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Sample records for median maternal age

  1. Reproduction at an advanced maternal age and maternal health.

    PubMed

    Sauer, Mark V

    2015-05-01

    Advanced age is a risk factor for female infertility, pregnancy loss, fetal anomalies, stillbirth, and obstetric complications. These concerns are based on centuries-old observations, yet women are delaying childbearing to pursue educational and career goals in greater numbers than ever before. As a result, reproductive medicine specialists are treating more patients with age-related infertility and recurrent pregnancy loss, while obstetricians are faced with managing pregnancies often complicated by both age and comorbidities. The media portrayal of a youthful but older woman, able to schedule her reproductive needs and balance family and job, has fueled the myth that "you can have it all," rarely characterizing the perils inherent to advanced-age reproduction. Reproductive medicine specialists and obstetrician/gynecologists should promote more realistic views of the evidence-based realities of advanced maternal age pregnancy, including its high-risk nature and often compromised outcomes. Doctors should also actively educate both patients and the public that there is a real danger of childlessness if individuals choose to delay reproduction. PMID:25934599

  2. Price Index and Its Relation to the Mean and Median Reference Age.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Egghe, L.

    1997-01-01

    Proves price index (proportion of references within the last five years of literature) is not a pure function of the mean or median reference age, but a well-defined relation in the form of a typical cloud of points. Compares models for analyzing price index (decreasing exponential and lognormal aging) and explains cloud using results from…

  3. Maternal caloric restriction partially rescues the deleterious effects of advanced maternal age on offspring

    PubMed Central

    Gribble, Kristin E; Jarvis, George; Bock, Martha; Mark Welch, David B

    2014-01-01

    While many studies have focused on the detrimental effects of advanced maternal age and harmful prenatal environments on progeny, little is known about the role of beneficial non-Mendelian maternal inheritance on aging. Here, we report the effects of maternal age and maternal caloric restriction (CR) on the life span and health span of offspring for a clonal culture of the monogonont rotifer Brachionus manjavacas. Mothers on regimens of chronic CR (CCR) or intermittent fasting (IF) had increased life span compared with mothers fed ad libitum (AL). With increasing maternal age, life span and fecundity of female offspring of AL-fed mothers decreased significantly and life span of male offspring was unchanged, whereas body size of both male and female offspring increased. Maternal CR partially rescued these effects, increasing the mean life span of AL-fed female offspring but not male offspring and increasing the fecundity of AL-fed female offspring compared with offspring of mothers of the same age. Both maternal CR regimens decreased male offspring body size, but only maternal IF decreased body size of female offspring, whereas maternal CCR caused a slight increase. Understanding the genetic and biochemical basis of these different maternal effects on aging may guide effective interventions to improve health span and life span. PMID:24661622

  4. Brief Report: Effect of Maternal Age on Severity of Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baxter, Alisa C.; Lotspeich, Linda J.; Spiker, Donna; Martin, Jacquelin L.; Grether, Judith K.; Hallmayer, Joachim F.

    2007-01-01

    The etiology of autism is complex, consisting of unknown genetic and environmental factors. Previous studies have revealed that maternal age is increased in autism compared to controls, making it a possible risk factor. This study examined the effects of maternal age on autism severity using IQ as a measure of cognitive severity and selected…

  5. Stability of Maternal Autonomy Support between Infancy and Preschool Age

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matte-Gagne, Celia; Bernier, Annie; Gagne, Christine

    2013-01-01

    The goals of this article were to examine (1) the relative and absolute stability of maternal autonomy support between infancy and preschool age, and (2) the moderating role of child gender, maternal attachment state of mind, and stressful life events. Sixty-nine mother-child dyads participated in five visits when the child was 8, 15, and 18…

  6. Maternal Age at First Birth and Boys' Risk for Conduct Disorder.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wakschlag, Lauren S.; Gordon, Rachel A.; Lahey, Benjamin B.; Loeber, Rolf; Green, Stephanie M.; Leventhal, Bennett L.

    2000-01-01

    Studied multigenerational links between maternal history of problem behavior, mother's age at birth of first child, and child conduct disorder in boys. Found that maternal age at first birth was associated with child's conduct disorder, and maternal history of problem behavior was also associated with early maternal age at first birth and the…

  7. Maternal self-confidence postpartum and at pre-school age: the role of depression, anxiety disorders, maternal attachment insecurity.

    PubMed

    Zietlow, Anna-Lena; Schlüter, Myriam Kim; Nonnenmacher, Nora; Müller, Mitho; Reck, Corinna

    2014-10-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze the impact of maternal postpartum depression and/or anxiety disorders according to DMS-IV on maternal self-confidence throughout infancy and early childhood. Exploratively, associations between maternal attachment insecurity and maternal self-confidence at pre-school age were examined. The sample (N = 54) of this prospective longitudinal study was comprised of n = 27 women with postpartum depression and/or anxiety disorders according to DSM-IV criteria and n = 27 healthy women without present or history of mental health disorders or psychotherapy. Data was collected in the postpartum period (M = 60.08 days) and at pre-school age (M = 4.7 years). Subjects were recruited between 2004 and 2011 in South Germany. Data revealed a significant difference in maternal self-confidence between clinical and control group at child's pre-school age: Women with postpartum depression and/or anxiety disorder scored lower on maternal self-confidence than healthy controls, but only if they had current SCID-diagnoses or partly remitted symptoms. According to explorative analyses maternal attachment insecurity turned out to be the strongest predictor of maternal self-confidence at pre-school age besides maternal mental health status. The results emphasize the impact of attachment insecurity and maternal mental health regarding maternal self-confidence leading to potential adverse long-term consequences for the mother-child relationship. Attachment based interventions taking maternal self-confidence into account are needed. PMID:24474591

  8. VARIABILITY IN MEDIAN SIZE AND AGE AT SEXUAL MATURITY OF ATLANTIC COD, GADUS MORHUA, ON THE SCOTIAN SHELF IN

    E-print Network

    VARIABILITY IN MEDIAN SIZE AND AGE AT SEXUAL MATURITY OF ATLANTIC COD, GADUS MORHUA, ON THE SCOTIAN maturity of Atlantic cod on the Scotian Shelf declined about 50% in most stocks between 1959 and 1979. Atlantic cod in more northerly stocks matured at older ages than did those in more southerly stocks. Males

  9. Down Syndrome: Parental Origin, Recombination, and Maternal Age

    PubMed Central

    Vranekovi?, Jadranka; Božovi?, Ivana Babi?; Grubi?, Zorana; Wagner, Jasenka; Pavlini?, Dinko; Dahoun, Sophie; Bena, Frédérique; ?uli?, Vida

    2012-01-01

    The aims of the present study were to assess (1) the parental origin of trisomy 21 and the stage in which nondisjunction occurs and (2) the relationship between altered genetic recombination and maternal age as risk factors for trisomy 21. The study included 102 cases with Down syndrome from the Croatian population. Genotyping analyses were performed by polymerase chain reaction using 11 short tandem repeat markers along chromosome 21q. The vast majority of trisomy 21 was of maternal origin (93%), followed by paternal (5%) and mitotic origin (2%). The frequencies of maternal meiotic I (MI) and meiotic II errors were 86% and 14%, respectively. The highest proportion of cases with zero recombination was observed among those with maternal MI derived trisomy 21. A higher proportion of telomeric exchanges were presented in cases with maternal MI errors and cases with young mothers, although these findings were not statistically significant. The present study is the first report examining parental origin and altered genetic recombination as a risk factor for trisomy 21 in a Croatian population. The results support that trisomy 21 has a universal genetic etiology across different human populations. PMID:21861707

  10. Maternal morbidity and near miss associated with maternal age: the innovative approach of the 2006 Brazilian demographic health survey

    PubMed Central

    de Oliveira, Fernando César; Costa, Maria Laura; Cecatti, Jose Guilherme; e Silva, João Luiz Pinto; Surita, Fernanda Garanhani

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To study the prevalence of potentially life-threatening maternal conditions and near miss in Brazil according to maternal age. METHODS: A secondary analysis of the 2006 Brazilian demographic health survey database using a validated questionnaire to evaluate maternal morbidity with a focus on age extremes. The study included 5,025 women with at least 1 live birth in the 5-year reference period preceding their interviews. Three age range periods were used: 15-19 years (younger age), 20-34 years (control), and 35-49 years (advanced maternal age). According to a pragmatic definition, any woman reporting eclampsia, hysterectomy, blood transfusion, or admission to the intensive care unit during her pregnancy/childbirth was considered a near-miss case. The associations between age and severe maternal morbidity were further assessed. RESULTS: For the 6,833 reported pregnancies, 73.7% of the women were 20-34 years old, 17.9% were of advanced maternal age, and only 8.4% were of younger age. More than 22% of the women had at least one of the complications appraised, and blood transfusion, which was more prevalent among the controls, was the only variable with a significant difference among the age groups. The overall rate of maternal near miss was 21.1 per 1000 live births. There was a trend of higher maternal near miss with increasing age. The only significant risk factor identified for maternal near miss was a lower literacy level among older women. CONCLUSIONS: There is a trend towards worse results with increasing age. The investigation of the determinants of maternal near miss at the community level using an innovative approach through a demographic health survey is an example suggested for under-resourced settings. PMID:23917654

  11. Combined Effect of Fetal Sex and Advanced Maternal Age on Pregnancy Outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Weissmann-Brenner, Alina; Simchen, Michal J.; Zilberberg, Eran; Kalter, Anat; Dulitzky, Mordechai

    2015-01-01

    Background Fetal sex and maternal age are each known to affect outcomes of pregnancies. The objective of the present study was to investigate the influence of the combination of maternal age and fetal sex on pregnancy outcomes in term and post-term singleton pregnancies. Material/Methods This was a retrospective study on term singleton pregnancies delivered between 2004 and 2008 at the Chaim Sheba Medical Center. Data collected included maternal age, fetal sex, and maternal and neonatal complications. The combined effect of fetal sex and maternal age on complications of pregnancy was assessed by multivariable logistic regression models. Results The study population comprised 37,327 pregnancies. The risk of operative deliveries increased with maternal age ?40 and in pregnancies with male fetuses. The risk of maternal diabetes and of longer hospitalization increased as maternal age increased, and in women <40 carrying male fetuses. The risk of hypertensive disorders increased in pregnancies with males as maternal age advanced. The risk of shoulder dystocia and neonatal respiratory complications increased in male neonates born to women<40. The risk of neonatal hypoglycemia increased in males for all maternal ages. Conclusions Risk assessment for fetal sex and advanced maternal age were given for different pregnancy complications. Knowledge of fetal sex adds value to the risk assessment of pregnancies as maternal age increases. PMID:25892459

  12. Adverse effects of young maternal age on neonatal outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Gavrielle; Lim, Jia Yi; Kale, Anita Sugam; Lee, Le Ye

    2015-01-01

    INTRODUCTION Teenage pregnancy is associated with poor neonatal outcomes, which may burden the young mothers and their families. The aim of this study was to determine the effect young maternal age and single motherhood has on neonatal outcomes. METHODS We conducted a retrospective cohort study of 267 infants born to mothers aged ? 21 years in National University Hospital, Singapore, from January 2011 to December 2012. We compared the maternal demographics and neonatal outcomes of single mothers with those of married mothers. The neonatal outcomes of our study cohort were also compared to the hospital’s birth cohort during the same period. RESULTS Unsatisfactory antenatal care was more prevalent among the young single mothers than among the young married mothers (odds ratio [OR] 2.90, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.71–4.92, p < 0.01). The infants of the young single mothers had a lower mean birth weight (p = 0.01), with a significant proportion weighing < 2.5 kg (OR 2.91, 95% CI 1.35–6.37, p < 0.01). Young maternal age was linked to a higher incidence of prematurity (OR 1.70, 95% CI 1.18–2.43, p < 0.01), major congenital defects (OR 4.68, 95% CI 2.10–10.13, p < 0.01), and a perinatal mortality of 18.7 per 1,000 births (OR 3.76, 95% CI 1.26–10.32, p = 0.02). CONCLUSION Young single mothers were more likely to have unsatisfactory antenatal care and lighter infants. Young maternal age was associated with a higher risk of prematurity, major congenital malformations and perinatal mortality. More studies are needed to ascertain the cause of these adverse outcomes. PMID:25532516

  13. Can we define maternal age as a genetic disease?

    PubMed

    Wilding, M

    2014-01-01

    >Maternal age is strongly associated with a decrease in the probability of achieving pregnancy and the birth of a healthy child. Among current theories of the mechanism of this decrease is the hypothesis that a progressive degeneration of the respiratory capacity of mitochondria in eggs of women of advanced age leads to an energy deficit and consequent secondary effects on the oocyte and developing embryo. Mitochondria are uniquely inherited through the female germ line and these organelles contain DNA sequences that are independent from the genome. It is therefore possible that offspring born to females of advanced age inherit suboptimal mitochondria and that these persist throughout the life of the new being. This could in turn lead to long-term consequences for the offspring of females of advanced age such as a reduced potential lifespan in relation to the age of the mother at conception. In this review and hypothesis, we discuss the evidence relating to this theory and suggest that on this basis the maternal age effect could be classified as an inheritable genetic disease. PMID:25009733

  14. Pedophiles: mental retardation, maternal age, and sexual orientation.

    PubMed

    Blanchard, R; Watson, M S; Choy, A; Dickey, R; Klassen, P; Kuban, M; Ferren, D J

    1999-04-01

    Intellectual functioning, parental age, and sexual orientation in 991 male sexual offenders were investigated. Sources of data included semistructured interviews, clinical charts, phallometric tests, and self-administered questionnaires. The results suggest two main conclusions: (i) Among pedophiles in general, erotic preference moves away from adult women along two dimensions: age and sex. The extent of this movement is greater, along both dimensions, for pedophiles with lower levels of intellectual functioning. (ii) High maternal age (or some factor it represents) increases the likelihood of exclusive sexual interest in boys. Intellectual deficiency (or some factor it represents) decreases the likelihood of exclusive sexual interest in girls. These two factors summate, so that a pedophile with both factors is more likely to be sexually interested in boys than a pedophile with only one. PMID:10483505

  15. [Prenatal diagnosis in pregnancies at advanced maternal age (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Wirtz, A; Haas, B; Krauss, C; Stengel-Rutkowski, S; Murken, J D

    1978-06-01

    Among 113 prenatal diagnoses in pregnancies at advanced maternal age (mothers older than 37 years) 7 aberrant fetal karyotypes were found (6.2%). Detailed reports of one case of trisomy 21, 18 and 13 each, as well as of XXY-, XYY- and XXX gonosomal constitution respectively are presented in the following. The frequency and severity of chromosome aberrations occurring in fetuses from elder women are discussed with respect to data from the literature. It seems that this group bears a higher risk for chromosomally abnormal offspring than has been suggested before. PMID:149691

  16. Mother's Age as a Predictor of Observed Maternal Behavior in Three Independent Samples of Families.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Conger, Rand D.; And Others

    1984-01-01

    Assessed influence of maternal age at first birth on mothers' emotionally affective behaviors to their children using three samples of families (N=33, 38, 36). Two models of age effects were considered: (1) life experiences and (2) stress from early first birth. Age at first birth was positively associated with supportive maternal behaviors and…

  17. Weight Gain in Pregnancy, Maternal Age and Gestational Age in Relation to Fetal Macrosomia

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yi; Liu, Qi-Fei; Zhang, Dan; Shen, Ying; Ye, Kui; Lai, Han-Lin; Wang, Hai-Qing; Hu, Chuan-Lai; Zhao, Qi-Hong

    2015-01-01

    To investigate the possible risk factors related to macrosomia. Pregnant women and their newborns (n = 1041) were recruited from a cohort study in Maternal and Child Care Center of Hefei from January 2011 to July 2012. Questionnaires were applied to collect the demographic data besides the medical records. Detailed health records of the entire pregnancy were obtained using retrospective study. Meanwhile the data of neonatal outcomes was prospectively tracked. Associations between exposure risk factors and macrosomia were analyzed using Pearson's chi squared test. Logistic regression models were used to assess the independent association between these potential predictors and macrosomia. The incidence of macrosomia of this cohort was 11.24% of which male: female = 2.55:1. Male incidence (8.07%) of macrosomia was higher than female (3.17%), p < 0.001. Body mass index (BMI) before pregnancy (pre-BMI), maternal height, parity were not independently associated with macrosomia; multiple logistic regression analysis indicated that macrosomia was mainly independently associated with weight gain in pregnancy (OR=1.14, 95% CI [1.10-1.19]), maternal age (OR = 1.09, 95% CI [1.03-1.15]) and gestational age (OR = 1.62, 95% CI [1.31-1.99]), respectively. Our findings indicate that weight gain in pregnancy, maternal age and gestational age should be considered as independent risk factors for macrosomia. PMID:25954731

  18. Changes in the kinetics of ( sup 3 H)dopamine release from median eminence and striatal synaptosomes during aging

    SciTech Connect

    Gregerson, K.A.; Selmanoff, M. )

    1990-01-01

    The release of preaccumulated tritium-labeled dopamine was examined in isolated nerve terminals prepared from the median eminence (ME) and corpus striatum (CS) of young, middle-aged, and old male rats. Fractional release of (3H)DA was measured over 1- to 10-sec time intervals under basal and depolarizing conditions in the presence of calcium. No differences in the rate of basal efflux between the age groups were observed in either ME or CS preparations. Fast-phase evoked (3H)DA release from CS synaptosomes was unchanged from young to middle-aged, but was decreased in old preparations. These data demonstrate that the nigrostriatal nerve terminal has a diminished ability to respond fully to depolarizing stimuli in advanced age. Mean serum PRL levels in old rats were 2.3-fold greater than those in both young and middle-aged rats, while serum LH levels were decreased 2.0-fold in middle-aged and old compared with those in young rats. The fact that LH levels were already decreased in middle-aged rats while PRL levels had not yet increased suggests that decreased gonadotropin titers in old rats do not result from the coincident hyperprolactinemia. In ME synaptosomes, depolarization-induced (3H)DA release was decreased at all time points in middle-aged preparations compared to that in young preparations. The reduced fractional release from the middle-aged ME synaptosomes was due to a depressed rate of release during the initial second of depolarization. Evoked release from ME terminals of old rats was comparable to that measured in the young group. Thus, there occurred an age-related biphasic change in the initial rate of evoked DA release from ME synaptosomes. Diminished response of ME dopaminergic terminals to depolarizing stimuli during middle age may be important in the later development of hyperprolactinemia in aging male rats.

  19. The Association of Maternal Age with Birthweight and Gestational Age: A Cross-Cohort Comparison

    PubMed Central

    Restrepo-Méndez, María Clara; Lawlor, Debbie A; Horta, Bernardo L; Matijasevich, Alicia; Santos, Iná S; Menezes, Ana M B; Barros, Fernando C; Victora, Cesar G

    2015-01-01

    Background We examined the associations of maternal age with low birthweight (LBW) and preterm birth in four cohorts from a middle- and a high-income country, where the patterning of maternal age by socio-economic position (SEP) is likely to differ. Methods Population-based birth cohort studies were carried out in the city of Pelotas, Brazil in 1982, 1993, and 2004, and in Avon, UK in 1991 [Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC)]. Adjustment for multiple indicators of SEP were applied. Results Low SEP was associated with younger age at childbearing in all cohorts, but the magnitudes of these associations were stronger in ALSPAC. Inverse associations of SEP with LBW and preterm birth were observed in all cohorts. U-shaped associations were observed between maternal age and odds of LBW in all cohorts. After adjustment for SEP, increased odds of LBW for young mothers (<20 years) attenuated to the null but remained or increased for older mothers (?35 years). Very young (<16 years) maternal age was also associated with both outcomes even after full SEP adjustment. SEP adjusted odds ratio of having a LBW infant in women <16 years and ?35 years, compared with 25–29 years, were 1.48 [95% confidence interval (CI) 1.00, 2.20] and 1.66 [95% CI 1.36, 2.02], respectively. The corresponding results for preterm birth were 1.80 [95% CI 1.23, 2.64)] and 1.38 [95% CI 1.15, 1.67], respectively. Conclusion Confounding by SEP explains much of the excess risk of LBW and preterm among babies born to teenage mothers as a whole, but not for mothers aged <16 or ?35 years. Given that the proportion of women becoming pregnant at <16 years is smaller than for those ?35 years, the population burden is greater for older age. PMID:25405673

  20. Risk Assessment of Adverse Birth Outcomes in Relation to Maternal Age

    PubMed Central

    Weng, Yi-Hao; Yang, Chun-Yuh; Chiu, Ya-Wen

    2014-01-01

    Background Although a number of studies have investigated correlations of maternal age with birth outcomes, an extensive assessment using age as a continuous variable is lacking. In the current study, we estimated age-specific risks of adverse birth outcomes in childbearing women. Method National population-based data containing maternal and neonatal information were derived from the Health Promotion Administration, Taiwan. A composite adverse birth outcome was defined as at least anyone of stillbirth, preterm birth, low birth weight, macrosomia, neonatal death, congenital anomaly, and small for gestational age (SGA). Singletons were further analyzed for outcomes of live birth in relation to each year of maternal age. A log-binomial model was used to adjust for possible confounders of maternal and neonatal factors. Results In total, 2,123,751 births between 2001 and 2010 were utilized in the analysis. The risk of a composite adverse birth outcome was significantly higher at extreme maternal ages. In specific, risks of stillbirth, neonatal death, preterm birth, congenital anomaly, and low birth weight were higher at the extremes of maternal age. Furthermore, risk of macrosomia rose proportionally with an increasing maternal age. In contrast, risk of SGA declined proportionally with an increasing maternal age. The log-binomial model showed greater risks at the maternal ages of <26 and > 30 years for a composite adverse birth outcome. Conclusions Infants born to teenagers and women at advanced age possess greater risks for stillbirth, preterm birth, neonatal death, congenital anomaly, and low birth weight. Pregnancies at advanced age carry an additional risk for macrosomia, while teenage pregnancies carry an additional risk for SGA. The data suggest that the optimal maternal ages to minimize adverse birth outcomes are 26?30 years. PMID:25494176

  1. Inbreeding depression increases with maternal age in a seed-feeding beetle

    E-print Network

    Fox, Charles W.

    Inbreeding depression increases with maternal age in a seed-feeding beetle Charles W. Fox 1 on inbreeding depression in offspring has been almost entirely neglected. Maternal age affects allocation-lasting effects on population dynamics and evolutionary trajectories. Hypothesis: Inbreeding depression

  2. Maternal patterns of postpartum alcohol consumption by age: a longitudinal analysis of adult urban mothers.

    PubMed

    Liu, Weiwei; Mumford, Elizabeth A; Petras, Hanno

    2015-04-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate a) longitudinal patterns of maternal postpartum alcohol use as well as its variation by maternal age at child birth and b) within maternal age groups, the association between other maternal characteristics and alcohol use patterns for the purposes of informed prevention design. Study sample consists of 3397 mothers from the Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing Study representing medium and large US urban areas. Maternal drinking and binge drinking were measured at child age 1, 3, and 5 years. We conducted separate longitudinal latent class analysis within each of the three pre-determined maternal age groups (ages 20-25, n?=?1717; ages 26-35, n?=?1367; ages 36+, n?=?313). Results revealed different class structures for maternal age groups. While two classes (NB [non-binge]-drinkers and LL [low-level]-drinkers) were identified for mothers in each age group, a third class (binge drinkers) was separately distinguished for the two older age groups. Whereas binge drinking rates appear to remain stable over the 5 years postdelivery for mothers who gave birth in their early twenties, mothers ages 26 and older increasingly engaged in binge drinking over time, surpassing the binge drinking behavior of younger mothers. Depression significantly increases the odds of being a NB-drinker for the 20-25 age group and that of being a binge drinker for the 36+ age group, whereas smoking during pregnancy is associated with subsequent binge drinking only for mothers ages 20-25. Findings highlight the importance of distinguishing risk factors by maternal age groups for drinking while parenting a young child, to inform the design of intervention strategies tailored to mothers of particular ages. PMID:25344349

  3. Maternal patterns of postpartum alcohol consumption by age: A longitudinal analysis of adult urban mothers

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Weiwei; Mumford, Elizabeth A.; Petras, Hanno

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate a) longitudinal patterns of maternal postpartum alcohol use as well as its variation by maternal age at child birth; b) within maternal age groups, the association between other maternal characteristics and alcohol use patterns for the purposes of informed prevention design. Study sample consists of 3,397 mothers from the Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing Study representing medium and large U.S. urban areas. Maternal drinking and binge drinking were measured at child age one, three, and five years. We conducted separate longitudinal latent class analysis within each of the three pre-determined maternal age groups (ages 20–25: n=1,717; ages 26–35: n=1,367; ages 36+: n=313). Results revealed different class structures for maternal age groups. While two classes (NB [non-binge]-drinkers and LL [low-level]-drinkers) were identified for mothers in each age group, a third class (binge drinkers) was separately distinguished for the two older age groups. Whereas binge drinking rates appear to remain stable over the five years post-delivery for mothers who gave birth in their early twenties, mothers ages 26 and older increasingly engaged in binge drinking over time, surpassing the binge drinking behavior of younger mothers. Depression significantly increases the odds of being a NB-drinker for the 20–25 age group and that of being a binge drinker for the 36+ age group, whereas smoking during pregnancy is associated with subsequent binge drinking only for mothers ages 20–25. Findings highlight the importance of distinguishing risk factors by maternal age groups for drinking while parenting a young child, to inform the design of intervention strategies tailored to mothers of particular ages. PMID:25344349

  4. The Enduring Predictive Significance of Early Maternal Sensitivity: Social and Academic Competence through Age 32 Years

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raby, K. Lee; Roisman, Glenn I.; Fraley, R. Chris; Simpson, Jeffry A.

    2015-01-01

    This study leveraged data from the Minnesota Longitudinal Study of Risk and Adaptation (N = 243) to investigate the predictive significance of maternal sensitivity during the first 3 years of life for social and academic competence through age 32 years. Structural model comparisons replicated previous findings that early maternal sensitivity…

  5. MATERNAL AGE EFFECT: THE ENIGMA OF DOWN SYNDROME AND OTHER TRISOMIC CONDITIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Aneuploidy is the most frequently observed chromosome abnormality in human liveborn, abortuses, and oocytes. he only etiological factor that has been established is advanced maternal age for the occurrence of trisomies, particularly trisomy 21 which causes Down syndrome. he mater...

  6. Infant Formula with Docosahexaenoic Acid, Maternal Smoking, and Body Mass Index of Children To Six Years of Age

    E-print Network

    Currie, Lindsey Marie

    2012-05-31

    supplementation on growth of term infants to age six. The study aim was to determine if DHA supplementation in formula consumed from birth to one year and maternal smoking affects growth of children through six years. Anthropometric measures and maternal...

  7. Maternal and Paternal Age Are Jointly Associated with Childhood Autism in Jamaica

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rahbar, Mohammad H.; Samms-Vaughan, Maureen; Loveland, Katherine A.; Pearson, Deborah A.; Bressler, Jan; Chen, Zhongxue; Ardjomand-Hessabi, Manouchehr; Shakespeare-Pellington, Sydonnie; Grove, Megan L.; Beecher, Compton; Bloom, Kari; Boerwinkle, Eric

    2012-01-01

    Several studies have reported maternal and paternal age as risk factors for having a child with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD), yet the results remain inconsistent. We used data for 68 age- and sex-matched case-control pairs collected from Jamaica. Using Multivariate General Linear Models (MGLM) and controlling for parity, gestational age, and…

  8. Maternal-Fetal Disposition of Glyburide in Pregnant Mice Is Dependent on Gestational Age

    PubMed Central

    Shuster, Diana L.; Risler, Linda J.; Liang, Chao-Kang J.; Rice, Kenneth M.; Shen, Danny D.; Hebert, Mary F.; Thummel, Kenneth E.

    2014-01-01

    Gestational diabetes mellitus is a major complication of human pregnancy. The oral clearance (CL) of glyburide, an oral antidiabetic drug, increases 2-fold in pregnant women during late gestation versus nonpregnant controls. In this study, we examined gestational age–dependent changes in maternal-fetal pharmacokinetics (PK) of glyburide and metabolites in a pregnant mouse model. Nonpregnant and pregnant FVB mice were given glyburide by retro-orbital injection. Maternal plasma was collected over 240 minutes on gestation days (gd) 0, 7.5, 10, 15, and 19; fetuses were collected on gd 15 and 19. Glyburide and metabolites were quantified using high-performance liquid chromatography–mass spectrometry, and PK analyses were performed using a pooled data bootstrap approach. Maternal CL of glyburide increased approximately 2-fold on gd 10, 15, and 19 compared with nonpregnant controls. Intrinsic CL of glyburide in maternal liver microsomes also increased as gestation progressed. Maternal metabolite/glyburide area under the curve ratios were generally unchanged or slightly decreased throughout gestation. Total fetal exposure to glyburide was <5% of maternal plasma exposure, and was doubled on gd 19 versus gd 15. Fetal metabolite concentrations were below the limit of assay detection. This is the first evidence of gestational age–dependent changes in glyburide PK. Increased maternal glyburide clearance during gestation is attributable to increased hepatic metabolism. Metabolite elimination may also increase during pregnancy. In the mouse model, fetal exposure to glyburide is gestational age–dependent and low compared with maternal plasma exposure. These results indicate that maternal glyburide therapeutic strategies may require adjustments in a gestational age–dependent manner if these same changes occur in humans. PMID:24898265

  9. Maternal Dispositional Empathy and Electrodermal Reactivity: Interactive Contributions to Maternal Sensitivity with Toddler-Aged Children

    PubMed Central

    Emery, Helen T.; McElwain, Nancy L.; Groh, Ashley M.; Haydon, Katherine C.; Roisman, Glenn I.

    2015-01-01

    The present study investigated maternal dispositional empathy and skin conductance level (SCL) reactivity to infant emotional cues as joint predictors of maternal sensitivity. Sixty-four mother-toddler dyads (31 boys) were observed across a series of interaction tasks during a laboratory visit, and maternal sensitivity was coded from approximately 55 minutes of observation per family. In a second, mother-only laboratory visit, maternal SCL reactivity to infant cues was assessed using a cry-laugh audio paradigm. Mothers reported on their dispositional empathy via a questionnaire. As hypothesized, mothers with greater dispositional empathy exhibited more sensitive behavior at low, but not high, levels of SCL reactivity to infant cues. Analyses examining self-reported emotional reactivity to the cry-laugh audio paradigm yielded a similar finding: dispositional empathy was related to greater sensitivity when mothers reported low, but not high, negative emotional reactivity. Results provide support for Dix’s (1991) affective model of parenting that underscores the combined contribution of the parent’s empathic tendencies and his/her own emotional experience in response to child emotions. Specificity of the Empathy × Reactivity interaction is discussed with respect to the context in which reactivity was assessed (infant cry versus laugh) and the type of sensitivity examined (sensitivity to the child’s distress versus non-distress). PMID:24955589

  10. Maternal dispositional empathy and electrodermal reactivity: Interactive contributions to maternal sensitivity with toddler-aged children.

    PubMed

    Emery, Helen T; McElwain, Nancy L; Groh, Ashley M; Haydon, Katherine C; Roisman, Glenn I

    2014-08-01

    The present study investigated maternal dispositional empathy and skin conductance level (SCL) reactivity to infant emotional cues as joint predictors of maternal sensitivity. Sixty-four mother-toddler dyads (31 boys) were observed across a series of interaction tasks during a laboratory visit, and maternal sensitivity was coded from approximately 55 minutes of observation per family. In a second, mother-only laboratory visit, maternal SCL reactivity to infant cues was assessed using a cry-laugh audio paradigm. Mothers reported on their dispositional empathy via a questionnaire. As hypothesized, mothers with greater dispositional empathy exhibited more sensitive behavior at low, but not high, levels of SCL reactivity to infant cues. Analyses examining self-reported emotional reactivity to the cry-laugh audio paradigm yielded a similar finding: Dispositional empathy was related to greater sensitivity when mothers reported low, but not high, negative emotional reactivity. Results provide support for Dix's (1991) affective model of parenting that underscores the combined contribution of the parent's empathic tendencies and his or her own emotional experience in response to child emotions. Specificity of the Empathy × Reactivity interaction is discussed with respect to the context in which reactivity was assessed (infant cry vs. laugh) and the type of sensitivity examined (sensitivity to the child's distress vs. nondistress). PMID:24955589

  11. Neighborhood influences on the association between maternal age and birthweight: a multilevel investigation of age-related disparities in health.

    PubMed

    Cerdá, Magdalena; Buka, Stephen L; Rich-Edwards, Janet W

    2008-05-01

    It was hypothesized that the relationship between maternal age and infant birthweight varies significantly across neighborhoods and that such variation can be predicted by neighborhood characteristics. We analyzed 229,613 singleton births of mothers aged 20-45 years from Chicago, USA in 1997-2002. Random coefficient models were used to estimate the between-neighborhood variation in age-birthweight slopes, and both intercepts- and-slopes-as-outcomes models were used to evaluate area-level predictors of such variation. The crude maternal age-birthweight slopes for neighborhoods ranged from a decrease of 17 g to an increase of 10 g per year of maternal age. Adjustment for individual-level covariates reduced but did not eliminate this between-neighborhood variation. Concentrated poverty was a significant neighborhood-level predictor of the age-birthweight slope, explaining 44.4% of the between-neighborhood variation in slopes. Neighborhoods of higher economic disadvantage showed a more negative age-birthweight slope. The findings support the hypothesis that the relationship between maternal age and birthweight varies between neighborhoods. Indicators of neighborhood disadvantage help to explain such differences. PMID:18313187

  12. When does maternal age-dependent trisomy 21 arise relative to meiosis?

    SciTech Connect

    Chang-Jiang Zheng; Byers, B.

    1996-07-01

    Polymorphic DNA markers have recently been used to estimate the fraction of trisomy 21 (Down syndrome) cases that may be attributable to postzygotic nondisjunction - indicative of a loss in the fidelity of the first few cell divisions after fertilization. In these studies, a postzygotic nondisjunction is defined as a case in which two chromosomes of the trisomic set are homozygous for all informative markers (i.e., for those markers that were heterozygous in their parent of origin). These studies estimate that the postzygotic mutation mechanism accounts for 4.5% (11/238) and 3.5% (9/255) of their cases, respectively, but their estimates may actually be conservative, since all noninformative haplotypes (frequency not reported) are arbitrarily attributed to meiosis II-type nondisjunction. Nevertheless, even the conservative estimates would, if confirmed, constitute a new and nonnegligible source of chromosomal segregation errors leading to trisomy. These studies` conclusions are supported by the observation that the 20 reported {open_quotes}postzygotic{close_quotes} cases (5 paternal and 15 maternal) appear to be less dependent on maternal age (mean maternal age 28.4 years) than maternal meiosis I-type failures (mean maternal age 31.2 years). However, given the limited sample size involved, one should be cautious in positing the absence of a maternal age effect. 5 refs., 1 fig.

  13. The Association between Maternal Reproductive Age and Progression of Refractive Error in Urban Students in Beijing

    PubMed Central

    Vasudevan, Balamurali; Jin, Zi Bing; Ciuffreda, Kenneth J.; Jhanji, Vishal; Zhou, Hong Jia; Wang, Ning Li; Liang, Yuan Bo

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To investigate the association between maternal reproductive age and their children’ refractive error progression in Chinese urban students. Methods The Beijing Myopia Progression Study was a three-year cohort investigation. Cycloplegic refraction of these students at both baseline and follow-up vision examinations, as well as non-cycloplegic refraction of their parents at baseline, were performed. Student’s refractive change was defined as the cycloplegic spherical equivalent (SE) of the right eye at the final follow-up minus the cycloplegic SE of the right eye at baseline. Results At the final follow-up, 241 students (62.4%) were reexamined. 226 students (58.5%) with completed refractive data, as well as completed parental reproductive age data, were enrolled. The average paternal and maternal age increased from 29.4 years and 27.5 years in 1993–1994 to 32.6 years and 29.2 years in 2003–2004, respectively. In the multivariate analysis, students who were younger (? = 0.08 diopter/year/year, P<0.001), with more myopic refraction at baseline (? = 0.02 diopter/year/diopter, P = 0.01), and with older maternal reproductive age (? = -0.18 diopter/year/decade, P = 0.01), had more myopic refractive change. After stratifying the parental reproductive age into quartile groups, children with older maternal reproductive age (trend test: P = 0.04) had more myopic refractive change, after adjusting for the children's age, baseline refraction, maternal refraction, and near work time. However, no significant association between myopic refractive change and paternal reproductive age was found. Conclusions In this cohort, children with older maternal reproductive age had more myopic refractive change. This new risk factor for myopia progression may partially explain the faster myopic progression found in the Chinese population in recent decades. PMID:26421841

  14. Maternal Size and Age Shape Offspring Size in a Live-Bearing Fish, Xiphophorus birchmanni

    PubMed Central

    Kindsvater, Holly K.; Rosenthal, Gil G.; Alonzo, Suzanne H.

    2012-01-01

    Many studies of offspring size focus on differences in maternal investment that arise from ecological factors such as predation or competition. Classic theory predicts that these ecological factors will select for an optimal offspring size, and therefore that variation in a given environment will be minimized. Yet recent evidence suggests maternal traits such as size or age could also drive meaningful variation in offspring size. The generality of this pattern is unclear, as some studies suggest that it may represent non-adaptive variation or be an artifact of temporal or spatial differences in maternal environments. To clarify this pattern, we asked how maternal size, age and condition are related to each other in several populations of the swordtail Xiphophorus birchmanni. We then determined how these traits are related to offspring size, and whether they could resolve unexplained intra-population variation in this trait. We found that female size, age, and condition are correlated within populations; at some of these sites, older, larger females produce larger offspring than do younger females. The pattern was robust to differences among most, but not all, sites. Our results document a pattern that is consistent with recent theory predicting adaptive age- and size-dependence in maternal investment. Further work is needed to rule out non-adaptive explanations for this variation. Our results suggest that female size and age could play an under-appreciated role in population growth and evolution. PMID:23139785

  15. The Impact of Early Age at First Childbirth on Maternal and Infant Health

    PubMed Central

    Gibbs, Cassandra M.; Wendt, Amanda; Peters, Stacey; Hogue, Carol J.

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this review was to assess whether early age at first childbirth is associated with increased risk of poor pregnancy outcomes. Early age at childbirth is variously defined in studies of its effect on maternal and infant health. In this systematic review, we limit analysis to studies of at least moderate quality that examine first births among young mothers, where young maternal age is defined as low gynaecological age (?2 years since menarche) or as a chronological age ?16 years at conception or delivery. We conduct meta-analyses for specific maternal or infant health outcomes when there are at least three moderate quality studies that define the exposure and outcome in a similar manner and provide odds ratios or risk ratios as their effect estimates. We conclude that the overall evidence of effect for very young maternal age (<15 years or <2 years post-menarche) on infant outcomes is moderate; that is, future studies are likely to refine the estimate of effect or precision but not to change the conclusion. Evidence points to an impact of young maternal age on low birthweight and preterm birth, which may mediate other infant outcomes such as neonatal mortality. The evidence that young maternal age increases risk for maternal anaemia is also fairly strong, although information on other nutritional outcomes and maternal morbidity/mortality is less clear. Many of the differences observed among older teenagers with respect to infant outcomes may be because of socio-economic or behavioural differences, although these may vary by country/ setting. Future, high quality observational studies in low income settings are recommended in order to address the question of generalisability of evidence. In particular, studies in low income countries need to consider low gynaecological age, rather than simply chronological age, as an exposure. As well, country-specific studies should measure the minimum age at which childbearing for teens has similar associations with health as childbearing for adults. This ‘tipping point’ may vary by the underlying physical and nutritional health of girls and young women. PMID:22742615

  16. Older maternal age is associated with depression, anxiety, and stress symptoms in young adult female offspring.

    PubMed

    Tearne, Jessica E; Robinson, Monique; Jacoby, Peter; Allen, Karina L; Cunningham, Nadia K; Li, Jianghong; McLean, Neil J

    2016-01-01

    The evidence regarding older parental age and incidence of mood disorder symptoms in offspring is limited, and that which exists is mixed. We sought to clarify these relationships by using data from the Western Australian Pregnancy Cohort (Raine) Study. The Raine Study provided comprehensive data from 2,900 pregnancies, resulting in 2,868 live born children. A total of 1,220 participants completed the short form of the Depression Anxiety Stress Scale (DASS-21) at the 20-year cohort follow-up. We used negative binomial regression analyses with log link and with adjustment for known perinatal risk factors to examine the extent to which maternal and paternal age at childbirth predicted continuous DASS-21 index scores. In the final multivariate models, a maternal age of 30-34 years was associated with significant increases in stress DASS-21 scores in female offspring relative to female offspring of 25- to 29-year-old mothers. A maternal age of 35 years and over was associated with increased scores on all DASS-21 scales in female offspring. Our results indicate that older maternal age is associated with depression, anxiety, and stress symptoms in young adult females. Further research into the mechanisms underpinning this relationship is needed. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:26569038

  17. Prenatal and postnatal maternal mental health and school-age child development: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Kingston, Dawn; Tough, Suzanne

    2014-09-01

    One in six children entering school experiences developmental delay. Maternal mental health represents one of the earliest, modifiable influences in a child's life. The objective of the review was to evaluate the association between maternal mental health and school-age child development, and we hypothesized there would be a negative association. Five databases were searched (Embase, CINAHL, Eric, PsycInfo, Medline). Key journals and reference lists were hand-searched. Two reviewers assessed studies based on inclusion criteria: (1) the exposure was any form of maternal mental health occurring during pregnancy or postpartum periods; (2) the outcome was child development (>48 months to 8 years); (3) the study recruited participants from developed countries; and (4) publication was in English between January, 1990 and December, 2012. Disagreements were resolved by consensus. Study quality was assessed by two reviewers using the Scottish Intercollegiate Guideline Network and disagreements were resolved by consensus. Data extraction was conducted by one reviewer using standardized forms. Maternal mental health problems in pregnancy and/or the postpartum period increased the likelihood that school-age children experienced suboptimal global, behavioral, cognitive, and socio-emotional development. The findings highlight the need for maternal mental health assessment during the prenatal, postnatal, and early childhood periods. PMID:24352625

  18. Maternal Age at Childbirth and Offspring Disruptive Behaviors: Testing the Causal Hypothesis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    D'Onofrio, Brian M.; Goodnight, Jackson A.; Van Hulle, Carol A.; Rodgers, Joseph Lee; Rathouz, Paul J.; Waldman, Irwin D.; Lahey, Benjamin B.

    2009-01-01

    Background: Recent studies suggest that the association between maternal age at childbearing (MAC) and children's disruptive behaviors is the result of family factors that are confounded with both variables, rather than a casual effect of environmental factors specifically related to MAC. These studies, however, relied on restricted samples and…

  19. Maternal Effects Underlie Ageing Costs of Growth in the Zebra Finch (Taeniopygia guttata)

    PubMed Central

    Tissier, Mathilde L.; Williams, Tony D.; Criscuolo, François

    2014-01-01

    Maternal effects provide a mechanism to adapt offspring phenotype and optimize the mother’s fitness to current environmental conditions. Transferring steroids to the yolk is one way mothers can translate environmental information into potential adaptive signals for offspring. However, maternally-derived hormones might also have adverse effects for offspring. For example, recent data in zebra finch chicks suggested that ageing related-processes (i.e. oxidative stress and telomere loss) were increased after egg-injection of corticosterone (CORT). Still, we have few experimental data describing the effect of maternal effects on the growth-ageing trade-off in offspring. Here, we chronically treated pre-laying zebra finch females (Taeniopygia guttata) with 17-?-estradiol (E2) or CORT, and followed offspring growth and cellular ageing rates (oxidative stress and telomere loss). CORT treatment decreased growth rate in male chicks and increased rate of telomere loss in mothers and female offspring. E2 increased body mass gain in male offspring, while reducing oxidative stress in both sexes but without affecting telomere loss. Since shorter telomeres were previously found to be a proxy of individual lifespan in zebra finches, maternal effects may, through pleiotropic effects, be important determinants of offspring life-expectancy by modulating ageing rate during embryo and post-natal growth. PMID:24828412

  20. Advancing Maternal Age Is Associated with Increasing Risk for Autism: A Review and Meta-Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sandin, Sven; Hultman, Christina M.; Kolevzon, Alexander; Gross, Raz; MacCabe, James H.; Reichenberg, Abraham

    2012-01-01

    Objective: We conducted a meta-analysis of epidemiological studies investigating the association between maternal age and autism. Method: Using recommended guidelines for performing meta-analyses, we systematically selected, and extracted results from, epidemiological scientific studies reported before January 2012. We calculated pooled risk…

  1. Maternal effects underlie ageing costs of growth in the zebra finch (Taeniopygia guttata).

    PubMed

    Tissier, Mathilde L; Williams, Tony D; Criscuolo, François

    2014-01-01

    Maternal effects provide a mechanism to adapt offspring phenotype and optimize the mother's fitness to current environmental conditions. Transferring steroids to the yolk is one way mothers can translate environmental information into potential adaptive signals for offspring. However, maternally-derived hormones might also have adverse effects for offspring. For example, recent data in zebra finch chicks suggested that ageing related-processes (i.e. oxidative stress and telomere loss) were increased after egg-injection of corticosterone (CORT). Still, we have few experimental data describing the effect of maternal effects on the growth-ageing trade-off in offspring. Here, we chronically treated pre-laying zebra finch females (Taeniopygia guttata) with 17-?-estradiol (E2) or CORT, and followed offspring growth and cellular ageing rates (oxidative stress and telomere loss). CORT treatment decreased growth rate in male chicks and increased rate of telomere loss in mothers and female offspring. E2 increased body mass gain in male offspring, while reducing oxidative stress in both sexes but without affecting telomere loss. Since shorter telomeres were previously found to be a proxy of individual lifespan in zebra finches, maternal effects may, through pleiotropic effects, be important determinants of offspring life-expectancy by modulating ageing rate during embryo and post-natal growth. PMID:24828412

  2. Maternal age effect and severe germ-line bottleneck in the inheritance of human mitochondrial DNA

    E-print Network

    Nielsen, Rasmus

    Maternal age effect and severe germ-line bottleneck in the inheritance of human mitochondrial DNA September 8, 2014 (received for review May 20, 2014) The manifestation of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) diseases The centerpiece of cellular metabolic machinery--the mito- chondrion--harbors a 16.5-kb genome, mitochondrial DNA

  3. Influence of honey and maternal age on egg load of lab-cultured Cotesia marginiventris

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Abstract Laboratory experiments were conducted to determine the impact of feeding status and maternal age on egg load of Cotesia marginiventris (Cresson) (Hymenoptera: Braconidae), a solitary, koinobiont endoparasitoid of noctuid pests. Egg load was defined as the number of mature (i. e., fully-ch...

  4. Maternal Factors Influencing Infant Total Body Iron at Birth and Four Months of Age

    E-print Network

    Scroggs, Sarah Catherine

    2011-05-31

    ................................................................................ 22 Table 2. Breastfeeding………………..................................................................................... 23 Table 3. Mean Body Iron of Subjects……………….............................................................. 24 Table 4. Maternal... of delivery, the mean gestational age was 39.43 weeks with a mean birth weight of 3362.8 g. Five percent of the subjects had preterm deliveries (breastfeeding was gathered at infant follow-up visits...

  5. Recombination and maternal age-dependent nondisjunction: Molecular studies of trisomy 16

    SciTech Connect

    Hassold, T.; Merrill, M.; Adkins, K.

    1995-10-01

    Trisomy 16 is the most common human trisomy, occurring in {ge} 1% of all clinically recognized pregnancies. It is thought to be completely dependent on maternal age and thus provides a useful model for studying the association of increasing maternal age and nondisjunction. We have been conducting a study to determine the parent and meiotic stage of origin of trisorny 16 and the possible association of nondisjunction and aberrant recombination. In the present report, we summarize our observations on 62 spontaneous abortions with trisomy 16. All trisomies were maternally derived, and in virtually all the error occurred at meiosis I. In studies of genetic recombination, we observed a highly significant reduction in recombination in the trisomy-generating meioses by comparison with normal female meioses. However, most cases of trisomy 16 had at least one detectable crossover between the nondisjoined chromosomes, indicating that it is reduced-and not absent-recombination that is the important predisposing factor. Additionally, our data indicate an altered distribution of crossing-over in trisomy 16, as we rarely observed crossovers in the proximal long and short arms. Thus, it may be that, at least for trisomy 16, the association between maternal age and trisomy is due to diminished recombination, particularly in the proximal regions of the chromosome. 34 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs.

  6. Maternal PUFA status and offspring allergic diseases up to the age of 18 months.

    PubMed

    Yu, Ya-Mei; Chan, Yiong-Huak; Calder, Philip C; Hardjojo, Antony; Soh, Shu-E; Lim, Ai Lin; Fisk, Helena L; Teoh, Oon Hoe; Goh, Anne; Saw, Seang-Mei; Kwek, Kenneth; Gluckman, Peter D; Godfrey, Keith M; Chong, Yap-Seng; Shek, Lynette Pei-Chi; Pan, An; Chong, Mary Foong Fong; van Bever, Hugo P S

    2015-03-28

    Studies have suggested that maternal PUFA status during pregnancy may influence early childhood allergic diseases, although findings are inconsistent. We examined the relationship between maternal PUFA status and risk of allergic diseases in early childhood in an Asian cohort. Maternal plasma samples from the Growing Up in Singapore Towards Healthy Outcomes mother-offspring cohort were assayed at 26-28 weeks of gestation for relative abundance of PUFA. Offspring (n 960) were followed up from 3 weeks to 18 months of age, and clinical outcomes of potential allergic diseases (rhinitis, eczema and wheezing) were assessed by repeated questionnaires. Skin prick testing (SPT) was also performed at the age of 18 months. Any allergic disease with positive SPT was defined as having any one of the clinical outcomes plus a positive SPT. The prevalence of a positive SPT, rhinitis, eczema, wheezing and any allergic disease with positive SPT was 14·1 % (103/728), 26·5 % (214/808), 17·6 % (147/833), 10·9 % (94/859) and 9·4 % (62/657), respectively. After adjustment for confounders, maternal total n-3, n-6 PUFA status and the n-6:n-3 PUFA ratio were not significantly associated with offspring rhinitis, eczema, wheezing, a positive SPT and having any allergic disease with positive SPT in the offspring (P>0·01 for all). A weak trend of higher maternal n-3 PUFA being associated with higher risk of allergic diseases with positive SPT in offspring was observed. These findings do not support the hypothesis that the risk of early childhood allergic diseases is modified by variation in maternal n-3 and n-6 PUFA status during pregnancy in an Asian population. PMID:25746049

  7. The baboon model (Papio hamadryas) of fetal loss: Maternal weight, age, reproductive history and pregnancy outcome

    PubMed Central

    Schlabritz-Loutsevitch, Natalia; Moore, Charleen M.; Lopez-Alvarenga, Juan Carlos; Dunn, Betty G.; Dudley, Donald; Hubbard, Gene B.

    2010-01-01

    Background Several risk factors are associated with the incidence of human stillbirths. The prevention of stillbirths in women is a pressing clinical problem. Methods We reviewed 402 pathology records of fetal loss occurring in a large baboon (Papio spp.) colony during a 15-year period. Clinical histories of 565 female baboons with one or more fetal losses during a 20-year period were analyzed for weight, age, and reproductive history. Results Fetal loss was most common at term (35.57%) and preterm (28.61%) and less common in the first half of gestation (11.20%) and post-term (5.22%). Greater maternal weight, older age, history of stillbirth and higher parity were independent predictors for stillbirth. An exponential increase in the incidence of fetal loss was observed beginning at age 14 years in baboons. Conclusion Fetal loss and maternal risk factors associated with stillbirths in baboons were similar to those documented in women. PMID:19017195

  8. Maternal Age at Childbirth and Social Development in Infancy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koyama, Tomonori; Kamio, Yoko; Inada, Naoko; Inokuchi, Eiko

    2011-01-01

    Difficulties in social communication are not necessarily observed only in individuals with autism spectrum disorders (ASD), and there are many subclinical cases in the general populations. Although advanced parental age at childbirth has often been considered a possible risk factor of ASD, it might contribute to poor social functioning in…

  9. A 1st-trimester combined screening test in pregnant women of advanced maternal age in a Chinese population.

    PubMed

    Pan, M; Han, J; Yang, X; Zhen, L; Liao, C; Li, D Z

    2015-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the performance of the 1st-trimester combined screening test for trisomy 21 in different maternal age groups in a Chinese population. In this retrospective study, data on the 1st-trimester combined screening test (maternal age, fetal nuchal translucency, free ?-human chorionic gonadotrophin, pregnancy-associated plasma protein-A) were analysed. The study population of 17,556 pregnant women was subdivided into three groups according to maternal age: 16,113 were < 35 years of age; 1,228 were 35-39 years of age; and 215 were ? 40 years of age. The detection and false-positive rates of the 1st-trimester screening test for trisomy 21 or trisomy 18 in the three groups of women were 89.5 and 1.7%; 90.9 and 6.8%; and 100 and 22.3%, respectively. With increasing maternal age, the odds of being affected given a positive result (OAPR) were increased. The balance between the detection rate and false-positive rate of the 1st-trimester combined screening test is more favourable in women < 36 years with comparable OAPR. Although the false-positive rate increases with increasing maternal age, the performance of the 1st-trimester combined screening test in women ? 35 years is more effective than screening based on maternal age alone. PMID:25057869

  10. Sleepwalking Into Infertility: The Need for a Public Health Approach Toward Advanced Maternal Age.

    PubMed

    Lemoine, Marie-Eve; Ravitsky, Vardit

    2015-11-01

    In Western countries today, a growing number of women delay motherhood until their late 30s and even 40s, as they invest time in pursuing education and career goals before starting a family. This social trend results from greater gender equality and expanded opportunities for women and is influenced by the availability of contraception and assisted reproductive technologies (ART). However, advanced maternal age is associated with increased health risks, including infertility. While individual medical solutions such as ART and elective egg freezing can promote reproductive autonomy, they entail significant risks and limitations. We thus argue that women should be better informed regarding the risks of advanced maternal age and ART, and that these individual solutions need to be supplemented by a public health approach, including policy measures that provide women with the opportunity to start a family earlier in life without sacrificing personal career goals. PMID:26575814

  11. Maternal care, mother-offspring aggregation and age-dependent coadaptation in the European earwig.

    PubMed

    Gómez, Y; Kölliker, M

    2013-09-01

    Benefits and costs of parental care are expected to change with offspring development and lead to age-dependent coadaptation expressed as phenotypic (behavioural) matches between offspring age and parental reproductive stage. Parents and offspring interact repeatedly over time for the provision of parental care. Their behaviours should be accordingly adjusted to each other dynamically and adaptively, and the phenotypic match between offspring age and parental stage should stabilize the repeated behavioural interactions. In the European earwig (Forficula auricularia), maternal care is beneficial for offspring survival, but not vital, allowing us to investigate the extent to which the stability of mother-offspring aggregation is shaped by age-dependent coadaptation. In this study, we experimentally cross-fostered nymphs of different age classes (younger or older) between females in early or late reproductive stage to disrupt age-dependent coadaptation, thereby generating female-nymph dyads that were phenotypically matched or mismatched. The results revealed a higher stability in aggregation during the first larval instar when care is most intense, a steeper decline in aggregation tendency over developmental time and a reduced developmental rate in matched compared with mismatched families. Furthermore, nymph survival was positively correlated with female-nymph aggregation stability during the early stages when maternal care is most prevalent. These results support the hypothesis that age-related phenotypically plastic coadaptation affects family dynamics and offspring developmental rate. PMID:23937357

  12. Extremes of maternal age and child mortality: analysis between 2000 and 2009?

    PubMed Central

    Ribeiro, Fanciele Dinis; Ferrari, Rosângela Aparecida Pimenta; Sant'Anna, Flávia Lopes; Dalmas, José Carlos; Girotto, Edmarlon

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To analyze the characteristics of infant mortality at the extremes of maternal age. METHOD: Retrospective, cross-sectional quantitative study using data from Live Birth Certificates, Death Certificates and from Child Death Investigation records in Londrina, Paraná, in the years of 2000-2009. RESULTS: During the 10-year study period , there were 176 infant deaths among mothers up to 19 years of age, and 113 deaths among mothers aged 35 years or more. The infant mortality rate among young mothers was 14.4 deaths per thousand births, compared to 12.9 deaths in the other age group. For adolescent mothers, the following conditions prevailed: lack of a stable partner (p<0.001), lack of a paid job (p<0.001), late start of prenatal care in the second trimester of pregnancy (p<0.001), fewer prenatal visits (p<0.001) and urinary tract infections (p<0.001). On the other hand, women aged 35 or more had a higher occurrence of hypertension during pregnancy (p<0.001), and of surgical delivery (p<0.001). Regarding the underlying cause of infant death, congenital anomalies prevailed in the group of older mothers (p=0.002), and external causes were predominant in the group of young mothers (p=0.019). CONCLUSION: Both age groups deserve the attention of social services for maternal and child health, especially adolescent mothers, who presented a higher combination of factors deemed hazardous to the child's health. PMID:25511003

  13. Effect of birth weight, maternal education and prenatal smoking on offspring intelligence at school age.

    PubMed

    Rahu, Kaja; Rahu, Mati; Pullmann, Helle; Allik, Jüri

    2010-08-01

    To examine the combined effect of birth weight, mothers' education and prenatal smoking on psychometrically measured intelligence at school age 1,822 children born in 1992-1999 and attending the first six grades from 45 schools representing all of the fifteen Estonian counties with information on birth weight, gestational age and mother's age, marital status, education, parity and smoking in pregnancy, and intelligence tests were studied. The scores of Raven's Standard Progressive Matrices were related to the birth weight: in the normal range of birth weight (>or=2500 g) every 500 g increase in birth weight was accompanied by around 0.7-point increase in IQ scores. A strong association between birth weight and IQ remained even if gestational age and mother's age, marital status, education, place of residence, parity and smoking during pregnancy have been taken into account. Maternal prenatal smoking was accompanied by a 3.3-point deficit in children's intellectual abilities. Marriage and mother's education had an independent positive correlation with offspring intelligence. We concluded that the statistical effect of birth weight, maternal education and smoking in pregnancy on offspring's IQ scores was remarkable and remained even if other factors have been taken into account. PMID:20634008

  14. Association between nondisjunction and maternal age in meiosis-II human oocytes

    SciTech Connect

    Dailey, T.; Cohen, J.; Munne, S.; Dale, B.

    1996-07-01

    The relationship between advanced maternal age and increased risk of trisomic offspring is well know clinically but not clearly understood at the level of the oocyte. A total of 383 oocytes that failed fertilization from 107 patients undergoing in vitro fertilization were analyzed by FISH using X-, 18-, and 13/21-chromosome probes simultaneously. The corresponding polar bodies were also analyzed in 188 of these oocytes. The chromosomes in the oocyte and first polar body complement each other and provide an internal control to differentiate between aneuploidy and technical errors. Two mechanisms of nondisjunction were determined. First, nondisjunction of bivalent chromosomes resulting in two univalents going to the same pole and, second, nondisjunction by premature chromatid separation (predivision) of univalent chromsomes producing either a balanced (2 + 2) or unbalanced (3 + 1) distribution of chromatids into the first polar body and M-II oocytes. Balanced predivision of chromatids, previously proposed as a major mechanism of aneuploidy, was found to increase significantly with time in culture (P < .005), which suggests that this phenomenon should be interpreted carefully. Unbalanced predivision and classical nondisjunction were unaffected by oocyte aging. In comparing oocytes from women <35 years of age with oocytes from women {ge}40 years of age, a significant increase (P < .001) in nondisjunction of full dyads was found in the oocytes with analyzable polar bodies and no FISH errors. Premature predivision of chromatids was also found to cause nondisjunction, but it did not increase with maternal age. 44 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs.

  15. Potential long-term risks associated with maternal aging (the role of the mitochondria).

    PubMed

    Wilding, Martin

    2015-06-01

    The mean age at which women create families in Western society is increasing. This is in spite of the fact that reproduction in later life is subject to various difficulties, such as the lower probability of conception in relation to maternal age, the increase in spontaneous pregnancy loss, and higher obstetric risk. In this review of recent data, we suggest that a fourth effect, the decrease in lifespan of children in relation to the age of conception of the mother, can be added to the list. We discuss this effect in relation to the transmission of the mitochondria exclusively through the female germ line and the effect of age on this organelle. Data from our own studies and the animal literature as a whole suggest that this effect could be due to the transmission of damaged mitochondrial DNA, and further indicate that the effect is more widespread than previously considered. PMID:25936236

  16. Maternal occupational exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and small for gestational age offspring

    PubMed Central

    Langlois, Peter H.; Hoyt, Adrienne T.; Desrosiers, Tania A.; Lupo, Philip J.; Lawson, Christina C.; Waters, Martha A.; Rocheleau, Carissa M.; Shaw, Gary M.; Romitti, Paul A.; Gilboa, Suzanne M.; Malik, Sadia

    2015-01-01

    Objectives While some of the highest maternal exposures to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) occur in the workplace, there is only one previous study of occupational PAH exposure and adverse pregnancy outcomes. We sought to extend this literature using interview data combined with detailed exposure assessment. Methods Data for 1997–2002 were analysed from mothers of infants without major birth defects in the National Birth Defects Prevention Study, a large population-based case-control study in the USA. Maternal telephone interviews yielded information on jobs held in the month before conception through delivery. From 6252 eligible control mothers, 2803 completed the interview, had a job, met other selection criteria, and were included in the analysis. Two industrial hygienists independently assessed occupational exposure to PAHs from the interview and reviewed results with a third to reach consensus. Small for gestational age (SGA) was the only adverse pregnancy outcome with enough exposed cases to yield meaningful results. Logistic regression estimated crude and adjusted ORs. Results Of the 2803 mothers, 221 (7.9%) had infants who were SGA. Occupational PAH exposure was found for 17 (7.7%) of the mothers with SGA offspring and 102 (4.0%) of the remaining mothers. Almost half the jobs with exposure were related to food preparation and serving. After adjustment for maternal age, there was a significant association of occupational exposure with SGA (OR=2.2, 95% CI 1.3 to 3.8). Conclusions Maternal occupational exposure to PAHs was found to be associated with increased risk of SGA offspring. PMID:24893704

  17. Association between delivery at an advanced maternal age and osteoporosis in elderly Korean women.

    PubMed

    Ahn, Eunju; Lee, Jungkwon; Park, Yong Soon; Noh, Hye-Mi; Kim, Bo Ha

    2015-11-01

    Although several reproductive factors have been associated with low bone mineral density (BMD) in elderly women, few studies have evaluated the long-term effects of delivery at a high-risk maternal age on BMD. Using nationally representative survey data collected from 736 women aged 65 years or older, we evaluated the relationship between delivery during adolescence or at an age of 35 years or older and osteoporosis in elderly women. Data regarding demographic and socioeconomic characteristics, medical history, lifestyle risk factors, reproductive history, and history of osteoporosis and fracture were collected by administration of self-report questionnaires. Anthropometric data and BMD were measured in accordance with standardized guidelines. Independent determinants of BMD were identified by stepwise multiple linear regression analysis, and the resulting model was used to evaluate the risk of osteoporosis according to delivery during adolescence or at an advanced age. Of the 736 subjects, 426 (60.1 %) were found to have osteoporosis (T score ? -2.5), and 19.2 and 38.9 % reported delivery during adolescence and at an advanced age, respectively. The incidence of delivery during adolescence or at an advanced age was significantly higher in subjects with osteoporosis than in those without osteoporosis. After adjustment for covariates, multiple logistic regression analysis revealed that elderly women with a history of delivery at an advanced maternal age are at an increased (2.164-fold greater) risk of osteoporosis (95 % confidence interval 1.109-4.223) compared with elderly women without a history of delivery at an advanced age. However, a history of delivery during adolescence did not affect the risk. PMID:25304003

  18. Maternal separation produces alterations of forebrain brain-derived neurotrophic factor expression in differently aged rats

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Qiong; Shao, Feng; Wang, Weiwen

    2015-01-01

    Early life adversity, such as postnatal maternal separation (MS), play a central role in the development of psychopathologies during individual ontogeny. In this study, we investigated the effects of repeated MS (4 h per day from postnatal day (PND) 1–21) on the brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) expression in the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC), the nucleus accumbens (NAc) and the hippocampus of male and female juvenile (PND 21), adolescent (PND 35) and young adult (PND 56) Wistar rats. The results indicated that MS increased BDNF in the CA1 and the dentate gyrus (DG) of adolescent rats as well as in the DG of young adult rats. However, the expression of BDNF in the mPFC in the young adult rats was decreased by MS. Additionally, in the hippocampus, there was decreased BDNF expression with age in both the MS and non separated rats. However, in the mPFC, the BDNF expression was increased with age in the non separated rats; nevertheless, the BDNF expression was significantly decreased in the MS young adult rats. In the NAc, the BDNF expression was increased with age in the male non-maternal separation (NMS) rats, and the young adult female MS rats had less BDNF expression than the adolescent female MS rats. The present study shows unique age-differently changes on a molecular level induced by MS and advances the use of MS as a valid animal model to detect the underlying neurobiological mechanisms of mental disorders. PMID:26388728

  19. Fetal sex differences in human chorionic gonadotropin fluctuate by maternal race, age, weight and by gestational age

    PubMed Central

    Adibi, J. J.; Lee, M. K.; Saha, S.; Boscardin, W. J.; Apfel, A.; Currier, R. J.

    2015-01-01

    Circulating levels of the placental glycoprotein hormone human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) are higher in women carrying female v. male fetuses; yet, the significance of this difference with respect to maternal factors, environmental exposures and neonatal outcomes is unknown. As a first step in evaluating the biologic and clinical significance of sex differences in hCG, we conducted a population-level analysis to assess its stability across subgroups. Subjects were women carrying singleton pregnancies who participated in prenatal and newborn screening programs in CA from 2009 to 2012 (1.1 million serum samples). hCG was measured in the first and second trimesters and fetal sex was determined from the neonatal record. Multivariate linear models were used to estimate hCG means in women carrying female and male fetuses. We report fluctuations in the ratios of female to male hCG by maternal factors and by gestational age. hCG was higher in the case of a female fetus by 11 and 8% in the first and second trimesters, respectively (P <0.0001). There were small (1–5%) fluctuations in the sex difference by maternal race, weight and age. The female-to-male ratio in hCG decreased from 17 to 2% in the first trimester, and then increased from 2 to 19% in the second trimester (P <0.0001). We demonstrate within a well enumerated, diverse US population that the sex difference in hCG overall is stable. Small fluctuations within population subgroups may be relevant to environmental and physiologic effects on the placenta and can be probed further using these types of data. PMID:26242396

  20. Fetal sex differences in human chorionic gonadotropin fluctuate by maternal race, age, weight and by gestational age.

    PubMed

    Adibi, J J; Lee, M K; Saha, S; Boscardin, W J; Apfel, A; Currier, R J

    2015-12-01

    Circulating levels of the placental glycoprotein hormone human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) are higher in women carrying female v. male fetuses; yet, the significance of this difference with respect to maternal factors, environmental exposures and neonatal outcomes is unknown. As a first step in evaluating the biologic and clinical significance of sex differences in hCG, we conducted a population-level analysis to assess its stability across subgroups. Subjects were women carrying singleton pregnancies who participated in prenatal and newborn screening programs in CA from 2009 to 2012 (1.1 million serum samples). hCG was measured in the first and second trimesters and fetal sex was determined from the neonatal record. Multivariate linear models were used to estimate hCG means in women carrying female and male fetuses. We report fluctuations in the ratios of female to male hCG by maternal factors and by gestational age. hCG was higher in the case of a female fetus by 11 and 8% in the first and second trimesters, respectively (P<0.0001). There were small (1-5%) fluctuations in the sex difference by maternal race, weight and age. The female-to-male ratio in hCG decreased from 17 to 2% in the first trimester, and then increased from 2 to 19% in the second trimester (P<0.0001). We demonstrate within a well enumerated, diverse US population that the sex difference in hCG overall is stable. Small fluctuations within population subgroups may be relevant to environmental and physiologic effects on the placenta and can be probed further using these types of data. PMID:26242396

  1. Maternal Alcohol Consumption during Pregnancy and Early Age Leukemia Risk in Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Ferreira, Jeniffer Dantas; Couto, Arnaldo Cézar; Pombo-de-Oliveira, Maria S.; Koifman, Sergio

    2015-01-01

    Objectives. To investigate the association between the maternal alcohol consumption during pregnancy and early age leukemia (EAL) in offspring. Methods. Datasets were analyzed from a case-control study carried out in Brazil during 1999–2007. Data were obtained by maternal interviews using a standardized questionnaire. The present study included 675 children (193 acute lymphoid leukemia (ALL), 59 acute myeloid leukemia (AML), and 423 controls). Unconditional logistic regression was performed, and adjusted odds ratios (adj. OR) on the association between alcohol consumption and EAL were ascertained. Results. Alcohol consumption was reported by 43% of ALL and 39% of AML case mothers and 35.5% of controls'. Beer consumption before and during pregnancy was associated with ALL in crude analysis (OR = 1.54, 95% CI, 1.08–2.19), although in adjusted analysis no statistical significance was found. For weekly intake of ?1 glass (adj. OR = 1.30, 95% CI, 0.71–2.36) and ?1 glass/week (adj. OR = 1.47, 95% CI, 0.88–2.46) a potential dose-response was observed (P trend < 0.03). Conclusion. This study failed to support the hypothesis of an increased risk of EAL associated with maternal alcohol intake during pregnancy, neither with the interaction with tobacco nor with alcohol consumption. PMID:26090439

  2. Assessing the Causal Relationship of Maternal Height on Birth Size and Gestational Age at Birth: A Mendelian Randomization Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Ge; Bacelis, Jonas; Lengyel, Candice; Teramo, Kari; Hallman, Mikko; Helgeland, Øyvind; Johansson, Stefan; Myhre, Ronny; Sengpiel, Verena; Njølstad, Pål Rasmus; Jacobsson, Bo; Muglia, Louis

    2015-01-01

    Background Observational epidemiological studies indicate that maternal height is associated with gestational age at birth and fetal growth measures (i.e., shorter mothers deliver infants at earlier gestational ages with lower birth weight and birth length). Different mechanisms have been postulated to explain these associations. This study aimed to investigate the casual relationships behind the strong association of maternal height with fetal growth measures (i.e., birth length and birth weight) and gestational age by a Mendelian randomization approach. Methods and Findings We conducted a Mendelian randomization analysis using phenotype and genome-wide single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) data of 3,485 mother/infant pairs from birth cohorts collected from three Nordic countries (Finland, Denmark, and Norway). We constructed a genetic score based on 697 SNPs known to be associated with adult height to index maternal height. To avoid confounding due to genetic sharing between mother and infant, we inferred parental transmission of the height-associated SNPs and utilized the haplotype genetic score derived from nontransmitted alleles as a valid genetic instrument for maternal height. In observational analysis, maternal height was significantly associated with birth length (p = 6.31 × 10?9), birth weight (p = 2.19 × 10?15), and gestational age (p = 1.51 × 10?7). Our parental-specific haplotype score association analysis revealed that birth length and birth weight were significantly associated with the maternal transmitted haplotype score as well as the paternal transmitted haplotype score. Their association with the maternal nontransmitted haplotype score was far less significant, indicating a major fetal genetic influence on these fetal growth measures. In contrast, gestational age was significantly associated with the nontransmitted haplotype score (p = 0.0424) and demonstrated a significant (p = 0.0234) causal effect of every 1 cm increase in maternal height resulting in ~0.4 more gestational d. Limitations of this study include potential influences in causal inference by biological pleiotropy, assortative mating, and the nonrandom sampling of study subjects. Conclusions Our results demonstrate that the observed association between maternal height and fetal growth measures (i.e., birth length and birth weight) is mainly defined by fetal genetics. In contrast, the association between maternal height and gestational age is more likely to be causal. In addition, our approach that utilizes the genetic score derived from the nontransmitted maternal haplotype as a genetic instrument is a novel extension to the Mendelian randomization methodology in casual inference between parental phenotype (or exposure) and outcomes in offspring. PMID:26284790

  3. Pregnancy, maternal exposure to analgesic medicines, and leukemia in Brazilian children below 2 years of age.

    PubMed

    Couto, Arnaldo C; Ferreira, Jeniffer D; Pombo-de-Oliveira, Maria S; Koifman, Sérgio

    2015-05-01

    Childhood leukemia etiology, and mainly the interactions of genetic and environmental risk factors, remains largely unexplored. This national hospital-based case-control study was carried out in Brazil among children aged 0-23 months who were recruited at cancer and general hospitals in 13 states. Maternal medicine intake during pregnancy, including analgesic intake, was assessed by face-to-face interviews with the mothers of 231 leukemia patients and 411 controls. Unconditional logistic regression was used to ascertain crude and adjusted odds ratios (ORs), and their 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for the association between maternal analgesic use during pregnancy and early age leukemia. Acetaminophen use during the first trimester of pregnancy showed an OR=0.39 (95% CI 0.17-0.93) for acute lymphocytic leukemia and an OR=0.37 (95% CI 0.16-0.88) for use in the second trimester. For acute myeloid leukemia, an OR=0.11 (95% CI 0.02-0.97) was found following acetaminophen use in the second trimester. For acute lymphocytic leukemia, the exclusive use of dipyrone during preconception showed an OR=1.63 (95% CI 1.06-2.53) and dipyrone intake during lactation showed an OR=2.00 (95% CI 1.18-3.39). These results suggest that acetaminophen use during pregnancy may protect against development of early age leukemia in the offspring, whereas dipyrone use may act as a risk factor for such an outcome. PMID:25121973

  4. Associations of maternal and paternal antenatal mood with offspring anxiety disorder at age 18 years

    PubMed Central

    Capron, Lauren E.; Glover, Vivette; Pearson, Rebecca M.; Evans, Jonathan; O’Connor, Thomas G.; Stein, Alan; Murphy, Susannah E.; Ramchandani, Paul G.

    2015-01-01

    Objective Maternal antenatal depression and anxiety are associated with increased risk of childhood behavioural and emotional problems in offspring; it remains unclear to what extent this is due to a maternal biological impact on foetal development. Here, we compare associations between maternal and paternal antenatal depression and anxiety with offspring anxiety disorders, thus controlling for some genetic and shared environmental factors. Methods We used data from the ALSPAC population cohort including measures of antenatal parental depression and anxiety. At 18 years, offspring completed the CIS-R interview, yielding diagnoses for anxiety disorders. Results were adjusted for confounding variables including parental postnatal depression and anxiety. Results Children of women with antenatal depression (18 weeks gestation), had an increased risk of anxiety disorders at 18 years of age (11.1% vs. 6.2%; adj. OR 1.75 (1.19, 2.58); p=0.01). Children of women with antenatal anxiety had increased risk of co-morbid anxiety and depression (adj. OR 1.39 (1.06, 1.82); p=0.02). No such associations were found with paternal antenatal depression or anxiety. Limitations There was a high attrition rate from the original cohort to the CIS-R completion at 18 years postpartum. Parental mood was only assessed together at one time point during the antenatal period. Conclusions The differences in the association between maternal and paternal mood during pregnancy and child outcomes supports the hypothesis that foetal programming may account, at least in part, for this association. We highlight the potential opportunity for preventative intervention by optimising antenatal mental health. PMID:26301478

  5. Developmental ORIgins of Healthy and Unhealthy AgeiNg: the role of maternal obesity--introduction to DORIAN.

    PubMed

    Iozzo, Patricia; Holmes, Megan; Schmidt, Mathias V; Cirulli, Francesca; Guzzardi, Maria Angela; Berry, Alessandra; Balsevich, Georgia; Andreassi, Maria Grazia; Wesselink, Jan-Jaap; Liistro, Tiziana; Gómez-Puertas, Paulino; Eriksson, Johan G; Seckl, Jonathan

    2014-01-01

    Europe has the highest proportion of elderly people in the world. Cardiovascular disease, type 2 diabetes, sarcopenia and cognitive decline frequently coexist in the same aged individual, sharing common early risk factors and being mutually reinforcing. Among conditions which may contribute to establish early risk factors, this review focuses on maternal obesity, since the epidemic of obesity involves an ever growing number of women of reproductive age and children, calling for appropriate studies to understand the consequences of maternal obesity on the offspring's health and for developing effective measures and policies to improve people's health before their conception and birth. Though the current knowledge suggests that the long-term impact of maternal obesity on the offspring's health may be substantial, the outcomes of maternal obesity over the lifespan have not been quantified, and the molecular changes induced by maternal obesity remain poorly characterized. We hypothesize that maternal insulin resistance and reduced placental glucocorticoid catabolism, leading to oxidative stress, may damage the DNA, either in its structure (telomere shortening) or in its function (via epigenetic changes), resulting in altered gene expression/repair, disease during life, and pathological ageing. This review illustrates the background to the EU-FP7-HEALTH-DORIAN project. PMID:24801105

  6. Age at menarche in relation to maternal use of tobacco, alcohol, coffee, and tea during pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Windham, Gayle C; Bottomley, Christian; Birner, Cecilie; Fenster, Laura

    2004-05-01

    To investigate the potential effects of common early life exposures on age at menarche, the authors examined data collected in a follow-up study of pregnancies that occurred during the 1960s in California. Among 994 female offspring interviewed as adolescents, 98% had started their menstrual periods at a mean age of 12.96 years. After adjustment, the mean age at menarche was a few months earlier among girls whose mothers smoked a pack or more of cigarettes daily during pregnancy compared with unexposed girls (difference = -0.22 years, 95% confidence interval (CI): -0.49, 0.05) and more so among girls who were not White (difference = -0.52 years, 95% CI: -1.1, 0.08). Girls with both high prenatal and childhood passive smoke exposure had an adjusted mean age at menarche about 4 months earlier than those unexposed. The daughter's mean age at menarche varied little by maternal prenatal alcohol consumption. Daughters of tea consumers had a later mean age (difference = 0.41 years at >/= 3 cups (0.7 liter)/day, 95% CI: 0.03, 0.80) and were more likely to start menarche later (>13 years) (odds ratio = 1.7, 95% CI: 0.91, 3.2), but daughters of coffee consumers did not. These suggestive findings, which merit further investigation, may be related to hormonal effects. PMID:15105179

  7. Associations between maternal older age, family environment and parent and child wellbeing in families using assisted reproductive techniques to conceive

    PubMed Central

    Boivin, J.; Rice, Frances; Hay, Dale; Harold, Gordon; Lewis, Allyson; van den Bree, Marianne M.B.; Thapar, Anita

    2009-01-01

    Maternal age effects on parenting and family outcomes are of increasing interest because of the demographic shift toward older maternal age at first birth. Maternal age is also of interest because of the greater use of assisted reproductive techniques (ART) to bypass age-related infertility in couples trying to conceive late in the reproductive life cycle of the woman. The aim of the present study was to investigate maternal age effects associated with delayed parenting by comparing families of mothers who gave birth at a younger (<31 years) or older (>38 years) age and to ascertain whether associations were linear associations by comparing these groups to women who had conceived in between these ages (i.e., >31 and <38 years). All children (4–11 year olds) were first-born and conceived using ART. Participants were recruited from one of 20 fertility clinics and mothers (n = 642) and fathers (n = 439) completed a postal questionnaire about demographic and reproductive characteristics, family environment as well as parent and child wellbeing. Our results demonstrate that parenthood via assisted conception later in the reproductive life cycle is not associated with a negative impact on child wellbeing. Despite maternal age-group differences on demographic (education, income) and reproductive characteristics (bleeding during pregnancy, caesarean rate, breast feeding), and parental warmth and depressive symptoms, child wellbeing was similar across mother age groups. We conclude that the parenting context is different for older mother families (more depressive symptoms in mothers and fathers, less expressed warmth in the couple) but that this difference is not associated with child wellbeing in early and middle childhood. PMID:19346045

  8. Maternal age effects on myometrial expression of contractile proteins, uterine gene expression, and contractile activity during labor in the rat

    PubMed Central

    Elmes, Matthew; Szyszka, Alexandra; Pauliat, Caroline; Clifford, Bethan; Daniel, Zoe; Cheng, Zhangrui; Wathes, Claire; McMullen, Sarah

    2015-01-01

    Advanced maternal age of first time pregnant mothers is associated with prolonged and dysfunctional labor and significant risk of emergency cesarean section. We investigated the influence of maternal age on myometrial contractility, expression of contractile associated proteins (CAPs), and global gene expression in the parturient uterus. Female Wistar rats either 8 (YOUNG n = 10) or 24 (OLDER n = 10) weeks old were fed laboratory chow, mated, and killed during parturition. Myometrial strips were dissected to determine contractile activity, cholesterol (CHOL) and triglycerides (TAG) content, protein expression of connexin-43 (GJA1), prostaglandin-endoperoxide synthase 2 (PTGS2), and caveolin 1 (CAV-1). Maternal plasma concentrations of prostaglandins PGE2, PGF2?, and progesterone were determined by RIA. Global gene expression in uterine samples was compared using Affymetrix Genechip Gene 2.0 ST arrays and Ingenuity Pathway analysis (IPA). Spontaneous contractility in myometrium exhibited by YOUNG rats was threefold greater than OLDER animals (P < 0.027) but maternal age had no significant effect on myometrial CAP expression, lipid profiles, or pregnancy-related hormones. OLDER myometrium increased contractile activity in response to PGF2?, phenylephrine, and carbachol, a response absent in YOUNG rats (all P < 0.002). Microarray analysis identified that maternal age affected expression of genes related to immune and inflammatory responses, lipid transport and metabolism, steroid metabolism, tissue remodeling, and smooth muscle contraction. In conclusion YOUNG laboring rat myometrium seems primed to contract maximally, whereas activity is blunted in OLDER animals and requires stimulation to meet contractile potential. Further work investigating maternal age effects on myometrial function is required with focus on lipid metabolism and inflammatory pathways. PMID:25876907

  9. Does Maternal Prenatal Stress Adversely Affect the Child's Learning and Memory at Age Six?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gutteling, Barbara M.; de Weerth, Carolina; Zandbelt, Noortje; Mulder, Eduard J. H.; Visser, Gerard H. A.; Buitelaar, Jan K.

    2006-01-01

    Prenatal maternal stress has been shown to affect postnatal development in animals and humans. In animals, the morphology and function of the offspring's hippocampus is negatively affected by prenatal maternal stress. The present study prospectively investigated the influence of prenatal maternal stress on learning and memory of 112 children (50…

  10. Associations between maternal prepregnancy body mass index and child neurodevelopment at 2 years of age

    PubMed Central

    Hinkle, SN.; Schieve, LA.; Stein, AD.; Swan, DW.; Ramakrishnan, U.; Sharma, AJ.

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Both underweight and obese mothers have an increased risk for adverse offspring outcomes. Few studies have examined the association between prepregnancy body mass index (BMI) and children’s neurodevelopment. SUBJECTS We used data from the nationally representative Early Childhood Longitudinal Study-Birth Cohort (ECLS-B; n =6850). Children were classified according to their mother’s prepregnancy BMI (kg m?2) status: underweight (BMI <18.5), normal weight (BMI 18.5–24.9), overweight (BMI 25.0–29.9), obese class I (BMI 30.0–34.9), and obese class II and III (BMI ?35.0). Children’s age-adjusted mental development index (MDI) and psychomotor development index (PDI) T-scores (mean 50, s.d. 10) were obtained using a validated shortened version of the Bayley Scales of Infant Development-II at approximately 2 years of age. While adjusting for sociodemographics, we estimated the average MDI and PDI scores or the risk of delayed (< ?1 s.d. vs >1 s.d.) mental or motor development, relative to children of normal weight mothers. RESULTS Compared with children of normal weight mothers, MDI scores were lower among children of mothers of all other prepregnancy BMI categories, with the greatest adjusted difference among children of class II and III obese mothers (?2.13 (95% CI ?3.32, ?0.93)). The adjusted risk of delayed mental development was increased among children of underweight (risk ratio (RR) 1.36 (95% CI 1.04, 1.78)) and class II and III obese (RR 1.38 (95% CI 1.03, 1.84)) mothers. Children’s PDI scores or motor delay did not differ by maternal prepregnancy BMI. CONCLUSION In this nationally representative sample of 2-year-old US children, low and very-high maternal prepregnancy BMI were associated with increased risk of delayed mental development but not motor development. PMID:22964791

  11. Effects of maternal education on diet, anemia, and iron deficiency in Korean school-aged children

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background We investigated the relationship among socioeconomic status factors, the risk of anemia, and iron deficiency among school-aged children in Korea. Methods The sample consisted of fourth-grade students aged 10 y recruited from nine elementary schools in Korean urban areas in 2008 (n = 717). Anthropometric and blood biochemistry data were obtained for this cross-sectional observational study. Anemia was defined as hemoglobin levels lower than 11.5 g/dl. Iron deficiency was defined as serum iron levels lower than 40 ug/dl. We also obtained data on parental education from questionnaires and on children's diets from 3-day food diaries. Parental education was categorized as low or high, with the latter representing an educational level beyond high school. Results Children with more educated mothers were less likely to develop anemia (P = 0.0324) and iron deficiency (P = 0.0577) than were those with less educated mothers. This group consumed more protein (P = 0.0004) and iron (P = 0.0012) from animal sources than did the children of less educated mothers, as reflected by their greater consumption of meat, poultry, and derivatives (P < 0.0001). Logistic regression analysis revealed a significant inverse relationship between maternal education and the prevalence of anemia (odds ratio: 0.52; 95% confidence interval: 0.32, 0.85). Conclusions As a contributor to socioeconomic status, maternal education is important in reducing the risk of anemia and iron deficiency and in increasing children's consumption of animal food sources. PMID:22087564

  12. Trends in maternal age distribution and the live birth prevalence of Down's syndrome in England and Wales: 1938–2010

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Jianhua; Morris, Joan K

    2013-01-01

    There have been concerns about the effects of increases in maternal age since the 1980s on the prevalence of Down's syndrome. This study examined changes in the distribution of maternal age in England and Wales from 1938 to 2010. The live birth prevalence of Down's syndrome in the absence of screening and subsequent termination was estimated using the numbers of babies born in England and Wales according to maternal age and the maternal age-related risk of a birth with Down's syndrome. The proportion of women age 35 years or older at the time of giving birth reached a peak of 20% in 1945, declined to 5.5% in 1977 and rose to 20% in 2007. In the absence of screening and subsequent termination, the estimated live birth prevalence of Down's syndrome would have mirrored these changes (2.3 per 1000 births in 1945, 1.2 per 1000 in 1976 and 2.2 per 1000 in 2007). The observed live birth prevalence (recorded by the National Down Syndrome Cytogenetic Register) was1.0 per 1000 from 1989 to 2010, due to screening and subsequent termination. In conclusion since the 1980s there has been an increase in the mean maternal age and in the expected prevalence of Down's syndrome. When put in a longer historical context the current expected live birth prevalence is similar to that in the 1940s and the observed live birth prevalence is about 54% less than expected, due to screening and subsequent termination, and has remained reasonably constant since 1989 at 1.0 per 1000 births. PMID:23361224

  13. Maternal but not paternal fat mass is positively associated with infant fat mass at age 2 weeks

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Maternal programming of fetal metabolism has been demonstrated in animal studies, while clinical studies have shown an association between pre-pregnancy body mass index (BMI) and anthropometric measures in infants. Here we report on the association between infant body composition at age 2 weeks and ...

  14. The Effects of Age and Infant Hearing Status on Maternal Use of Prosodic Cues for Clause Boundaries in Speech

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kondaurova, Maria V.; Bergeson, Tonya R.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: The present study examined the effects of age and hearing status of a child on maternal use of pitch change, preboundary vowel lengthening, and pause duration, all of which are prosodic cues correlated with clause boundaries in infant-directed speech. Method: Mothers' speech to infants with normal hearing (NH; n = 18), infants who are…

  15. On the origin of the maternal age effect in trisomy 21 Down syndrome: the Oocyte Mosaicism Selection model.

    PubMed

    Hultén, Maj A; Patel, Suketu; Jonasson, Jon; Iwarsson, Erik

    2010-01-01

    We have recently documented that trisomy 21 mosaicism is common in human foetal ovaries. On the basis of this observation we propose that the maternal age effect in Down syndrome (DS) is caused by the differential behaviour of trisomy 21 in relation to disomy 21 oocytes during development from foetal life until ovulation in adulthood. In particular, we suggest that trisomy 21 oocytes, lagging behind those that are disomic, may escape the timed pruning of the seven million in foetal life to the 300-400 finally selected for ovulation. The net effect of this preferential elimination will be an accumulation of trisomy 21 oocytes in the ovarian reserve of older women. We here highlight the implications of this Oocyte Mosaicism Selection (OMS) model with respect to the prevalent view that the maternal age effect is complex, dependent on many different biological and environmental factors. We examine conclusions drawn from recent large-scale studies in families, tracing DNA markers along the length of chromosome 21q between parents and DS children, in comparison to the OMS model. We conclude that these family linkage data are equally compatible with the maternal age effect originating from the accumulation of trisomy 21 oocytes with advancing maternal age. One relatively straightforward way to get to grips with what is actually going on in this regard would be to compare incidence of trisomy 21 oocytes (and their pairing configurations) in foetal ovaries with that in oocytes at the meiosis I stage from adult women. PMID:19755486

  16. Mother-preterm infant interactions at 3 months of corrected age: influence of maternal depression, anxiety and neonatal birth weight

    PubMed Central

    Neri, Erica; Agostini, Francesca; Salvatori, Paola; Biasini, Augusto; Monti, Fiorella

    2015-01-01

    Maternal depression and anxiety represent risk factors for the quality of early mother-preterm infant interactions, especially in the case of preterm birth. Despite the presence of many studies on this topic, the comorbidity of depressive and anxious symptoms has not been sufficiently investigated, as well as their relationship with the severity of prematurity and the quality of early interactions. The Aim of this study was to evaluate the quality of early mother-infant interactions and the prevalence of maternal depression and anxiety comparing dyads of extremely low birth weight (ELBW) and very low birth weight (VLBW) preterm infants with full-term ones. Seventy seven preterm infants (32 ELBW; 45 VLBW) and 120 full term (FT) infants and their mothers were recruited. At 3 months of corrected age, 5 min of mother-infant interactions were recorded and later coded through the Global Ratings Scales. Mothers completed the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale and Penn State Worry Questionnaire. Infant levels of development were assessed through the Griffiths Mental Development Scales. A relation emerged among the severity of prematurity, depression, anxiety, and the quality of interactions. When compared with the FT group, the ELBW interactions were characterized by high maternal intrusiveness and low remoteness, while the VLBW dyads showed high levels of maternal sensitivity and infant communication. Depression was related to maternal remoteness and negative affective state, anxiety to low sensitivity, while infant interactive behaviors were impaired only in case of comorbidity. ELBW’s mothers showed the highest prevalence of depressive and anxious symptoms; moreover, only in FT dyads, low maternal sensitivity, negative affective state and minor infant communication were associated to the presence of anxious symptoms. The results confirmed the impact of prematurity on mother–infant interactions and on maternal affective state. Early diagnosis can help to plan supportive interventions. PMID:26388792

  17. The association between advanced maternal and paternal ages and increased adult mortality is explained by early parental loss.

    PubMed

    Myrskylä, Mikko; Elo, Irma T; Kohler, Iliana V; Martikainen, Pekka

    2014-10-01

    The association between advanced maternal and paternal ages at birth and increased mortality among adult offspring is often attributed to parental reproductive aging, e.g., declining oocyte or sperm quality. Less attention has been paid to alternative mechanisms, including parental socio-demographic characteristics or the timing of parental death. Moreover, it is not known if the parental age-adult mortality association is mediated by socioeconomic attainment of the children, or if it varies over the lifecourse of the adult children. We used register-based data drawn from the Finnish 1950 census (sample size 89,737; mortality follow-up 1971-2008) and discrete-time survival regression with logit link to analyze these alternative mechanisms in the parental age-offspring mortality association when the children were aged 35-49 and 50-72. Consistent with prior literature, we found that adult children of older parents had increased mortality relative to adults whose parents were aged 25-29 at the time of birth. For example, maternal and paternal ages 40-49 were associated with mortality odds ratios (ORs) of 1.31 (p<.001) and 1.22 (p<.01), respectively, for offspring mortality at ages 35-49. At ages 50-72 advanced parental age also predicted higher mortality, though not as strongly. Adjustment for parental socio-demographic characteristics (education, occupation, family size, household crowding, language) weakened the associations only slightly. Adjustment for parental survival, measured by whether the parents were alive when the child reached age 35, reduced the advanced parental age coefficients substantially and to statistically insignificant levels. These results indicate that the mechanism behind the advanced parental age-adult offspring mortality association is mainly social, reflecting early parental loss and parental characteristics, rather than physiological mechanisms reflecting reproductive aging. PMID:24997641

  18. Genetic moderation of effects of maternal sensitivity on girl's age of menarche: Replication of the Manuck et al. study.

    PubMed

    Hartman, Sarah; Widaman, Keith F; Belsky, Jay

    2015-08-01

    Manuck, Craig, Flory, Halder, and Ferrell (2011) reported that a theoretically anticipated effect of family rearing on girls' menarcheal age was genetically moderated by two single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of the estrogen receptor-? gene. We sought to replicate and extend these findings, studying 210 White females followed from birth. The replication was general because a different measure of the rearing environment was used in this inquiry (i.e., maternal sensitivity) than in the prior one (i.e., family cohesion). Extensions of the work included prospective rather than retrospective measurements of the rearing environment, reports of first menstruation within a year of its occurrence rather than decades later, accounting for some heritability of menarcheal age by controlling for maternal age of menarche, and using a new model-fitting approach to competitively compare diathesis-stress versus differential-susceptibility models of Gene × Environment interaction. The replication/extension effort proved successful in the case of both estrogen receptor-? SNPs, with the Gene × Environment interactions principally reflecting diathesis-stress: lower levels of maternal sensitivity predicted earlier age of menarche for girls homozygous for the minor alleles of either SNP but not for girls carrying other genotypes. Results are discussed in light of the new analytic methods adopted. PMID:25195863

  19. Predicting Elements of Early Maternal Elaborative Discourse from 12 to 18 Months of Age

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ontai, Lenna L.; Virmani, Elita Amini

    2010-01-01

    To date, much of the research investigating maternal-child discourse has focused on the preschool period of children's development, with little attention paid to how these styles develop. The current study aimed to assess whether maternal elaborative discourse elements seen in preschool are also evident during the toddler years, and whether the…

  20. Are Maternal Genitourinary Infection and Pre-Eclampsia Associated with ADHD in School-Aged Children?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mann, Joshua R.; McDermott, Suzanne

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the hypothesis that maternal genitourinary infection (GU) infection is associated with increased risk of ADHD. Method: The authors obtained linked Medicaid billing data for pregnant women and their children in South Carolina, with births from 1996 through 2002 and follow-up data through 2008. Maternal GU infections and…

  1. Maternal Psychological Distress during Pregnancy in Relation to Child Development at Age Two

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DiPietro, Janet A.; Novak, Matthew F. S. X.; Costigan, Kathleen A.; Atella, Lara D.; Reusing, Sarah P.

    2006-01-01

    Concern exists that a constellation of negative maternal emotions during pregnancy generates persistent negative consequences for child development. Maternal reports of anxiety, pregnancy-specific and nonspecific stress, and depressive symptoms were collected during mid-pregnancy and at 6 weeks and 24 months after birth in a sample of healthy…

  2. Prenatal maternal stress predicts stress reactivity at 2½ years of age: the Iowa Flood Study.

    PubMed

    Yong Ping, Erin; Laplante, David P; Elgbeili, Guillaume; Hillerer, Katharina M; Brunet, Alain; O'Hara, Michael W; King, Suzanne

    2015-06-01

    Prenatal maternal stress (PNMS) predicts psychosocial development in offspring. It has been hypothesized that during PNMS, glucocorticoids pass the placenta, reaching the foetus, leading to a long-term reprogramming and dysregulation of the foetal hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis. However, results are inconsistent across PNMS studies. One problem may be the confounding of objective degrees of hardship due to the stressor and subjective degrees of distress in the mother. The present study investigated the association between objective and subjective PNMS due to a natural disaster, the June 2008 Iowa floods, and stress reactivity in the offspring at 2½ years of age. Women who were pregnant during the floods were recruited, on average, within three months of the floods and their stress levels assessed. Mothers and their toddlers (n = 94 dyads) participated in a brief mother-toddler separation to induce physiological stress responses in the offspring. Salivary cortisol samples were collected four times during the procedure. We computed absolute change in cortisol (baseline to 20-minute post-stressor; baseline to 45-minute post-stressor) and Area Under the Curve with respect to increase and ground (AUCi; AUCg). Objective and subjective PNMS were positively correlated with AUCi, as was timing in gestation: the later in pregnancy the exposure occurred, the greater the cortisol increase. Controlling for objective hardship and other covariates, sex-by-subjective PNMS interactions showed a significant and positive association between subjective PNMS and Absolute Increase (45 min) and AUCi in females only, with little effect in males. These results suggest that PNMS leads to long-term alterations in the functioning of the HPA axis, evident as early as 30-months of age. PMID:25800150

  3. Maternal age effect and severe germ-line bottleneck in the inheritance of human mitochondrial DNA

    PubMed Central

    Rebolledo-Jaramillo, Boris; Su, Marcia Shu-Wei; Stoler, Nicholas; McElhoe, Jennifer A.; Dickins, Benjamin; Blankenberg, Daniel; Chiaromonte, Francesca; Nielsen, Rasmus; Holland, Mitchell M.; Paul, Ian M.; Nekrutenko, Anton; Makova, Kateryna D.

    2014-01-01

    The manifestation of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) diseases depends on the frequency of heteroplasmy (the presence of several alleles in an individual), yet its transmission across generations cannot be readily predicted owing to a lack of data on the size of the mtDNA bottleneck during oogenesis. For deleterious heteroplasmies, a severe bottleneck may abruptly transform a benign (low) frequency in a mother into a disease-causing (high) frequency in her child. Here we present a high-resolution study of heteroplasmy transmission conducted on blood and buccal mtDNA of 39 healthy mother–child pairs of European ancestry (a total of 156 samples, each sequenced at ?20,000× per site). On average, each individual carried one heteroplasmy, and one in eight individuals carried a disease-associated heteroplasmy, with minor allele frequency ?1%. We observed frequent drastic heteroplasmy frequency shifts between generations and estimated the effective size of the germ-line mtDNA bottleneck at only ?30–35 (interquartile range from 9 to 141). Accounting for heteroplasmies, we estimated the mtDNA germ-line mutation rate at 1.3 × 10?8 (interquartile range from 4.2 × 10?9 to 4.1 × 10?8) mutations per site per year, an order of magnitude higher than for nuclear DNA. Notably, we found a positive association between the number of heteroplasmies in a child and maternal age at fertilization, likely attributable to oocyte aging. This study also took advantage of droplet digital PCR (ddPCR) to validate heteroplasmies and confirm a de novo mutation. Our results can be used to predict the transmission of disease-causing mtDNA variants and illuminate evolutionary dynamics of the mitochondrial genome. PMID:25313049

  4. Maternal age effect and severe germ-line bottleneck in the inheritance of human mitochondrial DNA.

    PubMed

    Rebolledo-Jaramillo, Boris; Su, Marcia Shu-Wei; Stoler, Nicholas; McElhoe, Jennifer A; Dickins, Benjamin; Blankenberg, Daniel; Korneliussen, Thorfinn S; Chiaromonte, Francesca; Nielsen, Rasmus; Holland, Mitchell M; Paul, Ian M; Nekrutenko, Anton; Makova, Kateryna D

    2014-10-28

    The manifestation of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) diseases depends on the frequency of heteroplasmy (the presence of several alleles in an individual), yet its transmission across generations cannot be readily predicted owing to a lack of data on the size of the mtDNA bottleneck during oogenesis. For deleterious heteroplasmies, a severe bottleneck may abruptly transform a benign (low) frequency in a mother into a disease-causing (high) frequency in her child. Here we present a high-resolution study of heteroplasmy transmission conducted on blood and buccal mtDNA of 39 healthy mother-child pairs of European ancestry (a total of 156 samples, each sequenced at ?20,000× per site). On average, each individual carried one heteroplasmy, and one in eight individuals carried a disease-associated heteroplasmy, with minor allele frequency ?1%. We observed frequent drastic heteroplasmy frequency shifts between generations and estimated the effective size of the germ-line mtDNA bottleneck at only ?30-35 (interquartile range from 9 to 141). Accounting for heteroplasmies, we estimated the mtDNA germ-line mutation rate at 1.3 × 10(-8) (interquartile range from 4.2 × 10(-9) to 4.1 × 10(-8)) mutations per site per year, an order of magnitude higher than for nuclear DNA. Notably, we found a positive association between the number of heteroplasmies in a child and maternal age at fertilization, likely attributable to oocyte aging. This study also took advantage of droplet digital PCR (ddPCR) to validate heteroplasmies and confirm a de novo mutation. Our results can be used to predict the transmission of disease-causing mtDNA variants and illuminate evolutionary dynamics of the mitochondrial genome. PMID:25313049

  5. The Evaluation of the Effects of Paternal and Maternal Silent Coeliac Disease on Birthweight and Gestational Age in Newborns

    PubMed Central

    Kahveci, H; Turan, MI; Cayir, A; Laloglu, F; Ertekin, V; Orbak, Z

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objective: Coeliac disease is a chronic disease and is common all over the world. It has many other associated systemic side effects. This study investigated the effect of paternal and maternal silent coeliac disease on birthweight and gestational age in newborns. Methods: The study group consisted of 81 newborns who were hospitalized for prematurity or term-intrauterine growth retardation. The parents of premature and/or small for gestational age babies born with coeliac disease-specific antigens were investigated. Results: The differences were not statistically significant in fathers' tissue transglutaminase levels between premature appropriate gestational age, premature small gestational age and term small gestational age infants (p > 0.05), but statistically significant in mothers (p < 0.05). Conclusions: Silent coeliac disease may occur in parents, especially in mothers of preterm and small for gestational age infants, even in the absence of apparent clinical indications. PMID:25781285

  6. Effect of age and maternal antibodies on the systemic and mucosal immune response after neonatal immunization in a porcine model.

    PubMed

    Guzman-Bautista, Edgar R; Garcia-Ruiz, Carlos E; Gama-Espinosa, Alicia l; Ramirez-Estudillo, Carmen; Rojas-Gomez, Oscar I; Vega-Lopez, Marco A

    2014-04-01

    Newborn mammals are highly susceptible to respiratory infections. Although maternal antibodies (MatAb) offer them some protection, they may also interfere with their systemic immune response to vaccination. However, the impact of MatAb on the neonatal mucosal immune response remains incompletely described. This study was performed to determine the effect of ovalbumin (OVA) -specific MatAb on the anti- OVA antibody response in sera, nasal secretions and saliva from specific pathogen-free Vietnamese miniature piglets immunized at 7 or 14 days of age. Our results demonstrated that MatAb increased antigen-specific IgA and IgG responses in sera, and transiently enhanced an early secretory IgA response in nasal secretions of piglets immunized at 7 days of age. In contrast, we detected a lower mucosal (nasal secretion and saliva) anti- OVA IgG response in piglets with MatAb immunized at 14 days of age, compared with piglets with no MatAb, suggesting a modulatory effect of antigen-specific maternal factors on the isotype transfer to the mucosal immune exclusion system. In our porcine model, we demonstrated that passive maternal immunity positively modulated the systemic and nasal immune responses of animals immunized early in life. Our results, therefore, open the possibility of inducing systemic and respiratory mucosal immunity in the presence of MatAb through early vaccination. PMID:24754050

  7. Six year survey of screening for Down's syndrome by maternal age and mid-trimester ultrasound scans

    PubMed Central

    Howe, David T; Gornall, Robert; Wellesley, Diana; Boyle, Tracy; Barber, John

    2000-01-01

    Objective To assess the effectiveness of antenatal screening for Down's syndrome by maternal age and routine mid-pregnancy ultrasound scanning. Design Retrospective six year survey. Setting Maternity units of a district general hospital. Subjects Pregnant women booked for delivery in hospital between 1 January 1993 and 31 December 1998. Main outcome measures All cases of Down's syndrome occurring in district identified from regional congenital anomaly register and cytogenetic laboratory records. Women's case notes were examined to identify indication for karyotyping, gestation at diagnosis, and outcome of pregnancy. Results 31?259 deliveries occurred during study period, and 57 cases of Down's syndrome were identified, four in failed pregnancies and 53 in ongoing pregnancies or in neonates. The analysis was confined to ongoing pregnancies or liveborn children. Invasive antenatal tests were performed in 6.6% (2053/31?259), and 68% (95% confidence interval 56% to 80%) of cases of Down's syndrome were detected antenatally, giving a positive predictive value of 1.8%. There were 17 undetected cases, and in seven of these the women had declined an offer of invasive testing. In women aged less than 35 years the detection rate was 53% (30% to 76%). Most of the cases detected in younger women followed identification of ultrasound anomalies. Conclusions The overall detection rate was considerably higher than assumed in demonstration projects for serum screening. As a result, the benefits of serum screening are much less than supposed. Before any new methods to identify Down's syndrome are introduced, such as nuchal translucency or first trimester serum screening, the techniques should be tested in properly controlled trials. Key messagesSerum screening for Down's syndrome has never been compared with screening by maternal age in a controlled trialThis study examined the effectiveness of screening by maternal age in combination with mid-trimester ultrasound scanningThe overall detection rate was 68%, considerably more effective than assumed in demonstration projects of serum screeningThe benefits of serum screening, compared with screening by maternal age in conjunction with routine fetal anomaly scanning, may be much less than supposedA higher standard of evidence should be demanded before proposed new screening methods are adopted PMID:10698877

  8. Maternal Caffeine Intake During Pregnancy and Child Cognition and Behavior at 4 and 7 Years of Age.

    PubMed

    Klebanoff, Mark A; Keim, Sarah A

    2015-12-15

    Although caffeine is commonly consumed during pregnancy, there are few reports on the association of in utero caffeine exposure with offspring cognition or behavior during childhood. We evaluated the association of maternal serum paraxanthine, caffeine's primary metabolite, at <20 and ?26 weeks' gestation with the child's intelligence quotient (IQ) and problem behaviors at ages 4 and 7 years among 2,197 mother-child pairs. The mothers were controls from a case-control study of caffeine metabolites and spontaneous abortion that was nested within the Collaborative Perinatal Project (multiple US sites, 1959-1974). Associations of paraxanthine (adjusted for maternal age, race, education, smoking, prepregnancy weight, gestational age at blood draw, and child sex) with mean IQ were assessed by linear regression and associations with problem behaviors by logistic regression. Paraxanthine concentration at ?26 weeks' gestation manifested an inverted-J-shaped association with child's IQ at age 7 years, with a peak difference (vs. undetectable) of 0.65 points at 750 µg/L (66th percentile) and a decrement thereafter. Paraxanthine at <20 weeks was linearly associated with internalizing behavior at age 4 years (for a 500-µg/L increase, odds ratio = 1.3, 95% confidence interval: 1.1, 1.5). None of the remaining 12 associations approached statistical significance. We conclude that over a range of values applicable to most pregnant women, there was no meaningful association of serum paraxanthine level with childhood IQ or problem behaviors. PMID:26585526

  9. Preterm Birth in the United States: The Impact of Stressful Life Events Prior to Conception and Maternal Age

    PubMed Central

    Witt, Whitney P.; Cheng, Erika R.; Wisk, Lauren E.; Litzelman, Kristin; Chatterjee, Debanjana; Mandell, Kara; Wakeel, Fathima

    2014-01-01

    Objectives We determined whether and to what extent a woman’s exposure to stressful life events prior to conception (PSLEs) was associated with preterm birth and whether maternal age modified this relationship. Methods We examined 9350 mothers and infants participating in the first wave of the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study, Birth Cohort, a nationally representative sample of US women and children born in 2001, to investigate the impact of PSLEs on preterm birth in the United States. We estimated the effect of exposure on preterm birth with weighted logistic regression, adjusting for maternal sociodemographic and health factors and stress during pregnancy. Results Of the women examined, 10.9% had a preterm birth. In adjusted analyses, women aged 15 to 19 years who experienced any PSLE had over a 4-fold increased risk for having a preterm birth. This association differed on the basis of the timing of the PSLE. Conclusions Findings suggest that adolescence may be a sensitive period for the risk of preterm birth among adolescents exposed to PSLEs. Clinical, programmatic, and policy interventions should address upstream PSLEs, especially for adolescents, to reduce the prevalence of preterm birth and improve maternal and child health. PMID:24354830

  10. Median artery revisited.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Niedenführ, M; Sañudo, J R; Vázquez, T; Nearn, L; Logan, B; Parkin, I

    1999-07-01

    This study confirms that the median artery may persist in adult life in 2 different patterns, palmar and antebrachial, based on their vascular territory. The palmar type, which represents the embryonic pattern, is large, long and reaches the palm. The antebrachial type,which represents a partial regression of the embryonic artery is slender, short, and terminates before reaching the wrist. These 2 arterial patterns appear with a different incidence. The palmar pattern was studied in the whole sample (120 cadavers) and had an incidence of 20%, being more frequent in females than in males (1.3:1), occurring unilaterally more often than bilaterally (4:1) and slightly more frequently on the right than on the left (1.1:1). The antebrachial pattern was studied in only 79 cadavers and had an incidence of 76%, being more frequent in females than in males (1.6:1); it was commoner unilaterally than bilaterally (1.5:1) and was again slightly more prevalent on the right than on the left (1.2:1). The origin of the median artery was variable in both patterns. The palmar type most frequently arose from the caudal angle between the ulnar artery and its common interosseous trunk (59%). The antebrachial pattern most frequently originated from the anterior interosseous artery (55%). Other origins, for both patterns, were from the ulnar artery or from the common interosseous trunk. The median artery in the antebrachial pattern terminated in the upper third (74%) or in the distal third of the forearm (26%). However, the palmar pattern ended as the 1st, 2nd or 1st and 2nd common digital arteries (65%) or joined the superficial palmar arch (35%). The median artery passed either anterior (67%) or posterior (25%) to the anterior interosseous nerve. It pierced the median nerve in the upper third of the forearm in 41% of cases with the palmar pattern and in none of the antebrachial cases. In 1 case the artery pierced both the anterior interosseous and median nerves. PMID:10473293

  11. Effect of mercuric acetate on selected enzymes of maternal and fetal hamsters at different gestational ages

    SciTech Connect

    Karp, W.B.; Gale, T.F.; Subramanyam, S.B.; DuRant, R.H.

    1985-04-01

    This study establishes levels of activity of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD), glycogen phosphorlyase (GP), and cytochrome c oxidase (cyt c ox) in maternal, placental, and fetal tissues at Days 9, 12, and 15 in the 16-day gestation period of the hamster, and following a single dose of either 8 or 15 mg/kg mercuric acetate on the eighth gestational day. Mercury significantly elevated maternal kidney G6PD activity and decreased GP activity. The increase in kidney G6PD strongly correlated with observed urine and kidney abnormalities.

  12. High maternal cortisol levels during pregnancy are associated with more psychiatric symptoms in offspring at age of nine - A prospective study from Nicaragua.

    PubMed

    Isaksson, J; Lindblad, F; Valladares, E; Högberg, U

    2015-12-01

    Maternal exposure to stress or adversity during pregnancy has been associated with negative health effects for the offspring including psychiatric symptoms. Programming of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis has been suggested as one mediating process. In order to investigate possible long term effects of stressors during pregnancy, we followed 70 children and their mothers from pregnancy up to nine years aiming to investigate if maternal cortisol levels and distress/exposure to partner violence were associated with child psychiatric symptoms and child cortisol levels at follow-up. Maternal distress was evaluated using The Self Reporting Questionnaire, exposure to partner violence by an instrument from WHO and child psychiatric symptoms with Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL). We adjusted the analyses for gestational week, gender, SES, perinatal data and maternal distress/exposure to partner violence at child age of nine years. Elevated maternal cortisol levels during pregnancy, as a possible marker of maternal stress load, were correlated with higher CBCL-ratings, especially concerning externalizing symptoms. Maternal cortisol levels during pregnancy were not associated with child cortisol levels at child age of nine years. Maternal distress and exposure to partner violence during pregnancy were neither associated with child psychiatric symptoms nor child cortisol levels. To conclude, intrauterine exposure to elevated cortisol levels was associated with higher ratings on offspring psychopathology at nine years of age. The lack of association between maternal cortisol levels during pregnancy and child cortisol levels does not support the hypothesis of fetal programming of the HPA-axis, but reliability problems may have contributed to this negative finding. PMID:26458013

  13. Functional Play at 2 Years of Age: Effects of Prenatal Maternal Stress

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laplante, David P.; Zelazo, Philip R.; Brunet, Alain; King, Suzanne

    2007-01-01

    Toddler toy play evolves in a predictable manner and provides a valid, nonverbal measure of cognitive function unbiased by social behaviors. Research on prenatal maternal stress (PNMS) indicates that exposure to stress in utero results in developmental deficits. We hypothesized that children exposed to high objective PNMS from a natural disaster…

  14. Behavior Problems at 5 Years of Age and Maternal Mental Health in Autism and Intellectual Disability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Totsika, Vasiliki; Hastings, Richard P.; Emerson, Eric; Berridge, Damon M.; Lancaster, Gillian A.

    2011-01-01

    We examined child behavior problems and maternal mental health in a British population-representative sample of 5 year-old children with an autism spectrum disorder (ASD), controlling for the presence of an intellectual disability (ID). Behavior problems were significantly higher in children with ASD with/out ID compared to typically developing…

  15. Multiple meiotic errors caused by predivision of chromatids in women of advanced maternal age undergoing in vitro fertilisation

    PubMed Central

    Handyside, Alan H; Montag, Markus; Magli, M Cristina; Repping, Sjoerd; Harper, Joyce; Schmutzler, Andreas; Vesela, Katerina; Gianaroli, Luca; Geraedts, Joep

    2012-01-01

    Chromosome aneuploidy is a major cause of pregnancy loss, abnormal pregnancy and live births following both natural conception and in vitro fertilisation (IVF) and increases exponentially with maternal age in the decade preceding the menopause. Molecular genetic analysis following natural conception and spontaneous miscarriage demonstrates that trisomies arise mainly in female meiosis and particularly in the first meiotic division. Here, we studied copy number gains and losses for all chromosomes in the two by-products of female meiosis, the first and second polar bodies, and the corresponding zygotes in women of advanced maternal age undergoing IVF, using microarray comparative genomic hybridisation (array CGH). Analysis of the segregation patterns underlying the copy number changes reveals that premature predivision of chromatids rather than non-disjunction of whole chromosomes causes almost all errors in the first meiotic division and unlike natural conception, over half of aneuploidies result from errors in the second meiotic division. Furthermore, most abnormal zygotes had multiple aneuploidies. These differences in the aetiology of aneuploidy in IVF compared with natural conception may indicate a role for ovarian stimulation in perturbing meiosis in ageing oocytes. PMID:22317970

  16. No associations of prenatal maternal psychosocial stress with fasting glucose metabolism in offspring at 5-6 years of age.

    PubMed

    van Dijk, A E; van Eijsden, M; Stronks, K; Gemke, R J B J; Vrijkotte, T G M

    2014-06-20

    Highly prevalent maternal psychosocial complaints are accompanied by increases in glucocorticoid stress hormones, which may predispose the offspring for type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease later in adulthood. The aim of the current research is to study whether prenatal maternal psychosocial stress is associated with parameters of blood glucose metabolism in their children aged 5-6 years. The study design was a prospective birth cohort (the Amsterdam Born Children and their Development study, the Netherlands). Depressive symptoms, pregnancy-related anxiety, parenting daily hassles and job strain were recorded by questionnaire (gestational week 16). A cumulative score was also calculated. Possible sex differences in the associations were considered. The subjects were 1952 mother-child pairs. Outcome measures were fasting glucose (n=1952), C-peptide and insulin resistance (HOMA2-IR) (n=1478) in the children at the age of 5-6 years. The stress scales, single and cumulative, were not associated with glucose/C-peptide/insulin resistance (all P>0.05). We did not find evidence for sex differences. In conclusion, we did not find evidence for an association between psychosocial stress during early pregnancy and parameters of glucose metabolism in offspring at the age of 5-6 years. Differences emerging later in life or in response to a metabolic challenge should not be ruled out. PMID:25081574

  17. Crucifixion and median neuropathy

    PubMed Central

    Regan, Jacqueline M; Shahlaie, Kiarash; Watson, Joseph C

    2013-01-01

    Crucifixion as a means of torture and execution was first developed in the 6th century B.C. and remained popular for over 1000 years. Details of the practice, which claimed hundreds of thousands of lives, have intrigued scholars as historical records and archaeological findings from the era are limited. As a result, various aspects of crucifixion, including the type of crosses used, methods of securing victims to crosses, the length of time victims survived on the cross, and the exact mechanisms of death, remain topics of debate. One aspect of crucifixion not previously explored in detail is the characteristic hand posture often depicted in artistic renditions of crucifixion. In this posture, the hand is clenched in a peculiar and characteristic fashion: there is complete failure of flexion of the thumb and index finger with partial failure of flexion of the middle finger. Such a “crucified clench” is depicted across different cultures and from different eras. A review of crucifixion history and techniques, median nerve anatomy and function, and the historical artistic depiction of crucifixion was performed to support the hypothesis that the “crucified clench” results from proximal median neuropathy due to positioning on the cross, rather than from direct trauma of impalement of the hand or wrist. PMID:23785656

  18. Crucifixion and median neuropathy.

    PubMed

    Regan, Jacqueline M; Shahlaie, Kiarash; Watson, Joseph C

    2013-05-01

    Crucifixion as a means of torture and execution was first developed in the 6th century B.C. and remained popular for over 1000 years. Details of the practice, which claimed hundreds of thousands of lives, have intrigued scholars as historical records and archaeological findings from the era are limited. As a result, various aspects of crucifixion, including the type of crosses used, methods of securing victims to crosses, the length of time victims survived on the cross, and the exact mechanisms of death, remain topics of debate. One aspect of crucifixion not previously explored in detail is the characteristic hand posture often depicted in artistic renditions of crucifixion. In this posture, the hand is clenched in a peculiar and characteristic fashion: there is complete failure of flexion of the thumb and index finger with partial failure of flexion of the middle finger. Such a "crucified clench" is depicted across different cultures and from different eras. A review of crucifixion history and techniques, median nerve anatomy and function, and the historical artistic depiction of crucifixion was performed to support the hypothesis that the "crucified clench" results from proximal median neuropathy due to positioning on the cross, rather than from direct trauma of impalement of the hand or wrist. PMID:23785656

  19. Complex interactions between paternal and maternal effects: parental experience and age at reproduction affect fecundity and offspring performance in a butterfly.

    PubMed

    Ducatez, Simon; Baguette, M; Stevens, V M; Legrand, D; Fréville, H

    2012-11-01

    Parental effects can greatly affect offspring performance and are thus expected to impact population dynamics and evolutionary trajectories. Most studies have focused on maternal effects, whereas fathers are also likely to influence offspring phenotype, for instance when males transfer nutrients to females during mating. Moreover, although the separate effects of maternal age and the environment have been documented as a source of parental effects in many species, their combined effects have not been investigated. In the present study, we analyzed the combined effects of maternal and paternal age at reproduction and a mobility treatment in stressful conditions on offspring performance in the butterfly Pieris brassicae. Both paternal and maternal effects affected progeny traits but always via interactions between age and mobility treatment. Moreover, parental effects shifted from male effects expressed at the larval stage to maternal effects at the adult stage. Indeed, egg survival until adult emergence significantly decreased with father age at mating only for fathers having experienced the mobility treatment, whereas offspring adult life span decreased with increasing mother age at laying only for females that did not experience the mobility treatment. Overall, our results demonstrate that both parents' phenotypes influence offspring performance through nongenetic effects, their relative contribution varying over the course of progeny's life. PMID:23106718

  20. Maternal Plane of Nutrition during Late Gestation and Weaning Age Alter Angus × Simmental Offspring Longissimus Muscle Transcriptome and Intramuscular Fat

    PubMed Central

    Moisá, Sonia J.; Shike, Daniel W.; Shoup, Lindsay; Rodriguez-Zas, Sandra L.; Loor, Juan J.

    2015-01-01

    In model organisms both the nutrition of the mother and the young offspring could induce long-lasting transcriptional changes in tissues. In livestock, such changes could have important roles in determining nutrient use and meat quality. The main objective was to evaluate if plane of maternal nutrition during late-gestation and weaning age alter the offspring’s Longissimus muscle (LM) transcriptome, animal performance, and metabolic hormones. Whole-transcriptome microarray analysis was performed on LM samples of early (EW) and normal weaned (NW) Angus × Simmental calves born to grazing cows receiving no supplement [low plane of nutrition (LPN)] or 2.3 kg high-grain mix/day [medium plane of nutrition (MPN)] during the last 105 days of gestation. Biopsies of LM were harvested at 78 (EW), 187 (NW) and 354 (before slaughter) days of age. Despite greater feed intake in MPN offspring, blood insulin was greater in LPN offspring. Carcass intramuscular fat content was greater in EW offspring. Bioinformatics analysis of the transcriptome highlighted a modest overall response to maternal plane of nutrition, resulting in only 35 differentially expressed genes (DEG). However, weaning age and a high-grain diet (EW) strongly impacted the transcriptome (DEG = 167), especially causing a lipogenic program activation. In addition, between 78 and 187 days of age, EW steers had an activation of the innate immune system due presumably to macrophage infiltration of intramuscular fat. Between 187 and 354 days of age (the “finishing” phase), NW steers had an activation of the lipogenic transcriptome machinery, while EW steers had a clear inhibition through the epigenetic control of histone acetylases. Results underscored the need to conduct further studies to understand better the functional outcome of transcriptome changes induced in the offspring by pre- and post-natal nutrition. Additional knowledge on molecular and functional outcomes would help produce more efficient beef cattle. PMID:26153887

  1. Maternal PUFA status but not prenatal methylmercury exposure is associated with children's language functions at age five years in the Seychelles.

    PubMed

    Strain, J J; Davidson, Philip W; Thurston, Sally W; Harrington, Donald; Mulhern, Maria S; McAfee, Alison J; van Wijngaarden, Edwin; Shamlaye, Conrad F; Henderson, Juliette; Watson, Gene E; Zareba, Grazyna; Cory-Slechta, Deborah A; Lynch, Miranda; Wallace, Julie M W; McSorley, Emeir M; Bonham, Maxine P; Stokes-Riner, Abbie; Sloane-Reeves, Jean; Janciuras, Joanne; Wong, Rosa; Clarkson, Thomas W; Myers, Gary J

    2012-11-01

    Evidence from the Seychelles Child Development Nutrition Study suggests that maternal nutritional status can modulate the relationship between prenatal methylmercury (MeHg) exposure and developmental outcomes in children. The aim of this study was to investigate whether maternal PUFA status was a confounding factor in any possible associations between prenatal MeHg exposure and developmental outcomes at 5 y of age in the Republic of Seychelles. Maternal status of (n-3) and (n-6) PUFA were measured in serum collected at 28 wk gestation and delivery. Prenatal MeHg exposure was determined in maternal hair collected at delivery. At 5 y of age, the children completed a comprehensive range of sensitive developmental assessments. Complete data from 225 mothers and their children were available for analysis. Multiple linear regression analyses revealed Preschool Language Scale scores of the children improved with increasing maternal serum DHA [22:6(n-3)] concentrations and decreased with increasing arachidonic acid [20:4(n-6)] concentrations, albeit verbal intelligence improved with increasing (n-6) PUFA concentrations in maternal serum. There were no adverse associations between MeHg exposure and developmental outcomes. These findings suggest that higher fish consumption, resulting in higher maternal (n-3) PUFA status, during pregnancy is associated with beneficial developmental effects rather than detrimental effects resulting from the higher concomitant exposures of the fetus to MeHg. The association of maternal (n-3) PUFA status with improved child language development may partially explain the authors' previous finding of improving language scores, as prenatal MeHg exposure increased in an earlier mother-child cohort in the Seychelles where maternal PUFA status was not measured. PMID:23014496

  2. DNA damage-induced metaphase I arrest is mediated by the spindle assembly checkpoint and maternal age.

    PubMed

    Marangos, Petros; Stevense, Michelle; Niaka, Konstantina; Lagoudaki, Michaela; Nabti, Ibtissem; Jessberger, Rolf; Carroll, John

    2015-01-01

    In mammalian oocytes DNA damage can cause chromosomal abnormalities that potentially lead to infertility and developmental disorders. However, there is little known about the response of oocytes to DNA damage. Here we find that oocytes with DNA damage arrest at metaphase of the first meiosis (MI). The MI arrest is induced by the spindle assembly checkpoint (SAC) because inhibiting the SAC overrides the DNA damage-induced MI arrest. Furthermore, this MI checkpoint is compromised in oocytes from aged mice. These data lead us to propose that the SAC is a major gatekeeper preventing the progression of oocytes harbouring DNA damage. The SAC therefore acts to integrate protection against both aneuploidy and DNA damage by preventing production of abnormal mature oocytes and subsequent embryos. Finally, we suggest escaping this DNA damage checkpoint in maternal ageing may be one of the causes of increased chromosome anomalies in oocytes and embryos from older mothers. PMID:26522734

  3. DNA damage-induced metaphase I arrest is mediated by the spindle assembly checkpoint and maternal age

    PubMed Central

    Marangos, Petros; Stevense, Michelle; Niaka, Konstantina; Lagoudaki, Michaela; Nabti, Ibtissem; Jessberger, Rolf; Carroll, John

    2015-01-01

    In mammalian oocytes DNA damage can cause chromosomal abnormalities that potentially lead to infertility and developmental disorders. However, there is little known about the response of oocytes to DNA damage. Here we find that oocytes with DNA damage arrest at metaphase of the first meiosis (MI). The MI arrest is induced by the spindle assembly checkpoint (SAC) because inhibiting the SAC overrides the DNA damage-induced MI arrest. Furthermore, this MI checkpoint is compromised in oocytes from aged mice. These data lead us to propose that the SAC is a major gatekeeper preventing the progression of oocytes harbouring DNA damage. The SAC therefore acts to integrate protection against both aneuploidy and DNA damage by preventing production of abnormal mature oocytes and subsequent embryos. Finally, we suggest escaping this DNA damage checkpoint in maternal ageing may be one of the causes of increased chromosome anomalies in oocytes and embryos from older mothers. PMID:26522734

  4. Maternal guilt.

    PubMed

    Rotkirch, Anna; Janhunen, Kristiina

    2010-01-01

    The recent emphasis on humans as cooperative breeders invites new research on human family dynamics. In this paper we look at maternal guilt as a consequence of conditional maternal investment. Solicited texts written by Finnish mothers with under school-aged children in 2007 (n = 63) described maternal emotions perceived as difficult and forbidden. Content analysis of guilt-inducing situations showed that guilt arose from diverging interest and negotiations between the mother and child (i.e., classic parent- offspring conflict). Also cultural expectations of extensive and perpetual high-quality maternal investment or the "motherhood myth" induced guilt in mothers. We argue that guilt plays an important role in maternal-investment regulation. Maternal guilt is predicted to vary with social and cultural context but also to show universal characteristics due to parent-offspring conflict and allomaternal manipulation. Results are preliminary and intended to stimulate research into the mechanisms, gender differences and cultural variations of guilt and other social emotions in human parenting. PMID:22947781

  5. Offspring DNA methylation of the aryl-hydrocarbon receptor repressor gene is associated with maternal BMI, gestational age, and birth weight.

    PubMed

    Burris, Heather H; Baccarelli, Andrea A; Byun, Hyang-Min; Cantoral, Alejandra; Just, Allan C; Pantic, Ivan; Solano-Gonzalez, Maritsa; Svensson, Katherine; Tamayo Y Ortiz, Marcela; Zhao, Yan; Wright, Robert O; Téllez-Rojo, Martha M

    2015-10-01

    Prenatal smoke exposure, maternal obesity, aberrant fetal growth, and preterm birth are all risk factors for offspring metabolic syndrome. Cord blood aryl-hydrocarbon receptor repressor (AHRR) DNA methylation is responsive to maternal smoking during pregnancy. AHRR serves not only to inhibit aryl-hydrocarbon receptor (AHR) transcription, which is involved in mediating xenobiotic metabolism, but it is also involved in cell growth and differentiation. Other than maternal smoking, other predictors of offspring AHRR DNA methylation status remain unknown; we sought to identify them among newborns. We enrolled pregnant women in the PROGRESS birth cohort in Mexico City. Using pyrosequencing, we analyzed DNA methylation of 3 CpG sites within the AHRR gene promoter from the umbilical cord blood of 531 infants. We used generalized estimating equations to account for the correlation of DNA methylation between CpG sites. Multivariable models were used to adjust for maternal age, BMI, education, parity, smoke-exposure, infant sex, gestational age, and birth weight-for-gestational age. AHRR DNA methylation was positively associated with maternal BMI (P = 0.0009) and negatively associated with the length of gestation (P < 0.0001) and birth weight-for-gestational age (P < 0.0001). AHRR DNA methylation was 2.1% higher in offspring of obese vs. normal weight mothers and 3.1% higher in preterm vs. term infants, representing a third and a half standard deviation differences in methylation, respectively. In conclusion, offspring AHRR DNA methylation was associated with maternal obesity during pregnancy as well as infant gestational age and birth weight-for-gestational age. Further work to discover the health impacts of altered AHRR DNA methylation is warranted. PMID:26252179

  6. Maternal Obesity, Overweight and Gestational Diabetes Affect the Offspring Neurodevelopment at 6 and 18 Months of Age – A Follow Up from the PREOBE Cohort

    PubMed Central

    Torres-Espinola, Francisco J.; Berglund, Staffan K; García-Valdés, Luz Mª; Segura, Mª Teresa; Jerez, Antonio; Campos, Daniel; Moreno-Torres, Rosario; Rueda, Ricardo; Catena, Andrés; Pérez-García, Miguel; Campoy, Cristina

    2015-01-01

    Background Brain development in fetal life and early infancy is critical to determine lifelong performance in various neuropsychological domains. Metabolic pathologies such as overweight, obesity, and gestational diabetes in pregnant women are prevalent and increasing risk factors that may adversely affect long-term brain development in their offspring. Objective The objective of this research was to investigate the influence of maternal metabolic pathologies on the neurodevelopment of the offspring at 6 and 18 months of life. Design This was a prospective case-control study of 331 mother- and child pairs from Granada, Spain. The mothers were included during pregnancy into four groups according to their pre-gestational body mass index and their gestational diabetes status; overweight (n:56), obese (n:64), gestational diabetic (n:79), and healthy normal weight controls (n:132). At 6 months and 18 months we assessed the children with the Bayley III scales of neurodevelopment. Results At 6 months (n=215), we found significant group differences in cognition composite language, and expressive language. Post hoc test revealed unexpectedly higher scores in the obese group compared to the normal weight group and a similar trend in overweight and diabetic group. The effects on language remained significant after adjusting for confounders with an adjusted odds ratio for a value above median in composite language score of 3.3 (95% CI: 1.1, 10.0; p=0.035) for children of obese mothers. At 18 month (n=197), the offspring born to obese mothers had lost five points in language composite scores and the previous differences in language and cognition was replaced by a suggestive trend of lower gross motor scores in the overweight, obese, and diabetic groups. Conclusions Infants of obese mothers had a temporary accelerated development of cognition and language, followed by a rapid deceleration until 18 months of age, particularly of language scores. This novel observation prompts further confirmative studies to explore possible placental and neurodevelopmental mechanisms involved. PMID:26208217

  7. Anomalous median nerve associated with persistent median artery.

    PubMed Central

    Sañudo, J R; Chikwe, J; Evans, S E

    1994-01-01

    A right human forearm showed persistence of the median artery in combination with anomalies of the median nerve and of the palmar circulation. The median nerve formed a ring enclosing the median artery, gave off its 3rd palmar digital branch in the forearm, and had a high palmar cutaneous nerve origin and a double thenar supply. The superficial palmar arch was incomplete. The median artery extended into the hand, providing the 2nd common palmar digital artery and the artery to the radial side of the index finger. It anastomosed with the radial artery in the 1st web space. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 PMID:7961153

  8. Advanced maternal age and the risk of Down syndrome characterized by the meiotic stage of the chromosomal error: A population-based study

    SciTech Connect

    Yoon, P.W.; Khoury, M.J.; Freeman, S.B.

    1996-03-01

    The identification of DNA polymorphisms makes it possible to classify trisomy 21 according to the parental origin and stage (meiosis I [MI], meiosis II [MII], or postzygotic mitotic) of the chromosomal error. Studying the effect of parental age on these subgroups could shed light on parental exposures and their timing. From 1989 through 1993, 170 infants with trisomy 21 and 267 randomly selected control infants were ascertained in a population-based, case-control study in metropolitan Atlanta. Blood samples for genetic studies were obtained from case infants and their parents. Using logistic regression, we independently examined the association between maternal and paternal age and subgroups of trisomy 21 defined by parental origin and meiotic stage. The distribution of trisomy 21 by origin was 86% maternal (75% MI and 25% MII), 9% paternal (50% MI and 50% MII), and 5% mitotic. Compared with women <25 years of age, women {>=}40 years old had an odds ratio of 5.2 (95% confidence interval, 1.0-27.4) for maternal MI (MMI) errors and 51.4 (95% confidence interval, 2.3-999.0) for maternal MII (MMII) errors. Birth-prevalence rates for women {>=}40 years old were 4.2/1,000 births for MMI errors and 1.9/1,000 births for MMII errors. These results support an association between advanced maternal age and both MMI and MMII errors. The association with MI does not pinpoint the timing of the error; however, the association with MII implies that there is at least one maternal age-related mechanism acting around the time of conception. 16 refs., 1 fig., 2 tabs.

  9. Maternal gestational zinc supplementation does not influence multiple aspects of child development at 54 mo of age in Peru123

    PubMed Central

    Putnick, Diane L; Zavaleta, Nelly; Lazarte, Fabiola; Albornoz, Carla; Chen, Ping; DiPietro, Janet A; Bornstein, Marc H

    2010-01-01

    Background: Zinc is necessary for central nervous system development, and maternal zinc status has been associated with developmental differences in offspring. Objective: The objective was to evaluate differences in cognitive, social, and behavioral function in Peruvian children at 54 mo of age whose mothers participated during pregnancy in a zinc supplementation trial. Design: We attempted to follow up 205 children from a prenatal zinc supplementation trial and present data on 184 (90%) children—86 whose mothers took 25 mg zinc/d in addition to 60 mg iron and 250 ?g folic acid and 98 whose mothers took iron and folic acid only. Following a standardized protocol, we assessed children's intelligence, language and number skills, representational ability, interpersonal understanding, and adaptive behavior and behavioral adjustment. We also assessed aspects of the mother (eg, age, education, verbal intelligence, stresses, and social support in parenting) and the home environment [HOME (Home Observation for the Measurement of the Environment) inventory]. Results: No differences were observed between any of the tests used to characterize cognitive, social, or behavioral development (P > 0.05). Child sex, parity, or treatment compliance did not modify the effects of supplementation on any outcomes. Conclusion: The addition of zinc to prenatal supplements did not influence developmental outcomes in Peruvian children when assessed at 4.5 y of age. PMID:20484451

  10. Evolution of differential maternal age effects on male and female offspring development and longevity

    E-print Network

    Spoel, Steven

    and longevity Martin I. Lind*,,1 , Elena C. Berg*,,1,2 , Ghazal Alavioon1 and Alexei A. Maklakov1 1 Ageing longevity, are widespread and can be seen as a manifestation of ageing. However, little is known about how this hypothesis. 2. We scored developmental time and longevity of 14 995 individual seed beetles, Callosobru- chus

  11. Social Competitiveness and Plasticity of Neuroendocrine Function in Old Age: Influence of Neonatal Novelty Exposure and Maternal Care Reliability

    PubMed Central

    Akers, Katherine G.; Yang, Zhen; DelVecchio, Dominic P.; Reeb, Bethany C.; Romeo, Russell D.; McEwen, Bruce S.; Tang, Akaysha C.

    2008-01-01

    Early experience is known to have a profound impact on brain and behavioral function later in life. Relatively few studies, however, have examined whether the effects of early experience remain detectable in the aging animal. Here, we examined the effects of neonatal novelty exposure, an early stimulation procedure, on late senescent rats' ability to win in social competition. During the first 3 weeks of life, half of each litter received daily 3-min exposures to a novel environment while the other half stayed in the home cage. At 24 months of age, pairs of rats competed against each other for exclusive access to chocolate rewards. We found that novelty-exposed rats won more rewards than home-staying rats, indicating that early experience exerts a life-long effect on this aspect of social dominance. Furthermore, novelty-exposed but not home-staying rats exhibited habituation of corticosterone release across repeated days of social competition testing, suggesting that early experience permanently enhances plasticity of the stress response system. Finally, we report a surprising finding that across individual rat families, greater effects of neonatal novelty exposure on stress response plasticity were found among families whose dams provided more reliable, instead of a greater total quantity of, maternal care. PMID:18641792

  12. Associations of Maternal Iron Intake and Hemoglobin in Pregnancy with Offspring Vascular Phenotypes and Adiposity at Age 10: Findings from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children

    PubMed Central

    Alwan, Nisreen A.; Cade, Janet E.; Greenwood, Darren C.; Deanfield, John; Lawlor, Debbie A.

    2014-01-01

    Background Iron deficiency is common during pregnancy. Experimental animal studies suggest that it increases cardiovascular risk in the offspring. Objective To examine the relationship between maternal pregnancy dietary and supplement iron intake and hemoglobin, with offspring’s arterial stiffness (measured by carotid-radial pulse wave velocity), endothelial function (measured by brachial artery flow mediated dilatation), blood pressure, and adiposity (measured by body mass index), test for mediation by cord ferritin, birth weight, gestational age, and child dietary iron intake, and for effect modification by maternal vitamin C intake and offspring sex. Design Prospective data from 2958 mothers and children pairs at 10 years of age enrolled in an English birth cohort, the Avon Longitudinal Study for Parents and Children (ALSPAC), was analysed. Results 2639 (89.2%) mothers reported dietary iron intake in pregnancy below the UK reference nutrient intake of 14.8 mg/day. 1328 (44.9%) reported taking iron supplements, and 129 (4.4%) were anemic by 18 weeks gestation. No associations were observed apart from maternal iron intake from supplements with offspring systolic blood pressure (?0.8 mmHg, 99% CI ?1.7 to 0, P?=?0.01 in the sample with all relevant data observed, and ?0.7 mmHg, 99% CI ?1.3 to 0, P?=?0.008 in the sample with missing data imputed). Conclusion There was no evidence of association between maternal pregnancy dietary iron intake, or maternal hemoglobin concentration (which is less likely to be biased by subjective reporting) with offspring outcomes. There was a modest inverse association between maternal iron supplement intake during pregnancy with offspring systolic blood pressure at 10 years. PMID:24400110

  13. Maternal Nutrition and Glycaemic Index during Pregnancy Impacts on Offspring Adiposity at 6 Months of Age-Analysis from the ROLO Randomised Controlled Trial.

    PubMed

    Horan, Mary K; McGowan, Ciara A; Gibney, Eileen R; Byrne, Jacinta; Donnelly, Jean M; McAuliffe, Fionnuala M

    2016-01-01

    Childhood obesity is associated with increased risk of adult obesity and metabolic disease. Diet and lifestyle in pregnancy influence fetal programming; however the influence of specific dietary components, including low glycaemic index (GI), remains complex. We examined the effect of a maternal low GI dietary intervention on offspring adiposity at 6 months and explored the association between diet and lifestyle factors in pregnancy and infant body composition at 6 months. 280 6-month old infant and mother pairs from the control (n = 142) and intervention group (n = 138), who received low GI dietary advice in pregnancy, in the ROLO study were analysed. Questionnaires (food diaries and lifestyle) were completed during pregnancy, followed by maternal lifestyle and infant feeding questionnaires at 6 months postpartum. Maternal anthropometry was measured throughout pregnancy and at 6 months post-delivery, along with infant anthropometry. No difference was found in 6 months infant adiposity between control and intervention groups. Maternal trimester three GI, trimester two saturated fats and trimester one and three sodium intake were positively associated with offspring adiposity, while trimester two and three vitamin C intake was negatively associated. In conclusion associations were observed between maternal dietary intake and GI during pregnancy and offspring adiposity at 6 months of age. PMID:26742066

  14. Maternal Reminiscing Style during Early Childhood Predicts the Age of Adolescents' Earliest Memories

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jack, Fiona; MacDonald, Shelley; Reese, Elaine; Hayne, Harlene

    2009-01-01

    Individual differences in parental reminiscing style are hypothesized to have long-lasting effects on children's autobiographical memory development, including the age of their earliest memories. This study represents the first prospective test of this hypothesis. Conversations about past events between 17 mother-child dyads were recorded on…

  15. Patterns of Adolescent Depression to Age 20: The Role of Maternal Depression and Youth Interpersonal Dysfunction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hammen, Constance; Brennan, Patricia A.; Keenan-Miller, Danielle

    2008-01-01

    Considerable research has focused on youth depression, but further information is needed to characterize different patterns of onset and recurrence during adolescence. Four outcome groups by age 20 were defined (early onset-recurrent, early-onset-desisting, later-onset, never depressed) and compared on three variables predictive of youth…

  16. Evaluation of the role of maternal serum high-sensitivity C-reactive protein in predicting early pregnancy failure.

    PubMed

    Jauniaux, Eric; Gulbis, Béatrice; Jamil, Amna; Jurkovic, Davor

    2015-03-01

    Maternal serum high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (HSCRP) was evaluated in predicting spontaneous abortion in spontaneous pregnancies presenting with threatened spontaneous abortion. Seventy-one cases of threatened spontaneous abortion (group A) and 71 asymptomatic controls (group B), matched for gestational and maternal age, body mass index and smoking status, were included. Maternal serum samples were evaluated for HCG, progesterone, pregnancy-associated plasma protein-A (PAPP-A) and HSCRP using standard bio-assays. No difference was observed in ultrasound measurements, and median progesterone maternal serum level was significantly lower (P < 0.05) in group A compared with group B. In group A, the median of all ultrasound and maternal serum parameters was significantly lower (P < 0.01) compared with group B. The median gestational sac diameter, volume and median HSCRP and PAPP-A levels were significantly increased (P < 0.05) in group A, with a normal outcome compared with group B, probably owing to the inflammatory reaction associated with intrauterine bleeding. In group A patients destined to abortion, the gestational sac development and corresponding protein synthesis fell before the fetal heart activity stopped; in spontaneous pregnancies, maternal serum HSCRP did not provide additional information for the management of threatened spontaneous abortion but warrants further research in assisted reproduction pregnancies. PMID:25596909

  17. Selenium and maternal blood pressure during childbirth.

    PubMed

    Wells, Ellen M; Goldman, Lynn R; Jarrett, Jeffery M; Apelberg, Benjamin J; Herbstman, Julie B; Caldwell, Kathleen L; Halden, Rolf U; Witter, Frank R

    2012-01-01

    Evidence suggests selenium concentrations outside the nutritional range may worsen cardiovascular health. This paper examines the relationship between selenium and maternal blood pressure (BP) among 270 deliveries using umbilical cord serum as a proxy for maternal exposure levels. Multivariable models used linear splines for selenium and controlled for gestational age, maternal age, race, median household income, parity, smoking, and prepregnancy body mass index. Non-parametric analysis of this dataset was used to select spline knots for selenium at 70 and 90??g/l. When selenium was <70??g/l, increasing selenium levels were related to a non-statistically significant decrease in BP. For selenium 70-90??g/l, a 1??g/l increase was related to a 0.37?mm?Hg (95% confidence interval (CI): 0.005, 0.73) change in systolic and a 0.35?mm?Hg (0.07, 0.64) change in diastolic BP. There were very few selenium values >90??g/l. Other studies indicate that the maternal/cord selenium ratio is 1.46 (95% CI: 1.28, 1.65). This u-shaped relationship between selenium and BP is consistent with a dual role of selenium as an essential micronutrient that is nonetheless a toxicant at higher concentrations; however, this needs to be studied further. PMID:22108761

  18. Maternal Pre-Pregnancy Body Mass Index and Offspring Temperament and Behavior at 1 and 2 Years of Age

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Lieshout, Ryan J.; Schmidt, Louis A.; Robinson, Monique; Niccols, Alison; Boyle, Michael H.

    2013-01-01

    Recent research suggests that fetal exposure to increased maternal body mass index (BMI) during pregnancy may be associated with psychopathology later in life. When this link first emerges, and if it is due to intrauterine exposures or confounding variables is not known. We therefore assessed associations between maternal pre-pregnancy BMI and:…

  19. Paternal Transmission of Small Supernumerary Marker Chromosome 15 Identified in Prenatal Diagnosis Due to Advanced Maternal Age

    PubMed Central

    Melo, Bruna C. S.; Portocarrero, Ana; Alves, Cláudia; Sampaio, André; Mota-Vieira, Luisa

    2015-01-01

    The detection of supernumerary marker chromosomes (SMCs) in prenatal diagnosis is always a challenge. In this study, we report a paternally inherited case of a small SMC(15) that was identified in prenatal diagnosis due to advanced maternal age. A 39-year-old woman underwent amniocentesis at 16 weeks of gestation. A fetal abnormal karyotype – 47,XX,+mar – with one sSMC was detected in all metaphases. Since this sSMC was critical in the parental decision to continue or interrupt this pregnancy, we proceeded to study the fetus and their parents. Cytogenetic and molecular analyses revealed a fetal karyotype 47,XX,+mar pat.ish idic(15)(ql2)(D15Zl++,SNRPN?), in which the sSMC(15) was a paternally inherited inverted duplicated chromosome and did not contain the critical region of Prader–Willi/Angelman syndromes. Moreover, fetal uniparental disomy was excluded. Based on this information and normal obstetric ultrasounds, the parents decided to proceed with the pregnancy and a phenotypically normal girl was born at 39 weeks of gestation. In conclusion, the clinical effects of sSMCs need to be investigated, especially when sSMCs are encountered at prenatal diagnosis. Here, although the paternal sSMC(15) was not associated with an abnormal phenotype, its characterization allows more accurate genetic counseling for the family progeny. PMID:26523119

  20. Maternal Zinc Supplementation during Pregnancy Affects Autonomic Function of Peruvian Children Assessed at 54 Months of Age12

    PubMed Central

    Caulfield, Laura E.; Zavaleta, Nelly; Chen, Ping; Lazarte, Fabiola; Albornoz, Carla; Putnick, Diane L.; Bornstein, Marc H.; DiPietro, Janet A.

    2011-01-01

    Maternal prenatal zinc supplementation improved fetal autonomic regulation in a nutrient-deficient population in Peru. To evaluate whether differences in autonomic regulation existed in early childhood, we studied 165 children from a zinc supplementation trial (80% of original sample) as part of a comprehensive evaluation at age 54 mo. Electrocardiogram (ECG) data were collected from the children at rest and while they underwent a cognitive testing battery following a standardized protocol. Of these, 79 were born to mothers receiving 25 mg/d zinc in addition to 60 mg/d iron and 250 ?g/d folic acid during pregnancy, and 86 were born to mothers receiving iron and folic acid only. Derived cardiac measures included heart period (HP), range, HP variability (HPV), mean square of successive differences (MSSD), and a measure of vagal tone (V). Children in the zinc supplementation group had greater HP (i.e. slower heart rate), greater range, higher time-independent (HPV) and time-dependent (MSSD) variability in HP, and higher V (P < 0.05) during baseline. Analyses conducted across the cognitive testing period revealed similar effects of prenatal zinc supplementation on cardiac patterns. Concurrent child zinc plasma concentration was also associated with longer HP, greater variability, and marginally higher range and V (P < 0.10). Differences in cardiac patterns due to prenatal zinc supplementation were detectable in children at 54 mo of age during conditions of both rest and challenge, indicating that supplementing zinc-deficient pregnant women has beneficial long-term consequences for neural development associated with autonomic regulation. PMID:21178078

  1. Cumulative effects of maternal age and unintended pregnancy on offspring aggression.

    PubMed

    Mack, Julia M; Chavez, Jorge M

    2014-11-01

    Research on physical aggression often points to teen motherhood as being a primary contributor in the development of aggressive tendencies among young children. As a result of poor parenting practices, limited education, and a lack of emotional, physical, and financial resources, children born to young mothers often exhibit high levels of aggression across the life course. Meanwhile, unintentional pregnancy and young motherhood are likely to share many of the same risk factors and negative consequences for offspring, yet there is a dearth of research examining pregnancy intentionality and offspring aggression. Using the Fragile Families and Wellbeing Study, our study examines how mother's age and pregnancy intention status influence aggression among their 5-year-old children. We find that young motherhood and unintended births, despite being likely to co-occur, each provide distinct mechanisms for the formation of aggressive behavior in childhood. PMID:24664252

  2. Maternal fish and shellfish consumption and wheeze, eczema and food allergy at age two: a prospective cohort study in Brittany, France

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Environmental exposures, including dietary contaminants, may influence the developing immune system. This study assesses the association between maternal pre-parturition consumption of seafood and wheeze, eczema, and food allergy in preschool children. Fish and shellfish were studied separately as they differ according to their levels of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (which have anti-allergic properties) and their levels of contaminants. Methods The PELAGIE cohort included 3421 women recruited at the beginning of pregnancy. Maternal fish and shellfish intake was measured at inclusion by a food frequency questionnaire. Wheeze, eczema, and food allergy were evaluated by a questionnaire completed by the mother when the child was 2 years old (n?=?1500). Examination of the associations between seafood intake and outcomes took major confounders into account. Complementary sensitivity analyses with multiple imputation enabled us to handle missing data, due mostly to attrition. Results Moderate maternal pre-parturition fish intake (1 to 4 times a month) was, at borderline significance, associated with a lower risk of wheeze (adjusted OR?=?0.69 (0.45-1.05)) before age 2, compared with low intake (< once/month). This result was not, however, consistent: after multiple imputation, the adjusted OR was 0.86 (0.63-1.17). Shellfish intake at least once a month was associated with a higher risk of food allergy before age 2 (adjusted OR?=?1.62 (1.11-2.37)) compared to low or no intake (< once/month). Multiple imputation confirmed this association (adjusted OR?=?1.52 (1.05-2.21)). Conclusions This study suggests that maternal pre-parturition shellfish consumption may increase the risk of food allergy. Further large-scale epidemiologic studies are needed to corroborate these results, identify the contaminants or components of shellfish responsible for the effects observed, determine the persistence of the associations seen at age 2, and investigate potential associations with health effects observable at later ages, such as allergic asthma. PMID:24295221

  3. Impact of family planning programs in reducing high-risk births due to younger and older maternal age, short birth intervals, and high parity.

    PubMed

    Brown, Win; Ahmed, Saifuddin; Roche, Neil; Sonneveldt, Emily; Darmstadt, Gary L

    2015-08-01

    Several studies show that maternal and neonatal/infant mortality risks increase with younger and older maternal age (<18 and >34 years), high parity (birth order >3), and short birth intervals (<24 months). Family planning programs are widely viewed as having contributed to substantial maternal and neonatal mortality decline through contraceptive use--both by reducing unwanted births and by reducing the burden of these high-risk births. However, beyond averting births, the empirical evidence for the role of family planning in reducing high-risk births at population level is limited. We examined data from 205 Demographic and Health Surveys (DHS), conducted between 1985 and 2013, to describe the trends in high-risk births and their association with the pace of progress in modern contraceptive prevalence rate (yearly increase in rate of MCPR) in 57 developing countries. Using Blinder-Oaxaca decomposition technique, we then examine the contributions of family planning program, economic development (GDP per capita), and educational improvement (secondary school completion rate) on the progress of MCPR in order to link the net contribution of family planning program to the reduction of high-risk births mediated through contraceptive use. Countries that had the fastest progress in improving MCPR experienced the greatest declines in high-risk births due to short birth intervals (<24 months), high parity births (birth order >3), and older maternal age (>35 years). Births among younger women <18 years, however, did not decline significantly during this period. The decomposition analysis suggests that 63% of the increase in MCPR was due to family planning program efforts, 21% due to economic development, and 17% due to social advancement through women's education. Improvement in MCPR, predominately due to family planning programs, is a major driver of the decline in the burden of high-risk births due to high parity, shorter birth intervals, and older maternal age in developing countries. The lack of progress in the decline of births in younger women <18 years of age underscores the need for more attention to ensure that quality contraceptive methods are available to adolescent women in order to delay first births. This study substantiates the significance of family planning programming as a major health intervention for preventing high-risk births and associated maternal and child mortality, but it highlights the need for concerted efforts to strengthen service provision for adolescents. PMID:26169538

  4. Maternal prenatal anxiety and child brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) genotype: effects on internalizing symptoms from 4 to 15 years of age.

    PubMed

    O'Donnell, Kieran J; Glover, Vivette; Holbrook, Joanna D; O'Connor, Thomas G

    2014-11-01

    Multiple behavioral and health outcomes, including internalizing symptoms, may be predicted from prenatal maternal anxiety, depression, or stress. However, not all children are affected, and those that are can be affected in different ways. Here we test the hypothesis that the effects of prenatal anxiety are moderated by genetic variation in the child's brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) gene, using the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children population cohort. Internalizing symptoms were assessed from 4 to 13 years of age using the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (n = 8,584); a clinical interview with the adolescents was conducted at age 15 years (n = 4,704). Obstetric and psychosocial risk and postnatal maternal symptoms were included as covariates. Results show that prenatal maternal anxiety predicted internalizing symptoms, including with the diagnostic assessment at 15 years. There was a main effect of two BDNF polymorphisms (rs6265 [val66met] and rs11030104) on internalizing symptoms up to age 13. There was also genetic moderation of the prenatal anxiety effect by different BDNF polymorphisms (rs11030121 and rs7124442), although significant effects were limited to preadolescence. The findings suggest a role for BDNF gene-environment interactions in individual vulnerability to the effects of prenatal anxiety on child internalizing symptoms. PMID:25422959

  5. Maternal Prepregancy BMI and Lipid Profile during Early Pregnancy Are Independently Associated with Offspring's Body Composition at Age 5–6 Years: The ABCD Study

    PubMed Central

    Oostvogels, Adriëtte J. J. M.; Roseboom, Tessa J.; Visscher, Tommy L. S.; van Eijsden, Manon; Twickler, Marcel T. B.; Vrijkotte, Tanja G. M.

    2014-01-01

    Background There is growing evidence that disturbances in maternal metabolism and, subsequently, intrauterine conditions affect foetal metabolism. Whether this has metabolic consequences in offspring later in life is not fully elucidated. We investigated whether maternal pre-pregnancy body mass index (pBMI) is associated with offspring's adiposity at age 5–6 years and whether this association is mediated by the mother's lipid profile during early pregnancy. Methods Data were derived from a multi-ethnic birth cohort, the Amsterdam Born Children and their Development (ABCD) study (inclusion 2003–2004). During early gestation mothers completed a questionnaire during pregnancy (pBMI) and random non-fasting blood samples were analysed for total cholesterol (TC), triglycerides (TG), apolipoprotein A1 (ApoA1), apolipoprotein B (ApoB) and total free fatty acids (FFA) in early gestation. At age 5–6 years, child's BMI, waist-to-height-ratio (WHtR) and fat% were assessed. Results Only non-diabetic mothers with at term-born children were included(n?=?1727). Of all women, 15.1% were overweight(BMI: 25–29.9 kg/m2) and 4.3% were obese(BMI?30 kg/m2). After adjustments for confounders, every unit increase in pBMI was linearly associated with various offspring variables: BMI(? 0.10; 95% CI 0.08–0.12), WHtR*100(? 0.13; 95% CI 0.09–0.17), fat%(? 0.21; 95% CI 0.13–0.29) and increased risk for overweight(OR:1.15; 95% CI 1.10–1.20). No convincing proof for mediation by maternal lipid profile during early gestation was found. Moreover, maternal FFA was associated with the child's fat percentage, BMI and risk for overweight. Maternal ApoB and TC were positively associated with the offspring's fat percentage and maternal TG was positively associated with their children's WHtR. Conclusions Both pBMI and maternal lipids during early pregnancy are independently related to offspring adiposity. PMID:24740157

  6. Offspring Provisioning Explains Clone-Specific Maternal Age Effects on Life History and Life Span in the Water Flea, Daphnia pulex.

    PubMed

    Plaistow, Stewart J; Shirley, Christopher; Collin, Helene; Cornell, Stephen J; Harney, Ewan D

    2015-09-01

    Genetic inheritance underpins evolutionary theories of aging, but the role that nongenetic inheritance plays is unclear. Parental age reduces the life span of offspring in a diverse array of taxa but has not been explained from an evolutionary perspective. We quantified the effect that maternal age had on the growth and maturation decisions, life history, rates of senescence, and life span of offspring from three Daphnia pulex clones collected from different populations. We then used those data to test general hypotheses proposed to explain maternal age effects on offspring life span. Three generations of breeding from young or old mothers produced dramatic differences in the life histories of fourth-generation offspring, including significant reductions in life span. The magnitude of the effect differed between clones, which suggests that genetic and nongenetic factors ultimately underpin trait inheritance and shape patterns of aging. Older parents did not transmit a senescent state to their offspring. Instead, offspring from older ancestors had increased early-life reproductive effort, which resulted in an earlier onset of reproductive senescence, and an increased rate of actuarial senescence, which shortened their life span. Our results provide a clear example of the need to consider multiple inheritance mechanisms when studying trait evolution. PMID:26655355

  7. The interplay of birth weight, dopamine receptor D4 gene (DRD4), and early maternal care in the prediction of disorganized attachment at 36 months of age.

    PubMed

    Wazana, Ashley; Moss, Ellen; Jolicoeur-Martineau, Alexis; Graffi, Justin; Tsabari, Gal; Lecompte, Vanessa; Pascuzzo, Katherine; Babineau, Vanessa; Gordon-Green, Cathryn; Mileva, Viara; Atkinson, Leslie; Minde, Klaus; Bouvette-Turcot, André Anne; Sassi, Roberto; St-André, Martin; Carrey, Normand; Matthews, Stephen; Sokolowski, Marla; Lydon, John; Gaudreau, Helene; Steiner, Meir; Kennedy, James L; Fleming, Alison; Levitan, Robert; Meaney, Michael J

    2015-11-01

    Disorganized attachment is an important early risk factor for socioemotional problems throughout childhood and into adulthood. Prevailing models of the etiology of disorganized attachment emphasize the role of highly dysfunctional parenting, to the exclusion of complex models examining the interplay of child and parental factors. Decades of research have established that extreme child birth weight may have long-term effects on developmental processes. These effects are typically negative, but this is not always the case. Recent studies have also identified the dopamine D4 receptor (DRD4) as a moderator of childrearing effects on the development of disorganized attachment. However, there are inconsistent findings concerning which variant of the polymorphism (seven-repeat long-form allele or non-seven-repeat short-form allele) is most likely to interact with caregiving in predicting disorganized versus organized attachment. In this study, we examined possible two- and three-way interactions and child DRD4 polymorphisms and birth weight and maternal caregiving at age 6 months in longitudinally predicting attachment disorganization at 36 months. Our sample is from the Maternal Adversity, Vulnerability and Neurodevelopment project, a sample of 650 mother-child dyads. Birth weight was cross-referenced with normative data to calculate birth weight percentile. Infant DRD4 was obtained with buccal swabs and categorized according to the presence of the putative allele seven repeat. Macroanalytic and microanalytic measures of maternal behavior were extracted from a videotaped session of 20 min of nonfeeding interaction followed by a 10-min divided attention maternal task at 6 months. Attachment was assessed at 36 months using the Strange Situation procedure, and categorized into disorganized attachment and others. The results indicated that a main effect for DRD4 and a two-way interaction of birth weight and 6-month maternal attention (frequency of maternal looking away behavior) and sensitivity predicted disorganized attachment in robust logistic regression models adjusted for social demographic covariates. Specifically, children in the midrange of birth weight were more likely to develop a disorganized attachment when exposed to less attentive maternal care. However, the association reversed with extreme birth weight (low and high). The DRD4 seven-repeat allele was associated with less disorganized attachment (protective), while non-seven-repeat children were more likely to be classified as disorganized attachment. The implications for understanding inconsistencies in the literature about which DRD4 genotype is the risk direction are also considered. Suggestions for intervention with families with infants at different levels of biological risk and caregiving risk are also discussed. PMID:26439067

  8. What patterns of postpartum psychological distress are associated with maternal concerns about their children's emotional and behavioural problems at the age of three years?

    PubMed Central

    Benzies, Karen; Mychasiuk, Richelle; Tough, Suzanne

    2015-01-01

    Mothers experiencing psychological distress in the postpartum period may have difficulties parenting their children. Inconsistent and unresponsive parenting may increase the risk of later emotional and behavioural problems in children. The purpose of this study was to identify how maternal psychological characteristics cluster at eight weeks postpartum, and whether these clusters were associated with maternal-reported child emotional and behavioural problems at the age of three years, as measured by the Parents' Evaluation of Developmental Status (PEDS) questionnaire. In a longitudinal pregnancy cohort (N?=?647), three clusters of postpartum psychological characteristics were identified. Contrary to expectations, mothers with the greatest psychological distress did not report concerns about their child's emotional and behavioural problems; rather, they reported concerns about global developmental delay. These findings suggest that infants of mothers experiencing postpartum psychological distress should receive additional follow-up to reduce the risk for global developmental delay. PMID:25544794

  9. Do Maternal Living Arrangements Influence the Vaccination Status of Children Age 12–23 Months? A Data Analysis of Demographic Health Surveys 2010–11 from Zimbabwe

    PubMed Central

    Rossi, Rodolfo

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Although vaccination is an effective intervention to reduce childhood mortality and morbidity, reasons for incomplete vaccination, including maternal living arrangements, have been marginally explored. This study aims at assessing whether maternal living arrangements are associated with vaccination status of children aged 12–23 months in Zimbabwe. It also explores other variables that may be associated with having children not fully vaccinated. Materials and Methods A cross-sectional analysis was performed on the DHS-VI done in Zimbabwe in 2010–2011 (response rate 93%). Incomplete vaccination of children (outcome), was defined as not having received one dose of BCG and measles, 3 doses of polio and DPT/Pentavalent. Maternal living arrangements (main exposure), and other exposure variables were analysed. Survey logistic regression was used to calculate crude and adjusted OR for exposures against the outcome. Results The dataset included 1,031 children aged 12–23 months. 65.8% of children were fully vaccinated. 65.7% of the mothers were married and cohabitating with a partner, 20.3% were married/partnered but living separately and 14% were not married. Maternal living arrangements were not associated with the vaccination status of children both in crude and adjusted analysis. Factors associated with poorer vaccination status of the children included: no tetanus vaccination for mothers during pregnancy (adjusted OR = 2.1, 95%CI 1.5;3.0), child living away from mother (adjusted OR = 1.5, 95%CI 1.2;1.8), mother’s education (adjusted OR = 0.6, 95%CI 0.4;0.9), high number of children living in the household (adjusted OR = 1.5, 95%CI 1.1;2.2), child age (adjusted OR = 0.7, 95%CI 0.5;0.9). Discussion Maternal living arrangements were not associated with vaccination status of Zimbabwean children. Other factors, such as the mother’s health-seeking behaviour and education were major factors associated with the children’s vaccination status. Given the results of this study, it is strongly recommended that the vaccination coverage is increased by improving access to antenatal care and education for the parents. PMID:26167939

  10. Maternal characteristics associated with the dietary intake of nitrates, nitrites, and nitrosamines in women of child-bearing age: a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Multiple N-nitroso compounds have been observed in animal studies to be both mutagenic and teratogenic. Human exposure to N-nitroso compounds and their precursors, nitrates and nitrites, can occur through exogenous sources, such as diet, drinking water, occupation, or environmental exposures, and through endogenous exposures resulting from the formation of N-nitroso compounds in the body. Very little information is available on intake of nitrates, nitrites, and nitrosamines and factors related to increased consumption of these compounds. Methods Using survey and dietary intake information from control women (with deliveries of live births without major congenital malformations during 1997-2004) who participated in the National Birth Defects Prevention Study (NBDPS), we examined the relation between various maternal characteristics and intake of nitrates, nitrites, and nitrosamines from dietary sources. Estimated intake of these compounds was obtained from the Willet Food Frequency Questionnaire as adapted for the NBDPS. Multinomial logistic regression models were used to estimate odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals for the consumption of these compounds by self-reported race/ethnicity and other maternal characteristics. Results Median intake per day for nitrates, nitrites, total nitrites (nitrites + 5% nitrates), and nitrosamines was estimated at 40.48 mg, 1.53 mg, 3.69 mg, and 0.472 ?g respectively. With the lowest quartile of intake as the referent category and controlling for daily caloric intake, factors predicting intake of these compounds included maternal race/ethnicity, education, body mass index, household income, area of residence, folate intake, and percent of daily calories from dietary fat. Non-Hispanic White participants were less likely to consume nitrates, nitrites, and total nitrites per day, but more likely to consume dietary nitrosamines than other participants that participated in the NBDPS. Primary food sources of these compounds also varied by maternal race/ethnicity. Conclusions Results of this study indicate that intake of nitrates, nitrites, and nitrosamines vary considerably by race/ethnicity, education, body mass index, and other characteristics. Further research is needed regarding how consumption of foods high in nitrosamines and N-nitroso precursors might relate to risk of adverse pregnancy outcomes and chronic diseases. PMID:20170520

  11. Home Environment and Maternal Intelligence as Predictors of Verbal Intelligence: A Comparison of Preschool and School-Age Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Luster, Tom; Dubow, Eric

    1992-01-01

    Analysis of data on 2,000 children from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth suggests that maternal intelligence is a significant predictor of scores on the Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test-Revised. The HOME Inventory short forms used in the study are appended. (LB)

  12. Passive West Nile virus antibody transfer from maternal Eastern Screech-Owls (Megascops asio) to progeny

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hahn, D.C.; Nemeth, N.M.; Edwards, E.; Bright, P.R.; Komar, N.

    2006-01-01

    Transovarial antibody transfer in owls has not been demonstrated for West Nile virus (WNV). We sampled chicks from captive adult WNV-antibody-positive Eastern Screech-Owls (Megascops asio) to evaluate the prevalence of transovarial maternal antibody transfer, as well as titers and duration of maternal antibodies. Twenty-four owlets aged 1 to 27 days old circulated detectable antibodies with neutralizing antibody titers ranging from 20 to 1600 (median 1:40). Demonstrating that WNV antibodies are passively transferred transovarially is important for accurate interpretation of serologic data from young birds.

  13. The association of maternal prenatal psychosocial stress with vascular function in the child at age 10–11 years: findings from the Avon longitudinal study of parents and children

    PubMed Central

    Dawe, Karen; Deanfield, John; Stronks, Karien; Gemke, Reinoud JBJ; Vrijkotte, Tanja GM; Lawlor, Debbie A

    2014-01-01

    Objective To investigate whether (1) maternal psychosocial stress (depression/anxiety) during pregnancy is associated with offspring vascular function and (2) whether any association differs depending on the gestational timing of exposure to stress. We also investigated whether any association is likely to be due to intrauterine mechanisms by (3) comparing with the association of paternal stress with offspring vascular function and (4) examining whether any prenatal association is explained by maternal postnatal stress. Methods and results Associations were examined in a UK birth cohort, with offspring outcomes (systolic and diastolic blood pressure, SBP and DBP, endothelial function assessed by brachial artery flow-mediated dilatation (FMD); arterial stiffness assessed by carotid to radial pulse wave velocity (PWV), brachial artery distensibility (DC), and brachial artery diameter (BD) assessed at age 10–11 years (n?=?4318). Maternal depressive symptoms and anxiety were assessed at 18 and 32 weeks gestation and 8 months postnatally. Paternal symptoms were assessed at week 19. With the exception of DBP and BD, there were no associations of maternal depressive symptoms with any of the vascular outcomes. Maternal depressive and anxiety symptoms were associated with lower offspring DBP and wider BD, though the latter attenuated to the null with adjustment for confounding factors. Paternal symptoms were not associated with offspring outcomes. Maternal postnatal depressive symptoms were associated with lower offspring SBP. Conclusions We found no evidence to support the hypothesis that maternal stress during pregnancy adversely affects offspring vascular function at age 10–12 years via intrauterine mechanisms. PMID:23559536

  14. Effects of intrapartum maternal glucose infusion on the normal fetus and newborn.

    PubMed

    Mendiola, J; Grylack, L J; Scanlon, J W

    1982-01-01

    The effect of maternal intravenous glucose infusion on the newborn's glucose, insulin, and neurobehavioral performance was studied prospectively in 56 normal mother-newborn pairs. Maternal blood glucose levels at the time of delivery, umbilical venous blood glucose and insulin levels, and neonatal blood glucose levels were measured. Neurobehavioral assessment of the newborns was performed at 4 and 24 hours of life. The median value for total amount of glucose infused to the mother was 32.5 g, the median rate of glucose infusion was 8 g/h, and the median maternal blood glucose concentration at delivery was 110 mg/dl. Median umbilical venous blood glucose concentrations were 104 mg/dl and median insulin concentration was 15 microunits/ml. Six babies were hypoglycemic at 1 hour of age. Umbilical venous glucose and insulin levels correlated significantly (p less than 0.001) with the rate of glucose infusion to the mother and her blood glucose level. The incidence of neonatal hypoglycemia was significantly related (p less than 0.05) to a maternal blood glucose level greater than 120 mg/dl, to a glucose infusion rate of 20 g/hr or greater and to an umbilical venous insulin level of greater than 40 microunits/ml. There were no major differences in neurobehavior that distinguished hypoglycemic neonates. It is recommended that the normal parturient be given less than 20 g/hr of intravenous glucose before delivery and have a blood glucose level less than 120 mg/dl at the time of delivery. Newborns delivered to mothers with hyperglycemia or excessive glucose infusion should be tested for hypoglycemia at 1 and 2 hours of age. PMID:7032366

  15. Maternal and Child Health MPH Degree Program

    E-print Network

    Minnesota, University of

    Maternal and Child Health MPH Degree Program Division of Epidemiology and Community Health 2015, color, creed, religion, national origin, sex, age, marital status, disability, public assistance status.......................................................................................................................................................... 3 1. Maternal and Child Health MPH Degree Program

  16. Maternal choline supplementation improves spatial mapping and increases basal forebrain cholinergic neuron number and size in aged Ts65Dn mice.

    PubMed

    Ash, Jessica A; Velazquez, Ramon; Kelley, Christy M; Powers, Brian E; Ginsberg, Stephen D; Mufson, Elliott J; Strupp, Barbara J

    2014-10-01

    Down syndrome (DS) is marked by intellectual disability (ID) and early-onset of Alzheimer's disease (AD) neuropathology, including basal forebrain cholinergic neuron (BFCN) degeneration. The present study tested the hypothesis that maternal choline supplementation (MCS) improves spatial mapping and protects against BFCN degeneration in the Ts65Dn mouse model of DS and AD. During pregnancy and lactation, dams were assigned to either a choline sufficient (1.1g/kg choline chloride) or choline supplemented (5.0g/kg choline chloride) diet. Between 13 and 17months of age, offspring were tested in the radial arm water maze (RAWM) to examine spatial mapping followed by unbiased quantitative morphometry of BFCNs. Spatial mapping was significantly impaired in unsupplemented Ts65Dn mice relative to normal disomic (2N) littermates. Additionally, a significantly lower number and density of medial septum (MS) hippocampal projection BFCNs was also found in unsupplemented Ts65Dn mice. Notably, MCS significantly improved spatial mapping and increased number, density, and size of MS BFCNs in Ts65Dn offspring. Moreover, the density and number of MS BFCNs correlated significantly with spatial memory proficiency, providing support for a functional relationship between these behavioral and morphometric effects of MCS for trisomic offspring. Thus, increasing maternal choline intake during pregnancy may represent a safe and effective treatment approach for expectant mothers carrying a DS fetus, as well as a possible means of BFCN neuroprotection during aging for the population at large. PMID:24932939

  17. Effects of birth rank, maternal age, birth interval, and sibship size on infant and child mortality: evidence from 18th and 19th century reproductive histories.

    PubMed Central

    Knodel, J; Hermalin, A I

    1984-01-01

    There has been long-standing interest in the effects of maternal age, birth rank, and birth spacing on infant and child mortality. Contradictory inferences about the role of these factors have arisen on occasion because of the absence of adequate controls, the use of cross-sectional or incomplete reproductive histories, and inattention to the effect of family size goals and birth limitation practices. This study analyzes completed reproductive histories for German village populations in the 18th and 19th centuries, a period when deliberate fertility control was largely absent. Our results confirm previous studies of the association of infant mortality with maternal age, although in the present data these differentials are largely limited to neonatal mortality. They also confirm the importance of birth interval as a factor in infant mortality. Sibship size is positively related to infant mortality even when birth rank is controlled. However, once sibship size is controlled, there are no systematic differences in infant and child mortality by birth order. The mechanisms relating sibship size and mortality are explored. PMID:6383084

  18. Maternal choline supplementation improves spatial mapping and increases basal forebrain cholinergic neuron number and size in aged Ts65Dn mice

    PubMed Central

    Ash, Jessica A.; Velazquez, Ramon; Kelley, Christy M.; Powers, Brian E.; Ginsberg, Stephen D.; Mufson, Elliott J.; Strupp, Barbara J.

    2014-01-01

    Down syndrome (DS) is marked by intellectual disability (ID) and early-onset of Alzheimer’s disease (AD) neuropathology, including basal forebrain cholinergic neuron (BFCN) degeneration. The present study tested the hypothesis that maternal choline supplementation (MCS) lessens hippocampal dysfunction and protects against BFCN degeneration in the Ts65Dn mouse model of DS and AD. During pregnancy and lactation, dams were assigned to either a choline sufficient (1.1 g/kg choline chloride) or choline supplemented (5.0 g/kg choline chloride) diet. Between 13 and 17 months of age, offspring were tested in the radial arm water maze (RAWM) to examine spatial learning and memory followed by unbiased quantitative morphometry of BFCNs. Spatial mapping was significantly impaired in unsupplemented Ts65Dn mice relative to normal disomic (2N) littermates. Additionally, a significantly lower number and density of medial septum (MS) hippocampal projection BFCNs was also found in unsupplemented Ts65Dn mice. Notably, MCS significantly improved spatial mapping and increased number, density, and size of MS BFCNs in Ts65Dn offspring. Moreover, the density and number of MS BFCNs correlated significantly with spatial memory proficiency, providing powerful support for a functional relationship between these behavioral and morphometric effects of MCS for the trisomic offspring. Thus, increasing maternal choline intake during pregnancy may represent a safe and effective treatment approach for expectant mothers carrying a DS fetus, as well as a possible means of BFCN neuroprotection during aging for the population at large. PMID:24932939

  19. Effect of hen age and maternal vitamin D source on performance, hatchability, bone mineral density, and progeny in vitro early innate immune function.

    PubMed

    Saunders-Blades, J L; Korver, D R

    2015-06-01

    The metabolite 25-hydroxy vitamin D3 (25-OHD) can complement or replace vitamin D3 in poultry rations, and may influence broiler production and immune function traits. The effect of broiler breeder dietary 25-OHD on egg production, hatchability, and chick early innate immune function was studied. We hypothesized that maternal dietary 25-OHD would support normal broiler breeder production and a more mature innate immune system of young chicks. Twenty-three-week-old Ross 308 hens (n=98) were placed in 4 floor pens and fed either 2,760 IU vitamin D3 (D) or 69 ?g 25-OHD/kg feed. Hen weights were managed according to the primary breeder management guide. At 29 to 31 wk (Early), 46 to 48 wk (Mid), and 61 to 63 wk (Late), hens were artificially inseminated and fertile eggs incubated and hatched. Chicks were placed in cages based on maternal treatment and grown to 7 d age. Innate immune function and plasma 25-OHD were assessed at 1 and 4 d post-hatch on 15 chicks/treatment. Egg production, hen BW, and chick hatch weight were not affected by diet (P>0.05). Total in vitro Escherichia coli (E. coli) killing by 25-OHD chicks was greater than the D chicks at 4 d for the Early and Mid hatches, and 1 and 4 d for the Late hatch. This can be partly explained by the 25-OHD chicks from the Late hatch also having a greater E. coli phagocytic capability. No consistent pattern of oxidative burst response was observed. Chicks from the Mid hatch had greater percent phagocytosis, phagocytic capability, and E. coli killing than chicks from Early and Late hatches. Overall, maternal 25-OHD increased hatchability and in vitro chick innate immunity towards E. coli. Regardless of treatment, chicks from Late and Early hens had weaker early innate immune responses than chicks from Mid hens. The hen age effect tended to be the greatest factor influencing early chick innate immunity, but maternal 25-OHD also increased several measures relative to D. PMID:25743414

  20. Maternal Antioxidant Levels in Pregnancy and Risk of Preeclampsia and Small for Gestational Age Birth: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Cohen, Jacqueline M.; Beddaoui, Margaret; Kramer, Michael S.; Platt, Robert W.; Basso, Olga; Kahn, Susan R.

    2015-01-01

    Background Oxidative stress in preeclampsia and small for gestational age (SGA) birth suggests antioxidant supplementation could prevent these conditions. However, it remains unclear whether maternal antioxidant levels are systematically lower in these pregnancies. Objective To conduct a systematic review of the association between maternal antioxidant levels during pregnancy and preeclampsia or SGA. Methods We searched PubMed, Embase, and several other databases from 1970–2013 for observational studies that measured maternal blood levels of non-enzymatic antioxidants (vitamins A, C, E, and carotenoids) during pregnancy or within 72 hours of delivery. The entire review process was done in duplicate. Study quality was assessed using the Newcastle-Ottawa Scale and additional questions. We pooled the standardized mean difference (SMD) across studies, stratified by outcome and pregnancy trimester, and investigated heterogeneity using meta-regression. Results We reviewed 1,882 unique citations and 64 studies were included. Most studies were small with important risk of bias. Among studies that addressed preeclampsia (n = 58) and SGA (n = 9), 16% and 66%, respectively, measured levels prior to diagnosis. The SMDs for vitamins A, C, and E were significantly negative for overall preeclampsia, but not for mild or severe preeclampsia subtypes. Significant heterogeneity was observed in all meta-analyses and most could not be explained. Evidence for lower carotenoid antioxidants in preeclampsia and SGA was limited and inconclusive. Publication bias appears likely. Conclusions Small, low-quality studies limit conclusions that can be drawn from the available literature. Observational studies inconsistently show that vitamins C and E or other antioxidants are lower in women who develop preeclampsia or SGA. Reverse causality remains a possible explanation for associations observed. New clinical trials are not warranted in light of this evidence; however, additional rigorous observational studies measuring antioxidant levels before clinical detection of preeclampsia and SGA may clarify whether levels are altered at a causally-relevant time of pregnancy. PMID:26247870

  1. Long chain polyunsaturated fatty acid supplementation in infancy increases length- and weight-for-age but not BMI to 6 years when controlling for effects of maternal smoking.

    PubMed

    Currie, L M; Tolley, E A; Thodosoff, J M; Kerling, E H; Sullivan, D K; Colombo, J; Carlson, S E

    2015-07-01

    Long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCPUFA) are added to infant formula but their effect on long-term growth of children is under studied. We evaluated the effects of feeding LCPUFA-supplemented formula (n = 54) compared to control formula (n = 15) throughout infancy on growth from birth-6 years. Growth was described using separate models developed with the MIXED procedure of SAS(®) that included maternal smoking history and gender. Compared to children fed control formula, children who consumed LCPUFA supplemented formula had higher length-/stature-/and weight-for-age percentiles but not body mass index (BMI) percentile from birth to 6 years. Maternal smoking predicted lower stature (2-6 years), higher weight-for-length (birth-18 months) and BMI percentile (2-6 years) independent of LCPUFA effects. Gender interacted with the effect of LCPUFA on stature, and the relationship between smoking and BMI, with a larger effect for boys. Energy intake did not explain growth differences. A relatively small control sample is a limitation. PMID:25936840

  2. Prenatal screening for Down syndrome with maternal serum human chorionic gonadotropin levels.

    PubMed

    Petrocik, E; Wassman, E R; Kelly, J C

    1989-11-01

    Human chorionic gonadotropin levels in midtrimester pregnancies may be predictive of Down syndrome. A commercially available enzyme immunoassay kit was used to measure the beta-subunit of human chorionic gonadotropin in maternal sera from 38 Down syndrome pregnancies and 114 gestational age matched controls. The human chorionic gonadotropin levels were also assayed in 236 normal sera and plasma samples to determine normative values and appropriate individual corrections. Serum and plasma human chorionic gonadotropin levels are closely correlated and are stable at room temperature, during refrigeration, and throughout freeze-thaw cycles. There is no correlation between the human chorionic gonadotropin level and maternal age, weight, or race. However, the human chorionic gonadotropin level decreases with each week of gestation from 15 to 19 weeks. Medians for each week of gestation were established to account for this variable. Up to 63% of the Down syndrome pregnancies were detected with a cutoff of 2.0 multiples of the normal median. A computational combination of human chorionic gonadotropin and maternal serum alpha-fetoprotein testing will detect additional Down syndrome pregnancies and decrease the false-positive rate. The measurement of human chorionic gonadotropin appears to be a valuable addition to maternal serum alpha-fetoprotein screening programs that can significantly increase the proportion of Down syndrome cases diagnosed. PMID:2531546

  3. Non-linear filtering Example: Median filter

    E-print Network

    Oliensis, John

    Non-linear filtering · Example: Median filter · Replaces pixel value by median value over neighborhood · Generates no new gray levels I=(1 2 3 2 3 2 1) 2 22 3 2 #12;Median filters Advantage (?): the "odd-man-out" effect e.g. 1,1,1,7,1,1,1,1 ?,1,1,1.1,1,1,? #12;Median filters: example filter width = 5

  4. Association of early and late maternal smoking during pregnancy with offspring body mass index at 4 to 5 years of age.

    PubMed

    Grzeskowiak, L E; Hodyl, N A; Stark, M J; Morrison, J L; Clifton, V L

    2015-12-01

    The objective was to investigate the association between early and late maternal smoking during pregnancy on offspring body mass index (BMI). We undertook a retrospective cohort study using linked records from the Women's and Children's Health Network in South Australia. Among a cohort of women delivering a singleton, live-born infants between January 2000 and December 2005 (n=7658), 5961 reported not smoking during pregnancy, 297 reported quitting smoking during the first trimester of pregnancy, and 1400 reported continued smoking throughout pregnancy. Trained nurses measured the height and weight of the children at preschool visits in a state-wide surveillance programme. The main outcome measure was age- and sex-specific BMI z-score. At 4 to 5 years, mean (s.d.) BMI z-score was 0.40 (1.05), 0.60 (1.07) and 0.65 (1.18) in children of mothers who reported never smoking, quitting smoking and continued smoking during pregnancy, respectively. Compared with the group of non-smokers, both quitting smoking and continued smoking were associated with an increase in child BMI z-score of 0.15 (95% confidence interval: 0.01-0.29) and 0.21 (0.13-0.29), respectively. A significant dose-response relationship was also observed between the number of cigarettes smoked per day on average during the second half of pregnancy and the increase in offspring BMI z-score (P<0.001). In conclusion, any maternal smoking in pregnancy, even if mothers quit, is associated with an increase in offspring BMI at 4 to 5 years of age. PMID:26434993

  5. Mental Health in Low-to-Moderate Risk Preterm, Low Birth Weight, and Small for Gestational Age Children at 4 to 5 Years: The Role of Early Maternal Parenting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Westrupp, Elizabeth M.; Mensah, Fiona K.; Giallo, Rebecca; Cooklin, Amanda; Nicholson, Jan M.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: The majority of children born preterm, with low birth weight, or small for gestational age are born with low-to-moderate risk (LTM), yet most research focuses on the high-risk group. Little is known about whether children with LTM perinatal risk are at greater risk for mental health problems, or what the role of early maternal

  6. Fetal exposure to maternal stress influences leptin receptor gene expression during development and age at puberty in gilts

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Various factors influence age at puberty, such as stress and leptin. Stress delays age at puberty and absence of leptin, or lack of central perception of leptin leads to perpetual sexual immaturity. The environment in which a fetus develops is believed to play a role in the development of various ph...

  7. Fetal and Childhood Exposure to Phthalate Diesters and Cognitive Function in Children Up to 12 Years of Age: Taiwanese Maternal and Infant Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Han-Bin; Chen, Hsin-Yi; Su, Pen-Hua; Huang, Po-Chin; Sun, Chien-Wen; Wang, Chien-Jen; Chen, Hsiao-Yen

    2015-01-01

    Few studies have examined the association between environmental phthalate exposure and children’s neurocognitive development. This longitudinal study examined cognitive function in relation to pre-and postnatal phthalate exposure in children 2–12 years old. We recruited 430 pregnant women in their third trimester in Taichung, Taiwan from 2001–2002. A total of 110, 79, 76, and 73 children were followed up at ages 2, 5, 8, and 11, respectively. We evaluated the children’s cognitive function at four different time points using the Bayley and Wechsler tests for assessing neurocognitive functions and intelligence (IQ). Urine samples were collected from mothers during pregnancy and from children at each follow-up visit. They were analyzed for seven metabolite concentrations of widely used phthalate esters. These esters included monomethyl phthalate, monoethyl phthalate, mono-butyl phthalate, mono-benzyl phthalate, and three metabolites of di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate, namely, mono-2-ethylhexyl phthalate, mono(2-ethyl-5-hydroxyhexyl) phthalate, and mono(2-ethyl-5-oxohexyl) phthalate. We constructed a linear mixed model to examine the relationships between the phthalate metabolite concentrations and the Bayley and IQ scores. We found significant inverse associations between the children’s levels of urinary mono(2-ethyl-5-oxohexyl) phthalate and the sum of the three metabolites of di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate and their IQ scores (? = -1.818; 95% CI: -3.061, -0.574, p = 0.004 for mono(2-ethyl-5-oxohexyl) phthalate; ? = -1.575; 95% CI: -3.037, -0.113, p = 0.035 for the sum of the three metabolites) after controlling for maternal phthalate levels and potential confounders. We did not observe significant associations between maternal phthalate exposure and the children’s IQ scores. Children’s but not prenatal phthalate exposure was associated with decreased cognitive development in the young children. Large-scale prospective cohort studies are needed to confirm these findings in the future. PMID:26121592

  8. Modeling the effects of maternal nutritional status and socioeconomic variables on the anthropometric and psychological indicators of Kenyan infants from age 0-6 months.

    PubMed

    Bhargava, A

    2000-01-01

    This paper presents a comprehensive empirical analysis of the factors affecting growth and psychological development of over 100 infants from birth to age 6 months in the Embu region of Kenya. The analysis was divided into four parts. First, infants' birth weight, and length and head circumference as measured few days after birth, were modeled using multiple regression models. Maternal prepregnancy body mass index (BMI), gestation period, and parity were associated with infants' anthropometric measurements (P < 0.05). Second, the scores on seven clusters of the Brazelton Neonatal Behavioral Assessment Scale were explained by health and socioeconomic indicators. While the models had poor predictive power, the scores were comparable to those reported in the literature for Puerto Rican and African American infants. The third part of the analysis modeled infant growth between 1-6 months by analyzing longitudinal data on length, head circumference, and weight. Dynamic models were postulated for the effects of nutritional, socioeconomic, and environmental factors and morbidity on anthropometric variables. The results showed that infants' calcium intakes were positively associated with length (P < 0.05). Maternal BMI and hemoglobin concentration were positively associated with infant weight (P < 0. 05); infant morbidity was negatively associated with weight (P < 0. 05). Lastly, the infants' scores at 6 months on the Bayley Motor Scale and on eight items from the Bayley Infant Behavior Record were explained using anthropometric, socioeconomic, and psychological variables. The infants' arm circumference and intake of protein were significant predictors of scores on the Bayley Motor Scale. In addition, time spent by the mother talking to the infant was positively associated with the scores on the Bayley Infant Behavior Record. The empirical results have implications for identifying vulnerable children in developing countries. PMID:10618590

  9. Maternal Plane of Nutrition During Late-Gestation and Weaning Age Alter Steer Calf Longissimus Muscle Adipogenic MicroRNA and Target Gene Expression.

    PubMed

    Moisá, Sonia J; Shike, Daniel W; Shoup, Lindsay; Loor, Juan J

    2016-01-01

    The main objective was to evaluate if different planes of maternal nutrition during late gestation and weaning age alter microRNA (miRNA) and target gene expression in offspring longissimus muscle (LM). Early (EW) and normal weaned (NW) Angus × Simmental calves (n = 30) born to cows that were grazing endophyte-infected tall fescue and red clover pastures with no supplement [low plane of nutrition (LPN)], or supplemented with 2.3 and 9.1 kg of dried distiller's grains with solubles and soy hulls [medium and high plane of nutrition (MPN, HPN), respectively] during the last 105 ± 11 days of gestation were used. Biopsies of LM were harvested at 78 (early weaning), 187 (normal weaning) and 354 days of age. Results indicate a role of pro-adipogenic miRNA in the control of adipogenesis in LM of NW-MPN steers between 78 and 187 days of age through upregulation of (1) miR-103 which inhibits CAV1, a protein that destabilizes INSR and leads to insulin resistance; (2) miR-143 which inhibits DLK1, a protein that inhibits adipocyte differentiation; and (3) miR-21 which impairs TGFBR2-induced inhibition of adipocyte differentiation. Among the studied anti-adipogenic miRNA, cow plane of nutrition resulted in downregulation of miR-34a expression in MPN steers compared with HPN and LPN at 78 days of age. Data for miR-34a provided a potential sign of epigenetic regulation of LM in beef offspring due to the cow plane of nutrition during late gestation. PMID:26597919

  10. Age-related changes in prosodic features of maternal speech to prelingually deaf infants with cochlear implants

    PubMed Central

    Kondaurova, Maria V.; Bergeson, Tonya R.; Xu, Huipuing

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated prosodic and structural characteristics of infant-directed speech to hearing-impaired infants as they gain hearing experience with a cochlear implant over a 12-month period of time. Mothers were recorded during a play interaction with their HI infants (N = 27, mean age 18.4 months) at 3, 6, and 12 months post-implantation. Two separate control groups of mothers with age-matched normal-hearing infants (NH-AM) (N = 21, mean age 18.1 months) and hearing experience-matched normal-hearing infants (NH-EM) (N = 24, mean age 3.1 months) were recorded at three testing sessions. Mothers produced less exaggerated pitch characteristics, a larger number of syllables per utterance, and faster speaking rate when interacting with NH-AM as compared to HI infants. Mothers also produced more syllables and demonstrated a trend suggesting faster speaking rate in speech to NH-EM relative to HI infants. Age-related modifications included decreased pitch standard deviation and increased number of syllables in speech to NH-AM infants and increased number of syllables in speech to HI and NH-EM infants across the 12-month period. These results suggest that mothers are sensitive to the hearing status of their infants and modify characteristics of infant-direct speech over time. PMID:24244108

  11. Laparoscopic decompression as treatment for median arcuate ligament syndrome.

    PubMed

    Rubinkiewicz, M; Ramakrishnan, P K; Henry, B M; Roy, J; Budzynski, A

    2015-09-01

    Median arcuate ligament syndrome (MALS) is a rare disorder due to coeliac trunk compression by the median arcuate ligament, resulting in coeliac artery stenosis characterised by chronic, recurrent abdominal pain. Patients with MALS are often middle-aged females presenting with a triad of postprandial epigastric pain, weight loss and abdominal bruit. It is a diagnosis of exclusion and confirmed by computed tomography or magnetic resonance imaging. Laparoscopic or open surgical decompression are the only treatment options in MALS. We present two cases of MALS treated by laparoscopic decompression as well as a literature review on this treatment. PMID:26320770

  12. Association between maternal age at childbirth and child and adult outcomes in the offspring: a prospective study in five low-income and middle-income countries (COHORTS collaboration)

    PubMed Central

    Fall, Caroline H D; Sachdev, Harshpal Singh; Osmond, Clive; Restrepo-Mendez, Maria Clara; Victora, Cesar; Martorell, Reynaldo; Stein, Aryeh D; Sinha, Shikha; Tandon, Nikhil; Adair, Linda; Bas, Isabelita; Norris, Shane; Richter, Linda M

    2015-01-01

    Summary Background Both young and advanced maternal age is associated with adverse birth and child outcomes. Few studies have examined these associations in low-income and middle-income countries (LMICs) and none have studied adult outcomes in the offspring. We aimed to examine both child and adult outcomes in five LMICs. Methods In this prospective study, we pooled data from COHORTS (Consortium for Health Orientated Research in Transitioning Societies)—a collaboration of five birth cohorts from LMICs (Brazil, Guatemala, India, the Philippines, and South Africa), in which mothers were recruited before or during pregnancy, and the children followed up to adulthood. We examined associations between maternal age and offspring birthweight, gestational age at birth, height-for-age and weight-for-height Z scores in childhood, attained schooling, and adult height, body composition (body-mass index, waist circumference, fat, and lean mass), and cardiometabolic risk factors (blood pressure and fasting plasma glucose concentration), along with binary variables derived from these. Analyses were unadjusted and adjusted for maternal socioeconomic status, height and parity, and breastfeeding duration. Findings We obtained data for 22?188 mothers from the five cohorts, enrolment into which took place at various times between 1969 and 1989. Data for maternal age and at least one outcome were available for 19?403 offspring (87%). In unadjusted analyses, younger (?19 years) and older (?35 years) maternal age were associated with lower birthweight, gestational age, child nutritional status, and schooling. After adjustment, associations with younger maternal age remained for low birthweight (odds ratio [OR] 1·18 (95% CI 1·02–1·36)], preterm birth (1·26 [1·03–1·53]), 2-year stunting (1·46 [1·25–1·70]), and failure to complete secondary schooling (1·38 [1·18–1·62]) compared with mothers aged 20–24 years. After adjustment, older maternal age remained associated with increased risk of preterm birth (OR 1·33 [95% CI 1·05–1·67]), but children of older mothers had less 2-year stunting (0·64 [0·54–0·77]) and failure to complete secondary schooling (0·59 [0·48–0·71]) than did those with mothers aged 20–24 years. Offspring of both younger and older mothers had higher adult fasting glucose concentrations (roughly 0·05 mmol/L). Interpretation Children of young mothers in LMICs are disadvantaged at birth and in childhood nutrition and schooling. Efforts to prevent early childbearing should be strengthened. After adjustment for confounders, children of older mothers have advantages in nutritional status and schooling. Extremes of maternal age could be associated with disturbed offspring glucose metabolism. Funding Wellcome Trust and the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation. PMID:26087974

  13. Effect of Maternal Age on the Ratio of Cleavage and Mitochondrial DNA Copy Number in Early Developmental Stage Bovine Embryos

    PubMed Central

    TAKEO, Shun; GOTO, Hiroya; KUWAYAMA, Takehito; MONJI, Yasunori; IWATA, Hisataka

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Age-associated deterioration in both the quality and quantity of mitochondria occurs in older women. The main aim of this study was to examine the effect of age on mitochondrial DNA copy number (mtDNA number) in early developmental stage bovine embryos as well as the dynamics of mtDNA number during early embryo development. Real-time PCR was used to determine mtDNA number. In vitro-produced embryos 48 h after insemination derived from Japanese black cows, ranging in age from 25 to 209 months were categorized based on their cleavage status. There was an overall negative relationship between the age of the cow and cleavage status, to the extent that the ratio of embryos cleaved over the 4-cell stage was greater in younger cows. The mtDNA number did not differ among the cleaved status of embryos. In the next experiment, oocytes collected from each donor cow were divided into 2 groups containing 10 oocytes each, in order to compare the mtDNA number of mature oocytes and early developmental stage embryos within individuals. Upon comparing the mtDNA number between oocytes at the M2 stage and early developmental stage 48 h post insemination, mtDNA number was found to decrease in most cows, but was found to increase in some cows. In conclusion, age affects the cleaving ability of oocytes, and very old cows (> 180 months) tend to have lower mtDNA numbers in their oocytes. The change in mtDNA number during early development varied among individual cows, although overall, it showed a tendency to decrease. PMID:23269452

  14. Maternal and Child Anxiety: Do Attachment Beliefs or Children's Perceptions of Maternal Control Mediate Their Association?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Costa, Natalie M.; Weems, Carl F.

    2005-01-01

    This study tested a model of the association between maternal and child anxiety that views mother and child attachment beliefs and children's perceptions of maternal control as mediators of the association. The study was conducted with mothers and their children aged 6 to 17 (N = 88). Maternal anxiety was significantly associated with child…

  15. REGRESSION ON MEDIANS OF PROBABILITY DISTRIBUTIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The median is a fundamental parameter in the area of lifetime and survival statistics. n toxicodynamics the LD50, lethal dose that results in 50% mortality, is frequently used. he median is also used to describe the incidence of cancer and other disease states. Factors such as nu...

  16. Maternal homocysteine in pregnancy and offspring birthweight: epidemiological associations and Mendelian randomization analysis

    PubMed Central

    Yajnik, Chittaranjan S; Chandak, Giriraj R; Joglekar, Charudatta; Katre, Prachi; Bhat, Dattatray S; Singh, Suraj N; Janipalli, Charles S; Refsum, Helga; Krishnaveni, Ghattu; Veena, Sargoor; Osmond, Clive; Fall, Caroline HD

    2014-01-01

    Background: Disturbed one-carbon (1-C) metabolism in the mother is associated with poor fetal growth but causality of this relationship has not been established. Methods: We studied the association between maternal total homocysteine and offspring birthweight in the Pune Maternal Nutrition Study (PMNS, Pune, India) and Parthenon Cohort Study (Mysore, India). We tested for evidence of causality within a Mendelian randomization framework, using a methylenetetrahydrofolatereductase (MTHFR) gene variant rs1801133 (earlier known as 677C?T) by instrumental variable and triangulation analysis, separately and using meta-analysis. Results: Median (IQR) homocysteine concentration and mean (SD) birthweight were 8.6 µmol/l (6.7,10.8) and 2642?g (379) in the PMNS and 6.0 µmol/l (5.1,7.1) and 2871?g (443) in the Parthenon study. Offspring birthweight was inversely related to maternal homocysteine concentration—PMNS: –22?g/SD [95% confidence interval (CI): (–50, 5), adjusted for gestational age and offspring gender]; Parthenon: –57?g (–92, –21); meta-analysis: –40?g (–62, –17)]. Maternal risk genotype at rs1801133 predicted higher homocysteine concentration [PMNS: 0.30 SD/allele (0.14, 0.46); Parthenon: 0.21 SD (0.02, 0.40); meta-analysis: 0.26 SD (0.14, 0.39)]; and lower birthweight [PMNS: –46?g (–102, 11, adjusted for gestational age, offspring gender and rs1801133 genotype); Parthenon: –78?g (–170, 15); meta-analysis: –61?g (–111, –10)]. Instrumental variable and triangulation analysis supported a causal association between maternal homocysteine concentration and offspring birthweight. Conclusions: Our findings suggest a causal role for maternal homocysteine (1-C metabolism) in fetal growth. Reducing maternal homocysteine concentrations may improve fetal growth. PMID:25052622

  17. Maternal Responsiveness Predicts Child Language at Ages 3 and 4 in a Community-Based Sample of Slow-to-Talk Toddlers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hudson, Sophie; Levickis, Penny; Down, Kate; Nicholls, Ruth; Wake, Melissa

    2015-01-01

    Background: Maternal responsiveness has been shown to predict child language outcomes in clinical samples of children with language delay and non-representative samples of typically developing children. An effective and timely measure of maternal responsiveness for use at the population level has not yet been established. Aims: To determine…

  18. The Role of Breast Size and Areolar Pigmentation in Perceptions of Women's Sexual Attractiveness, Reproductive Health, Sexual Maturity, Maternal Nurturing Abilities, and Age.

    PubMed

    Dixson, Barnaby J; Duncan, Melanie; Dixson, Alan F

    2015-08-01

    Women's breast morphology is thought to have evolved via sexual selection as a signal of maturity, health, and fecundity. While research demonstrates that breast morphology is important in men's judgments of women's attractiveness, it remains to be determined how perceptions might differ when considering a larger suite of mate relevant attributes. Here, we tested how variation in breast size and areolar pigmentation affected perceptions of women's sexual attractiveness, reproductive health, sexual maturity, maternal nurturing abilities, and age. Participants (100 men; 100 women) rated images of female torsos modeled to vary in breast size (very small, small, medium, and large) and areolar pigmentation (light, medium, and dark) for each of the five attributes listed above. Sexual attractiveness ratings increased linearly with breast size, but large breasts were not judged to be significantly more attractive than medium-sized breasts. Small and medium-sized breasts were rated as most attractive if they included light or medium colored areolae, whereas large breasts were more attractive if they had medium or dark areolae. Ratings for perceived age, sexual maturity, and nurturing ability also increased with breast size. Darkening the areolae reduced ratings of the reproductive health of medium and small breasts, whereas it increased ratings for large breasts. There were no significant sex differences in ratings of any of the perceptual measures. These results demonstrate that breast size and areolar pigmentation interact to determine ratings for a suite of sociosexual attributes, each of which may be relevant to mate choice in men and intra-sexual competition in women. PMID:25828990

  19. Maternal attitudes and behaviors regarding feeding practices in elementary-school age Latino children: A pilot qualitative study on the impact of the cultural role of mothers in the U.S.-Mexican border region of San Diego, California

    PubMed Central

    Rhee, Kyung; Blanco, Estela; Boutelle, Kerri

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed to explore the attitudes and behaviors of Latino mothers around feeding their children. Using qualitative methods, we conducted 4 focus groups in Spanish with 41 Latino mothers of elementary school-age children in San Diego County (CA). Latino mothers’ mean age was 41 years; 90% were foreign-born; 74% had a high school education or less. We explored cultural viewpoints around feeding and cooking and feeding strategies used. Focus groups were analyzed based on a priori and emergent themes. Two themes around feeding emerged, including: 1) feeding attitudes central to the maternal responsibility of having well-fed children; and 2) feeding behaviors that centered on cooking methods, supportive behaviors and reinforcement strategies for “eating well”. These findings increase our understanding of the Latino maternal role to feed children and may help to inform more culturally appropriate research to effectively address nutritional issues and obesity prevention in Latino children. PMID:24315129

  20. Inflammatory and Haematological Markers in the Maternal, Umbilical Cord and Infant Circulation in Histological Chorioamnionitis

    PubMed Central

    Howman, Rebecca A.; Charles, Adrian K.; Jacques, Angela; Doherty, Dorota A.; Simmer, Karen; Strunk, Tobias; Richmond, Peter C.; Cole, Catherine H.; Burgner, David P.

    2012-01-01

    Background The relationship between histological chorioamnionitis and haematological and biochemical markers in mothers and infants at delivery, and in infants postnatally, is incompletely characterised. These markers are widely used in the diagnosis of maternal and neonatal infection. Our objective was to investigate the effects of histological chorioamnionitis (HCA) on haematological and biochemical inflammatory markers in mothers and infants at delivery, and in infants post-delivery. Methods Two hundred and forty seven mothers, delivering 325 infants, were recruited at the only tertiary perinatal centre in Western Australia. Placentae were assessed for evidence of HCA using a semi-quantitative scoring system. Maternal high sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP), procalcitonin, and umbilical cord hsCRP, procalcitonin, white cell count and absolute neutrophil count were measured at delivery. In infants where sepsis was clinically suspected, postnatal CRP, white cell count and absolute neutrophil count were measured up to 48 hours of age. The effect of HCA on maternal, cord and neonatal markers was evaluated by multivariable regression analysis. Results The median gestational age was 34 weeks and HCA was present in 26 of 247 (10.5%) placentae. Mothers whose pregnancies were complicated by HCA had higher hsCRP (median 26 (range 2–107) versus 5.6 (0–108) mg/L; P<0.001). Histological chorioamnionitis was associated with higher umbilical cord hsCRP (75th percentile 2.91 mg/L (range 0–63.9) versus 75th percentile 0 mg/L (0–45.6); P<0.001) and procalcitonin (median 0.293 (range 0.05–27.37) versus median 0.064 (range 0.01–5.24) ug/L; P<0.001), with a sustained increase in neonatal absolute neutrophil count (median 4.5 (0.1–26.4)×109/L versus 3.0 (0.1–17.8)×109/L), and CRP up to 48 hours post-partum (median 10 versus 6.5 mg/L) (P<0.05 for each). Conclusion Histological chorioamnionitis is associated with modest systemic inflammation in maternal and cord blood. These systemic changes may increase postnatally, potentially undermining their utility in the diagnosis of early-onset neonatal infection. PMID:23272177

  1. The Relation between Maternal Symptoms of Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder and Mother-Infant Interaction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Semple, Deborah L.; Mash, Eric J.; Ninowski, Jerilyn E.; Benzies, Karen M.

    2011-01-01

    The relationship between maternal symptoms of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and specific maternal behaviors was examined in a community sample of 40 mothers of infants aged 3-8 months. It was hypothesized that maternal ADHD symptoms would be related to lower levels of maternal sensitivity, and higher levels of maternal

  2. Prevalence of bifid median nerves and persistent median arteries and their association with carpal tunnel syndrome in a sample of latino poultry processors and other manual workers

    PubMed Central

    WALKER, FRANCIS O.; CARTWRIGHT, MICHAEL S.; BLOCKER, JILL N.; ARCURY, THOMAS A.; SUK, JUNG IM; CHEN, HAIYING; SCHULTZ, MARK R.; GRZYWACZ, JOSEPH G.; MORA, DANA C.; QUANDT, SARA A.

    2013-01-01

    Introduction The prevalence of bifid median nerves and persistent median arteries, their co-occurrence, and their relationship to carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS) are only understood partially. Methods We screened 1026 wrists of 513 Latino manual laborers in North Carolina for bifid median nerves and persistent median arteries using electrodiagnosis and ultrasound. Results A total of 8.6% of wrists had a bifid median nerve, and 3.7% of wrists had a persistent median artery independent of subgroup ethnicity, age, gender, or type of work. An association with definite carpal tunnel syndrome was not found. The presence of either anatomic variant was associated with a high likelihood of co-occurrence of another variant in the same or the contralateral wrist. Conclusions The occurrence of median anatomic variants can be determined in field studies using ultrasound. Persistent median arteries and bifid median nerves tend to co-occur but do not put manual laborers at additional risk of developing CTS. PMID:24037717

  3. Adaptive Mallow's optimization for weighted median filters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rachuri, Raghu; Rao, Sathyanarayana S.

    2002-05-01

    This work extends the idea of spectral optimization for the design of Weighted Median filters and employ adaptive filtering that updates the coefficients of the FIR filter from which the weights of the median filters are derived. Mallows' theory of non-linear smoothers [1] has proven to be of great theoretical significance providing simple design guidelines for non-linear smoothers. It allows us to find a set of positive weights for a WM filter whose sample selection probabilities (SSP's) are as close as possible to a SSP set predetermined by Mallow's. Sample selection probabilities have been used as a basis for designing stack smoothers as they give a measure of the filter's detail preserving ability and give non-negative filter weights. We will extend this idea to design weighted median filters admitting negative weights. The new method first finds the linear FIR filter coefficients adaptively, which are then used to determine the weights of the median filter. WM filters can be designed to have band-pass, high-pass as well as low-pass frequency characteristics. Unlike the linear filters, however, the weighted median filters are robust in the presence of impulsive noise, as shown by the simulation results.

  4. Median palmar digital neuropathy in a cheerleader.

    PubMed

    Shields, R W; Jacobs, I B

    1986-11-01

    Median palmar digital neuropathy developed in a 16-year-old girl as a result of chronic trauma to the palm during cheerleading activities. The clinical findings on examination, which included paresthesias in the distribution of a palmar digital nerve and exacerbation of symptoms with compression of the palm, were consistent with this diagnosis. Nerve conduction studies documented a lesion of the median palmar digital nerve. Avoidance of cheerleading activities resulted in nearly total resolution of the symptoms. Awareness of this entity and the value of nerve conduction studies in establishing the diagnosis may avoid confusion and facilitate correct diagnosis and management. PMID:3778181

  5. Robotic-assisted median arcuate ligament release.

    PubMed

    Relles, Daniel; Moudgill, Neil; Rao, Atul; Rosato, Francis; DiMuzio, Paul; Eisenberg, Joshua

    2012-08-01

    Median arcuate ligament syndrome results from external compression of the celiac axis by attachments of the diaphragmatic crura. It has been treated with open or laparoscopic surgical decompression of the celiac axis with neurolysis. We describe our initial experience treating three patients using a robotic-assisted technique with median arcuate ligament release and celiac neurolysis. Average operative time was 2.2 hours. No intraoperative complications occurred. At an average of 11 months postoperative (14, 11, and 8 months), two patients continue with resolution of preoperative symptoms. Our experience affirms that further study using the robotic approach appears warranted. PMID:22726754

  6. Kinetic Medians and -Trees Pankaj K. Agarwal

    E-print Network

    Agarwal, Pankaj K.

    Kinetic Medians and -Trees Pankaj K. Agarwal½ , Jie Gao¾ , and Leonidas J. Guibas¾ ½ Department move, we use event-based kinetic data structures to update the tree when necessary. Both trees undergo on the query time [26,25, 19] or are too complicated [1, 15]. In this paper we develop kinetic data structures

  7. An Investigation of the Median-Median Method of Linear Regression

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walters, Elizabeth J.; Morrell, Christopher H.; Auer, Richard E.

    2006-01-01

    Least squares regression is the most common method of fitting a straight line to a set of bivariate data. Another less known method that is available on Texas Instruments graphing calculators is median-median regression. This method is proposed as a simple method that may be used with middle and high school students to motivate the idea of fitting…

  8. Cadaveric study of anatomical variations of the median nerve and persistent median artery at wrist

    PubMed Central

    Agarwal, Pawan; Gupta, Shivkant; Yadav, Prashant; Sharma, D.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Awareness of anatomical variations of the median nerve at wrist is important in repair of traumatic injuries and treatments of compression syndrome because in these situations precise dissection of the nerve is mandatory and such variations are not infrequent. Materials and Methods: In this study, 52 hands of 52 fresh cadavers were dissected and median nerve anatomy along with the presence of persistent median artery (PMA) was noted. Results: A total of 26 hands (50%) had the deviation from the standard text book anatomy of the median nerve. There was early division of the median nerve into the medial and lateral branches in 11.53% hands. There was early branching of the 2nd common digital nerve in 9.6% hands. The transligamentous motor branch to the thenar muscle was most prevalent (42.3% hands). The single motor branch to the thenar muscles was found in the majority of hands (84.6%). The PMA was present in 11.53% hands and it was associated with variations in the median nerve anatomy in all cases. Conclusions: This study shows a high percentage of deviation from standard anatomy as well as a high percentage of transligamentous thenar muscle motor branch. The presence of PMA was associated with variations in the median nerve anatomy in all cases. Therefore if PMA is present there are very high chances of associated median nerve anomalies. PMID:24987212

  9. Infant and Maternal Sensitivity to Interpersonal Timing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henning, Anne; Striano, Tricia

    2011-01-01

    A perturbation paradigm was employed to assess 3- and 6-month-old infants' and their mothers' sensitivity to a 3-s temporal delay implemented in an ongoing televised interaction. At both ages, the temporal delay affected infant but not maternal behavior and only when implementing the temporal delay in maternal (Experiment 1, N = 64) but not infant…

  10. Effects of Maternal Employment on Adolescent Substance Use.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hillman, Stephen B.; And Others

    As levels of maternal employment increase (71% for mothers with school-age children), there is concern for both the short- and long-term consequences of maternal employment on children and families. This study examined the influence of maternal employment in two-parent families on the substance use of adolescents. Subjects were male and female…

  11. Mediating Links between Maternal Childhood Trauma and Preadolescent Behavioral Adjustment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Min, Meeyoung O.; Singer, Lynn T.; Minnes, Sonia; Kim, Hyunsoo; Short, Elizabeth

    2013-01-01

    Structural equation modeling was used to simultaneously examine maternal psychological distress and social support as mediators linking maternal childhood trauma (MCT) to both maternal and child-reported behavior at 9 years of age in 231 birth mother-child dyads, who were primarily poor, urban, and African American. One half of the mothers…

  12. Median Citation Index vs Journal Impact Factor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Antonoyiannakis, Manolis

    2015-03-01

    The Journal Impact Factor is an arithmetic mean: It is the average number of citations, in a year, to a journal's articles that were published the previous two years. But for the vast majority of scholarly journals, the distribution of these citations is skewed (non-symmetric). We argue that a more representative member of the skewed distribution of citations is its median, not the mean. We thus introduce the Median Citation Index (MCI) and compare it to the journal Impact Factor (JIF) as a potentially more suitable choice of the ``center'' of the distribution, or its typical value. Unlike the JIF, the MCI is far less sensitive to outlier (very highly cited) papers or to gaming, and does not lend itself to the hype of calculating it to three decimal digits.

  13. C57BL/6J male offspring exposed "in utero" and during weaning to a maternal low protein diet have reduced muscle weight by 12 months of age

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Objective: C57BL/6J mice are predisposed to obesity and type 2 diabetes (T2DM) and may be a sensitive model for fetal programming of T2DM. The "maternal low protein diet" (MLP) rat model is well established to study fetal growth restriction effects on programming of T2DM. How data from C57BL/6J mice...

  14. Effects of maternal and pre-weaning undernutrition in rat offspring: Age at reproductive senescence and intergenerational pup growth and viability

    EPA Science Inventory

    Maternal and/or postnatal undernutrition are widespread in human populations and are components of many experimental developmental and reproductive toxicology bio-assays. This study investigated in utero and/or pre-weaning undernutrition effects on reproductive maturation and se...

  15. What Patterns of Postpartum Psychological Distress Are Associated with Maternal Concerns about Their Children's Emotional and Behavioural Problems at the Age of Three Years?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benzies, Karen; Mychasiuk, Richelle; Tough, Suzanne

    2015-01-01

    Mothers experiencing psychological distress in the postpartum period may have difficulties parenting their children. Inconsistent and unresponsive parenting may increase the risk of later emotional and behavioural problems in children. The purpose of this study was to identify how maternal psychological characteristics cluster at eight weeks…

  16. Portfolio optimization using median-variance approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wan Mohd, Wan Rosanisah; Mohamad, Daud; Mohamed, Zulkifli

    2013-04-01

    Optimization models have been applied in many decision-making problems particularly in portfolio selection. Since the introduction of Markowitz's theory of portfolio selection, various approaches based on mathematical programming have been introduced such as mean-variance, mean-absolute deviation, mean-variance-skewness and conditional value-at-risk (CVaR) mainly to maximize return and minimize risk. However most of the approaches assume that the distribution of data is normal and this is not generally true. As an alternative, in this paper, we employ the median-variance approach to improve the portfolio optimization. This approach has successfully catered both types of normal and non-normal distribution of data. With this actual representation, we analyze and compare the rate of return and risk between the mean-variance and the median-variance based portfolio which consist of 30 stocks from Bursa Malaysia. The results in this study show that the median-variance approach is capable to produce a lower risk for each return earning as compared to the mean-variance approach.

  17. Timing of maternal HIV testing and uptake of Prevention of Mother-to-Child Transmission interventions among women and their infected infants in Johannesburg, South Africa

    PubMed Central

    Technau, Karl-Günter; Kalk, Emma; Coovadia, Ashraf; Black, Vivian; Pickerill, Sam; Mellins, Claude A.; Abrams, Elaine J.; Strehlau, Renate; Kuhn, Louise

    2013-01-01

    Background By 2011, South African prevention of mother-to-child transmission of HIV (PMTCT) programmes had reduced perinatal HIV transmission at 6-weeks of age to 2.7%. We investigated the profile of newly-diagnosed vertically-infected children and their mothers to identify short-falls in the PMTCT programme. Methods In this operational follow-up study, fieldworkers enrolled mothers of newly-diagnosed HIV-infected children up to 2 years of age at 5 major healthcare facilities in Johannesburg. Structured questionnaires and clinical record reviews were conducted and analysed to describe the population and assess factors associated with PMTCT uptake. Results 289 mother-child pairs were enrolled. Timing of maternal HIV diagnosis influenced PMTCT access and feeding choices, and was associated with infants’ age at HIV diagnosis (7 weeks vs. 11 weeks vs. 31 weeks where mothers tested before, during or after the pregnancy respectively; p <0.0001). Women diagnosed before pregnancy (12%) were older (median 31 years) than those diagnosed during the index pregnancy (53% - median 27 years). Women diagnosed after delivery (35%) were younger (median 25 years, p<0.0001), of lower parity, and less likely to be South African citizens. In 81 cases (29%) late maternal diagnosis precluded any PMTCT access. Where women were diagnosed during or before pregnancy, the recommended PMTCT guidelines for mother and infant were followed in 86 (61%) pairs. Conclusion Failure to diagnose maternal HIV infection before delivery was the main reason for missing PMTCT prophylaxis and early infant testing. Timely maternal diagnosis enables PMTCT uptake, but implementation and follow-up gaps require attention to improve infant outcomes. PMID:24759066

  18. Chemical and Mechanical Defenses Vary among Maternal Lines and Leaf Ages in Verbascum thapsus L. (Scrophulariaceae) and Reduce Palatability to a Generalist Insect

    PubMed Central

    Alba, Christina; Bowers, M. Deane; Blumenthal, Dana; Hufbauer, Ruth A.

    2014-01-01

    Intra-specific variation in host-plant quality affects herbivore foraging decisions and, in turn, herbivore foraging decisions mediate plant fitness. In particular, variation in defenses against herbivores, both among and within plants, shapes herbivore behavior. If variation in defenses is genetically based, it can respond to natural selection by herbivores. We quantified intra-specific variation in iridoid glycosides, trichome length, and leaf strength in common mullein (Verbascum thapsus L, Scrophulariaceae) among maternal lines within a population and among leaves within plants, and related this variation to feeding preferences of a generalist herbivore, Trichopulsia ni Hübner. We found significant variation in all three defenses among maternal lines, with T. ni preferring plants with lower investment in chemical, but not mechanical, defense. Within plants, old leaves had lower levels of all defenses than young leaves, and were strongly preferred by T. ni. Caterpillars also preferred leaves with trichomes removed to leaves with trichomes intact. Differences among maternal lines indicate that phenotypic variation in defenses likely has a genetic basis. Furthermore, these results reveal that the feeding behaviors of T. ni map onto variation in plant defense in a predictable way. This work highlights the importance of variation in host-plant quality in driving interactions between plants and their herbivores. PMID:25127229

  19. The Effect of a Maternal Double Megadose of Vitamin A Supplement on Serum Levels of Retinol in Children Aged under Six Months

    PubMed Central

    dos Santos, Carmina Silva; Kruze, Ilma; Fernandes, Taciana; Andreto, Luciana Marques; Figueiroa, José Natal; Diniz, Alcides da Silva

    2013-01-01

    Objective. To measure concentrations of serum retinol in children after the use of maternal vitamin A double megadose supplements. Design. Randomized controlled clinical trial. Setting. The study was conducted at two maternity hospitals in the city of Recife, in the northeast region of Brazil between August 2007 and June 2009. Subjects and Methods. 276 children/mothers were recruited after birth and the women received a 200,000?IU capsule of vitamin A. After ten days they were randomly assigned to two treatment groups. One group received a second 200.000?IU capsule, while the other received a placebo. The concentrations of retinol in the serum of the children from each group were measured at 2, 4, and 6?months. Results. 173 children completed the study. There was no difference between the two treatment groups (P = 0.514). The mean base retinol level was lower than that at four and six months (P < 0.001). Conclusions. The maternal double megadose supplement had no additional effect on the serum retinol levels of the children, although concentrations of retinol in the children rose in the first six months of life. This trial is registered with NCT00742937. PMID:24455219

  20. Maternal vitamin D status in pregnancy is associated with adiposity in the offspring: prospective observational study

    PubMed Central

    Crozier, Sarah R; Harvey, Nicholas C; Inskip, Hazel M; Godfrey, Keith M; Cooper, Cyrus; Robinson, Siân M

    2015-01-01

    Objective To determine the relationship between maternal vitamin D status in pregnancy and body composition in the offspring. Design Prospective mother-offspring cohort study. Setting Southampton, UK. Participants 977 pregnant women whose serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentration (25(OH)D) was measured in late pregnancy and their offspring, followed up within 3 weeks of birth, and at 4 and 6 years of age. Main outcome measures Offspring lean and fat mass assessed using Dual X-ray Absorptiometry. Results Median daily vitamin D intake (from food and supplements) in late pregnancy was 3.7?g/day (IQR 2.7 to 5.7). 22% of the women took vitamin D supplements in late pregnancy, but only 8.5% of the women complied with UK guidance to take 10?g per day. Median maternal serum 25(OH)D in late pregnancy was 62nmol/l (IQR 43-89); 35% of the women studied had values below 50 nmol/l. Lower vitamin D status was associated with lower fat mass in the offspring at birth, but with greater fat mass at 4 and 6 years. It was not associated with lean mass at any of the ages studied. The opposing associations seen between maternal 25(OH)D (SDs) and fat mass (SDs) in the offspring at birth and at 6 years were robust to adjustment for a range of confounding factors, including maternal BMI and weight gain in pregnancy (? (95% CI) 0.08 (0.02, 0.15) and ?0.10 (?0.17, ? 0.02 respectively). The key independent predictors of higher maternal vitamin D status were season of measurement and taking vitamin D in dietary supplements in late pregnancy. Conclusion These data suggest that insufficient maternal vitamin D status in pregnancy could result in programmed differences in offspring fat mass. The findings require replication but add to a growing evidence base for a role of vitamin D in the origins of adiposity. PMID:22623747

  1. Trajectories of Maternal Depressive Symptoms, Maternal Sensitivity, and Children's Functioning at School Entry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Campbell, Susan B.; Matestic, Patricia; von Stauffenberg, Camilla; Mohan, Roli; Kirchner, Thomas

    2007-01-01

    Using data from the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development Study of Early Child Care and Youth Development, the authors modeled trajectories of maternal depressive symptoms from infant age 1 month to 7 years. The authors identified 6 trajectories of maternal depressive symptoms: high-chronic, moderate-increasing, high-decreasing,…

  2. The Relations among Maternal Depressive Disorder, Maternal Expressed Emotion, and Toddler Behavior Problems and Attachment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gravener, Julie A.; Rogosch, Fred A.; Oshri, Assaf; Narayan, Angela J.; Cicchetti, Dante; Toth, Sheree L.

    2012-01-01

    Direct and indirect relations among maternal depression, maternal Expressed Emotion (EE: Self- and Child-Criticism), child internalizing and externalizing symptoms, and child attachment were examined. Participants were mothers with depression (n = 130) and comparison mothers (n = 68) and their toddlers (M age = 20 mo.; 53% male). Assessments…

  3. Maternal Psychopathology and Infant Development at 18 Months: The Impact of Maternal Personality Disorder and Depression

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Conroy, Susan; Pariante, Carmine M.; Marks, Maureen N.; Davies, Helen A.; Farrelly, Simone; Schacht, Robin; Moran, Paul

    2012-01-01

    Objective: No previous longitudinal study has examined the impact of comorbid maternal personality disorder (PD) and depression on child development. We set out to examine whether maternal PD and depression assessed at 2 months post partum would be independently associated with adverse developmental outcomes at 18 months of age. Method: Women were…

  4. The Maternal Description of Child (MDoC): A New Audiotaped Measure of Maternal Affect

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Anne; Razza, Rachel A.; Brooks-Gunn, Jeanne

    2015-01-01

    We report on a new measure of maternal affect from an ongoing multi-site birth cohort study with primarily low-income families, the Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing Study. At child age of 5?years, mothers were asked to describe their child in a short, semi-structured home interview. One innovation of this measure--called the Maternal

  5. Sexual dimorphism in number and proportion of neurons in the human median raphe nucleus.

    PubMed

    Cordero, M E; Valenzuela, C Y; Torres, R; Rodriguez, A

    2000-11-30

    The number and proportion of neurons in the median raphe nuclei stained by the Golgy-Cox and Nissl methods was compared in males and females infants. When subjects are matched by age and cause of death the number and proportion of fusiform, ovoid and multipolar cells differs significantly between sexes at different ages. PMID:11113510

  6. How do maternal PTSD and alexithymia interact to impact maternal behavior?

    PubMed

    Schechter, Daniel S; Suardi, Francesca; Manini, Aurelia; Cordero, Maria Isabel; Rossignol, Ana Sancho; Merminod, Gaëlle; Gex-Fabry, Marianne; Moser, Dominik A; Serpa, Sandra Rusconi

    2015-06-01

    Maternal interpersonal violence-related post-traumatic stress disorder (IPV-PTSD) is known to be associated with impairment of a mother's capacity to participate in mutual emotion regulation during her child's first years of life. This study tested the hypothesis that maternal difficulty in identifying feelings in self and other, as an important dimension of the construct of alexithymia, together with maternal IPV-PTSD, would be negatively associated with maternal sensitivity. Maternal sensitivity to child emotional communication is a marker of maternal capacity to engage in mutual regulation of emotion and arousal. Following diagnostic interviews and administration of the Toronto Alexithymia Scale, 56 mothers and their toddlers (ages 12-42 months) were filmed during free-play and separation/novelty-exposure. Observed maternal sensitivity was coded via the CARE-Index. Maternal IPV-PTSD severity, difficulty in identifying emotions, and lower socio-economic status were all associated with less maternal sensitivity, and also with more maternal controlling and unresponsive behavior on the CARE-Index. PMID:25008189

  7. Maternal Phenylketonuria (MPKU)

    PubMed Central

    Schoonheyt, W.E.; Hanley, W.B.; Clarke, J.T.R.; Austin, V.; Howe, D.A.

    1986-01-01

    Untreated maternal phenylketonuria (MPKU) is a major cause of microcephaly, congenital heart disease, intrauterine growth retardation and mental retardation in the offspring of mothers who have the disease. There is evidence, however, that dietary restriction of phenylalanine in the mother before conception and throughout the pregnancy will reduce the risk of these congenital anomalies in the fetus. It is important to be alert to this preventable cause of developmental retardation and congenital abnormalities in all pregnancies until the stage is reached where every woman of child-bearing age has been through the neonatal PKU-screening program. Family physicians are advised to consider prenatal or premarital screening for PKU of all female patients of child-bearing age for the next generation. PMID:21267327

  8. Median and ulnar nerve injuries; what causes different repair outcomes?

    PubMed Central

    Nouraei, Mohammad Hadi; Hosseini, Alireza; Salek, Shadi; Nouraei, Farhad; Bina, Roya

    2015-01-01

    Background: Peripheral nerve injuries have significant effects on patients’ life quality. To make patients’ therapeutic expectations more realistic, prediction of repair outcome has significant importance. Materials and Methods: Totally, 74 patients with 94 nerve injuries (44 median and 50 ulnar nerves) were evaluated and followed up for 5 years between 2008 and 2013 in two main university hospitals of Isfahan. Patients’ age was 6–64 years. 24 nerves were excluded from the study and among the remaining; 53 nerves were repaired primarily and 17 nerves secondarily. 42 nerves were injured at a low-level, 17 nerves at intermediate and 11 at a high one. Medical Research Council Scale used for sensory and motor assessment. S3+ and S4 scores for sensory recovery and M4 and M5 scores for motor recovery were considered as favorable results. The follow-up time was between 8 and 24 months. Results: There was no significant difference between favorable sensory outcomes of median and ulnar nerves. The difference between favorable motor outcomes of the median nerve was higher than ulnar nerve (P = 0.03, odds ratio = 2.9). More favorable results were seen in high-level injuries repair than low ones (P = 0.035), and also cases followed more than 18 months compared to less than 12 months (P = 0.041), respectively. The favorable outcomes for patients younger than 16 were more than 40 and older, however, their difference was not significant (P = 0.059). The difference between primary and secondary repair favorable outcomes was not significant (P = 0.37). Conclusion: In patients older than 40 or injured at a high-level, there is a high possibility of repetitive operations and reconstructive measures. The necessity for long-term follow-up and careful attentions during a postoperative period should be pointed to all patients. PMID:26605244

  9. Morphometric studies of the muscular branch of the median nerve.

    PubMed Central

    Olave, E; Prates, J C; Gabrielli, C; Pardi, P

    1996-01-01

    The branch from the median nerve to the thenar muscles has a proximal and lateral (recurrent) course and is vulnerable to lesions that affect these muscles. Because of its anatomical-clinical importance, this branch was studied in 60 palmar regions from 30 cadavers of adult individuals of both sexes, aged between 23 and 77 y. It arose from the lateral branch of the median nerve in 83.3% of the cases. Its origin was distal to the flexor retinaculum in 48.3%, at the distal margin of the retinaculum in 31.6%, in the carpal tunnel in 18.3% and proximal to the retinaculum in 1.7%; it pierced the retinaculum in 15%. The point of recurrence of the branch was localised topographically to 34.6 +/- 3.6 mm from the distal wrist crease; the angle between its recurrent course and the longitudinal axis of the hand averaged 66.8 degrees. In 50% of the cases the muscular branch innervated abductor pollicis brevis (APB), opponens pollicis (OP) and the superficial head of flexor pollicis brevis (FPB), in 40% it supplied only APB and OP, and in 10% a short muscular branch gave rise to independent branches in the palm and which supplied APB, OP and the superficial head of FPB. The so called "accessory thenar branch' was found in 38.3%. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 PMID:8886966

  10. Marfan syndrome and pregnancy: maternal and neonatal outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Curry, RA; Gelson, E; Swan, L; Dob, D; Babu-Narayan, SV; Gatzoulis, MA; Steer, PJ; Johnson, MR

    2014-01-01

    Objective To report outcomes in a recent series of pregnancies in women with Marfan syndrome (MFS). Design Retrospective case note review. Setting Tertiary referral unit (Chelsea and Westminster and Royal Brompton Hospitals). Sample Twenty-nine pregnancies in 21 women with MFS between 1995 and 2010. Methods Multidisciplinary review of case records. Main outcome measures Maternal and neonatal mortality and morbidity of patients with MFS and healthy controls. Results There were no maternal deaths. Significant cardiac complications occurred in five pregnancies (17%): one woman experienced a type–A aortic dissection; two women required cardiac surgery within 6 months of delivery; and a further two women developed impaired left ventricular function during the pregnancy. Women with MFS were also more likely to have obstetric complications (OR 3.29, 95% CI 1.30–8.34), the most frequent of which was postpartum haemorrhage (OR 8.46, 95% CI 2.52–28.38). There were no perinatal deaths, although babies born to mothers with MFS were delivered significantly earlier than those born to the control group (median 39 versus 40 weeks of gestation, Mann–Whitney U–test, P = 0.04). These babies were also significantly more likely to be small for gestational age (24% in the MFS group versus 6% in the controls; OR 4.95, 95% CI 1.58–15.55). Conclusions Pregnancy in women with MFS continues to be associated with significant rates of maternal, fetal, and neonatal complications. Effective pre-pregnancy counselling and meticulous surveillance during pregnancy, delivery, and the puerperium by an experienced multidisciplinary team are warranted for women with MFS. PMID:24418012

  11. Significance of maternal periodontal health in preeclampsia

    PubMed Central

    Desai, Khushboo; Desai, Parth; Duseja, Shilpa; Kumar, Santosh; Mahendra, Jaideep; Duseja, Sareen

    2015-01-01

    Objective: The aim of the present case–control study was to evaluate the association between maternal periodontitis and preeclampsia. Association studies between maternal periodontitis and elevated risk for preeclampsia have shown conflicting results. Periodontal maintenance is necessary to reduce the risk of adverse pregnancy outcomes like preeclampsia. Materials and Methods: Periodontal parameters [bleeding on probing, probing depth (PD), and clinical attachment level (CAL)] of 1320 women were assessed, followed by retrieval of their demographic and medical data from the medical records. Based on the medical records, 80 women were excluded from the study, leaving 1240 females as the eligible sample for the study. The women were divided into control group (1120 non-preeclamptic women who gave birth to infants with adequate gestational age) and case group (120 preeclamptic women). Logistic regression analysis revealed that primiparity and maternal periodontitis were the two significant variables causing preeclampsia. Further analysis was carried out by matching the two groups for primiparity to find the significance of maternal periodontitis. Maternal periodontitis was defined as PD ?4 mm and CAL ?3 mm at the same site in at least four teeth. Results: The results showed that maternal periodontitis (odds ratio 19.8) was associated with preeclampsia. Maternal periodontitis also remained associated with preeclampsia after matching for primiparity, which was another significant confounding factor in the study (odds ratio 9.33). Conclusion: Maternal periodontitis is a risk factor associated with preeclampsia, emphasizing the importance of periodontal care in prenatal programs. PMID:25992334

  12. Maternal hepatitis B and infant infection among pregnant women living with HIV in South Africa

    PubMed Central

    Hoffmann, Christopher J; Mashabela, Fildah; Cohn, Silvia; Hoffmann, Jennifer D; Lala, Sanjay; Martinson, Neil A; Chaisson, Richard E

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Globally, hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection is the leading cause of liver-related mortality. Newborn vaccination, maternal antiviral therapy and administering hepatitis B immune globulin shortly after birth can greatly reduce the risk of perinatal and infant infection. However, evidence-based policy regarding these interventions in Africa is hampered by gaps in knowledge of HBV epidemiology. We describe maternal chronic hepatitis B (CHB) prevalence and infant infection during the first year of life within a cohort of women living with HIV. Methods We recruited and prospectively followed pregnant women living with HIV and their infants from prenatal clinics in an urban area of South Africa. Hepatitis B surface antigen, anti-hepatitis B surface antibodies and HBV DNA were assessed in all women. Hepatitis B testing was also performed at 6 and 52 weeks for all infants born to mothers with either positive surface antigen or detectable HBV DNA. Results We enrolled 189 women with a median age of 29 years and median CD4 count of 348 cells/mm3. Fourteen had a positive surface antigen (7.4%), of which six were positive for “e” antigen. An additional three had detectable HBV DNA without positive surface antigen. One infant developed CHB and three others had evidence of transmission based on positive HBV DNA assays. HBV vaccinations were delivered at six weeks of life to all infants. Conclusions Our findings highlight the risk of peripartum HBV transmission in this setting. Approaches to reducing this transmission should be considered. PMID:24855985

  13. The Heterogeneous P-Median Problem for Categorization Based Clustering

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blanchard, Simon J.; Aloise, Daniel; DeSarbo, Wayne S.

    2012-01-01

    The p-median offers an alternative to centroid-based clustering algorithms for identifying unobserved categories. However, existing p-median formulations typically require data aggregation into a single proximity matrix, resulting in masked respondent heterogeneity. A proposed three-way formulation of the p-median problem explicitly considers…

  14. Does warmth moderate longitudinal associations between maternal spanking and child aggression in early childhood?

    PubMed

    Lee, Shawna J; Altschul, Inna; Gershoff, Elizabeth T

    2013-11-01

    This study examines whether maternal warmth moderates the association between maternal use of spanking and increased child aggression between ages 1 and 5. Participants were 3,279 pairs of mothers and their children from a cohort study of urban families from 20 U.S. cities. Maternal spanking was assessed when the child was 1 year, 3 years, and 5 years of age. Maternal warmth and child aggressive behavior were measured at 3 years and 5 years of age. Models controlled for demographic characteristics (measured at the child's birth), child emotionality (measured at age 1), and maternal psychosocial risk factors (measured when children were 3 years old). Cross-lagged path models examined the within-time and longitudinal associations between spanking and child aggression. Results indicated that maternal spanking at age 1 was associated with higher levels of child aggression at age 3; similarly, maternal spanking at age 3 predicted increases in child aggression by age 5. Maternal warmth when children were 3 years old did not predict changes in child aggression between 3 and 5 years old. Furthermore, maternal warmth did not moderate the association between spanking and increased child aggression over time. Beginning as early as age 1, maternal spanking is predictive of child behavior problems, and maternal warmth does not counteract the negative consequences of the use of spanking. PMID:23339588

  15. Effect of early maternal docosahexaenoic acid intake on neuropsychological status and visual acuity at five years of age of breast-fed infants

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We previously reported better psychomotor development at 30 months of age in infants whose mothers received a docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) supplement for the first 4 months of lactation. We now assess neuropsychological and visual function of the same children at 5 years of age. Breastfeeding women w...

  16. Prenatal Exposure to Maternal Cigarette Smoking and DNA Methylation: Epigenome-Wide Association in a Discovery Sample of Adolescents and Replication in an Independent Cohort at Birth through 17 Years of Age

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Ken W.K.; Richmond, Rebecca; Hu, Pingzhao; French, Leon; Shin, Jean; Bourdon, Celine; Reischl, Eva; Waldenberger, Melanie; Zeilinger, Sonja; Gaunt, Tom; McArdle, Wendy; Ring, Susan; Woodward, Geoff; Bouchard, Luigi; Gaudet, Daniel; Smith, George Davey; Relton, Caroline; Paus, Tomas

    2014-01-01

    Background: Prenatal exposure to maternal cigarette smoking (prenatal smoke exposure) had been associated with altered DNA methylation (DNAm) at birth. Objective: We examined whether such alterations are present from birth through adolescence. Methods: We used the Infinium HumanMethylation450K BeadChip to search across 473,395 CpGs for differential DNAm associated with prenatal smoke exposure during adolescence in a discovery cohort (n = 132) and at birth, during childhood, and during adolescence in a replication cohort (n = 447). Results: In the discovery cohort, we found five CpGs in MYO1G (top-ranking CpG: cg12803068, p = 3.3 × 10–11) and CNTNAP2 (cg25949550, p = 4.0 × 10–9) to be differentially methylated between exposed and nonexposed individuals during adolescence. The CpGs in MYO1G and CNTNAP2 were associated, respectively, with higher and lower DNAm in exposed versus nonexposed adolescents. The same CpGs were differentially methylated at birth, during childhood, and during adolescence in the replication cohort. In both cohorts and at all developmental time points, the differential DNAm was in the same direction and of a similar magnitude, and was not altered appreciably by adjustment for current smoking by the participants or their parents. In addition, four of the five EWAS (epigenome-wide association study)–significant CpGs in the adolescent discovery cohort were also among the top sites of differential methylation in a previous birth cohort, and differential methylation of CpGs in CYP1A1, AHRR, and GFI1 observed in that study was also evident in our discovery cohort. Conclusions: Our findings suggest that modifications of DNAm associated with prenatal maternal smoking may persist in exposed offspring for many years—at least until adolescence. Citation: Lee KW, Richmond R, Hu P, French L, Shin J, Bourdon C, Reischl E, Waldenberger M, Zeilinger S, Gaunt T, McArdle W, Ring S, Woodward G, Bouchard L, Gaudet D, Davey Smith G, Relton C, Paus T, Pausova Z. 2015. Prenatal exposure to maternal cigarette smoking and DNA methylation: epigenome-wide association in a discovery sample of adolescents and replication in an independent cohort at birth through 17 years of age. Environ Health Perspect 123:193–199;?http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/ehp.1408614 PMID:25325234

  17. Estimates of maternal mortality for 1995.

    PubMed Central

    Hill, K.; AbouZhar, C.; Wardlaw, T.

    2001-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To present estimates of maternal mortality in 188 countries, areas, and territories for 1995 using methodologies that attempt to improve comparability. METHODS: For countries having data directly relevant to the measurement of maternal mortality, a variety of adjustment procedures can be applied depending on the nature of the data used. Estimates for countries lacking relevant data may be made using a statistical model fitted to the information from countries that have data judged to be of good quality. Rather than estimate the Maternal Mortality Ratio (MMRatio) directly, this model estimates the proportion of deaths of women of reproductive age that are due to maternal causes. Estimates of the number of maternal deaths are then obtained by applying this proportion to the best available figure of the total number of deaths among women of reproductive age. FINDINGS: On the basis of this exercise, we have obtained a global estimate of 515,000 maternal deaths in 1995, with a worldwide MMRatio of 397 per 100,000 live births. The differences, by region, were very great, with over half (273,000 maternal deaths) occurring in Africa (MMRatio: > 1000 per 100,000), compared with a total of only 2000 maternal deaths in Europe (MMRatio: 28 per 100,000). Lower and upper uncertainty bounds were also estimated, on the basis of which the global MMRatio was unlikely to be less than 234 or more than 635 per 100,000 live births. These uncertainty bounds and those of national estimates are so wide that comparisons between countries must be made with caution, and no valid conclusions can be drawn about trends over a period of time. CONCLUSION: The MMRatio is thus an imperfect indicator of reproductive health because it is hard to measure precisely. It is preferable to use process indicators for comparing reproductive health between countries or across time periods, and for monitoring and evaluation purposes. PMID:11285661

  18. Young Mother-Father Dyads and Maternal Harsh Parenting Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Yookyong; Guterman, Neil B.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: This study examined whether the age of parents predicted maternal harsh parenting behavior, specifically whether younger mothers might be at higher risk than older mothers, and which paternal characteristics might be associated with maternal parenting behavior. Methodology: This study used data from the Fragile Families and Child…

  19. Maternal Work Status and Pregnancy Outcomes: A Pilot.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pitzer, Martha S.

    Investigated were effects of maternal work status and parity on specific outcomes in maternal psychology and physiology and infant physiology. In addition, the study design and the usefulness of instruments were evaluated, and the feasibility of subject recruitment and retention was assessed. Subjects were 20 women between 18 and 35 years of age

  20. Maternal and Child Predictors of Preschool Children's Social Competence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Diener, Marissa L.; Kim, Do-Yeong

    2004-01-01

    The present study examined child and maternal predictors of children's social competence in preschool. One hundred ten mothers and their preschool-aged children participated. Mothers completed parent reports of child temperament and self-regulation, and self-reports of maternal separation anxiety. Mothers' interactional style was coded from…

  1. Paternal Contribution to Down's Syndrome Dispels Maternal Myths.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abroms, Kippy I.; Bennett, Joan W.

    The paper refutes the long held belief that Down's syndrome is the result of maternal age and maternal etiology. The author cites new evidence which demonstrates that Trisomy-21 (the presence in the chromosome of an extra arcocentric chromosome resulting from non-disjunction), the major cause (95% of the cases) of Down's syndrome, can originate in…

  2. German Maternal Phenylketonuria Study.

    PubMed

    Cipcic-Schmidt, S; Trefz, F K; Fünders, B; Seidlitz, G; Ullrich, K

    1996-07-01

    The German maternal phenylketonuria (MPKU) Study began in 1989 and since 1992 works together with the American-Canadian MPKU Study. Main goals of the study are: (1) to find women with phenylketonuria (PKU) and mild untreated hyperphenylalaninaemia (HPA); (2) to inform them about the risks of an untreated pregnancy with PKU and HPA; (3) to evaluate the efficacy of the phenylalanine (Phe) restricted dietary treatment prior to and during pregnancy by following the physical and cognitive development of offspring from treated pregnancies. An interim report of the study is presented. Until now, 43 pregnancies have been followed. They resulted in 34 live births, 24 from women with PKU and 10 form women with HPA. There are significant negative correlations between the gestational age in which the dietary control (blood Phe level < 360 mumol/l) was reached and pregnancy outcome as measured by growth parameters and early cognitive and motor developmental quotients at the age of 2 years. For minimizing risks of MPKU, preconceptional dietary control is strongly recommended. Tracking and timely information of young women about risks of MPKU is of outmost importance. PMID:8828639

  3. The influence of impact delivery mode, lactation time, infant gender, maternal age and rural or urban life on total number of Lactobacillus in breast milk Isfahan - Iran

    PubMed Central

    Taghizadeh, Mansoureh; Mirlohi, Maryam; Poursina, Farkhondeh; Madani, Golnoush; Khoshhali, Mehri; Bahreini, Nimah; Safaei, Hajieh Ghasemian

    2015-01-01

    Background: Breast milk is known as the most crucial postpartum issue in metabolic and immunologic programming of neonatal health. Human milk microbial changes over Lactation. The factors influencing the milk microbiome as well as potential impact of microbes on infant health have not yet been discovered. The objective was to identify pre- and post-natal factors that can potentially influence the bacterial communities inhabiting human milk. Materials and Methods: Breast milk samples (n = 40) with all full-term breastfed infants were collected from lactating randomized. Information on personal characteristics, dietary habits, information about infants were collected after birth. The samples were plated with serial dilutions on three selective culture media man rogosa sharp and then colonies were counted. Colonies tested for catalase reaction, Gram-staining and microscopic examination. Results: The result of this study showed that the overall incidence of positive Lactobacillus in mother's milk was 87.5%. The results based on (infant gender, mode of delivery, rural or urban and lactation time) rural or urban and lactation time were significant (P < 0.05). The results showed that all of the variables were significant in this regression model (P < 0.001). The median of log10 Lactobacillus counts in rural mothers, vaginal delivery, infant male gender and Lactation time for first 3-month were meaningfully high. Conclusions: The findings of this study about the breast milk Lactobacillus potential probiotic bacteria of healthy Iranian mothers, suggested that the breast milk microbiome is significantly influenced by several factors, mode of delivery, rural or urban and lactation time. PMID:26322289

  4. Elemental analysis of human amniotic fluid and placenta by total-reflection X-ray fluorescence and energy-dispersive X-ray fluorescence: child weight and maternal age dependence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carvalho, M. L.; Custódio, P. J.; Reus, U.; Prange, A.

    2001-11-01

    This work is an attempt to evaluate the possible influence of the mother's age in trace element concentrations in human amniotic fluid and placenta and whether these concentrations are correlated to the weight of the newborn infants. Total-reflection X-ray fluorescence (TXRF) was used to analyze 16 amniotic fluid samples, and the placenta samples were analyzed by energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence (EDXRF). The whole samples were collected during delivery from healthy mothers and healthy infants and full-term pregnancies. According to the age of the mother, three different groups were considered: 20-25, 25-30 and 30-40 years old. Only two mothers were aged more than 35 years. The weight of the infants ranged from 2.56 to 4.05 kg and three groups were also considered: 2.5-3, 3-3.5 and 3.5-4 kg. The organic matrix of the amniotic fluid samples was removed by treatment with HNO 3 followed by oxygen plasma ashing. Yttrium was used as the internal standard for TXRF analysis. Placenta samples were lyophilized and analyzed by EDXRF without any chemical treatment. Very low levels of Ni and Sr were found in the amniotic fluid samples, and were independent of the age of the mother and weight of the child. Cr, Mn, Se and Pb were at the level of the detection limit. Zn, considered one of the key elements in neonatal health, was not significantly different in the samples analyzed; however, it was weakly related to birth weigh. The concentrations obtained ranged from 0.11 to 0.92 mg/l and 30 to 65 ?g/g in amniotic fluid and placenta, respectively. The only two elements which seemed to be significantly correlated with mother's age and newborn weight were Ca and Fe for both types of sample: Ca levels were increased in heavier children and older mothers; however, Fe increased with increasing maternal age, but decreased for heavier babies. The same conclusions were obtained for placenta and amniotic fluid samples. Cu is closely associated with Fe in its function in the organism and has a similar behavior to this element, but not as pronounced.

  5. Does Warmth Moderate Longitudinal Associations between Maternal Spanking and Child Aggression in Early Childhood?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Shawna J.; Altschul, Inna; Gershoff, Elizabeth T.

    2013-01-01

    This study examines whether maternal warmth moderates the association between maternal use of spanking and increased child aggression between ages 1 and 5. Participants were 3,279 pairs of mothers and their children from a cohort study of urban families from 20 U.S. cities. Maternal spanking was assessed when the child was 1 year, 3 years, and 5…

  6. Maternal hormones during early pregnancy: a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Tianhui; Lundin, Eva; Grankvist, Kjell; Zeleniuch-Jacquotte, Anne; Wulff, Marianne; Afanasyeva, Yelena; Schock, Helena; Johansson, Robert; Lenner, Per; Hallmans, Goran; Wadell, Goran; Toniolo, Paolo; Lukanova, Annekatrin

    2010-01-01

    Background Little is known about correlates of first trimester pregnancy hormones as in most studies maternal hormones have been measured later in gestation. We examined the associations of maternal characteristics and child sex with first trimester maternal concentrations of 4 hormones implicated in breast cancer: human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG), ?-fetoprotein (AFP), insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-I and IGF-II. Methods 338 serum samples donated to the Northern Sweden Maternity Cohort (NSMC), 1975–2001, during the first trimester of uncomplicated pregnancies were analyzed for the hormones of interest as a part of a case-control study. The associations between maternal characteristics and child sex with hormone concentrations were investigated by correlation, general linear regression, and multivariate regression models. Results In the first trimester, greater maternal age was inversely correlated with IGF-I and IGF-II. In comparison with women carrying their first child, already parous women had higher IGF-I but lower hCG. Greater maternal weight and smoking were inversely correlated with hCG. No differences in hormone levels by child sex were observed. Conclusions Our analyses indicated that potentially modifiable maternal characteristics (maternal weight and smoking) influence first trimester pregnancy maternal hormone concentrations. PMID:20084544

  7. MATERNAL SELF-ESTEEM, EXPOSURE TO LEAD, AND CHILD NEURODEVELOPMENT

    PubMed Central

    Surkan, Pamela J.; Schnaas, Lourdes; Wright, Rosalind J.; Téllez-Rojo, Martha M.; Lamadrid-Figueroa, Héctor; Hu, Howard; Hernández-Avila, E. Mauricio; Bellinger, David C.; Schwartz, Joel; Perroni, Estela; Wright, Robert O.

    2008-01-01

    The notion that maternal personality characteristics influence cognitive development in their children has been grounded in stress moderation theory. Maternal personality traits, such as self-esteem, may buffer maternal stressors or lead to improved maternal-child interactions that directly impact neurodevelopment. This can be extended to suggest that maternal personality may serve to attenuate or exacerbate the effects of other neurotoxicants, although this has not been studied directly. We examined whether mothers’ self-esteem had a direct or main effect on their children's cognitive outcomes. We also explored the modifying effects of maternal self-esteem on the association between exposure to lead and neurodevelopment in these children. Study participants included 379 mother-child pairs from Mexico City. Data included the Coopersmith self-esteem scale in mothers, children's Bayley's Scale of Infant Development (BSID) scores, and sociodemographic information. Linear regression was used to model the relationship between maternal self-esteem and the Bayley's Mental Development Index (MDI) and Psychomotor Development Index (PDI) scores at age 24 months using regression models stratified by levels of maternal self-esteem. In adjusted models, each point increase in maternal self-esteem was associated with children having 0.2 higher score on the Bayley's MDI (p=0.04). Similar results were observed using the PDI outcome. Moreover, there was evidence that maternal self-esteem attenuated the negative effects of lead exposure, although the interaction fell short of conventional levels of statistical significance. PMID:18261800

  8. Estimation of Median Streamflows at Perennial Stream Sites in Hawaii

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fontaine, Richard A.; Wong, Michael F.; Matsuoka, Iwao

    1992-01-01

    The most accurate estimates of median streamflows at perennial stream sites in Hawaii are those made at streamflow-gaging stations. Two alternative methods for estimating median streamflows at ungaged sites are described in this report. Multiple-regression equations were developed for estimating median streamflows at ungaged, unregulated, perennial stream sites. The equations relate combinations of drainage area, mean altitude of the main stream channel, and mean annual precipitation to median streamflow. Streamflow data from 56 long-term continuous-record gaging stations were used in the analysis. Median-streamflow data for all 56 sites were adjusted using record-extension techniques to reflect base period (1912 through 1986) conditions. Hawaii was subdivided into two geographic groups and multiple-regression equations were developed for each. The standard error of predication for the equation developed for the first group, the islands of Oahu, Molokai, and Hawaii, is 41 percent. The standard error of predication for the equation developed for the second group, the islands of Kauai and Maui, is 54 percent. A method for estimating median-streamflow, based on discharge measurements and data from nearby streamflow-gaging stations, was also developed for 27 regulated, perennial windward Oahu sites. Standard errors of prediction for 23 of the sites range from 5 to 34 percent. Median-streamflow estimates for the four remaining sites were considered poor and no measures of accuracy are provided. Discharge measurements can be used to make estimates of median streamflows at ungaged, regulated sites where the regression equations developed in this report are not applicable. Discharge measurements can also be used to make estimates of median streamflows at ungaged, unregulated sites. Estimates of median streamflows based on discharge measurements have greater standard errors than estimates based on continuous streamflow records and in general have smaller standard errors than estimates based on regression equations.

  9. Maternal effects and the endocrine regulation of mandrill growth.

    PubMed

    Bernstein, Robin M; Setchell, Joanna M; Verrier, Delphine; Knapp, Leslie A

    2012-10-01

    Maternal effects can influence offspring growth and development, and thus fitness. However, the physiological factors mediating these effects in nonhuman primates are not well understood. We investigated the impact of maternal effects on variation in three important components of the endocrine regulation of growth in male and female mandrills (Mandrillus sphinx), from birth to 9 years of age. Using a mixed longitudinal set (N = 252) of plasma samples, we measured concentrations of insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I), growth hormone binding protein (GHBP), and free testosterone (free T). We evaluated the relationship of ontogenetic patterns of changes in hormone concentration to patterns of growth in body mass and body length, and determined that these endocrine factors play a significant role in growth of both young (infant and juvenile) and adolescent male mandrills, but only in growth of young female mandrills. We also use mixed models analysis to determine the relative contribution of the effects of maternal rank, parity, and age on variation in hormone and binding protein concentrations. Our results suggest that all of these maternal effects account for significant variation in hormone and binding protein concentrations in all male age groups. Of the maternal effects measured, maternal rank was the most frequently identified significant maternal effect on variation in hormone and binding protein concentrations. We suggest that these endocrine factors provide mechanisms that contribute to the maternal effects on offspring growth previously noted in this population. PMID:22696170

  10. Maternal iodine status and the thyroid function of pregnant mothers and their neonates in Jaffna District of Sri Lanka

    PubMed Central

    Yoganathan, Thirunavukkarasu; Hettiarachchi, Manjula; Arasaratnam, Vasanthy; Liyanage, Chandrani

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Iodine status of pregnant women and their newborns have not been studied in Jaffna District, Sri Lanka. This study was planned to assess the maternal iodine status and thyroid function at the third trimester of gestation and the thyrotrophin level of their neonate. Methods: Four hundred and seventy-seven pregnant women and their newborns were randomly selected among six Medical Officers of Health Divisions out of 12 in Jaffna District, Sri Lanka. Maternal thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH), free thyroxine (fT4), thyroglobulin (Tg), urinary iodine levels, and the neonatal thyrotrophin (nTSH) level were assessed. Results: In this study, mean age, weight, height, and gestational age of the mothers were 28.95 (±5.46) years, 63.02 (±11.56) kg, 154.39 (±6.00) cm, and 39.33 (±1.37) weeks, respectively. Maternal median urinary iodine concentration (UIC) was 140.0 ?g/L (inter-quartile range 126.0–268.0 ?g/L). Median values of the maternal serum TSH, fT4, and Tg were 1.9 mIU/L, 12.6 pmol/L, and 21.4 IU/L, respectively. Among the 477 newborns, 50.5% (n = 239) were males. Mean birth weight of newborn was 3.03 (±0.43) kg, while the mean length was 51.1 (±2.1) cm. Among the newborns, 18% (n = 86) had nTSH level > mIU/L and 37.7% (n = 180) within TSH level > mIU/L. nTSH level had positive but very weak correlations with maternal thyroid parameters, that is, UIC (r = 0.06, P = 0.13), fT4 (r = 0.01, P = 0.05), TSH (r = 0.09, P = 0.05), and Tg (r = 0.12, P = 0.03). Conclusion: On the basis of the World Health Organization criteria, the iodine status of pregnant women was inadequate in this region and also nTSH levels indicate moderate iodine deficiency during pregnancy. Therefore, the continuous education on adequate iodine intake during pregnancy and monitoring of iodine status are useful.

  11. Maternal Characteristics Predicting Young Girls' Disruptive Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van der Molen, Elsa; Hipwell, Alison E.; Vermeiren, Robert; Loeber, Rolf

    2011-01-01

    Little is known about the relative predictive utility of maternal characteristics and parenting skills on the development of girls' disruptive behavior. The current study used five waves of parent- and child-report data from the ongoing Pittsburgh Girls Study to examine these relationships in a sample of 1,942 girls from age 7 to 12 years.…

  12. Maternal and Infant Iron Status and First Year Illness

    E-print Network

    Douglas, Sarah E.

    2011-04-20

    . Potential factors that can influence iron status such as infant feeding, maternal body mass index, gestational days smoked, gestational age, and maternal ethnicity will be discussed. Iron is the most common micronutrient deficiency in the world (4... non-anemic pregnant women were randomized to receive the supplement or a placebo from 20 weeks gestation until birth. Hemoglobin values at 6 months and 4 years of age were positively correlated and statistically significant for the children at (p<0...

  13. Transcriptomics of Maternal and Fetal Membranes Can Discriminate between Gestational-Age Matched Preterm Neonates with and without Cognitive Impairment Diagnosed at 18–24 Months

    PubMed Central

    Pappas, Athina; Chaiworapongsa, Tinnakorn; Romero, Roberto; Korzeniewski, Steven J.; Cortez, Josef C.; Bhatti, Gaurav; Gomez-Lopez, Nardhy; Hassan, Sonia S.; Shankaran, Seetha; Tarca, Adi L.

    2015-01-01

    Background Neurocognitive impairment among children born preterm may arise from complex interactions between genes and the intra-uterine environment. Objectives (1) To characterize the transcriptomic profiles of chorioamniotic membranes in preterm neonates with and without neurocognitive impairment via microarrays and (2) to determine if neonates with neurocognitive impairment can be identified at birth. Materials/Methods A retrospective case-control study was conducted to examine the chorioamniotic transcriptome of gestational-age matched very preterm neonates with and without neurocognitive impairment at 18–24 months’ corrected-age defined by a Bayley-III Cognitive Composite Score <80 (n = 14 each). Pathway analysis with down-weighting of overlapping genes (PADOG) was performed to identify KEGG pathways relevant to the phenotype. Select differentially expressed genes were profiled using qRT-PCR and a multi-gene disease prediction model was developed using linear discriminant analysis. The model’s predictive performance was tested on a new set of cases and controls (n = 19 each). Results 1) 117 genes were differentially expressed among neonates with and without subsequent neurocognitive impairment (p<0.05 and fold change >1.5); 2) Gene ontology analysis indicated enrichment of 19 biological processes and 3 molecular functions; 3)PADOG identified 4 significantly perturbed KEGG pathways: oxidative phosphorylation, Parkinson’s disease, Alzheimer’s disease and Huntington’s disease (q-value <0.1); 4) 48 of 90 selected differentially expressed genes were confirmed by qRT-PCR, including genes implicated in energy metabolism, neuronal signaling, vascular permeability and response to injury (e.g., up-regulation of SEPP1, APOE, DAB2, CD163, CXCL12, VWF; down-regulation of HAND1, OSR1)(p<0.05); and 5) a multi-gene model predicted 18–24 month neurocognitive impairment (using the ratios of OSR1/VWF and HAND1/VWF at birth) in a larger, independent set (sensitivity = 74%, at specificity = 83%). Conclusions Gene expression patterns in the chorioamniotic membranes link neurocognitive impairment in preterm infants to neurodegenerative disease pathways and might be used to predict neurocognitive impairment. Further prospective studies are needed. PMID:25822971

  14. 174. WIDE MEDIAN BETWEEN NORTH END OF ALEXANDRIA AND WASHINGTON ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    174. WIDE MEDIAN BETWEEN NORTH END OF ALEXANDRIA AND WASHINGTON SAILING MARINA LOOKING NORTH. - George Washington Memorial Parkway, Along Potomac River from McLean to Mount Vernon, VA, Mount Vernon, Fairfax County, VA

  15. 56. AERIAL VIEW OF WIDE MEDIAN NEXT TO WASHINGTON SAILING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    56. AERIAL VIEW OF WIDE MEDIAN NEXT TO WASHINGTON SAILING MARINA LOOKING NORTH. - George Washington Memorial Parkway, Along Potomac River from McLean to Mount Vernon, VA, Mount Vernon, Fairfax County, VA

  16. 54. AERIAL VIEW OF WIDE MEDIAN JUST SOUTH OF WASHINGTON ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    54. AERIAL VIEW OF WIDE MEDIAN JUST SOUTH OF WASHINGTON SAILING MARINA LOOKING NORTH. - George Washington Memorial Parkway, Along Potomac River from McLean to Mount Vernon, VA, Mount Vernon, Fairfax County, VA

  17. 2. HISTORIC PHOTOGRAPH, VIEW FROM MEDIAN OF MERRITT PARKWAY TO ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. HISTORIC PHOTOGRAPH, VIEW FROM MEDIAN OF MERRITT PARKWAY TO EAST ROCKS ROAD BRIDGE, CA. 1940. COLLECTION CONNECTICUT DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION. - Merritt Parkway, East Rocks Road Bridge, Spanning Merritt Parkway, Norwalk, Fairfield County, CT

  18. Median nerve schwannoma: A case and review of literature.

    PubMed

    Padasali, Praveen S; Shankaregowda, V S; Kshirsagar, Shriram D

    2015-01-01

    We report a case of a median nerve schwannoma, a rare type of a benign tumor of Schwann cells that presents as a palpable and painful mass on the flexor aspect of the forearm. Schwannomas of the median nerve make up 0.1-0.3% of all hand tumors. Symptoms are caused by an entrapment syndrome resulting from the growing tumor. Pain is the most common complaint of schwannomas. Imaging studies include computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging and ultrasound. It is difficult to differentiate schwanommas from neurofibromas solely on the basis of a radiological investigation. Tumors of the median nerve are diagnostically challenging and median nerve schwannomas are rare. Diagnostic pearls are described to facilitate a more accurate and timely diagnosis. These characteristics include mobility, Tinel's sign, S-100 histological staining, and Antoni patterns. With a correct diagnosis, the tumor can be extirpated with preservation of nerve function and a low risk of recurrence. PMID:26396609

  19. Placement of Traffic Barriers on Roadside and Median Slopes 

    E-print Network

    Ferdous, Md Rubiat

    2011-08-08

    are evaluated following the guidelines provided in NCHRP Report 350. Multi-rigid-body dynamic analysis code, CARSIM, is used to identify trajectories of the vehicles traversing various roadside and median cross-slopes. After analyzing vehicle trajectories...

  20. Directional median filtering for regional-residual separation of bathymetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Seung-Sep; Wessel, Paul

    2008-03-01

    We present a new spatial filter designed to separate short-length-scale bathymetric features from regional bathymetry. The directional median (DiM) filter divides a given filter circle into N "bow tie" sectors, allocates data points inside the filter circle to each sector based on their relative position within the circle, estimates a median for each sector, and returns the lowest of these N medians. This approach prevents DiM filtering from choosing the biased medians near the features on a sloping regional trend, which is a serious artifact of standard median filtering. As the bathymetry comprises diverse length-scale features, the separated results vary with the choice of filter width. Such variations are spatially distributed. Using a finite range of filter widths, we evaluate the spatial distribution of variations in the DiM-based separation by estimating their median absolute deviation (MAD) at each data point. The distribution of MAD values is indicative of uncertainties inherent in the separation. We demonstrate the effectiveness of DiM filtering with both synthetic and actual bathymetric data.

  1. Emotional context, maternal behavior and emotion regulation.

    PubMed

    Roque, Lisa; Veríssimo, Manuela

    2011-12-01

    This study investigated the importance of emotion-eliciting context (positive and negative) and mother's behaviors (constrained and involved) on toddlers' emotion regulation behavioral strategies, emotional expressiveness and intensity, during three episodes eliciting fear, frustration/anger and positive affect. Fifty-five children between 18 and 26 months of age and their mothers participated in the study. Toddlers' regulatory strategies varied as function of emotion-eliciting context (children exhibited behavioral strategies more frequently during positive affect and frustration/anger episodes and less frequently during fear episodes) and maternal involvement. Toddlers' expression of emotion varied as function of emotion-eliciting context (children exhibited more emotional expressions, both negative and positive during fear and frustration/anger episodes compared to positive affect episodes). Toddlers' expression of emotion was not strongly related to maternal involvement, however, the intensity of emotional expression was related to the interaction of context and maternal involvement. PMID:21764459

  2. Maternal lupus and congenital cortical impairment

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Ji Y.; Huerta, Patricio T.; Zhang, Jie; Kowal, Czeslawa; Bertini, Eva; Volpe, Bruce T.; Diamond, Betty

    2008-01-01

    Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is an autoimmune disease mediated by autoantibodies (AAbs) and preferentially affecting women of childbearing age. Since the offspring of mothers with SLE exhibit a high frequency of learning disorders1-5, we hypothesized that maternally transferred AAbs that bind DNA and the N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR)6-12 could play a pathogenic role during fetal brain development. Here we describe a maternal SLE murine model wherein pregnant dams harbored DNA-specific, NMDAR-specific AAbs throughout gestation. High titers of these AAbs in maternal circulation led to histological abnormalities in fetal brain and subsequent cognitive impairments in adult offspring. These data support a paradigm in which in utero exposure to neurotoxic AAbs causes abnormal brain development with long-term consequences. This paradigm may apply to multiple congenital neuropsychiatric disorders. PMID:19079257

  3. Maternal Polybrominated Diphenyl Ether (PBDE) Exposure and Thyroid Hormones in Maternal and Cord Sera: The HOME Study, Cincinnati, USA

    PubMed Central

    Vuong, Ann M.; Webster, Glenys M.; Romano, Megan E.; Braun, Joseph M.; Zoeller, R. Thomas; Hoofnagle, Andrew N.; Sjödin, Andreas; Yolton, Kimberly; Lanphear, Bruce P.

    2015-01-01

    Background Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) reduce blood concentrations of thyroid hormones in laboratory animals, but it is unclear whether PBDEs disrupt thyroid hormones in pregnant women or newborn infants. Objectives We investigated the relationship between maternal PBDE levels and thyroid hormone concentrations in maternal and cord sera. Methods We used data from the Health Outcomes and Measures of the Environment (HOME)Study, a prospective birth cohort of 389 pregnant women in Cincinnati, Ohio, who were enrolled from 2003 through 2006 and delivered singleton infants. Maternal serum PBDE concentrations were measured at enrollment (16 ± 3 weeks of gestation). Thyroid hormone concentrations were measured in maternal serum at enrollment (n = 187) and in cord serum samples (n = 256). Results Median maternal serum concentrations of BDEs 28 and 47 were 1.0 and 19.1 ng/g lipid, respectively. A 10-fold increase in BDEs 28 and 47 concentrations was associated with a 0.85-?g/dL [95% confidence interval (CI): 0.05, 1.64] and 0.82-?g/dL (95% CI: 0.12, 1.51) increase in maternal total thyroxine concentrations (TT4), respectively. Both congeners were also positively associated with maternal free thyroxine (FT4). We also observed positive associations between BDE-47 and maternal total and free triiodothyronine (TT3 and FT3). A 10-fold increase in BDE-28 was associated with elevated FT3 concentrations (? = 0.14 pg/mL; 95% CI: 0.02, 0.26). In contrast, maternal PBDE levels were not associated with thyroid hormone concentrations in cord serum. Conclusions These findings suggest that maternal PBDE exposure, particularly BDEs 28 and 47, are associated with maternal concentrations of T4 and T3 during pregnancy. Citation Vuong AM, Webster GM, Romano ME, Braun JM, Zoeller RT, Hoofnagle AN, Sjödin A, Yolton K, Lanphear BP, Chen A. 2015. Maternal polybrominated diphenyl ether (PBDE) exposure and thyroid hormones in maternal and cord sera: the HOME Study, Cincinnati, USA. Environ Health Perspect 123:1079–1085;?http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/ehp.1408996 PMID:25893858

  4. Adaptive weighted median filter utilizing impulsive noise detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ishihara, Jun; Meguro, Mitsuhiko; Hamada, Nozomu

    1999-10-01

    The removal of noise in image is one of the current important issues. It is also useful as a preprocessing for edge detection, motion estimation and so on. In this paper, an adaptive weighted median filter utilizing impulsive noise detection is proposed for the removal of impulsive noise in digital images. The aim of our proposed method is to eliminate impulsive noise effectively preserving original fine detail in images. This aim is same for another median-type nonlinear filters try to realized. In our method, we use weighted median filter whose weights should be determined by balancing between the signal preserving ability and noise reduction performance. The trade off between these two inconsistent properties is realized using the noise detection mechanism and optimized adaptation process. In the previous work, threshold value between the signal and the output of the median filter have to be decided for the noise detection. Adaptive algorithm for optimizing WM filters uses the teacher image for training process. In our method, following two new approaches are introduced in the filtering. (1) The noise detection process uses the discriminant method to the histogram distribution of the derivation from median filter output. (2) Filter weights which have been learned by uncorrupted pixels and their neighborhood without the original image are used for the restoration filtering for noise corrupted pixels. The validity of the proposed method is shown through some experimental results.

  5. Maternal Alcohol Use and Neonatal Habituation Assessed with the Brazelton Scale.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Streissguth, Ann Pytkowicz; And Others

    1983-01-01

    Maternal alcohol use in mid-pregnancy was significantly related to poorer habituation and increased low arousal in newborn infants, even after adjusting for smoking and caffeine use by mothers, maternal age and nutrition during pregnancy, sex and age of the infant, and obstetric medication. (Author/RH)

  6. Is maternal PTSD associated with greater exposure of very young children to violent media?

    PubMed

    Schechter, Daniel S; Gross, Anna; Willheim, Erica; McCaw, Jaime; Turner, J Blake; Myers, Michael M; Zeanah, Charles H; Gleason, Mary Margaret

    2009-12-01

    This study examined media viewing by mothers with violence-related posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and related media exposure of their preschool-age children. Mothers (N = 67) recruited from community pediatric clinics participated in a protocol involving a media-preference survey. Severity of maternal PTSD and dissociation were significantly associated with child exposure to violent media. Family poverty and maternal viewing behavior were also associated. Maternal viewing behavior mediated the effects specifically of maternal PTSD severity on child exposure. Clinicians should assess maternal and child media viewing practices in families with histories of violent trauma exposure and related psychopathology. PMID:19924819

  7. Pancreaticoduodenal artery aneurysm associated with median arcuate ligament syndrome.

    PubMed

    Armstrong, Marc B; Stadtlander, Kevin S; Grove, Mark K

    2014-04-01

    Aneurysm of the pancreaticoduodenal artery arcade has a well-documented association with occlusion of the celiac axis. The etiology of celiac occlusion is most commonly atherosclerotic disease. Occlusion or severe stenosis of the celiac artery secondary to a median arcuate ligament is less frequently encountered, and symptoms can be vague or completely lacking. We present a case of an asymptomatic 25-year-old woman who, in the course of being evaluated as a potential donor for living-related kidney transplantation, underwent a computed tomography angiography (CTA) scan that revealed an aneurysm of the pancreaticoduodenal artery. The aneurysm, as well as severe compression of the celiac axis by the median arcuate ligament, was confirmed by catheter angiography. The patient underwent successful endovascular coil embolization of the aneurysm. In our review of the existing medical literature, our patient is the youngest reported case of pancreaticoduodenal aneurysm caused by median arcuate ligament syndrome. PMID:24495330

  8. Acute median nerve palsy due to hemorrhaged schwannoma: case report

    PubMed Central

    2007-01-01

    Schwannomas are common, benign nerve tumors originating from the sheath of peripheral nerves. In this article, a 54 year old woman suffered from sudden onset motor and sensory deficit at her first radial three fingers on her right hand. Radiological investigations were normal. Electromyography diagnosed a median nerve entrapment neuropathy and urgent surgery was performed. Interestingly, a hemorrhaged mass was detected in the median nevre at the proximal end of the carpal ligament and was resected totally. Histopathological diagnosis was Schwannoma. The patient maintained a healthy status for five years. PMID:17892547

  9. Mediating links between maternal childhood trauma and preadolescent behavioral adjustment.

    PubMed

    Min, Meeyoung O; Singer, Lynn T; Minnes, Sonia; Kim, Hyunsoo; Short, Elizabeth

    2013-03-01

    Structural equation modeling was used to simultaneously examine maternal psychological distress and social support as mediators linking maternal childhood trauma (MCT) to both maternal and child-reported behavior at 9 years of age in 231 birth mother-child dyads, who were primarily poor, urban, and African American. One half of the mothers (n = 116) reported a history of childhood abuse and neglect. Although MCT was associated with both increased maternal psychological distress and limited social support at 6 years, the pathway to child behavior ratings at 9 years was informant dependent. MCT influenced maternal ratings of her child's behavior, with some effects mediated through psychological distress. MCT indirectly influenced children's self-perception of behavior through maternal experience of social support. Maternal ratings and child self-ratings of child behavior problems were moderately correlated. No significant gender interaction was found. Findings suggest a need for understanding trauma histories in the lives of mothers who seek assistance for parenting and child behavior problems, especially in urban low income communities. Interventions targeting both increasing maternal social support and reducing psychological distress may promote competency and resiliency among children for whom MCT poses a risk to optimal development. PMID:22935951

  10. Weighted median of the data in solving least absolute

    E-print Network

    Scitovski, Rudolf

    , structural defect detection, satellite image analysis, detection of novelties in images, motion segmentation the weighted median problem is used in many methods for outlier detection, for example in fraud detection, loan application processing, intrusion detection, activity monitoring, network performance, fault diagnosis

  11. Persistent median artery: cadaveric study and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Eid, N; Ito, Y; Shibata, M A; Otsuki, Y

    2011-07-01

    The persistent median artery (PMA) may compress the median nerve (MN) and may be a significant supply of blood to the hand. Two cases of unilateral PMA (4%) were detected during the dissection of 50 upper limbs. The first case was a 75-year-old, right-handed male who suffered from chronic pain in both upper limbs, especially the left side. A dissection of his left upper limb revealed a PMA piercing both the MN and the medial branch of the anterior interosseous nerve. This artery coursed distally, deep to the transverse carpal ligament (TCL), forming a median-ulnar pattern for the superficial palmar arch (SPA). The PMA was superficial to two nerves at the distal edge of the TCL; the extraligamentous recurrent thenar (RT) branch of the MN and the third common digital nerve (TCDN). The second case was from the left side of an 80-year-old female found to have a high origin of the radial artery with trifurcation of the latter into PMA, common interosseous, and ulnar arteries. The PMA passed deep to the TCL forming a radial-median-ulnar pattern of SPA. Both the transligamentous RT branch of the MN and the TCDN passed deep to the PMA inside the carpal tunnel, before the abnormal crossing of the latter nerve ventral to the SPA on its way to the digits. The relationships of the PMA to various MN branches may have important implications regarding the diagnosis and treatment of MN compressive neuropathies. PMID:21647963

  12. VIEW OF PIEDMONT AVENUE AND MEDIAN. REPLICATING WERNER HEGEMANN PHOTO ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW OF PIEDMONT AVENUE AND MEDIAN. REPLICATING WERNER HEGEMANN PHOTO TAKEN CIRCA 1909 SEEN FROM TRAFFIC CIRCLE AT CHANNING WAY LOOKING NW. Photograph by Fredrica Drotos and Michael Kelly, July 9, 2006 - Piedmont Way & the Berkeley Property Tract, East of College Avenue between Dwight Way & U.C. Memorial Stadium, Berkeley, Alameda County, CA

  13. A Nonparametric Test for Equality of Survival Medians

    PubMed Central

    Rahbar, Mohammad H.; Chen, Zhongxue; Jeon, Sangchoon; Gardiner, Joseph C.; Ning, Jing

    2014-01-01

    In clinical trials researchers often encounter testing for equality of survival medians across study arms based on censored data. Even though Brookmeyer-Crowley (BC) introduced a method for comparing medians of several survival distributions, still some researchers misuse procedures which are designed for testing the homogeneity of survival curves. These procedures include the log-rank, Wilcoxon, and the Cox model. This practice leads to inflation of the probability of a type I error, particularly when the underlying assumptions of these procedures are not met. We propose a new nonparametric method for testing the equality of several survival medians based on Kaplan-Meier estimation from randomly right censored data. We derive asymptotic properties of this test statistic. Through simulations we compute and compare the empirical probabilities of type I errors and power of this new procedure with that of the Brookmeyer-Crowley (BC), the log-rank and the Wilcoxon method. Our simulation results indicate that performance of these test procedures depends on the level of censoring and appropriateness of the underlying assumptions. When the objective is to test homogeneity of survival medians rather than survival curves and the assumptions of these tests are not met, some of these procedures severely inflate the probability of a type I error. In these situations, our test statistic provides an alternative to the BC test. PMID:22302559

  14. Revision of the Solanum medians complex (Solanum section Petota)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Solanum medians is a widely distributed wild potato species growing along the coast and along the western slopes of the Andes from central Peru and northern Chile, from along the coastal lomas near sea level to 3800 m. Fertile diploid and triploid cytotypes are common, are believed to associated wit...

  15. Trends and correlates of age at menarche in Colombia: Results from a nationally representative survey.

    PubMed

    Jansen, Erica C; Herrán, Oscar F; Villamor, Eduardo

    2015-12-01

    Surveillance of age at menarche could provide useful information on the impact of changing environmental conditions on child health. Nevertheless, nationally representative data are exceedingly rare. The aim of this study was to examine trends and sociodemographic correlates of age at menarche of Colombian girls. The study sample included 15,441 girls born between 1992 and 2000 who participated in the Colombian National Nutrition Survey of 2010. We estimated median menarcheal age using Kaplan-Meier time-to-event analyses. Hazard ratios with 95% confidence intervals were estimated with Cox regression models. The median age at menarche was 12.6 years. There was an estimated decline of 0.54 years/decade (P<0.001) over the birth years; this decline was only observed among girls from urban areas, and was more pronounced among girls from wealthier versus poorer families. Child height and BMI, maternal BMI and education, and family wealth were each inversely associated with menarcheal age whereas food insecurity and number of children in the household were positively associated with age at menarche. In conclusion, a negative trend in age at menarche is ongoing in Colombia, especially in groups most likely to benefit from socioeconomic development. PMID:26398849

  16. Maternal occupation and pregnancy outcome.

    PubMed

    Savitz, D A; Olshan, A F; Gallagher, K

    1996-05-01

    Few studies have addressed the effect of maternal employment on late pregnancy outcomes. The National Maternal and Infant Health Survey, a probability sample of U.S. livebirths, stillbirths, and infant deaths in 1988, provided an opportunity to evaluate mothers' jobs in relation to preterm delivery, very low birthweight ( < 1,500 gm), moderately low birthweight (1,500-2,499 gm), small-for-gestational-age (SGA) birth, stillbirth, and infant death. We aggregated mothers' jobs, which were ascertained by mailed questionnaire or telephone interview, into categories for analysis. We considered jobs held at any time during pregnancy and jobs held during the fifth month of pregnancy. Relative to the referent group of clerks, textile workers had adjusted odds ratios of 1.5 or greater for all outcomes, with elevated risks also found sporadically for food service workers (preterm delivery, SGA birth, stillbirth) and electrical equipment operators (all outcomes except for still-birth and infant death). Janitors had elevated adjusted odds ratios of 2.0 or greater for preterm delivery and stillbirth. Relative to clerks, teachers and librarians tended to have reduced risks for adverse outcomes. PMID:8728440

  17. Maternal and Paternal Psychological Control as Moderators of the Link between Peer Attitudes and Adolescents' Risky Sexual Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oudekerk, Barbara A.; Allen, Joseph P.; Hafen, Christopher A.; Hessel, Elenda T.; Szwedo, David E.; Spilker, Ann

    2014-01-01

    Maternal and paternal psychological control, peer attitudes, and the interaction of psychological control and peer attitudes at age 13 were examined as predictors of risky sexual behavior before age 16 in a community sample of 181 youth followed from age 13 to 16. Maternal psychological control moderated the link between peer attitudes and sexual…

  18. August median streamflow on ungaged streams in Eastern Coastal Maine

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lombard, Pamela J.

    2004-01-01

    Methods for estimating August median streamflow were developed for ungaged, unregulated streams in eastern coastal Maine. The methods apply to streams with drainage areas ranging in size from 0.04 to 73.2 square miles and fraction of basin underlain by a sand and gravel aquifer ranging from 0 to 71 percent. The equations were developed with data from three long-term (greater than or equal to 10 years of record) continuous-record streamflow-gaging stations, 23 partial-record streamflow- gaging stations, and 5 short-term (less than 10 years of record) continuous-record streamflow-gaging stations. A mathematical technique for estimating a standard low-flow statistic, August median streamflow, at partial-record streamflow-gaging stations and short-term continuous-record streamflow-gaging stations was applied by relating base-flow measurements at these stations to concurrent daily streamflows at nearby long-term continuous-record streamflow-gaging stations (index stations). Generalized least-squares regression analysis (GLS) was used to relate estimates of August median streamflow at streamflow-gaging stations to basin characteristics at these same stations to develop equations that can be applied to estimate August median streamflow on ungaged streams. GLS accounts for different periods of record at the gaging stations and the cross correlation of concurrent streamflows among gaging stations. Thirty-one stations were used for the final regression equations. Two basin characteristics?drainage area and fraction of basin underlain by a sand and gravel aquifer?are used in the calculated regression equation to estimate August median streamflow for ungaged streams. The equation has an average standard error of prediction from -27 to 38 percent. A one-variable equation uses only drainage area to estimate August median streamflow when less accuracy is acceptable. This equation has an average standard error of prediction from -30 to 43 percent. Model error is larger than sampling error for both equations, indicating that additional or improved estimates of basin characteristics could be important to improved estimates of low-flow statistics. Weighted estimates of August median streamflow at partial- record or continuous-record gaging stations range from 0.003 to 31.0 cubic feet per second or from 0.1 to 0.6 cubic feet per second per square mile. Estimates of August median streamflow on ungaged streams in eastern coastal Maine, within the range of acceptable explanatory variables, range from 0.003 to 45 cubic feet per second or 0.1 to 0.6 cubic feet per second per square mile. Estimates of August median streamflow per square mile of drainage area generally increase as drainage area and fraction of basin underlain by a sand and gravel aquifer increase.

  19. Media representation of maternal neonaticide 

    E-print Network

    Lewis, Jocelyn Renee

    2008-10-10

    of mothers who commit neonaticide. Both fictional and non-fictional media sources exhibited aspects of the monstrous maternal theme and the strain defense theme. The monstrous maternal theme consists of words and statements that indicate the descriptions...

  20. Neuroendocrine control of maternal behaviour 

    E-print Network

    Caughey, Sarah Dawn

    2011-11-25

    Maternal behaviour during the peri-partum period, albeit in differing forms, can be observed in all mammals, thus it must serve an important evolutionary purpose in enabling the successful raising of offspring. Maternal ...

  1. Causes of maternal mortality in rural Bangladesh, 1976-85.

    PubMed

    Fauveau, V; Koenig, M A; Chakraborty, J; Chowdhury, A I

    1988-01-01

    Of a total of 1037 women of reproductive age who died during the period 1976-85 in the Matlab area that was under demographic surveillance, 387 (37%) were maternal deaths. The mean maternal mortality over the 10-year period was 5.5 per 1000 live births (101 per 100 000 women of reproductive age). Major causes of maternal death, which were assessed using a combination of record review and field interviews, included postpartum haemorrhage (20%), complications of abortion (18%), eclampsia (12%), violence and injuries (9%), concomitant medical causes (9%), postpartum sepsis (7%), and obstructed labour (6.5%). Deaths caused by postpartum haemorrhage were positively associated with both maternal age and parity, whereas those caused by eclampsia and injuries were more common among young and low-parity women. If maternal deaths arising from complications of abortion are disregarded, 20% of all maternal deaths occurred during pregnancy, 44% during labour and the two days following delivery, and 36% during the remaining postpartum period.These findings support the need to develop a service strategy to address the risks of childbearing and childbirth in areas such as rural Bangladesh, where almost all deliveries take place at home. This strategy must be based not only on preventive and educational interventions, including family planning and antenatal care, but also on systematic attendance at home deliveries by trained professional midwives, backed up by an effective chain of referral. PMID:3264766

  2. Causes of maternal mortality in rural Bangladesh, 1976-85*

    PubMed Central

    Fauveau, V.; Koenig, M. A.; Chakraborty, J.; Chowdhury, A. I.

    1988-01-01

    Of a total of 1037 women of reproductive age who died during the period 1976-85 in the Matlab area that was under demographic surveillance, 387 (37%) were maternal deaths. The mean maternal mortality over the 10-year period was 5.5 per 1000 live births (101 per 100 000 women of reproductive age). Major causes of maternal death, which were assessed using a combination of record review and field interviews, included postpartum haemorrhage (20%), complications of abortion (18%), eclampsia (12%), violence and injuries (9%), concomitant medical causes (9%), postpartum sepsis (7%), and obstructed labour (6.5%). Deaths caused by postpartum haemorrhage were positively associated with both maternal age and parity, whereas those caused by eclampsia and injuries were more common among young and low-parity women. If maternal deaths arising from complications of abortion are disregarded, 20% of all maternal deaths occurred during pregnancy, 44% during labour and the two days following delivery, and 36% during the remaining postpartum period. These findings support the need to develop a service strategy to address the risks of childbearing and childbirth in areas such as rural Bangladesh, where almost all deliveries take place at home. This strategy must be based not only on preventive and educational interventions, including family planning and antenatal care, but also on systematic attendance at home deliveries by trained professional midwives, backed up by an effective chain of referral. PMID:3264766

  3. Effect of maternal anthropometry and metabolic parameters on fetal growth

    PubMed Central

    Mitra, Subarna; Misra, Sujata; Nayak, Prasanta K.; Sahoo, Jaya Prakash

    2012-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this study was to determine the effect of maternal anthropometry and metabolic parameters on neonatal anthropometry. Materials and Methods: This observational cross-sectional study was conducted from January 2008 to June 2009 at a single tertiary care center. Maternal anthropometry and metabolic parameters like fasting serum insulin, lipid profile, and random blood glucose were estimated in 50 pregnant women at term. Detailed anthropometry of the neonates was performed. Results: Large for gestational age (LGA) babies had higher maternal body mass index (BMI), fasting serum insulin, and cord blood insulin levels, and lower maternal high density lipoprotein (HDL) compared to appropriate for gestational age (AGA) group (P < 0.001). Among the maternal parameters, BMI, gestational age, fasting serum insulin, and random blood sugar (RBS) had significant positive correlation, while HDL had negative correlation with birth weight (P < 0.05). However, only maternal BMI was the significant predictor of neonatal birth weight on multiple regression analysis (ß = 0.340, P = 0.01). Conclusion: The BMI of glucose-tolerant mother is more important than metabolic parameters in determining the birth weight of term babies. PMID:23087859

  4. Maternal smoking and behavior problems of children.

    PubMed

    Weitzman, M; Gortmaker, S; Sobol, A

    1992-09-01

    Numerous health consequences of children's exposure to maternal smoking have been demonstrated, including increased rates of low birth weight, infant mortality, respiratory infections, asthma, and modest impairments of cognitive development. There is little evidence, however, linking maternal smoking and increased rates of children's behavior problems. Data from the population-based National Longitudinal Survey of Youth were used to investigate the possible association of maternal smoking and behavior problems among 2256 children aged 4 through 11 years. In multiple regression analyses the authors controlled for child's race, age, sex, birth weight, and chronic asthma; family structure, income, and divorce or separation in the prior 2 years; mother's education, intelligence, self-esteem, employment status, chronic disabling health conditions, and use of alcohol during pregnancy; and the quality of the home environment as assessed by the Home Observation for Measurement of the Environment-Short Form to investigate the relationship between maternal smoking and children's behavior problems. The measure of maternal smoking status reflected two levels of smoking intensity (less than a pack per day and a pack or more per day) for each of three different categories of children's exposure: prenatal only (mother smoked only during pregnancy), passive only (mother smoked only after pregnancy), and prenatal plus passive exposure (mother smoked both during and after pregnancy). Measures of children's behavior problems included the overall score on a 32-item parent-reported child Behavior Problem Index (PBI), scores on the BPI's subscales, and rates of extreme scores on the BPI.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:1518686

  5. Sex-biased maternal effects reduce ectoparasite-induced mortality

    E-print Network

    Badyaev, Alex

    of developmental stages in animals evolves under con- trasting selection pressures of age-specific mortality patterns and age-specific mortality (1­3). Although the time-dependent mor- tality associated by epigenetic mechanisms, such as maternal effects on offspring growth, that can rapidly and reversibly modify

  6. Changing perspectives of infectious causes of maternal mortality

    PubMed Central

    Halder, Ajay; Vijayselvi, Reeta; Jose, Ruby

    2015-01-01

    Objective Infections significantly contribute to maternal mortality. There is a perceived change in the spectrum of such infections. This study aims to estimate the contribution of various types of infections to maternal mortality. Material and Methods We retrospectively reviewed records of maternal death cases that took place between 2003 and 2012 in the Christian Medical College, Vellore, India. The International Classification of Diseases-Maternal Mortality was used to classify the causes of deaths and World Health Organization near-miss criteria were used to identify organ dysfunction that occurred before death. Infections during pregnancy were divided into three groups, i.e., pregnancy-related infections, pregnancy-unrelated infections, and nosocomial infections. Results In this study, 32.53% of maternal deaths were because of some type of infection as the primary cause. The contribution of pregnancy-related infections was comparable with that of pregnancy-unrelated infections (16.03% vs. 16.50%). Metritis with pelvic cellulitis, septic abortions, tuberculosis, malaria, scrub typhus, and H1N1 influenza (influenza A virus subtype) were among the most commonly encountered causes of maternal death due to infections. Another 7.07% of cases developed severe systemic infection during the course of illness as nosocomial infection. A significant majority of mothers were below 30 years of age, were primiparae, had advanced gestational age, and had operative delivery. Cardiovascular and respiratory system dysfunctions were the most common organ dysfunctions encountered. Conclusion The contribution of pregnancy-unrelated infections to maternal deaths is significant. Control of these diverse community-acquired infections holds the key to a reduction in maternal mortality along with the promotion of clean birthing practices. Nosocomial infections should not be underestimated as a contributor to maternal mortality.

  7. Maternal mortality in Cameroon: a university teaching hospital report.

    PubMed

    Pierre-Marie, Tebeu; Gregory, Halle-Ekane; Maxwell, Da Itambi; Robinson, Enow Mbu; Yvette, Mawamba; Nelson, Fomulu Joseph

    2015-01-01

    More than 550,000 women die yearly from pregnancy-related causes. Fifty percent (50%) of the world estimate of maternal deaths occur in sub-Saharan Africa alone. There is insufficient information on the risk factors of maternal mortality in Cameroon. This study aimed at establishing causes and risk factors of maternal mortality. This was a case-control study from 1st January, 2006 to 31st December, 2010 after National Ethical Committee Approval. Cases were maternal deaths; controls were women who delivered normally. Maternal deaths were obtained from the delivery room registers and in-patient registers. Controls for each case were two normal deliveries following identified maternal deaths on the same day. Variables considered were socio-demographic and reproductive health characteristics. Epi Info 3.5.1 was used for analysis. The mean MMR was 287.5/100,000 live births. Causes of deaths were: postpartum hemorrhage (229.2%), unsafe abortion (25%), ectopic pregnancy (12.5%), hypertension in pregnancy (8.3%), malaria (8.3%), anemia (8.3%), heart disease (4.2%), and pneumonia (4.2%), and placenta praevia (4.2%). Ages ranged from 18 to 41 years, with a mean of 27.7 ± 5.14 years. Lack of antenatal care was a risk factor for maternal death (OR=78.33; CI: (8.66- 1802.51)). The mean MMR from 2006 to 2010 was 287.5/100,000 live births. Most of the causes of maternal deaths were preventable. Lack of antenatal care was a risk factor for maternal mortality. Key words: Maternal mortality, causes, risk factors, Cameroon. PMID:26401210

  8. Maternal mortality in Cameroon: a university teaching hospital report

    PubMed Central

    Pierre-Marie, Tebeu; Gregory, Halle-Ekane; Maxwell, Da Itambi; Robinson, Enow Mbu; Yvette, Mawamba; Nelson, Fomulu Joseph

    2015-01-01

    More than 550,000 women die yearly from pregnancy-related causes. Fifty percent (50%) of the world estimate of maternal deaths occur in sub-Saharan Africa alone. There is insufficient information on the risk factors of maternal mortality in Cameroon. This study aimed at establishing causes and risk factors of maternal mortality. This was a case-control study from 1st January, 2006 to 31st December, 2010 after National Ethical Committee Approval. Cases were maternal deaths; controls were women who delivered normally. Maternal deaths were obtained from the delivery room registers and in-patient registers. Controls for each case were two normal deliveries following identified maternal deaths on the same day. Variables considered were socio-demographic and reproductive health characteristics. Epi Info 3.5.1 was used for analysis. The mean MMR was 287.5/100,000 live births. Causes of deaths were: postpartum hemorrhage (229.2%), unsafe abortion (25%), ectopic pregnancy (12.5%), hypertension in pregnancy (8.3%), malaria (8.3%), anemia (8.3%), heart disease (4.2%), and pneumonia (4.2%), and placenta praevia (4.2%). Ages ranged from 18 to 41 years, with a mean of 27.7 ± 5.14 years. Lack of antenatal care was a risk factor for maternal death (OR=78.33; CI: (8.66- 1802.51)). The mean MMR from 2006 to 2010 was 287.5/100,000 live births. Most of the causes of maternal deaths were preventable. Lack of antenatal care was a risk factor for maternal mortality. Key words: Maternal mortality, causes, risk factors, Cameroon. PMID:26401210

  9. Median to ulnar nerve anastomosis: a review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Piagkou, M; Tasigiorgos, S; Lappas, D; Troizos-Papavassiliou, P; Piagkos, G; Skandalakis, P; Demesticha, T

    2012-01-01

    Median to Ulnar nerve anastomosis in the forearm has been shown to be of clinical significance leading to "anomalous" innervation and is correlated with misdiagnosis during the assessment of nerve lesions, injuries and Carpal Tunnel Syndrome (CTS). In 1763, Martin first described the anastomosis and Gruber next mentioning it, in 1870 thus referred to as Martin--Gruber anastomosis. Despite its long history, its nature remains unclear. Many anatomical, electrophysiological, histological and genetic studies have been published, reporting the anastomosis' frequency, citing its clinical importance and classifying it into various classes and types. Diagnosis is made mostly with electrophysiological studies whereby researchers have cited certain clues taking into consideration the asymptomatic nature of the anastomosis. The current literature on median to ulnar nerve anastomosis is reviewed, highlighting its frequency and clinical significance making an excellent tool for correct diagnosis in many clinicians. PMID:23025109

  10. Links between Maternal and Child Psychopathology Symptoms: Mediation through Child Emotion Regulation and Moderation through Maternal Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Suveg, Cynthia; Shaffer, Anne; Morelen, Diana; Thomassin, Kristel

    2011-01-01

    This study examined the intergenerational transmission of psychopathology symptoms with 7-12 year-old children (N = 97; 44 boys, 53 girls, M age = 9.14, SD = 1.38) and their mothers (M age = 38.46, SD = 6.86). Child emotion regulation mediated the links between maternal psychopathology and child internalizing and externalizing symptoms. In turn,…

  11. Bayesian approach based blind image deconvolution with fuzzy median filter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohan, S. Chandra; Rajan, K.; Srinivasan, R.

    2011-10-01

    The inverse problem associated with reconstruction of Poisson blurred images has attracted attention in recent years. In this paper, we propose an alternative unified approach to blind image deconvolution problem using fuzzy median filter as Gibbs prior to model the nature of inter pixel interaction for better edge preserving reconstruction. The performance of the algorithm at various SNR levels has been studied quantitatively using PSNR, RMSE and universal quality index (UQI). Comparative analysis with existing methods has also been carried out.

  12. Schwannoma of the Median Nerve: Diagnosis Sometimes Delayed

    PubMed Central

    Boufettal, Monsef; Azouz, Mohamed; Rhanim, Abdelkarim; Abouzahir, Mohamed; Mahfoud, Mustapha; Bardouni, Ahmed El; Berrada, Mohamed S; Yaacoubi, Moradh El

    2014-01-01

    Schwannoma is a tumor that develops from nerve sheath. The authors report an unusual case of schwannoma of the median nerve (MN) that remained asymptomatic for four years. The diagnosis was based on MRI (magnetic resonance imaging) and histopathological examination. Surgical removal is usually curative. The asymptomatic character of the tumor and its slow evolution remain an essential factor in diagnosis delays. This tumor has a good prognosis with a low recurrence rate and potential for malignant transformation. PMID:25125990

  13. Impact of Breastfeeding Duration on Age at Menarche

    PubMed Central

    Al-Sahab, Ban; Adair, Linda; Hamadeh, Mazen J.; Ardern, Chris I.; Tamim, Hala

    2011-01-01

    The study aims to assess the relation between breastfeeding duration and age at menarche. Analysis was based on a cohort of 994 Filipino girls born in 1983–1984 and followed up from infancy to adulthood by the Cebu Longitudinal Health and Nutrition Survey. The main outcome was self-reported age at menarche. Cox regression was used to investigate the relation between duration of exclusive and any breastfeeding with age at menarche with adjustment sequentially for specific sets of known socioeconomic, maternal, genetic, and prenatal confounders. The estimated median of age at menarche was 13.08 years. After adjustment for potential confounders of the association of breastfeeding with age at menarche, exclusive breastfeeding duration retained an independent and significant association with age at menarche. An increase in 1 month of exclusive breastfeeding decreases the hazard of attaining earlier menarche by 6% (hazard ratio = 0.94, 95% confidence interval: 0.90, 0.98). Any breastfeeding duration was not associated with age at menarche. Although this is the first longitudinal study that reveals a negative association between exclusive breastfeeding and early menarche, the relation is still elusive. Further longitudinal studies within different contexts are warranted to assess the generalizability of these findings. PMID:21430189

  14. Median recoil direction as a WIMP directional detection signal

    SciTech Connect

    Green, Anne M.; Morgan, Ben

    2010-03-15

    Direct detection experiments have reached the sensitivity to detect dark matter weakly interacting massive particles (WIMPs). Demonstrating that a putative signal is due to WIMPs, and not backgrounds, is a major challenge, however. The direction dependence of the WIMP scattering rate provides a potential WIMP 'smoking gun'. If the WIMP distribution is predominantly smooth, the Galactic recoil distribution is peaked in the direction opposite to the direction of Solar motion. Previous studies have found that, for an ideal detector, of order 10 WIMP events would be sufficient to reject isotropy, and rule out an isotropic background. We examine how the median recoil direction could be used to confirm the WIMP origin of an anisotropic recoil signal. Specifically, we determine the number of events required to confirm the direction of solar motion as the median inverse recoil direction at 95% confidence. We find that for zero background 31 events are required, a factor of {approx}2 more than are required to simply reject isotropy. We also investigate the effect of a nonzero isotropic background. As the background rate is increased the number of events required increases, initially fairly gradually and then more rapidly, once the signal becomes subdominant. We also discuss the effect of features in the speed distribution at large speeds, as found in recent high resolution simulations, on the median recoil direction.

  15. Maternity Leave in Taiwan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feng, Joyce Yen; Han, Wen-Jui

    2010-01-01

    Using the first nationally representative birth cohort study in Taiwan, this paper examines the role that maternity leave policy in Taiwan plays in the timing of mothers returning to work after giving birth, as well as the extent to which this timing is linked to the amount of time mothers spend with their children and their use of breast milk…

  16. Maternal Sexuality and Breastfeeding

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bartlett, Alison

    2005-01-01

    In this paper I consider the ways in which lactation has been discussed as a form of maternal sexuality, and the implications this carries for our understanding of breastfeeding practices and sexuality. Drawing on knowledge constructed in the western world during the last half of the twentieth century, the paper identifies a shift between the…

  17. New insights of the nature of the Porcupine Median Ridge using Refraction Seismic Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Watremez, Louise; Prada, Manel; Minshull, Tim; O'Reilly, Brian; Chen, Chen; Reston, Tim; Wagner, Gerlind; Gaw, Viola; Klaeschen, Dirk; Shannon, Patrick

    2015-04-01

    The Porcupine Basin is a narrow V-shaped failed rifted basin of Permo-Triassic to Cenozoic age, with the main rifting phase in the Late Jurassic to Early Cretaceous. It is located offshore SW Ireland, showing increasing stretching factors from less than 1.5 to the North to more than 6 to the South. A ridge feature, the Porcupine Median Ridge, has been identified in the middle of the southernmost part of the basin. During the last three decades, this ridge has been successively interpreted as a volcanic structure, a diapir of partially serpentinized mantle, or a block of continental crust. Its nature is still remains debated today. The most recent study uses velocity analysis of long streamer seismic reflection data to support the volcanic ridge hypothesis. In this study we use refraction seismic data acquired across the Porcupine Basin to derive a better constrained P-wave velocity structure across the basin, and in particular across the Porcupine Median Ridge. We use the data from a 300 km long shot line recorded on 32 ocean-bottom seismometers and an inline land seismometer. This profile is oriented West-East and crosses the entire basin in its southernmost part. Thus, we image the deep structure of the thinnest part of the basin, the geometry of the continental thinning from margin to margin, with a central focus on the Porcupine Median Ridge. Analysis of P-wave and S-wave seismic arrivals, together with gravity modelling, gives new insights into the nature of this structure and allows for a better understanding of the rifting process of Porcupine Basin and its thermal state during the rifting. Defining the nature of the Porcupine Median Ridge will also give us more information about when the ridge formed and its role in rifting processes. This project is funded by the Irish Shelf Programme Study Group (ISPSG) of the Petroleum Infrastructure Programme (PIP).

  18. ROLE OF MATERNAL CHILDHOOD TRAUMA ON PARENTING AMONG DEPRESSED MOTHERS OF PSYCHIATRICALLY ILL CHILDREN

    PubMed Central

    Zalewski, Maureen; Cyranowski, Jill M.; Cheng, Yu; Swartz, Holly A.

    2015-01-01

    Background Independently, maternal depression and maternal history of childhood abuse confer risk for impaired parenting. These associations may be compounded when depressed mothers with histories of childhood abuse are faced with the challenge of parenting offspring who themselves struggle with mental health problems. This study examined the relationships among maternal history of childhood abuse, maternal depression, and parenting style in the context of parenting a psychiatrically ill child, with an emphasis on examining maternal emotional abuse and neglect. We hypothesized that maternal childhood emotional abuse would be associated with maladaptive parenting strategies (lower levels of maternal acceptance and higher levels of psychological control), independent of maternal depression severity and other psychosocial risk factors. Method Ninety-five mother-child dyads (children ages 7–18) were recruited from child mental health centers where children were receiving treatment for at least one internalizing disorder. Participating mothers met DSM-IV criteria for major depressive disorder. Mothers reported on their own childhood abuse histories and children reported on their mothers’ parenting. Results Regression analyses demonstrated that maternal childhood emotional abuse was associated with child reports of lower maternal acceptance and greater psychological control, controlling for maternal depression severity, and other psychosocial risk factors. Conclusions When treating psychiatrically ill children, it is important for a child’s clinician to consider mothers’ childhood abuse histories in addition to their history of depression. These mothers appear to have additional barriers to effective parenting. PMID:23649503

  19. Maternal depressive symptoms are associated with low fearfulness in preschoolers.

    PubMed

    Székely, Eszter; Tiemeier, Henning; Jansen, Pauline W; Jaddoe, Vincent W V; Hofman, Albert; Verhulst, Frank C; Herba, Catherine M

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to examine whether maternal depressive symptoms predict low positive emotionality and high temperamental fearfulness in preschool children. Maternal depressive symptoms were assessed prenatally and at 2, 6, and 36 months postnatally. Positive emotionality and temperamental fearfulness were assessed using laboratory observations in a large cohort of typically developing Dutch preschoolers (N = 799; 404 boys) at age 36 months (M = 37.53, SD = 1.50). Children exposed to elevated levels of maternal depressive symptoms in the first 3 years of life behaved less fearfully at age 3 years in a novel context that primarily elicited a startle response (B = -0.08, SE = 0.03, p = .01). The severity rather than timing of or change in maternal depressive symptoms accounted for the observed effect. In the present sample, maternal depressive symptoms were not associated with positive emotionality in the offspring (p > .05). Findings suggest a relation between maternal depressive symptoms and decreased offspring fearfulness in a low-risk community sample of young children. PMID:24400706

  20. Developmental Trajectories of Irritability and Bidirectional Associations With Maternal Depression

    PubMed Central

    Wiggins, Jillian Lee; Mitchell, Colter; Stringaris, Argyris; Leibenluft, Ellen

    2014-01-01

    Objective Irritability is a dimensional trait in typical development and a common presenting symptom in many psychiatric disorders, including depression. However, little is known about the developmental trajectory of irritability or how child irritability interacts with maternal depression. The present study (1) identifies classes of irritability trajectories from toddlerhood to middle childhood; (2) characterizes maternal depression and other family, social environment, and child variables within each irritability trajectory class; and (3) as a more exploratory analysis, examines bidirectional associations between maternal depression and child irritability. Method 4,898 families from the Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing Study reported on irritability symptoms at ages 3, 5, and 9, assessed with items from the Child Behavior Checklist. Parental major depressive episode was assessed using the Composite International Diagnostic Interview – Short Form at child ages 1, 3, 5, 9. Results A latent class growth analysis identified five irritability classes: low decreasing; moderate decreasing; high steady; initially very high, then decreasing; and high increasing. Children with more severe irritability trajectories are more likely to have mothers with recurrent depression, and, with the exception of the most severe (high increasing irritability) class, were more likely to have mothers who were exposed to violence. Moreover, paternal depression and alcohol use, as well as maternal drug and alcohol use, were also risk factors for membership in the more severe irritability classes. A latent auto-regressive cross-lag model showed that child irritability at ages 3 and 5 is associated with increased mother depression at 5 and 9, respectively. Conversely, mother depression at child ages 1 and 3 is associated with increased child irritability at 3 and 5. Conclusion Irritability development across toddlerhood and middle childhood has five main trajectory types, which differ on maternal depression recurrence and exposure to violence. Maternal depression and child irritability influence each other bidirectionally, particularly early in development. Understanding irritability development and its bidirectional relationship with maternal depression and association with violence exposure may help identify intervention targets. PMID:25440309

  1. Maternity records in Edinburgh and Aberdeen in 1936: a comparison.

    PubMed

    Nuttall, A M; Ayaz, E; Sherlock, L; Shenkin, S D

    2015-03-01

    Historians have long used maternity records to understand the evolution of maternity services. More recently, epidemiologists have become interested in obstetric hospital records as a source of data (e.g. birth weight, social class), to study the influence of early life on future health and disease: life course epidemiology. Edinburgh and Aberdeen are unusual in holding detailed records from several maternity institutions. The records of 1936 are of particular interest because all children born in this year and at school in Scotland at age 11 sat a cognitive ability test, the Scottish Mental Survey 1947. This study aims to describe the maternity services in Edinburgh and Aberdeen in 1936, between the First and Second World Wars. Understanding the richness of data in birth records, the manner in which they were recorded, and the context of the institutions in their community is essential for interpreting life course epidemiology studies. PMID:25874836

  2. Preterm delivery and low maternal serum cholesterol level: Any correlation?

    PubMed Central

    Oluwole, Ayodeji A.; Adegbesan-Omilabu, Maymunah A.; Okunade, Kehinde S.

    2014-01-01

    Background: The study assessed whether low maternal serum cholesterol during early pregnancy is associated with preterm delivery. Patients and Methods: It was a prospective observational cohort study involving pregnant women at gestational age of 14-20 weeks over a period of 12 months. Blood samples were obtained to measure total serum cholesterol concentrations and the sera were then analysed enzymatically by the cholesterol oxidase: p-aminophenazone (CHOD PAP) method. Results: The study showed an incidence of 5.0% for preterm delivery in the low risk study patients. Preterm birth was 4.83-times more common with low total maternal cholesterol than with midrange total cholesterol (11.8% versus 2.2%, P = 0.024). Conclusion: Low maternal serum cholesterol (hypocholesterolaemia) is associated with preterm delivery. Optimal maternal serum cholesterol during pregnancy may have merit, therefore pregnant women should be encouraged to follow a healthy, balanced diet. PMID:25298606

  3. Maternal infection in pregnancy and risk of asthma in offspring.

    PubMed

    Collier, Charlene H; Risnes, Kari; Norwitz, Errol R; Bracken, Michael B; Illuzzi, Jessica L

    2013-12-01

    This study estimates the effect of maternal infections during pregnancy on childhood asthma. One-thousand four-hundred and twenty-eight pregnant women were prospectively followed using structured interviews and chart review until their child's 6th year of life. Infections were identified from outpatient and hospital visits. Childhood asthma was defined as physician diagnosis with symptoms at age six. Adjusted odds ratios were calculated from multivariable logistic regression models. Six-hundred and thirty-five women experienced an infection during pregnancy. Among antepartum infections, maternal urinary tract infections were significantly associated with childhood asthma (aOR 1.60, 95 % CI 1.12-2.29). Chorioamnionitis and maternal group beta streptococcus colonization were not significantly associated with an increased risk in childhood asthma. This study found an increased risk of asthma in children of women diagnosed with urinary tract infections during pregnancy, while other maternal infections did not increase the risk. PMID:23338127

  4. Autopsy-certified maternal mortality at Ile-Ife, Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Dinyain, Amatare; Omoniyi-Esan, G Olutoyin; Olaofe, Olaejirinde O; Sabageh, Donatus; Komolafe, Akinwumi O; Ojo, Olusegun S

    2014-01-01

    Aim Maternal mortality is a major health problem, especially in Nigeria, where accurate autopsy-based data on the prevalent causes are not readily available. The aim of this study was therefore to accurately determine the causes of maternal death as seen in a tertiary health facility in Nigeria. Materials and methods This was a descriptive, retrospective review of the postmortem autopsy findings from cases of maternal death at the Obafemi Awolowo University Teaching Hospitals Complex, Ile-Ife, Nigeria over a 5-year period. Analyses were performed for differences in proportions using PEPI computer programs for epidemiologists (P is significant at <0.05). Results A total of 84 cases of maternal deaths were used for the study. Approximately 71.4% of the maternal deaths were due to direct causes and 28.6% were due to indirect causes. The mean age at the time of death was 27.9±7.5 years. Overall, the three leading causes of death were obstetric hemorrhage (30.9%), complications of abortion (23.8%), and nongenital (nonobstetric) infections (14.2%). Of the direct causes of maternal death, obstetric hemorrhage (43.3%) was the leading cause, with postpartum hemorrhage accounting for most (65.0%) of such deaths; other causes included complications of unsafe induced abortion (33.3%) and of labor (11.7%). Of the indirect causes, nongenital infections (50.0%), anemia (25.0%), and preexisting hypertension (20.8%) accounted for the majority of the maternal deaths. There was disparity between the clinical and autopsy diagnoses in 34 of the 84 cases (38.1%). Conclusion The leading causes of maternal death in this study are similar to those in other developing countries. Autopsy is an invaluable tool in accurately determining the cause of maternal death. PMID:24403844

  5. Reciprocal influences between maternal language and children's language and cognitive development in low-income families.

    PubMed

    Song, Lulu; Spier, Elizabeth T; Tamis-Lemonda, Catherine S

    2014-03-01

    We examined reciprocal associations between early maternal language use and children's language and cognitive development in seventy ethnically diverse, low-income families. Mother-child dyads were videotaped when children were aged 2;0 and 3;0. Video transcripts were analyzed for quantity and lexical diversity of maternal and child language. Child cognitive development was assessed at both ages and child receptive vocabulary was assessed at age 3;0. Maternal language related to children's lexical diversity at each age, and maternal language at age 2;0, was associated with children's receptive vocabulary and cognitive development at age 3;0. Furthermore, children's cognitive development at age 2;0 was associated with maternal language at age 3;0 controlling for maternal language at age 2;0, suggesting bi-directionality in mother-child associations. The quantity and diversity of the language children hear at home has developmental implications for children from low-income households. In addition, children's early cognitive skills further feed into their subsequent language experiences. PMID:23360640

  6. Growth Models of Maternal Smoking Behavior: Individual and Contextual Factors

    PubMed Central

    Mumford, Elizabeth A.; Liu, Weiwei

    2015-01-01

    Background Persistent maternal smoking during pregnancy, reduction or cessation during pregnancy, and smoking initiation or resumption postpartum impel further research to understand these behavioral patterns and opportunities for intervention. Objectives We investigated heterogeneous longitudinal patterns of smoking quantity to determine if these patterns vary across three maternal age groups, and whether the influence of individual and contextual risk factors varies by maternal age. Methods Separate general growth mixture models were estimated for mothers ages 15–25, 26–35, and 36+, allowing different empirical patterns of an ordinal measure of smoking behavior at six time points, from preconception through child entry to kindergarten. Results We identify five classes for mothers ages 15–25, four classes for ages 26–35, and three classes for ages 36+. Each age group presents classes of nonsmokers and persistent heavy smokers. Intermediate to these ends of the spectrum, each age group exhibited its own smoking classes characterized by the extent of pregnancy smoking reductions and postpartum behavior. In all three age groups, class membership can be distinguished by individual sociodemographic and behavioral characteristics. Co-resident smokers predicted nearly all smoking classifications across age groups, and selected neighborhood characteristics predicted classification of younger (15–25) and older (36+) mothers. Conclusions The design, timing, and delivery of smoking prevention and cessation services, for women seeking to become pregnant and for women presenting for prenatal or pediatric care, are best guided by individual characteristics, particularly maternal age, preconception alcohol consumption, and postpartum depression, but neighborhood characteristics merit further attention for mothers at different ages. PMID:25612076

  7. Reported maternal styles and substance use: a cross-sectional study among educated Albanian young adults.

    PubMed

    Kalyva, Efrosini; Melonashi, Erika

    2014-05-01

    The study explored a predictive model of substance use including perceived maternal parenting style, age and gender. Participants were 347 Albanian young adults (144 males and 203 females) aged 18 to 28 years. They completed the Parental Authority Questionnaire and the Adolescent Alcohol and Drug Involvement Scale. Gender, perceived authoritative maternal style, and age predicted a proportion of substance use involvement. Gender and perceived authoritative maternal style also predicted the proportion of young people at risk for substance use or abuse. Implications of the findings and limitations of the study are discussed. PMID:24245766

  8. A sensitive time-resolved fluoroimmunoassay for determination of median levels of pregnancy-associated plasma protein a in pregnant women in China.

    PubMed

    Yu, Ting; Gao, Shangxian; Yin, Aihua; Tang, Yongping; Wu, Yingsong; Li, Lili; Li, Ming

    2013-01-01

    Pregnancy-associated plasma protein A (PAPP-A) is an important serum marker for first trimester screening. Its weekly median value varies with ethnicity. A one-step time-resolved fluoroimmunoassay (TRFIA) using two monoclonal antibodies against PAPP-A with Eu(3+) chelates as labels has been developed. Using the assay described here, we evaluated 5,301 normal serum samples from Chinese women at 7-13 weeks of gestation. The detection limit using this assay was 1.2 mIU/L, and the maximum detection range was up to 10,000 mIU/L. The intra-assay and inter-assay coefficients of variation were <3.0% and <5.0%, respectively, and the mean recovery rate was 98.0%. PAPP-A concentrations measured in 516 maternal serum samples correlated well with those obtained by Dissociation-Enhanced Lanthanide Fluorescent Immunoassay (DELFIA) PAPP-A assay (r=0.988, P<0.001). The medians for 7-13 weeks of maternal serum PAPP-A were higher in the women from China compared to reports from other countries. The present assay possesses accuracy and high sensitivity and exhibits great potential for the clinical analysis of PAPP-A. Our investigation on the median concentrations of PAPP-A will help establish reference values that are specific for China and study the importance of ethnic factors in biochemical screening. PMID:23859787

  9. Median arcuate ligament syndrome presenting as hemorrhagic shock.

    PubMed

    Matsumura, Yosuke; Nakada, Taka-aki; Kobe, Yoshiro; Hattori, Noriyuki; Oda, Shigeto

    2013-07-01

    The major symptoms of median arcuate ligament syndrome, celiac axis stenosis, or occlusion compressed by the median arcuate ligament include eating-associated abdominal pain and weight loss. Because celiac stenosis increases retrograde collateral blood flow from the superior mesenteric artery to the celiac artery via the pancreaticoduodenal arcade, a pancreaticoduodenal artery aneurysm could occur at a low incidence rate. Rupture of the pancreaticoduodenal artery aneurysm and hemorrhagic shock are rare. In this report, we present 3 cases of patients who had been well with no abdominal symptoms until the day of admission, when they experienced sudden-onset intra-abdominal hemorrhage and shock. These 3 patients were admitted to the emergency department, and contrast-enhanced computed tomography and radiographic selective catheter angiography revealed intra-abdominal hemorrhage, stenosis of the celiac arteries, and dilated pancreaticoduodenal arcade. Case 1 demonstrated severe hemorrhagic shock, whereas case 2 demonstrated moderate shock. We treated ruptured pancreaticoduodenal artery aneurysms with coil embolization. Case 3 demonstrated complete celiac occlusion and moderate hemorrhagic shock, and no aneurysm was detected. PMID:23688569

  10. The Mouse Median Nerve Experimental Model in Regenerative Research

    PubMed Central

    Buskbjerg Jager, Sara

    2014-01-01

    Sciatic nerve crush injury in rat animal model is one of the most common experimental models used in regenerative research. However, the availability of transgenic mouse for nerve regeneration studies is constantly increasing and, therefore, the shift from rat model to mouse model is, in some cases, necessary. Moreover, since most of the human nerve lesions occur in the upper limb, it is also advantageous to shift from sciatic nerve to median nerve. In this study we described an experimental model which involves lesions of the median nerve in the mouse. Data showed that the finger flexor muscle contraction strength, assessed to evaluate the motor function recovery, and reached values not different from the control already 20 days after injury. The degree of nerve regeneration evaluated with stereological methods in light microscopy showed that, 25 days after injury, the number of regenerated myelinated fibers was comparable to the control, but they were smaller with a thinner myelin thickness. Stereological analysis made in electron microscopy confirmed these results, although the total number of fibers quantified was significantly higher compared to light microscopy analysis, due to the very small size of some fibers that can be detected only in electron microscopy. PMID:25180190

  11. Maternal Structure and Autonomy Support in Conversations about the Past: Contributions to Children's Autobiographical Memory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cleveland, Emily Sutcliffe; Reese, Elaine

    2005-01-01

    The authors examined the contributions of maternal structure and autonomy support to children's collaborative and independent reminiscing. Fifty mother-child dyads discussed past experiences when the children were 40 and 65 months old. Children also discussed past events with an experimenter at each age. Maternal structure and autonomy support…

  12. Impact of Maternal Drug Use and Life Experiences on Preadolescent Children Born to Teenage Mothers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kandel, Denise B.; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Examined influence of maternal drug use and unconventional behavior on children's behavioral problems, cognitive functioning, and self-esteem for children aged eight and older born to teenage mothers. Findings from 581 mother-child dyads suggest that maternal attitudes and experiences as adolescent or young adult and current family structure had…

  13. Child Vocabulary, Maternal Behavior, and Inhibitory Control Development among Spanish-Speaking Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peredo, Tatiana Nogueira; Owen, Margaret Tresch; Rojas, Raúl; Caughy, Margaret O'Brien

    2015-01-01

    Research Findings: The roles of child lexical diversity and maternal sensitivity in the development of young children's inhibitory control were examined in 100 low-income Hispanic Spanish-speaking children. Child communication utterances at age 2½ years were transcribed from 10-min mother-child interactions to quantify lexical diversity. Maternal

  14. Associations among Maternal Behavior, Delay of Gratification, and School Readiness across the Early Childhood Years

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Razza, Rachel A.; Raymond, Kimberly

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the developmental pathways from maternal behavior to school readiness within a sample of 1007 children, with a specific focus on the mediating role of delay of gratification (DoG). Maternal behavior across the first 36 months of age was explored as a predictor of children's DoG at 54 months as well as their behavioral and…

  15. Maternal Socialization and Child Temperament as Predictors of Emotion Regulation in Turkish Preschoolers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yagmurlu, Bilge; Altan, Ozge

    2010-01-01

    This study investigated the role of maternal socialization and temperament in Turkish preschool children's emotion regulation. Participants consisted of 145 preschoolers (79 boys, 69 girls; M[subscript age]= 62 months), their mothers, and daycare teachers from middle-high socioeconomic suburbs of Istanbul. Maternal child-rearing practices and…

  16. Maternal Characteristics Associated with Television Viewing Habits of Low-Income Preschool Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Conners, Nicola A.; Tripathi, Shanti P.; Clubb, Richard; Bradley, Robert H.

    2007-01-01

    Few studies have examined maternal characteristics associated with heavy or inappropriate television viewing on the part of their children. We investigated the relationship between children's television viewing habits and maternal depressive symptoms and parenting beliefs. The participants were 175 low income children (mean age = 62.1 months) and…

  17. Early Maternal Language Use during Book Sharing in Families from Low-Income Environments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abraham, Linzy M.; Crais, Elizabeth; Vernon-Feagans, Lynne; Cox, Martha; Blair, Clancy; Burchinal, Peg; Crnic, Keith; Crouter, Ann; Garrett-Peters, Patricia; Greenberg, Mark; Lanza, Stephanie; Mills-Koonce, Roger; Werner, Emily; Willoughby, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The authors examined the language used by mothers from low-income and rural environments with their infants at ages 6 and 15 months to identify predictors of maternal language use at the 15-month time point. Method: Maternal language use by 82 mothers with their children was documented during book-sharing interactions within the home in a…

  18. Dynamic Associations between Maternal Depressive Symptoms and Adolescents' Depressive and Externalizing Symptoms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kouros, Chrystyna D.; Garber, Judy

    2010-01-01

    The current prospective study investigated transactional relations between maternal depressive symptoms and children's depressive and externalizing symptoms. Participants included 240 children (M age = 11.86 years, SD = 0.56; 53.9% female) and their mothers who were part of a 6-year longitudinal study. Measures of maternal depression (Beck…

  19. Phenylketonuria and maternal phenylketonuria.

    PubMed

    Purnell, H

    2001-07-01

    Phenylketonuria is a genetic disease affecting 1:10,000 to 14,000 live births. In NSW there is an average of nine cases diagnosed each year (Dietitians Working Party 1996). This paper discusses the management of phenylketonuria, and in particular the value of breastfeeding, complemented with a low phenylalanine infant formula, in facilitating easier maintenance of satisfactory phenylalanine blood levels. The 'diet for life' approach to managing phenylketonuria is to avoid long-term neurological deficits and, in particular, the risk that maternal PKU, which is not under strict dietary control, will have adverse effects on infants born of mothers with the disease. There have been 31 successful pregnancies to 1997 managed by the Nutrition and Dietetics Department of The Children's Hospital at Westmead, Sydney. The Maternal PKU diet is presented with the case of a client with phenylketonuria who has achieved two normal pregnancies and breastfed her second child for six months. PMID:11550601

  20. Maternal serum screening.

    PubMed Central

    Carroll, J. C.

    1994-01-01

    Maternal serum screening (MSS) measures three serum markers: alpha-fetoprotein, human chorionic gonadotropin, and unconjugated estriol, from which the risk of fetal Down syndrome or open neural tube defect is calculated. Initially, 8% of women will have positive results. I present a protocol for investigating these women. Family physicians should be informed about MSS so they can give their patients information and guidance. PMID:7524838

  1. Understanding Relations among Children's Shy and Antisocial/Aggressive Behaviors and Mothers' Parenting: The Role of Maternal Beliefs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Evans, Cortney A.; Nelson, Larry J.; Porter, Christin L.; Nelson, David A.; Hart, Craig H.

    2012-01-01

    This study assesses the relationships between children's shy and antisocial/aggressive behaviors and maternal beliefs, and concomitant parenting behaviors. Structural equation models examined 199 mothers' perceptions of aggression and shyness in their preschool-age children (average age = 59.63 months); maternal beliefs (i.e., locus of control,…

  2. Late-Preterm Birth, Maternal Symptomatology, and Infant Negativity

    PubMed Central

    Voegtline, Kristin M.; Stifter, Cynthia A.

    2010-01-01

    The present study examined infant negativity and maternal symptomatology by term status in a predominately low-income, rural sample of 132 infants (66 late-preterm) and their mothers. Late-preterm and term infants were group-matched by race, income, and maternal age. Maternal depression and anxiety symptoms were measured with the Brief Symptom Inventory 18 (BSI-18) when infants were 2 and 6 months of age. Also at 6 months, infant negativity was assessed by global observer ratings, maternal ratings, and microanalytic behavioral coding of fear and frustration. Results indicate that after controlling for infant age, late-preterm status predicted higher ratings of infant negativity by mothers, but not by global observers or microanalytic coding, despite a positive association in negativity across the three measures. Further, mothers of late-preterm infants reported more elevated and chronic co-morbid symptoms of depression and anxiety, which in turn, was related to concurrent maternal ratings of their infant’s negativity. Mothers response to late-preterm birth and partiality in the assessment of their infant’s temperament is discussed. PMID:20732715

  3. Associations of Prenatal Maternal Blood Mercury Concentrations with Early and Mid-Childhood Blood Pressure: A Prospective Study

    PubMed Central

    Kalish, Brian T.; Rifas-Shiman, Sheryl L.; Wright, Robert O.; Amarasiriwardena, Chitra J.; Jayawardene, Innocent; Gillman, Matthew W.; Lipshultz, Steven E.; Oken, Emily

    2015-01-01

    Background Childhood blood pressure (BP) is an important determinant of adult cardiovascular disease. Prenatal exposure to methylmercury through maternal fish consumption has been reported to increase the BP of children years later. Methods Mother-child pairs were enrolled from Project Viva, a prospective cohort study in Massachusetts. From second trimester maternal blood samples, we measured erythrocyte mercury concentration. Systolic BP in children, measured up to 5 times per visit in early and mid-childhood (median ages 3.2 and 7.7 years), was the primary outcome. We used mixed-effect regression models to account for variation in the number of BP measurements and to average effects over both time points. Results Among 1,103 mother-child pairs, mean (SD) second trimester total erythrocyte mercury concentration was 4.0 (3.9) ng/g among mothers whose children were assessed in early childhood and 4.0 (4.0) ng/g for children assessed in mid-childhood. Mean (SD) offspring systolic BP was 92.1 (10.4) mm Hg in early childhood and 94.3 (8.4) mm Hg in mid-childhood. After adjusting for mother and infant characteristics, mean second trimester blood mercury concentration was not associated with child systolic BP (regression coefficient, 0.1 mm Hg; 95% CI, ?1.3 to 1.5 for quartile 4 vs. quartile 1) at either time period. Further adjusting for second trimester maternal fish consumption, as well as docosahexaenoic acid and eicosapentaenoic acid consumption, did not substantially change the estimates. Conclusions The results of this study demonstrate an absence of association between childhood blood pressure and low-level mercury exposure typical of the general US population. PMID:25019468

  4. Race, Socioeconomic Status, and Age: Exploring Intersections in Preterm Birth Disparities among Teen Mothers

    PubMed Central

    Coley, Sheryl L.; Nichols, Tracy R.; Rulison, Kelly L.; Aronson, Robert E.; Brown-Jeffy, Shelly L.; Morrison, Sharon D.

    2015-01-01

    Few studies have examined disparities in adverse birth outcomes and compared contributing socioeconomic factors specifically between African-American and White teen mothers. This study examined intersections between neighborhood socioeconomic status (as defined by census-tract median household income), maternal age, and racial disparities in preterm birth (PTB) outcomes between African-American and White teen mothers in North Carolina. Using a linked dataset with state birth record data and socioeconomic information from the 2010 US Census, disparities in preterm birth outcomes for 16,472 teen mothers were examined through bivariate and multilevel analyses. African-American teens had significantly greater odds of PTB outcomes than White teens (OR = 1.38, 95% CI 1.21, 1.56). Racial disparities in PTB rates significantly varied by neighborhood income; PTB rates were 2.1 times higher for African-American teens in higher income neighborhoods compared to White teens in similar neighborhoods. Disparities in PTB did not vary significantly between teens younger than age 17 and teens ages 17-19, although the magnitude of racial disparities was larger between younger African-American and White teens. These results justify further investigations using intersectional frameworks to test the effects of racial status, neighborhood socioeconomic factors, and maternal age on birth outcome disparities among infants born to teen mothers. PMID:25729614

  5. Change in Atypical Maternal Behavior Predicts Change in Attachment Disorganization from 12 to 24 Months in a High-Risk Sample

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Forbes, L. M.; Evans, E. M.; Moran, G.; Pederson, D. R.

    2007-01-01

    This longitudinal study examined links between disorganization and atypical maternal behavior at 12 and 24 months in 71 adolescent mother-child dyads. Organized attachment and maternal not disrupted behavior were more stable than disorganization and disrupted behavior, respectively. At both ages, disorganization and maternal disrupted behavior…

  6. Mesopontine median raphe regulates hippocampal ripple oscillation and memory consolidation

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Dong V.; Yau, Hau-Jie; Broker, Carl J.; Tsou, Jen-Hui; Bonci, Antonello; Ikemoto, Satoshi

    2015-01-01

    Sharp-wave associated field-oscillations (~200 Hz) of the hippocampus, referred to as “ripples”, are believed to be important for consolidation of explicit memory. Little is known about how ripples are regulated by other brain regions. Here we show that the median raphe region (MnR) plays a key role in regulating hippocampal ripple activity and memory consolidation. We performed in vivo simultaneous recording in the MnR and hippocampus, and found that when a group of MnR neurons were active, ripples were absent. Consistently, optogenetic stimulation of MnR neurons suppressed ripple activity, while inhibition of these neurons increased ripple activity. Importantly, using a fear conditioning procedure, we provided evidence that photostimulation of MnR neurons interfered with memory consolidation. Our results demonstrate a critical role of the MnR in regulating ripples and memory consolidation. PMID:25867120

  7. Using hierarchical P-median problem for public school allocation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nasir, Noryanti; Shariff, S. Sarifah Radiah

    2014-09-01

    Student's orientation from primary to the secondary schools is a vital process and need to be considered as yearly problem by The District Education Office of Ministry of Education Malaysia. The allocation of students to the right schools becomes complicated due to several constraints like capacity of seats in secondary schools, widespread demand areas as well as preferences by the parents. Considering all the constraints, this study proposes the application of location model to allocate students the right school. The allocation of student from primary to secondary school is based on total number of students, the availability of seats from primary and at the secondary schools, and distance from student's home to the nearest schools, both primary and secondary schools. The problem is modelled as hierarchical P-median problem as there are two hierarchical levels in this orientation. An alternative Genetic Algorithm (GA) based heuristic is applied to solve the problem and results are compared with Excel Solver.

  8. Rare complications of a low lying median arcuate coeliac ligament

    PubMed Central

    Kerr, E.; Kennedy, P.

    2015-01-01

    Pancreaticoduodenal artery aneurysm is a rare complication of coeliac artery stenosis secondary to a low lying median arcuate coeliac ligament. This article reports the case of a 69-year old man who presented with left arm and leg weakness, clinically in keeping with right hemisphere stroke. Initial CT brain scan was within normal limits. The patient did not receive thrombolysis as he was outside the time window. 3 hours later the patient experienced sudden onset epigastric pain and acute shock. CT aorta abdominal was diagnostic of a ruptured inferior pancreaticoduodenal artery aneurysm. Repeat CT brain the following day showed subacute infarction within the right frontal lobe. Embolisation of the aneurysm was successfully performed. It is well documented that ischaemic stroke can cause acute hypertension. This acute hypertension probably contributed to the rupture of the pancreaticoduodenal artery aneurysm. The patient was well on discharge and remains well 2 months on. PMID:26170486

  9. Median arcuate ligament compression of the mesenteric vasculature.

    PubMed

    Tracci, Margaret C

    2015-03-01

    Compression of the celiac artery by fibrous bands of the diaphragmatic crura has been associated with gastrointestinal symptoms such as postprandial pain and delayed gastric emptying, a phenomenon known as median arcuate ligament syndrome. The hemodynamic effects of this compression have also been implicated in the development of aneurysms of the celiac artery or its visceral collaterals. Both open surgical decompression and laparoscopic decompression of the celiac artery have proven effective in the treatment of the compressive syndrome. Endovascular stent placement has largely supplanted open surgical reconstruction for residual stenosis following surgical decompression but is not recommended as the sole treatment modality due to high failure rates. Endovascular techniques have also become the mainstay of management of aneurysmal disease associated with celiac artery compression. PMID:25814203

  10. Association between Maternal and Child Dietary Diversity: An Analysis of the Ghana Demographic and Health Survey

    PubMed Central

    Amugsi, Dickson Abanimi

    2015-01-01

    Objective (s) This study examined the association between maternal and child dietary diversity in a population-based national sample in Ghana. Methods The data for this analysis are from the 2008 Ghana Demographic and Health Survey. We used data obtained from 1187 dyads comprised of mothers’ ages 15–49 and their youngest child (ages 6–36 months). Maternal and child dietary diversity scores (DDS) were created based on the mother’s recall of her own and her child’s consumption of 15 food groups, during the 24 hours prior to the in-home survey. The same food groups were used to compose both maternal and child DDS. Linear regression was used to assess the relationship between the predicted outcome – child DDS -- and maternal DDS, taking into account child age and sex, maternal factors (age, education, occupation, literacy, empowerment, number of antenatal visits as an indicator of health care use), household Wealth Index, and urban/rural place of residence. Results There was a statistically significant positive association between child and maternal DDS, after adjusting for all other variables. A difference of one food group in mother’s consumption was associated with a difference of 0.72 food groups in the child’s food consumption (95% CI: 0.63, 0.82). Also, statistically significant positive associations were observed such that higher child DDS was associated with older child age, and with greater women’s empowerment. Conclusions The results show a significant positive association between child and maternal DD, after accounting for the influence of child, maternal and household level factors. Since the likely path of influence is that maternal DDS impacts child DDS, public health efforts to improve child health may be strengthened by promoting maternal DDS due to its potential for a widened effect on the entire family. PMID:26305458

  11. Maternal Phenylketonuria: Long-term Outcomes in Offspring and Post-pregnancy Maternal Characteristics.

    PubMed

    Waisbren, S E; Rohr, F; Anastasoaie, V; Brown, M; Harris, D; Ozonoff, A; Petrides, S; Wessel, A; Levy, H L

    2015-01-01

    Maternal phenylketonuria (MPKU) is a well-recognized complication of PKU and one of the most potent teratogenic syndromes of pregnancy. Virtually all offspring from untreated pregnancies in women with classic PKU have intellectual disabilities and microcephaly. Congenital heart disease and intrauterine growth retardation occur many times more often than expected in the general population. Control of maternal blood phenylalanine during pregnancy prevents most if not all of these complications. Previous studies demonstrated the benefits of treatment in terms of birth parameters and early development. In this study, physical examinations, a medical history, and neuropsychological evaluation were obtained in 47 children from 24 mothers with PKU who received treatment during pregnancy. Mothers were interviewed and administered an abbreviated IQ test. Associations between maternal factors and offspring outcomes were also analyzed.The 21 male and 26 female offspring ranged in age from 1 month to 26 years with 21 (62%) over 6 years. Results indicated mean intercanthal distances above the 70th percentile. Microcephaly was present in 19% of offspring, with head circumference below the third percentile. None of the offspring had cardiac anomalies. Mean offspring IQ was 94?±?19, with 12% performing in the range of intellectual disability (IQ?5 years of age, 25% had learning disabilities, 31% had attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), 22% were on ADHD medication, and 34% had a diagnosis of anxiety and/or depression. Among the 24 mothers, 12 reported following the diet for PKU. Only one woman on diet had a blood phenylalanine concentration <360 ?mol/L (recommended range) and the majority had indications of poor nutritional status. Mean maternal Full Scale IQ was 94?±?16 (range?=?61-117), with 25% performing in the borderline intellectual range (IQ?maternal metabolic control during pregnancy (r?=?0.51), maternal IQ (r?=?-0.62), and socioeconomic position (r?=?-0.48). Offspring with ADHD, learning disabilities, or emotional disturbances were more likely to have mothers with anxiety and/or depression. To ensure optimal offspring outcomes, healthcare providers need to assess maternal nutrition, blood phenylalanine concentrations, cognitive abilities, and socioeconomic position. Interventions can then be initiated that reduce psychosocial stressors and enhance adherence to diet and positive parenting, which in turn can lead to better cognitive functioning, behavior, and emotional well-being in their children. PMID:25712380

  12. Maternal modulation of novelty effects on physical development

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Akaysha C.; Yang, Zhen; Reeb-Sutherland, Bethany C.; Romeo, Russell D.; McEwen, Bruce S.

    2012-01-01

    Familiarity to the mother and the novelty afforded by the postnatal environment are two contrasting sources of neonatal influence. One hypothesis regarding their relationship is the maternal modulation hypothesis, which predicts that the same neonatal stimulation may have different effects depending on the maternal context. Here we tested this hypothesis using physical development, indexed by body weight, as an endpoint and found that, among offspring of mothers with a high initial swim-stress–induced corticosterone (CORT) response, neonatal novelty exposure induced an enhancement in early growth, and among offspring with mothers of a low initial CORT response, the same neonatal stimulation induced an impairment. At an older age, a novelty-induced increase in body weight was also found among offspring of mothers with high postnatal care reliability and a novelty-induced reduction found among offspring of mothers with low care reliability. These results support a maternal modulation of early stimulation effects on physical development and demonstrate that the maternal influence originates from multiple instead of any singular sources. These results (i) significantly extend the findings of maternal modulation from the domain of cognitive development to the domain of physical development; (ii) offer a unifying explanation for a previously inconsistent literature regarding early stimulation effects on body weight; and (iii) highlight the notion that the early experience effect involves no causal primacy but higher order interactions among the initial triggering events and subsequent events involving a multitude of maternal and nonmaternal influences. PMID:22308466

  13. Maternal intestinal flora and wheeze in early childhood

    PubMed Central

    Lange, Nancy E.; Celedón, Juan C.; Forno, Erick; Ly, Ngoc P.; Onderdonk, Andrew; Bry, Lynn; Delaney, Mary L.; DuBois, Andrea M.; Gold, Diane R.; Weiss, Scott T.; Litonjua, Augusto A.

    2012-01-01

    Background Increasing evidence links altered intestinal flora in infancy to eczema and asthma. No studies have investigated the influence of maternal intestinal flora on wheezing and eczema in early childhood. Objective To investigate the link between maternal intestinal flora during pregnancy and development of wheeze and eczema in infancy. Methods Sixty pregnant women from the Boston area gave stool samples during the third trimester of their pregnancy and answered questions during pregnancy about their own health, and about their children’s health when the child was 2 and 6 months of age. Quantitative culture was performed on stool samples and measured in log10colony-forming units(CFU)/gram stool. Primary outcomes included infant wheeze and eczema in the first 6 months of life. Atopic wheeze, defined as wheeze and eczema, was analyzed as a secondary outcome. Results In multivariate models adjusted for breastfeeding, daycare attendance and maternal atopy, higher counts of maternal total aerobes (TA) and enterococci (E) were associated with increased risk of infant wheeze (TA: OR 2.32 for 1 log increase in CFU/g stool [95% CI 1.22, 4.42]; E: OR 1.57 [95% CI 1.06, 2.31]). No organisms were associated with either eczema or atopic wheeze. Conclusions & Clinical Relevance In our cohort, higher maternal total aerobes and enterococci were related to increased risk of infant wheeze. Maternal intestinal flora may be an important environmental exposure in early immune system development. PMID:22909161

  14. Child Health, Maternal Marital and Socioeconomic Factors, and Maternal Health

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garbarski, Dana; Witt, Whitney P.

    2013-01-01

    Although maternal socioeconomic status and health predict in part children's future health and socioeconomic prospects, it is possible that the intergenerational association flows in the other direction such that child health affects maternal outcomes. Previous research demonstrates that poor child health increases the risk of adverse…

  15. Maternal Depression, Maternal Expressed Emotion, and Youth Psychopathology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tompson, Martha C.; Pierre, Claudette B.; Boger, Kathryn Dingman; McKowen, James W.; Chan, Priscilla T.; Freed, Rachel D.

    2010-01-01

    Across development, maternal depression has been found to be a risk factor for youth psychopathology generally and youth depression specifically. Maternal Expressed Emotion (EE) has been examined as a predictor of outcome among youth with depression. The present study explored the associations between youth psychopathology and two…

  16. DRD2 and SLC6A3 moderate impact of maternal depressive symptoms on infant cortisol.

    PubMed

    Ludmer, Jaclyn A; Levitan, Robert; Gonzalez, Andrea; Kennedy, James; Villani, Vanessa; Masellis, Mario; Basile, Vincenzo S; Atkinson, Leslie

    2015-12-01

    Both maternal depressive symptoms and infants' dopamine-related genetic characteristics have been linked to infants' hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) functioning. This study investigated the interactive influence of maternal depressive symptoms and infant DRD2 and SLC6A3 genotypes on infant cortisol reactivity; whether this interaction reflects diathesis-stress or differential susceptibility; and whether this interaction influences the flexibility of the infant cortisol response across challenges known to exert differential effects on infant cortisol reactivity. A community sample of 314 mother-infant dyads participated in toy frustration (age 16 months) and maternal separation (age 17 months) challenges, and salivary cortisol was collected at baseline, +20, and +40min. Maternal depressive symptoms were assessed with the Beck Depression Inventory-II at infant age 16 months. Infant buccal cells were collected at both time points for genotyping. DRD2 and SLC6A3 genotypes moderated the relation between maternal depressive symptomatology and infant cortisol reactivity in a diathesis-stress manner in the context of toy frustration, and in a differential susceptibility manner in the context of maternal separation. Higher levels of maternal depressive symptoms predicted reduced cortisol flexibility across challenges for infants with at least one A1 allele of DRD2 and infants with the 10/10 genotype of SLC6A3. Results suggest that maternal depressive symptomatology is related to infants' cortisol reactivity and to the flexibility of that reactivity across psychosocial challenges, but this relation is dependent on the infant's genetic characteristics. PMID:26342565

  17. Estimating the impact of interventions on cause-specific maternal mortality: a Delphi approach

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Approximately 287,000 women die of causes related to pregnancy and childbirth every year. While effective interventions exist to prevent maternal death, high quality impact evaluations for these interventions are often lacking. Methods We conducted a Delphi process consisting of three rounds in which we asked maternal health experts to provide effectiveness estimates for 31 intervention-cause of death pairs relating to maternal mortality. Anonymous feedback in the form of medians and histograms for each question was given to experts following the first and second rounds. A diverse panel of 37 experts completed all three rounds, for a final response rate 80.4%. Results This Delphi process produced a total of 31 effectiveness estimates for key maternal interventions on cause-specific maternal mortality. Overall, many interventions had high estimated effectiveness, with the majority of interventions having effectiveness estimates above 70%. Where possible, the estimates of effectiveness of interventions were compared to previous efforts and in general there was strong agreement between the estimates in this exercise as compared to those of earlier efforts. Conclusions There are many maternal health interventions with high estimated effectiveness that, with expansion of effective delivery channels, have the potential to have a large impact on reducing maternal mortality worldwide.

  18. Every death counts: measurement of maternal mortality via a census.

    PubMed Central

    Stanton, C.; Hobcraft, J.; Hill, K.; Kodjogbé, N.; Mapeta, W. T.; Munene, F.; Naghavi, M.; Rabeza, V.; Sisouphanthong, B.; Campbell, O.

    2001-01-01

    Methods for measuring maternal mortality at national and subnational levels in the developing world lag far behind the demand for estimates. We evaluated use of the national population census as a means of measuring maternal mortality by assessing data from five countries (Benin, Islamic Republic of Iran, Lao People's Democratic Republic, Madagascar, and Zimbabwe) which identified maternal deaths in their censuses. Standard demographic methods were used to evaluate the completeness of reporting of adult female deaths and births in the year prior to the census. The results from these exercises were used to adjust the data. In four countries, the numbers of adult female deaths needed to be increased and three countries required upward adjustment of the numbers of recent births. The number of maternal deaths was increased by the same factor as that used for adult female deaths on the assumption that the proportion of adult female deaths due to maternal causes was correct. Age patterns of the various maternal mortality indicators were plausible and consistent with external sources of data for other populations. Our data suggest that under favourable conditions a national census is a feasible and promising approach for the measurement of maternal mortality. Moreover, use of the census circumvents several of the weaknesses of methods currently in use. However, it should also be noted that careful evaluation of the data and adjustment, if necessary, are essential. The public health community is urged to encourage governments to learn from the experience of these five countries and to place maternal mortality estimation in the hands of statistical agencies. PMID:11477969

  19. Association between Maternal and Child Nutritional Status in Hula, Rural Southern Ethiopia: A Cross Sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Negash, Canaan; Whiting, Susan J.; Henry, Carol J.; Belachew, Tefera; Hailemariam, Tewodros G.

    2015-01-01

    Background Maternal and child under nutrition is highly prevalent in low-income and middle-income countries, resulting in substantial increases in mortality and overall disease burden. The aim of this baseline survey was to determine the association between selected maternal characteristics, maternal nutritional status and children’s nutritional status. Methods and Findings A survey with a cross sectional design was conducted between September and October 2012 in Hula, Ethiopia. The study subjects were 197 mothers of children between the ages of 6 and 23 months. Weight and height (mothers) or recumbent length (children) were measured using calibrated, standardized techniques. Seven percent of children were below -2 weight for height Z score (WHZ), 11.5% were below -2 height for age Z score (HAZ) and 9.9% were below -2 weight for age Z score (WAZ). Maternal anthropometrics were associated with child nutritional status in the bivariate analysis. Maternal BMI (r = 0.16 P = 0.02) and educational status (r = 0.25 P = 0.001) were correlated with WHZ of children while maternal height (r = 0.2 P = 0.007) was correlated with HAZ of children. After multivariate analysis, children whose mothers had salary from employment had a better WHZ score (P = 0.001) and WAZ score (P<0.001). Both maternal BMI and maternal height were associated with WHZ (P = 0.04) and HAZ (P = 0.01) score of children. Conclusion Having a mother with better nutritional status and salaried employment is a benefit for the nutritional status of the child. The interrelationship between maternal and child nutritional status stresses the value of improving maternal nutritional status as this should improve both maternal and child health outcomes. Therefore strategies to improve nutritional status of children should also include improving the nutritional status of the mother and empowering her financially. PMID:26588687

  20. Maternal mortality in rural Gambia: levels, causes and contributing factors.

    PubMed Central

    Walraven, G.; Telfer, M.; Rowley, J.; Ronsmans, C.

    2000-01-01

    A demographic study carried out in a rural area of the Gambia between January 1993 and December 1998 recorded 74 deaths among women aged 15-49 years. Reported here is an estimation of maternal mortality among these 74 deaths based on a survey of reproductive age mortality, which identified 18 maternal deaths by verbal autopsy. Over the same period there were 4245 live births in the study area, giving a maternal mortality ratio of 424 per 100,000 live births. This maternal mortality estimate is substantially lower than estimates made in the 1980s, which ranged from 1005 to 2362 per 100,000 live births, in the same area. A total of 9 of the 18 deaths had a direct obstetric cause--haemorrhage (6 deaths), early pregnancy (2), and obstructed labour (1). Indirect causes of obstetric deaths were anaemia (4 deaths), hepatitis (1), and undetermined (4). Low standards of health care for obstetric referrals, failure to recognize the severity of the problem at the community level, delays in starting the decision-making process to seek health care, lack of transport, and substandard primary health care were identified more than once as probable or possible contributing factors to these maternal deaths. PMID:10859854

  1. Maternal Conjugal Multiplicity and Child Development in Rural Jamaica

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dreher, Melanie; Hudgins, Rebekah

    2010-01-01

    Using field-based observations and standardized measures of the home environment and child development, the authors followed 59 rural Jamaican women and their offspring from birth to age 5. The findings suggest that conjugal multiplicity, a female reproductive pattern characterized by multiple unions, maternal unmarried status, and absent father,…

  2. Maternal adiposity negatively influences infant brain white matter development

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Objective: To study potential effects of maternal body composition on central nervous system (CNS) development of newborn infants. Methods: Diffusion tensor imaging was used to evaluate brain white matter development in 2-week-old, full-term, appropriate for gestational age infants from uncomplicat...

  3. Maternal Affection Moderates Friend Influence on Schoolwork Engagement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marion, Donna; Laursen, Brett; Kiuru, Noona; Nurmi, Jari-Erik; Salmela-Aro, Katariina

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated friend influence over adolescent schoolwork engagement in 160 same-sex friend dyads (94 female dyads and 66 male dyads). Participants were approximately 16 years of age at the outset. Each friend described his or her own schoolwork engagement, school burnout, and perceptions of maternal affection. The results revealed that…

  4. Maternal Influences on Youth Responses to Peer Stress

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abaied, Jamie L.; Rudolph, Karen D.

    2011-01-01

    Understanding how youths develop particular styles of responding to stress is critical for promoting effective coping. This research examined the prospective, interactive contribution of maternal socialization of coping and peer stress to youth responses to peer stress. A sample of 144 early adolescents (mean age = 12.44 years, SD = 1.22) and…

  5. Maternal telomere length inheritance in the king penguin.

    PubMed

    Reichert, S; Rojas, E R; Zahn, S; Robin, J-P; Criscuolo, F; Massemin, S

    2015-01-01

    Telomeres are emerging as a biomarker for ageing and survival, and are likely important in shaping life-history trade-offs. In particular, telomere length with which one starts in life has been linked to lifelong survival, suggesting that early telomere dynamics are somehow related to life-history trajectories. This result highlights the importance of determining the extent to which telomere length is inherited, as a crucial factor determining early life telomere length. Given the scarcity of species for which telomere length inheritance has been studied, it is pressing to assess the generality of telomere length inheritance patterns. Further, information on how this pattern changes over the course of growth in individuals living under natural conditions should provide some insight on the extent to which environmental constraints also shape telomere dynamics. To fill this gap partly, we followed telomere inheritance in a population of king penguins (Aptenodytes patagonicus). We tested for paternal and maternal influence on chick initial telomere length (10 days old after hatching), and how these relationships changed with chick age (at 70, 200 and 300 days old). Based on a correlative approach, offspring telomere length was positively associated with maternal telomere length early in life (at 10 days old). However, this relationship was not significant at older ages. These data suggest that telomere length in birds is maternally inherited. Nonetheless, the influence of environmental conditions during growth remained an important factor shaping telomere length, as the maternal link disappeared with chicks' age. PMID:25052413

  6. Mitochondrial genome function and maternal inheritance.

    PubMed

    Allen, John F; de Paula, Wilson B M

    2013-10-01

    The persistence of mtDNA to encode a small subset of mitochondrial proteins reflects the selective advantage of co-location of key respiratory chain subunit genes with their gene products. The disadvantage of this co-location is exposure of mtDNA to mutagenic ROS (reactive oxygen species), which are by-products of aerobic respiration. The resulting 'vicious circle' of mitochondrial mutation has been proposed to underlie aging and its associated degenerative diseases. Recent evidence is consistent with the hypothesis that oocyte mitochondria escape the aging process by acting as quiescent genetic templates, transcriptionally and bioenergetically repressed. Transmission of unexpressed mtDNA in the female germline is considered as a reason for the existence of separate sexes, i.e. male and female. Maternal inheritance then circumvents incremental accumulation of age-related disease in each new generation. PMID:24059523

  7. Child Characteristics and Maternal Speech.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smolak, Linda

    1987-01-01

    An eight-month longitudinal study measuring infants' (N=8) temperament characteristics of activity level, task persistence, and affect and discourse and pragmatic features of their mothers' speech revealed complex interactions between maternal speech and infant temperament. It is argued that nonlinguistic child behaviors may influence maternal

  8. Associations of Maternal and Infant Testosterone and Cortisol Levels With Maternal Depressive Symptoms and Infant Socioemotional Problems.

    PubMed

    Cho, June; Su, Xiaogang; Phillips, Vivien; Holditch-Davis, Diane

    2016-01-01

    This study examined the associations of testosterone and cortisol levels with maternal depressive symptoms and infant socioemotional (SE) problems that are influenced by infant gender. A total of 62 mothers and their very-low-birth weight (VLBW) infants were recruited from a neonatal intensive care unit at a tertiary medical center in the southeast United States. Data were collected at three time points (before 40 weeks' postmenstrual age [PMA] and at 3 months and 6 months of age corrected for prematurity). Measures included infant medical record review, maternal interview, biochemical assays of salivary hormone levels in mother-VLBWinfant pairs, and standard questionnaires. Generalized estimating equations with separate analyses for boys and girls showed that maternal testosterone level was negatively associated with depressive symptoms in mothers of boys, whereas infant testosterone level was negatively associated with maternal report of infant SE problems in girls after controlling for characteristics of mothers and infants and number of days post birth of saliva collection. Not surprisingly, the SE problems were positively associated with a number of medical complications. Mothers with more depressive symptoms reported that their infants had more SE problems. Mothers with higher testosterone levels reported that girls, but not boys, had fewer SE problems. In summary, high levels of testosterone could have a protective role for maternal depressive symptoms and infant SE problems. Future research need to be directed toward clinical application of these preliminary results. PMID:25954021

  9. Early-Occurring Maternal Depression and Maternal Negativity in Predicting Young Children's Emotion Regulation and Socioemotional Difficulties

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maughan, Angeline; Cicchetti, Dante; Toth, Sheree L.; Rogosch, Fred A.

    2007-01-01

    This longitudinal investigation examined the effects of maternal depression and concomitant negative parenting behaviors on children's emotion regulation patterns and socioemotional functioning. One hundred fifty-one mothers and their children were assessed when children were approximately 1 1/2-, 3-, 4-, and 5-years of age. Ninety-three of the…

  10. Distribution patterns of the muscular branch of the median nerve in the thenar region.

    PubMed Central

    Olave, E; Prates, J C; Del Sol, M; Sarmento, A; Gabrielli, C

    1995-01-01

    Studies on the distribution patterns of the muscular branch of the median nerve to the thenar muscles are scarce. Available accounts give only general descriptions. To establish the distribution pattern more precisely, we dissected 60 palmar regions from 30 cadavers of adult individuals, ranging in age from 23 to 77 y. The distribution pattern of the muscular branch was classified into 3 types. In 50% of subjects there were branches to the superficial head of flexor pollicis brevis (FPB), abductor pollicis brevis (APB) and opponens pollicis (OP) (type I). In 40% there were branches only to APB and OP (type II). In the remainder (type III) the muscular branch provided independent branches to APB, OP and FPB, to APB and OP, or to APB and FPB, after dividing precociously. Types I and II were further subdivided according to the site, direction and number of the individual branches. Images Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 PMID:7649846

  11. Active and passive maternal smoking during pregnancy and birth outcomes: the Kyushu Okinawa Maternal and Child Health Study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background In Western countries, active maternal smoking during pregnancy is recognized as the most important preventable risk factor for adverse birth outcomes. However, the effect of passive maternal smoking is less clear and has not been extensively studied. In Japan, there has been only one epidemiological study which examined the effects of active smoking during early pregnancy on birth outcomes although the effects of passive smoking were not assessed. Methods Study subjects were 1565 mothers with singleton pregnancies and the babies born from these pregnancies. Data on active maternal smoking status in the first, second, and third trimesters and maternal environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) exposure at home and work were collected with self-administered questionnaires. Results Compared with children born to mothers who had never smoked during pregnancy, children born to mothers who had smoked throughout their pregnancy had a significantly increased risk of small-for-gestational-age (SGA) (adjusted odd ratio [OR]?=?2.87; 95% confidence interval: 1.11???6.56). However, active maternal smoking only in the first trimester and active maternal smoking in the second and/or third trimesters but not throughout pregnancy were not significantly associated with SGA. With regard to the risk of preterm birth, the adjusted ORs for the above-mentioned three categories were not significant; however, the positive linear trend was significant (P for trend?=?0.048). No significant association was found between active maternal smoking during pregnancy and the risk of low birth weight. There was a significant inverse relationship between active maternal smoking during pregnancy and birth weight; newborns of mothers who had smoked throughout pregnancy had an adjusted mean birth weight reduction of 169.6 g. When classifying babies by gender, a significant positive association between active maternal smoking throughout pregnancy and the risk of SGA was found only in male newborns, however, the interaction was not significant. Maternal ETS exposure at home or work was not significantly associated with any birth outcomes. Conclusions This is the first study in Japan to show that active maternal smoking throughout pregnancy, but not during the first trimester, is significantly associated with an increased risk of SGA and a decrease in birth weight. Thus, women who smoke should quit smoking as soon as possible after conception. PMID:23919433

  12. Maternal serum alpha-fetoprotein screening: report of a Canadian pilot project.

    PubMed Central

    Doran, T A; Valentine, G H; Wong, P Y; Wielgosz, G; Benzie, R J; Soltan, H C; Jenner, M R; Morland, P A; Montgomery, R J; Allen, L C

    1987-01-01

    A pilot project of maternal serum alpha-fetoprotein (MSAFP) screening was carried out in Ontario from 1982 to 1985 to examine the feasibility and acceptability of screening a prenatal population for open fetal neural tube defects. A total of 8140 patients at low genetic risk were screened. Patient acceptance was excellent. Blood samples were taken at 16 to 18 weeks' gestation. If the MSAFP level was elevated, the assay was repeated and an ultrasound examination performed. Amniocentesis was offered to 67 women with unexplained persistently elevated levels. The outcome of pregnancy was known in 7473 patients (91.8%). Seven of nine known open fetal neural tube defects were detected. All were confirmed, and no unaffected fetuses were aborted on the basis of the screening results. The rates of perinatal death (6.7%), intrauterine growth retardation (11.7%) and prematurity (23.3%) were significantly higher among the patients with unexplained elevated MSAFP levels than among those with normal levels (p less than 0.001). Of 20 patients with unexplained low levels, 10 subsequently had spontaneous abortions and 10 gave birth to term appropriate-for-gestational-age infants. Seven of nine patients who gave birth to infants with autosomal trisomy had MSAFP values below the median. The findings indicate that MSAFP screening is feasible, accurate and acceptable in a low-risk area. PMID:2440547

  13. Telomere length is associated with oppositional defiant behavior and maternal clinical depression in Latino preschool children.

    PubMed

    Wojcicki, J M; Heyman, M B; Elwan, D; Shiboski, S; Lin, J; Blackburn, E; Epel, E

    2015-01-01

    Exposure to psychological stress and depression are associated with shorter white blood cell telomere length (TL) in adults, possibly via associated lifelong oxidative stressors. Exposure to maternal depression increases risk for future depression and behavior problems in children, and Latino youth are at high risk. Few studies have evaluated the role of exposure to maternal depression or child behavior in relation to TL in children. We assessed early-childhood exposures to maternal depression from birth to the age of 5 years and child behavior from ages 3-5 years in a cohort of Latino children in relation to child leukocyte TL at ages 4 and 5 years. Children who had oppositional defiant behavior at 3, 4 or 5 years had shorter TL than those without by ~450 base pairs (P < 0.01). In multivariate analyses, independent predictors for shorter TL at 4 and 5 years of age included oppositional defiant disorder at 3, 4 or 5 years (? = -359.25, 95% CI -633.84 to 84.66; P = 0.01), exposure to maternal clinical depression at 3 years of age (? = -363.99, 95% CI -651.24 to 764.74; P = 0.01), shorter maternal TL (? = 502.92, 95% CI 189.21-816.63) and younger paternal age at the child's birth (? = 24.63, 95% CI 1.14-48.12). Thus, exposure to maternal clinical depression (versus depressive symptoms) in early childhood was associated with deleterious consequences on child cellular health as indicated by shorter TL at 4 and 5 years of age. Similarly, children with oppositional defiant behavior also had shorter TL, possibly related to early exposures to maternal clinical depression. Our study is the first to link maternal clinical depression and oppositional defiant behavior with shorter TL in the preschool years in a relatively homogenous population of low-income Latino children. PMID:26080316

  14. Maternal Smoking During Pregnancy and Growth in Infancy: a Covariance Structure Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Wei; Suzuki, Kohta; Shinohara, Ryoji; Sato, Miri; Yokomichi, Hiroshi; Yamagata, Zentaro

    2015-01-01

    Background Smoking during pregnancy is related to fetal constraint and accelerated postnatal growth. However, the pathways between these factors have not been clarified. Pathway analyses that link these factors can help us better understand the mechanisms involved in this association. Therefore, this study aimed to examine pathways between maternal smoking during pregnancy and growth in infancy. Methods Participants were singletons born between 1993 and 2006 in rural Japan. The outcome was the change in weight z-score between birth and 3 years of age. Pathways from maternal smoking and other maternal factors (such as maternal body mass index and work status) to growth in infancy via birth factors (such as birth weight and gestational age) and breastfeeding were examined using structural equation modeling. Results Complete data were available for 1524 children (775 boys and 749 girls). The model fit appeared adequate. Lower birth weight and non-exclusive breastfeeding mediated the association between maternal smoking during pregnancy and rapid growth in infancy. Maternal smoking was also directly linked to rapid growth in infancy (standardized direct effects 0.06, P = 0.002). Taking all pathways into account, the standardized total effect of maternal smoking on growth in infancy was 0.11. Conclusions Maternal smoking during pregnancy may both indirectly, through birth weight and breastfeeding status, and directly influence growth during infancy; however, there may be other pathways that have not yet been identified. PMID:25327186

  15. Measuring Maternal Mortality: Three Case Studies Using Verbal Autopsy with Different Platforms

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Background Accurate measurement of maternal mortality is needed to develop a greater understanding of the scale of the problem, to increase effectiveness of program planning and targeting, and to track progress. In the absence of good quality vital statistics, interim methods are used to measure maternal mortality. The purpose of this study is to document experience with three community-based interim methods that measure maternal mortality using verbal autopsy. Methods This study uses a post-census mortality survey, a sample vital registration with verbal autopsy, and a large-scale household survey to summarize the measures of maternal mortality obtained from these three platforms, compares and contrasts the different methodologies employed, and evaluates strengths and weaknesses of each approach. Included is also a discussion of issues related to death identification and classification, estimating maternal mortality ratios and rates, sample sizes and periodicity of estimates, data quality, and cost. Results The sample sizes vary considerably between the three data sources and the number of maternal deaths identified through each platform was small. The proportion of deaths to women of reproductive age that are maternal deaths ranged from 8.8% to 17.3%. The maternal mortality rate was estimable using two of the platforms while obtaining an estimate of the maternal mortality ratio was only possible using one of the platforms. The percentage of maternal deaths due to direct obstetric causes ranged from 45.2% to 80.4%. Conclusions This study documents experiences applying standard verbal autopsy methods to estimate maternal mortality and confirms that verbal autopsy is a feasible method for collecting maternal mortality data. None of these interim methods are likely to be suitable for detecting short term changes in mortality due to prohibitive sample size requirements, and thus, comprehensive and continuous civil registration systems to provide high quality vital statistics are essential in the long-term. PMID:26295160

  16. Gestational weight gain, early pregnancy maternal adiposity distribution, and maternal hyperglycemia

    PubMed Central

    Tomedi, Laura E.; Simhan, Hyagriv N.; Chang, Chung-Chou H.; McTigue, Kathleen M.; Bodnar, Lisa M.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives To estimate the effects of gestational weight gain (GWG), central adiposity and subcutaneous fat on maternal post-load glucose concentration. Methods Pregnant women [n = 413, 62% black, 57% with pregravid body mass index (BMI) ? 25] enrolled in a cohort study at <13 weeks gestation. GWG was abstracted from medical records. In a sub-sample of women (n = 214), waist circumference (WC), and biceps and triceps skinfold thicknesses were measured at enrollment. At 24–28 weeks gestation, post-load glucose concentration was measured using a 50-g 1-hour oral glucose tolerance test. Results After adjustment for pre-pregnancy BMI, age, parity, race/ethnicity, smoking, marital status, annual family income, education, family history of diabetes, and gestational age of GDM screening, each 0.3-kg/week increase in weight in the first trimester was associated with a 2.2 (95% CI: 0.1, 4.3)-mg/dl increase in glucose concentration. Each 8.6-mm increase in biceps skinfold thickness and each 11.7-mm increase in triceps skinfold thickness was associated with 4.3 (95% CI: 0.2, 8.5)-mg/dl increase in maternal glucose, independent of BMI and other confounders. Neither GWG in the second trimester nor WC at ? 13 weeks was significantly associated with glucose concentration after confounder adjustment. Conclusions Independent of pre-pregnancy BMI, high early pregnancy GWG and maternal subcutaneous body fat may be positively associated with maternal glucose concentrations at 24–28 weeks. PMID:24101436

  17. Gestational weight gain, early pregnancy maternal adiposity distribution, and maternal hyperglycemia.

    PubMed

    Tomedi, Laura E; Simhan, Hyagriv N; Chang, Chung-Chou H; McTigue, Kathleen M; Bodnar, Lisa M

    2014-07-01

    To estimate the effects of gestational weight gain (GWG), central adiposity and subcutaneous fat on maternal post-load glucose concentration, pregnant women [n = 413, 62% black, 57% with pregravid body mass index (BMI) ?25] enrolled in a cohort study at ?13 weeks gestation. GWG was abstracted from medical records. In a sub-sample of women (n = 214), waist circumference (WC), and biceps and triceps skinfold thicknesses were measured at enrollment. At 24-28 weeks gestation, post-load glucose concentration was measured using a 50-g 1-h oral glucose tolerance test. After adjustment for pre-pregnancy BMI, age, parity, race/ethnicity, smoking, marital status, annual family income, education, family history of diabetes, and gestational age of GDM screening, each 0.3-kg/week increase in weight in the first trimester was associated with a 2.2 (95% CI 0.1, 4.3)-mg/dl increase in glucose concentration. Each 8.6-mm increase in biceps skinfold thickness and each 11.7-mm increase in triceps skinfold thickness was associated with 4.3 (95% CI 0.2, 8.5)-mg/dl increase in maternal glucose, independent of BMI and other confounders. Neither GWG in the second trimester nor WC at ?13 weeks was significantly associated with glucose concentration after confounder adjustment. Independent of pre-pregnancy BMI, high early pregnancy GWG and maternal subcutaneous body fat may be positively associated with maternal glucose concentrations at 24-28 weeks. PMID:24101436

  18. A Transactional Analysis of the Relation between Maternal Sensitivity and Child Vagal Regulation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perry, Nicole B.; Mackler, Jennifer S.; Calkins, Susan D.; Keane, Susan P.

    2014-01-01

    A transactional model examining the longitudinal association between vagal regulation (as indexed by vagal withdrawal) and maternal sensitivity from age 2.5 to age 5.5 was assessed. The sample included 356 children (171 male, 185 female) and their mothers who participated in a laboratory visit at age 2.5, 4.5, and 5.5. Cardiac vagal tone was…

  19. The Association of Prenatal Exposure to Perfluorinated Chemicals with Maternal Essential and Long-Chain Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids during Pregnancy and the Birth Weight of Their Offspring: The Hokkaido Study

    PubMed Central

    Nakajima, Tamie; Goudarzi, Houman; Kobayashi, Sachiko; Sasaki, Seiko; Okada, Emiko; Miyashita, Chihiro; Itoh, Sachiko; Araki, Atsuko; Ikeno, Tamiko; Iwasaki, Yusuke; Nakazawa, Hiroyuki

    2015-01-01

    Background Fatty acids (FAs) are essential for fetal growth. Exposure to perfluorinated chemicals (PFCs) may disrupt FA homeostasis, but there are no epidemiological data regarding associations of PFCs and FA concentrations. Objectives We estimated associations between perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS)/perfluorooctanoate (PFOA) concentrations and maternal levels of FAs and triglyceride (TG) and birth size of the offspring. Methods We analyzed 306 mother–child pairs in this birth cohort between 2002 and 2005 in Japan. The prenatal PFOS and PFOA levels were measured in maternal serum samples by liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry. Maternal blood levels of nine FAs and TG were measured by gas chromatography–mass spectrometry and TG E-Test Wako kits, respectively. Information on infants’ birth size was obtained from participant medical records. Results The median PFOS and PFOA levels were 5.6 and 1.4 ng/mL, respectively. In the fully adjusted model, including maternal age, parity, annual household income, blood sampling period, alcohol consumption, and smoking during pregnancy, PFOS but not PFOA had a negative association with the levels of palmitic, palmitoleic, oleic, linoleic, ?-linolenic, and arachidonic acids (p < 0.005) and TG (p-value = 0.016). Female infants weighed 186.6 g less with mothers whose PFOS levels were in the fourth quartile compared with the first quartile (95% CI: –363.4, –9.8). We observed no significant association between maternal levels of PFOS and birth weight of male infants. Conclusions Our data suggest an inverse association between PFOS exposure and polyunsaturated FA levels in pregnant women. We also found a negative association between maternal PFOS levels and female birth weight. Citation Kishi R, Nakajima T, Goudarzi H, Kobayashi S, Sasaki S, Okada E, Miyashita C, Itoh S, Araki A, Ikeno T, Iwasaki Y, Nakazawa H. 2015. The association of prenatal exposure to perfluorinated chemicals with maternal essential and long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids during pregnancy and the birth weight of their offspring: the Hokkaido Study. Environ Health Perspect 123:1038–1045;?http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/ehp.1408834 PMID:25840032

  20. 76 FR 39474 - Monthly Median Cost of Funds Reporting, and Publication of Cost of Funds Indices

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-06

    ...Median Cost of Funds Reporting, and Publication of Cost of Funds Indices AGENCY: Office...Median Cost of Funds Reporting, and Publication of Cost of Funds Indices...intent to discontinue data collection and publication of the monthly median cost of...

  1. Tail Mean Estimation is More Efficient than Tail Median: Evidence From the Exponential Power Distribution

    E-print Network

    Pearce, Kent

    Tail Mean Estimation is More Efficient than Tail Median: Evidence From the Exponential Power the relative efficiency of the empirical "tail median" vs. "tail mean" as esti- mators of location under random that the quantile of the untruncated EPD (population tail median) and mean of the left-truncated EPD (population

  2. Empirical likelihood ratio test for median and mean residual Mai Zhou and Jong-Hyeon Jeong

    E-print Network

    Zhou, Mai

    , it is well known that the inference on the median residual life function in survival data can be pro on the inference on median and mean residual life time, we note that the testing involving the mean or median residual life function in censored survival data can be obtained by an easy application of the general

  3. [Maternal death: an avoidable tragedy].

    PubMed

    Ferreira, C E

    1992-01-01

    Although statistics show that maternal mortality has declined during this century, high levels persist in the developing world. There are 100 to 1000 maternal deaths per 100,000 live births in developing countries, compared to 7 to 15 deaths per 100,000 live births in developed countries. Most of these deaths in developing countries are avoidable by effective maternal care interventions. A book edited by Unicamp on maternal mortality has made an important contribution to the debate that has been going on in scientific circles and among planners and health professionals. The quality of data for analysis of maternal mortality is implicated also because of erroneous classification of maternal deaths as nonmaternal, imprecision in the death certification, and omission of the status of pregnancy associated with illegal abortion. The identification of these errors means that medical files, hospital registers, family interviews, and autopsies have to be consulted. Research carried out in Sao Paulo demonstrated that at the end of the 1980s the maternal mortality rate was in fact 99.5/100,000 live births, whereas original records showed only 44.5/100,000 live births. Even in the United States during 1980-85, 33% of maternal deaths were underreported. In England the level of underreporting amounted to 41% during 1970-72. The World Health Organization has encouraged the formation of committees to study the prevention of maternal mortality. Two such committees were started in the state of Sao Paulo with the objectives of making professionals aware of the importance of accurate death records; immediate notification of maternal deaths to the regional committee; means from the proper authorities for the correction of deficiencies detected; and continuous evaluation of maternal mortality rates. The committee of Marilia, in the interior of the state of Sao Paulo, demonstrated that 72% of maternal deaths during 1986-88 were avoidable by medical-obstetrical means, prenatal care, or social assistance. 61% of deaths were attributed to cesarean section, which indicates the major risk of surgical complications. PMID:12286240

  4. Maternal abuse history and self-regulation difficulties in preadolescence

    PubMed Central

    Delker, Brianna C.; Noll, Laura K.; Kim, Hyoun K.; Fisher, Philip A.

    2014-01-01

    Although poor parenting is known to be closely linked to self-regulation difficulties in early childhood, comparatively little is understood about the role of other risk factors in the early caregiving environment (such as a parent’s own experiences of childhood abuse) in developmental pathways of self-regulation into adolescence. Using a longitudinal design, this study aimed to examine how a mother’s history of abuse in childhood relates to her offspring’s self-regulation difficulties in preadolescence. Maternal controlling parenting and exposure to intimate partner aggression in the child’s first 24–36 months were examined as important early social and environmental influences that may explain the proposed connection between maternal abuse history and preadolescent self-regulation. An ethnically diverse sample of mothers (N = 488) who were identified as at-risk for child maltreatment was recruited at the time of their children’s birth. Mothers and their children were assessed annually from the child’s birth through 36 months, and at age 9–11 years. Structural equation modeling and bootstrap tests of indirect effects were conducted to address the study aims. Findings indicated that maternal abuse history indirectly predicted their children’s self-regulation difficulties in preadolescence mainly through maternal controlling parenting in early childhood, but not through maternal exposure to aggression by an intimate partner. Maternal history of childhood abuse and maternal controlling parenting in her child’s early life may have long-term developmental implications for child self-regulation. PMID:25459984

  5. Inequity in India: the case of maternal and reproductive health

    PubMed Central

    Sanneving, Linda; Trygg, Nadja; Saxena, Deepak; Mavalankar, Dileep; Thomsen, Sarah

    2013-01-01

    Background Millennium Development Goal (MDG) 5 is focused on reducing maternal mortality and achieving universal access to reproductive health care. India has made extensive efforts to achieve MDG 5 and in some regions much progress has been achieved. Progress has been uneven and inequitable however, and many women still lack access to maternal and reproductive health care. Objective In this review, a framework developed by the Commission on Social Determinants of Health (CSDH) is used to categorize and explain determinants of inequity in maternal and reproductive health in India. Design A review of peer-reviewed, published literature was conducted using the electronic databases PubMed and Popline. The search was performed using a carefully developed list of search terms designed to capture published papers from India on: 1) maternal and reproductive health, and 2) equity, including disadvantaged populations. A matrix was developed to sort the relevant information, which was extracted and categorized based on the CSDH framework. In this way, the main sources of inequity in maternal and reproductive health in India and their inter-relationships were determined. Results Five main structural determinants emerged from the analysis as important in understanding equity in India: economic status, gender, education, social status (registered caste or tribe), and age (adolescents). These five determinants were found to be closely interrelated, a feature which was reflected in the literature. Conclusion In India, economic status, gender, and social status are all closely interrelated when influencing use of and access to maternal and reproductive health care. Appropriate attention should be given to how these social determinants interplay in generating and sustaining inequity when designing policies and programs to reach equitable progress toward improved maternal and reproductive health. PMID:23561028

  6. The impact of maternal obesity during pregnancy on offspring immunity.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Randall M; Messaoudi, Ilhem

    2015-12-15

    In the United States, approximately 64% of women of childbearing age are either overweight or obese. Maternal obesity during pregnancy is associated with a greater risk for adverse maternal-fetal outcomes. Adverse health outcomes for the offspring can persist into adulthood, increasing the incidence of several chronic conditions including cardiovascular disease, diabetes, and asthma. Since these diseases have a significant inflammatory component, these observations are indicative of perturbation of the normal development and maturation of the immune system of the offspring in utero. This hypothesis is strongly supported by data from several rodent studies. Although the mechanisms of these perturbations are not fully understood, it is thought that increased placental inflammation due to obesity may directly affect neonatal development through alterations in nutrient transport. In this review we examine the impact of maternal obesity on the neonatal immune system, and potential mechanisms for the changes observed. PMID:26232506

  7. Contributions of Maternal Adult Attachment to Socialization of Coping

    PubMed Central

    Abaied, Jamie L.; Rudolph, Karen D.

    2011-01-01

    This research examined whether maternal adult attachment predicted the coping suggestions mothers made to their children. A sample of 157 youth (M age = 12.42, SD = 1.20) and their maternal caregivers completed semi-structured interviews and questionnaires in a two-wave longitudinal study. Results revealed that maternal insecure attachment predicted fewer engagement coping suggestions (orienting toward stress) and heightened disengagement coping suggestions (avoiding or denying stress) both concurrently and over time. These associations were found after adjusting for other relevant characteristics of the child, mother, and family context. This study contributes to our understanding of the implications of adult attachment for parenting behavior, suggesting that insecure attachment undermines a parent’s ability to provide adaptive coping guidance to their children. PMID:21892245

  8. Maternal employment and childhood obesity--a European perspective.

    PubMed

    Gwozdz, Wencke; Sousa-Poza, Alfonso; Reisch, Lucia A; Ahrens, Wolfgang; Eiben, Gabriele; M Fernandéz-Alvira, Juan; Hadjigeorgiou, Charalampos; De Henauw, Stefaan; Kovács, Eva; Lauria, Fabio; Veidebaum, Toomas; Williams, Garrath; Bammann, Karin

    2013-07-01

    The substantial increase in female employment rates in Europe over the past two decades has often been linked in political and public rhetoric to negative effects on child development, including obesity. We analyse this association between maternal employment and childhood obesity using rich objective reports of various anthropometric and other measures of fatness from the IDEFICS study of children aged 2-9 in 16 regions of eight European countries. Based on such data as accelerometer measures and information from nutritional diaries, we also investigate the effects of maternal employment on obesity's main drivers: calorie intake and physical activity. Our analysis provides little evidence for any association between maternal employment and childhood obesity, diet or physical activity. PMID:23721884

  9. Neonatal Thyroxine, Maternal Thyroid Function, and Child Cognition

    PubMed Central

    Oken, Emily; Braverman, Lewis E.; Platek, Deborah; Mitchell, Marvin L.; Lee, Stephanie L.; Pearce, Elizabeth N.

    2009-01-01

    Context: Thyroid hormone is essential for normal brain development. Limited data are available regarding whether thyroid function in neonates influences later cognitive development. Objective: Our objective was to study associations of newborn T4 levels with maternal thyroid function and childhood cognition. Design and Setting: We studied participants in Project Viva, a cohort study in Massachusetts. Participants: We studied a total of 500 children born 1999–2003 at 34 wk or more. Main Outcome Measures: We determined cognitive test scores at ages 6 months and 3 yr. Results: Mean newborn T4 at a mean age of 1.94 d was 17.6 (sd 4.0) ?g/dl, and levels were higher in girls [1.07 ?g/dl; 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.38, 1.76] and infants born after longer gestation (0.42 ?g/dl; 95% CI 0.17, 0.67 per wk). Newborn T4 levels were not associated with maternal T4, TSH, or thyroid peroxidase antibody levels. On multivariable linear regression analysis, adjusting for maternal and child characteristics, higher newborn T4 was unexpectedly associated with poorer scores on the visual recognition memory test among infants at age 6 months (?0.5; 95% CI ?0.9, ?0.2), but not with scores at age 3 yr on either the Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test (0.2; 95% CI ?0.1, 0.5) or the Wide Range Assessment of Visual Motor Abilities (0.1; 95% CI ?0.2, 0.3). Maternal thyroid function test results were not associated with child cognitive test scores. Conclusions: Newborn T4 concentrations within a normal physiological reference range are not associated with maternal thyroid function and do not predict cognitive outcome in a population living in an iodine-sufficient area. PMID:19033373

  10. Maternal education and child mortality in Zimbabwe.

    PubMed

    Grépin, Karen A; Bharadwaj, Prashant

    2015-12-01

    In 1980, Zimbabwe rapidly expanded access to secondary schools, providing a natural experiment to estimate the impact of increased maternal secondary education on child mortality. Exploiting age specific exposure to these reforms, we find that children born to mothers most likely to have benefited from the policies were about 21% less likely to die than children born to slightly older mothers. We also find that increased education leads to delayed age at marriage, sexual debut, and first birth and that increased education leads to better economic opportunities for women. We find little evidence supporting other channels through which increased education might affect child mortality. Expanding access to secondary schools may greatly accelerate declines in child mortality in the developing world today. PMID:26569469

  11. Maternal collapse: Training in resuscitation.

    PubMed

    Naidoo, Mergan

    2015-11-01

    The National Committee for the Confidential Enquiries into Maternal Deaths (NCCEMD) of South Africa has recommended in the Sixth Saving Mothers Report that health-care professionals (HCPs) training in managing obstetric emergencies be improved. One such measure is to ensure that the Essential Steps in Managing Obstetric Emergencies (ESMOE) with its Emergency Obstetric Simulation Training (EOST) be rolled out to every HCP working in the obstetric environment. The programme has been strengthened and rolled out in the province of KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa. This review focuses on the various teaching methods used to improve maternal resuscitation training in a South African context. Evidence-based interventions in maternal resuscitation will be highlighted, and recommendations for clinical practice will be suggested. Common causes of maternal collapse will be explored, and measures to improve training in these areas will be outlined. In order to ensure sustainability, quality improvement measures need to be introduced and evaluated. PMID:26277335

  12. Risk Factors for Maternal Mortality in Rural Tigray, Northern Ethiopia: A Case-Control Study

    PubMed Central

    Godefay, Hagos; Byass, Peter; Graham, Wendy J.; Kinsman, John; Mulugeta, Afework

    2015-01-01

    Background Maternal mortality continues to have devastating impacts in many societies, where it constitutes a leading cause of death, and thus remains a core issue in international development. Nevertheless, individual determinants of maternal mortality are often unclear and subject to local variation. This study aims to characterise individual risk factors for maternal mortality in Tigray, Ethiopia. Methods A community-based case-control study was conducted, with 62 cases and 248 controls from six randomly-selected rural districts. All maternal deaths between May 2012 and September 2013 were recruited as cases and a random sample of mothers who delivered in the same communities within the same time period were taken as controls. Multiple logistic regression was used to identify independent determinants of maternal mortality. Results Four independent individual risk factors, significantly associated with maternal death, emerged. Women who were not members of the voluntary Women’s Development Army were more likely to experience maternal death (OR 2.07, 95% CI 1.04–4.11), as were women whose husbands or partners had below-median scores for involvement during pregnancy (OR 2.19, 95% CI 1.14–4.18). Women with a pre-existing history of other illness were also at increased risk (OR 5.58, 95% CI 2.17–14.30), as were those who had never used contraceptives (OR 2.58, 95% CI 1.37–4.85). Previous pregnancy complications, a below-median number of antenatal care visits and a woman’s lack of involvement in health care decision making were significant bivariable risks that were not significant in the multivariable model. Conclusions The findings suggest that interventions aimed at reducing maternal mortality need to focus on encouraging membership of the Women’s Development Army, enhancing husbands’ involvement in maternal health services, improving linkages between maternity care and other disease-specific programmes and ensuring that women with previous illnesses or non-users of contraceptive services are identified and followed-up as being at increased risk during pregnancy and childbirth. PMID:26678047

  13. The association between perceived maternal and paternal psychopathology and depression and anxiety symptoms in adolescent girls

    PubMed Central

    Rasing, Sanne P. A.; Creemers, Daan H. M.; Janssens, Jan M. A. M.; Scholte, Ron H. J.

    2015-01-01

    Exposure to parental depression and anxiety is known to heighten the risk of internalizing symptoms and disorders in children and adolescents. Ample research has focused on the influence of maternal depression and anxiety, but the contribution of psychopathology in fathers remains unclear. We studied the relationships of perceived maternal and paternal psychopathology with adolescents’ depression and anxiety symptoms in a general population sample of 862 adolescent girls (age M = 12.39, SD = 0.79). Assessments included adolescents’ self-reports of their own depression and anxiety as well as their reports of maternal and paternal psychopathology. We found that perceived maternal and paternal psychopathology were both related to depression and anxiety symptoms in adolescent girls. A combination of higher maternal and paternal psychopathology was related to even higher levels of depression and anxiety in adolescent girls. Our findings showed that adolescents’ perceptions of their parents’ psychopathology are significantly related to their own emotional problems. PMID:26257664

  14. Memory, maternal representations and internalizing symptomatology among abused, neglected and nonmaltreated children

    PubMed Central

    Valentino, Kristin; Cicchetti, Dante; Rogosch, Fred A.; Toth, Sheree L.

    2009-01-01

    A depth-of-processing incidental recall task for maternal referent stimuli was utilized to assess basic memory processes and the affective valence of maternal-representations among abused (N = 63), neglected (N= 33) and nonmaltreated (N = 128) school-aged children. Self-reported and observer-rated indices of internalizing symptoms were also assessed. Abused children demonstrated impairments in recall compared to neglected and nonmaltreated children. Although abused, neglected, and nonmaltreated children did not differ in valence of maternal representations, positive- and negative-maternal schemas related to internalizing symptoms differently among subgroups of maltreated children. Valence of maternal schema was critical in differentiating those with high and low internalizing symptomatology among the neglected children only. Implications for clinical intervention and prevention efforts are underscored. PMID:18489422

  15. Pre-reproductive maternal enrichment influences rat maternal care and offspring developmental trajectories: behavioral performances and neuroplasticity correlates.

    PubMed

    Cutuli, Debora; Caporali, Paola; Gelfo, Francesca; Angelucci, Francesco; Laricchiuta, Daniela; Foti, Francesca; De Bartolo, Paola; Bisicchia, Elisa; Molinari, Marco; Farioli Vecchioli, Stefano; Petrosini, Laura

    2015-01-01

    Environmental enrichment (EE) is a widely used paradigm for investigating the influence of complex stimulations on brain and behavior. Here we examined whether pre-reproductive exposure to EE of female rats may influence their maternal care and offspring cognitive performances. To this aim, from weaning to breeding age enriched females (EF) were reared in enriched environments. Females reared in standard conditions were used as controls. At 2.5 months of age all females were mated and reared in standard conditions with their offspring. Maternal care behaviors and nesting activity were assessed in lactating dams. Their male pups were also behaviorally evaluated at different post-natal days (pnd). Brain BDNF, reelin and adult hippocampal neurogenesis levels were measured as biochemical correlates of neuroplasticity. EF showed more complex maternal care than controls due to their higher levels of licking, crouching and nest building activities. Moreover, their offspring showed higher discriminative (maternal odor preference T-maze, pnd 10) and spatial (Morris Water Maze, pnd 45; Open Field with objects, pnd 55) performances, with no differences in social abilities (Sociability test, pnd 35), in comparison to controls. BDNF levels were increased in EF frontal cortex at pups' weaning and in their offspring hippocampus at pnd 21 and 55. No differences in offspring reelin and adult hippocampal neurogenesis levels were found. In conclusion, our study indicates that pre-reproductive maternal enrichment positively influences female rats' maternal care and cognitive development of their offspring, demonstrating thus a transgenerational transmission of EE benefits linked to enhanced BDNF-induced neuroplasticity. PMID:25814946

  16. Pre-reproductive maternal enrichment influences rat maternal care and offspring developmental trajectories: behavioral performances and neuroplasticity correlates

    PubMed Central

    Cutuli, Debora; Caporali, Paola; Gelfo, Francesca; Angelucci, Francesco; Laricchiuta, Daniela; Foti, Francesca; De Bartolo, Paola; Bisicchia, Elisa; Molinari, Marco; Farioli Vecchioli, Stefano; Petrosini, Laura

    2015-01-01

    Environmental enrichment (EE) is a widely used paradigm for investigating the influence of complex stimulations on brain and behavior. Here we examined whether pre-reproductive exposure to EE of female rats may influence their maternal care and offspring cognitive performances. To this aim, from weaning to breeding age enriched females (EF) were reared in enriched environments. Females reared in standard conditions were used as controls. At 2.5 months of age all females were mated and reared in standard conditions with their offspring. Maternal care behaviors and nesting activity were assessed in lactating dams. Their male pups were also behaviorally evaluated at different post-natal days (pnd). Brain BDNF, reelin and adult hippocampal neurogenesis levels were measured as biochemical correlates of neuroplasticity. EF showed more complex maternal care than controls due to their higher levels of licking, crouching and nest building activities. Moreover, their offspring showed higher discriminative (maternal odor preference T-maze, pnd 10) and spatial (Morris Water Maze, pnd 45; Open Field with objects, pnd 55) performances, with no differences in social abilities (Sociability test, pnd 35), in comparison to controls. BDNF levels were increased in EF frontal cortex at pups' weaning and in their offspring hippocampus at pnd 21 and 55. No differences in offspring reelin and adult hippocampal neurogenesis levels were found. In conclusion, our study indicates that pre-reproductive maternal enrichment positively influences female rats' maternal care and cognitive development of their offspring, demonstrating thus a transgenerational transmission of EE benefits linked to enhanced BDNF-induced neuroplasticity. PMID:25814946

  17. [Endoscopic fenestration of median supratentorial cerebrospinal fluid cysts].

    PubMed

    Melikian, A G; Ozerova, V I; Bragina, N N; Kolycheva, M V

    1999-01-01

    Mid-supratentorial liquor cysts are a relatively rare and generally congenital abnormality of the cerebral ventricles and subdural spaces. The data and views available in the literature on rational surgical policy is contradictory. The authors' experience in treating 16 patients was used to consider whether endoscopic techniques can be employed for invasive fenestration of the cysts. The goal of surgery was to remove the masses caused by cystic malformations and their local compression of the brain via fenestration of the walls of the cysts and via communication of their cavities with the ventricles and cisterns. There were solitary cysts in all cases (arachnoidal cysts of the interpedicular cistern and the third ventricle in 9; cysts of the ventricular septum in 4, ependicular cysts of the lateral ventricle in 2, and cysts of the celiac plexus of the third ventricle in other 2 cases, in 1 cases a liquor cyst was located in the midbrain thickness). The clinical picture was characterized by a combination of hypertensive, hydrocephalic and focal symptoms of damages to the hypothalamic and thalamic structures and the adjacent formations of the brain (pyramidal and extrapyramidal disorders, ataxia, chiasmal syndrome, metabolic and endocrine disorders, etc.). In 6 cases these symptoms were persistent despite preimplanted VP anastomosis. Rigid Storz endoscopes (Germany) with an external coat, 6 mm in diameter, and a Codman fibroendoscope (USA), 4 mm in diameter, were employed. Cystic ventriculostomy and cystic ventriculocisternostomies were made in 11 and 6 patients, respectively; one patient underwent endoscopic resection of the walls of an ependymal cyst. In one patient with signs of decreased liquor resorption, endoscopic fenestration was concurrently developed into a ventricle-peritoneal anastomosis. In other 4 anastomosis-dependent patients, the preimplanted mechanically consistent bypass system was left at its site. In 2 of these cases, cystic ventriculostomy was supplemented by ventricular septal fenestration and third-ventricular bottom perforation. Twelve patients were followed up for 6 to 36.5 months (mean 15 months). There has been no information about 6 patients since their discharge. In 12 (66.5%) surgery yielded expected results and the fenestration of cystic walls was followed by their retraction and a steady-state regression of local and/or hypertensive symptoms. In 5 (28%) patients, the complaints and clinical data remained unchanged despite although incomplete but objective cystic relaxation. This was most frequently noted in patients (n = 4) with arachnoidal cysts of the interpedicular cistern and the third ventricle who had endocrine disorders. In one case the operation was stopped due to bleeding. Totally, 5 patients were found to have complications (hemorrhage, ventriculitis). None patient died. Some aspects of indications for endoscopy and surgical techniques are considered. It is concluded that endoscopic internal bypass surgery in patients wit median cystic liquor malformations is the treatment of choice. When equipment is adjusted, fenestration of the membranous walls of these cysts by using an endoscope is reliable and safe. Such patients may be recommended endoscopic technology used as the method of choice. PMID:10696675

  18. Contrasting the Effects of Maternal and Behavioral Characteristics on Fawn Birth Mass in White-Tailed Deer.

    PubMed

    Michel, Eric S; Demarais, Stephen; Strickland, Bronson K; Belant, Jerrold L

    2015-01-01

    Maternal care influences offspring quality and can improve a mother's inclusive fitness. However, improved fitness may only occur when offspring quality (i.e., offspring birth mass) persists throughout life and enhances survival and/or reproductive success. Although maternal body mass, age, and social rank have been shown to influence offspring birth mass, the inter-dependence among these variables makes identifying causation problematic. We established that fawn birth mass was related to adult body mass for captive male and female white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus), thus maternal care should improve offspring fitness. We then used path analysis to identify which maternal characteristic(s) most influenced fawn birth mass of captive female white-tailed deer. Maternal age, body mass and social rank had varying effects on fawn birth mass. Maternal body mass displayed the strongest direct effect on fawn birth mass, followed by maternal age and social rank. Maternal body mass had a greater effect on social rank than age. The direct path between social rank and fawn birth mass may indicate dominance as an underlying mechanism. Our results suggest that heavier mothers could use dominance to improve access to resources, resulting in increased fitness through production of heavier offspring. PMID:26288141

  19. Maternal Dysphoric Mood, Stress, and Parenting Practices in Mothers of Head Start Preschoolers: The Role of Experiential Avoidance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shea, Sarah E.; Coyne, Lisa W.

    2011-01-01

    Maternal dysphoria predicts behavioral difficulties in preschool-aged children, and may contribute to negative child outcomes by exacerbating parenting stress. Parenting stress increases the likelihood of maladaptive parenting practices, especially when mothers face multiple contextual stressors. We explored maternal experiential avoidance (EA) as…

  20. The Timing of Prenatal Exposure to Maternal Cortisol and Psychosocial Stress Is Associated with Human Infant Cognitive Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Elysia P.; Sandman, Curt A.

    2010-01-01

    The consequences of prenatal maternal stress for development were examined in 125 full-term infants at 3, 6, and 12 months of age. Maternal cortisol and psychological state were evaluated 5 times during pregnancy. Exposure to elevated concentrations of cortisol early in gestation was associated with a slower rate of development over the 1st year…

  1. Maternal Parenting Behaviors during Childhood Relate to Weight Status and Fruit and Vegetable Intake of College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murashima, Megumi; Hoerr, Sharon L.; Hughes, Sheryl O.; Kattelmann, Kendra K.; Phillips, Beatrice W.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Examine how maternal parenting behaviors in childhood, both general and feeding specific, relate to weight status and fruit and vegetable consumption in college students. Design: Retrospective surveys on maternal behaviors and assessments on the college-aged child's current anthropometric measures and dietary intakes. Participants:…

  2. What can child silhouette data tell us? Exploring links to parenting, food and activity behaviors, and maternal concerns

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Purpose: A study of resiliency to overweight explored how child silhouettes (maternal perception of child’s body size) related to child BMI, maternal concerns, parenting styles and practices. Methods: In a diverse, multi-state sample, 175 low-income mother-child (ages 3-11) dyads were assessed for...

  3. Reciprocal Influences between Maternal Language and Children's Language and Cognitive Development in Low-Income Families

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Song, Lulu; Spier, Elizabeth T.; Tamis-Lemonda, Catherine S.

    2014-01-01

    We examined reciprocal associations between early maternal language use and children's language and cognitive development in seventy ethnically diverse, low-income families. Mother-child dyads were videotaped when children were aged 2;0 and 3;0. Video transcripts were analyzed for quantity and lexical diversity of maternal and child language.…

  4. Contrasting the Effects of Maternal and Behavioral Characteristics on Fawn Birth Mass in White-Tailed Deer

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Maternal care influences offspring quality and can improve a mother’s inclusive fitness. However, improved fitness may only occur when offspring quality (i.e., offspring birth mass) persists throughout life and enhances survival and/or reproductive success. Although maternal body mass, age, and social rank have been shown to influence offspring birth mass, the inter-dependence among these variables makes identifying causation problematic. We established that fawn birth mass was related to adult body mass for captive male and female white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus), thus maternal care should improve offspring fitness. We then used path analysis to identify which maternal characteristic(s) most influenced fawn birth mass of captive female white-tailed deer. Maternal age, body mass and social rank had varying effects on fawn birth mass. Maternal body mass displayed the strongest direct effect on fawn birth mass, followed by maternal age and social rank. Maternal body mass had a greater effect on social rank than age. The direct path between social rank and fawn birth mass may indicate dominance as an underlying mechanism. Our results suggest that heavier mothers could use dominance to improve access to resources, resulting in increased fitness through production of heavier offspring. PMID:26288141

  5. Effect of Ethiopia’s Health Extension Program on Maternal and Newborn Health Care Practices in 101 Rural Districts: A Dose-Response Study

    PubMed Central

    Karim, Ali Mehryar; Admassu, Kesetebirhane; Schellenberg, Joanna; Alemu, Hibret; Getachew, Nebiyu; Ameha, Agazi; Tadesse, Luche; Betemariam, Wuleta

    2013-01-01

    Background Improving newborn survival is essential if Ethiopia is to achieve Millennium Development Goal 4. The national Health Extension Program (HEP) includes community-based newborn survival interventions. We report the effect of these interventions on changes in maternal and newborn health care practices between 2008 and 2010 in 101 districts, comprising 11.6 million people, or 16% of Ethiopia’s population. Methods and Findings Using data from cross-sectional surveys in December 2008 and December 2010 from a representative sample of 117 communities (kebeles), we estimated the prevalence of maternal and newborn care practices, and a program intensity score in each community. Women with children aged 0 to 11 months reported care practices for their most recent pregnancy and childbirth. The program intensity score ranged between zero and ten and was derived from four outreach activities of the HEP front-line health workers. Dose-response relationships between changes in program intensity and the changes in maternal and newborn health were investigated using regression methods, controlling for secular trend, respondents’ background characteristics, and community-level factors. Between 2008 and 2010, median program intensity score increased 2.4-fold. For every unit increase in the score, the odds of receiving antenatal care increased by 1.13 times (95% CI 1.03–1.23); the odds of birth preparedness increased by 1.31 times (1.19–1.44); the odds of receiving postnatal care increased by 1.60 times (1.34–1.91); and the odds of initiating breastfeeding immediately after birth increased by 1.10 times (1.02–1.20). Program intensity score was not associated with skilled deliveries, nor with some of the other newborn health care indicators. Conclusions The results of our analysis suggest that Ethiopia’s HEP platform has improved maternal and newborn health care practices at scale. However, implementation research will be required to address the maternal and newborn care practices that were not influenced by the HEP outreach activities. PMID:23750240

  6. A Retrospective Audit of Clinically Significant Maternal Bacteraemia in a Specialist Maternity Hospital from 2001 to 2014

    PubMed Central

    Drew, Richard John; Fonseca-Kelly, Zara; Eogan, Maeve

    2015-01-01

    Maternal sepsis is a significant problem in obstetrics, with almost one in four maternal deaths related to severe sepsis. We carried out a retrospective review of clinically significant bacteraemia in obstetric patients attending Rotunda Hospital over 14 years. From 2001 to 2014, there were 252 clinically significant positive blood culture episodes in obstetric patients. There were 112,361 live births >500?g during the study period giving an overall rate of 2.24 clinically significant positive maternal blood culture episodes per 1000 live births >500?g. The median rate over the 14 years was 2.12 episodes per 1000 live births >500?g, with an interquartile range of 1.74–2.43 per 1000 live births >500?g. There was no discernable increasing or decreasing trend over the 14 years. E. coli was the most commonly isolated organism (n = 92/252, 37%), followed by group B Streptococcus (n = 64/252, 25%), Staphylococcus aureus (n = 28/252, 11%), and anaerobes (n = 11/252, 4%). These top four organisms represented three-quarters of all positive blood culture episodes (n = 195/252, 77.3%). Of note, there were only five cases of listeriosis, representing a rate of 4.4 cases per 100,000 live births >500?g. The rate of invasive group A streptococcal infection was also very low at 5.3 cases per 100,000 live births >500?g. PMID:26494975

  7. A retrospective analysis of maternal and neonatal mortality at a teaching and referral hospital in Kenya

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Objective To measure the incidence of maternal and early neonatal mortality in women who gave birth at Moi Teaching and Referral Hospital (MTRH) in Kenya and describe clinical and other characteristics and circumstances associated with maternal and neonatal deaths following deliveries at MTRH. Methods A retrospective audit of maternal and neonatal records was conducted with detailed analysis of the most recent 150 maternal deaths and 200 neonatal deaths. Maternal mortality ratios and early neonatal mortality rates were calculated for each year from January 2004 to December 2011. Results Between 2004 and 2011, the overall maternal mortality ratio was 426 per 100,000 live births and the early neonatal mortality rate (<7?days) was 68 per 1000 live births. The Hospital record audit showed that half (51%) of the neonatal mortalities were for young mothers (15–24?years) and 64% of maternal deaths were in women between 25 and 45?years. Most maternal and early neonatal deaths occurred in multiparous women, in referred admissions, when the gestational age was under 37?weeks and in latent stage of labour. Indirect complications accounted for the majority of deaths. Where there were direct obstetric complications associated with the delivery, the leading cause of maternal death was eclampsia and the leading cause of early neonatal death was pre-mature rupture of membranes. Pre-term birth and asphyxia were leading causes of early neonatal deaths. In both sets of records the majority of deliveries were vaginal and performed by midwives. Conclusion This study provides important information about maternal and early neonatal mortality in Kenya’s second largest tertiary hospital. A range of socio demographic, clinical and health system factors are identified as possible contributors to Kenya’s poor progress towards reducing maternal and early neonatal mortality. PMID:23421605

  8. No Association of Maternal Gestational Weight Gain with Offspring Blood Pressure and Hypertension at Age 18 Years in Male Sibling-Pairs: A Prospective Register-Based Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Scheers Andersson, Elina; Tynelius, Per; Nohr, Ellen Aagaard; Sørensen, Thorkild I. A.; Rasmussen, Finn

    2015-01-01

    Background Maternal gestational weight gain (GWG) is associated with birth weight, obesity, and possibly blood pressure (BP) and hypertension in the offspring. These associations may however be confounded by genetic and/or shared environmental factors. In contrast to previous studies based on non-siblings and self-reported data, we investigated whether GWG is associated with offspring BP and hypertension, in a register-based cohort of full brothers while controlling for fixed shared effects. Methods By using Swedish nation-wide record-linkage data, we identified women with at least two male children (full brothers) born 1982-1989. Their BP was obtained from the mandatory military conscription induction tests. We adopted linear and Poisson regression models with robust variance, using generalized estimating equations to analyze associations between GWG and BP, as well as with hypertension, within and between offspring sibling-pairs. Results Complete data on the mothers’ GWG and offspring BP was obtained for 9,816 brothers (4,908 brother-pairs). Adjusted regression models showed no significant associations between GWG and SBP (? = 0.03 mmHg per 1-kg GWG difference, [95% CI -0.08, 0.14], or DBP (? = -0.03 mmHg per 1-kg GWG difference [95% CI -0.11, 0.05]), or between GWG and offspring’s risk of hypertension (relative risk = 1.0 [95% CI 0.99, 1.02], neither within nor between siblings. Conclusions In this large sibling-pair study, we did not find any significant association between GWG and offspring BP or the risk of hypertension at 18y, when taking genetic and environmental factors shared within sibling pairs into account. Further large sibling studies are required to confirm a null association between GWG and other cardiovascular risk factors. PMID:25794174

  9. Maternal and genetic factors determine early life telomere length.

    PubMed

    Asghar, Muhammad; Bensch, Staffan; Tarka, Maja; Hansson, Bengt; Hasselquist, Dennis

    2015-01-22

    In a broad range of species--including humans--it has been demonstrated that telomere length declines throughout life and that it may be involved in cell and organismal senescence. This potential link to ageing and thus to fitness has triggered recent interest in understanding how variation in telomere length is inherited and maintained. However, previous studies suffer from two main drawbacks that limit the possibility of understanding the relative importance of genetic, parental and environmental influences on telomere length variation. These studies have been based on (i) telomere lengths measured at different time points in different individuals, despite the fact that telomere length changes over life, and (ii) parent-offspring regression techniques, which do not enable differentiation between genetic and parental components of inheritance. To overcome these drawbacks, in our study of a songbird, the great reed warbler, we have analysed telomere length measured early in life in both parents and offspring and applied statistical models (so-called 'animal models') that are based on long-term pedigree data. Our results showed a significant heritability of telomere length on the maternal but not on the paternal side, and that the mother's age was positively correlated with their offspring's telomere length. Furthermore, the pedigree-based analyses revealed a significant heritability and an equally large maternal effect. Our study demonstrates strong maternal influence on telomere length and future studies now need to elucidate possible underlying factors, including which types of maternal effects are involved. PMID:25621325

  10. Preconception maternal nutrition: a multi-site randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Research directed to optimizing maternal nutrition commencing prior to conception remains very limited, despite suggestive evidence of its importance in addition to ensuring an optimal nutrition environment in the periconceptional period and throughout the first trimester of pregnancy. Methods/Study design This is an individually randomized controlled trial of the impact on birth length (primary outcome) of the time at which a maternal nutrition intervention is commenced: Arm 1: ? 3 mo preconception vs. Arm 2: 12-14 wk gestation vs. Arm 3: none. 192 (derived from 480) randomized mothers and living offspring in each arm in each of four research sites (Guatemala, India, Pakistan, Democratic Republic of the Congo). The intervention is a daily 20 g lipid-based (118 kcal) multi-micronutient (MMN) supplement. Women randomized to receive this intervention with body mass index (BMI) <20 or whose gestational weight gain is low will receive an additional 300 kcal/d as a balanced energy-protein supplement. Researchers will visit homes biweekly to deliver intervention and monitor compliance, pregnancy status and morbidity; ensure prenatal and delivery care; and promote breast feeding. The primary outcome is birth length. Secondary outcomes include: fetal length at 12 and 34 wk; incidence of low birth weight (LBW); neonatal/infant anthropometry 0-6 mo of age; infectious disease morbidity; maternal, fetal, newborn, and infant epigenetics; maternal and infant nutritional status; maternal and infant microbiome; gut inflammatory biomarkers and bioactive and nutritive compounds in breast milk. The primary analysis will compare birth Length-for-Age Z-score (LAZ) among trial arms (independently for each site, estimated effect size: 0.35). Additional statistical analyses will examine the secondary outcomes and a pooled analysis of data from all sites. Discussion Positive results of this trial will support a paradigm shift in attention to nutrition of all females of child-bearing age. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01883193. PMID:24650219

  11. Do the Levels of Maternal Plasma Trace Elements Affect Fetal Nuchal Translucency Thickness?

    PubMed Central

    Liao, Kai-Wei; Tsai, Ming-Song; Chang, Chia-Huang; Chien, Ling-Chu; Mao, I-Fang; Tsai, Yen-An; Chen, Mei-Lien

    2015-01-01

    Objective Fetal nuchal translucency (NT) thickness is an important marker for prenatal screening; however, studies focusing on the correlation between maternal trace element levels and NT thickness are limited. The aim of this study was to evaluate maternal trace element levels during the first trimester and to investigate the association between maternal trace element levels and fetal NT thickness. Methods In total, 113 samples were obtained from singleton pregnant women. Maternal plasma samples were collected in the first trimester of gestation. Plasma trace element levels were measured using Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry (ICP-MS). Nuchal translucency thickness was measured using ultrasonography at 10–14 weeks of gestation. Results We found that maternal plasma potassium (K) levels had a significant negative correlation with both NT (r = -0.230, p < 0.05) and NT Multiples of the Median (NT MoM) (r = -0.206, p < 0.05). After adjustment for potential confounders, log-transformed maternal plasma potassium levels in the first trimester were significantly associated with fetal NT (NT MoM: ? = -0.68, p < 0.05; NT: ? = -1.20, p < 0.01). Although not statistically significant, the As, Hg and Pb levels in maternal plasma were positively correlated with NT, and the Mg, Cu, Zn, Na and Ca levels were negatively correlated with NT. Conclusion Maternal plasma K levels during the first trimester appeared to be associated with NT thickness. The essential elements tended to decrease NT thickness, and non-essential elements tended to increase it. PMID:26367380

  12. Maternal brain death and somatic support.

    PubMed

    Farragher, Rachel A; Laffey, John G

    2005-01-01

    Brain death is a concept used in situations in which life-support equipment obscures the conventional cardiopulmonary criteria of death, and it is legally recognized in most countries worldwide. Brain death during pregnancy is an occasional and tragic occurrence. The mother and fetus are two distinct organisms, and the death of the mother mandates consideration of the well-being of the fetus. Where maternal brain death occurs after the onset of fetal viability, the benefits of prolonging the pregnancy to allow further fetal maturation must be weighed against the risks of continued time in utero, and preparations must be made to facilitate urgent cesarean section and fetal resuscitation at short notice. Where the fetus is nonviable, one must consider whether continuation of maternal organ supportive measures in an attempt to attain fetal viability is appropriate, or whether it constitutes futile care. Although the gestational age of the fetus is central to resolving this issue, there is no clear upper physiological limit to the prolongation of somatic function after brain death. Furthermore, medical experience regarding prolonged somatic support is limited and can be considered experimental therapy. This article explores these issues by considering the concept of brain death and how it relates to somatic death. The current limits of fetal viability are then discussed. The complex ethical issues and the important variations in the legal context worldwide are considered. Finally, the likelihood of successfully sustaining maternal somatic function for prolonged periods and the medical and obstetric issues that are likely to arise are examined. PMID:16174876

  13. Prenatal maternal depression alters amygdala functional connectivity in 6-month-old infants

    PubMed Central

    Qiu, A; Anh, T T; Li, Y; Chen, H; Rifkin-Graboi, A; Broekman, B F P; Kwek, K; Saw, S-M; Chong, Y-S; Gluckman, P D; Fortier, M V; Meaney, M J

    2015-01-01

    Prenatal maternal depression is associated with alterations in the neonatal amygdala microstructure, shedding light on the timing for the influence of prenatal maternal depression on the brain structure of the offspring. This study aimed to examine the association between prenatal maternal depressive symptomatology and infant amygdala functional connectivity and to thus establish the neural functional basis for the transgenerational transmission of vulnerability for affective disorders during prenatal development. Twenty-four infants were included in this study with both structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and resting-state functional MRI (fMRI) at 6 months of age. Maternal depression was assessed at 26 weeks of gestation and 3 months after delivery using the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale. Linear regression was used to identify the amygdala functional networks and to examine the associations between prenatal maternal depressive symptoms and amygdala functional connectivity. Our results showed that at 6 months of age, the amygdala is functionally connected to widespread brain regions, forming the emotional regulation, sensory and perceptual, and emotional memory networks. After controlling for postnatal maternal depressive symptoms, infants born to mothers with higher prenatal maternal depressive symptoms showed greater functional connectivity of the amygdala with the left temporal cortex and insula, as well as the bilateral anterior cingulate, medial orbitofrontal and ventromedial prefrontal cortices, which are largely consistent with patterns of connectivity observed in adolescents and adults with major depressive disorder. Our study provides novel evidence that prenatal maternal depressive symptomatology alters the amygdala's functional connectivity in early postnatal life, which reveals that the neuroimaging correlates of the familial transmission of phenotypes associated with maternal mood are apparent in infants at 6 months of age. PMID:25689569

  14. Are you what your mother weighs? Evaluating the impact of maternal weight trajectories on youth overweight.

    PubMed

    Kowaleski-Jones, Lori; Brown, Barbara B; Fan, Jessie X; Smith, Ken R; Zick, Cathleen D

    2010-09-01

    In this study, we investigate how three alternative measures of maternal body mass index (BMI) relate to youth overweight. We contrast the typical cross-sectional measure of maternal BMI with a longitudinal mean and a standard deviation in maternal BMI. Using National Longitudinal Survey of Youth data, we estimate logistic regressions that relate maternal BMI to the risk of a youth being overweight while controlling for other familial characteristics. Participants in this study are 918 males and 841 females who were age 16-21 and either healthy weight or overweight in 2006. To be eligible for inclusion, teens were 15 years old by December 2006. After comparing several measures of maternal weight, we find that higher mean maternal BMI measured over the life of the adolescent has the strongest relationship with the odds of youth overweight for both male and female adolescents. For boys, a one unit increase in mother's mean BMI increases the odds of being overweight by 16% (OR = 1.16, 95% CI 1.11-1.20) while for girls the increase in the odds of being overweight is 13% (OR = 1.13, 95% CI 1.09-1.18). Our findings suggest that researchers should move beyond static measures of maternal weight when examining the correlates of youth BMI. Maternal weight histories offer additional insights about the youth's home environment that are associated with the risk of a youth being overweight. PMID:19582561

  15. Preventing maternal and early childhood obesity: the fetal flaw in Australian perinatal care.

    PubMed

    Miller, Margaret; Hearn, Lydia; van der Pligt, Paige; Wilcox, Jane; Campbell, Karen J

    2014-01-01

    Almost half of Australian women of child-bearing age are overweight or obese, with a rate of 30-50% reported in early pregnancy. Maternal adiposity is a costly challenge for Australian obstetric care, with associated serious maternal and neonatal complications. Excess gestational weight gain is an important predictor of offspring adiposity into adulthood and higher maternal weight later in life. Current public health and perinatal care approaches in Australia do not adequately address excess perinatal maternal weight or gestational weight gain. This paper argues that the failure of primary health-care providers to offer systematic advice and support regarding women's weight and related lifestyle behaviours in child-bearing years is an outstanding 'missed opportunity' for prevention of inter-generational overweight and obesity. Barriers to action could be addressed through greater attention to: clinical guidelines for maternal weight management for the perinatal period, training and support of maternal health-care providers to develop skills and confidence in raising weight issues with women, a variety of weight management programs provided by state maternal health services, and clear referral pathways to them. Attention is also required to service systems that clearly define roles in maternal weight management and ensure consistency and continuity of support across the perinatal period. PMID:24176286

  16. Maternal mortality in a maternity hospital in Turkey.

    PubMed

    Tuncer, R A; Erkaya, S; Sipahi, T; Kutlar, I

    1995-09-01

    During 1983-1992 in Turkey, 17 maternal deaths occurred out of 100,531 live births at the Zubeyde Hanim Maternity Hospital in Ankara for a maternal mortality ratio (MMR) of 16.9/100,000 live births. Hemorrhage (41.2%) and pulmonary embolism (35.3%) were the leading causes of maternal death. Cases referred to the hospital after home deliveries accounted for 57% of the hemorrhage-related deaths. Other causes of maternal death were eclampsia (11.7%), puerperal infection (5.9%), and heart failure attributed to rheumatic heart disease (5.9%). The MMR fell over time from 22.6 (1983-1984) to 12.8 (1991-1992). Women younger than 20 and those 35 and older suffered from the highest MMRs. MMR increased with parity (8 for primigravida, 10 for parity 1-2, 27.3 for parity 3-4, and 62.1 for parity =or 5). Cesarean delivery was associated with a higher MMR than vaginal delivery (44.7 vs. 14.1). This association was likely a result of pregnancy complications that led to a cesarean section rather than the cesarean section itself. PMID:7660764

  17. id [qid] Alternative (Null) Hypothesis test median control median IRM-SA reject null-H? p-value The correctness of the final system

    E-print Network

    id [qid] Alternative (Null) Hypothesis test median control median IRM-SA reject null-H? p-value 1 q than in the IRM-SA group t-test 81.3 86.09 Y 0.0467 2 q9 The IRM-SA group witnessed less (null.5164 3 q13 The IRM-SA group perceived the design effort as more (null: equally) likely to be too high

  18. A method for determining the median line of measured cylindrical and conical surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Janecki, Dariusz; Zwierzchowski, Jaros?aw

    2015-08-01

    The paper presents a novel method for the determination of the median line of the cylindrical and conical surfaces. This method can be incorporated into virtually any cylindricity measurement strategy, including the bird-cage strategy and the helical line strategy. In the study, a median line was determined by minimizing the functional made up of two components. The form of the first component results from the classic definition of the median line provided in the corresponding standard. The other, termed the bending energy, is responsible for ensuring appropriate smoothness of the median line. In order to solve this variational problem, the median line was approximated by means of linear combination of cubic B-spline functions. A simulation and experiments were conducted to establish the suitability of the algorithm developed for the determination of the median line using the helical-line and the cross-section measurement strategy.

  19. Eight years experience in the management of median arcuate ligament syndrome by decompression, celiac ganglion sympathectomy, and selective revascularization.

    PubMed

    Sultan, Sherif; Hynes, Niamh; Elsafty, Naisrin; Tawfick, Wael

    2013-11-01

    We aim to review an 8-year experience of median arcuate ligament syndrome (MALS) with chronic gastrointestinal ischemia (CGI) and evaluate clinical outcomes of arcuate ligament decompression, celiac sympathectomy, and selective revascularization. Between December 2002 and March 2012, of 25 patients referred with symptoms of CGI, 11 patients (10 women and 1 man) had clinical signs of abdominal angina and radiological evidence of MALS. Mean age was 50 ± 20.4 years. Median symptom duration was 34 months. All patients had median arcuate decompression and celiac sympathectomy. In all, 8 did not require revascularization, 2 had retrograde celiac and/or superior mesenteric artery (SMA) stenting, and 1 had SMA bypass. There was no mortality. The 30-day morbidity was 9%. Mean follow-up was 60 months. Eight patients noted complete relief of abdominal pain, and 1 reported some improvement. The MALS is not solely a vascular compression syndrome. The neurological component requires careful celiac plexus sympathectomy in addition to arcuate ligament decompression. PMID:23942948

  20. Maternal Lipids Are as Important as Glucose for Fetal Growth

    PubMed Central

    Kulkarni, Smita R.; Kumaran, Kalyanaraman; Rao, Shobha R.; Chougule, Suresh D.; Deokar, Tukaram M.; Bhalerao, Ankush J.; Solat, Vishnu A.; Bhat, Dattatray S.; Fall, Caroline H.D.; Yajnik, Chittaranjan S.

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To study the relationship between maternal circulating fuels and neonatal size and compare the relative effects of glucose and lipids. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS The Pune Maternal Nutrition Study (1993–1996) investigated the influence of maternal nutrition on fetal growth. We measured maternal body size and glucose and lipid concentrations during pregnancy and examined their relationship with birth size in full-term babies using correlation and regression techniques. RESULTS The mothers (n = 631) were young (mean age 21 years), short (mean height 151.9 cm), and thin (BMI 18.0 kg/m2) but were relatively more adipose (body fat 21.1%). Their diet was mostly vegetarian. Between 18 and 28 weeks’ gestation, fasting glucose concentrations remained stable, whereas total cholesterol and triglyceride concentrations increased and HDL-cholesterol concentrations decreased. The mean birth weight of the offspring was 2666 g. Total cholesterol and triglycerides at both 18 and 28 weeks and plasma glucose only at 28 weeks were associated directly with birth size. One SD higher maternal fasting glucose, cholesterol, and triglyceride concentrations at 28 weeks were associated with 37, 54, and 36 g higher birth weights, respectively (P < 0.05 for all). HDL-cholesterol concentrations were unrelated to newborn measurements. The results were similar if preterm deliveries also were included in the analysis (total n = 700). CONCLUSIONS Our results suggest an influence of maternal lipids on neonatal size in addition to the well-established effect of glucose. Further research should be directed at defining the clinical relevance of these findings. PMID:23757425

  1. Effects of Antenatal Maternal Depression and Anxiety on Children’s Early Cognitive Development: A Prospective Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Ibanez, Gladys; Bernard, Jonathan Y.; Rondet, Claire; Peyre, Hugo; Forhan, Anne; Kaminski, Monique; Saurel-Cubizolles, Marie-Josèphe

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Studies have shown that depression or anxiety occur in 10–20% of pregnant women. These disorders are often undertreated and may affect mothers and children’s health. This study investigates the relation between antenatal maternal depression, anxiety and children’s early cognitive development among 1380 two-year-old children and 1227 three-year-old children. Methods In the French EDEN Mother-Child Cohort Study, language ability was assessed with the Communicative Development Inventory at 2 years of age and overall development with the Ages and Stages Questionnaire at 3 years of age. Multiple regressions and structural equation modeling were used to examine links between depression, anxiety during pregnancy and child cognitive development. Results We found strong significant associations between maternal antenatal anxiety and poorer children’s cognitive development at 2 and 3 years. Antenatal maternal depression was not associated with child development, except when antenatal maternal anxiety was also present. Both postnatal maternal depression and parental stimulation appeared to play mediating roles in the relation between antenatal maternal anxiety and children’s cognitive development. At 3 years, parental stimulation mediated 13.2% of the effect of antenatal maternal anxiety while postnatal maternal depression mediated 26.5%. Discussion The partial nature of these effects suggests that other mediators may play a role. Implications for theory and research on child development are discussed. PMID:26317609

  2. Learning lessons from maternal death.

    PubMed

    Jackson, Margaret

    2011-04-01

    Maternity Services and the whole team delivering care to women and their families have had the benefit of the review and recommendations from the confidential enquiries into maternal deaths since their beginnings in 1952. The maternal death enquiry continued to develop and became UK wide in the 1990s. The title of the report published in December 2007 changed to the more positive 'Saving Mothers' Lives: Reviewing maternal deaths to make motherhood safer--2003-2005'. Midwives must be aware of the report, the findings reached and recommendations made. They must ensure that their own knowledge and clinical practice are up to date. The most recent report has just been published in March 2011. It is an ideal opportunity for midwives to be involved and work with the whole team to review the report and its recommendations. They can contribute towards ensuring that the local service and care delivered meet the standards expected, reflect the recommendations and make the service provided for local mothers and babies as safe as possible. In this article, a supervisor of midwives and regional midwifery assessor reflects on these role in relation to maternal death and the lessons that can be learnt from the actions taken and recorded in each case when this devastating event occurs. PMID:21560944

  3. Maternal effects on offspring size and number in mosquitofish, Gambusia holbrooki

    PubMed Central

    O’Dea, Rose E; Vega-Trejo, Regina; Head, Megan L; Jennions, Michael D

    2015-01-01

    Given a trade-off between offspring size and number, all mothers are predicted to produce the same optimal-sized offspring in a given environment. In many species, however, larger and/or older mothers produce bigger offspring. There are several hypotheses to explain this but they lack strong empirical support. In organisms with indeterminate growth, there is the additional problem that maternal size and age are positively correlated, so what are their relative roles in determining offspring size? To investigate this, we measured the natural relationship between maternal and offspring size in a wild population of Gambusia holbrooki (eastern mosquitofish), and experimentally disentangled the effects of maternal age and size on offspring size in the laboratory. In combination, our data indicate that the relationship between maternal and offspring size is nonlinear. Small mothers seem to produce larger than average offspring due to integer effects associated with very small broods. For extremely large mothers, which were only sampled in our wild data, these larger than average offspring may result from greater maternal resources or age effects. However, maternal age had no effect on offspring size or number in the laboratory experiment. Our results highlight the importance of sampling the full size–range of mothers when investigating maternal effects on offspring size. They also point to the difficulty of experimentally manipulating maternal size, because any change in size is invariably associated with a change in at least one factor affecting growth (be it temperature, food availability, or density) that might also have an indirect effect on offspring size. PMID:26306178

  4. Association between Maternal Characteristics and Neonatal Birth Weight in a Korean Population Living in the Seoul Metropolitan Area, Korea: A Birth Cohort Study (COCOA)

    PubMed Central

    Shin, Youn Ho; Choi, Suk-Joo; Kim, Kyung Won; Yu, Jinho; Ahn, Kang Mo; Kim, Hyung Young; Seo, Ju-Hee; Kwon, Ji-Won; Kim, Byoung-Ju; Kim, Hyo-Bin; Shim, Jung Yeon; Kim, Woo Kyung; Song, Dae Jin; Lee, So-Yeon; Lee, Soo Young; Jang, Gwang Cheon; Kwon, Ja-Young; Lee, Kyung-Ju; Park, Hee Jin; Lee, Pil Ryang; Won, Hye-Sung

    2013-01-01

    Previous studies suggest that maternal characteristics may be associated with neonatal outcomes. However, the influence of maternal characteristics on birth weight (BW) has not been adequately determined in Korean populations. We investigated associations between maternal characteristics and BW in a sample of 813 Korean women living in the Seoul metropolitan area, Korea recruited using data from the prospective hospital-based COhort for Childhood Origin of Asthma and allergic diseases (COCOA) between 2007 and 2011. The mean maternal age at delivery was 32.3 ± 3.5 yr and prepregnancy maternal body mass index (BMI) was 20.7 ± 2.5 kg/m2. The mean BW of infant was 3,196 ± 406 g. The overall prevalence of a maternal history of allergic disease was 32.9% and the overall prevalence of allergic symptoms was 65.1%. In multivariate regression models, prepregnancy maternal BMI and gestational age at delivery were positively and a maternal history of allergic disease and nulliparity were negatively associated with BW (all P < 0.05). Presence of allergic symptoms in the mother was not associated with BW. In conclusion, prepregnancy maternal BMI, gestational age at delivery, a maternal history of allergic disease, and nulliparity may be associated with BW, respectively. PMID:23579316

  5. Persistent median artery in the hand: a report with a brief review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Tsuruo, Yoshihiro; Ueyama, Takashi; Ito, Takao; Nanjo, Sakiko; Gyoubu, Hiroaki; Satoh, Keita; Iida, Yukiko; Nakai, Saori

    2006-12-01

    We encountered a persistent median artery in the forearms and hands bilaterally in a 78-year-old Japanese male cadaver during dissection practice at Wakayama Medical University. The brachial arteries divided into the ulnar and radial arteries. The ulnar artery gave off the median and posterior interosseous arteries at the same point, although the anterior interosseous artery was not found. The median artery ran along the median nerve and bifurcated in the hand. In the superficial layer of the palm, one branch of the median artery ran to the ulnar side of the thumb, whereas the other passed to the second interdigital space. The ulnar artery reached the third and fourth interdigital spaces and the ulnar side of the little finger, and showed no anastomosis with the median artery in the superficial layer of the palm. The radial artery did not give off the superficial palmar branch. Therefore, the formation of the superficial palmar arch was incomplete. In the deep layer of the palm, the radial artery formed the deep palmar arch with the deep palmar branch of the ulnar artery and gave off the princeps pollicis artery. In the dorsum of hand, the radial artery passed over the first dorsal interosseous muscle to the index finger and communicated with the palmar pollical artery from the median artery in the first interosseous space. The present study reports an unusual variation of the persistent median artery in the hand and briefly reviews the literature about the median artery. PMID:17176960

  6. Relationships between Maternal Adult Attachment Security, Child Perceptions of Maternal Support, and Maternal Perceptions of Child Responses to Sexual Abuse.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leifer, Myra; Kilbane, Teresa; Skolnick, Linda I.

    2002-01-01

    Study assessed the relationships between maternal adult attachment style, children's perceptions of maternal support following disclosure of sexual abuse, and maternal perceptions of children's behavioral and emotional responses to sexual abuse. Findings indicate that fostering parent-child attachment is important in order to decrease the risk for…

  7. Relationship of maternal knowledge of anemia with maternal and child anemia and health-related behaviors targeted at anemia among families in Indonesia.

    PubMed

    Souganidis, Ellie S; Sun, Kai; de Pee, Saskia; Kraemer, Klaus; Rah, Jee-Hyun; Moench-Pfanner, Regina; Sari, Mayang; Bloem, Martin W; Semba, Richard D

    2012-12-01

    Our specific aim was to characterize maternal knowledge of anemia and its relationship to maternal and child anemia and to behaviors related to anemia reduction. We examined the relationship between maternal knowledge of anemia and anemia in the mother and the youngest child, aged 6-59 months, in 7,913 families from urban slums and 37,874 families from rural areas of Indonesia. Knowledge of anemia was defined based upon the mother's ability to correctly name at least one symptom of anemia and at least one treatment or strategy for reducing anemia. Hemoglobin was measured in both the mother and the child. In urban and rural areas, respectively, 35.8 and 36.9% of mothers had knowledge of anemia, 28.7 and 25.1% of mothers were anemic (hemoglobin <12 g/dL), and 62.3 and 54.0% of children were anemic (hemoglobin <11 g/dL). Maternal knowledge of anemia was associated with child anemia in urban and rural areas, respectively (odds ratio [OR] 0.90, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.79, 1.02, P = 0.10; OR 0.93, 95% CI 0.87, 0.98, P = 0.01) in multivariate logistic regression models adjusting for potential confounders. There was no significant association between maternal knowledge of anemia and maternal anemia. Maternal knowledge of anemia was significantly associated with iron supplementation during pregnancy and child consumption of fortified milk. There was no association of maternal knowledge of anemia with child deworming. Maternal knowledge of anemia is associated with lower odds of anemia in children and with some health behaviors related to reducing anemia. PMID:22241619

  8. Improving maternal care reduces mortality.

    PubMed

    1987-01-01

    Reduction of maternal mortality in developing countries by community-based action is complex but possible. Deaths related to pregnancy are primarily due to bleeding, infection, toxemia and illegal abortion. The excess maternal deaths in developing countries are also related to high numbers of high-risk pregnancies, total lack of prenatal and obstetric care in some areas, poor nutrition and overwork. The basic interventions available to communities include prenatal care, improved alarm and transport systems, referral centers and improved community-based care. Prenatal care can include nutritional supplements and exams and referrals by traditional birth attendants, targeting women suffering from toxemia, bleeding and infections. Local ambulances with life-support equipment, and maternity waiting houses are examples of ways of dealing with transport problems. Referral centers should be capable of providing sterile conditions and blood transfusions. Nurses can be trained to do caesarean sections. Birth attendants can use checklists to administer antibiotics and oxytocic drugs, for example. PMID:12281272

  9. Maternal Smoking and Metabolic Health Biomarkers in Newborns

    PubMed Central

    Fang, Fang; Luo, Zhong-Cheng; Dejemli, Anissa; Delvin, Edgard; Zhang, Jun

    2015-01-01

    Background Maternal smoking has been associated with elevated risk of type 2 diabetes among the offspring in adulthood. The mechanisms underlying this fetal “programming” effect remain unclear. The present study sought to explore whether maternal smoking affects metabolic health biomarkers in fetuses/newborns. Methods In a prospective singleton pregnancy cohort (n = 248), we compared metabolic health biomarkers in the newborns of smoking and non-smoking mothers. Outcomes included cord plasma insulin, proinsulin, insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I), IGF-II, leptin and adiponectin concentrations, glucose-to-insulin ratio (an indicator of insulin sensitivity) and proinsulin-to-insulin ratio (an indicator of ?-cell function). Results Independent of maternal (glucose tolerance, age, ethnicity, parity, education, body mass index, alcohol use) and infant (sex, gestational age, birth weight z score, mode of delivery, cord blood glucose concentration) characteristics, the newborns of smoking mothers had lower IGF-I concentrations (mean: 6.7 vs. 8.4 nmol/L, adjusted p = 0.006), and marginally higher proinsulin-to-insulin ratios (0.94 vs. 0.72, adjusted p = 0.06) than the newborns of non-smoking mothers. Cord plasma insulin, proinsulin, IGF-II, leptin and adiponectin concentrations and glucose-to-insulin ratios were similar in the newborns of smoking and non-smoking mothers. Conclusions Maternal smoking was associated with decreased fetal IGF-I levels, and borderline lower fetal ?-cell function. Larger cohort studies are required to confirm the latter finding. The preliminary findings prompt the hypothesis that these early life metabolic changes may be involved in the impact of maternal smoking on future risk of metabolic syndrome related disorders in the offspring. PMID:26599278

  10. The long-run effect of maternity leave benefits on mental health: evidence from European countries.

    PubMed

    Avendano, Mauricio; Berkman, Lisa F; Brugiavini, Agar; Pasini, Giacomo

    2015-05-01

    This paper examines whether maternity leave policies have an effect on women's mental health in older age. We link data for women aged 50 years and above from countries in the Survey of Health, Ageing and Retirement in Europe (SHARE) to data on maternity leave legislation from 1960 onwards. We use a difference-in-differences approach that exploits changes over time within countries in the duration and compensation of maternity leave benefits, linked to the year women were giving birth to their first child at age 16 to 25. We compare late-life depressive symptom scores (measured with a 12-item version of the Euro-D scale) of mothers who were in employment in the period around the birth of their first child to depression scores of mothers who were not in employment in the period surrounding the birth of a first child, and therefore did not benefit directly from maternity leave benefits. Our findings suggest that a more generous maternity leave during the birth of a first child is associated with a reduced score of 0.38 points in the Euro-D depressive symptom scale in old age. PMID:25792339

  11. Maternal Caregiving Moderates the Relation between Temperamental Fear and Social Behavior with Peers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Penela, Elizabeth C.; Henderson, Heather A.; Hane, Amie A.; Ghera, Melissa M.; Fox, Nathan A.

    2012-01-01

    Temperament works in combination with a child's environment to influence early socioemotional development. We examined whether maternal caregiving behavior at infant age 9 months moderated the relation between infant temperamental fear (9 months) and observations of children's social behavior with an unfamiliar peer at age 2 in a typically…

  12. Maternal Psychopathology and Early Child Temperament Predict Young Children's Salivary Cortisol 3 Years Later

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dougherty, Lea R.; Smith, Victoria C.; Olino, Thomas M.; Dyson, Margaret W.; Bufferd, Sara J.; Rose, Suzanne A.; Klein, Daniel N.

    2013-01-01

    Neuroendocrine dysfunction is hypothesized to be an early emerging vulnerability marker for depression. We tested whether the main and interactive effects of maternal psychopathology and early child temperamental vulnerability for depression assessed at age three predicted offspring's basal cortisol function at age 6 years. 228 (122 males)…

  13. Determinants of Maternity Care Services Utilization among Married Adolescents in Rural India

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Prashant Kumar; Rai, Rajesh Kumar; Alagarajan, Manoj; Singh, Lucky

    2012-01-01

    Background Coupled with the largest number of maternal deaths, adolescent pregnancy in India has received paramount importance due to early age at marriage and low contraceptive use. The factors associated with the utilization of maternal healthcare services among married adolescents in rural India are poorly discussed. Methodology/Principal Findings Using the data from third wave of National Family Health Survey (2005–06), available in public domain for the use by researchers, this paper examines the factors associated with the utilization of maternal healthcare services among married adolescent women (aged 15–19 years) in rural India. Three components of maternal healthcare service utilization were measured: full antenatal care, safe delivery, and postnatal care within 42 days of delivery for the women who gave births in the last five years preceding the survey. Considering the framework on causes of maternal mortality proposed by Thaddeus and Maine (1994), selected socioeconomic, demographic, and cultural factors influencing outcome events were included as the predictor variables. Bi-variate analyses including chi-square test to determine the difference in proportion, and logistic regression to understand the net effect of predictor variables on selected outcomes were applied. Findings indicate the significant differences in the use of selected maternal healthcare utilization by educational attainment, economic status and region of residence. Muslim women, and women belonged to Scheduled Castes, Scheduled Tribes, and Other Backward Classes are less likely to avail safe delivery services. Additionally, adolescent women from the southern region utilizing the highest maternal healthcare services than the other regions. Conclusions The present study documents several socioeconomic and cultural factors affecting the utilization of maternal healthcare services among rural adolescent women in India. The ongoing healthcare programs should start targeting household with married adolescent women belonging to poor and specific sub-groups of the population in rural areas to address the unmet need for maternal healthcare service utilization. PMID:22355386

  14. Socioeconomic Disparities in Maternity Care among Indian Adolescents, 1990–2006

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Chandan; Rai, Rajesh Kumar; Singh, Prashant Kumar; Singh, Lucky

    2013-01-01

    Background India, with a population of more than 1.21 billion, has the highest maternal mortality in the world (estimated to be 56000 in 2010); and adolescent (aged 15–19) mortality shares 9% of total maternal deaths. Addressing the maternity care needs of adolescents may have considerable ramifications for achieving the Millennium Development Goal (MDG)–5. This paper assesses the socioeconomic differentials in accessing full antenatal care and professional attendance at delivery by adolescent mothers (aged 15–19) in India during 1990–2006. Methods and Findings Data from three rounds of the National Family Health Survey of India conducted during 1992–93, 1998–99, and 2005–06 were analyzed. The Cochran-Armitage and Chi-squared test for linear and non-linear time trends were applied, respectively, to understand the trend in the proportion of adolescent mothers utilizing select maternity care services during 1990–2006. Using pooled multivariate logistic regression models, the probability of select maternal healthcare utilization among women by key socioeconomic characteristics was appraised. After adjusting for potential socio-demographic and economic characteristics, the likelihood of adolescents accessing full antenatal care increased by only 4% from 1990 to 2006. However, the probability of adolescent women availing themselves of professional attendance at delivery increased by 79% during the same period. The study also highlights the desolate disparities in maternity care services among adolescents across the most and the least favoured groups. Conclusion Maternal care interventions in India need focused programs for rural, uneducated, poor adolescent women so that they can avail themselves of measures to delay child bearing, and for better antenatal consultation and delivery care in case of pregnancy. This study strongly advocates the promotion of a comprehensive ‘adolescent scheme’ along the lines of ‘Continuum of Maternal, Newborn and Child health Care’ to address the unmet need of reproductive and maternal healthcare services among adolescent women in India. PMID:23894412

  15. Maternal Mortality in India: Causes and Healthcare Service Use Based on a Nationally Representative Survey

    PubMed Central

    Montgomery, Ann L.; Ram, Usha; Kumar, Rajesh; Jha, Prabhat

    2014-01-01

    Background Data on cause-specific mortality, skilled birth attendance, and emergency obstetric care access are essential to plan maternity services. We present the distribution of India's 2001–2003 maternal mortality by cause and uptake of emergency obstetric care, in poorer and richer states. Methods and Findings The Registrar General of India surveyed all deaths occurring in 2001–2003 in 1.1 million nationally representative homes. Field staff interviewed household members about events that preceded the death. Two physicians independently assigned a cause of death. Narratives for all maternal deaths were coded for variables on healthcare uptake. Distribution of number of maternal deaths, cause-specific mortality and uptake of healthcare indicators were compared for poorer and richer states. There were 10 041 all-cause deaths in women age 15–49 years, of which 1096 (11.1%) were maternal deaths. Based on 2004–2006 SRS national MMR estimates of 254 deaths per 100 000 live births, we estimated rural areas of poorer states had the highest MMR (397, 95%CI 385–410) compared to the lowest MMR in urban areas of richer states (115, 95%CI 85–146). We estimated 69 400 maternal deaths in India in 2005. Three-quarters of maternal deaths were clustered in rural areas of poorer states, although these regions have only half the estimated live births in India. Most maternal deaths were attributed to direct obstetric causes (82%). There was no difference in the major causes of maternal deaths between poorer and richer states. Two-thirds of women died seeking some form of healthcare, most seeking care in a critical medical condition. Rural areas of poorer states had proportionately lower access and utilization to healthcare services than the urban areas; however this rural-urban difference was not seen in richer states. Conclusions Maternal mortality and poor access to healthcare is disproportionately higher in rural populations of the poorer states of India. PMID:24454701

  16. Testing for evidence of maternal effects among individuals and populations of white crappie

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bunnell, D.B.; Scantland, M.A.; Stein, R.A.

    2005-01-01

    For an increasing number of species, maternal characteristics have been correlated with the characteristics of their eggs or larvae at the individual level. Documenting these maternal effects at the population level, however, is uncommon. For white crappies Pomoxis annularis, we evaluated whether individual maternal effects on eggs existed and then explored whether incorporating maternal effects explained additional variation in recruitment, a population-level response. Individual egg quality (measured as ovary energy density) increased with maternal length among individuals from seven Ohio reservoirs in 1999 and three in 2000. Among these same individuals, egg quality increased with maternal condition factor (measured as residual wet mass for a given length) in 1999 but not in 2000. In 2000 we estimated somatic energy density, an improved measure of condition; egg quality increased with somatic energy density, but somatic energy density was also strongly correlated with maternal length. Hence, we could not determine whether maternal length or condition was the primary factor influencing white crappie egg quality. Across seven populations, the relative population fecundity (i.e., stock size) of the 1999 year-class was unable to explain the variation in recruitment to age 2 (Ricker model r2 = 0.04 and Beverton and Holt model r2 = 0.02). Mean ovary energy density (i.e., egg quality), however, was unable to explain additional recruitment variability in either model. Hence, we documented evidence of maternal effects on individual ovaries but not on population-level recruitment. Nonetheless, we recommend that future studies seeking to understand white crappie recruitment continue to consider maternal effects as a potential factor, especially those studies that may have greater sample sizes at the population level and, in turn, a greater probability of documenting a population-level effect. ?? Copyright by the American Fisheries Society 2005.

  17. Maternity telehealth: ringing the changes.

    PubMed

    Finlay, Dorothy; Brown, Sheona

    2013-12-01

    This article describes NHS Scotland's Maternity telehealth options project and the implementation of the recommendations made. This 17-month project resulted in the development of national documentation for recording telehealth calls; the development of a self-directed eLearning tool on maternity telehealth call structure which was made available to all health boards in Scotland; a comprehensive programme of training on telehealth for student midwives; a programme of 'Train-the-trainer' events for qualified midwives to enable the cascade of learning throughout the service. The project also involved collaboration with Health Scotland, signposting for women to contact the appropriate caregiver at the appropriate time. PMID:24386706

  18. Prenatal Maternal Stress Programs Infant Stress Regulation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Elysia Poggi; Glynn, Laura M.; Waffarn, Feizal; Sandman, Curt A.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: Prenatal exposure to inappropriate levels of glucocorticoids (GCs) and maternal stress are putative mechanisms for the fetal programming of later health outcomes. The current investigation examined the influence of prenatal maternal cortisol and maternal psychosocial stress on infant physiological and behavioral responses to stress.…

  19. Maternal Child Abuse and its Association with Maternal Anxiety in the Socio-Cultural Context of Iran

    PubMed Central

    Douki, Zahra Esmaeili; Esmaeili, Mohammad Reza; Vaezzadeh, Nazanin; Mohammadpour, Reza Ali; Azimi, Hamideh; Sabbaghi, Robabeh; Esmaeil, Mousa; Shahhosseini, Zohreh

    2013-01-01

    Objectives The prevalence of parental violence has been an area of major public concern. There are few available data detailing the ways parents and other caregivers discipline children, particularly in low and middle income countries. This study focuses on the prevalence of different types of maternal child abuse and its association with maternal anxiety in the socio-cultural context of Iran. Methods Participants in this cross-sectional study consisted of 562 mothers with the last child aged from 1 month to 12 years old who attended the Amirkola Children’s Referral Hospital in Mazandaran Province, Iran, seeking healthcare services for their children. Demographic characteristics of the mothers, their children and reactions to conflicts with children were evaluated by a validated version of Conflict Tactics Scale for Parent and Child. Also, the relationship between maternal anxiety and child abuse was assessed using the Spielberger State-Trait Anxiety Inventory. The association between variables was examined by Pearson correlation coefficient, independent t-test, one-way ANOVA, and multivariate regression. Results The prevalence of mother-to-child corporal punishment, severe physical abuse and very severe physical abuse were 436 (78%), 260 (46%) and 180 (32%), respectively. Verbal emotional abuse was reported by 506 (90%) participants and nonverbal emotional abuse was reported in 374 (67%) cases. A correlation was observed between child abuse and mothers’ age (p=0.02), as well as with the number of children in the family (p=0.03), and the mothers’ trait anxiety (p<0.001). Conclusion Overall, the assessment of maternal child abuse should be an important focus for evaluation in mothers with anxiety and vice versa, when child abuse is suspected, maternal psychological assessment should be essential. PMID:24223243

  20. Multiple environmental chemical exposures to lead, mercury and polychlorinated biphenyls among childbearing-aged women (NHANES 1999–2004): Body burden and risk factors

    PubMed Central

    Thompson, Marcella Remer; Boekelheide, Kim

    2013-01-01

    Background Lead, mercury and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are neurotoxicants with intergenerational health consequences from maternal body burden and gestational exposures. Little is known about multiple chemical exposures among childbearing-aged women. Objectives To determine the percentage of women aged 16–49 of diverse races and ethnicities whose body burdens for all three xenobiotics were at or above the median; to identify mixed exposures; and to describe those women disproportionately burdened by two or more of these chemicals based on susceptibility- and exposure-related attributes, socioeconomic factors and race-ethnicity. Methods Secondary data analysis of National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (1999–2004). Results The best-fit logistic regression model without interactions contained 12 variables. Four risk factors associated with body burden were notable (P ? 0.05). An exponential relationship was demonstrated with increasing age. Any fish consumption in past 30 days more than doubled the odds. Heavy alcohol consumption increased the relative risk. History of breastfeeding reduced this risk. These women were more likely to have two xenobiotics at or above the median than one. More than one-fifth of these childbearing-aged women had three xenobiotic levels at or above the median. Conclusions These findings are among the first description of US childbearing-aged women’s body burden and risk factors for multiple chemical exposures. This study supports increasing age, any fish consumption and heavy alcohol consumption as significant risk factors for body burden. History of breastfeeding lowered the body burden. Limited evidence was found of increased risk among minority women independent of other risk factors. PMID:23158727

  1. The Influence of the Elderly on School Spending in a Median Voter Framework

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fletcher, Deborah; Kenny, Lawrence W.

    2008-01-01

    How do the elderly influence school spending if they are a minority of the population? We estimate the determinants of school spending in a median voter model, comparing four assumptions about how the elderly influence the identity of the median voter. Using a county-level panel, we find that elderly preferences are best characterized by assuming…

  2. Maternal Behavior by Birth Order in Wild Chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes)

    PubMed Central

    Stanton, Margaret A.; Lonsdorf, Elizabeth V.; Pusey, Anne E.; Goodall, Jane; Murray, Carson M.

    2014-01-01

    Parental investment theory predicts that maternal resources are finite and allocated among offspring based on factors including maternal age and condition, and offspring sex and parity. Among humans, firstborn children are often considered to have an advantage and receive greater investment than their younger siblings. However, conflicting evidence for this “firstborn advantage” between modern and hunter-gatherer societies raises questions about the evolutionary history of differential parental investment and birth order. In contrast to humans, most non-human primate firstborns belong to young, inexperienced mothers and exhibit higher mortality than laterborns. In this study, we investigated differences in maternal investment and offspring outcomes based on birth order (firstborn vs. later-born) among wild chimpanzees (Pan troglodyte schweinfurthii). During the critical first year of life, primiparous mothers nursed, groomed, and played with their infants more than did multiparous mothers. Furthermore, this pattern of increased investment in firstborns appeared to be compensatory, as probability of survival did not differ by birth order. Our study did not find evidence for a firstborn advantage as observed in modern humans but does suggest that unlike many other primates, differences in maternal behavior help afford chimpanzee first-borns an equal chance of survival. PMID:25328164

  3. Relations among birth condition, maternal condition, and postnatal growth in captive common marmoset monkeys (Callithrix jacchus).

    PubMed

    Tardif, Suzette D; Bales, Karen L

    2004-02-01

    The present study characterizes the relations among maternal condition, litter size, birth condition, and growth in body weight for a population of common marmosets. The subjects of the study were marmosets born into a single colony between 1994 and 2001. Three sets of analyses were conducted to answer the following questions: 1) Is there a relationship between litter size, maternal condition, and birth condition? In the study population, maternal body weight, maternal age, litter size, and birth condition were related in a complex fashion. Birth weight and prenatal long-bone growth, as reflected in knee-heel length, were both related to maternal age, with older mothers supporting higher prenatal growth. Age and maternal condition appeared to interact as determinants of long-bone growth, as the combination of older and larger mothers resulted in significantly longer knee-heel lengths in their offspring. 2) Is there a relationship between birth condition or maternal condition and subsequent growth or final adult size? The early growth rate in this population was similar to early growth rates reported for three different marmoset colonies, suggesting that early growth may be relatively inflexible in this species. However, within this population, the variation that did occur in early growth rate was related to birth weight and maternal weight. Later growth and adult weight were related to birth weight and litter size: small twin infants displayed slower later growth rates and were smaller as adults than twins that began life at a higher birth weight, while the birth weight of triplets was not related to adult size. In these marmosets, small infants that were the result of increased litter size differed from small infants whose small birth size resulted from other factors. This reinforces the proposal that the causes of low birth weight will be relevant to the development of the marmoset as a model of prenatal environmental effects. PMID:14983466

  4. Pancreatoduodenal artery aneurysm resulting from median arcuate ligament compression successfully treated with laparoscopic ligament section.

    PubMed

    Hiramatsu, Yoshihiro; Sakaguchi, Takanori; Kawabata, Toshiki; Shibasaki, Yasushi; Kikuchi, Hirotoshi; Takehara, Yasuo; Uyama, Ichiro; Konno, Hiroyuki

    2014-01-01

    True aneurysms of the pancreatoduodenal arteries are frequently associated with stenosis or occlusion of the celiac trunk caused by median arcuate ligament compression. Celiac stenosis cannot be cured, even by transarterial embolization, which has recently become a good alternative to open surgical repair. To prevent recurrence, management of median arcuate ligament compression to correct hemodynamics in vascular networks should also be performed. Herein we report a case of pancreatoduodenal arterial aneurysm with median arcuate ligament compression that was successfully treated with minimally invasive laparoscopic median arcuate ligament section. The patient was discharged 4 days after surgery with no complications. Enhanced CT 1 month after surgery revealed no residual celiac trunk stenosis or aneurysm. Normalization of blood flow by laparoscopic median arcuate ligament section is a good option for some patients with a pancreatoduodenal arterial aneurysm. PMID:24450350

  5. Tissues Mean Median Num. genes Tissues Mean Median Num. genes kidney 3.69 2 6115 kidney 42.5 36 20

    E-print Network

    Kreiman, Gabriel

    pancreas 7.57 3 6658 pancreas 74.93 47 267 liver 4.4 2 4326 liver 81.44 50 72 Tissues Mean Median Num 47.99 30 405 placenta 47.38 47 60 muscle 49.42 30 110 muscle 48.14 50 14 pancreas 51.02 31 502 pancreas 48.31 47 91 liver 60.01 35 114 liver 50.29 50 17 Table S1. Mean and median number of ESTs per gene

  6. Maternal Methadone Treatment and Neonatal Abstinence Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Liu, William F; Singh, Kultar; Faisal, Mohamed; Li, Shuang

    2015-09-01

    Objective?This article aims to describe neonatal outcomes, clinical correlates, and the rate for neonatal abstinence syndrome (NAS) for women on methadone maintenance therapy. Methods?This study is a retrospective review, which includes 119 mothers and 120 live newborns. Results?Methadone mothers tends to be white, single, on government insurance, with increased tobacco use (73%) and hepatitis C (11%). Prematurity increased (28%), and the term infant had a higher risk for admission for respiratory symptoms (22, 7%, p?age for those infants who did not have NAS (36, 38 weeks, p?=?0.04). Overall, 56% had possible illicit drug supplementation. Self-reporting had a 59% negative predictive value with a positive drug screen. No difference in maternal methadone dosage and newborns with and without NAS. Increasing gestational age will increase the odds for NAS. Conclusions?Newborns are at higher risk for prematurity and admission for respiratory symptoms. Utilizing a 7-day observation period, 78% of newborns were diagnosed with NAS with a mean onset of symptoms of 4.3 days. There was no difference in methadone dosage between babies with and without NAS. Increasing gestational age increases the risk for NAS. PMID:25915141

  7. Maternal nutrient restriction in the ewe from early to midgestation programs reduced steroidogenic enzyme expression and tended to reduce progesterone content of corpora lutea, as well as circulating progesterone in nonpregnant aged female offspring

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Previously we reported decreased circulating progesterone and fertility in one and two year old ewes born to undernourished mothers. This study was designed to investigate if this reduction in progesterone persisted into old age, and if it did, what mechanisms are involved. Methods Ewes were fed a nutrient restricted (NR, 50% of NRC recommendations) or control (C, 100% of NRC) diets from day 28 to 78 of gestation, then all were fed to requirements through parturition and weaning. Female offspring (4 per treatment group) were maintained as a group and fed to requirements from weaning until assigned to this study at 6 years of age. Ewes were synchronized for estrus (day 0) and blood samples were collected daily from day 0 to day 11 before necropsy on day 12. Blood serum and luteal tissue were assayed for progesterone concentrations by validated radioimmunoassay. Results Circulation progesterone concentrations tended to be lower (P = 0.06) in NR than C offspring from day 0 to 11 of the estrous cycle. While total luteal weight was similar across groups, total progesterone content also tended to be reduced (P = 0.07) in luteal tissue of NR than C offspring. Activity of hepatic progesterone catabolizing enzymes and selected angiogenic factors in luteal tissue were similar between groups. Messenger RNA expression of steroidogenic enzymes StAR and P450scc were reduced (P < 0.05), while protein expression of StAR tended to be reduced (P < 0.07) and P450scc was reduced (P < 0.05) in luteal tissue of NR versus C offspring. Conclusions There appears to be no difference in hepatic steroid catabolism that could have led to the decreased serum progesterone. However, these data are consistent with the programming of decreased steroidogenic enzyme expression in CL of NR offspring, leading to reduced synthesis and secretion of progesterone. PMID:23656912

  8. University of Sussex Maternity Guide

    E-print Network

    Sussex, University of

    is designed to help you if you are considering starting or adding to your family, or if you are already expecting a baby. It gives advice on the steps you should take before you start your maternity leave, what in which your baby is expected to be born, beginning on a Sunday. This is important as it is used

  9. Plotting Maternity in Three Persons

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kinser, Amber E.

    2012-01-01

    This performance text examines complexities of personal and maternal identity in family life. Speaking in first, second, and third person voices, the author offers autoethnographic accounts of the tensions between separateness and connectedness, normative and subjective motherhood, and novice and seasoned perspectives. The piece functions as a…

  10. Maternal smoking during pregnancy and child emotional problems: the relevance of maternal and child 5-HTTLPR genotype.

    PubMed

    Cents, Rolieke A M; Tiemeier, Henning; Velders, Fleur P; Jaddoe, Vincent W V; Hofman, Albert; Verhulst, Frank C; Lambregtse-van den Berg, Mijke P; Hudziak, James J

    2012-04-01

    Serotonin is involved in the development of neural circuits modulating emotional behavior. The short allele (s) of a polymorphism (5-HTTLPR) of the serotonin transporter gene is a risk factor for psychopathology in the presence of environmental stressors. Maternal smoking is associated with growth restriction of the human fetal brain and adverse effects of nicotine on the developing serotonin system have been documented. We hypothesized that maternal smoking interacts with both child and mother 5-HTTLPR genotype as a risk factor for later child emotional problems. In a sample of n?=?1,529 mother-child dyads, smoking habits were assessed by questionnaires during pregnancy. Child emotional problems were measured by the Child Behavior Checklist at the child's age of 3 years. Maternal smoking during pregnancy significantly increased the risk for emotional problems in children carrying the s-allele; ??=?0.24, P?=?0.03 (mother-report), and ??=?0.46, P?=?0.001 (father-report). In children heterozygous at 5-HTTLPR and exposed to maternal prenatal smoking (n?=?79) risk of emotional problems increased with each additional s-allele the mother carried. The associations between 5-HTTLPR and child emotional problems were not moderated by paternal prenatal smoking. These findings imply that the vulnerability for emotional problems in s-allele carriers may already originate in fetal life. PMID:22259195

  11. Human placental transfer of perfluoroalkyl acid precursors: Levels and profiles in paired maternal and cord serum.

    PubMed

    Yang, Lin; Wang, Zhen; Shi, Yu; Li, Jingguang; Wang, Yuxin; Zhao, Yunfeng; Wu, Yongning; Cai, Zongwei

    2016-02-01

    Perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) precursors, the indirect source of PFAA exposure, have been observed in environmental and human samples. However, the maternal-fetal transfer of these chemicals has not been well examined. In this study, 50 paired maternal and cord serum samples collected in Jiangsu province of China were analyzed for fifteen PFAA precursors. Among the detected PFAAs, 6:2 fluorotelomer sulfonate (6:2 FTS), N-methyl- and N-ethyl-perfluorooctanesulfonamidoacetates had comparable detection rate in both maternal and cord sera, while the mean concentrations and detection rates of 8:2 FTS and perfluorooctane sulfonamide (PFOSA) were higher in maternal sera compared to cord sera (Mann-Whitney U test, P < 0.05). Analysis of variance and least significant difference tests showed that the youngest maternal age group (21-24 years old) had the highest concentration of 6:2 FTS in cord sera. Maternal serum PFOSA was found significantly correlated with the cord serum perfluorooctanesulfonate (PFOS) (Spearman test, r = 0.361, P = 0.010), indicating that maternal serum PFOSA might be an indirect source of PFOS in fetuses. The obtained results suggested the potential prenatal exposure and human placental transfer of perfluoroalkyl acid precursors. PMID:26517392

  12. Human fetal growth is dependent on maternal sub-strate supply, and the gene/protein pathways driving pla-

    E-print Network

    Bryant-Greenwood, Gillian D.

    , and maternal height.1 Chromosomally nor- mal singleton infants, born small for gestational age (SGA), have weight, large- and small-for-gestational-age infants, have a 2- to 3- fold greater risk of preterm membranes from women with normally grown and large for gestational age infants. RESULTS: The amniotic

  13. AGE DISCRIMINATION POLICY 1 INTRODUCTION

    E-print Network

    Daley, Monica A.

    AGE DISCRIMINATION POLICY 1 INTRODUCTION 1.1 The Royal Veterinary College (the College partnership, race, disability, religion or belief, gender reassignment, sexual orientation, pregnancy & maternity. 1.2 The aim of this policy is to prevent either direct or indirect discrimination, harassment

  14. Infant Functional Regulatory Problems and Gender Moderate Bidirectional Effects Between Externalizing Behavior and Maternal Depressive Symptoms

    PubMed Central

    Choe, Daniel Ewon; Sameroff, Arnold J.; McDonough, Susan C.

    2013-01-01

    This longitudinal study of 251 families examined bidirectional associations between maternal depressive symptoms and toddler behavioral problems. Functional regulatory problems in infancy and gender were examined as moderators. Mothers rated children’s regulatory problems of crying, feeding, and sleeping in infancy, toddler-age externalizing behavior, and their own depressive symptoms when children were ages 7, 15, and 33 months. Using a structural equation model we found that exposure to maternal depressive symptoms at 7 months predicted high levels of child externalizing behavior at 15 and 33 months. Gender moderated the effect, such that maternal depressive symptoms only predicted boys’ externalizing behavior at 33 months. Toddler-age externalizing behavior predicted high levels of maternal depressive symptoms at 33 months, only among those who had relatively few regulatory problems as infants. Infancy seems to be a period of heightened vulnerability to effects of maternal depression and boys are more likely than girls to develop resulting externalizing problems. Mothers of infants with few regulatory problems may develop worse depressive symptoms in response to their children’s preschool-age behavioral problems. PMID:23545078

  15. Effects of maternal characteristics and climatic variation on birth masses of Alaskan caribou

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Adams, L.G.

    2005-01-01

    Understanding factors that influence birth mass of mammals provides insights to nutritional trade-offs made by females to optimize their reproduction, growth, and survival. I evaluated variation in birth mass of caribou (Rangifer tarandus) in central Alaska relative to maternal characteristics (age, body mass, cohort, and nutritional condition as influenced by winter severity) during 11 years with substantial variation in winter snowfall. Snowfall during gestation was the predominant factor explaining variation in birth masses, influencing birth mass inversely and through interactions with maternal age and lactation status. Maternal age effects were noted for females ??? 5 years old, declining in magnitude with each successive age class. Birth mass as a proportion of autumn maternal mass was inversely related to winter snowfall, even though there was no decrease in masses of adult females in late winter associated with severe winters. I found no evidence of a hypothesized intergenerational effect of lower birth masses for offspring of females born after severe winters. Caribou produce relatively small offspring but provide exceptional lactation support for those that survive. Conservative maternal investment before parturition may represent an optimal reproductive strategy given that caribou experience stochastic variation in winter severity during gestation, uncertainty of environmental conditions surrounding the birth season, and intense predation on neonates. ?? 2005 American Society of Mammalogists.

  16. Evidence for Sexually Dimorphic Associations Between Maternal Characteristics and Anogenital Distance, a Marker of Reproductive Development

    PubMed Central

    Barrett, Emily S.; Parlett, Lauren E.; Redmon, J. Bruce; Swan, Shanna H.

    2014-01-01

    Data from animal models, historical cohorts, and modern epidemiologic studies have suggested that maternal characteristics can affect reproductive health of offspring; however, distinguishing between prenatal and postnatal contributions is difficult. Anogenital distance (AGD), the distance from the anus to the genitals, is believed to be a biomarker of prenatal androgen exposure in many species, and in humans it has been associated with several adult reproductive health outcomes. We used data from a pregnancy cohort study conducted in 4 US cities from 1999–2005 to examine whether AGD measurements in infants were associated with maternal self-reported age at conception, age at menarche, age at first birth, parity, and gravidity. AGD was measured in 289 infants (140 male, 149 female) born to study participants. After adjustment for relevant covariates, in linear regression models stratified by infant sex, maternal age was positively associated with AGD in male infants (AGD, anus to penis: ? = 0.50, P = 0.002; AGD, anus to scrotum: ? = 0.29, P = 0.02) but not female infants. Parity was inversely associated with AGD (anus to scrotum; ? = ?1.68, P = 0.03) in male infants. No other maternal characteristic predicted AGD in either sex. The mechanism underlying the unexpected relationship between maternal characteristics and AGD is unknown; however, we suggest several possibilities for future study. PMID:24124194

  17. Maternal mind-mindedness and children's behavioral difficulties: mitigating the impact of low socioeconomic status.

    PubMed

    Meins, Elizabeth; Centifanti, Luna C Muñoz; Fernyhough, Charles; Fishburn, Sarah

    2013-05-01

    Relations between mothers' tendency to comment appropriately on their 8-month-olds' internal states (mind-mindedness) and children's behavioral difficulties (Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire) at ages 44 and 61 months were investigated in a socially diverse sample (N?=?171, 88 boys). Controlling for maternal depressive symptoms, perceived social support, sensitivity, child language ability, and child gender, maternal mind-mindedness was negatively related to children's externalizing and internalizing behaviors specifically in low socioeconomic status (SES) families. Furthermore, behavioral difficulties at age 44 months mediated the relation between maternal mind-mindedness and behavioral difficulties at age 61 months, but only for low SES families. These findings are discussed with reference to possible ways in which mind-mindedness could inform interventions targeted at at-risk groups. PMID:23299554

  18. Does maternal psychopathology increase the risk of pre-schooler obesity? A systematic review.

    PubMed

    Benton, Pree M; Skouteris, Helen; Hayden, Melissa

    2015-04-01

    The preschool years may be a critical period for child obesity onset; however, literature examining obesity risk factors to date has largely focused on school-aged children. Several links have been made between maternal depression and childhood obesity risks; however, other types of maternal psychopathology have been widely neglected. The aim of the present review was to systematically identify articles that examined relationships between maternal psychopathology variables, including depressive and anxiety symptoms, self-esteem and body dissatisfaction, and risks for pre-schooler obesity, including weight outcomes, physical activity and sedentary behaviour levels, and nutrition/diet variables. Twenty articles meeting review criteria were identified. Results showed positive associations between maternal depressive symptoms and increased risks for pre-schooler obesity in the majority of studies. Results were inconsistent depending on the time at which depression was measured (i.e., antenatal, postnatal, in isolation or longitudinally). Anxiety and body dissatisfaction were only measured in single studies; however, both were linked to pre-schooler obesity risks; self-esteem was not measured by any studies. We concluded that maternal depressive symptoms are important to consider when assessing risks for obesity in preschool-aged children; however, more research is needed examining the impact of other facets of maternal psychopathology on obesity risk in pre-schoolers. PMID:25572134

  19. Modeling variation in early life mortality in the western lowland gorilla: Genetic, maternal and other effects.

    PubMed

    Ahsan, Monica H; Blomquist, Gregory E

    2015-06-01

    Uncovering sources of variation in gorilla infant mortality informs conservation and life history research efforts. The international studbook for the western lowland gorilla provides information on a sample of captive gorillas large enough for which to analyze genetic, maternal, and various other effects on early life mortality in this critically endangered species. We assess the importance of variables such as sex, maternal parity, paternal age, and hand rearing with regard to infant survival. We also quantify the proportions of variation in mortality influenced by heritable variation and maternal effects from these pedigree and survival data using variance component estimation. Markov chain Monte Carlo simulations of generalized linear mixed models produce variance component distributions in an animal model framework that employs all pedigree information. Two models, one with a maternal identity component and one with both additive genetic and maternal identity components, estimate variance components for different age classes during the first 2 years of life. This is informative of the extent to which mortality risk factors change over time during gorilla infancy. Our results indicate that gorilla mortality is moderately heritable with the strongest genetic influence just after birth. Maternal effects are most important during the first 6 months of life. Interestingly, hand-reared infants have lower mortality for the first 6 months of life. Aside from hand rearing, we found other predictors commonly used in studies of primate infant mortality to have little influence in these gorilla data. PMID:25809396

  20. Rare variations in the formation of median nerve--embryological basis and clinical significance.

    PubMed

    Satyanarayana, N; Vishwakarma, N; Kumar, G P; Guha, R; Dattal, A K; Sunitha, P

    2009-12-01

    During routine dissection in the Department of Anatomy, CMS, Nepal, anomalous median nerves with regard to their formation were found in three different adult male cadavers. In one cadaver, there was variation in the formation of the median nerve and its relation with the axillary artery. Another cadaver revealed the formation of the median nerve by three roots, while in the third one, the median nerve was found to be formed by four roots. However, in each of the three cadavers the distribution of the anomalous median nerve was normal in arm, forearm and palm. The arterial pattern in the arm (axillary and brachial arteries) was also found to be normal. In each case the opposite upper limb was also meticulously dissected to exclude bilateral abnormality. However, in each case the anomaly was unilateral. Photographs of the abnormalities were taken for proper documentation. The variations related to the formation of median nerve by more than two roots are relatively uncommon as compared to the other types of varations of median nerve. Some embryological explanations are available to explain these variations. Finally, knowledge of these variations is important particularly to the surgeons for carrying out surgical procedures in axilla and arm. PMID:20635613

  1. Altered Median Nerve Deformation and Transverse Displacement during Wrist Movement in Patients with Carpal Tunnel Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yuexiang; Filius, Anika; Zhao, Chunfeng; Passe, Sandra M.; Thoreson, Andrew R.; An, Kai-Nan; Amadio, Peter C.

    2014-01-01

    Rationale and Objectives: Carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS) is the most common peripheral nerve entrapment syndrome. Strong pinch or grip with wrist flexion has been considered a risk factor for CTS. Studying median nerve displacement during wrist movements may provide useful information about median nerve kinematic changes in CTS patients. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the deformability and mobility of the median nerve in CTS patients compared to healthy subjects. Materials and Methods: Dynamic ultrasound images were obtained in 20 affected wrists of 13 patients with CTS. Results were compared to complementary data obtained from both wrists of 10 healthy subjects reported in a previous study. Initial and final median nerve shape and position were measured and analyzed for six defined wrist movements. The deformation ratios for each movement were defined as the median nerve area, perimeter and circularity of the final position normalized by respective values assessed in the initial position. The median nerve displacement vector and magnitude were also calculated. Results: The deformation ratio for circularity was significant less in CTS patients compared to healthy subjects during wrist flexion (P<0.05). The mean vector of median nerve displacement during wrist flexion was significantly different between CTS patients and healthy subjects (P<0.05). The displacement magnitude of the median nerve was found to be less in CTS patients compared to healthy subjects during most movements, with the exception of wrist extension with fingers extended. Conclusions: CTS Patients differ from normal subjects with regard to mobility and deformability of the median nerve. PMID:24594417

  2. Family Social Status and Preschoolers’ Persistence: The Role of Maternal Values and Quality of Parenting

    PubMed Central

    Mokrova, Irina L.; O’Brien, Marion; Calkins, Susan D.; Leerkes, Esther M.; Marcovitch, Stuart

    2014-01-01

    Children who develop persistence in the preschool years are likely to function more effectively during the transition into school. In this study of 231 3-year-old children and their mothers, we examined the relations among family social status, maternal values of self-direction, and quality of parenting and children’s persistence in challenging tasks. Results of SEM path analysis indicated that family social status was related to maternal values of self-direction, which in turn were associated with the quality of maternal cognitive stimulation and emotional support and child persistence at preschool-age. Family social status and maternal values were indirectly related to child persistence through emotional support. Focusing on parental values of self-direction and provision of support during challenging tasks may help to reduce the gap in school success between children from lower and higher social status families. PMID:25767415

  3. Dynamic Associations between Maternal Depressive Symptoms and Adolescents’ Depressive and Externalizing Symptoms

    PubMed Central

    Kouros, Chrystyna D.; Garber, Judy

    2012-01-01

    The current prospective study investigated transactional relations between maternal depressive symptoms and children’s depressive and externalizing symptoms. Participants included 240 children (M age = 11.86 years, SD = 0.56; 53.9 % female) and their mothers who were part of a 6-year longitudinal study. Measures of maternal depression (Beck Depression Inventory), child depression (Children’s Depression Inventory), and children’s externalizing symptoms (Youth Self-Report Form) were assessed annually. Data analyses using dynamic latent difference score structural equation models indicated that the observed relations between mothers’ and adolescents’ symptoms were stable across the 6 years. Higher levels of maternal depressive symptoms predicted subsequent elevations in children’s depressive symptoms and in their externalizing problems over time. Among mothers with high initial levels of depression, children’s depressive symptoms predicted subsequent declines in mothers’ depressive symptoms. Children’s externalizing problems were not related to subsequent change in maternal symptoms. PMID:20607385

  4. Dynamic associations between maternal depressive symptoms and adolescents' depressive and externalizing symptoms.

    PubMed

    Kouros, Chrystyna D; Garber, Judy

    2010-11-01

    The current prospective study investigated transactional relations between maternal depressive symptoms and children's depressive and externalizing symptoms. Participants included 240 children (M age = 11.86 years, SD = 0.56; 53.9% female) and their mothers who were part of a 6-year longitudinal study. Measures of maternal depression (Beck Depression Inventory), child depression (Children's Depression Inventory), and children's externalizing symptoms (Youth Self-Report Form) were assessed annually. Data analyses using dynamic latent difference score structural equation models indicated that the observed relations between mothers' and adolescents' symptoms were stable across the 6 years. Higher levels of maternal depressive symptoms predicted subsequent elevations in children's depressive symptoms and in their externalizing problems over time. Among mothers with high initial levels of depression, children's depressive symptoms predicted subsequent declines in mothers' depressive symptoms. Children's externalizing problems were not related to subsequent change in maternal symptoms. PMID:20607385

  5. Maternal group B Streptococcus and the infant gut microbiota.

    PubMed

    Cassidy-Bushrow, A E; Sitarik, A; Levin, A M; Lynch, S V; Havstad, S; Ownby, D R; Johnson, C C; Wegienka, G

    2016-02-01

    Early patterns of gut colonization may predispose children to adult disease. Exposures in utero and during delivery are associated with the infant gut microbiome. Although ~35% of women carry group B strep (GBS; Streptococcus agalactiae) during pregnancy, it is unknown if GBS presence influences the infant gut microbiome. As part of a population-based, general risk birth cohort, stool specimens were collected from infant's diapers at research visits conducted at ~1 and 6 months of age. Using the Illumina MiSeq (San Diego, CA) platform, the V4 region of the bacterial 16S rRNA gene was sequenced. Infant gut bacterial community compositional differences by maternal GBS status were evaluated using permutational multivariate analysis of variance. Individual operational taxonomic units (OTUs) were tested using a zero-inflated negative binomial model. Data on maternal GBS and infant gut microbiota from either 1 (n=112) or 6-month-old stool (n=150) specimens was available on 262 maternal-child pairs. Eighty women (30.5%) were GBS+, of who 58 (72.5%) were given intrapartum antibiotics. After adjusting for maternal race, prenatal antifungal use and intrapartum antibiotics, maternal GBS status was statistically significantly associated with gut bacterial composition in the 6 month visit specimen (Canberra R 2=0.008, P=0.008; Unweighted UniFrac R 2=0.010, P=0.011). Individual OTU tests revealed that infants of GBS+ mothers were significantly enriched for specific members of the Clostridiaceae, Ruminococcoceae, and Enterococcaceae in the 6 month specimens compared with infants of GBS- mothers. Whether these taxonomic differences in infant gut microbiota at 6 months lead to differential predisposition for adult disease requires additional study. PMID:26264560

  6. Maternal Education and Immunization Status Among Children in Kenya.

    PubMed

    Onsomu, Elijah O; Abuya, Benta A; Okech, Irene N; Moore, DaKysha; Collins-McNeil, Janice

    2015-08-01

    Child morbidity and mortality due to infectious diseases continues to be a major threat and public health concern worldwide. Although global vaccination coverage reached 90 % for diphtheria, tetanus and pertussis (DTP3) across 129 countries, Kenya and other sub-Saharan countries continue to experience under-vaccination. The purpose of this study was to examine the association between maternal education and child immunization (12-23 months) in Kenya. This study used retrospective cross-sectional data from the 2008-2009 Kenya Demographic and Health Survey for women aged 15-49, who had children aged 12-23 months, and who answered questions about vaccination in the survey (n = 1,707). The majority of the children had received vaccinations, with 77 % for poliomyelitis, 74 % for measles, 94 % for tuberculosis, and 91 % for diphtheria, whooping cough (pertussis), and tetanus. After adjusting for other covariates, women with primary, secondary, and college/university education were between 2.21 (p < 0.01) and 9.10 (p < 0.001) times more likely to immunize their children than those who had less than a primary education. Maternal education is clearly crucial in ensuring good health outcomes among children, and integrating immunization knowledge with maternal and child health services is imperative. More research is needed to identify factors influencing immunization decisions among less-educated women in Kenya. PMID:25636652

  7. Success in reducing maternal and child mortality in Afghanistan.

    PubMed

    Rasooly, Mohammad Hafiz; Govindasamy, Pav; Aqil, Anwer; Rutstein, Shea; Arnold, Fred; Noormal, Bashiruddin; Way, Ann; Brock, Susan; Shadoul, Ahmed

    2014-01-01

    After the collapse of the Taliban regime in 2002, Afghanistan adopted a new development path and billions of dollars were invested in rebuilding the country's economy and health systems with the help of donors. These investments have led to substantial improvements in maternal and child health in recent years and ultimately to a decrease in maternal and child mortality. The 2010 Afghanistan Mortality Survey (AMS) provides important new information on the levels and trends in these indicators. The AMS estimated that there are 327 maternal deaths for every 100,000 live births (95% confidence interval = 260-394) and 97 deaths before the age of five years for every 1000 children born. Decreases in these mortality rates are consistent with changes in key determinants of mortality, including an increasing age at marriage, higher contraceptive use, lower fertility, better immunisation coverage, improvements in the percentage of women delivering in health facilities and receiving antenatal and postnatal care, involvement of community health workers and increasing access to the Basic Package of Health Services. Despite the impressive gains in these areas, many challenges remain. Further improvements in health services in Afghanistan will require sustained efforts on the part of both the Government of Afghanistan and international donors. PMID:24003828

  8. Impacts of maternal mortality on living children and families: A qualitative study from Butajira, Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Background The consequences of maternal mortality on orphaned children and the family members who support them are dramatic, especially in countries that have high maternal mortality like Ethiopia. As part of a four country, mixed-methods study (Ethiopia, Malawi, South Africa, and Tanzania) qualitative data were collected in Butajira, Ethiopia with the aim of exploring the far reaching consequences of maternal deaths on families and children. Methods We conducted interviews with 28 adult family members of women who died from maternal causes, as well as 13 stakeholders (government officials, civil society, and a UN agency); and held 10 focus group discussions with 87 community members. Data were analyzed using NVivo10 software for qualitative analysis. Results We found that newborns and children whose mothers died from maternal causes face nutrition deficits, and are less likely to access needed health care than children with living mothers. Older children drop out of school to care for younger siblings and contribute to household and farm labor which may be beyond their capacity and age, and often choose migration in search of better opportunities. Family fragmentation is common following maternal death, leading to tenuous relationships within a household with the births and prioritization of additional children further stretching limited financial resources. Currently, there is no formal standardized support system for families caring for vulnerable children in Ethiopia. Conclusions Impacts of maternal mortality on children are far-reaching and have the potential to last into adulthood. Coordinated, multi-sectorial efforts towards mitigating the impacts on children and families following a maternal death are lacking. In order to prevent impacts on children and families, efforts targeting maternal mortality must address inequalities in access to care at the community, facility, and policy levels. PMID:26001276

  9. Maternal hair selenium levels as a possible long-term nutritional indicator of recurrent pregnancy loss

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Approximately 1% of all couples trying to conceive will suffer from recurrent pregnancy loss (RPL). Nutritional deficiencies have been postulated as a possible cause of RPL and in particular, selenium deficiency has been associated with reproductive failure in animal studies and more recently, in some human studies. This study was undertaken to assess the maternal hair selenium levels in women with RPL without an identified cause and to compare these results with those of women with successful reproductive histories. Methods Twenty four patients with RPL and twenty four control subjects with at least one successful pregnancy and no pregnancy failures, who were matched for age and ethnicity, were recruited. A questionnaire was completed, which included demographic and social information and a dietary history. Hair samples were collected and analyzed for selenium content by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. Results The control subjects had a higher mean income and had completed more years of education compared with the RPL patients. There was no significant difference in the intake of selenium rich foods between the 2 groups. The patients, however, consumed significantly more fruit, cheese, potatoes and chocolate than the controls. The median (range) selenium content was 0.80 ppm (0.19-4.15) and 0.68 ppm (0.43-3.76) in patients and controls respectively (Mann Whitney U test 209.5 p?=?0.74). Conclusions While there were significant differences in the 2 groups with regard to resources, education and diet our results show that hair selenium concentrations and dietary selenium intake, were similar in the two groups. Both groups had low levels of this important element. PMID:24148900

  10. Prevalence of Infant Television Viewing and Maternal Depression Symptoms

    PubMed Central

    Anand, Vibha; Downs, Stephen M; Bauer, Nerissa S; Carroll, Aaron E.

    2014-01-01

    Background Early TV viewing has been linked with maternal depression and has adverse health effects in children. However it is not known how early TV viewing occurs. We evaluated the prevalence at which parents report television (TV) viewing for their children if asked in the first two years of life and whether TV viewing is associated with maternal depression symptoms. Methods Using a cross-sectional design, we evaluated TV viewing in children 0 – 2 years of age in 4 pediatric clinics in Indianapolis, IN between January 2011 and April 2012. Families were screened for any parental report of depression symptoms (0 – 15 months) and for parental report of TV viewing (before 2 years of age) using a computerized clinical decision support system (CDSS) linked to the patient’s electronic health record (EHR). Results There were 3,254 children in the study. By parent report 50% of children view TV by 2 months of age, 75% by 4 months of age and 90% by 2 years of age. Complete data for both TV viewing and maternal depression symptoms were available for 2,397 (74%) of children. In regression models, the odds of parental report of TV viewing increased by 27% for each additional month of child’s age (OR: 1.27, CI: 1.25 – 1.30, p < 0.001). The odds of TV viewing increased by almost half with parental report of depression symptoms (OR: 1.47, CI: 1.07 – 2.00, p = 0.016). Publicly insured children had three times the odds of TV viewing compared to children with private insurance (OR: 3.00, CI: 1.60 – 5.63, p = 0.001). Black children had almost four times the odds (OR: 3.75, CI: 2.70 – 5.21, p < 0.001) and White children had one and a half times the odds (OR: 1.55, CI: 1.04 – 2.30, p = 0.032) of TV viewing when compared to Latino children. Conclusions By parental report TV viewing occurs at a very young age in infancy, usually between 0 to 3 months and varies by insurance and race/ethnicity. Children whose parents report depression symptoms are especially at risk for early TV viewing. Like maternal depression, TV viewing poses added risks for reduced interpersonal interactions to stimulate infant development. This work suggests the need to develop early targeted developmental interventions. PMID:24633063

  11. The Median-Median Line

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, David C.

    2010-01-01

    Graphing bivariate data in a scatter plot and drawing an approximate line of best fit for the data have become commonly recommended activities for middle school and high school students. The graphing calculator has provided a mechanism for students both to approximate a best-fit line and to calculate the best-fit line using a built-in option. Two…

  12. Potential impacts of highway median barriers on wildlife: state of the practice and gap analysis.

    PubMed

    Clevenger, Anthony P; Kociolek, Angela V

    2013-11-01

    Median barriers separate lanes of traffic moving in opposite directions on multilane highways. Such traffic safety devices can reduce head-on collisions but also have the potential to reduce landscape permeability by impeding wildlife movements across highways. Median barriers may also increase the risk of wildlife-vehicle collisions if an animal becomes trapped or confused amid barriers searching for a place to cross. A 2002 Transportation Research Board report highlighted the need to better understand the potential impacts of highway median barriers on wildlife. This lack of information can cause significant project delays and increase transportation project costs. This study represents the first attempt in North America to bring together information about highway median and roadside barriers and wildlife and provide preliminary guidelines to balance the needs of motorist safety and wildlife movements. PMID:24002545

  13. 16 CFR Figure 2 to Part 1203 - ISO Headform-Basic, Reference, and Median Planes

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY ACT REGULATIONS SAFETY STANDARD FOR BICYCLE HELMETS Pt. 1203, Fig. 2 Figure 2 to Part 1203—ISO Headform-Basic, Reference, and Median Planes...

  14. Rare communication between the musculocutaneous and median nerves in the forearm: its clinical significance.

    PubMed

    Liu, Hong-Fu; Won, Hyung-Sun; Chung, In-Hyuk; Kim, Seung-Min; Kim, In-Beom

    2014-10-01

    Morphologic classifications of communication between musculocutaneous and median nerves are not based on the distribution and the function of the communicating branch. The authors report a rare case of such a communication with passage of the median nerve through the pronator teres muscle and discuss its clinical significance. The musculocutaneous nerve was divided into a lateral branch that continued to the lateral antebrachial cutaneous nerve and a medial branch that joined the median nerve in the forearm. The authors separated the nerve bundles and noted that the communicating branch derived from the sixth to seventh cervical nerves and supplied nerve fibers to the pronator teres muscle and the proper palmar digital nerve of the thumb. In addition, the median nerve penetrated the humeral head of the pronator teres muscle. Isolated musculocutaneous neuropathy with such a communication may cause unexpected symptoms such as sensory deficit in the palm and muscular weakness of the forearm and the thumb. PMID:25122101

  15. Suppression of impulse noise in medical images with the use of Fuzzy Adaptive Median Filter.

    PubMed

    Toprak, Abdullah; Güler, Inan

    2006-12-01

    A new rule based fuzzy filter for removal of highly impulse noise, called Rule Based Fuzzy Adaptive Median (RBFAM) Filter, is aimed to be discussed in this paper. The RBFAM filter is an improved version of Adaptive Median Filter (AMF) and is presented in the aim of noise reduction of images corrupted with additive impulse noise. The filter has three stages. Two of those stages are fuzzy rule based and last stage is based on standard median and adaptive median filter. The proposed filter can preserve image details better then AMF while suppressing additive salt & pepper or impulse type noise. In this paper, we placed our preference on bell-shaped membership function instead of triangular membership function in order to observe better results. Experimental results indicates that the proposed filter is improvable with increased fuzzy rules to reduce more noise corrupted images and to remove salt and pepper noise in a more effective way than what AMF filter does. PMID:17233159

  16. Comparison of median frequency between traditional and functional sensor placements during activity monitoring

    E-print Network

    Graham, Selina

    Long-term monitoring is of great clinical relevance. Accelerometers are often used to provide information about activities of daily living. The median frequency (f[subscript m]) of acceleration has recently been suggested ...

  17. Estimates of Median Flows for Streams on the 1999 Kansas Surface Water Register

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Perry, Charles A.; Wolock, David M.; Artman, Joshua C.

    2004-01-01

    The Kansas State Legislature, by enacting Kansas Statute KSA 82a?2001 et. seq., mandated the criteria for determining which Kansas stream segments would be subject to classification by the State. One criterion for the selection as a classified stream segment is based on the statistic of median flow being equal to or greater than 1 cubic foot per second. As specified by KSA 82a?2001 et. seq., median flows were determined from U.S. Geological Survey streamflow-gaging-station data by using the most-recent 10 years of gaged data (KSA) for each streamflow-gaging station. Median flows also were determined by using gaged data from the entire period of record (all-available hydrology, AAH). Least-squares multiple regression techniques were used, along with Tobit analyses, to develop equations for estimating median flows for uncontrolled stream segments. The drainage area of the gaging stations on uncontrolled stream segments used in the regression analyses ranged from 2.06 to 12,004 square miles. A logarithmic transformation of the data was needed to develop the best linear relation for computing median flows. In the regression analyses, the significant climatic and basin characteristics, in order of importance, were drainage area, mean annual precipitation, mean basin permeability, and mean basin slope. Tobit analyses of KSA data yielded a model standard error of prediction of 0.285 logarithmic units, and the best equations using Tobit analyses of AAH data had a model standard error of prediction of 0.250 logarithmic units. These regression equations and an interpolation procedure were used to compute median flows for the uncontrolled stream segments on the 1999 Kansas Surface Water Register. Measured median flows from gaging stations were incorporated into the regression-estimated median flows along the stream segments where available. The segments that were uncontrolled were interpolated using gaged data weighted according to the drainage area and the bias between the regression-estimated and gaged flow information. On controlled segments of Kansas streams, the median flow information was interpolated between gaging stations using only gaged data weighted by drainage area. Of the 2,232 total stream segments on the Kansas Surface Water Register, 34.5 percent of the segments had an estimated median streamflow of less than 1 cubic foot per second when the KSA analysis was used. When the AAH analysis was used, 36.2 percent of the segments had an estimated median streamflow of less than 1 cubic foot per second. This report supercedes U.S. Geological Survey Water-Resources Investigations Report 02?4292.

  18. Estimates of median flows for streams on the Kansas surface water register

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Perry, Charles A.; Wolock, David M.; Artman, Joshua C.

    2002-01-01

    The Kansas State Legislature, by enacting Kansas Statute KSA 82a-2001 et. seq., mandated the criteria for determining which Kansas stream segments would be subject to classification by the State. One criterion for the selection as a classified stream segment is based on the statistic of median flow being equal to or greater than 1 cubic foot per second. As specified by KSA 82a-2001 et. seq., median flows were determined from U.S. Geological Survey streamflow-gaging-station data by using the most-recent 10-years of gaged data (KSA) for each streamflow-gaging station. Median flows also were determined by using gaged data from the entire period of record (all-available hydrology, AAH). Least-squares multiple regression techniques were used, along with Tobit analyses, to develop equations for estimating median flows for uncontrolled stream segments. The drainage area of the uncontrolled gaging stations used in the regression analyses ranged from 2.06 to 12,004 square miles. A logarithmic transformation of the data was needed to develop the best linear relation for computing median flows. In the regression analyses, the significant climatic and basin characteristics, in order of importance, were drainage area, mean annual precipitation, mean basin permeability, and mean basin slope. Tobit analyses of KSA data yielded a root mean square error of 0.285 logarithmic units, and the best equations using Tobit analyses of AAH data had a root mean square error of 0.247 logarithmic units. These equations and an interpolation procedure were used to compute median flows for the uncontrolled stream segments on the Kansas Surface Water Register. Measured median flows from gaging stations were incorporated into the regression-estimated median flows along the stream segments where available. The segments that were uncontrolled were interpolated using gaged data weighted according to the drainage area and the bias between the regression-estimated and gaged flow information. On controlled reaches of Kansas streams, the median flow information was interpolated between gaging stations using only gaged data weighted by drainage area. Of the 2,232 total stream segments on the Kansas Surface Water Register, 30 percent of the segments had an estimated median streamflow of less than 1 cubic foot per second when the KSA analysis was used. When the AAH analysis was used, 40 percent of the segments had an estimated median streamflow of less than 1 cubic foot per second.

  19. Increased Waking Salivary Cortisol and Depression Risk in Preschoolers: The Role of Maternal History of Melancholic Depression and Early Child Temperament

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dougherty, Lea R.; Klein, Daniel N.; Olino, Thomas M.; Dyson, Margaret; Rose, Suzanne

    2009-01-01

    Background: Elevated morning cortisol is a prospective predictor of major depression and may serve as a vulnerability marker. We examined the relation between morning cortisol and two prominent risk factors for depression in preschool-aged children: maternal depression and child temperament. We also explored whether maternal depression during the…

  20. The Potential Impact of Changes in Fertility on Infant, Child, and Maternal Mortality. World Bank Staff Working Papers No. 698 and Population and Development Series No. 23.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trussell, James; Pebley, Anne R.

    The relationship between changes in the timing and quantity of fertility, such as those that might result from an effective family planning program in developing countries, and changes in child and maternal mortality is examined. Results from five multivariate studies estimate the changes in mortality that might occur from altering maternal age,…

  1. Two Are Better than One: The Joint Influence of Maternal Preparedness for Parenting and Children's Self-Esteem on Academic Achievement and Adjustment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Farris, Jaelyn; Burke Lefever, Jennifer E.; Borkowski, John G.; Whitman, Thomas L.

    2013-01-01

    Research Findings: This study investigated the joint influence of maternal cognitive readiness to parent and children's self-esteem on children's academic achievement and behavioral adjustment in the classroom at age 10. Participants were 153 adolescent mothers and their firstborn children. Findings indicated that low levels of prenatal maternal

  2. Lexical and Acoustic Features of Maternal Utterances Addressing Preverbal Infants in Picture Book Reading Link to 5-Year-Old Children's Language Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liu, Huei-Mei

    2014-01-01

    Research Findings: I examined the long-term association between the lexical and acoustic features of maternal utterances during book reading and the language skills of infants and children. Maternal utterances were collected from 22 mother-child dyads in picture book-reading episodes when children were ages 6-12 months and 5 years. Two aspects of…

  3. Elevated maternal cortisol leads to relative maternal hyperglycemia and increased stillbirth in ovine pregnancy

    PubMed Central

    Feng, Xiaodi; Wood, Charles E.; Richards, Elaine; Anthony, Russell V.; Dahl, Geoffrey E.; Tao, Sha

    2014-01-01

    In normal pregnancy, cortisol increases; however, further pathological increases in cortisol are associated with maternal and fetal morbidities. These experiments were designed to test the hypothesis that increased maternal cortisol would increase maternal glucose concentrations, suppress fetal growth, and impair neonatal glucose homeostasis. Ewes were infused with cortisol (1 mg·kg?1·day?1) from day 115 of gestation to term; maternal glucose, insulin, ovine placental lactogen, estrone, progesterone, nonesterified free fatty acids (NEFA), ?-hydroxybutyrate (BHB), and electrolytes were measured. Infusion of cortisol increased maternal glucose concentration and slowed the glucose disappearance after injection of glucose; maternal infusion of cortisol also increased the incidence of fetal death at or near parturition. The design of the study was altered to terminate the study prior to delivery, and post hoc analysis of the data was performed to test the hypothesis that maternal metabolic factors predict the fetal outcome. In cortisol-infused ewes that had stillborn lambs, plasma insulin was increased relative to control ewes or cortisol-infused ewes with live lambs. Maternal cortisol infusion did not alter maternal food intake or plasma NEFA, BHB, estrone, progesterone or placental lactogen concentrations, and it did not alter fetal body weight, ponderal index, or fetal organ weights. Our study suggests that the adverse effect of elevated maternal cortisol on pregnancy outcome may be related to the effects of cortisol on maternal glucose homeostasis, and that chronic maternal stress or adrenal hypersecretion of cortisol may create fetal pathophysiology paralleling some aspects of maternal gestational diabetes. PMID:24920731

  4. Preliminary evaluation of a primary care intervention for cry-fuss behaviours in the first 3-4 months of life ('The Possums Approach'): effects on cry-fuss behaviours and maternal mood.

    PubMed

    Douglas, Pamela S; Miller, Yvette; Bucetti, Anne; Hill, Peter S; Creedy, Debra K

    2015-01-01

    Problem crying in the first few months of life is both common and complex, arising out of multiple interacting and co-evolving factors. Parents whose babies cry and fuss a lot receive conflicting advice as they seek help from multiple health providers and emergency departments, and may be admitted into tertiary residential services. Conflicting advice is costly, and arises out of discipline-specific interpretations of evidence. An integrated, interdisciplinary primary care intervention ('The Possums Approach') for cry-fuss problems in the first months of life was developed from available peer-reviewed evidence. This study reports on preliminary evaluation of delivery of the intervention. A total of 20 mothers who had crying babies under 16 weeks of age (average age 6.15 weeks) completed questionnaires, including the Crying Patterns Questionnaire and the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale, before and 3-4 weeks after their first consultation with trained primary care practitioners. Preliminary evaluation is promising. The Crying Patterns Questionnaire showed a significant decrease in crying and fussing duration, by 1h in the evening (P=0.001) and 30 min at night (P=0.009). The median total amount of crying and fussing in a 24-h period was reduced from 6.12 to 3h. The Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale showed a significant improvement in depressive symptoms, with the median score decreasing from 11 to 6 (P=0.005). These findings are corroborated by an analysis of results for the subset of 16 participants whose babies were under 12 weeks of age (average age 4.71 weeks). These preliminary results demonstrate significantly decreased infant crying in the evening and during the night and improved maternal mood, validating an innovative interdisciplinary clinical intervention for cry-fuss problems in the first few months of life. This intervention, delivered by trained health professionals, has the potential to mitigate the costly problem of health professionals giving discipline-specific and conflicting advice post-birth. PMID:23992773

  5. Maternal and cord blood levels of aldrin and dieldrin in Delhi population.

    PubMed

    Mustafa, Md; Pathak, Rahul; Tripathi, A K; Ahmed, Rafat S; Guleria, Kiran; Banerjee, B D

    2010-12-01

    Aldrin and dieldrin, structurally similar organochlorine pesticides belong to cyclodiene family and were widely used for agriculture and public health program in India. Although the manufacturing, use and import of aldrin and dieldrin have been banned in India since 2003, these pesticides are still persistent in environment and may be associated with adverse neurological and reproductive effects. The aim of this study is to assess the recent exposure level of aldrin and dieldrin and their placental transfer to fetus in normal healthy full-term pregnant women belonging to north Indian population undergoing normal delivery at Obstetrics and Gynecology department of UCMS and GTB hospital, Delhi. Quantitative analysis of aldrin and dieldrin residues in maternal and cord blood samples were carried out by gas chromatography system equipped with electron capture detector. The results of our study clearly revealed that maternal and cord blood levels of aldrin and dieldrin of pregnant women are age and dietary habit dependent. The aldrin level in maternal blood and dieldrin level in cord blood are higher in women in the age group 25-30 years than in women in age group of 19-24 years. Similarly, aldrin level in maternal blood is significantly higher in women with non-vegetarian dietary habit than in women with vegetarian dietary habit. No significant association is found for maternal and cord blood level. The results of the present study clearly demonstrate prenatal uptake of aldrin and dieldrin and provide recent information on the subsequent transplacental transfer. PMID:20195752

  6. Maternal Cocaine Use: Estimated Effects on Mother-Child Play Interactions in the Preschool Period

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Arnise L.; Morrow, Connie E.; Accornero, Veronica H.; Xue, Lihua; Anthony, James C.; Bandstra, Emmalee S.

    2009-01-01

    The study objective was to evaluate the quality of parent-child interactions in preschool-aged children exposed prenatally to cocaine. African-American mothers and their full-term newborns (n = 343) were enrolled prospectively at birth and classified as either prenatally cocaine-exposed (n = 157) or non–cocaine-exposed (n = 186) on the basis of maternal self-report and bioassays. Follow-up evaluations at 3 years of age (mean age, 40 mo) included a videotaped dyadic play session and maternal interviews to assess ongoing drug use and maternal psychological distress. Play interactions were coded using a modified version of Egeland et al’s Teaching Task coding scheme. Regression analyses indicated cocaine-associated deficits in mother-child interaction, even with statistical adjustment for multiple suspected influences on interaction dynamics. Mother-child interactions were most impaired in cocaine-exposed dyads when the mother continued to report cocaine use at the 3-year follow-up. Multivariate profile analysis of the Egeland interaction subscales indicated greater maternal intrusiveness and hostility, poorer quality of instruction, lower maternal confidence, and diminished child persistence in the cocaine-exposed dyads. PMID:12177564

  7. Maternal sensitivity, infant limbic structure volume and functional connectivity: a preliminary study.

    PubMed

    Rifkin-Graboi, A; Kong, L; Sim, L W; Sanmugam, S; Broekman, B F P; Chen, H; Wong, E; Kwek, K; Saw, S-M; Chong, Y-S; Gluckman, P D; Fortier, M V; Pederson, D; Meaney, M J; Qiu, A

    2015-01-01

    Mechanisms underlying the profound parental effects on cognitive, emotional and social development in humans remain poorly understood. Studies with nonhuman models suggest variations in parental care affect the limbic system, influential to learning, autobiography and emotional regulation. In some research, nonoptimal care relates to decreases in neurogenesis, although other work suggests early-postnatal social adversity accelerates the maturation of limbic structures associated with emotional learning. We explored whether maternal sensitivity predicts human limbic system development and functional connectivity patterns in a small sample of human infants. When infants were 6 months of age, 20 mother-infant dyads attended a laboratory-based observational session and the infants underwent neuroimaging at the same age. After considering age at imaging, household income and postnatal maternal anxiety, regression analyses demonstrated significant indirect associations between maternal sensitivity and bilateral hippocampal volume at six months, with the majority of associations between sensitivity and the amygdala demonstrating similar indirect, but not significant results. Moreover, functional analyses revealed direct associations between maternal sensitivity and connectivity between the hippocampus and areas important for emotional regulation and socio-emotional functioning. Sensitivity additionally predicted indirect associations between limbic structures and regions related to autobiographical memory. Our volumetric results are consistent with research indicating accelerated limbic development in response to early social adversity, and in combination with our functional results, if replicated in a larger sample, may suggest that subtle, but important, variations in maternal care influence neuroanatomical trajectories important to future cognitive and emotional functioning. PMID:26506054

  8. Distribution of causes of maternal mortality among different socio-demographic groups in Ghana; a descriptive study

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Ghana's maternal mortality ratio remains high despite efforts made to meet Millennium Development Goal 5. A number of studies have been conducted on maternal mortality in Ghana; however, little is known about how the causes of maternal mortality are distributed in different socio-demographic subgroups. Therefore the aim of this study was to assess and analyse the causes of maternal mortality according to socio-demographic factors in Ghana. Methods The causes of maternal deaths were assessed with respect to age, educational level, rural/urban residence status and marital status. Data from a five year retrospective survey was used. The data was obtained from Ghana Maternal Health Survey 2007 acquired from the database of Ghana Statistical Service. A total of 605 maternal deaths within the age group 12-49 years were analysed using frequency tables, cross-tabulations and logistic regression. Results Haemorrhage was the highest cause of maternal mortality (22.8%). Married women had a significantly higher risk of dying from haemorrhage, compared with single women (adjusted OR = 2.7, 95%CI = 1.2-5.7). On the contrary, married women showed a significantly reduced risk of dying from abortion compared to single women (adjusted OR = 0.2, 95%CI = 0.1-0.4). Women aged 35-39years had a significantly higher risk of dying from haemorrhage (aOR 2.6, 95%CI = 1.4-4.9), whereas they were at a lower risk of dying from abortion (aOR 0.3, 95% CI = 0.1-0.7) compared to their younger counterparts. The risk of maternal death from infectious diseases decreased with increasing maternal age, whereas the risk of dying from miscellaneous causes increased with increasing age. Conclusions The study shows evidence of variations in the causes of maternal mortality among different socio-demographic subgroups in Ghana that should not be overlooked. It is therefore recommended that interventions aimed at combating the high maternal mortality in Ghana should be both cause-specific as well as target-specific. PMID:21392387

  9. Quantifying the Interactions between Maternal and Fetal Heart Rates by Transfer Entropy

    PubMed Central

    Marzbanrad, Faezeh; Kimura, Yoshitaka; Palaniswami, Marimuthu; Khandoker, Ahsan H.

    2015-01-01

    Evidence of the short term relationship between maternal and fetal heart rates has been found in previous studies. However there is still limited knowledge about underlying mechanisms and patterns of the coupling throughout gestation. In this study, Transfer Entropy (TE) was used to quantify directed interactions between maternal and fetal heart rates at various time delays and gestational ages. Experimental results using maternal and fetal electrocardiograms showed significant coupling for 63 out of 65 fetuses, by statistically validating against surrogate pairs. Analysis of TE showed a decrease in transfer of information from fetus to the mother with gestational age, alongside the maturation of the fetus. On the other hand, maternal to fetal TE was significantly greater in mid (26–31 weeks) and late (32–41 weeks) gestation compared to early (16–25 weeks) gestation (Mann Whitney Wilcoxon (MWW) p<0.05). TE further increased from mid to late, for the fetuses with RMSSD of fetal heart rate being larger than 4 msec in the late gestation. This difference was not observed for the fetuses with smaller RMSSD, which could be associated with the quiet sleep state. Delay in the information transfer from mother to fetus significantly decreased (p = 0.03) from mid to late gestation, implying a decrease in fetal response time. These changes occur concomitant with the maturation of the fetal sensory and autonomic nervous systems with advancing gestational age. The effect of maternal respiratory rate derived from maternal ECG was also investigated and no significant relationship was found between breathing rate and TE at any lag. In conclusion, the application of TE with delays revealed detailed information on the fetal-maternal heart rate coupling strength and latency throughout gestation, which could provide novel clinical markers of fetal development and well-being. PMID:26701122

  10. Breastfeeding and the use of maternal health services in Sarawak.

    PubMed

    Kwa, S K

    1993-06-01

    In Malaysia, a demographer analyzed data on 1583 children born to 1047 15-49 year old mothers in the 5 years before the 1989 Population and Family Survey was conducted in all districts of Sarawak, except Belaga. She examined the relationship between use of maternal health services, including contraception, and the breast feeding pattern. Most women used prenatal care and postnatal care services (98.2% and 82.6%, respectively). The mean duration of breast feeding was only 6.13 months while the median duration was even shorter (3 months). Mothers who received prenatal care were more likely to initiate breast feeding than those who received no prenatal care (84.1% vs. 75%), but their duration of breast feeding was much shorter (median, 5 vs. 14.3 months). Women who delivered at a private hospital compared to those who delivered elsewhere were less likely to initiate breast feeding (70.6% vs. 84.6-88.9%) and breast feed for a shorter period of time (median, 2.36 vs. 4.41-13.56 months). Nurses in private hospitals care for newborns in a separate room and give prelacteal feeds, particularly commercial infant formula, which jeopardizes mothers' initiation of breast feeding. Women who were assisted by a physician had the lowest rate of initiation of breast feeding (70.5% vs. 86.2-92.4%) and the shortest duration of breast feeding (2.68 vs. 4.67-14.55 months). Women who had ever used contraception compared to those who had never used contraception were somewhat less likely to initiate breast feeding (83.2% vs. 87.5%) and breast feed for a shorter time (4.29 vs. 12.82 months). These results suggest that the government needs to change its policies on health services to promote breast feeding. It should target health personnel and clients in the private sector and family planning workers. PMID:12318984

  11. Intratypic heterologous vaccination of calves can induce an antibody response in presence of maternal antibodies against foot-and-mouth disease virus

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Maternal antibodies can interfere with foot-and-mouth disease vaccination. In this study we determined whether intratypic heterologous vaccination could help to improve herd immunity. Results In unvaccinated calves, a half-life of maternal antibodies of 21 days was determined. At two weeks of age, calves without maternal antibodies showed a good antibody response against both vaccines used in the trial, while in calves with maternal antibodies no antibody response to homologous vaccination (A Turkey 14/98) but a limited antibody response to intratypic heterologous vaccination (A22 Iraq) was observed. Conclusion Two weeks old calves without maternal antibodies respond well to vaccination, but when emergency vaccination is carried out in a region that uses prophylactic vaccination, using an intratypic heterologous vaccine strain may improve the immunity in calves with maternal antibodies. PMID:24906852

  12. Maternal hyperventilation and foetal hypocapnia in sheep.

    PubMed

    Baillie, P; Dawes, G S; Merlet, C L; Richards, R

    1971-11-01

    1. In anaesthetized foetal lambs near term, hypocapnia induced by maternal hyperventilation abolished the rise of arterial pressure and femoral vasoconstriction caused by hypoxaemia. This is consistent with interaction of P(CO2) and P(O2) on the foetal aortic bodies.2. In immature lambs (0.6-0.77 of term) maternal hyperventilation caused a fall in foetal carotid P(CO2) commensurate with that in the maternal blood. In mature lambs (at 0.9 or more of term) the fall in foetal carotid P(CO2) was less than that in maternal blood, whether the foetus was exteriorized or in utero.3. The mean transplacental gradient for P(CO2) (maternal arterial-umbilical vascular), when the foetus was replaced with a mechanical pump recirculating foetal blood, was 6.3 mm Hg. This is attributed to placental CO(2) production, and is nearly half the mean P(CO2) gradient (maternal artery-foetal carotid) of about 14 mm Hg during normal maternal ventilation.4. The mean maternal-umbilical transcotyledonary venous gradients (avoiding vascular shunts through the myometrium and intercotyledonary chorion) were for P(CO2) 1.7 mm Hg and for P(O2) 13.4 mm Hg.5. Maternal hyperventilation (P(a, CO2) approximately 20 mm Hg) caused a small fall in mean foetal carotid P(O2) (5 mm Hg), which was readily reversible with no evidence of progressive acidaemia. PMID:5133951

  13. Developmental programming by maternal obesity in 2015: Outcomes, mechanisms, and potential interventions.

    PubMed

    Penfold, Naomi C; Ozanne, Susan E

    2015-11-01

    This article is part of a Special Issue "SBN 2014". Obesity in women of child-bearing age is a growing problem in developed and developing countries. Evidence from human studies indicates that maternal BMI correlates with offspring adiposity from an early age and predisposes to metabolic disease in later life. Thus the early life environment is an attractive target for intervention to improve public health. Animal models have been used to investigate the specific physiological outcomes and mechanisms of developmental programming that result from exposure to maternal obesity in utero. From this research, targeted intervention strategies can be designed. In this review we summarise recent progress in this field, with a focus on cardiometabolic disease and central control of appetite and behaviour. We highlight key factors that may mediate programming by maternal obesity, including leptin, insulin, and ghrelin. Finally, we explore potential lifestyle and pharmacological interventions in humans and the current state of evidence from animal models. PMID:26145566

  14. Evidence from Maternity Leave Expansions of the Impact of Maternal Care on Early Child Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baker, Michael; Milligan, Kevin

    2010-01-01

    We study the impact of maternal care on early child development using an expansion in Canadian maternity leave entitlements. Following the leave expansion, mothers who took leave spent 48-58 percent more time not working in their children's first year of life. This extra maternal care primarily crowded out home-based care by unlicensed…

  15. Maternal Psychiatric Disorders, Parenting, and Maternal Behavior in the Home during the Child Rearing Years

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Jeffrey G.; Cohen, Patricia; Kasen, Stephanie; Brook, Judith S.

    2006-01-01

    Data from the Children in the Community Study, a community-based longitudinal study, were used to investigate associations between maternal psychiatric disorders and child-rearing behaviors. Maternal psychiatric symptoms and behavior in the home were assessed in 782 families during the childhood and adolescence of the offspring. Maternal anxiety,…

  16. The Influence of Maternal Acculturation, Neighborhood Disadvantage, and Parenting on Chinese American Adolescents’ Conduct Problems: Testing the Segmented Assimilation Hypothesis

    PubMed Central

    Lau, Anna S.; Chen, Angela Chia-Chen; Dinh, Khanh T.; Kim, Su Yeong

    2009-01-01

    Associations among neighborhood disadvantage, maternal acculturation, parenting and conduct problems were investigated in a sample of 444 Chinese American adolescents. Adolescents (54% female, 46% male) ranged from 12 to 15 years of age (mean age = 13.0 years). Multilevel modeling was employed to test the hypothesis that the association between maternal acculturation and adolescents’ conduct problems could be explained by differences in mothers’ reliance on monitoring and harsh discipline. In addition, guided by segmented assimilation theory, measures of neighborhood disadvantage were expected not only to be related to differences in parenting, but also to moderate the effects of maternal acculturation on parenting. Results indicated that increased maternal acculturation was related to higher levels of maternal monitoring and lower levels of harsh discipline, which, in turn, were related to lower levels of adolescents’ conduct problems. Hierarchical linear modeling results revealed that neighborhood disadvantage was related to lower levels of maternal monitoring. However, neighborhood disadvantage did not moderate the link between maternal acculturation and parenting practices. PMID:19636764

  17. Determining median urinary iodine concentration that indicates adequate iodine intake at population level.

    PubMed Central

    Delange, François; de Benoist, Bruno; Burgi, Hans

    2002-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Urinary iodine concentration is the prime indicator of nutritional iodine status and is used to evaluate population-based iodine supplementation. In 1994, WHO, UNICEF and ICCIDD recommended median urinary iodine concentrations for populations of 100- 200 micro g/l, assuming the 100 micro g/l threshold would limit concentrations <50 micro g/l to median urinary iodine concentrations >100 micro g/l. The total population was 55 892, including 35 661 (64%) schoolchildren. Median urinary iodine concentrations were 111-540 (median 201) micro g/l for all populations, 100-199 micro g/l in 23 (48%) populations and >/=200 micro g/l in 25 (52%). The frequencies of values <50 micro g/l were 0-20.8 (mean 4.8%) overall and 7.2% and 2.5% in populations with medians of 100-199 micro g/l and >200 micro g/l, respectively. The frequency reached 20% only in two places where iodine had been supplemented for <2 years. CONCLUSION: The frequency of urinary iodine concentrations <50 micro g/l in populations with median urinary iodine concentrations >/=100 micro g/l has been overestimated. The threshold of 100 micro g/l does not need to be increased. In populations, median urinary iodine concentrations of 100-200 micro g/l indicate adequate iodine intake and optimal iodine nutrition. PMID:12219154

  18. Travel time to maternity care and its effect on utilization in rural Ghana: a multilevel analysis.

    PubMed

    Masters, Samuel H; Burstein, Roy; Amofah, George; Abaogye, Patrick; Kumar, Santosh; Hanlon, Michael

    2013-09-01

    Rates of neonatal and maternal mortality are high in Ghana. In-facility delivery and other maternal services could reduce this burden, yet utilization rates of key maternal services are relatively low, especially in rural areas. We tested a theoretical implication that travel time negatively affects the use of in-facility delivery and other maternal services. Empirically, we used geospatial techniques to estimate travel times between populations and health facilities. To account for uncertainty in Ghana Demographic and Health Survey cluster locations, we adopted a novel approach of treating the location selection as an imputation problem. We estimated a multilevel random-intercept logistic regression model. For rural households, we found that travel time had a significant effect on the likelihood of in-facility delivery and antenatal care visits, holding constant education, wealth, maternal age, facility capacity, female autonomy, and the season of birth. In contrast, a facility's capacity to provide sophisticated maternity care had no detectable effect on utilization. As the Ghanaian health network expands, our results suggest that increasing the availability of basic obstetric services and improving transport infrastructure may be important interventions. PMID:23906132

  19. Effect of fetal growth on maternal protein metabolism in postabsorptive rat

    SciTech Connect

    Ling, P.R.; Bistrian, B.R.; Blackburn, G.L.; Istfan, N.

    1987-03-01

    Rates of protein synthesis were measured in whole fetuses and maternal tissues at 17 and 20 days of gestation in postabsorptive rats using continuous infusion of L-(1-/sup 14/C)leucine. Fetal protein degradation rates were derived from the fractional rates of synthesis and growth. Whole-body (plasma) leucine kinetics in the mother showed a significant reduction of the fraction of plasma leucine oxidized in the mothers bearing older fetuses, a slight increase in the plasma flux, with total leucine oxidation and incorporation into protein remaining similar at the two gestational ages. Estimates of fractional protein synthesis in maternal tissues revealed an increase in placental and hepatic rates at 20 days of gestation, whereas the fractional synthetic rate in muscle remained unchanged. A model for estimation of the redistribution of leucine between plasma and tissues is described in detail. This model revealed a more efficient utilization of leucine in fetal protein synthesis in comparison with other maternal tissues, a greater dependency of the fetus on plasma supply of leucine, and a significant increase (2-fold) in the release of leucine from maternal muscle as the fetal requirements increased proportionately with its size. The latter conclusion, supported by nitrogen analysis and the ratio of bound-to-free leucine in maternal tissues, confirms the importance of maternal stores in maintaining the homeostasis of essential amino acids during late pregnancy.

  20. August Median Streamflow on Ungaged Streams in Eastern Aroostook County, Maine

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lombard, Pamela J.; Tasker, Gary D.; Nielsen, Martha G.

    2003-01-01

    Methods for estimating August median streamflow were developed for ungaged, unregulated streams in the eastern part of Aroostook County, Maine, with drainage areas from 0.38 to 43 square miles and mean basin elevations from 437 to 1,024 feet. Few long-term, continuous-record streamflow-gaging stations with small drainage areas were available from which to develop the equations; therefore, 24 partial-record gaging stations were established in this investigation. A mathematical technique for estimating a standard low-flow statistic, August median streamflow, at partial-record stations was applied by relating base-flow measurements at these stations to concurrent daily flows at nearby long-term, continuous-record streamflow- gaging stations (index stations). Generalized least-squares regression analysis (GLS) was used to relate estimates of August median streamflow at gaging stations to basin characteristics at these same stations to develop equations that can be applied to estimate August median streamflow on ungaged streams. GLS accounts for varying periods of record at the gaging stations and the cross correlation of concurrent streamflows among gaging stations. Twenty-three partial-record stations and one continuous-record station were used for the final regression equations. The basin characteristics of drainage area and mean basin elevation are used in the calculated regression equation for ungaged streams to estimate August median flow. The equation has an average standard error of prediction from -38 to 62 percent. A one-variable equation uses only drainage area to estimate August median streamflow when less accuracy is acceptable. This equation has an average standard error of prediction from -40 to 67 percent. Model error is larger than sampling error for both equations, indicating that additional basin characteristics could be important to improved estimates of low-flow statistics. Weighted estimates of August median streamflow, which can be used when making estimates at partial-record or continuous-record gaging stations, range from 0.03 to 11.7 cubic feet per second or from 0.1 to 0.4 cubic feet per second per square mile. Estimates of August median streamflow on ungaged streams in the eastern part of Aroostook County, within the range of acceptable explanatory variables, range from 0.03 to 30 cubic feet per second or 0.1 to 0.7 cubic feet per second per square mile. Estimates of August median streamflow per square mile of drainage area generally increase as mean elevation and drainage area increase.

  1. June and August median streamflows estimated for ungaged streams in southern Maine

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lombard, Pamela J.

    2010-01-01

    Methods for estimating June and August median streamflows were developed for ungaged, unregulated streams in southern Maine. The methods apply to streams with drainage areas ranging in size from 0.4 to 74 square miles, with percentage of basin underlain by a sand and gravel aquifer ranging from 0 to 84 percent, and with distance from the centroid of the basin to a Gulf of Maine line paralleling the coast ranging from 14 to 94 miles. Equations were developed with data from 4 long-term continuous-record streamgage stations and 27 partial-record streamgage stations. Estimates of median streamflows at the continuous-record and partial-record stations are presented. A mathematical technique for estimating standard low-flow statistics, such as June and August median streamflows, at partial-record streamgage stations was applied by relating base-flow measurements at these stations to concurrent daily streamflows at nearby long-term (at least 10 years of record) continuous-record streamgage stations (index stations). Weighted least-squares regression analysis (WLS) was used to relate estimates of June and August median streamflows at streamgage stations to basin characteristics at these same stations to develop equations that can be used to estimate June and August median streamflows on ungaged streams. WLS accounts for different periods of record at the gaging stations. Three basin characteristics-drainage area, percentage of basin underlain by a sand and gravel aquifer, and distance from the centroid of the basin to a Gulf of Maine line paralleling the coast-are used in the final regression equation to estimate June and August median streamflows for ungaged streams. The three-variable equation to estimate June median streamflow has an average standard error of prediction from -35 to 54 percent. The three-variable equation to estimate August median streamflow has an average standard error of prediction from -45 to 83 percent. Simpler one-variable equations that use only drainage area to estimate June and August median streamflows were developed for use when less accuracy is acceptable. These equations have average standard errors of prediction from -46 to 87 percent and from -57 to 133 percent, respectively.

  2. Sensoric Protection after Median Nerve Injury: Babysitter-Procedure Prevents Muscular Atrophy and Improves Neuronal Recovery

    PubMed Central

    Beck-Broichsitter, Benedicta E.; Becker, Stephan T.; Lamia, Androniki; Fregnan, Federica; Sinis, Nektarios

    2014-01-01

    The babysitter-procedure might offer an alternative when nerve reconstruction is delayed in order to overcome muscular atrophy due to denervation. In this study we aimed to show that a sensomotoric babysitter-procedure after median nerve injury is capable of preserving irreversible muscular atrophy. The median nerve of 20 female Wistar rats was denervated. 10 animals received a sensory protection with the N. cutaneous brachii. After six weeks the median nerve was reconstructed by autologous nerve grafting from the contralateral median nerve in the babysitter and the control groups. Grasping tests measured functional recovery over 15 weeks. At the end of the observation period the weight of the flexor digitorum sublimis muscle was determined. The median nerve was excised for histological examinations. Muscle weight (P < 0.0001) was significantly superior in the babysitter group compared to the control group at the end of the study. The histological evaluation revealed a significantly higher diameter of axons (P = 0.0194), nerve fiber (P = 0.0409), and nerve surface (P = 0.0184) in the babysitter group. We conclude that sensory protection of a motor nerve is capable of preserving muscule weight and we may presume that metabolism of the sensory nerve was sufficient to keep the target muscle's weight and vitality. PMID:25133176

  3. Comparison of Maternal and Umbilical Cord Blood Selenium Levels in Low and Normal Birth Weight Neonates

    PubMed Central

    Nazemi, Lyly; Shariat, Mamak; Chamari, Maryam; Chahardoli, Reza; Asgarzadeh, Leila; Seighali, Fariba

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To compare the maternal and umbilical cord serum selenium concentrations in Low and normal birth weight neonates. Materials and methods: A case-control study was carried out in Vali-Asr and Akbarabadi Hospitals (Jan. to Dec. 2013). Two groups; case group; 91 mothers who delivered a low birth weight (LBW) neonate and control group; 86 subjects who delivered a normal birth weight neonate were selected. Immediately after birth, 5 ml of maternal blood and umbilical cord blood were collected, and sent to laboratory to assay Se concentrations. To compare both groups' blood Se concentration, data were analyzed in SPSS 16.0. Results: Eighty six (48.6%) mothers with normal birth weight neonates and 91 (51.4%) mothers with low birth weight infants entered the study. Mean maternal mothers' age and mean maternal blood Se were 28.55 + 5.90 years and 79.3756+26.46915. A significant association was seen between maternal blood and cord blood Se level in control and case group (P value < 0.0001, r = 0.69) and (P value<0.001, r = 0.79). On the other hand no differences were seen between 2 groups' maternal blood Se level (P Value = 0.65). Umbilical Cord blood Se concentration was not also different between case and control group (P value = 0.46). Conclusion: We found that maternal and umbilical cord blood Se concentrations were not different in low and adequate birth weight infants, however; umbilical cord Se concentrations were positively correlated with maternal blood Se concentrations.

  4. Preconception Maternal and Paternal Exposure to Persistent Organic Pollutants and Birth Size: The LIFE Study

    PubMed Central

    Yeung, Edwina; Mendola, Pauline; Sundaram, Rajeshwari; Maisog, Jose; Sweeney, Anne M.; Barr, Dana Boyd; Louis, Germaine M. Buck

    2014-01-01

    Background: Persistent organic pollutants (POPs) are developmental toxicants, but the impact of both maternal and paternal exposures on offspring birth size is largely unexplored. Objective: We examined associations between maternal and paternal serum concentrations of 63 POPs, comprising five major classes of pollutants, with birth size measures. Methods: Parental serum concentrations of 9 organochlorine pesticides, 1 polybrominated biphenyl (PBB), 7 perfluoroalkyl chemicals (PFCs), 10 polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), and 36 polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) were measured before conception for 234 couples. Differences in birth weight, length, head circumference, and ponderal index were estimated using multiple linear regression per 1-SD increase in natural log-transformed (ln-transformed) chemicals. Models were estimated separately for each parent and adjusted for maternal age, maternal prepregnancy body mass index (kilograms per meter squared) and other confounders, and all models included an interaction term between infant sex and each chemical. Results: Among girls (n = 117), birth weight was significantly lower (range, 84–195 g) in association with a 1-SD increase in ln-transformed maternal serum concentrations of DDT, PBDE congeners 28 and 183, and paternal serum concentrations of PBDE-183 and PCB-167. Among boys (n = 113), maternal (PCBs 138, 153, 167, 170, 195, and 209 and perfluorooctane sulfonamide) and paternal (PCBs 172 and 195) serum concentrations of several POPs were statistically associated with lower birth weight (range, 98–170 g), whereas paternal concentrations of PBDEs (66, 99) were associated with higher birth weight. Differences in offspring head circumference, length, and ponderal index were also associated with parental exposures. Conclusions: Preconceptional maternal and paternal concentrations of several POPs were associated with statistically significant differences in birth size among offspring. Citation: Robledo CA, Yeung E, Mendola P, Sundaram R, Maisog J, Sweeney AM, Barr DB, Buck Louis GM. 2015. Preconception maternal and paternal exposure to persistent organic pollutants and birth size: the LIFE Study. Environ Health Perspect 123:88–94;?http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/ehp.1308016 PMID:25095280

  5. Maternal Antibodies: Clinical Significance, Mechanism of Interference with Immune Responses, and Possible Vaccination Strategies

    PubMed Central

    Niewiesk, Stefan

    2014-01-01

    Neonates have an immature immune system, which cannot adequately protect against infectious diseases. Early in life, immune protection is accomplished by maternal antibodies transferred from mother to offspring. However, decaying maternal antibodies inhibit vaccination as is exemplified by the inhibition of seroconversion after measles vaccination. This phenomenon has been described in both human and veterinary medicine and is independent of the type of vaccine being used. This review will discuss the use of animal models for vaccine research. I will review clinical solutions for inhibition of vaccination by maternal antibodies, and the testing and development of potentially effective vaccines. These are based on new mechanistic insight about the inhibitory mechanism of maternal antibodies. Maternal antibodies inhibit the generation of antibodies whereas the T cell response is usually unaffected. B cell inhibition is mediated through a cross-link between B cell receptor (BCR) with the Fc?-receptor IIB by a vaccine–antibody complex. In animal experiments, this inhibition can be partially overcome by injection of a vaccine-specific monoclonal IgM antibody. IgM stimulates the B cell directly through cross-linking the BCR via complement protein C3d and antigen to the complement receptor 2 (CR2) signaling complex. In addition, it was shown that interferon alpha binds to the CD21 chain of CR2 as well as the interferon receptor and that this dual receptor usage drives B cell responses in the presence of maternal antibodies. In lieu of immunizing the infant, the concept of maternal immunization as a strategy to protect neonates has been proposed. This approach would still not solve the question of how to immunize in the presence of maternal antibodies but would defer the time of infection to an age where infection might not have such a detrimental outcome as in neonates. I will review successful examples and potential challenges of implementing this concept. PMID:25278941

  6. Increased maternal nighttime cortisol concentrations in late gestation alter glucose and insulin in the neonatal lamb

    PubMed Central

    Antolic, Andrew; Feng, Xiaodi; Wood, Charles E; Richards, Elaine M; Keller-Wood, Maureen

    2015-01-01

    Previous studies in our laboratory have shown that a modest chronic increase in maternal cortisol concentrations impairs maternal glucose metabolism and increases the incidence of perinatal stillbirth. The dramatic outcomes prevented our ability to study the effects of maternal hypercortisolemia on neonatal growth, glucose metabolism, and hypothalamo–pituitary–adrenal axis response. Therefore, we developed a model in which pregnant ewes are infused for 12 h/day at 0.5 mg·kg–1·day–1 from day 115 of gestation until delivery (˜145), elevating nighttime plasma cortisol concentrations. This pattern of elevation of cortisol mimics that in patients with elevated evening cortisol concentrations, as in Cushing’s syndrome or chronic depression. Plasma cortisol, glucose, insulin, and electrolytes were measured during pregnancy and postpartum in control and cortisol-infused ewes and their postnatal lambs for the first 14 days after delivery. Neonatal growth and plasma ACTH, aldosterone, renin activity, and electrolytes, and organ weights at 14 days of age were also measured. Infusion of cortisol increased maternal plasma cortisol during pregnancy but not postpartum, and did not alter neonatal ACTH or cortisol. Although maternal glucose and insulin concentrations were not changed by the maternal infusion of cortisol, neonatal plasma glucose was increased and plasma insulin was decreased compared to those in the control group. Neonatal ponderal index and kidney weight were reduced, left ventricular wall thickness was increased, and plasma sodium and creatinine were increased after maternal cortisol infusion. These results suggest that excess maternal cortisol concentrations in late gestation alter growth, glucose and insulin regulation, and organ maturation in the neonate. PMID:26371232

  7. Maternal Characteristics and Perception of Temperament Associated With Infant TV Exposure

    PubMed Central

    Adair, Linda S.; Bentley, Margaret E.

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: This study examines the development of television (TV) behaviors across the first 18 months of life and identifies maternal and infant predictors of infant TV exposure. METHODS: We used longitudinal TV exposure, maternal sociodemographic, and infant temperament data from 217 African-American mother-infant pairs participating in the Infant Care and Risk of Obesity Study. Longitudinal logistic models and ordered regression models with clustering for repeated measures across subjects adjusted for infant gender and visit were used to assess maternal and infant predictors of TV exposure and to test whether infants with both maternal and infant risk factors had higher odds of more detrimental TV exposure. RESULTS: Infants as young as 3 months old were exposed to an average of 2.6 hours of TV and/or videos daily, and nearly 40% of infants were exposed to >3 hours of TV daily by 12 months of age. Maternal TV viewing and maternal obesity and infant activity, fussiness, and crying were associated with greater infant TV exposure, whereas maternal education and infant activity were associated with having the TV on during most meals. Infants perceived as being more active or fussier had higher TV exposure, particularly if their mothers also had risk factors for higher TV exposure. CONCLUSIONS: Understanding the characteristics that shape TV exposure and its biological and behavioral sequelae is critical for early intervention. Maternal perception of infant temperament dimensions is related to TV exposure, suggesting that infant temperament measures should be included in interventions aimed at limiting early TV. PMID:23296440

  8. Prediction of Maternal Cytomegalovirus Serostatus in Early Pregnancy: A Retrospective Analysis in Western Europe

    PubMed Central

    Kuessel, Lorenz; Husslein, Heinrich; Marschalek, Julian; Brunner, Julia; Ristl, Robin; Popow-Kraupp, Theresia; Kiss, Herbert

    2015-01-01

    Background Cytomegalovirus (CMV) is the most prevalent congenital viral infection and thus places an enormous disease burden on newborn infants. Seroprevalence of maternal antibodies to CMV due to CMV exposure prior to pregnancy is currently the most important protective factor against congenital CMV disease. The aim of this study was to identify potential predictors, and to develop and evaluate a risk-predicting model for the maternal CMV serostatus in early pregnancy. Methods Maternal and paternal background information, as well as maternal CMV serostatus in early pregnancy from 882 pregnant women were analyzed. Women were divided into two groups based on their CMV serostatus, and were compared using univariate analysis. To predict serostatus based on epidemiological baseline characteristics, a multiple logistic regression model was calculated using stepwise model selection. Sensitivity and specificity were analyzed using ROC curves. A nomogram based on the model was developed. Results 646 women were CMV seropositive (73.2%), and 236 were seronegative (26.8%). The groups differed significantly with respect to maternal age (p = 0.006), gravidity (p<0.001), parity (p<0.001), use of assisted reproduction techniques (p = 0.018), maternal and paternal migration background (p<0.001), and maternal and paternal education level (p<0.001). ROC evaluation of the selected prediction model revealed an area under the curve of 0.83 (95%CI: 0.8–0.86), yielding sensitivity and specificity values of 0.69 and 0.86, respectively. Conclusion We identified predictors of maternal CMV serostatus in early pregnancy and developed a risk-predicting model based on baseline epidemiological characteristics. Our findings provide easy accessible information that can influence the counseling of pregnant woman in terms of their CMV-associated risk. PMID:26693714

  9. Impact of Chronodisruption during Primate Pregnancy on the Maternal and Newborn Temperature Rhythms

    PubMed Central

    Serón-Ferré, María; Forcelledo, María Luisa; Torres-Farfan, Claudia; Valenzuela, Francisco J.; Rojas, Auristela; Vergara, Marcela; Rojas-Garcia, Pedro P.; Recabarren, Monica P.; Valenzuela, Guillermo J.

    2013-01-01

    Disruption of the maternal environment during pregnancy is a key contributor to offspring diseases that develop in adult life. To explore the impact of chronodisruption during pregnancy in primates, we exposed pregnant capuchin monkeys to constant light (eliminating the maternal melatonin rhythm) from the last third of gestation to term. Maternal temperature and activity circadian rhythms were assessed as well as the newborn temperature rhythm. Additionally we studied the effect of daily maternal melatonin replacement during pregnancy on these rhythms. Ten pregnant capuchin monkeys were exposed to constant light from 60% of gestation to term. Five received a daily oral dose of melatonin (250 µg kg/body weight) at 1800 h (LL+Mel) and the other five a placebo (LL). Six additional pregnant females were maintained in a 14?10 light:dark cycles and their newborns were used as controls (LD). Rhythms were recorded 96 h before delivery in the mother and at 4–6 days of age in the newborn. Exposure to constant light had no effect on the maternal body temperature rhythm however it delayed the acrophase of the activity rhythm. Neither rhythm was affected by melatonin replacement. In contrast, maternal exposure to constant light affected the newborn body temperature rhythm. This rhythm was entrained in control newborns whereas LL newborns showed a random distribution of the acrophases over 24-h. In addition, mean temperature was decreased (34.0±0.6 vs 36.1±0.2°C, in LL and control, respectively P<0.05). Maternal melatonin replacement during pregnancy re-synchronized the acrophases and restored mean temperature to the values in control newborns. Our findings demonstrate that prenatal melatonin is a Zeitgeber for the newborn temperature rhythm and supports normal body temperature maintenance. Altogether these prenatal melatonin effects highlight the physiological importance of the maternal melatonin rhythm during pregnancy for the newborn primate. PMID:23469055

  10. Framing maternal morbidity: WHO scoping exercise

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Maternal morbidity estimations are not based on well-documented methodologies and thus have limited validity for informing efforts to address the issue and improve maternal health. To fill this gap, maternal morbidity needs to be clearly defined, driving the development of tools and indicators to measure and monitor maternal health. This article describes the scoping exercise conducted by the World Health Organization’s Department of Reproductive of Health and Research (WHO/RHR), as an essential first step in this process. Methods A literature review was conducted to identify the range of definitions and conditions included in various studies of maternal morbidity with a special focus on the similarities and discrepancies of the definitions used across the studies. Furthermore a questionnaire was developed which included sections on key areas identified during the review and was sent out electronically to 130 international experts in the field of maternal health. Results Maternal morbidities have been categorized in a variety of ways based on the causes, types of complications, and/or timeline. Issues regarding the time frame, severity, identification and classification and demographics were identified as key areas in the literature that require further investigation to achieve consensus on a maternal morbidity definition. Fifty-five (N?=?55) individuals responded with completed questionnaires. Respondents’ views on the time frame for the postpartum period varied from 6 weeks to beyond one year postpartum, it was noted that time frame depended on the type of complication. The majority of respondents said maternal morbidity should comprise a continuum of severity, whereas the identification of the cases should use a mixed criteria employing multiple methods. Conclusions Significant discrepancy in literature and expert opinion exists concerning elements of a maternal morbidity definition. There is a clear need for a concrete definition that would allow for consistent measurement and monitoring of maternal morbidity across settings and time. PMID:24252359

  11. Productivity Cost Due to Maternal Ill Health in Sri Lanka

    PubMed Central

    Agampodi, Suneth; Agampodi, Thilini; Wickramasinghe, Nuwan; Fernando, Santhushya; Chathurani, Umanga; Adhikari, Wathsala; Dharshika, Ishani; Nugegoda, Dhanaseela; Dharmaratne, Samath; Newlands, David

    2012-01-01

    Background The global impact of maternal ill health on economic productivity is estimated to be over 15 billion USD per year. Global data on productivity cost associated with maternal ill health are limited to estimations based on secondary data. Purpose of our study was to determine the productivity cost due to maternal ill health during pregnancy in Sri Lanka. Methods and Findings We studied 466 pregnant women, aged 24 to 36 weeks, residing in Anuradhapura, Sri Lanka. A two stage cluster sampling procedure was used in a cross sectional design and all pregnant women were interviewed at clinic centers, using the culturally adapted Immpact tool kit for productivity cost assessment. Of the 466 pregnant women studied, 421 (90.3%) reported at least one ill health condition during the pregnancy period, and 353 (83.8%) of them had conditions affecting their daily life. Total incapacitation requiring another person to carry out all their routine activities was reported by 122 (26.1%) of the women. In this study sample, during the last episode of ill health, total number of days lost due to absenteeism was 3,356 (32.9% of total loss) and the days lost due to presenteeism was 6,832.8 (67.1% of the total loss). Of the 353 women with ill health conditions affecting their daily life, 280 (60%) had coping strategies to recover loss of productivity. Of the coping strategies used to recover productivity loss during maternal ill health, 76.8% (n?=?215) was an intra-household adaptation, and 22.8% (n?=?64) was through social networks. Loss of productivity was 28.9 days per episode of maternal ill health. The mean productivity cost due to last episode of ill health in this sample was Rs.8,444.26 (95% CI-Rs.6888.74-Rs.9999.78). Conclusions Maternal ill health has a major impact on household productivity and economy. The major impact is due to, generally ignored minor ailments during pregnancy. PMID:22879943

  12. 78 FR 28597 - State Median Income Estimates for a Four-Person Household: Notice of the Federal Fiscal Year (FFY...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-15

    ...Notice of the Federal Fiscal Year (FFY) 2014 State Median Income Estimates for Use Under...of state median income estimates for FFY 2014...state and the District of Columbia for FFY 2014 (October 1, 2013, to September...

  13. Maternity in Spanish elite sportswomen: a qualitative study.

    PubMed

    Martinez-Pascual, Beatriz; Alvarez-Harris, Sara; Fernández-De-Las-Peñas, César; Palacios-Ceña, Domingo

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this qualitative phenomenological study was to describe the experiences of maternity among Spanish elite sportswomen. Twenty (n = 20) Spanish elite sportswomen with the following criteria were included: (a) aged 18-65 years; (b) had been pregnant during their sporting professional career; and (c) after the end of their pregnancy they had returned to their professional sporting career for at least one year. A qualitative analysis was conducted. Data were collected using in-depth personal interviews, investigator's field notes, and extracts from the participants' personal letters. Identified themes included: (a) a new identity, with two sub-themes ("mother role" and "being visible"); (b) going back to sport, with three subthemes ("guilt appears," "justifying going back to sport," and "rediscovering sport"); and, (c) reaching a goal, with two subthemes ("balancing mother-sportswoman" and "the challenge of maternity"). Understanding the meaning of maternity for elite Spanish sportswomen might help gain deeper insight into their expectations and develop training systems focused on elite sports women after pregnancy. PMID:24512619

  14. Lactating Rats Retain Nursing Behavior and Maternal Care in Space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Daly, Megan E.; Ronca, April E.; Dalton, Bonnie (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    In 1997, suckling mammals were flown in space for the first time as part of the NIH.R3 experiment sponsored jointly by NIH (National Institutes of Health) and NASA. Six rat dams and litters (Rattus norvegicus) were launched on an eight-day Space Shuttle mission at each of three postnatal ages (P5, P8, and P15). Dams and litters (N = 10 pups/litter) were housed within modified Animal Enclosure Modules (AEMs). Comparisons were made to ground controls. Dams and litters were videotaped daily in flight. The P8 and P15 flight litters showed excellent survival (99%) and weight gain relative to AEM ground controls, whereas P5 litters showed reduced survival (0% and 60%, respectively) and weight gain (less than 40% AEM). To examine the possibility that failures of maternal care contributed to P5 results, we analyzed the dams' in-flight nursing, licking and retrieving from four video segments ranging from twelve to fifteen minutes in length with control data derived from multiple ground segments. Video analyses revealed clear evidence of maternal care in flight. For P5 dams, frequency and duration of nursing and licking bouts fell within or above one standard deviation of control values. Retrieving was noted in the P5 and P8 groups only. The observed results suggest that factors other than maternal care contributed to the low survival rates and body weight gains of the P5 flight offspring.

  15. Dietary patterns of children and socioeconomical, behavioral and maternal determinants

    PubMed Central

    Villa, Julia Khéde Dourado; Santos, Thanise Sabrina Souza; Ribeiro, Andréia Queiroz; Silva, Angélica Ribeiro e; da Rocha Sant'Ana, Luciana Ferreira; Pessoa, Milene Cristine

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Objective: To identify dietary patterns of children and to verify their association with socio-economical, behavioral and maternal determinants. Methods: A cross-sectional study with a random sample of 328 children aged 8 and 9 years. Dietary intake was assessed by food records in three nonconsecutive days and measured in grams of food groups and nutrients. Factor analysis and subsequent orthogonal rotation (varimax) were used to determine dietary patterns. Ordinal logistic regression was used to assess associations between dietary patterns and the studied determinants. Results: Five dietary patterns were observed: “Traditional,” “Sweetened beverages and snacks,” “Monotonous,” “Healthy” and “Egg-dairy.” A higher maternal level of education was directly associated with “Sweetened beverages and snacks” and “Egg-dairy' standards. Low income children who were submitted to greater food restriction by parents/guardians followed the more “Traditional” standard, represented by the consumption of rice, beans, vegetables, cooked roots and tubers and red meat. The “Monotonous” pattern, represented by a high consumption of milk and chocolate powder, was most followed by children from the middle class. Children living in rural areas consumed more foods from the “Egg-dairy” pattern, when compared to those from the urban area. Conclusions: Dietary patterns of children were associated with family socioeconomic status, maternal level of education, practice of food restriction by parents/guardians and location of residence in urban or rural area. Better socioeconomic conditions contributed to a more nutritionally inadequate dietary pattern. PMID:26163945

  16. Effects of early maternal employment on maternal health and well-being

    PubMed Central

    Markowitz, Sara; Brooks-Gunn, Jeanne

    2012-01-01

    This study uses data from the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development Study on Early Child Care to examine the effects of maternal employment on maternal mental and overall health, self-reported parenting stress, and parenting quality. These outcomes are measured when children are 6 months old. Among mothers of 6-month-old infants, maternal work hours are positively associated with depressive symptoms and parenting stress and negatively associated with self-rated overall health. However, maternal employment is not associated with quality of parenting at 6 months, based on trained assessors’ observations of maternal sensitivity. PMID:23645972

  17. Marathon Maternity Oral History Project

    PubMed Central

    Orkin, Aaron; Newbery, Sarah

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Objective To explore how birthing and maternity care are understood and valued in a rural community. Design Oral history research. Setting The rural community of Marathon, Ont, with a population of approximately 3500. Participants A purposive selection of mothers, grandmothers, nurses, physicians, and community leaders in the Marathon medical catchment area. Methods Interviews were conducted with a purposive sample, employing an oral history research methodology. Interviews were conducted non-anonymously in order to preserve the identity and personhood of participants. Interview transcripts were edited into short narratives. Oral histories offer perspectives and information not revealed in other quantitative or qualitative research methodologies. Narratives re-personalize and humanize medical research by offering researchers and practitioners the opportunity to bear witness to the personal stories affected through medical decision making. Main findings Eleven stand-alone narratives, published in this issue of Canadian Family Physician, form the project’s findings. Similar to a literary text or short story, they are intended for personal reflection and interpretation by the reader. Presenting the results of these interviews as narratives requires the reader to participate in the research exercise and take part in listening to these women’s voices. The project’s narratives will be accessible to readers from academic and non-academic backgrounds and will interest readers in medicine and allied health professions, medical humanities, community development, gender studies, social anthropology and history, and literature. Conclusion Sharing personal birthing experiences might inspire others to reevaluate and reconsider birthing practices and services in other communities. Where local maternity services are under threat, Marathon’s stories might contribute to understanding the meaning and challenges of local birthing, and the implications of losing maternity services in rural Canada. PMID:24452565

  18. Is there a greater maternal than paternal influence on offspring adiposity in India?

    PubMed

    Corsi, Daniel J; Subramanian, S V; Ackerson, Leland K; Davey Smith, George

    2015-10-01

    Previous research has provided conflicting evidence regarding fetal roots of adiposity in India. To compare the strength of association between maternal and paternal body mass indexes (BMIs) corrected for height with offspring BMI in India to examine the potential for intrauterine mechanisms to influence offspring adiposity in India, we analysed a sample of 16,528 mother-father-offspring trios from the 2005 to 2006 Indian National Family Health Survey. Children were aged 0-59 months with parents aged 15-49 years (mothers) and 15-54 years (fathers). Linear and logistic regression models, specified in multiple ways, were used to estimate associations between parental BMI* (BMI redefined by power term x (kg/m(x)) to be independent from height), and child BMI/top decile of child BMI. Higher values of maternal BMI and paternal BMI were associated with higher values of offspring BMI. In comparing the effects of maternal BMI and paternal BMI, however, no consistent differences were found in the strength of these parental influences on offspring BMI. In the fully adjusted linear model, the standardised coefficient was 0.131 (95% CI 0.110 to 0.154) for maternal BMI* and 0.079 (95% CI 0.056 to 0.103) for paternal BMI*; with evidence of heterogeneity between maternal-offspring and paternal-offspring associations (p=0.005). This was not robust in the unstandardised regression (?=0.056, 95% CI 0.044 to 0.067 for maternal BMI and ?=0.039, 95% CI 0.025 to 0.053 for paternal BMI, p=0.093). Mixed results indicate that compared with paternal BMI, maternal BMI did not have a consistently stronger influence on offspring BMI in India. PMID:26044138

  19. Maternal Sepsis and Septic Shock.

    PubMed

    Chebbo, Ahmad; Tan, Susanna; Kassis, Christelle; Tamura, Leslie; Carlson, Richard W

    2016-01-01

    The year 2015 marked the 200th anniversary of the birth of Ignaz Semmelweis, the Hungarian physician who identified unhygienic practices of physicians as a major cause of childbed fever or puerperal sepsis. Although such practices have largely disappeared as a factor in the development of chorioamnionitis and postpartum or puerperal endometritis, it is appropriate that this article on sepsis in pregnancy acknowledges his contributions to maternal health. This review describes the incidence and mortality of sepsis in pregnancy, methods to identify and define sepsis in this population, including scoring systems, causes, and sites of infection during pregnancy and parturition and management guidelines. PMID:26600449

  20. Intact radial and median nerve after open third degree distal fracture of the humerus.

    PubMed

    Has, Borislav; Kvolik, Slavica; Kristek, Jozo; Habek, Dubravko

    2006-06-01

    A 54 year old man sustained a third degree open fracture at the distal part of the right humerus with massive soft tissue defect involving most of the upper arm. The radial and median nerves were completely bared and exposed by 6 cm for radial and 3 cm for median nerve. The nerves were in continuity, but there was complete rupture of surrounding muscles: biceps, triceps and brachialis. The fracture was stabilized by external fixation method--reinforced by wires. Preoperative and postoperative sensorimotor status of the right hand was good. One year later sensory and motoric status of right hand showed no deficiencies, but flexion and extension in elbow were limited to 100 and 180 degrees respectively. Pronosupination was restricted. This case report is consistent with results of biomechanical studies in vitro confirming high tolerance of radial and median nerve to stretching injury. PMID:16848166

  1. Median arcuate ligament syndrome confirmed with the use of intravascular ultrasound.

    PubMed

    de Lara, Fernando Vazquez; Higgins, Christopher; Hernandez-Vila, Eduardo A

    2014-02-01

    Median arcuate ligament syndrome, a rarely reported condition, is characterized by postprandial abdominal pain, nausea, vomiting, and weight loss. Its cause is unclear. We present the case of a 45-year-old woman who had intermittent chronic positional abdominal pain without weight loss. Magnetic resonance angiograms and computed tomograms revealed stenosis of the celiac artery. Ostial compression was confirmed on catheter angiographic and intravascular ultrasonographic images. Intravascular ultrasound revealed far greater stenosis than did the initial imaging methods and confirmed a diagnosis of median arcuate ligament syndrome. In lieu of surgery, the patient underwent a celiac ganglion block procedure that substantially relieved her symptoms. To our knowledge, this is the first report of the use of intravascular ultrasound in the diagnosis of median arcuate ligament syndrome. We recommend using this imaging method preoperatively in other suspected cases of the syndrome, to better identify patients who might benefit from corrective surgery. PMID:24512402

  2. Maternal body mass index and risk of birth and maternal health outcomes in low- and middle-income countries: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Rahman, M M; Abe, S K; Kanda, M; Narita, S; Rahman, M S; Bilano, V; Ota, E; Gilmour, S; Shibuya, K

    2015-09-01

    We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of population-based cohort studies of maternal body mass index (BMI) and risk of adverse birth and health outcomes in low- and middle-income countries. PubMed, Embase, CINAHL and the British Nursing Index were searched from inception to February 2014. Forty-two studies were included. Our study found that maternal underweight was significantly associated with higher risk of preterm birth (odds ratio [OR], 1.13; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.01-1.27), low birthweight (OR, 1.66; 95% CI, 1.50-1.84) and small for gestational age (OR, 1.85; 95% CI, 1.69-2.02). Compared with mothers with normal BMI, overweight or obese mothers were at increased odds of gestational diabetes, pregnancy-induced hypertension, pre-eclampsia, caesarean delivery and post-partum haemorrhage. The population-attributable risk (PAR) indicated that if women were entirely unexposed to overweight or obesity during the pre-pregnancy or early pregnancy period, 14% to 35% fewer women would develop gestational diabetes, pre-eclampsia or pregnancy-induced hypertension in Brazil, China, India, Iran or Thailand. The highest PAR of low birthweight attributable to maternal underweight was found in Iran (20%), followed by India (18%), Thailand (10%) and China (8%). Treatment and prevention of maternal underweight, overweight or obesity may help reduce the burden on maternal and child health in developing countries. PMID:26094567

  3. A Transactional Analysis of the Relation between Maternal Sensitivity and Child Vagal Regulation

    PubMed Central

    Perry, Nicole B.; Mackler, Jennifer S.; Calkins, Susan D.; Keane, Susan P.

    2014-01-01

    A transactional model examining the longitudinal association between vagal regulation (as indexed by vagal withdrawal) and maternal sensitivity from age 2.5 to age 5.5 was assessed. The sample included 356 children (171 male, 185 female) and their mothers who participated in the 2.5, 4.5, and 5.5 year laboratory visits. Cardiac vagal tone was obtained during a baseline task and during emotional frustration tasks. Maternal sensitivity was assessed via direct observation during a pretend play and cleanup task. To test for transactional associations, a path model estimating stability paths for vagal withdrawal and maternal sensitivity was compared to a full reciprocal model that included all cross-lagged pathways. A chi-square difference test was used to evaluate if the cross-lagged model explained the data above and beyond the stability model. The vagal withdrawal cross-lagged model was found to fit significantly better than the stability model and revealed that maternal sensitivity at 2.5 years was associated positively with vagal withdrawal at 4.5 years, and vagal withdrawal at 4.5 years was associated positively with maternal sensitivity at 5.5 years. These results suggest that early sensitive responding by mothers was associated with increases in vagal withdrawal, which in turn was associated with higher levels of sensitive parenting. PMID:23895168

  4. Experimental evidence for convergent evolution of maternal care heuristics in industrialized and small-scale populations.

    PubMed

    Kushnick, Geoff; Hanowell, Ben; Kim, Jun-Hong; Langstieh, Banrida; Magnano, Vittorio; Oláh, Katalin

    2015-06-01

    Maternal care decision rules should evolve responsiveness to factors impinging on the fitness pay-offs of care. Because the caretaking environments common in industrialized and small-scale societies vary in predictable ways, we hypothesize that heuristics guiding maternal behaviour will also differ between these two types of populations. We used a factorial vignette experiment to elicit third-party judgements about likely caretaking decisions of a hypothetical mother and her child when various fitness-relevant factors (maternal age and access to resources, and offspring age, sex and quality) were varied systematically in seven populations-three industrialized and four small-scale. Despite considerable variation in responses, we found that three of five main effects, and the two severity effects, exhibited statistically significant industrialized/ small-scale population differences. All differences could be explained as adaptive solutions to industrialized versus small-scale caretaking environments. Further, we found gradients in the relationship between the population-specific estimates and national-level socio-economic indicators, further implicating important aspects of the variation in industrialized and small-scale caretaking environments in shaping heuristics. Although there is mounting evidence for a genetic component to human maternal behaviour, there is no current evidence for interpopulation variation in candidate genes. We nonetheless suggest that heuristics guiding maternal behaviour in diverse societies emerge via convergent evolution in response to similar selective pressures. PMID:26543577

  5. Experimental evidence for convergent evolution of maternal care heuristics in industrialized and small-scale populations

    PubMed Central

    Kushnick, Geoff; Hanowell, Ben; Kim, Jun-Hong; Langstieh, Banrida; Magnano, Vittorio; Oláh, Katalin

    2015-01-01

    Maternal care decision rules should evolve responsiveness to factors impinging on the fitness pay-offs of care. Because the caretaking environments common in industrialized and small-scale societies vary in predictable ways, we hypothesize that heuristics guiding maternal behaviour will also differ between these two types of populations. We used a factorial vignette experiment to elicit third-party judgements about likely caretaking decisions of a hypothetical mother and her child when various fitness-relevant factors (maternal age and access to resources, and offspring age, sex and quality) were varied systematically in seven populations—three industrialized and four small-scale. Despite considerable variation in responses, we found that three of five main effects, and the two severity effects, exhibited statistically significant industrialized/ small-scale population differences. All differences could be explained as adaptive solutions to industrialized versus small-scale caretaking environments. Further, we found gradients in the relationship between the population-specific estimates and national-level socio-economic indicators, further implicating important aspects of the variation in industrialized and small-scale caretaking environments in shaping heuristics. Although there is mounting evidence for a genetic component to human maternal behaviour, there is no current evidence for interpopulation variation in candidate genes. We nonetheless suggest that heuristics guiding maternal behaviour in diverse societies emerge via convergent evolution in response to similar selective pressures. PMID:26543577

  6. Maternal abuse history, postpartum depression, and parenting: links with preschoolers' internalizing problems.

    PubMed

    Madigan, Sheri; Wade, Mark; Plamondon, Andre; Jenkins, Jennifer

    2015-01-01

    The current study examined a temporal cascade linking mothers' history of abuse with their children's internalizing difficulties through proximal processes such as maternal postnatal depressive symptoms and responsive parenting. Participants consisted of 490 mother-child dyads assessed at three time points when children were, on average, 2 months old at Time 1 (T1), 18 months at Time 2 (T2), and 36 months at Time 3 (T3). Maternal abuse history and depressive symptoms were assessed via questionnaires at T1. Observations of responsive parenting were collected at T2 and were coded using a validated coding scheme. Children's internalizing difficulties were assessed in the preschool period using averaged parental reports. Path analysis revealed that maternal physical abuse was associated with depressive symptoms postnatally, which were in turn associated with children's internalizing behavior at 36 months of age. We also found that the association between physical abuse history and responsive parenting operated indirectly through maternal depressive symptoms. These findings remained after controlling for covariates including socioeconomic status, child gender, and age. After accounting for physical abuse history, sexual abuse history was not associated with child internalizing problems either directly or indirectly through maternal depressive symptoms and/or parenting behavior. Thus, mothers' physical abuse history is a risk factor for relatively poor mental health, which is itself predictive of both later parenting behavior and children's internalizing problems. PMID:25583550

  7. Development of Shyness: Relations with Children's Fearfulness, Sex, and Maternal Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eggum, Natalie D.; Eisenberg, Nancy; Spinrad, Tracy L.; Reiser, Mark; Gaertner, Bridget M.; Sallquist, Julie; Smith, Cynthia L.

    2009-01-01

    The relations of childhood fearfulness (observed and adult reported) and adult-reported shyness at 18 (n = 256) and 30 (n = 230) months of age were assessed. Fear was positively related to shyness concurrently and longitudinally, but slightly more consistently at 18 months. The moderating roles of observed maternal sensitivity and children's sex…

  8. How Home Enrichment Mediates the Relationship between Maternal Education and Children's Achievement in Reading and Math

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zadeh, Zohreh Yaghoub; Farnia, Fataneh; Ungerleider, Charles

    2010-01-01

    Research Findings: This article addresses the mediating role of early childhood home enrichment in the association between maternal education and academic achievement in the reading and math of 1,093 children aged 7 (Grade 1). Data were extracted from the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development database. We used the bootstrapping…

  9. Correlates of Depressed Mothers' Sensitivity toward Their Infants: The Role of Maternal, Child, and Contextual Characteristics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van Doesum, Karin T. M.; Hosman, Clemens M. H.; Riksen-Walraven, J. Marianne; Hoefnagels, Cees

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To examine various maternal, child, and contextual characteristics, as well as the number of risk factors present, to distinguish which factors explain variance in the sensitivity of depressed mothers toward their infants. Method: Participants were depressed mothers (n = 84) with their infants ages 1 month up to 1 year. Mothers were…

  10. Maternal Depression and Child Internalizing: The Moderating Role of Child Emotion Regulation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Silk, Jennifer S.; Shaw, Daniel S.; Forbes, Erika E.; Lane, Tonya L.; Kovacs, Maria

    2006-01-01

    This study tests a model of children's emotion regulation (ER) as a moderator of the link between maternal depression and child internalizing problems. Participants were 78 children (ages 4 to 7), including 45 children of mothers with a history of childhood-onset depression (COD) and 33 children of mothers who had never been depressed. ER was…

  11. Children's Depressive Symptoms in Relation to EEG Frontal Asymmetry and Maternal Depression

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feng, Xin; Forbes, Erika E.; Kovacs, Maria; George, Charles J.; Lopez-Duran, Nestor L.; Fox, Nathan A.; Cohn, Jeffrey F.

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the relations of school-age children's depressive symptoms, frontal EEG asymmetry, and maternal history of childhood-onset depression (COD). Participants were 73 children, 43 of whom had mothers with COD. Children's EEG was recorded at baseline and while watching happy and sad film clips. Depressive symptoms were measured using…

  12. Maternal Talk about Mental States and the Emergence of Joint Visual Attention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Slaughter, Virginia; Peterson, Candida C.; Carpenter, Malinda

    2008-01-01

    Twenty-four infants were tested monthly for gaze and point following between 9 and 15 months of age and mother-infant free play sessions were also conducted at 9, 12, and 15 months (Carpenter, Nagell, & Tomasello, 1998). Using this data set, this study explored relations between maternal talk about mental states during mothers' free play with…

  13. The Moderating Effects of Maternal Psychopathology on Children's Adjustment Post-Hurricane Katrina

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spell, Annie W.; Kelley, Mary Lou; Wang, Jing; Self-Brown, Shannon; Davidson, Karen L.; Pellegrin, Angie; Palcic, Jeannette L.; Meyer, Kara; Paasch, Valerie; Baumeister, Audrey

    2008-01-01

    This study investigated the role of maternal psychopathology in predicting children's psychological distress in a disaster-exposed sample. Participants consisted of 260 children (ages 8-16) recruited from public schools and their mothers. These families were displaced from New Orleans because of Hurricane Katrina in 2005. Assessment took place 3…

  14. Trajectories of Maternal Harsh Parenting in the First 3 Years of Life

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Hyoun K.; Pears, Katherine C.; Fisher, Philip A.; Connelly, Cynthia D.; Landsverk, John A.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: Despite the high prevalence rates of harsh parenting, the nature of developmental change in this domain early in life and the factors that contribute to changes in harsh parenting over time are not well understood. The present study examined developmental patterns in maternal harsh parenting behavior from birth to age 3 years and their…

  15. Infant Temperament, Maternal Personality, and Parenting Stress as Contributors to Infant Developmental Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Molfese, Victoria J.; Rudasill, Kathleen Moritz; Beswick, Jennifer L.; Jacobi-Vessels, Jill L.; Ferguson, Melissa C.; White, Jamie M.

    2010-01-01

    This study examined contributions of maternal personality and infant temperament to infant vocabulary and cognitive development both directly and indirectly through parental stress. Participants were recruited at birth and included 63 infant twin pairs and their mothers. Assessments were completed at 6, 9, 12, and 18 months of age and included…

  16. Prenatal Exposure to Maternal Smoking and Childhood Behavioural Problems: A Quasi-Experimental Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCrory, Cathal; Layte, Richard

    2012-01-01

    This retrospective cross-sectional paper examines the relationship between maternal smoking during pregnancy and children's behavioural problems at 9 years of age independent of a wide range of possible confounders. The final sample comprised 7,505 nine-year-old school children participating in the first wave of the Growing Up in Ireland study.…

  17. Initiating a Caregiving Relationship: Pregnancy and Childbirth Factors as Predictors of Maternal Sensitivity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bernier, Annie; Jarry-Boileau, Veronique; Tarabulsy, George M.; Miljkovitch, Raphaele

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the relations between pregnancy and childbirth factors and subsequent quality of maternal interactive behavior in a sample of 116 full-term infants and their mothers. Mothers reported on the conditions of childbirth when infants were 6-8 months of age, and their interactive behavior was observed during a…

  18. Evidence for harvest-induced maternal influences on the reproductive rates of fish populations

    E-print Network

    Venturelli, Paul

    positively with the age, size and condition of parents, as well as the size and content of gametes (Heath to forecasting the dynamics of an exploited population. Although small-scale experiments have documented the importance of maternal quality to offspring survival in plants and animals, the effects of this association

  19. Maternal Label and Gesture Use Affects Acquisition of Specific Object Names

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zammit, Maria; Schafer, Graham

    2011-01-01

    Ten mothers were observed prospectively, interacting with their infants aged 0 ; 10 in two contexts (picture description and noun description). Maternal communicative behaviours were coded for volubility, gestural production and labelling style. Verbal labelling events were categorized into three exclusive categories: label only; label plus…

  20. Maternal Anxiety, Behaviors, and Expectations during a Behavioral Task: Relation to Children's Self-Evaluations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Becker, Kimberly D.; Ginsburg, Golda S.

    2011-01-01

    This study examined the associations between maternal anxiety, behaviors, and expectations and children's self-evaluations of distress, coping, and performance during a stressful performance evaluation task. Seventy-five mothers (38 clinically anxious and 37 nonanxious) along with one of their children aged 6-14 (52.0% female; 78.7% Caucasian)…

  1. Maternal gestational androgens are associated with decreased juvenile play in white-faced marmosets (Callithrix geoffroyi)

    E-print Network

    French, Jeffrey A.

    Maternal gestational androgens are associated with decreased juvenile play in white-faced marmosets androgen production during gestation in marmosets. Here we tested the association between this variation's play behavior as juveniles (5­10 months of age). In contrast to findings in rhesus macaques

  2. Maternal Drug Abuse History, Maltreatment, and Functioning in a Clinical Sample of Urban Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Onigu-Otite, Edore C.; Belcher, Harolyn M. E.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: This study examined the association between maternal drug abuse history, maltreatment exposure, and functioning, in a clinical sample of young children seeking therapy for maltreatment. Methods: Data were collected on 91 children, mean age 5.3 years (SD 1.0). The Preschool and Early Childhood Functional Assessment Scales (PECFAS) was…

  3. Lexical Richness in Maternal Input and Vocabulary Development of Turkish Preschoolers in the Netherlands

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Demir-Vegter, Serpil; Aarts, Rian; Kurvers, Jeanne

    2014-01-01

    The present study examined lexical richness in maternal input to Turkish preschool children in the Netherlands and the relationship with their vocabulary. Fifteen Turkish mother-child dyads were videotaped at the age of 3 and 4 in three settings: book reading, picture description and block building. Children's vocabulary in Turkish was…

  4. Predicting Change in Parenting Stress across Early Childhood: Child and Maternal Factors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williford, Amanda P.; Calkins, Susan D.; Keane, Susan P.

    2007-01-01

    This study examined maternal parenting stress in a sample of 430 boys and girls including those at risk for externalizing behavior problems. Children and their mothers were assessed when the children were ages 2, 4, and 5. Hierarchical linear modeling (HLM) was used to examine stability of parenting stress across early childhood and to examine…

  5. Contributions of Child's Physiology and Maternal Behavior to Children's Trajectories of Temperamental Reactivity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blandon, Alysia Y.; Calkins, Susan D.; Keane, Susan P.; O'brien, Marion

    2010-01-01

    Trajectories of children's temperamental reactivity (negative affectivity and surgency) were examined in a community sample of 370 children across the ages of 4 to 7 with hierarchical linear modeling. Children's physiological reactivity (respiratory sinus arrhythmia [RSA]), physiological regulation ([delta]RSA), and maternal parenting behavior…

  6. Maternal Mind-Mindedness and Children's Behavioral Difficulties: Mitigating the Impact of Low Socioeconomic Status

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meins, Elizabeth; Centifanti, Luna C. Munoz; Fernyhough, Charles; Fishburn, Sarah

    2013-01-01

    Relations between mothers' tendency to comment appropriately on their 8-month-olds' internal states (mind-mindedness) and children's behavioral difficulties (Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire) at ages 44 and 61 months were investigated in a socially diverse sample (N = 171, 88 boys). Controlling for maternal depressive symptoms, perceived…

  7. The Impact of Maternal Imprisonment on Children's Educational Achievement: Results from Children in Chicago Public Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cho, Rosa Minhyo

    2009-01-01

    This paper examines how the cognitive skills of elementary school-aged children are affected by having a mother enter prison, using panel data on approximately 7,000 children for 12 years. To identify the effect of maternal imprisonment, change in test scores of children whose mothers enter prison are compared with the change in test scores of a…

  8. "Do U txt?" -- Using "Txting" to Learn Maternal Languages: A Portuguese Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moreira, Sandra Cortes; Gomez, Ignacio Aguaded

    2011-01-01

    Analysing the influence of new technologies/media (e.g., mobile phones, chats, instant messaging services) on the use and learning of maternal languages basic rules is the goal of this investigation, involving teachers and students (10th, 11th and 12th grade pupils, aged between 16 and 21) at the "Escola Secundaria de Silves" -- ESS…

  9. Convergent Validity of and Bias in Maternal Reports of Child Emotion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Durbin, C. Emily; Wilson, Sylia

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the convergent validity of maternal reports of child emotion in a sample of 190 children between the ages of 3 and 6. Children completed a battery of 10 emotion-eliciting laboratory tasks; their mothers and untrained naive observers rated child emotions (happiness, surprise, fear, sadness, and anger) following each task, and…

  10. The Role of Maternal Depression in Accessing Early Intervention Services for Children with Developmental Delay

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Colgan, Siobhan Eileen

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated the relationship between maternal depression and children's access to early intervention services among a sample of children with developmental delay at age two who were determined to be eligible for early intervention services, were full term and of normal birth weight, and were not previously identified with any…

  11. Maternal Parenting and Social, School, and Psychological Adjustment of Migrant Children in Urban China

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhao, Siman; Chen, Xinyin; Wang, Li

    2015-01-01

    This study examined the relations of maternal warmth, behavioral control, and encouragement of sociability to social, school, and psychological adjustment in migrant children in China. The participants were 284 rural-to-urban migrant children (M age = 11 years, 149 boys) in migrant children's schools and their mothers. Data on parenting were…

  12. Role of Child and Maternal Processes in the Psychological Adjustment of Children with Sickle Cell Disease.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, Robert J., Jr.; And Others

    1993-01-01

    Found that 64% of 50 children aged 7-12 years with sickle cell disease had parent-reported behavior problem. Internalizing types of behavior problems and diagnoses were most frequent. Maternal anxiety accounted for 16-33% of variance in mother-reported internalizing and externalizing behavior problems, respectively, and child pain-coping…

  13. Tail Mean Estimation is More E#cient than Tail Median: Evidence From the Exponential Power Distribution

    E-print Network

    Pearce, Kent

    Tail Mean Estimation is More E#cient than Tail Median: Evidence From the Exponential Power the relative e#ciency of the empirical ``tail median'' vs. ''tail mean'' as esti­ mators of location under so that the quantile of the untruncated EPD (population tail median) and mean of the left

  14. Putting the "M" back in the Maternal and Child Health Bureau: reducing maternal mortality and morbidity.

    PubMed

    Lu, Michael C; Highsmith, Keisher; de la Cruz, David; Atrash, Hani K

    2015-07-01

    Maternal mortality and severe morbidity are on the rise in the United States. A significant proportion of these events are preventable. The Maternal Health Initiative (MHI), coordinated by the Maternal and Child Health Bureau at the Health Resources and Services Administration, is intensifying efforts to reduce maternal mortality and severe morbidity in the U.S. Through a public-private partnership, MHI is taking a comprehensive approach to improving maternal health focusing on five priority areas: improving women's health before, during and beyond pregnancy; improving the quality and safety of maternity care; improving systems of maternity care including both clinical and public health systems; improving public awareness and education; and improving surveillance and research. PMID:25626713

  15. NATIONAL MATERNAL AND INFANT HEALTH SURVEY (NMIHS)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The National Maternal and Infant Health Survey (NMIHS) provides data on maternal and infant health, including prenatal care, birth weight, fetal loss, and infant mortality. The objective of the NMIHS is to collect data needed by Federal, State, and private researchers to study fa...

  16. Maternal Depression and Childhood Health Inequalities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Turney, Kristin

    2011-01-01

    An increasing body of literature documents considerable inequalities in the health of young children in the United States, though maternal depression is one important, yet often overlooked, determinant of children's health. In this article, the author uses data from the Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing Study (N = 4,048) and finds that maternal

  17. Infant Communicative Behaviors and Maternal Responsiveness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DiCarlo, Cynthia F.; Onwujuba, Chinwe; Baumgartner, Jennifer I.

    2014-01-01

    Background: This study applies attachment and transactional theories in evaluating the dyadic interactions observed between a mother and her infant. Infant communication and maternal responsivity are highlighted as the medium for positive interaction. Objective: The impact of individualized maternal training on mother infant communicative…

  18. Listeria monocytogenes Traffics from Maternal Organs

    E-print Network

    Bakardjiev, Anna

    Listeria monocytogenes Traffics from Maternal Organs to the Placenta and Back Anna I. Bakardjiev1 the role of trafficking between maternal organs and placenta in a pregnant guinea pig model of listeriosis to placenta was 103 ­104 :1. Rapid increase of bacteria in the placenta changed the ratio to 1:1 after 24 h

  19. Autism Symptom Topography and Maternal Socioemotional Functioning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ekas, Naomi; Whitman, Thomas L.

    2010-01-01

    Researchers examining the relationship of autism "symptomatology" and maternal stress have defined symptomatology in terms of level of severity, frequency of occurrence, or symptom type. In the present study, the relationship of maternal perceptions of these dimensions, along with a fourth, symptom diversity, and negative and positive indices of…

  20. Maternity Care in Russia: Issues, Achievements, and Potential.

    PubMed

    Shuvalova, Marina P; Yarotskaya, Ekaterina L; Pismenskaya, Tatiana V; Dolgushina, Nataliya V; Baibarina, Elena N; Sukhikh, Gennady T

    2015-10-01

    In this review, we provide basic facts about maternity care services within the health care system in Russia. We give a short overview of such key aspects as the demographic situation, reproductive behaviour, regulatory framework for providing health care for women and children, maternal and perinatal mortality, and the availability of medical personnel. In 2012, Russia began registration of births in accordance with the WHO recommendations (births with weight ? 500 g at ? 22 weeks' gestation). Introduction of this new registration system increased the completeness and quality of the collected information and expanded possibilities for future international comparative assessments. A three-level system of specialized medical care has been introduced in Russia for women and newborns during pregnancy, childbirth, and the postpartum period. In 2014, the system included 1942 state (public) maternity hospitals providing 20 obstetric beds per 10?000 women aged 15 to 49 years. More than 100 perinatal centres (level III) are currently functioning in the country, with 32 new perinatal centres planned to open by 2016. The total number of obstetrician-gynaecologists in Russia is approximately 44?000, providing a ratio of 5.7 specialists per 10?000 women. The total number of midwives is 62?000, providing a ratio of 8.1 midwives per 10?000 women. In recent years we have succeeded in optimizing the maternity care system by increasing its accessibility and quality. This was achieved through qualitative and quantitative progress in the training of neonatologists, the development of intensive care technologies and neonatal critical care, capacity building of medical-genetic services and counselling, prenatal diagnosis, and the standardization of health care with data collection. PMID:26606698