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1

Maternal age and duration of labor.  

PubMed

The computerized records of a population of 7214 women who were delivered during the period 1987-1991 were analysed. We studied the possible relationship of the duration of the first and second stages of labor to maternal age. In para 0, para 1 and para 2+ mothers we found an independent positive correlation between the second stage duration and maternal age. By multiple stepwise regression analysis maternal age turns out to be one of the most influential maternal characteristics of the second stage of labor. No correlation was found between maternal age and the duration of the first stage. PMID:8122504

Rasmussen, S; Bungum, L; Høie, K

1994-03-01

2

Maternal Age at Holocaust Exposure and Maternal PTSD Independently Influence Urinary Cortisol Levels in Adult Offspring  

PubMed Central

Background: Parental traumatization has been associated with increased risk for the expression of psychopathology in offspring, and maternal posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) appears to increase the risk for the development of offspring PTSD. In this study, Holocaust-related maternal age of exposure and PTSD were evaluated for their association with offspring ambient cortisol and PTSD-associated symptom expression. Method: Ninety-five Holocaust offspring and Jewish comparison subjects received diagnostic and psychological evaluations, and 24?h urinary cortisol was assayed by RIA. Offspring completed the parental PTSD questionnaire to assess maternal PTSD status. Maternal Holocaust exposure was identified as having occurred in childhood, adolescence, or adulthood and examined in relation to offspring psychobiology. Results: Urinary cortisol levels did not differ for Holocaust offspring and comparison subjects but differed significantly in offspring based on maternal age of exposure and maternal PTSD status. Increased maternal age of exposure and maternal PTSD were each associated with lower urinary cortisol in offspring, but did not exhibit a significant interaction. In addition, offspring PTSD-associated symptom severity increased with maternal age at exposure and PTSD diagnosis. A regression analysis of correlates of offspring cortisol indicated that both maternal age of exposure and maternal PTSD were significant predictors of lower offspring urinary cortisol, whereas childhood adversity and offspring PTSD symptoms were not. Conclusion: Offspring low cortisol and PTSD-associated symptom expression are related to maternal age of exposure, with the greatest effects associated with increased age at exposure. These effects are relatively independent of the negative consequences of being raised by a trauma survivor. These observations highlight the importance of maternal age of exposure in determining a psychobiology in offspring that is consistent with increased risk for stress-related pathology. PMID:25071719

Bader, Heather N.; Bierer, Linda M.; Lehrner, Amy; Makotkine, Iouri; Daskalakis, Nikolaos P.; Yehuda, Rachel

2014-01-01

3

Stability of Maternal Autonomy Support between Infancy and Preschool Age  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The goals of this article were to examine (1) the relative and absolute stability of maternal autonomy support between infancy and preschool age, and (2) the moderating role of child gender, maternal attachment state of mind, and stressful life events. Sixty-nine mother-child dyads participated in five visits when the child was 8, 15, and 18…

Matte-Gagne, Celia; Bernier, Annie; Gagne, Christine

2013-01-01

4

Maternal age-specific rates of fetal chromosomal abnormalities in Korean pregnant women of advanced maternal age  

PubMed Central

Objective To evaluate the association of maternal age with occurrence of fetal chromosomal abnormalities in Korean pregnant women of advanced maternal age (AMA). Methods A retrospective review of the amniocentesis or chorionic villous sampling (CVS) database at Gangnam and Bundang CHA Medical Centers, between January 2001 and February 2012, was conducted. This study analyzed the incidence of fetal chromosomal abnormalities according to maternal age and the correlation between maternal age and fetal chromosomal abnormalities in Korean pregnant women ?35 years of age. In addition, we compared the prevalence of fetal chromosomal abnormalities between women of AMA only and the others as the indication for amniocentesis or CVS. Results A total of 15,381 pregnant women were selected for this study. The incidence of aneuploidies increased exponentially with maternal age (P<0.0001). In particular, the risk of trisomy 21 (standard error [SE], 0.0378; odds ratio, 1.177; P<0.001) and trisomy 18 (SE, 0.0583; odds ratio, 1.182; P=0.0040) showed significant correlation with maternal age. Comparison between women of AMA only and the others as the indication for amniocentesis or CVS showed a significantly lower rate of fetal chromosomal abnormalities only in the AMA group, compared with the others (P<0.0001). Conclusion This study demonstrates that AMA is no longer used as a threshold for determination of who is offered prenatal diagnosis, but is a common risk factor for fetal chromosomal abnormalities. PMID:24327996

Kim, Young Joo; Lee, Jee Eun; Kim, Soo Hyun; Cha, Dong Hyun

2013-01-01

5

Maternal age and fetal loss: population based register linkage study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective To estimate the association between maternal age and fetal death (spontaneous abortion, ectopic pregnancy, stillbirth), taking into account a woman's reproductive history. Design Prospective register linkage study. Subjects All women with a reproductive outcome (live birth, stillbirth, spontaneous abortion leading to admission to hospital, induced abortion, ectopic pregnancy, or hydatidiform mole) in Denmark from 1978 to 1992; a total

Marie Nybo Andersen; Jan Wohlfahrt; Peter Christens; Jrn Olsen; Mads Melbye; Marie Nybo

2000-01-01

6

Maternal perception of fetal movement type: the effect of gestational age and maternal factors.  

PubMed

Abstract Objective: To assess maternal perception of fetal movement types and its association with maternal factors in normal pregnancies with good pregnancy outcome. Methods: This study was conducted on 729 normotensive singleton pregnant women with good pregnancy outcome who had referred for prenatal visit. After completing a questionnaire, the participants were asked to count fetal movements for 1?h/3 times/day. They were also asked to identify the type of fetal movement: general body movement (GBM) (rolling and stretching/strong), isolated limb movement (ILM; simple flutter or kicks/weak), trunk movement (TM) (strong jab, startle/strong), or hiccup movement (HM) (high frequency and rapid/weak). All the participants were followed till delivery to exclude pregnant women with preterm birth and/or small for gestational age from the study. Results: 90.8% of participants perceived GBM, which was independently associated with maternal unemployment (OR?=?2.28, 95% CI?=?1.18-4.4). 74.2% of participants perceived TM, which was associated with multiparity (OR?=?1.69, 95% CI?=?1.18-2.4). 86.3% perceived ILM, which was independently associated with maternal unemployment (OR?=?2.67, 95% CI?=?1.53-4.68), lower gestational age (OR?=?2.17, 95% CI?=?1.28-3.67), perception of fetal movements at night (OR?=?2.05, 95% CI?=?1.27-3.32), and multiparity (OR?=?1.68, 95% CI?=?1.04-2.72). 36.6% perceived HM, which was independently associated with higher gestational age (OR?=?1.71, 95% CI?=?1.2-2.44). Conclusions: Most pregnant women could discriminate changes in fetal movement type that follow a general pattern through the third gestational trimester, however this can be affected by maternal employment, parity and time of perception. PMID:24871458

Hantoushzadeh, Sedigheh; Sheikh, Mahdi; Shariat, Mamak; Farahani, Zahra

2014-06-30

7

Maternal Age and Risk of Labor and Delivery Complications.  

PubMed

We utilized an updated nationally representative database to examine associations between maternal age and prevalence of maternal morbidity during complications of labor and delivery. We used hospital inpatient billing data from the 2009 United States Nationwide Inpatient Sample, part of the Healthcare Cost and Utilization Project. To determine whether the likelihood that maternal morbidity during complications of labor and delivery differed among age groups, separate logistic regression models were run for each complication. Age was the main independent variable of interest. In analyses that controlled for demographics and clinical confounders, we found that complications with the highest odds among women, 11-18 years of age, compared to 25-29 year old women, included preterm delivery, chorioamnionitis, endometritis, and mild preeclampsia. Pregnant women who were 15-19 years old had greater odds for severe preeclampsia, eclampsia, postpartum hemorrhage, poor fetal growth, and fetal distress. Pregnant women who were ?35 years old had greater odds for preterm delivery, hypertension, superimposed preeclampsia, severe preeclampsia, and decreased risk for chorioamnionitis. Older women (?40 years old) had increased odds for mild preeclampsia, fetal distress, and poor fetal growth. Our findings underscore the need for pregnant women to be aware of the risks associated with extremes of age so that they can watch for signs and symptoms of such complications. PMID:25366100

Cavazos-Rehg, Patricia A; Krauss, Melissa J; Spitznagel, Edward L; Bommarito, Kerry; Madden, Tessa; Olsen, Margaret A; Subramaniam, Harini; Peipert, Jeffrey F; Bierut, Laura Jean

2014-11-01

8

The proportion of uniparental disomy is increased in Prader-Willi syndrome due to an advanced maternal childbearing age in Korea.  

PubMed

Prader-Willi syndrome (PWS) is a genetic disorder caused by the absence of expression of the paternal copy of maternally imprinted genes in chromosome region 15q11-13. The genetic subtypes of PWS are classified into deletion (~70%), maternal uniparental disomy (mUPD; 25-30%), imprinting center defects (3-5%) and rare unbalanced translocations. Recently, Matsubara et al. reported a significantly higher maternal age in a trisomy rescue (TR) or gamete complementation (GC) by nondisjunction at maternal meiosis 1 (M1) group than in a deletion group. In the present study, we try to confirm their findings in an ethnically different population. A total of 97 Korean PWS patients were classified into deletional type (n=66), TR/GC (M1) (n=15), TR/GC by nondisjunction at maternal meiosis 2 (n=2), monosomy rescue or postfertilization mitotic nondisjunction (n=4) and epimutation (n=2). Maternal ages at birth showed a significant difference between the deletion group (median age of 29, interquartile range (IQR)=(27,31)) and the TR/GC (M1) group (median age of 35, IQR=(31,38)) (P<0.0001). The relative birth frequency of the TR/GC (M1) group has substantially increased since 2006 when compared with the period before 2005. These findings support the hypothesis that the advanced maternal age at childbirth is a predisposing factor for the development of mUPD because of increased M1 errors. PMID:23303386

Cho, Sung Yoon; Ki, Chang-Seok; Sohn, Young Bae; Maeng, Se Hyun; Jung, You Jin; Kim, Su Jin; Jin, Dong-Kyu

2013-03-01

9

Behavioral ecology of the Jeju pony ( Equus caballus ): Effects of maternal age, maternal dominance hierarchy and foal age on mare aggression  

Microsoft Academic Search

On Jeju Island, Korea, dominance hierarchy and maternal care according to maternal age were studied in a herd of Jeju ponies ( Equus caballus), consisting of 73 mares, their foals and one stallion. Dominance ranks were nearly linear and increased significantly with the age of mares. Most aggressive encounters involved mares under 5?years old. Mares under the age of 5?years

Jeong Rae RHO; Robert Boxter SRYGLEY; Jae Chun CHOE

2004-01-01

10

Escape from crossover interference increases with maternal age.  

PubMed

Recombination plays a fundamental role in meiosis, ensuring the proper segregation of chromosomes and contributing to genetic diversity by generating novel combinations of alleles. Here, we use data derived from direct-to-consumer genetic testing to investigate patterns of recombination in over 4,200 families. Our analysis reveals a number of sex differences in the distribution of recombination. We find the fraction of male events occurring within hotspots to be 4.6% higher than for females. We confirm that the recombination rate increases with maternal age, while hotspot usage decreases, with no such effects observed in males. Finally, we show that the placement of female recombination events appears to become increasingly deregulated with maternal age, with an increasing fraction of events observed within closer proximity to each other than would be expected under simple models of crossover interference. PMID:25695863

Campbell, Christopher L; Furlotte, Nicholas A; Eriksson, Nick; Hinds, David; Auton, Adam

2015-01-01

11

Maternal Age, Multiple Birth and Extremely Low Birth Weight Infants  

PubMed Central

Objectives To compare the rates of adverse neurodevelopmental outcome or death at 18 to 22 months among extremely low birth weight (ELBW) infants born to mothers ? 40 years to the corresponding rates among infants of younger mothers. Study Design Prospective evaluation of ELBW infants to quantify the relative risks of maternal age and multiple birth for death or adverse neurodevelopmental outcome. Results The sample consisted of 14,671 live ELBW births divided into maternal age groups: <20; 20–29; 30–39; and ? 40 years. Of infants born to mothers ? 40 years, 20% were multiples. Mothers ? 40 years had high rates of obstetrical interventions and medical morbidities compared to mothers < 40 years. ELBW live births of mothers ? 40 years were 22 % more likely to survive and had a 13% decreased risk of neurodevelopmental impairment or death compared to mothers< 20. Multiple birth, however, was associated with a 10 % greater risk or neurodevelopmental impairment or death. Conclusion Although mothers ? 40 years had high pregnancy related morbidities, we found no overall increased risk of the composite outcome of death or NDI. Multiple birth, however, was a predictor of all adverse outcomes examined, regardless of maternal age. PMID:19111322

Vohr, Betty R.; Tyson, Jon E.; Wright, Linda L; Perritt, Rebecca L.; Li, Lei; Poole, W. Kenneth

2010-01-01

12

VARIABILITY IN MEDIAN SIZE AND AGE AT SEXUAL MATURITY OF ATLANTIC COD, GADUS MORHUA, ON THE SCOTIAN SHELF IN  

E-print Network

VARIABILITY IN MEDIAN SIZE AND AGE AT SEXUAL MATURITY OF ATLANTIC COD, GADUS MORHUA, ON THE SCOTIAN maturity of Atlantic cod on the Scotian Shelf declined about 50% in most stocks between 1959 and 1979. Atlantic cod in more northerly stocks matured at older ages than did those in more southerly stocks. Males

13

The Association of Maternal Age with Birthweight and Gestational Age: A Cross-Cohort Comparison  

PubMed Central

Background We examined the associations of maternal age with low birthweight (LBW) and preterm birth in four cohorts from a middle- and a high-income country, where the patterning of maternal age by socio-economic position (SEP) is likely to differ. Methods Population-based birth cohort studies were carried out in the city of Pelotas, Brazil in 1982, 1993, and 2004, and in Avon, UK in 1991 [Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC)]. Adjustment for multiple indicators of SEP were applied. Results Low SEP was associated with younger age at childbearing in all cohorts, but the magnitudes of these associations were stronger in ALSPAC. Inverse associations of SEP with LBW and preterm birth were observed in all cohorts. U-shaped associations were observed between maternal age and odds of LBW in all cohorts. After adjustment for SEP, increased odds of LBW for young mothers (<20 years) attenuated to the null but remained or increased for older mothers (?35 years). Very young (<16 years) maternal age was also associated with both outcomes even after full SEP adjustment. SEP adjusted odds ratio of having a LBW infant in women <16 years and ?35 years, compared with 25–29 years, were 1.48 [95% confidence interval (CI) 1.00, 2.20] and 1.66 [95% CI 1.36, 2.02], respectively. The corresponding results for preterm birth were 1.80 [95% CI 1.23, 2.64)] and 1.38 [95% CI 1.15, 1.67], respectively. Conclusion Confounding by SEP explains much of the excess risk of LBW and preterm among babies born to teenage mothers as a whole, but not for mothers aged <16 or ?35 years. Given that the proportion of women becoming pregnant at <16 years is smaller than for those ?35 years, the population burden is greater for older age. PMID:25405673

Restrepo-Méndez, María Clara; Lawlor, Debbie A; Horta, Bernardo L; Matijasevich, Alicia; Santos, Iná S; Menezes, Ana M B; Barros, Fernando C; Victora, Cesar G

2015-01-01

14

Risk Assessment of Adverse Birth Outcomes in Relation to Maternal Age  

PubMed Central

Background Although a number of studies have investigated correlations of maternal age with birth outcomes, an extensive assessment using age as a continuous variable is lacking. In the current study, we estimated age-specific risks of adverse birth outcomes in childbearing women. Method National population-based data containing maternal and neonatal information were derived from the Health Promotion Administration, Taiwan. A composite adverse birth outcome was defined as at least anyone of stillbirth, preterm birth, low birth weight, macrosomia, neonatal death, congenital anomaly, and small for gestational age (SGA). Singletons were further analyzed for outcomes of live birth in relation to each year of maternal age. A log-binomial model was used to adjust for possible confounders of maternal and neonatal factors. Results In total, 2,123,751 births between 2001 and 2010 were utilized in the analysis. The risk of a composite adverse birth outcome was significantly higher at extreme maternal ages. In specific, risks of stillbirth, neonatal death, preterm birth, congenital anomaly, and low birth weight were higher at the extremes of maternal age. Furthermore, risk of macrosomia rose proportionally with an increasing maternal age. In contrast, risk of SGA declined proportionally with an increasing maternal age. The log-binomial model showed greater risks at the maternal ages of <26 and > 30 years for a composite adverse birth outcome. Conclusions Infants born to teenagers and women at advanced age possess greater risks for stillbirth, preterm birth, neonatal death, congenital anomaly, and low birth weight. Pregnancies at advanced age carry an additional risk for macrosomia, while teenage pregnancies carry an additional risk for SGA. The data suggest that the optimal maternal ages to minimize adverse birth outcomes are 26?30 years. PMID:25494176

Weng, Yi-Hao; Yang, Chun-Yuh; Chiu, Ya-Wen

2014-01-01

15

Maternal age, investment, and parent-child conflict: a mediational test of the terminal investment hypothesis.  

PubMed

Drawing on the evolutionary terminal investment hypothesis and Trivers' (1974) parent-offspring conflict theory, we advance and evaluate a mediational model specifying why and how maternal age, via mating effort and parental investment, affects mother-child conflict. Data from a longitudinal study of 757 families indicate that (a) older maternal age predicts lower mating effort during the child's first 5 years of life, and (b) thereby, higher maternal investment in middle childhood when the child is around 10 years old. (c) Higher maternal investment, in turn, forecasts less child-perceived mother-child conflict in adolescence (age 15). These results proved robust against theoretically relevant covariates (family resources, parity, maternal education, and maternal personality characteristics) and in the context of an autoregressive model. Study limitations are noted and results are discussed in terms of the unique contributions of an evolutionary perspective to the determinants-of-parenting literature. PMID:22468690

Schlomer, Gabriel L; Belsky, Jay

2012-06-01

16

Maternal serum median levels of alpha-foetoprotein, human chorionic gonadotropin & unconjugated estriol in second trimester in pregnant women from north-west India  

PubMed Central

Background & objectives: Triple test as prenatal screening procedure does not form a part of routine health care of pregnant women in India. Hence, median values of triple test biomarkers are lacking for Indian population. This study was undertaken to establish population-specific medians for biomarkers viz. alpha-foetoprotien (AFP), human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG?), and unconjugated estriol (uE3) for detection of Down's syndrome, Edward's syndrome and neural tube defects (NTDs) in pregnant women in north-west India. Methods: Serum biomarker values were derived from 5420 pregnant women between 15-20 wk of gestation who were enrolled for triple test investigations at Department of Gynecology and Obstetrics, Government Medical College and Hospital, Chandigarh, India, between January, 2007 to December, 2009. Median values were calculated for rounded weeks using database comprising pregnancies with normal outcomes only. Simple statistical analysis and log-linear regression were used for median estimation of the biomarker values. Results: The levels of the three biomarkers were found to be ranging from 1.38 to 187.00 IU/ml for AFP, 1.06 to 315 ng/ml for hCG?, and 0.25 to 28.5 nmol/l for uE3. The age of women ranged from 18 to 47 yr and mean weight was 57.9 ± 9.8 kg. Data revealed that AFP, hCG? and uE3 medians in our study population were not significantly different from those reported from other countries or when compared ethnically. Interpretation & conclusion: The population-specific median values for the three biomarkers (AFP, hCG?, uE3) may be used as reference values during prenatal screening in Indian pregnant women. PMID:24056560

Kaur, Gurjit; Srivastav, Jyoti; Sharma, Suresh; Huria, Anju; Goel, Poonam; Chavan, Bir Singh

2013-01-01

17

Growth curve analyses of the relationship between early maternal age and children's mathematics and reading performance.  

PubMed

Regarding the methods used to examine the early maternal age-child academic outcomes relationship, the extant literature has tended to examine change using statistical analyses that fail to appreciate that individuals vary in their rates of growth. Of the one study I have been able to find that employs a true growth model to estimate this relationship, the authors only controlled for characteristics of the maternal household after family formation; confounding background factors of mothers that might select them into early childbearing, a possible source of bias, were ignored. The authors' findings nonetheless suggested an inverse relationship between early maternal age, i.e., a first birth between the ages of 13 and 17, and Canadian adolescents' mean math performance at age 10. Early maternal age was not related to the linear slope of age. To elucidate whether the early maternal age-child academic outcomes association, treated in a growth context, is consistent with this finding, the present study built on it using US data and explored children's mathematics and reading trajectories from age 5 on. Its unique contribution is that it further explicitly controlled for maternal background factors and employed a three-level growth model with repeated measures of children nested within their mothers. Though the strength of the relationship varied between mean initial academic performance and mean academic growth, results confirmed that early maternal age was negatively related to children's mathematics and reading achievement, net of post-teen first birth child-specific and maternal household factors. Once maternal background factors were included, there was no statistically significant relationship between early maternal age and either children's mean initial mathematics and reading scores or their mean mathematics and reading growth. PMID:25592941

Torres, D Diego

2015-03-01

18

Effects of maternal age on oocyte developmental competence.  

PubMed

The widespread use of a variety of assisted reproductive technologies has removed many of the constraints that previously restricted mammalian reproduction to the period between onset of puberty and reproductive senescence. In vitro embryo production systems now allow oocytes from very young animals to undergo fertilization and form embryos capable of development to normal offspring, albeit at somewhat reduced efficiencies compared to oocytes from adult females. They also can overcome infertility associated with advanced age of animals and women. This review examines oocyte developmental competence as the limiting factor in applications of assisted reproductive technologies for both juvenile and aged females. Age of oocyte donor is a significant factor influencing developmental competence of the oocyte. Age-related abnormalities of oocytes include a) meiotic incompetence or inability to complete meiotic maturation resulting in oocytes incapable of fertilization; b) errors in meiosis that can be compatible with fertilization but lead to genetic abnormalities that compromise embryo viability; and c) cytoplasmic deficiencies that are expressed at several stages of development before or after fertilization. In general, oocytes from juvenile donors and the embryos derived therefrom appear less robust and may be less tolerant to suboptimal handling and in vitro culture conditions than are adult oocytes. Research to identify specific cytoplasmic deficiencies of juvenile oocytes may enable modifications of culture conditions to correct such deficiencies and thus enhance developmental competence. Use of oocytes from aged donors for assisted reproduction can have a variety of applications such as extending the reproductive life of individual old females whose offspring still have high commercial value, and conservation of genetic resources such as rare breeds of livestock and endangered species. In general, female fertility decreases with advancing age. Studies of women in oocyte donation programs have established reduced oocyte competence as the major cause of declining fertility with age, although inadequate endometrial function can also be a contributing factor. Most research has emphasized the importance of chromosomal abnormalities because of the well established increase in aneuploidy with increasing maternal age but little is known about the underlying cellular and molecular mechanisms. Research aimed at identifying the specific developmental deficiencies of oocytes from juvenile donors and abnormalities of oocytes from aged females will assist in overcoming present bottlenecks that limit the efficiency of assisted reproduction technologies. Such research will also be crucial to the development of new oocyte-based technologies for overcoming infertility and possibly subverting chromosomal abnormalities in women approaching menopause. PMID:11327686

Armstrong, D T

2001-04-01

19

Predictors of maternal control of feeding at 1 and 2 years of age  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective:To establish the best predictors of maternal use of controlling feeding practices at 1 and 2 years of age.Design:A longitudinal study from birth to 2 years.Participants:Sixty-two mothers of 2-year-old children.Measures:Infant weight at birth, 6, 12 and 24 months, breastfeeding history, infant temperament and feeding difficulties at 6 and 12 months, maternal demographics at 12 and 24 months, maternal mental health

J Blissett; C Farrow

2007-01-01

20

Maternal and Umbilical Cord Serum Leptin Concentrations in Small-for-Gestational-Age and in Appropriate-for-Gestational-Age Neonates: A Maternal, Fetal, or Placental Contribution?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Leptin is secreted during pregnancy by the placenta and by the maternal and fetal adipose tissues. The leptin levels mainly reflect the amount of fat stored and thus are indicative of the energy balance, i.e., small-for-gestational-age (SGA) neonates represent the negative metabolic balance of in utero starved babies. We chose to compare maternal and umbilical cord leptin levels in pregnancies

S. Grisaru-Granovsky; R. Eitan; N. Algur; M. S. Schimmel; Y. Z. Diamant; A. Samueloff

2003-01-01

21

Direct and Maternal Genetic Covariances by Age of Dam for Weaning Weight  

Microsoft Academic Search

Weaning weights of calves of dams at ages in years of 2, 3, and older were modeled to be three separate traits. Fixed effects were sex of calf- year of birth combinations for nine pure breeds and sex of calf-year of birth-generation for three composite populations. Random effects fitted for each trait were correlated direct and maternal genetic, maternal permanent

L. D. Van Vleck; K. E. Gregory; G. L. Bennett

2010-01-01

22

MATERNAL AGE EFFECT: THE ENIGMA OF DOWN SYNDROME AND OTHER TRISOMIC CONDITIONS  

EPA Science Inventory

Aneuploidy is the most frequently observed chromosome abnormality in human liveborn, abortuses, and oocytes. he only etiological factor that has been established is advanced maternal age for the occurrence of trisomies, particularly trisomy 21 which causes Down syndrome. he mater...

23

Maternal age-specific rates of numerical chromosome abnormalities with special reference to trisomy  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of maternal age on the incidence of chromosomally normal spontaneous abortion and different categories of chromosome abnormality among all clinically recognized human pregnancies was evaluated. The results provide no evidence for a significant association of age with sex chromosome monosomy or polyploidy, but clearly demonstrate an effect of age on the frequency of trisomy and chromosomally normal spontaneous

T. Hassold; D. Chiu

1985-01-01

24

When does maternal age-dependent trisomy 21 arise relative to meiosis?  

SciTech Connect

Polymorphic DNA markers have recently been used to estimate the fraction of trisomy 21 (Down syndrome) cases that may be attributable to postzygotic nondisjunction - indicative of a loss in the fidelity of the first few cell divisions after fertilization. In these studies, a postzygotic nondisjunction is defined as a case in which two chromosomes of the trisomic set are homozygous for all informative markers (i.e., for those markers that were heterozygous in their parent of origin). These studies estimate that the postzygotic mutation mechanism accounts for 4.5% (11/238) and 3.5% (9/255) of their cases, respectively, but their estimates may actually be conservative, since all noninformative haplotypes (frequency not reported) are arbitrarily attributed to meiosis II-type nondisjunction. Nevertheless, even the conservative estimates would, if confirmed, constitute a new and nonnegligible source of chromosomal segregation errors leading to trisomy. These studies` conclusions are supported by the observation that the 20 reported {open_quotes}postzygotic{close_quotes} cases (5 paternal and 15 maternal) appear to be less dependent on maternal age (mean maternal age 28.4 years) than maternal meiosis I-type failures (mean maternal age 31.2 years). However, given the limited sample size involved, one should be cautious in positing the absence of a maternal age effect. 5 refs., 1 fig.

Chang-Jiang Zheng [National Inst. of Deafness and Other Communication Disorders, Bethesda, MD (United States); Byers, B. [Univ. of Washington, Seattle, WA (United States)

1996-07-01

25

Respiratory responses to hypoxia\\/hypercapnia in small for gestational age infants influenced by maternal smoking  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aim: To determine any variation in the respiratory responses to hypoxia\\/hypercapnia of infants born small for gestational age (SGA) to smoking and to non-smoking mothers.Methods: A total of 70 average for gestational age (AGA) infants (>36 weeks gestation, >2500 g, >25th centile for gestational age, and no maternal smoking), and 47 SGA infants (<10th centile for gestational age) were studied

B C Galland; B J Taylor; D P G Bolton; R M Sayers

2003-01-01

26

Maternal Effects Underlie Ageing Costs of Growth in the Zebra Finch (Taeniopygia guttata)  

E-print Network

Maternal Effects Underlie Ageing Costs of Growth in the Zebra Finch (Taeniopygia guttata) Mathilde, recent data in zebra finch chicks suggested that ageing related-processes (i.e. oxidative stress chronically treated pre-laying zebra finch females (Taeniopygia guttata) with 17-b-estradiol (E2) or CORT

Boyer, Edmond

27

Maternal age, gravidity, and pregnancy spacing effects on spontaneous fetal mortality  

Microsoft Academic Search

Differentials in the probability of pregnancy loss are examined using pregnancy history data from eight WFS surveys in developing countries. Multiple logistic regression equations are estimated. The probability of loss varies substantially over the reproductive career. Both higher?order pregnancies and those conceived at older ages are more likely to terminate in loss. Maternal age differentials are more pronounced for lower?order

John B. Casterline

1989-01-01

28

Increasing Maternal Age Is Associated with Taller Stature and Reduced Abdominal Fat in Their Children  

PubMed Central

Background Maternal age at childbirth continues to increase worldwide. We aimed to assess whether increasing maternal age is associated with changes in childhood height, body composition, and metabolism. Methods 277 healthy pre-pubertal children, born 37–41 weeks gestation were studied. Assessments included: height and weight corrected for parental measurements, DEXA-derived body composition, fasting lipids, glucose, insulin, and hormonal profiles. Subjects were separated according to maternal age at childbirth: <30, 30–35, and >35 years. Results Our cohort consisted of 126 girls and 151 boys, aged 7.4±2.2 years (range 3–10); maternal age at childbirth was 33.3±4.7 years (range 19–44). Children of mothers aged >35 and 30–35 years at childbirth were taller than children of mothers aged <30 years by 0.26 (p?=?0.002) and 0.23 (p?=?0.042) SDS, respectively. There was a reduction in childhood BMISDS with increasing maternal age at childbirth, and children of mothers aged >35 years at childbirth were 0.61 SDS slimmer than those of mothers <30 years (p?=?0.049). Children of mothers aged 30–35 (p?=?0.022) and >35 (p?=?0.036) years at childbirth had abdominal adiposity reduced by 10% and 13%, respectively, compared to those in the <30 group. Children of mothers aged 30–35 years at childbirth displayed a 19% increase in IGF-I concentrations compared to offspring in <30 group (p?=?0.042). Conversely, IGF-II concentrations were lower among the children born to mothers aged 30–35 (6.5%; p?=?0.004) and >35 (8.1%; p?=?0.005) compared to those of mothers aged <30 years. Girls of mothers aged 30–35 years at childbirth also displayed improved HOMA-IR insulin sensitivity (p?=?0.010) compared to girls born to mothers aged <30 years. Conclusions Increasing maternal age at childbirth is associated with a more favourable phenotype (taller stature and reduced abdominal fat) in their children, as well as improved insulin sensitivity in girls. PMID:23527040

Savage, Tim; Derraik, José G. B.; Miles, Harriet L.; Mouat, Fran; Hofman, Paul L.; Cutfield, Wayne S.

2013-01-01

29

Median infectious dose of human norovirus GII.4 in gnotobiotic pigs is decreased by simvastatin treatment and increased by age  

PubMed Central

Human noroviruses (NoVs), a major cause of viral gastroenteritis, are difficult to study due to the lack of a cell-culture and a small-animal model. Pigs share with humans the types A and H histo-blood group antigens on the intestinal epithelium and have been suggested as a potential model for studies of NoV pathogenesis, immunity and vaccines. In this study, the effects of age and a cholesterol-lowering drug, simvastatin, on the susceptibility of pigs to NoV infection were evaluated. The median infectious dose (ID50) of a genogroup II, genotype 4 (GII.4) 2006b variant was determined. The ID50 in neonatal (4–5 days of age) pigs was ?2.74×103 viral RNA copies. In older pigs (33–34 days of age), the ID50 was 6.43×104 but decreased to <2.74×103 in simvastatin-fed older pigs. Evidence of NoV infection was obtained by increased virus load in the intestinal contents, cytopathological changes in the small intestine, including irregular microvilli, necrosis and apoptosis, and detection of viral antigen in the tip of villi in duodenum. This GII.4 variant was isolated in 2008 from a patient from whom a large volume of stool was collected. GII.4 NoVs are continuously subjected to selective pressure by human immunity, and antigenically different GII.4 NoV variants emerge every 1–2 years. The determination of the ID50 of this challenge virus is valuable for evaluation of protection against different GII.4 variants conferred by NoV vaccines in concurrence with other GII.4 variants in the gnotobiotic pig model. PMID:23804568

Bui, Tammy; Kocher, Jacob; Li, Yanru; Wen, Ke; Li, Guohua; Liu, Fangning; Yang, Xingdong; LeRoith, Tanya; Tan, Ming; Xia, Ming; Zhong, Weiming; Jiang, Xi

2013-01-01

30

Obstetric Complications, Neonatal Morbidity, and Indications for Cesarean Delivery by Maternal Age  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE To delineate adverse obstetric and neonatal outcomes as well as indications for cesarean delivery by maternal age in a contemporaneous large national cohort. METHODS This was a retrospective analysis of electronic medical records from 12 centers and 203,517 (30,673 women aged 35 years or older) women with singleton gestations stratified by maternal age. Logistic regression was performed to investigate maternal and neonatal outcomes for each maternal age strata (referent group, age 25.0–29.9 years), adjusting for race, parity, body mass index, insurance, pre-existing medical conditions, substance and tobacco use, and site. Documented indications for cesarean delivery were analyzed. RESULTS Neonates born to women aged 25.0–29.9 years had the lowest risk of birth weight less than 2,500 g (7.2%; P<.001), admission to neonatal intensive care unit (11.5%; P<.001), and perinatal mortality (0.7%; P<.001). Hypertensive disorders of pregnancy were higher in women aged 35 years or older (cumulative rate 8.5% compared with 7.8%; 25.0–29.9 years; P<.001). Previous uterine scar was the leading indication for cesarean delivery in women aged 25.0 years or older (36.9%; P<.001). For younger women, failure to progress or cephalopelvic disproportion (37.0% for those younger than age 20.0 years and 31.1% for those aged 20.0– 24.9-years; P<.001) and nonreassuring fetal heart tracing (28.7% for those younger than 20.0 years and 21.2% for those aged 20.0–24.9-years; P<.001) predominated as indications. Truly elective cesarean delivery rate was 20.2% for women aged 45.0 years or older (adjusted odds ratio 1.85 [99% confidence interval 1.03–3.32] compared with the referent age group of 25.0–29.9 years). CONCLUSIONS Maternal and obstetric complications differed by maternal age, as did rates of elective cesarean delivery. Women aged 25.0–29.9 years had the lowest rate of serious neonatal morbidity. PMID:24201681

Timofeev, Julia; Reddy, Uma M.; Huang, Chun-Chih; Driggers, Rita W.; Landy, Helain J.; Laughon, S. Katherine

2014-01-01

31

Why is Chromosome Segregation Error in Oocytes Increased With Maternal Aging?  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

It is well documented that female fertility is decreased with advanced maternal age due to chromosome abnormality in oocytes. Increased chromosome missegregation is mainly caused by centromeric cohesion reduction. Other factors such as weakened homologous recombination, improper spindle organization, spindle assembly checkpoint (SAC) malfunction, chromatin epigenetic changes, and extra-oocyte factors may also cause chromosome errors....Here, we review the potential mechanisms, especially the molecular basis associated with increased chromosome missegregation with advanced maternal age, mainly based on studies in humans and rodents. The related factors are classified into two categories: intrinsic factors within oocytes and the extrinsic causes.

Zhen-Bo Wang (Chinese Academy of Sciences State Key Laboratory of Reproductive Biology, Institute of Zoology)

2011-10-01

32

Maternal B vitamin intake during pregnancy and wheeze and eczema in Japanese infants aged 16-24 months: the Osaka Maternal and Child Health Study.  

PubMed

It is uncertain whether B group vitamins are risk or preventive factors for allergic disorders. We prospectively investigated the association between maternal intake of folate and vitamins B(12) , B(6) , and B(2) during pregnancy and the risk of wheeze and eczema in the infants aged 16-24 months. Subjects were 763 Japanese mother-child pairs. Data on maternal intake during pregnancy were assessed with a diet history questionnaire (DHQ). Symptoms of wheeze and eczema were based on criteria of the International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood. Among 763 infants, 169 (22.1%) and 142 (18.6%) had symptoms of wheeze and eczema, respectively. There were no evident relationships between maternal consumption of folate, vitamin B(12) , vitamin B(6) , and vitamin B(2) during pregnancy and the risk of wheeze or eczema in the offspring after adjustment for maternal age, gestation at baseline, residential municipality at baseline, family income, maternal and paternal education, maternal and paternal history of asthma, atopic eczema, and allergic rhinitis, changes in maternal diet in the previous 1 month, season when data at baseline were collected, maternal smoking during pregnancy, baby's older siblings, baby's sex, baby's birth weight, household smoking in the same room as the infant, breastfeeding duration, age at which solid foods were introduced, age of infant at the third survey, and maternal intake of docosahexaenoic acid, n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids, vitamin D, calcium, vitamin E, and ?-carotene during pregnancy. Further investigation is warranted to draw conclusions as to the question of whether maternal B vitamin intake during pregnancy is related to the risk of childhood allergic disorders. PMID:20561231

Miyake, Yoshihiro; Sasaki, Satoshi; Tanaka, Keiko; Hirota, Yoshio

2011-02-01

33

INFLUENCE OF MATERNAL AGE ON THE FITNESS OF PROGENY IN THE RICE WEEVIL, SITOPHILUS ORYZAE (COLEOPTERA: CURCULIONIDAE)  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

We investigated the effects of maternal age on fitness of progeny in the rice weevil, Sitophilus oryzae (L.) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae). Five-, 20-, and 50-day-old female rice weevils were used to investigate the effects of maternal age on the life-time fecundity and longevity of their daughters. I...

34

Maternal Effects Underlie Ageing Costs of Growth in the Zebra Finch (Taeniopygia guttata)  

PubMed Central

Maternal effects provide a mechanism to adapt offspring phenotype and optimize the mother’s fitness to current environmental conditions. Transferring steroids to the yolk is one way mothers can translate environmental information into potential adaptive signals for offspring. However, maternally-derived hormones might also have adverse effects for offspring. For example, recent data in zebra finch chicks suggested that ageing related-processes (i.e. oxidative stress and telomere loss) were increased after egg-injection of corticosterone (CORT). Still, we have few experimental data describing the effect of maternal effects on the growth-ageing trade-off in offspring. Here, we chronically treated pre-laying zebra finch females (Taeniopygia guttata) with 17-?-estradiol (E2) or CORT, and followed offspring growth and cellular ageing rates (oxidative stress and telomere loss). CORT treatment decreased growth rate in male chicks and increased rate of telomere loss in mothers and female offspring. E2 increased body mass gain in male offspring, while reducing oxidative stress in both sexes but without affecting telomere loss. Since shorter telomeres were previously found to be a proxy of individual lifespan in zebra finches, maternal effects may, through pleiotropic effects, be important determinants of offspring life-expectancy by modulating ageing rate during embryo and post-natal growth. PMID:24828412

Tissier, Mathilde L.; Williams, Tony D.; Criscuolo, François

2014-01-01

35

Advancing Maternal Age Is Associated with Increasing Risk for Autism: A Review and Meta-Analysis  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: We conducted a meta-analysis of epidemiological studies investigating the association between maternal age and autism. Method: Using recommended guidelines for performing meta-analyses, we systematically selected, and extracted results from, epidemiological scientific studies reported before January 2012. We calculated pooled risk…

Sandin, Sven; Hultman, Christina M.; Kolevzon, Alexander; Gross, Raz; MacCabe, James H.; Reichenberg, Abraham

2012-01-01

36

Offspring sex ratio in relation to maternal age and social rank in mountain goats ( Oreamnos americanus )  

Microsoft Academic Search

In polygynous mammals, high-quality females may increase their fitness by producing a high proportion of sons. During a 9-year study of marked mountain goats (Oreamnos americanus), we assessed the relative effects of maternal age, social rank and reproductive status on offspring sex ratio. The sex ratio of kids in the population did not differ from unity (75 males, 85 females).

Steeve D. Côté; Marco Festa-Bianchet

2001-01-01

37

International variation in reported livebirth prevalence rates of Down syndrome, adjusted for maternal age  

PubMed Central

Reported livebirth prevalence of Down syndrome (DS) may be affected by the maternal age distribution of the population, completeness of ascertainment, accuracy of diagnosis, extent of selective prenatal termination of affected pregnancies, and as yet unidentified genetic and environmental factors. To search for evidence of the latter, we reviewed all published reports in which it was possible to adjust both for effects of maternal age and for selective termination (where relevant).?We constructed indices that allowed direct comparisons of prevalence rates after standardising for maternal age. Reference rates were derived from studies previously identified as having near complete ascertainment. An index value significantly different from 1 may result from random fluctuations, as well as from variations in the factors listed above. We found 49 population groups for which an index could be calculated. Methodological descriptions suggested that low values could often be attributed to underascertainment. A possible exception concerned African-American groups, though even among these most acceptable studies were compatible with an index value of 1. As we have reported elsewhere, there was also a suggestive increase in rates among US residents of Mexican or Central American origin. Nevertheless, our results suggest that "real" variation between population groups reported to date probably amounts to no more than ±25%. However, reliable data in many human populations are lacking including, surprisingly, some jurisdictions with relatively advanced health care systems. We suggest that future reports of DS livebirth prevalence should routinely present data that allow calculation of an index standardised for maternal age and adjusted for elective prenatal terminations.???Keywords: Down syndrome; prenatal diagnosis; maternal age standardisation; epidemiology PMID:10353785

Carothers, A.; Hecht, C.; Hook, E.

1999-01-01

38

Maternal Serum Caffeine Metabolites and Small-for-Gestational Age Birth  

Microsoft Academic Search

To determine whether the third-trimester maternal serum concentration of paraxanthine, caffeine's primary metabolite, is associated with delivery of a small-for-gestational age infant (birth weight less than the 10th percentile for gestational age, gender, and ethnicity) and whether this association differs by smoking, the authors studied 2,515 women who participated in the Collaborative Perinatal Project from 1959 to 1966. The women

Mark A. Klebanoff; Richard J. Levine; John D. Clemens; Diana G. Wilkins

39

Recombination and maternal age-dependent nondisjunction: Molecular studies of trisomy 16  

SciTech Connect

Trisomy 16 is the most common human trisomy, occurring in {ge} 1% of all clinically recognized pregnancies. It is thought to be completely dependent on maternal age and thus provides a useful model for studying the association of increasing maternal age and nondisjunction. We have been conducting a study to determine the parent and meiotic stage of origin of trisorny 16 and the possible association of nondisjunction and aberrant recombination. In the present report, we summarize our observations on 62 spontaneous abortions with trisomy 16. All trisomies were maternally derived, and in virtually all the error occurred at meiosis I. In studies of genetic recombination, we observed a highly significant reduction in recombination in the trisomy-generating meioses by comparison with normal female meioses. However, most cases of trisomy 16 had at least one detectable crossover between the nondisjoined chromosomes, indicating that it is reduced-and not absent-recombination that is the important predisposing factor. Additionally, our data indicate an altered distribution of crossing-over in trisomy 16, as we rarely observed crossovers in the proximal long and short arms. Thus, it may be that, at least for trisomy 16, the association between maternal age and trisomy is due to diminished recombination, particularly in the proximal regions of the chromosome. 34 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs.

Hassold, T.; Merrill, M.; Adkins, K. [Case Western Univ., and Univ. Hospitals, Cleveland, OH (United States)] [and others

1995-10-01

40

Maternal age effect on mouse oocytes: new biological insight from proteomic analysis.  

PubMed

The long-standing view of 'immortal germline vs mortal soma' poses a fundamental question in biology concerning how oocytes age in molecular terms. A mainstream hypothesis is that maternal ageing of oocytes has its roots in gene transcription. Investigating the proteins resulting from mRNA translation would reveal how far the levels of functionally available proteins correlate with mRNAs and would offer novel insights into the changes oocytes undergo during maternal ageing. Gene ontology (GO) semantic analysis revealed a high similarity of the detected proteome (2324 proteins) to the transcriptome (22?334 mRNAs), although not all proteins had a cognate mRNA. Concerning their dynamics, fourfold changes of abundance were more frequent in the proteome (3%) than the transcriptome (0.05%), with no correlation. Whereas proteins associated with the nucleus (e.g. structural maintenance of chromosomes and spindle-assembly checkpoints) were largely represented among those that change in oocytes during maternal ageing; proteins associated with oxidative stress/damage (e.g. superoxide dismutase) were infrequent. These quantitative alterations are either impoverishing or enriching. Using GO analysis, these alterations do not relate in any simple way to the classic signature of ageing known from somatic tissues. Given the lack of correlation, we conclude that proteome analysis of mouse oocytes may not be surrogated with transcriptome analysis. Furthermore, we conclude that the classic features of ageing may not be transposed from somatic tissues to oocytes in a one-to-one fashion. Overall, there is more to the maternal ageing of oocytes than mere cellular deterioration exemplified by the notorious increase of meiotic aneuploidy. PMID:24686459

Schwarzer, Caroline; Siatkowski, Marcin; Pfeiffer, Martin J; Baeumer, Nicole; Drexler, Hannes C A; Wang, Bingyuan; Fuellen, Georg; Boiani, Michele

2014-07-01

41

Human uterine lower segment myometrial cell and nuclear volume at term: influence of maternal age.  

PubMed

Little is known about the cytoarchitecture of human myometrial cells in pregnancy, and whether or not this may be influenced by maternal characteristics such as age, parity and body mass index (BMI). The aim of this study was primarily to evaluate human myometrial smooth muscle cell (SMC) and nuclear volume in the third trimester of human pregnancy, and secondarily to investigate if these parameters are altered in relation to the maternal characteristics outlined above. Myometrial biopsies were obtained from 30 women undergoing elective caesarean delivery at term. One-micrometer sections were prepared for light microscopy and 100-nm sections for electron microscopy. The nucleator technique was used to assess nuclear volume from the light microscopy images. Point-counting methodology was used on transmission electron micrographs to assess the percentage of the cell volume occupied by the nucleus. Cell volume was calculated from these measurements. The euchromatin to heterochromatin (Eu/Het) ratio was determined to ascertain whether differences in nuclear volume were due to an increased range of genes being transcribed. The mean (±?SEM) nuclear volume was 175?±?10??m(3) , the nucleus occupied 1.5?±?0.1% of the SMC and the mean cell size was 14?047?±?1352??m(3) . The Eu/Het ratio was 7.54?±?0.4. The mean volume of heterochromatin and euchromatin in the nucleus was 21.5?±?1.7 and 149?±?9??m(3) , respectively. A multivariate regression analysis revealed that advanced maternal age was associated with an increase in the percentage of the cell occupied by nucleus (R(2) ?=?0.32, P?=?0.004). There were no other significant effects of maternal age, BMI or parity on the measured parameters. These findings provide reliable volumes for human myometrial cells and their nuclei at term gestation, and show that nuclear volume fraction may be influenced by maternal age. PMID:25265023

Sweeney, Eva M; Dockery, Peter; Crankshaw, Denis J; O'Brien, Yvonne M; Walsh, Jennifer M; Morrison, John J

2014-12-01

42

The baboon model (Papio hamadryas) of fetal loss: Maternal weight, age, reproductive history and pregnancy outcome  

PubMed Central

Background Several risk factors are associated with the incidence of human stillbirths. The prevention of stillbirths in women is a pressing clinical problem. Methods We reviewed 402 pathology records of fetal loss occurring in a large baboon (Papio spp.) colony during a 15-year period. Clinical histories of 565 female baboons with one or more fetal losses during a 20-year period were analyzed for weight, age, and reproductive history. Results Fetal loss was most common at term (35.57%) and preterm (28.61%) and less common in the first half of gestation (11.20%) and post-term (5.22%). Greater maternal weight, older age, history of stillbirth and higher parity were independent predictors for stillbirth. An exponential increase in the incidence of fetal loss was observed beginning at age 14 years in baboons. Conclusion Fetal loss and maternal risk factors associated with stillbirths in baboons were similar to those documented in women. PMID:19017195

Schlabritz-Loutsevitch, Natalia; Moore, Charleen M.; Lopez-Alvarenga, Juan Carlos; Dunn, Betty G.; Dudley, Donald; Hubbard, Gene B.

2010-01-01

43

Mutation risk associated with paternal and maternal age in a cohort of retinoblastoma survivors.  

PubMed

Autosomal dominant conditions are known to be associated with advanced paternal age, and it has been suggested that retinoblastoma (Rb) also exhibits a paternal age effect due to the paternal origin of most new germline RB1 mutations. To further our understanding of the association of parental age and risk of de novo germline RB1 mutations, we evaluated the effect of parental age in a cohort of Rb survivors in the United States. A cohort of 262 Rb patients was retrospectively identified at one institution, and telephone interviews were conducted with parents of 160 survivors (65.3%). We classified Rb survivors into three groups: those with unilateral Rb were classified as sporadic if they had no or unknown family history of Rb, those with bilateral Rb were classified as having a de novo germline mutation if they had no or unknown family history of Rb, and those with unilateral or bilateral Rb, who had a family history of Rb, were classified as familial. We built two sets of nested logistic regression models to detect an increased odds of the de novo germline mutation classification related to older parental age compared to sporadic and familial Rb classifications. The modeling strategy evaluated effects of continuous increasing maternal and paternal age and 5-year age increases adjusted for the age of the other parent. Mean maternal ages for survivors classified as having de novo germline mutations and sporadic Rb were similar (28.3 and 28.5, respectively) as were mean paternal ages (31.9 and 31.2, respectively), and all were significantly higher than the weighted general US population means. In contrast, maternal and paternal ages for familial Rb did not differ significantly from the weighted US general population means. Although we noted no significant differences between mean maternal and paternal ages between each of the three Rb classification groups, we found increased odds of a survivor being in the de novo germline mutation group for each 5-year increase in paternal age, but these findings were not statistically significant (de novo vs. sporadic ORs 30-34 = 1.7 [0.7-4], ? 35 = 1.3 [0.5-3.3]; de novo vs. familial ORs 30-34 = 2.8 [1.0-8.4], ? 35 = 1.6 [0.6-4.6]). Our study suggests a weak paternal age effect for Rb resulting from de novo germline mutations consistent with the paternal origin of most of these mutations. PMID:22203219

Mills, Melissa B; Hudgins, Louanne; Balise, Raymond R; Abramson, David H; Kleinerman, Ruth A

2012-07-01

44

Trends in birth across high-parity groups by race/ethnicity and maternal age.  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND: The changing racial and ethnic diversity of the U.S. population along with delayed childbearing suggest that shifts in the demographic composition of gravidas are likely. It is unclear whether trends in the proportion of births to parous women in the United States have changed over the decades by race and ethnicity, reflecting parallel changes in population demographics. METHODS: Singleton deliveries > or = 20 weeks of gestation in the United States from 1989 through 2000 were analyzed using data from the "Natality data files" assembled by the National Center for Health Statistics (NCHS). We classified maternal age into three categories; younger mothers (aged < 30 years), mature mothers (30-39 years) and older mothers (> or = 40 years) and maternal race/ethnicity into three groups: blacks (non-Hispanic), Hispanics and whites (non-Hispanic). We computed birth rates by period of delivery across the entire population and repeated the analysis stratified by age and maternal race. Chi-squared statistics for linear trend were utilized to assess linear trend across three four-year phases: 1989-1992, 1993-1996 and 1997-2000. In estimating the association between race/ethnicity and parity status, the direct method of standardization was employed to adjust for maternal age. RESULTS: Over the study period, the total number of births to blacks and whites diminished consistently (p for trend < 0.001), whereas among Hispanics a progressive increase in the total number of deliveries was evident (p for trend < 0.001). Black and white women experienced a reduction in total deliveries equivalent to 10% and 9.3%, respectively, while Hispanic women showed a substantial increment in total births (25%). Regardless of race or ethnicity, birth rate was associated with increase in maternal age in a dose-effect fashion among the high (5-9 previous live births), very high (10-14 previous live births) and extremely high (> or = 15 previous live births) parity groups (p for trend < 0.001). After maternal age standardization, black and Hispanic women were more likely to have higher parity as compared to whites. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings demonstrate substantial variation in parity patterns among the main racial and ethnic populations in the United States. These results may help in formulating strategies that will serve as templates for optimizing resource allocation across the different racial/ethnic subpopulations in the United States. PMID:16035578

Aliyu, Muktar H.; Salihu, Hamisu M.; Keith, Louis G.; Ehiri, John E.; Islam, M. Aminul; Jolly, Pauline E.

2005-01-01

45

Maternal support in early childhood predicts larger hippocampal volumes at school age  

PubMed Central

Early maternal support has been shown to promote specific gene expression, neurogenesis, adaptive stress responses, and larger hippocampal volumes in developing animals. In humans, a relationship between psychosocial factors in early childhood and later amygdala volumes based on prospective data has been demonstrated, providing a key link between early experience and brain development. Although much retrospective data suggests a link between early psychosocial factors and hippocampal volumes in humans, to date there has been no prospective data to inform this potentially important public health issue. In a longitudinal study of depressed and healthy preschool children who underwent neuroimaging at school age, we investigated whether early maternal support predicted later hippocampal volumes. Maternal support observed in early childhood was strongly predictive of hippocampal volume measured at school age. The positive effect of maternal support on hippocampal volumes was greater in nondepressed children. These findings provide prospective evidence in humans of the positive effect of early supportive parenting on healthy hippocampal development, a brain region key to memory and stress modulation. PMID:22308421

Luby, Joan L.; Barch, Deanna M.; Belden, Andy; Gaffrey, Michael S.; Tillman, Rebecca; Babb, Casey; Nishino, Tomoyuki; Suzuki, Hideo; Botteron, Kelly N.

2012-01-01

46

A 1st-trimester combined screening test in pregnant women of advanced maternal age in a Chinese population.  

PubMed

Abstract The purpose of this study was to evaluate the performance of the 1st-trimester combined screening test for trisomy 21 in different maternal age groups in a Chinese population. In this retrospective study, data on the 1st-trimester combined screening test (maternal age, fetal nuchal translucency, free ?-human chorionic gonadotrophin, pregnancy-associated plasma protein-A) were analysed. The study population of 17,556 pregnant women was subdivided into three groups according to maternal age: 16,113 were < 35 years of age; 1,228 were 35-39 years of age; and 215 were ? 40 years of age. The detection and false-positive rates of the 1st-trimester screening test for trisomy 21 or trisomy 18 in the three groups of women were 89.5 and 1.7%; 90.9 and 6.8%; and 100 and 22.3%, respectively. With increasing maternal age, the odds of being affected given a positive result (OAPR) were increased. The balance between the detection rate and false-positive rate of the 1st-trimester combined screening test is more favourable in women < 36 years with comparable OAPR. Although the false-positive rate increases with increasing maternal age, the performance of the 1st-trimester combined screening test in women ? 35 years is more effective than screening based on maternal age alone. PMID:25057869

Pan, M; Han, J; Yang, X; Zhen, L; Liao, C; Li, D Z

2015-02-01

47

Neural tube defects, maternal cohorts, and age: a pointer to aetiology.  

PubMed Central

The effects of maternal year of birth and age on the declining prevalence of neural tube defects after 1972-3 were examined using 403 cases ascertained in a prospective study in the Fylde of Lancashire during 1957-89. Matched case-control data were analysed using conditional logistic regression analysis. The risk of an anencephalic baby was significantly greater for older mothers, but changes in the maternal age distribution in the population did not appear to be relevant to the recent decline in prevalence. Antenatal diagnosis and termination of pregnancy was the major cause. Mothers born before 1950 were at significantly greater risk of producing a baby with spina bifida or cranium bifidum. We suggest that abandonment of mercury as a therapeutic agent for infants in the early 1950s is a possible factor in the current decline of these malformations. PMID:1953007

Bound, J P; Francis, B J; Harvey, P W

1991-01-01

48

Maternal Age, Parity, and Reproductive Outcome in Captive Chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes)  

PubMed Central

As early as the 1970s, it was suggested that nonhuman primates may serve as models of human reproductive senescence. In the present study, the reproductive outcomes of 1,255 pregnancies in captive chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) were examined in relation to parity and its covariate, maternal age. The results show that the percentage of positive pregnancy outcomes was negatively correlated with increasing parity. In addition, spontaneous abortions, stillbirths, and caesarian sections (C-sections) were positively correlated with increasing parity. Maternal age, rather than parity, was found to be the most important predictor of negative birth outcome. This study supports research demonstrating reproductive decline and termination in nonhuman primates, and is the first to quantitatively account for this phenomenon in captive female chimpanzees. PMID:16229006

ROOF, KATHERINE A.; HOPKINS, WILLIAM D.; IZARD, M. KAY; HOOK, MICHELLE; SCHAPIRO, STEVEN J.

2007-01-01

49

Maternal care, mother-offspring aggregation and age-dependent coadaptation in the European earwig.  

PubMed

Benefits and costs of parental care are expected to change with offspring development and lead to age-dependent coadaptation expressed as phenotypic (behavioural) matches between offspring age and parental reproductive stage. Parents and offspring interact repeatedly over time for the provision of parental care. Their behaviours should be accordingly adjusted to each other dynamically and adaptively, and the phenotypic match between offspring age and parental stage should stabilize the repeated behavioural interactions. In the European earwig (Forficula auricularia), maternal care is beneficial for offspring survival, but not vital, allowing us to investigate the extent to which the stability of mother-offspring aggregation is shaped by age-dependent coadaptation. In this study, we experimentally cross-fostered nymphs of different age classes (younger or older) between females in early or late reproductive stage to disrupt age-dependent coadaptation, thereby generating female-nymph dyads that were phenotypically matched or mismatched. The results revealed a higher stability in aggregation during the first larval instar when care is most intense, a steeper decline in aggregation tendency over developmental time and a reduced developmental rate in matched compared with mismatched families. Furthermore, nymph survival was positively correlated with female-nymph aggregation stability during the early stages when maternal care is most prevalent. These results support the hypothesis that age-related phenotypically plastic coadaptation affects family dynamics and offspring developmental rate. PMID:23937357

Gómez, Y; Kölliker, M

2013-09-01

50

Maternal antioxidant intake in pregnancy and wheezing illnesses in children at 2 y of age2  

PubMed Central

Background Low intakes of dietary antioxidants may contribute to increases in asthma and allergy. Objective We investigated the association of maternal total intakes (foods + supplements) of 10 antioxidant nutrients during pregnancy with wheezing and eczema in 2-y-old children. Design Subjects were 1290 mother-child pairs in an ongoing cohort study. Maternal dietary and supplement intakes were assessed by using a validated food-frequency questionnaire administered in the first and second trimesters. Antioxidant nutrient intakes were calculated, and the mean for each nutrient was considered to be the exposure during pregnancy. The outcomes of interest were any wheezing by the child during either the first or second year of life, recurrent wheezing in both years, and eczema in either the first or second year. Results No association was observed between maternal total intake of any antioxidant nutrient and eczema. In multivariate logistic regression models, the highest quartile compared with the lowest quartile of maternal total intakes of vitamin E [odds ratio (OR): 0.70; 95% CI: 0.48, 1.03] and zinc (OR: 0.59; 95% CI: 0.41, 0.88) was inversely associated with any wheezing at 2 y of age (P for trend = 0.06 and 0.01 over quartiles of intake for vitamin E and zinc, respectively). Similar results were obtained for recurrent wheezing at 2 y of age with vitamin E (OR: 0.49; 95% CI: 0.27, 0.90) and zinc (OR: 0.49; 95% CI: 0.27, 0.87) (P for trend = 0.05 and 0.06 over quartiles of intake for vitamin E and zinc, respectively). Conclusion Our results suggest that higher maternal total intakes of antioxidants during pregnancy may decrease the risks for wheezing illnesses in early childhood. PMID:17023719

Litonjua, Augusto A; Rifas-Shiman, Sheryl L; Ly, Ngoc P; Tantisira, Kelan G; Rich-Edwards, Janet W; Camargo, Carlos A; Weiss, Scott T; Gillman, Matthew W; Gold, Diane R

2007-01-01

51

AGG interruptions and maternal age affect FMR1 CGG repeat allele stability during transmission  

PubMed Central

Background The presence of AGG interruptions in the CGG repeat locus of the fragile X mental retardation 1 (FMR1) gene decreases the instability of the allele during transmission from parent to child, and decreases the risk of expansion of a premutation allele to a full mutation allele (the predominant cause of fragile X syndrome) during maternal transmission. Methods To strengthen recent findings on the utility of AGG interruptions in predicting instability or expansion to a full mutation of FMR1 CGG repeat alleles, we assessed the outcomes of 108 intermediate (also named gray zone) and 710 premutation alleles that were transmitted from parent to child, and collected from four international clinical sites. We have used the results to revise our initial model that predicted the risk of a maternal premutation allele expanding to a full mutation during transmission and to test the effect of AGG interruptions on the magnitude of expanded allele instability of intermediate or premutation alleles that did not expand to a full mutation. Results Consistent with previous studies, the number of AGG triplets that interrupts the CGG repeat locus was found to influence the risk of allele instability, including expansion to a full mutation. The total length of the CGG repeat allele remains the best predictor of instability or expansion to a full mutation, but the number of AGG interruptions and, to a much lesser degree, maternal age are also factors when considering the risk of transmission of the premutation allele to a full mutation. Conclusions Our findings demonstrate that a model with total CGG length, number of AGG interruptions, and maternal age is recommended for calculating the risk of expansion to a full mutation during maternal transmission. Taken together, the results of this study provide relevant information for the genetic counseling of female premutation carriers, and improve the current predictive models which calculate risk of expansion to a full mutation using only total CGG repeat length. PMID:25110527

2014-01-01

52

Embryonic exposure to maternal testosterone influences age-specific mortality patterns in a captive passerine bird.  

PubMed

Hormones are potent mediators of developmental programming and maternal epigenetic effects. In vertebrates, developmental exposure to maternal androgen hormones has been shown to impact multiple behavioral and physiological traits of progeny, but the possible consequences of this early exposure in terms of aging-related changes in mortality and fitness remain largely unexplored. Avian eggs naturally contain variable doses of maternal hormones-in particular, androgens-which have documented effects on embryo growth and differentiation as well as adult behavior and physiology. Here, we report that injections of a physiological dose of testosterone (T) into yolks of freshly laid eggs of a small, seasonally breeding songbird, the house sparrow (Passer domesticus), increased survivorship in a semi-natural aviary environment. In addition, survival effects of developmental T exposure were sex-dependent, with males generally having a higher risk of death. Separate analyses for young birds in their first year of life (from hatching up to the first reproductive period the following calendar year) and in adulthood (after the first breeding season) showed similar effects. For first-year birds, mortality risk was higher during the winter than during the period after fledging; for adults, mortality risk was higher during the reproductive than the non-reproductive phase (post-breeding molt and winter). T treatment did not affect nestling body mass, but resulted in higher body mass at 3-4 months of age; T and body mass at this age interacted to influence mortality risk. Embryonic exposure to maternal testosterone may result in lower adult mortality by modifying intrinsic physiological processes involved in health or aging over the lifespan of adult birds. PMID:21409557

Schwabl, Hubert; Holmes, Donna; Strasser, Rosemary; Scheuerlein, Alex

2012-02-01

53

Maternal age and birth defects after the use of assisted reproductive technology in Japan, 2004–2010  

PubMed Central

Background Older mothers are becoming more common in Japan. One reason for this is the widespread use of assisted reproductive technology (ART). This study assesses the relationship between maternal age and the risk of birth defects after ART. Methods Nationwide data on ART between 2004 and 2010 in Japan were analyzed. Diseases that were classified as code Q00-Q99 (ie, congenital malformations, deformations, and chromosomal abnormalities) in the International Classification of Diseases, tenth edition, were selected. There were 219,185 pregnancies and 153,791 live births in total ART. Of these, 1943 abortions, stillbirths, or live births with birth defects were recorded. Percentage of multiple birth defects in total birth defects, the prevalence, crude relative risk and 95% confidence interval per 10,000 pregnancies and per 10,000 live births were analyzed according to the maternal age class (ie, 25–29, 30–34 (reference), 35–39, and 40+ years). Results Multiple birth defects were observed among 14% of the 25–29 year old class, and 8% among other classes when chromosomal abnormalities were excluded. The prevalence of chromosomal abnormalities per pregnancy and per live birth became significantly and rapidly higher in mothers in the age classes of 30–35 and 40+ years. Nonchromosomal birth defects per pregnancy decreased linearly with advanced maternal age, while the number of nonchromosomal birth defects per live birth formed a gradual U-shaped distribution. The prevalence per pregnancy of congenital malformations of the nervous system was significantly lower with advanced maternal age. The relative risk per live birth was significant regarding congenital malformations of the circulatory system for a maternal age of 40+ years. Some other significant associations between maternal age and birth defects were observed. Conclusion Maternal age is associated with several birth defects; however, older maternal age in itself does not produce noticeable extra risk for nonchromosomal birth defects overall. PMID:23450007

Ooki, Syuichi

2013-01-01

54

Extremes of maternal age and child mortality: analysis between 2000 and 2009?  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE: To analyze the characteristics of infant mortality at the extremes of maternal age. METHOD: Retrospective, cross-sectional quantitative study using data from Live Birth Certificates, Death Certificates and from Child Death Investigation records in Londrina, Paraná, in the years of 2000-2009. RESULTS: During the 10-year study period , there were 176 infant deaths among mothers up to 19 years of age, and 113 deaths among mothers aged 35 years or more. The infant mortality rate among young mothers was 14.4 deaths per thousand births, compared to 12.9 deaths in the other age group. For adolescent mothers, the following conditions prevailed: lack of a stable partner (p<0.001), lack of a paid job (p<0.001), late start of prenatal care in the second trimester of pregnancy (p<0.001), fewer prenatal visits (p<0.001) and urinary tract infections (p<0.001). On the other hand, women aged 35 or more had a higher occurrence of hypertension during pregnancy (p<0.001), and of surgical delivery (p<0.001). Regarding the underlying cause of infant death, congenital anomalies prevailed in the group of older mothers (p=0.002), and external causes were predominant in the group of young mothers (p=0.019). CONCLUSION: Both age groups deserve the attention of social services for maternal and child health, especially adolescent mothers, who presented a higher combination of factors deemed hazardous to the child's health. PMID:25511003

Ribeiro, Fanciele Dinis; Ferrari, Rosângela Aparecida Pimenta; Sant'Anna, Flávia Lopes; Dalmas, José Carlos; Girotto, Edmarlon

2014-01-01

55

The impact of parity on perinatal outcomes in pregnancies complicated by advanced maternal age  

PubMed Central

Objective The purpose of this study was to investigate the impact of parity on perinatal outcomes in pregnancies complicated by advanced maternal age. Material and Methods A total of 11 587 pregnancies were reviewed retrospectively from patient medical records. Singleton pregnancies greater than 24 weeks of gestation were included. The study group consisted of women ?40 years old at the time of delivery, and the control group consisted of women aged between 20 and 30 years old. Data regarding age, parity, gestational age, mode of delivery, and obstetric and neonatal complications were collected. Firstly, pregnancies ?40 years and the younger control group were compared altogether with respect to the obstetric and neonatal complications. Secondly, both groups were divided into subgroups according to parity, and a second comparison was made with controls. Results Mean maternal age in the study and control groups was 43±2.2 and 24±2.8 years, respectively. In women ?40 years old, all of the investigated obstetric and neonatal complications except postpartum haemorrhage and foetal malformations were higher when compared to younger controls (p<0.05). In the nulliparous ?40 year old group, the most significant complications were preterm delivery (45.3%), low 5-minute Apgar score (15.2%), and neonatal intensive care unit admission (15.2%). On the other hand, in the multiparous group, preeclampsia (16.6%), abruptio placentae (5.1%), foetal demise (7.2%), and macrosomia (9.6%) were found to be significantly higher when compared to controls. Conclusion The study suggests that pregnancies of maternal age ?40 years carry increased risks for both neonatal and obstetric complications, and these risks seem to be effected by parity. PMID:24592107

Ba?er, Eralp; Seçkin, Kerem Do?a; Erk?l?nç, Selçuk; Karsl?, Mehmet Fatih; Yeral, ?lkin Mahmut; Kaymak, Oktay; Ça?lar, Turhan; Dan??man, Nuri

2013-01-01

56

The quadruple test for Down syndrome screening in pregnant women of advanced maternal age  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose  The purpose of the current study was to determine whether or not the quadruple test for screening Down syndrome is an effective\\u000a method to replace direct amniocentesis in pregnant women ?35 years of age.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  This study analyzed the screening performance of the quadruple test according to maternal age at delivery among subjects who\\u000a had a quadruple screening test at 1 of

Ji Young Kwon; In Yang Park; Seong-min Kwon; Chan Joo Kim; Jong Chul Shin

57

Infant Formula with Docosahexaenoic Acid, Maternal Smoking, and Body Mass Index of Children To Six Years of Age  

E-print Network

the possibility to evaluate maternal smoking status and growth. Statement of Purpose The study has two primary objectives. The first objective is to determine if the concentration of DHA in a formula consumed from birth to 12 months of age affects growth... from birth to six years of age, particularly in weight-for-length (for children younger than two years of age) and BMI-for-age (for children between two and six years of age). A second objective is to determine if maternal smoking during pregnancy...

Currie, Lindsey Marie

2012-05-31

58

Association between nondisjunction and maternal age in meiosis-II human oocytes.  

PubMed Central

The relationship between advanced maternal age and increased risk of trisomic offspring is well known clinically but not clearly understood at the level of the oocyte. A total of 383 oocytes that failed fertilization from 107 patients undergoing in vitro fertilization were analyzed by FISH using X-, 18-, and 13/21-chromosome probes simultaneously. The corresponding polar bodies were also analyzed in 188 of these oocytes. The chromosomes in the oocyte and first polar body complement each other and provide an internal control to differentiate between aneuploidy and technical errors. Two mechanisms of nondisjunction were determined. First, nondisjunction of bivalent chromosomes resulting in two univalents going to the same pole and, second, nondisjunction by premature chromatid separation (predivision) of univalent chromosomes producing either a balanced (2 + 2) or unbalanced (3 + 1) distribution of chromatids into the first polar body and M-II oocytes. Balanced predivision of chromatids, previously proposed as a major mechanism of aneuploidy, was found to increase significantly with time in culture (P < .005), which suggests that this phenomenon should be interpreted carefully. Unbalanced predivision and classical nondisjunction were unaffected by oocyte aging. In comparing oocytes from women <35 years of age with oocytes from women > or = 40 years of age, a significant increase (P < .001) in nondisjunction of full dyads was found in the oocytes with analyzable polar bodies and no FISH errors. Premature predivision of chromatids was also found to cause nondisjunction, but it did not increase with maternal age. Images Figure 2 Figure 3 PMID:8659524

Dailey, T.; Dale, B.; Cohen, J.; Munné, S.

1996-01-01

59

Association between nondisjunction and maternal age in meiosis-II human oocytes  

SciTech Connect

The relationship between advanced maternal age and increased risk of trisomic offspring is well know clinically but not clearly understood at the level of the oocyte. A total of 383 oocytes that failed fertilization from 107 patients undergoing in vitro fertilization were analyzed by FISH using X-, 18-, and 13/21-chromosome probes simultaneously. The corresponding polar bodies were also analyzed in 188 of these oocytes. The chromosomes in the oocyte and first polar body complement each other and provide an internal control to differentiate between aneuploidy and technical errors. Two mechanisms of nondisjunction were determined. First, nondisjunction of bivalent chromosomes resulting in two univalents going to the same pole and, second, nondisjunction by premature chromatid separation (predivision) of univalent chromsomes producing either a balanced (2 + 2) or unbalanced (3 + 1) distribution of chromatids into the first polar body and M-II oocytes. Balanced predivision of chromatids, previously proposed as a major mechanism of aneuploidy, was found to increase significantly with time in culture (P < .005), which suggests that this phenomenon should be interpreted carefully. Unbalanced predivision and classical nondisjunction were unaffected by oocyte aging. In comparing oocytes from women <35 years of age with oocytes from women {ge}40 years of age, a significant increase (P < .001) in nondisjunction of full dyads was found in the oocytes with analyzable polar bodies and no FISH errors. Premature predivision of chromatids was also found to cause nondisjunction, but it did not increase with maternal age. 44 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs.

Dailey, T.; Cohen, J.; Munne, S.; Dale, B.

1996-07-01

60

Maternal and Fetal Circulating Angiogenin Levels in Pregnancies with Small-for-Gestational-Age and Appropriate-for-Gestational-Age Infants  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: The objective of the present study was to evaluate whether maternal and fetal circulating angiogenin levels in pregnancies with small-for-gestational- age (SGA) infants are different from those in pregnancies with appropriate-for-gestational-age (AGA) infants. Methods: Maternal and fetal circulating angiogenin concentrations were compared at birth between 16 pregnancies with SGA (7 delivered vaginally and 9 delivered by elective cesarean section)

Chizu Yamashiro; Yohichi Ohnishi; Kenji Kanenishi; Keiji Hayashi; Toshihiro Yanagihara; Toshiyuki Hata

2000-01-01

61

Schizencephaly: Association With Young Maternal Age, Alcohol Use, and Lack of Prenatal Care  

PubMed Central

Schizencephaly is a rare malformation of cortical development characterized by congenital clefts extending from the pial surface to the lateral ventricle that are lined by heterotopic gray matter. The clinical presentation is variable and can include motor or cognitive impairment and epilepsy. The causes of schizencephaly are heterogeneous and can include teratogens, prenatal infection, or maternal trauma. Reported genetic causes include chromosomal aneuploidy, EMX2 mutations, and possible autosomal recessive familial cases based on recurrence in siblings. In an effort to identify risk factors for schizencephaly, we conducted a survey of 48 parents or primary caretakers of patients with schizencephaly born between 1983 and 2004. We discovered that young maternal age, lack of prenatal care, and alcohol use were all significantly associated with risk of schizencephaly. Our results suggest that there are important nongenetic, intrauterine events that predispose to schizencephaly. PMID:23266945

Dies, Kira A.; Bodell, Adria; Hisama, Fuki M.; Guo, Chao-Yu; Barry, Brenda; Chang, Bernard S.; Barkovich, A. James; Walsh, Christopher A.

2013-01-01

62

Persistent Associations between Maternal Prenatal Exposure to Phthalates on Child IQ at Age 7 Years  

PubMed Central

Background Prior research reports inverse associations between maternal prenatal urinary phthalate metabolite concentrations and mental and motor development in preschoolers. No study evaluated whether these associations persist into school age. Methods In a follow up of 328 inner-city mothers and their children, we measured prenatal urinary metabolites of di-n-butyl phthalate (DnBP), butylbenzyl phthalate (BBzP), di-isobutyl phthalate (DiBP), di-2-ethylhexyl phthalate and diethyl phthalate in late pregnancy. The Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children, 4th edition was administered at child age 7 years and evaluates four areas of cognitive function associated with overall intelligence quotient (IQ). Results Child full-scale IQ was inversely associated with prenatal urinary metabolite concentrations of DnBP and DiBP: b?=??2.69 (95% confidence interval [CI]?=??4.33, ?1.05) and b?=??2.69 (95% CI?=??4.22, ?1.16) per log unit increase. Among children of mothers with the highest versus lowest quartile DnBP and DiBP metabolite concentrations, IQ was 6.7 (95% CI?=?1.9, 11.4) and 7.6 (95% CI?=?3.2, 12.1) points lower, respectively. Associations were unchanged after control for cognition at age 3 years. Significant inverse associations were also seen between maternal prenatal metabolite concentrations of DnBP and DiBP and child processing speed, perceptual reasoning and working memory; DiBP and child verbal comprehension; and BBzP and child perceptual reasoning. Conclusion Maternal prenatal urinary metabolite concentrations measured in late pregnancy of DnBP and DiBP are associated with deficits in children’s intellectual development at age 7 years. Because phthalate exposures are ubiquitous and concentrations seen here within the range previously observed among general populations, results are of public health significance. PMID:25493564

Factor-Litvak, Pam; Insel, Beverly; Calafat, Antonia M.; Liu, Xinhua; Perera, Frederica; Rauh, Virginia A.; Whyatt, Robin M.

2014-01-01

63

Effect of Maternal Age on Pregnancy Outcome and Cesarean Delivery Rate  

PubMed Central

Background The aims of this retrospective study were to evaluate the maternal and prenatal outcomes between 35 years and older pregnancies and younger pregnancies, and the effects of the age of pregnancy, mother and newborn. Methods Pregnant women who gave birth in Vakif Gureba Training and Research Hospital, Clinic of Obstetrics and Gynecology in 2006 were retrospectively screened. Pregnant women aged 35 years and over were included in this study and the pregnant women between age range of 30 - 34 years were included in the control group. Results Pregnancy rate was found as 7.1% in 35 years and older women in all the deliveries, cesarean delivery rate was found as 46.1% in this group at 1 year period. However, cesarean delivery rate was 40.9% in the control group. Cesarean delivery rate was found as 31.6% in all the deliveries. The most common cause of cesarean section indication was fetal distress in advanced maternal age (AMA) (11.7%), whereas previous cesarean section was found as the most common cause in the control group (15.1%). Conclusion No significant difference was found between AMA group and normal pregnancies in terms of preterm labor, caesarian section, morbidity, mortality and chronic diseases such as hypertension and diabetes mellitus. PMID:25436026

Benli, Ali Ramazan; Cetin Benli, Neriman; Usta, Abdullah Taner; Atakul, Tolga; Koroglu, Mustafa

2015-01-01

64

Telomere length is associated with types of chromosome 21 nondisjunction: a new insight into the maternal age effect on Down syndrome birth  

Microsoft Academic Search

Advanced maternal age is a well-documented risk factor of chromosome 21 nondisjunction in humans, but understanding of this\\u000a association at the genetic level is still limited. In particular, the state of maternal genetic age is unclear. In the present\\u000a study, we estimated maternal genetic age by measuring telomere length of peripheral blood lymphocytes among age-matched mothers\\u000a of children with Down

Sujoy Ghosh; Eleanor Feingold; Sumita Chakraborty; Subrata Kumar Dey

2010-01-01

65

Maternal Smoking, Demographic and Lifestyle Factors in Relation to Daughter’s Age at Menarche  

PubMed Central

Summary A previous study suggested a younger age at menarche among daughters of heavy prenatal smokers, especially among non-Whites. The present study was designed to evaluate that association in another population and to examine other factors that might be related to age at menarche. We analyzed data from the Collaborative Perinatal Project, a nationwide longitudinal study of pregnant women and their children conducted in 1959–1966. At three sites, with a predominance of Black participants (80%), age at menarche (AAM) was ascertained in the offspring when they were young adults. We included data on 1,556 daughters who had a mean age at menarche of 12.7 years (standard deviation (SD) 1.8). Amount smoked by the mothers was obtained from a baseline interview and subsequent prenatal visits. Regression models were run including maternal smoking and other co-variates, for only the prenatal period, as well as in models with some childhood characteristics. In the prenatal factor model, younger mean age at menarche in daughters was found with the maternal characteristics of earlier age at menarche, being married, and lower parity. Examining childhood variables, earlier AAM was found among girls with few or no siblings or with higher SES. Unlike our previous findings, mean AAM was later in daughters of heavy smokers (20+cigs/day), with a delay of 0.31 years [95% confidence interval (CI) 0.008, 0.61], or about 3.7 months, in the prenatal model, and 0.34 years [95% CI ?0.02, 0.66] in the model with childhood variables included. The pattern was consistent by race. A number of prenatal and childhood factors related to age at menarche were identified that should be considered when examining exogenous exposures in relation to pubertal onset. PMID:19000293

Windham, Gayle C.; Zhang, Lixia; Longnecker, Matthew P; Klebanoff, Mark

2007-01-01

66

Pregnancy, maternal exposure to analgesic medicines, and leukemia in Brazilian children below 2 years of age.  

PubMed

Childhood leukemia etiology, and mainly the interactions of genetic and environmental risk factors, remains largely unexplored. This national hospital-based case-control study was carried out in Brazil among children aged 0-23 months who were recruited at cancer and general hospitals in 13 states. Maternal medicine intake during pregnancy, including analgesic intake, was assessed by face-to-face interviews with the mothers of 231 leukemia patients and 411 controls. Unconditional logistic regression was used to ascertain crude and adjusted odds ratios (ORs), and their 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for the association between maternal analgesic use during pregnancy and early age leukemia. Acetaminophen use during the first trimester of pregnancy showed an OR=0.39 (95% CI 0.17-0.93) for acute lymphocytic leukemia and an OR=0.37 (95% CI 0.16-0.88) for use in the second trimester. For acute myeloid leukemia, an OR=0.11 (95% CI 0.02-0.97) was found following acetaminophen use in the second trimester. For acute lymphocytic leukemia, the exclusive use of dipyrone during preconception showed an OR=1.63 (95% CI 1.06-2.53) and dipyrone intake during lactation showed an OR=2.00 (95% CI 1.18-3.39). These results suggest that acetaminophen use during pregnancy may protect against development of early age leukemia in the offspring, whereas dipyrone use may act as a risk factor for such an outcome. PMID:25121973

Couto, Arnaldo C; Ferreira, Jeniffer D; Pombo-de-Oliveira, Maria S; Koifman, Sérgio

2014-08-13

67

Respiratory responses to hypoxia/hypercapnia in small for gestational age infants influenced by maternal smoking  

PubMed Central

Aim: To determine any variation in the respiratory responses to hypoxia/hypercapnia of infants born small for gestational age (SGA) to smoking and to non-smoking mothers. Methods: A total of 70 average for gestational age (AGA) infants (>36 weeks gestation, >2500 g, >25th centile for gestational age, and no maternal smoking), and 47 SGA infants (<10th centile for gestational age) were studied at 1 and 3 months of age, in quiet and active sleep. Respiratory test gases were delivered through a Perspex hood to simulate face down rebreathing by slowly allowing the inspired air to be altered to a CO2 maximum of 5% and O2 minimum of 13.5%. The change in ventilation with inspired CO2 was measured over 5–6 minutes of the test. The slope of a linear curve fit relating inspired CO2 to the logarithm of ventilation was taken as a quantitative measure of ventilatory asphyxial sensitivity (VAS). Results: There was no significant difference in VAS between the AGA and SGA infants (0.25 v 0.24). However within the SGA group, VAS was significantly higher (p = 0.048) in the infants whose mothers smoked during pregnancy (0.26 (0.01); n = 24) than in those that did not (0.23 (0.01); n = 23). The change in minute ventilation was significantly higher in the smokers than the non-smokers group (141% v 119%; p = 0.03) as the result of a significantly larger change in respiratory rate (8 v 4 breaths/min; p = 0.047) but not tidal volume. Conclusions: Maternal smoking appears to be the key factor in enhancing infants' respiratory responses to hypoxia/hypercapnia, irrespective of gestational age. PMID:12719396

Galland, B; Taylor, B; Bolton, D; Sayers, R

2003-01-01

68

Influence of individual predisposition, maternal experience and lactation environment on the responses of pigs to weaning at two different ages  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study assessed the effect of predisposition to perform harmful social behaviour, maternal rearing environment, and lactation environment on the responses of pigs to weaning at 3 or 5 weeks of age. Predisposed and non-predisposed gilts were selected as dams for this study at 7 weeks of age. Selection was based on behaviour in a “tail chew” test and performance

N. E. O’Connell; V. E. Beattie; I. A. Sneddon; K. Breuer; J. T. Mercer; K. A. Rance; M. E. M. Sutcliffe; S. A. Edwards

2005-01-01

69

Maternal body mass index in early pregnancy and offspring asthma, rhinitis and eczema up to 16 years of age  

PubMed Central

Background Maternal obesity has been linked to offspring asthma; however, other allergy-related diseases, as well as the association beyond early school age, are largely unstudied. Objective To examine the associations between maternal body mass index (BMI) in pregnancy and offspring asthma, rhinitis, eczema and sensitization up to 16 years of age. Methods A total of 3294 children from the Swedish birth cohort BAMSE were included in the analyses. Maternal BMI was assessed around week 10 in pregnancy. Information on asthma, rhinitis, eczema, lifestyle factors and environmental exposures was obtained by parental questionnaires at 1, 2, 4, 8, 12 and 16 years. Sensitization was defined from IgE levels of inhalant allergens at 4, 8 and 16 years in a subsample of 2850 children. Generalized estimated equation models were used to analyse the associations between maternal BMI and the outcomes at 1–16 years. Results Maternal BMI was positively associated with overall risk of asthma up to age of 16 years (adj OR per 5 kg/m2 increase: 1.23; 95% CI 1.07–1.40 for prevalent asthma) excluding underweight mothers. In contrast, no significant associations were found for rhinitis, eczema or sensitization. The association with asthma was restricted to obese, rather than overweight mothers, but was attenuated when adjusting for overweight in the offspring. A causal inference test at 16 years further indicated that the child’s own overweight is a mediator in the suggested association between maternal BMI and offspring asthma at 16 years. Conclusions and Clinical Relevance Maternal BMI is associated with an increased risk of asthma, but not rhinitis, eczema or sensitization; however, overweight in the offspring seems to have a mediating role. Prevention strategies of maternal pre-pregnancy and childhood obesity might be important to reduce the prevalence of childhood asthma. PMID:24807420

Ekström, S; Magnusson, J; Kull, I; Lind, T; Almqvist, C; Melén, E; Bergström, A

2015-01-01

70

Association of ADHD symptoms severity with higher paternal and lower maternal age of a clinical sample of children.  

PubMed

This study examines the association of father's and mother's age with the severity of inattention and hyperactivity/impulsivity. Participants are 470 children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) diagnosed according to DSM-IV diagnostic criteria. Moreover, parents reported the severity of ADHD symptoms through completing ADHD checklist. Mother's and father's age was associated with the score of hyperactivity/impulsivity. Lower father's age and advanced maternal age are associated with higher severity of hyperactivity/impulsivity in children and adolescents with ADHD. None of mothers' and fathers' age is associated with ADHD inattentiveness severity in children. Maternal and paternal education levels are not associated with ADHD severity. Older mothers and younger fathers have ADHD children with higher hyperactivity/impulsivity severity. It should be investigated whether the father's and mother's age are risk factors for ADHD. PMID:24658987

Ghanizadeh, Ahmad

2014-01-01

71

Maternal aging affects life performance of progeny in a Holstein dairy cow model.  

PubMed

The development and life performance of 404 high-producing Holstein dairy cows was studied from birth onwards and during two lactations. The management, environment and parental genetics of the cows were known in detail. Cluster analysis identified four performance 'types': high-yielding (HY) cows and persistently high-yielding (PHY) cows, which accounted for 33% of the animals; medium-yielding (MY) cows, 41%; and low-yielding (LY) cows, 26%. Prenatal determinants of the life performance of the progeny were analyzed. Developmental and environmental factors were excluded as determinants of performance (including birth weight, level of passive immunity transfer, growth rate, age at first parturition and reproductive efficiency). Life performance did show minor seasonal effects, with more HY cows but less PHY being born during the cold season (90.1% in HY; 58.3% in PHY v. 81.5%). Instead, the single most important factor influencing life performance of daughters was maternal age. HY cows were born from the youngest mothers (1.89±1.14 parturitions, 3.12±1.42-year old), whereas LY cows were born from the oldest (2.72±1.80 parturitions, 3.97±2.01-year old; P<0.001). Life performance of the dams did not differ among clusters. In addition, metabolic parameters (fat and protein yield) were found to correlate significantly with yields between the first and second lactations (milk yield: r=0.357; fat yield: r=0.211; protein yield: r=0.277; P<0.0001), suggesting the influence of the individual. These results suggest that under optimal health, nutritional and environmental conditions, maternal aging is an important determinant of the life performance of progeny and argue for the need to identify conditions that contribute to health and disease in progeny according to the Developmental Origin of Health and Disease or DOHaD concept. Our findings may help the development of novel management guidelines for dairy farms. PMID:25084160

Astiz, S; Gonzalez-Bulnes, A; Sebastian, F; Fargas, O; Cano, I; Cuesta, P

2014-08-01

72

Impact of maternal breast cancer on school-aged children in Saudi Arabia  

PubMed Central

Background We examine whether mothers with breast cancer told their children about the diagnosis, explore mothers’ perceptions of the impact of doing so on the mother-child relationship, and assess perceptions of how this affected the children. Methods A convenience sample of 28 women with breast cancer ages 35 to 60 was interviewed using a 39-item close-ended questionnaire at the Al-Amoudi Breast Cancer Center of Excellence, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia. Inclusion criteria were having a diagnosis of breast cancer and having school-aged children (ages 5 to 16 years). Questions were asked concerning each child (n?=?99). Results The majority of women (75%) told their children about the diagnosis, and explained the treatment (61%). In most cases, telling the children had a positive effect on how the children treated their mothers (84%), on the maternal-child relationship (80%), and on the personality and behavior of the child (90%). The most common negative reaction by children was increased clinging behavior to the mother (15%). Despite the perceived positive impact on the mother-child relationship and on the child’s overall behavior towards the mother, school performance suffered as a result (77%). Conclusions These preliminary results suggest that when a mother with breast cancer tells a child about the diagnosis and discusses it with them, this often results in an improvement in the maternal-child relationship. However, the knowing the mother’s diagnosis may adversely affect the child’s school performance, which will need to be anticipated and addressed with formal counseling if it persists. PMID:24758552

2014-01-01

73

Preeclampsia complicated by advanced maternal age: a registry-based study on primiparous women in Finland 1997–2008  

PubMed Central

Background Preeclampsia is a frequent syndrome and its cause has been linked to multiple factors, making prevention of the syndrome a continuous challenge. One of the suggested risk factors for preeclampsia is advanced maternal age. In the Western countries, maternal age at first delivery has been steadily increasing, yet few studies have examined women of advanced maternal age with preeclampsia. The purpose of this registry-based study was to compare the obstetric outcomes in primiparous and preeclamptic women younger and older than 35 years. Methods The registry-based study used data from three Finnish health registries: Finnish Medical Birth Register, Finnish Hospital Discharge Register and Register of Congenital Malformations. The sample contained women under 35 years of age (N?=?15,437) compared with those 35 and over (N?=?2,387) who were diagnosed with preeclampsia and had their first singleton birth in Finland between 1997 and 2008. In multivariate modeling, the main outcome measures were Preterm delivery (before 34 and 37 weeks), low Apgar score (5 min.), small-for-gestational-age, fetal death, asphyxia, Cesarean delivery, induction, blood transfusion and admission to a Neonatal Intensive Care Unit. Results Women of advanced maternal age (AMA) exhibited more preeclampsia (9.4%) than younger women (6.4%). They had more prior terminations (<0.001), were more likely to have a body mass index (BMI) >25 (<0.001), had more in vitro fertilization (IVF) (<0.001) and other fertility treatments (<0.001) and a higher incidence of maternal diabetes (<0.001) and chronic hypertension (<0.001). Multivariate logistic regression indicated that women of AMA had higher rates of: preterm delivery before 37 weeks 19.2% (OR 1.39 CI 1.24 to 1.56) and before 34 weeks 8.7% (OR 1.68 CI 1.43 to 2.00) low Apgar scores at 5 min. 7.1% (OR 1.37 CI 1.00 to 1.88), Small-for-Gestational Age (SGA) 26.5% (OR 1.42 CI 1.28 to 1.57), Asphyxia 12.1% (OR 1.54 CI 1.34 to 1.77), Caesarean delivery 50% (OR 2.02 CI 1.84 to 2.20) and admission to a Neonatal Intensive Care Unit (NICU) 31.6% (OR 1.45 CI 1.32 to 1.60). Conclusions Preeclampsia is more common in women with advanced maternal age. Advanced maternal age is an independent risk factor for adverse outcomes in first-time mothers with preeclampsia. PMID:22687260

2012-01-01

74

Maternal vitamin D status during pregnancy and bone mass in offspring at 20 years of age: a prospective cohort study.  

PubMed

It is uncertain whether the vitamin D status of pregnant women influences bone mass of their children. Cohort studies have yielded conflicting results; none have examined offspring at skeletal maturity. This longitudinal, prospective study investigated the association between maternal vitamin D status and peak bone mass of offspring in 341 mother and offspring pairs in the Western Australian Pregnancy Cohort (Raine) Study. Maternal serum samples collected at 18 weeks gestation were assayed for 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25OHD). Outcomes were total body bone mineral content (BMC) and bone mineral density (BMD) measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry in offspring at 20 years of age. The mean (±?SD) maternal serum 25OHD concentration was 57.2?±?19.2 nmol/L; 132 women (38.7%) were vitamin D-deficient (25OHD <50 nmol/L). After adjustment for season of sample collection, maternal factors, and offspring factors (sex, birth weight, and age, height, lean mass, and fat mass at 20 years), maternal 25OHD concentration was positively associated with total body BMC and BMD in offspring, with a mean difference of 19.2 (95% confidence interval [CI], 5.6-32.7) g for BMC and 4.6 (95% CI, 0.1-9.1) mg/cm(2) for BMD per 10.0 nmol/L of maternal 25OHD. Maternal vitamin D deficiency was associated with 2.7% lower total body BMC (mean?±?SE) (2846?±?20 versus 2924?±?16?g, p?=?0.004) and 1.7% lower total body BMD (1053?±?7 versus 1071?±?5?mg/cm(2) , p?=?0.043) in the offspring. We conclude that vitamin D deficiency in pregnant women is associated with lower peak bone mass in their children. This may increase fracture risk in the offspring in later life. PMID:24189972

Zhu, Kun; Whitehouse, Andrew J O; Hart, Prue H; Kusel, Merci; Mountain, Jenny; Lye, Stephen; Pennell, Craig; Walsh, John P

2014-01-01

75

The Associations of Prenatal Substance Use To Birth Outcomes and Infant Death: Do They Vary by Maternal Age and Race?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examined whether associations between prenatal substance use and birth and infant outcomes varied by maternal age and race. Data on all singleton live births in Minnesota from 1990-98 indicated that poor birth outcomes and infant death were generally lower for whites than for African Americans and American Indians. Prenatal substance use varied by…

Hellerstedt, Wendy L.; Johnson, Pamela Jo; Oswald, John W.

2002-01-01

76

Maternal but not paternal fat mass is positively associated with infant fat mass at age 2 weeks  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Maternal programming of fetal metabolism has been demonstrated in animal studies, while clinical studies have shown an association between pre-pregnancy body mass index (BMI) and anthropometric measures in infants. Here we report on the association between infant body composition at age 2 weeks and ...

77

Mitochondrial SIRT5 is present in follicular cells and is altered by reduced ovarian reserve and advanced maternal age.  

PubMed

Women with reduced ovarian reserve or advanced maternal age have an altered metabolic follicular microenvironment. As sirtuin 5 (SIRT5) senses cellular metabolic state and post-translationally alters protein function, its activity may directly impact on oocyte viability and pregnancy outcome. Therefore, we investigated the role of SIRT5 in relation to ovarian reserve and maternal age. Women (n=47) undergoing routine IVF treatment were recruited and allocated to one of three cohorts based on ovarian reserve and maternal age. Surplus follicular fluid, granulosa and cumulus cells were collected. SIRT5 mRNA, protein and protein activity was confirmed in granulosa and cumulus cells via qPCR, immunohistochemistry, western blotting and desuccinylation activity. The presence of carbamoyl phosphate synthase I (CPS1), a target of SIRT5, was investigated by immunohistochemistry and follicular-fluid ammonium concentrations determined via microfluorometry. Women with reduced ovarian reserve or advanced maternal age had decreased SIRT5 mRNA, protein and desuccinylation activity in granulosa and cumulus cells resulting in an accumulation of follicular-fluid ammonium, presumably via alterations in activity of a SIRT5 target, CPS1, which was present in granulosa and cumulus cells. This suggests a role for SIRT5 in influencing oocyte quality and IVF outcomes. PMID:23978077

Pacella-Ince, Leanne; Zander-Fox, Deirdre L; Lane, Michelle

2014-10-01

78

Germline Mosaicism Does Not Explain the Maternal Age Effect on Trisomy  

PubMed Central

A variety of hypotheses have been proposed to explain the association between trisomy and increasing maternal age in humans, virtually all of which assume that the underlying mechanisms involve meiotic errors. However, recently Hultén and colleagues [Hulten et al., 2010b] proposed a provocative model—the Oocyte Mosaicism Selection Model (OMSM)—that links age-dependent trisomy 21 to pre-meiotic errors in the ovary. Specifically, they propose that nondisjunctional events occur in a proportion of germ cells as they mitotically proliferate, resulting in mosaicism for trisomy 21. Assuming that the presence of an additional chromosome 21 delays meioticprogression, these cells would be ovulated later in reproductive life, resulting in an age-dependent increase in aneuploid eggs. Because this model has important clinical implications, we initiated studies to test it. We first analyzed oocytes from two trisomy 21 fetuses, combining immunostaining with FISH to determine the likelihood of detecting the additional chromosome 21 at different stages of meiosis. The detection of trisomy was enhanced during the earliest stage of prophase (leptotene), before homologs synapsed. Accordingly, in subsequent studies we examined the chromosome content of leptotene oocytes in seven second trimester female fetuses, analyzing three chromosomes commonly associated with human trisomies (i.e., 13, 16, and 21). In contrast to the prediction of the OMSM, we found no evidence of trisomy mosaicism for any chromosome. We conclude that errors in premeiotic germ cells are not a major contributor to human aneuploidy and do not provide an explanation for the age-related increase in trisomic conceptions. PMID:23950106

Rowsey, Ross; Kashevarova, Anna; Murdoch, Brenda; Dickenson, Carrie; Woodruff, Tracey; Cheng, Edith; Hunt, Patricia; Hassold, Terry

2014-01-01

79

Maternal Plasma Phosphatidylcholine Fatty Acids and Atopy and Wheeze in the Offspring at Age of 6 Years  

PubMed Central

Variation in exposure to polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) might influence the development of atopy, asthma, and wheeze. This study aimed to determine whether differences in PUFA concentrations in maternal plasma phosphatidylcholine are associated with the risk of childhood wheeze or atopy. For 865 term-born children, we measured phosphatidylcholine fatty acid composition in maternal plasma collected at 34 weeks' gestation. Wheezing was classified using questionnaires at 6, 12, 24, and 36 months and 6 years. At age of 6 years, the children underwent skin prick testing, fractional exhaled nitric oxide (FENO) measurement, and spirometry. Maternal n-6 fatty acids and the ratio of n-3 to n-6 fatty acids were not associated with childhood wheeze. However, higher maternal eicosapentaenoic acid, docosahexaenoic acid, and total n-3 fatty acids were associated with reduced risk of non-atopic persistent/late wheeze (RR 0.57, 0.67 and 0.69, resp. P = 0.01, 0.015, and 0.021, resp.). Maternal arachidonic acid was positively associated with FENO (P = 0.024). A higher ratio of linoleic acid to its unsaturated metabolic products was associated with reduced risk of skin sensitisation (RR 0.82, P = 0.013). These associations provide some support for the hypothesis that variation in exposure to n-6 and n-3 fatty acids during pregnancy influences the risk of childhood wheeze and atopy. PMID:23049600

Pike, Katharine C.; Calder, Philip C.; Inskip, Hazel M.; Robinson, Sian M.; Roberts, Graham C.; Cooper, Cyrus; Godfrey, Keith M.; Lucas, Jane S. A.

2012-01-01

80

Risk factors for antepartum stillbirth and the influence of maternal age in New South Wales Australia: A population based study  

PubMed Central

Background Maternal age is a known risk factor for stillbirth and delayed childbearing is a societal norm in developed country settings. The timing and reasons for age being a risk factor are less clear. This study aimed to document the gestational specific risk of maternal age throughout pregnancy and whether the underlying causes of stillbirth differ for older women. Methods Using linkage of state maternity and perinatal death data collections the authors assessed risk factors for antepartum stillbirth in New South Wales Australia for births between 2002 – 2006 (n = 327,690) using a Cox proportional hazards model. Gestational age specific risk was calculated for different maternal age groups. Deaths were classified according to the Perinatal Mortality Classifications of the Perinatal Society of Australia and New Zealand. Results Maternal age was a significant independent risk factor for antepartum stillbirth (35 – 39 years HR 1.4 95% CI 1.12 – 1.75; ? 40 years HR 2.41 95% CI 1.8 – 3.23). Other significant risk factors were smoking HR 1.82 (95% CI 1.56 –2.12) nulliparity HR 1.23 (95% CI 1.08 – 1.40), pre-existing hypertension HR 2.77 (95% CI 1.94 – 3.97) and pre-existing diabetes HR 2.65 (95% CI 1.63 – 4.32). For women aged 40 or over the risk of antepartum stillbirth beyond 40 weeks was 1 in 455 ongoing pregnancies compared with 1 in 1177 ongoing pregnancies for those under 40. This risk was increased in nulliparous women to 1 in 247 ongoing pregnancies. Unexplained stillbirths were the most common classification for all women, stillbirths classified as perinatal infection were more common in the women aged 40 or above. Conclusions Women aged 35 or older in a first pregnancy should be counselled regarding stillbirth risk at the end of pregnancy to assist with informed decision making regarding delivery. For women aged 40 or older in their first pregnancy it would be reasonable to offer induction of labour by 40 weeks gestation. PMID:23324309

2013-01-01

81

Placental DNA methylation alterations associated with maternal tobacco smoking at the RUNX3 gene are also associated with gestational age  

PubMed Central

Aims The developmental origins of health and disease hypothesis states that later-life disease may be influenced by the quality of the in utero environment. Environmental toxicants can have detrimental effects on fetal development, potentially through effects on placental development and function. Maternal smoking during pregnancy is associated with low birth weight, preterm birth and other complications, and exposure to cigarette smoke in utero has been linked to gross pathologic and molecular changes to the placenta, including differential DNA methylation in placental tissue. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between maternal smoking during pregnancy, methylation changes in the placenta and gestational age. Materials & methods We used Illumina®’s (CA, USA) Human Methylation27 BeadChip technology platform to investigate the methylation status of 21,551 autosomal, non-SNP-associated CpG loci in DNA extracted from 206 human placentas and examined loci whose variation in methylation was associated with maternal smoking during pregnancy. Results We found that methylation patterns of a number of loci within the RUNX3 gene were significantly associated with smoking during pregnancy, and one of these loci was associated with decreased gestational age (p = 0.04). Conclusion Our findings, demonstrating maternal smoking-induced changes in DNA methylation at specific loci, suggest a mechanism by which in utero tobacco smoke exposure could exert its detrimental effects upon the health of the fetus. PMID:24283877

Maccani, Jennifer ZJ; Koestler, Devin C; Houseman, Eugene Andrés; Marsit, Carmen J; Kelsey, Karl T

2014-01-01

82

Predicting Elements of Early Maternal Elaborative Discourse from 12 to 18 Months of Age  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

To date, much of the research investigating maternal-child discourse has focused on the preschool period of children's development, with little attention paid to how these styles develop. The current study aimed to assess whether maternal elaborative discourse elements seen in preschool are also evident during the toddler years, and whether the…

Ontai, Lenna L.; Virmani, Elita Amini

2010-01-01

83

Are Maternal Genitourinary Infection and Pre-Eclampsia Associated with ADHD in School-Aged Children?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: To investigate the hypothesis that maternal genitourinary infection (GU) infection is associated with increased risk of ADHD. Method: The authors obtained linked Medicaid billing data for pregnant women and their children in South Carolina, with births from 1996 through 2002 and follow-up data through 2008. Maternal GU infections and…

Mann, Joshua R.; McDermott, Suzanne

2011-01-01

84

Maternal Psychological Distress during Pregnancy in Relation to Child Development at Age Two  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Concern exists that a constellation of negative maternal emotions during pregnancy generates persistent negative consequences for child development. Maternal reports of anxiety, pregnancy-specific and nonspecific stress, and depressive symptoms were collected during mid-pregnancy and at 6 weeks and 24 months after birth in a sample of healthy…

DiPietro, Janet A.; Novak, Matthew F. S. X.; Costigan, Kathleen A.; Atella, Lara D.; Reusing, Sarah P.

2006-01-01

85

The association between advanced maternal and paternal ages and increased adult mortality is explained by early parental loss.  

PubMed

The association between advanced maternal and paternal ages at birth and increased mortality among adult offspring is often attributed to parental reproductive aging, e.g., declining oocyte or sperm quality. Less attention has been paid to alternative mechanisms, including parental socio-demographic characteristics or the timing of parental death. Moreover, it is not known if the parental age-adult mortality association is mediated by socioeconomic attainment of the children, or if it varies over the lifecourse of the adult children. We used register-based data drawn from the Finnish 1950 census (sample size 89,737; mortality follow-up 1971-2008) and discrete-time survival regression with logit link to analyze these alternative mechanisms in the parental age-offspring mortality association when the children were aged 35-49 and 50-72. Consistent with prior literature, we found that adult children of older parents had increased mortality relative to adults whose parents were aged 25-29 at the time of birth. For example, maternal and paternal ages 40-49 were associated with mortality odds ratios (ORs) of 1.31 (p<.001) and 1.22 (p<.01), respectively, for offspring mortality at ages 35-49. At ages 50-72 advanced parental age also predicted higher mortality, though not as strongly. Adjustment for parental socio-demographic characteristics (education, occupation, family size, household crowding, language) weakened the associations only slightly. Adjustment for parental survival, measured by whether the parents were alive when the child reached age 35, reduced the advanced parental age coefficients substantially and to statistically insignificant levels. These results indicate that the mechanism behind the advanced parental age-adult offspring mortality association is mainly social, reflecting early parental loss and parental characteristics, rather than physiological mechanisms reflecting reproductive aging. PMID:24997641

Myrskylä, Mikko; Elo, Irma T; Kohler, Iliana V; Martikainen, Pekka

2014-10-01

86

Genetic moderation of effects of maternal sensitivity on girl's age of menarche: Replication of the Manuck et al. study.  

PubMed

Manuck, Craig, Flory, Halder, and Ferrell (2011) reported that a theoretically anticipated effect of family rearing on girls' menarcheal age was genetically moderated by two single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of the estrogen receptor-? gene. We sought to replicate and extend these findings, studying 210 White females followed from birth. The replication was general because a different measure of the rearing environment was used in this inquiry (i.e., maternal sensitivity) than in the prior one (i.e., family cohesion). Extensions of the work included prospective rather than retrospective measurements of the rearing environment, reports of first menstruation within a year of its occurrence rather than decades later, accounting for some heritability of menarcheal age by controlling for maternal age of menarche, and using a new model-fitting approach to competitively compare diathesis-stress versus differential-susceptibility models of Gene × Environment interaction. The replication/extension effort proved successful in the case of both estrogen receptor-? SNPs, with the Gene × Environment interactions principally reflecting diathesis-stress: lower levels of maternal sensitivity predicted earlier age of menarche for girls homozygous for the minor alleles of either SNP but not for girls carrying other genotypes. Results are discussed in light of the new analytic methods adopted. PMID:25195863

Hartman, Sarah; Widaman, Keith F; Belsky, Jay

2014-09-01

87

Adjustment of birth weight standards for maternal and infant characteristics improves the prediction of outcome in the small-for-gestational-age infant  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVE: Birth weight is a function of gestational age. Various maternal and infant characteristics also affect birth weight. This study sought to adjust for these factors to better define abnormal growth. STUDY DESIGN: Maternal and infant characteristics from normal pregnancies were correlated with birth weight. A formula was developed and applied to a second group in which we compared perinatal

Sciscione; Callan

1996-01-01

88

Maternal age effect and severe germ-line bottleneck in the inheritance of human mitochondrial DNA  

PubMed Central

The manifestation of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) diseases depends on the frequency of heteroplasmy (the presence of several alleles in an individual), yet its transmission across generations cannot be readily predicted owing to a lack of data on the size of the mtDNA bottleneck during oogenesis. For deleterious heteroplasmies, a severe bottleneck may abruptly transform a benign (low) frequency in a mother into a disease-causing (high) frequency in her child. Here we present a high-resolution study of heteroplasmy transmission conducted on blood and buccal mtDNA of 39 healthy mother–child pairs of European ancestry (a total of 156 samples, each sequenced at ?20,000× per site). On average, each individual carried one heteroplasmy, and one in eight individuals carried a disease-associated heteroplasmy, with minor allele frequency ?1%. We observed frequent drastic heteroplasmy frequency shifts between generations and estimated the effective size of the germ-line mtDNA bottleneck at only ?30–35 (interquartile range from 9 to 141). Accounting for heteroplasmies, we estimated the mtDNA germ-line mutation rate at 1.3 × 10?8 (interquartile range from 4.2 × 10?9 to 4.1 × 10?8) mutations per site per year, an order of magnitude higher than for nuclear DNA. Notably, we found a positive association between the number of heteroplasmies in a child and maternal age at fertilization, likely attributable to oocyte aging. This study also took advantage of droplet digital PCR (ddPCR) to validate heteroplasmies and confirm a de novo mutation. Our results can be used to predict the transmission of disease-causing mtDNA variants and illuminate evolutionary dynamics of the mitochondrial genome. PMID:25313049

Rebolledo-Jaramillo, Boris; Su, Marcia Shu-Wei; Stoler, Nicholas; McElhoe, Jennifer A.; Dickins, Benjamin; Blankenberg, Daniel; Chiaromonte, Francesca; Nielsen, Rasmus; Holland, Mitchell M.; Paul, Ian M.; Nekrutenko, Anton; Makova, Kateryna D.

2014-01-01

89

Maternal age effect and severe germ-line bottleneck in the inheritance of human mitochondrial DNA.  

PubMed

The manifestation of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) diseases depends on the frequency of heteroplasmy (the presence of several alleles in an individual), yet its transmission across generations cannot be readily predicted owing to a lack of data on the size of the mtDNA bottleneck during oogenesis. For deleterious heteroplasmies, a severe bottleneck may abruptly transform a benign (low) frequency in a mother into a disease-causing (high) frequency in her child. Here we present a high-resolution study of heteroplasmy transmission conducted on blood and buccal mtDNA of 39 healthy mother-child pairs of European ancestry (a total of 156 samples, each sequenced at ?20,000× per site). On average, each individual carried one heteroplasmy, and one in eight individuals carried a disease-associated heteroplasmy, with minor allele frequency ?1%. We observed frequent drastic heteroplasmy frequency shifts between generations and estimated the effective size of the germ-line mtDNA bottleneck at only ?30-35 (interquartile range from 9 to 141). Accounting for heteroplasmies, we estimated the mtDNA germ-line mutation rate at 1.3 × 10(-8) (interquartile range from 4.2 × 10(-9) to 4.1 × 10(-8)) mutations per site per year, an order of magnitude higher than for nuclear DNA. Notably, we found a positive association between the number of heteroplasmies in a child and maternal age at fertilization, likely attributable to oocyte aging. This study also took advantage of droplet digital PCR (ddPCR) to validate heteroplasmies and confirm a de novo mutation. Our results can be used to predict the transmission of disease-causing mtDNA variants and illuminate evolutionary dynamics of the mitochondrial genome. PMID:25313049

Rebolledo-Jaramillo, Boris; Su, Marcia Shu-Wei; Stoler, Nicholas; McElhoe, Jennifer A; Dickins, Benjamin; Blankenberg, Daniel; Korneliussen, Thorfinn S; Chiaromonte, Francesca; Nielsen, Rasmus; Holland, Mitchell M; Paul, Ian M; Nekrutenko, Anton; Makova, Kateryna D

2014-10-28

90

Maternal selenium, copper and zinc concentrations in pregnancy associated with small-for-gestational-age infants.  

PubMed

Pregnancy during adolescence increases the risk of adverse pregnancy outcome, especially small-for-gestational-age (SGA) birth, which has been linked to micronutrient deficiencies. Smoking has been shown to be related to lower micronutrient concentrations. Different ethnicities have not been examined. We used a subset from a prospective observational study, the About Teenage Eating study consisting of 126 pregnant adolescents (14-18-year-olds) between 28 and 32 weeks gestation. Micronutrient status was assessed by inductively coupled mass spectrometry. Smoking was assessed by self-report and plasma cotinine, and SGA was defined as infants born <10th corrected birthweight centile. The main outcome measures were as follows: (1) maternal plasma selenium, copper and zinc concentrations in adolescent mothers giving birth to SGA vs. appropriate-for-gestational-age (AGA) infants; and (2) comparison of micronutrient concentrations between women of different ethnicities and smoking habits. The plasma selenium {mean ± standard deviation (SD) [95% confidence interval (CI)]} concentration was lower in the SGA [n = 19: 49.4 ± 7.3 (CI: 45.9, 52.9) µg L(-1)] compared with the AGA [n = 107: 65.1 ± 12.5 (CI: 62.7, 67.5) µg L(-1); P < 0.0001] group. Smoking mothers had a lower selenium concentration compared with non-smokers (P = 0.01) and Afro-Caribbean women had higher selenium concentrations compared with White Europeans (P = 0.02). Neither copper nor zinc concentrations varied between groups. Low plasma selenium concentration in adolescent mothers could contribute to the risk of delivering an SGA infant, possibly through lowering placental antioxidant defence, thus directly affecting fetal growth. Differences in plasma selenium between ethnicities may relate to variation in nutritional intake, requiring further investigation. PMID:22784110

Mistry, Hiten D; Kurlak, Lesia O; Young, Scott D; Briley, Annette L; Pipkin, Fiona Broughton; Baker, Philip N; Poston, Lucilla

2014-07-01

91

Median Logic Alexander Sakharov  

E-print Network

SPb. Math. Society Preprint 2004­12 13 Dec 2004 Median Logic Alexander Sakharov alex@sakharov.net http://alex.sakharov.net Abstract Median logic introduced here is a minimal intermediate logic not containing propositional symbols. A sequent calculus and other formulations are presented for median logic

92

Maternal Factors Influencing Infant Total Body Iron at Birth and Four Months of Age  

E-print Network

Iron is necessary in fetal development, however little research has been conducted to assess factors that affect both maternal and fetal total body iron. The objective of this research is to investigate infant iron status ...

Scroggs, Sarah Catherine

2011-05-31

93

Six year survey of screening for Down's syndrome by maternal age and mid-trimester ultrasound scans  

PubMed Central

Objective To assess the effectiveness of antenatal screening for Down's syndrome by maternal age and routine mid-pregnancy ultrasound scanning. Design Retrospective six year survey. Setting Maternity units of a district general hospital. Subjects Pregnant women booked for delivery in hospital between 1 January 1993 and 31 December 1998. Main outcome measures All cases of Down's syndrome occurring in district identified from regional congenital anomaly register and cytogenetic laboratory records. Women's case notes were examined to identify indication for karyotyping, gestation at diagnosis, and outcome of pregnancy. Results 31?259 deliveries occurred during study period, and 57 cases of Down's syndrome were identified, four in failed pregnancies and 53 in ongoing pregnancies or in neonates. The analysis was confined to ongoing pregnancies or liveborn children. Invasive antenatal tests were performed in 6.6% (2053/31?259), and 68% (95% confidence interval 56% to 80%) of cases of Down's syndrome were detected antenatally, giving a positive predictive value of 1.8%. There were 17 undetected cases, and in seven of these the women had declined an offer of invasive testing. In women aged less than 35 years the detection rate was 53% (30% to 76%). Most of the cases detected in younger women followed identification of ultrasound anomalies. Conclusions The overall detection rate was considerably higher than assumed in demonstration projects for serum screening. As a result, the benefits of serum screening are much less than supposed. Before any new methods to identify Down's syndrome are introduced, such as nuchal translucency or first trimester serum screening, the techniques should be tested in properly controlled trials. Key messagesSerum screening for Down's syndrome has never been compared with screening by maternal age in a controlled trialThis study examined the effectiveness of screening by maternal age in combination with mid-trimester ultrasound scanningThe overall detection rate was 68%, considerably more effective than assumed in demonstration projects of serum screeningThe benefits of serum screening, compared with screening by maternal age in conjunction with routine fetal anomaly scanning, may be much less than supposedA higher standard of evidence should be demanded before proposed new screening methods are adopted PMID:10698877

Howe, David T; Gornall, Robert; Wellesley, Diana; Boyle, Tracy; Barber, John

2000-01-01

94

Effect of intubation and mechanical ventilation on exhaled nitric oxide in preterm infants with and without bronchopulmonary dysplasia measured at a median postmenstrual age of 49 weeks  

PubMed Central

Background Exhaled nitric oxide (eNO) is a marker of established airway inflammation in adults and children, but conflicting results have been reported in preterm infants when postnatal eNO is measured during tidal breathing. This study investigated the extent to which intubation and mechanical ventilation (MV) affect eNO and NO production (V’NO) in preterm infants with and without bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD). Patients and methods A total of 176 very low birth weight (VLBW) infants (birth weight <1500 g), including 74 (42%) with and 102 (58%) without BPD, were examined at a median postmenstrual age of 49 weeks. Of the 176 infants, 84 (48%) did not require MV, 47 (27%) required MV for <7 days and 45 (26%) required MV for ?7 days. Exhaled NO and tidal breathing parameters were measured in sleeping infants during tidal breathing, respiratory mechanics were assessed by occlusion tests, and arterialized capillary blood gas was analyzed. Results eNO was significantly correlated with tidal breathing parameters, while V’NO was correlated with growth parameters, including age and body length (p?

2014-01-01

95

Maternal nutritional risk factors for small for gestational age babies in a developed country: a case-control study  

PubMed Central

Aims: To assess the effect of maternal diet during pregnancy on the risk of delivering a baby who is small for gestational age (SGA). Methods: Case-control study of 844 cases (SGA) and 870 controls (appropriate size for gestational age (AGA)). Only term (37+ completed weeks of gestation) infants were included. Retrospective food frequency questionnaires were completed at birth on the diet at the time of conception and in the last month of pregnancy. Results: At the time of conception, mothers of AGA infants ate significantly more servings of carbohydrate rich food and fruit, and were more likely to have taken folate and vitamin supplements than mothers of SGA infants. There was some evidence that mothers of AGA infants also ate more servings of dairy products, meat, and fish (0.05 < p < 0.1). However, after adjustment for maternal ethnicity, smoking, height, weight, hypertension, and occupation, fish intake (p  =  0.04), carbohydrate-rich foods (p  =  0.04), and folate supplementation (p  =  0.02) were associated with a reduced risk of SGA. In the last month of pregnancy, only iron supplementation was associated with a reduced risk of SGA (p  =  0.05) after adjustment for potential confounders. Conclusions: This study suggests that small variations in maternal diets within the normal range during pregnancy in developed countries are associated with differences in birth weight. PMID:15321964

Mitchell, E; Robinson, E; Clark, P; Becroft, D; Glavish, N; Pattison, N; Pryor, J; Thompson, J; Wild, C

2004-01-01

96

Preterm Birth in the United States: The Impact of Stressful Life Events Prior to Conception and Maternal Age  

PubMed Central

Objectives We determined whether and to what extent a woman’s exposure to stressful life events prior to conception (PSLEs) was associated with preterm birth and whether maternal age modified this relationship. Methods We examined 9350 mothers and infants participating in the first wave of the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study, Birth Cohort, a nationally representative sample of US women and children born in 2001, to investigate the impact of PSLEs on preterm birth in the United States. We estimated the effect of exposure on preterm birth with weighted logistic regression, adjusting for maternal sociodemographic and health factors and stress during pregnancy. Results Of the women examined, 10.9% had a preterm birth. In adjusted analyses, women aged 15 to 19 years who experienced any PSLE had over a 4-fold increased risk for having a preterm birth. This association differed on the basis of the timing of the PSLE. Conclusions Findings suggest that adolescence may be a sensitive period for the risk of preterm birth among adolescents exposed to PSLEs. Clinical, programmatic, and policy interventions should address upstream PSLEs, especially for adolescents, to reduce the prevalence of preterm birth and improve maternal and child health. PMID:24354830

Witt, Whitney P.; Cheng, Erika R.; Wisk, Lauren E.; Litzelman, Kristin; Chatterjee, Debanjana; Mandell, Kara; Wakeel, Fathima

2014-01-01

97

Decreased amount of ovarian tissue and maternal age affect embryonic development in old rats.  

PubMed

The effects of addition and/or reduction of ovarian tissue and maternal age on ovulation rates (number of corpora lutea) and embryonic development were evaluated in old, regularly cycling rats on Days 4 and 11 of gestation. Young and old control rats and old rats which were either unilaterally ovariectomized (ULO), intact with 2 additional ovaries transplanted under the kidney capsule or ULO with 2 additional ovaries transplanted under the kidney capsule were mated on proestrus of a 4- or 5-day cycle between the 3rd and 9th postoperative cycle. The percentages of normal embryos on Days 4 and 11 of gestation were decreased (P less than 0.05) in the ULO rats, while on a per ovary basis the ovulation rate and ovarian weight were significantly increased in all the ULO rats compared to the old intact rats. An increase in abnormal and retarded embryos each contributed to this decreased percentage of normal Day 4 and Day 11 embryos in the ULO rats (P less than 0.05). Transplantation of ovarian tissue into old intact and ULO rats did not affect either the ovulation rate or the percentage of normal embryos and did not reverse the detrimental effects of unilateral ovariectomy. This could be due to inadequate stimulation or function of the ovarian tissue remaining in the transplants and may arise from a smaller vascular bed and limited blood flow to the transplants. Although regularly cycling young and old control rats had similar ovulation rates, the old control animals had a decreased percentage of normal embryos on Day 11 of gestation, but not on Day 4 of gestation, compared to the young control rats. This decrease in percentage of normal Day 11 embryos in the old intact rats was due mainly to an increase in retarded rather than abnormal embryos. From this study, it is concluded that unilateral ovariectomy of old cycling rats was detrimental to embryonic development. A similar, but more gradual decrease in functional ovarian tissue with aging, could cause the increased incidence of anomalies in embryos of older females. PMID:7126742

Sopelak, V M; Butcher, R L

1982-09-01

98

A Population-based Case-Control Study of Fetal Growth, Gestational Age, and Maternal Breast Cancer  

PubMed Central

Fetal growth or gestational age in a woman's pregnancies may modify pregnancy-related breast cancer risk, yet studies of these exposures are few. The authors conducted a population-based case-control study among parous Michigan women aged ?50 years using linked Michigan Cancer Registry (1985–2004) and Michigan livebirth records (1978–2004). Breast cancer cases (n = 7,591) were matched 1:4 to controls (n = 28,382) on maternal birth year and race. Using conditional logistic regression, the authors examined the associations of gestational age (in weeks) and fetal growth (defined using birth weight percentiles for gestational age) in first and last births with breast cancer risk. Having a small-for-gestational-age or large-for-gestational-age infant at a maternal first or last birth was not associated with breast cancer risk, but having a small-for-gestational-age infant at a last birth at ?30 years modestly reduced risk: odds ratio = 0.82 (95% confidence interval: 0.68, 0.98). First delivery at <32 or >41 weeks also modestly reduced risk: odds ratio = 0.80 (95% confidence interval: 0.62, 1.04) or 0.92 (95% confidence interval: 0.85, 0.99), respectively. In the largest case-control study to date, fetal growth was not associated with overall breast cancer risk in women aged ?50, and there was some evidence for reduced breast cancer risk for early or late gestational age in first births only. PMID:20858745

Nechuta, Sarah; Paneth, Nigel; Pathak, Dorothy R.; Gardiner, Joseph; Copeland, Glenn; Velie, Ellen M.

2010-01-01

99

Maternal age and risk for trisomy 21 assessed by the origin of chromosome nondisjunction: a report from the Atlanta and National Down Syndrome Projects  

PubMed Central

We examined the association between maternal age and chromosome 21 nondisjunction by origin of the meiotic error. We analyzed data from two population-based, case–control studies: Atlanta Down Syndrome Project (1989–1999) and National Down Syndrome Project (2001–2004). Cases were live born infants with trisomy 21 and controls were infants without trisomy 21 delivered in the same geographical regions. We enrolled 1,215 of 1,881 eligible case families and 1,375 of 2,293 controls. We report four primary findings. First, the significant association between advanced maternal age and chromosome 21 nondisjunction was restricted to meiotic errors in the egg; the association was not observed in sperm or in post-zygotic mitotic errors. Second, advanced maternal age was significantly associated with both meiosis I (MI) and meiosis II (MII). For example, compared to mothers of controls, mothers of infants with trisomy 21 due to MI nondisjunction were 8.5 times more likely to be ?40 years old than 20–24 years old at the birth of the index case (95% CI = 5.6–12.9). Where nondisjunction occurred in MII, mothers were 15.1 times more likely to be ?40 years (95% CI = 8.4–27.3). Third, the ratio of MI to MII errors differed by maternal age. The ratio was lower among women <19 years of age and those ?40 years (2.1, 2.3, respectively) and higher in the middle age group (3.6). Lastly, we found no effect of grand-maternal age on the risk for maternal nondisjunction. This study emphasizes the complex association between advanced maternal age and nondisjunction of chromosome 21 during oogenesis. PMID:19050929

Freeman, Sallie B.; Druschel, Charlotte; Hobbs, Charlotte A.; O’Leary, Leslie A.; Romitti, Paul A.; Royle, Marjorie H.; Torfs, Claudine P.; Sherman, Stephanie L.

2010-01-01

100

Elevated plasma urokinase receptor predicts low birth weight in maternal malaria.  

PubMed

The blood level of soluble urokinase receptor (suPAR) is increased and associated with a poor clinical or fatal outcome in children with acute malaria. This study hypothesized that the suPAR level would be associated with foetal outcome in maternal malaria. suPAR was measured by ELISA in maternal and cord plasma samples taken during delivery in 253 pregnant Kenyan women stratified according to placental histology: no malaria infection (non-infected), active or active-chronic infection (actively infected) or past-chronic infection (past-infected). Maternal-suPAR was higher in actively infected women (median 3.93 (IQR 2.92-5.29) ng/mL) compared with non-infected (median 2.78 (IQR 1.86-3.87) ng/mL, P = 0.001) and past-infected (median 2.67 (IQR 1.94-3.7) ng/mL, P = 0.012) women. Cord-suPAR was comparable across the groups (median 2.98 (IQR 2.38-3.77) ng/mL). In actively infected women, maternal-suPAR and gestational age were the only independent predictors of birth weight in multivariate linear regression adjusted for maternal-suPAR, HIV-1 infection, age, BMI, haemoglobin, peripheral parasitaemia, parity and gestational age; 1 ng/mL higher maternal-suPAR predicted -56 g (95% CI -100 to -12, P = 0.016) reduced birth weight. Cord-suPAR could not predict birth weight after adjusting for gestational age. Future studies are warranted to investigate whether the maternal suPAR level is increased earlier in pregnancy in women with active placental malaria infection and whether early maternal suPAR measurements can predict birth weight. If so, measurements of maternal suPAR early in pregnancy might then potentially identify women with increased needs for antenatal care and intervention. PMID:17187653

Ostrowski, S R; Shulman, C E; Peshu, N; Staalsøe, T; Høyer-Hansen, G; Pedersen, B K; Marsh, K; Ullum, H

2007-01-01

101

Behavior Problems at 5 Years of Age and Maternal Mental Health in Autism and Intellectual Disability  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

We examined child behavior problems and maternal mental health in a British population-representative sample of 5 year-old children with an autism spectrum disorder (ASD), controlling for the presence of an intellectual disability (ID). Behavior problems were significantly higher in children with ASD with/out ID compared to typically developing…

Totsika, Vasiliki; Hastings, Richard P.; Emerson, Eric; Berridge, Damon M.; Lancaster, Gillian A.

2011-01-01

102

Maternal Age, Parity and Isolated Birth Defects: A Population-Based Case-Control Study in Shenzhen, China  

PubMed Central

Background The etiology of birth defects has been widely studied but is not yet fully clarified, previously published data had suggested that maternal age or parity maybe involved, but without consistent conclusions. Methods A population-based, case-control study was nested in a cohort of perinatal infants born from 2010 to 2012 in Baoan District, Shenzhen. Four categories of isolated birth defects were defined as cases: congenital heart defects (CHD, n?=?693), polydactyly (n?=?352), cleft lip with or without palate (CL/P, n?=?159) and equinovarus (n?=?119). Controls were non-malformed infants (n?=?11,307) randomly selected from the same area and period. Odds ratios (ORs) and the 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were computed by multivariable unconditional logistic regression analysis. Results Young maternal age (<25 years old) was associated with a reduced risk of CHD (adjusted OR?=?0.73, 95% CI 0.59–0.90), while with an elevated risk of polydactyly (adjusted OR?=?1.42, 95% CI 1.09-1.84). Increased risk of CL/P-affected pregnancy was observed in mothers older than 35 years old (adjusted OR?=?2.12, 95% CI 1.26–3.57). Compared to primipara, those having their second, and third or more delivery were less likely to have infants with equinovarus, with significant adjusted ORs of 0.59 (0.40–0.89) and 0.42 (0.19–0.93), respectively. Conclusion Maternal age was significantly associated with CHD, polydactyly and CL/P relevant pregnancy. Mothers with higher parity might have lower risk of equinovarus occurrence in offsprings. PMID:24282587

Gao, Xiao Hui; Tan, Shu Qin; Li, Jian Mei; Wang, Wei; Chen, Qing

2013-01-01

103

Maternal health and lifestyle and caries experience in preschool children. A longitudinal study from pregnancy to age 5 yr  

PubMed Central

In this study, associations were explored between maternal health and lifestyle during pregnancy and in early childhood and preschool children’s caries experience. The study is based on the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort study conducted by the Norwegian Institute of Public Health and on data from the Public Dental Services. A total of 1348 children were followed from pregnancy to age 5 yr. A clinical dental examination was performed at age 5 yr. Questionnaires were completed by the mothers during pregnancy and the first 18 months of life, and as part of the dental examination. Results from the multivariable logistic regression analysis showed that having an obese mother (OR 2.3, 95% CI 1.3–4.1), with a diet containing more fat (OR 1.6, 95% CI 1.1 – 2.5) or sugar (OR 1.5, 95% CI 1.1–2.3) than recommended, with low education (OR 1.5, 95% CI 1.1–2.3) or having one or both parents of non-western origin (OR 5.4, 95% CI 2.8–10.6) were statistically significant risk indicators for caries experience at age 5 yr. In conclusion, maternal weight and intake of sugar and fat in pregnancy were associated with caries experience in preschool children. These characteristics may enable early referral to the dental services and preventive care to be delivered. PMID:22112032

Wigen, Tove I; Wang, Nina J

2011-01-01

104

Early maternal age at first birth is associated with chronic diseases and poor physical performance in older age: cross-sectional analysis from the International Mobility in Aging Study  

PubMed Central

Background Early maternal age at first birth and elevated parity may have long-term consequences for the health of women as they age. Both are known risk factors for obstetrical complications with lifelong associated morbidities. They may also be related to diabetes and cardiovascular disease development. Methods We examine the relationship between early maternal age at first birth, defined as ?18 years of age, multiparity (>2 births), and poor physical performance (Short Physical Performance Battery ?8) in community samples of women between 65 and 74 years of age from Canada, Albania, Colombia, and Brazil (N?=?1040). Data were collected in 2012 to provide a baseline assessment for a longitudinal cohort called the International Mobility in Aging Study. We used logistic regression and general linear models to analyse the data. Results Early maternal age at first birth is significantly associated with diabetes, chronic lung disease, high blood pressure, and poor physical performance in women at older ages. Parity was not independently associated with chronic conditions and physical performance in older age. After adjustment for study site, age, education, childhood economic adversity and lifetime births, women who gave birth at a young age had 1.75 (95% CI: 1.17 – 2.64) the odds of poor SPPB compared to women who gave birth?>?18 years of age. Adjustment for chronic diseases attenuated the association between early first birth and physical performance. Results were weaker in Colombia and Brazil, than Canada and Albania. Conclusions This study provides evidence that adolescent childbirth may increase the risk of developing chronic diseases and physical limitations in older age. Results likely reflect both the biological and social consequences of early childbearing and if the observed relationship is causal, it reinforces the importance of providing contraception and sex education to young women, as the consequences of early pregnancy may be life-long. PMID:24684705

2014-01-01

105

Maternal perceptions of her child’s body weight in infancy and early childhood and their relation to body weight status at age 7  

Microsoft Academic Search

Introduction  Maternal perception of her child’s weight status has been hypothesised to affect a child’s weight development.Objective  The aim of this analysis was to determine in how far the maternal weight perception of her child’s weight at different ages is related to its future body weight status.Materials and methods  Longitudinal data on body weight, height and skinfolds from the Dortmund Nutritional and Anthropometric

Anja Kroke; Stephanie Strathmann; Anke L. B. Günther

2006-01-01

106

Maternal and Early Childhood Risk Factors for Overweight and Obesity among Low-Income Predominantly Black Children at Age Five Years: A Prospective Cohort Study  

PubMed Central

Objective. To identify maternal and early childhood risk factors for obesity and overweight among children at age 5 in the state of Alabama. Methods. We recruited 740 mothers during early pregnancy from University of Alabama Prenatal Clinics in a prospective cohort study and followed them throughout pregnancy. We followed their children from birth until 5 years of age. The main outcome measure was obesity (BMI for age and sex ? 95th percentile) at 5 years of age. We used poisson regression with robust variance estimation to compute risk ratio (RR). Results. At the 5th year of followup, 71 (9.6%) of the children were obese and 85 (11.5%) were overweight (BMI ? 85th–<95th percentile). In multivariable analysis, maternal prepregnancy overweight (RR: 2.30, 95% CI: 1.29–4.11) and obesity (RR: 2.53, 95% CI: 1.49–4.31), and child's birth weight >85th percentile (RR: 2.04, 95% CI: 1.13–3.68) were associated with childhood obesity. Maternal prepregnancy BMI, birth weight, and maternal smoking were associated with the child being overweight 1–12 cigarettes/day versus 0 cigarettes/day (RR: 1.40, 95% CI: 1.02–1.91). Conclusion. Children of overweight and obese mothers, and children with higher birth weight, are more likely to be obese and overweight at age 5. Maternal smoking 1–12 cigarettes per day is associated with the child being overweight. PMID:23056928

Janjua, Naveed Zafar; Mahmood, Bushra; Islam, M. Aminul; Goldenberg, Robert L.

2012-01-01

107

Maternal and Early Childhood Risk Factors for Overweight and Obesity among Low-Income Predominantly Black Children at Age Five Years: A Prospective Cohort Study.  

PubMed

Objective. To identify maternal and early childhood risk factors for obesity and overweight among children at age 5 in the state of Alabama. Methods. We recruited 740 mothers during early pregnancy from University of Alabama Prenatal Clinics in a prospective cohort study and followed them throughout pregnancy. We followed their children from birth until 5 years of age. The main outcome measure was obesity (BMI for age and sex ? 95th percentile) at 5 years of age. We used poisson regression with robust variance estimation to compute risk ratio (RR). Results. At the 5th year of followup, 71 (9.6%) of the children were obese and 85 (11.5%) were overweight (BMI ? 85th-<95th percentile). In multivariable analysis, maternal prepregnancy overweight (RR: 2.30, 95% CI: 1.29-4.11) and obesity (RR: 2.53, 95% CI: 1.49-4.31), and child's birth weight >85th percentile (RR: 2.04, 95% CI: 1.13-3.68) were associated with childhood obesity. Maternal prepregnancy BMI, birth weight, and maternal smoking were associated with the child being overweight 1-12 cigarettes/day versus 0 cigarettes/day (RR: 1.40, 95% CI: 1.02-1.91). Conclusion. Children of overweight and obese mothers, and children with higher birth weight, are more likely to be obese and overweight at age 5. Maternal smoking 1-12 cigarettes per day is associated with the child being overweight. PMID:23056928

Janjua, Naveed Zafar; Mahmood, Bushra; Islam, M Aminul; Goldenberg, Robert L

2012-01-01

108

Maternal PUFA status but not prenatal methylmercury exposure is associated with children's language functions at age five years in the Seychelles.  

PubMed

Evidence from the Seychelles Child Development Nutrition Study suggests that maternal nutritional status can modulate the relationship between prenatal methylmercury (MeHg) exposure and developmental outcomes in children. The aim of this study was to investigate whether maternal PUFA status was a confounding factor in any possible associations between prenatal MeHg exposure and developmental outcomes at 5 y of age in the Republic of Seychelles. Maternal status of (n-3) and (n-6) PUFA were measured in serum collected at 28 wk gestation and delivery. Prenatal MeHg exposure was determined in maternal hair collected at delivery. At 5 y of age, the children completed a comprehensive range of sensitive developmental assessments. Complete data from 225 mothers and their children were available for analysis. Multiple linear regression analyses revealed Preschool Language Scale scores of the children improved with increasing maternal serum DHA [22:6(n-3)] concentrations and decreased with increasing arachidonic acid [20:4(n-6)] concentrations, albeit verbal intelligence improved with increasing (n-6) PUFA concentrations in maternal serum. There were no adverse associations between MeHg exposure and developmental outcomes. These findings suggest that higher fish consumption, resulting in higher maternal (n-3) PUFA status, during pregnancy is associated with beneficial developmental effects rather than detrimental effects resulting from the higher concomitant exposures of the fetus to MeHg. The association of maternal (n-3) PUFA status with improved child language development may partially explain the authors' previous finding of improving language scores, as prenatal MeHg exposure increased in an earlier mother-child cohort in the Seychelles where maternal PUFA status was not measured. PMID:23014496

Strain, J J; Davidson, Philip W; Thurston, Sally W; Harrington, Donald; Mulhern, Maria S; McAfee, Alison J; van Wijngaarden, Edwin; Shamlaye, Conrad F; Henderson, Juliette; Watson, Gene E; Zareba, Grazyna; Cory-Slechta, Deborah A; Lynch, Miranda; Wallace, Julie M W; McSorley, Emeir M; Bonham, Maxine P; Stokes-Riner, Abbie; Sloane-Reeves, Jean; Janciuras, Joanne; Wong, Rosa; Clarkson, Thomas W; Myers, Gary J

2012-11-01

109

Maternal serum CA 125 is of prognostic value in patients with uterine bleeding in the detection of small-for-gestational-age neonates  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: The purpose of this study was to investigate whether maternal serum CA 125 determination in women with uterine bleeding has a prognostic value in the detection of women at risk for delivering a small-for-gestational-age neonate. Study design: The patients population consisted of women with uterine bleeding at a gestational age greater than 20 weeks. Patients with abruptio placentae, placenta

Moshe Mazor; Asher Bashiri; Fabio Ghezzi; Eli Maymon; Oded Kuperman; Gideon Kopernik; Joseph R. Leiberman

1996-01-01

110

Maternal blood lead effects on infant intelligence at age 7 months  

Microsoft Academic Search

A sample of 7-month-old African-American infants, exposed to maternal blood lead levels less than 5 ?g\\/dL, were assessed with the Fagan test of Infant Intelligence. The results indicate significant effects on memory and cognitive functioning. Specifically, infants who scored in the upper 5th to 15th percentile of novelty preference scores had lower lead values than those scoring in the lower

Eugene Emory; Zehra Ansari; Roland Pattillo; Errol Archibold; Joseph Chevalier

2003-01-01

111

Mean and Median Applet  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The concepts of median and mean are key to understanding statistics, and this rather novel applet from the Mathematical Association of America (MAA) Mathematical Sciences Digital Library is quite a find. The applet was created by Kady Schneiter of Utah State University and it consists of two windows. In the first, the user fills in a grid to create a distribution of numbers and to investigate the mean and median of the distribution. The second window enables users to test their knowledge about the mean and the median. In this window, the applet will display a hypothetical distribution and an unspecified marker. The user will then determine whether the marker indicates the position of the mean of the distribution, the median, both or neither. It's a well-designed instructional tool, and one that can be used in the classroom with ease.

2012-06-01

112

Mode, Median, and Mean  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This application requires students to sort buildings by height to find the Median, Mode, and Mean of each data set. The application works through 6 different data sets and provides feedback for correct and incorrect responses.

2012-01-01

113

Spinning Tops (median)  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

"Students measure distances using standard and non-standard units and record their measurement in various tables. Then they are asked to use descriptive statistics to report the results. During a top-spinning contest, students measure the distance along a curve using indirect measurement. They record the data for their group in a chart and compute their individual median and the group median." from NCTM Illuminations.

Mathematics, Illuminations N.

2010-05-20

114

Advanced maternal age and the risk of Down syndrome characterized by the meiotic stage of the chromosomal error: A population-based study  

SciTech Connect

The identification of DNA polymorphisms makes it possible to classify trisomy 21 according to the parental origin and stage (meiosis I [MI], meiosis II [MII], or postzygotic mitotic) of the chromosomal error. Studying the effect of parental age on these subgroups could shed light on parental exposures and their timing. From 1989 through 1993, 170 infants with trisomy 21 and 267 randomly selected control infants were ascertained in a population-based, case-control study in metropolitan Atlanta. Blood samples for genetic studies were obtained from case infants and their parents. Using logistic regression, we independently examined the association between maternal and paternal age and subgroups of trisomy 21 defined by parental origin and meiotic stage. The distribution of trisomy 21 by origin was 86% maternal (75% MI and 25% MII), 9% paternal (50% MI and 50% MII), and 5% mitotic. Compared with women <25 years of age, women {>=}40 years old had an odds ratio of 5.2 (95% confidence interval, 1.0-27.4) for maternal MI (MMI) errors and 51.4 (95% confidence interval, 2.3-999.0) for maternal MII (MMII) errors. Birth-prevalence rates for women {>=}40 years old were 4.2/1,000 births for MMI errors and 1.9/1,000 births for MMII errors. These results support an association between advanced maternal age and both MMI and MMII errors. The association with MI does not pinpoint the timing of the error; however, the association with MII implies that there is at least one maternal age-related mechanism acting around the time of conception. 16 refs., 1 fig., 2 tabs.

Yoon, P.W.; Khoury, M.J.; Freeman, S.B. [and others

1996-03-01

115

Mean and Median  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

"This applet allows the user to investigate the mean, median, and box-and-whisker plot for a set of data that they create. The data set may contain up to 15 integers, each with a value from 0 to 100." from NCTM Illuminations.

Mathematics, Illuminations N.

2010-05-26

116

Age at Menarche and Natural Menopause and Number of Reproductive Years in Association with Mortality: Results from a Median Follow-Up of 11.2 Years among 31,955 Naturally Menopausal Chinese Women  

PubMed Central

Background Studies conducted in Western countries suggest that early age at menarche and early age at menopause are both associated with increased total mortality, but limited data are available for Asian populations. We examined associations of age at menarche and natural menopause and duration of the reproductive span with mortality in a population-based cohort study of Chinese women. Methods We evaluated the effects of age at menarche, age at natural menopause, and number of reproductive years on total and cause-specific mortality among 31,955 naturally menopausal Chinese women who participated in the Shanghai Women's Health Study, a population-based, prospective cohort study. Results A total of 3,158 deaths occurred during a median follow-up of 11.2 years. Results from Cox proportional hazards models showed that younger age at menopause (<46.64 years) was associated with higher risk of total mortality (Ptrend ?=?0.02). Younger age at menarche (<14 years) was associated with higher risk of mortality from stroke (Ptrend ?=?0.03) and diabetes (Ptrend?=?0.02) but lower risk of mortality from respiratory system cancer (Ptrend ?=?0.01). Women with a shorter reproductive span had lower risk of mortality from gynecological cancers (Ptrend?=?0.03). Conclusions Our study found that menstrual characteristics are important predictors of mortality, suggesting an important role of sex hormones in biological aging. PMID:25090234

Wu, Xiaoyan; Cai, Hui; Kallianpur, Asha; Gao, Yu-Tang; Yang, Gong; Chow, Wong-Ho; Li, Hong-Lan; Zheng, Wei; Shu, Xiao-Ou

2014-01-01

117

Bilateral superficial median arteries  

PubMed Central

A superficial artery may be present in the forearm, arising from the axillary, brachial or superficial brachial arteries and crossing over the origin of the flexor muscles of the forearm to reach the palm (Adachi, 1928; Bergman et al. 1988). When this superficial artery continues as the normal ulnar artery accompanying the ulnar nerve at the wrist, it is referred to as the superficial ulnar artery, with an incidence of ?4%. When the artery passes below or superficial to the flexor retinaculum in the middle of the forearm, sometimes continuing to join the superficial palmar arch, it is called the superficial median artery, with an incidence of ?1%. We have observed a relatively rare variation involving the presence of a superficial median artery in both upper limbs. We discuss the clinical importance and the developmental aspects of this arterial variation. PMID:10386784

NAKATANI, TOSHIO; IZUMI, ATSUSHI; TANAKA, SHIGENORI

1999-01-01

118

321 cytoskeletal alterations of equine oocytes that failed to cleave after intracytoplasmic sperm injection: evaluation of maternal and cell aging.  

PubMed

Intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) is used for assisted fertilization of equine oocytes. However, not all oocytes cleave after ICSI. Maternal aging deleteriously affects fertility in mares and women, with reduced oocyte quality and success of assisted reproductive technologies. In the oocyte, senescence and cell-programmed death begins after maturation; the extent that maternal age affects these events is unknown. We hypothesised that formation of ?/? tubulin asters and f-actin bubbles are associated with aging of the oocyte in vitro and/or aging of the oocyte in vivo, in aged donors. In Exp 1, oocytes were collected from ovaries obtained from an abattoir and matured for 28h and selected for polar body extrusion (0h). At 0, 24, and 48h, oocytes (n=38 total) were fixed in MTSB-XF and transferred into wash solution with 1% BSA and 0.1% Triton X-100 in PBS for immunostaining. For experiment 2, oocytes were collected from preovulatory follicles of mares (9-25 yr) in a clinical ICSI program and injected with sperm from various stallions after extrusion of a polar body. Between 24 to 51h after ICSI, uncleaved oocytes (n=52, single cell without evidence of fragmentation or indentation of the oolemma) were fixed. All oocytes were incubated with ?/? tubulin and human-anti-centromere antibody-CREST/ACA (1:100 each). Following primary incubation, oocytes were washed and incubated with Alexa 488, Alexa 647, Alexa 561-phalloidin, and Hoechst 33258. Images and Z-stacks were acquired on an Olympus IX81 spinning disk confocal microscope. Morphometric and intensity analyses of images were performed using SlideBook software (Denver, CO). Student's t-test, Fisher's exact test, and chi-square analyses were used for statistical comparisons. After aging in vitro (experiment 1), the number of oocytes with tubulin multiasters increased (P<0.001; 9% at 0h, 14% at 24h, 85% at 48h); however, actin bubbling was observed in only 5/38 (13%) oocytes, with no effect of incubation time. In experiment 2, tubulin multiasters were present in 62% of oocytes that failed to cleave. More multiasters were observed per oocyte from mares ?13 yr than ?20 yr (P=0.03) and fixed at 24 to 28h than 44 to 51h (P=0.04). Actin bubbles were observed in 71% of oocytes that failed to cleave after ICSI, with more actin bubbles in oocytes from mares ?20 yr than ?13 yr (P=0.01) and fixed 44 to 51h versus 24 to 28h after ICSI (P=0.05). The sum intensity and area of the actin bubbles were higher in oocytes fixed at 44 to 51h than 24 to 28h (P=0.01 and P=0.04). The area occupied by the actin bubbles was larger (P=0.05) in oocytes from mares ?20 yr than ?13 yr. This study demonstrates actin bubbles and tubulin asters are involved in oocyte aging and cytoskeleton remodelling with or without fertilization. Although actin structures were associated with donor age and hours after ICSI, they were not present in unfertilized oocytes aged in vitro. Multiaster formation was associated with cell senescence in oocytes aged in vitro. Although not previously reported for the equine oocyte, multiaster formation appeared to be an initial fertilization event within the oocyte associated with attempted zygote development. PMID:25472369

Ruggeri, E; DeLuca, K; Galli, C; Lazzari, G; DeLuca, J; Carnevale, E

2014-12-01

119

Early maternal undernutrition programs increased feed intake, altered glucose metabolism and insulin secretion, and liver function in aged female offspring  

PubMed Central

Insulin resistance and obesity are components of the metabolic syndrome that includes development of cardiovascular disease and diabetes with advancing age. The thrifty phenotype hypothesis suggests that offspring of poorly nourished mothers are predisposed to the various components of the metabolic syndrome due to adaptations made during fetal development. We assessed the effects of maternal nutrient restriction in early gestation on feeding behavior, insulin and glucose dynamics, body composition, and liver function in aged female offspring of ewes fed either a nutrient-restricted [NR 50% National Research Council (NRC) recommendations] or control (C: 100% NRC) diet from 28 to 78 days of gestation, after which both groups were fed at 100% of NRC from day 79 to lambing and through lactation. Female lambs born to NR and C dams were reared as a single group from weaning, and thereafter, they were fed 100% NRC recommendations until assigned to this study at 6 yr of age. These female offspring were evaluated by a frequently sampled intravenous glucose tolerance test, followed by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry for body composition analysis prior to and after ad libitum feeding of a highly palatable pelleted diet for 11 wk with automated monitoring of feed intake (GrowSafe Systems). Aged female offspring born to NR ewes demonstrated greater and more rapid feed intake, greater body weight gain, and efficiency of gain, lower insulin sensitivity, higher insulin secretion, and greater hepatic lipid and glycogen content than offspring from C ewes. These data confirm an increased metabolic “thriftiness” of offspring born to NR mothers, which continues into advanced age, possibly predisposing these offspring to metabolic disease. PMID:22277936

George, Lindsey A.; Zhang, Liren; Tuersunjiang, Nuermaimaiti; Ma, Yan; Long, Nathan M.; Uthlaut, Adam B.; Smith, Derek T.; Nathanielsz, Peter W.

2012-01-01

120

2013 incoming class (estimate as of July 31) MEDIAN LSAT  

E-print Network

#12;2013 incoming class (estimate as of July 31) APPLIED MEDIAN GPA MEAN AGE MEDIAN LSAT 25% 3, discrimination, immigration) Human Trafficking Innocence International Transactions Juvenile Justice Legislation

Shyy, Wei

121

Polymorphisms in Maternal and Fetal Genes Encoding for Proteins Involved in Extracellular Matrix Metabolism Alter the Risk for Small-for-Gestational-Age  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE To examine the association between maternal and fetal genetic variants and small-for-gestational-age (SGA). METHODS A case-control study was conducted in patients with SGA neonates (530 maternal and 436 fetal) and controls (599 maternal and 628 fetal); 190 candidate genes and 775 SNPs were studied. Single locus, multilocus and haplotype association analyses were performed on maternal and fetal data with logistic regression, multifactor dimensionality reduction (MDR) analysis, and haplotype-based association with 2 and 3 marker sliding windows, respectively. Ingenuity Pathway Analysis (IPA) software was used to assess pathways that associate with SGA. RESULTS The most significant single locus association in maternal data was with a SNP in tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase 2 (TIMP2) (rs2277698 OR = 1.71 95% CI [1.26-2.32], p = 0.0006) while in the fetus it was with a SNP in fibronectin 1 isoform 3 preproprotein (FN1) (rs3796123, OR = 1.46 95% CI [1.20-1.78], p = 0.0001). Both SNPs were adjusted for potential confounders (maternal body mass index and fetal sex). Haplotype analyses resulted in associations in alpha 1 type I collagen preproprotein (COL1A1, rs1007086-rs2141279-rs17639446, global p = 0.006) in mothers and FN1 (rs2304573-rs1250204-rs1250215, global p = 0.045) in fetuses. Multilocus analyses with MDR identified a two SNP model with maternal variants collagen type V alpha 2 (COL5A2) and plasminogen activator urokinase (PLAU) predicting SGA outcome correctly 59% of the time (p = 0.035). CONCLUSIONS Genetic variants in extracellular matrix related genes showed significant single locus association with SGA. These data are consistent with other studies that have observed elevated circulating fibronectin concentrations in association with increased risk of SGA. The present study supports the hypothesis that DNA variants can partially explain risk of SGA in a cohort of Hispanic women. PMID:20617897

Edwards, Digna R. Velez; Romero, Roberto; Kusanovic, Juan Pedro; Hassan, Sonia S.; Mazaki-Tovi, Shali; Vaisbuch, Edi; Kim, Chong Jai; Erez, Offer; Chaiworapongsa, Tinnakorn; Pearce, Brad D.; Bartlett, Jacquelaine; Friel, Lara A.; Salisbury, Benjamin A.; Anant, Madan Kumar; Vovis, Gerald F.; Lee, Min Seob; Gomez, Ricardo; Behnke, Ernesto; Oyarzun, Enrique; Tromp, Gerard; Menon, Ramkumar; Williams, Scott M.

2011-01-01

122

Crucifixion and median neuropathy  

PubMed Central

Crucifixion as a means of torture and execution was first developed in the 6th century B.C. and remained popular for over 1000 years. Details of the practice, which claimed hundreds of thousands of lives, have intrigued scholars as historical records and archaeological findings from the era are limited. As a result, various aspects of crucifixion, including the type of crosses used, methods of securing victims to crosses, the length of time victims survived on the cross, and the exact mechanisms of death, remain topics of debate. One aspect of crucifixion not previously explored in detail is the characteristic hand posture often depicted in artistic renditions of crucifixion. In this posture, the hand is clenched in a peculiar and characteristic fashion: there is complete failure of flexion of the thumb and index finger with partial failure of flexion of the middle finger. Such a “crucified clench” is depicted across different cultures and from different eras. A review of crucifixion history and techniques, median nerve anatomy and function, and the historical artistic depiction of crucifixion was performed to support the hypothesis that the “crucified clench” results from proximal median neuropathy due to positioning on the cross, rather than from direct trauma of impalement of the hand or wrist. PMID:23785656

Regan, Jacqueline M; Shahlaie, Kiarash; Watson, Joseph C

2013-01-01

123

Patterns of Adolescent Depression to Age 20: The Role of Maternal Depression and Youth Interpersonal Dysfunction  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Considerable research has focused on youth depression, but further information is needed to characterize different patterns of onset and recurrence during adolescence. Four outcome groups by age 20 were defined (early onset-recurrent, early-onset-desisting, later-onset, never depressed) and compared on three variables predictive of youth…

Hammen, Constance; Brennan, Patricia A.; Keenan-Miller, Danielle

2008-01-01

124

Maternal serum screening for Down's syndrome in early pregnancy  

Microsoft Academic Search

The possibility of improving the effectiveness of antenatal screening for Down's syndrome by measuring human chorionic gonadotrophin concentrations in maternal serum during the second trimester to select women for diagnostic amniocentesis was examined. The median maternal serum human chorionic gonadotrophin concentration in 77 pregnancies associated with Down's syndrome was twice the median concentration in 385 unaffected pregnancies matched for maternal

N. J. Wald; H. S. Cuckle; J. W. Densem; K. Nanchahal; P. Royston; T. Chard; J. E. Haddow; G. J. Knight; G. E. Palomaki; J. A. Canick

1988-01-01

125

Maternal Pre-Pregnancy Body Mass Index and Offspring Temperament and Behavior at 1 and 2 Years of Age  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Recent research suggests that fetal exposure to increased maternal body mass index (BMI) during pregnancy may be associated with psychopathology later in life. When this link first emerges, and if it is due to intrauterine exposures or confounding variables is not known. We therefore assessed associations between maternal pre-pregnancy BMI and:…

Van Lieshout, Ryan J.; Schmidt, Louis A.; Robinson, Monique; Niccols, Alison; Boyle, Michael H.

2013-01-01

126

Maternal Periconceptional and Gestational Low Protein Diet Affects Mouse Offspring Growth, Cardiovascular and Adipose Phenotype at 1 Year of Age  

Microsoft Academic Search

Human and animal studies have revealed a strong association between periconceptional environmental factors, such as poor maternal diet, and an increased propensity for cardiovascular and metabolic disease in adult offspring. Previously, we reported cardiovascular and physiological effects of maternal low protein diet (LPD) fed during discrete periods of periconceptional development on 6-month-old mouse offspring. Here, we extend the analysis in

Adam J. Watkins; Emma S. Lucas; Adrian Wilkins; Felino R. A. Cagampang; Tom P. Fleming

2011-01-01

127

The impact of antenatal testing for advanced maternal age on cesarean delivery rate at an urban institution.  

PubMed

Objective?Antenatal testing has been implemented for advanced maternal age (AMA) women given their increased stillbirth risk. Our objective was to evaluate cesarean delivery and induction rates after the start of antenatal testing at our institution. Study Design?A retrospective cohort study of AMA women (? 40 years) who delivered at our institution was performed. Testing for AMA began in 2005. AMA women who delivered before (unexposed) and after (exposed) the implementation were compared. Our primary outcome was cesarean delivery and secondary outcome was induction. Chi-square compared categorical variables and multivariable logistic regression calculated odds ratio (OR) and controlled for confounders. Results?A total of 276 women were included (147 unexposed and 129 exposed). The cesarean rate was higher in the exposed group (53 vs. 39%, OR 1.76 [1.09-2.84]). The increased risk of cesarean remained after adjusting for race, previous cesarean, multiple gestations, and parity (adjusted OR 1.85 [1.05-3.28]). When excluding those with previous cesareans, the risk of primary cesarean was not significant (OR 1.57 [0.89-2.76]). The induction rate was not different (38 vs. 33%, p?=?0.4). Conclusions?While overall cesareans increased, there was no difference in primary cesarean and induction rates for AMA women after implementation of antenatal testing for AMA. PMID:24858316

Levine, Lisa D; Srinivas, Sindhu K; Paré, Emmanuel; Mehta-Lee, Shilpi S

2015-01-01

128

Maternal feeding practices and feeding behaviors of Australian children aged 12-36 months.  

PubMed

To explore parents' perceptions of the eating behaviors and related feeding practices of their young children. Mothers (N=740) of children aged 12-36 months and born in South Australia were randomly selected by birth date in four 6-month age bands from a centralized statewide database and invited to complete a postal questionnaire. Valid completed questionnaires were returned for 374 children (51% response rate; 54% female). Although mothers generally reported being confident and happy in feeding their children, 23% often worried that they gave their child the right amount of food. Based on a checklist of 36 specified items, 15% of children consumed no vegetables in the previous 24 h, 11% no fruit and for a further 8% juice was the only fruit. Of 12 specified high fat/sugar foods and drinks, 11% of children consumed none, 20% one, 26% two, and 43% three or more. Six of eight child-feeding practices that promote healthy eating behaviors were undertaken by 75% parents 'often' or 'all of the time'. However, 8 of 11 practices that do not promote healthy eating were undertaken by a third of mothers at least 'sometimes'. In this representative sample, dietary quality issues emerge early and inappropriate feeding practices are prevalent thus identifying the need for very early interventions that promote healthy food preferences and positive feeding practices. Such programs should focus not just on the 'what', but also the 'how' of early feeding, including the feeding relationship and processes appropriate to developmental stage. PMID:20872057

Chan, L; Magarey, A M; Daniels, L A

2011-11-01

129

Pharmacological anti-thrombotic prophylaxis after elective caesarean delivery in thrombophilia unscreened women: should maternal age have a role in decision making?  

PubMed

In obstetrical practice, the best prevention strategy for pregnant women aged >35 years without known thrombosis risk factors who underwent elective caesarean delivery (CD) is controversial. We performed an observational-longitudinal cohort study on pregnant women aged >35 years who delivered at term by elective caesarean section after a physiological single pregnancy to evaluate the role of maternal age in the decision-making process of whether or not to perform low-molecular-weight heparin (LMWH) prophylaxis during the post-partum period after elective CD in healthy women with unknown inherited thrombophilia status. During the 6 post-partum weeks, we followed two groups: GROUP-A (349 women treated for 7 days with low-molecular-weight heparin) and GROUP-B (180 women not treated with LMWH treatment). The outcomes were as follows: onset of thromboembolic events during the post-partum period; non-obstetrical-linked maternal haemorrhage; blood transfusion; re-laparotomy; detection of a surgical site haematoma; length of hospitalisation; and treatment suspension because of decreased platelet count. Except for the parity number, the two groups were homogeneous with regard to general features. In both the groups, we reported no cases of thromboembolic events during the follow-up period. Maternal haemorrhage requiring transfusion occurred in 16 women in GROUP-A and none in GROUP-B. Among the GROUP-A women, 11 demonstrated a surgical site haematoma and 4 required re-laparotomy. No cases of treatment suspension were reported. Pneumatic compression stockings represent a better, low cost and safe way to prevent post-partum venous thromboembolic episodes after elective caesarean section in an unscreened population. Pharmacological prophylaxis after elective caesarean section should be performed only in case of clear and known adjunctive risk factors, independent of maternal age. PMID:24246285

Gizzo, Salvatore; Noventa, Marco; Anis, Omar; Saccardi, Carlo; Zambon, Alessandra; Di Gangi, Stefania; Tormene, Daniela; Gangemi, Michele; D'Antona, Donato; Nardelli, Giovanni Battista

2014-05-01

130

Maternal Nrf2 and gluthathione-S-transferase polymorphisms do not modify associations of prenatal tobacco smoke exposure with asthma and lung function in school-aged children  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundMaternal smoking during pregnancy has detrimental effects on the respiratory health of infants and children. Polymorphisms of antioxidant genes including glutathione-S-transferases (GSTs) have been proposed as candidates for asthma and reduced lung function in children.MethodsWomen enrolled in the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children reported smoking habits during pregnancy. Asthma status in their children was established at age 7.5

A. J. Henderson; R. B. Newson; M. Rose-Zerilli; S. M. Ring; J. W. Holloway; S. O. Shaheen

2010-01-01

131

Neurobehavioral deficits at age 7 years associated with prenatal exposure to toxicants from maternal seafood diet.  

PubMed

To determine the possible neurotoxic impact of prenatal exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), we analyzed banked cord blood from a Faroese birth cohort for PCBs. The subjects were born in 1986-1987, and 917 cohort members had completed a series of neuropsychological tests at age 7 years. Major PCB congeners (118, 138, 153, and 180), the calculated total PCB concentration, and the PCB exposure estimated in a structural equation model showed weak associations with test deficits, with statistically significant negative associations only with the Boston Naming test. Likewise, neither hexachlorobenzene nor p,p'-dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene showed clear links to neurobehavioral deficits. Thus, these associations were much weaker than those associated with the cord-blood mercury concentration, and adjustment for mercury substantially attenuated the regression coefficients for PCB exposure. When the outcomes were joined into motor and verbally mediated functions in a structural equation model, the PCB effects remained weak and virtually disappeared after adjustment for methylmercury exposure, while mercury remained statistically significant. Thus, in the presence of elevated methylmercury exposure, PCB neurotoxicity may be difficult to detect, and PCB exposure does not explain the methylmercury neurotoxicity previously reported in this cohort. PMID:22705177

Grandjean, Philippe; Weihe, Pal; Nielsen, Flemming; Heinzow, Birger; Debes, Frodi; Budtz-Jørgensen, Esben

2012-07-01

132

Twenty-year trends in the prevalence of Down syndrome and other trisomies in Europe: impact of maternal age and prenatal screening  

PubMed Central

This study examines trends and geographical differences in total and live birth prevalence of trisomies 21, 18 and 13 with regard to increasing maternal age and prenatal diagnosis in Europe. Twenty-one population-based EUROCAT registries covering 6.1 million births between 1990 and 2009 participated. Trisomy cases included live births, fetal deaths from 20 weeks gestational age and terminations of pregnancy for fetal anomaly. We present correction to 20 weeks gestational age (ie, correcting early terminations for the probability of fetal survival to 20 weeks) to allow for artefactual screening-related differences in total prevalence. Poisson regression was used. The proportion of births in the population to mothers aged 35+ years in the participating registries increased from 13% in 1990 to 19% in 2009. Total prevalence per 10?000 births was 22.0 (95% CI 21.7–22.4) for trisomy 21, 5.0 (95% CI 4.8–5.1) for trisomy 18 and 2.0 (95% CI 1.9–2.2) for trisomy 13; live birth prevalence was 11.2 (95% CI 10.9–11.5) for trisomy 21, 1.04 (95% CI 0.96–1.12) for trisomy 18 and 0.48 (95% CI 0.43–0.54) for trisomy 13. There was an increase in total and total corrected prevalence of all three trisomies over time, mainly explained by increasing maternal age. Live birth prevalence remained stable over time. For trisomy 21, there was a three-fold variation in live birth prevalence between countries. The rise in maternal age has led to an increase in the number of trisomy-affected pregnancies in Europe. Live birth prevalence has remained stable overall. Differences in prenatal screening and termination between countries lead to wide variation in live birth prevalence. PMID:22713804

Loane, Maria; Morris, Joan K; Addor, Marie-Claude; Arriola, Larraitz; Budd, Judith; Doray, Berenice; Garne, Ester; Gatt, Miriam; Haeusler, Martin; Khoshnood, Babak; Klungsøyr Melve, Kari; Latos-Bielenska, Anna; McDonnell, Bob; Mullaney, Carmel; O'Mahony, Mary; Queißer-Wahrendorf, Annette; Rankin, Judith; Rissmann, Anke; Rounding, Catherine; Salvador, Joaquin; Tucker, David; Wellesley, Diana; Yevtushok, Lyubov; Dolk, Helen

2013-01-01

133

DNA microarray reveals that high proportions of human blastocysts from women of advanced maternal age are aneuploid and mosaic.  

PubMed

Trophectoderm (TE) biopsy and DNA microarray have become the new technologies for preimplantation genetic diagnosis in humans. In this study, we comprehensively examined aneuploid formation in human blastocysts produced in vitro with microarray and investigated the clinical outcome after transfer of euploid embryos. Biopsied cells from either TE or inner cell mass (ICM) were processed for microarray to examine the errors in 23 pairs of chromosomes and the consistency between TE and ICM. It was found that 56.6% of blastocysts were aneuploid. Further analysis indicated that 62.3% of aneuploid blastocysts had single and 37.7% had multiple chromosomal abnormalities. Chromosome errors could occur in any chromosome, but errors in chromosome 21 accounted for the most (11.3%) among the 23 pairs of chromosomes. Transfer of array-screened blastocysts produced high pregnancy (70.2%) and implantation (63.5%) rates. Microarray of TE and ICM cells in the same blastocysts revealed that high proportions of aneuploid blastocysts (69.2%) were mosaic, including aneuploid TE and euploid ICM, inconsistent anomalies between ICM and TE, or euploid TE cells and aneuploid ICM in the same blastocyst. These results indicate that high proportions of human blastocysts produced in vitro from women of advanced maternal age are aneuploid and mosaic. Errors can occur in any of the 23 pairs of chromosomes in human blastocysts. Biopsy from TE in blastocysts does not exactly predict the chromosomal information in ICM if the embryos are aneuploid. Some mosaic blastocysts have euploid ICM, which may indicate important differentiate mechanism(s) of human preimplantation embryos. PMID:23136294

Liu, Jianqiao; Wang, Weihua; Sun, Xiaofang; Liu, Lian; Jin, Hua; Li, Man; Witz, Craig; Williams, Dan; Griffith, Jason; Skorupski, Josh; Haddad, Gus; Gill, Jimmy

2012-06-01

134

Socio-occupational class, region of birth and maternal age: influence on time to detection of cryptorchidism (undescended testes): a Danish nationwide register study  

PubMed Central

Background Cryptorchidism (undescended testes) is associated with poor male fertility, but can be alleviated and fertility preserved to some degree by early detection and treatment. Here we assess the influence of socio-occupational class, geographical region, maternal age and birth cohort on time to detection and correction of cryptorchidism. Methods All boys born in Denmark, 1981 to 1987 or 1988 to 1994, with a diagnosis of cryptorchidism were identified in nationwide registers. The boys were followed for a diagnosis until their 16th birthday. The age at first diagnosis was noted and used as proxy for time to detection of cryptorchidism. Parental employment in the calendar year preceding birth was grouped into one of five socio-occupational classes. Geographical region was defined by place of birth in one of 15 Danish counties. Detection rate ratios of cryptorchidism were analyzed as a function of parental socio-occupational group, county, maternal age and birth cohort by use of Poisson regression. Results Some 6,059 boys in the early and 5,947 boys in the late cohort received a diagnosis of cryptorchidism. Time to detection was independent of parental socio-occupational group and maternal age but differed slightly between geographical regions. A similar pattern was obtained for surgical correction after a diagnosis. Age at diagnosis decreased by 2.7 years from the early to the late cohort. Conclusions These results indicate that childhood socio-occupational inequality in detection and correction of cryptorchidism would play a negligible role in male infertility in a life course perspective. Geographical region may have exerted some influence, especially for the oldest cohort. PMID:24581337

2014-01-01

135

What patterns of postpartum psychological distress are associated with maternal concerns about their children's emotional and behavioural problems at the age of three years?  

PubMed Central

Mothers experiencing psychological distress in the postpartum period may have difficulties parenting their children. Inconsistent and unresponsive parenting may increase the risk of later emotional and behavioural problems in children. The purpose of this study was to identify how maternal psychological characteristics cluster at eight weeks postpartum, and whether these clusters were associated with maternal-reported child emotional and behavioural problems at the age of three years, as measured by the Parents' Evaluation of Developmental Status (PEDS) questionnaire. In a longitudinal pregnancy cohort (N?=?647), three clusters of postpartum psychological characteristics were identified. Contrary to expectations, mothers with the greatest psychological distress did not report concerns about their child's emotional and behavioural problems; rather, they reported concerns about global developmental delay. These findings suggest that infants of mothers experiencing postpartum psychological distress should receive additional follow-up to reduce the risk for global developmental delay.

Benzies, Karen; Mychasiuk, Richelle; Tough, Suzanne

2015-01-01

136

Fetal Gender and Several Cytokines Are Associated with the Number of Fetal Cells in Maternal Blood – An Observational Study  

PubMed Central

Objective To identify factors influencing the number of fetal cells in maternal blood. Methods A total of 57 pregnant women at a gestational age of weeks 11–14 were included. The number of fetal cells in maternal blood was assessed in 30 ml of blood using specific markers for both enrichment and subsequent identification. Results Participants carrying male fetuses had a higher median number of fetal cells in maternal blood than those carrying female fetuses (5 vs. 3, p?=?0.04). Certain cytokines (RANTES, IL-2 and IL-5) were significantly associated with the number of fetal cells in maternal blood. Conclusion The number of fetal cells in maternal blood is associated with certain cytokines and fetal gender. PMID:25188498

Schlütter, Jacob Mørup; Kirkegaard, Ida; Petersen, Olav Bjørn; Larsen, Nanna; Christensen, Britta; Hougaard, David M.; Kølvraa, Steen; Uldbjerg, Niels

2014-01-01

137

Responses to pain in school-aged children with experience in a neonatal intensive care unit: cognitive aspects and maternal influences.  

PubMed

Previously, it was shown that school-aged (9-14 yr) preterm and fullterm children with neonatal pain exposure exhibit elevated heat pain thresholds and heightened perceptual sensitization to tonic painful heat when tested under standard conditions [Hermann C, Hohmeister J, Demirakca S, Zohsel K, Flor H. Long-term alteration of pain sensitivity in school-aged children with early pain experiences. Pain 2006;125:278-85]. Here, changes in the psychosocial context of pain responses in these children, who had been hospitalized >or=7 days after birth including >or=3 days of treatment in a neonatal intensive care unit (NICU), are reported. Nineteen preterm (age) and 20 fullterm children (>or=37 weeks gestational age) with NICU experience, recruited retrospectively and selected based on strict exclusion criteria, and 20 fullterm control children participated. Preterm NICU children endorsed more pain catastrophizing as compared to controls. Mothers of preterm children, who had been more severely ill and had been hospitalized longer than fullterm NICU children, were more likely to engage in solicitous pain-related behavior. Maternal influence was also assessed by comparing heat pain thresholds and perceptual sensitization to tonic painful heat obtained in the presence versus absence (i.e. standard testing conditions) of the mother. In all three groups, maternal presence was associated with increased heat pain thresholds. Control children habituated significantly more to tonic heat when their mother was present. The NICU children showed overall significantly less habituation than the controls; there was no modulating effect of maternal presence. Especially in highly vulnerable children such as preterms, neonatal pain exposure and prolonged hospitalization may, aside from neuronal plasticity, promote maladaptive pain-related cognitions and foster parental behavior that reinforces the child's pain response. PMID:18439861

Hohmeister, Johanna; Demirakça, Süha; Zohsel, Katrin; Flor, Herta; Hermann, Christiane

2009-01-01

138

Fibrolipoma of the median nerve  

Microsoft Academic Search

Neural fibrolipoma or fibrolipomatous hamartoma is an uncommon benign tumor that usually arises in the median nerve. Fibrofatty tissue proliferates around the nerve and infiltrates the epineurium and perineurium. We report a case of fibrolipomatous hamartoma of the left median nerve in an 18-year-old woman. Our objective was to describe the pathognomonic magnetic resonance imaging features, whose presence obviates the

Kais Nouira; Hend Belhiba; Sofiène Baccar; Anissa Miaaoui; Monia Ben Messaoud; Imène Turki; Ilhem Cheour; Emna Menif

2007-01-01

139

Maternal feeding practices, child eating behaviour and body mass index in preschool-aged children: a prospective analysis  

PubMed Central

Background Previous research has found associations between parental feeding practices and children's eating behaviour and weight status. Prospective research is needed to elucidate these relationships. Methods One hundred and fifty-six mothers of 2- to 4-year-old children completed questionnaires including measures of maternal feeding practices (pressure to eat, restriction, monitoring and modelling of healthy eating), child eating behaviour (food responsiveness, food fussiness and interest in food), and mother reported child height and weight. The questionnaire was repeated 12 months later. Regression analyses were used to find longitudinal associations between maternal feeding practices, child eating behaviour and child body mass index (BMI). Results Modelling of healthy eating predicted lower child food fussiness and higher interest in food one year later, and pressure to eat predicted lower child interest in food. Restriction did not predict changes in child eating behaviour. Maternal feeding practices did not prospectively predict child food responsiveness or child BMI. Conclusion Maternal feeding practices appear to influence young children's eating behaviour but not weight status in the short term. PMID:20579397

2010-01-01

140

Determinants of Maternal Sex Steroids During the First Half of Pregnancy  

PubMed Central

Objective To examine the associations of maternal and child characteristics with early pregnancy maternal concentrations of testosterone, androstenedione, progesterone, 17-hydroxyprogesterone and estradiol. Methods We analyzed these hormones among 1,343 women with singleton pregnancies who donated serum samples to the Finnish Maternity Cohort from 1986 to 2006 during the first half of pregnancy (median, 11 weeks). The associations of maternal and child characteristics with hormone concentrations were investigated by correlation and multivariable regression. Results Women above age 30 had lower androgen and estradiol but higher progesterone concentrations than women below that age. Multiparous women had 14% lower testosterone, 11% lower androstenedione and 17-hydroxyprogesterone, 9% lower progesterone, and 16% lower estradiol concentrations compared to nulliparous women (all P<.05). Smoking mothers had 11%, 18%, and 8% higher testosterone, androstenedione, and 17-hydroxyprogesterone levels, respectively, but 10% lower progesterone compared to non-smoking women (all P<.05). Estradiol concentrations were 9% higher (P<0.05) among women with a female fetus compared to those with a male fetus. Conclusions Parity, smoking, and to a lesser extent maternal age and child gender are associated with sex steroid levels during the first half of a singleton pregnancy. The effects of smoking on the maternal hormonal environment and the possible long-term deleterious consequences on the fetus deserve further evaluation. PMID:22015870

Toriola, Adetunji T; Vääräsmäki, Marja; Lehtinen, Matti; Zeleniuch-Jacquotte, Anne; Lundin, Eva; Rodgers, Kenneth-Gary; Lakso, Hans-Ake; Chen, Tianhui; Schock, Helena; Hallmans, Goran; Pukkala, Eero; Toniolo, Paolo; Grankvist, Kjell; Surcel, Helja-Marja; Lukanova, Annekatrin

2011-01-01

141

Passive West Nile virus antibody transfer from maternal Eastern screech-owls (Megascops asio) to progeny.  

PubMed

Transovarial antibody transfer in owls has not been demonstrated for West Nile virus (WNV). We sampled chicks from captive adult WNV-antibody-positive Eastern Screech-Owls (Megascops asio) to evaluate the prevalence of transovarial maternal antibody transfer, as well as titers and duration of maternal antibodies. Twenty-four owlets aged 1 to 27 days old circulated detectable antibodies with neutralizing antibody titers ranging from 20 to 1600 (median 1:40). Demonstrating that WNV antibodies are passively transferred transovarially is important for accurate interpretation of serologic data from young birds. PMID:17039850

Hahn, D C; Nemeth, Nicole M; Edwards, Eric; Bright, Patricia R; Komar, Nicholas

2006-09-01

142

Passive West Nile virus antibody transfer from maternal Eastern Screech-Owls (Megascops asio) to progeny  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Transovarial antibody transfer in owls has not been demonstrated for West Nile virus (WNV). We sampled chicks from captive adult WNV-antibody-positive Eastern Screech-Owls (Megascops asio) to evaluate the prevalence of transovarial maternal antibody transfer, as well as titers and duration of maternal antibodies. Twenty-four owlets aged 1 to 27 days old circulated detectable antibodies with neutralizing antibody titers ranging from 20 to 1600 (median 1:40). Demonstrating that WNV antibodies are passively transferred transovarially is important for accurate interpretation of serologic data from young birds.

Hahn, D.C.; Nemeth, N.M.; Edwards, E.; Bright, P.R.; Komar, N.

2006-01-01

143

Prenatal Exposure to Phthalate Esters and Behavioral Syndromes in Children at 8 Years of Age: Taiwan Maternal and Infant Cohort Study  

PubMed Central

Background: Few studies have shown an association between prenatal phthalate exposure and adverse effects on neurodevelopment and behavior in young children. Objectives: We aimed to assess the relationship between prenatal exposure to phthalate esters and behavior syndromes in children at 8 years of age. Methods: A total of 122 mother–child pairs from the general population in central Taiwan were studied from 2000 to 2009. Mono-methyl phthalate (MMP), mono-ethyl phthalate (MEP), mono-butyl phthalate (MBP), mono-benzyl phthalate (MBzP), and three di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) metabolites—mono-2-ethylhexyl, mono-2-ethyl-5-hydroxyhexyl, and mono-2-ethyl-5-oxohexyl phthalates (MEHP, MEHHP, and MEOHP)—were measured in maternal urine collected during the third trimester of pregnancy using liquid chromatography–electrospray ionization–tandem mass spectrometry. Behavioral syndromes of children at 8 years of age were evaluated using the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL). Associations between log10-transformed creatinine-corrected phthalate concentrations and standardized scores of the CBCL were estimated using linear regression models or multinomial logistic regressions with adjustments for potential confounders. Results: Externalizing problem scores were significantly higher in association with a 1-unit increase in log10-transformed creatinine-corrected concentrations of maternal MBP (? = 4.29; 95% CI: 0.59, 7.99), MEOHP (? = 3.74; 95% CI: 1.33, 6.15), and MEHP (? = 4.28 ; 95% CI: 0.03, 8.26) after adjusting for the child’s sex, intelligence, and family income. Meanwhile, MBP and MEOHP were significantly associated with Delinquent Behavior and Aggressive Behavior scores. The same pattern was found for borderline and/or clinical ranges. Conclusions: Our findings suggest positive associations between maternal DEHP and dibutyl phthalate (DBP) exposure and externalizing domain behavior problems in 8-year-old children. Citation: Lien YJ, Ku HY, Su PH, Chen SJ, Chen HY, Liao PC, Chen WJ, Wang SL. 2015. Prenatal exposure to phthalate esters and behavioral syndromes in children at 8 years of age: Taiwan Maternal and Infant Cohort Study. Environ Health Perspect 123:95–100;?http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/ehp.1307154 PMID:25280125

Lien, Yin-Ju; Ku, Hsiu-Ying; Su, Pen-Hua; Chen, Suh-Jen; Chen, Hsiao-Yen; Liao, Pao-Chi; Chen, Wei-J.

2014-01-01

144

Maternal feeding practices, child eating behaviour and body mass index in preschool-aged children: a prospective analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Previous research has found associations between parental feeding practices and children's eating behaviour and weight status. Prospective research is needed to elucidate these relationships. METHODS: One hundred and fifty-six mothers of 2- to 4-year-old children completed questionnaires including measures of maternal feeding practices (pressure to eat, restriction, monitoring and modelling of healthy eating), child eating behaviour (food responsiveness, food

Jane E Gregory; Susan J Paxton; Anna M Brozovic

2010-01-01

145

Central Tendency: Mean, Mode, Median  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This learning unit from Regents Exam Prep Center will help students learning to calculate mean, mode and median. The unit includes a lesson plan, practice examples, a teacher's guide and a worksheet. The term "measures of central tendency" is explained as finding the mean, median and mode of a set of data. The example of a set of test scores is used to demonstrate finding these measures. Links are also included which explain how to find these measurements using a graphing calculator.

2012-01-01

146

Fibrolipoma of the median nerve.  

PubMed

Neural fibrolipoma or fibrolipomatous hamartoma is an uncommon benign tumor that usually arises in the median nerve. Fibrofatty tissue proliferates around the nerve and infiltrates the epineurium and perineurium. We report a case of fibrolipomatous hamartoma of the left median nerve in an 18-year-old woman. Our objective was to describe the pathognomonic magnetic resonance imaging features, whose presence obviates the need for a diagnostic biopsy. PMID:17178460

Nouira, Kais; Belhiba, Hend; Baccar, Sofiène; Miaaoui, Anissa; Ben Messaoud, Monia; Turki, Imène; Cheour, Ilhem; Menif, Emna

2007-01-01

147

Maternal choline supplementation improves spatial mapping and increases basal forebrain cholinergic neuron number and size in aged Ts65Dn mice.  

PubMed

Down syndrome (DS) is marked by intellectual disability (ID) and early-onset of Alzheimer's disease (AD) neuropathology, including basal forebrain cholinergic neuron (BFCN) degeneration. The present study tested the hypothesis that maternal choline supplementation (MCS) improves spatial mapping and protects against BFCN degeneration in the Ts65Dn mouse model of DS and AD. During pregnancy and lactation, dams were assigned to either a choline sufficient (1.1g/kg choline chloride) or choline supplemented (5.0g/kg choline chloride) diet. Between 13 and 17months of age, offspring were tested in the radial arm water maze (RAWM) to examine spatial mapping followed by unbiased quantitative morphometry of BFCNs. Spatial mapping was significantly impaired in unsupplemented Ts65Dn mice relative to normal disomic (2N) littermates. Additionally, a significantly lower number and density of medial septum (MS) hippocampal projection BFCNs was also found in unsupplemented Ts65Dn mice. Notably, MCS significantly improved spatial mapping and increased number, density, and size of MS BFCNs in Ts65Dn offspring. Moreover, the density and number of MS BFCNs correlated significantly with spatial memory proficiency, providing support for a functional relationship between these behavioral and morphometric effects of MCS for trisomic offspring. Thus, increasing maternal choline intake during pregnancy may represent a safe and effective treatment approach for expectant mothers carrying a DS fetus, as well as a possible means of BFCN neuroprotection during aging for the population at large. PMID:24932939

Ash, Jessica A; Velazquez, Ramon; Kelley, Christy M; Powers, Brian E; Ginsberg, Stephen D; Mufson, Elliott J; Strupp, Barbara J

2014-10-01

148

Chromosome breakage in human preimplantation embryos from carriers of structural chromosomal abnormalities in relation to fragile sites, maternal age, and poor sperm factors.  

PubMed

Chromosome breakage is a fairly widespread phenomenon in preimplantation embryos affecting at least 10% of day 3 cleavage stage embryos. It may be detected during preimplantation genetic diagnosis (PGD). For carriers of structural chromosomal abnormalities, PGD involves the removal and testing of single blastomeres from cleavage stage embryos, aiming towards an unaffected pregnancy. Twenty-two such couples were referred for PGD, and biopsied blastomeres on day 3 and untransferred embryos (day 5/6) were tested using fluorescence in situ hybridisation (FISH) with appropriate probes. This study investigated whether chromosome breakage (a) was detected more frequently in cases where the breakpoint of the aberration was in the same chromosomal band as a fragile site and (b) was influenced by maternal age, sperm parameters, reproductive history, or the sex of the carrier parent. The frequency of breakage seemed to be independent of fragile sites, maternal age, reproductive history, and sex of the carrier parent. However, chromosome breakage was very significantly higher in embryos from male carriers with poor sperm parameters versus embryos from male carriers with normal sperm parameters. Consequently, embryos from certain couples were more prone to chromosome breakage, fragment loss, and hence chromosomally unbalanced embryos, independently of meiotic segregation. PMID:22179562

Xanthopoulou, L; Ghevaria, H; Mantzouratou, A; Serhal, P; Doshi, A; Delhanty, J D A

2012-01-01

149

Impact of maternal age on obstetric and neonatal outcome with emphasis on primiparous adolescents and older women: a Swedish Medical Birth Register Study  

PubMed Central

Objectives To evaluate the associations between maternal age and obstetric and neonatal outcomes in primiparous women with emphasis on teenagers and older women. Design A population-based cohort study. Setting The Swedish Medical Birth Register. Participants Primiparous women with singleton births from 1992 through 2010 (N=798?674) were divided into seven age groups: <17?years, 17–19?years and an additional five 5-year classes. The reference group consisted of the women aged 25–29?years. Primary outcome Obstetric and neonatal outcome. Results The teenager groups had significantly more vaginal births (adjusted OR (aOR) 2.04 (1.79 to 2.32) and 1.95 (1.88 to 2.02) for age <17?years and 17–19?years, respectively); fewer caesarean sections (aOR 0.57 (0.48 to 0.67) and 0.55 (0.53 to 0.58)), and instrumental vaginal births (aOR 0.43 (0.36 to 0.52) and 0.50 (0.48 to 0.53)) compared with the reference group. The opposite was found among older women reaching a fourfold increased OR for caesarean section. The teenagers showed no increased risk of adverse neonatal outcome but presented an increased risk of prematurity <32?weeks (aOR 1.66 (1.10 to 2.51) and 1.20 (1.04 to 1.38)). Women with advancing age (?30?years) revealed significantly increased risk of prematurity, perineal lacerations, preeclampsia, abruption, placenta previa, postpartum haemorrhage and unfavourable neonatal outcomes compared with the reference group. Conclusions For clinicians counselling young women it is of importance to highlight the obstetrically positive consequences that fewer maternal complications and favourable neonatal outcomes are expected. The results imply that there is a need for individualising antenatal surveillance programmes and obstetric care based on age grouping in order to attempt to improve the outcomes in the age groups with less favourable obstetric and neonatal outcomes. Such changes in surveillance programmes and obstetric interventions need to be evaluated in further studies. PMID:25387756

Blomberg, Marie; Birch Tyrberg, Rasmus; Kjølhede, Preben

2014-01-01

150

Fibrolipomatous hamartoma of median nerve.  

PubMed

Fibrolipomaous hamartoma is a benign neoplasm of nerves, resulting from anomalous growth of fibroadipose tissue of the nerve sheath. The median nerve is the most commonly involved nerve. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) features are pathognomonic, showing a coaxial cable-like appearance on axial images and spaghetti-like appearance on coronal images. Preferred management of the lesion is conservative. PMID:17875173

Jain, T P; Srivastava, D N; Mittal, R; Gamanagatti, S

2007-10-01

151

Mean, Median, Mode, and Range  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this lesson plan students must use a frequency chart to describe a set of data, including the mean, median, mode, and range of the data set. The lesson plan includes a pre-assessment, whole class activity, collaborative learning activity, and formative assessment. To be successful at this lesson students will need to be able to interpret the frequency chart for the mean, median, mode, and range, but also be able to fill in a frequency chart with a possible solution when given these data landmarks. Additional resources include the lesson plan in a 26-page PDF, the teacher slides in a 4-slide PowerPoint presentation, and a 16-page PDF guide for teachers and administrators.

Team, Shell C.

2013-01-17

152

One limitation of the study is the lack of data about the mothers of the children stlldied. Only limited maternal information (age and gravidity) was uniformly recorded in the h:spital  

E-print Network

) among live births because these defe: ts are very rare, occurring at a rate of only 1.4 to 2.5 per 1 limited maternal information (age and gravidity) was uniformly recorded in the h:spital birth records in this study, very little is mown about the association of paternal behaviors or exposures and birth defects

153

Mental Health in Low-to-Moderate Risk Preterm, Low Birth Weight, and Small for Gestational Age Children at 4 to 5 Years: The Role of Early Maternal Parenting  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objectives: The majority of children born preterm, with low birth weight, or small for gestational age are born with low-to-moderate risk (LTM), yet most research focuses on the high-risk group. Little is known about whether children with LTM perinatal risk are at greater risk for mental health problems, or what the role of early maternal

Westrupp, Elizabeth M.; Mensah, Fiona K.; Giallo, Rebecca; Cooklin, Amanda; Nicholson, Jan M.

2012-01-01

154

The contributions of temperament and maternal responsiveness to the mental development of small-for-gestational-age and appropriate-for-gestational-age infants  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examined the contribution of infant temperament and mothers' play behaviors to the mental development of 40 small-for-gestational-age (SGA) and 32 appropriate-for-gestational-age (AGA) infants. Infant temperament and infant–caregiver interactions in a play and teaching session were assessed at 8 months, and infant mental development was assessed at 12 and 18 months of age. Few group differences emerged in temperament

Leslie F Halpern; Cynthia T Garcia Coll; Elaine C Meyer; Karen Bendersky

2001-01-01

155

Archimedean actions on median pretrees  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper we consider group actions on generalized treelike structures (termed ‘pretrees’) defined simply in terms of betweenness relations. Using a result of Levitt, we show that if a countable group admits an archimedean action on a median pretree, then it admits an action by isometries on an [open face R]-tree. Thus the theory of isometric actions on [open face R]-trees may be extended to a more general setting where it merges naturally with the theory of right-orderable groups. This approach has application also to the study of convergence group actions on continua.

Bowditch, Brian H.; Crisp, John

2001-05-01

156

Maternal immunization.  

PubMed

Maternal immunization holds tremendous promise to improve maternal and neonatal health for a number of infectious conditions. The unique susceptibilities of pregnant women to infectious conditions, as well as the ability of maternally-derived antibody to offer vital neonatal protection (via placental transfer), together have produced the recent increased attention on maternal immunization. The Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP) currently recommends 2 immunizations for all pregnant women lacking contraindication, inactivated Influenza and tetanus toxoid, reduced diphtheria toxoid, and acellular pertussis (Tdap). Given ongoing research the number of vaccines recommended during pregnancy is likely to increase. Thus, achieving high vaccination coverage of pregnant women for all recommended immunizations is a key public health enterprise. This review will focus on the present state of vaccine acceptance in pregnancy, with attention to currently identified barriers and determinants of vaccine acceptance. Additionally, opportunities for improvement will be considered. PMID:25483490

Moniz, Michelle H; Beigi, Richard H

2014-09-01

157

Maternal Characteristics Predicting Young Girls’ Disruptive Behavior  

PubMed Central

Little is known about the relative predictive utility of maternal characteristics and parenting skills on the development of girls’ disruptive behavior. The current study used five waves of parent and child-report data from the ongoing Pittsburgh Girls Study to examine these relationships in a sample of 1,942 girls from age 7 to 12 years. Multivariate Generalized Estimating Equation (GEE) analyses indicated that European American race, mother’s prenatal nicotine use, maternal depression, maternal conduct problems prior to age 15, and low maternal warmth explained unique variance. Maladaptive parenting partly mediated the effects of maternal depression and maternal conduct problems. Both current and early maternal risk factors have an impact on young girls’ disruptive behavior, providing support for the timing and focus of the prevention of girls’ disruptive behavior. PMID:21391016

van der Molen, Elsa; Hipwell, Alison E.; Vermeiren, Robert; Loeber, Rolf

2011-01-01

158

Maternal characteristics predicting young girls' disruptive behavior.  

PubMed

Little is known about the relative predictive utility of maternal characteristics and parenting skills on the development of girls' disruptive behavior. The current study used five waves of parent- and child-report data from the ongoing Pittsburgh Girls Study to examine these relationships in a sample of 1,942 girls from age 7 to 12 years. Multivariate generalized estimating equation analyses indicated that European American race, mother's prenatal nicotine use, maternal depression, maternal conduct problems prior to age 15, and low maternal warmth explained unique variance. Maladaptive parenting partly mediated the effects of maternal depression and maternal conduct problems. Both current and early maternal risk factors have an impact on young girls' disruptive behavior, providing support for the timing and focus of the prevention of girls' disruptive behavior. PMID:21391016

van der Molen, Elsa; Hipwell, Alison E; Vermeiren, Robert; Loeber, Rolf

2011-01-01

159

Median mental sinus in twins.  

PubMed

Sinus on the chin can be the result of a chronic apical abscess due to pulp necrosis of a mandibular anterior tooth. The tooth is usually asymptomatic, and a dental cause is therefore not apparent to the patient or the unsuspecting clinician. Not infrequently, the patient may seek treatment from a dermatologist or general surgeon instead of a dentist. Excision and repair of the fistula may be carried out with subsequent breakdown because the dental pathology is not removed. This paper reports the presence of median mental sinus of dental origin in twins. One case healed following root canal therapy while the other required both root canal therapy and surgery to eliminate the infection. PMID:10765768

Ong, S T; Ngeow, W C

1999-05-01

160

Maternal iron levels early in pregnancy are not associated with offspring IQ score at age 8, findings from a Mendelian randomization study  

PubMed Central

Background/Objectives: Iron is fundamental to many basic biological functions, and animal studies suggest that iron deficiency early in life can have a lasting impact on the developing brain. Subjects/Methods: We used a population-based cohort of mothers and their children to assess the effect of iron status among pregnant women on the cognitive ability of their offspring. But to avoid the inherent confounding that occurs within observational epidemiology studies we examined the association of maternal genotype at single-nucleotide polymorphisms in the genes HFE (rs1799945) and (rs1800562), TF (rs3811647) and TMPRSS6 (rs1800562), which are related to iron, haemoglobin or transferrin levels, on their child's cognitive test scores at age 8. Results: We found strong associations between HFE and TMPRSS6 genotypes and mother's haemoglobin levels early in pregnancy (P-values are all ?4.1 × 10?5) and a genetic score comprised of alleles at these loci was even more strongly associated with haemoglobin levels (P=3.0 × 10?18), suggesting that this was a good instrument to use to look at the effect of prenatal iron levels on offspring cognition. However, mother's genotype at the above loci was not associated with offspring IQ at age 8. Conclusions: We therefore concluded that there is no evidence of an effect of exposure to low levels of iron (within the normal range) in pregnancy on offspring cognition at age 8. However, pregnant women in the UK with low haemoglobin levels are prescribed iron supplements and so we were unable to look at the effect of iron deficiency in our study. PMID:24398642

Lewis, S J; Bonilla, C; Brion, M-J; Lawlor, D A; Gunnell, D; Ben-Shlomo, Y; Ness, A; Smith, G D

2014-01-01

161

Coenzyme Q10 prevents accelerated cardiac aging in a rat model of poor maternal nutrition and accelerated postnatal growth?  

PubMed Central

Studies in human and animals have demonstrated that nutritionally induced low birth-weight followed by rapid postnatal growth increases the risk of metabolic syndrome and cardiovascular disease. Although the mechanisms underlying such nutritional programming are not clearly defined, increased oxidative-stress leading to accelerated cellular aging has been proposed to play an important role. Using an established rodent model of low birth-weight and catch-up growth, we show here that post-weaning dietary supplementation with coenzyme Q10, a key component of the electron transport chain and a potent antioxidant rescued many of the detrimental effects of nutritional programming on cardiac aging. This included a reduction in nitrosative and oxidative-stress, telomere shortening, DNA damage, cellular senescence and apoptosis. These findings demonstrate the potential for postnatal antioxidant intervention to reverse deleterious phenotypes of developmental programming and therefore provide insight into a potential translatable therapy to prevent cardiovascular disease in at risk humans. PMID:24327963

Tarry-Adkins, Jane L.; Blackmore, Heather L.; Martin-Gronert, Malgorzata S.; Fernandez-Twinn, Denise S.; McConnell, Josie M.; Hargreaves, Iain P.; Giussani, Dino A.; Ozanne, Susan E.

2013-01-01

162

Maternal endothelial soluble cell adhesion molecules with isolated small for gestational age fetuses: comparison with pre-eclampsia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective 1.To evaluate the activation profile of the endothelium in pregnancies complicated by small for gestational age fetuses compared with pre-eclampsia and normal pregnancy, by measuring the plasma levels of soluble adhesion molecules soluble E-selectin, intercellular cell adhesion molecule-1 and vascular cell adhesion molecule-1. 2. To determine whether soluble adhesion molecules were related to the severity of small for gestational

Florence Bretelle; Florence Sabatier; Andrew Blann; Claude D'Ercole; Brigitte Boutière; Muriel Mutin; Léon Boubli; José Sampol; Françoise Dignat-George

2001-01-01

163

Determinants of maternal and fetal exposure and temporal trends of perfluorinated compounds.  

PubMed

In recent years, some perfluorinated compounds (PFCs) have been identified as potentially hazardous substances which are harmful to the environment and human health. According to limited data, PFC levels in humans could be influenced by several determinants. However, the findings are inconsistent. In the present study, perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS), perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), and perfluorononanoic acid (PFNA) were measured in paired maternal and cord serum samples (N=237) collected between 1978 and 2001 in Southern Sweden to study the relationship between these and to investigate several potential determinants of maternal and fetal exposure to PFCs. Time trends of PFCs in Swedish women were also evaluated. The study is a part of the Fetal Environment and Neurodevelopment Disorders in Epidemiological Research project. PFOS, PFOA, and PFNA levels (median) were higher in maternal serum (15, 2.1, and 0.24 ng/ml, respectively) than in cord serum (6.5, 1.7, and 0.20 ng/ml, respectively). PFC levels were among the highest in women originating from the Nordic countries and the lowest in women from the Middle East, North Africa, and sub-Saharan Africa. Multiparous women had lower serum PFOA levels (1.7 ng/ml) than primiparous women (2.4 ng/ml). Maternal age, body mass index, cotinine levels, and whether women carried male or female fetuses did not affect serum PFC concentrations. Umbilical cord serum PFC concentrations showed roughly similar patterns as the maternal except for the gestational age where PFC levels increased with advancing gestational age. PFOS levels increased during the study period in native Swedish women. In summary, PFOS levels tend to increase while PFOA and PFNA levels were unchanged between 1978 and 2001 in our study population. Our results demonstrate that maternal country of origin, parity, and gestational age might be associated with PFC exposure. PMID:23436123

Ode, Amanda; Rylander, Lars; Lindh, Christian H; Källén, Karin; Jönsson, Bo A G; Gustafsson, Peik; Olofsson, Per; Ivarsson, Sten A; Rignell-Hydbom, Anna

2013-11-01

164

[Operative technique of median sternotomy].  

PubMed

Median sternotomy is the most widely used incision in cardiac surgery. The skin incision should extend from just below the sternal notch to a few centimeters below the xiphoid process. Careful dissection behind sternal notch and xiphoid process should be required to prevent accidental adjacent vessels injuries. The sternotomy should be made on the midline of the sternum after detecting the lateral margin of the sternum by dipping the thumb and the index finger into the intercostal space. Off-midline sternotomy may cause the closure wires to cut through the thinner segment of the bone, which may cause wound infection. There has been an increase in the number of patients who undergo a 2nd or even a 3rd time cardiac surgery. Redo sternotomy is becoming a major technique in cardiac surgery. The sternum could be divided with an oscillating saw safely by lifting previous wires untwisted, which helps prevent possible right ventricular injury. Blunt digital manipulation or dissection can often result in tearing of the right ventricular wall which can be fatal. PMID:20715430

Oda, T

2010-07-01

165

Maternal attitudes and behaviors regarding feeding practices in elementary-school age Latino children: A pilot qualitative study on the impact of the cultural role of mothers in the U.S.-Mexican border region of San Diego, California  

PubMed Central

This study aimed to explore the attitudes and behaviors of Latino mothers around feeding their children. Using qualitative methods, we conducted 4 focus groups in Spanish with 41 Latino mothers of elementary school-age children in San Diego County (CA). Latino mothers’ mean age was 41 years; 90% were foreign-born; 74% had a high school education or less. We explored cultural viewpoints around feeding and cooking and feeding strategies used. Focus groups were analyzed based on a priori and emergent themes. Two themes around feeding emerged, including: 1) feeding attitudes central to the maternal responsibility of having well-fed children; and 2) feeding behaviors that centered on cooking methods, supportive behaviors and reinforcement strategies for “eating well”. These findings increase our understanding of the Latino maternal role to feed children and may help to inform more culturally appropriate research to effectively address nutritional issues and obesity prevention in Latino children. PMID:24315129

Rhee, Kyung; Blanco, Estela; Boutelle, Kerri

2014-01-01

166

Maternity data.  

PubMed

Statistics were provided for 23 districts and 29 hospitals in Uganda, 1992, for the following maternal measures: parity, prenatal care, normal and abnormal deliveries, abortions, maternal mortality, live births, stillbirths, premature births, incidence of low birth weight, immunization status, and contraceptive use. About 60% of districts reported data on the average for 7 months of the year, and 75% of all hospitals reported data to districts. The data were considered incomplete, inconsistent, and inaccurate. In 1992, 63,691 mothers sought maternity services, of whom 75% attended prenatal care. Districts with high prenatal care use included Pallisa, Jinja, Kiboga, Kalangala, and Kibale. Low prenatal care was reported in Kabarole, Kasese, and Iganga. 32,873 deliveries were reported, of which 8.8% were abnormal. High rates of abnormal deliveries were from hospitals in Villa, Maria, Kitovu, and Matany, all nongovernmental organization hospitals. Low rates were reported from Mbale (2.9%), Jinja (0.8%), Masindi (2.8%), Mpigi (0.4%), and Kalangala (0%). Six hospitals reported abnormal deliveries ranging between 3 and 5%. All other hospitals had percentages greater than 14%. The maternal mortality rate was high at 600/100,000 and highest in Kapchorwa (5600/100,000), which could have been due to effective referral. 13.7% of births were low birth weight (2500 g). Low birth weight was highest in Mubende (26.7%), Moroto (25.8%), Kitgum (21.5%), Kapchorwa (20.3%), and Kasese (20.0%). Districts with low percentages of low birth weight babies included Bushenyi (4.7%), Iganga (5.9%), Kiboga (6.2%), Hoima (7.0%), and Kalangala (7.8%). Hospital maternal mortality was 800/1000. A 1993 community survey of 12 districts reported maternal mortality of 525/100,000 for the community, 600/100,000 for health units, and 800/100,000 for hospitals. BCG and polio immunization were highest in Kalangala and Hoima districts. PMID:12288707

1994-01-01

167

Vaccination of Piglets up to 1 Week of Age with a Single-Dose Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae Vaccine Induces Protective Immunity within 2 Weeks against Virulent Challenge in the Presence of Maternally Derived Antibodies  

PubMed Central

Enzootic pneumonia, resulting from infection with Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae, is of considerable economic importance to the pig industry and normally is controlled through active vaccination of piglets. We have demonstrated that administration of an inactivated Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae vaccine to piglets less than 1 week old is efficacious under field conditions and reduces the level of lung lesions observed in comparison to that in control pigs. Here, the results of two separate studies, one in piglets with and the second one in piglets without maternal antibodies, conducted to satisfy the requirements of the European Pharmacopoeia (monograph no. 07/2009:2448), are reported. Piglets received either minimal titer Suvaxyn MH-One or saline at less than 1 week of age and were challenged with Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae 2 weeks later. The number of lung lesions was recorded 4 weeks after challenge, and bronchial swab and lung tissue specimens were analyzed for quantification of Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae DNA. In the presence and absence of maternal antibodies, vaccination of piglets at less than 1 week of age was efficacious, with vaccinated piglets having significantly lower percentages of lung with lesions and lower Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae counts detected in bronchial swab and lung tissue specimens at necropsy. In conclusion, the vaccination of piglets at 1 week of age with Suvaxyn MH-One is efficacious in the presence of high levels of maternal antibodies. PMID:23486417

Van Brussel, Leen; Saunders, Gillian; Runnels, Paul; Taylor, Lucas; Fredrickson, Dan; Salt, Jeremy

2013-01-01

168

A Warning About Median Reaction Time  

Microsoft Academic Search

When used with positively skewed reaction time distributions, sample medians tend to over-estimate population medians. The extent of overestimation is related directly to the amount of skew in the reaction time distributions and inversely to the size of the sample over which the median is computed. Simulations indicate that overestimation could approach 50 ms with small samples and highly skewed

Jeff Miller

1988-01-01

169

Interaction of child disability and stressful life events in predicting maternal psychological health. Results of an area-based study of very preterm infants at two years corrected age.  

PubMed

This study aimed at exploring the relationship between severe neuromotor and/or sensory disability in very preterm infants assessed at 2 years corrected age and their mothers' psychological health. Data on 581 Italian singletons born at 22-31 weeks of gestation in five Italian regions and their mothers were analyzed. Maternal psychological distress was measured through the General Health Questionnaire short version (GHQ-12). The prevalence of any maternal distress (GHQ scores ? 2) and of clinical distress (scores ? 5) were 31.3% and 8.1% respectively. At multivariable analysis, we found a statistically significant association between child's disability and mothers' GHQ scoring ? 5 (OR 3.45, 95% CI 1.07-11.15). Also lower maternal education appeared to increase the likelihood of psychological distress (OR 1.38, 95% CI 1.14-1.66). The impact of child disability was weaker in women who had experienced additional stressful life events since delivery, pointing to the existence of a "ceiling" effect. Maternal psychological assessment and support should be included in follow-up programs targeting very preterm infants. PMID:23920026

Cacciani, Laura; Di Lallo, Domenico; Piga, Simone; Corchia, Carlo; Carnielli, Virgilio; Chiandotto, Valeria; Fertz, Mariacristina; Miniaci, Silvana; Rusconi, Franca; Caravale, Barbara; Cuttini, Marina

2013-10-01

170

Maternal Filicide  

Microsoft Academic Search

Having identified that most violent crime is carried out by men, feminists have recently called attention to the need to also bring a feminist analysis to violent crimes committed by women. This research examines data drawn from coroners court files in Victoria, Australia for the period 1978 to 1991 to explore scenarios of maternal filicide. The data are reviewed in

Christine M. Alder; June Baker

1997-01-01

171

The association of birth interval, maternal age and season of birth with the fertility of daughters: a retrospective cohort study based on family reconstitutions from nineteenth and early twentieth century Quebec.  

PubMed

In a historical follow-up study, we evaluated the association of the fertility of daughters with five perinatal factors: short (< 15 months) or long (> or = 45 months) preceding birth interval, low (< or = 20 years) or advanced (> or = 40 years) maternal age and season of birth. We used data concerning 2062 women married before the age of 31 and born in the Saguenay region of Quebec, Canada, between 1850 and 1899. Time between the wedding and first birth was used for the estimation of differences in fertility. Using logistic regression and controlling for several potential confounders, we found a slightly increased risk of monthly failure of conception for daughters born after a short but not for those born after a long birth interval (odds ratios [ORs] 1.09 [0.89, 1.33] and 0.87 [0.65, 1.16], respectively, with intervals between 21 and 32 months as the reference category). A slightly increased risk of conceptive failure was also seen for daughters of younger and older mothers (ORs 1.08 [0.89, 1.30] and 1.11 [0.91, 1.35], respectively, compared with maternal age between 24 and 30 years as the reference category). Fertility varied by season of birth (P = 0.02), with summer-born daughters having lowest and winter-born daughters having highest fertility. These results are consistent with the idea that maternal factors before or around birth play a role in the aetiology of reduced fertility. The data, however, do not unequivocally support the hypothesis that gave rise to the present study, namely that ovarian development may be disturbed after conception in conditions with an increased risk of maternal menstrual cycle irregularities. PMID:10563360

Smits, L; Zielhuis, G; Jongbloet, P; Bouchard, G

1999-10-01

172

Plasmodium falciparum Malaria in Children Aged 0-2 Years: The Role of Foetal Haemoglobin and Maternal Antibodies to Two Asexual Malaria Vaccine Candidates (MSP3 and GLURP)  

PubMed Central

Background Children below six months are reported to be less susceptible to clinical malaria. Maternally derived antibodies and foetal haemoglobin are important putative protective factors. We examined antibodies to Plasmodium falciparum merozoite surface protein 3 (MSP3) and glutamate-rich protein (GLURP), in children in their first two years of life in Burkina Faso and their risk of malaria. Methods A cohort of 140 infants aged between four and six weeks was recruited in a stable transmission area of south-western Burkina Faso and monitored for 24 months by active and passive surveillance. Malaria infections were detected by examining blood smears using light microscopy. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay was used to quantify total Immunoglobulin G to Plasmodium falciparum antigens MSP3 and two regions of GLURP (R0 and R2) on blood samples collected at baseline, three, six, nine, 12, 18 and 24 months. Foetal haemoglobin and variant haemoglobin fractions were measured at the baseline visit using high pressure liquid chromatography. Results A total of 79.6% of children experienced one or more episodes of febrile malaria during monitoring. Antibody titres to MSP3 were prospectively associated with an increased risk of malaria while antibody responses to GLURP (R0 and R2) did not alter the risk. Antibody titres to MSP3 were higher among children in areas of high malaria risk. Foetal haemoglobin was associated with delayed first episode of febrile malaria and haemoglobin CC type was associated with reduced incidence of febrile malaria. Conclusions We did not find any evidence of association between titres of antibodies to MSP3, GLURP-R0 or GLURP-R2 as measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and early protection against malaria, although anti-MSP3 antibody titres may reflect increased exposure to malaria and therefore greater risk. Foetal haemoglobin was associated with protection against febrile malaria despite the study limitations and its role is therefore worthy further investigation. PMID:25238160

Kangoye, David Tiga; Nebie, Issa; Yaro, Jean-Baptiste; Debe, Siaka; Traore, Safiatou; Ouedraogo, Oumarou; Sanou, Guillaume; Soulama, Issiaka; Diarra, Amidou; Tiono, Alfred; Marsh, Kevin

2014-01-01

173

Maternal Inattention and Impulsivity and Parenting Behaviors  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study extends previous research by examining whether maternal inattention, impulsivity, and hyperactivity are associated with different parenting behaviors. Ninety-six mother-son dyads participated in the study, and the boys ranged between 4 and 8 years of age. Maternal inattention was uniquely and positively associated with mothers' use of…

Chen, Mandy; Johnston, Charlotte

2007-01-01

174

Medians seek the corners, and other conjectures  

PubMed Central

Background Median construction is at the heart of several approaches to gene-order phylogeny. It has been observed that the solution to a median problem is generally not unique, and that alternate solutions may be quite different. Another concern has to do with a tendency for medians to fall on or near one of the three input orders, and hence to contain no information about the other two. Results We conjecture that as gene orders become more random with respect to each other, and as the number of genes increases, the breakpoint median for circular unichromosomal genomes, in both the unsigned and signed cases, tends to approach one of the input genomes, the "corners" in terms of the distance normalized by the number of genes. Moreover, there are alternate solutions that approach each of the other inputs, so that the average distance between solutions is very large. We confirm these claims through simulations, and extend the results to medians of more than three genomes. Conclusions This effect also introduces serious biases into the medians of less scrambled genomes. It prompts a reconsideration of the role of the median in gene order phylogeny. Fortunately, for triples of finite length genomes, a small proportion of the median solutions escape the tendency towards the corners, and these are relatively close to each other. This suggests that a focused search for these solutions, though they represent a decreasing minority as genome length increases, is a way out of the pathological tendency we have described. PMID:23281922

2012-01-01

175

REGRESSION ON MEDIANS OF PROBABILITY DISTRIBUTIONS  

EPA Science Inventory

The median is a fundamental parameter in the area of lifetime and survival statistics. n toxicodynamics the LD50, lethal dose that results in 50% mortality, is frequently used. he median is also used to describe the incidence of cancer and other disease states. Factors such as nu...

176

The association of maternal ACE A11860G with small for gestational age babies is modulated by the environment and by fetal sex: a multicentre prospective case–control study  

PubMed Central

We aimed to determine whether the ACE A11860G genotype is associated with small for gestational age babies (SGA) and to determine whether the association is affected by environmental factors and fetal sex. Overall, 3234 healthy nulliparous women with singleton pregnancies, their partners and babies were prospectively recruited in Adelaide, Australia and Auckland, New Zealand. Data analyses were confined to 2121 Caucasian parent–infant trios, among which 216 were pregnancies with SGA infants and 1185 were uncomplicated pregnancies. Women with the ACE A11860G GG genotype in the combined and Adelaide cohorts had increased risk for SGA [odds ratios (OR) 1.5, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.1–2.1 and OR 2.0, 95% CI 1.3–3.3, respectively) and delivered lighter babies (P = 0.02; P = 0.007, respectively) compared with those with AA/AG genotypes. The maternal ACE A11860G GG genotype was associated with higher maternal plasma ACE concentration at 15 weeks' gestation than AA/AG genotypes (P < 0.001). When the Adelaide cohort was stratified by maternal socio-economic index (SEI) and pre-pregnancy green leafy vegetable intake, the ACE A11860G GG genotype was only associated with an increased risk for SGA (OR 4.9, 95% CI 1.8–13.4 and OR 3.3, 95% CI 1.6–7.0, respectively) and a reduction in customized birthweight centile (P = 0.006 and P = 0.03) if superimposed on maternal SEI <34 or pre-pregnancy green leafy vegetable intake <1 serve/day. Furthermore, the associations of maternal ACE A11860G with customized birthweight centile observed among Adelaide women with SEI <34 or pre-pregnancy green leafy vegetable intake <1 serve/day were female specific. The current study identified a novel association of maternal ACE A11860G with SGA. More interestingly, this association was modified by environmental factors and fetal sex, suggesting ACE A11860G–environment–fetal sex interactions. Trial Registry Name: Screening nulliparous women to identify the combinations of clinical risk factors and/or biomarkers required to predict pre-eclampsia, SGA babies and spontaneous preterm birth. URL: http://www.anzctr.org.au. Registration number: ACTRN12607000551493. PMID:23615722

Zhou, Ang; Dekker, Gustaaf A.; Lumbers, Eugenie R.; Leemaqz, Shalem Y.; Thompson, Steven D.; Heinemann, Gary; McCowan, Lesley M.E.; Roberts, Claire T.

2013-01-01

177

Effects of maternal and pre-weaning undernutrition in rat offspring: Age at reproductive senescence and intergenerational pup growth and viability  

EPA Science Inventory

Maternal and/or postnatal undernutrition are widespread in human populations and are components of many experimental developmental and reproductive toxicology bio-assays. This study investigated in utero and/or pre-weaning undernutrition effects on reproductive maturation and se...

178

What Patterns of Postpartum Psychological Distress Are Associated with Maternal Concerns about Their Children's Emotional and Behavioural Problems at the Age of Three Years?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Mothers experiencing psychological distress in the postpartum period may have difficulties parenting their children. Inconsistent and unresponsive parenting may increase the risk of later emotional and behavioural problems in children. The purpose of this study was to identify how maternal psychological characteristics cluster at eight weeks…

Benzies, Karen; Mychasiuk, Richelle; Tough, Suzanne

2015-01-01

179

EFFECTS OF MATERNAL DIETARY RESTRICTION DURING GESTATION AND LACTATION, MUSCLE, SEX AND AGE ON VARIOUS INDICES OF SKELETAL MUSCLE GROWTH IN THE RAT 1  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Induced impairment of growth rate and mature size in the rat was used to characterize and compare histological and biochemical indices of skeletal muscle hyperplastic and hypertrophic growth. Maternal nutritional restriction during gestation and lactation caused a 54% reduction in progeny body weight before realimentation was begun at weaning. A compen- satory growth response was observed in restrict- ed

D. H. Beermann

180

The effect of maternal smoking status, educational level and age on food and nutrient intakes in preschool children: results from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: Studies in adults have demonstrated that smoking status is associated with dietary quality, with smokers tending to have diets that conform less closely to guidelines on healthy eating than nonsmokers. However, there is very little information on the relation between children's dietary quality and parental smoking status. The objective of this study was to investigate the relation between maternal

I Rogers; P Emmett

2003-01-01

181

The influence of maternal body mass index on myometrial oxytocin receptor expression in pregnancy.  

PubMed

Obese pregnant women have higher rates of dysfunctional labor patterns, need for oxytocin augmentation, labor induction, postdates pregnancy, and cesarean delivery compared to normal weight pregnant women. We tested the hypothesis that myometrial oxytocin receptor (OXTR) gene and protein expression are affected by obesity in pregnancy. Myometrial samples were obtained at the time of cesarean delivery from the upper aspect of the uterine hysterotomy incision and processed for real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction and Western blot. There were 63 myometrial samples available for analysis. The median body mass index (BMI) at delivery was 31.0 kg/m(2) (interquartile range, 26.0, 40.0 kg/m(2)), and the median gestational age at delivery was 38.0 weeks (interquartile range, 33.0, 39.1 weeks). The OXTR gene expression did not correlate with maternal BMI at delivery by linear regression, and the median OXTR gene expression did not differ between women with a BMI ? 30 kg/m(2) and those with a BMI ? 40 kg/m(2). The OXTR protein expression was also not affected by maternal BMI. Myometrial OXTR gene expression appears to be independent of BMI at the time of delivery. Dysfunctional labor patterns and increased oxytocin utilization seen in obese women may not be due to differences in OXTR expression, though functional studies are required. PMID:23653389

Grotegut, Chad A; Gunatilake, Ravindu P; Feng, Liping; Heine, R Phillips; Murtha, Amy P

2013-12-01

182

The Influence of Maternal Body Mass Index on Myometrial Oxytocin Receptor Expression in Pregnancy  

PubMed Central

Obese pregnant women have higher rates of dysfunctional labor patterns, need for oxytocin augmentation, labor induction, postdates pregnancy, and cesarean delivery compared to normal weight pregnant women. We tested the hypothesis that myometrial oxytocin receptor (OXTR) gene and protein expression are affected by obesity in pregnancy. Myometrial samples were obtained at the time of cesarean delivery from the upper aspect of the uterine hysterotomy incision and processed for real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction and Western blot. There were 63 myometrial samples available for analysis. The median body mass index (BMI) at delivery was 31.0 kg/m2 (interquartile range, 26.0, 40.0 kg/m2), and the median gestational age at delivery was 38.0 weeks (interquartile range, 33.0, 39.1 weeks). The OXTR gene expression did not correlate with maternal BMI at delivery by linear regression, and the median OXTR gene expression did not differ between women with a BMI ? 30 kg/m2 and those with a BMI ? 40 kg/m2. The OXTR protein expression was also not affected by maternal BMI. Myometrial OXTR gene expression appears to be independent of BMI at the time of delivery. Dysfunctional labor patterns and increased oxytocin utilization seen in obese women may not be due to differences in OXTR expression, though functional studies are required. PMID:23653389

Grotegut, Chad A.; Gunatilake, Ravindu P.; Feng, Liping; Heine, R. Phillips; Murtha, Amy P.

2013-01-01

183

Maternal and early postnatal polychlorinated biphenyl exposure in relation to total serum immunoglobulin concentrations in 6-month-old infants  

PubMed Central

Animal data indicate that developmental tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin exposure alters immune function; however, the potential immunotoxicity of dioxin-like and non-dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in the developing infant is an understudied area. The aim of the current study is to examine the association between maternal and early postnatal PCB concentrations in relation to total infant serum immunoglobulin concentrations determined at 6-months-of-age. We selected 384 mother-infant pairs participating in a birth cohort study in Eastern Slovakia. PCB concentrations of several congeners were determined in maternal and cord serum samples and in infant serum samples collected at 6-months-of-age using gas chromatography with electron capture detection. Total immunoglobulin (Ig) G, A, and M concentrations were determined by nephelometry, and IgE concentrations were determined by enzyme-linked immunoassay. Linear regression models with adjustment for potential confounding factors were used to estimate the associations between maternal, cord, and 6-month infant PCB concentrations and total serum immunoglobulins. The median maternal serum concentration of PCB-153 was 140 ng/g lipid, ?10-fold higher than concentrations in childbearing-age women in the United States during the same period. Maternal, cord, or 6-month infant PCB concentrations were not associated with total serum immunoglobulin levels at 6 months, regardless of the timing of PCB exposure, PCB congener, or specific immunoglobulin. In this population, which has high PCB concentrations relative to most populations in the world today, we did not observe any association between maternal and early postnatal PCB concentrations and total immunoglobulin measures of IgG, IgA, IgM, or IgE. PMID:21299357

Jusko, Todd A.; De Roos, Anneclaire J.; Schwartz, Stephen M.; Lawrence, B. Paige; Palkovicova, Lubica; Nemessanyi, Tomas; Drobna, Beata; Fabisikova, Anna; Kocan, Anton; Jahnova, Eva; Kavanagh, Terrance J.; Trnovec, Tomas; Hertz-Picciotto, Irva

2011-01-01

184

Maternal Sensitivity in a Developing Society: The Context of Urban Poverty and Infant Chronic Undernutrition  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study focuses on young children's chronic undernutrition and its association with maternal sensitivity, sociodemographic variables, children's play, and problem-solving measures. Data were obtained with home observations and laboratory procedures on 85 mothers and infants (M age = 18 months) in a low-income urban population in Santiago, Chile. Maternal sensitivity was correlated with maternal education, maternal weight, and marital satisfaction.

Marta Valenzuela

1997-01-01

185

The Effect of a Maternal Double Megadose of Vitamin A Supplement on Serum Levels of Retinol in Children Aged under Six Months  

PubMed Central

Objective. To measure concentrations of serum retinol in children after the use of maternal vitamin A double megadose supplements. Design. Randomized controlled clinical trial. Setting. The study was conducted at two maternity hospitals in the city of Recife, in the northeast region of Brazil between August 2007 and June 2009. Subjects and Methods. 276 children/mothers were recruited after birth and the women received a 200,000?IU capsule of vitamin A. After ten days they were randomly assigned to two treatment groups. One group received a second 200.000?IU capsule, while the other received a placebo. The concentrations of retinol in the serum of the children from each group were measured at 2, 4, and 6?months. Results. 173 children completed the study. There was no difference between the two treatment groups (P = 0.514). The mean base retinol level was lower than that at four and six months (P < 0.001). Conclusions. The maternal double megadose supplement had no additional effect on the serum retinol levels of the children, although concentrations of retinol in the children rose in the first six months of life. This trial is registered with NCT00742937. PMID:24455219

dos Santos, Carmina Silva; Kruze, Ilma; Fernandes, Taciana; Andreto, Luciana Marques; Figueiroa, José Natal; Diniz, Alcides da Silva

2013-01-01

186

Chemical and Mechanical Defenses Vary among Maternal Lines and Leaf Ages in Verbascum thapsus L. (Scrophulariaceae) and Reduce Palatability to a Generalist Insect  

PubMed Central

Intra-specific variation in host-plant quality affects herbivore foraging decisions and, in turn, herbivore foraging decisions mediate plant fitness. In particular, variation in defenses against herbivores, both among and within plants, shapes herbivore behavior. If variation in defenses is genetically based, it can respond to natural selection by herbivores. We quantified intra-specific variation in iridoid glycosides, trichome length, and leaf strength in common mullein (Verbascum thapsus L, Scrophulariaceae) among maternal lines within a population and among leaves within plants, and related this variation to feeding preferences of a generalist herbivore, Trichopulsia ni Hübner. We found significant variation in all three defenses among maternal lines, with T. ni preferring plants with lower investment in chemical, but not mechanical, defense. Within plants, old leaves had lower levels of all defenses than young leaves, and were strongly preferred by T. ni. Caterpillars also preferred leaves with trichomes removed to leaves with trichomes intact. Differences among maternal lines indicate that phenotypic variation in defenses likely has a genetic basis. Furthermore, these results reveal that the feeding behaviors of T. ni map onto variation in plant defense in a predictable way. This work highlights the importance of variation in host-plant quality in driving interactions between plants and their herbivores. PMID:25127229

Alba, Christina; Bowers, M. Deane; Blumenthal, Dana; Hufbauer, Ruth A.

2014-01-01

187

Trajectories of Maternal Depressive Symptoms, Maternal Sensitivity, and Children's Functioning at School Entry  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Using data from the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development Study of Early Child Care and Youth Development, the authors modeled trajectories of maternal depressive symptoms from infant age 1 month to 7 years. The authors identified 6 trajectories of maternal depressive symptoms: high-chronic, moderate-increasing, high-decreasing,…

Campbell, Susan B.; Matestic, Patricia; von Stauffenberg, Camilla; Mohan, Roli; Kirchner, Thomas

2007-01-01

188

The Relations among Maternal Depressive Disorder, Maternal Expressed Emotion, and Toddler Behavior Problems and Attachment  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Direct and indirect relations among maternal depression, maternal Expressed Emotion (EE: Self- and Child-Criticism), child internalizing and externalizing symptoms, and child attachment were examined. Participants were mothers with depression (n = 130) and comparison mothers (n = 68) and their toddlers (M age = 20 mo.; 53% male). Assessments…

Gravener, Julie A.; Rogosch, Fred A.; Oshri, Assaf; Narayan, Angela J.; Cicchetti, Dante; Toth, Sheree L.

2012-01-01

189

Maternal Psychopathology and Infant Development at 18 Months: The Impact of Maternal Personality Disorder and Depression  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: No previous longitudinal study has examined the impact of comorbid maternal personality disorder (PD) and depression on child development. We set out to examine whether maternal PD and depression assessed at 2 months post partum would be independently associated with adverse developmental outcomes at 18 months of age. Method: Women were…

Conroy, Susan; Pariante, Carmine M.; Marks, Maureen N.; Davies, Helen A.; Farrelly, Simone; Schacht, Robin; Moran, Paul

2012-01-01

190

Current and Past Maternal Depression, Maternal Interaction Behaviors, and Children's Externalizing and Internalizing Symptoms  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Relations among past maternal depressive disorder, current depressive symptoms, current maternal interaction behaviors, and children's adjustment were examined in a sample of 204 women and their young adolescent offspring (mean age = 11.86, SD = 0.55). Mothers either had (n = 157) or had not (n = 57) experienced at least one depressive disorder…

Foster, Cynthia J. Ewell; Garber, Judy; Durlak, Joseph A.

2008-01-01

191

How do Maternal PTSD and Alexithymia Interact to Impact Maternal Behavior?  

PubMed

Maternal interpersonal violence-related post-traumatic stress disorder (IPV-PTSD) is known to be associated with impairment of a mother's capacity to participate in mutual emotion regulation during her child's first years of life. This study tested the hypothesis that maternal difficulty in identifying feelings in self and other, as an important dimension of the construct of alexithymia, together with maternal IPV-PTSD, would be negatively associated with maternal sensitivity. Maternal sensitivity to child emotional communication is a marker of maternal capacity to engage in mutual regulation of emotion and arousal. Following diagnostic interviews and administration of the Toronto Alexithymia Scale, 56 mothers and their toddlers (ages 12-42 months) were filmed during free-play and separation/novelty-exposure. Observed maternal sensitivity was coded via the CARE-Index. Maternal IPV-PTSD severity, difficulty in identifying emotions, and lower socio-economic status were all associated with less maternal sensitivity, and also with more maternal controlling and unresponsive behavior on the CARE-Index. PMID:25008189

Schechter, Daniel S; Suardi, Francesca; Manini, Aurelia; Cordero, Maria Isabel; Rossignol, Ana Sancho; Merminod, Gaëlle; Gex-Fabry, Marianne; Moser, Dominik A; Serpa, Sandra Rusconi

2014-07-10

192

Maternal Predictors of Rejecting Parenting and Early Adolescent Antisocial Behavior  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study examined relations among maternal psychological resources, rejecting parenting, and early adolescent antisocial\\u000a behavior in a sample of 231 low-income mothers and their sons with longitudinal assessments from age 18 months to 12 years.\\u000a The maternal resources examined were age at first birth, aggressive personality, and empathy. Each of the maternal resources\\u000a predicted rejecting parenting during early childhood in structural

Christopher J. Trentacosta; Daniel S. Shaw

2008-01-01

193

Maternal anxiety and infants' hippocampal development: timing matters  

PubMed Central

Exposure to maternal anxiety predicts offspring brain development. However, because children's brains are commonly assessed years after birth, the timing of such maternal influences in humans is unclear. This study aimed to examine the consequences of antenatal and postnatal exposure to maternal anxiety upon early infant development of the hippocampus, a key structure for stress regulation. A total of 175 neonates underwent magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) at birth and among them 35 had repeated scans at 6 months of age. Maternal anxiety was assessed using the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI) at week 26 of pregnancy and 3 months after delivery. Regression analyses showed that antenatal maternal anxiety did not influence bilateral hippocampal volume at birth. However, children of mothers reporting increased anxiety during pregnancy showed slower growth of both the left and right hippocampus over the first 6 months of life. This effect of antenatal maternal anxiety upon right hippocampal growth became statistically stronger when controlling for postnatal maternal anxiety. Furthermore, a strong positive association between postnatal maternal anxiety and right hippocampal growth was detected, whereas a strong negative association between postnatal maternal anxiety and the left hippocampal volume at 6 months of life was found. Hence, the postnatal growth of bilateral hippocampi shows distinct responses to postnatal maternal anxiety. The size of the left hippocampus during early development is likely to reflect the influence of the exposure to perinatal maternal anxiety, whereas right hippocampal growth is constrained by antenatal maternal anxiety, but enhanced in response to increased postnatal maternal anxiety. PMID:24064710

Qiu, A; Rifkin-Graboi, A; Chen, H; Chong, Y-S; Kwek, K; Gluckman, P D; Fortier, M V; Meaney, M J

2013-01-01

194

Social Security: a financial appraisal for the median voter.  

PubMed

Several explanations have been proposed for why voters continue to support unfunded social security systems. Browning (1975) suggests that the extremely large unfunded pension systems of most democracies depend on the existence of a voting majority composed of middle-aged and older people who fail to fully internalize the cost of financing the system. In fact, when voting, economically rational workers consider only their current and future contributions to the system and their expected pension benefits--not their past contributions, which they regard as sunk costs. If, for a majority of voters, the expected continuation return from social security exceeds the return from alternative assets, an unfunded social security system is politically sustainable. This article explores the validity of Browning's proposition by quantifying the returns that U.S. voters in presidential elections from 1964 to 1996 have obtained, or expect to obtain, from Social Security. Did "investments" in Social Security outperform alternative forms of investment, such as mutual funds or pension funds, for a majority of the voters? What can be expected for the future? The U.S. Social Security system redistributes income within age cohorts on the basis of sex, income, and marital status. To account for some of these features, the median voter is represented by a family unit whose members--a husband who accounts for 70 percent of household earnings and a wife who accounts for 30 percent--make joint economic and voting decisions. Thus, retirement and survival benefits paid out to the spouse of an insured worker can be included in the calculation of Social Security returns. Interval estimates of voters' family incomes from the U.S. Census Bureau were used to obtain the median voter's household earnings. The median voter's age is derived from the ages of those who voted in presidential elections, not from the ages of the entire electorate. The median voter's contributions to Social Security are the product of the joint employer/employee Old-Age and Survivors Insurance (OASI) tax rate and employee earnings. Data on actual contributions are available for median voters in the 1964 to 1976 elections; Social Security Administration (SSA) estimates are used for future tax rates and average wage growth rates. Data on actual old-age, retirement, and survivor benefits, as well as estimates of future benefits, are also available from SSA. Analysis of ex-post returns from "investing" in Social Security and from a buy-and-hold strategy applied to three alternative assets--the Standard & Poor's Composite Index (S&P), the Dow Jones Industrial Average (DJIA), and U.S. government bonds--shows surprising results. In 1964 and 1968, Social Security largely outperformed the other three assets. In 1972, Social Security and the stock market performed almost equally. In 1976, however, the median voter would have been better off in the stock market. The expected returns for median voters in later elections cannot be directly compared with realized returns from alternative assets. However, estimates range from 5.7 percent in 1984 to 7.0 percent in 1996 and thus compare favorably with average returns of 5.6 percent for S&P, 5.3 percent for DJIA, and 2.1 percent for government bonds over the 1964-1996 period. Although these findings must be taken with caution since they compare ex-post returns, they show that, despite a continuous reduction in profitability, Social Security still represents a safe, high-return asset for a majority of families. PMID:12428510

Galasso, V

195

Wavelet median denoising of ultrasound images  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ultrasound images are contaminated with both additive and multiplicative noise, which is modeled by Gaussian and speckle noise respectively. Distinguishing small features such as fallopian tubes in the female genital tract in the noisy environment is problematic. A new method for noise reduction, Wavelet Median Denoising, is presented. Wavelet Median Denoising consists of performing a standard noise reduction technique, median filtering, in the wavelet domain. The new method is tested on 126 images, comprised of 9 original images each with 14 levels of Gaussian or speckle noise. Results for both separable and non-separable wavelets are evaluated, relative to soft-thresholding in the wavelet domain, using the signal-to-noise ratio and subjective assessment. The performance of Wavelet Median Denoising is comparable to that of soft-thresholding. Both methods are more successful in removing Gaussian noise than speckle noise. Wavelet Median Denoising outperforms soft-thresholding for a larger number of cases of speckle noise reduction than of Gaussian noise reduction. Noise reduction is more successful using non-separable wavelets than separable wavelets. When both methods are applied to ultrasound images obtained from a phantom of the female genital tract a small improvement is seen; however, a substantial improvement is required prior to clinical use.

Macey, Katherine E.; Page, Wyatt H.

2002-05-01

196

Fuzzy vector median-based surface smoothing.  

PubMed

This paper proposes a novel approach for smoothing surfaces represented by triangular meshes. The proposed method is a two-step procedure: surface normal smoothing through fuzzy vector median (FVM) filtering followed by integration of surface normals for vertex position update based on the least square error (LSE) criteria. Median and Order Statistic-based filters are extensively used in signal processing, especially image processing, due to their ability to reject outliers and preserve features such as edges and monotonic regions. More recently, fuzzy ordering theory has been introduced to allow averaging among similarly valued samples. Fuzzy ordering theory leads naturally to the fuzzy median, which yields improved noise smoothing over traditional crisp median filters. This paper extends the fuzzy ordering concept to vector-based data and introduces the fuzzy vector median filter. The application of FVM filters to surface normal smoothing yields improved results over previously introduced normal smoothing algorithms. The improved filtering results, coupled with LSE vertex position update, produces surface smoothing that minimizes the effects of noise while simultaneously preserving detail features. The proposed method is simple to implement and relatively fast. Simulation results are presented showing the performance of the proposed method and its advantages over commonly used surface smoothing algorithms. Additionally, optimization procedures for FVM filters are derived and evaluated. PMID:18579957

Shen, Yuzhong; Barner, Kenneth E

2004-01-01

197

Introduction to Statistics: Mean, Median, Mode  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This lesson is designed to introduce students to statistical measures of central tendency (i.e., mean, median, and mode). The lesson provides links to discussions and activities related to mean, median, and mode, as well as suggested ways to integrate them into the lesson. Upon completion of the lesson, students should understand the differences in the three measures and be able to compute each. Finally, the lesson provides links to follow-up lessons designed for use in succession with learning about the measures of central tendency.

2010-01-01

198

Cognitive and motor skills in school-aged children following maternal vitamin A supplementation during pregnancy in rural Nepal: a follow-up of a placebo-controlled, randomised cohort  

PubMed Central

Objective To determine the effects of maternal vitamin A supplementation from preconception through postpartum on cognitive and motor development of children at 10–13?years of age in rural Nepal. Design Follow-up assessment of children born to women randomly assigned by a village to receive either supplemental vitamin A (7000?µg retinol equivalents) or placebo weekly during a continuous 3.5-year period from 1994–1997. The participants came from 12 wards, a subset of 270 wards in the original trial. Trained staff tested children for cognition by the Universal Nonverbal Intelligence Test (UNIT) and motor ability using four subtests from the Movement Assessment Battery for Children (MABC). Data on schooling, home environment and nutritional and socioeconomic status were also collected. Setting Southern plains district of Sarlahi, Nepal. Participants 390 Nepalese children 10–13?years of age. Main outcome measures Raw scores on UNIT and square-root transformed scores on an abridged version of the MABC tests, expressed as cluster-summarised (mean±SD) values to account for the design of the original trial. Results There were no differences in UNIT (79.61±5.99 vs 80.69±6.71) or MABC (2.64±0.07 vs 2.49±0.09) test scores in children whose mothers were exposed to vitamin A vs placebo (mean differences: ?1.07, 95% CI ?7.10 to 9.26, p=0.78; 0.15, 95% CI 0.43 to ?0.08, p=0.15), respectively. More children in the placebo group had repeated a grade in school (28% of placebo vs 16.7% of vitamin A, p=0.01). Conclusions Preconceptional to postpartum maternal vitamin A supplementation, in an undernourished setting, does not improve cognition or motor development at ages 10–13?years. PMID:23667158

Buckley, Gillian J; Murray-Kolb, Laura E; Khatry, Subarna K; LeClerq, Steven C; Wu, Lee; West, Keith P; Christian, Parul

2013-01-01

199

Median filtering in multispectral filter array demosaicking  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Inspired by the concept of the colour filter array (CFA), the research community has shown much interest in adapting the idea of CFA to the multispectral domain, producing multispectral filter arrays (MSFAs). In addition to newly devised methods of MSFA demosaicking, there exists a wide spectrum of methods developed for CFA. Among others, some vector based operations can be adapted naturally for multispectral purposes. In this paper, we focused on studying two vector based median filtering methods in the context of MSFA demosaicking. One solves demosaicking problems by means of vector median filters, and the other applies median filtering to the demosaicked image in spherical space as a subsequent refinement process to reduce artefacts introduced by demosaicking. To evaluate the performance of these measures, a tool kit was constructed with the capability of mosaicking, demosaicking and quality assessment. The experimental results demonstrated that the vector median filtering performed less well for natural images except black and white images, however the refinement step reduced the reproduction error numerically in most cases. This proved the feasibility of extending CFA demosaicking into MSFA domain.

Wang, Xingbo; Thomas, Jean-Baptiste; Hardeberg, Jon Y.; Gouton, Pierre

2013-01-01

200

Bamzooki: Median, Mode, Mean, and Range  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this application students must use the Bamzooki creatures to find the Median, Mode, Mean, and Range. Students receive a score for the amount correct and are given tips when they complete a task incorrectly. The application is accompanied by a link to definitions for each term and a link to a multiple choice quiz.

2012-01-01

201

Biomechanical comparison of median sternotomy closures  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundPoor healing of median sternotomy can significantly increase morbidity, mortality, and hospital costs. Effective union requires reliable sternal fixation. Although wire has proven the most reliable and widely used sternotomy closure material, no experimental studies have compared a large variety of wiring techniques in a human model. We developed an easily reproducible experimental model using cadaveric human sterna and compared

Julian E Losanoff; Andrea D Collier; Colette C Wagner-Mann; Bruce W Richman; Harold Huff; Fu-hung Hsieh; Alberto Diaz-Arias; James W Jones

2004-01-01

202

Biomechanical Porcine Model of Median Sternotomy Closure  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background. Healing complications following median sternotomy commonly include instability, nonunion, and infection. They are associated with a high mortality rate if mediastinitis supervenes. Closure complications are best avoided by improving stability at the union, but there has thus far been no widespread agreement among surgeons about relative superiority among the available closure techniques.Materials and methods. A biological sternotomy closure model

Julian E. Losanoff; Jason R. Foerst; Harold Huff; Bruce W. Richman; Andrea D. Collier; Fu-hung Hsieh; Sunggyu Lee; James W. Jones

2002-01-01

203

Science Sampler: Mean, median, mode, and range  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

A hands-on approach to mean, median, mode, and range turned a simple lab into a two-day opportunity for cooperation among lab-group members and among lab groups. The concepts of accuracy and precision were introduced and distinguished from each other.

Jones, Paige

2007-12-01

204

Approximation Algorithms for Geometric Median Problems  

E-print Network

-median problem into a provably good integral solution. This transfor- mation technique is fundamentally di erent from the methods of randomized and deterministic rounding [Rag, RaT] and the methods proposed in [LiV] in the following way: Previous techniques never...

Lin, Jyh-Han; Vitter, Jeffrey Scott

1992-01-01

205

Fibrolipomatous hamartoma of the median nerve.  

PubMed

A case of fibrolipomatous hamartoma of the median nerve is presented. The operative findings were characteristic. The diagnosis should be confirmed by histological examination of a biopsy from an involved palmar cutaneous branch, and treatment should be limited to decompression of the ligament or fascia over the involved area. PMID:3624982

Sondergaard, G; Mikkelsen, S

1987-06-01

206

Fibrolipomatous Hamartoma of the Median Nerve  

Microsoft Academic Search

A case of fibrolipomatous hamartoma of the median nerve is presented. The operative findings were characteristic. The diagnosis should be confirmed by histological examination of a biopsy from an involved palmar cutaneous branch, and treatment should be limited to decompression f the ligament or fascia over the involved area.

G. SONDERGAARD; S. MIKKELSEN

1987-01-01

207

Maternal Filicide in Turkey.  

PubMed

Filicide occurs in every socioeconomic stratum around the world. This study was conducted to evaluate motives, psychopathological aspects, and socio-demographic factors of 74 filicide cases of women in Turkey. Mean age of mothers, most of whom committed infanticide, was 26 years, and breakdown of criminal offenses are as follows: "to get rid of unwanted babies" (24.3%), "acute psychotic-type filicide" (21.6%), "fatal child abuse and neglect" (17.6%), "to get revenge" (12.2%), "protect the lonely child from the harm and badness after suicide" (10.8%), and "pity" (9.5%) motives. Results showed that maternal filicide cannot be reduced to only mental instability or environmental factors and indicates deficiencies in the capacity of the mothers' role in connecting with their child and with parenting skills. Finally, with regard to defendants' motives, similar factors that contribute to committing maternal filicide should be considered while making an assessment of the data and determining employee risk groups. PMID:25066272

Eke, Salih Murat; Basoglu, Saba; Bakar, Bulent; Oral, Gokhan

2014-07-28

208

Marfan syndrome and pregnancy: maternal and neonatal outcomes  

PubMed Central

Objective To report outcomes in a recent series of pregnancies in women with Marfan syndrome (MFS). Design Retrospective case note review. Setting Tertiary referral unit (Chelsea and Westminster and Royal Brompton Hospitals). Sample Twenty-nine pregnancies in 21 women with MFS between 1995 and 2010. Methods Multidisciplinary review of case records. Main outcome measures Maternal and neonatal mortality and morbidity of patients with MFS and healthy controls. Results There were no maternal deaths. Significant cardiac complications occurred in five pregnancies (17%): one woman experienced a type–A aortic dissection; two women required cardiac surgery within 6 months of delivery; and a further two women developed impaired left ventricular function during the pregnancy. Women with MFS were also more likely to have obstetric complications (OR 3.29, 95% CI 1.30–8.34), the most frequent of which was postpartum haemorrhage (OR 8.46, 95% CI 2.52–28.38). There were no perinatal deaths, although babies born to mothers with MFS were delivered significantly earlier than those born to the control group (median 39 versus 40 weeks of gestation, Mann–Whitney U–test, P = 0.04). These babies were also significantly more likely to be small for gestational age (24% in the MFS group versus 6% in the controls; OR 4.95, 95% CI 1.58–15.55). Conclusions Pregnancy in women with MFS continues to be associated with significant rates of maternal, fetal, and neonatal complications. Effective pre-pregnancy counselling and meticulous surveillance during pregnancy, delivery, and the puerperium by an experienced multidisciplinary team are warranted for women with MFS. PMID:24418012

Curry, RA; Gelson, E; Swan, L; Dob, D; Babu-Narayan, SV; Gatzoulis, MA; Steer, PJ; Johnson, MR

2014-01-01

209

Age at motherhood in Japan.  

PubMed

This study analyzed the factors influencing maternal age in Japan. Data was obtained from the National Survey on Family Planning (20th round) conducted by the Mainichi Newspapers of Japan in June 1990 and from vital statistics records on first births over a 25-year period. Both time-series and cross-sectional data provided support for the link between educational attainment and wages and the rising age at childbearing. Proportional hazards models and accelerated-failure time models with unobserved heterogeneity of the Heckman and Walker and Greene types were constructed. The median age at first birth was estimated at 26.6 years, based on Kaplan-Meier methods. The log-logistic model with move-stayer heterogeneity (Heckman and Walker) revealed that women with a senior high school education delayed marriage 9 months longer than women with less education. Women with a junior college education had first births 15 months later than high school educated women. Women with a university degree had first births two years later than women with a junior college degree. Urban mothers started childbearing 5 months later than rural mothers. The Weibull model with unobserved heterogeneity indicated that the hazard of a first birth increased with the age of the woman, while the observed hazard in the population increased and then declined. The age pattern of the log-logistic model had a more concentrated hazard rate. The estimated childless rate among women at the age of 40 years was 10.6% in the log-logistic model and 6.9% in the Weibull model. The Cox proportional hazard model supported the findings from the log-logistic and Weibull models and the explanatory importance of childhood residence, recent age, and educational status. All three models showed similar estimates of the impacts of the explanatory variables on age at first marriage. Median first birth interval was found to be shorter among more recent cohorts. Women in arranged marriages were estimated to have a later median age at childbearing by 9 months, and living with husband's parents shortened the median age by about 7 months. Women who married men from large families tended to marry and bear children earlier. The time-series analysis indicated that the decline in first birth rates was related to the decline in traditional values, but when the tradition variable was excluded, wages appeared to be the significant determinant of decline in first birth rates. The findings suggested that other factors were involved in the sharp decline in first birth rates. PMID:12288506

Ermisch, J; Ogawa, N

1994-01-01

210

Maternal and Child nutrition  

E-print Network

Maternal and Child nutrition Earn an advanced degree in a highly specialized field Taught #12;Courses: Nutrition During Pregnancy Lactation and Infant Nutrition Child and Adolescent Nutrition Applied Research Methods in Maternal and Child Nutrition Topics in Epidemiology of Maternal and Child

Schladow, S. Geoffrey

211

Perinatal maternal life events and psychotic experiences in children at twelve years in a birth cohort study?  

PubMed Central

Background International studies indicate that the median prevalence of psychotic experiences in children is 7%. It has been proposed that environmental stress during pregnancy may affect the neurodevelopment of the foetus and lead to a vulnerability in the child to later stressors and psychopathology. Aim In this study we explore the relationship between environmental stress during pregnancy and psychotic experiences in children in the general population at 12 years. Methods We analysed a birth cohort of 5038 children from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children. Environmental stress was measured as life event exposure. Data on life events were collected on women during their pregnancy, whilst psychotic experiences in the offspring were assessed at age 12. Results There was a weak association between maternal exposure to life events and psychotic experiences at twelve years (crude OR 1.10 95% CI 1.02–1.18) per quartile of life event score. This association was not reduced after adjustment for socio-economic status, family history of schizophrenia, maternal education or birth weight but after adjustment for maternal anxiety and depression and smoking in early pregnancy there was no longer any evidence for an association (OR 1.01 95% CI 0.93–1.10). Conclusion This study provides some evidence to suggest that stressful life events may affect child psychotic experiences through effects on maternal psychopathology, and possibly physiology, during pregnancy. PMID:24275580

Dorrington, Sarah; Zammit, Stan; Asher, Laura; Evans, Jonathan; Heron, Jonathan; Lewis, Glyn

2014-01-01

212

Median statistics and the Hubble constant  

E-print Network

Following Gott et al. (2001), we use Huchra's final compilation of 553 measurements of the Hubble constant ($H_0$) to determine median statistical constraints on $H_0$. We find $H_0=68 \\pm 5.5$ (or $\\pm 1$) $\\kmsmpc$, where the errors are the 95% statistical and systematic (or statistical) errors. With about two-third more measurements, these results are close to what Gott et al. found a decade ago, with smaller statistical errors and similar systematic errors.

Chen, Gang

2011-01-01

213

Median facial cleft in amniotic band syndrome.  

PubMed

Amniotic band syndrome manifests at birth with a variety of malformations ranging from constriction ring to defects incompatible to life, in various parts of the body. Although some theories have been proposed for the development of this syndrome, the exact cause remains unknown. The median facial cleft is an extremely rare manifestation of amniotic band syndrome with a relative paucity of reports available in the literature. Here, we report one such case. PMID:21731335

Das, Debabrata; Das, Gobinda; Gayen, Sibnath; Konar, Arpita

2011-04-01

214

Co-variables in first trimester maternal serum screening.  

PubMed

The objective of this study was to determined the influence of maternal weight, maternal smoking habits, gravidity, parity and fetal gender on the level of maternal serum marker used in first trimester screening for Down syndrome. A total of 2449 singleton unaffected pregnancies from two centres were studied. Maternal serum free beta-human chorionic gonadotrophin (hCG) and alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) concentrations had been measured in all pregnancies, and pregnancy associated plasma protein (PAPP)-A levels had been measured in 924. All results were expressed as multiples of the gestation specific median (MoM) values after regression, using each centre's own medians. Information on maternal weight was available in 2259 pregnancies, on self-reported current cigarette smoking in 1364 (of whom 117 (8.6%) were smokers), on gravidity in 1371, parity in 1303 and fetal gender in 253. All three markers showed a statistically significant negative association with maternal weight (p<0.0005) and in the subsequent analyses MoM values were weight adjusted using standard methods. The median PAPP-A level in smokers was 0.81 MoM, a significant reduction (p<0.005); free beta-hCG was also reduced (median 0.89 MoM) but not significantly (p=0.17), and AFP was unaltered. The median AFP level in primagravidas was highly significantly greater than that in gravid women (p<0.0005). In PAPP-A the reverse effect was seen but it did not reach statistical significance (p=0.15) and there was no effect for free beta-hCG. Results of a similar magnitude and direction were found for parity. The median level of free beta-hCG was higher (p=0.0005), and the median AFP lower in female pregnancies. Maternal weight and, for PAPP-A, maternal smoking are important first trimester screening co-variables. Gravidity, parity and fetal gender also seem to influence one or more first trimester markers. PMID:10719318

de Graaf, I M; Cuckle, H S; Pajkrt, E; Leschot, N J; Bleker, O P; van Lith, J M

2000-03-01

215

Environmental and maternal correlates of foetal sex ratios in the African buffalo (Syncerus caffer) and savanna elephant (Loxodonta africana)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many species exhibit skewed sex ratios at birth. Here we investigate the relationships between environmental and maternal variables (as surrogates for maternal condition) and foetal sex in African buffalo Syncerus caffer and elephant Loxodonta africana of the Kruger National Park, South Africa. Using logistic regression no significant effect was found of year, maternal lactational status, maternal age, rainfall or density

D. R. Visscher; R. J. van Aarde; I. Whyte

2004-01-01

216

Responses to pain in school-aged children with experience in a neonatal intensive care unit: Cognitive aspects and maternal influences  

Microsoft Academic Search

Previously, it was shown that school-aged (9–14yr) preterm and fullterm children with neonatal pain exposure exhibit elevated heat pain thresholds and heightened perceptual sensitization to tonic painful heat when tested under standard conditions [Hermann C, Hohmeister J, Demirakca S, Zohsel K, Flor H. Long-term alteration of pain sensitivity in school-aged children with early pain experiences. Pain 2006;125:278–85]. Here, changes in

Johanna Hohmeister; Süha Demirakça; Katrin Zohsel; Herta Flor; Christiane Hermann

2009-01-01

217

Prenatal Exposure to Maternal Cigarette Smoking and DNA Methylation: Epigenome-Wide Association in a Discovery Sample of Adolescents and Replication in an Independent Cohort at Birth through 17 Years of Age  

PubMed Central

Background: Prenatal exposure to maternal cigarette smoking (prenatal smoke exposure) had been associated with altered DNA methylation (DNAm) at birth. Objective: We examined whether such alterations are present from birth through adolescence. Methods: We used the Infinium HumanMethylation450K BeadChip to search across 473,395 CpGs for differential DNAm associated with prenatal smoke exposure during adolescence in a discovery cohort (n = 132) and at birth, during childhood, and during adolescence in a replication cohort (n = 447). Results: In the discovery cohort, we found five CpGs in MYO1G (top-ranking CpG: cg12803068, p = 3.3 × 10–11) and CNTNAP2 (cg25949550, p = 4.0 × 10–9) to be differentially methylated between exposed and nonexposed individuals during adolescence. The CpGs in MYO1G and CNTNAP2 were associated, respectively, with higher and lower DNAm in exposed versus nonexposed adolescents. The same CpGs were differentially methylated at birth, during childhood, and during adolescence in the replication cohort. In both cohorts and at all developmental time points, the differential DNAm was in the same direction and of a similar magnitude, and was not altered appreciably by adjustment for current smoking by the participants or their parents. In addition, four of the five EWAS (epigenome-wide association study)–significant CpGs in the adolescent discovery cohort were also among the top sites of differential methylation in a previous birth cohort, and differential methylation of CpGs in CYP1A1, AHRR, and GFI1 observed in that study was also evident in our discovery cohort. Conclusions: Our findings suggest that modifications of DNAm associated with prenatal maternal smoking may persist in exposed offspring for many years—at least until adolescence. Citation: Lee KW, Richmond R, Hu P, French L, Shin J, Bourdon C, Reischl E, Waldenberger M, Zeilinger S, Gaunt T, McArdle W, Ring S, Woodward G, Bouchard L, Gaudet D, Davey Smith G, Relton C, Paus T, Pausova Z. 2015. Prenatal exposure to maternal cigarette smoking and DNA methylation: epigenome-wide association in a discovery sample of adolescents and replication in an independent cohort at birth through 17 years of age. Environ Health Perspect 123:193–199;?http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/ehp.1408614 PMID:25325234

Lee, Ken W.K.; Richmond, Rebecca; Hu, Pingzhao; French, Leon; Shin, Jean; Bourdon, Celine; Reischl, Eva; Waldenberger, Melanie; Zeilinger, Sonja; Gaunt, Tom; McArdle, Wendy; Ring, Susan; Woodward, Geoff; Bouchard, Luigi; Gaudet, Daniel; Smith, George Davey; Relton, Caroline; Paus, Tomas

2014-01-01

218

Schmallenberg virus antibody persistence in adult cattle after natural infection and decay of maternal antibodies in calves  

PubMed Central

Background Schmallenberg virus (SBV) has swept through the major part of Europe in the period 2011–2013. A vaccine against SBV has been developed and may be a possible preventive instrument against infection. Presently, there is no data available to refute the assumption that natural SBV infection results in long-term immunity. In that respect, it is of interest to know how long (protecting) virus-neutralizing antibodies are present in naturally infected animals. New-born calves acquire passive immunity from their dams by ingestion and absorption of antibodies present in colostrum, which can block the production of serum antibodies when vaccine is administered to calves with maternally derived antibodies. In that respect, it is useful to know how long it takes for maternal antibodies against SBV to disappear in young animals born from infected dams. Results Longitudinal whole-herd serological monitoring using virus neutralization test (VNT) indicated that 80% of adult dairy cows still had measurable antibodies against SBV at least 24 months after the estimated introduction of the virus into the herd. Median 2Log VNT titer of the adult dairy cows (?1 year) dropped from 8.6 to 5.6 in a period of 17 months. Median 2Log VNT maternal antibodies titers of calves sampled within 30 days after birth was 8. Calves lost their maternally-derived antibodies after 5–6 months. There was a definite positive relationship between the VNT titer of the dam and the VNT titer of the corresponding calf (age ? 30 days) of dam-calf combinations sampled on the same day: the higher the VNT titer of the dam, the higher the VNT titer (maternal antibodies) of the calf. Conclusions Our field data support the assumption that natural SBV infection in adult cows results in persistence of specific antibodies for at least two years. Based on the observed decay of maternally-derived antibodies in calves, it is presumed safe to vaccinate calves against SBV at an age of approximately 6 months. PMID:24885026

2014-01-01

219

Estimates of maternal mortality for 1995.  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE: To present estimates of maternal mortality in 188 countries, areas, and territories for 1995 using methodologies that attempt to improve comparability. METHODS: For countries having data directly relevant to the measurement of maternal mortality, a variety of adjustment procedures can be applied depending on the nature of the data used. Estimates for countries lacking relevant data may be made using a statistical model fitted to the information from countries that have data judged to be of good quality. Rather than estimate the Maternal Mortality Ratio (MMRatio) directly, this model estimates the proportion of deaths of women of reproductive age that are due to maternal causes. Estimates of the number of maternal deaths are then obtained by applying this proportion to the best available figure of the total number of deaths among women of reproductive age. FINDINGS: On the basis of this exercise, we have obtained a global estimate of 515,000 maternal deaths in 1995, with a worldwide MMRatio of 397 per 100,000 live births. The differences, by region, were very great, with over half (273,000 maternal deaths) occurring in Africa (MMRatio: > 1000 per 100,000), compared with a total of only 2000 maternal deaths in Europe (MMRatio: 28 per 100,000). Lower and upper uncertainty bounds were also estimated, on the basis of which the global MMRatio was unlikely to be less than 234 or more than 635 per 100,000 live births. These uncertainty bounds and those of national estimates are so wide that comparisons between countries must be made with caution, and no valid conclusions can be drawn about trends over a period of time. CONCLUSION: The MMRatio is thus an imperfect indicator of reproductive health because it is hard to measure precisely. It is preferable to use process indicators for comparing reproductive health between countries or across time periods, and for monitoring and evaluation purposes. PMID:11285661

Hill, K.; AbouZhar, C.; Wardlaw, T.

2001-01-01

220

Energy restriction initiated at different gestational ages has varying effects on maternal weight gain and pregnancy outcome in common marmoset monkeys (Callithrix jacchus).  

PubMed

With relatively high fertility and short lifespan, marmoset monkeys (Callithrix jacchus) may become useful primate models of prenatal nutritional effects on birth condition and adult disease risk. The present study determined the effects of energy restriction to 75% of expected ad libitum consumption during mid- (day 66) or late (day 99) gestation on maternal weight, fetal growth and pregnancy outcomes in this species. Mid-restriction reliably induced the loss of pregnancy before term, at 92 d, on average. Of the late-restricted pregnancies, four of seven were normal term length while three were preterm deliveries, at 101, 117 and 132 d. Control females had a mean mid-pregnancy weight gain of 0.67 g/d while mid-restricted females lost -0.65 g/d, on average. Control pregnancies averaged a 1.06 g/d gain during late pregnancy, while energy-restricted females lost -0.67 g/d, on average. Restriction-related weight change was highly variable, ranging from +0.55 to -2.56 g/d for mid-restriction pregnancies and from +0.79 to -3.91 g/d for late-restriction pregnancies. For mid-restriction pregnancies, the number of restriction days was best explained by linear weight change and total weight loss while the number of restriction days in late pregnancy was best explained by linear weight change alone. In late-restriction pregnancies, smaller females had higher daily weight losses. Restrictions did not induce litter-size reduction or growth restriction in those infants that were delivered at term but the size of aborted fetuses suggested that at least some pregnancies lost preterm may have involved impaired intra-uterine growth. PMID:15533274

Tardif, Suzette; Power, Michael; Layne, Donna; Smucny, Darlene; Ziegler, Toni

2004-11-01

221

Paternal Contribution to Down's Syndrome Dispels Maternal Myths.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The paper refutes the long held belief that Down's syndrome is the result of maternal age and maternal etiology. The author cites new evidence which demonstrates that Trisomy-21 (the presence in the chromosome of an extra arcocentric chromosome resulting from non-disjunction), the major cause (95% of the cases) of Down's syndrome, can originate in…

Abroms, Kippy I.; Bennett, Joan W.

222

Maternal Work Status and Pregnancy Outcomes: A Pilot.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Investigated were effects of maternal work status and parity on specific outcomes in maternal psychology and physiology and infant physiology. In addition, the study design and the usefulness of instruments were evaluated, and the feasibility of subject recruitment and retention was assessed. Subjects were 20 women between 18 and 35 years of age

Pitzer, Martha S.

223

Maternal and Child Predictors of Preschool Children's Social Competence  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The present study examined child and maternal predictors of children's social competence in preschool. One hundred ten mothers and their preschool-aged children participated. Mothers completed parent reports of child temperament and self-regulation, and self-reports of maternal separation anxiety. Mothers' interactional style was coded from…

Diener, Marissa L.; Kim, Do-Yeong

2004-01-01

224

Raltegravir pharmacokinetics in neonates following maternal dosing.  

PubMed

: International Maternal Pediatric Adolescent AIDS Clinical Trials P1097 was a multicenter trial to determine washout pharmacokinetics and safety of in utero/intrapartum exposure to raltegravir in infants born to HIV-infected pregnant women receiving raltegravir-based antiretroviral therapy. Twenty-two mother-infant pairs were enrolled; evaluable pharmacokinetic data were available from 19 mother-infant pairs. Raltegravir readily crossed the placenta, with a median cord blood/maternal delivery plasma raltegravir concentration ratio of 1.48 (range, 0.32-4.33). Raltegravir elimination was highly variable and extremely prolonged in some infants; [median t1/2 26.6 (range, 9.3-184) hours]. Prolonged raltegravir elimination likely reflects low neonatal UGT1A1 enzyme activity and enterohepatic recirculation. Excessive raltegravir concentrations must be avoided in the neonate because raltegravir at high plasma concentrations may increase the risk of bilirubin neurotoxicity. Subtherapeutic concentrations, which could lead to inadequate viral suppression and development of raltegravir resistance, must also be avoided. Two ongoing International Maternal Pediatric Adolescent AIDS Clinical Trials studies are further investigating the pharmacology of raltegravir in neonates. PMID:25162819

Clarke, Diana F; Acosta, Edward P; Rizk, Matthew L; Bryson, Yvonne J; Spector, Stephen A; Mofenson, Lynne M; Handelsman, Edward; Teppler, Hedy; Welebob, Carolee; Persaud, Deborah; Cababasay, Mae P; Wang, JiaJia; Mirochnick, Mark

2014-11-01

225

Median Rhomboid Glossitis: A Clinical and Microbiological Study  

PubMed Central

Objectives: The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between median rhomboid glossitis (MRG) and Candida and bacteria species, prevalence and possible association with age, gender, smoking, denture wearing, and diabetes mellitus. Methods: Tongue examinations were performed on 4244 consecutive patients. Of all the examined patients, 30 diagnosed with MRG were selected as the study group and another 30 patients were selected as the control group, and these 2 groups were compared in terms of age and gender. Tongue cultures from these 60 patients were subjected to bacterial and mycological examinations. Results: MRG frequency was detected to be 0.7%. In mycological examination, Candida species were determined in 90.0% of the MRG patients and in 46.6% of the control group. This difference was statistically significant. Multivariate logistic regression indicated that diabetes mellitus and 20–39 years of age were significantly related to MRG. However, the association between MRG, gender, smoking, and 40–69 years of age was not statistically significant. Conclusions: It was determined that although there was a significant association between MRG, Candida and diabetes mellitus, the possible risk factors such as gender, smoking, and denture wearing for oral candidiasis were invalid for MRG. PMID:21912494

Goregen, Mustafa; Miloglu, Ozkan; Buyukkurt, Mustafa Cemil; Caglayan, Fatma; Aktas, Ayse Esin

2011-01-01

226

Lipofibromatous hamartoma of the median nerve  

PubMed Central

Lipofibromatous hamartoma is a rare tumour of peripheral nerves which is characterised by an excessive infiltration of the epineurium and perineurium by fibroadipose tissue. To the best of our knowledge, only approximately 88 cases are reported in the literature. We report a rare case of lipofibromatous hamartoma of the median nerve causing secondary carpal tunnel syndrome in a 25 year old patient. This patient was treated conservatively with decompression and biopsy and experienced a complete resolution of symptoms post-operatively. Magnetic resonance imaging may be used to diagnose this lesion as it has very distinctive characteristics. Multiple conditions have been associated with this lesion and a greater understanding of these associations may clarify the pathogenesis. The architecture of the tumour makes excision very challenging and the surgical management remains controversial. A review of the literature regarding the etiology, pathogenesis and surgical management of lipofibromatous hamartoma is included. PMID:20920178

2010-01-01

227

Elemental analysis of human amniotic fluid and placenta by total-reflection X-ray fluorescence and energy-dispersive X-ray fluorescence: child weight and maternal age dependence  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This work is an attempt to evaluate the possible influence of the mother's age in trace element concentrations in human amniotic fluid and placenta and whether these concentrations are correlated to the weight of the newborn infants. Total-reflection X-ray fluorescence (TXRF) was used to analyze 16 amniotic fluid samples, and the placenta samples were analyzed by energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence (EDXRF). The whole samples were collected during delivery from healthy mothers and healthy infants and full-term pregnancies. According to the age of the mother, three different groups were considered: 20-25, 25-30 and 30-40 years old. Only two mothers were aged more than 35 years. The weight of the infants ranged from 2.56 to 4.05 kg and three groups were also considered: 2.5-3, 3-3.5 and 3.5-4 kg. The organic matrix of the amniotic fluid samples was removed by treatment with HNO 3 followed by oxygen plasma ashing. Yttrium was used as the internal standard for TXRF analysis. Placenta samples were lyophilized and analyzed by EDXRF without any chemical treatment. Very low levels of Ni and Sr were found in the amniotic fluid samples, and were independent of the age of the mother and weight of the child. Cr, Mn, Se and Pb were at the level of the detection limit. Zn, considered one of the key elements in neonatal health, was not significantly different in the samples analyzed; however, it was weakly related to birth weigh. The concentrations obtained ranged from 0.11 to 0.92 mg/l and 30 to 65 ?g/g in amniotic fluid and placenta, respectively. The only two elements which seemed to be significantly correlated with mother's age and newborn weight were Ca and Fe for both types of sample: Ca levels were increased in heavier children and older mothers; however, Fe increased with increasing maternal age, but decreased for heavier babies. The same conclusions were obtained for placenta and amniotic fluid samples. Cu is closely associated with Fe in its function in the organism and has a similar behavior to this element, but not as pronounced.

Carvalho, M. L.; Custódio, P. J.; Reus, U.; Prange, A.

2001-11-01

228

Does Warmth Moderate Longitudinal Associations between Maternal Spanking and Child Aggression in Early Childhood?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examines whether maternal warmth moderates the association between maternal use of spanking and increased child aggression between ages 1 and 5. Participants were 3,279 pairs of mothers and their children from a cohort study of urban families from 20 U.S. cities. Maternal spanking was assessed when the child was 1 year, 3 years, and 5…

Lee, Shawna J.; Altschul, Inna; Gershoff, Elizabeth T.

2013-01-01

229

Woman-Centered Maternity Nursing Education and Practice  

PubMed Central

The purpose of this Heideggerian phenomenological study was to uncover the meanings of the clinical experiences of registered nurses working in maternity settings after they studied maternity nursing from a woman-centered, feminist perspective in a generic baccalaureate nursing program. Purposeful sampling was conducted to locate and recruit nurses who had graduated from this nursing program between the December 1996 and December 1998 semesters and were currently working in a maternal-newborn clinical setting. Each participant had taken the required woman-centered, maternity-nursing course during her/his undergraduate education. Data collection included an individual, open-ended interview that focused on the nurses' descriptions of their everyday practices as maternity nurses. Nineteen maternal-newborn nurses between the ages of 23 and 43 years who had been in practice from six months to three years were interviewed. The constitutive patterns identified from the interviews were: “Otherness,” “Being and Becoming Woman-Centered,” and “Tensions in Practicing Woman-Centered Care.” Findings revealed that the nurses had a raised awareness of oppressive maternity care practices and applied ideology of woman-centeredness as a framework for providing more humanistic care. Creating woman-centered maternity care meant negotiating tensions and barriers in medically focused maternity settings and looking for opportunities for advocacy and woman-empowerment. The barriers the nurses faced in implementing woman-centered care exposed limitations to childbearing choices and nursing practices that remain problematic in maternity care. PMID:17273327

Giarratano, Gloria

2003-01-01

230

Maternal Height and Child Growth Patterns  

PubMed Central

Objective To examine associations between maternal height and child growth during 4 developmental periods: intrauterine, birth to age 2 years, age 2 years to mid-childhood (MC), and MC to adulthood. Study design Pooled analysis of maternal height and offspring growth using 7630 mother–child pairs from 5 birth cohorts (Brazil, Guatemala, India, the Philippines, and South Africa). We used conditional height measures that control for collinearity in height across periods. We estimated associations between maternal height and offspring growth using multivariate regression models adjusted for household income, child sex, birth order, and study site. Results Maternal height was associated with birth weight and with both height and conditional height at each age examined. The strongest associations with conditional heights were for adulthood and 2 years of age. A 1-cm increase in maternal height predicted a 0.024 (95% CI: 0.021-0.028) SD increase in offspring birth weight, a 0.037 (95% CI: 0.033-0.040) SD increase in conditional height at 2 years, a 0.025 (95% CI: 0.021-0.029 SD increase in conditional height in MC, and a 0.044 (95% CI: 0.040-0.048) SD increase in conditional height in adulthood. Short mothers (<150.1 cm) were more likely to have a child who was stunted at 2 years (prevalence ratio = 3.20 (95% CI: 2.80-3.60) and as an adult (prevalence ratio = 4.74, (95% CI: 4.13-5.44). There was no evidence of heterogeneity by site or sex. Conclusion Maternal height influences offspring linear growth over the growing period. These influences likely include genetic and non-genetic factors, including nutrition-related intergenerational influences on growth that prevent the attainment of genetic height potential in low- and middle-income countries. PMID:23477997

Addo, O. Yaw; Stein, Aryeh D.; Fall, Caroline H.; Gigante, Denise P.; Guntupalli, Aravinda M.; Horta, Bernardo L.; Kuzawa, Christopher W.; Lee, Nanette; Norris, Shane A.; Prabhakaran, Poornima; Richter, Linda M.; Sachdev, Harshpal S.; Martorell, Reynaldo

2013-01-01

231

Maternal and neonatal outcomes of placenta previa and placenta accreta: three years of experience with a two-consultant approach  

PubMed Central

Objective The aim of this retrospective cohort study was to evaluate maternal and neonatal outcomes in patients with placenta previa (PP) and placenta accreta (PA). Methods The study population comprised all patients who had a cesarean section for PP and PA at a tertiary referral hospital in Taif, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, from December 2009 to December 2012. Maternal and neonatal data were obtained from medical records and the hospital database system. PA cases were managed by a multispeciality team, including two obstetric consultants. Results In total, 122 patients with PP were identified, with PA found in 25 cases. The median intraoperative blood loss in cases of PA was 2,000 (mean 3,000) mL, with a loss of ?2,000 mL occurring in 72%, and ?5,000 mL in 20%. The median packed red blood cell transfusion requirement was 6 (mean 7.7) units, and 28% received ?10 units. Fetal growth restriction was diagnosed in two cases with known maternal medical disorders. Four cases (3.3%) were diagnosed as small for gestational age. The mean birth weight of the neonates was at the 10th–50th percentile according to Hadlock fetal growth charts. Conclusion The presence of a second obstetric consultant among the multispeciality team during surgery for PA was associated with a reduction in blood loss and a decreased need for large-volume blood transfusion. The rate of fetal growth restriction/small for gestational age in PP was average, but the babies were relatively small (level 2 evidence). PMID:24353442

Kassem, Gamal A; Alzahrani, Ali K

2013-01-01

232

Maternal low-protein diet alters the expression of real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction reference genes in an age-, sex-, and organ-dependent manner in rat offspring.  

PubMed

Altered perinatal environment, often manifested as low birth weight, is thought to contribute to greater susceptibility for hypertension, hyperlipidemia, and diabetes as a result of epigenetic modifications and alteration of transcriptional activity for key genes. Real-time polymerase chain reaction is a useful technique for the quantitative determination of differences in transcriptional activity. Real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction data analyses require normalization of transcriptional activity of target genes to an endogenous control, usually a reference gene. In response to reports of altered expression of reference genes in various experimental models, we hypothesized that adverse perinatal environment alters reference gene expression. We examined the expression of the following reference genes in the offspring of a rodent maternal low-protein diet model: ?-actin, hypoxanthine phosphoribosyltransferase 1, TATA-box-binding protein, glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase, and glucuronidase-? in brain, heart, kidneys, and intestines. We found altered expression in brain, heart, and kidneys for each of the reference genes measured; these effects were age, organ, and sex dependent. Glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase and glucuronidase-? were found to be the least affected by these variables, whereas hypoxanthine phosphoribosyltransferase 1 was the most inconsistent. Our findings underscore the importance of empirical determination of a reliable reference gene for real-time polymerase chain reaction studies in the low-protein diet model. PMID:23507230

DuBois, Barent; Pearson, Jacob; Hastings, Bonnie; Mahmood, Tahir; Chan, Tammy; Alnakhli, Ali; Cherala, Ganesh

2013-03-01

233

The median raphe nucleus in anxiety revisited.  

PubMed

Although the role of the median raphe nucleus (MRN) in the regulation of anxiety has received less attention than that of the dorsal raphe nucleus (DRN) there is substantial evidence supporting this function. Reported results with different animal models of anxiety in rats show that whereas inactivation of serotonergic neurons in the MRN causes anxiolysis, the stimulation of the same neurons is anxiogenic. In particular, studies using the elevated T-maze comparing serotonergic interventions in the MRN and in the DRN indicate that the former affect only the inhibitory avoidance task, which has been related to generalized anxiety. In contrast, similar operations in the DRN change both the inhibitory avoidance and the one-way escape task, the latter being representative of panic disorder. Simultaneous injections of 5-HT-acting drugs in the MRN and in the dorsal hippocampus (DH) suggest that the MRN-DH pathway mediates the regulatory function of the MRN in anxiety. Overall, the results discussed in this review point to a relevant role of the MRN in the regulation of anxiety, but not panic, through the 5-HT pathway that innervates the DH. PMID:23999409

Andrade, Telma Gcs; Zangrossi, Hélio; Graeff, Frederico G

2013-12-01

234

Maternal sickle cell anemia and neonatal isoimmunization  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To study the risk of alloimmunization in pregnant women with sickle cell disease (SCD) and of isoimmunization in their offspring. Method: Thirty mothers with SCD were studied and their 35 neonates (group 1) were compared with 538 infants of mothers without hemoglobinopathies (group 2). Result: Six mothers with SCD developed alloantibodies. There was no correlation with maternal age (P=0.6),

H Narchi; E Ekuma-Nkama

1998-01-01

235

Pharmacogenomics of Maternal Tobacco Use  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE To assess whether functional maternal or fetal genotypes along well-characterized metabolic pathways (ie, CYP1A1, GSTT1, and CYP2A6) may account for varying associations with adverse outcomes among pregnant women who smoke. METHODS DNA samples from 502 smokers and their conceptuses, alongside women in a control group, were genotyped for known functional allelic variants of CYP1A1 (Ile462Val AA>AG/GG), GSTT1(del), and CYP2A6 (Lys160His T>A). Modification of the association between smoking and outcome by genotype was evaluated. Outcomes included birth weight, pregnancy loss, preterm birth, small for gestational age, and a composite outcome composed of the latter four components plus abruption. RESULTS No interaction between maternal or fetal genotype of any of the polymorphisms and smoking could be demonstrated. In contrast, the association of smoking with gestational age–adjusted birth weight (birth weight ratio) was modified by fetal GSTT1 genotype (P for interaction=.02). Fetuses with GSTT1(del) had a mean birth weight reduction among smokers of 262 g (P=.01), whereas in fetuses without the GSTT1(del) the effect of tobacco exposure was nonsignificant (mean reduction 87 g, P=.16). After adjusting for confounding, results were similar. CONCLUSION Fetal GSTT1 deletion significantly and specifically modifies the effect of smoking on gestational age–corrected birth weight. PMID:20177288

Aagaard-Tillery, Kjersti; Spong, Catherine Y.; Thom, Elizabeth; Sibai, Baha; Wendel, George; Wenstrom, Katharine; Samuels, Philip; Simhan, Hyagriv; Sorokin, Yoram; Miodovnik, Menachem; Meis, Paul; O’Sullivan, Mary J.; Conway, Deborah; Wapner, Ronald J.

2011-01-01

236

Maternal influences on birth weight.  

PubMed

The birth weight of 2,848 singleton babies delivered Al-Medina District hospitals was studied. The mean birth weight of Al-Medina babies was 3.26 Kg. (SD 0.44), the males with mean birth weight of 3.32 Kg. (SD 0.45), and were significantly heavier than females with a mean birth weight of 3.20 Kg. (SD 0.42). The incidence of low birth weight was 7.0 per cent. The birth weight was found to increase consistently with maternal age, parity, and height. Birth weight was significantly higher for babies of non-consanguineous parents. PMID:2500524

al-Sekait, M A

1989-04-01

237

Fetal male lineage determination by analysis of Y-chromosome STR haplotype in maternal plasma.  

PubMed

The aim of this study is to determine the fetus Y-STR haplotype in maternal plasma during pregnancy and estimate, non-invasively, if the alleged father and fetus belong to the same male lineage. The study enrolled couples with singleton pregnancies and known paternity. All participants signed informed consent and the local ethics committee approved the study. Peripheral blood was collected in EDTA tubes (mother) and in FTA paper (father). Maternal plasma DNA was extracted by using NucliSens EasyMAG. Fetal gender was determined by qPCR targeting DYS-14 in maternal plasma and it was also confirmed after the delivery. From all included volunteers, the first consecutive 20 mothers bearing male fetuses and 10 mothers bearing female fetuses were selected for the Y-STR analysis. The median gestational age was 12 weeks (range 12-36). All DNA samples were subjected to PCR amplification by PowerPlex Y23, ampFLSTR Yfiler, and two in-house multiplexes, which together accounts for 27 different Y-STR. The PCR products were detected with 3500 Genetic Analyzer and they were analyzed using GeneMapper-IDX. Fetuses' haplotypes (Yfiler format) were compared to other 5328 Brazilian haplotypes available on Y-chromosome haplotypes reference database (YHRD). As a result, between 22 and 27 loci were successfully amplified from maternal plasma in all 20 cases of male fetuses. None of the women bearing female fetuses had a falsely amplified Y-STR haplotype. The haplotype detected in maternal plasma completely matched the alleged father haplotype in 16 out of the 20 cases. Four cases showed single mismatches and they did not configure exclusions; 1 case showed a mutation in the DYS 458 locus due to the loss of one repeat unit and 3 cases showed one DYS 385I/II locus dropout. All mismatches were confirmed after the delivery. Seventeen fetuses' haplotypes were not found in YHRD and one of them had a mutation, which corresponded to the paternity probability of 99.9812% and 95.7028%, respectively. Three fetuses' haplotypes occurred twice in YHRD, which corresponded to paternity probability of 99.9437%. In conclusion, high discriminatory fetal Y-STR haplotype could be determined from maternal plasma during pregnancy starting at 12 weeks of gestation. All male fetuses could be attributed to the alleged father male lineage early in pregnancy. The high probability of paternity associated with each case suggests that the relationship is not random and this strategy can be use as an alternative for male fetal kinship analysis. PMID:25434746

Barra, Gustavo Barcelos; Santa Rita, Ticiane Henriques; Chianca, Camilla Figueiredo; Velasco, Lara Francielle Ribeiro; Sousa, Claudia Ferreira de; Nery, Lídia Freire Abdalla; Costa, Sandra Santana Soares

2015-03-01

238

The Heterogeneous P-Median Problem for Categorization Based Clustering  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The p-median offers an alternative to centroid-based clustering algorithms for identifying unobserved categories. However, existing p-median formulations typically require data aggregation into a single proximity matrix, resulting in masked respondent heterogeneity. A proposed three-way formulation of the p-median problem explicitly considers…

Blanchard, Simon J.; Aloise, Daniel; DeSarbo, Wayne S.

2012-01-01

239

SOME PROPERTIES OF FRECHET MEDIANS IN RIEMANNIAN MANIFOLDS  

E-print Network

SOME PROPERTIES OF FR´ECHET MEDIANS IN RIEMANNIAN MANIFOLDS LE YANG Abstract. The consistency of Fr´echet and verifies some concentration conditions, the positions of its Fr´echet medians are estimated. It is also shown that, in compact Riemannian manifolds, the Fr´echet sample medians of generic data points

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

240

Sensitivity and specificity of median nerve ultrasonography in diagnosis of carpal tunnel syndrome  

PubMed Central

Background Although controversial, recent studies have demonstrated advantages of sonographic techniques in the diagnosis of carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS). The purpose of this study was to assess the utility of median nerve ultrasonography in the diagnosis of CTS in Iranian patients. Methods Ninety patents with clinically suspected CTS were studied. Based on gold standard electromyography/nerve conduction velocity studies, wrists with CTS were divided into three groups on the basis of severity of CTS, ie, mild, moderate, and severe. In addition, both sides of the wrist were examined using sonography. Transverse images of the median nerve were obtained and median nerve cross-section areas were measured at three levels, ie, immediately proximal to the carpal tunnel inlet, at the carpal tunnel inlet, and at the carpal tunnel outlet. Furthermore, flexor retinaculum thickness was evaluated. Results The mean age of the studied patients was 48.52 ± 12.17 years. Median values of the median nerve cross-section at the carpal tunnel inlet, carpal tunnel outlet, and proximal carpal tunnel significantly differed between the wrists with and without CTS (P < 0.05). Comparisons between the CTS groups (mild, moderate, and severe) and non-CTS wrists demonstrated that the median cross-sections of median nerve at the carpal tunnel inlet, carpal tunnel outlet, and inlet proximal carpal tunnel were significantly greater in the severe CTS group than in the other three groups (P < 0.05). The results showed that the median nerve cross-section at the three levels of carpal tunnel could only fairly differentiate severe CTS from other cases. Conclusion The present study demonstrated that median nerve ultrasonography cannot replace the gold standard test (nerve conduction velocity) for the diagnosis of CTS because of low overall sensitivity and specificity, although it might provide useful information in some patients. PMID:22319247

Yazdchi, Mohammad; Tarzemani, Mohammad Kazem; Mikaeili, Haleh; Ayromlu, Hormoz; Ebadi, Hooman

2012-01-01

241

Distance, transportation cost, and mode of transport in the utilization of facility-based maternity services: evidence from rural Bangladesh.  

PubMed

Although the maternal mortality ratio in Bangladesh has decreased, significant underutilization of facilities continues to be a persistent challenge to policy makers. Women face long distances and significant transportation cost to deliver at health facilities. This study identifies the distance traveled to utilize facilities, associated transportation cost, and transport mode used for maternal healthcare services. A total of 3,300 mothers aged 18-49 years, who had given birth in the year before the survey, were interviewed from 22 sub-districts in 2010. Findings suggest that facility-based maternal healthcare service utilization was very poor. Only 53% of women received antenatal care, 20% used delivery care. and 10% used postnatal care from health centers. Median distance traveled for antenatal and postnatal check-ups was 2 kilometers but 4 kilometers for complication management care and delivery. Most women used non-motorized rickshaw or van to reach a health facility. On average, women spent Taka 100 (US$1.40) as transportation cost for antenatal care, Taka 432 (US$6.17) for delivery, and Taka 132 (US$1.89) for postnatal check-up. For each additional kilometer, the cost increased by Taka 9 (US$0.13) for antenatal, Taka 31 (US$0.44) for delivery, and Taka 8 (US$0.11) for postnatal care. PMID:25416431

Keya, Kaji Tamanna; Rob, Ubaidur; Rahman, Moshiur; Bajracharya, Ashish; Bellows, Benjamin

2014-01-01

242

Maternal Obesity, Inflammation, and Developmental Programming  

PubMed Central

The prevalence of obesity, especially in women of child-bearing age, is a global health concern. In addition to increasing the immediate risk of gestational complications, there is accumulating evidence that maternal obesity also has long-term consequences for the offspring. The concept of developmental programming describes the process in which an environmental stimulus, including altered nutrition, during critical periods of development can program alterations in organogenesis, tissue development, and metabolism, predisposing offspring to obesity and metabolic and cardiovascular disorders in later life. Although the mechanisms underpinning programming of metabolic disorders remain poorly defined, it has become increasingly clear that low-grade inflammation is associated with obesity and its comorbidities. This review will discuss maternal metainflammation as a mediator of programming in insulin sensitive tissues in offspring. Use of nutritional anti-inflammatories in pregnancy including omega 3 fatty acids, resveratrol, curcumin, and taurine may provide beneficial intervention strategies to ameliorate maternal obesity-induced programming. PMID:24967364

Segovia, Stephanie A.; Vickers, Mark H.; Reynolds, Clare M.

2014-01-01

243

Maternal Serum Disintegrin and Metalloprotease Protein-12 in Early Pregnancy as a Potential Marker of Adverse Pregnancy Outcomes  

PubMed Central

Objectives The aim of this study was to determine whether the concentration of disintegrin and metalloprotease protein12 (ADAM12) in first trimester maternal serum can be used as a marker for first-trimester complete spontaneous abortions, missed abortions, ectopic pregnancies and hydatidiform moles. Methods The maternal serum concentrations of ADAM12 were measured in the range of 5–9+6 weeks of gestation using an automated AutoDelfia immunoassay platform in 9 cases of complete spontaneous abortion, 27 cases of missed abortions, 56 cases of ectopic pregnancies, 12 cases of hydatidiform moles, and 100 controls. Logistic regression analysis was used to determine significant factors for predicting adverse pregnancy outcomes in early pregnancy. Screening performance was assessed using receiver operating characteristic curves. Results Two hundred and four women were enrolled in the study. In the control group, the level of ADAM12 increased with gestational age. The median ADAM12 levels in the spontaneous abortion (0.430 MoM), ectopic pregnancy (0.460 MoM) and hydatidiform mole (0.037 MoM) groups were lower than that in the control group, while the median ADAM12 level in the missed abortion group (1.062 MoM) was not significant from the controls (1.002 MoM). Logistic regression analysis demonstrated that the level of ADAM12 in maternal serum facilitated the detection of ectopic pregnancies (OR?=?0.909; 95% CI?=?0.841?0.982) and complete spontaneous abortion (OR?=?0.863; 95% CI?=?0.787?0.946). Conclusions In complete spontaneous abortion and ectopic pregnancy, ADAM12 maintained at low levels in early pregnancies, and there were significant differences compared to normal pregnancies. ADAM12 is a promising marker for the diagnosis of complete spontaneous abortion and ectopic pregnancy in symptomatic women, and under certain conditions, ADAM12 can diagnose ectopic pregnancy and spontaneous abortion before an ultrasonographic detection of the conditions. PMID:24830297

Yang, Jiexia; Wu, Jing; Guo, Fangfang; Wang, Dongmei; Chen, Keyi; Li, Jie; Du, Li; Yin, Aihua

2014-01-01

244

Maternal Vitamin D Status and Offspring Bone Fractures: Prospective Study over Two Decades in Aarhus City, Denmark  

PubMed Central

Background Studies investigating the association between maternal vitamin D status and offspring bone mass measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) during childhood have shown conflicting results. Purpose We used occurrence of bone fractures up to the age of 18 as a measure reflecting offspring bone mass and related that to maternal vitamin D status. Methods The Danish Fetal Origins 1988 Cohort recruited 965 pregnant women during 1988–89 at their 30th gestation week antenatal midwife visit. A blood sample was drawn and serum was stored, which later was analyzed for the concentration of 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) by the liquid chromatography coupled with a tandem mass spectrometric method (LC-MS/MS). Outcome was diagnosis of first time bone fractures extracted from the Danish National Patient Register. Results Vitamin D status was available for 850 women. The median (5th–95th percentile) 25(OH)D was 76.2 (23.0–152.1) nmol/l. During follow up 294 children were registered with at least one bone fracture diagnosis. Multivariable Cox regression models using age as the underlying time scale indicated no overall association between maternal vitamin D status and first time bone fractures. However, there was a significantly increased hazard ratio (HR) during childhood for those who had maternal blood drawn in Dec/Jan/Feb compared with Jun/Jul/Aug (HR: 1.75, 95%CI: 1.11–2.74). Adjustment for vitamin D status strengthened this association (1.82, 1.12–2.97), which indicated a potential seasonal impact on offspring fractures independent of maternal vitamin D status. In a sensitivity analysis we found a borderline significant inverse association between continuous concentrations of 25(OH)D and offspring forearm fractures (P?=?0.054). Conclusion Overall, our results did not substantiate an association between maternal vitamin D status and offspring bone fractures. Further studies on this subject are needed, but the study populations must be large enough to allow for subdivision of fractures. PMID:25474409

Petersen, Sesilje Bondo; Olsen, Sjurdur Frodi; Mølgaard, Christian; Granström, Charlotta; Cohen, Arieh; Vestergaard, Peter; Strøm, Marin

2014-01-01

245

Is Maternal PTSD Associated with Greater Exposure of Very Young Children to Violent Media?  

PubMed Central

This study examined media-viewing by mothers with violence-related posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and related media exposure of their preschool-age children. Mothers (N = 67) recruited from community pediatric clinics participated in a protocol involving a media-preference survey. Severity of maternal PTSD and dissociation were significantly associated with child exposure to violent media. Family poverty and maternal viewing-behavior were also associated. Maternal viewing-behavior mediated the effects specifically of maternal PTSD severity on child exposure. Clinicians should assess maternal and child media viewing practices in families with histories of violent trauma exposure and related psychopathology. PMID:19924819

Schechter, Daniel S.; Gross, Anna; Willheim, Erica; McCaw, Jaime; Turner, J. Blake; Myers, Michael M.; Zeanah, Charles H.; Gleason, Mary Margaret

2009-01-01

246

Maternal Alcohol Use and Neonatal Habituation Assessed with the Brazelton Scale.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Maternal alcohol use in mid-pregnancy was significantly related to poorer habituation and increased low arousal in newborn infants, even after adjusting for smoking and caffeine use by mothers, maternal age and nutrition during pregnancy, sex and age of the infant, and obstetric medication. (Author/RH)

Streissguth, Ann Pytkowicz; And Others

1983-01-01

247

Observational learning of an acquired maternal behaviour pattern by working dog pups: an alternative training method?  

Microsoft Academic Search

German shepherd pups from untrained bitches and bitches trained in the location of narcotics were either separated from their mothers at 6 weeks (standard raised) or at 3 months of age (extended maternal care). Pups with extended maternal care which were allowed to observe their trained mothers locating and retrieving a sachet of odour-producing narcotic between the ages of 6

J. M. Slabbert; O. Anne E. Rasa

1997-01-01

248

Risk factors for adverse maternal outcomes among women with HELLP (hemolysis, elevated liver enzymes, and low platelet count) syndrome  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: This study was undertake to determine risk factors for adverse maternal outcomes among women with HELLP (hemolysis, elevated liver enzymes, and low platelet count) syndrome. Study Design: Maternal medical records of pregnancies complicated by HELLP syndrome managed between July 1, 1992, and April 30, 1999, were reviewed. Risk factors evaluated included maternal age, parity, race, previous preeclampsia, chronic hypertension,

Bassam Haddad; John R. Barton; Jeffrey C. Livingston; Rabih Chahine; Baha M. Sibai

2000-01-01

249

Maternal Control Behavior and Locus of Control: Examining Mechanisms in the Relation Between Maternal Anxiety Disorders and Anxiety Symptomatology in Children  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study tested components of a proposed model of child anxiety and examined the mediational roles of (1) maternal control\\u000a behavior, (2) maternal external locus of control, and (3) child external locus of control in the association between maternal\\u000a and child anxiety. Thirty-eight clinically anxious mothers and 37 nonanxious mothers participated along with one of their\\u000a children aged 6 to

Kimberly D. Becker; Golda S. Ginsburg; Janine Domingues; Jenn-Yun Tein

2010-01-01

250

Medical and Psychologic Risks of Maternal Cocaine Use  

PubMed Central

The growing use of crack-cocaine by women of child-bearing age poses significant management problems for physicians. Both animal and human studies suggest that cocaine exerts significant negative effects on maternal health, the course of pregnancy, and infant developmental outcome. Maternal pregnancy complications and increased rates of low birth weight and prematurity in infants who are fetally exposed are well documented. However, available studies of neurobehavioral outcomes for cocaine-exposed infants are still inconclusive. Physicians need to become knowledgeable about the potential effects of maternal drug addiction during pregnancy to provide appropriate medical care.

Singer, Lynn; Arendt, Robert E.; Minnes, Sonia; Garber, Rachel M.

2014-01-01

251

A LAGRANGEAN\\/SURROGATE APPROACH TO p-MEDIAN PROBLEMS  

Microsoft Academic Search

The p-median problem is the problem of locating p facilities (medians) on a network so as to minimize the sum of all the distances from each demand point to its nearest facility. A successful approach to approximately solve this problem is the use of Lagrangean heuristics, based upon Lagrangean relaxation and subgradient optimization. We propose in this paper a Lagrangean\\/surrogate

Edson L. F. Senne; Luiz A. N. Lorena

252

Robust Support Vector Machine Using Least Median Loss Penalty  

E-print Network

Conditional Median Loss-SVM method that we propose for robust SVM classifica- tion. Support Vectors in bothRobust Support Vector Machine Using Least Median Loss Penalty Yifei Ma Li Li Xiaolin Huang for training may contain outliers that can generate unpredictable disturbance for some Support Vector Machines

Gordon, Geoffrey J.

253

Medians and means in Riemannian geometry: existence, uniqueness and computation  

E-print Network

, we propose a subgradient algorithm and prove its convergence. After that, Fr´echet medians are con with the aid of upper curvature bounds. We also show that, in compact Riemannian manifolds, the Fr´echet medi nowadays. A sufficiently general notion of median in metric spaces was proposed in 1948 by M. Fr´echet

Boyer, Edmond

254

Macrodystrophia lipomatosa with associated fibrolipomatous hamartoma of the median nerve.  

PubMed

Macrodystrophia lipomatosa (MDL) is a rare disease typically causing localized gigantism and is often associated with a fibrolipomatous hamartoma (FH) of the median or plantar nerve. A previously unreported case of MDL with associated FH of the median nerve is presented. PMID:10786987

Brodwater, B K; Major, N M; Goldner, R D; Layfield, L J

2000-01-01

255

Macrodystrophia lipomatosa with associated fibrolipomatous hamartoma of the median nerve  

Microsoft Academic Search

Macrodystrophia lipomatosa (MDL) is a rare disease typically causing localized gigantism and is often associated with a fibrolipomatous\\u000a hamartoma (FH) of the median or plantar nerve. A previously unreported case of MDL with associated FH of the median nerve\\u000a is presented.

Brian K. Brodwater; Nancy M. Major; Richard D. Goldner; Lester J. Layfield

2000-01-01

256

A new impulse detector for switching median filters  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new impulse noise detection technique for switching median filters is presented, which is based on the minimum absolute value of four convolutions obtained using one-dimensional Laplacian operators. Extensive simulations show that the proposed filter provides better performance than many of the existing switching median filters with comparable computational complexity. In particular, the proposed filter is directed toward improved line

Shuqun Zhang; Mohammad A. Karim

2002-01-01

257

Maternal and Paternal Psychological Control as Moderators of the Link between Peer Attitudes and Adolescents' Risky Sexual Behavior  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Maternal and paternal psychological control, peer attitudes, and the interaction of psychological control and peer attitudes at age 13 were examined as predictors of risky sexual behavior before age 16 in a community sample of 181 youth followed from age 13 to 16. Maternal psychological control moderated the link between peer attitudes and sexual…

Oudekerk, Barbara A.; Allen, Joseph P.; Hafen, Christopher A.; Hessel, Elenda T.; Szwedo, David E.; Spilker, Ann

2014-01-01

258

Evidence for extended age dependent maternal immunity in infected children: mother to child transmission of HIV infection and potential interventions including sulfatides of the human fetal adnexa and complementary or alternative medicines.  

PubMed

The two neighboring southwestern states of India, Karnataka and Maharashtra, have high incidence of HIV/AIDS and are among the six most high prevalence HIV infected states. In Karnataka state, the northern districts of Bagalkot, Belgaum and Bijapur (the three Bs) and in Maharashtra state, the southern districts of Sangli, Satara, and Solapur (the three Ss) are the areas with the highest incidence of HIV/AIDS. We have evaluated the incidence of maternal to child transmission (MTCT) of HIV-1 infection in Belgaum District which is more than 500 kilometers distance by road from the campus in greater Bangalore (Karnataka State). We have obtained the prenatal CD4 counts of HIV infected pregnant mothers. We have also screened the HIV infected children in two orphanages (rehabilitation centres for HIV infected children) in Belgaum District. The clinical conditions of these infected children were assessed for their CD4 counts, anti-retroviral therapy (ART) intake status, outpatient illnesses and body composition. We have observed that there is an influence of the age factor on the CD4 counts of the HIV infected children. Further, in view of the role of our recently found involvement of sulfatide, 3-O- galactosylceramide, in inhibition of HIV-1 replication and enhancement of hematopoiesis which is otherwise inhibited due to such infection, we have discussed the possible role of sulfatides that biologically occur in the fetal adnexa (placentatrophoblasts /amnion/chorion-umbilical cord), in containing HIV infection as a potential safer alternative to the ART regimens currently approved to be clinically practiced. Lastly, we have discussed the complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) therapies such as evidence based yoga and ayurveda as add-on to ART in potential elimination of MTCT of HIV infection. Out of a total of 150 children delivered by HIV infected mothers, 13 children were found to be positive as determined by the dried blood smear (DBS) for virological testing, giving an incidence of about 8.66% in the Belgaum district during the last two years, in spite of the prescription of currently available ART regimens. All the 13 HIV-transmitting mothers had normal vaginal deliveries. Though 12% of the total 150 deliveries required lower segment caesarean section (LSCS), none among them resulted in MTCT of HIV. Comparison of the prenatal CD4 counts between transmitting and non-transmitting mothers did not show significant differences (p=0.25) thus suggesting indirectly that HIV-1 proviral loads (undetermined / unavailable) need not necessarily determine the fate of incidence of vertical transmission. The mean age of 44 HIV infected children (14 females, 30 males) that were screened in two orphanages was 10.8±3.1 years. Out of these 44 children, 27 were taking ART (61.36%) with mean duration of consumption being 2.8±2.28 years. Fifty percent (n=22) of the children were suffering from at least one outpatient illness, out of which 13 were taking ART. Their mean basal metabolic rate (BMR), body mass index (BMI), muscle mass, fat mass and fat % were 795.45±106.9, 14.55±1.9 kg/m(2), 9.54±3.4 kg, 3.69±2.24 kg and 15.04±7.8% respectively. Comparison between the children taking ART (on-ART, n=27) and those not taking ART (non-ART, n= 17) showed that though there was no significant difference in the average age of the two groups, on-ART children had significantly higher BMR (p=0.05), and muscle mass (p=0.004), than non-ART. The CD4 counts, BMI, fat mass and fat percentage did not show significant statistical differences between the two groups. The CD4 counts of the children (both on-ART and non-ART) of age 8 years and below (n=12) were found to be significantly higher (p=0.04) than those of age 14 and above (n=10). All the children in age group of 14 years and above (n=10) except one child were on ART, whereas 7 out of 12 children in age group of 8 years and below were on-ART. In one of the rehabilitation centers called Aadhar, among non-ART children, a significant correlation was observed between the age of the child and CD4 count

Bhargav, Hemant; Huilgol, Vidya; Metri, Kashinath; Sundell, I Birgitta; Tripathi, Satyam; Ramagouda, Nagaratna; Jadhav, Mahesh; Raghuram, Nagarathna; Ramarao, Nagendra Hongasandra; Koka, Prasad S

2012-01-01

259

Early-Life Hepatitis E Infection in Pigs: The Importance of Maternally-Derived Antibodies  

PubMed Central

Passive immunity (PI), acquired through colostrum intake, is essential for piglet protection against pathogens. Maternally-derived antibodies (MDAs) can decrease the transmission of pathogens between individuals by reducing shedding from infected animals and/or susceptibility of naïve animals. Only a limited number of studies, however, have been carried out to quantify the level of protection conferred by PI in terms of transmission. In the present study, an original modeling framework was designed to estimate parameters governing the transmission of infectious agents in the presence and absence of PI. This epidemiological model accounts for the distribution of PI duration and two different forces of infection depending on the serological status of animals after colostrum intake. A Bayesian approach (Metropolis-Hastings algorithm) was used for parameter estimation. The impact of PI on hepatitis E virus transmission in piglets was investigated using longitudinal serological data from six pig farms. A strong impact of PI was highlighted, the efficiency of transmission being on average 13 times lower in piglets with maternally-derived antibodies than in fully susceptible animals (range: 5–21). Median infection-free survival ages, based on herd-specific estimates, ranged between 8.7 and 13.8 weeks in all but one herd. Indeed, this herd exhibited a different profile with a relatively low prevalence of infected pigs (50% at slaughter age) despite the similar proportions of passively immune individuals after colostrum intake. These results suggest that the age at HEV infection is not strictly dependent upon the proportion of piglets with PI but is also linked to farm-specific husbandry (mingling of piglets after weaning) and hygiene practices. The original methodology developed here, using population-based longitudinal serological data, was able to demonstrate the relative impact of MDAs on the transmission of infectious agents. PMID:25144763

Andraud, Mathieu; Casas, Maribel; Pavio, Nicole; Rose, Nicolas

2014-01-01

260

Maternally transmitted mitochondrial DNA mutations can reduce lifespan  

PubMed Central

We recently showed that germline transmission of mitochondrial DNA mutations via the oocyte cause aggravation of aging phenotypes in prematurely aging mtDNA mutator (PolgAmut/mut) mice. We discovered that 32% of these mice also exhibit stochastic disturbances of brain development, when maternal mtDNA mutations were combined with homozygosity for the PolgA mutation, leading to de novo somatic mtDNA mutations. Surprisingly, we also found that maternally transmitted mtDNA mutations can cause mild premature aging phenotypes also in mice with a wild-type nuclear DNA background. We now report that in addition to the early onset of aging phenotypes, these mice, burdened only by low levels of mtDNA mutations transmitted via the germline, also exhibit reduced longevity. Our data thus demonstrate that low levels of maternally inherited mtDNA mutations when present during development can affect both overall health and lifespan negatively. PMID:25299268

Ross, Jaime M.; Coppotelli, Giuseppe; Hoffer, Barry J.; Olson, Lars

2014-01-01

261

Maternal weight gain in different periods of pregnancy and childhood cardio-metabolic outcomes. The Generation R Study.  

PubMed

Background:Excessive gestational weight gain seems to be associated with offspring cardio-metabolic risk factors. Little is known about the critical periods of gestational weight gain. We examined the associations of maternal weight gain in different periods of pregnancy with childhood cardio-metabolic risk factors.Methods:In a population-based prospective cohort study from early pregnancy onwards among 5908 mothers and their children, we obtained maternal prepregnancy weight and weight in early, mid and late pregnancy. At the age of 6 years (median: 72.6 months; 95% range: 67.9, 95.8), we measured childhood body mass index (BMI), total body and abdominal fat distribution, blood pressure and blood levels of lipids, insulin and c-peptide.Results:Overall, the associations of maternal prepregnancy weight with childhood outcomes were stronger than the associations of maternal gestational weight gain. Independent from maternal prepregnancy weight and weight gain in other periods, higher weight gain in early pregnancy was associated with higher childhood BMI, total fat mass, android/gynoid fat mass ratio, abdominal subcutaneous fat mass and systolic blood pressure (P-values<0.05). Independent associations of maternal weight gain in early pregnancy with childhood abdominal preperitoneal fat mass, insulin and c-peptide were of borderline significance. Higher weight gain in mid pregnancy was independently associated with higher childhood BMI, total and abdominal subcutaneous fat mass and systolic blood pressure (P-values<0.05). The associations for childhood cardio-metabolic outcomes attenuated after adjustment for childhood BMI. Weight gain in late pregnancy was not associated with childhood outcomes. Higher weight gain in early, but not in mid or late pregnancy, was associated with increased risks of childhood overweight and clustering of cardio-metabolic risk factors (odds ratio (OR) 1.19 (95% confidence interval (CI): 1.10, 1.29) and OR 1.20 (95% CI: 1.07, 1.35) per standard deviation increase in early gestational weight gain, respectively).Conclusions:Higher weight gain in early pregnancy is associated with an adverse cardio-metabolic profile in offspring. This association is largely mediated by childhood adiposity.International Journal of Obesity advance online publication, 11 November 2014; doi:10.1038/ijo.2014.175. PMID:25287752

Gaillard, R; Steegers, E A P; Franco, O H; Hofman, A; Jaddoe, V W V

2014-10-01

262

[Maternal mortality in France, 2007-2009].  

PubMed

To monitor the maternal mortality which is an indicator of the quality of obstetric and intensive care, France has a specific approach since 1996. Recently linkages have been introduced to improve the inclusion of cases. Here are the results for the 2007 to 2009 period. The identification of the pregnancy associated deaths is lying on different data bases that are medical causes of death, birth register and hospital discharges. To document the cases, confidential enquiries are conducted by two assessors on the field; a committee of medical experts analyses the documents, select the underlying cause and assess the quality of health care. Two hundred and fifty-four obstetric deaths were identified from 2007 to 2009 giving the maternal mortality ratio (MMR) of 10.3 per 100,000 births. The maternal age and nationality, the region of deaths are associated to the MMR. The haemorrhages are the leading cause but their ratio is 1.9 versus 2.5 previously; this decrease results from the postpartum haemorrhage by uterine atony going down. The suboptimal care are still frequent (60%) but slightly less than before. The linkage method should be pursued. Maternal mortality is rather stable in France. We may reach more reduction as deaths due to atony decreased as suboptimal care did. PMID:24035736

Saucedo, M; Deneux-Tharaux, C; Bouvier-Colle, M-H

2013-11-01

263

Dual pathology proximal median nerve compression of the forearm.  

PubMed

We report an unusual case of synchronous pathology in the forearm- the coexistence of a large lipoma of the median nerve together with an osteochondroma of the proximal ulna, giving rise to a dual proximal median nerve compression. Proximal median nerve compression neuropathies in the forearm are uncommon compared to the prevalence of distal compression neuropathies (eg Carpal Tunnel Syndrome). Both neural fibrolipomas (Refs. 1,2) and osteochondromas of the proximal ulna (Ref. 3) in isolation are rare but well documented. Unlike that of a distal compression, a proximal compression of the median nerve will often have a definite cause. Neural fibrolipoma, also called fibrolipomatous hamartoma are rare, slow-growing, benign tumours of peripheral nerves, most often occurring in the median nerve of younger patients. To our knowledge, this is the first report of such dual pathology in the same forearm, giving rise to a severe proximal compression of the median nerve. In this case, the nerve was being pushed anteriorly by the osteochondroma, and was being compressed from within by the intraneural lipoma. This unusual case highlights the advantage of preoperative imaging as part of the workup of proximal median nerve compression. PMID:23707555

Murphy, Siun M; Browne, Katherine; Tuite, David J; O'Shaughnessy, Michael

2013-12-01

264

Links between Maternal and Child Psychopathology Symptoms: Mediation through Child Emotion Regulation and Moderation through Maternal Behavior  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined the intergenerational transmission of psychopathology symptoms with 7-12 year-old children (N = 97; 44 boys, 53 girls, M age = 9.14, SD = 1.38) and their mothers (M age = 38.46, SD = 6.86). Child emotion regulation mediated the links between maternal psychopathology and child internalizing and externalizing symptoms. In turn,…

Suveg, Cynthia; Shaffer, Anne; Morelen, Diana; Thomassin, Kristel

2011-01-01

265

Maternal Sexuality and Breastfeeding  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this paper I consider the ways in which lactation has been discussed as a form of maternal sexuality, and the implications this carries for our understanding of breastfeeding practices and sexuality. Drawing on knowledge constructed in the western world during the last half of the twentieth century, the paper identifies a shift between the…

Bartlett, Alison

2005-01-01

266

The politics of maternity.  

PubMed

Changes in the culture of health care require that, to be effective, midwifery practice should become more woman-centred. This may be facilitated by adopting a stronger community orientation. In this way the hegemony of maternity care may be addressed. This paper seeks to draw readers' attention to political developments and to inspire midwives to greater awareness and, possibly, activity. PMID:24600828

Mander, Rosemary; Edwards, Nadine; McHugh, Nessa; Murphy-Lawless, Jo; Patterson, Jenny

2014-02-01

267

Maternity Leave in Taiwan  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Using the first nationally representative birth cohort study in Taiwan, this paper examines the role that maternity leave policy in Taiwan plays in the timing of mothers returning to work after giving birth, as well as the extent to which this timing is linked to the amount of time mothers spend with their children and their use of breast milk…

Feng, Joyce Yen; Han, Wen-Jui

2010-01-01

268

The multivariate L1-median and associated data depth.  

PubMed

This paper gives three related results: (i) a new, simple, fast, monotonically converging algorithm for deriving the L1-median of a data cloud in Rd, a problem that can be traced to Fermat and has fascinated applied mathematicians for over three centuries; (ii) a new general definition for depth functions, as functions of multivariate medians, so that different definitions of medians will, correspondingly, give rise to different dept functions; and (iii) a simple closed-form formula of the L1-depth function for a given data cloud in Rd. PMID:10677477

Vardi, Y; Zhang, C H

2000-02-15

269

The multivariate L1-median and associated data depth  

PubMed Central

This paper gives three related results: (i) a new, simple, fast, monotonically converging algorithm for deriving the L1-median of a data cloud in ?d, a problem that can be traced to Fermat and has fascinated applied mathematicians for over three centuries; (ii) a new general definition for depth functions, as functions of multivariate medians, so that different definitions of medians will, correspondingly, give rise to different dept functions; and (iii) a simple closed-form formula of the L1-depth function for a given data cloud in ?d. PMID:10677477

Vardi, Yehuda; Zhang, Cun-Hui

2000-01-01

270

Maternal abuse history and self-regulation difficulties in preadolescence.  

PubMed

Although poor parenting is known to be closely linked to self-regulation difficulties in early childhood, comparatively little is understood about the role of other risk factors in the early caregiving environment (such as a parent's own experiences of childhood abuse) in developmental pathways of self-regulation into adolescence. Using a longitudinal design, this study aimed to examine how a mother's history of abuse in childhood relates to her offspring's self-regulation difficulties in preadolescence. Maternal controlling parenting and exposure to intimate partner aggression in the child's first 24-36 months were examined as important early social and environmental influences that may explain the proposed connection between maternal abuse history and preadolescent self-regulation. An ethnically diverse sample of mothers (N=488) who were identified as at-risk for child maltreatment was recruited at the time of their children's birth. Mothers and their children were assessed annually from the child's birth through 36 months, and at age 9-11 years. Structural equation modeling and bootstrap tests of indirect effects were conducted to address the study aims. Findings indicated that maternal abuse history indirectly predicted their children's self-regulation difficulties in preadolescence mainly through maternal controlling parenting in early childhood, but not through maternal exposure to aggression by an intimate partner. Maternal history of childhood abuse and maternal controlling parenting in her child's early life may have long-term developmental implications for child self-regulation. PMID:25459984

Delker, Brianna C; Noll, Laura K; Kim, Hyoun K; Fisher, Philip A

2014-12-01

271

Posterior pericardial approach for ascending aorta-to-descending aorta bypass through a median sternotomy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background. Bypass grafting for repeat operation or complex forms of descending aortic disease is an alternative approach to decrease potential complications of anatomic repair.Methods. Between December 1985 and February 1998, 17 patients (13 men, 4 women; mean age, 47.6 ± 18.5 years) underwent ascending aorta-to-descending aorta bypass through a median sternotomy and posterior pericardial approach. Indications for operation were coarctation

Uzzi Izhar; Hartzell V Schaff; Charles J Mullany; Richard C Daly; Thomas A Orszulak

2000-01-01

272

Maternal effects on post-weaning physical and social development in juvenile mountain goats ( Oreamnos americanus )  

Microsoft Academic Search

Little is known about maternal effects on post-weaning development, yet they may be important because maternal care could have long-term consequences only evident when offspring approach adulthood. We have assessed the effects of maternal age, current reproduction (presence of a kid of the year) and social rank on the body mass, horn length and social rank of 1- and 2-year-old

Yanick Gendreau; Steeve D. Côté; Marco Festa-Bianchet

2005-01-01

273

Changes in Median Household Income: 1969 to 1996  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Census Bureau report Changes in Median Household Income: 1969 to 1996 by Jack McNeil indicates that the US median household income rose six percent overall between 1969 and 1996. This modest increase does not reflect the more dynamic changes experienced by a variety of the household types studied, however, as selected measures in the seventeen statistical appendices included in the report reveal.

McNeil, John.

1998-01-01

274

Directional median filtering for regional-residual separation of bathymetry  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present a new spatial filter designed to separate short-length-scale bathymetric features from regional bathymetry. The directional median (DiM) filter divides a given filter circle into N ``bow tie'' sectors, allocates data points inside the filter circle to each sector based on their relative position within the circle, estimates a median for each sector, and returns the lowest of these

Seung-Sep Kim; Paul Wessel

2008-01-01

275

Directional median filtering for regional-residual separation of bathymetry  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present a new spatial filter designed to separate short-length-scale bathymetric features from regional bathymetry. The directional median (DiM) filter divides a given filter circle into N “bow tie” sectors, allocates data points inside the filter circle to each sector based on their relative position within the circle, estimates a median for each sector, and returns the lowest of these

Seung-Sep Kim; Paul Wessel

2008-01-01

276

Adaptive impulse detection using center-weighted median filters  

Microsoft Academic Search

Previous median-based impulse detection strategies tend to work well for fixed-valued impulses but poorly for random-valued impulse noise, or vice versa. This letter devises a novel adaptive operator, which forms estimates based on the differences between the current pixel and the outputs of center-weighted median (CWM) filters with varied center weights. Extensive simulations show that the proposed scheme consistently works

Tao Chen; Hong Ren Wu

2001-01-01

277

Maternal near miss: an indicator for maternal health and maternal care.  

PubMed

Maternal mortality is one of the important indicators used for the measurement of maternal health. Although maternal mortality ratio remains high, maternal deaths in absolute numbers are rare in a community. To overcome this challenge, maternal near miss has been suggested as a compliment to maternal death. It is defined as pregnant or recently delivered woman who survived a complication during pregnancy, childbirth or 42 days after termination of pregnancy. So far various nomenclature and criteria have been used to identify maternal near-miss cases and there is lack of uniform criteria for identification of near miss. The World Health Organization recently published criteria based on markers of management and organ dysfunction, which would enable systematic data collection on near miss and development of summary estimates. The prevalence of near miss is higher in developing countries and causes are similar to those of maternal mortality namely hemorrhage, hypertensive disorders, sepsis and obstructed labor. Reviewing near miss cases provide significant information about the three delays in health seeking so that appropriate action is taken. It is useful in identifying health system failures and assessment of quality of maternal health-care. Certain maternal near miss indicators have been suggested to evaluate the quality of care. The near miss approach will be an important tool in evaluation and assessment of the newer strategies for improving maternal health. PMID:25136152

Chhabra, Pragti

2014-07-01

278

Maternal Near Miss: An Indicator for Maternal Health and Maternal Care  

PubMed Central

Maternal mortality is one of the important indicators used for the measurement of maternal health. Although maternal mortality ratio remains high, maternal deaths in absolute numbers are rare in a community. To overcome this challenge, maternal near miss has been suggested as a compliment to maternal death. It is defined as pregnant or recently delivered woman who survived a complication during pregnancy, childbirth or 42 days after termination of pregnancy. So far various nomenclature and criteria have been used to identify maternal near-miss cases and there is lack of uniform criteria for identification of near miss. The World Health Organization recently published criteria based on markers of management and organ dysfunction, which would enable systematic data collection on near miss and development of summary estimates. The prevalence of near miss is higher in developing countries and causes are similar to those of maternal mortality namely hemorrhage, hypertensive disorders, sepsis and obstructed labor. Reviewing near miss cases provide significant information about the three delays in health seeking so that appropriate action is taken. It is useful in identifying health system failures and assessment of quality of maternal health-care. Certain maternal near miss indicators have been suggested to evaluate the quality of care. The near miss approach will be an important tool in evaluation and assessment of the newer strategies for improving maternal health. PMID:25136152

Chhabra, Pragti

2014-01-01

279

Preterm delivery and low maternal serum cholesterol level: Any correlation?  

PubMed Central

Background: The study assessed whether low maternal serum cholesterol during early pregnancy is associated with preterm delivery. Patients and Methods: It was a prospective observational cohort study involving pregnant women at gestational age of 14-20 weeks over a period of 12 months. Blood samples were obtained to measure total serum cholesterol concentrations and the sera were then analysed enzymatically by the cholesterol oxidase: p-aminophenazone (CHOD PAP) method. Results: The study showed an incidence of 5.0% for preterm delivery in the low risk study patients. Preterm birth was 4.83-times more common with low total maternal cholesterol than with midrange total cholesterol (11.8% versus 2.2%, P = 0.024). Conclusion: Low maternal serum cholesterol (hypocholesterolaemia) is associated with preterm delivery. Optimal maternal serum cholesterol during pregnancy may have merit, therefore pregnant women should be encouraged to follow a healthy, balanced diet. PMID:25298606

Oluwole, Ayodeji A.; Adegbesan-Omilabu, Maymunah A.; Okunade, Kehinde S.

2014-01-01

280

Infection and smoking are associated with decreased plasma concentration of the anti-aging protein, soluble ?-klotho  

PubMed Central

Objective The objective of this study was to determine whether maternal plasma concentrations of soluble ?-klotho are different between women with microbial invasion of the intra-amniotic cavity (MIAC) and those without MIAC among preterm labor and intact membranes (PTL) or preterm prelabor rupture of membranes (pPROM). Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted to include women in the following groups:1) PTL with MIAC (n=14); 2) PTL without MIAC (n=79); 3) pPROM with MIAC (n=30); and 4) pPROM without MIAC (n=33). MIAC was defined as a positive amniotic fluid culture for microorganisms (aerobic/anaerobic bacteria or genital mycoplasmas). Amniotic fluid samples were obtained within 48 hours from maternal blood collection. Plasma concentration of soluble ?-klotho was determined by ELISA. Results 1) The median plasma concentration (pg/mL) of soluble ?-klotho was significantly lower in patients with MIAC than in those without MIAC (787.0 vs. 1117.8; p <0.001); 2) Among patients with PTL, those with MIAC had a lower median plasma concentration (pg/mL) of soluble ?-klotho than those without MIAC (787.0 vs. 1138.9; p=0.007); 3) Among patients with pPROM, those with MIAC had a lower median plasma concentration (pg/mL) of soluble ?-klotho than those without MIAC (766.4 vs. 1001.6; p=0.045); 4) There was no significant difference in the median plasma concentration of soluble ?-klotho between PPROM without MIAC and PTL without MIAC (1001.6 pg/mL vs. 1138.9 pg/mL, respectively; p=0.5); 5) After adjustment for potential confounders (maternal age, tobacco use, gestational age at venipuncture), soluble ?-klotho remained significantly associated with MIAC (p= 0.02); and 6) Among patients without MIAC, smoking was significantly associated with a lower median plasma concentration soluble ?-klotho than in non-smokers (794.2 pg/mL vs. 1382.0 pg/mL, respectively; p<0.001); however, this difference was not observed in patients with MIAC. Conclusions Intra-amniotic infection occurring at preterm gestations (regardless of membrane status) was associated with a decrease in maternal plasma concentrations of soluble ?-klotho. Moreover, among patients without infection, the plasma concentration of soluble ?-klotho was lower in smokers. PMID:23770558

Lam-Rachlin, Jennifer; Romero, Roberto; Korzeniewski, Steven J.; Schwartz, Alyse G.; Chaemsaithong, Piya; Hernandez-Andrade, Edgar; Dong, Zhong; Yeo, Lami; Hassan, Sonia S.; Chaiworapongsa, Tinnakorn

2014-01-01

281

The Immediate Economic Impact of Maternal Deaths on Rural Chinese Households  

PubMed Central

Objective To identify the immediate economic impact of maternal death on rural Chinese households. Methods Results are reported from a study that matched 195 households who had suffered a maternal death to 384 households that experienced a childbirth without maternal death in rural areas of three provinces in China, using quantitative questionnaire to compare differences of direct and indirect costs between two groups. Findings The direct costs of a maternal death were significantly higher than the costs of a childbirth without a maternal death (US$4,119 vs. $370, p<0.001). More than 40% of the direct costs were attributed to funeral expenses. Hospitalization and emergency care expenses were the largest proportion of non-funeral direct costs and were higher in households with maternal death than the comparison group (US$2,248 vs. $305, p<0.001). To cover most of the high direct costs, 44.1% of affected households utilized compensation from hospitals, and the rest affected households (55.9%) utilized borrowing money or taking loans as major source of money to offset direct costs. The median economic burden of the direct (and non-reimbursed) costs of a maternal death was quite high - 37.0% of the household’s annual income, which was approximately 4 times as high as the threshold for an expense being considered catastrophic. Conclusion The immediate direct costs of maternal deaths are extremely catastrophic for the rural Chinese households in three provinces studied. PMID:22701649

Huntington, Dale; Zhou, Hong; Li, Yan; You, Fengzhi; Li, Jinhua; Cui, Wenlong; Yao, Meiling; Wang, Yan

2012-01-01

282

Maternal and offspring fasting glucose and type 2 diabetes-associated genetic variants and cognitive function at age 8: a Mendelian randomization study in the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children  

PubMed Central

Background In observational epidemiological studies type 2 diabetes (T2D) and both low and high plasma concentrations of fasting glucose have been found to be associated with lower cognitive performance. These associations could be explained by confounding. Methods In this study we looked at the association between genetic variants, known to be robustly associated with fasting glucose and T2D risk, in the mother and her offspring to determine whether there is likely to be a causal link between early life exposure to glucose and child’s intelligence quotient (IQ) scores in the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC) cohort. We generated a fasting glucose (FGGRS) and a T2D (T2DGRS) genetic risk score and used them in a Mendelian randomization approach. Results We found a strong correlation between the FGGRS and fasting glucose plasma measurements that were available for a subset of children, but no association of either the maternal or the offspring FGGRS with child’s IQ was observed. In contrast, the maternal T2DGRS was positively associated with offspring IQ. Conclusions Maternal and offspring genetic variants which are associated with glucose levels are not associated with offspring IQ, suggesting that there is unlikely to be a causal link between glucose exposure in utero and IQ in childhood. Further exploration in even larger cohorts is required to exclude the possibility that our null findings were due to a lack of statistical power. PMID:23013243

2012-01-01

283

Recognition of maternal axillary odors by infants.  

PubMed

A series of 5 experiments was conducted to determine whether neonates, at approximately 2 weeks of age, can recognize their parents through axillary odors alone. Breast-feeding infants discriminated between their mother's axillary odor and odors produced by either nonparturient or unfamiliar lactating females. In contrast, breast-feeding infants displayed no evidence of recognizing the axillary odors of their father. Likewise, bottle-feeding infants appeared unable to recognize the odor of their mother when presented along with odors from a nonparturient female or an unfamiliar bottle-feeding female. Several hypotheses were presented in an attempt to account for the differential reactions to maternal odors by breast-feeding versus bottle-feeding infants. It was tentatively concluded that, while breast-feeding, infants are exposed to salient maternal odors and thereby rapidly become familiarized with their mother's unique olfactory signature. PMID:4075877

Cernoch, J M; Porter, R H

1985-12-01

284

Maternal ingestion of locoweed  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study investigated whether exposure of ewes to locoweed (Oxytropis sericea; Leguminosae) during gestation would affect ewe behaviour during parturition, ewe–lamb bonding and related behaviours postpartum, and maternal responsiveness of ewes to alien and own lambs. Twenty-nine nulliparous Columbia-Targhee ewes bearing a single fetus were divided into two feeding treatments: (1) locoweed (L, n=15), fed as a 10% locoweed pellet

J. A. Pfister; J. B. Astorga; K. E. Panter; B. L. Stegelmeier; R. J. Molyneux

2006-01-01

285

Maternal risk factors for neonatal necrotizing enterocolitis.  

PubMed

Abstract Objective: This study aimed to investigate the relationship between maternal hypertensive disease and other risk factors and the neonatal development of necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC). Methods: This was a retrospective case-control study of infants with NEC from 2008 to 2012. The primary exposure of interest was maternal hypertensive disease, which has been hypothesized to put infants at risk for NEC. Other variables collected included demographics, pregnancy complications, medications and neonatal hospital course. Data were abstracted from medical records. Results: Twenty-eight cases of singleton neonates with NEC and 81 matched controls were identified and analyzed. There was no significant difference in the primary outcome. Fetuses with an antenatal diagnosis of growth restriction were more likely to develop NEC (p?=?0.008). Infants with NEC had lower median birth weight than infants without NEC (p?=?0.009). Infants with NEC had more late-onset sepsis (p?=?0.01) and mortality before discharge (p?=?0.001). Conclusions: The factors identified by this case-control study that increased the risk of neonatal NEC included intrauterine growth restriction and lower neonatal birth weight. The primary exposure, hypertensive disease, did not show a significantly increased risk of neonatal NEC; however, there was a nearly two-fold difference observed. Our study was underpowered to detect the observed difference. PMID:25162307

March, Melissa I; Gupta, Munish; Modest, Anna M; Wu, Lily; Hacker, Michele R; Martin, Camilia R; Rana, Sarosh

2014-08-27

286

Maternal Early Life Risk Factors for Offspring Birth Weight: Findings from the Add Health Study  

PubMed Central

The aim of this study was to examine the pathways that link mothers’ early life socioeconomic status (SES) and mothers’ experience of childhood maltreatment with birth weight among their later born offspring. Data were drawn from a nationally representative longitudinal survey of school-aged respondents, initially enrolled during adolescence in Wave I (1994–1995) and Wave II (1996) of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health and followed-up in adulthood in Wave III (2001–2002). Data on offspring birth weight were obtained from nulliparous females (N=1,897) who had given birth between Waves II and III. Analyses used structural equation modeling to examine the extent to which early life maternal risk predicted offspring birth weight, and demonstrated that maternal childhood SES and maternal childhood maltreatment predicted offspring birth weight through several mediated pathways. First, maternal adolescent substance use and prenatal cigarette use partially mediated the association between maternal childhood SES and offspring birth weight. Second, maternal adolescent depressive symptoms and adult SES partially mediated the association between maternal childhood SES and offspring birth weight. Third, adult SES partially mediated the association between maternal childhood SES and offspring birth weight. Fourth, maternal adolescent substance use and prenatal cigarette use partially mediated the association between maternal childhood maltreatment and offspring birth weight. Finally, maternal adolescent depressive symptoms and adult SES partially mediated the association between maternal childhood maltreatment and offspring birth weight. To our knowledge, this is the first study to identify maternal childhood maltreatment as an early life risk factor for offspring birth weight among a nationally representative sample of young women, and to demonstrate the mechanisms that link childhood SES and maltreatment to offspring birth weight. These findings suggest the importance of designing and implementing prevention and intervention strategies to address early life maternal social conditions in an effort to improve intergenerational child health at birth. PMID:21986991

Thompson, Elaine; Rue, Tessa; Guo, Yuqing

2014-01-01

287

Reported maternal styles and substance use: a cross-sectional study among educated Albanian young adults.  

PubMed

The study explored a predictive model of substance use including perceived maternal parenting style, age and gender. Participants were 347 Albanian young adults (144 males and 203 females) aged 18 to 28 years. They completed the Parental Authority Questionnaire and the Adolescent Alcohol and Drug Involvement Scale. Gender, perceived authoritative maternal style, and age predicted a proportion of substance use involvement. Gender and perceived authoritative maternal style also predicted the proportion of young people at risk for substance use or abuse. Implications of the findings and limitations of the study are discussed. PMID:24245766

Kalyva, Efrosini; Melonashi, Erika

2014-05-01

288

Dynamic Associations between Maternal Depressive Symptoms and Adolescents' Depressive and Externalizing Symptoms  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The current prospective study investigated transactional relations between maternal depressive symptoms and children's depressive and externalizing symptoms. Participants included 240 children (M age = 11.86 years, SD = 0.56; 53.9% female) and their mothers who were part of a 6-year longitudinal study. Measures of maternal depression (Beck…

Kouros, Chrystyna D.; Garber, Judy

2010-01-01

289

Early maternal separation, nightmares, and bad dreams: Results from the Hungarostudy Epidemiological Panel  

Microsoft Academic Search

Early maternal separation is a particularly stressful experience. Current models of nightmare production emphasize negative emotionality as having a central role in determining dream affect. Our aim is to test the hypothesis that persons who experienced early maternal separation (before one year of age and lasting at least one month) report more frequent nightmare experiences and bad dreams as adults.

Szilvia Csóka; Péter Simor; Gábor Szabó; Mária S. Kopp; Róbert Bódizs

2011-01-01

290

Mode of Delivery and Other Maternal Factors Influence the Acquisition of Streptococcus mutans in Infants  

Microsoft Academic Search

S. mutans plays a key role in dental caries. The extent to which perinatal events influence the acquisition of S. mutans is unclear. We hypothesized that several maternal factors, including the mode of delivery, influence the initial acquisition of S. mutans in infants. A prospective cohort study was conducted in 156 mother-infant pairs. The study found that maternal gestational age

Y. Li; P. W. Caufield; A. P. Dasanayake; H. W. Wiener; S. H. Vermund

2005-01-01

291

Maternal Autonomy- and Connectedness-Oriented Parenting Behaviors as Predictors of Children's Social Behaviors in China  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of the study was to examine the contributions of maternal encouragement of autonomy and maternal encouragement of connectedness to the prediction of children's social behaviors. A sample of children (N = 94), initially aged two years, and their mothers in China participated in the two-year longitudinal study. Child autonomy and…

Liu, Mowei; Chen, Xinyin; Zheng, Shujie; Chen, Huichang; Wang, Li

2009-01-01

292

Maternal Food Consumption during Pregnancy and the Longitudinal Development of Childhood Asthma  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rationale: Maternal diet during pregnancy has the potential to affect airway development and to promote T-helper-2-cell responses during fetal life. This might increase the risk of developing childhood asthma or allergy. Objectives: We investigated the influence of maternal food consump- tion during pregnancy on childhood asthma outcomes from 1 to 8 years of age. Methods: A birth cohort study consisting

Saskia M. Willers; Alet H. Wijga; Bert Brunekreef; Marjan Kerkhof; Jorrit Gerritsen; Maarten O. Hoekstra; Johan C. de Jongste; Henriette A. Smit

2008-01-01

293

Early Maternal Language Use during Book Sharing in Families from Low-Income Environments  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: The authors examined the language used by mothers from low-income and rural environments with their infants at ages 6 and 15 months to identify predictors of maternal language use at the 15-month time point. Method: Maternal language use by 82 mothers with their children was documented during book-sharing interactions within the home in a…

Abraham, Linzy M.; Crais, Elizabeth; Vernon-Feagans, Lynne; Cox, Martha; Blair, Clancy; Burchinal, Peg; Crnic, Keith; Crouter, Ann; Garrett-Peters, Patricia; Greenberg, Mark; Lanza, Stephanie; Mills-Koonce, Roger; Werner, Emily; Willoughby, Michael

2013-01-01

294

Associations among Maternal Behavior, Delay of Gratification, and School Readiness across the Early Childhood Years  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined the developmental pathways from maternal behavior to school readiness within a sample of 1007 children, with a specific focus on the mediating role of delay of gratification (DoG). Maternal behavior across the first 36 months of age was explored as a predictor of children's DoG at 54 months as well as their behavioral and…

Razza, Rachel A.; Raymond, Kimberly

2013-01-01

295

Linked Lives: Stability and Change in Maternal Circumstances and Trajectories of Antisocial Behavior in Children  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Drawing on the notion of linked lives, this study examined the effects of stability and change in maternal circumstance on developmental trajectories of antisocial behavior in children 4 to 7 years of age. Using data from a national sample of young mothers and growth curve analysis, the study demonstrated that early maternal circumstances…

Macmillan, Ross; McMorris, Barbara J.; Kruttschnitt, Candace

2004-01-01

296

Maternal Deaths in the City of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, 2000–2003  

PubMed Central

The study describes the characteristics of maternal deaths in the city of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, during 2000–2003. After investigation by public-health services, 217 maternal deaths were identified among predominantly non-white (48.9%), single (57.1%) women aged 29.6±7.3 years on average. Direct obstetric causes corresponded to 77.4% of the maternal deaths, mainly due to hypertensive disorders. HIV-related diseases accounted for 4% of the maternal deaths. Almost three-fourths of the mothers who died were aged 20–39 years, although the highest risk of maternal death corresponded to the age-group of 40–49 years (248.9 per 100,000 livebirths). The socioeconomic and demographic profiles of maternal deaths in the city of Rio de Janeiro reflected a vulnerable social situation. Appropriate interventions aimed at reducing maternal mortality need to encompass all women of childbearing age, irrespective of the magnitude of the risk of maternal death. PMID:20099763

Costa, Antonio Jose Leal

2009-01-01

297

Maternal zinc supplementation and growth in Peruvian infants1-4  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Little is known about how maternal zinc intake in- fluences growth in utero and in postnatal life in humans. Objective: We aimed to assess the effect of maternal zinc supple- mentation during pregnancy on infant growth through age 1 y. Design: A double-blind, randomized controlled trial of prenatal zinc supplementation was conducted from 1995 to 1997 in Lima, Peru.

Lora L Iannotti; Nelly Zavaleta; Zulema Leon; Anuraj H Shankar; Laura E Caulfield

298

Development of object permanence as a correlate of dimensions of maternal care  

Microsoft Academic Search

A correlational study of 31 infants between the ages of 3 and 7 mo revealed that the development of positive decalage (i.e., scoring higher on person than on object permanence) is related to the maternal variables of communication and active achievement stimulation. Maternal variables not correlated with positive decalage were passive achievement stimulation, sensitivity, disruptiveness, and positive affective stimulation. Results

Saralea E. Chazan

1981-01-01

299

The Moderating Effects of Maternal Psychopathology on Children's Adjustment Post–Hurricane Katrina  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study investigated the role of maternal psychopathology in predicting children's psychological distress in a disaster-exposed sample. Participants consisted of 260 children (ages 8–16) recruited from public schools and their mothers. These families were displaced from New Orleans because of Hurricane Katrina in 2005. Assessment took place 3 to 7 months postdisaster. Hierarchical regression analyses revealed that global maternal psychological

Annie W. Spell; Mary Lou Kelley; Jing Wang; Shannon Self-Brown; Karen L. Davidson; Angie Pellegrin; Jeannette L. Palcic; Kara Meyer; Valerie Paasch; Audrey Baumeister

2008-01-01

300

Excess maternal transmission and familial aggregation of Type 2 diabetes in Sri Lanka  

Microsoft Academic Search

Introduction: An excess of maternal transmission of Type 2 diabetes mellitus has been reported in Europid populations, but not in South India. Method: A questionnaire-based survey was carried out in 1000 (502 male) people with Type 2 diabetes to establish whether there is an excess of maternal transmission and familial aggregation in a Sri Lankan population. Results: Mean age of

S. N. T De Silva; N Weerasuriya; N. M. W De Alwis; M. W. A De Silva; D. J. S Fernando

2002-01-01

301

Trajectories of maternal harsh parenting in the first 3 years of life  

PubMed Central

Objective Despite the high prevalence rates of harsh parenting, the nature of developmental change in this domain early in life and the factors that contribute to changes in harsh parenting over time are not well understood. The present study examined developmental patterns in maternal harsh parenting behavior from birth to age 3 years and their related longitudinal risk factors (contextual and intrapersonal). Partner aggression was also tested as a time-varying predictor to examine its time-specific influence on maternal harsh parenting. Methods Longitudinal data from four assessments of a community sample of 488 at-risk mothers were analyzed using latent growth curve modeling. Maternal risk factors and harsh parenting behaviors were assessed at birth and at ages 1, 2, and 3 years. Results There was a significant increase in maternal harsh parenting from birth to age 3, particularly between ages 1 and 2. There was a significant direct effect of maternal alcohol use and abuse history on maternal harsh parenting at age 3, and maternal age was positively associated with change in maternal harsh parenting over time. In addition, partner aggression was significantly and positively associated with maternal harsh parenting at each time point. Conclusions The findings suggest possible developmental trends in the emergence of maternal harsh parenting during infancy and toddlerhood. Further investigation is needed to elucidate individual differences in the developmental patterns and to differentiate predictive factors that persist across time and factors that are unique to specific developmental stages. Practice implications The overall high prevalence rates of harsh parenting behavior and growth of such behavior in infancy and toddlerhood support the need for developmentally sensitive early intervention programs. PMID:21030081

Pears, Katherine C.; Fisher, Philip A.; Connelly, Cynthia D.; Landsverk, John L.

2010-01-01

302

Individual differences in maternal response to immune challenge predict offspring behavior: Contribution of environmental factors  

PubMed Central

Maternal infection during pregnancy elevates risk for schizophrenia and related disorders in offspring. Converging evidence suggests the maternal inflammatory response mediates the interaction between maternal infection, altered brain development, and behavioral outcome. The extent to which individual differences in the maternal response to immune challenge influence the development of these abnormalities is unknown. The present study investigated the impact of individual differences in maternal response to the viral mimic polyinosinic:polycytidylic acid (poly I:C) on offspring behavior. We observed significant variability in body weight alterations of pregnant rats induced by administration of poly I:C on gestational day 14. Furthermore, the presence or absence of maternal weight loss predicted MK-801 and amphetamine stimulated locomotor abnormalities in offspring. MK-801 stimulated locomotion was altered in offspring of all poly I:C treated dams; however, the presence or absence of maternal weight loss resulted in decreased and modestly increased locomotion, respectively. Adult offspring of poly I:C treated dams that lost weight exhibited significantly decreased amphetamine stimulated locomotion, while offspring of poly I:C treated dams without weight loss performed similarly to vehicle controls. Social isolation and increased maternal age predicted weight loss in response to poly I:C but not vehicle injection. In combination, these data identify environmental factors associated with the maternal response to immune challenge and functional outcome of offspring exposed to maternal immune activation. PMID:21255612

Bronson, Stefanie L.; Ahlbrand, Rebecca; Horn, Paul S.; Kern, Joseph R.; Richtand, Neil M.

2011-01-01

303

An analytical framework for the study of proximate determinants of maternal mortality.  

PubMed

A country's level of maternal mortality is a sensitive index of the provision and quality of health and obstetric services. It is important to understand the determinants of maternal mortality in order to take measures which will effectively quicken the pace of its decline. The authors present an analytical framework of factors which affect the risk of maternal mortality, using an epidemiological approach adopted to identify risk factors at the microlevel. The relative risk of each key factor was then estimated based upon empirical data using odds ratio. The study population was comprised of all 252 maternal deaths and 252 matched maternal survivors at Safdarjung hospital, New Delhi, between January 1, 1983, and December 31, 1985. Cases and controls were matched by age, parity, and registration status for antenatal care. The empirical findings of the study are consistent with the notion that maternal mortality is affected by demographic, socioeconomic, medical, and obstetric factors. PMID:12292804

Anandlakshmy, P N; Talwar, P P; Buckshee, K

1997-01-01

304

Society for Maternal-Fetal Medicine  

MedlinePLUS

... the un-routine The Society for Maternal-Fetal Medicine We partner with referring providers, medical societies, payers ... moms and babies. View Find a Maternal-Fetal Medicine Specialist More than 2,000 Maternal-Fetal Medicine ...

305

Maternal Depression, Maternal Expressed Emotion, and Youth Psychopathology  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Across development, maternal depression has been found to be a risk factor for youth psychopathology generally and youth depression specifically. Maternal Expressed Emotion (EE) has been examined as a predictor of outcome among youth with depression. The present study explored the associations between youth psychopathology and two…

Tompson, Martha C.; Pierre, Claudette B.; Boger, Kathryn Dingman; McKowen, James W.; Chan, Priscilla T.; Freed, Rachel D.

2010-01-01

306

Child Health, Maternal Marital and Socioeconomic Factors, and Maternal Health  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Although maternal socioeconomic status and health predict in part children's future health and socioeconomic prospects, it is possible that the intergenerational association flows in the other direction such that child health affects maternal outcomes. Previous research demonstrates that poor child health increases the risk of adverse…

Garbarski, Dana; Witt, Whitney P.

2013-01-01

307

Transitioning to Family Centered Maternity Care from Traditional Maternity Care  

Microsoft Academic Search

United States perinatal statistics indicate that maternity care needs improvement. In this evidence-based project, guided by the promoting action on research implementation in health services (PARIHS) framework, it is posited that no practice change will occur unless nurses understand and appreciate the relevance of evidence-based maternity care. A within-group design was used to address the clinical question, \\

Kathleen Kleefisch

2011-01-01

308

Clinical complications in pregnant women with sickle cell disease: prospective study of factors predicting maternal death or near miss  

PubMed Central

Objective To evaluate complications in pregnant women with sickle cell disease, especially those leading to maternal death or near miss (severe obstetric complications). Methods A prospective cohort of 104 pregnant women registered in the Blood Center of Belo Horizonte (Hemominas Foundation) was followed up at high-risk prenatal units. They belonged to Group I (51 hemoglobin SS and three hemoglobin S/?0-thalassemia) or Group II (49 hemoglobin SC and one hemoglobin S/?+-thalassemia). Both groups had similar median ages. Predictive factors for ‘near miss’ or maternal death with p-value ? 0.25 in the univariate analysis were included in a multivariate logistic model (significance set for p-value ? 0.05). Results Group I had more frequent episodes of vaso-occlusive crises, more transfusions in the antepartum and postpartum, and higher percentage of preterm deliveries than Group II. Infections and painful crises during the postpartum period were similar in both the groups. The mortality rate was 4.8%: three deaths in Group I and two in Group II. One-third of the women in both the groups experienced near miss. The most frequent event was pneumonia/acute chest syndrome. Alpha-thalassemia co-inheritance and ?-gene haplotypes were not associated with near miss or maternal death. In multivariate analysis predictors of near miss or death were parity above one and baseline red blood cell macrocytosis. In Group I, baseline hypoxemia (saturation < 94%) was also predictive of near miss or death. Conclusion One-third of pregnant women had near miss and 4.8% died. Both hemoglobin SS and SC pregnant women shared the same risk of death or of severe complications, especially pulmonary events. PMID:25031164

Resende Cardoso, Patrícia Santos; Lopes Pessoa de Aguiar, Regina Amélia; Viana, Marcos Borato

2014-01-01

309

Every death counts: measurement of maternal mortality via a census.  

PubMed Central

Methods for measuring maternal mortality at national and subnational levels in the developing world lag far behind the demand for estimates. We evaluated use of the national population census as a means of measuring maternal mortality by assessing data from five countries (Benin, Islamic Republic of Iran, Lao People's Democratic Republic, Madagascar, and Zimbabwe) which identified maternal deaths in their censuses. Standard demographic methods were used to evaluate the completeness of reporting of adult female deaths and births in the year prior to the census. The results from these exercises were used to adjust the data. In four countries, the numbers of adult female deaths needed to be increased and three countries required upward adjustment of the numbers of recent births. The number of maternal deaths was increased by the same factor as that used for adult female deaths on the assumption that the proportion of adult female deaths due to maternal causes was correct. Age patterns of the various maternal mortality indicators were plausible and consistent with external sources of data for other populations. Our data suggest that under favourable conditions a national census is a feasible and promising approach for the measurement of maternal mortality. Moreover, use of the census circumvents several of the weaknesses of methods currently in use. However, it should also be noted that careful evaluation of the data and adjustment, if necessary, are essential. The public health community is urged to encourage governments to learn from the experience of these five countries and to place maternal mortality estimation in the hands of statistical agencies. PMID:11477969

Stanton, C.; Hobcraft, J.; Hill, K.; Kodjogbé, N.; Mapeta, W. T.; Munene, F.; Naghavi, M.; Rabeza, V.; Sisouphanthong, B.; Campbell, O.

2001-01-01

310

Extra-adrenal paraganglioma of the median nerve.  

PubMed

An extra-adrenal paraganglioma is an uncommon tumour that arises from the paraganglia associated with the autonomous nervous system. A paraganglioma arising in the sensory-somatic nervous system is extremely rare and clinically is easily confused with other neurogenic tumours. We describe a paraganglioma that arose in the median nerve of a 22-year-old woman. PMID:23750845

Chong, Yosep; Park, Minjong; Ko, Young-Hyeh

2014-12-01

311

Electroacupuncture and Acupuncture Promote the Rat's Transected Median Nerve Regeneration  

PubMed Central

Background. Acupuncture and electroacupuncture treatments of damaged nerves may aid nerve regeneration related to hindlimb function, but the effects on the forelimb-related median nerve were not known. Methods. A gap was made in the median nerve of each rat by suturing the stumps into silicone rubber tubes. The influences of acupuncture and electroacupuncture treatments on transected median nerve regeneration were evaluated from morphological, electrophysiological, and functional angles. Results. Morphologically, the group receiving acupuncture and electroacupuncture treatments had larger total nerve area and blood vessel number compared with the controls. Electrophysiologically, the group receiving electroacupuncture had significantly larger amplitude and larger area of the evoked muscle action potentials compared with the controls. Functionally, the acupuncture and electroacupuncture treatments enhanced the injured paw's ability to regain its grasping power and resulted in a faster efficiency to a new bilateral balance. Conclusion. Our findings provide multiapproach evidence of the efficacy of acupuncture and electroacupuncture treatments to the regeneration of median nerve. Indeed, acupuncture and electroacupuncture appear to have positive effects on the regeneration processes. This platform is beneficial to further study the clinical application of acupuncture and electroacupuncture alternative treatments on nerve-injured patients. PMID:23573131

Ho, C. Y.; Yao, C. H.; Chen, W. C.; Shen, W. C.; Bau, D. T.

2013-01-01

312

A Nonparametric Test for Equality of Survival Medians  

PubMed Central

In clinical trials researchers often encounter testing for equality of survival medians across study arms based on censored data. Even though Brookmeyer-Crowley (BC) introduced a method for comparing medians of several survival distributions, still some researchers misuse procedures which are designed for testing the homogeneity of survival curves. These procedures include the log-rank, Wilcoxon, and the Cox model. This practice leads to inflation of the probability of a type I error, particularly when the underlying assumptions of these procedures are not met. We propose a new nonparametric method for testing the equality of several survival medians based on Kaplan-Meier estimation from randomly right censored data. We derive asymptotic properties of this test statistic. Through simulations we compute and compare the empirical probabilities of type I errors and power of this new procedure with that of the Brookmeyer-Crowley (BC), the log-rank and the Wilcoxon method. Our simulation results indicate that performance of these test procedures depends on the level of censoring and appropriateness of the underlying assumptions. When the objective is to test homogeneity of survival medians rather than survival curves and the assumptions of these tests are not met, some of these procedures severely inflate the probability of a type I error. In these situations, our test statistic provides an alternative to the BC test. PMID:22302559

Rahbar, Mohammad H.; Chen, Zhongxue; Jeon, Sangchoon; Gardiner, Joseph C.; Ning, Jing

2014-01-01

313

Revision of the Solanum medians complex (Solanum section Petota)  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Solanum medians is a widely distributed wild potato species growing along the coast and along the western slopes of the Andes from central Peru and northern Chile, from along the coastal lomas near sea level to 3800 m. Fertile diploid and triploid cytotypes are common, are believed to associated wit...

314

A fast two-dimensional median filtering algorithm  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present a fast algorithm for two-dimensional median filtering. It is based on storing and updating the gray level histogram of the picture elements in the window. The algorithm is much faster than conventional sorting methods. For a window size of m × n, the computer time required is 0(n).

Thomas S. Huang; George J. Yang; Gregory Y. Tang

1979-01-01

315

Candy Colors: Figuring the Mean, Median & Mode  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this lesson, students will count candy of different colors and use the data to calculate mean, median, and mode. Groups of students will work together to share their data and calculate the measures of central tendency again. At the end of the lesson, they will apply their learning to another collection of data.

Association, National E.

2009-07-16

316

VIEW OF PIEDMONT AVENUE AND MEDIAN. REPLICATING WERNER HEGEMANN PHOTO ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

VIEW OF PIEDMONT AVENUE AND MEDIAN. REPLICATING WERNER HEGEMANN PHOTO TAKEN CIRCA 1909 SEEN FROM TRAFFIC CIRCLE AT CHANNING WAY LOOKING NW. Photograph by Fredrica Drotos and Michael Kelly, July 9, 2006 - Piedmont Way & the Berkeley Property Tract, East of College Avenue between Dwight Way & U.C. Memorial Stadium, Berkeley, Alameda County, CA

317

Two exact algorithms for the capacitated p-median problem  

Microsoft Academic Search

The p-median problem has been widely studied in combinatorial optimisation, but its generalisation to the capacitated case has not. We propose a branch and price algorithm, comparing it with a standard MIP solver and a branch and bound algorithm based on Lagrangean relaxation. We present computational experience, using test instances drawn from the literature and new instances with higher ratio

Alberto Ceselli

2003-01-01

318

Multipoint scales: Mean and median differences and observed significance levels  

Microsoft Academic Search

Researchers in human?computer interaction (HCI) often use discrete multipoint scales (such as 5? or 7?point scales) to measure user satisfaction and preference. Many knowledgeable authors state that the median is the appropriate measure of central tendency for such ordinal scales, although others challenge this assertion. This article introduces a new point of view, based on a human factors consideration. When

James R. Lewis

1993-01-01

319

Mean, Median and Mode from a Decision Perspective  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The classroom activity described here allows mathematically mature students to explore the role of mean, median and mode in a decision-making environment. While students discover the importance of choosing a measure of central tendency, their understanding of probability distributions, maximization, and prediction is reinforced through active…

Holt, Melinda Miller; Scariano, Stephen M.

2009-01-01

320

Median Tests for Censored Survival Data; a Contingency Table Approach  

PubMed Central

Summary The median failure time is often utilized to summarize survival data because it has a more straightforward interpretation for investigators in practice than the popular hazard function. However, existing methods for comparing median failure times for censored survival data either require estimation of the probability density function or involve complicated formulas to calculate the variance of the estimates. In this article, we modify a K-sample median test for censored survival data (Brookmeyer and Crowley, 1982, Journal of the American Statistical Association 77, 433–440) through a simple contingency table approach where each cell counts the number of observations in each sample that are greater than the pooled median or vice versa. Under censoring, this approach would generate noninteger entries for the cells in the contingency table. We propose to construct a weighted asymptotic test statistic that aggregates dependent ?2-statistics formed at the nearest integer points to the original noninteger entries. We show that this statistic follows approximately a ?2-distribution with k ? 1 degrees of freedom. For a small sample case, we propose a test statistic based on combined p-values from Fisher’s exact tests, which follows a ?2-distribution with 2 degrees of freedom. Simulation studies are performed to show that the proposed method provides reasonable type I error probabilities and powers. The proposed method is illustrated with two real datasets from phase III breast cancer clinical trials. PMID:23189327

Tang, Shaowu; Jeong, Jong-Hyeon

2014-01-01

321

Maternal mortality in rural Gambia: levels, causes and contributing factors.  

PubMed Central

A demographic study carried out in a rural area of the Gambia between January 1993 and December 1998 recorded 74 deaths among women aged 15-49 years. Reported here is an estimation of maternal mortality among these 74 deaths based on a survey of reproductive age mortality, which identified 18 maternal deaths by verbal autopsy. Over the same period there were 4245 live births in the study area, giving a maternal mortality ratio of 424 per 100,000 live births. This maternal mortality estimate is substantially lower than estimates made in the 1980s, which ranged from 1005 to 2362 per 100,000 live births, in the same area. A total of 9 of the 18 deaths had a direct obstetric cause--haemorrhage (6 deaths), early pregnancy (2), and obstructed labour (1). Indirect causes of obstetric deaths were anaemia (4 deaths), hepatitis (1), and undetermined (4). Low standards of health care for obstetric referrals, failure to recognize the severity of the problem at the community level, delays in starting the decision-making process to seek health care, lack of transport, and substandard primary health care were identified more than once as probable or possible contributing factors to these maternal deaths. PMID:10859854

Walraven, G.; Telfer, M.; Rowley, J.; Ronsmans, C.

2000-01-01

322

Infant Behavior and Maternal Attitudes: Early Sex Differences in West Bengal, India  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study addresses two specific questions: (1) can changes in infant behavior and maternal attitudes be observed as a function of the child's sex, and (2) if so, at what age do the sex differences become observable? (Author/AM)

Graves, Pirkko Lauslahti

1978-01-01

323

Epidemiology and aetiology of maternal bacterial and viral infections in low- and middle-income countries  

PubMed Central

Background Maternal morbidity and mortality in low- and middle-income countries has remained exceedingly high. However, information on bacterial and viral maternal infections, which are important contributors to poor pregnancy outcomes, is sparse and poorly characterised. This review aims to describe the epidemiology and aetiology of bacterial and viral maternal infections in low- and middle-income countries. Methods A systematic search of published literature was conducted and data on aetiology and epidemiology of maternal infections was extracted from relevant studies for analysis. Searches were conducted in parallel by two reviewers (using OVID) in the following databases: Medline (1950 to 2010), EMBASE (1980 to 2010) and Global Health (1973 to 2010). Results Data from 158 relevant studies was used to characterise the epidemiology of the 10 most extensively reported maternal infections with the following median prevalence rates: Treponema pallidum (2.6%), Neisseria gonorrhoeae (1.5%), Chlamydia trachomatis (5.8%), Group B Streptococcus (8.6%), bacterial vaginosis (20.9%), hepatitis B virus (4.3%), hepatitis C virus (1.4%), Cytomegalovirus (95.7% past infection), Rubella (8.9% susceptible) and Herpes simplex (20.7%). Large variations in the prevalence of these infections between countries and regions were noted. Conclusion This review confirms the suspected high prevalence of maternal bacterial and viral infections and identifies particular diseases and regions requiring urgent attention in public health policy planning, setting research priorities and donor funding towards reducing maternal morbidity and mortality in low- and middle-income countries. PMID:23198117

Velu, Prasad Palani; Gravett, Courtney A.; Roberts, Tom K.; Wagner, Thor A.; Zhang, Jian Shayne F.; Rubens, Craig E.; Gravett, Michael G.; Campbell, Harry; Rudan, Igor

2011-01-01

324

Estimating the impact of interventions on cause-specific maternal mortality: a Delphi approach  

PubMed Central

Background Approximately 287,000 women die of causes related to pregnancy and childbirth every year. While effective interventions exist to prevent maternal death, high quality impact evaluations for these interventions are often lacking. Methods We conducted a Delphi process consisting of three rounds in which we asked maternal health experts to provide effectiveness estimates for 31 intervention-cause of death pairs relating to maternal mortality. Anonymous feedback in the form of medians and histograms for each question was given to experts following the first and second rounds. A diverse panel of 37 experts completed all three rounds, for a final response rate 80.4%. Results This Delphi process produced a total of 31 effectiveness estimates for key maternal interventions on cause-specific maternal mortality. Overall, many interventions had high estimated effectiveness, with the majority of interventions having effectiveness estimates above 70%. Where possible, the estimates of effectiveness of interventions were compared to previous efforts and in general there was strong agreement between the estimates in this exercise as compared to those of earlier efforts. Conclusions There are many maternal health interventions with high estimated effectiveness that, with expansion of effective delivery channels, have the potential to have a large impact on reducing maternal mortality worldwide.

2013-01-01

325

Maternal Affection Moderates Friend Influence on Schoolwork Engagement  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study investigated friend influence over adolescent schoolwork engagement in 160 same-sex friend dyads (94 female dyads and 66 male dyads). Participants were approximately 16 years of age at the outset. Each friend described his or her own schoolwork engagement, school burnout, and perceptions of maternal affection. The results revealed that…

Marion, Donna; Laursen, Brett; Kiuru, Noona; Nurmi, Jari-Erik; Salmela-Aro, Katariina

2014-01-01

326

Maternal Conjugal Multiplicity and Child Development in Rural Jamaica  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Using field-based observations and standardized measures of the home environment and child development, the authors followed 59 rural Jamaican women and their offspring from birth to age 5. The findings suggest that conjugal multiplicity, a female reproductive pattern characterized by multiple unions, maternal unmarried status, and absent father,…

Dreher, Melanie; Hudgins, Rebekah

2010-01-01

327

Maternal telomere length inheritance in the king penguin.  

PubMed

Telomeres are emerging as a biomarker for ageing and survival, and are likely important in shaping life-history trade-offs. In particular, telomere length with which one starts in life has been linked to lifelong survival, suggesting that early telomere dynamics are somehow related to life-history trajectories. This result highlights the importance of determining the extent to which telomere length is inherited, as a crucial factor determining early life telomere length. Given the scarcity of species for which telomere length inheritance has been studied, it is pressing to assess the generality of telomere length inheritance patterns. Further, information on how this pattern changes over the course of growth in individuals living under natural conditions should provide some insight on the extent to which environmental constraints also shape telomere dynamics. To fill this gap partly, we followed telomere inheritance in a population of king penguins (Aptenodytes patagonicus). We tested for paternal and maternal influence on chick initial telomere length (10 days old after hatching), and how these relationships changed with chick age (at 70, 200 and 300 days old). Based on a correlative approach, offspring telomere length was positively associated with maternal telomere length early in life (at 10 days old). However, this relationship was not significant at older ages. These data suggest that telomere length in birds is maternally inherited. Nonetheless, the influence of environmental conditions during growth remained an important factor shaping telomere length, as the maternal link disappeared with chicks' age. PMID:25052413

Reichert, S; Rojas, E R; Zahn, S; Robin, J-P; Criscuolo, F; Massemin, S

2015-01-01

328

Sociodemographic and maternal behaviors in younger and older pregnant adolescents  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sociodemographic and maternal behaviors were examined in a group of 295 (59%) younger adolescents 10–17 years of age, and compared to a group of older adolescents over 18 (n=203, 41%). Younger adolescents were more likely to be single, of minority group status, family dependent, and poor users of contraceptives. Older adolescents had higher rates of substance abuse, treated psychiatric problems,

Maxine L. Weinman

1990-01-01

329

Maternal Plasma Soluble TRAIL is Decreased in Preeclampsia  

PubMed Central

Objective Preeclampsia (PE) is characterized by systemic intravascular inflammation. Women who develop PE are at an increased risk for cardiovascular disease in later life. Tumor necrosis factor related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) has anti-atherosclerotic effects in endothelial cells and can mediate neutrophil apoptosis. Low soluble TRAIL (sTRAIL) and high C-reactive protein (CRP) concentrations are associated with an increased risk of future cardiovascular disease in non-pregnant individuals. The aim of this study was to determine whether maternal plasma concentrations of sTRAIL and CRP differ between women with PE and those with uncomplicated pregnancies. Methods This cross-sectional study included women with an uncomplicated pregnancy (n=93) and those with PE (n=52). Maternal plasma concentrations of sTRAIL and CRP concentrations were determined by ELISA. Results 1) The median plasma sTRAIL concentration (pg/mL) was significantly lower and the median plasma CRP concentration was significantly higher in women with PE than in those with an uncomplicated pregnancy (25.55 vs. 29.17; p = 0.03 and 8.0 vs. 4.1; p=0.001, respectively); 2) the median plasma concentration sTRAIL/CRP ratio was twofold lower in women with PE than in those with an uncomplicated pregnancy (p<0.001); and 3) women with plasma sTRAIL and CRP ratio in the lowest quartile were eight times more likely to have PE than women with concentrations in the upper three quartiles (OR 8.9; 95% CI: 2.8–27.8). Conclusion Maternal plasma sTRAIL concentrations are lower (while those of CRP are higher) in women with PE than in those with uncomplicated pregnancies. These findings are consistent with the evidence of intravascular inflammation in this disorder. PMID:23688319

Chaemsaithong, Piya; Chaiworapongsa, Tinnakorn; Romero, Roberto; Korzeniewski, Steven J.; Stampalija, Tamara; Than, Nandor Gabor; Dong, Zhong; Miranda, Jezid; Yeo, Lami; Hassan, Sonia S

2014-01-01

330

Does maternal psychopathology discriminate between children with DSM-IV generalised anxiety disorder or oppositional defiant disorder? The predictive validity of maternal axis I and axis II psychopathology.  

PubMed

What dimensions of maternal psychopathology predict internalising or externalising disorder in children? We conducted a study of maternal axis I and axis II psychopathology in a group of children 8-12 years of age with Generalised Anxiety Disorder (GAD), Oppositional Defiant Disorder (ODD) and non-patient controls (NC). By using Multigroup Discriminant Analyses (MDA) on three groups of children (N = 85) and measures of axis I and axis II psychopathology of their mothers, we attempted to discriminate between these groups on a data driven basis. Two separate MDA were computed, one based on maternal axis I disorders, and one based on maternal axis II disorders. The results demonstrated that maternal symptomatic and personality psychopathology was differentially related to childhood anxiety or behavioural disorders. Mothers of children with ODD were characterised by more negative emotions and detached personality styles, whereas mothers of children with GAD seemed to be more somatic preoccupied, controlling and over-protective. PMID:17033740

Nordahl, Hans M; Ingul, Jo Magne; Nordvik, Hilmar; Wells, Adrian

2007-03-01

331

Correlates of Maternal Health Care Utilization in Rohilkhand Region, India  

PubMed Central

Background: Until date, the importance of maternal health care services in reducing maternal mortality and morbidity has received a significant recognition. Most of the maternal deaths can be prevented if women have access to basic antenatal, natal and postnatal care. However, uptake of maternal health care services is far from universal even in settings where they are extensively available. Aim: The aim of this study is to assess the pattern and identify underlying factors on maternal health care utilization in rural areas of Bareilly. Subjects and Methods: This was a cross-sectional study was conducted during June-December 2011. Six villages were selected by convenience out of 99 villages in Bhojipura Block of Bareilly district, Uttar Pradesh to cover maximum number of women. All currently married women aged between 15 and 49 years who had delivered a child within last 1 year were interviewed by house-to-house survey and comprised the study unit. Their socioeconomic and demographic characteristics, reproductive history and knowledge of specific obstetric complications were taken. The information was gathered on various aspects of maternal-care utilization. In analyzing data, both bivariate and multivariate analyses were employed, using the Microsoft Excel and SPSS for Windows, Version 15.0 (SPSS Inc., Chicago, Illinois,USA). Results: Most (88.6%; 343/387) of pregnancies had registration for antenatal care (ANC). Majority (69.7%; 239/343) of them were registered between 16 and 24 weeks. Only 28.5% (110/343) of women received ANC from a private doctor. Maternal health care service utilization from health personnel was significantly associated with age at marriage ?18 years, family size ?3, birth order ?2, nuclear family and higher socio-economic status. Most of the pregnancy related complications were found among women aged >30 years, with birth order ?3, having birth interval <24 months, among Muslims, working mothers and among those belonging to joint family. Mother's education and husband's occupation were found to be strong predictors for the utilization of maternal health care using the logistic regression. Conclusion: Utilization of maternal health care services is high. However this can be improved by community based education program. PMID:24971219

Srivastava, A; Mahmood, SE; Mishra, P; Shrotriya, VP

2014-01-01

332

August median streamflow on ungaged streams in Eastern Coastal Maine  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Methods for estimating August median streamflow were developed for ungaged, unregulated streams in eastern coastal Maine. The methods apply to streams with drainage areas ranging in size from 0.04 to 73.2 square miles and fraction of basin underlain by a sand and gravel aquifer ranging from 0 to 71 percent. The equations were developed with data from three long-term (greater than or equal to 10 years of record) continuous-record streamflow-gaging stations, 23 partial-record streamflow- gaging stations, and 5 short-term (less than 10 years of record) continuous-record streamflow-gaging stations. A mathematical technique for estimating a standard low-flow statistic, August median streamflow, at partial-record streamflow-gaging stations and short-term continuous-record streamflow-gaging stations was applied by relating base-flow measurements at these stations to concurrent daily streamflows at nearby long-term continuous-record streamflow-gaging stations (index stations). Generalized least-squares regression analysis (GLS) was used to relate estimates of August median streamflow at streamflow-gaging stations to basin characteristics at these same stations to develop equations that can be applied to estimate August median streamflow on ungaged streams. GLS accounts for different periods of record at the gaging stations and the cross correlation of concurrent streamflows among gaging stations. Thirty-one stations were used for the final regression equations. Two basin characteristics?drainage area and fraction of basin underlain by a sand and gravel aquifer?are used in the calculated regression equation to estimate August median streamflow for ungaged streams. The equation has an average standard error of prediction from -27 to 38 percent. A one-variable equation uses only drainage area to estimate August median streamflow when less accuracy is acceptable. This equation has an average standard error of prediction from -30 to 43 percent. Model error is larger than sampling error for both equations, indicating that additional or improved estimates of basin characteristics could be important to improved estimates of low-flow statistics. Weighted estimates of August median streamflow at partial- record or continuous-record gaging stations range from 0.003 to 31.0 cubic feet per second or from 0.1 to 0.6 cubic feet per second per square mile. Estimates of August median streamflow on ungaged streams in eastern coastal Maine, within the range of acceptable explanatory variables, range from 0.003 to 45 cubic feet per second or 0.1 to 0.6 cubic feet per second per square mile. Estimates of August median streamflow per square mile of drainage area generally increase as drainage area and fraction of basin underlain by a sand and gravel aquifer increase.

Lombard, Pamela J.

2004-01-01

333

Effects of early maternal distress and parenting on the development of children's self-regulation and externalizing behavior.  

PubMed

Emotional distress experienced by mothers increases young children's risk of externalizing problems through suboptimal parenting and child self-regulation. An integrative structural equation model tested hypotheses that mothers' parenting (i.e., low levels of inductive discipline and maternal warmth) would mediate adverse effects of early maternal distress on child effortful control, which in turn would mediate effects of maternal parenting on child externalizing behavior. This longitudinal study spanning ages 3, 6, and 10 included 241 children, mothers, and a subset of teachers. The hypothesized model was partially supported. Elevated maternal distress was associated with less inductive discipline and maternal warmth, which in turn were associated with less effortful control at age 3 but not at age 6. Inductive discipline and maternal warmth mediated adverse effects of maternal distress on children's effortful control. Less effortful control at ages 3 and 6 predicted smaller relative decreases in externalizing behavior at 6 and 10, respectively. Effortful control mediated effects of inductive discipline, but not maternal warmth, on externalizing behavior. Findings suggest elevated maternal distress increases children's risk of externalizing problems by compromising early parenting and child self-regulation. PMID:23627955

Choe, Daniel Ewon; Olson, Sheryl L; Sameroff, Arnold J

2013-05-01

334

Villitis of unknown etiology is associated with a distinct pattern of chemokine up-regulation in the feto-maternal and placental compartments: implications for conjoint maternal allograft rejection and maternal anti-fetal graft-versus-host disease.  

PubMed

The co-presence of histoincompatible fetal and maternal cells is a characteristic of human placental inflammation. Villitis of unknown etiology (VUE), a destructive inflammatory lesion of villous placenta, is characterized by participation of Hofbauer cells (placental macrophages) and maternal T cells. In contrast to acute chorioamnionitis of infection-related origin, the fundamental immunopathology of VUE is unknown. This study was performed to investigate the placental transcriptome of VUE and to determine whether VUE is associated with systemic maternal and/or fetal inflammatory response(s). Comparison of the transcriptome between term placentas without and with VUE revealed differential expression of 206 genes associated with pathways related to immune response. The mRNA expression of a subset of chemokines and their receptors (CXCL9, CXCL10, CXCL11, CXCL13, CCL4, CCL5, CXCR3, CCR5) was higher in VUE placentas than in normal placentas (p < 0.05). Analysis of blood cell mRNA showed a higher expression of CXCL9 and CXCL13 in the mother, and CXCL11 and CXCL13 in the fetus of VUE cases (p < 0.05). The median concentrations of CXCL9, CXCL10, and CXCL11 in maternal and fetal plasma were higher in VUE (p < 0.05). Comparison of preterm cases without and with acute chorioamnionitis revealed elevated CXCL9, CXCL10, CXCL11, and CXCL13 concentrations in fetal plasma (p < 0.05), but not in maternal plasma with chorioamnionitis. We report for the first time the placental transcriptome of VUE. A systemic derangement of CXC chemokines in maternal and fetal circulation distinguishes VUE from acute chorioamnionitis. We propose that VUE be a unique state combining maternal allograft rejection and maternal antifetal graft-vs-host disease mechanisms. PMID:19265171

Kim, Mi Jeong; Romero, Roberto; Kim, Chong Jai; Tarca, Adi L; Chhauy, Sovantha; LaJeunesse, Christopher; Lee, Deug-Chan; Draghici, Sorin; Gotsch, Francesca; Kusanovic, Juan Pedro; Hassan, Sonia S; Kim, Jung-Sun

2009-03-15

335

Maternal depression and low maternal intelligence as risk factors for malnutrition in children: a community based case-control study from South India  

PubMed Central

Aims: To determine whether current and postpartum maternal depression and low maternal intelligence are risk factors for malnutrition in children. Methods: In rural South India 72 children with malnutrition were identified from a central register; 72 controls were matched for age, gender, and residence. Results: Major depression in the postpartum period (OR 5.0, 95% CI 1.0 to 24.0), current major depression (OR 3.2, 95% CI 1.1 to 9.5), and low maternal intelligence (OR 3.8, 95% CI 1.3 to 11.1) were associated with malnutrition in the child. Low birth weight (OR 2.9, 95% CI 1.2 to 6.8) was also significantly associated with infant malnutrition. Conditional logistic regression adjusting for all other determinants yielded the following results: major depression during the postpartum period (OR 7.8; 95% CI 1.6 to 38.51), current major depression (OR 3.1; 95% CI 0.9 to 9.7), low maternal intelligence (OR 4.6; 95% CI 1.5 to 14.1), and low birth weight (OR 2.7; 95% CI 2.5 to 6.8). The interactions between current maternal depression and low birth weight and between postpartum depression and low maternal intelligence were statistically significant. The level of maternal intelligence was associated with nutritional status. The severity of malnutrition was also significantly associated with major depression during the postpartum period and low maternal intelligence. Conclusion: There is evidence for an association between postpartum maternal depression, low maternal intelligence, and low birth weight with malnutrition in children aged 6–12 months. PMID:15033840

Anoop, S; Saravanan, B; Joseph, A; Cherian, A; Jacob, K

2004-01-01

336

Median Nerve Injuries Caused by Carpal Tunnel Injections  

PubMed Central

Local steroid injections are widely used for diagnostic and therapeutic purposes in the management of carpal tunnel syndrome. The median nerve injury is the most serious complication in association with carpal tunnel injections although the incidence is low. A median nerve injury will be presented with shooting pain at the injection time along with other sensory distortion, motor weakness and muscle atrophy. The management includes a conservative treatment and a surgical exploration. Carpal tunnel injections should be used at a minimum only. If such steroid injection is required, an appropriate needle positioning is vital for the nerve injury prevention. The patient should not be heavily sedated and should be encouraged to inform experiences of numbness/paresthesia during the procedure immediately. PMID:24748938

Kim, Hyun Jung

2014-01-01

337

Split median raphe: case series and brief literature review.  

PubMed

We describe three cases of split median raphe of the penis (SMR) from our hospital newborn records from 2004 to 2013. One case was associated with median raphe cyst, one with skin hypochromia, and one with a scar-like aspect of the region of interest. SMR is thought to be the result of defective fusion of ectodermal tissue in the urethra and scrotum area or of defective growth of the perineal mesoderm around the urethra during gestation. Although SMR associated with other major penile congenital defects (epispadias, hypospadias, penile torsion, bifid scrotum, chordee) is common, isolated SMR is probably an underdiagnosed (although not rare) malformative condition. Recognizing SMR in a newborn may be of educational value to neonatologists because it leads to the search for and exclusion of the above-mentioned pathologic conditions. PMID:25236772

Valerio, Enrico; Cutrone, Mario

2014-01-01

338

Intraneural hemangioma of the median nerve: A case report  

PubMed Central

Hemangiomas of the median nerve are very rare and, so far, only ten cases of intraneural hemangioma of this nerve have been reported in the literature. We present a case of 14-year-old girl who had a soft tissue mass in the region of the left wrist with signs and symptoms of carpal tunnel syndrome. Total removal of the mass was achieved using microsurgical epineural and interfasicular dissection. The symptoms were relieved completely, after this procedure, without any neurologic deficit. On follow-up two years later, no recurrence was observed. Whenever a child or young adult patient presents with CTS the possibility of a hemangioma involving the median nerve should be kept in mind in the differential diagnosis. PMID:18294368

2008-01-01

339

Case report 667. Fibrolipomatous hamartoma of the median nerve.  

PubMed

Fibrolipomatous hamartoma of a nerve represents an uncommon soft-tissue tumor which typically involves the median nerve distribution near the wrist. Macrodactyly may or may not be present. The application of MRI using routine T1- and T2-weighted spin echo imaging sequences reveals serpiginous structures with low signal intensity. These structures probably represent the neural elements and associated perineural fibrosis. Further experience may allow for an accurate preoperative diagnosis of this tumor. PMID:2057803

Walker, C W; Adams, B D; Barnes, C L; Roloson, G J; FitzRandolph, R L

1991-01-01

340

Maternal, Perinatal, and Postneonatal Outcomes in Women With Chronic Heart Disease in Washington State  

PubMed Central

Objective To explore the association between the presence of maternal heart disease and maternal, perinatal, and infant outcomes. Methods We conducted a population-based retrospective cohort study using Washington State birth certificates linked with hospital discharge records of mothers noted to have maternal congenital heart disease, ischemic heart disease, heart failure or pulmonary hypertension. Women who gave birth between 1987 and 2009 (n=2,171) were compared to a sample of mothers without these conditions (n=21,710). We described characteristics of pregnant women with heart disease over time. Logistic regression estimated the association between reported chronic maternal heart disease and small for gestational age (SGA) birth, as well as perinatal, post-neonatal and maternal death. Results The proportion of births to women with reported heart disease increased 224% between the 1987-1994 and 2002-2009 calendar periods. Chronic maternal heart disease was associated with increased risk of SGA birth (62 additional SGA infants per 1,000 births, 95% CI 46-78, p <0.001), perinatal death (14 additional deaths per 1,000 births, 95% CI 8-20, p <0.001), postneonatal death (five additional deaths per 1,000 births, 95% CI 2-9, p<0.001) and maternal death (five additional deaths per 1,000 births, 95% CI 2-9, p<0.001). Conclusion The presence of chronic maternal heart disease is associated with elevated risk for poor maternal, perinatal, and postneonatal outcomes. PMID:23168751

Leary, Peter J; Leary, Sarah ES; Stout, Karen K; Schwartz, Stephen M; Easterling, Thomas R

2014-01-01

341

Maternal restraint and external eating behaviour are associated with formula use or shorter breastfeeding duration.  

PubMed

Maternal eating behaviour (e.g. restraint, disinhibition) has been associated with maternal child-feeding style (e.g. pressure to eat, restricting intake, monitoring) for children over the age of two years. In particular, mothers high in restraint are significantly more likely to restrict and monitor their child's intake of food. Research has not however examined the impact of maternal eating behaviour upon earlier infant feeding. A controlling maternal child-feeding style has been linked with shorter breastfeeding duration and earlier introduction of solid foods but the relationship between infant milk feeding and maternal eating behaviour has not been explored despite links between maternal weight, body image and breastfeeding duration. The aim of the current study was to explore associations between maternal restraint, emotional and external eating and breastfeeding initiation and duration. Seven hundred and fifty-six mothers with an infant aged 6-12months completed a copy of the Dutch Eating Behaviour Questionnaire and reported breastfeeding duration and formula use up to six months postpartum. Mothers high in restraint and external eating were significantly more likely to formula feed from birth, to breastfeed for a shorter duration and to introduce formula milk sooner than those lower in these behaviours. Moreover these behaviours were associated with reporting greater control during milk feeding by feeding to a mother-led rather than baby-led routine. Maternal eating behaviour may therefore affect breastfeeding initiation and continuation and is an important element for discussion for those working to support new mothers. PMID:24463067

Brown, A

2014-05-01

342

Maternal Smoking During Pregnancy and Growth in Infancy: a Covariance Structure Analysis  

PubMed Central

Background Smoking during pregnancy is related to fetal constraint and accelerated postnatal growth. However, the pathways between these factors have not been clarified. Pathway analyses that link these factors can help us better understand the mechanisms involved in this association. Therefore, this study aimed to examine pathways between maternal smoking during pregnancy and growth in infancy. Methods Participants were singletons born between 1993 and 2006 in rural Japan. The outcome was the change in weight z-score between birth and 3 years of age. Pathways from maternal smoking and other maternal factors (such as maternal body mass index and work status) to growth in infancy via birth factors (such as birth weight and gestational age) and breastfeeding were examined using structural equation modeling. Results Complete data were available for 1524 children (775 boys and 749 girls). The model fit appeared adequate. Lower birth weight and non-exclusive breastfeeding mediated the association between maternal smoking during pregnancy and rapid growth in infancy. Maternal smoking was also directly linked to rapid growth in infancy (standardized direct effects 0.06, P = 0.002). Taking all pathways into account, the standardized total effect of maternal smoking on growth in infancy was 0.11. Conclusions Maternal smoking during pregnancy may both indirectly, through birth weight and breastfeeding status, and directly influence growth during infancy; however, there may be other pathways that have not yet been identified.

Zheng, Wei; Suzuki, Kohta; Shinohara, Ryoji; Sato, Miri; Yokomichi, Hiroshi; Yamagata, Zentaro

2015-01-01

343

A sensitive time-resolved fluoroimmunoassay for determination of median levels of pregnancy-associated plasma protein a in pregnant women in China.  

PubMed

Pregnancy-associated plasma protein A (PAPP-A) is an important serum marker for first trimester screening. Its weekly median value varies with ethnicity. A one-step time-resolved fluoroimmunoassay (TRFIA) using two monoclonal antibodies against PAPP-A with Eu(3+) chelates as labels has been developed. Using the assay described here, we evaluated 5,301 normal serum samples from Chinese women at 7-13 weeks of gestation. The detection limit using this assay was 1.2 mIU/L, and the maximum detection range was up to 10,000 mIU/L. The intra-assay and inter-assay coefficients of variation were <3.0% and <5.0%, respectively, and the mean recovery rate was 98.0%. PAPP-A concentrations measured in 516 maternal serum samples correlated well with those obtained by Dissociation-Enhanced Lanthanide Fluorescent Immunoassay (DELFIA) PAPP-A assay (r=0.988, P<0.001). The medians for 7-13 weeks of maternal serum PAPP-A were higher in the women from China compared to reports from other countries. The present assay possesses accuracy and high sensitivity and exhibits great potential for the clinical analysis of PAPP-A. Our investigation on the median concentrations of PAPP-A will help establish reference values that are specific for China and study the importance of ethnic factors in biochemical screening. PMID:23859787

Yu, Ting; Gao, Shangxian; Yin, Aihua; Tang, Yongping; Wu, Yingsong; Li, Lili; Li, Ming

2013-01-01

344

Maternal Influences on Youth Responses to Peer Stress  

PubMed Central

Understanding how youth develop particular styles of responding to stress is critical for promoting effective coping. This research examined the prospective, interactive contribution of maternal socialization of coping and peer stress to youth responses to peer stress. A sample of 144 early adolescents (M age = 12.44, SD = 1.22) and their maternal caregivers completed questionnaires and semi-structured interviews in two waves over a one-year period. Results revealed that mothers’ disengagement coping suggestions predicted maladaptive responses to stress, particularly for youth who received low levels of engagement suggestions, and engagement coping suggestions protected youth against maladaptive responses to stress. Importantly, these effects emerged only in the context of heightened peer stress. This research suggests that maternal socialization of coping has the potential to support or undermine youths’ development of an effective repertoire of responses to stress. PMID:21910532

Abaied, Jamie L.; Rudolph, Karen D.

2011-01-01

345

The Second-Language Vocabulary Trajectories of Turkish Immigrant Children in Norway from Ages Five to Ten: The Role of Preschool Talk Exposure, Maternal Education, and Coethnic Concentration in the Neighborhood  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Little research has explored how preschools can support children's second-language (L2) vocabulary development. This study keenly followed the progress of twenty-six Turkish immigrant children growing up in Norway from preschool (age five) to fifth grade (age ten). Four different measures of preschool talk exposure (amount and diversity of…

Rydland, Veslemoy; Grover, Vibeke; Lawrence, Joshua

2014-01-01

346

The development and prediction of atopy in high-risk children: Follow-up at age seven years in a prospective randomized study of combined maternal and infant food allergen avoidance  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: The natural history of allergic disease and its potential for prevention merit close examination because of the explosive worldwide increase in the prevalence and morbidity of atopic disorders. This study examines the development of atopy at age 7 years in 165 children in a high-risk cohort, previously reported from birth to age 4 years. Methods: In this prospective, randomized,

Robert S. Zeiger; Susan Heller

1995-01-01

347

Maternal serum alpha-fetoprotein screening: report of a Canadian pilot project.  

PubMed Central

A pilot project of maternal serum alpha-fetoprotein (MSAFP) screening was carried out in Ontario from 1982 to 1985 to examine the feasibility and acceptability of screening a prenatal population for open fetal neural tube defects. A total of 8140 patients at low genetic risk were screened. Patient acceptance was excellent. Blood samples were taken at 16 to 18 weeks' gestation. If the MSAFP level was elevated, the assay was repeated and an ultrasound examination performed. Amniocentesis was offered to 67 women with unexplained persistently elevated levels. The outcome of pregnancy was known in 7473 patients (91.8%). Seven of nine known open fetal neural tube defects were detected. All were confirmed, and no unaffected fetuses were aborted on the basis of the screening results. The rates of perinatal death (6.7%), intrauterine growth retardation (11.7%) and prematurity (23.3%) were significantly higher among the patients with unexplained elevated MSAFP levels than among those with normal levels (p less than 0.001). Of 20 patients with unexplained low levels, 10 subsequently had spontaneous abortions and 10 gave birth to term appropriate-for-gestational-age infants. Seven of nine patients who gave birth to infants with autosomal trisomy had MSAFP values below the median. The findings indicate that MSAFP screening is feasible, accurate and acceptable in a low-risk area. PMID:2440547

Doran, T A; Valentine, G H; Wong, P Y; Wielgosz, G; Benzie, R J; Soltan, H C; Jenner, M R; Morland, P A; Montgomery, R J; Allen, L C

1987-01-01

348

Interactive Fly: Maternally transcribed genes  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The maternally transcribed genes section of the award-winning and comprehensive site: Interactive fly. It thoroughly discusses genes, tissues, biochemical paths, and developmental processes in the fruit fly, Drosophila.

PhD Thomas B Brody (NIH Laboratory of Neurochemistry)

2006-11-13

349

Maternal and Child Health Bureau  

MedlinePLUS

... 02 HRSA-15-133 Maternal and Child Health Public Health Catalyst Program Apply at Grants.gov by March ... website provides information about how EPSDT works with public health, families, managed care organizations, pediatricians, and other health ...

350

Maternal Depression and Adolescent Behavior  

MedlinePLUS

... hand corner of the player. Maternal Depression and Adolescent Behavior HealthDay December 22, 2014 Related MedlinePlus Pages ... depression, how does it impact her child in adolescence? A new study published in the journal Pediatrics ...

351

Assembly Bill 1825: Maternity Services  

E-print Network

infection Antepartum hemorrhage Placental abruption Preterm premature rupture of membranes Induction of labor Postpartuminfection*, maternity service*, medi-cal, neural tube defects, nuchal translucency, perinatal (care or service*), placenta previa, postnatal service*, postpartum

California Health Benefits Review Program (CHBRP)

2010-01-01

352

Maternal mortality in Central Province, Kenya, 2009-2010  

PubMed Central

Introduction Maternal mortality for Kenya was 488/100,000 live births in 2009. Maternal mortality estimate for Central Province is unknown. We retrospectively reviewed data between 1st July 2009 and 30th June 2010 to estimate the hospital based maternal mortality ratio, characterize deaths by time, place and person and describe possible causes of deaths in Central province, Kenya. Methods We abstracted data using a standard form from maternal death notification and review forms and the district reproductive health reports. Data was entered and analyzed using Microsoft Excel. Results There were 89,512 live births and 111 deaths. The facility-based maternal mortality ratio was 124/100,000 live births. Seventy-three (66%) deaths had been audited. Thirty seven (33%) were aged 25 to 34 years. The mean age was 31years (±6). Thirty seven (33%) had a parity of less or equal to 2. Most case deaths (19%, n = 21) had attended 2 or less antenatal visits. The main gestation was below 37 weeks with 48% (n = 53). The main mode of delivery was vaginal (26%, n = 29). Majority (35%, n = 32) case deaths had delivered a live birth. Thirty seven (33%) mothers had been stable on admission. The main reason for admission waslabor with 12% (n = 13). Thirty-eight (34%) died within 24 hours after admission. Majority (27%, n = 30) were admitted antepartum but 39% (n = 43) were postpartum at the time of death. Thirty-five (32%) died of hemorrhage and 8(7%) Eclampsia. Conclusion Maternal mortality is of public health importance in the region. Most deaths occurred within 24 hours after admission. Third delay was important. Bleeding and Eclampsia were the main causes of death. A third (34%) of notified deaths were not reviewed. PMID:25396027

Muchemi, Onesmus Maina; Gichogo, Agnes Wangechi

2014-01-01

353

Neurotensin inversely modulates maternal aggression  

PubMed Central

Neurotensin (NT) is a versatile neuropeptide involved in analgesia, hypothermia, and schizophrenia. Although NT is released from and acts upon brain regions involved in social behaviors, it has not been linked to a social behavior. We previously selected mice for high maternal aggression (maternal defense), an important social behavior that protects offspring, and found significantly lower NT expression in the CNS of highly protective females. Our current study directly tested NT’s role in maternal defense. Intracerebroventricular (icv) injections of NT significantly impaired defense in terms of time aggressive and number of attacks at all doses tested (0.05, 0.1, 1.0, and 3.0 ?g). Other maternal behaviors, including pup retrieval, were unaltered following NT injections (0.05 ?g) relative to vehicle, suggesting specificity of NT action on defense. Further, icv injections of the NT receptor 1 (NT1) antagonist, SR 48692 (30 ?g), significantly elevated maternal aggression in terms of time aggressive and attack number. To understand where NT may regulate aggression, we examined Fos following injection of either 0.1 ?g NT or vehicle. 13 of 26 brain regions examined exhibited significant Fos increases with NT, including regions expressing NT1 and previously implicated in maternal aggression, such as lateral septum, bed nucleus of stria terminalis, paraventricular nucleus, and central amygdala. Together, our results indicate that NT inversely regulates maternal aggression and provide the first direct evidence that lowering of NT signaling can be a mechanism for maternal aggression. To our knowledge, this is the first study to directly link NT to a social behavior. PMID:19118604

Gammie, Stephen C.; D’Anna, Kimberly L.; Gerstein, Hilary; Stevenson, Sharon A.

2008-01-01

354

Age at menarche in urban Argentinian girls: association with biological and socioeconomic factors.  

PubMed

Age at menarche is regarded as a sensitive indicator of physical, biological, and psychosocial environment. The aim of this study was to determine the age at menarche and its association with biological and socioeconomic factors in girls from Santa Rosa (La Pampa, Argentina). An observational cross-sectional study was carried out on 1,221 schoolgirls aged 9-15 years. Menarche data were obtained by the status-quo method. Height, sitting height, weight, arm circumference, tricipital and subscapular skinfolds were measured. We also calculated body mass index, measures of body composition and proportions, and fat distribution. To assess socioeconomic factors, parents completed a self-administered questionnaire about their occupation and education, family size, household, and other family characteristics. The median age at menarche - estimated by the logit method--was 12.84 years (95% CI: 12.71, 12.97). Compared with their premenarcheal age peers, postmenarcheal girls had greater anthropometric dimensions through age 12. After this age, only height was higher in the latter group. Data were processed by fitting two logistic regressions, both including age. The first model included anthropometric variables and birth weight, while the second model included the socioeconomic variables. The significant variables derived from each model were incorporated into a new regression: height, sitting height ratio (first model), and maternal education (second model). These three variables remained significantly associated with menarche. The results suggest a relationship between linear growth and menarche and agree with those found in other populations where the advancement of menarche is associated with improved living conditions. In relatively uniform urban contexts, maternal education may be a good proxy for the standard of living. PMID:21905419

Orden, Alicia B; Vericat, Agustina; Apezteguía, Maria C

2011-01-01

355

Reproductive success in female mountain goats: the influence of age and social rank  

Microsoft Academic Search

In mammals, reproductive success may be positively correlated with both maternal age and social rank. Because social rank often increases with age, however, the effects of rank and age on reproductive success are difficult to separate. We studied a marked population of mountain goats, Oreamnos americanus ,t o assess the relative effects of maternal age and social rank on kid

STEEVE D. CO; MARCO FESTA-BIANCHET

2001-01-01

356

Reproductive success in female mountain goats: the influence of age and social rank  

Microsoft Academic Search

In mammals, reproductive success may be positively correlated with both maternal age and social rank. Because social rank often increases with age, however, the effects of rank and age on reproductive success are difficult to separate. We studied a marked population of mountain goats, Oreamnos americanus, to assess the relative effects of maternal age and social rank on kid production

Steeve D. Côté; Marco Festa-Bianchet

2001-01-01

357

Taking stock of two decades of attachment transmission gap: broadening the assessment of maternal behavior.  

PubMed

This report aimed to investigate the capacity of maternal behaviors tailored to children's attachment and exploration systems to jointly explain the well-known mother-child transmission of attachment. Four home visits were conducted between ages 7 months and 2 years with 130 mother-child dyads to assess maternal attachment state of mind, sensitivity, autonomy support, and mother-child attachment security. Results showed that together, maternal sensitivity and autonomy support fully accounted for the relation between maternal and child attachment, that they each accounted for a unique portion of this relation, and that the magnitude of these mediated pathways was equivalent. These results suggest that the attachment transmission gap can be narrowed by the use of a theory-driven multidimensional approach to maternal behavior. PMID:24611791

Bernier, Annie; Matte-Gagné, Célia; Bélanger, Marie-Ève; Whipple, Natasha

2014-01-01

358

Maternal employment and the health of low-income young children.  

PubMed

This study examines whether maternal employment affects the health status of low-income, elementary-school-aged children using instrumental variables estimation and experimental data from a welfare-to-work program implemented in the early 1990s. Maternal report of child health status is predicted as a function of exogenous variation in maternal employment associated with random assignment to the experimental group. IV estimates show a modest adverse effect of maternal employment on children's health. Making use of data from another welfare-to-work program we propose that any adverse effect on child health may be tempered by increased family income and access to public health insurance coverage, findings with direct relevance to a number of current policy discussions. In a secondary analysis using fixed effects techniques on longitudinal survey data collected in 1998 and 2001, we find a comparable adverse effect of maternal employment on child health that supports the external validity of our primary result. PMID:20356641

Gennetian, Lisa A; Hill, Heather D; London, Andrew S; Lopoo, Leonard M

2010-05-01

359

The Timing of Prenatal Exposure to Maternal Cortisol and Psychosocial Stress Is Associated with Human Infant Cognitive Development  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The consequences of prenatal maternal stress for development were examined in 125 full-term infants at 3, 6, and 12 months of age. Maternal cortisol and psychological state were evaluated 5 times during pregnancy. Exposure to elevated concentrations of cortisol early in gestation was associated with a slower rate of development over the 1st year…

Davis, Elysia P.; Sandman, Curt A.

2010-01-01

360

Lake Michigan fish consumption as a source of polychlorinated biphenyls in human cord serum, maternal serum, and milk  

Microsoft Academic Search

Reported consumption of Lake Michigan sport fish was examined in relation to the levels of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in biological samples provided by a sample of maternity patients. Fish consumption was correlated with PCB levels in maternal serum and milk but not in cord serum. PCB levels in serum increased with age, but were unrelated to social class, parity, or

P. M. Schwartz; S. W. Jacobson; G. Fein; J. L. Jacobson; H. A. Price

1983-01-01

361

The Relations between Infant Negative Reactivity, Non-Maternal Childcare, and Children's Interactions with Familiar and Unfamiliar Peers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The present study examined the influence of children's experiences during non-maternal childcare on their behavior toward unfamiliar peers. Participants included children classified as negatively reactive at four months of age (N = 52) and children not negatively reactive (N = 61), who were further divided into those who experienced non-maternal

Almas, Alisa N.; Degnan, Kathryn Amey; Fox, Nathan A.; Phillips, Deborah A.; Henderson, Heather A.; Moas, Olga L.; Hane, Amie Ashley

2011-01-01

362

Maternity Leave in Taiwan  

PubMed Central

Using the first nationally representative birth cohort study in Taiwan, this paper examines the role that maternity leave policy in Taiwan plays in the timing of mothers returning to work after giving birth, as well as the extent to which this timing is linked to the amount of time mothers spend with their children and their use of breast milk versus formula. We found that the time when mothers returned to work coincided with the duration of guaranteed leave. In particular, mothers with a labor pension plan resumed work significantly earlier than mothers with no pension plan, and mothers with no pension plan returned to work significantly later than those with pension plans. The short leave of absence guaranteed under existing policies translated into mothers spending less time with their children and being more likely to exclusively use formula by 6 months after birth. In contrast, mothers who resumed work later than 6 months after birth were more likely to have not worked before birth or to have quit their jobs during pregnancy. Implications and recommendations for parental leave policy in Taiwan are discussed. PMID:21603074

Feng, Joyce Yen; Han, Wen-Jui

2011-01-01

363

Paradoxes of maternal mourning.  

PubMed

It has been customary to conceptualize mourning as a phasic or stage phenomenon (Lindemann 1944; Parkes 1972; Bowlby 1980; Knapp 1986). Such a conceptualization has proved to be of tremendous didactic value, especially in terms of succinctly organizing and communicating the major affects, behaviors, and reactions of mourning. It is, however, my belief, based upon clinical experience with many forms of bereavement, that the phenomenon of mourning is not comprised of clearly delineated stages and phases. I have come to conceptualize the phenomenon of mourning the death of a loved person as involving the bereaved's struggle with a series of more or less unresolvable paradoxes rather than as a progression through stages that possess relatively distinct and predictable beginning and ending points. The specific paradoxes encountered by a bereaved person differ, of course, in accordance with the relationship that was lost (mother, father, spouse, child, or sibling), the developmental stage of the bereaved (childhood, adolescence, adulthood, or maturity), the type of death (sudden or prolonged), and the cause of death (illness, murder, suicide, or accident). In this paper, I will address those paradoxes that seem specific to maternal mourning - that is, to mothers who are mourning the death of a child. PMID:2023970

Brice, C W

1991-02-01

364

Unexplained fetal death has a biological signature of maternal anti-fetal rejection: chronic chorioamnionitis and alloimmune anti-human leucocyte antigen antibodies  

PubMed Central

Aims Chronic chorioamnionitis is a histological manifestation of maternal anti-fetal cellular rejection. Failure of graft survival being the most catastrophic event in organ transplantation, we hypothesized that fetal death could be a consequence of rejection of the mother against the fetus. This study was conducted to assess evidence of cellular and antibody-mediated rejection in fetal death cases. Methods and results Placental histology was reviewed for the presence of chronic chorioamnionitis in unexplained preterm fetal death (n=30) and preterm live birth (n=103) cases. Amniotic fluid CXCL10 concentrations were measured by specific immunoassay. Chronic chorioamnionitis was more frequent in fetal death cases than in live birth cases (60.0% versus 37.9%; P<0.05) and fetal death cases had a higher median amniotic fluid CXCL10 concentration than live birth cases (2.0 ng/ml versus 1.8 ng/ml, P<0.05), after adjusting for gestational age at amniocentesis. Maternal anti-human leucocye antigen (HLA) class II seropositivity determined by flow cytometry was higher in fetal death cases compared to live birth cases (35.7% versus 10.9%; P<0.05). Conclusions Chronic chorioamnionitis is a common pathology of unexplained preterm fetal death. The novel findings herein suggest strongly that cellular and antibody-mediated anti-fetal rejection of the mother is associated with fetal death (graft failure) in human pregnancy. PMID:22092404

Lee, JoonHo; Romero, Roberto; Dong, Zhong; Xu, Yi; Qureshi, Faisal; Jacques, Suzanne; Yoo, Wonsuk; Chaiworapongsa, Tinnakorn; Mittal, Pooja; Hassan, Sonia S.; Kim, Chong Jai

2013-01-01

365

Neural Organization of the Median Ocellus of the Dragonfly  

PubMed Central

Two types of presumed synaptic contacts have been recognized by electron microscopy in the synaptic plexus of the median ocellus of the dragonfly. The first type is characterized by an electron-opaque, button-like organelle in the presynaptic cytoplasm, surrounded by a cluster of synaptic vesicles. Two postsynaptic elements are associated with these junctions, which we have termed button synapses. The second synaptic type is characterized by a dense cluster of synaptic vesicles adjacent to the presumed presynaptic membrane. One postsynaptic element is observed at these junctions. The overwhelming majority of synapses seen in the plexus are button synapses. They are found most commonly in the receptor cell axons where they synaptically contact ocellar nerve dendrites and adjacent receptor cell axons. Button synapses are also seen in the ocellar nerve dendrites where they appear to make synapses back onto receptor axon terminals as well as onto adjacent ocellar nerve dendrites. Reciprocal and serial synaptic arrangements between receptor cell axon terminals, and between receptor cell axon terminals and ocellar nerve dendrites are occasionally seen. It is suggested that the lateral and feedback synapses in the median ocellus of the dragonfly play a role in enhancing transients in the postsynaptic responses. PMID:5049076

Dowling, John E.; Chappell, Richard L.

1972-01-01

366

The Mouse Median Nerve Experimental Model in Regenerative Research  

PubMed Central

Sciatic nerve crush injury in rat animal model is one of the most common experimental models used in regenerative research. However, the availability of transgenic mouse for nerve regeneration studies is constantly increasing and, therefore, the shift from rat model to mouse model is, in some cases, necessary. Moreover, since most of the human nerve lesions occur in the upper limb, it is also advantageous to shift from sciatic nerve to median nerve. In this study we described an experimental model which involves lesions of the median nerve in the mouse. Data showed that the finger flexor muscle contraction strength, assessed to evaluate the motor function recovery, and reached values not different from the control already 20 days after injury. The degree of nerve regeneration evaluated with stereological methods in light microscopy showed that, 25 days after injury, the number of regenerated myelinated fibers was comparable to the control, but they were smaller with a thinner myelin thickness. Stereological analysis made in electron microscopy confirmed these results, although the total number of fibers quantified was significantly higher compared to light microscopy analysis, due to the very small size of some fibers that can be detected only in electron microscopy. PMID:25180190

Buskbjerg Jager, Sara

2014-01-01

367

Anatomical variation: median nerve formation - a case vignette.  

PubMed

Variations in the arrangement and distribution of brachial plexus and its branches in the infraclavicular part are common and have been reported by several investigators since the 19th century. These variations are significant for the neurologists, surgeons, anesthetists and the anatomists. During routine anatomical dissection of the right axilla and infraclavicular region of a 45-year-old male cadaver, the medial root of the median nerve was found to receive a supplementary branch from the medial aspect of the terminal portion of the lateral cord of brachial plexus and the branch was passing infront of the axillary artery from lateral to medial side. The median nerve was formed by joining of the lateral and medial roots from the lateral and medial cords of brachial plexus, infront of brachial artery, lower down, at the junction of upper one-third and lower two-third of the arm, instead in the axilla. This variation could be one of the cause of pressure symptom which occurs on the axillary artery and also the injury which occurs on the lateral cord or upstream to the lateral cord, which may sometimes lead to an unexpected presentation of weakness of forearm flexors and thenar muscles. PMID:25120965

Bala, Anju; Sinha, Pranoti; Tamang, Binod Kumar; Sarda, Rohit Kumar

2014-06-01

368

Anatomical Variation: Median Nerve Formation – A Case Vignette  

PubMed Central

Variations in the arrangement and distribution of brachial plexus and its branches in the infraclavicular part are common and have been reported by several investigators since the 19th century. These variations are significant for the neurologists, surgeons, anesthetists and the anatomists. During routine anatomical dissection of the right axilla and infraclavicular region of a 45-year-old male cadaver, the medial root of the median nerve was found to receive a supplementary branch from the medial aspect of the terminal portion of the lateral cord of brachial plexus and the branch was passing infront of the axillary artery from lateral to medial side. The median nerve was formed by joining of the lateral and medial roots from the lateral and medial cords of brachial plexus, infront of brachial artery, lower down, at the junction of upper one-third and lower two-third of the arm, instead in the axilla. This variation could be one of the cause of pressure symptom which occurs on the axillary artery and also the injury which occurs on the lateral cord or upstream to the lateral cord, which may sometimes lead to an unexpected presentation of weakness of forearm flexors and thenar muscles. PMID:25120965

Sinha, Pranoti; Tamang, Binod Kumar; Sarda, Rohit Kumar

2014-01-01

369

Maternal and genetic factors determine early life telomere length.  

PubMed

In a broad range of species--including humans--it has been demonstrated that telomere length declines throughout life and that it may be involved in cell and organismal senescence. This potential link to ageing and thus to fitness has triggered recent interest in understanding how variation in telomere length is inherited and maintained. However, previous studies suffer from two main drawbacks that limit the possibility of understanding the relative importance of genetic, parental and environmental influences on telomere length variation. These studies have been based on (i) telomere lengths measured at different time points in different individuals, despite the fact that telomere length changes over life, and (ii) parent-offspring regression techniques, which do not enable differentiation between genetic and parental components of inheritance. To overcome these drawbacks, in our study of a songbird, the great reed warbler, we have analysed telomere length measured early in life in both parents and offspring and applied statistical models (so-called 'animal models') that are based on long-term pedigree data. Our results showed a significant heritability of telomere length on the maternal but not on the paternal side, and that the mother's age was positively correlated with their offspring's telomere length. Furthermore, the pedigree-based analyses revealed a significant heritability and an equally large maternal effect. Our study demonstrates strong maternal influence on telomere length and future studies now need to elucidate possible underlying factors, including which types of maternal effects are involved. PMID:25621325

Asghar, Muhammad; Bensch, Staffan; Tarka, Maja; Hansson, Bengt; Hasselquist, Dennis

2015-01-22

370

Preconception maternal nutrition: a multi-site randomized controlled trial  

PubMed Central

Background Research directed to optimizing maternal nutrition commencing prior to conception remains very limited, despite suggestive evidence of its importance in addition to ensuring an optimal nutrition environment in the periconceptional period and throughout the first trimester of pregnancy. Methods/Study design This is an individually randomized controlled trial of the impact on birth length (primary outcome) of the time at which a maternal nutrition intervention is commenced: Arm 1: ? 3 mo preconception vs. Arm 2: 12-14 wk gestation vs. Arm 3: none. 192 (derived from 480) randomized mothers and living offspring in each arm in each of four research sites (Guatemala, India, Pakistan, Democratic Republic of the Congo). The intervention is a daily 20 g lipid-based (118 kcal) multi-micronutient (MMN) supplement. Women randomized to receive this intervention with body mass index (BMI) <20 or whose gestational weight gain is low will receive an additional 300 kcal/d as a balanced energy-protein supplement. Researchers will visit homes biweekly to deliver intervention and monitor compliance, pregnancy status and morbidity; ensure prenatal and delivery care; and promote breast feeding. The primary outcome is birth length. Secondary outcomes include: fetal length at 12 and 34 wk; incidence of low birth weight (LBW); neonatal/infant anthropometry 0-6 mo of age; infectious disease morbidity; maternal, fetal, newborn, and infant epigenetics; maternal and infant nutritional status; maternal and infant microbiome; gut inflammatory biomarkers and bioactive and nutritive compounds in breast milk. The primary analysis will compare birth Length-for-Age Z-score (LAZ) among trial arms (independently for each site, estimated effect size: 0.35). Additional statistical analyses will examine the secondary outcomes and a pooled analysis of data from all sites. Discussion Positive results of this trial will support a paradigm shift in attention to nutrition of all females of child-bearing age. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01883193. PMID:24650219

2014-01-01

371

A longitudinal investigation of maternal influences on the development of child hostile attributions and aggression.  

PubMed

Aggression in children is associated with an enhanced tendency to attribute hostile intentions to others. However, limited information is available regarding the factors that contribute to the development of such hostile attribution tendencies. We examined factors that contribute to individual differences in child hostile attributions and aggression, focusing on potential pathways from maternal hostile attributions via negative parenting behavior. We conducted a longitudinal study of 98 mothers and children (47 male, 51 female), recruited from groups experiencing high and low levels of psychosocial adversity. Maternal hostile attributions, observed parenting, and child behaviour were assessed at 18 months and 5 years child age, and child hostile attributions were also examined at 5 years. Independent assessments of maternal and child processes were utilized where possible. Analyses provided support for a direct influence of maternal hostile attributions on the development of child hostile attributions and aggressive behaviour. Maternal hostile attributions were also associated with negative parenting behaviour, which in turn influenced child adjustment. Even taking account of possible parenting influences and preexisting child difficulties, hostile attributions in the mother showed a direct link with child aggression at 5 years. Maternal hostile attributions were themselves related to psychosocial adversity. We conclude that maternal hostile attributions are prevalent in high-risk samples and are related to less optimal parenting behaviour, child hostile attributions, and child aggression. Targeting hostile maternal cognitions may be a useful adjunct to parenting programs. PMID:24245908

Healy, Sarah J; Murray, Lynne; Cooper, Peter J; Hughes, Claire; Halligan, Sarah L

2015-01-01

372

Are you what your mother weighs? Evaluating the impact of maternal weight trajectories on youth overweight.  

PubMed

In this study, we investigate how three alternative measures of maternal body mass index (BMI) relate to youth overweight. We contrast the typical cross-sectional measure of maternal BMI with a longitudinal mean and a standard deviation in maternal BMI. Using National Longitudinal Survey of Youth data, we estimate logistic regressions that relate maternal BMI to the risk of a youth being overweight while controlling for other familial characteristics. Participants in this study are 918 males and 841 females who were age 16-21 and either healthy weight or overweight in 2006. To be eligible for inclusion, teens were 15 years old by December 2006. After comparing several measures of maternal weight, we find that higher mean maternal BMI measured over the life of the adolescent has the strongest relationship with the odds of youth overweight for both male and female adolescents. For boys, a one unit increase in mother's mean BMI increases the odds of being overweight by 16% (OR = 1.16, 95% CI 1.11-1.20) while for girls the increase in the odds of being overweight is 13% (OR = 1.13, 95% CI 1.09-1.18). Our findings suggest that researchers should move beyond static measures of maternal weight when examining the correlates of youth BMI. Maternal weight histories offer additional insights about the youth's home environment that are associated with the risk of a youth being overweight. PMID:19582561

Kowaleski-Jones, Lori; Brown, Barbara B; Fan, Jessie X; Smith, Ken R; Zick, Cathleen D

2010-09-01

373

Prenatal maternal depression alters amygdala functional connectivity in 6-month-old infants.  

PubMed

Prenatal maternal depression is associated with alterations in the neonatal amygdala microstructure, shedding light on the timing for the influence of prenatal maternal depression on the brain structure of the offspring. This study aimed to examine the association between prenatal maternal depressive symptomatology and infant amygdala functional connectivity and to thus establish the neural functional basis for the transgenerational transmission of vulnerability for affective disorders during prenatal development. Twenty-four infants were included in this study with both structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and resting-state functional MRI (fMRI) at 6 months of age. Maternal depression was assessed at 26 weeks of gestation and 3 months after delivery using the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale. Linear regression was used to identify the amygdala functional networks and to examine the associations between prenatal maternal depressive symptoms and amygdala functional connectivity. Our results showed that at 6 months of age, the amygdala is functionally connected to widespread brain regions, forming the emotional regulation, sensory and perceptual, and emotional memory networks. After controlling for postnatal maternal depressive symptoms, infants born to mothers with higher prenatal maternal depressive symptoms showed greater functional connectivity of the amygdala with the left temporal cortex and insula, as well as the bilateral anterior cingulate, medial orbitofrontal and ventromedial prefrontal cortices, which are largely consistent with patterns of connectivity observed in adolescents and adults with major depressive disorder. Our study provides novel evidence that prenatal maternal depressive symptomatology alters the amygdala's functional connectivity in early postnatal life, which reveals that the neuroimaging correlates of the familial transmission of phenotypes associated with maternal mood are apparent in infants at 6 months of age. PMID:25689569

Qiu, A; Anh, T T; Li, Y; Chen, H; Rifkin-Graboi, A; Broekman, B F P; Kwek, K; Saw, S-M; Chong, Y-S; Gluckman, P D; Fortier, M V; Meaney, M J

2015-01-01

374

Maternal childhood abuse and offspring adjustment over time.  

PubMed

This study addressed the basis for the intergenerational transmission of psychosocial risk associated with maternal childhood abuse in relation to offspring adjustment. The study tested how far group differences in individual change in adjustment over time were explained by differences in exposure to specific environmental risk experiences. Data are drawn from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children. Information on mothers' own experience of childhood abuse, offspring adjustment at ages 4 and 7 years, and hypothesized mediators was available for 5,619 families. A residuals scores analysis was used to track children's adjustment over time. Maternal childhood abuse was associated with poorer behavioral trajectories between ages 4 and 7 years. Children of abused mothers were more likely to experience a range of negative life events between ages 4 and 7 years, including changes in family composition, separations from parents, "shocks and frights" and physical assaults. Interim life events, together with antecedent psychosocial risk (maternal antenatal affective symptoms, age 4 parental hostility, age 4 family type) fully mediated the association between maternal childhood abuse and offspring prognosis.The authors express their gratitude to the families who participated in the study. Support for these analyses was provided by a grant from the Medical Research Council. The Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC) is part of the World Health Organisation initiated European Study of Pregnancy and Childhood, and is supported, among others, by the Wellcome Trust, The Department of Health, The Department of the Environment, and the Medical Research Council. The ALSPAC study team comprises interviewers, computer technicians, laboratory technicians, clerical workers, research scientists, volunteers, and managers who continue to make the study possible. PMID:17459175

Collishaw, Stephan; Dunn, Judy; O'Connor, Thomas G; Golding, Jean

2007-01-01

375

Impact of Maternal and Infant Antiretroviral Drug Regimens on Drug Resistance in HIV-Infected Breastfeeding Infants  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND The HPTN 046 trial evaluated the efficacy of extended infant nevirapine (NVP) administration for prevention of HIV transmission through breastfeeding. Infants received daily NVP to 6 weeks of age. HIV-uninfected infants (the intent-to-treat group) received daily NVP or placebo up to 6 months of age. We analyzed emergence of NVP resistance in infants who acquired HIV-infection despite prophylaxis. METHODS HIV genotyping was performed using the ViroSeq HIV Genotyping System. Medians and proportions were used to summarize data. Two-sided Fisher’s exact tests were used to evaluate associations between categorical variables. RESULTS NVP resistance was detected in 12 (92.3%) of 13 infants who were HIV-infected by 6 weeks and in seven (28%) of 25 infants who were HIV-uninfected at 6 weeks and HIV-infected at 6 months of age (6/8=75% in the NVP arm, 1/17=5.9% in the placebo arm, P=0.001). Among those 25 infants, 4 had mothers who initiated an antiretroviral (ARV) treatment regimen by 6 months postpartum. In all 4 cases, the treatment regimen included a non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NVP or efavirenz). NVP resistance was detected in all four of those infants by 6 months of age (4/4=100%). In contrast, only three (14.2%) of the remaining 21 HIV-infected infants whose mothers did not initiate ARV treatment developed NVP resistance (P=0.003). CONCLUSIONS Extended NVP prophylaxis significantly increased the risk of NVP resistance in infants who acquired HIV infection after 6 weeks of age. Treatment of maternal HIV infection was also associated with emergence of NVP resistance in HIV-infected, breastfed infants. PMID:23249916

Fogel, Jessica M.; Mwatha, Anthony; Richardson, Paul; Brown, Elizabeth R.; Chipato, Tsungai; Alexandre, Michel; Moodley, Dhayendre; Elbireer, Ali; Mirochnick, Mark; George, Kathleen; Mofenson, Lynne M.; Zwerski, Sheryl; Coovadia, Hoosen M.; Eshleman, Susan H.

2013-01-01

376

Effect of Ethiopia’s Health Extension Program on Maternal and Newborn Health Care Practices in 101 Rural Districts: A Dose-Response Study  

PubMed Central

Background Improving newborn survival is essential if Ethiopia is to achieve Millennium Development Goal 4. The national Health Extension Program (HEP) includes community-based newborn survival interventions. We report the effect of these interventions on changes in maternal and newborn health care practices between 2008 and 2010 in 101 districts, comprising 11.6 million people, or 16% of Ethiopia’s population. Methods and Findings Using data from cross-sectional surveys in December 2008 and December 2010 from a representative sample of 117 communities (kebeles), we estimated the prevalence of maternal and newborn care practices, and a program intensity score in each community. Women with children aged 0 to 11 months reported care practices for their most recent pregnancy and childbirth. The program intensity score ranged between zero and ten and was derived from four outreach activities of the HEP front-line health workers. Dose-response relationships between changes in program intensity and the changes in maternal and newborn health were investigated using regression methods, controlling for secular trend, respondents’ background characteristics, and community-level factors. Between 2008 and 2010, median program intensity score increased 2.4-fold. For every unit increase in the score, the odds of receiving antenatal care increased by 1.13 times (95% CI 1.03–1.23); the odds of birth preparedness increased by 1.31 times (1.19–1.44); the odds of receiving postnatal care increased by 1.60 times (1.34–1.91); and the odds of initiating breastfeeding immediately after birth increased by 1.10 times (1.02–1.20). Program intensity score was not associated with skilled deliveries, nor with some of the other newborn health care indicators. Conclusions The results of our analysis suggest that Ethiopia’s HEP platform has improved maternal and newborn health care practices at scale. However, implementation research will be required to address the maternal and newborn care practices that were not influenced by the HEP outreach activities. PMID:23750240

Karim, Ali Mehryar; Admassu, Kesetebirhane; Schellenberg, Joanna; Alemu, Hibret; Getachew, Nebiyu; Ameha, Agazi; Tadesse, Luche; Betemariam, Wuleta

2013-01-01

377

Investigating Maternal Mortality in a Public Teaching Hospital, Abakaliki, Ebonyi State, Nigeria  

PubMed Central

Background: Maternal mortality in sub-Saharan Africa has remained high and this is a reflection of the poor quality of maternal services. Aim: To determine the causes, trends, and level of maternal mortality rate in Abakaliki, Ebonyi. Materials and Methods: This was a review of the records of all maternal deaths related to pregnancy over a ten-year period, that is, January 1999 to December 2008. Relevant information on number of deaths, booking status, age, parity, educational level of women, mode of delivery, and causes of death were extracted and analyzed. Results: During the study period, there were 12,587 deliveries and 171 maternal deaths. The maternal mortality ratio (MMR) was 1,359 per 100,000 live births. The trend over the period was lowest in 2008 and highest in 1999 with an MMR of 757 per 100,000 live births and 4,000 per 100,000 live births, respectively. There was a progressive decline in the MMR over the period of study except in the years 2003 and 2006, when the ratio spiked a little, giving an MMR of 1,510 per 100,000 live births and 1,290 per 100,000 live births, respectively. The progressive decline in maternal mortality corresponded with the time that free maternal services were introduced. Hemorrhage was the most important cause of maternal death, accounting for 23.0% (38/165), whereas diabetic ketoacidosis, congestive cardiac failure, and asthma in pregnancy were the least important causes of maternal deaths, each accounting for 0.6% (1/165). Majority of the maternal deaths occurred in unbooked patients (82.4% (136/165)), whereas 17.6% (29/165) of the deaths occurred in booked cases. Forty-seven (28.5% (47/165)) patients died following a cesarean section, 8.5% (14/165) died as a result of abortion complications, and 10.9% (18/165) died undelivered. Seventy-seven (46.7% (77/165)) of the maternal death patients had no formal education. Low socioeconomic status, poor educational level, and grand multiparity were some of the risk factors for maternal mortality. Conclusion: There was a decline in MMR during the period of study. The free maternal health services and adequate staff recruitment, which may have contributed to the observed decline in maternal mortality, should be sustained in developing countries. PMID:23634334

Ezegwui, HU; Onoh, RC; Ikeako, LC; Onyebuchi, A; Umeora, OUJ; Ezeonu, P; Ibekwe, P

2013-01-01

378

Fusion of median and bilateral filtering for range image upsampling.  

PubMed

We present a new upsampling method to enhance the spatial resolution of depth images. Given a low-resolution depth image from an active depth sensor and a potentially high-resolution color image from a passive RGB camera, we formulate it as an adaptive cost aggregation problem and solve it using the bilateral filter. The formulation synergistically combines the median and bilateral filters thus it better preserves the depth edges and is more robust to noise. Numerical and visual evaluations on a total of 37 Middlebury data sets demonstrate the effectiveness of our method. A real-time high-resolution depth capturing system is also developed using commercial active depth sensor based on the proposed upsampling method. PMID:23963228

Yang, Qingxiong; Ahuja, Narendra; Yang, Ruigang; Tan, Kar-Han; Davis, James; Culbertson, Bruce; Apostolopoulos, John; Wang, Gang

2013-12-01

379

[Fibrolipomatous hamartoma of the median nerve: case report].  

PubMed

Fibrolipomatous hamartoma is a rare benign neoplasm that in some cases is associated with macrodactylia. We describe a 31-year-old man who had a tissue enlargement in the wrist, second and third fingers of the left hand since infancy. At 23-years-old he began with continuous, progressive and high intensity pain that occurred more frequently at night, localized in the left hand. It was associated with paraesthesias and hypostesias predominantly at the fingers described above. Investigation with X-ray, ultrasonography, electrodiagnosis, magnetic resonance image of the left wrist and hand showed carpal tunnel syndrome with macrodactylia by fibrolipomatous hamartoma of the median nerve. The patient did not a have good response to clinical therapy, so he was submitted to a surgical decompression of the left carpal tunnel, and after three months of follow up is asymptomatic. PMID:16258677

Lorenzoni, Paulo José; Lange, Marcos Cristiano; Kay, Cláudia Sueli Kamoi; Silvado, Carlos Eduardo; Scola, Rosana Herminia; Werneck, Lineu César

2005-09-01

380

Maternal Lipids Are as Important as Glucose for Fetal Growth  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE To study the relationship between maternal circulating fuels and neonatal size and compare the relative effects of glucose and lipids. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS The Pune Maternal Nutrition Study (1993–1996) investigated the influence of maternal nutrition on fetal growth. We measured maternal body size and glucose and lipid concentrations during pregnancy and examined their relationship with birth size in full-term babies using correlation and regression techniques. RESULTS The mothers (n = 631) were young (mean age 21 years), short (mean height 151.9 cm), and thin (BMI 18.0 kg/m2) but were relatively more adipose (body fat 21.1%). Their diet was mostly vegetarian. Between 18 and 28 weeks’ gestation, fasting glucose concentrations remained stable, whereas total cholesterol and triglyceride concentrations increased and HDL-cholesterol concentrations decreased. The mean birth weight of the offspring was 2666 g. Total cholesterol and triglycerides at both 18 and 28 weeks and plasma glucose only at 28 weeks were associated directly with birth size. One SD higher maternal fasting glucose, cholesterol, and triglyceride concentrations at 28 weeks were associated with 37, 54, and 36 g higher birth weights, respectively (P < 0.05 for all). HDL-cholesterol concentrations were unrelated to newborn measurements. The results were similar if preterm deliveries also were included in the analysis (total n = 700). CONCLUSIONS Our results suggest an influence of maternal lipids on neonatal size in addition to the well-established effect of glucose. Further research should be directed at defining the clinical relevance of these findings. PMID:23757425

Kulkarni, Smita R.; Kumaran, Kalyanaraman; Rao, Shobha R.; Chougule, Suresh D.; Deokar, Tukaram M.; Bhalerao, Ankush J.; Solat, Vishnu A.; Bhat, Dattatray S.; Fall, Caroline H.D.; Yajnik, Chittaranjan S.

2013-01-01

381

Collaborative study of maternal urine beta -core human chorionic gonadotrophin screening for Down syndrome.  

PubMed

Several studies have shown that second-trimester maternal urine beta-core human chorionic gonadotrophin (hCG) levels are raised on average in Down syndrome pregnancies. However, in all but one, testing was retrospective after extended sample storage and so we carried out a large international multicentre prospective study. 16 centres provided 6730 samples from 14-19 week pregnancies: 39 with Down syndrome, 12 with Edwards' syndrome, 42 with other aneuploidies, 52 unaffected twins and 6585 singleton unaffected pregnancies. Samples were from those having routine maternal serum screening in 6 centres and invasive prenatal diagnosis for reasons unrelated to maternal serum screening in 10 centres. Normalized levels of beta-core hCG (nmom/mmol creatinine) were expressed as multiples of the gestation-specific normal median (MoMs). The median beta-core hCG level in Down syndrome was 1.70 MoM (95 per cent confidence interval, 1.26-2.30); 14 (36 per cent) exceeded the normal 90th centile and 9 (23 per cent) the 95th centile. The median level in Edwards' syndrome was 0.23 MoM. On the basis of our results alone it is unlikely that urinary beta-core hCG will be a useful marker in Down syndrome screening practice. But the considerable variability in results between studies means that further research is needed before a reliable conclusion can be drawn. PMID:10521814

Cuckle, H S; Canick, J A; Kellner, L H

1999-10-01

382

Interleukin-22: Biomarker of maternal and fetal inflammation?  

PubMed

Histologic chorioamnionitis (HCA) is an intrauterine status of inflammation which may lead to the fetal inflammatory response syndrome. Inflammation is a pathogenetic mechanism also of preeclampsia, although not of microbial origin. The aim of the present pilot study was to evaluate the pattern of inflammatory cytokines in mothers and high-risk preterm infants during the perinatal period. Concentrations of proinflammatory and anti-inflammatory cytokines and C-reactive protein were evaluated in maternal, cord, and neonatal blood of very preterm infants <1,500 g birth weight. Histologic examinations of placentae and umbilical cords were performed. The 65 mother-neonate pairs enrolled were subdivided into three groups: (1) HCA group (n = 15), (2) preeclampsia group (n = 17), and (3) control group, in the absence of HCA/preeclampsia (n = 33). Maternal Interleukin (IL)-6 levels were significantly higher in women of the HCA group compared with the preeclampsia and control groups (p < 0.05). IL-22 was detected in nearly all maternal samples [median value 693.115 pg/ml (599.91-809.91 pg/ml)], with no statistical difference between the groups, but with a tendency to increased levels among preeclamptic women. Increased concentrations of IL-22 were detected in cord blood of neonates exposed to preeclampsia, compared with controls and infants exposed to HCA (p < 0.05). We speculate that the tendentially higher concentrations of IL-22 in preeclamptic mothers and the significantly higher concentrations in cord blood may reflect placental dysfunction and the underlying reparative processes at the maternal-fetal interface. Therefore, IL-22 could be an important biomarker of inflammation in preeclampsia. PMID:25407645

Bersani, Iliana; De Carolis, Maria Pia; Foell, Dirk; Weinhage, Toni; Rossi, Esther Diana; De Carolis, Sara; Rubortone, Serena Antonia; Romagnoli, Costantino; Speer, Christian Paul

2015-02-01

383

Maternal Labor Force Participation and Child Well-Being in Public Assistance Families  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study investigated the relationship between maternal labor force participation and the general health and school performance of school-age children in public assistance families. Data were obtained from face-to-face interviews with 97 mothers drawn froma random sample of public assistance recipients in one community. Using a measure of maternal labor force participation over the course of several years, logistic regression

Mary Secret; Claudia Peck-Heath

2004-01-01

384

Maternal Smoking During Pregnancy and Childhood Obesity: Results from the CESAR Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Childhood obesity is a worldwide public health concern. Recent studies from high income countries have demonstrated associations\\u000a between maternal smoking during pregnancy and children’s excess body weight. We examine associations between maternal smoking\\u000a during pregnancy and children’s overweight or obesity, in six countries in the less affluent Central\\/Eastern European region.\\u000a Questionnaire data were analysed, for 8,926 singleton children aged 9–12 years.

Krisztian GorogSam; Sam Pattenden; Temenuga Antova; Emilia Niciu; Peter Rudnai; Salome Scholtens; Anna Splichalova; Katarina Slotova; Zoltán Vokó; Renata Zlotkowska; Danny Houthuijs

385

Maternal complications in diabetic pregnancy.  

PubMed

Pregnant women with diabetes have to manage both the effect of pregnancy on glucose control and its effect on pre-existing diabetic complications. Most women experience hypoglycaemia as a consequence of tightened glycaemic control and this impacts on daily living. Less commonly, diabetic ketoacidosis, a serious metabolic decompensation of diabetic control and a medical emergency, can cause foetal and maternal mortality. Microvascular complications of diabetes include retinopathy and nephropathy. Retinopathy can deteriorate during pregnancy; hence, regular routine examination is required and, if indicated, ophthalmological input. Diabetic nephropathy significantly increases the risk of obstetric complications and impacts on foetal outcomes. Pregnancy outcome is closely related to pre-pregnancy renal function. Diabetic pregnancy is contraindicated if the maternal complications of ischaemic heart disease or diabetic gastropathy are known to be present before pregnancy as there is a significant maternal mortality associated with both of these conditions. PMID:21130689

Hawthorne, Gillian

2011-02-01

386

Median nerve F-wave latencies recorded from the abductor pollicis brevis.  

PubMed

This study was performed to create a normative database for median nerve F-wave responses for a large subject population so normal ranges could be created for subsets of the general population and the effect of various physical characteristics on F-wave results could be determined. One hundred ninety-five asymptomatic subjects without risk factors for neuropathy were recruited. Ten consecutive supramaximal stimuli were applied to the wrists of each arm to obtain median nerve F-wave results. The shortest F-wave latency (Fmin), mean latency (Fmean), range of latencies (Frange), and number of stimuli that resulted in F-wave recordings (Fpersist) were recorded. An analysis of variance revealed that age, gender, and height were associated with different results for Fmin and Fmean. For all subjects taken together, the mean Fmin was 26.8 +/- 2.4 ms. The mean Fmean was 28.3 +/- 2.6 ms, and the mean Frange was 3.4 +/- 1.9 ms. Five or more F-waves were elicited in 94% of the subjects. The mean side-to-side difference in Fmin was 0.2 +/- 1.2 ms. Additional findings are presented in the article. PMID:10573095

Buschbacher, R M

1999-01-01

387

Postzygotic Maternal Influences and the Maternal-Embryonic Relationship of Viviparous Fishes  

Microsoft Academic Search

SYNOPSIS. Viviparous reproduction in fishes provides opportunities for maternal phenotypic modifications to influence offspring phenotype fol- lowing fertilization. Various physiological adaptations associated with the maintenance and control of prenatal embryonic development may provide the means by which postnatal phenotype is impacted by maternal phe- notype. It is widely recognized that postzygotic maternal influences may be mediated through the maternal-embryonic trophic

JULIAN LOMBARDI

1996-01-01

388

Web Sites Related to Maternal and Child Health Web Sites Related to Maternal and Child Health  

E-print Network

Web Sites Related to Maternal and Child Health Web Sites Related to Maternal and Child Health://www.aap.org Association of Maternal and Child Health Programs http://www.amchp1.org Center on Children & the Law http://www.abanet.org/child of Dimes Birth Defects Foundation http://www.modimes.org Maternal and Child Health Neighborhood http

de Lijser, Peter

389

Maternal immune transfer in mollusc.  

PubMed

Maternal immunity refers to the immunity transferred from mother to offspring via egg, playing an important role in protecting the offspring at early life stages and contributing a trans-generational effect on offspring's phenotype. Because fertilization is external in most of the molluscs, oocytes and early embryos are directly exposed to pathogens in the seawater, and thus maternal immunity could provide a better protection before full maturation of their immunological systems. Several innate immune factors including pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) like lectins, and immune effectors like lysozyme, lipopolysaccharide binding protein/bacterial permeability-increasing proteins (LBP/BPI) and antioxidant enzymes have been identified as maternally derived immune factors in mollusc eggs. Among these immune factors, some maternally derived lectins and antibacterial factors have been proved to endue mollusc eggs with effective defense ability against pathogen infection, while the roles of other factors still remain untested. The physiological condition of mollusc broodstock has a profound effect on their offspring fitness. Many other factors such as nutrients, pathogens, environment conditions and pollutants could exert considerable influence on the maternal transfer of immunity. The parent molluscs which have encountered an immune stimulation endow their offspring with a trans-generational immune capability to protect them against infections effectively. The knowledge on maternal transfer of immunity and the trans-generational immune effect could provide us with an ideal management strategy of mollusc broodstock to improve the immunity of offspring and to establish a disease-resistant family for a long-term improvement of cultured stocks. PMID:24858027

Wang, Lingling; Yue, Feng; Song, Xiaorui; Song, Linsheng

2015-02-01

390

Parentification and Maternal HIV Infection: Beneficial Role or Pathological Burden?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Parentification, along with parenting and child adjustment, were examined in 23 9-through 16-year-old youth from families\\u000a affected by maternal HIV infection and 20 same-age peers whose mothers were not infected. Children whose mothers were HIV-positive\\u000a reported to more often engage in parental role behaviors, relative to children of HIV-negative mothers. This difference remained\\u000a even after controlling for the effects of

Tanya L. Tompkins

2007-01-01

391

Determinants of Maternity Care Services Utilization among Married Adolescents in Rural India  

PubMed Central

Background Coupled with the largest number of maternal deaths, adolescent pregnancy in India has received paramount importance due to early age at marriage and low contraceptive use. The factors associated with the utilization of maternal healthcare services among married adolescents in rural India are poorly discussed. Methodology/Principal Findings Using the data from third wave of National Family Health Survey (2005–06), available in public domain for the use by researchers, this paper examines the factors associated with the utilization of maternal healthcare services among married adolescent women (aged 15–19 years) in rural India. Three components of maternal healthcare service utilization were measured: full antenatal care, safe delivery, and postnatal care within 42 days of delivery for the women who gave births in the last five years preceding the survey. Considering the framework on causes of maternal mortality proposed by Thaddeus and Maine (1994), selected socioeconomic, demographic, and cultural factors influencing outcome events were included as the predictor variables. Bi-variate analyses including chi-square test to determine the difference in proportion, and logistic regression to understand the net effect of predictor variables on selected outcomes were applied. Findings indicate the significant differences in the use of selected maternal healthcare utilization by educational attainment, economic status and region of residence. Muslim women, and women belonged to Scheduled Castes, Scheduled Tribes, and Other Backward Classes are less likely to avail safe delivery services. Additionally, adolescent women from the southern region utilizing the highest maternal healthcare services than the other regions. Conclusions The present study documents several socioeconomic and cultural factors affecting the utilization of maternal healthcare services among rural adolescent women in India. The ongoing healthcare programs should start targeting household with married adolescent women belonging to poor and specific sub-groups of the population in rural areas to address the unmet need for maternal healthcare service utilization. PMID:22355386

Singh, Prashant Kumar; Rai, Rajesh Kumar; Alagarajan, Manoj; Singh, Lucky

2012-01-01

392

Maternal Psychopathology and Early Child Temperament Predict Young Children's Salivary Cortisol 3 Years Later  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Neuroendocrine dysfunction is hypothesized to be an early emerging vulnerability marker for depression. We tested whether the main and interactive effects of maternal psychopathology and early child temperamental vulnerability for depression assessed at age three predicted offspring's basal cortisol function at age 6 years. 228 (122 males)…

Dougherty, Lea R.; Smith, Victoria C.; Olino, Thomas M.; Dyson, Margaret W.; Bufferd, Sara J.; Rose, Suzanne A.; Klein, Daniel N.

2013-01-01

393

Maternal Caregiving Moderates the Relation between Temperamental Fear and Social Behavior with Peers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Temperament works in combination with a child's environment to influence early socioemotional development. We examined whether maternal caregiving behavior at infant age 9 months moderated the relation between infant temperamental fear (9 months) and observations of children's social behavior with an unfamiliar peer at age 2 in a typically…

Penela, Elizabeth C.; Henderson, Heather A.; Hane, Amie A.; Ghera, Melissa M.; Fox, Nathan A.

2012-01-01

394

First-Year Maternal Employment and Child Development in the First 7 Years  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Using data from the first 2 phases of the NICHD Study of Early Child Care, the authors examine the links between maternal employment in the first 12 months of life and cognitive, social, and emotional outcomes for children at age 3, at age 4.5, and in first grade. Drawing on theory and prior research from developmental psychology as well as…

Brooks-Gunn, Jeanne; Han, Wen-Jui; Waldfogel, Jane

2010-01-01

395

Early or recurrent preterm birth and maternal cardiovascular disease risk  

PubMed Central

Purpose Preterm birth (PTB) has been associated with a later increased risk of maternal cardiovascular disease (CVD). We hypothesized a more pronounced relation between early or recurrent PTB and maternal CVD risk. Methods We related PTB severity (earlier gestational age at delivery) and recurrence (=2) among women with births from 1973–1983 in Denmark (n=427,765) to maternal CVD morbidity or mortality (1977–2006). Birth data were linked to CVD hospitalizations and deaths identified in national registers and data were analyzed using Cox proportional hazards models. Results Women with a prior PTB had excess CVD after adjustment for age, parity, and education (HR 1.36 [95% CI 1.31, 1.41]). This was only modestly attenuated when women with preeclampsia or small for gestational age births were excluded, and the relationship was stronger for CVD mortality (HR 1.98 [1.73, 2.26]). Recurrent PTB was associated with higher CVD morbidity compared to women with one PTB, particularly for ischemic events (HR 1.78 [1.40, 2.27] vs. 1.22 [1.09, 1.36]). Risk was similarly elevated among women with early, moderate, and late PTB. Sensitivity analysis suggested that confounding by smoking only partly explained these associations. Conclusions Women with PTB, especially recurrent PTB, were at increased risk for CVD, suggesting common causes of these conditions. PMID:20609340

Catov, Janet M; Wu, Chun Sen; Olsen, Jorn; Sutton-Tyrrell, Kim; Li, Jiong; Nohr, Ellen Aagaard

2010-01-01

396

Maternal Self-Efficacy of Mothers of Children with Intellectual Developmental Disabilities, Down Syndrome, and Autism in Kuwait  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study aims to identify the perception of maternal self-efficacy among 95 Kuwaiti mothers of children with Developmental\\u000a Disabilities (DD) to determine the differences in perception of maternal self-efficacy variables among the mothers based on\\u000a demographic variables: Child’s age, Gender, Type of disability, Leisure time, and Mother’s age. A survey was conducted using\\u000a Kandari’s (2005, Unpublished doctoral dissertation, Simmons College,

Humoud Al-Qashan

2010-01-01

397

Maternal Child Abuse and its Association with Maternal Anxiety in the Socio-Cultural Context of Iran  

PubMed Central

Objectives The prevalence of parental violence has been an area of major public concern. There are few available data detailing the ways parents and other caregivers discipline children, particularly in low and middle income countries. This study focuses on the prevalence of different types of maternal child abuse and its association with maternal anxiety in the socio-cultural context of Iran. Methods Participants in this cross-sectional study consisted of 562 mothers with the last child aged from 1 month to 12 years old who attended the Amirkola Children’s Referral Hospital in Mazandaran Province, Iran, seeking healthcare services for their children. Demographic characteristics of the mothers, their children and reactions to conflicts with children were evaluated by a validated version of Conflict Tactics Scale for Parent and Child. Also, the relationship between maternal anxiety and child abuse was assessed using the Spielberger State-Trait Anxiety Inventory. The association between variables was examined by Pearson correlation coefficient, independent t-test, one-way ANOVA, and multivariate regression. Results The prevalence of mother-to-child corporal punishment, severe physical abuse and very severe physical abuse were 436 (78%), 260 (46%) and 180 (32%), respectively. Verbal emotional abuse was reported by 506 (90%) participants and nonverbal emotional abuse was reported in 374 (67%) cases. A correlation was observed between child abuse and mothers’ age (p=0.02), as well as with the number of children in the family (p=0.03), and the mothers’ trait anxiety (p<0.001). Conclusion Overall, the assessment of maternal child abuse should be an important focus for evaluation in mothers with anxiety and vice versa, when child abuse is suspected, maternal psychological assessment should be essential. PMID:24223243

Douki, Zahra Esmaeili; Esmaeili, Mohammad Reza; Vaezzadeh, Nazanin; Mohammadpour, Reza Ali; Azimi, Hamideh; Sabbaghi, Robabeh; Esmaeil, Mousa; Shahhosseini, Zohreh

2013-01-01

398

Early-occurring Maternal Depression and Maternal Negativity in Predicting Young Children’s Emotion Regulation and Socioemotional Difficulties  

Microsoft Academic Search

This longitudinal investigation examined the effects of maternal depression and concomitant negative parenting behaviors on\\u000a children’s emotion regulation patterns and socioemotional functioning. One hundred fifty-one mothers and their children were\\u000a assessed when children were approximately 1 1\\/2-, 3-, 4-, and 5-years of age. Ninety-three of the children had mothers with\\u000a a history of Major Depressive Disorder (MDD) that had occurred

Angeline Maughan; Dante Cicchetti; Sheree L. Toth; Fred A. Rogosch

2007-01-01

399

Neural Organization of the Median Ocellus of the Dragonfly  

PubMed Central

Intracellular responses from receptors and postsynaptic units have been recorded in the median ocellus of the dragonfly. The receptors respond to light with a graded, depolarizing potential and a single, tetrodotoxin-sensitive impulse at "on." The postsynaptic units (ocellar nerve dendrites) hyperpolarize during illumination and show a transient, depolarizing response at "off." The light-evoked slow potential responses of the postsynaptic units are not altered by the application of tetrodotoxin to the ocellus. It appears, therefore, that the graded receptor potential, which survives the application of tetrodotoxin, is responsible for mediating synaptic transmission in the ocellus. Comparison of pre- and postsynaptic slow potential activity shows (a) longer latencies in postsynaptic units by 5–20 msec, (b) enhanced photosensitivity in postsynaptic units by 1–2 log units, and (c) more transient responses in postsynaptic units. It is suggested that enhanced photosensitivity of postsynaptic activity is a result of summation of many receptors onto the postsynaptic elements, and that transients in the postsynaptic responses are related to the complex synaptic arrangements in the ocellar plexus to be described in the following paper. PMID:5049075

Chappell, Richard L.; Dowling, John E.

1972-01-01

400

Fetal response to live and recorded maternal speech.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to compare the fetal response to live and recorded maternal speech following a lengthy history of exposure to a passage spoken by the mother. Participants comprised a convenience sample of 21 pregnant women. The women recited an assigned passage (nursery rhyme) twice daily from 28 to 34 weeks' gestational age (GA), and their fetuses were tested at 34 weeks' GA. During testing, fetal heart rate and movement were measured in response to two different formats of the assigned passage: maternal live voicing and a recording of the mother speaking the passage. The fetal cardiac response varied depending upon the format; however, fetal movement did not. A minimal cardiac deceleration occurred in response to live voicing compared to a cardiac acceleration in response to the recorded format. This is the first study to show differences in the fetal cardiac response to a passage spoken live compared to a recording of the passage following a lengthy history of controlled fetal exposure to the multimodal characteristics of maternal speech. Given the differential response to a live voicing compared to a recorded format, future study that incorporates lengthier exposure to the multimodal characteristics of maternal speech may be warranted. PMID:25504957

Krueger, Charlene A; Cave, Emily C; Garvan, Cynthia

2015-01-01

401

Maternal Behavior by Birth Order in Wild Chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes)  

PubMed Central

Parental investment theory predicts that maternal resources are finite and allocated among offspring based on factors including maternal age and condition, and offspring sex and parity. Among humans, firstborn children are often considered to have an advantage and receive greater investment than their younger siblings. However, conflicting evidence for this “firstborn advantage” between modern and hunter-gatherer societies raises questions about the evolutionary history of differential parental investment and birth order. In contrast to humans, most non-human primate firstborns belong to young, inexperienced mothers and exhibit higher mortality than laterborns. In this study, we investigated differences in maternal investment and offspring outcomes based on birth order (firstborn vs. later-born) among wild chimpanzees (Pan troglodyte schweinfurthii). During the critical first year of life, primiparous mothers nursed, groomed, and played with their infants more than did multiparous mothers. Furthermore, this pattern of increased investment in firstborns appeared to be compensatory, as probability of survival did not differ by birth order. Our study did not find evidence for a firstborn advantage as observed in modern humans but does suggest that unlike many other primates, differences in maternal behavior help afford chimpanzee first-borns an equal chance of survival. PMID:25328164

Stanton, Margaret A.; Lonsdorf, Elizabeth V.; Pusey, Anne E.; Goodall, Jane; Murray, Carson M.

2014-01-01

402

Plotting Maternity in Three Persons  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This performance text examines complexities of personal and maternal identity in family life. Speaking in first, second, and third person voices, the author offers autoethnographic accounts of the tensions between separateness and connectedness, normative and subjective motherhood, and novice and seasoned perspectives. The piece functions as a…

Kinser, Amber E.

2012-01-01

403

Maternal depression and parenting behavior  

Microsoft Academic Search

The results of 46 observational studies were analyzed to assess the strength of the association between depression and parenting behavior and to identify variables that moderated the effects. The association between depression and parenting was manifest most strongly for negative maternal behavior and was evident to a somewhat lesser degree in disengagement from the child. The association between depression and

M. Christine Lovejoy; Patricia A Graczyk; Elizabeth O'Hare; George Neuman

2000-01-01

404

Maternal employment and adolescent development  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study investigates how maternal employment is related to the cognitive development and body weight of 10 and 11 year olds, controlling for a wide variety of child, mother and family characteristics. The results suggest that limited market work benefits youths who are relatively “disadvantaged” and even long hours, which occur infrequently, are unlikely to leave them much worse off. By

Christopher J. Ruhm

2008-01-01

405

Prenatal Maternal Anxiety Predicts Reduced Adaptive Immunity in Infants  

PubMed Central

Prenatal anxiety has been linked with altered immune function in offspring in animal studies, but the relevance for human health is unknown. We examined prenatal maternal anxiety as a predictor of adaptive immunity in infants at 2 and 6 months of age as part of a prospective longitudinal study. The humoral immune response to hepatitis B vaccine was assessed at 2 months (n=80) and 6 months (n=76) of age. Prenatal anxiety predicted lower hepatitis B antibody titers at 6 months of age independent of obstetric and socio-demographic covariates; the effects were limited to those infants who had not completed the 3-dose vaccine series (for transformed titer values, r= ?.36, p<.05). Cell-mediated immune responses at 2 (n=56) and 6 (n=54) months of age were examined by ELISpot assays for interferon(IFN)-?, interleukin(IL)-2, and IL-4 responder cell frequencies to three antigens: hepatitis B surface antigen, tetanus toxoid, and phytohaemagglutinin (PHA). Prenatal maternal anxiety was associated with reduced IFN-? and increased IL-4 responder cell frequencies at 6 months of age, independent of obstetric and socio-demographic covariates. No effect of prenatal anxiety was found on adaptive immunity at 2 months of age. The findings provide the first demonstration in humans that prenatal anxiety alters adaptive immunity in the infant. PMID:23439080

O’Connor, Thomas G; Winter, Marcia A; Hunn, Julianne; Carnahan, Jennifer; Pressman, Eva K; Glover, Vivette; Robertson-Blackmore, Emma; Moynihan, Jan A; Lee, F. Eun-Hyung; Caserta, Mary T

2013-01-01

406

Links between maternal health and NCDs.  

PubMed

Non-communicable diseases (NCDs) and maternal health are closely linked. NCDs such as diabetes, obesity and hypertension have a significant adverse impact on maternal health and pregnancy outcomes, and through the mechanism of intrauterine programming maternal health impacts the burden of NCDs in future generations. The cycle of vulnerability to NCDs is repeated with increasing risk accumulation in subsequent generations. This article discusses the impact, interlinkages and advocates for integration of services for maternal and child health, NCD care and prevention and health promotion to sustainably improve maternal health as well address the rising burden of NCDs. PMID:25199858

Kapur, Anil

2015-01-01

407

Maternal genotype affects adult offspring lipid, obesity, and diabetes phenotypes in LGXSM recombinant inbred strains.  

PubMed

Maternal effects on offspring phenotypes occur because mothers in many species provide an environment for their developing young. Although these factors are correctly "environmental" with respect to the offspring genome, their variance may have both a genetic and an environmental basis in the maternal generation. Here, reciprocal crosses between C57BL/6J and 10 LGXSM recombinant inbred (RI) strains were performed, and litters were divided at weaning into high-fat and low-fat dietary treatments. Differences between reciprocal litters were used to measure genetic maternal effects on offspring phenotypes. Nearly all traits, including weekly body weights and adult blood serum traits, show effects indicative of genetic variation in maternal effects across RI strains, allowing the quantitative trait loci involved to be mapped. Although much of the literature on maternal effects relates to early life traits, we detect strong and significant maternal effects on traits measured at adulthood (as much as 10% of the trait variance at 17 or more weeks after weaning). We also found an interaction affecting adult phenotype between the effects of maternal care between RI strain mothers and C57BL/6J mothers and a later environmental factor (dietary fat intake) for some age-specific weights. PMID:15897602

Jarvis, Joseph P; Kenney-Hunt, Jane; Ehrich, Thomas H; Pletscher, L Susan; Semenkovich, Clay F; Cheverud, James M

2005-08-01

408

Maternal emotion regulation mediates the association between adult attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder symptoms and parenting.  

PubMed

Mothers with elevated Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) symptoms demonstrate parenting deficits, as well as difficulties in emotion regulation (ER), which may further impact their ability to effectively parent. However, no empirical research has examined potential mediators that explain the relations between maternal ADHD symptoms and parenting. This prospective longitudinal study examined difficulties with ER as a mediator of the relation between adult ADHD symptoms and parenting among 234 mothers of adolescents recruited from the community when they were between the ages of nine to twelve. Maternal ratings of adult ADHD symptoms, difficulties with ER, and parenting responses to their adolescents' expressions of negative emotions were collected over the course of three years. We found that maternal ADHD symptoms were negatively associated with positive parenting responses to adolescents' negative emotions, and positively associated with harsh parenting and maternal distress reactions. Moreover, maternal ER mediated the relation between adult ADHD symptoms and harsh parenting responses, while controlling for adolescent ADHD and disruptive behavior symptoms. However, maternal ER did not mediate the relation between ADHD symptoms and positive or distressed parental responses. Thus, it appears that ER is one mechanism by which maternal ADHD symptoms are associated with harsh responses to their adolescents' expressions of negative emotion. These findings may have downstream implications for adolescent adjustment. PMID:24928735

Mazursky-Horowitz, Heather; Felton, Julia W; MacPherson, Laura; Ehrlich, Katherine B; Cassidy, Jude; Lejuez, C W; Chronis-Tuscano, Andrea

2015-01-01

409

Neurodevelopmental outcomes at 5 years in children exposed prenatally to maternal dental amalgam: the Seychelles Child Development Nutrition Study.  

PubMed

Limited human data are available to assess the association between prenatal mercury vapor (Hg?)) exposure from maternal dental amalgam restorations and neurodevelopment of children. We evaluated the association between maternal dental amalgam status during gestation and children's neurodevelopmental outcomes at 5 years in the Seychelles Child Development Nutrition Study (SCDNS). Maternal amalgam status was determined prospectively in a longitudinal cohort study examining the associations of prenatal exposure to nutrients and methylmercury (MeHg) with neurodevelopment. A total of 236 mother-child pairs initially enrolled in the SCDNS in 2001 were eligible to participate. Maternal amalgam status was measured as number of amalgam surfaces (the primary metric) and number of occlusal points. The neurodevelopmental assessment battery was comprised of age-appropriate tests of cognitive, language, and perceptual functions, and scholastic achievement. Linear regression analysis controlled for MeHg exposure, maternal fatty acid status, and other covariates relevant to child development. Maternal amalgam status evaluation yielded an average of 7.0 surfaces (range 0-28) and 11.0 occlusal points (range 0-40) during pregnancy. Neither the number of maternal amalgam surfaces nor occlusal points were associated with any outcome. Our findings do not provide evidence to support a relationship between prenatal exposure to Hg? from maternal dental amalgam and neurodevelopmental outcomes in chil