mice, and subsequent long-lasting consequences of anxiety and depression with increasing age in male offspring at postnatal days (PD) 40 and 80. Four hours after the LPS injection, levels of corticosterone (COR) and pro-inflammatory cytokines (PIC) in pregnant mice, as compared to the control dams, were increased significantly. Furthermore, maternal inflammation raised the levels of COR, anxiety- and depression-like behaviors with increasing age in male offspring in comparison with saline male offspring. These data support other studies demonstrating that maternal stress increases the levels of anxiety and depression in offspring. Additionally, our data confirm other findings indicating that increasing age correlates with increased anxiety or depression behaviors in humans and rodents. Findings of this study suggest that time course of an inflammation response or stressor application during various stages of gestation and ages of offspring are important factors for assessing neuropsychiatric disorders. PMID:21893170

Enayati, Mohsen; Solati, Jalal; Hosseini, Mohammad-Hassan; Shahi, Hamid-Reza; Saki, Golshid; Salari, Ali-Akbar

2012-02-10

134

The Effect of Young Maternal Age on Children's Education Level: Does the Age of Giving Birth Really Matter? (in Japanese)  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is evidence that young mothers do not have the opportunity to accumulate human capital for themselves, which can have a negative effect on theirchildren's outcomes. This study investigates the effect of young maternal ageon children's educational level. No significant direct effect of young maternalage was found, but it did have a significant indirect effect on parental economic conditions and

Kohei Kubota

2011-01-01

135

Mean and Median  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

"This applet allows the user to investigate the mean, median, and box-and-whisker plot for a set of data that they create. The data set may contain up to 15 integers, each with a value from 0 to 100." from NCTM Illuminations.

Mathematics, Illuminations N.

2010-05-26

136

Means, Modes, and Medians  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students experience data collection, analysis and inquiry in this LEGO® MINDSTORMS® NXT -based activity. They measure the position of an oscillating platform using a ultrasonic sensor and perform statistical analysis to determine the mean, mode, median, percent difference and percent error for the collected data.

AMPS GK-12 Program,

137

Effectiveness of Median Barriers.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The objective of this study was to ascertain whether the employment of physical barriers within the highway median is effective in promoting highway safety. An uncontrolled before and after study of 54.2 miles of urban freeway in California was conducted ...

R. T. Johnson

1964-01-01

138

Mean and Median  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This applet, created by Rice University's Virtual Lab in Statistics, allows students to manipulate a histogram and observe changes in the mean and median. The site includes links to exercises and descriptions of measures of center and spread. Overall, this is a nice learning device to teach students about statistics, and more specifically, histograms.

Lane, David M.

2008-12-16

139

Effect of mercuric acetate on selected enzymes of maternal and fetal hamsters at different gestational ages  

SciTech Connect

This study establishes levels of activity of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD), glycogen phosphorlyase (GP), and cytochrome c oxidase (cyt c ox) in maternal, placental, and fetal tissues at Days 9, 12, and 15 in the 16-day gestation period of the hamster, and following a single dose of either 8 or 15 mg/kg mercuric acetate on the eighth gestational day. Mercury significantly elevated maternal kidney G6PD activity and decreased GP activity. The increase in kidney G6PD strongly correlated with observed urine and kidney abnormalities.

Karp, W.B.; Gale, T.F.; Subramanyam, S.B.; DuRant, R.H.

1985-04-01

140

Fetal nucleated cells in maternal peripheral blood: frequency and relationship to gestational age  

Microsoft Academic Search

To determine the frequency of fetal nucleated cells in maternal peripheral blood during different stages of pregnancy, 50 primigravidas were investigated by determining the frequency of cells with the Y chromosome using fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) of Y-specific repetitive sequences of the DYZ1 family. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplifying the same part of the DYZ1 used as the probe

Hiromi Hamada; Tadao Arinami; Takeshi Kubo; Hideo Hamaguchi; Hirokazu Iwasaki

1993-01-01

141

Behavior Problems at 5 Years of Age and Maternal Mental Health in Autism and Intellectual Disability  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

We examined child behavior problems and maternal mental health in a British population-representative sample of 5 year-old children with an autism spectrum disorder (ASD), controlling for the presence of an intellectual disability (ID). Behavior problems were significantly higher in children with ASD with/out ID compared to typically developing…

Totsika, Vasiliki; Hastings, Richard P.; Emerson, Eric; Berridge, Damon M.; Lancaster, Gillian A.

2011-01-01

142

Effect of maternal age and growth on placental nutrient transport: potential mechanisms for teenagers' predisposition to small-for-gestational-age birth?  

PubMed Central

Teenagers have an increased risk of delivering small-for-gestational-age (SGA) infants. Young maternal age and continued skeletal growth have been implicated as causal factors. In growing adolescent sheep, impaired placental development and nutrient transfer cause reduced birth weight. In human pregnancies, SGA is associated with reduced placental amino acid transport. Maternal growth has no effect on placental morphology or cell turnover, but growing teenagers have higher birth weight:placental weight ratios than nongrowing teenagers. We hypothesized that placental nutrient transporter activity would be affected by maternal age and/or growth status. Placentas from teenagers and adults were collected. Teenagers were defined as growing or nongrowing based on knee height measurements. System A amino acid transporter activity was quantified as sodium-dependent uptake of [14C]methylaminoisobutyric acid into placental fragments. Teenagers had lower placental system A activity than adults (P < 0.05). In adults, placental system A activity was lower in SGA infants than appropriate-for-gestational-age (AGA) infants (P < 0.05). In teenagers, AGA and SGA infants had lower placental system A activity than AGA infants born to adults (P < 0.05). Placental system A activity was higher in growing teenagers than in nongrowing teenagers (P < 0.001). Placental mRNA expression of system A transporter isoforms SLC38A1 and -2 was lower in teenagers than in adults (P < 0.05) but did not differ between growing and nongrowing teenagers. There was no difference in transporter protein expression/localization between cohorts. Teenagers have inherently reduced placental transport, which may underlie their susceptibility to delivering SGA infants. Growing teenagers appear to overcome this susceptibility by stimulating the activity, but not expression, of system A transporters.

Greenwood, Susan L.; Sibley, Colin P.; Baker, Philip N.; Challis, John R. G.; Jones, Rebecca L.

2012-01-01

143

Unexpected inherited chromosomal translocation during prenatal diagnosis for maternal age: risk for a nondetectable karyotype imbalance in offspring.  

PubMed

An unexpected t(1;19) translocation is described in a fetus. Inherited from the mother, this translocation was found during the course of a normal prenatal diagnosis made for maternal age. The very short length of chromosomal translocated segments and their labelling pattern made high-resolution cytogenetic methods and fluorescence in situ hybridization techniques necessary for the correct identification of this karyotype rearrangement, both in mother and fetus. Different modes of meiotic segregation, leading to potential erroneous prenatal diagnoses, are discussed. PMID:9813419

Siffroi, J P; Heim, N; Benzacken, B; Franco, J C; Le Bourhis, C

1998-01-01

144

Early maternal age at first birth is associated with chronic diseases and poor physical performance in older age: cross-sectional analysis from the International Mobility in Aging Study  

PubMed Central

Background Early maternal age at first birth and elevated parity may have long-term consequences for the health of women as they age. Both are known risk factors for obstetrical complications with lifelong associated morbidities. They may also be related to diabetes and cardiovascular disease development. Methods We examine the relationship between early maternal age at first birth, defined as ?18 years of age, multiparity (>2 births), and poor physical performance (Short Physical Performance Battery ?8) in community samples of women between 65 and 74 years of age from Canada, Albania, Colombia, and Brazil (N?=?1040). Data were collected in 2012 to provide a baseline assessment for a longitudinal cohort called the International Mobility in Aging Study. We used logistic regression and general linear models to analyse the data. Results Early maternal age at first birth is significantly associated with diabetes, chronic lung disease, high blood pressure, and poor physical performance in women at older ages. Parity was not independently associated with chronic conditions and physical performance in older age. After adjustment for study site, age, education, childhood economic adversity and lifetime births, women who gave birth at a young age had 1.75 (95% CI: 1.17 – 2.64) the odds of poor SPPB compared to women who gave birth?>?18 years of age. Adjustment for chronic diseases attenuated the association between early first birth and physical performance. Results were weaker in Colombia and Brazil, than Canada and Albania. Conclusions This study provides evidence that adolescent childbirth may increase the risk of developing chronic diseases and physical limitations in older age. Results likely reflect both the biological and social consequences of early childbearing and if the observed relationship is causal, it reinforces the importance of providing contraception and sex education to young women, as the consequences of early pregnancy may be life-long.

2014-01-01

145

Newborn size, infant and childhood growth, and body composition and cardiovascular disease risk factors at the age of 6 years: the Pune Maternal Nutrition Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective:To study associations of size and body proportions at birth, and growth during infancy and childhood, to body composition and cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors at the age of 6 years.Design:The Pune Maternal Nutrition Study, a prospective population-based study of maternal nutrition and CVD risk in rural Indian children.Methods:Body composition and CVD risk factors measured in 698 children at 6

C V Joglekar; C H D Fall; V U Deshpande; N Joshi; A Bhalerao; V Solat; T M Deokar; S D Chougule; S D Leary; C Osmond; C S Yajnik

2007-01-01

146

Crucifixion and median neuropathy.  

PubMed

Crucifixion as a means of torture and execution was first developed in the 6th century B.C. and remained popular for over 1000 years. Details of the practice, which claimed hundreds of thousands of lives, have intrigued scholars as historical records and archaeological findings from the era are limited. As a result, various aspects of crucifixion, including the type of crosses used, methods of securing victims to crosses, the length of time victims survived on the cross, and the exact mechanisms of death, remain topics of debate. One aspect of crucifixion not previously explored in detail is the characteristic hand posture often depicted in artistic renditions of crucifixion. In this posture, the hand is clenched in a peculiar and characteristic fashion: there is complete failure of flexion of the thumb and index finger with partial failure of flexion of the middle finger. Such a "crucified clench" is depicted across different cultures and from different eras. A review of crucifixion history and techniques, median nerve anatomy and function, and the historical artistic depiction of crucifixion was performed to support the hypothesis that the "crucified clench" results from proximal median neuropathy due to positioning on the cross, rather than from direct trauma of impalement of the hand or wrist. PMID:23785656

Regan, Jacqueline M; Shahlaie, Kiarash; Watson, Joseph C

2013-05-01

147

The Impact of Maternal Age on Clinical Pregnancy an Spontaneous Abortion in Women Undergoing In Vitro Fertilization and Gamete IntraFallopian Transfer  

Microsoft Academic Search

The age at which women should be advised against proceeding with initial or further infertility treatment is one of the many unresolved questions in this area of women's health and was the subject of investigation in this study. One of the major diffi culties in determining the impact of maternal age on outcomes is the practice of researchers (publishing in

Dianna T. Kenny

1994-01-01

148

Trends in the incidence and mortality of multiple births by socioeconomic deprivation and maternal age in England: population-based cohort study  

PubMed Central

Objective To investigate temporal trends in multiple birth rates and associated stillbirth and neonatal mortality by socioeconomic deprivation and maternal age in England. Design Population cohort study. Setting England. Participants All live births and stillbirths (1 January 1997 to 31 December 2008). Main outcome measures Multiple maternity rate, stillbirth and neonatal death rate by year of birth, decile of socioeconomic deprivation and maternal age. Results The overall rate of multiple maternities increased over time (+0.64% per annum 95% CI (0.47% to 0.81%)) with an increase in twin maternities (+0.85% per annum 95% CI (0.67% to 1.0%)) but a large decrease in triplet and higher order maternities (?8.32% per annum 95% CI (?9.39% to ?7.25%)). Multiple maternities were significantly lower in the most deprived areas, and this was most evident in the older age groups. Women over 40?years of age from the most deprived areas had a 34% lower rate of multiple births compared with similar aged women from the most deprived areas (rate ratio (RR) 0.66 95% CI (0.61 to 0.73)). Multiple births remain at substantially higher risk of neonatal mortality (RR 6.30 95% CI (6.07 to 6.53)). However, for stillbirths, while twins remain at higher risk, this has decreased over time (1997–2000: RR 2.89 (2.69 to 3.10); 2005–2008: RR 2.22 95% CI (2.06 to 2.40)). Socioeconomic inequalities existed in mortality for singletons and multiple births. Conclusions This period has seen increasing rates of twin pregnancies and decreasing rates of higher order births which have coincided with changes in recommendations regarding assisted reproductive techniques. Socioeconomic differences in multiple births may reflect differential access to these treatments. Improved monitoring of multiple pregnancies is likely to have led to the reductions in stillbirths over this time.

Smith, Lucy K; Manktelow, Bradley N; Draper, Elizabeth S; Boyle, Elaine M; Johnson, Samantha J; Field, David J

2014-01-01

149

Mean, Median and Mode  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

During the last sunspot cycle between 1996-2008, over 21,000 flares and 13,000 clouds of plasma exploded from the Sun's magnetically active surface. Students will learn more about space weather through reading a NASA press release and viewing a NASA eClips video segment. Then students will explore the statistics of various types of space weather storms by determining the mean, median and mode of different samples of storm events. This activity is part of the Space Math multimedia modules that integrate NASA press releases, NASA archival video, and mathematics problems targeted at specific math standards commonly encountered in middle school textbooks. The modules cover specific math topics at multiple levels of difficulty with real-world data and use the 5E instructional sequence.

150

Maternal Influenza Immunization and Reduced Likelihood of Prematurity and Small for Gestational Age Births: A Retrospective Cohort Study  

PubMed Central

Background Infections during pregnancy have the potential to adversely impact birth outcomes. We evaluated the association between receipt of inactivated influenza vaccine during pregnancy and prematurity and small for gestational age (SGA) births. Methods and Findings We conducted a cohort analysis of surveillance data from the Georgia (United States) Pregnancy Risk Assessment Monitoring System. Among 4,326 live births between 1 June 2004 and 30 September 2006, maternal influenza vaccine information was available for 4,168 (96.3%). The primary intervention evaluated in this study was receipt of influenza vaccine during any trimester of pregnancy. The main outcome measures were prematurity (gestational age at birth <37 wk) and SGA (birth weight <10th percentile for gestational age). Infants who were born during the putative influenza season (1 October–31 May) and whose mothers were vaccinated against influenza during pregnancy were less likely to be premature compared to infants of unvaccinated mothers born in the same period (adjusted odds ratio [OR]?=?0.60; 95% CI, 0.38–0.94). The magnitude of association between maternal influenza vaccine receipt and reduced likelihood of prematurity increased during the period of at least local influenza activity (adjusted OR?=?0.44; 95% CI, 0.26–0.73) and was greatest during the widespread influenza activity period (adjusted OR?=?0.28; 95% CI, 0.11–0.74). Compared with newborns of unvaccinated women, newborns of vaccinated mothers had 69% lower odds of being SGA (adjusted OR?=?0.31; 95% CI, 0.13–0.75) during the period of widespread influenza activity. The adjusted and unadjusted ORs were not significant for the pre-influenza activity period. Conclusions This study demonstrates an association between immunization with the inactivated influenza vaccine during pregnancy and reduced likelihood of prematurity during local, regional, and widespread influenza activity periods. However, no associations were found for the pre-influenza activity period. Moreover, during the period of widespread influenza activity there was an association between maternal receipt of influenza vaccine and reduced likelihood of SGA birth. Please see later in the article for the Editors' Summary

Omer, Saad B.; Goodman, David; Steinhoff, Mark C.; Rochat, Roger; Klugman, Keith P.; Stoll, Barbara J.; Ramakrishnan, Usha

2011-01-01

151

[Intensive care admissions due to severe maternal morbidity].  

PubMed

Background: Maternal morbidity is a quality of care indicator. The frequency of severe maternal morbidity that requires an intensive care management has increased, due to an increase in maternal age. Aim: To describe the severe and acute maternal morbidity spectrum that requires an intensive care management in a University Hospital. Material and Methods: Review of medical records of 89 pregnant women with a mean age of 29 years, admitted to an Intensive Care Unit (UCI) between 2006 and 2010. Results: Mean gestational age on admission was 32 weeks. The main comorbidities identified were chronic hypertension (13.5%), hypothyroidism (4.5%) and coagulopathies (6.7%). Severe preeclampsia, sepsis and obstetric hemorrhage were the main causes of admission. Length of stay ranged from 1 to 28 days. Seventy eight percent of patients were admitted in the immediate postnatal period. Mechanical ventilation was required in 24% of patients for a median of three days. The longer unit lengths of stay were observed in patients with preeclampsia and non-obstetric severe sepsis (pyelonephritis and pneumonia). Seven abortions and seven perinatal deaths were recorded. The latter were mainly secondary to severe preeclampsia/ HELLP syndrome. Neonatal morbidity was related to prematurity (19% hyaline membrane, 18% persistent ductus and 4% cerebral hemorrhage). There were no maternal deaths. Conclusions: Preeclampsia and its complications were the main causes of maternal ICU admission. In this series, there were no maternal deaths and the perinatal survival rate was 92%. PMID:24728427

Hasbún H, Jorge; Sepúlveda-Martínez, Alvaro; Cornejo R, Rodrigo; Romero P, Carlos

2013-12-01

152

Maternal immune activation causes age- and region-specific changes in brain cytokines in offspring throughout development.  

PubMed

Maternal infection is a risk factor for autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and schizophrenia (SZ). Indeed, modeling this risk factor in mice through maternal immune activation (MIA) causes ASD- and SZ-like neuropathologies and behaviors in the offspring. Although MIA upregulates pro-inflammatory cytokines in the fetal brain, whether MIA leads to long-lasting changes in brain cytokines during postnatal development remains unknown. Here, we tested this possibility by measuring protein levels of 23 cytokines in the blood and three brain regions from offspring of poly(I:C)- and saline-injected mice at five postnatal ages using multiplex arrays. Most cytokines examined are present in sera and brains throughout development. MIA induces changes in the levels of many cytokines in the brains and sera of offspring in a region- and age-specific manner. These MIA-induced changes follow a few, unexpected and distinct patterns. In frontal and cingulate cortices, several, mostly pro-inflammatory, cytokines are elevated at birth, followed by decreases during periods of synaptogenesis and plasticity, and increases again in the adult. Cytokines are also altered in postnatal hippocampus, but in a pattern distinct from the other regions. The MIA-induced changes in brain cytokines do not correlate with changes in serum cytokines from the same animals. Finally, these MIA-induced cytokine changes are not accompanied by breaches in the blood-brain barrier, immune cell infiltration or increases in microglial density. Together, these data indicate that MIA leads to long-lasting, region-specific changes in brain cytokines in offspring-similar to those reported for ASD and SZ-that may alter CNS development and behavior. PMID:22841693

Garay, Paula A; Hsiao, Elaine Y; Patterson, Paul H; McAllister, A K

2013-07-01

153

Arrested human embryos are more likely to have abnormal chromosomes than developing embryos from women of advanced maternal age  

PubMed Central

Background Aneuploidy is one of the major factors that result in low efficiency in human infertility treatment by in vitro fertilization (IVF). The development of DNA microarray technology allows for aneuploidy screening by analyzing all 23 pairs of chromosomes in human embryos. All chromosome screening for aneuploidy is more accurate than partial chromosome screening, as errors can occur in any chromosome. Currently, chromosome screening for aneuploidy is performed in developing embryos, mainly blastocysts. It has not been performed in arrested embryos and/or compared between developing embryos and arrested embryos from the same IVF cycle. Methods The present study was designed to examine all chromosomes in blastocysts and arrested embryos from the same cycle in patients of advanced maternal ages. Embryos were produced by routine IVF procedures. A total of 90 embryos (45 blastocysts and 45 arrested embryos) from 17 patients were biopsied and analyzed by the Agilent DNA array platform. Results It was found that 50% of the embryos developed to blastocyst stage; however, only 15.6% of the embryos (both blastocyst and arrested) were euploid, and most (84.4%) of the embryos had chromosomal abnormalities. Further analysis indicated that 28.9% of blastocysts were euploid and 71.1% were aneuploid. By contrast, only one (2.2%) arrested embryo was euploid while others (97.8%) were aneuploid. The prevalence of multiple chromosomal abnormalities in the aneuploid embryos was also higher in the arrested embryos than in the blastocysts. Conclusions These results indicate that high proportions of human embryos from patients of advanced maternal age are aneuploid, and the arrested embryos are more likely to have abnormal chromosomes than developing embryos.

2014-01-01

154

MATERNAL PLASMA OSTEOPROTEGERIN CONCENTRATION IN NORMAL PREGNANCY  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE Pregnancy is associated with major changes in calcium metabolism because the neonatal skeleton contains approximately 30 grams of calcium, which are largely deposited in the third trimester. Osteoprotegerin (OPG) acts as a decoy receptor for the “Receptor Activator of Nuclear Factor-? B Ligand” (RANKL), which is an essential factor for bone remodeling. This study was conducted to determine whether there were changes in maternal plasma OPG concentration during normal pregnancy. STUDY DESIGN A cross-sectional study was performed in 433 patients of reproductive age (40 non-pregnant and 393 pregnant). Pregnant patients were classified into 4 groups according to gestational age: group 1: 11–14 weeks (n=100); group 2: 15–18 weeks (n=99); group 3: 27–30 weeks (n=100); and group 4: 37–42 weeks (n=94). Plasma OPG concentrations were measured using a sensitive and specific immunoassay. Non-parametric statistics were used for analysis. RESULTS OPG was detected in the plasma of all women tested. The median OPG concentration was significantly higher in term patients than in those in early pregnancy [median: 6.63 pmol/L (range: 1.57–25.57) vs. median: 3.98 pmol/L (range: 0.41–13.71), p<0.001)]. There was no significant difference in plasma OPG concentrations between non-pregnant women and those in groups 1 or 2 [non-pregnant women median: 3.86 pmol/L (range: 1.64–15.29) vs. group 1 median: 3.98 pmol/L (range: 0.41–13.71) vs. group 2 median: 3.87 pmol/L (range: 1.14–69.83), p=0.75]. CONCLUSION The median maternal plasma OPG concentration is higher in the third trimester than in the first trimester of pregnancy. OPG may be involved in the regulation of bone turnover during pregnancy.

HONG, JOON-SEOK; SANTOLAYA-FORGAS, JOAQUIN; ROMERO, ROBERTO; ESPINOZA, JIMMY; GONCALVES, LUIS F.; KIM, YEON MEE; EDWIN, SAMUEL; YOON, BO HYUN; NIEN, JYH KAE; HASSAN, SONIA; MAZOR, MOSHE

2005-01-01

155

Does induction of labor for constitutionally large-for-gestational-age fetuses identified in utero reduce maternal morbidity?  

PubMed Central

Background The number of infants with a birth weight?>?97th percentile for gestational age has increased over the years. Although some studies have examined the interest of inducing labor for fetuses with macrosomia suspected in utero, only a few have analyzed this suspected macrosomia according to estimated weight at each gestational age. Most studies have focused principally on neonatal rather than on maternal (and still less on perineal) outcomes. The principal aim of this study was to assess whether a policy of induction of labor for women with a constitutionally large-for-gestational-age fetus might reduce the occurrence of severe perineal tears; the secondary aims of this work were to assess whether this policy would reduce either recourse to cesarean delivery during labor or neonatal complications. Methods This historical cohort study (n?=?3077) analyzed records from a French perinatal database. Women without diabetes and with a cephalic singleton term pregnancy were eligible for the study. We excluded medically indicated terminations of pregnancy and in utero fetal deaths. Among the pregnancies with fetuses suspected, before birth, of being large-for-gestational-age, we compared those for whom labor was induced from???37 weeks to???38 weeks+ 6 days (n?=?199) to those with expectant obstetrical management (n?=?2878). In this intention-to-treat analysis, results were expressed as crude and adjusted relative risks. Results The mean birth weight was 4012 g?±?421 g. The rate of perineal lesions did not differ between the two groups in either primiparas (aRR: 1.06; 95% CI: 0.86-1.31) or multiparas (aRR: 0.94; 95% CI: 0.84-1.05). Similarly, neither the cesarean rate (aRR: 1.11; 95% CI: 0.82-1.50) nor the risks of resuscitation in the delivery room or of death in the delivery room or in the immediate postpartum or of neonatal transfer to the NICU (aRR?=?0.94; 95% CI: 0.59-1.50) differed between the two groups. Conclusions A policy of induction of labor for women with a constitutionally large-for-gestational-age fetus among women without diabetes does not reduce maternal morbidity.

2014-01-01

156

Maternal serum AGEs levels in pregnancies associated with neural tube defects.  

PubMed

Advanced glycation end products (AGEs) plays an important role in diabetic embryopathy. AGE-mediated DNA damage could be a significant factor in the teratogenicity. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the association between the AGEs level and neural tube defects (NTDs) occurrence risk. Forty-eight mothers with NTD-affected pregnancies and 50 normal mothers were selected in this study. Blood were collected from the mothers and were assayed for serum AGEs, malondiadehyde (MDA) and hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c). Data were analyzed by logistic regression method. The study indicated that there were significant but modest lower prevalence for cases mothers on age, BMI and glucose levels compared with controls. NTD-affected mothers were significantly more likely to have higher AGEs levels (5.6±0.48 AU vs. 4.6±0.68 AU ?<0.01) than controls. The AGEs levels were not correlated with MDA and HbA1c in NTDs mothers (r(2)=0.0006 p=0.8691 and r(2)=0.001 p=0.8172, respectively). The conclusion is that AGEs might be associated with NTDs occurrence. PMID:24345611

Li, Rulin; Yang, Peiyao; Chen, Xuyang; Wang, Li

2014-04-01

157

Laser assisted zona thinning technique has no beneficial effect on the ART outcomes of two different maternal age groups  

PubMed Central

Purpose Laser assisted zona thinning is a technique used for facilitating embryo’s hatching process and is commonly used for the embryos of poor prognosis patients with advanced maternal age, repeated implantation failures, poor embryo quality or thick zona pellucida. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of zona thinning on both good or poor prognosis patients of two different age groups. Methods We investigated two different age groups (group 1: <35 years and group 2: ?35 years ) and compared the effect of assisted zona thinning (groups 1A and 2A) versus not-thinned controls (groups 1B and 2B) in both groups. Results The clinical pregnancy rates were 57% and 56% in groups 1A and 1B (p?=?0.86), 43% and 38% in groups 2A and 2B (p?=?0.59) respectively. Conclusions Our results suggest that laser assisted zona thinning of day 3 embryos has no beneficial effect on clinical pregnancy and implantation outcomes.

Atvar, Ozhan; Vanlioglu, Omer Faruk

2010-01-01

158

Early maternal undernutrition programs increased feed intake, altered glucose metabolism and insulin secretion, and liver function in aged female offspring  

PubMed Central

Insulin resistance and obesity are components of the metabolic syndrome that includes development of cardiovascular disease and diabetes with advancing age. The thrifty phenotype hypothesis suggests that offspring of poorly nourished mothers are predisposed to the various components of the metabolic syndrome due to adaptations made during fetal development. We assessed the effects of maternal nutrient restriction in early gestation on feeding behavior, insulin and glucose dynamics, body composition, and liver function in aged female offspring of ewes fed either a nutrient-restricted [NR 50% National Research Council (NRC) recommendations] or control (C: 100% NRC) diet from 28 to 78 days of gestation, after which both groups were fed at 100% of NRC from day 79 to lambing and through lactation. Female lambs born to NR and C dams were reared as a single group from weaning, and thereafter, they were fed 100% NRC recommendations until assigned to this study at 6 yr of age. These female offspring were evaluated by a frequently sampled intravenous glucose tolerance test, followed by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry for body composition analysis prior to and after ad libitum feeding of a highly palatable pelleted diet for 11 wk with automated monitoring of feed intake (GrowSafe Systems). Aged female offspring born to NR ewes demonstrated greater and more rapid feed intake, greater body weight gain, and efficiency of gain, lower insulin sensitivity, higher insulin secretion, and greater hepatic lipid and glycogen content than offspring from C ewes. These data confirm an increased metabolic “thriftiness” of offspring born to NR mothers, which continues into advanced age, possibly predisposing these offspring to metabolic disease.

George, Lindsey A.; Zhang, Liren; Tuersunjiang, Nuermaimaiti; Ma, Yan; Long, Nathan M.; Uthlaut, Adam B.; Smith, Derek T.; Nathanielsz, Peter W.

2012-01-01

159

Maternal Feeding Practices and Feeding Behaviors of Australian Children Aged 12–36 Months  

Microsoft Academic Search

To explore parents’ perceptions of the eating behaviors and related feeding practices of their young children. Mothers (N = 740)\\u000a of children aged 12–36 months and born in South Australia were randomly selected by birth date in four 6-month age bands from\\u000a a centralized statewide database and invited to complete a postal questionnaire. Valid completed questionnaires were returned\\u000a for 374 children (51% response

L. ChanA; A. M. Magarey; L. A. Daniels

160

Maternal mental health predicts risk of developmental problems at 3 years of age: follow up of a community based trial  

PubMed Central

Background Undetected and untreated developmental problems can have a significant economic and social impact on society. Intervention to ameliorate potential developmental problems requires early identification of children at risk of future learning and behaviour difficulties. The objective of this study was to estimate the prevalence of risk for developmental problems among preschool children born to medically low risk women and identify factors that influence outcomes. Methods Mothers who had participated in a prenatal trial were followed up three years post partum to answer a telephone questionnaire. Questions were related to child health and development, child care, medical care, mother's lifestyle, well-being, and parenting style. The main outcome measure was risk for developmental problems using the Parents' Evaluation of Developmental Status (PEDS). Results Of 791 children, 11% were screened by the PEDS to be at high risk for developmental problems at age three. Of these, 43% had previously been referred for assessment. Children most likely to have been referred were those born preterm. Risk factors for delay included: male gender, history of ear infections, a low income environment, and a mother with poor emotional health and a history of abuse. A child with these risk factors was predicted to have a 53% chance of screening at high risk for developmental problems. This predicted probability was reduced to 19% if the child had a mother with good emotional health and no history of abuse. Conclusion Over 10% of children were identified as high risk for developmental problems by the screening, and more than half of those had not received a specialist referral. Risk factors for problems included prenatal and perinatal maternal and child factors. Assessment of maternal health and effective screening of child development may increase detection of children at high risk who would benefit from early intervention. Trial registration Current Controlled Trials ISRCTN64070727

Tough, Suzanne C; Siever, Jodi E; Leew, Shirley; Johnston, David W; Benzies, Karen; Clark, Dawne

2008-01-01

161

Novel Interpretation of Molecular Diagnosis of Congenital Toxoplasmosis According to Gestational Age at the Time of Maternal Infection  

PubMed Central

From a prospective cohort of 344 women who seroconverted for toxoplasmosis during pregnancy, 344 amniotic fluid, 264 placenta, and 216 cord blood samples were tested for diagnosis of congenital toxoplasmosis using the same PCR assay. The sensitivity and negative predictive value of the PCR assay using amniotic fluid were 86.3% and 97.2%, respectively, and both specificity and positive predictive value were 100%. Using placenta and cord blood, sensitivities were 79.5% and 21.2%, and specificities were 92% and 100%, respectively. In addition, the calculation of pretest and posttest probabilities and the use of logistic regression allowed us to obtain curves that give a dynamic interpretation of the risk of congenital toxoplasmosis according to gestational age at maternal infection, as represented by the three sample types (amniotic fluid, placenta, and cord blood). Two examples are cited here: for a maternal infection at 25 weeks of amenorrhea, a negative result of prenatal diagnosis allowed estimation of the probability of congenital toxoplasmosis at 5% instead of an a priori (pretest) risk estimate of 33%. For an infection at 10 weeks of amenorrhea associated with a pretest congenital toxoplasmosis risk of 7%, a positive PCR result using placenta at birth yields a risk increase to 43%, while a negative result damps down the risk to 0.02%. Thus, with a molecular diagnosis performing at a high level, and in spite of the persistence of false negatives, posttest risk curves using both negative and positive results prove highly informative, allowing a better assessment of the actual risk of congenital toxoplasmosis and finally an improved decision guide to treatment.

Sterkers, Yvon; Pratlong, Francine; Albaba, Sahar; Loubersac, Julie; Picot, Marie-Christine; Pretet, Vanessa; Issert, Eric; Boulot, Pierre

2012-01-01

162

Patterns of Adolescent Depression to Age 20: The Role of Maternal Depression and Youth Interpersonal Dysfunction  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Considerable research has focused on youth depression, but further information is needed to characterize different patterns of onset and recurrence during adolescence. Four outcome groups by age 20 were defined (early onset-recurrent, early-onset-desisting, later-onset, never depressed) and compared on three variables predictive of youth…

Hammen, Constance; Brennan, Patricia A.; Keenan-Miller, Danielle

2008-01-01

163

Maternal Reminiscing Style during Early Childhood Predicts the Age of Adolescents' Earliest Memories  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Individual differences in parental reminiscing style are hypothesized to have long-lasting effects on children's autobiographical memory development, including the age of their earliest memories. This study represents the first prospective test of this hypothesis. Conversations about past events between 17 mother-child dyads were recorded on…

Jack, Fiona; MacDonald, Shelley; Reese, Elaine; Hayne, Harlene

2009-01-01

164

Associations of Maternal Iron Intake and Hemoglobin in Pregnancy with Offspring Vascular Phenotypes and Adiposity at Age 10: Findings from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children  

PubMed Central

Background Iron deficiency is common during pregnancy. Experimental animal studies suggest that it increases cardiovascular risk in the offspring. Objective To examine the relationship between maternal pregnancy dietary and supplement iron intake and hemoglobin, with offspring’s arterial stiffness (measured by carotid-radial pulse wave velocity), endothelial function (measured by brachial artery flow mediated dilatation), blood pressure, and adiposity (measured by body mass index), test for mediation by cord ferritin, birth weight, gestational age, and child dietary iron intake, and for effect modification by maternal vitamin C intake and offspring sex. Design Prospective data from 2958 mothers and children pairs at 10 years of age enrolled in an English birth cohort, the Avon Longitudinal Study for Parents and Children (ALSPAC), was analysed. Results 2639 (89.2%) mothers reported dietary iron intake in pregnancy below the UK reference nutrient intake of 14.8 mg/day. 1328 (44.9%) reported taking iron supplements, and 129 (4.4%) were anemic by 18 weeks gestation. No associations were observed apart from maternal iron intake from supplements with offspring systolic blood pressure (?0.8 mmHg, 99% CI ?1.7 to 0, P?=?0.01 in the sample with all relevant data observed, and ?0.7 mmHg, 99% CI ?1.3 to 0, P?=?0.008 in the sample with missing data imputed). Conclusion There was no evidence of association between maternal pregnancy dietary iron intake, or maternal hemoglobin concentration (which is less likely to be biased by subjective reporting) with offspring outcomes. There was a modest inverse association between maternal iron supplement intake during pregnancy with offspring systolic blood pressure at 10 years.

Alwan, Nisreen A.; Cade, Janet E.; Greenwood, Darren C.; Deanfield, John; Lawlor, Debbie A.

2014-01-01

165

Maternal Pre-Pregnancy Body Mass Index and Offspring Temperament and Behavior at 1 and 2 Years of Age  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Recent research suggests that fetal exposure to increased maternal body mass index (BMI) during pregnancy may be associated with psychopathology later in life. When this link first emerges, and if it is due to intrauterine exposures or confounding variables is not known. We therefore assessed associations between maternal pre-pregnancy BMI and:…

Van Lieshout, Ryan J.; Schmidt, Louis A.; Robinson, Monique; Niccols, Alison; Boyle, Michael H.

2013-01-01

166

Maternal Serum Adiponectin at 11–13 Weeks of Gestation in Pregnancies Delivering Small for Gestation Neonates  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To investigate whether maternal serum levels of adiponectin in the first trimester are altered in pregnancies that subsequently deliver small for gestational age (SGA) neonates. Methods: Maternal serum adiponectin and pregnancy-associated plasma protein A (PAPP-A) were measured at 11–13 weeks’ gestation in 50 singleton normotensive pregnancies that delivered SGA neonates and 300 non-SGA controls. The median adiponectin and PAPP-A

Surabhi Nanda; Ranjit Akolekar; Danielle Sodre; Eirini Vaikousi; Kypros H. Nicolaides

2011-01-01

167

Higher maternal prenatal cortisol and younger age predict greater infant reactivity to novelty at 4 months: an observation-based study.  

PubMed

Distress-linked activation of the maternal hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA)-axis is considered a pathway by which affect regulation impacts the fetal milieu and neurodevelopment. There is little direct evidence for this conceptual model. In 103 women [mean age 27.45 (±5.65) years] at 36-38 weeks gestation, salivary cortisol was measured before/after stress tasks; distress questionnaires were completed. At 18.49 (±1.83) weeks, infants underwent the Harvard Infant Behavioral Reactivity Protocol assessing cry/motor responses to novelty; women reported on infant behavior and postnatal distress. Prenatal cortisol and distress were not significantly correlated (all ps?>?.10). Proportional odds logistic regressions showed that neither prenatal nor postnatal distress was associated with infant responses to the Harvard Protocol yet pre-stress cortisol and maternal age were: The odds of being classified as High Reactive were 1.60 times higher [95% CI: 1.04, 2.46] for each unit of added cortisol and .90 times lower [95% CI: .82, .99] for every additional year in maternal age. No associations were found between cortisol or prenatal distress and mother-rated infant behavior; postnatal distress was positively associated with mother-rated infant negative behavior (p?=?.03). Observer and mother-rated infant behavior were not associated (all ps?>?.05). Based on independent observations of infants in contrast to maternal perceptions, these results lend support to the hypothesis that pregnant women's HPA-axis activity influences infant behavior. The impact of maternal distress was not supported, except in so far as postnatal distress may increase the likelihood of making negative judgments about infant behavior. PMID:22778036

Werner, Elizabeth; Zhao, Yihong; Evans, Lynn; Kinsella, Michael; Kurzius, Laura; Altincatal, Arman; McDonough, Laraine; Monk, Catherine

2013-11-01

168

Maternal feeding practices and feeding behaviors of Australian children aged 12-36 months.  

PubMed

To explore parents' perceptions of the eating behaviors and related feeding practices of their young children. Mothers (N=740) of children aged 12-36 months and born in South Australia were randomly selected by birth date in four 6-month age bands from a centralized statewide database and invited to complete a postal questionnaire. Valid completed questionnaires were returned for 374 children (51% response rate; 54% female). Although mothers generally reported being confident and happy in feeding their children, 23% often worried that they gave their child the right amount of food. Based on a checklist of 36 specified items, 15% of children consumed no vegetables in the previous 24 h, 11% no fruit and for a further 8% juice was the only fruit. Of 12 specified high fat/sugar foods and drinks, 11% of children consumed none, 20% one, 26% two, and 43% three or more. Six of eight child-feeding practices that promote healthy eating behaviors were undertaken by 75% parents 'often' or 'all of the time'. However, 8 of 11 practices that do not promote healthy eating were undertaken by a third of mothers at least 'sometimes'. In this representative sample, dietary quality issues emerge early and inappropriate feeding practices are prevalent thus identifying the need for very early interventions that promote healthy food preferences and positive feeding practices. Such programs should focus not just on the 'what', but also the 'how' of early feeding, including the feeding relationship and processes appropriate to developmental stage. PMID:20872057

Chan, L; Magarey, A M; Daniels, L A

2011-11-01

169

Maternal age at first birth and offspring criminality: Using the children-of-twins design to test causal hypotheses  

PubMed Central

Teenage childbirth is a risk factor for poor offspring outcomes, particularly offspring antisocial behaviour. It is not clear if maternal age at first birth (MAFB) is causally associated with offspring antisocial behavior or if this association is due to selection factors that influence both the likelihood that a young woman gives birth early and that her offspring engage in antisocial behavior. The current study addresses the limitations of previous research by using longitudinal data from Swedish national registries and children-of-siblings and children-of-twins comparisons to identify the extent to which the association between MAFB and offspring criminal convictions is consistent with a causal influence and confounded by genetic or environmental factors that make cousins similar. We found offspring born to mothers who began childbearing earlier were more likely to be convicted of a crime than offspring born to mothers who delayed childbearing. The results from comparisons of differentially exposed cousins, especially born to discordant MZ twin sisters, provide support for a causal association between MAFB and offspring criminal convictions. The analyses also found little evidence for genetic confounding due to passive gene-environment correlation. Future studies are needed to replicate these findings and to identify environmental risk factors that mediate this causal association.

Coyne, Claire A; Langstrom, Niklas; Rickert, Martin E; Lichtenstein, Paul; D'Onofrio, Brian M

2013-01-01

170

Neutral oligosaccharides in colostrum in relation to maternal allergy and allergy development in children up to 18 months of age.  

PubMed

Several recent studies have demonstrated a relationship between the composition of the gut microbiota in infancy and subsequent development of allergic disease. Human milk is the major food in infancy and may thus profoundly influence the composition of the gut flora. Oligosaccharides in breast milk survive the passage through the stomach and are utilized by the gut microbiota. As the relationship between breast feeding and childhood allergy is controversial we hypothesized that the composition of oligosaccharides in breast milk might explain the controversy. Nine of the most abundant neutral oligosaccharides in human milk were analysed in colostrum samples from allergic and non-allergic women and related to subsequent development of allergy in their children. The carbohydrate fraction of the colostrum was separated by gel permeation chromatography and neutral oligosaccharides, tri- to hexasaccharides were collected. Neutral oligosaccharides were analysed with high-performance liquid chromatography. There was a large variation in the concentration of neutral oligosaccharides in colostrum, which could not be explained by the allergic status of the women. Allergic children consumed higher amounts of neutral oligosaccharides in total, although not significantly (p = 0.12). When different oligosaccharides were analysed separately, there was no significant difference in consumption between the infants who developed atopic allergy later (n = 9) and infants who did not (n = 11). Thus, the amount of neutral oligosaccharides in colostrum does not directly correlate with maternal allergy, nor with allergy development in children up to 18 months of age. PMID:17295795

Sjögren, Ylva Margareta; Duchén, Karel; Lindh, Frank; Björkstén, Bengt; Sverremark-Ekström, Eva

2007-02-01

171

Maternal serum screening for Down's syndrome in early pregnancy  

Microsoft Academic Search

The possibility of improving the effectiveness of antenatal screening for Down's syndrome by measuring human chorionic gonadotrophin concentrations in maternal serum during the second trimester to select women for diagnostic amniocentesis was examined. The median maternal serum human chorionic gonadotrophin concentration in 77 pregnancies associated with Down's syndrome was twice the median concentration in 385 unaffected pregnancies matched for maternal

N. J. Wald; H. S. Cuckle; J. W. Densem; K. Nanchahal; P. Royston; T. Chard; J. E. Haddow; G. J. Knight; G. E. Palomaki; J. A. Canick

1988-01-01

172

Selenium and maternal blood pressure during childbirth  

PubMed Central

Evidence suggests selenium concentrations outside the nutritional range may worsen cardiovascular health. This paper examines the relationship between selenium and maternal blood pressure among 270 deliveries using umbilical cord serum as a proxy for maternal exposure levels. Multivariable models used linear splines for selenium and controlled for gestational age, maternal age, race, median household income, parity, smoking, and prepregnancy body mass index. Nonparametric analysis of this dataset was used to select spline knots for selenium at 70 and 90 ?g/L. When selenium was <70 ?g/L, increasing selenium levels were related to a non-statistically significant decrease in blood pressure. For selenium 70 – 90 ?g/L, a 1-?g/L increase was related to a 0.37 mmHg (95% confidence interval (CI): 0.005, 0.73) change in systolic and a 0.35 mmHg (0.07, 0.64) change in diastolic blood pressure. There were very few selenium values >90 ?g/L. Other studies indicate that the maternal/cord selenium ratio is 1.46 (95% CI: 1.28, 1.65). This u-shaped relationship between selenium and blood pressure is consistent with a dual role of selenium as an essential micronutrient that is nonetheless a toxicant at higher concentrations; however this needs to be studied further.

Wells, Ellen M.; Goldman, Lynn R.; Jarrett, Jeffery M.; Apelberg, Benjamin J.; Herbstman, Julie B.; Caldwell, Kathleen L.; Halden, Rolf U.; Witter, Frank R.

2013-01-01

173

Screening for trisomy 21 by maternal age, fetal nuchal translucency thickness, free beta-human chorionic gonadotropin and pregnancy-associated plasma protein-A  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives To derive a model and examine the perfor- mance of first-trimester combined screening by mater- nal age, fetal nuchal translucency (NT) thickness and maternal serum free beta-human chorionic gonadotropin (?-hCG) and pregnancy-associated plasma protein-A (PAPP-A). Methods Prospective combined screening for trisomy 21 was carried out at 11 + 0t o 13+ 6 weeks in 56 771 singleton pregnancies, including

K. O. Kagan; D. Wright; A. Baker; D. Sahota; K. H. Nicolaides

2008-01-01

174

Pharmacological anti-thrombotic prophylaxis after elective caesarean delivery in thrombophilia unscreened women: should maternal age have a role in decision making?  

PubMed

In obstetrical practice, the best prevention strategy for pregnant women aged >35 years without known thrombosis risk factors who underwent elective caesarean delivery (CD) is controversial. We performed an observational-longitudinal cohort study on pregnant women aged >35 years who delivered at term by elective caesarean section after a physiological single pregnancy to evaluate the role of maternal age in the decision-making process of whether or not to perform low-molecular-weight heparin (LMWH) prophylaxis during the post-partum period after elective CD in healthy women with unknown inherited thrombophilia status. During the 6 post-partum weeks, we followed two groups: GROUP-A (349 women treated for 7 days with low-molecular-weight heparin) and GROUP-B (180 women not treated with LMWH treatment). The outcomes were as follows: onset of thromboembolic events during the post-partum period; non-obstetrical-linked maternal haemorrhage; blood transfusion; re-laparotomy; detection of a surgical site haematoma; length of hospitalisation; and treatment suspension because of decreased platelet count. Except for the parity number, the two groups were homogeneous with regard to general features. In both the groups, we reported no cases of thromboembolic events during the follow-up period. Maternal haemorrhage requiring transfusion occurred in 16 women in GROUP-A and none in GROUP-B. Among the GROUP-A women, 11 demonstrated a surgical site haematoma and 4 required re-laparotomy. No cases of treatment suspension were reported. Pneumatic compression stockings represent a better, low cost and safe way to prevent post-partum venous thromboembolic episodes after elective caesarean section in an unscreened population. Pharmacological prophylaxis after elective caesarean section should be performed only in case of clear and known adjunctive risk factors, independent of maternal age. PMID:24246285

Gizzo, Salvatore; Noventa, Marco; Anis, Omar; Saccardi, Carlo; Zambon, Alessandra; Di Gangi, Stefania; Tormene, Daniela; Gangemi, Michele; D'Antona, Donato; Nardelli, Giovanni Battista

2014-05-01

175

Maternal Prepregancy BMI and Lipid Profile during Early Pregnancy Are Independently Associated with Offspring's Body Composition at Age 5-6 Years: The ABCD Study  

PubMed Central

Background There is growing evidence that disturbances in maternal metabolism and, subsequently, intrauterine conditions affect foetal metabolism. Whether this has metabolic consequences in offspring later in life is not fully elucidated. We investigated whether maternal pre-pregnancy body mass index (pBMI) is associated with offspring's adiposity at age 5–6 years and whether this association is mediated by the mother's lipid profile during early pregnancy. Methods Data were derived from a multi-ethnic birth cohort, the Amsterdam Born Children and their Development (ABCD) study (inclusion 2003–2004). During early gestation mothers completed a questionnaire during pregnancy (pBMI) and random non-fasting blood samples were analysed for total cholesterol (TC), triglycerides (TG), apolipoprotein A1 (ApoA1), apolipoprotein B (ApoB) and total free fatty acids (FFA) in early gestation. At age 5–6 years, child's BMI, waist-to-height-ratio (WHtR) and fat% were assessed. Results Only non-diabetic mothers with at term-born children were included(n?=?1727). Of all women, 15.1% were overweight(BMI: 25–29.9 kg/m2) and 4.3% were obese(BMI?30 kg/m2). After adjustments for confounders, every unit increase in pBMI was linearly associated with various offspring variables: BMI(? 0.10; 95% CI 0.08–0.12), WHtR*100(? 0.13; 95% CI 0.09–0.17), fat%(? 0.21; 95% CI 0.13–0.29) and increased risk for overweight(OR:1.15; 95% CI 1.10–1.20). No convincing proof for mediation by maternal lipid profile during early gestation was found. Moreover, maternal FFA was associated with the child's fat percentage, BMI and risk for overweight. Maternal ApoB and TC were positively associated with the offspring's fat percentage and maternal TG was positively associated with their children's WHtR. Conclusions Both pBMI and maternal lipids during early pregnancy are independently related to offspring adiposity.

Oostvogels, Adriette J. J. M.; Roseboom, Tessa J.; Visscher, Tommy L. S.; van Eijsden, Manon; Twickler, Marcel T. B.; Vrijkotte, Tanja G. M.

2014-01-01

176

Signs on Concrete Median Barriers.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Concrete median barriers have been used throughout the state as permanent and temporary barriers for providing separation of traffic. Typically, these barriers are tested and considered crashworthy through crash testing according to National Cooperative H...

A. Abu-Odeh M. Spencer R. Bligh R. Ferdous W. Menges W. Williams

2013-01-01

177

Fibrolipoma of the median nerve.  

PubMed

Neural fibrolipoma or fibrolipomatous hamartoma is an uncommon benign tumor that usually arises in the median nerve. Fibrofatty tissue proliferates around the nerve and infiltrates the epineurium and perineurium. We report a case of fibrolipomatous hamartoma of the left median nerve in an 18-year-old woman. Our objective was to describe the pathognomonic magnetic resonance imaging features, whose presence obviates the need for a diagnostic biopsy. PMID:17178460

Nouira, Kais; Belhiba, Hend; Baccar, Sofiène; Miaaoui, Anissa; Ben Messaoud, Monia; Turki, Imène; Cheour, Ilhem; Menif, Emna

2007-01-01

178

Central Tendency: Mean, Mode, Median  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This learning unit from Regents Exam Prep Center will help students learning to calculate mean, mode and median. The unit includes a lesson plan, practice examples, a teacher's guide and a worksheet. The term "measures of central tendency" is explained as finding the mean, median and mode of a set of data. The example of a set of test scores is used to demonstrate finding these measures. Links are also included which explain how to find these measurements using a graphing calculator.

2012-01-01

179

Twenty-year trends in the prevalence of Down syndrome and other trisomies in Europe: impact of maternal age and prenatal screening  

PubMed Central

This study examines trends and geographical differences in total and live birth prevalence of trisomies 21, 18 and 13 with regard to increasing maternal age and prenatal diagnosis in Europe. Twenty-one population-based EUROCAT registries covering 6.1 million births between 1990 and 2009 participated. Trisomy cases included live births, fetal deaths from 20 weeks gestational age and terminations of pregnancy for fetal anomaly. We present correction to 20 weeks gestational age (ie, correcting early terminations for the probability of fetal survival to 20 weeks) to allow for artefactual screening-related differences in total prevalence. Poisson regression was used. The proportion of births in the population to mothers aged 35+ years in the participating registries increased from 13% in 1990 to 19% in 2009. Total prevalence per 10?000 births was 22.0 (95% CI 21.7–22.4) for trisomy 21, 5.0 (95% CI 4.8–5.1) for trisomy 18 and 2.0 (95% CI 1.9–2.2) for trisomy 13; live birth prevalence was 11.2 (95% CI 10.9–11.5) for trisomy 21, 1.04 (95% CI 0.96–1.12) for trisomy 18 and 0.48 (95% CI 0.43–0.54) for trisomy 13. There was an increase in total and total corrected prevalence of all three trisomies over time, mainly explained by increasing maternal age. Live birth prevalence remained stable over time. For trisomy 21, there was a three-fold variation in live birth prevalence between countries. The rise in maternal age has led to an increase in the number of trisomy-affected pregnancies in Europe. Live birth prevalence has remained stable overall. Differences in prenatal screening and termination between countries lead to wide variation in live birth prevalence.

Loane, Maria; Morris, Joan K; Addor, Marie-Claude; Arriola, Larraitz; Budd, Judith; Doray, Berenice; Garne, Ester; Gatt, Miriam; Haeusler, Martin; Khoshnood, Babak; Klungs?yr Melve, Kari; Latos-Bielenska, Anna; McDonnell, Bob; Mullaney, Carmel; O'Mahony, Mary; Queisser-Wahrendorf, Annette; Rankin, Judith; Rissmann, Anke; Rounding, Catherine; Salvador, Joaquin; Tucker, David; Wellesley, Diana; Yevtushok, Lyubov; Dolk, Helen

2013-01-01

180

Twenty-year trends in the prevalence of Down syndrome and other trisomies in Europe: impact of maternal age and prenatal screening.  

PubMed

This study examines trends and geographical differences in total and live birth prevalence of trisomies 21, 18 and 13 with regard to increasing maternal age and prenatal diagnosis in Europe. Twenty-one population-based EUROCAT registries covering 6.1 million births between 1990 and 2009 participated. Trisomy cases included live births, fetal deaths from 20 weeks gestational age and terminations of pregnancy for fetal anomaly. We present correction to 20 weeks gestational age (ie, correcting early terminations for the probability of fetal survival to 20 weeks) to allow for artefactual screening-related differences in total prevalence. Poisson regression was used. The proportion of births in the population to mothers aged 35+ years in the participating registries increased from 13% in 1990 to 19% in 2009. Total prevalence per 10000 births was 22.0 (95% CI 21.7-22.4) for trisomy 21, 5.0 (95% CI 4.8-5.1) for trisomy 18 and 2.0 (95% CI 1.9-2.2) for trisomy 13; live birth prevalence was 11.2 (95% CI 10.9-11.5) for trisomy 21, 1.04 (95% CI 0.96-1.12) for trisomy 18 and 0.48 (95% CI 0.43-0.54) for trisomy 13. There was an increase in total and total corrected prevalence of all three trisomies over time, mainly explained by increasing maternal age. Live birth prevalence remained stable over time. For trisomy 21, there was a three-fold variation in live birth prevalence between countries. The rise in maternal age has led to an increase in the number of trisomy-affected pregnancies in Europe. Live birth prevalence has remained stable overall. Differences in prenatal screening and termination between countries lead to wide variation in live birth prevalence. PMID:22713804

Loane, Maria; Morris, Joan K; Addor, Marie-Claude; Arriola, Larraitz; Budd, Judith; Doray, Berenice; Garne, Ester; Gatt, Miriam; Haeusler, Martin; Khoshnood, Babak; Klungsøyr Melve, Kari; Latos-Bielenska, Anna; McDonnell, Bob; Mullaney, Carmel; O'Mahony, Mary; Queisser-Wahrendorf, Annette; Rankin, Judith; Rissmann, Anke; Rounding, Catherine; Salvador, Joaquin; Tucker, David; Wellesley, Diana; Yevtushok, Lyubov; Dolk, Helen

2013-01-01

181

Placental growth hormone is increased in the maternal and fetal serum of patients with preeclampsia  

PubMed Central

Objectives Placental growth hormone (PGH) is a pregnancy-specific protein produced by syncytiotrophoblast and extravillous cytotrophoblast. No other cells have been reported to synthesize PGH. Maternal PGH Serum concentration increases with advancing gestational age, while quickly decreasing after delivery of the placenta. The biological properties of PGH include somatogenic, lactogenic, and lipolytic functions. The purpose of this study was to determine whether the maternal serum concentrations of PGH change in women with preeclampsia (PE), women with PE who deliver a small-for-gestational age neonate (PE+SGA), and those with SGA alone. Study Design This cross-sectional study included maternal serum from normal pregnant women (n=61), patients with severe PE (n=48), PE+SGA (n=30), and SGA alone (n=41). Fetal cord blood from uncomplicated pregnancies (n=16) and PE (n=16) was also analyzed. PGH concentrations were measured by ELISA. Non-parametric statistics were used for analysis. Results (1) Women with severe PE had a median serum concentration of PGH higher than normal pregnant women (PE: median: 23,076 pg/mL (3473-94 256) vs. normal pregnancy: median: 12 157 pg/mL (2617-34 016); p < 0.05), pregnant women who delivered an SGA neonate (SGA: median 10 206 pg/mL (1816-34 705); p < 0.05], as well as pregnant patients with PE and SGA (PE + SGA: median: 11 027 pg/mL (1232-61 702); p <0.05); (2) No significant differences were observed in the median maternal serum concentration of PGH among pregnant women with PE and SGA, SGA alone, and normal pregnancy (p > 0.05); (3) Compared to those of the control group, the median umbilical serum concentration of PGH was significantly higher in newborns of preeclamptic women (PE: median 356.1 pg/mL (72.6-20 946), normal pregnancy: median 128.5 pg/mL (21.6-255.9); p < 0.01]; (4) PGH was detected in all samples of cord blood. Conclusion (1) PE is associated with higher median concentrations of PGH in both the maternal and fetal circulation compared to normal pregnancy. (2) Patients with PE+SGA had lower maternal serum concentrations of PGH than preeclamptic patients without SGA. (3) Contrary to previous findings, PGH was detectable in the fetal circulation. The observations reported herein are novel and suggest that PGH may play a role in the mechanisms of disease in preeclampsia and fetal growth restriction.

Mittal, Pooja; Espinoza, Jimmy; Hassan, Sonia S.; Kusanovic, Juan Pedro; Edwin, Samuel S.; Nien, Jyh Kae; Gotsch, Francesca; Than, Nandor Gabor; Erez, Offer; Mazaki-Tovi, Shali; Romero, Roberto

2008-01-01

182

Socio-occupational class, region of birth and maternal age: influence on time to detection of cryptorchidism (undescended testes): a Danish nationwide register study  

PubMed Central

Background Cryptorchidism (undescended testes) is associated with poor male fertility, but can be alleviated and fertility preserved to some degree by early detection and treatment. Here we assess the influence of socio-occupational class, geographical region, maternal age and birth cohort on time to detection and correction of cryptorchidism. Methods All boys born in Denmark, 1981 to 1987 or 1988 to 1994, with a diagnosis of cryptorchidism were identified in nationwide registers. The boys were followed for a diagnosis until their 16th birthday. The age at first diagnosis was noted and used as proxy for time to detection of cryptorchidism. Parental employment in the calendar year preceding birth was grouped into one of five socio-occupational classes. Geographical region was defined by place of birth in one of 15 Danish counties. Detection rate ratios of cryptorchidism were analyzed as a function of parental socio-occupational group, county, maternal age and birth cohort by use of Poisson regression. Results Some 6,059 boys in the early and 5,947 boys in the late cohort received a diagnosis of cryptorchidism. Time to detection was independent of parental socio-occupational group and maternal age but differed slightly between geographical regions. A similar pattern was obtained for surgical correction after a diagnosis. Age at diagnosis decreased by 2.7 years from the early to the late cohort. Conclusions These results indicate that childhood socio-occupational inequality in detection and correction of cryptorchidism would play a negligible role in male infertility in a life course perspective. Geographical region may have exerted some influence, especially for the oldest cohort.

2014-01-01

183

Non-Local Euclidean Medians  

PubMed Central

In this letter, we note that the denoising performance of Non-Local Means (NLM) can be improved at large noise levels by replacing the mean by the Euclidean median. We call this new denoising algorithm the Non-Local Euclidean Medians (NLEM). At the heart of NLEM is the observation that the median is more robust to outliers than the mean. In particular, we provide a simple geometric insight that explains why NLEM performs better than NLM in the vicinity of edges, particularly at large noise levels. NLEM can be efficiently implemented using iteratively reweighted least squares, and its computational complexity is comparable to that of NLM. We provide some preliminary results to study the proposed algorithm and to compare it with NLM.

Chaudhury, Kunal N.; Singer, Amit

2013-01-01

184

Median statistics cosmological parameter values  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present median statistics central values and ranges for 12 cosmological parameters, using 582 measurements (published during 1990–2010) collected by [9]. On comparing to the recent Planck Collaboration [1] estimates of 11 of these parameters, we find good consistency in ten cases.

Crandall, Sara; Ratra, Bharat

2014-05-01

185

Convergence properties of median and weighted median filters  

Microsoft Academic Search

It has been shown that assuming the first and last value carry-on appending strategy, a finite number of passes of the same median filter to an arbitrary signal of finite length results in a root signal that will be invariant to additional filtering passes. This so-called convergence property is reproven using an extremely simple approach. In addition, the well-known idempotent

Bing Zeng

1994-01-01

186

Are birth weight and maternal smoking during pregnancy associated with malnutrition and excess weight among school age children?  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the late 1980's child malnutrition was still prevalent in Brazil, and child obesity was beginning to rise in the richest regions of the country. To assess the extent of the nutritional transition during the period and the influence of birth weight and maternal smoking on the nutritional condition of schoolchildren, we estimated the prevalence of excess weight and malnutrition

F. S. Tomé; V. C. Cardoso; M. A. Barbieri; A. A. M. da Silva; V. M. F. Simões; C. A. Garcia; H. Bettiol

2007-01-01

187

Maternal smoking very early in pregnancy is related to child overweight at age 5-7 y1-3  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Despite being associated with lower birth weight, maternal smoking in the last 2 trimesters of pregnancy has been associated with increased risk of offspring overweight in several studies. To date, only one study has examined whether smoking in the first trimester only, which is not associated with birth weight, is also associated with childhood overweight. Objective:Thisstudyusesprospectivedatatoexamineassociations betweenmaternalsmokinginthefirstcomparedwithlatertrimesters of pregnancy

Michelle A Mendez; Maties Torrent; Carlos Ferrer; Nuria Ribas-Fito; Jordi Sunyer

188

Maternal feeding practices, child eating behaviour and body mass index in preschool-aged children: a prospective analysis  

PubMed Central

Background Previous research has found associations between parental feeding practices and children's eating behaviour and weight status. Prospective research is needed to elucidate these relationships. Methods One hundred and fifty-six mothers of 2- to 4-year-old children completed questionnaires including measures of maternal feeding practices (pressure to eat, restriction, monitoring and modelling of healthy eating), child eating behaviour (food responsiveness, food fussiness and interest in food), and mother reported child height and weight. The questionnaire was repeated 12 months later. Regression analyses were used to find longitudinal associations between maternal feeding practices, child eating behaviour and child body mass index (BMI). Results Modelling of healthy eating predicted lower child food fussiness and higher interest in food one year later, and pressure to eat predicted lower child interest in food. Restriction did not predict changes in child eating behaviour. Maternal feeding practices did not prospectively predict child food responsiveness or child BMI. Conclusion Maternal feeding practices appear to influence young children's eating behaviour but not weight status in the short term.

2010-01-01

189

Maternal Responsiveness to Young Children at Three Ages: Longitudinal Analysis of a Multidimensional, Modular, and Specific Parenting Construct  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Responsiveness defines the prompt, contingent, and appropriate reactions parents display to their children in the context of everyday exchanges. Maternal responsiveness occupies a theoretically central position in developmental science and possesses meaningful predictive validity over diverse domains of children's development, yet basic…

Bornstein, Marc H.; Tamis-LeMonda, Catherine S.; Hahn, Chun-Shin; Haynes, O. Maurice

2008-01-01

190

The Effects of Postpartum Contact and Early Maternal Language Patterns on Development and Learning at Age Eight.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Differences in classroom behavior and adjustment between two groups of low-income, black children were investigated in a continuing study, as subjects approached their eighth birthday. Eight experimental and nine control subjects, who had been differentially exposed to postpartum contact with their mothers and who differed in maternal language…

Ringler, Norma M.; Finlon, Mary Ann

191

Tectonics Around the Osaka Bay and the Median Tectonic Line at the Kitan Strait, Southwest Japan, since early Pliocene: Inference From Seismic Reflection Survey and the newly estimated age data.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Pliocene-Pleistocene Osaka Group is thickly distributed around the Osaka Bay and the Median Tectonic Line (MTL) at the Kitan Strait, southwest Japan. There are many characteristic marine clay beds in the Osaka Group, which are often good seismic reflectors. Recently these marine clay beds and others were dated very precisely by using deep-boring cores, stratigraphic data, magneto-stratigraphic data, oxygen isotopic records, and so on. We revised, using the newly estimated ages, the interpretations of some reflection survey data conducted in this region. Inferred tectonic history in this region is as follows: (1) The Osaka Group began to be deposited in the early Pliocene at the Kii Channel side, whereas it began in the middle Pliocene at the Osaka Bay side. (2) Until about 1 Ma, the fault activities in this region, such as the MTL, Osaka-wan Faults, Sumoto-oki Faults and so on, were not so active. The slip rates (vertical component) of the MTL and Sumoto-oki Faults were about 0.1-0.2 m/ky. Those of the Osaka-wan Faults were not well determined. (3) A drastic tectonic changes may exist around 1Ma. The change may correspond to the change of the stress field from N-S trending compression to E-W trending compression at the inner zone of southwestern Japan. (4) After 1 Ma, many faults became more active. The Izumi Mountains, which lies between the MTL and Sumoto-oki Faults, began to uplift with northward dipping. The slip rates (vertical component) were a few m/ky for the MTL, about 0.7 m/ky for the Sumoto-oki Faults, and 0.5-0.7 m/ky for the Osaka-wan Faults. (5) The unconformity beneath the Kii Channel formed around 0.7-0.8Ma, which may be due to uplift of the midst of the Kii Channel. (6) At present, the Osaka-wan Faults still have the vertical slip of 0.5-0.7 m/ky and may have more dominant horizontal (right-lateral) slip. (7) The present activity of the MTL and Sumoto-oki Faults are not well determined. Particularly the MTL is thought to have large right-lateral movement and negligibly small vertical movement at present. However the MTL may have still large vertical slip more than 0.5 m/ky, judging from the sedimentation rate of 0.5 m/ky since 1Ma in the south of the Kitan strait.

Yokokura, T.

2002-12-01

192

Age-related Changes in Acoustic Modifications of Mandarin Maternal Speech to Preverbal Infants and Five-Year-Old Children: A Longitudinal Study  

PubMed Central

Acoustic-phonetic exaggeration of infant-directed speech (IDS) is well documented, but few studies address whether these features are modified with a child's age. Mandarin-speaking mothers were recorded while addressing an adult and their child at two ages (7-12 months and 5 years) to examine the acoustic-phonetic differences between IDS and child–directed speech (CDS). CDS exhibits an exaggeration pattern resembling that of IDS—expanded vowel space, longer vowels, higher pitch, and greater lexical tone differences—when compared to ADS. Longitudinal analysis demonstrated that the extent of acoustic exaggeration is significantly smaller in CDS than in IDS. Age-related changes in maternal speech provide some support for the hypothesis that mothers adjust their speech directed toward children as a function of the child's language ability.

Liu, Huei-Mei; Tsao, Feng-Ming; Kuhl, Patricia K.

2010-01-01

193

The association of maternal age with infant mortality, child anthropometric failure, diarrhoea and anaemia for first births: evidence from 55 low- and middle-income countries  

PubMed Central

Objective To examine the association between maternal age at first birth and infant mortality, stunting, underweight, wasting, diarrhoea and anaemia in children in low- and middle-income countries. Design Cross-sectional analysis of nationally representative household samples. A modified Poisson regression model is used to estimate unadjusted and adjusted RR ratios. Setting Low- and middle-income countries. Population First births to women aged 12–35 where this birth occurred 12–60?months prior to interview. The sample for analysing infant mortality is comprised of 176?583 children in 55 low- and middle-income countries across 118 Demographic and Health Surveys conducted between 1990 and 2008. Main outcome measures Infant mortality in children under 12?months and stunting, underweight, wasting, diarrhoea and anaemia in children under 5?years. Results The investigation reveals two salient findings. First, in the sample of women who had their first birth between the ages of 12 and 35, the risk of poor child health outcome is lowest for women who have their first birth between the ages of 27 and 29. Second, the results indicate that both biological and social mechanisms play a role in explaining why children of young mothers have poorer outcomes. Conclusions The first-born children of adolescent mothers are the most vulnerable to infant mortality and poor child health outcomes. Additionally, first time mothers up to the age of 27 have a higher risk of having a child who has stunting, diarrhoea and moderate or severe anaemia. Maternal and child health programs should take account of this increased risk even for mothers in their early 20s. Increasing the age at first birth in developing countries may have large benefits in terms of child health.

Ozaltin, Emre; Canning, David

2011-01-01

194

Maternal feeding practices, child eating behaviour and body mass index in preschool-aged children: a prospective analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Previous research has found associations between parental feeding practices and children's eating behaviour and weight status. Prospective research is needed to elucidate these relationships. METHODS: One hundred and fifty-six mothers of 2- to 4-year-old children completed questionnaires including measures of maternal feeding practices (pressure to eat, restriction, monitoring and modelling of healthy eating), child eating behaviour (food responsiveness, food

Jane E Gregory; Susan J Paxton; Anna M Brozovic

2010-01-01

195

Maternal Serum 25-Hydroxyvitamin D Concentrations Are Associated with Small-for-Gestational Age Births in White Women1–3  

PubMed Central

Maternal vitamin D deficiency has been associated with numerous adverse health outcomes, but its association with fetal growth restriction remains uncertain. We sought to elucidate the association between maternal serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] concentrations in early pregnancy and the risk of small-for-gestational age birth (SGA) and explore the association between maternal single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) in the vitamin D receptor (VDR) gene and the risk of SGA. We conducted a nested case-control study of nulliparous pregnant women with singleton pregnancies who delivered SGA infants (n = 77 white and n = 34 black) or non-SGA infants (n = 196 white and n = 105 black). Women were followed from <16 wk gestation to delivery. Women's banked sera at <22 wk were newly measured for 25(OH)D and DNA extracted for VDR genotyping. SGA was defined as live-born infants that were <10th percentile of birth weight according to nomograms based on gender and gestational age. After confounder adjustment, there was a U-shaped relation between serum 25(OH)D and risk of SGA among white mothers, with the lowest risk from 60 to 80 nmol/L. Compared with serum 25(OH)D 37.5–75 nmol/L, SGA odds ratios (95% CI) for levels <37.5 and >75 nmol/L were 7.5 (1.8, 31.9) and 2.1 (1.2, 3.8), respectively. There was no relation between 25(OH)D and SGA risk among black mothers. One SNP in the VDR gene among white women and 3 SNP in black women were significantly associated with SGA. Our results suggest that vitamin D has a complex relation with fetal growth that may vary by race.

Bodnar, Lisa M.; Catov, Janet M.; Zmuda, Joseph M.; Cooper, Margaret E.; Parrott, Meredith S.; Roberts, James M.; Marazita, Mary L.; Simhan, Hyagriv N.

2010-01-01

196

Trisomy 18 and maternal serum and amniotic fluid alpha-fetoprotein.  

PubMed

Maternal serum and amniotic fluid alpha-fetoprotein levels were studied retrospectively in a total of 58 pregnancies with trisomy 18. In those pregnancies uncomplicated by either fetal exomphalos or neural tube defect the midtrimester maternal serum alpha-fetoprotein (MSAFP) levels were markedly reduced, the median value for 38 such pregnancies being 0.6 multiples of the median (MoM). Trisomy 18 with exomphalos was associated with a higher median MSAFP, but still within the normal range: 1.1 MoM, (nine pregnancies); trisomy 18 with exomphalos and neural tube defect (NTD) was associated with grossly raised levels: median MSAFP was 4.5 MoM (three pregnancies). Amniotic fluid alpha-fetoprotein (AFAFP) levels were normal in uncomplicated trisomy 18 pregnancies: median AFAFP, for 19 pregnancies, was 1.1 MoM. Exomphalos alone, or together with neural tube defect, was associated with greatly elevated levels of AFAFP; for exomphalos alone median AFAFP was 9.59 MoM (four pregnancies), and for exomphalos with neural tube defect the median AFAFP was 23.95 Mom (three pregnancies). Screening with low and high MSAFP, routine ultrasound, and amniocentesis on all women aged 35 years or over, together might identify over 50 per cent of pregnancies with trisomy 18. PMID:2444965

Lindenbaum, R H; Ryynänen, M; Holmes-Siedle, M; Puhakainen, E; Jonasson, J; Keenan, J

1987-09-01

197

Rib fractures complicating median sternotomy.  

PubMed

The postoperative chest radiographs of 100 consecutive patients undergoing median sternotomy were reviewed for the presence of acute rib fractures. The majority of patients underwent coronary artery bypass grafting. Thirteen patients sustained 15 fractures. Eleven of these fractures were of the left first rib and 7 of the 15 fractures occurred at the costotransverse articulation. The fractures tended to be subtle on the postoperative portable chest radiographs and were initially overlooked in 4 patients. Heavier patients and those with larger body surface areas were more susceptible to the development of fractures. There was no statistical correlation to total operating time, bypass time, or global ischemic time. PMID:2039325

Gumbs, R V; Peniston, R L; Nabhani, H A; Henry, L J

1991-06-01

198

Investigating maternal risk factors as potential targets of intervention to reduce socioeconomic inequality in small for gestational age: a population-based study  

PubMed Central

Background The major aim of this study was to investigate whether maternal risk factors associated with socioeconomic status and small for gestational age (SGA) might be viable targets of interventions to reduce differential risk of SGA by socioeconomic status (socioeconomic SGA inequality) in the metropolitan area of Vancouver, Canada. Methods This study included 59,039 live, singleton births in the Vancouver Census Metropolitan Area (Vancouver) from January 1, 2006 to September 17, 2009. To identify an indicator of socioeconomic SGA inequality, we used hierarchical logistic regression to model SGA by area-level variables from the Canadian census. We then modelled SGA by area-level average income plus established maternal risk factors for SGA and calculated population attributable SGA risk percentages (PAR%) for each variable. Associations of maternal risk factors for SGA with average income were investigated to identify those that might contribute to SGA inequality. Finally, we estimated crude reductions in the percentage and absolute differences in SGA risks between highest and lowest average income quintiles that would result if interventions on maternal risk factors successfully equalized them across income levels or eliminated them altogether. Results Average income produced the most linear and statistically significant indicator of socioeconomic SGA inequality with 8.9% prevalence of SGA in the lowest income quintile compared to 5.6% in the highest. The adjusted PAR% of SGA for variables were: bottom four quintiles of height (51%), first birth (32%), bottom four quintiles of average income (14%), oligohydramnios (7%), underweight or hypertension, (6% each), smoking (3%) and placental disorder (1%). Shorter height, underweight and smoking during pregnancy had higher prevalence in lower income groups. Crude models assuming equalization of risk factors across income levels or elimination altogether indicated little potential change in relative socioeconomic SGA inequality and reduction in absolute SGA inequality for shorter height only. Conclusions Our findings regarding maternal height may indicate trans-generational aetiology for socioeconomic SGA inequalities and/or that adult height influences social mobility. Conditions affecting foetal and childhood growth might be viable targets to reduce absolute socioeconomic SGA inequality in future generations, but more research is needed to determine whether such an approach is appropriate.

2012-01-01

199

Maternal correlates of maternal child feeding practices: a systematic review.  

PubMed

Establishing healthy eating habits early in life is one important strategy to combat childhood obesity. Given that early maternal child feeding practices have been linked to child food intake and weight, identifying the maternal correlates of maternal child feeding practices is important in order to understand the determinants of childhood obesity; this was the overall aim of the current review. Academic databases were searched for studies examining the relationship between maternal child feeding practices and parenting, personal characteristics and psychopathology of mothers with preschoolers. Papers were limited to those published in English, between January 2000 and June 2012. Only studies with mothers of normally developing children between the ages of 2 and 6 years were included. There were no restrictions regarding the inclusion of maternal nationality or socioeconomic status (SES). Seventeen eligible studies were sourced. Information on the aim, sample, measures and findings of these was summarised into tables. The findings of this review support a relationship between maternal controlling parenting, general and eating psychopathology, and SES and maternal child feeding practices. The main methodological issues of the studies reviewed included inconsistency in measures of maternal variables across studies and cross-sectional designs. We conclude that the maternal correlates associated with maternal child feeding practices are complex, and the pathways by which maternal correlates impact these feeding practices require further investigation. PMID:22973806

McPhie, Skye; Skouteris, Helen; Daniels, Lynne; Jansen, Elena

2014-01-01

200

Maternal age specific risk rate estimates for Down syndrome among live births in whites and other races from Ohio and metropolitan Atlanta, 1970-1989.  

PubMed Central

Our primary objective was to estimate, by one year and five year intervals, maternal age specific risk rates for Down syndrome among whites and among other races from two different populations, metropolitan Atlanta and south west Ohio, using live birth and prenatally diagnosed cases ascertained during 1970-1989. The five year estimates were also calculated separately for each of the five four year periods during these 20 years. Additionally, we compared two different methods of estimating these risk rates by using a third population of whites, and compared two different statistical methods of smoothing the risk rates. The results indicate good agreement between the metropolitan Atlanta and south west Ohio estimates within races, but show a statistically significant difference between the two race categories. Because 86% of live births in the "other races" category in the combined population are to blacks, these data may be seen as the first estimates of maternal age specific risk rates for Down syndrome among blacks calculated by one year intervals. We found excellent agreement in the risk rate estimates among the five four year time periods, between the estimates obtained by using the two different methods of estimation, and between the estimates obtained using the two different methods of statistical smoothing. Our estimated risk rates for white women in their 20s strongly reinforce those from previous studies currently being used for genetic counselling purposes. While we did find somewhat higher rates for women under 20, and increasingly higher rates for those over 30 years of age, these differences are not substantial. Thus, this study in general supports the risk rates estimated from data collected mostly during the 1960s and 1970s.

Huether, C A; Ivanovich, J; Goodwin, B S; Krivchenia, E L; Hertzberg, V S; Edmonds, L D; May, D S; Priest, J H

1998-01-01

201

High Maternal Serum Estradiol Environment in the First Trimester Is Associated With the Increased Risk of Small-for-Gestational-Age Birth.  

PubMed

Context: There are increasing concerns that a disrupted endocrine environment may disturb the growth of the fetus. Assisted reproductive technology (ART) situates gamete/embryo in a supraphysiological estradiol (E2) environment and, thus, provides an ideal model to investigate this problem. Objective: Our objective was to investigate whether the maternal high-E2 environment in the first trimester increases the risks of low birth weight (LBW) and small-for-gestational-age (SGA) birth. Methods: In total, 8869 singletons born after fresh embryo transfer (ET) (n = 2610), frozen ET (n = 1039), and natural conception (NC) (n = 5220) and their mothers were included. Birth weight, LBW, SGA, and maternal serum E2 levels were investigated. Results: The mean serum E2 levels of women undergoing fresh ET at 4 and 8 weeks of gestation were significantly higher than those of the women undergoing frozen ET and the women with NC (P < .01). Serum E2 levels of women undergoing fresh ET at 4 and 8 weeks of gestation were positively correlated to those on the day of human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) administration (r = 0.5 and r = 0.4, respectively; P < 0.01). The birth weight after fresh ET was significantly lower than that after frozen ET and NC (P < 0.01), with increased incidence of LBW and SGA (P < .05). Furthermore, in the fresh ET group, singletons of mothers with high E2 levels (?10460 pmol/L on the day of hCG administration) had higher risks of LBW (P < .01) and SGA (P < .01) than those with low E2 levels, and maternal serum E2 level on the day of hCG administration negatively correlated with the birth weight (P < .01). Conclusions: The maternal high-E2 environment in the first trimester is correlated with increased risks of LBW and SGA. Evaluation of serum E2 before ET should be adopted to reduce the possibility of high E2 exposure to gamete/embryo. PMID:24606075

Hu, Xiao-Ling; Feng, Chun; Lin, Xian-Hua; Zhong, Zi-Xing; Zhu, Yi-Min; Lv, Ping-Ping; Lv, Min; Meng, Ye; Zhang, Dan; Lu, Xiu-E; Jin, Fan; Sheng, Jian-Zhong; Xu, Jian; Huang, He-Feng

2014-06-01

202

Infrarenal abdominal aorta approach through median minilaparotomy.  

PubMed

Classically, infrarenal aortic exposure is achieved by xyphopubic or xypho-infraumbilical laparotomy, in transperitoneal approach, or through a left abdominal incision, in retroperitoneal approach. The transperitoneal approach is associated with longer intestinal activity resumption time and incisional hernias on long term, due to intestinal extracavitary mobilization and long incision. These disadvantages disappear in laparoscopic approach, but this method is extremely laborious, requires an extended period for dissection, and elicits increased difficulty in performing the anastomosis on the aorta. The purpose of the study is to evaluate the infrarenal abdominal aorta approach through median minilaparotomy, a method that combines the excellent exposure of xypho-pubic incision with the low morbidity of laparoscopic approach. Between 07.01.2010 - 07.01.2011, we performed 37 revascularization surgeries in 36 patients with aorto-iliac occlusive disease (one patient required reintervention due to graft thrombosis), approaching the infrarenal aorta through median minilaparotomy. The sex distribution was 35 men and one woman. The average age was 61.1 years. There have been 25 aorto-bifemoral bypasses, 11 aorto-unifemoral bypasses, and one aorto-biiliac bypass. The mean aorta clamping time was 15 minutes. Average operating time was 150 minutes. We used 26 bifurcated Dacron prostheses and 11 linear ePTFEprostheses. The average intestinal activity resumption time was 32 hours. All patients included in the study were mobilized 24 hours after surgery. The average length of hospitalization was 7.7 days. 5 patients experienced complications during hospitalization and 3 patients suffered long term complications. Infrarenal abdominal aorta approach through median minilaparotomy is a viable alternative to conventional surgical techniques used in aortoiliac occlusive disease. PMID:23294956

P?tru?, G V; Jiga, L P; T?ranu, G P; Rata, A; Neamtu, C; Ionac, M

2012-01-01

203

Maternal exposure to perfluorinated acids and fetal growth.  

PubMed

The widespread detection of perfluorinated acids (PFAs) in humans and known developmental toxicity in animals has raised concern about their potential effects on human reproductive health. Our objective was to determine whether increasing maternal exposure to PFAs is associated with adverse effects on fetal growth and length of gestation in women giving birth in Alberta, Canada. We examined the concentrations of perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS), and perfluorohexane sulfonate (PFHxS) in a cohort of 252 pregnant women who gave birth to live singletons. Each of the women had undergone an early second trimester prenatal screen, and her serum was analyzed for PFA concentrations. Data on infant and maternal variables were collected from the delivery record completed at birth. Adjusted changes in birth weight per natural log (ng/ml) of PFOA (median 1.5 ng/ml), PFHxS (median 0.97 ng/ml), and PFOS (median 7.8 ng/ml) were -37.4 g (95% confidence interval (CI): -86.0 to 11.2 g), 21.9 g (-23.4 to 67.2 g), and 31.3 g (-43.3 to 105.9 g), respectively. Mean birth weight z-score, standardized for gestational age and gender, length of gestation, and risk of preterm birth did not appear to be influenced by maternal PFA exposure. When PFA concentrations were divided into tertiles, similar patterns were observed. These results suggest that maternal PFA exposure has no substantial effect on fetal weight and length of gestation at the concentrations observed in this population. PMID:19865074

Hamm, Michele P; Cherry, Nicola M; Chan, Emily; Martin, Jonathan W; Burstyn, Igor

2010-11-01

204

Maternal and Adolescent Temperament as Predictors of Maternal Affective Behavior during Mother-Adolescent Interactions  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined maternal and early adolescent temperament dimensions as predictors of maternal emotional behavior during mother-adolescent interactions. The sample comprised 151 early adolescents (aged 11-13) and their mothers (aged 29-57). Adolescent- and mother-reports of adolescent temperament and self-reports of maternal temperament were…

Davenport, Emily; Yap, Marie B. H.; Simmons, Julian G.; Sheeber, Lisa B.; Allen, Nicholas B.

2011-01-01

205

Meta-analysis of telomere length in 19,713 subjects reveals high heritability, stronger maternal inheritance and a paternal age effect.  

PubMed

Telomere length (TL) has been associated with aging and mortality, but individual differences are also influenced by genetic factors, with previous studies reporting heritability estimates ranging from 34 to 82%. Here we investigate the heritability, mode of inheritance and the influence of parental age at birth on TL in six large, independent cohort studies with a total of 19,713 participants. The meta-analysis estimate of TL heritability was 0.70 (95% CI 0.64-0.76) and is based on a pattern of results that is highly similar for twins and other family members. We observed a stronger mother-offspring (r=0.42; P-value=3.60 × 10(-61)) than father-offspring correlation (r=0.33; P-value=7.01 × 10(-5)), and a significant positive association with paternal age at offspring birth (?=0.005; P-value=7.01 × 10(-5)). Interestingly, a significant and quite substantial correlation in TL between spouses (r=0.25; P-value=2.82 × 10(-30)) was seen, which appeared stronger in older spouse pairs (mean age ?55 years; r=0.31; P-value=4.27 × 10(-23)) than in younger pairs (mean age<55 years; r=0.20; P-value=3.24 × 10(-10)). In summary, we find a high and very consistent heritability estimate for TL, evidence for a maternal inheritance component and a positive association with paternal age. PMID:23321625

Broer, Linda; Codd, Veryan; Nyholt, Dale R; Deelen, Joris; Mangino, Massimo; Willemsen, Gonneke; Albrecht, Eva; Amin, Najaf; Beekman, Marian; de Geus, Eco J C; Henders, Anjali; Nelson, Christopher P; Steves, Claire J; Wright, Margie J; de Craen, Anton J M; Isaacs, Aaron; Matthews, Mary; Moayyeri, Alireza; Montgomery, Grant W; Oostra, Ben A; Vink, Jacqueline M; Spector, Tim D; Slagboom, P Eline; Martin, Nicholas G; Samani, Nilesh J; van Duijn, Cornelia M; Boomsma, Dorret I

2013-10-01

206

Median barrier crash severity: some new insights.  

PubMed

Median barrier is used to prevent cross-median crashes on divided highways. Although it is well documented that crash frequencies increase after installing median barrier, little is known about median barrier crash severity outcomes. The present study estimated a nested logit model of median barrier crash severity using 5 years of data from rural divided highways in North Carolina. Vehicle, driver, roadway, and median cross-section design data were factors considered in the model. A unique aspect of the data used to estimate the model was the availability of median barrier placement and median cross-slope data, two elements not commonly included in roadway inventory data files. The estimation results indicate that collisions with a cable median barrier increase the probability of less-severe crash outcomes relative to collisions with a concrete or guardrail median barrier. Increasing the median barrier offset was associated with a lower probability of severe crash outcomes. The presence of a cable median barrier installed on foreslopes that were between 6H:1V and 10H:1V were associated with an increase in severe crash probabilities when compared to cable median barrier installations on foreslopes that were 10H:1V or flatter. PMID:20728619

Hu, Wen; Donnell, Eric T

2010-11-01

207

Maternal and perinatal characteristics and the risk of cow's milk allergy in infants up to 2 years of age: a case-control study nested in the Finnish population.  

PubMed

This study examined whether maternal background and perinatal factors were associated with the risk of cow's milk allergy (CMA) in infants up to 2 years of age in a nested case-control study. All children born in 1996-2004 in Finland and diagnosed with CMA by 2006 were identified (n = 16,237). For each case, one matched control was selected. Information on maternal and perinatal factors was derived from the Medical Birth Register. The associations were analyzed by conditional logistic regression. Cesarean section (adjusted odds ratio (OR) = 1.18, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.10, 1.27) and high maternal age (> or =35 years; adjusted OR = 1.23, 95% CI: 1.11, 1.36) were associated with increased risk, whereas low maternal socioeconomic status (adjusted OR = 0.65, 95% CI: 0.59, 0.71), smoking (adjusted OR = 0.72, 95% CI: 0.67, 0.79), high number of previous deliveries (> or =5; adjusted OR = 0.71, 95% CI: 0.59, 0.86), and multiple pregnancy (adjusted OR = 0.70, 95% CI: 0.60, 0.82) were associated with decreased risk of CMA. In conclusion, maternal background and perinatal factors may play a role in the development of CMA, but further research is needed to clarify these associations and the underpinning biologic mechanisms. PMID:20472571

Metsälä, Johanna; Lundqvist, Annamari; Kaila, Minna; Gissler, Mika; Klaukka, Timo; Virtanen, Suvi M

2010-06-15

208

Mental Health in Low-to-Moderate Risk Preterm, Low Birth Weight, and Small for Gestational Age Children at 4 to 5 Years: The Role of Early Maternal Parenting  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objectives: The majority of children born preterm, with low birth weight, or small for gestational age are born with low-to-moderate risk (LTM), yet most research focuses on the high-risk group. Little is known about whether children with LTM perinatal risk are at greater risk for mental health problems, or what the role of early maternal

Westrupp, Elizabeth M.; Mensah, Fiona K.; Giallo, Rebecca; Cooklin, Amanda; Nicholson, Jan M.

2012-01-01

209

Heuristics for the fixed cost median problem  

Microsoft Academic Search

We describe in this paper polynomial heuristics for three important hard problems—the discrete fixed cost median problem (the plant location problem), the continuous fixed cost median problem in a Euclidean space, and the network fixed cost median problem with convex costs. The heuristics for all the three problems guarantee error ratios no worse than the logarithm of the number of

Dorit S. Hochbaum

1982-01-01

210

Maternal micronutrient imbalance alters gene expression of BDNF, NGF, TrkB and CREB in the offspring brain at an adult age.  

PubMed

Micronutrients like folate, vitamin B12, and fatty acids which are interlinked in the one carbon cycle play a vital role in mediating epigenetic processes leading to an increased risk for neurodevelopmental disorders in the offspring. Our earlier study demonstrates that a micronutrient imbalanced diet adversely affects docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and protein levels of neurotrophins like brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and nerve growth factor (NGF) in the brain and cognition in the offspring by 3 months of age. In this study we attempt to analyze if these effects are a consequence of a change in gene expression of these molecules. Further, we also examined the effect of either a postnatal control diet or a prenatal omega-3 fatty acid supplementation on gene expression in the cortex of the offspring. Pregnant rats were divided into control and five treatment groups at two levels of folic acid (normal and excess folate) in the presence and absence of vitamin B12. Omega-3 fatty acid (eicosapentaenoic acid - EPA+DHA) supplementation was given to vitamin B12 deficient groups. Following delivery, 8 dams from each group were shifted to control diet and remaining continued on the same treatment diet. Our results demonstrate that the imbalanced diet caused a marked reduction in the mRNA levels of BDNF, NGF, TrkB, and cAMP response element-binding protein (CREB). Prenatal omega-3 fatty acid supplementation to the maternal imbalanced diet was able to normalize the mRNA levels of all the above genes. This study demonstrates that a maternal diet imbalanced in micronutrients (folic acid, vitamin B12) influences gene expression of neurotrophins and their signalling molecules and thereby adversely affects the brain of the offspring. PMID:24462543

Sable, Pratiksha; Kale, Anvita; Joshi, Asmita; Joshi, Sadhana

2014-05-01

211

Premature dyad separation in meiosis II is the major segregation error with maternal age in mouse oocytes  

PubMed Central

As women get older their oocytes become susceptible to chromosome mis-segregation. This generates aneuploid embryos, leading to increased infertility and birth defects. Here we examined the provenance of aneuploidy by tracking chromosomes and their kinetochores in oocytes from young and aged mice. Changes consistent with chromosome cohesion deterioration were found with age, including increased interkinetochore distance and loss of the centromeric protector of cohesion SGO2 in metaphase II arrested (metII) eggs, as well as a rise in the number of weakly attached bivalents in meiosis I (MI) and lagging chromosomes at anaphase I. However, there were no MI errors in congression or biorientation. Instead, premature separation of dyads in meiosis II was the major segregation defect in aged eggs and these were associated with very low levels of SGO2. These data show that although considerable cohesion loss occurs during MI, its consequences are observed during meiosis II, when centromeric cohesion is needed to maintain dyad integrity.

Yun, Yan; Lane, Simon I. R.; Jones, Keith T.

2014-01-01

212

Median corpectomy in cervical spondylotic multisegmental stenosis.  

PubMed

Cervical median corpectomy as an alternative to laminoplasty and laminectomy has been suggested as an effective treatment for cervical spondylotic myelopathy (CSM) in cases of multisegmental spondylotic stenosis. We report on our experience with this procedure with particular reference to neurological outcome and complications. Median corpectomy was performed in 17 cases (3 female, 14 male; mean age 59 yrs, (41-80 yrs.) with cervical myelopathy (CM) and radiologically diagnosed multisegmental spondylotic stenosis and spinal cord compression seen on MRI. The degree of stenosis was determined by means of the modified Pavlov's index (ratio between spinal canal width at the level of the intervertebral disc and the diameter of the vertebral body itself). 3/17 patients suffered from acute, 4/17 from subacute and 10/17 from chronic CM. Single level corpectomy was performed in 9 cases, one and a half vertebrae were removed in 2 cases and dual level corpectomy was performed in the remaining 6 cases. All patients received an autologous bone graft and AO - anterior plate stabilization or were stabilized as described by Morscher. Postoperative follow - up was possible in 16/17 cases over a mean time of 13.5 months. Myelopathy was graded according to Nurick's scale. Postoperatively, 12% with chronic CM improved by two grades, 38% (2 pts, with acute, 3 with subacute and 1 with chronic CM) improved by one grade. The other patients remained stable, none showed worsening of their myelopathy. Paresis improved in 92%, sensory deficits in 69%, spasticity in 73%, pain in 60%, and vegetative disturbances in 100% of all patients presenting these preoperative symptoms respectively. One patient died due to esophageal perforation and subsequent lethal mediastinitis caused by screw loosening 4 months following surgery and after initial neurological improvement. 4 other patients experienced screw loosening, three with acataposis, one remained clinically asymptomatic with concomitant graft displacement in two of these. One patient had to be re-operated due to a hematoma at the iliac crest and 2 suffered from a pelvic fracture of the spina iliaca at the site of graft removal. With respect to the neurological improvement, especially to the motor function and spasticity, median corpectomy can be regarded as an effective procedure in selected cases with cervical myelopathy, even when treatment related complications are taken into consideration. PMID:8779271

Burger, R; Tonn, J C; Vince, G H; Hofmann, E; Reiners, K; Roosen, K

1996-01-01

213

Maternal Schooling and Children's Relative Inequalities in Developmental Outcomes: Evidence from the 1947 School Leaving Age Reform in Britain  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper investigates whether mothers' participation in post-compulsory education impacts on children's relative inequalities across four developmental outcomes. The empirical analysis uses information from children born in 1958 in Britain. Mothers of the 1958 British cohort were affected by the 1947 school leaving age reform, which increased…

Sabates, Ricardo; Duckworth, Kathryn

2010-01-01

214

A prospective, randomized, double-blind study for the evaluation of assisted hatching in patients with advanced maternal age  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of this study was to determine if assisted hatching improved the rates of implantation, clinical preg- nancy and ongoing pregnancy for in-vitro fertilization (IVF) patients aged ø36 years. On the day of oocyte aspiration, consenting patients were randomized according to whether all embryos underwent the hatching procedure (hatched; n J 41) or all embryos remained unhatched (controls; n

Susan E. Lanzendorf; Fariba Nehchiri; Jacob F. Mayer; Sergio Oehninger; Suheil J. Muasher

1998-01-01

215

Maternal immunization.  

PubMed

Maternal immunization has the potential to protect the pregnant woman, fetus, and infant from vaccine-preventable diseases. Maternal immunoglobulin G is actively transported across the placenta, providing passive immunity to the neonate and infant prior to the infant's ability to respond to vaccines. Currently inactivated influenza, tetanus toxoid, and acellular pertussis vaccines are recommended during pregnancy. Several other vaccines have been studied in pregnancy and found to be safe and immunogenic and to provide antibody to infants. These include pneumococcus, group B Streptococcus, Haemophilus influenzae type b, and meningococcus vaccines. Other vaccines in development for potential maternal immunization include respiratory syncytial virus, herpes simplex virus, and cytomegalovirus vaccines. PMID:24799324

Chu, Helen Y; Englund, Janet A

2014-08-15

216

Effect of maternal age on the ratio of cleavage and mitochondrial DNA copy number in early developmental stage bovine embryos.  

PubMed

Age-associated deterioration in both the quality and quantity of mitochondria occurs in older women. The main aim of this study was to examine the effect of age on mitochondrial DNA copy number (mtDNA number) in early developmental stage bovine embryos as well as the dynamics of mtDNA number during early embryo development. Real-time PCR was used to determine mtDNA number. In vitro-produced embryos 48 h after insemination derived from Japanese black cows, ranging in age from 25 to 209 months were categorized based on their cleavage status. There was an overall negative relationship between the age of the cow and cleavage status, to the extent that the ratio of embryos cleaved over the 4-cell stage was greater in younger cows. The mtDNA number did not differ among the cleaved status of embryos. In the next experiment, oocytes collected from each donor cow were divided into 2 groups containing 10 oocytes each, in order to compare the mtDNA number of mature oocytes and early developmental stage embryos within individuals. Upon comparing the mtDNA number between oocytes at the M2 stage and early developmental stage 48 h post insemination, mtDNA number was found to decrease in most cows, but was found to increase in some cows. In conclusion, age affects the cleaving ability of oocytes, and very old cows (> 180 months) tend to have lower mtDNA numbers in their oocytes. The change in mtDNA number during early development varied among individual cows, although overall, it showed a tendency to decrease. PMID:23269452

Takeo, Shun; Goto, Hiroya; Kuwayama, Takehito; Monji, Yasunori; Iwata, Hisataka

2013-01-01

217

Prevalence of the Persistant Median Artery  

PubMed Central

Introduction Neurovascular variations in the upper limb are common and they are well documented. An accurate knowledge of the normal and the variant anatomy of the median nerve and the median artery are important for clinical procedures and for vascular surgeries. The persistant median artery is one such anomaly which was seen in 6.6% (4) of the 60 upper limbs which were dissected in the present study, it being bilateral in one cadaver. Material and Methods The present study was conducted on 60 upper limbs of 30 cadavers at the Government Medical College, Amritsar, India. The whole course of the median nerve and the persistant median artery was exposed. Results In all the 4 variant limbs, the persistent median artery originated from the anterior interrosseous artery and terminated in the incomplete mediano- ulnar type of the superficial palmar arch. In three upper limbs, the persistant median artery simply accompanied the median nerve upto the palm. But in the left upper limb of the cadaver with the bilateral variation, the artery penetrated and divided the nerve into two halves which joined to form a neural loop around the artery. Thereafter, the nerve and the artery followed the same course upto the palm. Such a penetration of the median nerve by the persistent median artery is extremely rare. Further, its ontogeny and clinical implications have been discussed in detail.

Singla, Rajan Kumar; Kaur, Neelamjit; Dhiraj, Gurvinder Singh

2012-01-01

218

Differential Effects of Exposure to Maternal Obesity or Maternal Weight Loss during the Periconceptional Period in the Sheep on Insulin Signalling Molecules in Skeletal Muscle of the Offspring at 4 Months of Age  

PubMed Central

Exposure to maternal obesity before and/or throughout pregnancy may increase the risk of obesity and insulin resistance in the offspring in childhood and adult life, therefore, resulting in its transmission into subsequent generations. We have previously shown that exposure to maternal obesity around the time of conception alone resulted in increased adiposity in female lambs. Changes in the abundance of insulin signalling molecules in skeletal muscle and adipose tissue precede the development of insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes. It is not clear, however, whether exposure to maternal obesity results in insulin resistance in her offspring as a consequence of the impact of increased adiposity on skeletal muscle or as a consequence of the programming of specific changes in the abundance of insulin signalling molecules in this tissue. We have used an embryo transfer model in the sheep to investigate the effects of exposure to either maternal obesity or to weight loss in normal and obese mothers preceding and for one week after conception on the expression and abundance of insulin signalling molecules in muscle in the offspring. We found that exposure to maternal obesity resulted in lower muscle GLUT-4 and Ser 9 phospho-GSK3? and higher muscle GSK3? abundance in lambs when compared to lambs conceived in normally nourished ewes. Exposure to maternal weight loss in normal or obese mothers, however, resulted in lower muscle IRS1, PI3K, p110?, aPKC?, Thr 642 phospho-AS160 and GLUT-4 abundance in the offspring. In conclusion, maternal obesity or weight loss around conception have each programmed specific changes on subsets of molecules in the insulin signalling, glucose transport and glycogen synthesis pathways in offspring. There is a need for a stronger evidence base to ensure that weight loss regimes in obese women seeking to become pregnant minimize the metabolic costs for the next generation.

Nicholas, Lisa M.; Morrison, Janna L.; Rattanatray, Leewen; Ozanne, Susan E.; Kleemann, Dave O.; Walker, Simon K.; MacLaughlin, Severence M.; Zhang, Song; Martin-Gronert, Malgorzata S.; McMillen, Isabella C.

2013-01-01

219

Coenzyme Q10 prevents accelerated cardiac aging in a rat model of poor maternal nutrition and accelerated postnatal growth?  

PubMed Central

Studies in human and animals have demonstrated that nutritionally induced low birth-weight followed by rapid postnatal growth increases the risk of metabolic syndrome and cardiovascular disease. Although the mechanisms underlying such nutritional programming are not clearly defined, increased oxidative-stress leading to accelerated cellular aging has been proposed to play an important role. Using an established rodent model of low birth-weight and catch-up growth, we show here that post-weaning dietary supplementation with coenzyme Q10, a key component of the electron transport chain and a potent antioxidant rescued many of the detrimental effects of nutritional programming on cardiac aging. This included a reduction in nitrosative and oxidative-stress, telomere shortening, DNA damage, cellular senescence and apoptosis. These findings demonstrate the potential for postnatal antioxidant intervention to reverse deleterious phenotypes of developmental programming and therefore provide insight into a potential translatable therapy to prevent cardiovascular disease in at risk humans.

Tarry-Adkins, Jane L.; Blackmore, Heather L.; Martin-Gronert, Malgorzata S.; Fernandez-Twinn, Denise S.; McConnell, Josie M.; Hargreaves, Iain P.; Giussani, Dino A.; Ozanne, Susan E.

2013-01-01

220

Coenzyme Q10 prevents accelerated cardiac aging in a rat model of poor maternal nutrition and accelerated postnatal growth.  

PubMed

Studies in human and animals have demonstrated that nutritionally induced low birth-weight followed by rapid postnatal growth increases the risk of metabolic syndrome and cardiovascular disease. Although the mechanisms underlying such nutritional programming are not clearly defined, increased oxidative-stress leading to accelerated cellular aging has been proposed to play an important role. Using an established rodent model of low birth-weight and catch-up growth, we show here that post-weaning dietary supplementation with coenzyme Q10, a key component of the electron transport chain and a potent antioxidant rescued many of the detrimental effects of nutritional programming on cardiac aging. This included a reduction in nitrosative and oxidative-stress, telomere shortening, DNA damage, cellular senescence and apoptosis. These findings demonstrate the potential for postnatal antioxidant intervention to reverse deleterious phenotypes of developmental programming and therefore provide insight into a potential translatable therapy to prevent cardiovascular disease in at risk humans. PMID:24327963

Tarry-Adkins, Jane L; Blackmore, Heather L; Martin-Gronert, Malgorzata S; Fernandez-Twinn, Denise S; McConnell, Josie M; Hargreaves, Iain P; Giussani, Dino A; Ozanne, Susan E

2013-01-01

221

Effects of Nurse Home Visiting on Maternal and Child Functioning: Age-9 Follow-up of a Randomized Trial  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE Our goal was to test the effect of prenatal and infancy home visits by nurses on mothers’ fertility and children’s functioning 7 years after the program ended at child age 2. METHODS We conducted a randomized, controlled trial in a public system of obstetric and pediatric care. A total of 743 primarily black women <29 weeks’ gestation, with previous live births and at least 2 sociodemographic risk characteristics (unmarried, <12 years of education, unemployed), were randomly assigned to receive nurse home visits or comparison services. Primary outcomes consisted of intervals between births of first and second children and number of children born per year; mothers’ stability of relationships with partners and relationships with the biological father of the child; mothers’ use of welfare, food stamps, and Medicaid; mothers’ use of substances; mothers’ arrests and incarcerations; and children’s academic achievement, school conduct, and mental disorders. Secondary outcomes were the sequelae of subsequent pregnancies, women’s employment, experience of domestic violence, and children’s mortality. RESULTS Nurse-visited women had longer intervals between births of first and second children, fewer cumulative subsequent births per year, and longer relationships with current partners. From birth through child age 9, nurse-visited women used welfare and food stamps for fewer months. Nurse-visited children born to mothers with low psychological resources, compared with control-group counterparts, had better grade-point averages and achievement test scores in math and reading in grades 1 through 3. Nurse-visited children, as a trend, were less likely to die from birth through age 9, an effect accounted for by deaths that were attributable to potentially preventable causes. CONCLUSIONS By child age 9, the program reduced women’s rates of subsequent births, increased the intervals between the births of first and second children, increased the stability of their relationships with partners, facilitated children’s academic adjustment to elementary school, and seems to have reduced childhood mortality from preventable causes.

Olds, David L.; Kitzman, Harriet; Hanks, Carole; Cole, Robert; Anson, Elizabeth; Sidora-Arcoleo, Kimberly; Luckey, Dennis W.; Henderson, Charles R.; Holmberg, John; Tutt, Robin A.; Stevenson, Amanda J.; Bondy, Jessica

2010-01-01

222

Maternal iron levels early in pregnancy are not associated with offspring IQ score at age 8, findings from a Mendelian randomization study  

PubMed Central

Background/Objectives: Iron is fundamental to many basic biological functions, and animal studies suggest that iron deficiency early in life can have a lasting impact on the developing brain. Subjects/Methods: We used a population-based cohort of mothers and their children to assess the effect of iron status among pregnant women on the cognitive ability of their offspring. But to avoid the inherent confounding that occurs within observational epidemiology studies we examined the association of maternal genotype at single-nucleotide polymorphisms in the genes HFE (rs1799945) and (rs1800562), TF (rs3811647) and TMPRSS6 (rs1800562), which are related to iron, haemoglobin or transferrin levels, on their child's cognitive test scores at age 8. Results: We found strong associations between HFE and TMPRSS6 genotypes and mother's haemoglobin levels early in pregnancy (P-values are all ?4.1 × 10?5) and a genetic score comprised of alleles at these loci was even more strongly associated with haemoglobin levels (P=3.0 × 10?18), suggesting that this was a good instrument to use to look at the effect of prenatal iron levels on offspring cognition. However, mother's genotype at the above loci was not associated with offspring IQ at age 8. Conclusions: We therefore concluded that there is no evidence of an effect of exposure to low levels of iron (within the normal range) in pregnancy on offspring cognition at age 8. However, pregnant women in the UK with low haemoglobin levels are prescribed iron supplements and so we were unable to look at the effect of iron deficiency in our study.

Lewis, S J; Bonilla, C; Brion, M-J; Lawlor, D A; Gunnell, D; Ben-Shlomo, Y; Ness, A; Smith, G D

2014-01-01

223

Temperature, age of mating and starvation determine the role of maternal effects on sex allocation in the mealybug Planococcus citri.  

PubMed

Environmental effects on sex allocation are common, yet the evolutionary significance of these effects remains poorly understood. Environmental effects might influence parents, such that their condition directly influences sex allocation by altering the relative benefits of producing sons versus daughters. Alternatively, the environment might influence the offspring themselves, such that the conditions they find themselves in influence their contribution to parental fitness. In both cases, parents might be selected to bias their sex ratio according to the prevailing environmental conditions. Here, we consider sex allocation in the citrus mealybug Planococcus citri, a species with an unusual genetic system in which paternal genes are lost from the germline in males. We test environmental factors that may influence either female condition directly (rearing temperature and food restriction) or that may be used as cues of the future environment (age at mating). Using cytological techniques to obtain primary sex ratios, we show that high temperature, older age at mating and starvation all affect sex allocation, resulting in female-biased sex ratios. However, the effect of temperature is rather weak, and food restriction appears to be strongly associated with reduced longevity and a truncation of the usual schedule of male and offspring production across a female's reproductive lifetime. Instead, facultative sex allocation seems most convincingly affected by age at mating, supporting previous work that suggests that social interactions experienced by adult P. citri females are used when allocating sex. Our results highlight that, even within one species, different aspects of the environment may have conflicting effects on sex allocation. PMID:21625649

Ross, Laura; Dealey, Elizabeth J; Beukeboom, Leo W; Shuker, David M

2011-05-01

224

How Hot Are Drosophila Hotspots? Examining Recombination Rate Variation and Associations with Nucleotide Diversity, Divergence, and Maternal Age in Drosophila pseudoobscura  

PubMed Central

Fine scale meiotic recombination maps have uncovered a large amount of variation in crossover rate across the genomes of many species, and such variation in mammalian and yeast genomes is concentrated to <5kb regions of highly elevated recombination rates (10–100x the background rate) called “hotspots.” Drosophila exhibit substantial recombination rate heterogeneity across their genome, but evidence for these highly-localized hotspots is lacking. We assayed recombination across a 40Kb region of Drosophila pseudoobscura chromosome 2, with one 20kb interval assayed every 5Kb and the adjacent 20kb interval bisected into 10kb pieces. We found that recombination events across the 40kb stretch were relatively evenly distributed across each of the 5kb and 10kb intervals, rather than concentrated in a single 5kb region. This, in combination with other recent work, indicates that the recombination landscape of Drosophila may differ from the punctate recombination pattern observed in many mammals and yeast. Additionally, we found no correlation of average pairwise nucleotide diversity and divergence with recombination rate across the 20kb intervals, nor any effect of maternal age in weeks on recombination rate in our sample.

Manzano-Winkler, Brenda; McGaugh, Suzanne E.; Noor, Mohamed A. F.

2013-01-01

225

Edge jitter and bias in median filter  

Microsoft Academic Search

More and more attention has been given to the edge jitter that may occur when a robust nonlinear filter for edge restoration is applied. In this paper, we consider the possible edge jitter introduced by the median filter i.e., the bias behavior of the median filter at an edge both for edge location and for restoration of the constant signal

Harold G. Longbotham; Susmitha C. Baddipudi; Yu Miao

1995-01-01

226

[Median nerve neuropathy after perilunate dislocation injuries].  

PubMed

Purpose: The purpose of this retrospective study was to investigate the frequency and appearance of median nerve neuropathy following perilunate dislocation injuries with respect to the preceding surgical decompression and the clinical outcome. Patients and Methods: 32 patients were followed for a mean of 65 months after surgery for perilunate dislocation, including carpal tunnel release in 13 patients. 10 of 11 patients with clinical symptoms of median nerve affection at follow-up had additionally an electrophysiological examination. Median neuropathy was assumed if 2 or more parameters were pathologic. Patients with and without median neuropathy were compared. The DASH score, pain, wrist motion, grip strength and the Mayo wrist score were used to rate the outcome. Results: In 6 patients, neuropathy of the median nerve persisted since injury in spite of carpal tunnel release in 5 of them. 3 patients showed secondary, delayed median nerve affection. Patients with median neuropathy had a worse result with regard to pain at rest, grip force, the DASH score, and the Mayo wrist score. The difference was statistically significant for pain with activities. Conclusion: Median neuropathy following perilunar dislocation injuries is frequent. It appears rather like a chronic neural lesion than a typical compression syndrome. A primary carpal tunnel release cannot always prevent persistent neural disorders. PMID:24940631

Mühldorfer-Fodor, M; Hohendorff, B; Saalabian, A A; Hahne, M; van Schoonhoven, J; Prommersberger, K-J

2014-06-01

227

The Moments of the Sample Median  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is shown that under certain regularity conditions, the central moments of the sample median are asymptotically equal to the corresponding ones of its asymptotic distribution (which is normal). A method of approximation, using the inverse function of the cumulative distribution function, is obtained for the moments of the sample median of a certain type of parent distribution. An advantage

John T. Chu; Harold Hotelling

1955-01-01

228

Influence of maternal stature, pregnancy age, and infant birth weight on growth during childhood in Yucatan, Mexico: a test of the intergenerational effects hypothesis.  

PubMed

In developing nations, obesity has increased dramatically in the last decade, but a high prevalence of stunting still coexists. The intergenerational influences hypothesis (IIH) is one explanation for this. We test the IIH regarding variation in maternal stature, mother's age at pregnancy, and infant birth weight in relation to risk for overweight and stunting in 206 Maya children (4-6 years old) from Mérida, Yucatan, Mexico. The Maya children are compared with growth references (Frisancho 2008: Anthropometric Standards: An Interactive Nutritional Reference of Body Size and Body Composition for Children and Adults. Ann Arbor, MI: The University of Michigan Press. 335 pp) for height, weight, and body mass index (BMI). Almost 70% of the mothers are shorter than 150 cm. Mothers' height and child's birth weight predict overweight. Children with a mother shorter than 150 cm are less than half as likely (OR = 0.44) to be overweight compared to children whose mothers are equal to or taller than 150 cm. Children with birth weights below 3,000 g are only a third as likely to be overweight (OR = 0.28) than their peers within the range of normal birth weight (3,000-3,500 g). Sex of the child, mother's height, and birth weight predict stunting. Girls are only 40% as likely as boys to be stunted. Children with a mother below 150 cm are 3.6 times more likely of being stunted. Children with birth weights below 3000 g are over 3 times more likely to be stunted relative to children with birth weights within the normal range. Mother's age at pregnancy is not a predictor of overweight or stunting. Our findings conform the IIH and with similar studies of populations undergoing nutritional/epidemiological transitions from traditional to globalized lifestyles. PMID:19214997

Varela-Silva, Maria Inês; Azcorra, Hugo; Dickinson, Federico; Bogin, Barry; Frisancho, A R

2009-01-01

229

Maternal amalgam dental fillings as the source of mercury exposure in developing fetus and newborn.  

PubMed

Dental amalgam is a mercury-based filling containing approximately 50% of metallic mercury (Hg(0)). Human placenta does not represent a real barrier to the transport of Hg(0); hence, fetal exposure occurs as a result of maternal exposure to Hg, with possible subsequent neurodevelopmental disabilities in infants. This study represents a substudy of the international NIH-funded project "Early Childhood Development and polychlorinated biphenyls Exposure in Slovakia". The main aim of this analysis was to assess the relationship between maternal dental amalgam fillings and exposure of the developing fetus to Hg. The study subjects were mother-child pairs (N=99). Questionnaires were administered after delivery, and chemical analyses of Hg were performed in the samples of maternal and cord blood using atomic absorption spectrometry with amalgamation technique. The median values of Hg concentrations were 0.63 microg/l (range 0.14-2.9 microg/l) and 0.80 microg/l (range 0.15-2.54 microg/l) for maternal and cord blood, respectively. None of the cord blood Hg concentrations reached the level considered to be hazardous for neurodevelopmental effects in children exposed to Hg in utero (EPA reference dose for Hg of 5.8 microg/l in cord blood). A strong positive correlation between maternal and cord blood Hg levels was found (rho=0.79; P<0.001). Levels of Hg in the cord blood were significantly associated with the number of maternal amalgam fillings (rho=0.46, P<0.001) and with the number of years since the last filling (rho=-0.37, P<0.001); these associations remained significant after adjustment for maternal age and education. Dental amalgam fillings in girls and women of reproductive age should be used with caution, to avoid increased prenatal Hg exposure. PMID:17851449

Palkovicova, Lubica; Ursinyova, Monika; Masanova, Vlasta; Yu, Zhiwei; Hertz-Picciotto, Irva

2008-05-01

230

Vaccination of Piglets up to 1 Week of Age with a Single-Dose Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae Vaccine Induces Protective Immunity within 2 Weeks against Virulent Challenge in the Presence of Maternally Derived Antibodies  

PubMed Central

Enzootic pneumonia, resulting from infection with Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae, is of considerable economic importance to the pig industry and normally is controlled through active vaccination of piglets. We have demonstrated that administration of an inactivated Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae vaccine to piglets less than 1 week old is efficacious under field conditions and reduces the level of lung lesions observed in comparison to that in control pigs. Here, the results of two separate studies, one in piglets with and the second one in piglets without maternal antibodies, conducted to satisfy the requirements of the European Pharmacopoeia (monograph no. 07/2009:2448), are reported. Piglets received either minimal titer Suvaxyn MH-One or saline at less than 1 week of age and were challenged with Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae 2 weeks later. The number of lung lesions was recorded 4 weeks after challenge, and bronchial swab and lung tissue specimens were analyzed for quantification of Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae DNA. In the presence and absence of maternal antibodies, vaccination of piglets at less than 1 week of age was efficacious, with vaccinated piglets having significantly lower percentages of lung with lesions and lower Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae counts detected in bronchial swab and lung tissue specimens at necropsy. In conclusion, the vaccination of piglets at 1 week of age with Suvaxyn MH-One is efficacious in the presence of high levels of maternal antibodies.

Van Brussel, Leen; Saunders, Gillian; Runnels, Paul; Taylor, Lucas; Fredrickson, Dan; Salt, Jeremy

2013-01-01

231

Solitary median maxillary central incisor (SMMCI) syndrome  

PubMed Central

Solitary median maxillary central incisor syndrome (SMMCI) is a complex disorder consisting of multiple, mainly midline defects of development resulting from unknown factor(s) operating in utero about the 35th–38th day(s) from conception. It is estimated to occur in 1:50,000 live births. Aetiology is uncertain. Missense mutation in the SHH gene (I111F) at 7q36 may be associated with SMMCI. The SMMCI tooth differs from the normal central incisor, in that the crown form is symmetric; it develops and erupts precisely in the midline of the maxillary dental arch in both primary and permanent dentitions. Congenital nasal malformation (choanal atresia, midnasal stenosis or congenital pyriform aperture stenosis) is positively associated with SMMCI. The presence of an SMMCI tooth can predict associated anomalies and in particular the serious anomaly holoprosencephaly. Common congenital anomalies associated with SMMCI are: severe to mild intellectual disability, congenital heart disease, cleft lip and/or palate and less frequently, microcephaly, hypopituitarism, hypotelorism, convergent strabismus, oesophageal and duodenal atresia, cervical hemivertebrae, cervical dermoid, hypothyroidism, scoliosis, absent kidney, micropenis and ambiguous genitalia. Short stature is present in half the children. Diagnosis should be made by eight months of age, but can be made at birth and even prenatally at 18–22 weeks from the routine mid-trimester ultrasound scan. Management depends upon the individual anomalies present. Choanal stenosis requires emergency surgical treatment. Short stature may require growth hormone therapy. SMMCI tooth itself is mainly an aesthetic problem, which is ideally managed by combined orthodontic, prosthodontic and oral surgical treatment; alternatively, it can be left untreated.

Hall, Roger K

2006-01-01

232

[Maternal mortality].  

PubMed

Every year, more than 585,000 women die throughout the world from pregnancy-related causes. Pregnancy complications occur in all countries, but nearly all the resulting deaths occur in developing countries. The maternal mortality rate in Ecuador, estimated by applying the sister survival method to survey data for 1988-94, was 160/100,000 live births. Approximately 460 women thus die each year from maternal causes. The Program of Action of the 1994 International Conference on Population and Development established that countries with intermediate levels of maternal mortality should strive to reduce rates to below 100/100,000 by the year 2005 and to below 60/100,000 by the year 2015. Ecuador's Plan for Reduction of Maternal Mortality will involve the cooperation of national and international organizations, aided by the president of Ecuador and under the leadership of the first lady. The initiative will require commitment from all sectors and individuals directly or indirectly influencing women's health. PMID:12178219

1997-09-01

233

Maternal Employment  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The overwhelming evidence from years of research is that maternal employment, by itself, has little influence on the behaviors of children. More relevant issues are: mother's reasons for working, family's acceptance of mother's employment, quality of substitute child care, family's social and emotional health, and economic conditions. (Author/AJ)

Clark, Sam

1975-01-01

234

Heuristics for the inversion median problem  

PubMed Central

Background The study of genome rearrangements has become a mainstay of phylogenetics and comparative genomics. Fundamental in such a study is the median problem: given three genomes find a fourth that minimizes the sum of the evolutionary distances between itself and the given three. Many exact algorithms and heuristics have been developed for the inversion median problem, of which the best known is MGR. Results We present a unifying framework for median heuristics, which enables us to clarify existing strategies and to place them in a partial ordering. Analysis of this framework leads to a new insight: the best strategies continue to refer to the input data rather than reducing the problem to smaller instances. Using this insight, we develop a new heuristic for inversion medians that uses input data to the end of its computation and leverages our previous work with DCJ medians. Finally, we present the results of extensive experimentation showing that our new heuristic outperforms all others in accuracy and, especially, in running time: the heuristic typically returns solutions within 1% of optimal and runs in seconds to minutes even on genomes with 25'000 genes--in contrast, MGR can take days on instances of 200 genes and cannot be used beyond 1'000 genes. Conclusion Finding good rearrangement medians, in particular inversion medians, had long been regarded as the computational bottleneck in whole-genome studies. Our new heuristic for inversion medians, ASM, which dominates all others in our framework, puts that issue to rest by providing near-optimal solutions within seconds to minutes on even the largest genomes.

2010-01-01

235

A Median Voter Model of Social Security  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a theoretical median voter analysis of the determination of the level of social security. The framework for the analysis is a continuous-time, overlapping-generations model with nonaltruistic households facing borrowing constraints in the capital market. A majority voting equilibrium is shown to exist in which the median voter is liquidity-constrained. The desired level of social security for each

Robin W Boadway; David E Wildasin

1989-01-01

236

The impact of correcting for smoking status when screening for chromosomal anomalies using maternal serum biochemistry and fetal nuchal translucency thickness in the first trimester of pregnancy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Results Prevalence of smoking was significantly affected by maternal age with an overall incidence of 11.5%, which varied from 35% in women under 20 to 7% in women over 35. In the unaffected population, the median free ?-hCG MoM was significantly lower in the smoking group (0.97 vs 1.00) as was that for PAPP-A (0.84 vs 1.02). The standard deviation

Kevin Spencer; Renu Bindra; Anna Maria Cacho; Kypros H. Nicolaides

2004-01-01

237

Persistence of maternal effects in baboons: mother's dominance rank at son's conception predicts stress hormone levels in subadult males  

PubMed Central

Dominance status and reproductive experience are maternal characteristics that affect offspring traits in diverse taxa, including some cercopithecine primates. Maternal effects of this sort are widespread and are sources of variability in offspring fitness. We tested the hypothesis that maternal dominance rank and reproductive experience as well as a male’s own age and dominance rank predicted chronic fecal glucocorticoid (fGC) concentrations in 17 subadult wild male baboons, Papio cynocephalus (median age 6.5 years), in the Amboseli basin, Kenya. Among these variables, maternal dominance rank at a subadult male’s conception was the sole significant predictor of the male’s fGC and accounted for 42% of fGC variance; sons of lower ranking mothers had higher fGC than did those of high ranking mothers. This result is striking because subadult male baboons are approximately 4–6 years past the period of infant dependence on their mothers, and are larger than and dominant to all adult females. In addition, many males of this age have survived their mothers’ death. Consequently, the influence of maternal dominance rank persisted well beyond the stage at which direct maternal influence on sons is likely. Persistence of these major maternal influences from the perinatal period may signal organizational effects of mothers on sons’ HPA axis. Although short-term, acute, elevations in GC are part of adaptive responses to challenges such as predators and other emergencies, chronically elevated GC are often associated with stress-related pathologies and, thereby, adverse effects on fitness components.

Onyango, Patrick Ogola; Gesquiere, Laurence R.; Wango, Emmanuel O.; Alberts, Susan C.; Altmann, Jeanne

2008-01-01

238

Introduction to Statistics: Mean, Median, Mode  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This lesson is designed to introduce students to statistical measures of central tendency (i.e., mean, median, and mode). The lesson provides links to discussions and activities related to mean, median, and mode, as well as suggested ways to integrate them into the lesson. Upon completion of the lesson, students should understand the differences in the three measures and be able to compute each. Finally, the lesson provides links to follow-up lessons designed for use in succession with learning about the measures of central tendency.

2010-01-01

239

Intraneural synovial sarcoma of the median nerve  

PubMed Central

Synovial sarcomas are soft-tissue malignancies with a poor prognosis and propensity for distant metastases. Although originally believed to arise from the synovium, these tumors have been found to occur anywhere in the body. We report a rare case of synovial sarcoma arising from the median nerve. To our knowledge, this is the twelfth reported case of intraneural synovial sarcoma, and only the fourth arising from the median nerve. Because the diagnosis may not be apparent until after pathological examination of the surgical specimen, synovial sarcoma should be kept in mind when dealing with what may seem like a benign nerve tumor.

Lipira, Angelo B; Kasukurthi, Rahul; Ray, Wilson Z; Pruzansky, Mark E; Mackinnon, Susan E

2010-01-01

240

The second-language vocabulary trajectories of Turkish immigrant children in Norway from ages five to ten: the role of preschool talk exposure, maternal education, and co-ethnic concentration in the neighborhood.  

PubMed

Little research has explored how preschools can support children's second-language (L2) vocabulary development. This study keenly followed the progress of twemty-six Turkish immigrant children growing up in Norway from preschool (age five) to fifth grade (age ten). Four different measures of preschool talk exposure (amount and diversity of teacher-led group talk and amount and diversity of peer talk), as well as the demographic variables of maternal education and co-ethnic concentration in the neighborhood, were employed to predict the children's L2 vocabulary trajectories. The results of growth analyses revealed that maternal education was the only variable predicting children's vocabulary growth during the elementary years. However, teacher-led talk, peer talk, and neighborhood predicted children's L2 vocabulary skills at age five, and these differences were maintained up to age ten. This study underscores the importance of both preschool talk exposure (teacher-led talk and peer talk) and demographic factors on L2 learners' vocabulary development. PMID:23442820

Rydland, Veslemøy; Grøver, Vibeke; Lawrence, Joshua

2014-03-01

241

Robust nonparametric estimation via wavelet median regression  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we develop a nonparametric regression method that is simultaneously adaptive over a wide range of function classes for the regression function and robust over a large collection of error distributions, including those that are heavy-tailed, and may not even possess variances or means. Our approach is to first use local medians to turn the problem of nonparametric

Lawrence D. Brown; T. Tony Cai; Harrison H. Zhou

2008-01-01

242

Bamzooki: Median, Mode, Mean, and Range  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this application students must use the Bamzooki creatures to find the Median, Mode, Mean, and Range. Students receive a score for the amount correct and are given tips when they complete a task incorrectly. The application is accompanied by a link to definitions for each term and a link to a multiple choice quiz.

2012-01-01

243

Abnormal maternal serum alpha fetoprotein and pregnancy outcome.  

PubMed

The objective was to assess the occurrence of miscarriages, low birth weight, and karyotype abnormalities found with low and elevated maternal serum alpha-fetoprotein (MSAFP) among women who had genetic amniocentesis performed. A retrospective study of 2,159 women who had MSAFP analysis prior to amniocentesis was conducted. Pregnancy outcomes were obtained from record review and physicians follow-up. Limits of MSAFP used in analysis were <0.5 adjusted multiples of the median (MOM) (lower levels) and >2.0 MOM (upper levels). Autosomal trisomy was found in 1.6% with low, 0.9% normal, and 0.6% with elevated MSAFP values. Sex chromosome abnormalities were present only in patients with normal MSAFP, [45X (n = 6), 47XXY (n = 2), 69XXX]. Of five open neural tube defects, four had elevated MSAFP and one had a normal value. Omphalocele was identified in four patients, two with normal and two with elevated MSAFP. Gastroschisis was found in one low and one elevated MSAFP. Amniotic fluid alpha-fetoprotein (AFAFP) values did not correlate with MSAFP values. Patients with low MSAFP levels had a greater prevalence of abnormal karyotype (19 of 249, prevalence = 0.076) than patients with an elevated MSAFP level (2 or 166, prevalence = 0.012 OR (odds ratio) = 0.20 (P value = 0.024) when unadjusted for maternal age, and OR = 0.09 (P value = 0.001) when adjusted for maternal age. Spontaneous abortion occurred more often in patients with elevated (4 of 166, or 4%) than normal or low (20 of 1948, or 1%) values of MSAFP (odds ratio 4.32, P = 0.020 when adjusted for maternal age). Birth weight below 2,500 g was present less frequently with low or normal MSAFP (136 of 1,760, or 7.7%) than in elevated MSAFP (21 of 144 or 14.6%) (odds ratio 2.04, P = 0.005, unadjusted; and odds ratio = 2.32, P = 0.003, adjusted for maternal age). Female fetuses were present more often with low MSAFP (136 of 249, or 55%) than elevated levels 43% (71 of 164, or 43%; P = 0.024). We conclude that patients undergoing genetic amniocentesis with MSAFP <.5 MOM are less likely to miscarry, deliver a low birth weight newborn, or have a male infant than patients with MSAFP levels >2.0 MOM. PMID:9848697

Zarzour, S J; Gabert, H A; Diket, A L; St Amant, M; Miller, J M

1998-01-01

244

The effect of maternal smoking status, educational level and age on food and nutrient intakes in preschool children: results from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: Studies in adults have demonstrated that smoking status is associated with dietary quality, with smokers tending to have diets that conform less closely to guidelines on healthy eating than nonsmokers. However, there is very little information on the relation between children's dietary quality and parental smoking status. The objective of this study was to investigate the relation between maternal

I Rogers; P Emmett

2003-01-01

245

Infant and Maternal Sensitivity to Interpersonal Timing  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A perturbation paradigm was employed to assess 3- and 6-month-old infants' and their mothers' sensitivity to a 3-s temporal delay implemented in an ongoing televised interaction. At both ages, the temporal delay affected infant but not maternal behavior and only when implementing the temporal delay in maternal (Experiment 1, N = 64) but not infant…

Henning, Anne; Striano, Tricia

2011-01-01

246

Cadaveric study of anatomical variations of the median nerve and persistent median artery at wrist  

PubMed Central

Background: Awareness of anatomical variations of the median nerve at wrist is important in repair of traumatic injuries and treatments of compression syndrome because in these situations precise dissection of the nerve is mandatory and such variations are not infrequent. Materials and Methods: In this study, 52 hands of 52 fresh cadavers were dissected and median nerve anatomy along with the presence of persistent median artery (PMA) was noted. Results: A total of 26 hands (50%) had the deviation from the standard text book anatomy of the median nerve. There was early division of the median nerve into the medial and lateral branches in 11.53% hands. There was early branching of the 2nd common digital nerve in 9.6% hands. The transligamentous motor branch to the thenar muscle was most prevalent (42.3% hands). The single motor branch to the thenar muscles was found in the majority of hands (84.6%). The PMA was present in 11.53% hands and it was associated with variations in the median nerve anatomy in all cases. Conclusions: This study shows a high percentage of deviation from standard anatomy as well as a high percentage of transligamentous thenar muscle motor branch. The presence of PMA was associated with variations in the median nerve anatomy in all cases. Therefore if PMA is present there are very high chances of associated median nerve anomalies.

Agarwal, Pawan; Gupta, Shivkant; Yadav, Prashant; Sharma, D.

2014-01-01

247

Maternal malaria status and metabolic profiles in pregnancy and in cord blood: relationships with birth size in Nigerian infants  

PubMed Central

Background Malaria is more common in pregnant than in non-pregnant Nigerian women, and is associated with small birth size and the attendant short- and long-term health risks. The influence of malaria on maternal metabolic status in pregnancy and in cord blood and how this relates to birth size has not been studied. The study objective was to define relationships between maternal and cord serum metabolic markers, maternal malaria status and birth size. Methods During pregnancy, anthropometric measurements, blood film for malaria parasites and assays for lipids, glucose, insulin and TNF were obtained from 467 mothers and these analytes and insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) were obtained from cord blood of 187 babies. Results Overall prevalence of maternal malaria was 52%, associated with younger age, anaemia and smaller infant birth size. Mothers with malaria had significantly lower cholesterol (total, HDL and LDL) and higher TNF, but no difference in triglyceride. In contrast, there was no effect of maternal malaria on cord blood lipids, but the median (range) cord IGF-I was significantly lower in babies whose mothers had malaria: 60.4 (24,145)?g/L, versus no malaria: 76.5 (24, 150)?g/L, p = 0.03. On regression analysis, the key determinants of birth weight included maternal total cholesterol, malarial status and cord insulin and IGF-I. Conclusions Malaria in pregnancy was common and associated with reduced birth size, lower maternal lipids and higher TNF. In the setting of endemic malaria, maternal total cholesterol during pregnancy and cord blood insulin and IGF-I levels are potential biomarkers of foetal growth and birth size.

2012-01-01

248

Evaluation of Thymic Changes after Median Sternotomy in Children  

PubMed Central

In patients who undergo median sternotomy to treat congenital heart diseases, a thymectomy is performed to yield better access to the cardiac system. In this study we have used MRI to evaluate the changes in size, shape and location of the thymus after midsternatomy. This case-control study was performed during 2011-2012 in Shiraz, Iran. Eligible participants between 5-17 years of age were divided into case and control groups (n=13 per group). Each participant underwent a median sternotomy at least one year prior to study entry. Participants were initially examined by a cardiologist and then referred for MRI. A radiologist examined all MRI images. The thymus was observed in all control group patients and in only 7 (53.8%) patients in the case group. There was a significant relationship noted in terms of mean age in the group whose thymus was visible and the group in which the thymus was not visible. We have observed no significant difference in thymic visibility between these two groups based on the mean age at midsternatomy. In pediatric patients undergoing cardiac surgery the possibility of remaining or regenerated thymic tissues may be evaluated by MRI. The remaining portion of the thymus may have any shape, size or location. Therefore, it can be misinterpreted as a mass if a patient’s previous surgical history and age at the time of surgery are not taken into consideration.

Kamali, Karmella; Ghahartars, Mohammad; Amirghofran, Ahmad Ali

2014-01-01

249

Maternal and child health. Maternal mortality in the Americas.  

PubMed

Maternal health in Latin America and the Caribbean continues to be an important issue, which is significantly affected by access to appropriate health technology and quality care, which in turn may be dependent upon economic conditions. Although contraceptive knowledge was high, only 53% of couples used some method of contraception. About 32% and 37% of maternal mortality in Mexico and Colombia could have been averted if contraception had been used. One study of 240 maternal deaths in Mexico indicated that 85% were potentially preventable, and 70% could have been potentially avoided with better medical and institutional care. The table gave the number and rate of maternal mortality and risk by country. In 23 countries, maternal mortality was one of the ten leading causes of death among women. The five prominent causes tended to be abortion, hemorrhage, toxemia, complications of the puerperium, and indirect causes among women aged 15-49 years. Countries can be grouped by level of maternal mortality: 227/100,000 live births, 133/100,000, and 50/100,000. About 280,000 to 420,000 episodes of severe intercurrent obstetric problems potentially occurred annually among the 12 million women of reproductive age in the region. In the United States about 1 out of every 5 pregnancies involved pregnancy related hospitalization in 1987. In Mexico in 1989, of the 740,000 obstetric related discharges for obstetric reasons, 80.5% were related to delivery and 19.5%, to morbidity during pregnancy. During the prenatal period, the five leading causes of morbidity have been identified as premature rupture of membranes, urinary tract infection, potential premature delivery, pre-eclampsia, and pregnancy induced hypertension. Latin American is also a region with increasing numbers of cesarean section deliveries. Maternal deaths in Latin America and the Caribbean would be reduced 47 times and 85% of deaths could be avoided if the health systems paralleled those in Canada. PMID:8240944

1993-10-15

250

Maternal-perinatal calcium relationships.  

PubMed

Serum concentrations of total and ionic calcium, magnesium, phosphorus, and albumin were measureed in maternal and cord blood of 115 near-term deliveries. The same measurements (except for ionic calcium) were made in blood obtained from corresponding newborns at 24 hours of age. Cord levels of all components exceeded maternal values, and maternal and cord levels correlated significantly with each other. In the case of calcium, the cord-maternal difference involved both ionic and protein-bound forms. Significant umbilical arterio-venous differences were found only in the case of total calcium, and this difference reflected variation in the protein-bound form only. During the first 24 hours postpartum, total calcium concentration fell (by an average of 0.75 mEq/liter), phosphorus levels rose (by an average of 0.63 mg/dl), and magnesium and albumin did not change significantly. Cord levels of all agents correlated significantly with corresponding neonatal values. In view of the significant positive relationships demonstrated between maternal and cord levels and between cord and neonatal levels, these results substantiate the importance of the maternal serum ionic calcium concentration in normal perinatal calcium homeostasis. PMID:760023

Schauberger, C W; Pitkin, R M

1979-01-01

251

Effects of Maternal Employment on Adolescent Substance Use.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

As levels of maternal employment increase (71% for mothers with school-age children), there is concern for both the short- and long-term consequences of maternal employment on children and families. This study examined the influence of maternal employment in two-parent families on the substance use of adolescents. Subjects were male and female…

Hillman, Stephen B.; And Others

252

Neonatal-maternal factors and perfluoroalkyl substances in cord blood.  

PubMed

Perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) can cross the placenta, enter fetal circulation, and were found to correlate with adverse fetal growth. However, determinants of cord blood PFASs are not fully characterized. The study aimed to explore the association between PFASs and neonatal-maternal factors within a Taiwanese birth cohort. We selected subjects from Taiwan Birth Panel Study, which enrolled 486 infant-mother pairs in 2004-2005. We collected cord blood and analyzed perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), perfluorooctanyl sulfonate (PFOS), perfluorononanoic acid (PFNA) and perfluoroundecanoic acid (PFUA) using a simple protein precipitation and an ultra-high performance liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry. We retrieved information pertaining to maternal socio-demographics, lifestyle- and dietary-related factors through structured questionnaires during the postpartum hospital stay. A total of 439 subjects, with 90% response rate, have completed serum analysis and questionnaire survey. The median concentrations for PFOA, PFOS, PFNA, and PFUA in cord blood were 1.86, 5.67, 3.00, and 13.5ngmL(-1), respectively. After adjusting for potential confounders, multiple linear regression models revealed that log10-PFOA was positively associated with maternal age (?=0.011) and negatively associated with multiparity (?=-0.044). Log10-PFOS was negatively correlated with birth weight (?=-0.011) and higher maternal education (senior high school: ?=-0.067; university: ?=-0.088). Log10-PFUA tended to negatively associate with gender, male infants (?=-0.075), and using cosmetics during pregnancy (?=-0.065). Interestingly, presence of cockroaches in the home was positively associated with log10-PFOA (?=0.041) and 1og10-PFNA (?=0.123). In conclusion, this study demonstrated several factors to correlate with cord blood PFASs and further investigation are still needed for confirmation of exposure routes. PMID:23689097

Lien, Guang-Wen; Huang, Ching-Chun; Wu, Kuen-Yuh; Chen, Mei-Huei; Lin, Chien-Yu; Chen, Chia-Yang; Hsieh, Wu-Shiun; Chen, Pau-Chung

2013-08-01

253

Median Filter Based Iris Encoding Technique  

Microsoft Academic Search

Iris-based human recognition is very attractive because of the high accuracy achievable. However, existing encoding methods are unable to handle iris images acquired when the ambient lighting is non-uniform. In this paper we propose a novel encoding technique which can handle images acquired under such conditions. The method is based on 2D median filters, which are commonly used as de-noising

Jinyu Zuo; N. K. Ratha; J. H. Connell

2008-01-01

254

Lack of Effect of Fetal Administration of Cocaine on Maternal and Fetal Plasma Adrenocorticotropin, Cortisol and Lactate Concentrations at 127–138 Days Gestational Age  

Microsoft Academic Search

Few in vivo studies have been done to characterize the effects of cocaine on the maternal and fetal pituitary-adrenal axis during pregnancy. We, therefore, administered cocaine (2 mg·kg–1) intravenously to 6 fetal sheep at 127–138 days of gestation. There was a transient reduction in fetal arterial pO2 with a concomitant increase in pCO2 and a prolonged fall in pH (p

J. R. Owiny; M. T. Jones; D. Sadowsky; A. Massmann; P. W. Nathanielsz

1991-01-01

255

Lack of Effect of Fetal Administration of Cocaine on Maternal and Fetal Plasma Adrenocorticotropin, Cortisol and Lactate Concentrations at 127–138 Days Gestational Age  

Microsoft Academic Search

Few in vivo studies have attempted to characterize the effects of cocaine on the maternal and fetal pituitary-adrenal axis during pregnancy. We, therefore, administered cocaine (2 mg·kg-1) intravenously to 6 fetal sheep at 127–138 days of gestation. There was a transient reduction in fetal arterial pO2 with a concomitant increase in pCO2 and a prolonged fall in pH (p <

J. R. Owiny; M. T. Jones; D. Sadowsky; A. Massmann; X. Y. Ding; P. W. Nathanielsz

1991-01-01

256

Iodine deficiency in pregnancy and the effects of maternal iodine supplementation on the offspring: a review.  

PubMed

The World Health Organization (WHO) recently increased their recommended iodine intake during pregnancy from 200 to 250 microg/d and suggested that a median urinary iodine (UI) concentration of 150-249 microg/L indicates adequate iodine intake in pregnant women. Thyrotropin concentrations in blood collected from newborns 3-4 d after birth may be a sensitive indicator of even mild iodine deficiency during late pregnancy; a <3% frequency of thyrotropin values >5 mU/L indicates iodine sufficiency. New reference data and a simple collection system may facilitate use of the median UI concentration as an indicator of iodine status in newborns. In areas of severe iodine deficiency, maternal and fetal hypothyroxinemia can cause cretinism and adversely affect cognitive development in children; to prevent fetal damage, iodine should be given before or early in pregnancy. Whether mild-to-moderate maternal iodine deficiency produces more subtle changes in cognitive function in offspring is unclear; no controlled intervention studies have measured long-term clinical outcomes. Cross-sectional studies have, with few exceptions, reported impaired intellectual function and motor skills in children from iodine-deficient areas, but many of these studies were likely confounded by other factors that affect child development. In countries or regions where <90% of households are using iodized salt and the median UI concentration in school-age children is <100 microg/L, the WHO recommends iodine supplementation in pregnancy and infancy. PMID:19088150

Zimmermann, Michael B

2009-02-01

257

[Proximal median nerve compression. A series of 35 consecutive cases].  

PubMed

Median nerve entrapment at the elbow and the proximal forearm represents 7 to 10 % of median nerve mononeuropathies. Literature distinguishes two distinct syndromes: the pronator syndrome and the anterior interosseous nerve syndrome. We report a retrospective series of 35 cases of proximal compression of the median nerve, including a previous study of 13 cases assessed in 2001. Thirty-four patients were operated on between 1994 and 2011. The series included 15 men and 19 women with a mean age of 57 years. Subjective complaints were the main reason of consulting with or without a deficit. All but one benefited from a preoperative electrical study. Neurography showed abnormalities in 18 cases and myography in 30 cases. At least one site of compression was found at surgery. Thirty-one cases, including nine of the 13 cases previously evaluated in 2001, were assessed with a mean follow-up of 69 months. Twenty-height considered them improved and all but one were objectively improved by surgery. The nine cases evaluated in 2001 had better results in 2011. Through this series and an exhaustive literature review, we concluded that there are no preoperative criteria that can differentiate a pronator teres syndrome from an anterior interosseous nerve syndrome. If no improvement occurs, surgical treatment should be proposed, one must then assess all potential sites of nerve entrapment. Patients must be informed that improvement can take several years. PMID:23541857

Lafon, L; Lautman, S; Corcia, P; Laulan, J

2013-06-01

258

Maternal and early postnatal polychlorinated biphenyl exposure in relation to total serum immunoglobulin concentrations in 6-month-old infants  

PubMed Central

Animal data indicate that developmental tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin exposure alters immune function; however, the potential immunotoxicity of dioxin-like and non-dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in the developing infant is an understudied area. The aim of the current study is to examine the association between maternal and early postnatal PCB concentrations in relation to total infant serum immunoglobulin concentrations determined at 6-months-of-age. We selected 384 mother-infant pairs participating in a birth cohort study in Eastern Slovakia. PCB concentrations of several congeners were determined in maternal and cord serum samples and in infant serum samples collected at 6-months-of-age using gas chromatography with electron capture detection. Total immunoglobulin (Ig) G, A, and M concentrations were determined by nephelometry, and IgE concentrations were determined by enzyme-linked immunoassay. Linear regression models with adjustment for potential confounding factors were used to estimate the associations between maternal, cord, and 6-month infant PCB concentrations and total serum immunoglobulins. The median maternal serum concentration of PCB-153 was 140 ng/g lipid, ?10-fold higher than concentrations in childbearing-age women in the United States during the same period. Maternal, cord, or 6-month infant PCB concentrations were not associated with total serum immunoglobulin levels at 6 months, regardless of the timing of PCB exposure, PCB congener, or specific immunoglobulin. In this population, which has high PCB concentrations relative to most populations in the world today, we did not observe any association between maternal and early postnatal PCB concentrations and total immunoglobulin measures of IgG, IgA, IgM, or IgE.

Jusko, Todd A.; De Roos, Anneclaire J.; Schwartz, Stephen M.; Lawrence, B. Paige; Palkovicova, Lubica; Nemessanyi, Tomas; Drobna, Beata; Fabisikova, Anna; Kocan, Anton; Jahnova, Eva; Kavanagh, Terrance J.; Trnovec, Tomas; Hertz-Picciotto, Irva

2011-01-01

259

Effect of maternal hydration on the increase of amniotic fluid index.  

PubMed

The objective of this study was to determine the effect of maternal hydration with oral isotonic solution and water on the amniotic fluid (AF) index of women with normohydramnios. Women with a normal AF index and gestational age between 33 and 36 weeks without maternal complications were randomized into three groups [isotonic solution (Gatorade(®)), water, control]. The isotonic solution and water groups were instructed to drink 1.5 L of the respective solution and the control group was instructed to drink 200 mL water over a period of 2 to 4 h. AF index was measured before and after hydration by Doppler ultrasonography. The investigator performing the AF index measurement was blind to the subject's group. Ninety-nine women completed the study without any adverse maternal effects. The median increase in AF index after hydration was significantly greater for the isotonic solution and water groups than for the control group. There was no significant difference between the isotonic solution and water groups. Hydration with isotonic solution and water caused a 10-fold (95%CI: 2.09-49.89) and 6-fold (95%CI: 1.16-30.95) increase in the chance of a 20% increase of AF index, respectively. Maternal hydration with isotonic solution or water increased the AF index in women with normohydramnios. PMID:21271182

Borges, V T M; Rososchansky, J; Abbade, J F; Dias, A; Peraçoli, J C; Rudge, M V C

2011-03-01

260

Efficient median based clustering and classification techniques for protein sequences  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, an efficient K-medians clustering (unsupervised) algorithm for prototype selection and Supervised K-medians (SKM) classification technique for protein sequences are presented. For sequence data sets, a median string\\/sequence can be used as the cluster\\/group representative. In K-medians clustering technique, a desired number of clusters, K, each represented by a median string\\/sequence, is generated and these median sequences are

P. A. Vijaya; M. Narasimha Murty; D. K. Subramanian

2006-01-01

261

State reduction of recursive median filters  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We will discuss the simplified implementation of Recursive Median (RM) filters. It will be shown that every RM filter an alternative implementation. This implies a fast algorithm, [O(1) per pixel on average], for the one-dimensional RM filter. We also consider the case when RM filters are applied in a cascade of increasing filter window lengths, that is, the RM sieve. We will show that the RM sieve can be implemented in constant time per scale by applying only 3-point median operations. Both of the above mentioned fast implementations are viewed in a new light by constructing the corresponding Finite State Machines (FSM), and observing the achievable state reduction. Radical reduction of complexity takes place by implementing standard state reduction techniques. FSM models also open new possibilities for the analysis of these systems. Finally we discuss the benefits of using the RM sieve instead of the RM filter. We consider the streaking problem of the RM filter. It is demonstrated that the RM filter is not in itself a reliable estimator of location. As the cascading element in the structure of the sieve, however, it is very useful. It turns out that the use of RM sieve reduces the streaking problem to manageable level.

Yli-Harja, Olli P.; Bangham, J. Andrew; Harvey, Richard W.

1999-03-01

262

Relationship Between Maternal Behavior During Pregnancy, Birth Outcome, and Early Childhood Development: An Exploratory Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examines the relationship between maternal behavior during pregnancy, birth outcomes, and early childhood development. Specifically, in the context of four measures of maternal behavior during pregnancy (maternal smoking, drinking, prenatal care, and maternal weight gain), three measures of birth outcome (gestational age, birth length, and birth weight), and 32 exogenous covariates observed during pregnancy, we investigate the importance

Kai Li; Dale J. Poirier

2003-01-01

263

Trajectories of Maternal Depressive Symptoms, Maternal Sensitivity, and Children's Functioning at School Entry  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Using data from the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development Study of Early Child Care and Youth Development, the authors modeled trajectories of maternal depressive symptoms from infant age 1 month to 7 years. The authors identified 6 trajectories of maternal depressive symptoms: high-chronic, moderate-increasing, high-decreasing,…

Campbell, Susan B.; Matestic, Patricia; von Stauffenberg, Camilla; Mohan, Roli; Kirchner, Thomas

2007-01-01

264

Current and Past Maternal Depression, Maternal Interaction Behaviors, and Children's Externalizing and Internalizing Symptoms  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Relations among past maternal depressive disorder, current depressive symptoms, current maternal interaction behaviors, and children's adjustment were examined in a sample of 204 women and their young adolescent offspring (mean age = 11.86, SD = 0.55). Mothers either had (n = 157) or had not (n = 57) experienced at least one depressive disorder…

Foster, Cynthia J. Ewell; Garber, Judy; Durlak, Joseph A.

2008-01-01

265

The Relations among Maternal Depression, Maternal Criticism, and Adolescents' Externalizing and Internalizing Symptoms.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined the relations between maternal criticism and externalizing and internalizing symptoms in adolescents who varied in their risk for psychopathology. Both maternal-effects and child-effects models were examined. The sample consisted of 194 adolescents (mean age = 11.8 years) and their mothers: 146 mothers had a history of…

Frye, Alice A.; Garber, Judy

2005-01-01

266

Maternal Psychopathology and Infant Development at 18 Months: The Impact of Maternal Personality Disorder and Depression  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: No previous longitudinal study has examined the impact of comorbid maternal personality disorder (PD) and depression on child development. We set out to examine whether maternal PD and depression assessed at 2 months post partum would be independently associated with adverse developmental outcomes at 18 months of age. Method: Women were…

Conroy, Susan; Pariante, Carmine M.; Marks, Maureen N.; Davies, Helen A.; Farrelly, Simone; Schacht, Robin; Moran, Paul

2012-01-01

267

[Neural basis of maternal behavior].  

PubMed

Maternal love, which may be the core of maternal behavior, is essential for the mother-infant attachment relationship and is important for the infant's development and mental health. However, little has been known about these neural mechanisms in human mothers. We examined patterns of maternal brain activation in response to infant cues using video clips. We performed functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) measurements while 13 mothers viewed video clips, with no sound, of their own infant and other infants of approximately 16 months of age who demonstrated two different attachment behaviors (smiling at the infant's mother and crying for her). We found that a limited number of the mother's brain areas were specifically involved in recognition of the mother's own infant, namely orbitofrontal cortex (OFC). and periaqueductal gray, anterior insula, and dorsal and ventrolateral parts of putamen. Additionally, we found the strong and specific mother's brain response for the mother's own infant's distress. The differential neural activation pattern was found in the dorsal region of OFC, caudate nucleus, right inferior frontal gyrus, dorsomedial prefrontal cortex (PFC), anterior cingulate, posterior cingulate, posterior superior temporal sulcus, and dorsolateral PFC. Our results showed the highly elaborate neural mechanism mediating maternal love and diverse and complex maternal behaviors for vigilant protectiveness. PMID:23944121

Noriuchi, Madoka; Kikuchi, Yoshiaki

2013-01-01

268

Maternal anxiety and infants' hippocampal development: timing matters.  

PubMed

Exposure to maternal anxiety predicts offspring brain development. However, because children's brains are commonly assessed years after birth, the timing of such maternal influences in humans is unclear. This study aimed to examine the consequences of antenatal and postnatal exposure to maternal anxiety upon early infant development of the hippocampus, a key structure for stress regulation. A total of 175 neonates underwent magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) at birth and among them 35 had repeated scans at 6 months of age. Maternal anxiety was assessed using the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI) at week 26 of pregnancy and 3 months after delivery. Regression analyses showed that antenatal maternal anxiety did not influence bilateral hippocampal volume at birth. However, children of mothers reporting increased anxiety during pregnancy showed slower growth of both the left and right hippocampus over the first 6 months of life. This effect of antenatal maternal anxiety upon right hippocampal growth became statistically stronger when controlling for postnatal maternal anxiety. Furthermore, a strong positive association between postnatal maternal anxiety and right hippocampal growth was detected, whereas a strong negative association between postnatal maternal anxiety and the left hippocampal volume at 6 months of life was found. Hence, the postnatal growth of bilateral hippocampi shows distinct responses to postnatal maternal anxiety. The size of the left hippocampus during early development is likely to reflect the influence of the exposure to perinatal maternal anxiety, whereas right hippocampal growth is constrained by antenatal maternal anxiety, but enhanced in response to increased postnatal maternal anxiety. PMID:24064710

Qiu, A; Rifkin-Graboi, A; Chen, H; Chong, Y-S; Kwek, K; Gluckman, P D; Fortier, M V; Meaney, M J

2013-01-01

269

Maternal anxiety and infants' hippocampal development: timing matters  

PubMed Central

Exposure to maternal anxiety predicts offspring brain development. However, because children's brains are commonly assessed years after birth, the timing of such maternal influences in humans is unclear. This study aimed to examine the consequences of antenatal and postnatal exposure to maternal anxiety upon early infant development of the hippocampus, a key structure for stress regulation. A total of 175 neonates underwent magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) at birth and among them 35 had repeated scans at 6 months of age. Maternal anxiety was assessed using the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI) at week 26 of pregnancy and 3 months after delivery. Regression analyses showed that antenatal maternal anxiety did not influence bilateral hippocampal volume at birth. However, children of mothers reporting increased anxiety during pregnancy showed slower growth of both the left and right hippocampus over the first 6 months of life. This effect of antenatal maternal anxiety upon right hippocampal growth became statistically stronger when controlling for postnatal maternal anxiety. Furthermore, a strong positive association between postnatal maternal anxiety and right hippocampal growth was detected, whereas a strong negative association between postnatal maternal anxiety and the left hippocampal volume at 6 months of life was found. Hence, the postnatal growth of bilateral hippocampi shows distinct responses to postnatal maternal anxiety. The size of the left hippocampus during early development is likely to reflect the influence of the exposure to perinatal maternal anxiety, whereas right hippocampal growth is constrained by antenatal maternal anxiety, but enhanced in response to increased postnatal maternal anxiety.

Qiu, A; Rifkin-Graboi, A; Chen, H; Chong, Y-S; Kwek, K; Gluckman, P D; Fortier, M V; Meaney, M J

2013-01-01

270

Aging.  

PubMed

Aging is initiated based on genetic and environmental factors that operate from the time of birth of organisms. Aging induces physiological phenomena such as reduction of cell counts, deterioration of tissue proteins, tissue atrophy, a decrease of the metabolic rate, reduction of body fluids, and calcium metabolism abnormalities, with final progression onto pathological aging. Despite the efforts from many researchers, the progression and the mechanisms of aging are not clearly understood yet. Therefore, the authors would like to introduce several theories which have gained attentions among the published theories up to date; genetic program theory, wear-and-tear theory, telomere theory, endocrine theory, DNA damage hypothesis, error catastrophe theory, the rate of living theory, mitochondrial theory, and free radical theory. Although there have been many studies that have tried to prevent aging and prolong life, here we introduce a couple of theories which have been proven more or less; food, exercise, and diet restriction. PMID:24653904

Park, Dong Choon; Yeo, Seung Geun

2013-09-01

271

Reference values of fetal erythrocytes in maternal blood during pregnancy established using flow cytometry.  

PubMed

The aim of our study was to assess the fetal RBC count in maternal blood during uncomplicated pregnancies from 26 weeks onward. We used a flow cytometric method specifically designed for use in a routine hematology analyzer. Pregnant women were recruited through midwives. The participating laboratories used the FMH QuikQuant method (Trillium Diagnostics, Brewer, ME) in a CELL-DYN Sapphire hematology analyzer (Abbott Diagnostics, Santa Clara, CA). The method is based on a monoclonal antibody to hemoglobin F. Flow cytometric data were analyzed by 2 independent observers. The 95th percentile reference range was estimated according to Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute guidelines. A total of 236 samples were statistically analyzed. Gestational ages ranged from 21.6 to 41 weeks (mean, 32.0 weeks), and the fetal RBC count in maternal blood ranged from 0.00% to 0.50% (median, 0.025%). The fetal RBC count in maternal blood shows no correlation with gestational age. The established reference range during normal pregnancy is less than 0.125%. PMID:21917687

de Wit, Harry; Nabbe, Karin C A M; Kooren, Jurgen A; Adriaansen, Henk J; Roelandse-Koop, Elianne A; Schuitemaker, Joost H N; Hoffmann, Johannes J M L

2011-10-01

272

Maternal health and mongolism.  

PubMed

Preliminary findings of an analysis of the occurrence of mongolism among 25,000 babies born in Framingham, Massachusetts, in the 12-year period from 1960-1971 are reported. During the 12 years, 31 mongoloid babies were born to residents, and 12 (39%) were born in the 2-year period of 1970 and 1971, with the rate of mongolism approaching 5/1000 births in 1971 despite an overall decline in the birth rate. Maternal health factors and clinical tests of the offspring (karyotyping, x-ray, and photography) provided the data to make the following conclusions. First, that although the well-known tendency of older women to give birth to mongoloid children was confirmed, it was found that no age groups were exempt. Overall, the largest number of mongoloid infants in 1971 came from mothers whose families were apparently completed, and who had been using an unreliable (e.g., calendar rhythm method) contraceptive measure; most of the women reported these pregnancies as unexpected, unplanned, and unwanted. In all 15 of the 31 mongoloid babies born since January 1, 1960, were born to women over 35 years old, whereas 7 mothers with mongoloid offspring were under 25 years of age, 1 of whom was a translocation carrier. In addition to genetic alterations such as trisomies, monosomies, and aneuploidies which may be of natural causes in humans, other suspected causes of mongolism in humans are significant delays in fertilization of oocyte because of maternal age, chance postponement of critical mating because of ignorance of the endocrine timetable, and crude attempts to use temperature charts for contraception. PMID:4114213

Ingalls, T H

1972-07-29

273

Maternal Transmission of Alzheimer Disease  

PubMed Central

Some propose maternal Alzheimer disease (1) inheritance. We compared dementia family histories in AD cases and cognitively normal controls. We expected more mothers to have AD in both groups. If maternal risk was not only due to female longevity more AD cases’ than controls’ mothers should be demented. We matched 196 AD cases to 200 controls by gender and age. We obtained parent dementia status and age of death for 348 AD and 319 control parents. 24 (12%) controls’ fathers, 26 (13%) AD patient fathers, 58 (29%) controls’ mothers and 55 (28%) AD mothers had memory difficulty. More mothers than fathers had memory problems in both groups and the statistical significance persisted after adjusting for parent age at death and APOE for controls (OR=2.40, p=0.004) but not cases (OR=1.63, p=0.14), although results are qualitatively similar. There was no evidence of a real difference between the two groups in interaction analysis (p=0.41). Mothers of both cases and controls were more often affected than fathers, even after adjusting for age. Cases’ mothers were no more often demented than controls’ mothers, which does not support the maternal AD transmission. Rather, the increased number of affected mothers relates, at least in part, to female longevity.

Heggeli, Kristin; Crook, Julia; Thomas, Colleen; Graff-Radford, Neill

2012-01-01

274

The median raphe nucleus in anxiety revisited.  

PubMed

Although the role of the median raphe nucleus (MRN) in the regulation of anxiety has received less attention than that of the dorsal raphe nucleus (DRN) there is substantial evidence supporting this function. Reported results with different animal models of anxiety in rats show that whereas inactivation of serotonergic neurons in the MRN causes anxiolysis, the stimulation of the same neurons is anxiogenic. In particular, studies using the elevated T-maze comparing serotonergic interventions in the MRN and in the DRN indicate that the former affect only the inhibitory avoidance task, which has been related to generalized anxiety. In contrast, similar operations in the DRN change both the inhibitory avoidance and the one-way escape task, the latter being representative of panic disorder. Simultaneous injections of 5-HT-acting drugs in the MRN and in the dorsal hippocampus (DH) suggest that the MRN-DH pathway mediates the regulatory function of the MRN in anxiety. Overall, the results discussed in this review point to a relevant role of the MRN in the regulation of anxiety, but not panic, through the 5-HT pathway that innervates the DH. PMID:23999409

Andrade, Telma Gcs; Zangrossi, Hélio; Graeff, Frederico G

2013-12-01

275

The incidence of low birth weight and intrauterine growth restriction in relationship to maternal ethnicity and gestational age at birth - A PEARL study analysis from the State of Qatar  

PubMed Central

Objective: To analyze the association between maternal ethnicity and gestational age with the incidence of low birth weight and intrauterine growth restriction. Study Design: Prospective, analytic study Methods: The study was conducted between March 14th and April 4th 2011 in Women's Hospital HMC. The data was ascertained from the delivery register of labor ward on daily basis using predesigned, structured questionnaire. Data was stratified according to the maternal ethnicity groups and gestational age at birth (term and preterm). Results: The total deliveries during the study period were 890; 35.5% Qatari (n 316) and 64.5% non-Qatari (n 574). The incidence of LBW was 12.36% (n 110). The difference of LBW incidence between Qatari (13.6% n 43) and non-Qatari (11.67% n 67) groups was non significant (RR 1.17, 95% CI 0.82-1.67, p = 0.401). The same was between non-Qatari sub groups (p < 0.05). The incidence of IUGR was 6% (n 54; 49.09% of LBW). The incidence of IUGR between Qatari (5.7% n 18) and non-Qatari (6.27% n 36) groups was significant (RR 0.45, 95% CI 0.3-0.6 p>0.05). The incidence of LBW was 7.85% (n 60) in term babies and 39.68% (n 50) in preterm babies. The incidence if IUGR was 3.79% (n 29) in term babies and 19.84% (n 25) in preterm babies. Preterm babies had a five times higher risk of both being LBW (RR 5.05; 95%CI 3.65-6.99; p < 0.001) and IUGR (RR 5.23; 95% CI 3.17-8.62; p < 0.001). Conclusion: The incidence of low birth weight is independent of maternal ethnicity in Qatar. However, the incidence of IUGR is significantly higher among the non-Qatari population. The relative risk of being LBW or IUGR is five times higher in preterm babies. Further in depth studies are indicated.

Abdulkader, Zeyad Mohannad; ur Rahman, Sajjad; Nimeri, Nuha

2012-01-01

276

Early Second Trimester Maternal Plasma Choline and Betaine Are Related to Measures of Early Cognitive Development in Term Infants  

PubMed Central

Background The importance of maternal dietary choline for fetal neural development and later cognitive function has been well-documented in experimental studies. Although choline is an essential dietary nutrient for humans, evidence that low maternal choline in pregnancy impacts neurodevelopment in human infants is lacking. We determined potential associations between maternal plasma free choline and its metabolites betaine and dimethylglycine in pregnancy and infant neurodevelopment at 18 months of age. Methodology This was a prospective study of healthy pregnant women and their full-term, single birth infants. Maternal blood was collected at 16 and 36 weeks of gestation and infant neurodevelopment was assessed at 18 months of age for 154 mother-infant pairs. Maternal plasma choline, betaine, dimethylglycine, methionine, homocysteine, cysteine, total B12, holotranscobalamin and folate were quantified. Infant neurodevelopment was evaluated using the Bayley Scales of Infant Development–III. Multivariate regression, adjusting for covariates that impact development, was used to determine the associations between maternal plasma choline, betaine and dimethylglycine and infant neurodevelopment. Results The maternal plasma free choline at 16 and 36 weeks gestation was median (interquartile range) 6.70 (5.78–8.03) and 9.40 (8.10–11.3) µmol/L, respectively. Estimated choline intakes were (mean ±SD) 383±98.6 mg/day, and lower than the recommended 450 mg/day. Betaine intakes were 142±70.2 mg/day. Significant positive associations were found between infant cognitive test scores and maternal plasma free choline (B?=?6.054, SE?=?2.283, p?=?0.009) and betaine (B?=?7.350, SE?=?1.933, p?=?0.0002) at 16 weeks of gestation. Maternal folate, total B12, or holotranscobalamin were not related to infant development. Conclusion We show that choline status in the first half of pregnancy is associated with cognitive development among healthy term gestation infants. More work is needed on the potential limitation of choline or betaine in the diets of pregnant women.

Wu, Brian T. F.; Dyer, Roger A.; King, D. Janette; Richardson, Kelly J.; Innis, Sheila M.

2012-01-01

277

Maternal Postpartum Distress and Childhood Overweight  

Microsoft Academic Search

ObjectiveWe investigated associations between maternal postpartum distress covering anxiety, depression and stress and childhood overweight.MethodsWe performed a prospective cohort study, including 21 121 mother-child-dyads from the Danish National Birth Cohort (DNBC). Maternal distress was measured 6 months postpartum by 9 items covering anxiety, depression and stress. Outcome was childhood overweight at 7-years-of age. Multiple logistic regression analyses were performed and

Teresa A. Ajslev; Camilla S. Andersen; Katja G. Ingstrup; Ellen A. Nohr; Thorkild I. A. Sørensen; Ian Lanza

2010-01-01

278

Wound complications after median sternotomy: a single-centre study†  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVES Sternal wound complications following median sternotomy remain a challenge in cardiac surgery. Changes in both patient profile and type of operations have been observed in recent years. Therefore, we analysed current wound healing complications after median sternotomy at our centre. METHODS All adult patients undergoing a median sternotomy between January 2009 and April 2011 were included in this retrospective analysis. Transplants and assist devices implantations were omitted. We assessed outcome, prognostic factors and microbiological results of standardized wound swabs. RESULTS In total, 1297 patients with an average age of 67.0 ± 12.7 years were analysed. Operation types included 598 solitary coronary artery bypass grafts (CABGs), 213 solitary valve procedures, 105 CABGs with aortic valve replacement and 116 solitary aortic operations or conduit implantations. Furthermore, 255 of the remaining 265 were combined or otherwise complex procedures. Superficial healing disorders occurred in 43 patients (3.3%), while 33 (2.5%) developed deep wound complications. Six patients with sternal wound complications (7.9%) died in-hospital. In 7 patients, no pathogen was identified and the wound appeared uninfected (21% of all deep complications or 0.05% of all patients). These healing disorders were considered deep dehiscences. Patients with insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus, BMI of >40 kg/m2 and who underwent reoperation were prone to superficial infections. Risk factors for all deep sternal wound complications were insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus, COPD and reoperation. Moreover, multivariate analysis revealed ‘emergency’ as an independent prognostic factor for all sternal wound complications. Microbial swabs of the sternal wound were taken in 82 of the 1297 patients (6.6%). Pathogens of the normal skin flora represented the majority of pathogens in both superficial and deep wound complications. Eight patients with deep, but only 2 patients with superficial complications suffered from polymicrobial infections. All deep polymicrobial infections involved coagulase-negative Staphylococci. CONCLUSIONS Wound complications following median sternotomy remain a challenge to cardiac surgery. Redo and emergency operations are the most important risk factors in this contemporary series. More efforts seem mandatory to decrease this arduous morbidity and the costs of prolonged treatment.

Heilmann, Claudia; Stahl, Rahel; Schneider, Christian; Sukhodolya, Tetyana; Siepe, Matthias; Olschewski, Manfred; Beyersdorf, Friedhelm

2013-01-01

279

Near miss maternal morbidity.  

PubMed

Audit of severe maternal morbidity is a potent tool in determining standards of maternity care. This study determines the incidence of severe acute maternal morbidity in our population, identifies the underlying organ dysfunction and associated obstetric risk factors, and compares them to published international reports. Over a 5 year period, 1999-2003, data were collected prospectively from patients with severe acute maternal morbidity. There were 36,802 women who delivered infants weighing more than 500 g over the 5 years with 53 cases of severe maternal morbidity. There were two indirect maternal deaths yielding an incidence of 1.4/1000 for severe maternal morbidity and 5.4/100,000 for maternal mortality. The severe maternal morbidity to mortality ratio was 26.5:1. Massive obstetric haemorrhage requiring acute blood transfusion of > or = 5 units of packed red cells occurred in 77% of cases. This study identifies the feasibility of audit of severe maternal morbidity using simple defined clinical criteria. The incidence and underlying aetiology of severe maternal morbidity in our unit is comparable to other developed countries. It is essential that data on severe maternal morbidity are reviewed and analysed continuously at local hospital and national level to assess, maintain and improve clinical standards. PMID:18624257

Lynch, C M; Sheridan, C; Breathnach, F M; Said, S; Daly, S; Byrne, B

2008-05-01

280

Sudden expansion of a single brown bear maternal lineage across northern continental Eurasia after the last ice age: a general demographic model for mammals?  

PubMed

The brown bear has proved a useful model for studying Late Quaternary mammalian phylogeography. However, information is lacking from northern continental Eurasia, which constitutes a large part of the species' current distribution. We analysed mitochondrial DNA sequences (totalling 1943 bp) from 205 bears from northeast Europe and Russia in order to characterize the maternal phylogeography of bears in this region. We also estimated the formation times of the sampled brown bear lineages and those of its extinct relative, the cave bear. Four closely related haplogroups belonging to a single mitochondrial subclade were identified in northern continental Eurasia. Several haplotypes were found throughout the whole study area, while one haplogroup was restricted to Kamchatka. The haplotype network, estimated divergence times and various statistical tests indicated that bears in northern continental Eurasia recently underwent a sudden expansion, preceded by a severe bottleneck. This brown bear population was therefore most likely founded by a small number of bears that were restricted to a single refuge area during the last glacial maximum. This pattern has been described previously for other mammal species and as such may represent one general model for the phylogeography of Eurasian mammals. Bayesian divergence time estimates are presented for different brown and cave bear clades. Moreover, our results demonstrate the extent of substitution rate variation occurring throughout the phylogenetic tree, highlighting the need for appropriate calibration when estimating divergence times. PMID:19434812

Korsten, Marju; Ho, Simon Y W; Davison, John; Pähn, Berit; Vulla, Egle; Roht, Maris; Tumanov, Igor L; Kojola, Ilpo; Andersone-Lilley, Zanete; Ozolins, Janis; Pilot, Malgorzata; Mertzanis, Yorgos; Giannakopoulos, Alexios; Vorobiev, Alex A; Markov, Nikolai I; Saveljev, Alexander P; Lyapunova, Elena A; Abramov, Alexei V; Männil, Peep; Valdmann, Harri; Pazetnov, Sergei V; Pazetnov, Valentin S; Rõkov, Alexander M; Saarma, Urmas

2009-05-01

281

Guidelines for Signal Operations at Intersections with Wide Medians.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The objective of this project is to evaluate the operations at signalized intersections with wide medians in order to improve safety and efficiency. Intersections with wide medians are characterized by two intersections and operate differently compared to...

K. Balke K. Obeng-Boampong P. Songchitruksa S. R. Sunkari X. Zeng

2010-01-01

282

The Heterogeneous P-Median Problem for Categorization Based Clustering  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The p-median offers an alternative to centroid-based clustering algorithms for identifying unobserved categories. However, existing p-median formulations typically require data aggregation into a single proximity matrix, resulting in masked respondent heterogeneity. A proposed three-way formulation of the p-median problem explicitly considers…

Blanchard, Simon J.; Aloise, Daniel; DeSarbo, Wayne S.

2012-01-01

283

A theoretical analysis of the properties of median filters  

Microsoft Academic Search

Necessary and sufficient conditions for a signal to be invariant under a specific form of median filtering are derived. These conditions state that a signal must be locally monotone to pass through a median filter unchanged. It is proven that the form of successive median filtering of a signal (i.e., the filtered output is itself again filtered) eventually reduces the

G. Wise

1981-01-01

284

Bounds for the Breakdown Point of the Simplicial Median  

Microsoft Academic Search

Upper and lower bounds are given for the breakdown point of Liu?s empirical simplicial median. This median has a strictly positive breakdown point but is a less robust location estimator than the median based on Tukey?s data depth (D. Donoho and M. Gasko, Ann. Statist.20 (1992), 1803-1827).

Z. Q. Chen

1995-01-01

285

Robust statistics on Riemannian manifolds via the geometric median  

Microsoft Academic Search

The geometric median is a classic robust estimator of centrality for data in Euclidean spaces. In this paper we formulate the geometric median of data on a Riemannian manifold as the minimizer of the sum of geodesic distances to the data points. We prove existence and uniqueness of the geometric median on manifolds with non-positive sectional curvature and give sufficient

P. Thomas Fletcher; Suresh Venkatasubramanian; Sarang Joshi

2008-01-01

286

Maternal hepatitis B and infant infection among pregnant women living with HIV in South Africa  

PubMed Central

Introduction Globally, hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection is the leading cause of liver-related mortality. Newborn vaccination, maternal antiviral therapy and administering hepatitis B immune globulin shortly after birth can greatly reduce the risk of perinatal and infant infection. However, evidence-based policy regarding these interventions in Africa is hampered by gaps in knowledge of HBV epidemiology. We describe maternal chronic hepatitis B (CHB) prevalence and infant infection during the first year of life within a cohort of women living with HIV. Methods We recruited and prospectively followed pregnant women living with HIV and their infants from prenatal clinics in an urban area of South Africa. Hepatitis B surface antigen, anti-hepatitis B surface antibodies and HBV DNA were assessed in all women. Hepatitis B testing was also performed at 6 and 52 weeks for all infants born to mothers with either positive surface antigen or detectable HBV DNA. Results We enrolled 189 women with a median age of 29 years and median CD4 count of 348 cells/mm3. Fourteen had a positive surface antigen (7.4%), of which six were positive for “e” antigen. An additional three had detectable HBV DNA without positive surface antigen. One infant developed CHB and three others had evidence of transmission based on positive HBV DNA assays. HBV vaccinations were delivered at six weeks of life to all infants. Conclusions Our findings highlight the risk of peripartum HBV transmission in this setting. Approaches to reducing this transmission should be considered.

Hoffmann, Christopher J; Mashabela, Fildah; Cohn, Silvia; Hoffmann, Jennifer D; Lala, Sanjay; Martinson, Neil A; Chaisson, Richard E

2014-01-01

287

First Trimester Maternal Serum PP13 in the Risk Assessment for Preeclampsia  

PubMed Central

Objective To determine whether first trimester maternal serum Placental Protein 13 (PP13) concentrations can be used in the risk assessment for preeclampsia. Study Design This case-control study included 50 patients with preeclampsia and 250 patients with normal pregnancies. Samples were collected between 8-13 weeks of gestation. Serum PP13 concentrations were measured by ELISA and expressed as medians and multiples of the median (MoM) for gestational age. Sensitivity and specificity were derived from receiver operating characteristic curve analysis. Results 1) Serum PP13 concentration in the first trimester was significantly lower in patients who developed preterm and early-onset preeclampsia than in those with normal pregnancies; and 2) At 80% specificity, a cutoff of 0.39 MoM had a sensitivity of 100% for early-onset preeclampsia and 85% for preterm preeclampsia. Conclusion Maternal serum first trimester PP13 appears to be a reasonable marker for risk assessment, but a weak marker for severe preeclampsia at term, and ineffective for identifying mild preeclampsia at term.

ROMERO, Roberto; KUSANOVIC, Juan Pedro; THAN, Nandor Gabor; EREZ, Offer; GOTSCH, Francesca; ESPINOZA, Jimmy; EDWIN, Samuel; CHEFETZ, Ilana; GOMEZ, Ricardo; NIEN, Jyh Kae; SAMMAR, Marei; PINELES, Beth; HASSAN, Sonia S.; MEIRI, Hamutal; TAL, Yossi; KUHNREICH, Ido; PAPP, Zoltan; CUCKLE, Howard S.

2008-01-01

288

Maternal predictors of rejecting parenting and early adolescent antisocial behavior.  

PubMed

The present study examined relations among maternal psychological resources, rejecting parenting, and early adolescent antisocial behavior in a sample of 231 low-income mothers and their sons with longitudinal assessments from age 18 months to 12 years. The maternal resources examined were age at first birth, aggressive personality, and empathy. Each of the maternal resources predicted rejecting parenting during early childhood in structural equation models that controlled for toddler difficult temperament, and rejecting parenting in early childhood predicted antisocial behavior in early adolescence. Rejecting parenting accounted for the indirect effect of each of the maternal resources on antisocial behavior, but a direct effect was also supported between maternal aggressive personality and youth antisocial behavior. Results highlight the importance of these relatively understudied maternal resources and have implications for prevention and intervention programs that focus on parenting during early childhood. PMID:17805957

Trentacosta, Christopher J; Shaw, Daniel S

2008-02-01

289

Maternal plasma fetal DNA fractions in pregnancies with low and high risks for fetal chromosomal aneuploidies.  

PubMed

Recently published international guidelines recommend the clinical use of noninvasive prenatal test (NIPT) for aneuploidy screening only among pregnant women whose fetuses are deemed at high risk. The applicability of NIPT to aneuploidy screening among average risk pregnancies requires additional supportive evidence. A key determinant of the reliability of aneuploidy NIPT is the fetal DNA fraction in maternal plasma. In this report, we investigated if differences in fetal DNA fractions existed between different pregnancy risk groups. One hundred and ninety-five singleton pregnancies with male fetuses divided into 3 groups according to first trimester screening parameters were examined for fetal DNA percentage by counting Y chromosome DNA sequences using massively parallel sequencing. Fetal DNA fractions were compared between risk groups and assessed for correlations with first trimester screening parameters. There was no statistically significant difference in fetal DNA fractions across the high, intermediate and low risk groups. Fetal DNA fraction showed a strong negative correlation with maternal weight. Fetal DNA fraction also showed weak but significant correlations with gestational age, crown-rump length, multiple of medians of free ?-subunit of human chorionic gonadotropin and pregnancy-associated plasma protein A. Similar fetal DNA fractions in maternal plasma between high, intermediate and low risk pregnant women is a precondition for uniform performance of the aneuploidy NIPTs for the general population. This study thus shows that the aneuploidy screening by NIPT is likely to offer similar analytical reliability without respect to the a priori fetal aneuploidy risk. PMID:24586333

Hudecova, Irena; Sahota, Daljit; Heung, Macy M S; Jin, Yongjie; Lee, Wing S; Leung, Tak Y; Lo, Yuk Ming Dennis; Chiu, Rossa W K

2014-01-01

290

Neonatal Seizure as a Manifestation of Unrecognized Maternal Hyperparathyroidism  

PubMed Central

Maternal hypercalcemia suppresses parathyroid activity in the fetus resulting in impaired parathyroid responsiveness to hypocalcemia after birth. Resultant hypocalcemia may be severe and prolonged and rarely may lead to convulsions. Here, we present a newborn infant admitted to the pediatric emergency department at age two weeks with recurrent tonic convulsions due to asymptomatic maternal hyperparathyroidism and vitamin D deficiency. Physicians should be aware that undiagnosed maternal hyperparathyroidism can cause severe hypocalcemia in the newborn. Conflict of interest:None declared.

Korkmaz, Huseyin An?l; Ozkan, Behzat; Terek, Demet; Dizdarer, Ceyhun; Arslanoglu, Sertac

2013-01-01

291

Late-preterm birth, maternal symptomatology, and infant negativity  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study examined infant negativity and maternal symptomatology by term status in a predominately low-income, rural sample of 132 infants (66 late-preterm) and their mothers. Late-preterm and term infants were group-matched by race, income, and maternal age. Maternal depression and anxiety symptoms were measured with the Brief Symptom Inventory 18 (BSI-18) when infants were 2 and 6 months of

Kristin M. Voegtline; Cynthia A. Stifter

2010-01-01

292

Decay of maternal antibodies in broiler chickens.  

PubMed

The objective of this study was to determine the decay rate of maternal antibodies against major broiler chicken pathogens. A total of 30 one-day-old broiler chicks were obtained from a commercial hatchery and reared in isolation. These chicks were retrieved from a parent flock that received a routine vaccination program. Chicks were bled at hatch and sequentially thereafter every 5 d through 30 d of age. Maternal antibody titers were measured by ELISA for avian encephalomyelitis (AEV), avian influenza virus (AIV), chicken anemia virus (CAV), infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV), infectious bronchitis virus (IBV), infectious laryngotracheitis virus (ILTV), Mycoplasma gallisepticum (MG), Mycoplasma synoviae (MS), and reovirus (Reo). Maternal antibody titers for Newcastle disease virus (NDV) were measured using a hemagglutination inhibition test. Half-life estimates of maternal antibody titers were 5.3, 4.2, 7, 5.1, 3.9, 3.8, 4.9, 4.1, 6.3, and 4.7 d for AEV, AIV, CAV, IBDV, IBV, ILTV, MG, MS, NDV, and Reo, respectively. The statistical analysis revealed significant differences among half-lives of maternal antibody titers against certain pathogens. Furthermore, all maternal antibody titers were depleted by 10 d of age except for IBDV. PMID:23960115

Gharaibeh, Saad; Mahmoud, Kamel

2013-09-01

293

Maternal mortality in the United States.  

PubMed

Despite a significant improvement in the US maternal mortality ratio since the early 1900s, it still represents a substantial and frustrating burden, particularly given the fact that - essentially - no progress has been made in most US States since 1982. Additionally, the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention has stated that most cases are probably preventable. Two disheartening issues within this topic include a gross underestimation of the magnitude of maternal mortality - particularly before 1987, but which likely persists to a lesser degree today - and the continued significant racial disparity in maternal mortality. Explanations for the plateau in maternal mortality include the recent trend of delayed childbearing, with the potential accompanying complications associated with older reproductive age (particularly over 35 years) and multiparity. The impressive increase in multifetal pregnancies related to delayed childbearing and assisted reproductive technology also plays a role. Finally, peripartum cardiomyopathy has become an increasingly recognized source of maternal mortality. Pregnancy-related mortality is largely accounted for by thromboembolic disease, hemorrhage, hypertension and its associated complications, and infection. However, since the inclusion of maternal deaths occurring after 42 days post-delivery as pregnancy related, traumatic injuries - including homicides and suicides - are an alarming source of maternal mortality. An especially important contemporary issue to consider within this topic is cesarean delivery "on maternal request", opponents of which cite concerns not only for immediate morbidity and mortality increased over that associated with a vaginal birth, but also for potential morbidity and mortality associated with future pregnancies. One particularly appealing opportunity to reduce maternal mortality is to recognize, examine, and learn from so-called "near-miss" cases. PMID:18182328

Lang, Christopher T; King, Jeffrey C

2008-06-01

294

Ageing  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

By 2020, the number of the world’s older population is expected to exceed one billion, and maintaining a high quality of life for these people has become an important issue throughout the world. The Web has been shown to have a positive experience on the quality of life and well-being of older persons, by assisting them to maintain an independent living. However, many older people seem to shy away from the Web due to various problems they experience when interacting with the Web. To understand the nature of these problems, this chapter presents the functional impairments and the attitudes that might contribute to older persons’ hesitation of utilising the Web. This chapter discusses the changes that happen with age, their effects on Web interaction and how they can be mediated through the accessible Web.

Kurniawan, Sri H.

295

The Effect of Maternal Depressive Symptoms and Early Maternal Feeding Behavior on Later Infant Feeding Behavior  

PubMed Central

Adaptive maternal feeding behaviors are sensitive and responsive to the infant and support the infant’s participation in feeding. Adaptive infant behaviors help the infant to participate in the feeding within developmental capacities and to interact in a positive manner with the mother. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to explore the contribution of the adaptiveness of early maternal feeding behavior to the adaptiveness of later infant feeding behavior, accounting for maternal depressive symptoms and neonatal health. Thirty-seven premature infants and their mothers were assessed in the special care nursery just before discharge and in their homes at 4 months postterm age. The adaptive quality of maternal and infant behavior was assessed using the Parent-Child Early Relational Assessment. Maternal depressive symptoms were assessed using the Center for Epidemiological Study–Depression Scale. Infant health was assessed using the Neonatal Health Index. Linear regression analyses revealed that the adaptiveness of maternal feeding behavior before special care nursery discharge contributed significantly to the adaptiveness of infant feeding behavior at 4 months postterm age, accounting for neonatal health and maternal depressive symptoms. Although further study of the relationship is needed, findings support development of interventions to enhance the adaptiveness of mothers’ early feeding behaviors.

Brown, Lisa F.; Pridham, Karen

2014-01-01

296

Schmallenberg virus antibody persistence in adult cattle after natural infection and decay of maternal antibodies in calves  

PubMed Central

Background Schmallenberg virus (SBV) has swept through the major part of Europe in the period 2011–2013. A vaccine against SBV has been developed and may be a possible preventive instrument against infection. Presently, there is no data available to refute the assumption that natural SBV infection results in long-term immunity. In that respect, it is of interest to know how long (protecting) virus-neutralizing antibodies are present in naturally infected animals. New-born calves acquire passive immunity from their dams by ingestion and absorption of antibodies present in colostrum, which can block the production of serum antibodies when vaccine is administered to calves with maternally derived antibodies. In that respect, it is useful to know how long it takes for maternal antibodies against SBV to disappear in young animals born from infected dams. Results Longitudinal whole-herd serological monitoring using virus neutralization test (VNT) indicated that 80% of adult dairy cows still had measurable antibodies against SBV at least 24 months after the estimated introduction of the virus into the herd. Median 2Log VNT titer of the adult dairy cows (?1 year) dropped from 8.6 to 5.6 in a period of 17 months. Median 2Log VNT maternal antibodies titers of calves sampled within 30 days after birth was 8. Calves lost their maternally-derived antibodies after 5–6 months. There was a definite positive relationship between the VNT titer of the dam and the VNT titer of the corresponding calf (age ? 30 days) of dam-calf combinations sampled on the same day: the higher the VNT titer of the dam, the higher the VNT titer (maternal antibodies) of the calf. Conclusions Our field data support the assumption that natural SBV infection in adult cows results in persistence of specific antibodies for at least two years. Based on the observed decay of maternally-derived antibodies in calves, it is presumed safe to vaccinate calves against SBV at an age of approximately 6 months.

2014-01-01

297

Elemental analysis of human amniotic fluid and placenta by total-reflection X-ray fluorescence and energy-dispersive X-ray fluorescence: child weight and maternal age dependence  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This work is an attempt to evaluate the possible influence of the mother's age in trace element concentrations in human amniotic fluid and placenta and whether these concentrations are correlated to the weight of the newborn infants. Total-reflection X-ray fluorescence (TXRF) was used to analyze 16 amniotic fluid samples, and the placenta samples were analyzed by energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence (EDXRF). The whole samples were collected during delivery from healthy mothers and healthy infants and full-term pregnancies. According to the age of the mother, three different groups were considered: 20-25, 25-30 and 30-40 years old. Only two mothers were aged more than 35 years. The weight of the infants ranged from 2.56 to 4.05 kg and three groups were also considered: 2.5-3, 3-3.5 and 3.5-4 kg. The organic matrix of the amniotic fluid samples was removed by treatment with HNO 3 followed by oxygen plasma ashing. Yttrium was used as the internal standard for TXRF analysis. Placenta samples were lyophilized and analyzed by EDXRF without any chemical treatment. Very low levels of Ni and Sr were found in the amniotic fluid samples, and were independent of the age of the mother and weight of the child. Cr, Mn, Se and Pb were at the level of the detection limit. Zn, considered one of the key elements in neonatal health, was not significantly different in the samples analyzed; however, it was weakly related to birth weigh. The concentrations obtained ranged from 0.11 to 0.92 mg/l and 30 to 65 ?g/g in amniotic fluid and placenta, respectively. The only two elements which seemed to be significantly correlated with mother's age and newborn weight were Ca and Fe for both types of sample: Ca levels were increased in heavier children and older mothers; however, Fe increased with increasing maternal age, but decreased for heavier babies. The same conclusions were obtained for placenta and amniotic fluid samples. Cu is closely associated with Fe in its function in the organism and has a similar behavior to this element, but not as pronounced.

Carvalho, M. L.; Custódio, P. J.; Reus, U.; Prange, A.

2001-11-01

298

Fetal DNA detection in maternal plasma throughout gestation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The presence of fetal DNA in maternal plasma may represent a source of genetic material which can be obtained noninvasively. We wanted to assess whether fetal DNA is detectable in all pregnant women, to define the range and distribution of fetal DNA concentration at different gestational ages, to identify the optimal period to obtain a maternal blood sample yielding an

Silvia Galbiati; Maddalena Smid; Dania Gambini; Augusto Ferrari; Gabriella Restagno; Elsa Viora; Mario Campogrande; Simona Bastonero; Marco Pagliano; Stefano Calza; Maurizio Ferrari; Laura Cremonesi

2005-01-01

299

Maternal Depression and Children's Attachment Representations during the Preschool Years  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This longitudinal study aimed to investigate the impact of chronic and transient maternal depression on children's attachment representations at 4 years of age measured with the Attachment Story Completion Task (Bretherton, Ridgeway, & Cassidy, 1990). The impact of concurrent maternal depressive symptoms was also considered. A secondary aim was to…

Trapolini, T.; Ungerer, J. A.; McMahon, C. A.

2007-01-01

300

Maternal and Child Predictors of Preschool Children's Social Competence  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The present study examined child and maternal predictors of children's social competence in preschool. One hundred ten mothers and their preschool-aged children participated. Mothers completed parent reports of child temperament and self-regulation, and self-reports of maternal separation anxiety. Mothers' interactional style was coded from…

Diener, Marissa L.; Kim, Do-Yeong

2004-01-01

301

Paternal Contribution to Down's Syndrome Dispels Maternal Myths.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The paper refutes the long held belief that Down's syndrome is the result of maternal age and maternal etiology. The author cites new evidence which demonstrates that Trisomy-21 (the presence in the chromosome of an extra arcocentric chromosome resulting from non-disjunction), the major cause (95% of the cases) of Down's syndrome, can originate in…

Abroms, Kippy I.; Bennett, Joan W.

302

Maternal hormones during early pregnancy: a cross-sectional study  

PubMed Central

Background Little is known about correlates of first trimester pregnancy hormones as in most studies maternal hormones have been measured later in gestation. We examined the associations of maternal characteristics and child sex with first trimester maternal concentrations of 4 hormones implicated in breast cancer: human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG), ?-fetoprotein (AFP), insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-I and IGF-II. Methods 338 serum samples donated to the Northern Sweden Maternity Cohort (NSMC), 1975–2001, during the first trimester of uncomplicated pregnancies were analyzed for the hormones of interest as a part of a case-control study. The associations between maternal characteristics and child sex with hormone concentrations were investigated by correlation, general linear regression, and multivariate regression models. Results In the first trimester, greater maternal age was inversely correlated with IGF-I and IGF-II. In comparison with women carrying their first child, already parous women had higher IGF-I but lower hCG. Greater maternal weight and smoking were inversely correlated with hCG. No differences in hormone levels by child sex were observed. Conclusions Our analyses indicated that potentially modifiable maternal characteristics (maternal weight and smoking) influence first trimester pregnancy maternal hormone concentrations.

Chen, Tianhui; Lundin, Eva; Grankvist, Kjell; Zeleniuch-Jacquotte, Anne; Wulff, Marianne; Afanasyeva, Yelena; Schock, Helena; Johansson, Robert; Lenner, Per; Hallmans, Goran; Wadell, Goran; Toniolo, Paolo; Lukanova, Annekatrin

2010-01-01

303

Maternal Morbidity during Childbirth Hospitalization in California  

PubMed Central

Objective To determine the incidence and risk factors for maternal morbidity during childbirth hospitalization. Methods Maternal morbidities were determined using ICD9-CM and vital records codes from linked hospital discharge and vital records data for 1,572,909 singleton births in California, 2005-2007. Sociodemographic, obstetric, and hospital volume risk factors were estimated using mixed effects logistic regression models. Results The maternal morbidity rate was 241/1000 births. The most common morbidities were episiotomy, pelvic trauma, maternal infection, postpartum hemorrhage, and severe laceration. Preeclampsia (Adjusted Odds Ratio [AOR] 2.96; 95% CI 2.8,3.13), maternal age over 35 years, (AOR 1.92; 1.79,2.06), vaginal birth after cesarean, (AOR 1.81; 1.47,2.23), and repeat cesarean birth (AOR 1.99; 1.87,2.12) conferred the highest odds of severe morbidity. Non-white women were more likely to suffer morbidity. Conclusions Nearly one in four California women experienced complications during childbirth hospitalization. Significant health disparities in maternal childbirth outcomes persist in the United States.

Lyndon, Audrey; Lee, Henry C.; Gilbert, William M.; Gould, Jeffrey B.; Lee, Kathryn A.

2012-01-01

304

Maternal Sensitivity and Attachment Security: Concordance of Home- and Lab-Based Measures.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In Ontario, mothers and their preterm or full-term infants were observed at home when the infants were 8 and 12 months of age. At each visit, the Bayley Scales of Infant Development were administered, and after each visit, observers completed the Maternal Behavior Q-Sort and Ainsworth ratings of maternal sensitivity. Maternal sensitivity and…

Pederson, David R.; And Others

305

The Role of Maternal Literacy in Child Health and Cognitive Development in Rural Guatemala.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

There is growing evidence supporting the powerful role that maternal education plays in child growth and cognitive development in developing countries. This study examined the contribution of maternal literacy in mediating the relationship between maternal education and variation in child outcomes from birth to 7 years of age. It was hypothesized…

Khandke, Veena; Pollitt, Ernesto; Gorman, Kathleen S.

306

Maternal Height and Child Growth Patterns  

PubMed Central

Objective To examine associations between maternal height and child growth during 4 developmental periods: intrauterine, birth to age 2 years, age 2 years to mid-childhood (MC), and MC to adulthood. Study design Pooled analysis of maternal height and offspring growth using 7630 mother–child pairs from 5 birth cohorts (Brazil, Guatemala, India, the Philippines, and South Africa). We used conditional height measures that control for collinearity in height across periods. We estimated associations between maternal height and offspring growth using multivariate regression models adjusted for household income, child sex, birth order, and study site. Results Maternal height was associated with birth weight and with both height and conditional height at each age examined. The strongest associations with conditional heights were for adulthood and 2 years of age. A 1-cm increase in maternal height predicted a 0.024 (95% CI: 0.021-0.028) SD increase in offspring birth weight, a 0.037 (95% CI: 0.033-0.040) SD increase in conditional height at 2 years, a 0.025 (95% CI: 0.021-0.029 SD increase in conditional height in MC, and a 0.044 (95% CI: 0.040-0.048) SD increase in conditional height in adulthood. Short mothers (<150.1 cm) were more likely to have a child who was stunted at 2 years (prevalence ratio = 3.20 (95% CI: 2.80-3.60) and as an adult (prevalence ratio = 4.74, (95% CI: 4.13-5.44). There was no evidence of heterogeneity by site or sex. Conclusion Maternal height influences offspring linear growth over the growing period. These influences likely include genetic and non-genetic factors, including nutrition-related intergenerational influences on growth that prevent the attainment of genetic height potential in low- and middle-income countries.

Addo, O. Yaw; Stein, Aryeh D.; Fall, Caroline H.; Gigante, Denise P.; Guntupalli, Aravinda M.; Horta, Bernardo L.; Kuzawa, Christopher W.; Lee, Nanette; Norris, Shane A.; Prabhakaran, Poornima; Richter, Linda M.; Sachdev, Harshpal S.; Martorell, Reynaldo

2013-01-01

307

Maternal effects and the endocrine regulation of mandrill growth.  

PubMed

Maternal effects can influence offspring growth and development, and thus fitness. However, the physiological factors mediating these effects in nonhuman primates are not well understood. We investigated the impact of maternal effects on variation in three important components of the endocrine regulation of growth in male and female mandrills (Mandrillus sphinx), from birth to 9 years of age. Using a mixed longitudinal set (N = 252) of plasma samples, we measured concentrations of insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I), growth hormone binding protein (GHBP), and free testosterone (free T). We evaluated the relationship of ontogenetic patterns of changes in hormone concentration to patterns of growth in body mass and body length, and determined that these endocrine factors play a significant role in growth of both young (infant and juvenile) and adolescent male mandrills, but only in growth of young female mandrills. We also use mixed models analysis to determine the relative contribution of the effects of maternal rank, parity, and age on variation in hormone and binding protein concentrations. Our results suggest that all of these maternal effects account for significant variation in hormone and binding protein concentrations in all male age groups. Of the maternal effects measured, maternal rank was the most frequently identified significant maternal effect on variation in hormone and binding protein concentrations. We suggest that these endocrine factors provide mechanisms that contribute to the maternal effects on offspring growth previously noted in this population. PMID:22696170

Bernstein, Robin M; Setchell, Joanna M; Verrier, Delphine; Knapp, Leslie A

2012-10-01

308

An Efficient Switching Median Filter Based on Local Outlier Factor  

Microsoft Academic Search

An effective algorithm for removing impulse noise from corrupted images is presented under the framework of switching median filtering. Firstly, noisy pixels are distinguished by Local Outlier Factor incorporating with Boundary Discrimina- tive Noise Detection (LOFBDND). Then, the directional weighted median filter is adopted to remove th ed etected impulses by replacing each noisy pixel with the weighted mean of

Wei Wang; Peizhong Lu

2011-01-01

309

Intraneural fibroma of the median nerve at the wrist.  

PubMed

Distal median neuropathy from carpal tunnel syndrome is the most well known lesion affecting the median nerve. Mass lesions may affect the nerve at the wrist. We present to our knowledge the first histologically confirmed case of an intraneural fibroma. PMID:24291475

Burrows, Anthony M; Folpe, Andrew L; Wenger, Doris E; Spinner, Robert J

2014-06-01

310

The median palmar cutaneous nerve in normal subjects and CTS  

Microsoft Academic Search

ObjectiveThe neurophysiological confirmation of carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS) relies on detecting abnormal median nerve transcarpal conduction in the presence of unaffected comparator nerves. We compare the palmar cutaneous median branch (PCBm) with the ulnar sensory nerve conduction to digit 5 (US5) as comparator nerves for diagnosing CTS.

Rahul Rathakrishnan; Aravinda Kannan Therimadasamy; Y. H. Chan; E. P. Wilder-Smith

2007-01-01

311

Effect of a Moving Optical Environment on the Subjective Median.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The placement of a point in the median vertical plane under the influence of a moving optical environment was tested in 12 subjects. It was found that the median plane was displaced in the same direction as the movement of the visual environment when the ...

G. A. Brecher M. H. Brecher

1971-01-01

312

Bahadur representations for the median absolute deviation and its modifications  

Microsoft Academic Search

The median absolute deviation about the median (MAD) is an important univariate spread measure having wide appeal due to its highly robust sample version. A powerful tool in treating the asymptotics of a statistic is a linearization, i.e., a Bahadur representation. Here we establish both strong and weak Bahadur representations for the sample MAD. The strong version is the first

Satyaki Mazumder; Robert Serfling

2009-01-01

313

Maternal and neonatal outcomes of placenta previa and placenta accreta: three years of experience with a two-consultant approach  

PubMed Central

Objective The aim of this retrospective cohort study was to evaluate maternal and neonatal outcomes in patients with placenta previa (PP) and placenta accreta (PA). Methods The study population comprised all patients who had a cesarean section for PP and PA at a tertiary referral hospital in Taif, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, from December 2009 to December 2012. Maternal and neonatal data were obtained from medical records and the hospital database system. PA cases were managed by a multispeciality team, including two obstetric consultants. Results In total, 122 patients with PP were identified, with PA found in 25 cases. The median intraoperative blood loss in cases of PA was 2,000 (mean 3,000) mL, with a loss of ?2,000 mL occurring in 72%, and ?5,000 mL in 20%. The median packed red blood cell transfusion requirement was 6 (mean 7.7) units, and 28% received ?10 units. Fetal growth restriction was diagnosed in two cases with known maternal medical disorders. Four cases (3.3%) were diagnosed as small for gestational age. The mean birth weight of the neonates was at the 10th–50th percentile according to Hadlock fetal growth charts. Conclusion The presence of a second obstetric consultant among the multispeciality team during surgery for PA was associated with a reduction in blood loss and a decreased need for large-volume blood transfusion. The rate of fetal growth restriction/small for gestational age in PP was average, but the babies were relatively small (level 2 evidence).

Kassem, Gamal A; Alzahrani, Ali K

2013-01-01

314

Maternal Characteristics Predicting Young Girls' Disruptive Behavior  

Microsoft Academic Search

Little is known about the relative predictive utility of maternal characteristics and parenting skills on the development of girls' disruptive behavior. The current study used five waves of parent- and child-report data from the ongoing Pittsburgh Girls Study to examine these relationships in a sample of 1,942 girls from age 7 to 12 years. Multivariate generalized estimating equation analyses indicated

Elsa van der Molen; Alison E. Hipwell; Robert Vermeiren; Rolf Loeber

2011-01-01

315

Maternal and fetal influences on blood pressure  

Microsoft Academic Search

To study maternal and fetal influences on blood pressure in childhood 405 children aged 4 years who were born and still resident in the Salisbury health district were visited at home for blood pressure and growth measurements. Information on the pregnancy, delivery, and baby was abstracted from the routine obstetric notes. Similar to recent findings in adults, the child's systolic

C M Law; D J Barker; A R Bull; C Osmond

1991-01-01

316

Estimation of Median Streamflows at Perennial Stream Sites in Hawaii  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The most accurate estimates of median streamflows at perennial stream sites in Hawaii are those made at streamflow-gaging stations. Two alternative methods for estimating median streamflows at ungaged sites are described in this report. Multiple-regression equations were developed for estimating median streamflows at ungaged, unregulated, perennial stream sites. The equations relate combinations of drainage area, mean altitude of the main stream channel, and mean annual precipitation to median streamflow. Streamflow data from 56 long-term continuous-record gaging stations were used in the analysis. Median-streamflow data for all 56 sites were adjusted using record-extension techniques to reflect base period (1912 through 1986) conditions. Hawaii was subdivided into two geographic groups and multiple-regression equations were developed for each. The standard error of predication for the equation developed for the first group, the islands of Oahu, Molokai, and Hawaii, is 41 percent. The standard error of predication for the equation developed for the second group, the islands of Kauai and Maui, is 54 percent. A method for estimating median-streamflow, based on discharge measurements and data from nearby streamflow-gaging stations, was also developed for 27 regulated, perennial windward Oahu sites. Standard errors of prediction for 23 of the sites range from 5 to 34 percent. Median-streamflow estimates for the four remaining sites were considered poor and no measures of accuracy are provided. Discharge measurements can be used to make estimates of median streamflows at ungaged, regulated sites where the regression equations developed in this report are not applicable. Discharge measurements can also be used to make estimates of median streamflows at ungaged, unregulated sites. Estimates of median streamflows based on discharge measurements have greater standard errors than estimates based on continuous streamflow records and in general have smaller standard errors than estimates based on regression equations.

Fontaine, Richard A.; Wong, Michael F.; Matsuoka, Iwao

1992-01-01

317

Maternal depression: relations with maternal caregiving representations and emotional availability during the preschool years.  

PubMed

This longitudinal study aimed to determine whether maternal depression was related to caregiving behavior and further whether this relationship was mediated and/or moderated by maternal caregiving representations. Ninety-two mothers were assessed for symptoms of depression when their children were 4, 12, and 15 months, and later at 4 years of age. At 4 years of age, mothers' caregiving representations of their child and their relationship were examined using the Parent Development Interview (PDI), and aspects of maternal behaviors were rated during mother-child play interactions using the Emotional Availability Scales (EA). The experience of chronic maternal depression was related to lower levels of maternal sensitivity, and this association was mediated by mothers' impaired capacity to take their child's perspective. The link between depression and lower maternal sensitivity was also moderated by perspective taking, indicating that poor perspective taking had a negative impact on sensitivity only for chronically depressed mothers. In conclusion, the current study demonstrated that mothers' representational models are affected by cognitive distortions associated with depression, and these distortions interfere with a mother's capacity to interact sensitively with her child. PMID:18351495

Trapolini, Tania; Ungerer, Judy A; McMahon, Catherine A

2008-03-01

318

Links between maternal and child psychopathology symptoms: mediation through child emotion regulation and moderation through maternal behavior.  

PubMed

This study examined the intergenerational transmission of psychopathology symptoms with 7-12 year-old children (N = 97; 44 boys, 53 girls, M age = 9.14, SD = 1.38) and their mothers (M age = 38.46, SD = 6.86). Child emotion regulation mediated the links between maternal psychopathology and child internalizing and externalizing symptoms. In turn, the indirect effect was dependent on the level of maternal support in response to youth's expressions of negative emotions when considering particular constellations of maternal reactions and type of psychopathology symptoms. The findings indicate that the relations between maternal and child psychopathology symptoms and child emotion regulation are complex and vary by context. Regardless of the complexity, however, for both internalizing and externalizing symptoms in youth, the results suggest that building adaptive emotion regulation skills is an important target for prevention among children who are at risk for problems due to exposure to maternal psychopathology. PMID:21484417

Suveg, Cynthia; Shaffer, Anne; Morelen, Diana; Thomassin, Kristel

2011-10-01

319

Maternal and cord blood LC-HRMS metabolomics reveal alterations in energy and polyamine metabolism, and oxidative stress in very-low birth weight infants.  

PubMed

To assess the global effect of preterm birth on fetal metabolism and maternal-fetal nutrient transfer, we used a mass spectrometric-based chemical phenotyping approach on cord blood obtained at the time of birth. We sampled umbilical venous, umbilical arterial, and maternal blood from mothers delivering very-low birth weight (VLBW, with a median gestational age and weight of 29 weeks, and 1210 g, respectively) premature or full-term (FT) neonates. In VLBW group, we observed a significant elevation in the levels and maternal-fetal gradients of butyryl-, isovaleryl-, hexanoyl- and octanoyl-carnitines, suggesting enhanced short- and medium chain fatty acid ?-oxidation in human preterm feto-placental unit. The significant decrease in glutamine-glutamate in preterm arterial cord blood beside lower levels of amino acid precursors of Krebs cycle suggest increased glutamine utilization in the fast growing tissues of preterm fetus with a deregulation in placental glutamate-glutamine shuttling. Enhanced glutathione utilization is likely to account for the decrease in precursor amino acids (serine, betaine, glutamate and methionine) in arterial cord blood. An increase in both the circulating levels and maternal-fetal gradients of several polyamines in their acetylated form (diacetylspermine and acetylputrescine) suggests an enhanced polyamine metabolic cycling in extreme prematurity. Our metabolomics study allowed the identification of alterations in fetal energy, antioxidant defense, and polyamines and purines flux as a signature of premature birth. PMID:23527880

Alexandre-Gouabau, Marie-Cécile; Courant, Frédérique; Moyon, Thomas; Küster, Alice; Le Gall, Gwénaëlle; Tea, Illa; Antignac, Jean-Philippe; Darmaun, Dominique

2013-06-01

320

Dual pathology proximal median nerve compression of the forearm.  

PubMed

We report an unusual case of synchronous pathology in the forearm- the coexistence of a large lipoma of the median nerve together with an osteochondroma of the proximal ulna, giving rise to a dual proximal median nerve compression. Proximal median nerve compression neuropathies in the forearm are uncommon compared to the prevalence of distal compression neuropathies (eg Carpal Tunnel Syndrome). Both neural fibrolipomas (Refs. 1,2) and osteochondromas of the proximal ulna (Ref. 3) in isolation are rare but well documented. Unlike that of a distal compression, a proximal compression of the median nerve will often have a definite cause. Neural fibrolipoma, also called fibrolipomatous hamartoma are rare, slow-growing, benign tumours of peripheral nerves, most often occurring in the median nerve of younger patients. To our knowledge, this is the first report of such dual pathology in the same forearm, giving rise to a severe proximal compression of the median nerve. In this case, the nerve was being pushed anteriorly by the osteochondroma, and was being compressed from within by the intraneural lipoma. This unusual case highlights the advantage of preoperative imaging as part of the workup of proximal median nerve compression. PMID:23707555

Murphy, Siun M; Browne, Katherine; Tuite, David J; O'Shaughnessy, Michael

2013-12-01

321

Maternal health outcomes in Europe  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives: To use PERISTAT data on indicators of maternal mortality and morbidity to explore maternal health outcomes in Europe, and to discuss the implications of variations in the data sources for these indicators. Study design: The PERISTAT feasibility study provides the source for this descriptive study, covering 15 European countries. Maternal mortality ratios are calculated, and data to describe maternal

Sophie Alexander; Katherine Wildman; Weihong Zhang; Martin Langer; Christian Vutuc; Gunilla Lindmarke

322

Median model for background subtraction in intelligent transportation system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This research is generally divided into two phases: the first phase deals with background image generation and vehicle detection, the second phase deals with vehicle tracking and video handoff. In the first phase we view the image as a mixture of three data distributions: vehicle, background and shadow. Thus the problem is modeled as a mixture of Gaussian problem and our goal is to separate the background data from other data distributions. We proposed a median model and an improved median model to separate the background data from mixture data and to generate background reference images. In median model we keep track of deviation between the median and its neighbors in a reordered pixel sequence. When sample size is big enough, the reordered pixel sequence is in what we called balanced-median model. This model is indicated by a very small deviation value. In this case the median of the pixel sequence falls in background set and could be used for background estimation. When sample size is not big enough, the reordered pixel sequence is in what we called shifted-median model. This model is indicated by a much bigger deviation value. In this case the median falls out of background set and are excluded for background estimation. This median model has an impressive performance to handle slow moving or even stationary vehicles. But the time complexity is still expensive for real time image processing. The improved median model is proposed to reduce the time complexity to a reasonable level. In improved median model, we take samples in a bigger time interval to make it capable of dealing with slow moving and stationary vehicles. The sample size from experimentation is obtained as a small constant value between 5 and 20. This small sample constant size could dramatically reduce the time complexity. As a complementary to this improved median model, a mask-classified updating method is introduced to update the background image in a short term and only classified background pixels are being used for updating. Threshold, erosion, dilation and connected components labeling are used for noise removing and object labeling. After the first phase, the vehicle information is separated from image and input to the second phase for video hand-off and vehicle tracking. In the second phase, the weighted intensity information and shape information for each vehicle is scored and minimum-distance classification method is used for vehicle match. More than 400 vehicles are tested. An overall detection rate of 100% and tracking rate of 74% are obtained in this system.

Shi, Peijun; Jones, Elizabeth G.; Zhu, Qiuming

2004-05-01

323

ACOG committee opinion no. 559: Cesarean delivery on maternal request.  

PubMed

Cesarean delivery on maternal request is defined as a primary prelabor cesarean delivery on maternal request in the absence of any maternal or fetal indications. Potential risks of cesarean delivery on maternal request include a longer maternal hospital stay, an increased risk of respiratory problems for the infant, and greater complications in subsequent pregnancies, including uterine rupture, placental implantation problems, and the need for hysterectomy. Potential short-term benefits of planned cesarean delivery compared with a planned vaginal delivery (including women who give birth vaginally and those who require cesarean delivery in labor) include a decreased risk of hemorrhage and transfusion, fewer surgical complications, and a decrease in urinary incontinence during the first year after delivery. Given the balance of risks and benefits, the Committee on Obstetric Practice believes that in the absence of maternal or fetal indications for cesarean delivery, a plan for vaginal delivery is safe and appropriate and should be recommended to patients. In cases in which cesarean delivery on maternal request is planned, delivery should not be performed before a gestational age of 39 weeks. Cesarean delivery on maternal request should not be motivated by the unavailability of effective pain management. Cesarean delivery on maternal request particularly is not recommended for women desiring several children, given that the risks of placenta previa, placenta accreta, and gravid hysterectomy increase with each cesarean delivery. PMID:23635708

2013-04-01

324

Maternal education and intelligence predict offspring diet and nutritional status.  

PubMed

The traditional assumption that children's nutritional deficiencies are essentially due either to overall food scarcity or to a lack of family resources to purchase available food has been increasingly questioned. Parental characteristics represent 1 type of noneconomic factor that may be related to variability in children's diets and nutritional status. We report evidence on the relation of 2 parental characteristics, maternal education level and maternal intelligence, to infant and toddler diet and nutritional status. Our sample consisted of 241 low-income Peruvian mothers and their infants assessed from 3 to 12 mo, with a further follow-up of 104 of these infants at 18 mo of age. Using a nonexperimental design, we related measures of level of maternal education, maternal intelligence, and family socioeconomic status to infant anthropometry, duration of exclusive breast-feeding, adequacy of dietary intake, and iron status. Results indicated unique positive relations between maternal education level and the extent of exclusive breast-feeding. Significant relations between maternal education and offspring length were partially mediated by maternal height. There also were unique positive relations between maternal intelligence and quality of offspring diet and hemoglobin level. All findings remained significant even after controlling for family socioeconomic characteristics. This pattern of results illustrates the importance of parental characteristics in structuring the adequacy of offspring diet. Maternal education and intelligence appear to have unique influences upon different aspects of the diet and nutritional status of offspring. PMID:16140895

Wachs, Theodore D; Creed-Kanashiro, Hilary; Cueto, Santiago; Jacoby, Enrique

2005-09-01

325

Maternal thyroid dysfunction during pregnancy and thyroid function of her child in adolescence.  

PubMed

Context: Normal maternal thyroid function is important for fetal development. No knowledge exists on how maternal thyroid function and thyroid antibodies during early pregnancy affect thyroid function of the offspring. Objective: The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between maternal and adolescent thyroid function parameters. Design, Setting, and Participants: A total of 3673 mother-child pairs from the prospective, population-based Northern Finland Birth Cohort 1986 participated in the study. Maternal serum samples were drawn in early pregnancy (<20th gestational week), and children's samples were drawn at the age of 16 years and analyzed for TSH, free T4 (fT4), and thyroid peroxidase antibodies (TPO-Abs). Main Outcome Measures: TSH, fT4, and TPO-Ab concentrations were measured at the age of 16 years. Children of mothers with thyroid dysfunction (hypothyroidism, hyperthyroidism, or hypothyroxinemia) or TPO-Ab positivity were compared to those of euthyroid or TPO-Ab-negative mothers. The distributions are expressed as medians with 5th to 95th percentiles. Results: Boys of hypothyroid mothers had higher TSH concentrations than those of euthyroid mothers: 2.0 (0.9-4.0) vs 1.7 (0.8-3.3) mU/L; P = .001. Children of hyperthyroid mothers had lower TSH concentrations than those of euthyroid mothers: 1.3 (0.6-4.2) vs 1.7 (0.8-3.3) mU/L, P = .013, for boys; and 1.3 (0.5-3.5) vs 1.6 (0.7-3.4) mU/L, P = .034, for girls. There were no differences in TSH or fT4 concentrations between children of hypothyroxinemic and euthyroid mothers. TPO-Ab-positive mothers more often had TPO-Ab-positive children (prevalence, 9.0 vs 3.7% among boys, and 22.7 vs 7.5% among girls). Conclusions: Maternal thyroid dysfunction and TPO-Ab positivity during pregnancy seem to modify thyroid function parameters of offspring even in adolescence. Whether this increases the thyroid disease risk of the children is still unknown. PMID:23408571

Päkkilä, Fanni; Männistö, Tuija; Surcel, Heljä-Marja; Ruokonen, Aimo; Bloigu, Aini; Pouta, Anneli; Hartikainen, Anna-Liisa; Vääräsmäki, Marja; Järvelin, Marjo-Riitta; Suvanto, Eila

2013-03-01

326

Evaluation of Concrete Median Barrier Delineation Under Poor Visibility Conditions.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In this research, a nationwide survey, durability test, and visibility test were conducted for concrete median barrier delineation. This research was in response to problems PENNDOT was encountering with delineators becoming detached due to harsh conditio...

L. J. French K. A. French

2002-01-01

327

[Maternal death: unequal risks].  

PubMed

Nearly 99% of maternal deaths in the world each year occur in developing countries. New efforts have recently been undertaken to combat maternal mortality through research and action. The medical causes of such deaths are coming to be better understood, but the social mechanisms remain poorly grasped. Maternal mortality rates in developing countries are difficult to interpret because they tend to exclude all deaths not occurring in health care facilities. The countries of Europe and North America have an average maternal mortality rate of 30/100,000 live births, representing about 6000 deaths each year. The developing countries of Asia, Africa, and Latin America have rates of 270-640/100,000, representing some 492,000 deaths annually. For a true comparison of the risks of maternal mortality in different countries, the risk itself and the average number of children per woman must both be considered. A Nigerian woman has 375 times greater risk of maternal death than a Swedish woman, but since she has about 4 times more children, her lifetime risk of maternal death is over 1500 times greater than that of the Swedish woman. The principal medical causes of maternal death are known: hemorrhages due to placenta previa or retroplacental hematoma, mechanical dystocias responsible for uterine rupture, toxemia with eclampsia, septicemia, and malaria. The exact weight of abortion in maternal mortality is not known but is probably large. The possible measures for improving such rates are of 3 types: control of fertility to avoid early, late, or closely spaced pregnancies; effective medical surveillance of the pregnancy to reduce the risk of malaria, toxemia, and hemorrhage, and delivery in an obstetrical facility, especially for high-risk pregnancies. Differential access to high quality health care explains much of the difference between mortality rates in urban and rural, wealthy and impoverished areas of the same country. The social determinants of high maternal mortality rates include political, geographic, and economic mechanisms of exclusion which affect the vast majority of the population in developing countries. Political power is concentrated in the hands of relatively small groups whose decisions about such expenditures as health care are usually more favorable to the privileged. A consequence of the very unequal regional development in most Third World countries is that health, educational, and most other resources are concentrated in large cities and perhaps 1 or 2 strategic regions, leaving most of the population underserved. The low social position of women leaves them doubly vulnerable. The social factors adding to risks of maternal mortality should be considered in programs of prevention if the causes and not just the consequences are to be addressed. PMID:12281979

Defossez, A C; Fassin, D

1989-01-01

328

The Association between Early Childhood Overweight and Maternal Factors  

PubMed Central

Abstract Background Early childhood obesity, like other health disparities, disproportionately affects low-income populations. The purpose of this study is to determine the association between maternal sociodemographic factors and child overweight and obesity in a sample of low-income Mexican Americans. Methods The current study is a secondary analysis of baseline data that were collected as part of a longitudinal study of 374 children aged 12–24 months receiving Women, Infants, and Children (WIC) services in a large metropolitan area in central/south Texas. Measures used in this secondary analysis were: Measured weight and height of the child and mother to calculate weight-for-stature and BMI, respectively; maternal sociodemographic variables (age, education, marital status, employment status, and nativity); maternal acculturation level; and child breastfed status. Descriptive statistics are reported as frequencies, percentages, means, and standard deviations (SD). Chi-squared Fisher exact tests assessed differences in maternal factors by child weight (healthy weight and overweight). Odds ratios (OR), 95% confidence intervals (CI), and levels of significance are reported. Results Of the 372 mothers, most were young (mean age 26.1 years, SD=6.1), 47.3% had graduated high school, 33.6% were employed at the time of the study, and 72.1% were U.S. born. No significant differences were observed for the maternal factors by child weight-for-stature z-score. However, maternal BMI statistically differed by child weight. Healthy weight mothers were more likely to have healthy weight children than overweight mothers. Maternal nativity and maternal acculturation were not statistically associated with child weight in this sample of low-income Mexican Americans. Conclusions The findings of the current study reinforce the importance of addressing the influence of maternal sociodemographic factors on child weight, in particular, maternal weight. A more comprehensive investigation of ecological factors' influence on obesity onset and control in young Mexican-American children is needed.

Roncancio, Angelica; Hinojosa, Martha B.; Reifsnider, Elizabeth

2012-01-01

329

Maternal Obesity, Inflammation, and Developmental Programming  

PubMed Central

The prevalence of obesity, especially in women of child-bearing age, is a global health concern. In addition to increasing the immediate risk of gestational complications, there is accumulating evidence that maternal obesity also has long-term consequences for the offspring. The concept of developmental programming describes the process in which an environmental stimulus, including altered nutrition, during critical periods of development can program alterations in organogenesis, tissue development, and metabolism, predisposing offspring to obesity and metabolic and cardiovascular disorders in later life. Although the mechanisms underpinning programming of metabolic disorders remain poorly defined, it has become increasingly clear that low-grade inflammation is associated with obesity and its comorbidities. This review will discuss maternal metainflammation as a mediator of programming in insulin sensitive tissues in offspring. Use of nutritional anti-inflammatories in pregnancy including omega 3 fatty acids, resveratrol, curcumin, and taurine may provide beneficial intervention strategies to ameliorate maternal obesity-induced programming.

Segovia, Stephanie A.; Vickers, Mark H.; Reynolds, Clare M.

2014-01-01

330

Changes in Median Household Income: 1969 to 1996  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Census Bureau report Changes in Median Household Income: 1969 to 1996 by Jack McNeil indicates that the US median household income rose six percent overall between 1969 and 1996. This modest increase does not reflect the more dynamic changes experienced by a variety of the household types studied, however, as selected measures in the seventeen statistical appendices included in the report reveal.

Mcneil, John.

1998-01-01

331

Maternal hormone levels and perinatal characteristics: implications for testicular cancer  

PubMed Central

Purpose It has been hypothesized that the risk of testicular germ cell tumors (TGCT) is associated with maternal hormone levels. To examine the hypothesis, some studies have used perinatal factors as surrogates for hormone levels. To determine the validity of this assumption, hormone-perinatal factor relationships were examined in the Collaborative Perinatal Project. Methods Maternal estradiol, estriol and testosterone levels in first and third trimester serum samples were correlated with perinatal factors among 300 mothers representative of populations at high (white Americans) or low (black Americans) risk of TGCT. Results Among white participants, testosterone levels, were negatively associated with maternal height (p<0.01) and age (p=0.02), and positively associated with maternal weight (p=0.02) and BMI (p<0.01), while estradiol levels were negatively associated with height (p=0.03) and positively associated with son’s birthweight (p=0.04). Among black participants, estriol levels were negatively associated with maternal weight (p=0.01), BMI (p=0.02) and gestational age p<0.01), and positively associated with son’s birthweight (p<0.01), length (p=0.04) and head circumference (p=0.03). Conclusions These findings indicate that the use of perinatal characteristics as surrogates for hormone levels should be limited to a specific ethnic group. Among white men, previously reported associations of TGCT with maternal weight and age may be due to lower maternal testosterone levels.

Zhang, Yawei; Graubard, Barry I.; Longnecker, Matthew P.; Stanczyk, Frank Z.; Klebanoff, Mark A.; McGlynn, Katherine A.

2013-01-01

332

Maternal Serum Disintegrin and Metalloprotease Protein-12 in Early Pregnancy as a Potential Marker of Adverse Pregnancy Outcomes  

PubMed Central

Objectives The aim of this study was to determine whether the concentration of disintegrin and metalloprotease protein12 (ADAM12) in first trimester maternal serum can be used as a marker for first-trimester complete spontaneous abortions, missed abortions, ectopic pregnancies and hydatidiform moles. Methods The maternal serum concentrations of ADAM12 were measured in the range of 5–9+6 weeks of gestation using an automated AutoDelfia immunoassay platform in 9 cases of complete spontaneous abortion, 27 cases of missed abortions, 56 cases of ectopic pregnancies, 12 cases of hydatidiform moles, and 100 controls. Logistic regression analysis was used to determine significant factors for predicting adverse pregnancy outcomes in early pregnancy. Screening performance was assessed using receiver operating characteristic curves. Results Two hundred and four women were enrolled in the study. In the control group, the level of ADAM12 increased with gestational age. The median ADAM12 levels in the spontaneous abortion (0.430 MoM), ectopic pregnancy (0.460 MoM) and hydatidiform mole (0.037 MoM) groups were lower than that in the control group, while the median ADAM12 level in the missed abortion group (1.062 MoM) was not significant from the controls (1.002 MoM). Logistic regression analysis demonstrated that the level of ADAM12 in maternal serum facilitated the detection of ectopic pregnancies (OR?=?0.909; 95% CI?=?0.841?0.982) and complete spontaneous abortion (OR?=?0.863; 95% CI?=?0.787?0.946). Conclusions In complete spontaneous abortion and ectopic pregnancy, ADAM12 maintained at low levels in early pregnancies, and there were significant differences compared to normal pregnancies. ADAM12 is a promising marker for the diagnosis of complete spontaneous abortion and ectopic pregnancy in symptomatic women, and under certain conditions, ADAM12 can diagnose ectopic pregnancy and spontaneous abortion before an ultrasonographic detection of the conditions.

Yang, Jiexia; Wu, Jing; Guo, Fangfang; Wang, Dongmei; Chen, Keyi; Li, Jie; Du, Li; Yin, Aihua

2014-01-01

333

Effect of maternal anemia on fetal outcome.  

PubMed

We assess the effect of maternal iron deficiency anemia (MIDA) on cord blood iron status, placental weight and fetal outcome [birth weight, APGAR (appearance, pulse, Grimace, activity, and respiration) scores and birth asphyxia]. We conducted a cross sectional analytic study on fifty hospitalized pregnant women and their neonates over a year in a teaching hospital in the capital city of Bangladesh. Serum and cord hemoglobin concentration [Hb] with ferritin values were determined immediately after delivery, placental weight, gestational age, birth weight, APGAR scores and birth asphyxia were recorded. It was observed that 36 percent of the pregnant women were anemic. Maternal [Hb] and serum ferritin showed a highly significant positive correlation (r=0.92; p<0.001) indicating that iron deficiency was the most dominant factor in the causation of anemia amongst them. The maternal [Hb] showed a significant correlation with placental weight (r=0.40; p<0.001), birth weight (r=0.35; p<0.001), APGAR score (r=0.52; p<0.001), gestational age (r=0.61; p<0.001) and birth asphyxia. Maternal serum ferritin also correlated positively with cord ferritin (r=0.94; p<0.001), placental weight (r=0.26; p<0.001) and birth weight (r=0.27; p<0.001). Iron deficiency anemia (IDA) during pregnancy had significant adverse affect on the foetal outcome. PMID:20639833

Akhter, S; Momen, M A; Rahman, M M; Parveen, T; Karim, R K

2010-07-01

334

The Relation of Maternal Sensitivity to Children's Internalizing and Externalizing Problems Within the Context of Maternal Depressive Symptoms  

PubMed Central

Maternal depression has been linked to deficits in parenting that contribute to youth’s development of externalizing and/or internalizing problems. Maternal sensitivity has been implicated within the infant literature as a foundational aspect of parenting contributing to a child’s adjustment. This study examines the main and moderating effects of a construct labeled maternal sensitivity, within the context of depressive symptoms, on youth externalizing and internalizing problems in a sample of 65 mothers with a history of depression and their 84 children ages 9–15 years. Sensitivity was related to child externalizing problems. Although two-way interactions were not significant, exploratory moderation analyses indicated a significant three-way interaction among maternal depressive symptoms, maternal sensitivity, and youth gender for internalizing problems: among girls only, high depressive symptoms, low sensitivity, and the combination of these two variables were each associated with high levels of internalizing problems.

Garai, Emily Priscilla; Forehand, Rex L.; Colletti, Christina J. M.; Reeslund, Kristen; Potts, Jennifer; Compas, Bruce

2009-01-01

335

The relation of maternal sensitivity to children's internalizing and externalizing problems within the context of maternal depressive symptoms.  

PubMed

Maternal depression has been linked to deficits in parenting that contribute to youth's development of externalizing and/or internalizing problems. Maternal sensitivity has been implicated within the infant literature as a foundational aspect of parenting contributing to a child's adjustment. This study examines the main and moderating effects of a construct labeled maternal sensitivity, within the context of depressive symptoms, on youth externalizing and internalizing problems in a sample of 65 mothers with a history of depression and their 84 children ages 9-15 years. Sensitivity was related to child externalizing problems. Although two-way interactions were not significant, exploratory moderation analyses indicated a significant three-way interaction among maternal depressive symptoms, maternal sensitivity, and youth gender for internalizing problems: among girls only, high depressive symptoms, low sensitivity, and the combination of these two variables were each associated with high levels of internalizing problems. PMID:19654336

Garai, Emily Priscilla; Forehand, Rex L; Colletti, Christina J M; Reeslund, Kristen; Potts, Jennifer; Compas, Bruce

2009-09-01

336

Shared constitutional risks for maternal vascular-related pregnancy complications and future cardiovascular disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Maternal predisposition to vascular and metabolic disease may underlie both vascular-related pregnancy complications, such as preeclampsia and intrauterine growth restriction, as well as future maternal cardiovascular disease. We aimed to substantiate this hypothesis with biochemical and anthropometric evidence by conducting an intergenerational case-control study in a Dutch isolated population including 106 women after preeclampsia or intrauterine growth restriction (median follow-up:

A. L. Berends; Groot de C. J. M; E. J. G. Sijbrands; M. P. S. Sie; S. H. Benneheij; R. Pal; R. Heydanus; B. A. Oostra; P. Tikka-Kleemola; R. P. M. Steegers-Theunissen

2008-01-01

337

Memory, Maternal Representations, and Internalizing Symptomatology among Abused, Neglected, and Nonmaltreated Children  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A depth-of-processing incidental recall task for maternal-referent stimuli was utilized to assess basic memory processes and the affective valence of maternal representations among abused (N = 63), neglected (N = 33), and nonmaltreated (N = 128) school-aged children (ages 8-13.5 years old). Self-reported and observer-rated indices of internalizing…

Valentino, Kristin; Cicchetti, Dante; Rogosch, Fred A.; Toth, Sheree L.

2008-01-01

338

Maternal and neonatal outcomes of macrosomic pregnancies  

PubMed Central

Summary Background To compare maternal and neonatal outcomes of term macrosomic and adequate for gestational age (AGA) pregnancies. Material/Methods A retrospective analysis was performed on all term singleton macrosomic (birth weight ?4000 g) and AGA (birth weight >10th percentile and <4000 g) pregnancies delivered at our hospital between 2004 and 2008. Data collected included maternal age, gestational age at delivery, mode of delivery, birth weight, fetal gender, maternal and neonatal complications. Comparisons were made between macrosomic and AGA pregnancies and between different severities of macrosomia (4000–4250 g, 4250–4500 g and ?4500 g). Results The study population comprised of 34,685 pregnancies. 2077 neonates had birth weight ?4000 g. Maternal age and gestational age at delivery were significantly higher for macrosomic neonates. Significantly more macrosomic neonates were born by cesarean section, and were complicated with shoulder dystocia, neonatal hypoglycemia, and had longer hospitalization period (both in vaginal and cesarean deliveries). Specifically, the odds ratio (OR) relative to AGA pregnancies for each macrosomic category (4000–4250 g, 4250–4500 g and ?4500 g) of shoulder dystocia was 2.37, 2.24, 7.61, respectively, and for neonatal hypoglycemia 4.24, 4.41, 4.15, respectively. The risk of post partum hemorrhage was statistically increased when birth weight was >4500 g (OR=5.23) but not for birth weight between 4000–4500 g. No differences were found in the rates of extensive perineal lacerations between AGA and the different macrosomic groups. Conclusions Macrosomia is associated with increased rate of cesarean section, shoulder dystocia, neonatal hypoglycemia, and longer hospitalization, but not associated with excessive perineal tears. Increased risk of PPH was found in the >4500g group.

Weissmann-Brenner, Alina; Simchen, Michal J.; Zilberberg, Eran; Kalter, Anat; Weisz, Boaz; Achiron, Reuven; Dulitzky, Mordechai

2012-01-01

339

Feto-placental adaptations to maternal obesity in the baboon  

PubMed Central

Maternal obesity is present in 20–34% of pregnant women and has been associated with both intrauterine growth restriction and large-for-gestational age fetuses. While fetal and placental functions have been extensively studied in the baboon, no data are available on the effect of maternal obesity on placental structure and function in this species. We hypothesize that maternal obesity in the baboon is associated with a maternal inflammatory state and induces structural and functional changes in the placenta. The major findings of this study were 1) decreased placental syncytiotrophoblast amplification factor, intact syncytiotrophoblast endoplasmic reticulum structure and decreased system A placental amino acid transport in obese animals; 2) fetal serum amino acid composition and mononuclear cells (PBMC) transcriptome were different in fetuses from obese compared with non-obese animals 3) maternal obesity in humans and baboons is similar in regard of increased placental and adipose tissue macrophage infiltration, increased CD14 expression in maternal PBMC and maternal hyperleptinemia. In summary, these data demonstrate that in obese baboons in the absence of increased fetal weight, placental and fetal phenotype are consistent with those described for large- for-gestational age human fetuses.

Farley, Darren; Tejero, Maria E.; Comuzzie, Anthony G.; Higgins, Paul B.; Cox, Laura; Werner, Sherry L.; Jenkins, Susan L.; Li, Cun.; Choi, Jaehyek; Dick, Edward J.; Hubbard, Gene B.; Frost, Patrice; Dudley, Donald D.; Ballesteros, Brandon; Wu, Guoyao; Nathanielsz, Peter W.; Schlabritz-Loutsevitch, Natalia E.

2010-01-01

340

Maternal regulation of infant brain state.  

PubMed

Patterns of neural activity are critical for sculpting the immature brain, and disrupting this activity is believed to underlie neurodevelopmental disorders [1-3]. Neural circuits undergo extensive activity-dependent postnatal structural and functional changes [4-6]. The different forms of neural plasticity [7-9] underlying these changes have been linked to specific patterns of spatiotemporal activity. Since maternal behavior is the mammalian infant's major source of sensory-driven environmental stimulation and the quality of this care can dramatically affect neurobehavioral development [10], we explored, for the first time, whether infant cortical activity is influenced directly by interactions with the mother within the natural nest environment. We recorded spontaneous neocortical local field potentials in freely behaving infant rats during natural interactions with their mother on postnatal days ?12-19. We showed that maternal absence from the nest increased cortical desynchrony. Further isolating the pup by removing littermates induced further desynchronization. The mother's return to the nest reduced this desynchrony, and nipple attachment induced a further reduction but increased slow-wave activity. However, maternal simulation of pups (e.g., grooming and milk ejection) consistently produced rapid, transient cortical desynchrony. The magnitude of these maternal effects decreased with age. Finally, systemic blockade of noradrenergic beta receptors led to reduced maternal regulation of infant cortical activity. Our results demonstrate that during early development, mother-infant interactions can immediately affect infant brain activity, in part via a noradrenergic mechanism, suggesting a powerful influence of the maternal behavior and presence on circuit development. PMID:24980504

Sarro, Emma C; Wilson, Donald A; Sullivan, Regina M

2014-07-21

341

Maternal affection moderates friend influence on schoolwork engagement.  

PubMed

This study investigated friend influence over adolescent schoolwork engagement in 160 same-sex friend dyads (94 female dyads and 66 male dyads). Participants were approximately 16 years of age at the outset. Each friend described his or her own schoolwork engagement, school burnout, and perceptions of maternal affection. The results revealed that maternal affection moderated the influence that the higher burnout friend exerted over the subsequent schoolwork engagement of the lower burnout friend. The schoolwork engagement of the friend reporting higher levels of school burnout predicted a decline in the schoolwork engagement of the friend reporting lower school burnout, but only if the latter perceived below-average maternal affection. PMID:24015690

Marion, Donna; Laursen, Brett; Kiuru, Noona; Nurmi, Jari-Erik; Salmela-Aro, Katariina

2014-03-01

342

Maternal Control Behavior and Locus of Control: Examining Mechanisms in the Relation Between Maternal Anxiety Disorders and Anxiety Symptomatology in Children  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study tested components of a proposed model of child anxiety and examined the mediational roles of (1) maternal control\\u000a behavior, (2) maternal external locus of control, and (3) child external locus of control in the association between maternal\\u000a and child anxiety. Thirty-eight clinically anxious mothers and 37 nonanxious mothers participated along with one of their\\u000a children aged 6 to

Kimberly D. Becker; Golda S. Ginsburg; Janine Domingues; Jenn-Yun Tein

2010-01-01

343

A Nonparametric Test for Equality of Survival Medians  

PubMed Central

In clinical trials researchers often encounter testing for equality of survival medians across study arms based on censored data. Even though Brookmeyer-Crowley (BC) introduced a method for comparing medians of several survival distributions, still some researchers misuse procedures which are designed for testing the homogeneity of survival curves. These procedures include the log-rank, Wilcoxon, and the Cox model. This practice leads to inflation of the probability of a type I error, particularly when the underlying assumptions of these procedures are not met. We propose a new nonparametric method for testing the equality of several survival medians based on Kaplan-Meier estimation from randomly right censored data. We derive asymptotic properties of this test statistic. Through simulations we compute and compare the empirical probabilities of type I errors and power of this new procedure with that of the Brookmeyer-Crowley (BC), the log-rank and the Wilcoxon method. Our simulation results indicate that performance of these test procedures depends on the level of censoring and appropriateness of the underlying assumptions. When the objective is to test homogeneity of survival medians rather than survival curves and the assumptions of these tests are not met, some of these procedures severely inflate the probability of a type I error. In these situations, our test statistic provides an alternative to the BC test.

Rahbar, Mohammad H.; Chen, Zhongxue; Jeon, Sangchoon; Gardiner, Joseph C.; Ning, Jing

2014-01-01

344

Morphine and endorphins modulate dopamine turnover in rat median eminence.  

PubMed Central

The is evidence that some of the actions of both endogenous and exogenous opioids (e.g., stimulation of prolactin release) are mediated by interaction with catecholaminergic systems. Morphine (1.67, 5, and 15 mg/kg of body weight, intraperitoneally) altered dopamine turnover as measured by the alpha-methyl-p-tyrosine method in the median eminence, neostriatum, and frontal cortex of male Sprague-Dawley rats. The turnover rate of dopamine was reduced in the median eminence and frontal cortex but accelerated in the neostriatum. In the frontal cortex all doses were effective in decreasing dopamine turnover; however, in the median eminence the lowest dose of morphine did not significantly alter dopamine turnover. All three doses accelerated dopamine turnover in the neostriatum. Naloxone effectively reversed the effects of morphine at all doses in all brain areas, whereas it had no effect on turnover when given alone. In the median eminence, neostriatum, and frontal cortex, intraventricular injection of [D-Ala2,D-Leu5]-enkephalin (25 micrograms) or beta-endorphin (15 micrograms) produced the same effects on dopamine turnover as morphine. The actions of these peptides were blocked by naloxone. It is hypothesized that opiates and opioid peptides increase prolactin release by reducing the activity of the tuberoinfundibular dopaminergic system.

Deyo, S N; Swift, R M; Miller, R J

1979-01-01

345

VIEW OF PIEDMONT AVENUE AND MEDIAN. REPLICATING WERNER HEGEMANN PHOTO ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

VIEW OF PIEDMONT AVENUE AND MEDIAN. REPLICATING WERNER HEGEMANN PHOTO TAKEN CIRCA 1909 SEEN FROM TRAFFIC CIRCLE AT CHANNING WAY LOOKING NW. Photograph by Fredrica Drotos and Michael Kelly, July 9, 2006 - Piedmont Way & the Berkeley Property Tract, East of College Avenue between Dwight Way & U.C. Memorial Stadium, Berkeley, Alameda County, CA

346

VIEW OF STONE STAIR DETAIL IN MEDIAN FROM WEST SIDE ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

VIEW OF STONE STAIR DETAIL IN MEDIAN FROM WEST SIDE OF PIEDMONT NORTH OF BANCROFT WAY LOOKING TOWARDS CALIFORNIA MEMORIAL STADIUM TO THE EAST. Photograph by Fredrica Drotos and Michael Kelly, July 16, 2006 - Piedmont Way & the Berkeley Property Tract, East of College Avenue between Dwight Way & U.C. Memorial Stadium, Berkeley, Alameda County, CA

347

Median percent change: a robust alternative for assessing temporal trends.  

PubMed

A typical summary statistic for temporal trends is the average percent change (APC). The APC is estimated by using a generalized linear model, usually under the assumption of linearity on the logarithmic scale. A serious limitation of least-squares type estimators is their sensitivity to outliers. The goal of this study is twofold: firstly, we propose a robust and easy-to-compute measure of the temporal trend based on the median of the rates (median percent change - MPC), rather than their mean, under the hypothesis of constant relative change; secondly, we investigate the performance of several models for estimating the rate of change when some of the most common model assumptions are violated. We provide some guidance on the practices of the estimation of temporal trends when using different models under different circumstances. The robustness property of the median is assessed in a simulation study, which shows that the MPC provides strong reductions in estimation bias and variance in presence of outliers. We also demonstrate how a mathematical property of the median helps addressing the issue of zero counts when estimating trends on the log-scale. Finally, we analyzed an English cancer registration dataset to illustrate the proposed method. We believe that, as a good practice, both APC and MPC should be presented when sensitivity issues arise. PMID:24016682

Geraci, Marco; Alston, Robert D; Birch, Jillian M

2013-12-01

348

[Fibrolipoma of the median nerve. A case report].  

PubMed

The authors report a case of fibrolipoma of the median nerve in a 6-year old boy presenting as macrodactyly with clinodactyly. The causal relationship between the nerve lesion and the deformities is discussed. The difficulties of diagnosis of the condition are presented as are the difficulties of management where a balance has to be struck between conservative treatment and amputation. PMID:18842445

Kossoko, H; Allah, C K; Richard Kadio, M; Yéo, S; Assi-Djè Bi Djè, V; Gueu, M

2008-12-01

349

Median tests for censored survival data; a contingency table approach.  

PubMed

The median failure time is often utilized to summarize survival data because it has a more straightforward interpretation for investigators in practice than the popular hazard function. However, existing methods for comparing median failure times for censored survival data either require estimation of the probability density function or involve complicated formulas to calculate the variance of the estimates. In this article, we modify a K-sample median test for censored survival data (Brookmeyer and Crowley, 1982, Journal of the American Statistical Association 77, 433-440) through a simple contingency table approach where each cell counts the number of observations in each sample that are greater than the pooled median or vice versa. Under censoring, this approach would generate noninteger entries for the cells in the contingency table. We propose to construct a weighted asymptotic test statistic that aggregates dependent ?(2)-statistics formed at the nearest integer points to the original noninteger entries. We show that this statistic follows approximately a ?(2)-distribution with k-1 degrees of freedom. For a small sample case, we propose a test statistic based on combined p-values from Fisher's exact tests, which follows a ?(2)-distribution with 2 degrees of freedom. Simulation studies are performed to show that the proposed method provides reasonable type I error probabilities and powers. The proposed method is illustrated with two real datasets from phase III breast cancer clinical trials. PMID:23189327

Tang, Shaowu; Jeong, Jong-Hyeon

2012-09-01

350

Anxiogenic effect of median raphe nucleus lesion in stressed rats  

Microsoft Academic Search

Serotonin (5-HT) neurons located in the median raphe nucleus (MRN) may have a role in the development of behavioral changes to stress. The objective of the present work was to investigate the effects of a selective lesion of 5-HT neurons located in the MRN in previously stressed male Wistar rats submitted to the elevated plus maze (EPM). In an initial

Sueli Mendonça Netto; Rodolfo Silveira; Norberto Cysne Coimbra; Sâmia Regiane Lourenço Joca; Francisco Silveira Guimarães

2002-01-01

351

Median cascaded canceller for robust adaptive array processing  

Microsoft Academic Search

A median cascaded canceller (MCC) is introduced as a robust multichannel adaptive array processor. Compared with sample matrix inversion (SMI) methods, it is shown to significantly reduce the deleterious effects of impulsive noise spikes (outliers) on convergence performance of metrics; such as (normalized) output residue power and signal to interference-plus-noise ratio (SINR). For the case of no outliers, the MCC

MICHAEL L. PICCIOLO; KARL GERLACH

2003-01-01

352

Robust confidence intervals for Hodges–Lehmann median difference  

Microsoft Academic Search

The cendif module is part of the somersd package, and calculates confidence intervals for the Hodges–Lehmann median difference between values of a variable in two subpopulations. The traditional Lehmann formula, unlike the formula used by cendif, assumes that the two subpopulation distributions are different only in location, and that the subpopulations are therefore equally variable. The cendif formula therefore contrasts

Roger Newson

2007-01-01

353

Characteristics of Teachers' Conversations about Teaching Mean, Median, and Mode  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The study analyzed a conversation among a group of teachers responsible for teaching the concepts of mean, median, and mode. After reading an article describing some specific student difficulties in learning the concepts, teachers were asked to discuss how the teaching of the concepts could be improved. Several claims pertinent to improving…

Groth, Randall E.

2009-01-01

354

Formation of median nerve by three roots: A case report  

Microsoft Academic Search

During routine dissection of an adult male cadaver in the Department of Anatomy, College of Medical Sciences, Bharatpur, Nepal, the right median nerve was found to be formed by three roots. The finding was noted after thorough and meticulous dissection of the upper limbs of both sides (axilla, arm, forearm and palm). Out of the three roots forming the anomalous

N. Satyanarayana; C. K. Reddy; P. Sunitha; N. Jayasri; V. Nitin; G. Praveen; R. Guha; A. K. Datta; M. M. Shaik

2010-01-01

355

A fast two-dimensional median filtering algorithm  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present a fast algorithm for two-dimensional median filtering. It is based on storing and updating the gray level histogram of the picture elements in the window. The algorithm is much faster than conventional sorting methods. For a window size of m × n, the computer time required is 0(n).

Thomas S. Huang; George J. Yang; Gregory Y. Tang

1979-01-01

356

Maternal behavior and developmental psychopathology  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper reviews recent developments in the phenomenology, neurobiology, and genetics of maternal behavior in animal model systems from an evolutionary perspective on psychopathology. Following a review of the phenomenology and neurobiology of maternal behavior, recent studies addressing the role of genetic factors in the maternal behavior of rodents were identified in a search of literature in peer-reviewed journals. Gene

James F. Leckman; Amy E. Herman

2002-01-01

357

Maternal sexuality and breastfeeding  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper I consider the ways in which lactation has been discussed as a form of maternal sexuality, and the implications this carries for our understanding of breastfeeding practices and sexuality. Drawing on knowledge constructed in the western world during the last half of the twentieth century, the paper identifies a shift between the radical ideologies of the 1960s

Alison Bartlett

2005-01-01

358

Maternal serum screening.  

PubMed Central

Maternal serum screening (MSS) measures three serum markers: alpha-fetoprotein, human chorionic gonadotropin, and unconjugated estriol, from which the risk of fetal Down syndrome or open neural tube defect is calculated. Initially, 8% of women will have positive results. I present a protocol for investigating these women. Family physicians should be informed about MSS so they can give their patients information and guidance.

Carroll, J. C.

1994-01-01

359

Temperament and Maternal Employment.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses a model of the bi-directional relations between children and the context of their living situations and explains how the usefulness of this model may be evaluated by assessing the relations between child temperament and maternal attitudes and behaviors. Also indicates how the child's temperament may influence the mother's decision to…

Lerner, Jacqueline V.; Galambos, Nancy L.

1986-01-01

360

Maternal and Paternal Psychological Control as Moderators of the Link between Peer Attitudes and Adolescents' Risky Sexual Behavior  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Maternal and paternal psychological control, peer attitudes, and the interaction of psychological control and peer attitudes at age 13 were examined as predictors of risky sexual behavior before age 16 in a community sample of 181 youth followed from age 13 to 16. Maternal psychological control moderated the link between peer attitudes and sexual…

Oudekerk, Barbara A.; Allen, Joseph P.; Hafen, Christopher A.; Hessel, Elenda T.; Szwedo, David E.; Spilker, Ann

2014-01-01

361

August median streamflow on ungaged streams in Eastern Coastal Maine  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Methods for estimating August median streamflow were developed for ungaged, unregulated streams in eastern coastal Maine. The methods apply to streams with drainage areas ranging in size from 0.04 to 73.2 square miles and fraction of basin underlain by a sand and gravel aquifer ranging from 0 to 71 percent. The equations were developed with data from three long-term (greater than or equal to 10 years of record) continuous-record streamflow-gaging stations, 23 partial-record streamflow- gaging stations, and 5 short-term (less than 10 years of record) continuous-record streamflow-gaging stations. A mathematical technique for estimating a standard low-flow statistic, August median streamflow, at partial-record streamflow-gaging stations and short-term continuous-record streamflow-gaging stations was applied by relating base-flow measurements at these stations to concurrent daily streamflows at nearby long-term continuous-record streamflow-gaging stations (index stations). Generalized least-squares regression analysis (GLS) was used to relate estimates of August median streamflow at streamflow-gaging stations to basin characteristics at these same stations to develop equations that can be applied to estimate August median streamflow on ungaged streams. GLS accounts for different periods of record at the gaging stations and the cross correlation of concurrent streamflows among gaging stations. Thirty-one stations were used for the final regression equations. Two basin characteristics?drainage area and fraction of basin underlain by a sand and gravel aquifer?are used in the calculated regression equation to estimate August median streamflow for ungaged streams. The equation has an average standard error of prediction from -27 to 38 percent. A one-variable equation uses only drainage area to estimate August median streamflow when less accuracy is acceptable. This equation has an average standard error of prediction from -30 to 43 percent. Model error is larger than sampling error for both equations, indicating that additional or improved estimates of basin characteristics could be important to improved estimates of low-flow statistics. Weighted estimates of August median streamflow at partial- record or continuous-record gaging stations range from 0.003 to 31.0 cubic feet per second or from 0.1 to 0.6 cubic feet per second per square mile. Estimates of August median streamflow on ungaged streams in eastern coastal Maine, within the range of acceptable explanatory variables, range from 0.003 to 45 cubic feet per second or 0.1 to 0.6 cubic feet per second per square mile. Estimates of August median streamflow per square mile of drainage area generally increase as drainage area and fraction of basin underlain by a sand and gravel aquifer increase.

Lombard, Pamela J.

2004-01-01

362

Maternal Endocrine Adaptation throughout Pregnancy to Nutritional Manipulation: Consequences for Maternal Plasma Leptin and Cortisol and the Programming of Fetal Adipose Tissue Development  

Microsoft Academic Search

Maternal nutrient restriction at specific stages of gestation has differential effects on fetal development such that the offspring are programmed to be at increased risk of adult disease. We investigated the effect of gestational age and ma- ternal nutrition on the maternal plasma concentration of lep- tin and cortisol together with effects on fetal adipose tissue deposition plus leptin, IGF-I,

J. Bispham; G. S. GOPALAKRISHNAN; J. DANDREA; V. WILSON; H. BUDGE; D. H. KEISLER; F. BROUGHTON PIPKIN; T. STEPHENSON; M. E. SYMONDS

2003-01-01

363

Median Nerve Injuries Caused by Carpal Tunnel Injections  

PubMed Central

Local steroid injections are widely used for diagnostic and therapeutic purposes in the management of carpal tunnel syndrome. The median nerve injury is the most serious complication in association with carpal tunnel injections although the incidence is low. A median nerve injury will be presented with shooting pain at the injection time along with other sensory distortion, motor weakness and muscle atrophy. The management includes a conservative treatment and a surgical exploration. Carpal tunnel injections should be used at a minimum only. If such steroid injection is required, an appropriate needle positioning is vital for the nerve injury prevention. The patient should not be heavily sedated and should be encouraged to inform experiences of numbness/paresthesia during the procedure immediately.

Kim, Hyun Jung

2014-01-01

364

The median arcuate ligament syndrome: a mimicker of mesenteric vasculitis.  

PubMed

The median arcuate ligament syndrome is an uncommon condition characterized by the triad of postprandial abdominal pain, unintentional weight loss, and an epigastric bruit. This condition is diagnostically challenging and patients often undergo extensive laboratory, radiographic, and invasive evaluations before it is identified. Physicians should consider this syndrome in the differential diagnoses of chronic abdominal pain and mesenteric vasculitis. Once diagnosed, treatment is generally surgical with known predictors of favorable and unfavorable outcomes. Surgical candidates should be selected carefully. We describe the cases of two young active duty patients diagnosed with median arcuate ligament syndrome after suffering from chronic abdominal pain. Both were referred to our rheumatology department to evaluate for mesenteric vasculitis. Each had a different therapeutic outcome. PMID:23929065

Kay, Johnson C; Arroyo, Ramon A

2013-08-01

365

Links between Maternal and Child Psychopathology Symptoms: Mediation through Child Emotion Regulation and Moderation through Maternal Behavior  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined the intergenerational transmission of psychopathology symptoms with 7-12 year-old children (N = 97; 44 boys, 53 girls, M age = 9.14, SD = 1.38) and their mothers (M age = 38.46, SD = 6.86). Child emotion regulation mediated the links between maternal psychopathology and child internalizing and externalizing symptoms. In turn,…

Suveg, Cynthia; Shaffer, Anne; Morelen, Diana; Thomassin, Kristel

2011-01-01

366

Etonogestrel implants - case studies of median nerve injury following removal.  

PubMed

The etonogestrel implant has been available in Australia since 2001. General practitioners routinely insert and remove these implants in their rooms under local anaesthetic. We report two cases of significant median nerve injury following inappropriate dissection of the arm to remove this device when impalpable. These cases illustrate the need to follow the product guidelines and to refer impalpable or deeply placed implants for imaging and subsequent removal under ultrasound guidance or by a qualified surgeon. PMID:22003483

Gillies, Rowan; Scougall, Peter; Nicklin, Sean

2011-10-01

367

Median labiomandibular glossotomy approach to the craniocervical region  

Microsoft Academic Search

Introduction  In children as well as adults, adequate access to the craniocervical junction and upper cervical vertebra can usually be achieved\\u000a with a transoral–transpalatopharyngeal route. However, when access is necessary to achieve the C5 level and the upper cervical\\u000a spine in children, this is very difficult. This is particularly so when the incisor opening is less than 2.5 cm. The median\\u000a labiomandibular

James T. Brookes; Richard J. H. Smith; Arnold H. Menezes; M. C. Smith

2008-01-01

368

Fatigue testing of three peristernal median sternotomy closure techniques  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Failure of a sternotomy closure because of closure system fatigue is a complication that may result in dehiscence and put the individual at risk for serious complications. The purpose of this study was to assess the fatigue performance of three peristernal median sternotomy closure techniques (figure-of-eight stainless-steel wires, figure-of-eight stainless-steel cables, or Pectofix Dynamic Sternal Fixation [DSF] stainless-steel plates)

Cameron Wangsgard; David J Cohen; Lanny V Griffin

2008-01-01

369

Adapting K-Medians to Generate Normalized Cluster Centers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many applications of clustering require the use of normalized data, such as text or mass spectra mining. The spherical K-means algorithm (6), an adaptation of the traditional K-means algorithm, is highly useful for data of this kind because it produces normalized cluster centers. The K-medians clustering algorithm is also an important clustering tool because of its well- known resistance to

Benjamin J. Anderson; Deborah S. Gross; David R. Musicant; Anna M. Ritz; Thomas G. Smith; Leah E. Steinberg

2006-01-01

370

Ultrastructure of the neurohaemal region of the toad median eminence  

Microsoft Academic Search

According to the internal structure and size of the granules, six types of nerve endings can be distinguished in the toad median eminence: 1. Endings containing mostly dense granules of 600 Å in diameter; 2. Endings containing dense granules of about 800 Å in diameter; 3. Endings which contain dense granules 1,000–2,000 Å in diameter, with the peak at 1,200–1,400

E. M. Rodríguez

1968-01-01

371

Sparse Estimation and Inference for Censored Median Regression  

PubMed Central

Censored median regression has proved useful for analyzing survival data in complicated situations, say, when the variance is heteroscedastic or the data contain outliers. In this paper, we study the sparse estimation for censored median regression models, which is an important problem for high dimensional survival data analysis. In particular, a new procedure is proposed to minimize an inverse-censoring-probability weighted least absolute deviation loss subject to the adaptive LASSO penalty and result in a sparse and robust median estimator. We show that, with a proper choice of the tuning parameter, the procedure can identify the underlying sparse model consistently and has desired large-sample properties including root-n consistency and the asymptotic normality. The procedure also enjoys great advantages in computation, since its entire solution path can be obtained efficiently. Furthermore, we propose a resampling method to estimate the variance of the estimator. The performance of the procedure is illustrated by extensive simulations and two real data applications including one microarray gene expression survival data.

Shows, Justin Hall; Lu, Wenbin; Zhang, Hao Helen

2010-01-01

372

Male median raphe cysts: serial retrospective analysis and histopathological classification  

PubMed Central

Background To review the clinical and pathological characteristics of median raphe cysts and to classify the lesions according to pathogenesis and histopathological findings. Methods The medical records of patients who were diagnosed with median raphe cysts between 2001 and 2010 were reviewed to document the clinical presentation and pathological findings of the cysts. Results Most patients were asymptomatic; however, 9 patients had inflammatory or infectious cysts that were tender or painful. Four patients who had cysts on the parameatus and distal prepuce had difficulty voiding. Hematuria and hematospermia were noted in 2 cases. Thirty-one cysts were lined with an urothelium-like epithelium, and a squamous epithelium lining was found in 3 cases. In 2 cases, a well-formed mucinous glandular structure was observed. The other 20 cysts consisted of mixed epithelia. After excision of the cysts under local or general anesthesia, an urethral fistula developed as a complication in only 1 case. Conclusions Median raphe cysts are benign lesions formed due to tissue trapping during the development of urethral folds. The cysts can be defined into 4 types based on pathological findings: urethral, epidermoid, glandular, and mixed. The associated symptoms and signs should be taken into consideration when determining the treatment for the cysts. Virtual slides The virtual slide(s) for this article can be found here: http//http://www.diagnosticpathology.diagnomx.eu/vs/7727074877500751

2012-01-01

373

Training ducklings in broods interferes with maternal imprinting.  

PubMed

Under natural conditions, if maternal imprinting is to occur it must occur in a social situation which includes the presence of broodmates. In the laboratory it has been shown that social rearing with siblings prior to maternal imprinting interferes with the establishment of maternal imprinting, whereas social experience with siblings after maternal imprinting enhances the imprinting experience. The present study examined the influence of social experience with broodmates during an imprinting trial on the establishment of a visually imprinted maternal preference in domestic mallard ducklings (Anas platyrhynchos). Twenty-four-hour-old ducklings were allowed to follow a stuffed mallard hen for 30 min either individually or in a brood of four same-aged ducklings. The birds trained alone subsequently showed an imprinted preference for the familiar mallard hen over an unfamiliar pintail hen or four stuffed ducklings in simultaneous choice tests at 48 and 72 hr after hatching. Ducklings trained with broodmates did not show a preference for the familiar mallard hen over the unfamiliar pintail hen and displayed a preference for the stuffed ducklings over the mallard hen at 48 and 72 hr choice tests. These results demonstrate that even brief (30 min) experience with siblings during a maternal imprinting trial results in peer imprinting that interferes with the establishment of maternal imprinting. These and other results of a similar sort render dubious the significance of most laboratory studies of imprinting for an understanding of such events in nature. PMID:3803724

Lickliter, R; Gottlieb, G

1986-11-01

374

Maternal control behavior and locus of control: examining mechanisms in the relation between maternal anxiety disorders and anxiety symptomatology in children.  

PubMed

This study tested components of a proposed model of child anxiety and examined the mediational roles of (1) maternal control behavior, (2) maternal external locus of control, and (3) child external locus of control in the association between maternal and child anxiety. Thirty-eight clinically anxious mothers and 37 nonanxious mothers participated along with one of their children aged 6 to 14 (52.0% female; 78.7% Caucasian). Path analysis indicated that the overall model fit the data very well. Analyses also indicated that child external locus of control mediated the associations between (1) maternal and child anxiety and (2) maternal control behavior and child anxiety. Maternal anxiety was not related to maternal control behavior and maternal external locus of control was not associated with child anxiety. Findings are discussed in the context of theoretical models (e.g., Chorpita and Barlow 1998) regarding the transmission of maternal anxiety to their children and the specific roles of maternal behavior and child locus of control. PMID:20108034

Becker, Kimberly D; Ginsburg, Golda S; Domingues, Janine; Tein, Jenn-Yun

2010-05-01

375

Maternal Control Behavior and Locus of Control: Examining Mechanisms in the Relation Between Maternal Anxiety Disorders and Anxiety Symptomatology in Children  

PubMed Central

This study tested components of a proposed model of child anxiety and examined the mediational roles of (1) maternal control behavior, (2) maternal external locus of control, and (3) child external locus of control in the association between maternal and child anxiety. Thirty-eight clinically anxious mothers and 37 nonanxious mothers participated along with one of their children aged 6 to 14 (52.0% female; 78.7% Caucasian). Path analysis indicated that the overall model fit the data very well. Analyses also indicated that child external locus of control mediated the associations between (1) maternal and child anxiety and (2) maternal control behavior and child anxiety. Maternal anxiety was not related to maternal control behavior and maternal external locus of control was not associated with child anxiety. Findings are discussed in the context of theoretical models (e.g., Chorpita and Barlow 1998) regarding the transmission of maternal anxiety to their children and the specific roles of maternal behavior and child locus of control.

Ginsburg, Golda S.; Domingues, Janine; Tein, Jenn-Yun

2012-01-01

376

Multiple Pathways to Conscience for Children with Different Temperaments: From Toddlerhood to Age 5.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Assessed children's temperament and maternal socialization at age 2-3. Assessed children's conscience at ages 4 and 5 by observing children's cheating behavior in a game. Found that for children fearful as toddlers, maternal gentle discipline promoted conscience at age 5. For children fearless as toddlers, alternative maternal socialization…

Kochanska, Grazyna

1997-01-01

377

Maternal Health Literacy and Late Initiation of Immunizations Among an Inner-City Birth Cohort  

Microsoft Academic Search

To determine if maternal health literacy influences early infant immunization status. Longitudinal prospective cohort study\\u000a of 506 Medicaid-eligible mother-infant dyads. Immunization status at age 3 and 7 months was assessed in relation to maternal\\u000a health literacy measured at birth using the Test of Functional Health Literacy in Adults (short version). Multivariable logistic\\u000a regression quantified the effect of maternal health literacy on

Susmita Pati; Kristen A. Feemster; Zeinab Mohamad; Alex Fiks; Robert Grundmeier; Avital Cnaan

2011-01-01

378

Maternal Parenting Style and Adjustment in Adolescents with Type I Diabetes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective To investigate the cross-sectional relationship between maternal parenting style and indicators of well-being among adolescents with diabetes. Methods Seventy-eight adolescents (ages 11.58-17.42 years, M ¼14.21) with type 1 diabetes and their mothers separately reported perceptions of maternal parenting style. Adolescents reported their own depressed mood, self-efficacy for managing diabetes, and diabetes regimen adherence. Results Adolescents' perceptions of maternal psychological

Jorie M. Butler; Michelle Skinner; Donna Gelfand; Cynthia A. Berg; Deborah J. Wiebe

2007-01-01

379

The vitamin E-binding protein afamin increases in maternal serum during pregnancy  

PubMed Central

Background Afamin is a liver-derived plasma glycoprotein with vitamin E-binding properties and a putative function in fertility. This study evaluated serum afamin concentrations during and postpartum to uncomplicated pregnancies and investigated a potential association between afamin concentrations and pregnancy outcome. Methods Afamin serum concentrations were measured in women with uncomplicated pregnancies in a retrospective cohort (n = 466) at different gestational ages and a prospective observational study (n = 76) in the first, second and third trimester. Furthermore, afamin was determined in the first trimester in a cross-sectional pilot study including women with preeclampsia (PE), pregnancy-induced hypertension (PIH) and women without pregnancy complications (n = 13 each). Finally, expression of afamin was investigated in human placental tissue by RT-PCR and immunohistochemistry. Results Afamin concentrations increased linearly almost two-fold during pregnancy in both retrospective and prospective studies in women without pregnancy complications with median afamin serum concentrations of 61.9 mg/l, 79.6 mg/l, and 98.6 mg/l in the first, second, and third trimester, respectively. After delivery, median afamin concentrations decreased to baseline values of 54.6 mg/l. In the pilot study with pregnancy complications, women with PE displayed significantly higher median afamin concentrations than did women with uncomplicated pregnancy (70.0 mg/l vs. 55.4 mg/l, P = 0.007). Expression analyses revealed no placental afamin expression at either mRNA or protein level in uncomplicated pregnancy. Conclusion A linear increase in the maternally expressed glycoprotein afamin during pregnancy may serve as basic reference for subsequent investigations of afamin in pregnancy-related disorders.

Hubalek, Michael; Buchner, Hannes; Mortl, Manfred G.; Schlembach, Dietmar; Huppertz, Berthold; Firulovic, Branka; Kohler, Wolfgang; Hafner, Erich; Dieplinger, Benjamin; Wildt, Ludwig; Dieplinger, Hans

2014-01-01

380

Somatosensory evoked potentials to median nerve stimulation in meningomyelocele: what is occurring in the hindbrain and its connections during growth?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Twenty patients with meningomyelocele (MMC) and shunted hydrocephalus, ranging in age from 3 to 23 years old, underwent serial recording of short-latency somatosensory evoked potentials (SEPs) to median nerve stimulation, on the basis of which to assess the evolution of dysfunction in the brainstem and its connections (cervical spinal cord, cervical nerve roots, lower cranial nerves). Eighteen patients had Chiari

Toshihiko Nishimura; Koreaki Mori

1996-01-01

381

Maternal infection in pregnancy and risk of asthma in offspring.  

PubMed

This study estimates the effect of maternal infections during pregnancy on childhood asthma. One-thousand four-hundred and twenty-eight pregnant women were prospectively followed using structured interviews and chart review until their child's 6th year of life. Infections were identified from outpatient and hospital visits. Childhood asthma was defined as physician diagnosis with symptoms at age six. Adjusted odds ratios were calculated from multivariable logistic regression models. Six-hundred and thirty-five women experienced an infection during pregnancy. Among antepartum infections, maternal urinary tract infections were significantly associated with childhood asthma (aOR 1.60, 95 % CI 1.12-2.29). Chorioamnionitis and maternal group beta streptococcus colonization were not significantly associated with an increased risk in childhood asthma. This study found an increased risk of asthma in children of women diagnosed with urinary tract infections during pregnancy, while other maternal infections did not increase the risk. PMID:23338127

Collier, Charlene H; Risnes, Kari; Norwitz, Errol R; Bracken, Michael B; Illuzzi, Jessica L

2013-12-01

382

Maternal Health and HIV  

Microsoft Academic Search

The HIV\\/AIDS epidemic is one of the major factors affecting women's health, with 20 million women living with HIV and more than two million pregnancies in HIV-positive women each year. Most HIV infections in women are in resource-constrained settings where the risk of maternal morbidity and mortality is also unacceptably high, and where most of the 529,000 deaths from complications

James McIntyre

2005-01-01

383

Cryptorchidism and Maternal Alcohol Consumption during Pregnancy  

PubMed Central

Background Prenatal exposure to alcohol can adversely affect the fetus. We investigated the association between maternal alcohol consumption during pregnancy and cryptorchidism (undescended testis) among newborn boys. Methods We examined 2,496 boys in a prospective Danish–Finnish birth cohort study for cryptorchidism at birth (cryptorchid/healthy: 128/2,368) and at 3 months of age (33/2,215). Quantitative information on alcohol consumption (average weekly consumption of wine, beer, and spirits and number of binge episodes), smoking, and caffeine intake was obtained by questionnaire and/or interview once during the third trimester of pregnancy, before the outcome of the pregnancy was known. For a subgroup (n = 465), information on alcohol consumption was obtained twice during pregnancy by interviews. Results We investigated maternal alcohol consumption both as a continuous variable and categorized. The odds for cryptorchidism increased with increasing weekly alcohol consumption. After adjustment for confounders (country, smoking, caffeine intake, binge episodes, social class, maternal age, parity, maturity, and birth weight) the odds remained significant for women with a weekly consumption of five or more alcoholic drinks (odds ratio = 3.10; 95% confidence interval, 1.05–9.10). Conclusions Regular alcohol intake during pregnancy appears to increase the risk of congenital cryptorchidism in boys. The mechanisms for this association are unknown. Counseling of pregnant women with regard to alcohol consumption should also consider this new finding.

Damgaard, Ida N.; Jensen, Tina K.; Petersen, J?rgen H.; Skakkebaek, Niels E.; Toppari, Jorma; Main, Katharina M.

2007-01-01

384

Median Nerve to Biceps Nerve Transfer to Restore Elbow Flexion in Obstetric Brachial Plexus Palsy  

PubMed Central

Median nerve to biceps nerve transfer in the arm has been reported only in adults. The following paper reports on 10 cases of this transfer in obstetric brachial plexus palsy. All patients had upper palsy (ERb's or extended ERb's palsy) and presented to the author late (13–19 months of age) with poor or no recovery of elbow flexion. Following the nerve transfer, nine children recovered elbow flexion (a score of 6 in one child and a score of 7 in eight children by the Toronto scale). The remaining child did not recover elbow flexion.

Al-Qattan, M. M.; Al-Kharfy, T. M.

2014-01-01

385

Maternal childhood abuse predicts externalizing behaviour in toddlers: A prospective cohort study.  

PubMed

Aims: To investigate the impact of maternal childhood abuse on toddlers' behaviour and assess the potential mediation of maternal mental distress for this pathway. Methods: This study was based on the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study, conducted by the Norwegian Institute of Public Health. The study sample consisted of 25,452 children and their mothers. Maternal childhood abuse was investigated as a potential predictor for child externalizing behaviour at 36 months of age. Maternal mental distress at child age 18 months was assessed as a potential mediator. Hierarchical linear regressions were used for analyses. Results: Childhood emotional abuse alone was reported by 8.3% of the mothers and physical and/or sexual abuse by 8.9%. Mothers with childhood abuse experiences were younger, less educated, more at risk for adult abuse and mental distress, and fewer were married or lived with a partner compared with women not reporting childhood abuse. Children of mothers with childhood abuse experiences showed significantly more externalizing behaviour even after adjusting for maternal age, education, single motherhood, gender and adult abuse experiences. When maternal mental health was entered into the model, the associations remained statistically significant, but were substantially attenuated. Conclusions: Maternal childhood abuse consistently predicted increased externalizing behaviour in the offspring, and this study suggests that childhood abuse impacts subsequent generations. Multiple pathways are possible, but this study identified increased maternal mental distress as a possible pathway between maternal childhood abuse and increased externalizing behaviour in the offspring. PMID:24265163

Myhre, Mia C; Dyb, Grete A; Wentzel-Larsen, Tore; Grøgaard, Jens B; Thoresen, Siri

2014-05-01

386

Maternal smoking, xenobiotic metabolizing enzyme gene variants, and gastroschisis risk.  

PubMed

Maternal smoking during pregnancy is one proposed risk factor for gastroschisis, but reported associations have been modest, suggesting that differences in genetic susceptibility might play a role. We included 108 non-Hispanic white and 62 Hispanic families who had infants with gastroschisis, and 1,147 non-Hispanic white and 337 Hispanic families who had liveborn infants with no major structural birth defects (controls) in these analyses. DNA was extracted from buccal cells collected from infants and mothers, and information on periconceptional smoking history was obtained from maternal interviews, as part of the National Birth Defects Prevention Study. We analyzed five polymorphisms in three genes that code for enzymes involved in metabolism of some cigarette smoke constituents (CYP1A1, CYP1A2, and NAT2). Logistic regression models were used to estimate odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) independently for maternal smoking and maternal and infant gene variants, and to assess joint associations of maternal smoking and maternal or infant gene variants with gastroschisis. In analyses adjusted for maternal age at delivery and stratified by maternal race-ethnicity, we identified three suggestive associations among 30 potential associations with sufficient numbers to calculate ORs: CYP1A1*2A for non-Hispanic white mothers who smoked periconceptionally (aOR?=?0.38, 95% CI 0.15-0.98), and NAT2*6 for Hispanic non-smoking mothers (aOR?=?2.17, 95% CI 1.12-4.19) and their infants (aOR?=?2.11, 95% CI 1.00-4.48). This analysis does not support the occurrence of effect modification between periconceptional maternal smoking and most of the xenobiotic metabolizing enzyme gene variants assessed. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:24668907

Jenkins, Mary M; Reefhuis, Jennita; Gallagher, Margaret L; Mulle, Jennifer G; Hoffmann, Thomas J; Koontz, Deborah A; Sturchio, Cynthia; Rasmussen, Sonja A; Witte, John S; Richter, Patricia; Honein, Margaret A

2014-06-01

387

The Immediate Economic Impact of Maternal Deaths on Rural Chinese Households  

PubMed Central

Objective To identify the immediate economic impact of maternal death on rural Chinese households. Methods Results are reported from a study that matched 195 households who had suffered a maternal death to 384 households that experienced a childbirth without maternal death in rural areas of three provinces in China, using quantitative questionnaire to compare differences of direct and indirect costs between two groups. Findings The direct costs of a maternal death were significantly higher than the costs of a childbirth without a maternal death (US$4,119 vs. $370, p<0.001). More than 40% of the direct costs were attributed to funeral expenses. Hospitalization and emergency care expenses were the largest proportion of non-funeral direct costs and were higher in households with maternal death than the comparison group (US$2,248 vs. $305, p<0.001). To cover most of the high direct costs, 44.1% of affected households utilized compensation from hospitals, and the rest affected households (55.9%) utilized borrowing money or taking loans as major source of money to offset direct costs. The median economic burden of the direct (and non-reimbursed) costs of a maternal death was quite high - 37.0% of the household’s annual income, which was approximately 4 times as high as the threshold for an expense being considered catastrophic. Conclusion The immediate direct costs of maternal deaths are extremely catastrophic for the rural Chinese households in three provinces studied.

Huntington, Dale; Zhou, Hong; Li, Yan; You, Fengzhi; Li, Jinhua; Cui, Wenlong; Yao, Meiling; Wang, Yan

2012-01-01

388

Maternal diabetes mellitus and congenital malformation. Survey of 205 cases.  

PubMed Central

Twenty-five out of 205 (i.e. 12%) babies born to diabetic mothers in the Birmingham Maternity Hospital in the period 1969-1974 were malformed as against 6% in a control group. The incidence was highest in the group where mothers were on insulin at the time of conception (17 out of 117, i.e. 15%). No correlation was observed between major malformation in this group and age of onset or duration of the diabetes, progressive vascular complications, maternal age, or parity. Cardiovascular malformations were over-represented.

Day, R E; Insley, J

1976-01-01

389

Maternal allergy is associated with surface-bound IgE on cord blood basophils  

PubMed Central

BackgroundThe cell type(s) mediating the maternal influence on allergic disease in children remain unclear. We set out to define the relationship between maternal allergy and frequencies of cord blood (CB) basophils, and plasmacytoid dendritic cells (pDCs); to characterize surface-bound IgE and Fc?RI expressions on these cells; and to investigate the association between maternal and CB serum IgE levels with surface-bound IgE and Fc?RI expressions. MethodsOne hundred and three mother/infant dyads were recruited prenatally, and maternal allergic history was recorded. Maternal blood was collected prior to delivery, and CB was collected after birth. Flow cytometry was used to identify CB basophils and pDCs and to determine surface-bound IgE and Fc?RI expressions. ResultsFrequencies of CB basophils and pDCs were low and not related to maternal history of allergy. Percentages of CB basophils with surface-bound IgE were significantly higher in infants of allergic mothers compared with infants of non-allergic mothers (median, 59.60% vs. 19.70%, p = 0.01). IgE on CB basophils correlated with CB IgE levels (r = 0.72, p < 0.0001), but not with maternal IgE levels (r = 0.26, p = 0.06). IgE on CB pDCs was low and not significantly associated with maternal or CB I