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Sample records for mediated cell cycle

  1. SUMOylation-mediated regulation of cell cycle progression and cancer

    PubMed Central

    Eifler, Karolin; Vertegaal, Alfred C.O.

    2016-01-01

    SUMOylation plays critical roles during cell cycle progression. Many important cell cycle regulators, including many oncogenes and tumor suppressors, are functionally regulated via SUMOylation. The dynamic SUMOylation pattern observed throughout the cell cycle is ensured via distinct spatial and temporal regulation of the SUMO machinery. Additionally, SUMOylation cooperates with other post-translational modifications to mediate cell cycle progression. Deregulation of these SUMOylation and deSUMOylation enzymes causes severe defects in cell proliferation and genome stability. Different types of cancers were recently shown to be dependent on a functioning SUMOylation system, a finding that could potentially be exploited in anti-cancer therapies. PMID:26601932

  2. Ethanol Mediates Cell Cycle Arrest and Apoptosis in SK-N-SH Neuroblastoma Cells

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Maria; Song, Byoung-Joon; Kwon, Yongil

    2014-01-01

    Background: The mechanisms of cell or organ damage by chronic alcohol consumption are still poorly understood. The present study aimed to investigate the role of the mitogen-activated protein kinases during ethanol-induced damage to SK-N-SH neuroblastoma cells. Methods: Cells were treated with ethanol and subsequently analyzed for cell morphology, viability, and DNA fragmentation. Immunoblot analysis was performed to assess various proteins levels associated with cell cycle arrest and apoptosis after ethanol exposure. Results: Ethanol induced time- and dose-dependent cell death in SK-N-SH cells and increased c-Jun N-terminal protein kinase (JNK) activity in a time- and concentration dependent manner. In contrast, p38 kinase activity increased transiently. After treatment with JNK or p38 kinase inhibitors, ethanol-induced cell death significantly reduced. Ethanol-induced cell death was accompanied by increased cytochrome c release and caspase 3 activity observed at 12 h. In contrast, the level of anti-apoptotic Bcl-2 protein did not change. Ethanol also increased the phosphorylation of p53 and p53 activation was followed by an increase in the p21 tumor suppressor protein accompanied by a gradual decrease in phospho-Rb protein. Conclusion: Our results suggest that ethanol mediates apoptosis of neuroblastoma cells by stimulating p53-related cell cycle arrest mediated through activation of the JNK-related pathway. PMID:25337571

  3. Differences in kinase-mediated regulation of cell cycle progression in normal and transformed cells

    SciTech Connect

    Crissman, H.A.; Gadbois, D.M.; Tobey, R.A.; Stevenson, A.P.; Kraemer, P.M.; Bustos, L.D.; Dickson, J.A.; Bradbury, E.M. )

    1993-01-01

    Staurosporine (Stsp), a general protein kinase inhibitor, was used to investigate the role of kinase-mediated mechanisms in regulating mammalian cell proliferation. Low levels of Stsp (1-2nM) prevented nontransformed cells from entering S phase, indicating that protein phosphorylation processes are essential for commitment of DNA replication in normal cells. Cells resumed cycling when Stsp was removed. The period of sensitivity of nontransformed human diploid fibroblasts to low levels of the drug commenced 3 h later than the G0/G1 boundary and extended through the G1/S boundary. The initial block point at 3 h corresponds neither to the serum nor the amino acid restriction point. In contrast, neither low nor high concentrations (100nm) of Stsp affected G1 progression of transformed cells. High drug concentrations blocked normal cells in G1 and G2 but affected only G2-progression in transformed cells. These results indicate that kinase-mediated regulation of DNA replication is lost as a result of neoplastic transformation, but the G2-arrest mechanism remains intact.

  4. An essential role for chaperone-mediated autophagy in cell cycle progression

    PubMed Central

    Hubbi, Maimon E; Semenza, Gregg L

    2015-01-01

    Hypoxia has long been known to serve as a stimulus for cell cycle arrest. Hypoxia-mediated cell cycle arrest is mediated through the actions of HIF1α (hypoxia inducible factor 1, α subunit [basic helix-loop-helix transcription factor]), which has a nontranscriptional role as an inhibitor of MCM (minichromosome maintenance complex component) helicase activity. We identified chaperone-mediated autophagy as a pathway for selective degradation of HIF1α through lysosomes prior to the onset of DNA replication. CDK2 (cyclin-dependent kinase 2) mediates degradation of HIF1α at the G1/S transition, whereas CDK1 (cyclin-dependent kinase 1) increases HIF1α levels and transcriptional activity prior to the onset of G1 phase. Lysosomal inhibitors induce cell cycle arrest, which is recovered by knockdown of HIF1α and EPAS1/HIF2α. These findings establish lysosomes as essential regulators of cell cycle progression through the degradation of HIF1α. PMID:25945892

  5. Protein PSMD8 may mediate microgravity-induced cell cycle arrest

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hang, Xiaoming; Sun, Yeqing; Xu, Dan; Wu, Di; Chen, Xiaoning

    Microgravity environment of space can induce a serial of changes in cells, such as morphology alterations, cytoskeleton disorder and cell cycle disturbance. Our previous study of simulated-microgravity on zebrafish (Danio rerio) embryos demonstrated 26s proteasome non-ATPase regulatory subunit 8 (PSMD8) might be a microgravity sensitive gene. However, functional study on PSMD8 is very limited and it has not been cloned in zebrafish till now. In this study, we tried to clone PSMD8 gene in zebrafish, quantify its protein expression level in zebrafish embryos after simulated microgravity and identify its possible function in cell cycle regulation. A rotary cell culture system (RCCS) designed by national aeronautics and apace administration (NASA) of America was used to simulate microgravity. The full-length of psmd8 gene in zebrafish was cloned. Preliminary analysis on its sequence and phylogenetic tree construction were carried out subsequently. Quantitative analysis by western blot showed that PSMD8 protein expression levels were significantly increased 1.18 and 1.22 times after 24-48hpf and 24-72hpf simulated microgravity, respectively. Moreover, a significant delay on zebrafish embryo development was found in simulated-microgravity exposed group. Inhibition of PSMD8 protein in zebrafish embryonic cell lines ZF4 could block cell cycle in G1 phase, which indicated that PSMD8 may play a role in cell cycle regulation. Interestingly, simulated-microgravity could also block ZF4 cell in G1 phase. Whether it is PSMD8 mediated cell cycle regulation result in the zebrafish embryo development delay after simulated microgravity exposure still needs further study. Key Words: PSMD8; Simulated-microgravity; Cell cycle; ZF4 cell line

  6. Impact of Mitochondria-Mediated Apoptosis in U251 Cell Cycle Arrest in G1 Stage and Caspase Activation

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Lei; Liang, Peng; Zhang, Rui

    2015-01-01

    Background Most mitochondria-mediated apoptosis has some relevance to the cell cycle, but there is still a lack of investigations about U251 cell cycle in human brain glioma cells. In this study, we aimed to clarify the correlation of mitochondria-mediated apoptosis with the U251 cell cycle and its influence on apoptosis, through observing the impact of mitochondria-mediated apoptosis in U251cell specificity cycle arrest and Caspase activation. Material/Methods AnnexinV/PI and API were used to label the brain glioma cells for flow cytometry analysis of U251 cell apoptosis and cell cycle. RT-PCR and Western blot were performed to detect Caspase-3 and Caspase-9 activation. Results Peripheral blood in stationary phase is not sensitive to apoptosis induction, but U251 cells have obvious apoptosis. Mitochondria-mediated apoptosis mainly occurs in the G1 phase of the cell cycle. Caspase-3 and Caspase-9 mRNAs and proteins expression increased significantly after the cells were treated by mitochondrial apoptosis-related gene Bax induction. Conclusions Mitochondria-mediated apoptosis is related to the U251 cell cycle with specific G1 stage arrest. Caspase activation occurs in the process of cell apoptosis. PMID:26594875

  7. Hypoxia-mediated impaired erythrocyte Lands' Cycle is pathogenic for sickle cell disease.

    PubMed

    Wu, Hongyu; Bogdanov, Mikhail; Zhang, Yujin; Sun, Kaiqi; Zhao, Shushan; Song, Anren; Luo, Renna; Parchim, Nicholas F; Liu, Hong; Huang, Aji; Adebiyi, Morayo G; Jin, Jianping; Alexander, Danny C; Milburn, Michael V; Idowu, Modupe; Juneja, Harinder S; Kellems, Rodney E; Dowhan, William; Xia, Yang

    2016-01-01

    Although Lands' cycle was discovered in 1958, its function and cellular regulation in membrane homeostasis under physiological and pathological conditions remain largely unknown. Nonbiased high throughput metabolomic profiling revealed that Lands' cycle was impaired leading to significantly elevated erythrocyte membrane lysophosphatidylcholine (LysoPC) content and circulating and erythrocyte arachidonic acid (AA) in mice with sickle cell disease (SCD), a prevalent hemolytic genetic disorder. Correcting imbalanced Lands' cycle by knockdown of phospholipase 2 (cPLA2) or overexpression of lysophosphatidycholine acyltransferase 1 (LPCAT1), two key enzymes of Lands' cycle in hematopoietic stem cells, reduced elevated erythrocyte membrane LysoPC content and circulating AA levels and attenuated sickling, inflammation and tissue damage in SCD chimeras. Human translational studies validated SCD mouse findings and further demonstrated that imbalanced Lands' cycle induced LysoPC production directly promotes sickling in cultured mouse and human SCD erythrocytes. Mechanistically, we revealed that hypoxia-mediated ERK activation underlies imbalanced Lands' cycle by preferentially inducing the activity of PLA2 but not LPCAT in human and mouse SCD erythrocytes. Overall, our studies have identified a pathological role of imbalanced Lands' cycle in SCD erythrocytes, novel molecular basis regulating Lands' cycle and therapeutic opportunities for the disease. PMID:27436223

  8. Hypoxia-mediated impaired erythrocyte Lands’ Cycle is pathogenic for sickle cell disease

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Hongyu; Bogdanov, Mikhail; Zhang, Yujin; Sun, Kaiqi; Zhao, Shushan; Song, Anren; Luo, Renna; Parchim, Nicholas F.; Liu, Hong; Huang, Aji; Adebiyi, Morayo G.; Jin, Jianping; Alexander, Danny C.; Milburn, Michael V.; Idowu, Modupe; Juneja, Harinder S.; Kellems, Rodney E.; Dowhan, William; Xia, Yang

    2016-01-01

    Although Lands’ cycle was discovered in 1958, its function and cellular regulation in membrane homeostasis under physiological and pathological conditions remain largely unknown. Nonbiased high throughput metabolomic profiling revealed that Lands’ cycle was impaired leading to significantly elevated erythrocyte membrane lysophosphatidylcholine (LysoPC) content and circulating and erythrocyte arachidonic acid (AA) in mice with sickle cell disease (SCD), a prevalent hemolytic genetic disorder. Correcting imbalanced Lands’ cycle by knockdown of phospholipase 2 (cPLA2) or overexpression of lysophosphatidycholine acyltransferase 1 (LPCAT1), two key enzymes of Lands’ cycle in hematopoietic stem cells, reduced elevated erythrocyte membrane LysoPC content and circulating AA levels and attenuated sickling, inflammation and tissue damage in SCD chimeras. Human translational studies validated SCD mouse findings and further demonstrated that imbalanced Lands’ cycle induced LysoPC production directly promotes sickling in cultured mouse and human SCD erythrocytes. Mechanistically, we revealed that hypoxia-mediated ERK activation underlies imbalanced Lands’ cycle by preferentially inducing the activity of PLA2 but not LPCAT in human and mouse SCD erythrocytes. Overall, our studies have identified a pathological role of imbalanced Lands’ cycle in SCD erythrocytes, novel molecular basis regulating Lands’ cycle and therapeutic opportunities for the disease. PMID:27436223

  9. JAZ mediates G1 cell cycle arrest by interacting with and inhibiting E2F1

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Mingli; Wu, Song; Jia, Jinghua

    2011-01-01

    We discovered and reported JAZ as a unique dsRNA binding zinc finger protein that functions as a direct, positive regulator of p53 transcriptional activity to mediate G1 cell cycle arrest in a mechanism involving upregulation of the p53 target gene, p21. We now find that JAZ can also negatively regulate the cell cycle in a novel, p53-independent mechanism resulting from the direct interaction with E2F1, a key intermediate in regulating cell proliferation and tumor suppression. JAZ associates with E2F1's central DNA binding/dimerization region and its C-terminal transactivation domain. Functionally, JAZ represses E2F1 transcriptional activity in association with repression of cyclin A expression and inhibition of G1/S transition. This mechanism involves JAZ-mediated inhibition of E2F1's specific DNA binding activity. JAZ directly binds E2F1 in vitro in a dsRNA-independent manner, and JAZ's dsRNA binding ZF domains, which are necessary for localizing JAZ to the nucleus, are required for repression of transcriptional activity in vivo. Importantly for specificity, siRNA-mediated “knockdown” of endogenous JAZ increases E2F transcriptional activity and releases cells from G1 arrest, indicating a necessary role for JAZ in this transition. Although JAZ can directly inhibit E2F1 activity independently of p53, if functional p53 is expressed, JAZ may exert a more potent inhibition of cell cycle following growth factor withdrawal. Therefore, JAZ plays a dual role in cell cycle regulation by both repressing E2F1 transcriptional activity and activating p53 to facilitate efficient growth arrest in response to cellular stress, which may potentially be exploited therapeutically for tumor growth inhibition. PMID:21715977

  10. Role of the retinoblastoma protein in cell cycle arrest mediated by a novel cell surface proliferation inhibitor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Enebo, D. J.; Fattaey, H. K.; Moos, P. J.; Johnson, T. C.; Spooner, B. S. (Principal Investigator)

    1994-01-01

    A novel cell regulatory sialoglycopeptide (CeReS-18), purified from the cell surface of bovine cerebral cortex cells has been shown to be a potent and reversible inhibitor of proliferation of a wide array of fibroblasts as well as epithelial-like cells and nontransformed and transformed cells. To investigate the possible mechanisms by which CeReS-18 exerts its inhibitory action, the effect of the inhibitor on the posttranslational regulation of the retinoblastoma susceptibility gene product (RB), a tumor suppressor gene, has been examined. It is shown that CeReS-18 mediated cell cycle arrest of both human diploid fibroblasts (HSBP) and mouse fibroblasts (Swiss 3T3) results in the maintenance of the RB protein in the hypophosphorylated state, consistent with a late G1 arrest site. Although their normal nontransformed counterparts are sensitive to cell cycle arrest mediated by CeReS-18, cell lines lacking a functional RB protein, through either genetic mutation or DNA tumor virus oncoprotein interaction, are less sensitive. The refractory nature of these cells is shown to be independent of specific surface receptors for the inhibitor, and another tumor suppressor gene (p53) does not appear to be involved in the CeReS-18 inhibition of cell proliferation. The requirement for a functional RB protein product, in order for CeReS-18 to mediate cell cycle arrest, is discussed in light of regulatory events associated with density-dependent growth inhibition.

  11. G1/S Cell Cycle Arrest Provides Anoikis Resistance through Erk-Mediated Bim Suppression†

    PubMed Central

    Collins, Nicole L.; Reginato, Maurico J.; Paulus, Jessica K.; Sgroi, Dennis C.; LaBaer, Joshua; Brugge, Joan S.

    2005-01-01

    Proper attachment to the extracellular matrix is essential for cell survival. Detachment from the extracellular matrix results in an apoptotic process termed anoikis. Anoikis induction in MCF-10A mammary epithelial cells is due not only to loss of survival signals following integrin disengagement, but also to consequent downregulation of epidermal growth factor (EGFR) and loss of EGFR-induced survival signals. Here we demonstrate that G1/S arrest by overexpression of the cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitors p16INK4a, p21Cip1, or p27Kip1 or by treatment with mimosine or aphidicolin confers anoikis resistance in MCF-10A cells. G1/S arrest-mediated anoikis resistance involves suppression of the BH3-only protein Bim. Furthermore, in G1/S-arrested cells, Erk phosphorylation is maintained in suspension and is necessary for Bim suppression. Following G1/S arrest, known proteins upstream of Erk, including Raf and Mek, are not activated. However, retained Erk activation under conditions in which Raf and Mek activation is lost is observed, suggesting that G1/S arrest acts at the level of Erk dephosphorylation. Thus, anoikis resistance by G1/S arrest is mediated by a mechanism involving Bim suppression through maintenance of Erk activation. These results provide a novel link between cell cycle arrest and survival, and this mechanism could contribute to the survival of nonreplicating, dormant tumor cells that avert apoptosis during early stages of metastasis. PMID:15923641

  12. Src kinase inhibitors induce apoptosis and mediate cell cycle arrest in lymphoma cells.

    PubMed

    Nowak, Daniel; Boehrer, Simone; Hochmuth, Simone; Trepohl, Bettina; Hofmann, Wencke; Hoelzer, Dieter; Hofmann, Wolf-Karsten; Mitrou, Paris S; Ruthardt, Martin; Chow, Kai Uwe

    2007-10-01

    Src kinases are involved in multiple cellular contexts such as proliferation, adhesion, tumor invasiveness, angiogenesis, cell cycle control and apoptosis. We here demonstrate that three newly developed dual selective Src/Abl kinase inhibitors (SrcK-I) (AZM559756, AZD0530 and AZD0424) are able to induce apoptosis and cell cycle arrest in BCR-ABL, c-KIT and platelet-derived growth factor-negative lymphoma cell lines. Treatment of DOHH-2, WSU-NHL, Raji, Karpas-299, HUT78 and Jurkat cells with SrcK-I revealed that the tested substances were effective on these parameters in the cell lines DOHH-2 and WSU-NHL, whereas the other tested cell lines remained unaffected. Phosphorylation of Lyn and in particular Lck were affected most heavily by treatment with the SrcK-I. Extrinsic as well as intrinsic apoptosis pathways were activated and elicited unique expressional patterns of apoptosis-relevant proteins such as downregulation of survivin, Bcl-XL and c-FLIP. Protein levels of c-abl were downregulated and Akt phosphorylation was decreased by treatment with SrcK-I. Basal expression levels of c-Myc were notably lower in sensitive cell lines as compared with nonsensitive cell lines, possibly providing an explanation for sensitivity versus resistance against these novel substances. This study provides the first basis for establishing novel SrcK-I as weapons in the arsenal against lymphoma cells. PMID:17704648

  13. Glucocorticoid receptor-mediated cell cycle arrest is achieved through distinct cell-specific transcriptional regulatory mechanisms.

    PubMed Central

    Rogatsky, I; Trowbridge, J M; Garabedian, M J

    1997-01-01

    Glucocorticoids inhibit proliferation of many cell types, but the events leading from the activated glucocorticoid receptor (GR) to growth arrest are not understood. Ectopic expression and activation of GR in human osteosarcoma cell lines U2OS and SAOS2, which lack endogenous receptors, result in a G1 cell cycle arrest. GR activation in U2OS cells represses expression of the cyclin-dependent kinases (CDKs) CDK4 and CDK6 as well as their regulatory partner, cyclin D3, leading to hypophosphorylation of the retinoblastoma protein (Rb). We also demonstrate a ligand-dependent reduction in the expression of E2F-1 and c-Myc, transcription factors involved in the G1-to-S-phase transition. Mitogen-activated protein kinase, CDK2, cyclin E, and the CDK inhibitors (CDIs) p27 and p21 are unaffected by receptor activation in U2OS cells. The receptor's N-terminal transcriptional activation domain is not required for growth arrest in U2OS cells. In Rb-deficient SAOS2 cells, however, the expression of p27 and p21 is induced upon receptor activation. Remarkably, in SAOS2 cells that express a GR deletion derivative lacking the N-terminal transcriptional activation domain, induction of CDI expression is abolished and the cells fail to undergo ligand-dependent cell cycle arrest. Similarly, murine S49 lymphoma cells, which, like SAOS2 cells, lack Rb, require the N-terminal activation domain for growth arrest and induce CDI expression upon GR activation. These cell-type-specific differences in receptor domains and cellular targets linking GR activation to cell cycle machinery suggest two distinct regulatory mechanisms of GR-mediated cell cycle arrest: one involving transcriptional repression of G1 cyclins and CDKs and the other involving enhanced transcription of CDIs by the activated receptor. PMID:9154817

  14. A cell cycle-dependent co-repressor mediates photoreceptor cell-specific nuclear receptor function

    PubMed Central

    Takezawa, Shinichiro; Yokoyama, Atsushi; Okada, Maiko; Fujiki, Ryoji; Iriyama, Aya; Yanagi, Yasuo; Ito, Hiroaki; Takada, Ichiro; Kishimoto, Masahiko; Miyajima, Atsushi; Takeyama, Ken-ichi; Umesono, Kazuhiko; Kitagawa, Hirochika; Kato, Shigeaki

    2007-01-01

    Photoreceptor cell-specific nuclear receptor (PNR) (NR2E3) acts as a sequence-specific repressor that controls neuronal differentiation in the developing retina. We identified a novel PNR co-repressor, Ret-CoR, that is expressed in the developing retina and brain. Biochemical purification of Ret-CoR identified a multiprotein complex that included E2F/Myb-associated proteins, histone deacetylases (HDACs) and NCoR/HDAC complex-related components. Ret-CoR appeared to function as a platform protein for the complex, and interacted with PNR via two CoRNR motifs. Purified Ret-CoR complex exhibited HDAC activity, co-repressed PNR transrepression function in vitro, and co-repressed PNR function in PNR target gene promoters, presumably in the retinal progenitor cells. Notably, the appearance of Ret-CoR protein was cell-cycle-stage-dependent (from G1 to S). Therefore, Ret-CoR appears to act as a component of an HDAC co-repressor complex that supports PNR repression function in the developing retina, and may represent a co-regulator class that supports transcriptional regulator function via cell-cycle-dependent expression. PMID:17255935

  15. Protein Kinase C Signaling Mediates a Program of Cell Cycle Withdrawal in the Intestinal Epithelium

    PubMed Central

    Frey, Mark R.; Clark, Jennifer A.; Leontieva, Olga; Uronis, Joshua M.; Black, Adrian R.; Black, Jennifer D.

    2000-01-01

    Members of the protein kinase C (PKC) family of signal transduction molecules have been widely implicated in regulation of cell growth and differentiation, although the underlying molecular mechanisms involved remain poorly defined. Using combined in vitro and in vivo intestinal epithelial model systems, we demonstrate that PKC signaling can trigger a coordinated program of molecular events leading to cell cycle withdrawal into G0. PKC activation in the IEC-18 intestinal crypt cell line resulted in rapid downregulation of D-type cyclins and differential induction of p21waf1/cip1 and p27kip1, thus targeting all of the major G1/S cyclin-dependent kinase complexes. These events were associated with coordinated alterations in expression and phosphorylation of the pocket proteins p107, pRb, and p130 that drive cells to exit the cell cycle into G0 as indicated by concomitant downregulation of the DNA licensing factor cdc6. Manipulation of PKC isozyme levels in IEC-18 cells demonstrated that PKCα alone can trigger hallmark events of cell cycle withdrawal in intestinal epithelial cells. Notably, analysis of the developmental control of cell cycle regulatory molecules along the crypt–villus axis revealed that PKCα activation is appropriately positioned within intestinal crypts to trigger this program of cell cycle exit–specific events in situ. Together, these data point to PKCα as a key regulator of cell cycle withdrawal in the intestinal epithelium. PMID:11076962

  16. Detection and Analysis of Cell Cycle-Associated APC/C-Mediated Cellular Ubiquitylation In Vitro and In Vivo.

    PubMed

    Cedeño, Cesyen; La Monaca, Esther; Esposito, Mara; Gutierrez, Gustavo J

    2016-01-01

    The anaphase-promoting complex or cyclosome (APC/C) is one of the major orchestrators of the cell division cycle in mammalian cells. The APC/C acts as a ubiquitin ligase that triggers sequential ubiquitylation of a significant number of substrates which will be eventually degraded by proteasomes during major transitions of the cell cycle. In this chapter, we present accessible methodologies to assess both in in vitro conditions and in cellular systems ubiquitylation reactions mediated by the APC/C. In addition, we also describe techniques to evidence the changes in protein stability provoked by modulation of the activity of the APC/C. Finally, specific methods to analyze interactors or posttranslational modifications of particular APC/C subunits are also discussed. Given the crucial role played by the APC/C in the regulation of the cell cycle, this review only focuses on its action and effects in actively proliferating cells. PMID:27613041

  17. Coordinated control of Notch/Delta signalling and cell cycle progression drives lateral inhibition-mediated tissue patterning.

    PubMed

    Hunter, Ginger L; Hadjivasiliou, Zena; Bonin, Hope; He, Li; Perrimon, Norbert; Charras, Guillaume; Baum, Buzz

    2016-07-01

    Coordinating cell differentiation with cell growth and division is crucial for the successful development, homeostasis and regeneration of multicellular tissues. Here, we use bristle patterning in the fly notum as a model system to explore the regulatory and functional coupling of cell cycle progression and cell fate decision-making. The pattern of bristles and intervening epithelial cells (ECs) becomes established through Notch-mediated lateral inhibition during G2 phase of the cell cycle, as neighbouring cells physically interact with each other via lateral contacts and/or basal protrusions. Since Notch signalling controls cell division timing downstream of Cdc25, ECs in lateral contact with a Delta-expressing cell experience higher levels of Notch signalling and divide first, followed by more distant neighbours, and lastly Delta-expressing cells. Conversely, mitotic entry and cell division makes ECs refractory to lateral inhibition signalling, fixing their fate. Using a combination of experiments and computational modelling, we show that this reciprocal relationship between Notch signalling and cell cycle progression acts like a developmental clock, providing a delimited window of time during which cells decide their fate, ensuring efficient and orderly bristle patterning. PMID:27226324

  18. Coordinated control of Notch/Delta signalling and cell cycle progression drives lateral inhibition-mediated tissue patterning

    PubMed Central

    Hadjivasiliou, Zena; Bonin, Hope; He, Li; Perrimon, Norbert; Charras, Guillaume; Baum, Buzz

    2016-01-01

    Coordinating cell differentiation with cell growth and division is crucial for the successful development, homeostasis and regeneration of multicellular tissues. Here, we use bristle patterning in the fly notum as a model system to explore the regulatory and functional coupling of cell cycle progression and cell fate decision-making. The pattern of bristles and intervening epithelial cells (ECs) becomes established through Notch-mediated lateral inhibition during G2 phase of the cell cycle, as neighbouring cells physically interact with each other via lateral contacts and/or basal protrusions. Since Notch signalling controls cell division timing downstream of Cdc25, ECs in lateral contact with a Delta-expressing cell experience higher levels of Notch signalling and divide first, followed by more distant neighbours, and lastly Delta-expressing cells. Conversely, mitotic entry and cell division makes ECs refractory to lateral inhibition signalling, fixing their fate. Using a combination of experiments and computational modelling, we show that this reciprocal relationship between Notch signalling and cell cycle progression acts like a developmental clock, providing a delimited window of time during which cells decide their fate, ensuring efficient and orderly bristle patterning. PMID:27226324

  19. Isodeoxyelephantopin from Elephantopus scaber (Didancao) induces cell cycle arrest and caspase-3-mediated apoptosis in breast carcinoma T47D cells and lung carcinoma A549 cells

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Isodeoxyelephantopin (IDOE) isolated from Elephantopus scaber L. (Didancao) is used in Chinese medicine for the treatment of some types of cancer. The anti-cancer mechanism of IDOE remains unclear. This study aims to investigate the antiproliferative activity of IDOE on breast carcinoma T47D cells and lung carcinoma A549 cells. Methods The growth inhibitory effects of IDOE on breast carcinoma T47D cells, lung carcinoma A549 cells, and normal lymphocytes were evaluated by the MTT assay. Morphological analysis of apoptosis induction was performed by acridine orange/ethidium bromide dual-staining and Hoechst 33342 nuclear staining. The cell cycle profile, caspase-3 expression, and annexin V staining were evaluated by flow cytometry. Results IDOE inhibited the growth of A549 and T47D cells in a dose- and time-dependent manner with IC50 values of 10.46 and 1.3 μg/mL, respectively. IDOE was not significantly toxic to normal lymphocytes. The cells became detached from the monolayer and rounded up, had fragmented nuclei and condensed chromatin, and the numbers of apoptotic cells increased (P = 0.0003). IDOE-induced cell death was associated with activated caspase-3 expression followed by cell cycle arrest at G2/M phase. Conclusions IDOE inhibited the proliferation of breast cancer cells and lung carcinoma cells and induced caspase-3-mediated apoptosis and cell cycle arrest in the treated cells. PMID:24742378

  20. RNA interference-mediated silencing of mitotic kinesin KIF14 disrupts cell cycle progression and induces cytokinesis failure.

    PubMed

    Carleton, Michael; Mao, Mao; Biery, Matthew; Warrener, Paul; Kim, Sammy; Buser, Carolyn; Marshall, C Gary; Fernandes, Christine; Annis, James; Linsley, Peter S

    2006-05-01

    KIF14 is a microtubule motor protein whose elevated expression is associated with poor-prognosis breast cancer. Here we demonstrate KIF14 accumulation in mitotic cells, where it associated with developing spindle poles and spindle microtubules. Cells at later stages of mitosis were characterized by the concentration of KIF14 at the midbody. Time-lapse microscopy revealed that strong RNA interference (RNAi)-mediated silencing of KIF14 induced cytokinesis failure, causing several rounds of endoreduplication and resulting in multinucleated cells. Additionally, less efficacious KIF14-specific short interfering RNAs (siRNAs) induced multiple phenotypes, all of which resulted in acute apoptosis. Our data demonstrate the ability of siRNA-mediated silencing to generate epiallelic hypomorphs associated with KIF14 depletion. Furthermore, the link we observed between siRNA efficacy and phenotypic outcome indicates that distinct stages during cell cycle progression are disrupted by the differential modulation of KIF14 expression. PMID:16648480

  1. RNA Interference-Mediated Silencing of Mitotic Kinesin KIF14 Disrupts Cell Cycle Progression and Induces Cytokinesis Failure†

    PubMed Central

    Carleton, Michael; Mao, Mao; Biery, Matthew; Warrener, Paul; Kim, Sammy; Buser, Carolyn; Marshall, C. Gary; Fernandes, Christine; Annis, James; Linsley, Peter S.

    2006-01-01

    KIF14 is a microtubule motor protein whose elevated expression is associated with poor-prognosis breast cancer. Here we demonstrate KIF14 accumulation in mitotic cells, where it associated with developing spindle poles and spindle microtubules. Cells at later stages of mitosis were characterized by the concentration of KIF14 at the midbody. Time-lapse microscopy revealed that strong RNA interference (RNAi)-mediated silencing of KIF14 induced cytokinesis failure, causing several rounds of endoreduplication and resulting in multinucleated cells. Additionally, less efficacious KIF14-specific short interfering RNAs (siRNAs) induced multiple phenotypes, all of which resulted in acute apoptosis. Our data demonstrate the ability of siRNA-mediated silencing to generate epiallelic hypomorphs associated with KIF14 depletion. Furthermore, the link we observed between siRNA efficacy and phenotypic outcome indicates that distinct stages during cell cycle progression are disrupted by the differential modulation of KIF14 expression. PMID:16648480

  2. Smurf1-mediated Axin Ubiquitination Requires Smurf1 C2 Domain and Is Cell Cycle-dependent*

    PubMed Central

    Fei, Cong; He, Xiaoli; Xie, Sichun; Miao, Haofei; Zhou, Zhilei; Li, Lin

    2014-01-01

    Previously, Smad ubiquitination regulatory factor 1 (Smurf1)-mediated Lys29 (K29)-linked poly-ubiquitination of Axin has been identified as a novel regulatory process in Wnt/β-catenin signaling. In this work, we discovered that the C2 domain of Smurf1 is critical for targeting Axin for ubiquitination. We found that the C2 domain-mediated plasma membrane localization of Smurf1 is required for Axin ubiquitination, and interfering with that disturbs the co-localization of Smurf1 and Axin around the plasma membrane. Moreover, the C2 domain of Smurf1, rather than its WW domains, is involved in Smurf1's interaction with Axin; and the putative PPXY motifs (PY motif) of Axin are not essential for such an interaction, indicating that Smurf1 binds to Axin in a non-canonical way independent of WW-PY interaction. Further, we found that Smurf1-Axin interaction and Axin ubiquitination are attenuated in the G2/M phase of cell cycle, contributing to an increased cell response to Wnt stimulation at that stage. Collectively, we uncovered a dual role of Smurf1 C2 domain, recruiting Smurf1 to membrane for accessing Axin and mediating its interaction with Axin, and that Smurf1-mediated Axin ubiquitination is subjected to the regulation of cell cycle. PMID:24700460

  3. Pre–B cell receptor–mediated cell cycle arrest in Philadelphia chromosome–positive acute lymphoblastic leukemia requires IKAROS function

    PubMed Central

    Trageser, Daniel; Iacobucci, Ilaria; Nahar, Rahul; Duy, Cihangir; von Levetzow, Gregor; Klemm, Lars; Park, Eugene; Schuh, Wolfgang; Gruber, Tanja; Herzog, Sebastian; Kim, Yong-mi; Hofmann, Wolf-Karsten; Li, Aihong; Storlazzi, Clelia Tiziana; Jäck, Hans-Martin; Groffen, John; Martinelli, Giovanni; Heisterkamp, Nora; Jumaa, Hassan

    2009-01-01

    B cell lineage acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) arises in virtually all cases from B cell precursors that are arrested at pre–B cell receptor–dependent stages. The Philadelphia chromosome–positive (Ph+) subtype of ALL accounts for 25–30% of cases of adult ALL, has the most unfavorable clinical outcome among all ALL subtypes and is defined by the oncogenic BCR-ABL1 kinase and deletions of the IKAROS gene in >80% of cases. Here, we demonstrate that the pre–B cell receptor functions as a tumor suppressor upstream of IKAROS through induction of cell cycle arrest in Ph+ ALL cells. Pre–B cell receptor–mediated cell cycle arrest in Ph+ ALL cells critically depends on IKAROS function, and is reversed by coexpression of the dominant-negative IKAROS splice variant IK6. IKAROS also promotes tumor suppression through cooperation with downstream molecules of the pre–B cell receptor signaling pathway, even if expression of the pre–B cell receptor itself is compromised. In this case, IKAROS redirects oncogenic BCR-ABL1 tyrosine kinase signaling from SRC kinase-activation to SLP65, which functions as a critical tumor suppressor downstream of the pre–B cell receptor. These findings provide a rationale for the surprisingly high frequency of IKAROS deletions in Ph+ ALL and identify IKAROS-mediated cell cycle exit as the endpoint of an emerging pathway of pre–B cell receptor–mediated tumor suppression. PMID:19620627

  4. Molecular Mechanisms by Which a Fucus vesiculosus Extract Mediates Cell Cycle Inhibition and Cell Death in Pancreatic Cancer Cells.

    PubMed

    Geisen, Ulf; Zenthoefer, Marion; Peipp, Matthias; Kerber, Jannik; Plenge, Johannes; Managò, Antonella; Fuhrmann, Markus; Geyer, Roland; Hennig, Steffen; Adam, Dieter; Piker, Levent; Rimbach, Gerald; Kalthoff, Holger

    2015-07-01

    Pancreatic cancer is one of the most aggressive cancer entities, with an extremely poor 5-year survival rate. Therefore, novel therapeutic agents with specific modes of action are urgently needed. Marine organisms represent a promising source to identify new pharmacologically active substances. Secondary metabolites derived from marine algae are of particular interest. The present work describes cellular and molecular mechanisms induced by an HPLC-fractionated, hydrophilic extract derived from the Baltic brown seaweed Fucus vesiculosus (Fv1). Treatment with Fv1 resulted in a strong inhibition of viability in various pancreatic cancer cell lines. This extract inhibited the cell cycle of proliferating cells due to the up-regulation of cell cycle inhibitors, shown on the mRNA (microarray data) and protein level. As a result, cells were dying in a caspase-independent manner. Experiments with non-dividing cells showed that proliferation is a prerequisite for the effectiveness of Fv1. Importantly, Fv1 showed low cytotoxic activity against non-malignant resting T cells and terminally differentiated cells like erythrocytes. Interestingly, accelerated killing effects were observed in combination with inhibitors of autophagy. Our in vitro data suggest that Fv1 may represent a promising new agent that deserves further development towards clinical application. PMID:26204945

  5. Molecular Mechanisms by Which a Fucus vesiculosus Extract Mediates Cell Cycle Inhibition and Cell Death in Pancreatic Cancer Cells

    PubMed Central

    Geisen, Ulf; Zenthoefer, Marion; Peipp, Matthias; Kerber, Jannik; Plenge, Johannes; Managò, Antonella; Fuhrmann, Markus; Geyer, Roland; Hennig, Steffen; Adam, Dieter; Piker, Levent; Rimbach, Gerald; Kalthoff, Holger

    2015-01-01

    Pancreatic cancer is one of the most aggressive cancer entities, with an extremely poor 5-year survival rate. Therefore, novel therapeutic agents with specific modes of action are urgently needed. Marine organisms represent a promising source to identify new pharmacologically active substances. Secondary metabolites derived from marine algae are of particular interest. The present work describes cellular and molecular mechanisms induced by an HPLC-fractionated, hydrophilic extract derived from the Baltic brown seaweed Fucus vesiculosus (Fv1). Treatment with Fv1 resulted in a strong inhibition of viability in various pancreatic cancer cell lines. This extract inhibited the cell cycle of proliferating cells due to the up-regulation of cell cycle inhibitors, shown on the mRNA (microarray data) and protein level. As a result, cells were dying in a caspase-independent manner. Experiments with non-dividing cells showed that proliferation is a prerequisite for the effectiveness of Fv1. Importantly, Fv1 showed low cytotoxic activity against non-malignant resting T cells and terminally differentiated cells like erythrocytes. Interestingly, accelerated killing effects were observed in combination with inhibitors of autophagy. Our in vitro data suggest that Fv1 may represent a promising new agent that deserves further development towards clinical application. PMID:26204945

  6. Loss of p53-mediated cell-cycle arrest, senescence and apoptosis promotes genomic instability and premature aging

    PubMed Central

    Li, Tongyuan; Liu, Xiangyu; Jiang, Le; Manfredi, James; Zha, Shan; Gu, Wei

    2016-01-01

    Although p53-mediated cell cycle arrest, senescence and apoptosis are well accepted as major tumor suppression mechanisms, the loss of these functions does not directly lead to tumorigenesis, suggesting that the precise roles of these canonical activities of p53 need to be redefined. Here, we report that the cells derived from the mutant mice expressing p533KR, an acetylation-defective mutant that fails to induce cell-cycle arrest, senescence and apoptosis, exhibit high levels of aneuploidy upon DNA damage. Moreover, the embryonic lethality caused by the deficiency of XRCC4, a key DNA double strand break repair factor, can be fully rescued in the p533KR/3KR background. Notably, despite high levels of genomic instability, p533KR/3KRXRCC4−/− mice, unlike p53−/− XRCC4−/− mice, are not succumbed to pro-B-cell lymphomas. Nevertheless, p533KR/3KR XRCC4−/− mice display aging-like phenotypes including testicular atrophy, kyphosis, and premature death. Further analyses demonstrate that SLC7A11 is downregulated and that p53-mediated ferroptosis is significantly induced in spleens and testis of p533KR/3KRXRCC4−/− mice. These results demonstrate that the direct role of p53-mediated cell cycle arrest, senescence and apoptosis is to control genomic stability in vivo. Our study not only validates the importance of ferroptosis in p53-mediated tumor suppression in vivo but also reveals that the combination of genomic instability and activation of ferroptosis may promote aging-associated phenotypes. PMID:26943586

  7. Cell-cycle dependent expression of a translocation-mediated fusion oncogene mediates checkpoint adaptation in rhabdomyosarcoma.

    PubMed

    Kikuchi, Ken; Hettmer, Simone; Aslam, M Imran; Michalek, Joel E; Laub, Wolfram; Wilky, Breelyn A; Loeb, David M; Rubin, Brian P; Wagers, Amy J; Keller, Charles

    2014-01-01

    Rhabdomyosarcoma is the most commonly occurring soft-tissue sarcoma in childhood. Most rhabdomyosarcoma falls into one of two biologically distinct subgroups represented by alveolar or embryonal histology. The alveolar subtype harbors a translocation-mediated PAX3:FOXO1A fusion gene and has an extremely poor prognosis. However, tumor cells have heterogeneous expression for the fusion gene. Using a conditional genetic mouse model as well as human tumor cell lines, we show that that Pax3:Foxo1a expression is enriched in G2 and triggers a transcriptional program conducive to checkpoint adaptation under stress conditions such as irradiation in vitro and in vivo. Pax3:Foxo1a also tolerizes tumor cells to clinically-established chemotherapy agents and emerging molecularly-targeted agents. Thus, the surprisingly dynamic regulation of the Pax3:Foxo1a locus is a paradigm that has important implications for the way in which oncogenes are modeled in cancer cells. PMID:24453992

  8. Nucleolin-Mediated RNA Localization Regulates Neuron Growth and Cycling Cell Size.

    PubMed

    Perry, Rotem Ben-Tov; Rishal, Ida; Doron-Mandel, Ella; Kalinski, Ashley L; Medzihradszky, Katalin F; Terenzio, Marco; Alber, Stefanie; Koley, Sandip; Lin, Albina; Rozenbaum, Meir; Yudin, Dmitry; Sahoo, Pabitra K; Gomes, Cynthia; Shinder, Vera; Geraisy, Wasim; Huebner, Eric A; Woolf, Clifford J; Yaron, Avraham; Burlingame, Alma L; Twiss, Jeffery L; Fainzilber, Mike

    2016-08-01

    How can cells sense their own size to coordinate biosynthesis and metabolism with their growth needs? We recently proposed a motor-dependent bidirectional transport mechanism for axon length and cell size sensing, but the nature of the motor-transported size signals remained elusive. Here, we show that motor-dependent mRNA localization regulates neuronal growth and cycling cell size. We found that the RNA-binding protein nucleolin is associated with importin β1 mRNA in axons. Perturbation of nucleolin association with kinesins reduces its levels in axons, with a concomitant reduction in axonal importin β1 mRNA and protein levels. Strikingly, subcellular sequestration of nucleolin or importin β1 enhances axonal growth and causes a subcellular shift in protein synthesis. Similar findings were obtained in fibroblasts. Thus, subcellular mRNA localization regulates size and growth in both neurons and cycling cells. PMID:27477284

  9. Tumoral NKG2D alters cell cycle of acute myeloid leukemic cells and reduces NK cell-mediated immune surveillance.

    PubMed

    Tang, Mingying; Acheampong, Desmond Omane; Wang, Youfu; Xie, Wei; Wang, Min; Zhang, Juan

    2016-06-01

    The stimulatory natural killer group 2 member D (NKG2D) lymphocyte receptor, initially discovered and expressed mostly on natural killer (NK) cells, T cells and natural killer T cells, can promote tumor immune surveillance. However, with increasing tumor grade, tumors themselves express NKG2D to self-stimulate oncogenic pathways. To confirm that cancer cells themselves express NKG2D, we have now investigated the role of the tumoral NKG2D in NK cell-mediated immune surveillance. Both anti-NKG2D and shRNA to that down-regulated tumoral NKG2D increased the number of cells in G1 phase and S phase, increased the expression of cyclin E-CDK2 and decreased P21. In addition, CD107a, IFN-γ and TNF-α increased when the cells were treated with anti-NKG2D which suggests that blocking tumoral NKG2D could augment tumor surveillance of NK cells. Altogether, tumoral NKG2D stimulates cell propagation and immune escape in acute myeloid leukemia cells. PMID:26740330

  10. Alteration of Cell Cycle Mediated by Zinc in Human Bronchial Epithelial Cells In Vitro

    EPA Science Inventory

    Zinc (Zn2+), a ubiquitous ambient air contaminant, presents an oxidant challenge to the human lung and is linked to adverse human health effects. To further elucidate the adaptive and apoptotic cellular responses of human airway cells to Zn2+, we performed pilot studies to examin...

  11. Cypermethrin Induces Macrophages Death through Cell Cycle Arrest and Oxidative Stress-Mediated JNK/ERK Signaling Regulated Apoptosis

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Fang; Liu, Qiaoyun; Xie, Shujun; Xu, Jian; Huang, Bo; Wu, Yihua; Xia, Dajing

    2016-01-01

    Cypermethrin is one of the most highly effective synthetic pyrethroid insecticides. The toxicity of cypermethrin to the reproductive and nervous systems has been well studied. However, little is known about the toxic effect of cypermethrin on immune cells such as macrophages. Here, we investigated the cytotoxicity of cypermethrin on macrophages and the underlying molecular mechanisms. We found that cypermethrin reduced cell viability and induced apoptosis in RAW 264.7 cells. Cypermethrin also increased reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and DNA damage in a dose-dependent manner. Moreover, cypermethrin-induced G1 cell cycle arrest was associated with an enhanced expression of p21, wild-type p53, and down-regulation of cyclin D1, cyclin E and CDK4. In addition, cypermethrin treatment activated MAPK signal pathways by inducing c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) and extracellular regulated protein kinases 1/2 ERK1/2 phosphorylation, and increased the cleaved poly ADP-ribose polymerase (PARP). Further, pretreatment with antioxidant N-acetylcysteine (NAC) effectively abrogated cypermethrin-induced cell cytotoxicity, G1 cell cycle arrest, DNA damage, PARP activity, and JNK and ERK1/2 activation. The specific JNK inhibitor (SP600125) and ERK1/2 inhibitor (PD98059) effectively reversed the phosphorylation level of JNK and ERK1/2, and attenuated the apoptosis. Taken together, these data suggested that cypermethrin caused immune cell death via inducing cell cycle arrest and apoptosis regulated by ROS-mediated JNK/ERK pathway. PMID:27322250

  12. Cypermethrin Induces Macrophages Death through Cell Cycle Arrest and Oxidative Stress-Mediated JNK/ERK Signaling Regulated Apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Huang, Fang; Liu, Qiaoyun; Xie, Shujun; Xu, Jian; Huang, Bo; Wu, Yihua; Xia, Dajing

    2016-01-01

    Cypermethrin is one of the most highly effective synthetic pyrethroid insecticides. The toxicity of cypermethrin to the reproductive and nervous systems has been well studied. However, little is known about the toxic effect of cypermethrin on immune cells such as macrophages. Here, we investigated the cytotoxicity of cypermethrin on macrophages and the underlying molecular mechanisms. We found that cypermethrin reduced cell viability and induced apoptosis in RAW 264.7 cells. Cypermethrin also increased reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and DNA damage in a dose-dependent manner. Moreover, cypermethrin-induced G1 cell cycle arrest was associated with an enhanced expression of p21, wild-type p53, and down-regulation of cyclin D1, cyclin E and CDK4. In addition, cypermethrin treatment activated MAPK signal pathways by inducing c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) and extracellular regulated protein kinases 1/2 ERK1/2 phosphorylation, and increased the cleaved poly ADP-ribose polymerase (PARP). Further, pretreatment with antioxidant N-acetylcysteine (NAC) effectively abrogated cypermethrin-induced cell cytotoxicity, G1 cell cycle arrest, DNA damage, PARP activity, and JNK and ERK1/2 activation. The specific JNK inhibitor (SP600125) and ERK1/2 inhibitor (PD98059) effectively reversed the phosphorylation level of JNK and ERK1/2, and attenuated the apoptosis. Taken together, these data suggested that cypermethrin caused immune cell death via inducing cell cycle arrest and apoptosis regulated by ROS-mediated JNK/ERK pathway. PMID:27322250

  13. MMP13 mediates cell cycle progression in melanocytes and melanoma cells: in vitro studies of migration and proliferation

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Melanoma cells are usually characterized by a strong proliferative potential and efficient invasive migration. Among the multiple molecular changes that are recorded during progression of this disease, aberrant activation of receptor tyrosine kinases (RTK) is often observed. Activation of matrix metalloproteases goes along with RTK activation and usually enhances RTK-driven migration. The purpose of this study was to examine RTK-driven three-dimensional migration of melanocytes and the pro-tumorigenic role of matrix metalloproteases for melanocytes and melanoma cells. Results Using experimental melanocyte dedifferentiation as a model for early melanomagenesis we show that an activated EGF receptor variant potentiates migration through three-dimensional fibrillar collagen. EGFR stimulation also resulted in a strong induction of matrix metalloproteases in a MAPK-dependent manner. However, neither MAPK nor MMP activity were required for migration, as the cells migrated in an entirely amoeboid mode. Instead, MMPs fulfilled a function in cell cycle regulation, as their inhibition resulted in strong growth inhibition of melanocytes. The same effect was observed in the human melanoma cell line A375 after stimulation with FCS. Using sh- and siRNA techniques, we could show that MMP13 is the protease responsible for this effect. Along with decreased proliferation, knockdown of MMP13 strongly enhanced pigmentation of melanocytes. Conclusions Our data show for the first time that growth stimuli are mediated via MMP13 in melanocytes and melanoma, suggesting an autocrine MMP13-driven loop. Given that MMP13-specific inhibitors are already developed, these results support the evaluation of these inhibitors in the treatment of melanoma. PMID:20667128

  14. E2F mediates developmental and cell cycle regulation of ORC1 in Drosophila.

    PubMed

    Asano, M; Wharton, R P

    1999-05-01

    Throughout the cell cycle of Saccharomyces cerevisiae, the level of origin recognition complex (ORC) is constant and ORCs are bound constitutively to replication origins. Replication is regulated by the recruitment of additional factors such as CDC6. ORC components are widely conserved, and it generally has been assumed that they are also stable factors bound to origins throughout the cell cycle. In this report, we show that the level of the ORC1 subunit changes dramatically throughout Drosophila development. The accumulation of ORC1 is regulated by E2F-dependent transcription. In embryos, ORC1 accumulates preferentially in proliferating cells. In the eye imaginal disc, ORC1 accumulation is cell cycle regulated, with high levels in late G1 and S phase. In the ovary, the sub-nuclear distribution of ORC1 shifts during a developmentally regulated switch from endoreplication of the entire genome to amplification of the chorion gene clusters. Furthermore, we find that overexpression of ORC1 alters the pattern of DNA synthesis in the eye disc and the ovary. Thus, replication origin activity appears to be governed in part by the level of ORC1 in Drosophila. PMID:10228158

  15. Human cytomegalovirus mediates cell cycle progression through G(1) into early S phase in terminally differentiated cells.

    PubMed

    Sinclair, J; Baillie, J; Bryant, L; Caswell, R

    2000-06-01

    Terminal differentiation of embryonal carcinoma cells and monocytes has been shown to be important for their permissiveness for human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) infection, even though such terminally differentiated cells have withdrawn from the cell cycle and are, essentially, in G(0) arrest. Recently, data from a number of laboratories have shown that productive infection with HCMV of quiescent fibroblasts held reversibly in G(0) of the cell cycle can result in cell cycle progression, which results eventually in cycle arrest. In contrast to quiescent fibroblasts, the effect of HCMV on cells that have withdrawn irreversibly from the cell cycle due to terminal differentiation has not, so far, been addressed. Here, it is shown that, in cells that have arrested in G(0) as a result of terminal differentiation, HCMV is able to induce cell functions associated with progression of the cell cycle through G(1) into early S phase. This progression is correlated with a direct physical and functional interaction between the HCMV 86 kDa major immediate-early protein (IE86) and the cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor p21(Cip1). PMID:10811939

  16. βTrCP-mediated ubiquitylation regulates protein stability of Mis18β in a cell cycle-dependent manner.

    PubMed

    Kim, Ik Soo; Lee, Minkyoung; Park, Joo Hyeon; Jeon, Raok; Baek, Sung Hee; Kim, Keun Il

    2014-01-01

    Ubiquitin E3 ligases including SCF complex are key regulators of cell cycle. Here, we show that Mis18β, a component of Mis18 complex governing CENP-A localization, is a new substrate of βTrCP-containing SCF complex. βTrCP interacted with Mis18β exclusively during interphase but not during mitosis and mediated proteasomal degradation of Mis18β leading to the inactivation of Mis18 complex during interphase. In addition, uncontrolled stabilization of Mis18β caused cell death. Together, we propose that βTrCP-mediated regulation of Mis18β stability is a mechanism to restrict centromere function of Mis18 complex from late mitosis to early G1 phase. PMID:24269809

  17. The p75{sup NTR} tumor suppressor induces cell cycle arrest facilitating caspase mediated apoptosis in prostate tumor cells

    SciTech Connect

    Khwaja, Fatima; Tabassum, Arshia; Allen, Jeff; Djakiew, Daniel . E-mail: djakiewd@georgetown.edu

    2006-03-24

    The p75 neurotrophin receptor (p75{sup NTR}) is a death receptor which belongs to the tumor necrosis factor receptor super-family of membrane proteins. This study shows that p75{sup NTR} retarded cell cycle progression by induced accumulation of cells in G0/G1 and a reduction in the S phase of the cell cycle. The rescue of tumor cells from cell cycle progression by a death domain deleted ({delta}DD) dominant-negative antagonist of p75{sup NTR} showed that the death domain transduced anti-proliferative activity in a ligand-independent manner. Conversely, addition of NGF ligand rescued retardation of cell cycle progression with commensurate changes in components of the cyclin/cdk holoenzyme complex. In the absence of ligand, p75{sup NTR}-dependent cell cycle arrest facilitated an increase in apoptotic nuclear fragmentation of the prostate cancer cells. Apoptosis of p75{sup NTR} expressing cells occurred via the intrinsic mitochondrial pathway leading to a sequential caspase-9 and -7 cascade. Since the death domain deleted dominant-negative antagonist of p75{sup NTR} rescued intrinsic caspase associated apoptosis in PC-3 cells, this shows p75{sup NTR} was integral to ligand independent induction of apoptosis. Moreover, the ability of ligand to ameliorate the p75{sup NTR}-dependent intrinsic apoptotic cascade indicates that NGF functioned as a survival factor for p75{sup NTR} expressing prostate cancer cells.

  18. Aurkb/PP1-mediated resetting of Oct4 during the cell cycle determines the identity of embryonic stem cells

    PubMed Central

    Shin, Jihoon; Kim, Tae Wan; Kim, Hyunsoo; Kim, Hye Ji; Suh, Min Young; Lee, Sangho; Lee, Han-Teo; Kwak, Sojung; Lee, Sang-Eun; Lee, Jong-Hyuk; Jang, Hyonchol; Cho, Eun-Jung; Youn, Hong-Duk

    2016-01-01

    Pluripotency transcription programs by core transcription factors (CTFs) might be reset during M/G1 transition to maintain the pluripotency of embryonic stem cells (ESCs). However, little is known about how CTFs are governed during cell cycle progression. Here, we demonstrate that the regulation of Oct4 by Aurora kinase b (Aurkb)/protein phosphatase 1 (PP1) during the cell cycle is important for resetting Oct4 to pluripotency and cell cycle genes in determining the identity of ESCs. Aurkb phosphorylates Oct4(S229) during G2/M phase, leading to the dissociation of Oct4 from chromatin, whereas PP1 binds Oct4 and dephosphorylates Oct4(S229) during M/G1 transition, which resets Oct4-driven transcription for pluripotency and the cell cycle. Aurkb phosphor-mimetic and PP1 binding-deficient mutations in Oct4 alter the cell cycle, effect the loss of pluripotency in ESCs, and decrease the efficiency of somatic cell reprogramming. Our findings provide evidence that the cell cycle is linked directly to pluripotency programs in ESCs. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.10877.001 PMID:26880562

  19. Interplay of posttranslational modifications in Sp1 mediates Sp1 stability during cell cycle progression.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yi-Ting; Yang, Wen-Bin; Chang, Wen-Chang; Hung, Jan-Jong

    2011-11-18

    Although Sp1 is known to undergo posttranslational modifications such as phosphorylation, glycosylation, acetylation, sumoylation, and ubiquitination, little is known about the possible interplay between the different forms of Sp1 that may affect its overall levels. It is also unknown whether changes in the levels of Sp1 influence any biological cell processes. Here, we identified RNF4 as the ubiquitin E3 ligase of Sp1. From in vitro and in vivo experiments, we found that sumoylated Sp1 can recruit RNF4 as a ubiquitin E3 ligase that subjects sumoylated Sp1 to proteasomal degradation. Sp1 mapping revealed two ubiquitination-related domains: a small ubiquitin-like modifier in the N-terminus of Sp1(Lys16) and the C-terminus of Sp1 that directly interacts with RNF4. Interestingly, when Sp1 was phosphorylated at Thr739 by c-Jun NH(2)-terminal kinase 1 during mitosis, this phosphorylated form of Sp1 abolished the Sp1-RNF4 interaction. Our results show that, while sumoylated Sp1 subjects to proteasomal degradation, the phosphorylation that occurs during the cell cycle can protect Sp1 from degradation by repressing the Sp1-RNF4 interaction. Thus, we propose that the interplay between posttranslational modifications of Sp1 plays an important role in cell cycle progression and keeps Sp1 at a critical level for mitosis. PMID:21983342

  20. SLA2 mutations cause SWE1-mediated cell cycle phenotypes in Candida albicans and Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Gale, Cheryl A; Leonard, Michelle D; Finley, Kenneth R; Christensen, Leah; McClellan, Mark; Abbey, Darren; Kurischko, Cornelia; Bensen, Eric; Tzafrir, Iris; Kauffman, Sarah; Becker, Jeff; Berman, Judith

    2009-12-01

    The early endocytic patch protein Sla2 is important for morphogenesis and growth rates in Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Candida albicans, but the mechanism that connects these processes is not clear. Here we report that growth defects in cells lacking CaSLA2 or ScSLA2 are associated with a cell cycle delay that is influenced by Swe1, a morphogenesis checkpoint kinase. To establish how Swe1 monitors Sla2 function, we compared actin organization and cell cycle dynamics in strains lacking other components of early endocytic patches (Sla1 and Abp1) with those in strains lacking Sla2. Only sla2 strains had defects in actin cables, a known trigger of the morphogenesis checkpoint, yet all three strains exhibited Swe1-dependent phenotypes. Thus, Swe1 appears to monitor actin patch in addition to actin cable function. Furthermore, Swe1 contributed to virulence in a mouse model of disseminated candidiasis, implying a role for the morphogenesis checkpoint during the pathogenesis of C. albicans infections. PMID:19778960

  1. Phthalocyanine-mediated photodynamic therapy induces cell death and a G /G{sub 1} cell cycle arrest in cervical cancer cells

    SciTech Connect

    Haywood-Small, S.L. . E-mail: s.l.hankin@sheffield.ac.uk; Vernon, D.I.; Griffiths, J.; Schofield, J.; Brown, S.B.

    2006-01-13

    We have developed a series of novel photosensitizers which have potential for anticancer photodynamic therapy (PDT). Photosensitizers include zinc phthalocyanine tetra-sulphonic acid and a family of derivatives with amino acid substituents of varying alkyl chain length and degree of branching. Subcellular localization of these photosensitizers at the phototoxic IC{sub 5} concentration in human cervical carcinoma cells (SiHa Cells) was similar to that of the lysosomal dye Lucifer Yellow. Subsequent nuclear relocalization was observed following irradiation with 665 nm laser light. The PDT response was characterized using the Sulforhodamine B cytotoxicity assay. Flow cytometry was used for both DNA cell cycle and dual Annexin V-FITC/propidium iodide analysis. Phototoxicity of the derivatives was of the same order of magnitude as for tetrasulphonated phthalocyanine but with an overall trend of increased phototoxicity with increasing amino acid chain length. Our results demonstrate cell death, inhibition of cell growth, and G /G{sub 1} cell cycle arrest during the phthalocyanine PDT-mediated response.

  2. HEAT SHOCK FACTOR 1-MEDIATED THERMOTOLERANCE PREVENTS CELL DEATH AND RESULTS IN G2/M CELL CYCLE ARREST

    EPA Science Inventory

    Mammalian cells respond to stress by activating heat shock transcription factors (e.g., HSF1) that regulate increased synthesis of heat shock proteins (HSPs). HSPs mediate protection from deleterious effects of stress by preventing permanent disruption of normal cellular mitosis...

  3. Septins Regulate Actin Organization and Cell Cycle Arrest Through SOCS7-Mediated Nuclear Accumulation of NCK

    PubMed Central

    Kremer, Brandon E.; Adang, Laura A.; Macara, Ian G.

    2007-01-01

    SUMMARY Mammalian septins are GTP-binding proteins the functions of which are not well understood. Knockdown of Sept2, 6, and 7 causes stress fibers to disintegrate and the cells to lose polarity. We now show that this phenotype is induced by nuclear accumulation of the adapter protein NCK, as the effects can be reversed or induced by cytoplasmic or nuclear NCK, respectively. NCK is carried into the nucleus by SOCS7 (Suppressor Of Cytokine Signaling-7), which contains nuclear import/export signals. SOCS7 interacts through distinct domains with septins and NCK. DNA damage induces actin and septin rearrangement and rapid nuclear accumulation of NCK and SOCS7. Moreover, NCK expression is essential for cell-cycle arrest. The septin-SOCS7-NCK axis intersects with the canonical DNA damage cascade downstream of ATM/ATR and is essential for p53 Ser15 phosphorylation. These data illuminate an unanticipated connection between septins, SOCS7, NCK signaling, and the DNA damage response. PMID:17803907

  4. Multiple requirements for SHPTP2 in epidermal growth factor-mediated cell cycle progression.

    PubMed Central

    Bennett, A M; Hausdorff, S F; O'Reilly, A M; Freeman, R M; Neel, B G

    1996-01-01

    Using transient overexpression and microinjection approaches, we examined SHPTP2's function in growth factor signaling. Overexpression of catalytically inactive SHPTP2 (PTP2CS) but not catalytically inactive SHPTP1, inhibited mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase activation and Elk-1 transactivation following epidermal growth factor (EGF) stimulation of 293 cells. An SHPTP2 mutant with both C-terminal tyrosyl phosphorylation sites converted to phenylalanine (PTP2YF) was also without effect; moreover, PTP2YF rescued PTP2CS-induced inhibition of EGF-induced Elk-1 transactivation. PTP2CS did not inhibit transactivation by activated Ras, suggesting that SHPTP2 acts upstream of or parallel to Ras. Neither PTP2CS nor PTP2YF inhibited platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF)-induced Elk-1 transactivation. Thus, protein-tyrosine phosphatase activity, but not tyrosyl phosphorylation of SHPTP2, is required for the immediate-early responses to EGF but not to PDGF. To determine whether SHPTP2 is required later in the cell cycle, we assessed S-phase entry in NIH 3T3 cells microinjected with anti-SHPTP2 antibodies or with a glutathione S-transferase (GST) fusion protein encoding both SH2 domains (GST-SH2). Microinjection of anti-SHPTP2 antibodies prior to stimulation inhibited EGF- but no PDGF- or serum-induced S-phase entry. Anti-SHPTP2 antibodies or GST-SH2 fusion protein could inhibit EGF-induced S-phase entry for up to 8 h after EGF addition. Although MAP kinase activation was detected shortly after EGF stimulation, no MAP kinase activation was detected around the restriction point. Therefore, SHPTP2 is absolutely required for immediate-early and late events induced by some, but not all, growth factors, and the immediate-early and late signal transduction pathways regulated by SHPTP2 are distinguishable. PMID:8622663

  5. p27Kip1 Is Required to Mediate a G1 Cell Cycle Arrest Downstream of ATM following Genotoxic Stress.

    PubMed

    Cassimere, Erica K; Mauvais, Claire; Denicourt, Catherine

    2016-01-01

    The DNA damage response (DDR) is a coordinated signaling network that ensures the maintenance of genome stability under DNA damaging stress. In response to DNA lesions, activation of the DDR leads to the establishment of cell cycle checkpoints that delay cell-cycle progression and allow repair of the defects. The tumor suppressor p27Kip1 is a cyclin-CDK inhibitor that plays an important role in regulating quiescence in a variety of tissues. Several studies have suggested that p27Kip1 also plays a role in the maintenance of genomic integrity. Here we demonstrate that p27Kip1 is essential for the establishment of a G1 checkpoint arrest after DNA damage. We also uncovered that ATM phosphorylates p27Kip1 on a previously uncharacterized residue (Ser-140), which leads to its stabilization after induction of DNA double-strand breaks. Inhibition of this stabilization by replacing endogenous p27Kip1 with a Ser-140 phospho-mutant (S140A) significantly sensitized cells to IR treatments. Our findings reveal a novel role for p27Kip1 in the DNA damage response pathway and suggest that part of its tumor suppressing functions relies in its ability to mediate a G1 arrest after the induction of DNA double strand breaks. PMID:27611996

  6. Regulation of Cell Cycle Regulators by SIRT1 Contributes to Resveratrol-Mediated Prevention of Pulmonary Arterial Hypertension

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Shuang; Li, Meng-Tao; Jia, Yu-Yan; Liu, Jin-Jing; Wang, Qian; Tian, Zhuang; Liu, Yong-Tai; Chen, Hou-Zao; Liu, De-Pei; Zeng, Xiao-Feng

    2015-01-01

    Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in rheumatic diseases. Vascular remodeling due to the proliferation of pulmonary arterial smooth muscle cells (PASMCs) is central to the development of PAH. To date, it is still unclear if Silence Information Regulator 1 (SIRT1) regulates cell cycle regulators in the proliferation of PASMCs and contributes to prevention of PAH by resveratrol. In this study, we found that a significant decrease of SIRT1 expression levels in platelet-derived growth factor BB (PDGF-BB) treated human PASMCs (HPASMCs) and in monocrotaline (MCT) induced PAH rat. Overexpression of SIRT1 induced G1 phase arrest and increased p21 expression but decreased cyclin D1 expression in PDGF-BB treated HPASMCs. Moreover, resveratrol attenuated pulmonary arterial remodeling, decreased pulmonary arterial pressure, and upregulated SIRT1 and p21 expression but downregulated cyclin D1 expression in MCT induced PAH rat. Notably, knockdown of SIRT1 eliminated the regulation of resveratrol on p21 and cyclin D1 expression in PDGF-BB treated HPASMCs. These results demonstrated that SIRT1 mediated the regulation of resveratrol on the expression of cell cycle regulatory molecules. It suggests that SIRT1 exerts a protective role in PAH associated with rheumatic diseases and can be a potential treatment target. PMID:26273643

  7. Severe NDE1-mediated microcephaly results from neural progenitor cell cycle arrests at multiple specific stages.

    PubMed

    Doobin, David J; Kemal, Shahrnaz; Dantas, Tiago J; Vallee, Richard B

    2016-01-01

    Microcephaly is a cortical malformation disorder characterized by an abnormally small brain. Recent studies have revealed severe cases of microcephaly resulting from human mutations in the NDE1 gene, which is involved in the regulation of cytoplasmic dynein. Here using in utero electroporation of NDE1 short hairpin RNA (shRNA) in embryonic rat brains, we observe cell cycle arrest of proliferating neural progenitors at three distinct stages: during apical interkinetic nuclear migration, at the G2-to-M transition and in regulation of primary cilia at the G1-to-S transition. RNAi against the NDE1 paralogue NDEL1 has no such effects. However, NDEL1 overexpression can functionally compensate for NDE1, except at the G2-to-M transition, revealing a unique NDE1 role. In contrast, NDE1 and NDEL1 RNAi have comparable effects on postmitotic neuronal migration. These results reveal that the severity of NDE1-associated microcephaly results not from defects in mitosis, but rather the inability of neural progenitors to ever reach this stage. PMID:27553190

  8. Severe NDE1-mediated microcephaly results from neural progenitor cell cycle arrests at multiple specific stages

    PubMed Central

    Doobin, David J.; Kemal, Shahrnaz; Dantas, Tiago J.; Vallee, Richard B.

    2016-01-01

    Microcephaly is a cortical malformation disorder characterized by an abnormally small brain. Recent studies have revealed severe cases of microcephaly resulting from human mutations in the NDE1 gene, which is involved in the regulation of cytoplasmic dynein. Here using in utero electroporation of NDE1 short hairpin RNA (shRNA) in embryonic rat brains, we observe cell cycle arrest of proliferating neural progenitors at three distinct stages: during apical interkinetic nuclear migration, at the G2-to-M transition and in regulation of primary cilia at the G1-to-S transition. RNAi against the NDE1 paralogue NDEL1 has no such effects. However, NDEL1 overexpression can functionally compensate for NDE1, except at the G2-to-M transition, revealing a unique NDE1 role. In contrast, NDE1 and NDEL1 RNAi have comparable effects on postmitotic neuronal migration. These results reveal that the severity of NDE1-associated microcephaly results not from defects in mitosis, but rather the inability of neural progenitors to ever reach this stage. PMID:27553190

  9. Cell-cycle dependent phosphorylation of yeast pericentrin regulates γ-TuSC-mediated microtubule nucleation.

    PubMed

    Lin, Tien-Chen; Neuner, Annett; Schlosser, Yvonne T; Scharf, Annette N D; Weber, Lisa; Schiebel, Elmar

    2014-01-01

    Budding yeast Spc110, a member of γ-tubulin complex receptor family (γ-TuCR), recruits γ-tubulin complexes to microtubule (MT) organizing centers (MTOCs). Biochemical studies suggest that Spc110 facilitates higher-order γ-tubulin complex assembly (Kollman et al., 2010). Nevertheless the molecular basis for this activity and the regulation are unclear. Here we show that Spc110 phosphorylated by Mps1 and Cdk1 activates γ-TuSC oligomerization and MT nucleation in a cell cycle dependent manner. Interaction between the N-terminus of the γ-TuSC subunit Spc98 and Spc110 is important for this activity. Besides the conserved CM1 motif in γ-TuCRs (Sawin et al., 2004), a second motif that we named Spc110/Pcp1 motif (SPM) is also important for MT nucleation. The activating Mps1 and Cdk1 sites lie between SPM and CM1 motifs. Most organisms have both SPM-CM1 (Spc110/Pcp1/PCNT) and CM1-only (Spc72/Mto1/Cnn/CDK5RAP2/myomegalin) types of γ-TuCRs. The two types of γ-TuCRs contain distinct but conserved C-terminal MTOC targeting domains.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.02208.001. PMID:24842996

  10. Myc Inhibits p27-Induced Erythroid Differentiation of Leukemia Cells by Repressing Erythroid Master Genes without Reversing p27-Mediated Cell Cycle Arrest▿ ‡

    PubMed Central

    Acosta, Juan C.; Ferrándiz, Nuria; Bretones, Gabriel; Torrano, Verónica; Blanco, Rosa; Richard, Carlos; O'Connell, Brenda; Sedivy, John; Delgado, M. Dolores; León, Javier

    2008-01-01

    Inhibition of differentiation has been proposed as an important mechanism for Myc-induced tumorigenesis, but the mechanisms involved are unclear. We have established a genetically defined differentiation model in human leukemia K562 cells by conditional expression of the cyclin-dependent kinase (Cdk) inhibitor p27 (inducible by Zn2+) and Myc (activatable by 4-hydroxy-tamoxifen). Induction of p27 resulted in erythroid differentiation, accompanied by Cdk inhibition and G1 arrest. Interestingly, activation of Myc inhibited p27-mediated erythroid differentiation without affecting p27-mediated proliferation arrest. Microarray-based gene expression indicated that, in the presence of p27, Myc blocked the upregulation of several erythroid-cell-specific genes, including NFE2, JUNB, and GATA1 (transcription factors with a pivotal role in erythropoiesis). Moreover, Myc also blocked the upregulation of Mad1, a transcriptional antagonist of Myc that is able to induce erythroid differentiation. Cotransfection experiments demonstrated that Myc-mediated inhibition of differentiation is partly dependent on the repression of Mad1 and GATA1. In conclusion, this model demonstrates that Myc-mediated inhibition of differentiation depends on the regulation of a specific gene program, whereas it is independent of p27-mediated cell cycle arrest. Our results support the hypothesis that differentiation inhibition is an important Myc tumorigenic mechanism that is independent of cell proliferation. PMID:18838534

  11. Myc inhibits p27-induced erythroid differentiation of leukemia cells by repressing erythroid master genes without reversing p27-mediated cell cycle arrest.

    PubMed

    Acosta, Juan C; Ferrándiz, Nuria; Bretones, Gabriel; Torrano, Verónica; Blanco, Rosa; Richard, Carlos; O'Connell, Brenda; Sedivy, John; Delgado, M Dolores; León, Javier

    2008-12-01

    Inhibition of differentiation has been proposed as an important mechanism for Myc-induced tumorigenesis, but the mechanisms involved are unclear. We have established a genetically defined differentiation model in human leukemia K562 cells by conditional expression of the cyclin-dependent kinase (Cdk) inhibitor p27 (inducible by Zn(2+)) and Myc (activatable by 4-hydroxy-tamoxifen). Induction of p27 resulted in erythroid differentiation, accompanied by Cdk inhibition and G(1) arrest. Interestingly, activation of Myc inhibited p27-mediated erythroid differentiation without affecting p27-mediated proliferation arrest. Microarray-based gene expression indicated that, in the presence of p27, Myc blocked the upregulation of several erythroid-cell-specific genes, including NFE2, JUNB, and GATA1 (transcription factors with a pivotal role in erythropoiesis). Moreover, Myc also blocked the upregulation of Mad1, a transcriptional antagonist of Myc that is able to induce erythroid differentiation. Cotransfection experiments demonstrated that Myc-mediated inhibition of differentiation is partly dependent on the repression of Mad1 and GATA1. In conclusion, this model demonstrates that Myc-mediated inhibition of differentiation depends on the regulation of a specific gene program, whereas it is independent of p27-mediated cell cycle arrest. Our results support the hypothesis that differentiation inhibition is an important Myc tumorigenic mechanism that is independent of cell proliferation. PMID:18838534

  12. CCND1–CDK4–mediated cell cycle progression provides a competitive advantage for human hematopoietic stem cells in vivo

    PubMed Central

    Mende, Nicole; Kuchen, Erika E.; Lesche, Mathias; Grinenko, Tatyana; Kokkaliaris, Konstantinos D.; Hanenberg, Helmut; Lindemann, Dirk; Dahl, Andreas; Platz, Alexander; Höfer, Thomas; Calegari, Federico

    2015-01-01

    Maintenance of stem cell properties is associated with reduced proliferation. However, in mouse hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs), loss of quiescence results in a wide range of phenotypes, ranging from functional failure to extensive self-renewal. It remains unknown whether the function of human HSCs is controlled by the kinetics of cell cycle progression. Using human HSCs and human progenitor cells (HSPCs), we report here that elevated levels of CCND1–CDK4 complexes promoted the transit from G0 to G1 and shortened the G1 cell cycle phase, resulting in protection from differentiation-inducing signals in vitro and increasing human leukocyte engraftment in vivo. Further, CCND1–CDK4 overexpression conferred a competitive advantage without impacting HSPC numbers. In contrast, accelerated cell cycle progression mediated by elevated levels of CCNE1–CDK2 led to the loss of functional HSPCs in vivo. Collectively, these data suggest that the transition kinetics through the early cell cycle phases are key regulators of human HSPC function and important for lifelong hematopoiesis. PMID:26150472

  13. OSBP-related protein 8 (ORP8) interacts with Homo sapiens sperm associated antigen 5 (SPAG5) and mediates oxysterol interference of HepG2 cell cycle

    SciTech Connect

    Zhong, Wenbin; Zhou, You; Li, Jiwei; Mysore, Raghavendra; Luo, Wei; Li, Shiqian; Chang, Mau-Sun; Olkkonen, Vesa M.; Yan, Daoguang

    2014-04-01

    We earlier identified OSBP-related protein 8 (ORP8) as an endoplasmic reticulum/nuclear envelope oxysterol-binding protein implicated in cellular lipid homeostasis, migration, and organization of the microtubule cytoskeleton. Here, a yeast two-hybrid screen identified Homo sapiens sperm associated antigen 5 (SPAG5)/Astrin as interaction partner of ORP8. The putative interaction was further confirmed by pull-down and co-immunoprecipitation assays. ORP8 did not colocalize with kinetochore-associated SPAG5 in mitotic HepG2 or HuH7 cells, but overexpressed ORP8 was capable of recruiting SPAG5 onto endoplasmic reticulum membranes in interphase cells. In our experiments, 25-hydroxycholesterol (25OHC) retarded the HepG2 cell cycle, causing accumulation in G2/M phase; ORP8 overexpression resulted in the same phenotype. Importantly, ORP8 knock-down dramatically inhibited the oxysterol effect on HepG2 cell cycle, suggesting a mediating role of ORP8. Furthermore, knock-down of SPAG5 significantly reduced the effects of both ORP8 overexpression and 25OHC on the cell cycle, placing SPAG5 downstream of the two cell-cycle interfering factors. Taken together, the present results suggest that ORP8 may via SPAG5 mediate oxysterol interference of the HepG2 cell cycle. - Highlights: • The oxysterol-binding protein ORP8 was found to interact with the mitotic regulator SPAG5/Astrin. • Treatment of HepG2 cells with 25-hydroxycholesterol caused cell cycle retardation in G2/M. • ORP8 overexpression caused a similar G2/M accumulation, and ORP8 knock-down reversed the 25-hydroxycholesterol effect. • Reduction of cellular of SPAG5/Astrin reversed the cell cycle effects of both 25-hydroxycholesterol and ORP8 overexpression. • Our results suggest that ORP8 mediates via SPAG5/Astrin the oxysterol interference of HepG2 cell cycle.

  14. (E)-1-(3,4-dihydroxyphenethyl)-3-styrylurea inhibits proliferation of MCF-7 cells through G1 cell cycle arrest and mitochondria-mediated apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Yu, Ji-Yeon; Kim, Ji-Hae; Kim, Tae-Geum; Kim, Beom-Tae; Jang, Yong-Suk; Lee, Jeong-Chae

    2010-10-01

    Growing interest in the beneficial effects of antioxidants has inspired the synthesis of new phenolic acid phenethyl ureas (PAPUs) with enhanced antioxidant potential. We have previously shown the capacity of one PAPU compound, (E)-1-(3,4-dihydroxyphenethyl)-3-styrylurea (PAPU1), to induce caspase-dependent apoptosis in melanoma cells. In the present study, we examined the anti-proliferative effects of PAPU compounds on MCF-7 human breast cancer cells and determined the molecular mechanisms involved. Treatment with PAPU compounds inhibited predominantly proliferation in these cells, where the PAPU1 was the most efficient form. Flow cytometric analysis showed that PAPU1 blocked cell cycle progression in the G(0)/G(1) phase, and reduced the proportion of cells in G(2)/M phase. This was related to the inhibition of cell cycle regulatory factors, including cyclin D/E and cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK) 2/4, through induction of p21(Cip1). PAPU1 also induced the mitochondrial-mediated and caspase-dependent apoptosis in MCF-7 cells. This was evidenced by cellular changes in the levels of Bcl-2 and Bax, loss of the mitochondrial membrane potential, release of cytochrome c into the cytosol, and caspase-9 activation. Collectively, our results suggest that G(1) cell cycle regulatory proteins and mitochondrial pathways are the crucial targets of PAPU1 in the chemoprevention of breast cancer cells. PMID:20811815

  15. Host Cell Factor-1 Recruitment to E2F-bound and Cell Cycle Control Genes is Mediated by THAP11 and ZNF143

    PubMed Central

    Parker, J. Brandon; Yin, Hanwei; Vinckevicius, Aurimas; Chakravarti, Debabrata

    2014-01-01

    Summary Host cell factor-1 (HCF-1) is a metazoan transcriptional co-regulator essential for cell cycle progression and cell proliferation. Current models suggest a mechanism whereby HCF-1 functions as a direct co-regulator of E2F proteins, facilitating the expression of genes necessary for cell proliferation. In this report, we show that HCF-1 recruitment to numerous E2F-bound promoters is mediated by the concerted action of zinc finger transcription factors THAP11 and ZNF143, rather than E2F proteins directly. THAP11, ZNF143, and HCF-1 form a mutually dependent complex on chromatin, which is independent of E2F occupancy. Disruption of the THAP11/ZNF143/HCF-1 complex results in altered expression of cell cycle control genes and leads to reduced cell proliferation, cell cycle progression, and cell viability. These data establish a new model which suggests that a THAP11/ZNF143/HCF-1 complex is a critical component of the transcriptional regulatory network governing cell proliferation. PMID:25437553

  16. Host cell factor-1 recruitment to E2F-bound and cell-cycle-control genes is mediated by THAP11 and ZNF143.

    PubMed

    Parker, J Brandon; Yin, Hanwei; Vinckevicius, Aurimas; Chakravarti, Debabrata

    2014-11-01

    Host cell factor-1 (HCF-1) is a metazoan transcriptional coregulator essential for cell-cycle progression and cell proliferation. Current models suggest a mechanism whereby HCF-1 functions as a direct coregulator of E2F proteins, facilitating the expression of genes necessary for cell proliferation. In this report, we show that HCF-1 recruitment to numerous E2F-bound promoters is mediated by the concerted action of zinc finger transcription factors THAP11 and ZNF143, rather than E2F proteins directly. THAP11, ZNF143, and HCF-1 form a mutually dependent complex on chromatin, which is independent of E2F occupancy. Disruption of the THAP11/ZNF143/HCF-1 complex results in altered expression of cell-cycle control genes and leads to reduced cell proliferation, cell-cycle progression, and cell viability. These data establish a model in which a THAP11/ZNF143/HCF-1 complex is a critical component of the transcriptional regulatory network governing cell proliferation. PMID:25437553

  17. Ndfip1 mediates peripheral tolerance to self and exogenous antigen by inducing cell cycle exit in responding CD4+ T cells

    PubMed Central

    Altin, John A.; Daley, Stephen R.; Howitt, Jason; Rickards, Helen J.; Batkin, Alison K.; Horikawa, Keisuke; Prasad, Simon J.; Nelms, Keats A.; Kumar, Sharad; Wu, Lawren C.; Tan, Seong-Seng; Cook, Matthew C.; Goodnow, Christopher C.

    2014-01-01

    The NDFIP1 (neural precursor cell expressed, developmentally down-regulated protein 4 family-interacting protein 1) adapter for the ubiquitin ligase ITCH is genetically linked to human allergic and autoimmune disease, but the cellular mechanism by which these proteins enable foreign and self-antigens to be tolerated is unresolved. Here, we use two unique mouse strains—an Ndfip1-YFP reporter and an Ndfip1-deficient strain—to show that Ndfip1 is progressively induced during T-cell differentiation and activation in vivo and that its deficiency causes a cell-autonomous, Forkhead box P3-independent failure of peripheral CD4+ T-cell tolerance to self and exogenous antigen. In small cohorts of antigen-specific CD4+ cells responding in vivo, Ndfip1 was necessary for tolerogen-reactive T cells to exit cell cycle after one to five divisions and to abort Th2 effector differentiation, defining a step in peripheral tolerance that provides insights into the phenomenon of T-cell anergy in vivo and is distinct from the better understood process of Bcl2-interacting mediator of cell death-mediated apoptosis. Ndfip1 deficiency precipitated autoimmune pancreatic destruction and diabetes; however, this depended on a further accumulation of nontolerant anti-self T cells from strong stimulation by exogenous tolerogen. These findings illuminate a peripheral tolerance checkpoint that aborts T-cell clonal expansion against allergens and autoantigens and demonstrate how hypersensitive responses to environmental antigens may trigger autoimmunity. PMID:24520172

  18. Cell Cycle- and Vpr-Mediated Regulation of Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 Expression in Primary and Transformed T-Cell Lines

    PubMed Central

    Gummuluru, Suryaram; Emerman, Michael

    1999-01-01

    Viral protein R (Vpr) of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) transiently arrests cells in the G2 phase of the cell cycle and is a weak transcriptional transactivator. We found that Vpr increased HIV-1 long terminal repeat (LTR) activity in all cells examined but, when expressed at high levels, decreased HIV-1 LTR expression due to cytotoxic effects. Moreover, Vpr-mediated enhancement of HIV-1 LTR-driven transcription was observed in cycling primary human CD4+ T cells but not in terminally differentiated, noncycling primary human macrophages. In single-round infection experiments using primary human CD4+ T cells, proviral clones expressing either wild-type Vpr or Vpr mutants that retained the ability to cause a G2 arrest replicated to higher levels than proviruses lacking Vpr or expressing mutants of Vpr that did not cause an arrest. In support of the hypothesis that enhancement of HIV-1 LTR transcription by Vpr is an indirect effect of the ability of Vpr to delay cells in G2, counterflow centrifugal elutriation of cells into different phases of the cell cycle demonstrated that HIV-1 LTR expression was highest in G2. Finally, the ability of Vpr to upregulate viral transcription was dependent on a minimal promoter containing a functional TATA box and an enhancer. PMID:10364289

  19. Topoisomerase II-Mediated DNA Damage Is Differently Repaired during the Cell Cycle by Non-Homologous End Joining and Homologous Recombination

    PubMed Central

    de Campos-Nebel, Marcelo; Larripa, Irene; González-Cid, Marcela

    2010-01-01

    Topoisomerase II (Top2) is a nuclear enzyme involved in several metabolic processes of DNA. Chemotherapy agents that poison Top2 are known to induce persistent protein-mediated DNA double strand breaks (DSB). In this report, by using knock down experiments, we demonstrated that Top2α was largely responsible for the induction of γH2AX and cytotoxicity by the Top2 poisons idarubicin and etoposide in normal human cells. As DSB resulting from Top2 poisons-mediated damage may be repaired by non-homologous end joining (NHEJ) or homologous recombination (HR), we aimed to analyze both DNA repair pathways. We found that DNA-PKcs was rapidly activated in human cells, as evidenced by autophosphorylation at serine 2056, following Top2-mediated DNA damage. The chemical inhibition of DNA-PKcs by wortmannin and vanillin resulted in an increased accumulation of DNA DSB, as evaluated by the comet assay. This was supported by a hypersensitive phenotype to Top2 poisons of Ku80- and DNA-PKcs- defective Chinese hamster cell lines. We also showed that Rad51 protein levels, Rad51 foci formation and sister chromatid exchanges were increased in human cells following Top2-mediated DNA damage. In support, BRCA2- and Rad51C- defective Chinese hamster cells displayed hypersensitivity to Top2 poisons. The analysis by immunofluorescence of the DNA DSB repair response in synchronized human cell cultures revealed activation of DNA-PKcs throughout the cell cycle and Rad51 foci formation in S and late S/G2 cells. Additionally, we found an increase of DNA-PKcs-mediated residual repair events, but not Rad51 residual foci, into micronucleated and apoptotic cells. Therefore, we conclude that in human cells both NHEJ and HR are required, with cell cycle stage specificity, for the repair of Top2-mediated reversible DNA damage. Moreover, NHEJ-mediated residual repair events are more frequently associated to irreversibly damaged cells. PMID:20824055

  20. Resveratrol oligomers isolated from Carex species inhibit growth of human colon tumorigenic cells mediated by cell cycle arrest.

    PubMed

    González-Sarrías, Antonio; Gromek, Samantha; Niesen, Daniel; Seeram, Navindra P; Henry, Geneive E

    2011-08-24

    Research has shown that members of the Carex genus produce biologically active stilbenoids including resveratrol oligomers. This is of great interest to the nutraceutical industry given that resveratrol, a constituent of grape and red wine, has attracted immense research attention due to its potential human health benefits. In the current study, five resveratrol oligomers (isolated from Carex folliculata and Carex gynandra ), along with resveratrol, were evaluated for antiproliferative effects against human colon cancer (HCT-116, HT-29, Caco-2) and normal human colon (CCD-18Co) cells. The resveratrol oligomers included one dimer, two trimers, and two tetramers: pallidol (1); α-viniferin (2) and trans-miyabenol C (3); and kobophenols A (4) and B (5), respectively. Although not cytotoxic, the resveratrol oligomers (1-5), as well as resveratrol, inhibited growth of the human colon cancer cells. Among the six stilbenoids, α-viniferin (2) was most active against the colon cancer cells with IC(50) values of 6-32 μM (>2-fold compared to normal colon cells). Moreover, α-viniferin (at 20 μM) did not induce apoptosis but arrested cell cycle (in the S-phase) for the colon cancer but not the normal colon cells. This study adds to the growing body of knowledge supporting the anticancer effects of resveratrol and its oligomers. Furthermore, Carex species should be investigated for their nutraceutical potential given that they produce biologically active stilbenoids such as α-viniferin. PMID:21761862

  1. Intrinsic caspase-8 activation mediates sensitization of erlotinib-resistant tumor cells to erlotinib/cell-cycle inhibitors combination treatment

    PubMed Central

    Orzáez, M; Guevara, T; Sancho, M; Pérez-Payá, E

    2012-01-01

    Inhibitors of the tyrosine kinase activity of epidermal growth factor receptor, as erlotinib, have an established role in treating several cancer types. However, resistance to erlotinib, particularly in breast cancer cell lines, and erlotinib treatment-associated disorders have also been described. Also, methods and combination therapies that could reverse resistance and ameliorate non-desirable effects represent a clinical challenge. Here, we show that the ATP non-competitive CDK2/cyclin A inhibitor NBI1 sensitizes erlotinib-resistant tumor cells to the combination treatment (co-treatment) for apoptosis-mediated cell death. Furthermore, in erlotinib-sensitive cells, the effective dose of erlotinib was lower in the presence of NBI1. The analysis in the breast cancer MDA-MB-468 erlotinib-resistant and in lung cancer A549 cell lines of the molecular mechanism underlying the apoptosis induced by co-treatment highlighted that the accumulation of DNA defects and depletion of cIAP and XIAP activates the ripoptosome that ultimately activates caspases-8 and -10 and apoptosis. This finding could have significant implications for future treatment strategies in clinical settings. PMID:23096116

  2. The Nontoxic Cell Cycle Modulator Indirubin Augments Transduction of Adeno-Associated Viral Vectors and Zinc-Finger Nuclease-Mediated Gene Targeting

    PubMed Central

    Rahman, Shamim H.; Bobis-Wozowicz, Sylwia; Chatterjee, Debanjana; Gellhaus, Katharina; Pars, Kaweh; Heilbronn, Regine; Jacobs, Roland

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Parameters that regulate or affect the cell cycle or the DNA repair choice between non-homologous end-joining and homology-directed repair (HDR) are excellent targets to enhance therapeutic gene targeting. Here, we have evaluated the impact of five cell-cycle modulating drugs on targeted genome engineering mediated by DNA double-strand break (DSB)-inducing nucleases, such as zinc-finger nucleases (ZFNs). For a side-by-side comparison, we have established four reporter cell lines by integrating a mutated EGFP gene into either three transformed human cell lines or primary umbilical cord–derived mesenchymal stromal cells (UC-MSCs). After treatment with different cytostatic drugs, cells were transduced with adeno-associated virus (AAV) vectors that encode a nuclease or a repair donor to rescue EGFP expression through DSB-induced HDR. We show that transient cell-cycle arrest increased AAV transduction and AAV-mediated HDR up to six-fold in human cell lines and ten-fold in UC-MSCs, respectively. Targeted gene correction was observed in up to 34% of transduced cells. Both the absolute and the relative gene-targeting frequencies were dependent on the cell type, the cytostatic drug, the vector dose, and the nuclease. Treatment of cells with the cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor indirubin-3′-monoxime was especially promising as this compound combined high stimulatory effects with minimal cytotoxicity. In conclusion, indirubin-3′-monoxime significantly improved AAV transduction and the efficiency of AAV/ZFN-mediated gene targeting and may thus represent a promising compound to enhance DSB-mediated genome engineering in human stem cells, such as UC-MSCs, which hold great promise for future clinical applications. PMID:23072634

  3. Identification and characterization of a cell cycle and apoptosis regulatory protein-1 as a novel mediator of apoptosis signaling by retinoid CD437.

    PubMed

    Rishi, Arun K; Zhang, Liyue; Boyanapalli, Madanamohan; Wali, Anil; Mohammad, Ramzi M; Yu, Yingjie; Fontana, Joseph A; Hatfield, James S; Dawson, Marcia I; Majumdar, Adhip P N; Reichert, Uwe

    2003-08-29

    CD437, a novel retinoid, causes cell cycle arrest and apoptosis in a number of cancer cells including human breast carcinoma (HBC) by utilizing an undefined retinoic acid receptor/retinoid X receptor-independent mechanism. To delineate mediators of CD437 signaling, we utilized a random antisense-dependent functional knockout genetic approach. We identified a cDNA that encodes approximately 130-kDa HBC cell perinuclear protein (termed CARP-1). Treatments with CD437 or chemotherapeutic agent adriamycin, as well as serum deprivation of HBC cells, stimulate CARP-1 expression. Reduced levels of CARP-1 result in inhibition of apoptosis by CD437 or adriamycin, whereas increased expression of CARP-1 causes elevated levels of cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor p21WAF1/CIP1 and apoptosis. CARP-1 interacts with 14-3-3 protein as well as causes reduced expression of cell cycle regulatory genes including c-Myc and cyclin B1. Loss of c-Myc sensitizes cells to apoptosis by CARP-1, whereas expression of c-Myc or 14-3-3 inhibits CARP-1-dependent apoptosis. Thus, apoptosis induction by CARP-1 involves sequestration of 14-3-3 and CARP-1-mediated altered expression of multiple cell cycle regulatory genes. Identification of CARP-1 as a key mediator of signaling by CD437 or adriamycin allows for delineation of pathways that, in turn, may prove beneficial for design and targeting of novel antitumor agents. PMID:12816952

  4. Fucci2a: A bicistronic cell cycle reporter that allows Cre mediated tissue specific expression in mice

    PubMed Central

    Mort, Richard Lester; Ford, Matthew Jonathan; Sakaue-Sawano, Asako; Lindstrom, Nils Olof; Casadio, Angela; Douglas, Adam Thomas; Keighren, Margaret Anne; Hohenstein, Peter; Miyawaki, Atsushi; Jackson, Ian James

    2014-01-01

    Markers of cell cycle stage allow estimation of cell cycle dynamics in cell culture and during embryonic development. The Fucci system incorporates genetically encoded probes that highlight G1 and S/G2/M phases of the cell cycle allowing live imaging. However the available mouse models that incorporate Fucci are beset by problems with transgene inactivation, varying expression level, lack of conditional potential and/or the need to maintain separate transgenes—there is no transgenic mouse model that solves all these problems. To address these shortfalls we re-engineered the Fucci system to create 2 bicistronic Fucci variants incorporating both probes fused using the Thosea asigna virus 2A (T2A) self cleaving peptide. We characterize these variants in stable 3T3 cell lines. One of the variants (termed Fucci2a) faithfully recapitulated the nuclear localization and cell cycle stage specific florescence of the original Fucci system. We go on to develop a conditional mouse allele (R26Fucci2aR) carefully designed for high, inducible, ubiquitous expression allowing investigation of cell cycle status in single cell lineages within the developing embryo. We demonstrate the utility of R26Fucci2aR for live imaging by using high resolution confocal microscopy of ex vivo lung, kidney and neural crest development. Using our 3T3 system we describe and validate a method to estimate cell cycle times from relatively short time-lapse sequences that we then apply to our neural crest data. The Fucci2a system and the R26Fucci2aR mouse model are compelling new tools for the investigation of cell cycle dynamics in cell culture and during mouse embryonic development. PMID:25486356

  5. Fucci2a: a bicistronic cell cycle reporter that allows Cre mediated tissue specific expression in mice.

    PubMed

    Mort, Richard Lester; Ford, Matthew Jonathan; Sakaue-Sawano, Asako; Lindstrom, Nils Olof; Casadio, Angela; Douglas, Adam Thomas; Keighren, Margaret Anne; Hohenstein, Peter; Miyawaki, Atsushi; Jackson, Ian James

    2014-01-01

    Markers of cell cycle stage allow estimation of cell cycle dynamics in cell culture and during embryonic development. The Fucci system incorporates genetically encoded probes that highlight G1 and S/G2/M phases of the cell cycle allowing live imaging. However the available mouse models that incorporate Fucci are beset by problems with transgene inactivation, varying expression level, lack of conditional potential and/or the need to maintain separate transgenes-there is no transgenic mouse model that solves all these problems. To address these shortfalls we re-engineered the Fucci system to create 2 bicistronic Fucci variants incorporating both probes fused using the Thosea asigna virus 2A (T2A) self cleaving peptide. We characterize these variants in stable 3T3 cell lines. One of the variants (termed Fucci2a) faithfully recapitulated the nuclear localization and cell cycle stage specific florescence of the original Fucci system. We go on to develop a conditional mouse allele (R26Fucci2aR) carefully designed for high, inducible, ubiquitous expression allowing investigation of cell cycle status in single cell lineages within the developing embryo. We demonstrate the utility of R26Fucci2aR for live imaging by using high resolution confocal microscopy of ex vivo lung, kidney and neural crest development. Using our 3T3 system we describe and validate a method to estimate cell cycle times from relatively short time-lapse sequences that we then apply to our neural crest data. The Fucci2a system and the R26Fucci2aR mouse model are compelling new tools for the investigation of cell cycle dynamics in cell culture and during mouse embryonic development. PMID:25486356

  6. Artesunate induces G0/G1 cell cycle arrest and iron-mediated mitochondrial apoptosis in A431 human epidermoid carcinoma cells.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Zhongyong; Chai, Jin; Chuang, Henry Hon Fung; Li, Shifeng; Wang, Tianran; Cheng, Yi; Chen, Wensheng; Zhou, Deshan

    2012-07-01

    The anticancer effects of artesunate (ART) have been well documented. However, its potential against skin cancer has not been explored yet. Herein we reported that 60 μmol/l ART effectively inhibited A431 (human epidermoid carcinoma cells) growth but not that of HaCaT (normal human keratinocyte cells). Our results revealed that ART induced cell cycle arrest at G0/G1 phase through the downregulation of cyclin A1, cyclin B, cyclin D1, Cdk2, Cdk4, and Cdk6. This correlated with the upregulation of p21 and p27. The 5-bromodeoxyuridine incorporation assay also indicated that ART treatment reduced DNA synthesis in a time-dependent manner. Furthermore, ART induced mitochondrial apoptosis, as evidenced by annexin V/propidium iodide staining and western blot analysis. Interestingly, ART-induced apoptosis diminished under iron-deficient conditions but intensified under iron-overload conditions. Taken together, these findings demonstrated the potential of ART in treating skin cancer through the induction of G0/G1 cell cycle arrest and iron-mediated mitochondrial apoptosis and supported further investigations in other test systems. PMID:22421370

  7. Harmine induces cell cycle arrest and mitochondrial pathway-mediated cellular apoptosis in SW620 cells via inhibition of the Akt and ERK signaling pathways.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jiming; Li, Qiang; Liu, Zhilong; Lin, Liuming; Zhang, Xiangqiang; Cao, Mingrong; Jiang, Jianwei

    2016-06-01

    Harmine, a β-carboline alkaloid isolated from the seeds of Peganum harmala, possesses both antitumor and anti‑nociceptive effects and inhibits human DNA topoisomerase. However, no detailed data are available concerning the mechanisms of harmine in human colorectal carcinoma SW620 cells. In the present study, we demonstrated that harmine inhibited the proliferation of SW620 cells in a dose-dependent manner using MTT and clone formation assays, and the IC50 value of harmine on the growth inhibition of SW620 cells for 48 h was 5.13 µg/ml. PI staining showed that harmine altered the cell cycle distribution by decreasing the proportion of cells in the G0-G1 phase and increasing the proportion in the S and G2-M phase. The expression level of cyclin D1 was decreased, while the expression of cyclin A, E2 and B1, CDK1/cdc2, Myt-1 and p-cdc2 (Tyr15) were increased, which was in accordance with the S and G2/M phase arrest. Hoechst 33258 staining revealed nuclear fragmentation, chromosomal condensation and cell shrinkage in the SW620 cells treated with harmine. Flow cytometry revealed that the percentage of apoptotic sub-G1 cells increased from 7.19 to 26.58%, while in the control group, sub-G1 cells only increased from 1.53 to 1.60%. Furthermore, early and late apoptotic cells were increased from 11.96 to 26.38% when incubated with the indicated concentration of harmine for 48 h, while in the control group, <8% of cells underwent apoptosis. JC-1 staining revealed that harmine decreased mitochondrial transmembrane potential (ΔΨm). The apoptosis of SW620 cells was also detected by western blot analysis, showing caspase-3 and -9, and PARP activation; the downregulation of Bcl-2, Mcl-1, Bcl-xL; and the upregulation of Bax. The expression of p-ERK, p-Akt (Ser473) and p-Akt (Thr308) was inhibited, and phosphorylation of downstream targets of Akt, such as p-FoxO3a and p-GSK‑3β were also attenuated. In conclusion, harmine induces cell cycle arrest and

  8. The multi-functional sorting protein PACS-2 regulates SIRT1-mediated deacetylation of p53 to modulate p21-dependent cell cycle arrest

    PubMed Central

    Atkins, Katelyn M.; Thomas, Laura L.; Barroso-González, Jonathan; Thomas, Laurel; Auclair, Sylvain; Yin, Jun; Kang, Hyeog; Chung, Jay H.; Dikeakos, Jimmy D.; Thomas, Gary

    2014-01-01

    SUMMARY SIRT1 regulates the DNA damage response by deacetylating p53, thereby repressing p53 transcriptional output. Here we demonstrate that the sorting protein PACS-2 regulates SIRT1-mediated deacetylation of p53 to modulate the DNA damage response. PACS-2 knockdown cells failed to efficiently undergo p53-induced cell cycle arrest in response to DNA damage. Accordingly, p53 acetylation was reduced both in PACS-2 knockdown cells and thymocytes from Pacs-2−/− mice, thereby blunting induction of the cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor p21 (CDKN1A). The SIRT1 inhibitor EX-527 or SIRT1 knockdown restored p53 acetylation and p21 induction as well as p21-dependent cell cycle arrest in PACS-2 knockdown cells. Trafficking studies revealed cytoplasmic PACS-2 shuttled to the nucleus where it interacted with SIRT1 and repressed SIRT1-mediated p53 deacetylation. Correspondingly, in vitro assays demonstrated PACS-2 directly inhibited SIRT1-catalyzed p53 deacetylation. Together, these findings identify PACS-2 as an in vivo mediator of the SIRT1—p53—p21 axis that modulates the DNA damage response. PMID:25159152

  9. Cell cycle transition from S-phase to G1 in Caulobacter is mediated by ancestral virulence regulators

    PubMed Central

    Fumeaux, Coralie; Radhakrishnan, Sunish Kumar; Ardissone, Silvia; Théraulaz, Laurence; Frandi, Antonio; Martins, Daniel; Nesper, Jutta; Abel, Sören; Jenal, Urs; Viollier, Patrick H.

    2014-01-01

    Zinc-finger domain transcriptional regulators regulate a myriad of functions in eukaryotes. Interestingly, ancestral versions (MucR) from Alpha-proteobacteria control bacterial virulence/symbiosis. Whether virulence regulators can also control cell cycle transcription is unknown. Here we report that MucR proteins implement a hitherto elusive primordial S→G1 transcriptional switch. After charting G1-specific promoters in the cell cycle model Caulobacter crescentus by comparative ChIP-seq, we use one such promoter as genetic proxy to unearth two MucR paralogs, MucR1/2, as constituents of a quadripartite and homeostatic regulatory module directing the S→G1 transcriptional switch. Surprisingly, MucR orthologues that regulate virulence and symbiosis gene transcription in Brucella, Agrobacterium or Sinorhizobium support this S→G1 switch in Caulobacter. Pan-genomic ChIP-seq analyses in Sinorhizobium and Caulobacter show that this module indeed targets orthologous genes. We propose that MucR proteins and possibly other virulence regulators primarily control bacterial cell cycle (G1-phase) transcription, rendering expression of target (virulence) genes periodic and in tune with the cell cycle. PMID:24939058

  10. E2F1-Mediated Upregulation of p19INK4d Determines Its Periodic Expression during Cell Cycle and Regulates Cellular Proliferation

    PubMed Central

    Carcagno, Abel L.; Marazita, Mariela C.; Ogara, María F.; Ceruti, Julieta M.; Sonzogni, Silvina V.; Scassa, María E.; Giono, Luciana E.; Cánepa, Eduardo T.

    2011-01-01

    Background A central aspect of development and disease is the control of cell proliferation through regulation of the mitotic cycle. Cell cycle progression and directionality requires an appropriate balance of positive and negative regulators whose expression must fluctuate in a coordinated manner. p19INK4d, a member of the INK4 family of CDK inhibitors, has a unique feature that distinguishes it from the remaining INK4 and makes it a likely candidate for contributing to the directionality of the cell cycle. p19INK4d mRNA and protein levels accumulate periodically during the cell cycle under normal conditions, a feature reminiscent of cyclins. Methodology/Principal Findings In this paper, we demonstrate that p19INK4d is transcriptionally regulated by E2F1 through two response elements present in the p19INK4d promoter. Ablation of this regulation reduced p19 levels and restricted its expression during the cell cycle, reflecting the contribution of a transcriptional effect of E2F1 on p19 periodicity. The induction of p19INK4d is delayed during the cell cycle compared to that of cyclin E, temporally separating the induction of these proliferative and antiproliferative target genes. Specific inhibition of the E2F1-p19INK4d pathway using triplex-forming oligonucleotides that block E2F1 binding on p19 promoter, stimulated cell proliferation and increased the fraction of cells in S phase. Conclusions/Significance The results described here support a model of normal cell cycle progression in which, following phosphorylation of pRb, free E2F induces cyclin E, among other target genes. Once cyclinE/CDK2 takes over as the cell cycle driving kinase activity, the induction of p19 mediated by E2F1 leads to inhibition of the CDK4,6-containing complexes, bringing the G1 phase to an end. This regulatory mechanism constitutes a new negative feedback loop that terminates the G1 phase proliferative signal, contributing to the proper coordination of the cell cycle and provides an

  11. Control of cell cycle by metabolites of prostaglandin D2 through a non-cAMP mediated mechanism

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hughes-Fulford, M.; Fukushima, M.

    1993-01-01

    The dehydration products of PGD2, 9-deoxy-9 prostaglandin D2(PGJ2), 9-deoxy-delta 9, delta 12, delta 13 dehydroprostaglandin D2 (delta 12 PGJ2), and PGA2 all contain an unsaturated cyclopentenone structure which is characteristic of prostaglandins which effectively inhibit cell growth. It has been suggested that the action of the inhibitory prostaglandins may be through a cAMP mechanism. In this study, we use S49 wild type (WT) and adenylate cyclase variant (cyc-) cells to show that PGD2 and PGJ2 are not acting via a cyclic AMP mechanism. First, the increase in cyclic AMP in wild type S-49 cells is not proportional to its effects on DNA synthesis. More importantly, when S-49 cyc- cells were exposed to PGJ2, the adenylate cyclase (cyc-) mutant had decreased DNA synthesis with no change in its nominal cAMP content. Short-term (2 hours or less) exposure of the cyc- cells to prostaglandin J2 caused an inhibition of DNA synthesis. PGJ2 caused cytolysis at high concentrations. Long-term exposure (>14 hrs) of the cells to PGJ2, delta 12PGJ2 or delta 12, delta 14PGJ2 caused a cell cycle arrest in G1 demonstrating a cell cycle specific mechanism of action for growth inhibition by naturally occurring biological products independent of cAMP.

  12. The Chlamydomonas Cell Cycle

    PubMed Central

    Cross, Frederick R.; Umen, James G.

    2015-01-01

    The position of Chlamydomonas within the eukaryotic phylogeny makes it a unique model in at least two important ways: as a representative of the critically important, early-diverging lineage leading to plants, and as a microbe retaining important features of the last eukaryotic common ancestor (LECA) that have been lost in the highly studied yeast lineages. Its cell biology has been studied for many decades, and it has well-developed experimental genetic tools, both classical (Mendelian) and molecular. Unlike land plants, it is a haploid with very few gene duplicates, making it ideal for loss-of-function genetic studies. The Chlamydomonas cell cycle has a striking temporal and functional separation between cell growth and rapid cell divisions, probably connected to the interplay between diurnal cycles that drive photosynthetic cell growth with the cell division cycle; it also exhibits a highly choreographed interaction between the cell cycle and its centriole/basal body/flagellar cycle. Here we review the current status of studies of the Chlamydomonas cell cycle. We begin with an overview of cell cycle control in the well-studied yeast and animal systems, which has yielded a canonical, well-supported model. We discuss briefly what is known about similarities and differences in plant cell cycle control compared to this model. We next review the cytology and cell biology of the multiple fission cell cycle of Chlamydomonas. Lastly we review recent genetic approaches and insights into Chlamydomonas cell cycle regulation that have been enabled by a new generation of genomics-based tools. PMID:25690512

  13. Hemogenic endothelial cell specification requires c-kit, notch signaling, and p27-mediated cell-cycle control

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Delineating the mechanism or mechanisms that regulate the specification of hemogenic endothelial cells from primordial endothelium is critical for optimizing their derivation from human stem cells for clinical therapies. We previously determined that retinoic acid (RA) is required for hemogenic spec...

  14. Cdc34 C-terminal tail phosphorylation regulates Skp1/cullin/F-box (SCF)-mediated ubiquitination and cell cycle progression

    PubMed Central

    Sadowski, Martin; Mawson, Amanda; Baker, Rohan; Sarcevic, Boris

    2007-01-01

    The ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme Cdc34 (cell division cycle 34) plays an essential role in promoting the G1–S-phase transition of the eukaryotic cell cycle and is phosphorylated in vivo. In the present study, we investigated if phosphorylation regulates Cdc34 function. We mapped the in vivo phosphorylation sites on budding yeast Cdc34 (yCdc34; Ser207 and Ser216) and human Cdc34 (hCdc34 Ser203, Ser222 and Ser231) to serine residues in the acidic tail domain, a region that is critical for Cdc34's cell cycle function. CK2 (protein kinase CK2) phosphorylates both yCdc34 and hCdc34 on these sites in vitro. CK2-mediated phosphorylation increased yCdc34 ubiquitination activity towards the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae Sic1 in vitro, when assayed in the presence of its cognate SCFCdc4 E3 ligase [where SCF is Skp1 (S-phase kinase-associated protein 1)/cullin/F-box]. Similarly, mutation of the yCdc34 phosphorylation sites to alanine, aspartate or glutamate residues altered Cdc34–SCFCdc4-mediated Sic1 ubiquitination activity. Similar results were obtained when yCdc34's ubiquitination activity was assayed in the absence of SCFCdc4, indicating that phosphorylation regulates the intrinsic catalytic activity of Cdc34. To evaluate the in vivo consequences of altered Cdc34 activity, wild-type yCdc34 and the phosphosite mutants were introduced into an S. cerevisiae cdc34 deletion strain and, following synchronization in G1-phase, progression through the cell cycle was monitored. Consistent with the increased ubiquitination activity in vitro, cells expressing the phosphosite mutants with higher catalytic activity exhibited accelerated cell cycle progression and Sic1 degradation. These studies demonstrate that CK2-mediated phosphorylation of Cdc34 on the acidic tail domain stimulates Cdc34–SCFCdc4 ubiquitination activity and cell cycle progression. PMID:17461777

  15. Inhibition of class I histone deacetylases by romidepsin potently induces Epstein-Barr virus lytic cycle and mediates enhanced cell death with ganciclovir.

    PubMed

    Hui, Kwai Fung; Cheung, Arthur Kwok Leung; Choi, Chung King; Yeung, Po Ling; Middeldorp, Jaap M; Lung, Maria Li; Tsao, Sai Wah; Chiang, Alan Kwok Shing

    2016-01-01

    Pan-histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitors, which inhibit 11 HDAC isoforms, are widely used to induce Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) lytic cycle in EBV-associated cancers in vitro and in clinical trials. Here, we hypothesized that inhibition of one or several specific HDAC isoforms by selective HDAC inhibitors could potently induce EBV lytic cycle in EBV-associated malignancies such as nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) and gastric carcinoma (GC). We found that inhibition of class I HDACs, particularly HDAC-1, -2 and -3, was sufficient to induce EBV lytic cycle in NPC and GC cells in vitro and in vivo. Among a panel of selective HDAC inhibitors, the FDA-approved HDAC inhibitor romidepsin was found to be the most potent lytic inducer, which could activate EBV lytic cycle at ∼0.5 to 5 nM (versus ∼800 nM achievable concentration in patients' plasma) in more than 75% of cells. Upregulation of p21(WAF1) , which is negatively regulated by class I HDACs, was observed before the induction of EBV lytic cycle. The upregulation of p21(WAF1) and induction of lytic cycle were abrogated by a specific inhibitor of PKC-δ but not the inhibitors of PI3K, MEK, p38 MAPK, JNK or ATM pathways. Interestingly, inhibition of HDAC-1, -2 and -3 by romidepsin or shRNA knockdown could confer susceptibility of EBV-positive epithelial cells to the treatment with ganciclovir (GCV). In conclusion, we demonstrated that inhibition of class I HDACs by romidepsin could potently induce EBV lytic cycle and mediate enhanced cell death with GCV, suggesting potential application of romidepsin for the treatment of EBV-associated cancers. PMID:26205347

  16. Myc and cell cycle control.

    PubMed

    Bretones, Gabriel; Delgado, M Dolores; León, Javier

    2015-05-01

    Soon after the discovery of the Myc gene (c-Myc), it became clear that Myc expression levels tightly correlate to cell proliferation. The entry in cell cycle of quiescent cells upon Myc enforced expression has been described in many models. Also, the downregulation or inactivation of Myc results in the impairment of cell cycle progression. Given the frequent deregulation of Myc oncogene in human cancer it is important to dissect out the mechanisms underlying the role of Myc on cell cycle control. Several parallel mechanisms account for Myc-mediated stimulation of the cell cycle. First, most of the critical positive cell cycle regulators are encoded by genes induced by Myc. These Myc target genes include Cdks, cyclins and E2F transcription factors. Apart from its direct effects on the transcription, Myc is able to hyperactivate cyclin/Cdk complexes through the induction of Cdk activating kinase (CAK) and Cdc25 phosphatases. Moreover, Myc antagonizes the activity of cell cycle inhibitors as p21 and p27 through different mechanisms. Thus, Myc is able to block p21 transcription or to induce Skp2, a protein involved in p27 degradation. Finally, Myc induces DNA replication by binding to replication origins and by upregulating genes encoding proteins required for replication initiation. Myc also regulates genes involved in the mitotic control. A promising approach to treat tumors with deregulated Myc is the synthetic lethality based on the inhibition of Cdks. Thus, the knowledge of the Myc-dependent cell cycle regulatory mechanisms will help to discover new therapeutic approaches directed against malignancies with deregulated Myc. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Myc proteins in cell biology and pathology. PMID:24704206

  17. 53BP1 and USP28 mediate p53-dependent cell cycle arrest in response to centrosome loss and prolonged mitosis

    PubMed Central

    Fong, Chii Shyang; Mazo, Gregory; Das, Tuhin; Goodman, Joshua; Kim, Minhee; O'Rourke, Brian P; Izquierdo, Denisse; Tsou, Meng-Fu Bryan

    2016-01-01

    Mitosis occurs efficiently, but when it is disturbed or delayed, p53-dependent cell death or senescence is often triggered after mitotic exit. To characterize this process, we conducted CRISPR-mediated loss-of-function screens using a cell-based assay in which mitosis is consistently disturbed by centrosome loss. We identified 53BP1 and USP28 as essential components acting upstream of p53, evoking p21-dependent cell cycle arrest in response not only to centrosome loss, but also to other distinct defects causing prolonged mitosis. Intriguingly, 53BP1 mediates p53 activation independently of its DNA repair activity, but requiring its interacting protein USP28 that can directly deubiquitinate p53 in vitro and ectopically stabilize p53 in vivo. Moreover, 53BP1 can transduce prolonged mitosis to cell cycle arrest independently of the spindle assembly checkpoint (SAC), suggesting that while SAC protects mitotic accuracy by slowing down mitosis, 53BP1 and USP28 function in parallel to select against disturbed or delayed mitosis, promoting mitotic efficiency. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.16270.001 PMID:27371829

  18. Cell division cycle 6, a mitotic substrate of polo-like kinase 1, regulates chromosomal segregation mediated by cyclin-dependent kinase 1 and separase

    PubMed Central

    Yim, Hyungshin; Erikson, Raymond L.

    2010-01-01

    Defining the links between cell division and DNA replication is essential for understanding normal cell cycle progression and tumorigenesis. In this report we explore the effect of phosphorylation of cell division cycle 6 (Cdc6), a DNA replication initiation factor, by polo-like kinase 1 (Plk1) on the regulation of chromosomal segregation. In mitosis, the phosphorylation of Cdc6 was highly increased, in correlation with the level of Plk1, and conversely, Cdc6 is hypophosphorylated in Plk1-depleted cells, although cyclin A- and cyclin B1-dependent kinases are active. Binding between Cdc6 and Plk1 occurs through the polo-box domain of Plk1, and Cdc6 is phosphorylated by Plk1 on T37. Immunohistochemistry studies reveal that Cdc6 and Plk1 colocalize to the central spindle in anaphase. Expression of T37V mutant of Cdc6 (Cdc6-TV) induces binucleated cells and incompletely separated nuclei. Wild-type Cdc6 but not Cdc6-TV binds cyclin-dependent kinase 1 (Cdk1). Expression of wild-type Plk1 but not kinase-defective mutant promotes the binding of Cdc6 to Cdk1. Cells expressing wild-type Cdc6 display lower Cdk1 activity and higher separase activity than cells expressing Cdc6-TV. These results suggest that Plk1-mediated phosphorylation of Cdc6 promotes the interaction of Cdc6 and Cdk1, leading to the attenuation of Cdk1 activity, release of separase, and subsequent anaphase progression. PMID:21041660

  19. Epstein-Barr virus oncoprotein LMP1 mediates survivin upregulation by p53 contributing to G1/S cell cycle progression in nasopharyngeal carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    GUO, LILI; TANG, MIN; YANG, LIFANG; XIAO, LANBO; BODE, ANN M.; LI, LILI; DONG, ZIGANG; CAO, YA

    2012-01-01

    Latent membrane protein 1 (LMP1) is an important oncogenic protein encoded by Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) and plays an important role in the development of nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC). Our previous study has shown that p53 protein was accumulated and phosphorylated in NPC, implying its transcription factor activity in NPC tumorigenesis. However, the biological function and potential downstream target of p53 mediated by LMP1 in NPC remain unknown. In this study, we found that LMP1 simultaneously induced upregulation of both p53 and survivin at the protein level, as well as their phosphorylation. Knockdown of p53 by siRNA revealed that LMP1 increased survivin expression by p53 directly. Furthermore, we found that LMP1 upregulated survivin by p53 at the transcriptional level by increasing p53-mediated survivin promoter activity and DNA binding activity. Moreover, LMP1 induced the co-localization of p53 and survivin in the nucleus, conferring to their related functions in NPC tumorigenesis. We further found that p53 promoted G1/S cell cycle progression, but did not induce apoptosis in LMP1-positive NPC cells. Collectively, these findings suggest that p53 acting as a transcription factor promotes the transcriptional activity of survivin, and further increases its protein expression and phosphorylation in the regulation of LMP1, thus, leading to G1/S cell cycle progression with no effect on apoptosis in NPC tumorigenesis. PMID:22266808

  20. Nuclear import, virion incorporation, and cell cycle arrest/differentiation are mediated by distinct functional domains of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 Vpr.

    PubMed Central

    Mahalingam, S; Ayyavoo, V; Patel, M; Kieber-Emmons, T; Weiner, D B

    1997-01-01

    The vpr gene product of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) is a virion-associated protein that is essential for efficient viral replication in monocytes/macrophages. Vpr is primarily localized in the nucleus when expressed in the absence of other viral proteins. Vpr is packaged efficiently into viral particles through interactions with the p6 domain of the Gag precursor polyprotein p55gag. We developed a panel of expression vectors encoding Vpr molecules mutated in the amino-terminal helical domain, leucine-isoleucine (LR) domain, and carboxy-terminal domain to map the different functional domains and to define the interrelationships between virion incorporation, nuclear localization, cell cycle arrest, and differentiation functions of Vpr. We observed that substitution mutations in the N-terminal domain of Vpr impaired both nuclear localization and virion packaging, suggesting that the helical structure may play a vital role in modulating both of these biological properties. The LR domain was found to be involved in the nuclear localization of Vpr. In contrast, cell cycle arrest appears to be largely controlled by the C-terminal domain of Vpr. The LR and C-terminal domains do not appear to be essential for virion incorporation of Vpr. Interestingly, we found that two Vpr mutants harboring single amino acid substitutions (A30L and G75A) retained the ability to translocate to the nucleus but were impaired in the cell cycle arrest function. In contrast, mutation of Leu68 to Ser resulted in a protein that localizes in the cytoplasm while retaining the ability to arrest host cell proliferation. We speculate that the nuclear localization and cell cycle arrest functions of Vpr are not interrelated and that these functions are mediated by separable putative functional domains of Vpr. PMID:9261351

  1. A large-scale in vivo RNAi screen to identify genes involved in Notch-mediated follicle cell differentiation and cell cycle switches

    PubMed Central

    Jia, Dongyu; Soylemez, Muhammed; Calvin, Gabriel; Bornmann, Randy; Bryant, Jamal; Hanna, Cameron; Huang, Yi-Chun; Deng, Wu-Min

    2015-01-01

    During Drosophila oogenesis, follicle cells sequentially undergo three distinct cell-cycle programs: the mitotic cycle, endocycle, and gene amplification. Notch signaling plays a central role in regulating follicle-cell differentiation and cell-cycle switches; its activation is essential for the mitotic cycle/endocycle (M/E) switch. Cut, a linker between Notch signaling and cell-cycle regulators, is specifically downregulated by Notch during the endocycle stage. To determine how signaling pathways coordinate during the M/E switch and to identify novel genes involved in follicle cell differentiation, we performed an in vivo RNAi screen through induced knockdown of gene expression and examination of Cut expression in follicle cells. We screened 2205 RNAi lines and found 33 genes regulating Cut expression during the M/E switch. These genes were confirmed with the staining of two other Notch signaling downstream factors, Hindsight and Broad, and validated with multiple independent RNAi lines. We applied gene ontology software to find enriched biological meaning and compared our results with other publications to find conserved genes across tissues. Specifically, we found earlier endocycle entry in anterior follicle cells than those in the posterior, identified that the insulin-PI3K pathway participates in the precise M/E switch, and suggested Nejire as a cofactor of Notch signaling during oogenesis. PMID:26205122

  2. A large-scale in vivo RNAi screen to identify genes involved in Notch-mediated follicle cell differentiation and cell cycle switches.

    PubMed

    Jia, Dongyu; Soylemez, Muhammed; Calvin, Gabriel; Bornmann, Randy; Bryant, Jamal; Hanna, Cameron; Huang, Yi-Chun; Deng, Wu-Min

    2015-01-01

    During Drosophila oogenesis, follicle cells sequentially undergo three distinct cell-cycle programs: the mitotic cycle, endocycle, and gene amplification. Notch signaling plays a central role in regulating follicle-cell differentiation and cell-cycle switches; its activation is essential for the mitotic cycle/endocycle (M/E) switch. Cut, a linker between Notch signaling and cell-cycle regulators, is specifically downregulated by Notch during the endocycle stage. To determine how signaling pathways coordinate during the M/E switch and to identify novel genes involved in follicle cell differentiation, we performed an in vivo RNAi screen through induced knockdown of gene expression and examination of Cut expression in follicle cells. We screened 2205 RNAi lines and found 33 genes regulating Cut expression during the M/E switch. These genes were confirmed with the staining of two other Notch signaling downstream factors, Hindsight and Broad, and validated with multiple independent RNAi lines. We applied gene ontology software to find enriched biological meaning and compared our results with other publications to find conserved genes across tissues. Specifically, we found earlier endocycle entry in anterior follicle cells than those in the posterior, identified that the insulin-PI3K pathway participates in the precise M/E switch, and suggested Nejire as a cofactor of Notch signaling during oogenesis. PMID:26205122

  3. Cucurbitacin B induced ATM-mediated DNA damage causes G2/M cell cycle arrest in a ROS-dependent manner.

    PubMed

    Guo, Jiajie; Wu, Guosheng; Bao, Jiaolin; Hao, Wenhui; Lu, Jinjian; Chen, Xiuping

    2014-01-01

    Cucurbitacins are a class of triterpenoids widely distributed in plant kingdom with potent anti-cancer activities both in vitro and in vivo by inducing cycle arrest, autophagy, and apoptosis. Cucurbitacin B (Cuc B), could induce S or G2/M cell cycle arrest in cancer cells while the detailed mechanisms remain to be clear. This study was designed to precisely dissect the signaling pathway(s) responsible for Cuc B induced cell cycle arrest in human lung adenocarcinoma epithelial A549 cells. We demonstrated that low concentrations of Cuc B dramatically induced G2/M phase arrest in A549 cells. Cuc B treatment caused DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) without affecting the signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3), the potential molecular target for Cuc B. Cuc B triggers ATM-activated Chk1-Cdc25C-Cdk1, which could be reversed by both ATM siRNA and Chk1 siRNA. Cuc B also triggers ATM-activated p53-14-3-3-σ pathways, which could be reversed by ATM siRNA. Cuc B treatment also led to increased intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) formation, which was inhibited by N-acetyl-l-cysteine (NAC) pretreatment. Furthermore, NAC pretreatment inhibited Cuc B induced DNA damage and G2/M phase arrest. Taken together, these results suggested that Cuc B induces DNA damage in A549 cells mediated by increasing intracellular ROS formation, which lead to G2/M cell phase arrest through ATM-activated Chk1-Cdc25C-Cdk1 and p53-14-3-3-σ parallel branches. These observations provide novel mechanisms and potential targets for better understanding of the anti-cancer mechanisms of cucurbitacins. PMID:24505404

  4. Cucurbitacin B Induced ATM-Mediated DNA Damage Causes G2/M Cell Cycle Arrest in a ROS-Dependent Manner

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Jiajie; Wu, Guosheng; Bao, Jiaolin; Hao, Wenhui; Lu, Jinjian; Chen, Xiuping

    2014-01-01

    Cucurbitacins are a class of triterpenoids widely distributed in plant kingdom with potent anti-cancer activities both in vitro and in vivo by inducing cycle arrest, autophagy, and apoptosis. Cucurbitacin B (Cuc B), could induce S or G2/M cell cycle arrest in cancer cells while the detailed mechanisms remain to be clear. This study was designed to precisely dissect the signaling pathway(s) responsible for Cuc B induced cell cycle arrest in human lung adenocarcinoma epithelial A549 cells. We demonstrated that low concentrations of Cuc B dramatically induced G2/M phase arrest in A549 cells. Cuc B treatment caused DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) without affecting the signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3), the potential molecular target for Cuc B. Cuc B triggers ATM-activated Chk1-Cdc25C-Cdk1, which could be reversed by both ATM siRNA and Chk1 siRNA. Cuc B also triggers ATM-activated p53-14-3-3-σ pathways, which could be reversed by ATM siRNA. Cuc B treatment also led to increased intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) formation, which was inhibited by N-acetyl-l-cysteine (NAC) pretreatment. Furthermore, NAC pretreatment inhibited Cuc B induced DNA damage and G2/M phase arrest. Taken together, these results suggested that Cuc B induces DNA damage in A549 cells mediated by increasing intracellular ROS formation, which lead to G2/M cell phase arrest through ATM-activated Chk1-Cdc25C-Cdk1 and p53-14-3-3-σ parallel branches. These observations provide novel mechanisms and potential targets for better understanding of the anti-cancer mechanisms of cucurbitacins. PMID:24505404

  5. Functional impact of Aurora A-mediated phosphorylation of HP1γ at serine 83 during cell cycle progression

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Previous elegant studies performed in the fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe have identified a requirement for heterochromatin protein 1 (HP1) for spindle pole formation and appropriate cell division. In mammalian cells, HP1γ has been implicated in both somatic and germ cell proliferation. High levels of HP1γ protein associate with enhanced cell proliferation and oncogenesis, while its genetic inactivation results in meiotic and mitotic failure. However, the regulation of HP1γ by kinases, critical for supporting mitotic progression, remains to be fully characterized. Results We report for the first time that during mitotic cell division, HP1γ colocalizes and is phosphorylated at serine 83 (Ser83) in G2/M phase by Aurora A. Since Aurora A regulates both cell proliferation and mitotic aberrations, we evaluated the role of HP1γ in the regulation of these phenomena using siRNA-mediated knockdown, as well as phosphomimetic and nonphosphorylatable site-directed mutants. We found that genetic downregulation of HP1γ, which decreases the levels of phosphorylation of HP1γ at Ser83 (P-Ser83-HP1γ), results in mitotic aberrations that can be rescued by reintroducing wild type HP1γ, but not the nonphosphorylatable S83A-HP1γ mutant. In addition, proliferation assays showed that the phosphomimetic S83D-HP1γ increases 5-ethynyl-2´-deoxyuridine (EdU) incorporation, whereas the nonphosphorylatable S83A-HP1γ mutant abrogates this effect. Genome-wide expression profiling revealed that the effects of these mutants on mitotic functions are congruently reflected in G2/M gene expression networks in a manner that mimics the on and off states for P-Ser83-HP1γ. Conclusions This is the first description of a mitotic Aurora A-HP1γ pathway, whose integrity is necessary for the execution of proper somatic cell division, providing insight into specific types of posttranslational modifications that associate to distinct functional outcomes of this important chromatin

  6. Identification of Potential Plk1 Targets in a Cell-Cycle Specific Proteome through Structural Dynamics of Kinase and Polo Box-Mediated Interactions

    PubMed Central

    Bibi, Nousheen; Parveen, Zahida; Rashid, Sajid

    2013-01-01

    Polo like kinase 1 (Plk1) is a key player in orchestrating the wide variety of cell-cycle events ranging from centrosome maturation, mitotic entry, checkpoint recovery, transcriptional control, spindle assembly, mitotic progression, cytokinesis and DNA damage checkpoints recovery. Due to its versatile nature, Plk1 is considered an imperative regulator to tightly control the diverse aspects of the cell cycle network. Interactions among Plk1 polo box domain (PBD) and its putative binding proteins are crucial for the activation of Plk1 kinase domain (KD). To date, only a few substrate candidates have been characterized through the inclusion of both polo box and kinase domain-mediated interactions. Thus it became compelling to explore precise and specific Plk1 substrates through reassessment and extension of the structure-function paradigm. To narrow this apparently wide gap in knowledge, here we employed a thorough sequence search of Plk1 phosphorylation signature containing proteins and explored their structure-based features like conceptual PBD-binding capabilities and subsequent recruitment of KD directed phosphorylation to dissect novel targets of Plk1. Collectively, we identified 4,521 phosphodependent proteins sharing similarity to the consensus phosphorylation and PBD recognition motifs. Subsequent application of filters including similarity index, Gene Ontology enrichment and protein localization resulted in stringent pre-filtering of irrelevant candidates and isolated unique targets with well-defined roles in cell-cycle machinery and carcinogenesis. These candidates were further refined structurally using molecular docking and dynamic simulation assays. Overall, our screening approach enables the identification of several undefined cell-cycle associated functions of Plk1 by uncovering novel phosphorylation targets. PMID:23967120

  7. E2Fs mediate a fundamental cell-cycle deregulation in high-grade serous ovarian carcinomas.

    PubMed

    De Meyer, T; Bijsmans, I T G W; Van de Vijver, K K; Bekaert, S; Oosting, J; Van Criekinge, W; van Engeland, M; Sieben, N L G

    2009-01-01

    Several studies described a role for the E2F/Rb pathway in ovarian serous carcinomas (SCAs). Since E2F/Rb pathway deregulation is a general hallmark of human cancer, it remains unclear whether this deregulation is of particular importance in SCAs or whether it reflects a common oncological feature. Here, we have clarified this issue by the examination of microarray expression profiles of SCAs and particularly by the comparison with another, less malignant, ovarian cancer type, serous borderline tumours (SBTs). Results were validated by quantitative RT-PCR, both on the microarray samples and on an independent panel, and TP53 mutation analysis was performed. This integrated analysis revealed a significant increase in the expression of the transcription factors E2F1 and E2F3 in SCAs, when compared to SBTs. This was associated with vast overexpression of E2F target genes in SCAs compared to SBTs. High-grade SCAs in particular exhibited a major deregulated E2F target expression pattern. Generally, overexpression of E2F targets in SCAs appeared to be well structured since those targets considered negative regulators of the cell cycle or promoters of apoptosis were usually not overexpressed in SCAs. Similar to E2F target deregulation, TP53 mutations were identified in SCA3s, to a lesser extent in SCA1s, and not in SBTs. These results suggest that a structured, generally up-regulated E2F transcription factor activity is associated with a global cell-cycle disturbance in high-grade SCAs and exceeds typical E2F/Rb pathway disruption in tumours, at least compared with SBTs. PMID:18991331

  8. Calcium efflux activity of plasma membrane Ca2+ ATPase-4 (PMCA4) mediates cell cycle progression in vascular smooth muscle cells.

    PubMed

    Afroze, Talat; Yang, Ge; Khoshbin, Amir; Tanwir, Mansoor; Tabish, Taha; Momen, Abdul; Husain, Mansoor

    2014-03-01

    We explored the role played by plasma membrane calcium ATPase-4 (PMCA4) and its alternative splice variants in the cell cycle of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMC). A novel variant (PMCA4e) was discovered. Quantitative real-time-PCR-quantified PMCA4 splice variant proportions differed in specific organs. The PMCA4a:4b ratio in uninjured carotid arteries (∼1:1) was significantly reduced by wire denudation injury (to ∼1:3) by modulation of alternative splicing, as confirmed by novel antibodies against PMCA4a/e and PMCA4b. Laser capture microdissection localized this shift to the media and adventitia. Primary carotid VSMC from PMCA4 knock-out (P4KO) mice showed impaired [(3)H]thymidine incorporation and G1 phase arrest as compared with wild type (P4WT). Electroporation of expression constructs encoding PMCA4a, PMCA4b, and a PMCA4b mutant lacking PDZ binding rescued this phenotype of P4KO cells, whereas a mutant with only 10% of normal Ca(2+) efflux activity could not. Microarray of early G1-synchronized VSMC showed 39-fold higher Rgs16 (NFAT (nuclear factor of activated T-cells) target; MAPK inhibitor) and 69-fold higher Decorin (G1 arrest marker) expression in P4KO versus P4WT. Validation by Western blot also revealed decreased levels of Cyclin D1 and NFATc3 in P4KO. Microarrays of P4KO VSMC rescued by PMCA4a or PMCA4b expression showed reversal of perturbed Rgs16, Decorin, and NFATc3 expression levels. However, PMCA4a rescue caused a 44-fold reduction in AP-2β, a known anti-proliferative transcription factor, whereas PMCA4b rescue resulted in a 50-fold reduction in p15 (Cyclin D1/Cdk4 inhibitor). We conclude that Ca(2+) efflux activity of PMCA4 underlies G1 progression in VSMC and that PMCA4a and PMCA4b differentially regulate specific downstream mediators. PMID:24448801

  9. Honokiol, a phytochemical from the Magnolia plant, inhibits photocarcinogenesis by targeting UVB-induced inflammatory mediators and cell cycle regulators: development of topical formulation.

    PubMed

    Vaid, Mudit; Sharma, Som D; Katiyar, Santosh K

    2010-11-01

    To develop newer and more effective chemopreventive agents for skin cancer, we assessed the effect of honokiol, a phytochemical from the Magnolia plant, on ultraviolet (UV) radiation-induced skin tumorigenesis using the SKH-1 hairless mouse model. Topical treatment of mice with honokiol in a hydrophilic cream-based topical formulation before or after UVB (180 mJ/cm(2)) irradiation resulted in a significant protection against photocarcinogenesis in terms of tumor multiplicity (28-60%, P < 0.05 to <0.001) and tumor volume per tumor-bearing mouse (33-80%, P < 0.05 to 0.001, n = 20). Honokiol also inhibited and delayed the malignant progression of papillomas to carcinomas. To investigate the in vivo molecular targets of honokiol efficacy, tumors and tumor-uninvolved skin samples from the tumor-bearing mice were analyzed for inflammatory mediators, cell cycle regulators and survival signals using immunostaining, western blotting and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Treatment with honokiol significantly inhibited UVB-induced expression of cyclooxygenase-2, prostaglandin E(2) (P < 0.001), proliferating cell nuclear antigen and proinflammatory cytokines, such as tumor necrosis factor-α (P < 0.001), interleukin (IL)-1β (P < 0.01) and IL-6 (P < 0.001) in the skin as well as in skin tumors. Western blot analysis revealed that honokiol: (i) inhibited the levels of cyclins D1, D2 and E and associated cyclin-dependent kinases (CDKs)2, CDK4 and CDK6, (ii) upregulated Cip/p21 and Kip/p27 and (iii) inhibited the levels of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase and the phosphorylation of Akt at Ser(473) in UVB-induced skin tumors. Together, our results indicate that honokiol holds promise for the prevention of UVB-induced skin cancer by targeting inflammatory mediators, cell cycle regulators and cell survival signals in UVB-exposed skin. PMID:20823108

  10. Specific cell cycle synchronization with butyrate and cell cycle analysis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Synchronized cells have been invaluable for many kinds of cell cycle and cell proliferation studies. Butyrate induces cell cycle arrest and apoptosis in MDBK cells. To explore the possibility of using butyrate-blocked cells to obtain synchronized cells, we investigated the property of the cell cyc...

  11. Viscum Album Var Hot Water Extract Mediates Anti-cancer Effects through G1 Phase Cell Cycle Arrest in SK-Hep1 Human Hepatocarcinoma cells.

    PubMed

    dela Cruz, Joseph Flores; Kim, Yeon Soo; Lumbera, Wenchie Marie Lara; Hwang, Seong Gu

    2015-01-01

    Viscum album var (VAV) also known as mistletoe, has long been categorized as a traditional herbal medicine in Asia. In addition to its immunomodulating activities, mistletoe has also been used in the treatment of chronic hepatic disorders in China and Korea. There are numerous reports showing that VAV possesses anti-cancer effects, however influence on human hepatocarcinoma has never been elucidated. In the present study, hot water extracts of VAV was evaluated for its potential anti-cancer effect in vitro. SK-Hep1 cells were treated with VAV (50-400 ug/ml) for both 24 and 48 hours then cell viability was measured by cell counting kit-8 (CCK-8). Flow cytometry analysis was used to measure the proportion of SK-Hep1 in the different stages of cell cycle. RT-PCR and Western blot analysis were conducted to measure expression of cell cycle arrest related genes and proteins respectively. VAV dose dependently inhibited the proliferation of SK-Hep1 cells without any cytotoxicity with normal Chang liver cell (CCL-13). Flow cytometry analysis showed that VAV extract inhibited the cell cycle of SK-Hep1 cells via G1 phase arrest. RT-PCR and Western blot analysis both revealed that cyclin dependent kinase 2 (Cdk2) and cyclin D1 gene expression were significantly down regulated while p21 was upregulated dose dependently by VAV treatment. Combined down regulation of Cdk2, Cyclin D1 and up regulation of p21 can result in cell death. These results indicate that VAV showed evidence of anti-cancer activity through G1 phase cell cycle arrest in SK-Hep1 cells. PMID:26434853

  12. Anticancer and apoptotic activities of oleanolic acid are mediated through cell cycle arrest and disruption of mitochondrial membrane potential in HepG2 human hepatocellular carcinoma cells.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Yue-Yong; Huang, Hong-Yan; Wu, Yin-Lian

    2015-10-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is an aggressive form of cancer, with high rates of morbidity and mortality, a poor prognosis and limited therapeutic options. The objective of the present study was to demonstrate the anticancer activity of oleanolic acid in HepG2 human HCC cells. Cell viability was evaluated using an MTT assay, following administration of various doses of oleanolic acid. The effect of oleanolic acid on cell cycle phase distribution and mitochondrial membrane potential was evaluated using flow cytometry with propidium iodide and rhodamine‑123 DNA‑binding cationic fluorescent dyes. Fluorescence microscopy was employed to detect morphological changes in HepG2 cells following oleanolic acid treatment. The results revealed that oleanolic acid induced a dose‑dependent, as well as time‑dependent inhibition in the growth of HepG2 cancer cells. Following acridine orange and ethidium bromide staining, treatment with various doses (0, 5, 25 and 50 µM) of oleanolic acid induced typical morphological changes associated with apoptosis, including cell shrinkage, membrane blebbing, nuclear condensation and apoptotic body formation. Cell cycle analysis revealed that oleanolic acid induced cell cycle arrest in HepG2 cells at the sub‑G1 (apoptotic) phase of the cell cycle, in a dose‑dependent manner. Staining with Annexin V‑fluorescein isothiocyanate and propidium iodide revealed that apoptosis occurred early in these cells. Oleanolic acid treatment also resulted in fragmentation of nuclear DNA in a dose‑dependent manner, producing the typical features of DNA laddering on an agarose gel. The results also demonstrated that oleanolic acid treatment resulted in a potent loss of mitochondrial membrane potential, which also occurred in a dose‑dependent manner. Therefore, oleanolic acid may be used as a therapeutic agent in the treatment of human HCC. PMID:26151733

  13. Mangrove dolabrane-type of diterpenes tagalsins suppresses tumor growth via ROS-mediated apoptosis and ATM/ATR-Chk1/Chk2-regulated cell cycle arrest.

    PubMed

    Neumann, Jennifer; Yang, Yi; Köhler, Rebecca; Giaisi, Marco; Witzens-Harig, Mathias; Liu, Dong; Krammer, Peter H; Lin, Wenhan; Li-Weber, Min

    2015-12-01

    Natural compounds are an important source for drug development. With an increasing cancer rate worldwide there is an urgent quest for new anti-cancer drugs. In this study, we show that a group of dolabrane-type of diterpenes, collectively named tagalsins, isolated from the Chinese mangrove genus Ceriops has potent cytotoxicity on a panel of hematologic cancer cells. Investigation of the molecular mechanisms by which tagalsins kill malignant cells revealed that it induces a ROS-mediated damage of DNA. This event leads to apoptosis induction and blockage of cell cycle progression at S-G2 phase via activation of the ATM/ATR-Chk1/Chk2 check point pathway. We further show that tagalsins suppress growth of human T-cell leukemia xenografts in vivo. Tagalsins show only minor toxicity on healthy cells and are well tolerated by mice. Our study shows a therapeutic potential of tagalsins for the treatment of hematologic malignancies and a new source of anticancer drugs. PMID:26061604

  14. The neem limonoids azadirachtin and nimbolide induce cell cycle arrest and mitochondria-mediated apoptosis in human cervical cancer (HeLa) cells.

    PubMed

    Priyadarsini, R Vidya; Murugan, R Senthil; Sripriya, P; Karunagaran, D; Nagini, S

    2010-06-01

    Limonoids from the neem tree (Azadirachta indica) have attracted considerable research attention in recent years owing to their potent antioxidant and anti-proliferative effects. The present study was designed to investigate the cellular and molecular mechanisms by which azadirachtin and nimbolide exert cytotoxic effects in the human cervical cancer (HeLa) cell line. Both azadirachtin and nimbolide significantly suppressed the viability of HeLa cells in a dose-dependent manner by inducing cell cycle arrest at G0/G1 phase accompanied by p53-dependent p21 accumulation and down-regulation of the cell cycle regulatory proteins cyclin B, cyclin D1 and PCNA. Characteristic changes in nuclear morphology, presence of a subdiploid peak and annexin-V staining pointed to apoptosis as the mode of cell death. Increased generation of reactive oxygen species with decline in the mitochondrial transmembrane potential and release of cytochrome c confirmed that the neem limonoids transduced the apoptotic signal via the mitochondrial pathway. Altered expression of the Bcl-2 family of proteins, inhibition of NF-kappaB activation and over-expression of caspases and survivin provide compelling evidence that azadirachtin and nimbolide induce a shift of balance toward a pro-apoptotic phenotype. Antioxidants such as azadirachtin and nimbolide that can simultaneously arrest the cell cycle and target multiple molecules involved in mitochondrial apoptosis offer immense potential as anti-cancer therapeutic drugs. PMID:20429769

  15. Maple polyphenols, ginnalins A-C, induce S- and G2/M-cell cycle arrest in colon and breast cancer cells mediated by decreasing cyclins A and D1 levels.

    PubMed

    González-Sarrías, Antonio; Ma, Hang; Edmonds, Maxwell E; Seeram, Navindra P

    2013-01-15

    Polyphenols are bioactive compounds found in plant foods. Ginnalins A-C are polyphenols present in the sap and other parts of the sugar and red maple species which are used to produce maple syrup. Here we evaluated the antiproliferative effects of ginnalins A-C on colon (HCT-116) and breast (MCF-7) tumourigenic and non-tumourigenic colon (CCD-18Co) cells and investigated whether these effects were mediated through cell cycle arrest and/or apoptosis. Ginnalins A-C were twofold more effective against the tumourigenic than non-tumourigenic cells. Among the polyphenols, ginnalin A (84%, HCT-116; 49%, MCF-7) was more effective than ginnalins B and C (50%, HCT-116; 30%, MCF-7) at 50 μM concentrations. Ginnalin A did not induce apoptosis of the cancer cells but arrested cell cycle (in the S- and G(2)/M-phases) and decreased cyclins A and D1 protein levels. These results suggest that maple polyphenols may have potential cancer chemopreventive effects mediated through cell cycle arrest. PMID:23122108

  16. ATR- and ATM-Mediated DNA Damage Response Is Dependent on Excision Repair Assembly during G1 but Not in S Phase of Cell Cycle.

    PubMed

    Ray, Alo; Blevins, Chessica; Wani, Gulzar; Wani, Altaf A

    2016-01-01

    Cell cycle checkpoint is mediated by ATR and ATM kinases, as a prompt early response to a variety of DNA insults, and culminates in a highly orchestrated signal transduction cascade. Previously, we defined the regulatory role of nucleotide excision repair (NER) factors, DDB2 and XPC, in checkpoint and ATR/ATM-dependent repair pathway via ATR and ATM phosphorylation and recruitment to ultraviolet radiation (UVR)-induced damage sites. Here, we have dissected the molecular mechanisms of DDB2- and XPC- mediated regulation of ATR and ATM recruitment and activation upon UVR exposures. We show that the ATR and ATM activation and accumulation to UVR-induced damage not only depends on DDB2 and XPC, but also on the NER protein XPA, suggesting that the assembly of an active NER complex is essential for ATR and ATM recruitment. ATR and ATM localization and H2AX phosphorylation at the lesion sites occur as early as ten minutes in asynchronous as well as G1 arrested cells, showing that repair and checkpoint-mediated by ATR and ATM starts early upon UV irradiation. Moreover, our results demonstrated that ATR and ATM recruitment and H2AX phosphorylation are dependent on NER proteins in G1 phase, but not in S phase. We reasoned that in G1 the UVR-induced ssDNA gaps or processed ssDNA, and the bound NER complex promote ATR and ATM recruitment. In S phase, when the UV lesions result in stalled replication forks with long single-stranded DNA, ATR and ATM recruitment to these sites is regulated by different sets of proteins. Taken together, these results provide evidence that UVR-induced ATR and ATM recruitment and activation differ in G1 and S phases due to the existence of distinct types of DNA lesions, which promote assembly of different proteins involved in the process of DNA repair and checkpoint activation. PMID:27442013

  17. ATR- and ATM-Mediated DNA Damage Response Is Dependent on Excision Repair Assembly during G1 but Not in S Phase of Cell Cycle

    PubMed Central

    Ray, Alo; Blevins, Chessica; Wani, Gulzar; Wani, Altaf A.

    2016-01-01

    Cell cycle checkpoint is mediated by ATR and ATM kinases, as a prompt early response to a variety of DNA insults, and culminates in a highly orchestrated signal transduction cascade. Previously, we defined the regulatory role of nucleotide excision repair (NER) factors, DDB2 and XPC, in checkpoint and ATR/ATM-dependent repair pathway via ATR and ATM phosphorylation and recruitment to ultraviolet radiation (UVR)-induced damage sites. Here, we have dissected the molecular mechanisms of DDB2- and XPC- mediated regulation of ATR and ATM recruitment and activation upon UVR exposures. We show that the ATR and ATM activation and accumulation to UVR-induced damage not only depends on DDB2 and XPC, but also on the NER protein XPA, suggesting that the assembly of an active NER complex is essential for ATR and ATM recruitment. ATR and ATM localization and H2AX phosphorylation at the lesion sites occur as early as ten minutes in asynchronous as well as G1 arrested cells, showing that repair and checkpoint-mediated by ATR and ATM starts early upon UV irradiation. Moreover, our results demonstrated that ATR and ATM recruitment and H2AX phosphorylation are dependent on NER proteins in G1 phase, but not in S phase. We reasoned that in G1 the UVR-induced ssDNA gaps or processed ssDNA, and the bound NER complex promote ATR and ATM recruitment. In S phase, when the UV lesions result in stalled replication forks with long single-stranded DNA, ATR and ATM recruitment to these sites is regulated by different sets of proteins. Taken together, these results provide evidence that UVR-induced ATR and ATM recruitment and activation differ in G1 and S phases due to the existence of distinct types of DNA lesions, which promote assembly of different proteins involved in the process of DNA repair and checkpoint activation. PMID:27442013

  18. HTLV-I Tax-Mediated Inactivation of Cell Cycle Checkpoints and DNA Repair Pathways Contribute to Cellular Transformation: “A Random Mutagenesis Model”

    PubMed Central

    Nicot, Christophe

    2015-01-01

    To achieve cellular transformation, most oncogenic retroviruses use transduction by proto-oncogene capture or insertional mutagenesis, whereby provirus integration disrupts expression of tumor suppressors or proto-oncogenes. In contrast, the Human T-cell leukemia virus type 1 (HTLV-I) has been classified in a separate class referred to as “transactivating retroviruses”. Current views suggest that the viral encoded Tax protein transactivates expression of cellular genes leading to deregulated growth and transformation. However, if Tax-mediated transactivation was indeed sufficient for cellular transformation, a fairly high frequency of infected cells would eventually become transformed. In contrast, the frequency of transformation by HTLV-I is very low, likely less than 5%. This review will discuss the current understanding and recent discoveries highlighting critical functions of Tax in cellular transformation. HTLV-I Tax carries out essential functions in order to override cell cycle checkpoints and deregulate cellular division. In addition, Tax expression is associated with increased DNA damage and genome instability. Since Tax can inhibit multiple DNA repair pathways and stimulate unfaithful DNA repair or bypass checkpoints, these processes allow accumulation of genetic mutations in the host genome. Given this, a “Random Mutagenesis” transformation model seems more suitable to characterize the oncogenic activities of HTLV-I. PMID:26835512

  19. Interleukin-24 mediates apoptosis in human B-cells through early activation of cell cycle arrest followed by late induction of the mitochondrial apoptosis pathway.

    PubMed

    Hadife, Nader; Nemos, Christophe; Frippiat, Jean-Pol; Hamadé, Tala; Perrot, Aurore; Dalloul, Ali

    2013-03-01

    Interleukin (IL)-24 has death-promoting effects on various proliferating cells including B-cells from chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) and germinal center B-cells, but its molecular mechanisms are poorly understood. Using a B-cell differentiation model and mRNA profiling, we found that recombinant (r)IL-24 stimulated genes of the mitochondrial apoptotic pathway (Bax, Bid, Casp8, COX6C, COX7B) after 36 h, whereas the transcription of genes involved in DNA replication and metabolism was inhibited within 6 h. Unexpectedly, insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF1), a hormone known to promote cell growth, was stimulated by IL-24. Activated B-cells express receptor for IGF1, to which they become sensitized and undergo apoptosis, a mechanism similar in this respect to IL-24-induced cell death. Furthermore, inhibition of the IGF1 pathway reversed the effects of IL-24. IL-24-mediated apoptosis was also antagonized by pifithrin-alpha, an inhibitor of p53 transactivation. Altogether, these results disclose sequential molecular signals generated by IL-24 in activated B-cells. PMID:22860893

  20. Tumor suppressor protein Lgl mediates G1 cell cycle arrest at high cell density by forming an Lgl-VprBP-DDB1 complex

    PubMed Central

    Yamashita, Kazunari; Ide, Mariko; Furukawa, Kana T.; Suzuki, Atsushi; Hirano, Hisashi; Ohno, Shigeo

    2015-01-01

    Lethal giant larvae (Lgl) is an evolutionarily conserved tumor suppressor whose loss of function causes disrupted epithelial architecture with enhanced cell proliferation and defects in cell polarity. A role for Lgl in the establishment and maintenance of cell polarity via suppression of the PAR-aPKC polarity complex is established; however, the mechanism by which Lgl regulates cell proliferation is not fully understood. Here we show that depletion of Lgl1 and Lgl2 in MDCK epithelial cells results in overproliferation and overproduction of Lgl2 causes G1 arrest. We also show that Lgl associates with the VprBP-DDB1 complex independently of the PAR-aPKC complex and prevents the VprBP-DDB1 subunits from binding to Cul4A, a central component of the CRL4 [VprBP] ubiquitin E3 ligase complex implicated in G1- to S-phase progression. Consistently, depletion of VprBP or Cul4 rescues the overproliferation of Lgl-depleted cells. In addition, the affinity between Lgl2 and the VprBP-DDB1 complex increases at high cell density. Further, aPKC-mediated phosphorylation of Lgl2 negatively regulates the interaction between Lgl2 and VprBP-DDB1 complex. These results suggest a mechanism protecting overproliferation of epithelial cells in which Lgl plays a critical role by inhibiting formation of the CRL4 [VprBP] complex, resulting in G1 arrest. PMID:25947136

  1. The Human Transcriptome During Nontyphoid Salmonella and HIV Coinfection Reveals Attenuated NFκB-Mediated Inflammation and Persistent Cell Cycle Disruption

    PubMed Central

    Schreiber, Fernanda; Lynn, David J.; Houston, Angela; Peters, Joanna; Mwafulirwa, Gershom; Finlay, Brett B.; Brinkman, Fiona S. L.; Hancock, Robert E. W.; Heyderman, Robert S.; Dougan, Gordon

    2011-01-01

    Background. Invasive nontyphoid Salmonella (iNTS) disease is common and severe in adults with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection in Africa. We previously observed that ex vivo macrophages from HIV-infected subjects challenged with Salmonella Typhimurium exhibit dysregulated proinflammatory cytokine responses. Methods. We studied the transcriptional response in whole blood from HIV-positive patients during acute and convalescent iNTS disease compared to other invasive bacterial diseases, and to HIV-positive and -negative controls. Results. During iNTS disease, there was a remarkable lack of a coordinated inflammatory or innate immune signaling response. Few interferon γ (IFNγ)--induced genes or Toll-like receptor/transcription factor nuclear factor κB (TLR/NFκB) gene pathways were upregulated in expression. Ex vivo lipopolysacharide (LPS) or flagellin stimulation of whole blood, however, showed that convalescent iNTS subjects and controls were competent to mount prominent TLR/NFκB-associated patterns of mRNA expression. In contrast, HIV-positive patients with other invasive bacterial infections (Escherichia coli and Streptococcus pneumoniae) displayed a pronounced proinflammatory innate immune transcriptional response. There was also upregulated mRNA expression in cell cycle, DNA replication, translation and repair, and viral replication pathways during iNTS. These patterns persisted for up to 2 months into convalescence. Conclusions. Attenuation of NFκB-mediated inflammation and dysregulation of cell cycle and DNA-function gene pathway expression are key features of the interplay between iNTS and HIV. PMID:21917897

  2. Enrichment of G2/M cell cycle phase in human pluripotent stem cells enhances HDR-mediated gene repair with customizable endonucleases.

    PubMed

    Yang, Diane; Scavuzzo, Marissa A; Chmielowiec, Jolanta; Sharp, Robert; Bajic, Aleksandar; Borowiak, Malgorzata

    2016-01-01

    Efficient gene editing is essential to fully utilize human pluripotent stem cells (hPSCs) in regenerative medicine. Custom endonuclease-based gene targeting involves two mechanisms of DNA repair: homology directed repair (HDR) and non-homologous end joining (NHEJ). HDR is the preferred mechanism for common applications such knock-in, knock-out or precise mutagenesis, but remains inefficient in hPSCs. Here, we demonstrate that synchronizing synchronizing hPSCs in G2/M with ABT phase increases on-target gene editing, defined as correct targeting cassette integration, 3 to 6 fold. We observed improved efficiency using ZFNs, TALENs, two CRISPR/Cas9, and CRISPR/Cas9 nickase to target five genes in three hPSC lines: three human embryonic stem cell lines, neural progenitors and diabetic iPSCs. neural progenitors and diabetic iPSCs. Reversible synchronization has no effect on pluripotency or differentiation. The increase in on-target gene editing is locus-independent and specific to the cell cycle phase as G2/M phase enriched cells show a 6-fold increase in targeting efficiency compared to cells in G1 phase. Concurrently inhibiting NHEJ with SCR7 does not increase HDR or improve gene targeting efficiency further, indicating that HR is the major DNA repair mechanism after G2/M phase arrest. The approach outlined here makes gene editing in hPSCs a more viable tool for disease modeling, regenerative medicine and cell-based therapies. PMID:26887909

  3. Enrichment of G2/M cell cycle phase in human pluripotent stem cells enhances HDR-mediated gene repair with customizable endonucleases

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Diane; Scavuzzo, Marissa A; Chmielowiec, Jolanta; Sharp, Robert; Bajic, Aleksandar; Borowiak, Malgorzata

    2016-01-01

    Efficient gene editing is essential to fully utilize human pluripotent stem cells (hPSCs) in regenerative medicine. Custom endonuclease-based gene targeting involves two mechanisms of DNA repair: homology directed repair (HDR) and non-homologous end joining (NHEJ). HDR is the preferred mechanism for common applications such knock-in, knock-out or precise mutagenesis, but remains inefficient in hPSCs. Here, we demonstrate that synchronizing synchronizing hPSCs in G2/M with ABT phase increases on-target gene editing, defined as correct targeting cassette integration, 3 to 6 fold. We observed improved efficiency using ZFNs, TALENs, two CRISPR/Cas9, and CRISPR/Cas9 nickase to target five genes in three hPSC lines: three human embryonic stem cell lines, neural progenitors and diabetic iPSCs. neural progenitors and diabetic iPSCs. Reversible synchronization has no effect on pluripotency or differentiation. The increase in on-target gene editing is locus-independent and specific to the cell cycle phase as G2/M phase enriched cells show a 6-fold increase in targeting efficiency compared to cells in G1 phase. Concurrently inhibiting NHEJ with SCR7 does not increase HDR or improve gene targeting efficiency further, indicating that HR is the major DNA repair mechanism after G2/M phase arrest. The approach outlined here makes gene editing in hPSCs a more viable tool for disease modeling, regenerative medicine and cell-based therapies. PMID:26887909

  4. MicroRNA-H4-5p encoded by HSV-1 latency-associated transcript promotes cell proliferation, invasion and cell cycle progression via p16-mediated PI3K-Akt signaling pathway in SHSY5Y cells

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Huiliang; Zhang, Chunying; Hou, Guangjun; Song, Jijun

    2015-01-01

    Herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1) microRNAs (miRNAs) mostly located in transcription-associated transcript (LAT) region have been identified that play critical roles in the intricate host-pathogen interaction networks. Increasing evidences throw new insight into the role of miRNA-mediated miRNA-mRNA cross-talk in HSV-1 latent or acute infection. In the present study, we found that hsv-1 miR-H4-5p (here termed as miR-H4b) can down-regulate the expression of cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor 2A (CDKN2A, p16) in neuroblastoma (SHSY5Y) cell lines. Decreased expression of miR-H4b was directly related to attenuated cell proliferation and invasion as well as malfunction of cell cycle in recombinant SHSY5Y cells that stably expressing miR-H4b. Bioinformatics analysis and luciferase assays demonstrated miR-H4b can directly target p16 mRNA. MiR-H4b exerts its pro-proliferation function through inhibition of the p16-related PI3K-Akt pathways. Our findings provide, for the first time, significant clues regarding the role of herpesvirus-encoded miRNAs as a viral modulator to host cells. PMID:26221296

  5. Mitofusin-2-mediated tethering of mitochondria and endoplasmic reticulum promotes cell cycle arrest of vascular smooth muscle cells in G0/G1 phase.

    PubMed

    Li, Dan; Li, Xiaolan; Guan, Yang; Guo, Xiaomei

    2015-06-01

    Mitofusin-2 (Mfn-2) is a hyperplasia suppressor. Changes in Mfn-2 expression are thought to reflect mitochondrial remodeling during cell proliferation. However, it is unclear how the participation of Mfn-2 in mitochondrial remodeling prevents cellular proliferation. Here we show that arresting vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) in the G0/G1 phase by serum starvation up-regulates Mfn-2 expression and causes mitochondria to assemble into a tubular network and to attach to the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). In the S phase, short rod-shaped mitochondrial structures that were dissociated from the ER were observed. Levels of glucose, ATP, l-amino acid, and NADP(+) did not vary throughout the cell cycle. However, NAD(+) level was lower and NADH level was higher in the G0/G1 phase than in the S phase. Mitochondrial membrane potential was lower in the S phase than in the G0/G1 phase. Infecting VSMCs with an adenovirus encoding full-length Mfn-2 increased NADH level and reduced NAD(+) level, while infecting the cells with an adenovirus that silences the p21(ras) signature motif produced opposite effects. These results suggest that Mfn-2 up-regulation causes mitochondrial fusion into tubular networks and attachment to the ER, which in turn halts proliferation of VSMCs. PMID:25926139

  6. RNAi-mediated knockdown of catalase causes cell cycle arrest in SL-1 cells and results in low survival rate of Spodoptera litura (Fabricius).

    PubMed

    Zhao, Haiming; Yi, Xin; Hu, Zhen; Hu, Meiying; Chen, Shaohua; Muhammad, Rizwan-ul-Haq; Dong, Xiaolin; Gong, Liang

    2013-01-01

    Deregulated reactive oxygen species (ROS) production can lead to the disruption of structural and functional integrity of cells as a consequence of reactive interaction between ROS and various biological components. Catalase (CAT) is a common enzyme existing in nearly all organisms exposed to oxygen, which decomposes harmful hydrogen peroxide, into water and oxygen. In this study, the full length sequence that encodes CAT-like protein from Spodoptera litura named siltCAT (GenBank accession number: JQ_663444) was cloned and characterized. Amino acid sequence alignment showed siltCAT shared relatively high conservation with other insect, especially the conserved residues which defined heme and NADPH orientation. Expression pattern analysis showed that siltCAT mRNA was mainly expressed in the fat body, midgut, cuticle and malpighian tube, and as well as over last instar larvae, pupa and adult stages. RNA interference was used to silence CAT gene in SL-1 cells and the fourth-instar stage of S. litura larvae respectively. Our results provided evidence that CAT knockdown induced ROS generation, cell cycle arrest and apoptosis in SL-1 cells. It also confirmed the decrease in survival rate because of increased ROS production in experimental groups injected with double-stranded RNA of CAT (dsCAT). This study implied that ROS scavenging by CAT is important for S. litura survival. PMID:23555693

  7. Improved Gene Targeting through Cell Cycle Synchronization

    PubMed Central

    Tsakraklides, Vasiliki; Brevnova, Elena; Stephanopoulos, Gregory; Shaw, A. Joe

    2015-01-01

    Gene targeting is a challenge in organisms where non-homologous end-joining is the predominant form of recombination. We show that cell division cycle synchronization can be applied to significantly increase the rate of homologous recombination during transformation. Using hydroxyurea-mediated cell cycle arrest, we obtained improved gene targeting rates in Yarrowia lipolytica, Arxula adeninivorans, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Kluyveromyces lactis and Pichia pastoris demonstrating the broad applicability of the method. Hydroxyurea treatment enriches for S-phase cells that are active in homologous recombination and enables previously unattainable genomic modifications. PMID:26192309

  8. Nucleosome architecture throughout the cell cycle

    PubMed Central

    Deniz, Özgen; Flores, Oscar; Aldea, Martí; Soler-López, Montserrat; Orozco, Modesto

    2016-01-01

    Nucleosomes provide additional regulatory mechanisms to transcription and DNA replication by mediating the access of proteins to DNA. During the cell cycle chromatin undergoes several conformational changes, however the functional significance of these changes to cellular processes are largely unexplored. Here, we present the first comprehensive genome-wide study of nucleosome plasticity at single base-pair resolution along the cell cycle in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. We determined nucleosome organization with a specific focus on two regulatory regions: transcription start sites (TSSs) and replication origins (ORIs). During the cell cycle, nucleosomes around TSSs display rearrangements in a cyclic manner. In contrast to gap (G1 and G2) phases, nucleosomes have a fuzzier organization during S and M phases, Moreover, the choreography of nucleosome rearrangements correlate with changes in gene expression during the cell cycle, indicating a strong association between nucleosomes and cell cycle-dependent gene functionality. On the other hand, nucleosomes are more dynamic around ORIs along the cell cycle, albeit with tighter regulation in early firing origins, implying the functional role of nucleosomes on replication origins. Our study provides a dynamic picture of nucleosome organization throughout the cell cycle and highlights the subsequent impact on transcription and replication activity. PMID:26818620

  9. Fluoroquinolone-Mediated Inhibition of Cell Growth, S-G2/M Cell Cycle Arrest, and Apoptosis in Canine Osteosarcoma Cell Lines

    PubMed Central

    Seo, Kyoung won; Holt, Roseline; Jung, Yong-Sam; Rodriguez, Carlos O.; Chen, Xinbin; Rebhun, Robert B.

    2012-01-01

    Despite significant advancements in osteosarcoma research, the overall survival of canine and human osteosarcoma patients has remained essentially static over the past 2 decades. Post-operative limb-spare infection has been associated with improved survival in both species, yet a mechanism for improved survival has not been clearly established. Given that the majority of canine osteosarcoma patients experiencing post-operative infections were treated with fluoroquinolone antibiotics, we hypothesized that fluoroquinolone antibiotics might directly inhibit the survival and proliferation of canine osteosarcoma cells. Ciprofloxacin or enrofloxacin were found to inhibit p21WAF1 expression resulting in decreased proliferation and increased S-G2/M accumulation. Furthermore, fluoroquinolone exposure induced apoptosis of canine osteosarcoma cells as demonstrated by cleavage of caspase-3 and PARP, and activation of caspase-3/7. These results support further studies examining the potential impact of quinolones on survival and proliferation of osteosarcoma. PMID:22927942

  10. Fluoroquinolone-mediated inhibition of cell growth, S-G2/M cell cycle arrest, and apoptosis in canine osteosarcoma cell lines.

    PubMed

    Seo, Kyoung won; Holt, Roseline; Jung, Yong-Sam; Rodriguez, Carlos O; Chen, Xinbin; Rebhun, Robert B

    2012-01-01

    Despite significant advancements in osteosarcoma research, the overall survival of canine and human osteosarcoma patients has remained essentially static over the past 2 decades. Post-operative limb-spare infection has been associated with improved survival in both species, yet a mechanism for improved survival has not been clearly established. Given that the majority of canine osteosarcoma patients experiencing post-operative infections were treated with fluoroquinolone antibiotics, we hypothesized that fluoroquinolone antibiotics might directly inhibit the survival and proliferation of canine osteosarcoma cells. Ciprofloxacin or enrofloxacin were found to inhibit p21(WAF1) expression resulting in decreased proliferation and increased S-G(2)/M accumulation. Furthermore, fluoroquinolone exposure induced apoptosis of canine osteosarcoma cells as demonstrated by cleavage of caspase-3 and PARP, and activation of caspase-3/7. These results support further studies examining the potential impact of quinolones on survival and proliferation of osteosarcoma. PMID:22927942

  11. Inhibition of miR301 enhances Akt-mediated cell proliferation by accumulation of PTEN in nucleus and its effects on cell-cycle regulatory proteins

    PubMed Central

    Jain, Mayur V.; Shareef, Ahmad; Likus, Wirginia; Cieślar-Pobuda, Artur; Ghavami, Saeid; Łos, Marek J.

    2016-01-01

    Micro-RNAs (miRs) represent an innovative class of genes that act as regulators of gene expression. Recently, the aberrant expression of several miRs has been associated with different types of cancers. In this study, we show that miR301 inhibition influences PI3K-Akt pathway activity. Akt overexpression in MCF7 and MDAMB468 cells caused downregulation of miR301 expression. This effect was confirmed by co-transfection of miR301-modulators in the presence of Akt. Cells overexpressing miR301-inhibitor and Akt, exhibited increased migration and proliferation. Experimental results also confirmed PI3K, PTEN and FoxF2 as regulatory targets for miR301. Furthermore, Akt expression in conjunction with miR301-inhibitor increased nuclear accumulation of PTEN, thus preventing it from downregulating the PI3K-signalling. In summary, our data emphasize the importance of miR301 inhibition on PI3K-Akt pathway-mediated cellular functions. Hence, it opens new avenues for the development of new anti-cancer agents preferentially targeting PI3K-Akt pathway. PMID:26967567

  12. Assembly of scaffold-mediated complexes containing Cdc42p, the exchange factor Cdc24p, and the effector Cla4p required for cell cycle-regulated phosphorylation of Cdc24p.

    PubMed

    Bose, I; Irazoqui, J E; Moskow, J J; Bardes, E S; Zyla, T R; Lew, D J

    2001-03-01

    In budding yeast cells, the cytoskeletal polarization and depolarization events that shape the bud are triggered at specific times during the cell cycle by the cyclin-dependent kinase Cdc28p. Polarity establishment also requires the small GTPase Cdc42p and its exchange factor, Cdc24p, but the mechanism whereby Cdc28p induces Cdc42p-dependent polarization is unknown. Here we show that Cdc24p becomes phosphorylated in a cell cycle-dependent manner, triggered by Cdc28p. However, the role of Cdc28p is indirect, and the phosphorylation appears to be catalyzed by the p21-activated kinase family member Cla4p and also depends on Cdc42p and the scaffold protein Bem1p. Expression of GTP-Cdc42p, the product of Cdc24p-mediated GDP/GTP exchange, stimulated Cdc24p phosphorylation independent of cell cycle cues, raising the possibility that the phosphorylation is part of a feedback regulatory pathway. Bem1p binds directly to Cdc24p, to Cla4p, and to GTP-bound Cdc42p and can mediate complex formation between these proteins in vitro. We suggest that Bem1p acts to concentrate polarity establishment proteins at a discrete site, facilitating polarization and promoting Cdc24p phosphorylation at specific times during the cell cycle. PMID:11113154

  13. The Arabidopsis Cell Division Cycle

    PubMed Central

    Gutierrez, Crisanto

    2009-01-01

    Plant cells have evolved a complex circuitry to regulate cell division. In many aspects, the plant cell cycle follows a basic strategy similar to other eukaryotes. However, several key issues are unique to plant cells. In this chapter, both the conserved and unique cellular and molecular properties of the plant cell cycle are reviewed. In addition to division of individual cells, the specific characteristic of plant organogenesis and development make that cell proliferation control is of primary importance during development. Therefore, special attention should be given to consider plant cell division control in a developmental context. Proper organogenesis depends on the formation of different cell types. In plants, many of the processes leading to cell differentiation rely on the occurrence of a different cycle, termed the endoreplication cycle, whereby cells undergo repeated full genome duplication events in the absence of mitosis and increase their ploidy. Recent findings are focusing on the relevance of changes in chromatin organization for a correct cell cycle progression and, conversely, in the relevance of a correct functioning of chromatin remodelling complexes to prevent alterations in both the cell cycle and the endocycle. PMID:22303246

  14. Cooperation of p27Kip1 and p18INK4c in Progestin-Mediated Cell Cycle Arrest in T-47D Breast Cancer Cells

    PubMed Central

    Swarbrick, Alexander; Lee, Christine S. L.; Sutherland, Robert L.; Musgrove, Elizabeth A.

    2000-01-01

    The steroid hormone progesterone regulates proliferation and differentiation in the mammary gland and uterus by cell cycle phase-specific actions. The long-term effect of progestins on T-47D breast cancer cells is inhibition of cellular proliferation. This is accompanied by decreased G1 cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK) activities, redistribution of the CDK inhibitor p27Kip1 among these CDK complexes, and alterations in the elution profile of cyclin E-Cdk2 upon gel filtration chromatography, such that high-molecular-weight complexes predominate. This study aimed to determine the relative contribution of CDK inhibitors to these events. Following progestin treatment, the majority of cyclin E- and D-CDK complexes were bound to p27Kip1 and few were bound to p21Cip1. In vitro, recombinant His6-p27 could quantitatively reproduce the effects on cyclin E-Cdk2 kinase activity and the shift in molecular weight observed following progestin treatment. In contrast, cyclin D-Cdk4 was not inhibited by His6-p27 in vitro or p27Kip1 in vivo. However, an increase in the expression of the Cdk4/6 inhibitor p18INK4c and its extensive association with Cdk4 and Cdk6 were apparent following progestin treatment. Recombinant p18INK4c led to the reassortment of cyclin-CDK-CDK inhibitor complexes in vitro, with consequent decrease in cyclin E-Cdk2 activity. These results suggest a concerted model of progestin action whereby p27Kip1 and p18INK4c cooperate to inhibit cyclin E-Cdk2 and Cdk4. Since similar models have been developed for growth inhibition by transforming growth factor β and during adipogenesis, interaction between the Cip/Kip and INK4 families of inhibitors may be a common theme in physiological growth arrest and differentiation. PMID:10713180

  15. Cell cycle control in Alphaproteobacteria.

    PubMed

    Collier, Justine

    2016-04-01

    Alphaproteobacteria include many medically and environmentally important organisms. Despite the diversity of their niches and lifestyles, from free-living to host-associated, they usually rely on very similar mechanisms to control their cell cycles. Studies on Caulobacter crescentus still lay the foundation for understanding the molecular details of pathways regulating DNA replication and cell division and coordinating these two processes with other events of the cell cycle. This review highlights recent discoveries on the regulation and the mode of action of conserved global regulators and small molecules like c-di-GMP and (p)ppGpp, which play key roles in cell cycle control. It also describes several newly identified mechanisms that modulate cell cycle progression in response to stresses or environmental conditions. PMID:26871482

  16. The cell cycle and pluripotency.

    PubMed

    Hindley, Christopher; Philpott, Anna

    2013-04-15

    PSCs (pluripotent stem cells) possess two key properties that have made them the focus of global research efforts in regenerative medicine: they have unlimited expansion potential under conditions which favour their preservation as PSCs and they have the ability to generate all somatic cell types upon differentiation (pluripotency). Conditions have been defined in vitro in which pluripotency is maintained, or else differentiation is favoured and is directed towards specific somatic cell types. However, an unanswered question is whether or not the core cell cycle machinery directly regulates the pluripotency and differentiation properties of PSCs. If so, then manipulation of the cell cycle may represent an additional tool by which in vitro maintenance or differentiation of PSCs may be controlled in regenerative medicine. The present review aims to summarize our current understanding of links between the core cell cycle machinery and the maintenance of pluripotency in ESCs (embryonic stem cells) and iPSCs (induced PSCs). PMID:23535166

  17. Metabolic cycle, cell cycle, and the finishing kick to Start

    PubMed Central

    Futcher, Bruce

    2006-01-01

    Slowly growing budding yeast store carbohydrate, then liquidate it in late G1 phase of the cell cycle, superimposing a metabolic cycle on the cell cycle. This metabolic cycle may separate biochemically incompatible processes. Alternatively it may provide a burst of energy and material for commitment to the cell cycle. Stored carbohydrate could explain the size requirement for cells passing the Start point. PMID:16677426

  18. Cell Cycle Regulation by Checkpoints

    PubMed Central

    Barnum, Kevin J.; O’Connell, Matthew J.

    2016-01-01

    Cell cycle checkpoints are surveillance mechanisms that monitor the order, integrity, and fidelity of the major events of the cell cycle. These include growth to the appropriate cell size, the replication and integrity of the chromosomes, and their accurate segregation at mitosis. Many of these mechanisms are ancient in origin and highly conserved, and hence have been heavily informed by studies in simple organisms such as the yeasts. Others have evolved in higher organisms, and control alternative cell fates with significant impact on tumor suppression. Here, we consider these different checkpoint pathways and the consequences of their dysfunction on cell fate. PMID:24906307

  19. Disruption of the p53-mediated G{sub 1}/S cell cycle checkpoint results in elevated rates of spontaneous genetic recombination in human fibroblasts

    SciTech Connect

    Strasfeld, L.; Brainerd, E.; Meyn, M.S.

    1994-09-01

    A key feature of the cancer-prone inherited disease ataxia-telangiectasia (A-T) is genetic instability. We recently demonstrated that one aspect of genetic instability in A-T is a marked elevation in the spontaneous rates of intrachromosomal mitotic recombination. We have proposed a model for A-T that attributes these high recombination rates to a lack of DNA damage-sensitive cell cycle checkpoints. One prediction of this model is that disrupting p53 function in normal cells should increase their spontaneous rates of recombination by interfering with their p53-dependent G{sub 1}/S cell cycle checkpoint. To test this prediction, we transfected control and A-T fibroblast lines that each harbor a single integrated copy of lacZ-based recombination vector (pLrec) with derivatives of a eukaryotic expression vector (pRep5) that contain either a dominant-negative p53 mutant (143{sup val{yields}ala}) or a human papilloma virus E6 gene (HPV18 E6). Expression of either of these genes results in loss of p53 function and abolition of the G{sub 1}/S cell cycle checkpoint. Four independent p53{sup 143ala} transformants of the control line showed 25-80 fold elevations in spontaneous recombination rates when compared to their parent cell line. Elevations in spontaneous recombination rates were also detected following transfection with the HPV18 E6 gene. In contrast, four independent p53{sup 143ala} transformants of the A-T cell line showed no significant changes in their already high spontaneous recombination rates. We are now extending these observations to additional normal human fibroblast lines and carrying out molecular analyses of the products of these recombinational events. Our results support our hypothesis that the lack of a p53-dependent G{sub 1}/S cell cycle checkpoint contributes to the hyperrecombination seen in A-T.

  20. COMP-Ang1 enhances DNA synthesis and cell cycle progression in human periodontal ligament cells via Tie2-mediated phosphorylation of PI3K/Akt and MAPKs.

    PubMed

    Lim, Shin-Saeng; Kook, Sung-Ho; Lee, Jeong-Chae

    2016-05-01

    Recombinant COMP-Ang1, a chimera of angiopoietin-1 (Ang1), and a short coiled-coil domain of cartilage oligomeric matrix protein (COMP) can stimulate multiple cellular processes. Proliferative capacity of periodontal ligament (PDL) fibroblasts (PLFs) is important for maintaining PDL integrity and homeostasis. In this study, we explored whether exogenous COMP-Ang1 addition enhances proliferation of human PLFs and the cellular mechanisms therein. We initially isolated and characterized PLFs, where the cells showed highly positive staining for surface markers, CD90, CD105, and CD146. COMP-Ang1 treatment increased proliferation of PLFs by stimulating migration of cells into S and G2/M phases. This increase was coupled with decreased p21(Cip) and p27(Kip) levels and enhanced cyclin D1, cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK) 2, and CDK4 induction. Transfection with si-Tie2 near completely blocked COMP-Ang1-stimulated cell cycle progression in PLFs. Tie2 knockdown also inhibited COMP-Ang1-induced phosphorylation of mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs). In addition, COMP-Ang1-mediated activation of Akt and c-Jun was suppressed by treating each of pharmacological inhibitors specific to phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) (LY294002 and Wortmannin) or MAPKs (PD98059, SB203580, and SP600125). Similarly, COMP-Ang1-mediated increases in DNA synthesis and cyclin D1 induction were prevented by treating inhibitor of MAPKs and PI3K or by c-Jun knockdown. These results suggest that COMP-Ang1 enhances survival and proliferation of human PLFs through the activation of Tie2-mediated signaling, where PI3K/Akt and MAPK-c-Jun signaling pathways act as downstream effectors. Collectively, COMP-Ang1 may be a useful as a stimulator of human PLFs and therefore improves PDL integrity and homeostasis. PMID:27107990

  1. Suppression of hLRH-1 mediated by a DNA vector-based RNA interference results in cell cycle arrest and induction of apoptosis in hepatocellular carcinoma cell BEL-7402

    SciTech Connect

    Wang Shuiliang; Lan Fenghua; Huang Lianghu; Dong Lihong; Zhu Zhongyong; Li Zonghai; Xie Youhua; Fu Jiliang . E-mail: fu825@mail.tongji.edu.cn

    2005-08-05

    RNA interference (RNAi) is the process by which double-stranded RNA directs sequence-specific degradation of mRNA. A DNA vector-based approach has been shown to be able to trigger RNA interference in mammalian cells successfully. LRH-1 is an orphan nuclear receptor predominantly expressed in tissues of endodermal origin, where it controls development and cholesterol homeostasis. In the present study, we demonstrated that the expression of hLRH-1 and cyclin E1 in BEL-7402 cells could be suppressed by up to {approx}80% via DNA vector-based RNA interference. The suppression of hLRH-1 resulted in cell cycle arrest mediated by the down-regulation of cyclin E1. Induction of apoptosis and down-regulation of Gadd45{beta} were also shown in hLRH-1 knock down BEL-7402 cells. These results, together with the findings that Gadd45{beta} remained unchanged in cyclin E1 RNAi cells, suggested that the induction of apoptosis by knock down of hLRH-1 was closely related to the down-regulation of Gadd45{beta}.

  2. Isolinderalactone inhibits proliferation of A549 human non‑small cell lung cancer cells by arresting the cell cycle at the G0/G1 phase and inducing a Fas receptor and soluble Fas ligand-mediated apoptotic pathway.

    PubMed

    Chang, Wei-An; Lin, En-Shyh; Tsai, Ming-Ju; Huang, Ming-Shyan; Kuo, Po-Lin

    2014-05-01

    Lung cancer is currently the leading cause of cancer-related mortality worldwide. In Taiwan, lung cancer is also the type of malignancy that is the major cause of cancer-mortality. Investigating the mechanism of apoptosis of lung cancer cells is important in the treatment of lung cancer. In the present study, isolinderalactone was demonstrated to exhibit anticancer effects in A549 human non-small cell lung cancer cells. The effect of isolinderalactone on apoptosis, cell cycle distribution p21 levels and the Fas receptor and soluble Fas ligand (sFasL) were assayed in order to determine the mechanism underlying the anticancer effect of isolinderalactone. It was demonstrated that isolinderalactone may induce p21 expression and then cause the cell cycle arrest of A549 cells. The data of the present study also revealed that the Fas/sFasL apoptotic system is significant in the mechanism of isolinderalactone‑induced apoptosis of A549 cells. These novel findings demonstrated that isolinderalactone may cause the cell cycle arrest of A549 cells by induction of p21, and induce apoptosis of A549 human non-small-cell lung carcinoma cells through the Fas/sFasL apoptotic system. PMID:24604009

  3. Pinostrobin from Boesenbergia pandurata is an inhibitor of Ca2+-signal-mediated cell-cycle regulation in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Wangkangwan, Wachirasak; Boonkerd, Saipin; Chavasiri, Warinthorn; Sukapirom, Kasama; Pattanapanyasat, Kovit; Kongkathip, Ngampong; Miyakawa, Tokichi; Yompakdee, Chulee

    2009-07-01

    Upon searching plant extracts for inhibitors of the Ca(2+) signaling pathway using the zds1Delta-yeast proliferation based assay, a crude rhizome extract of Boesenbergia pandurata was found to be strongly positive, and from this extract pinostrobin, alpinetin, and pinocembrin chalcone were isolated as active components. Further biochemical experiments confirmed that pinostrobin possesses inhibitory activity on the Ca(2+) signals involved in the control of G2/M phase cell cycle progression in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. PMID:19584530

  4. Two Chitotriose-Specific Lectins Show Anti-Angiogenesis, Induces Caspase-9-Mediated Apoptosis and Early Arrest of Pancreatic Tumor Cell Cycle.

    PubMed

    Singh, Ruby; Nawale, Laxman; Sarkar, Dhiman; Suresh, C G

    2016-01-01

    The antiproliferative activity of two chito-specific agglutinins purified from Benincasa hispida (BhL) and Datura innoxia (DiL9) of different plant family origin was investigated on various cancer cell lines. Both lectins showed chitotriose specificity, by inhibiting lectin hemagglutinating activity. On further studies, it was revealed that these agglutinins caused remarkable concentration-dependent antiproliferative effect on human pancreatic cancerous cells but not on the normal human umbilical vein endothelial cells even at higher doses determined using MTT assay. The GI50 values were approximately 8.4 μg ml(-1) (0.247 μM) and 142 μg ml(-1) (14.8 μM) for BhL and DiL9, respectively, against PANC-1 cells. The growth inhibitory effect of these lectins on pancreatic cancer cells were shown to be a consequence of lectin cell surface binding and triggering G0/G1 arrest, mitochondrial membrane depolarization, sustained increase of the intracellular calcium release and the apoptotic signal is amplified by activation of caspases executing cell death. Interestingly, these lectins also showed anti-angiogenic activity by disrupting the endothelial tubulogenesis. Therefore, we report for the first time two chito-specific lectins specifically binding to tumor glycans; they can be considered to be a class of molecules with antitumor activity against pancreatic cancer cells mediated through caspase dependent mitochondrial apoptotic pathway. PMID:26795117

  5. Two Chitotriose-Specific Lectins Show Anti-Angiogenesis, Induces Caspase-9-Mediated Apoptosis and Early Arrest of Pancreatic Tumor Cell Cycle

    PubMed Central

    Sarkar, Dhiman; Suresh, C. G.

    2016-01-01

    The antiproliferative activity of two chito- specific agglutinins purified from Benincasa hispida (BhL) and Datura innoxia (DiL9) of different plant family origin was investigated on various cancer cell lines. Both lectins showed chitotriose specificity, by inhibiting lectin hemagglutinating activity. On further studies, it was revealed that these agglutinins caused remarkable concentration-dependent antiproliferative effect on human pancreatic cancerous cells but not on the normal human umbilical vein endothelial cells even at higher doses determined using MTT assay. The GI50 values were approximately 8.4 μg ml-1 (0.247 μM) and 142 μg ml-1(14.8 μM) for BhL and DiL9, respectively, against PANC-1 cells. The growth inhibitory effect of these lectins on pancreatic cancer cells were shown to be a consequence of lectin cell surface binding and triggering G0/G1 arrest, mitochondrial membrane depolarization, sustained increase of the intracellular calcium release and the apoptotic signal is amplified by activation of caspases executing cell death. Interestingly, these lectins also showed anti-angiogenic activity by disrupting the endothelial tubulogenesis. Therefore, we report for the first time two chito-specific lectins specifically binding to tumor glycans; they can be considered to be a class of molecules with antitumor activity against pancreatic cancer cells mediated through caspase dependent mitochondrial apoptotic pathway. PMID:26795117

  6. Cell Cycle Progression of Human Cells Cultured in Rotating Bioreactor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parks, Kelsey

    2009-01-01

    Space flight has been shown to alter the astronauts immune systems. Because immune performance is complex and reflects the influence of multiple organ systems within the host, scientists sought to understand the potential impact of microgravity alone on the cellular mechanisms critical to immunity. Lymphocytes and their differentiated immature form, lymphoblasts, play an important and integral role in the body's defense system. T cells, one of the three major types of lymphocytes, play a central role in cell-mediated immunity. They can be distinguished from other lymphocyte types, such as B cells and natural killer cells by the presence of a special receptor on their cell surface called T cell receptors. Reported studies have shown that spaceflight can affect the expression of cell surface markers. Cell surface markers play an important role in the ability of cells to interact and to pass signals between different cells of the same phenotype and cells of different phenotypes. Recent evidence suggests that cell-cycle regulators are essential for T-cell function. To trigger an effective immune response, lymphocytes must proliferate. The objective of this project is to investigate the changes in growth of human cells cultured in rotating bioreactors and to measure the growth rate and the cell cycle distribution for different human cell types. Human lymphocytes and lymphoblasts will be cultured in a bioreactor to simulate aspects of microgravity. The bioreactor is a cylindrical culture vessel that incorporates the aspects of clinostatic rotation of a solid fluid body around a horizontal axis at a constant speed, and compensates gravity by rotation and places cells within the fluid body into a sustained free-fall. Cell cycle progression and cell proliferation of the lymphocytes will be measured for a number of days. In addition, RNA from the cells will be isolated for expression of genes related in cell cycle regulations.

  7. Autoradiography and the Cell Cycle.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, C. Weldon

    1992-01-01

    Outlines the stages of a cell biology "pulse-chase" experiment in which the students apply autoradiography techniques to learn about the concept of the cell cycle. Includes (1) seed germination and plant growth; (2) radioactive labeling and fixation of root tips; (3) feulgen staining of root tips; (4) preparation of autoradiograms; and (5)…

  8. p28-Mediated Activation of p53 in G2-M Phase of the Cell Cycle Enhances the Efficacy of DNA Damaging and Antimitotic Chemotherapy.

    PubMed

    Yamada, Tohru; Das Gupta, Tapas K; Beattie, Craig W

    2016-04-15

    p28 is an anionic cell-penetrating peptide of 28 amino acids that activates wild-type and mutated p53, leading subsequently to selective inhibition of CDK2 and cyclin A expression and G2-M cell-cycle arrest. In this study, we investigated the cytotoxic effects of p28 treatment alone and in combination with DNA-damaging and antimitotic agents on human cancer cells. p28 enhanced the cytotoxic activity of lower concentrations (IC20-50) of DNA-damaging drugs (doxorubicin, dacarbazine, temozolamide) or antimitotic drugs (paclitaxel and docetaxel) in a variety of cancer cells expressing wild-type or mutated p53. Mechanistic investigations revealed that p28 induced a post-translational increase in the expression of wild-type or mutant p53 and p21, resulting in cell-cycle inhibition at the G2-M phase. The enhanced activity of these anticancer agents in combination with p28 was facilitated through the p53/p21/CDK2 pathway. Taken together, these results highlight a new approach to maximize the efficacy of chemotherapeutic agents while reducing dose-related toxicity. Cancer Res; 76(8); 2354-65. ©2016 AACR. PMID:26921335

  9. MYU, a Target lncRNA for Wnt/c-Myc Signaling, Mediates Induction of CDK6 to Promote Cell Cycle Progression.

    PubMed

    Kawasaki, Yoshihiro; Komiya, Mimon; Matsumura, Kosuke; Negishi, Lumi; Suda, Sakiko; Okuno, Masumi; Yokota, Naoko; Osada, Tomoya; Nagashima, Takeshi; Hiyoshi, Masaya; Okada-Hatakeyama, Mariko; Kitayama, Joji; Shirahige, Katsuhiko; Akiyama, Tetsu

    2016-09-01

    Aberrant activation of Wnt/β-catenin signaling is a major driving force in colon cancer. Wnt/β-catenin signaling induces the expression of the transcription factor c-Myc, leading to cell proliferation and tumorigenesis. c-Myc regulates multiple biological processes through its ability to directly modulate gene expression. Here, we identify a direct target of c-Myc, termed MYU, and show that MYU is upregulated in most colon cancers and required for the tumorigenicity of colon cancer cells. Furthermore, we demonstrate that MYU associates with the RNA binding protein hnRNP-K to stabilize CDK6 expression and thereby promotes the G1-S transition of the cell cycle. These results suggest that the MYU/hnRNP-K/CDK6 pathway functions downstream of Wnt/c-Myc signaling and plays a critical role in the proliferation and tumorigenicity of colon cancer cells. PMID:27568568

  10. Alisertib induces cell cycle arrest and autophagy and suppresses epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition involving PI3K/Akt/mTOR and sirtuin 1-mediated signaling pathways in human pancreatic cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Wang, Feng; Li, Hai; Yan, Xiao-Gang; Zhou, Zhi-Wei; Yi, Zhi-Gang; He, Zhi-Xu; Pan, Shu-Ting; Yang, Yin-Xue; Wang, Zuo-Zheng; Zhang, Xueji; Yang, Tianxing; Qiu, Jia-Xuan; Zhou, Shu-Feng

    2015-01-01

    Pancreatic cancer is the most aggressive cancer worldwide with poor response to current therapeutics. Alisertib (ALS), a potent and selective Aurora kinase A inhibitor, exhibits potent anticancer effects in preclinical and clinical studies; however, the effect and underlying mechanism of ALS in the pancreatic cancer treatment remain elusive. This study aimed to examine the effects of ALS on cell growth, autophagy, and epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) and to delineate the possible molecular mechanisms in human pancreatic cancer PANC-1 and BxPC-3 cells. The results showed that ALS exerted potent cell growth inhibitory, pro-autophagic, and EMT-suppressing effects in PANC-1 and BxPC-3 cells. ALS remarkably arrested PANC-1 and BxPC-3 cells in G2/M phase via regulating the expression of cyclin-dependent kinases 1 and 2, cyclin B1, cyclin D1, p21 Waf1/Cip1, p27 Kip1, and p53. ALS concentration-dependently induced autophagy in PANC-1 and BxPC-3 cells, which may be attributed to the inhibition of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)/protein kinase B (Akt)/mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR), p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (p38 MAPK), and extracellular signal-regulated kinases 1 and 2 (Erk1/2) but activation of 5'-AMP-dependent kinase signaling pathways. ALS significantly inhibited EMT in PANC-1 and BxPC-3 cells with an increase in the expression of E-cadherin and a decrease in N-cadherin. In addition, ALS suppressed the expression of sirtuin 1 (Sirt1) and pre-B cell colony-enhancing factor/visfatin in both cell lines with a rise in the level of acetylated p53. These findings show that ALS induces cell cycle arrest and promotes autophagic cell death but inhibits EMT in pancreatic cancer cells with the involvement of PI3K/Akt/mTOR, p38 MAPK, Erk1/2, and Sirt1-mediated signaling pathways. Taken together, ALS may represent a promising anticancer drug for pancreatic cancer treatment. More studies are warranted to investigate other molecular targets and

  11. Cell Cycle Regulation and Melanoma.

    PubMed

    Xu, Wen; McArthur, Grant

    2016-06-01

    Dysregulation of cell cycle control is a hallmark of melanomagenesis. Agents targeting the G1-S and G2-M checkpoints, as well as direct anti-mitotic agents, have all shown promising preclinical activity in melanoma. However, in vivo, standalone single agents targeting cell cycle regulation have only demonstrated modest efficacy in unselected patients. The advent of specific CDK 4/6 inhibitors targeting the G1-S transition, with an improved therapeutic index, is a significant step forward. Potential synergy exists with the combination of CDK4/6 inhibitors with existing therapies targeting the MAPK pathway, particularly in subsets of metastatic melanomas such as NRAS and BRAF mutants. This reviews summaries of the latest developments in both preclinical and clinical data with cell cycle-targeted therapies in melanoma. PMID:27106898

  12. Temperature and the cell cycle.

    PubMed

    Francis, D; Barlow, P W

    1988-01-01

    During the period between successive divisions, a cell traverses three stages of interphase: G1 (pre-synthetic interphase), S-phase (DNA synthetic interphase) and G2 (post-synthetic interphase). The time taken for all cells in a meristem to divide (the cell doubling time (cdt] decreases in response to an increase in temperature. For example, the cdt in root meristems of Zea mays decreases 21-fold as the temperature is increased from 3 to 25 degrees C. Whether all phases of the cell cycle alter proportionately with temperature has been ascertained by comparing data from the root meristem of five species: Pisum sativum, Helianthus annuus, Tradescantia paludosa, Allium cepa and Triticum aestivum. In three of the five species there is a disproportionate lengthening of the G1 phase at low temperatures. We suggest that arrest in G1 with the associated 2C amount of DNA, confers maximal protection on the genome of a somatic cell to the stress of low temperature. DNA replication has been studied at different temperatures for Helianthus annuus, Secale cereal and Oryza sativa. The rate of DNA replication, per single replication fork, increases when the temperature is raised, while the distance between initiation points (replicon size) remains constant. The temperature at which the cell cycle has a minimum duration is close to 30 degrees C in many species, and it seems that this optimum temperature is always near the upper temperature limit of the cell cycle. The rate of cell division determines the rates of organ and cell growth. Thus, temperature has a major effect on the way in which meristematic cells are deployed in organogenesis. The rate of organogenesis, in turn, determines the response of the plant to the growing season. We predict that species growing in sub-arctic conditions comprise cells with low DNA contents and hence have the potentialities for rapid cell cycles so that maximum advantage can be taken of a short growing season. Data from Triticum aestivum show

  13. Notch-Mediated Cell Adhesion

    PubMed Central

    Murata, Akihiko; Hayashi, Shin-Ichi

    2016-01-01

    Notch family members are generally recognized as signaling molecules that control various cellular responses in metazoan organisms. Early fly studies and our mammalian studies demonstrated that Notch family members are also cell adhesion molecules; however, information on the physiological roles of this function and its origin is limited. In this review, we discuss the potential present and ancestral roles of Notch-mediated cell adhesion in order to explore its origin and the initial roles of Notch family members dating back to metazoan evolution. We hypothesize that Notch family members may have initially emerged as cell adhesion molecules in order to mediate multicellularity in the last common ancestor of metazoan organisms. PMID:26784245

  14. Notch-Mediated Cell Adhesion.

    PubMed

    Murata, Akihiko; Hayashi, Shin-Ichi

    2016-01-01

    Notch family members are generally recognized as signaling molecules that control various cellular responses in metazoan organisms. Early fly studies and our mammalian studies demonstrated that Notch family members are also cell adhesion molecules; however, information on the physiological roles of this function and its origin is limited. In this review, we discuss the potential present and ancestral roles of Notch-mediated cell adhesion in order to explore its origin and the initial roles of Notch family members dating back to metazoan evolution. We hypothesize that Notch family members may have initially emerged as cell adhesion molecules in order to mediate multicellularity in the last common ancestor of metazoan organisms. PMID:26784245

  15. Cell heterogeneity during the cell cycle

    SciTech Connect

    Darzynkiewicz, Z.; Crissman, H.; Traganos, F.; Steinkamp, J.

    1982-12-01

    Using flow cytometry, populations of Chinese hamster ovary cells, asynchronous and synchronized in the cycle, were measured with respect to cellular RNA- and protein-content, as well as cell light scatter properties. Heterogeneities of cell populations were expressed as coefficients of variation (c.v.) in percent of the respective mean values. Populations of cells immediately after mitosis have about 15% higher c.v. than mitotic cell populations, regardless of whether RNA, proteins, or light scatter are measured. These data indicate that cytoplasmic constituents are unequally distributed into the daughter cells during cytokinesis and that unequal cytokinesis generates intercellular metabolic variability during the cycle. An additional increase in heterogeneity, although of smaller degree, occurs during G/sub 2/ phase. Populations of S-phase cells are the most uniform, having 20-30% lower c.v. than the postmitotic cells. Cell progression through S does not involve any significant increase in intercellular variability with respect to RNA or protein content. In unperturbed exponentially growing cultures a critical RNA content is required for G/sub 1/ cells prior to their entrance into S. The cell residence times in the equalization compartments are exponentially distributed, which may reflect the randomness generated by the uneven division of metabolic constituents to daughter cells during cytokinesis. The cell heterogeneities were presently estimated at two metabolic levels, transcription (RNA content) and translation (proteins). The most uniform were populations stained for RNA and the highest variability was observed after staining of proteins. This suggests that the regulatory mechanisms equalizing cells in the cell cycle may operate primarily at the level of DNA transcription.

  16. E2F mediates cell cycle-dependent transcriptional repression in vivo by recruitment of an HDAC1/mSin3B corepressor complex

    PubMed Central

    Rayman, Joseph B.; Takahashi, Yasuhiko; Indjeian, Vahan B.; Dannenberg, Jan-Hermen; Catchpole, Steven; Watson, Roger J.; te Riele, Hein; Dynlacht, Brian David

    2002-01-01

    Despite biochemical and genetic data suggesting that E2F and pRB (pocket protein) families regulate transcription via chromatin-modifying factors, the precise mechanisms underlying gene regulation by these protein families have not yet been defined in a physiological setting. In this study, we have investigated promoter occupancy in wild-type and pocket protein-deficient primary cells. We show that corepressor complexes consisting of histone deacetylase (HDAC1) and mSin3B were specifically recruited to endogenous E2F-regulated promoters in quiescent cells. These complexes dissociated from promoters once cells reached late G1, coincident with gene activation. Interestingly, recruitment of HDAC1 complexes to promoters depended absolutely on p107 and p130, and required an intact E2F-binding site. In contrast, mSin3B recruitment to certain promoters did not require p107 or p130, suggesting that recruitment of this corepressor can occur via E2F-dependent and -independent mechanisms. Remarkably, loss of pRB had no effect on HDAC1 or mSin3B recruitment. p107/p130 deficiency triggered a dramatic loss of E2F4 nuclear localization as well as transcriptional derepression, which is suggested by nucleosome mapping studies to be the result of localized hyperacetylation of nucleosomes proximal to E2F-binding sites. Taken together, these findings show that p130 escorts E2F4 into the nucleus and, together with corepressor complexes that contain mSin3B and/or HDAC1, directly represses transcription from target genes as cells withdraw from the cell cycle. PMID:11959842

  17. Developmental and Cell Cycle Quiescence Is Mediated by the Nuclear Hormone Receptor Coregulator DIN-1S in the Caenorhabditis elegans Dauer Larva.

    PubMed

    Colella, Eileen; Li, Shaolin; Roy, Richard

    2016-08-01

    When faced with suboptimal growth conditions, Caenorhabditis elegans larvae can enter a diapause-like stage called "dauer" that is specialized for dispersal and survival. The decision to form a dauer larva is controlled by three parallel signaling pathways, whereby a compromise of TGFβ, cyclic guanosine monophosphate, or insulin/IGF-like signaling (ILS) results in dauer formation. Signals from these pathways converge on DAF-12, a nuclear hormone receptor that triggers the changes required to initiate dauer formation. DAF-12 is related to the vitamin D, liver-X, and androstane receptors, and like these human receptors, it responds to lipophilic hormone ligands. When bound to its ligand, DAF-12 acquires transcriptional activity that directs reproductive development, while unliganded DAF-12 forms a dauer-specifying complex with its interacting protein DIN-1S to regulate the transcription of genes required for dauer development. We report here that din-1S is required in parallel to par-4/LKB1 signaling within the gonad to establish cell cycle quiescence during the onset of the dauer stage. We show that din-1S is important for postdauer reproduction when ILS is impaired and is necessary for long-term dauer survival in response to reduced ILS. Our work uncovers several previously uncharacterized functions of DIN-1S in executing and maintaining many of the cellular and physiological processes required for appropriate dauer arrest, while also shedding light on the coordination of nuclear hormone signaling, the LKB1/AMPK signaling cascade, and ILS/TGFβ in the control of cell cycle quiescence and tissue growth: a key feature that is often misregulated in a number of hormone-dependent cancers. PMID:27260305

  18. Hexachlorobenzene induces cell proliferation, and aryl hydrocarbon receptor expression (AhR) in rat liver preneoplastic foci, and in the human hepatoma cell line HepG2. AhR is a mediator of ERK1/2 signaling, and cell cycle regulation in HCB-treated HepG2 cells.

    PubMed

    de Tomaso Portaz, Ana Clara; Caimi, Giselle Romero; Sánchez, Marcela; Chiappini, Florencia; Randi, Andrea S; Kleiman de Pisarev, Diana L; Alvarez, Laura

    2015-10-01

    are mediated by ERK1/2. Pretreatment with an AhR antagonist, prevented HCB-induced PCNA protein levels, ERK1/2 phosphorylation and alterations in cell cycle distribution. These results demonstrate that HCB-induced HepG2 proliferation and cell cycle progression depend on ERK1/2 phosphorylation which is mediated by the AhR. Our results provide a clue to the molecular events involved in the mechanism of action of HCB-induced hepatocarcinogenesis. PMID:26219504

  19. Functional interplay between the cell cycle and cell phenotypes.

    PubMed

    Chen, Wei-Chiang; Wu, Pei-Hsun; Phillip, Jude M; Khatau, Shyam B; Choi, Jae Min; Dallas, Matthew R; Konstantopoulos, Konstantinos; Sun, Sean X; Lee, Jerry S H; Hodzic, Didier; Wirtz, Denis

    2013-03-01

    Cell cycle distribution of adherent cells is typically assessed using flow cytometry, which precludes the measurements of many cell properties and their cycle phase in the same environment. Here we develop and validate a microscopy system to quantitatively analyze the cell-cycle phase of thousands of adherent cells and their associated cell properties simultaneously. This assay demonstrates that population-averaged cell phenotypes can be written as a linear combination of cell-cycle fractions and phase-dependent phenotypes. By perturbing the cell cycle through inhibition of cell-cycle regulators or changing nuclear morphology by depletion of structural proteins, our results reveal that cell cycle regulators and structural proteins can significantly interfere with each other's prima facie functions. This study introduces a high-throughput method to simultaneously measure the cell cycle and phenotypes at single-cell resolution, which reveals a complex functional interplay between the cell cycle and cell phenotypes. PMID:23319145

  20. Redox regime shifts in microbially mediated biogeochemical cycles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bush, T.; Butler, I. B.; Free, A.; Allen, R. J.

    2015-06-01

    Understanding how the Earth's biogeochemical cycles respond to environmental change is a prerequisite for the prediction and mitigation of the effects of anthropogenic perturbations. Microbial populations mediate key steps in these cycles, yet they are often crudely represented in biogeochemical models. Here, we show that microbial population dynamics can qualitatively affect the response of biogeochemical cycles to environmental change. Using simple and generic mathematical models, we find that nutrient limitations on microbial population growth can lead to regime shifts, in which the redox state of a biogeochemical cycle changes dramatically as the availability of a redox-controlling species, such as oxygen or acetate, crosses a threshold (a "tipping point"). These redox regime shifts occur in parameter ranges that are relevant to the present-day sulfur cycle in the natural environment and the present-day nitrogen cycle in eutrophic terrestrial environments. These shifts may also have relevance to iron cycling in the iron-containing Proterozoic and Archean oceans. We show that redox regime shifts also occur in models with physically realistic modifications, such as additional terms, chemical states, or microbial populations. Our work reveals a possible new mechanism by which regime shifts can occur in nutrient-cycling ecosystems and biogeochemical cycles, and highlights the importance of considering microbial population dynamics in models of biogeochemical cycles.

  1. N-acetyl cysteine protects human oral keratinocytes from Bis-GMA-induced apoptosis and cell cycle arrest by inhibiting reactive oxygen species-mediated mitochondrial dysfunction and the PI3K/Akt pathway.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Yu; Gu, Ying-xin; Mo, Jia-ji; Shi, Jun-yu; Qiao, Shi-chong; Lai, Hong-chang

    2015-12-01

    Bisphenol-A-glycidyl methacrylate (Bis-GMA) released from dental resin materials causes various toxic effects on gingival epithelium. Thus the underlying mechanisms of its cytotoxicity should be elucidated for safety use. One potential cause of cell damage is the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) beyond the capacity of a balanced redox regulation. In this study, we found that exposure of human oral keratinocytes (HOKs) to Bis-GMA caused apoptosis and G1/S cell cycle arrest in parallel with an increased ROS level. Moreover, Bis-GMA induced a depletion of mitochondrial membrane potential, an increase in the Bax/Bcl-2 ratio, an activation of caspase-3 and altered expressions of cell cycle-related proteins (p21, PCNA, cyclinD1). Furthermore, the co-treatment of the ROS scavenger N-acetyl cysteine (NAC) obviously attenuated Bis-GMA-induced toxicity. Here we also evaluated the effects of Bis-GMA on the ROS-related PI3k/Akt pathway. We found that Bis-GMA inhibited the phosphorylation of Akt, whereas the amount of phosphorylated Akt was reverted to the control level in the presence of NAC. Our findings suggested that the toxic effects of Bis-GMA were related to ROS production and the antioxidant NAC effectively reduced Bis-GMA-mediated cytotoxicity. PMID:26343756

  2. Modelling cell cycle synchronisation in networks of coupled radial glial cells.

    PubMed

    Barrack, Duncan S; Thul, Rüdiger; Owen, Markus R

    2015-07-21

    Radial glial cells play a crucial role in the embryonic mammalian brain. Their proliferation is thought to be controlled, in part, by ATP mediated calcium signals. It has been hypothesised that these signals act to locally synchronise cell cycles, so that clusters of cells proliferate together, shedding daughter cells in uniform sheets. In this paper we investigate this cell cycle synchronisation by taking an ordinary differential equation model that couples the dynamics of intracellular calcium and the cell cycle and extend it to populations of cells coupled via extracellular ATP signals. Through bifurcation analysis we show that although ATP mediated calcium release can lead to cell cycle synchronisation, a number of other asynchronous oscillatory solutions including torus solutions dominate the parameter space and cell cycle synchronisation is far from guaranteed. Despite this, numerical results indicate that the transient and not the asymptotic behaviour of the system is important in accounting for cell cycle synchronisation. In particular, quiescent cells can be entrained on to the cell cycle via ATP mediated calcium signals initiated by a driving cell and crucially will cycle in near synchrony with the driving cell for the duration of neurogenesis. This behaviour is highly sensitive to the timing of ATP release, with release at the G1/S phase transition of the cell cycle far more likely to lead to near synchrony than release during mid G1 phase. This result, which suggests that ATP release timing is critical to radial glia cell cycle synchronisation, may help us to understand normal and pathological brain development. PMID:25908204

  3. Mangrove dolabrane‐type of diterpenes tagalsins suppresses tumor growth via ROS‐mediated apoptosis and ATM/ATR–Chk1/Chk2‐regulated cell cycle arrest

    PubMed Central

    Neumann, Jennifer; Yang, Yi; Köhler, Rebecca; Giaisi, Marco; Witzens‐Harig, Mathias; Liu, Dong; Krammer, Peter H.

    2015-01-01

    Natural compounds are an important source for drug development. With an increasing cancer rate worldwide there is an urgent quest for new anti‐cancer drugs. In this study, we show that a group of dolabrane‐type of diterpenes, collectively named tagalsins, isolated from the Chinese mangrove genus Ceriops has potent cytotoxicity on a panel of hematologic cancer cells. Investigation of the molecular mechanisms by which tagalsins kill malignant cells revealed that it induces a ROS‐mediated damage of DNA. This event leads to apoptosis induction and blockage of cell cycle progression at S‐G2 phase via activation of the ATM/ATR—Chk1/Chk2 check point pathway. We further show that tagalsins suppress growth of human T‐cell leukemia xenografts in vivo. Tagalsins show only minor toxicity on healthy cells and are well tolerated by mice. Our study shows a therapeutic potential of tagalsins for the treatment of hematologic malignancies and a new source of anticancer drugs. PMID:26061604

  4. The flavonoid quercetin induces cell cycle arrest and mitochondria-mediated apoptosis in human cervical cancer (HeLa) cells through p53 induction and NF-κB inhibition.

    PubMed

    Vidya Priyadarsini, R; Senthil Murugan, R; Maitreyi, S; Ramalingam, K; Karunagaran, D; Nagini, S

    2010-12-15

    With increasing use of plant-derived cancer chemotherapeutic agents, exploring the antiproliferative effects of phytochemicals has gained increasing momentum for anticancer drug design. The dietary phytochemical quercetin, modulates several signal transduction pathways associated with cell proliferation and apoptosis. The present study was undertaken to examine the effect of quercetin on cell viability, and to determine the molecular mechanism of quercetin-induced cell death by investigating the expression of Bcl-2 family proteins (Bcl-2, Bcl-xL, Mcl1, Bax, Bad, p-Bad), cytochrome C, Apaf-1, caspases, and survivin as well as the cell cycle regulatory proteins (p53, p21, cyclin D1), and NF-κB family members (p50, p65, IκB, p-IκB-α, IKKβ and ubiquitin ligase) in human cervical cancer (HeLa) cells. The results demonstrate that quercetin suppressed the viability of HeLa cells in a dose-dependent manner by inducing G2/M phase cell cycle arrest and mitochondrial apoptosis through a p53-dependent mechanism. This involved characteristic changes in nuclear morphology, phosphatidylserine externalization, mitochondrial membrane depolarization, modulation of cell cycle regulatory proteins and NF-κB family members, upregulation of proapoptotic Bcl-2 family proteins, cytochrome C, Apaf-1 and caspases, and downregulation of antiapoptotic Bcl-2 proteins and survivin. Quercetin that exerts opposing effects on different signaling networks to inhibit cancer progression is a classic candidate for anticancer drug design. PMID:20858478

  5. Anti-lung cancer potential of pure esteric-glycoside condurangogenin A against nonsmall-cell lung cancer cells in vitro via p21/p53 mediated cell cycle modulation and DNA damage-induced apoptosis

    PubMed Central

    Sikdar, Sourav; Mukherjee, Avinaba; Khuda-Bukhsh, Anisur Rahman

    2015-01-01

    Background: Marsdenia condurango (condurango) is a tropical woody vine native to South America. Our earlier study was limited to evaluation of anti-cancer potentials of crude condurango extract and its glycoside-rich components in vitro on lung cancer. Objective: This study aims at evaluating the effect of the single isolated active ingredient condurangogenin A (ConA; C32H42O7) on A549, H522 and H460-nonsmall-cell lung cancer cells. Materials and Methods: ConA was isolated by column chromatography and analyzed by mass spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and proton-nuclear magnetic resonance. diphenyltetrazolium bromide assays were conducted on three cell-types using 6%-alcohol as control. Critical studies on cellular morphology, cell-cycle regulation, reactive oxygen species, mitochondrial membrane potential, and DNA-damage were made, and expressions of related signaling markers studied. Results: As IC50 doses of ConA proved to be too high and toxic to both A549 and H522 cells, all experimental studies were carried out on H460 cells with the IC50 dose (32 μg/ml − 24 h). Cellular morphology revealed typical apoptotic features after ConA treatment. At early treatment hours (2 h-12 h), maximum cells were arrested at G0/G1 phase that could be correlated with reduced level of cyclin D1-CDK with p21 up-regulation. At 18 h − 24 h, sub G0/G1 cell population was increased gradually, as revealed from cytochrome-c release and caspase-3 activation, further confirming the apoptosis-inducing ability of ConA at later phases. Gradual increase of TUNEL-positive cells with significant modulation of mitochondria-dependent apoptotic markers at longer time-points would establish apoptosis-induction property of ConA, indicating its potential as a strong candidate for anti-cancer drug formulation. Conclusion: Further studies are warranted against other types of cancer cells and animal models before its possible human use. PMID:26109778

  6. "Constructing" the Cell Cycle in 3D

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koc, Isil; Turan, Merve

    2012-01-01

    The cycle of duplication and division, known as the "cell cycle," is the essential mechanism by which all living organisms reproduce. This activity allows students to develop an understanding of the main events that occur during the typical eukaryotic cell cycle mostly in the process of mitotic phase that divides the duplicated genetic material…

  7. Ganglioside GM3 modulates tumor suppressor PTEN-mediated cell cycle progression--transcriptional induction of p21(WAF1) and p27(kip1) by inhibition of PI-3K/AKT pathway.

    PubMed

    Choi, Hee-Jung; Chung, Tae-Wook; Kang, Sung-Koo; Lee, Young-Choon; Ko, Jeong-Heon; Kim, Jong-Guk; Kim, Cheorl-Ho

    2006-07-01

    The simple ganglioside GM3 has been shown to have anti-proliferative effects in several in vitro and in vivo cancer models. Although the exogenous ganglioside GM3 has an inhibitory effect on cancer cell proliferation, the exact mechanism by which it prevents cell proliferation remains unclear. Previous studies showed that MDM2 is an oncoprotein that controls tumorigenesis through both p53-dependent and p53-independent mechanisms, and tumor suppressor phosphatase and tensin homolog deleted on chromosome 10 (PTEN), a dual-specificity phosphatase that antagonizes phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI-3K)/AKT signaling, is capable of blocking MDM2 nuclear translocation and destabilizing the MDM2 protein. Results from our current study show that GM3 treatment dramatically increases cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK) inhibitor (CKI) p21(WAF1) expression through the accumulation of p53 protein by the PTEN-mediated inhibition of the PI-3K/AKT/MDM2 survival signaling in HCT116 colon cancer cells. Moreover, the data herein clearly show that ganglioside GM3 induces p53-dependent transcriptional activity of p21(WAF1), as evidenced by the p21(WAF1) promoter-driven luciferase reporter plasmid (full-length p21(WAF1) promoter and a construct lacking the p53-binding sites). Additionally, ganglioside GM3 enhances expression of CKI p27(kip1) through the PTEN-mediated inhibition of the PI-3K/AKT signaling. Furthermore, the down-regulation of the cyclin E and CDK2 was clearly observed in GM3-treated HCT116 cells, but the down-regulation of cyclin D1 and CDK4 was not. On the contrary, suppression of PTEN levels by RNA interference restores the enhanced expression of p53-dependent p21(WAF1) and p53-independent p27(kip1) through inactivating the effect of PTEN on PI-3K/AKT signaling modulated by ganglioside GM3. These results suggest that ganglioside GM3-stimulated PTEN expression modulates cell cycle regulatory proteins, thus inhibiting cell growth. We conclude that ganglioside GM3 represents a

  8. Analysis of the Schizosaccharomyces pombe Cell Cycle.

    PubMed

    Hagan, Iain M; Grallert, Agnes; Simanis, Viesturs

    2016-01-01

    Schizosaccharomyces pombe cells are rod shaped, and they grow by tip elongation. Growth ceases during mitosis and cell division; therefore, the length of a septated cell is a direct measure of the timing of mitotic commitment, and the length of a wild-type cell is an indicator of its position in the cell cycle. A large number of documented stage-specific changes can be used as landmarks to characterize cell cycle progression under specific experimental conditions. Conditional mutations can permanently or transiently block the cell cycle at almost any stage. Large, synchronously dividing cell populations, essential for the biochemical analysis of cell cycle events, can be generated by induction synchrony (arrest-release of a cell cycle mutant) or selection synchrony (centrifugal elutriation or lactose-gradient centrifugation). Schizosaccharomyces pombe cell cycle studies routinely combine particular markers, mutants, and synchronization procedures to manipulate the cycle. We describe these techniques and list key landmarks in the fission yeast mitotic cell division cycle. PMID:27587785

  9. Assaying Cell Cycle Status Using Flow Cytometry.

    PubMed

    Kim, Kang Ho; Sederstrom, Joel M

    2015-01-01

    In this unit, two protocols are described for analyzing cell cycle status using flow cytometry. The first is based on the simultaneous analysis of proliferation-specific marker (Ki-67) and cellular DNA content, which discriminate resting/quiescent cell populations (G0 cell) and quantify cell cycle distribution (G1, S, or G2/M), respectively. The second is based on differential staining of DNA and RNA through co-staining of Hoechst 33342 and Pyronin Y, which is also useful to identify G0 cells from G1 cells. Along with these methods for analyzing cell cycle status, two additional methods for cell proliferation assays with recent updates of newly developed fluorophores, which allow multiplex analysis of cell cycle status, cell proliferation, and a gene of interest using flow cytometry, are outlined. PMID:26131851

  10. Arginine starvation in colorectal carcinoma cells: Sensing, impact on translation control and cell cycle distribution.

    PubMed

    Vynnytska-Myronovska, Bozhena O; Kurlishchuk, Yuliya; Chen, Oleh; Bobak, Yaroslav; Dittfeld, Claudia; Hüther, Melanie; Kunz-Schughart, Leoni A; Stasyk, Oleh V

    2016-02-01

    Tumor cells rely on a continued exogenous nutrient supply in order to maintain a high proliferative activity. Although a strong dependence of some tumor types on exogenous arginine sources has been reported, the mechanisms of arginine sensing by tumor cells and the impact of changes in arginine availability on translation and cell cycle regulation are not fully understood. The results presented herein state that human colorectal carcinoma cells rapidly exhaust the internal arginine sources in the absence of exogenous arginine and repress global translation by activation of the GCN2-mediated pathway and inhibition of mTOR signaling. Tumor suppressor protein p53 activation and G1/G0 cell cycle arrest support cell survival upon prolonged arginine starvation. Cells with the mutant or deleted TP53 fail to stop cell cycle progression at defined cell cycle checkpoints which appears to be associated with reduced recovery after durable metabolic stress triggered by arginine withdrawal. PMID:26751966

  11. Fission Yeast Cell Cycle Synchronization Methods.

    PubMed

    Tormos-Pérez, Marta; Pérez-Hidalgo, Livia; Moreno, Sergio

    2016-01-01

    Fission yeast cells can be synchronized by cell cycle arrest and release or by size selection. Cell cycle arrest synchronization is based on the block and release of temperature-sensitive cell cycle mutants or treatment with drugs. The most widely used approaches are cdc10-129 for G1; hydroxyurea (HU) for early S-phase; cdc25-22 for G2, and nda3-KM311 for mitosis. Cells can also be synchronized by size selection using centrifugal elutriation or a lactose gradient. Here we describe the methods most commonly used to synchronize fission yeast cells. PMID:26519320

  12. Antiproliferative activity of the isoindigo 5'-Br in HL-60 cells is mediated by apoptosis, dysregulation of mitochondrial functions and arresting cell cycle at G0/G1 phase.

    PubMed

    Saleh, Ayman M; El-Abadelah, Mustafa M; Aziz, Mohammad Azhar; Taha, Mutasem O; Nasr, Amre; Rizvi, Syed A A

    2015-06-01

    Our new compound, 5'-Br [(E)-1-(5'-bromo-2'-oxoindolin-3'-ylidene)-6-ethyl-2,3,6,9-tetrahydro-2,9-dioxo-1H-pyrrolo[3,2-f]quinoline-8-carboxylic acid], had shown strong, selective antiproliferative activity against different cancer cell lines. Here, we aim to comprehensively characterize the mechanisms associated with its cytotoxicity in the human promyelocytic leukemia HL-60 cells. We focused at studying the involvement of apoptotic pathway and cell cycle effects. 5'-Br significantly inhibited proliferation by inducing caspase-dependent apoptosis. Involvement of caspase independent mechanism is also possible due to observed inability of z-VAD-FMK to rescue apoptotic cells. 5'-Br was found to trigger intrinsic apoptotic pathway as indicated by depolarization of the mitochondrial inner membrane, decreased level of cellular ATP, modulated expression and phosphorylation of Bcl-2 leading to loss of its association with Bax, and increased release of cytochrome c. 5'-Br treated cells were found arrested at G0/G1 phase with modulation in protein levels of cyclins, dependent kinases and their inhibitors. Expression and enzymatic activity of CDK2 and CDK4 was found inhibited. Retinoblastoma protein (Rb) phosphorylation was also inhibited whereas p21 protein levels were increased. These results suggest that the antiproliferative mechanisms of action of 5'-Br could involve apoptotic pathways, dysregulation of mitochondrial functions and disruption of cell cycle checkpoint. PMID:25790909

  13. Gene copy number and cell cycle arrest

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghosh, Bhaswar; Bose, Indrani

    2006-03-01

    The cell cycle is an orderly sequence of events which ultimately lead to the division of a single cell into two daughter cells. In the case of DNA damage by radiation or chemicals, the damage checkpoints in the G1 and G2 phases of the cell cycle are activated. This results in an arrest of the cell cycle so that the DNA damage can be repaired. Once this is done, the cell continues with its usual cycle of activity. We study a mathematical model of the DNA damage checkpoint in the G2 phase which arrests the transition from the G2 to the M (mitotic) phase of the cell cycle. The tumor suppressor protein p53 plays a key role in activating the pathways leading to cell cycle arrest in mammalian systems. If the DNA damage is severe, the p53 proteins activate other pathways which bring about apoptosis, i.e., programmed cell death. Loss of the p53 gene results in the proliferation of cells containing damaged DNA, i.e., in the growth of tumors which may ultimately become cancerous. There is some recent experimental evidence which suggests that the mutation of a single copy of the p53 gene (in the normal cell each gene has two identical copies) is sufficient to trigger the formation of tumors. We study the effect of reducing the gene copy number of the p53 and two other genes on cell cycle arrest and obtain results consistent with experimental observations.

  14. Cell cycle: proteomics gives it a spin.

    PubMed

    Archambault, Vincent

    2005-08-01

    The eukaryotic cell division cycle has been studied at the molecular level for over 30 years, most fruitfully in model organisms. In the past 5 years, developments in mass spectrometry-based proteomics have been applied to the study of protein interactions and post-translational modifications involving key cell cycle regulators such as cyclin-dependent kinases and the anaphase-promoting complex, as well as effectors such as centrosomes, the kinetochore and DNA replication forks. In addition, innovations in chemical biology, functional proteomics and bioinformatics have been employed to study the cell cycle at the proteome level. This review surveys the contributions of proteomics to cell cycle research. The near future should see the application of more quantitative proteomic approaches to probe the dynamic aspects of the molecular system that underlie the cell cycle in model organisms and in human cells. PMID:16097893

  15. Indole-3-carbinol downregulation of telomerase gene expression requires the inhibition of estrogen receptor-alpha and Sp1 transcription factor interactions within the hTERT promoter and mediates the G1 cell cycle arrest of human breast cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    Marconett, Crystal N.; Sundar, Shyam N.; Tseng, Min; Tin, Antony S.; Tran, Kalvin Q.; Mahuron, Kelly M.; Bjeldanes, Leonard F.; Firestone, Gary L.

    2011-01-01

    Indole-3-carbinol (I3C), a naturally occurring hydrolysis product of glucobrassicin from cruciferous vegetables such as broccoli, cabbage and Brussels sprouts, is an anticancer phytochemical that triggers complementary sets of antiproliferative pathways to induce a cell cycle arrest of estrogen-responsive MCF7 breast cancer cells. I3C strongly downregulated transcript expression of the catalytic subunit of the human telomerase (hTERT) gene, which correlated with the dose-dependent indole-mediated G1 cell cycle arrest without altering the transcript levels of the RNA template (hTR) for telomerase elongation. Exogenous expression of hTERT driven by a constitutive promoter prevented the I3C-induced cell cycle arrest and rescued the I3C inhibition of telomerase enzymatic activity and activation of cellular senescence. Time course studies showed that I3C downregulated expression of estrogen receptor-alpha (ERα) and cyclin-dependent kinase-6 transcripts levels (which is regulated through the Sp1 transcription factor) prior to the downregulation of hTERT suggesting a mechanistic link. Chromatin immunoprecipitation assays demonstrated that I3C disrupted endogenous interactions of both ERα and Sp1 with an estrogen response element–Sp1 composite element within the hTERT promoter. I3C inhibited 17β-estradiol stimulated hTERT expression and stimulated the production of threonine-phosphorylated Sp1, which inhibits Sp1–DNA interactions. Exogenous expression of both ERα and Sp1, but not either alone, in MCF7 cells blocked the I3C-mediated downregulation of hTERT expression. These results demonstrate that I3C disrupts the combined ERα- and Sp1-driven transcription of hTERT gene expression, which plays a significant role in the I3C-induced cell cycle arrest of human breast cancer cells. PMID:21693539

  16. Cell cycle control and seed development

    PubMed Central

    Dante, Ricardo A.; Larkins, Brian A.; Sabelli, Paolo A.

    2014-01-01

    Seed development is a complex process that requires coordinated integration of many genetic, metabolic, and physiological pathways and environmental cues. Different cell cycle types, such as asymmetric cell division, acytokinetic mitosis, mitotic cell division, and endoreduplication, frequently occur in sequential yet overlapping manner during the development of the embryo and the endosperm, seed structures that are both products of double fertilization. Asymmetric cell divisions in the embryo generate polarized daughter cells with different cell fates. While nuclear and cell division cycles play a key role in determining final seed cell numbers, endoreduplication is often associated with processes such as cell enlargement and accumulation of storage metabolites that underlie cell differentiation and growth of the different seed compartments. This review focuses on recent advances in our understanding of different cell cycle mechanisms operating during seed development and their impact on the growth, development, and function of seed tissues. Particularly, the roles of core cell cycle regulators, such as cyclin-dependent-kinases and their inhibitors, the Retinoblastoma-Related/E2F pathway and the proteasome-ubiquitin system, are discussed in the contexts of different cell cycle types that characterize seed development. The contributions of nuclear and cellular proliferative cycles and endoreduplication to cereal endosperm development are also discussed. PMID:25295050

  17. Cell cycle gene expression under clinorotation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Artemenko, Olga

    2016-07-01

    Cyclins and cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK) are main regulators of the cell cycle of eukaryotes. It's assumes a significant change of their level in cells under microgravity conditions and by other physical factors actions. The clinorotation use enables to determine the influence of gravity on simulated events in the cell during the cell cycle - exit from the state of quiet stage and promotion presynthetic phase (G1) and DNA synthesis phase (S) of the cell cycle. For the clinorotation effect study on cell proliferation activity is the necessary studies of molecular mechanisms of cell cycle regulation and development of plants under altered gravity condition. The activity of cyclin D, which is responsible for the events of the cell cycle in presynthetic phase can be controlled by the action of endogenous as well as exogenous factors, but clinorotation is one of the factors that influence on genes expression that regulate the cell cycle.These data can be used as a model for further research of cyclin - CDK complex for study of molecular mechanisms regulation of growth and proliferation. In this investigation we tried to summarize and analyze known literature and own data we obtained relatively the main regulators of the cell cycle in altered gravity condition.

  18. The cell cycle: A critical therapeutic target to prevent vascular proliferative disease

    PubMed Central

    Charron, Thierry; Nili, Nafiseh; Strauss, Bradley H

    2006-01-01

    Percutaneous coronary intervention is the preferred revascularization approach for most patients with coronary artery disease. However, this strategy is limited by renarrowing of the vessel by neointimal hyperplasia within the stent lumen (in-stent restenosis). Vascular smooth muscle cell proliferation is a major component in this healing process. This process is mediated by multiple cytokines and growth factors, which share a common pathway in inducing cell proliferation: the cell cycle. The cell cycle is highly regulated by numerous mechanisms ensuring orderly and coordinated cell division. The present review discusses current concepts related to regulation of the cell cycle and new therapeutic options that target aspects of the cell cycle. PMID:16498512

  19. Piperlongumine Suppresses Proliferation of Human Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma through Cell Cycle Arrest, Apoptosis and Senescence.

    PubMed

    Chen, San-Yuan; Liu, Geng-Hung; Chao, Wen-Ying; Shi, Chung-Sheng; Lin, Ching-Yen; Lim, Yun-Ping; Lu, Chieh-Hsiang; Lai, Peng-Yeh; Chen, Hau-Ren; Lee, Ying-Ray

    2016-01-01

    Oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC), an aggressive cancer originating in the oral cavity, is one of the leading causes of cancer deaths in males worldwide. This study investigated the antitumor activity and mechanisms of piperlongumine (PL), a natural compound isolated from Piper longum L., in human OSCC cells. The effects of PL on cell proliferation, the cell cycle, apoptosis, senescence and reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels in human OSCC cells were investigated. PL effectively inhibited cell growth, caused cell cycle arrest and induced apoptosis and senescence in OSCC cells. Moreover, PL-mediated anti-human OSCC behavior was inhibited by an ROS scavenger N-acetyl-l-cysteine (NAC) treatment, suggesting that regulation of ROS was involved in the mechanism of the anticancer activity of PL. These findings suggest that PL suppresses tumor growth by regulating the cell cycle and inducing apoptosis and senescence and is a potential chemotherapy agent for human OSCC cells. PMID:27120594

  20. Piperlongumine Suppresses Proliferation of Human Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma through Cell Cycle Arrest, Apoptosis and Senescence

    PubMed Central

    Chen, San-Yuan; Liu, Geng-Hung; Chao, Wen-Ying; Shi, Chung-Sheng; Lin, Ching-Yen; Lim, Yun-Ping; Lu, Chieh-Hsiang; Lai, Peng-Yeh; Chen, Hau-Ren; Lee, Ying-Ray

    2016-01-01

    Oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC), an aggressive cancer originating in the oral cavity, is one of the leading causes of cancer deaths in males worldwide. This study investigated the antitumor activity and mechanisms of piperlongumine (PL), a natural compound isolated from Piper longum L., in human OSCC cells. The effects of PL on cell proliferation, the cell cycle, apoptosis, senescence and reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels in human OSCC cells were investigated. PL effectively inhibited cell growth, caused cell cycle arrest and induced apoptosis and senescence in OSCC cells. Moreover, PL-mediated anti-human OSCC behavior was inhibited by an ROS scavenger N-acetyl-l-cysteine (NAC) treatment, suggesting that regulation of ROS was involved in the mechanism of the anticancer activity of PL. These findings suggest that PL suppresses tumor growth by regulating the cell cycle and inducing apoptosis and senescence and is a potential chemotherapy agent for human OSCC cells. PMID:27120594

  1. Protein tyrosine nitration in the cell cycle

    SciTech Connect

    Jia, Min; Mateoiu, Claudia; Souchelnytskyi, Serhiy

    2011-09-23

    Highlights: {yields} Enrichment of 3-nitrotyrosine containing proteins from cells synchronized in different phases of the cell cycle. {yields} Identification of 76 tyrosine nitrated proteins that change expression during the cell cycle. {yields} Nineteen identified proteins were previously described as regulators of cell proliferation. -- Abstract: Nitration of tyrosine residues in proteins is associated with cell response to oxidative/nitrosative stress. Tyrosine nitration is relatively low abundant post-translational modification that may affect protein functions. Little is known about the extent of protein tyrosine nitration in cells during progression through the cell cycle. Here we report identification of proteins enriched for tyrosine nitration in cells synchronized in G0/G1, S or G2/M phases of the cell cycle. We identified 27 proteins in cells synchronized in G0/G1 phase, 37 proteins in S phase synchronized cells, and 12 proteins related to G2/M phase. Nineteen of the identified proteins were previously described as regulators of cell proliferation. Thus, our data indicate which tyrosine nitrated proteins may affect regulation of the cell cycle.

  2. High-Cycle-Life Lithium Cell

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yen, S. P. S.; Carter, B.; Shen, D.; Somoano, R.

    1985-01-01

    Lithium-anode electrochemical cell offers increased number of charge/ discharge cycles. Cell uses components selected for compatibility with electrolyte solvent: These materials are wettable and chemically stable. Low vapor pressure and high electrochemical stability of solvent improve cell packaging, handling, and safety. Cell operates at modest temperatures - less than 100 degrees C - and is well suited to automotive, communications, and other applications.

  3. Cell Cycle Phase-Specific Drug Resistance as an Escape Mechanism of Melanoma Cells.

    PubMed

    Beaumont, Kimberley A; Hill, David S; Daignault, Sheena M; Lui, Goldie Y L; Sharp, Danae M; Gabrielli, Brian; Weninger, Wolfgang; Haass, Nikolas K

    2016-07-01

    The tumor microenvironment is characterized by cancer cell subpopulations with heterogeneous cell cycle profiles. For example, hypoxic tumor zones contain clusters of cancer cells that arrest in G1 phase. It is conceivable that neoplastic cells exhibit differential drug sensitivity based on their residence in specific cell cycle phases. In this study, we used two-dimensional and organotypic melanoma culture models in combination with fluorescent cell cycle indicators to investigate the effects of cell cycle phases on clinically used drugs. We demonstrate that G1-arrested melanoma cells, irrespective of the underlying cause mediating G1 arrest, are resistant to apoptosis induced by the proteasome inhibitor bortezomib or the alkylating agent temozolomide. In contrast, G1-arrested cells were more sensitive to mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway inhibitor-induced cell death. Of clinical relevance, pretreatment of melanoma cells with a mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway inhibitor, which induced G1 arrest, resulted in resistance to temozolomide or bortezomib. On the other hand, pretreatment with temozolomide, which induced G2 arrest, did not result in resistance to mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway inhibitors. In summary, we established a model to study the effects of the cell cycle on drug sensitivity. Cell cycle phase-specific drug resistance is an escape mechanism of melanoma cells that has implications on the choice and timing of drug combination therapies. PMID:26970356

  4. Goniothalamin induces cell cycle arrest and apoptosis in H400 human oral squamous cell carcinoma: A caspase-dependent mitochondrial-mediated pathway with downregulation of NF-κβ.

    PubMed

    Li, Lim K; Rola, Ali-Saeed; Kaid, Fahme A; Ali, Abdul Manaf; Alabsi, Aied M

    2016-04-01

    Goniothalamin is a natural occurring styryl-lactone compound isolated from Goniothalamus macrophyllus. It had been demonstrated to process promising anticancer activity on various cancer cell lines. However, little study has been carried out on oral cancer. The aim of this study was to determine the cytotoxic effects of goniothalamin against H400 oral cancer cells and its underlying molecular pathways. Results from MTT assay demonstrated that goniothalamin exhibited selective cytotoxicity as well as inhibited cells growth of H400 in dose and time-dependent manner. This was achieved primarily via apoptosis where apoptotic bodies and membrane blebbing were observed using AO/PI and DAPI/Annexin V-FITC fluorescence double staining. In order to understand the apoptosis mechanisms induced by goniothalamin, apoptosis assessment based on mitochondrial membrane potential assay and cytochrome c enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay were carried out. Results demonstrated that the depolarization of mitochondrial transmembrane potential facilitated the release of mitochondrial cytochrome c into cytosol. Caspases assays revealed the activation of initiator caspase-9 and executioner caspase-3/7 in dose-dependent manners. This form of apoptosis was closely associated with the regulation on Bcl-2 family proteins, cell cycle arrest at S phase and inhibition of NF-κβ translocation from cytoplasm to nucleus. Conclusion, goniothalamin has the potential to act as an anticancer agent against human oral squamous cell carcinoma (H400 cells). PMID:26752226

  5. Pneumococcal Pneumolysin Induces DNA Damage and Cell Cycle Arrest.

    PubMed

    Rai, Prashant; He, Fang; Kwang, Jimmy; Engelward, Bevin P; Chow, Vincent T K

    2016-01-01

    Streptococcus pneumoniae produces pneumolysin toxin as a key virulence factor against host cells. Pneumolysin is a cholesterol-dependent cytolysin (CDC) toxin that forms lytic pores in host membranes and mediates pneumococcal disease pathogenesis by modulating inflammatory responses. Here, we show that pneumolysin, which is released during bacterial lysis, induces DNA double strand breaks (DSBs), as indicated by ataxia telangiectasia mutated (ATM)-mediated H2AX phosphorylation (γH2AX). Pneumolysin-induced γH2AX foci recruit mediator of DNA damage checkpoint 1 (MDC1) and p53 binding protein 1 (53BP1), to sites of DSBs. Importantly, results show that toxin-induced DNA damage precedes cell cycle arrest and causes apoptosis when DNA-dependent protein kinase (DNA-PK)-mediated non-homologous end joining is inhibited. Further, we observe that cells that were undergoing DNA replication harbored DSBs in greater frequency during pneumolysin treatment. This observation raises the possibility that DSBs might be arising as a result of replication fork breakdown. Additionally, neutralizing the oligomerization domain of pneumolysin with monoclonal antibody suppresses DNA damage and also cell cycle arrest, indicating that pneumolysin oligomerization is important for causing DNA damage. Taken together, this study reveals a previously unidentified ability of pneumolysin to induce cytotoxicity via DNA damage, with implications in the pathophysiology of S. pneumoniae infection. PMID:27026501

  6. Pneumococcal Pneumolysin Induces DNA Damage and Cell Cycle Arrest

    PubMed Central

    Rai, Prashant; He, Fang; Kwang, Jimmy; Engelward, Bevin P.; Chow, Vincent T.K.

    2016-01-01

    Streptococcus pneumoniae produces pneumolysin toxin as a key virulence factor against host cells. Pneumolysin is a cholesterol-dependent cytolysin (CDC) toxin that forms lytic pores in host membranes and mediates pneumococcal disease pathogenesis by modulating inflammatory responses. Here, we show that pneumolysin, which is released during bacterial lysis, induces DNA double strand breaks (DSBs), as indicated by ataxia telangiectasia mutated (ATM)-mediated H2AX phosphorylation (γH2AX). Pneumolysin-induced γH2AX foci recruit mediator of DNA damage checkpoint 1 (MDC1) and p53 binding protein 1 (53BP1), to sites of DSBs. Importantly, results show that toxin-induced DNA damage precedes cell cycle arrest and causes apoptosis when DNA-dependent protein kinase (DNA-PK)-mediated non-homologous end joining is inhibited. Further, we observe that cells that were undergoing DNA replication harbored DSBs in greater frequency during pneumolysin treatment. This observation raises the possibility that DSBs might be arising as a result of replication fork breakdown. Additionally, neutralizing the oligomerization domain of pneumolysin with monoclonal antibody suppresses DNA damage and also cell cycle arrest, indicating that pneumolysin oligomerization is important for causing DNA damage. Taken together, this study reveals a previously unidentified ability of pneumolysin to induce cytotoxicity via DNA damage, with implications in the pathophysiology of S. pneumoniae infection. PMID:27026501

  7. Cell cycle regulation of the human cdc2 gene.

    PubMed Central

    Dalton, S

    1992-01-01

    Transcription of the human cdc2 gene is cell cycle regulated and restricted to proliferating cells. Nuclear run-on assays show that cdc2 transcription is high in S and G2 phases of the cell cycle but low in G1. To investigate transcriptional control further, genomic clones of the human cdc2 gene containing 5' flanking sequences were isolated and shown to function as a growth regulated promoter in vivo when fused to a CAT reporter gene. In primary human fibroblasts, the human cdc2 promoter is negatively regulated by arrest of cell growth in a similar fashion to the endogenous gene. This requires specific 5' flanking upstream negative control (UNC) sequences which mediate repression. The retinoblastoma susceptibility gene product (Rb) specifically represses cdc2 transcription in cycling cells via 136 bp of 5' flanking sequence located between -245 and -109 within the UNC region. E2F binding sites in this region were shown to be essential for optimal repression. A model is proposed where Rb negatively regulates the cdc2 promoter in non-cycling and cycling G1 cells. Images PMID:1582409

  8. Danusertib, a potent pan-Aurora kinase and ABL kinase inhibitor, induces cell cycle arrest and programmed cell death and inhibits epithelial to mesenchymal transition involving the PI3K/Akt/mTOR-mediated signaling pathway in human gastric cancer AGS and NCI-N78 cells

    PubMed Central

    Yuan, Chun-Xiu; Zhou, Zhi-Wei; Yang, Yin-Xue; He, Zhi-Xu; Zhang, Xueji; Wang, Dong; Yang, Tianxing; Pan, Si-Yuan; Chen, Xiao-Wu; Zhou, Shu-Feng

    2015-01-01

    of N-cadherin in both cell lines. Taken together, danusertib has potent inducing effects on cell cycle arrest, apoptosis, and autophagy, but has an inhibitory effect on epithelial to mesenchymal transition, with involvement of signaling pathways mediated by PI3K/Akt/mTOR, p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase, and 5′ AMP-activated protein kinase in AGS and NCI-N78 cells. PMID:25767376

  9. Cell cycle control of DNA joint molecule resolution.

    PubMed

    Wild, Philipp; Matos, Joao

    2016-06-01

    The establishment of stable interactions between chromosomes underpins vital cellular processes such as recombinational DNA repair and bipolar chromosome segregation. On the other hand, timely disengagement of persistent connections is necessary to assure efficient partitioning of the replicated genome prior to cell division. Whereas great progress has been made in defining how cohesin-mediated chromosomal interactions are disengaged as cells prepare to undergo chromosome segregation, little is known about the metabolism of DNA joint molecules (JMs), generated during the repair of chromosomal lesions. Recent work on Mus81 and Yen1/GEN1, two conserved structure-selective endonucleases, revealed unforeseen links between JM-processing and cell cycle progression. Cell cycle kinases and phosphatases control Mus81 and Yen1/GEN1 to restrain deleterious JM-processing during S-phase, while safeguarding chromosome segregation during mitosis. PMID:26970388

  10. Fuel cell and advanced turbine power cycle

    SciTech Connect

    White, D.J.

    1995-10-19

    Solar Turbines, Incorporated (Solar) has a vested interest in the integration of gas turbines and high temperature fuel cells and in particular, solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs). Solar has identified a parallel path approach to the technology developments needed for future products. The primary approach is to move away from the simple cycle industrial machines of the past and develop as a first step more efficient recuperated engines. This move was prompted by the recognition that the simple cycle machines were rapidly approaching their efficiency limits. Improving the efficiency of simple cycle machines is and will become increasingly more costly. Each efficiency increment will be progressively more costly than the previous step.

  11. Retinal progenitor cells, differentiation, and barriers to cell cycle reentry.

    PubMed

    Davis, Denise M; Dyer, Michael A

    2010-01-01

    Neurogenesis in the retina occurs via the coordination of proliferation, cell cycle exit and differentiation of retinal progenitor cells. Until recently, it was widely assumed that once a retinal progenitor cell produced a postmitotic neuron, there was no possibility for cell-cycle re-entry. However, recent studies have shown that mature differentiated horizontal neurons with reduced Rb pathway function can re-enter the cell cycle and proliferate while maintaining their differentiated features. This chapter will explore the molecular and cellular mechanisms that help to keep differentiated retinal neurons and glia postmitotic. We propose that there are cell-type specific barriers to cell-cycle re-entry by differentiated neurons and these may include apoptosis, chromatin/epigenetics mechanisms, cellular morphology and/or metabolic demands that are distinct across cell populations. Our data suggest that differentiated neurons span a continuum of cellular properties related to their ability to re-enter the cell cycle and undergo cytokinesis while maintaining their differentiated features. A deeper understanding of these processes may allow us to begin to explain the cell type specificity of neuronal cell death and tumor susceptibility. For example, neurons that have more barriers to cell-cycle re-entry may be less likely to form tumors but more likely to undergo degeneration. Conversely, neurons that have fewer barriers to cell-cycle re-entry may be more likely to form tumors but less likely to undergo degeneration. PMID:20959166

  12. Cell Cycle Synchronization in Xenopus Egg Extracts.

    PubMed

    Gillespie, Peter J; Neusiedler, Julia; Creavin, Kevin; Chadha, Gaganmeet Singh; Blow, J Julian

    2016-01-01

    Many important discoveries in cell cycle research have been made using cell-free extracts prepared from the eggs of the South African clawed frog Xenopus laevis. These extracts efficiently support the key nuclear functions of the eukaryotic cell cycle in vitro under apparently the same controls that exist in vivo. The Xenopus cell-free system is therefore uniquely suited to the study of the mechanisms, dynamics and integration of cell cycle regulated processes at a biochemical level. Here, we describe methods currently in use in our laboratory for the preparation of Xenopus egg extracts and demembranated sperm nuclei. We detail how these extracts can be used to study the key transitions of the eukaryotic cell cycle and describe conditions under which these transitions can be manipulated by addition of drugs that either retard or advance passage. In addition, we describe in detail essential techniques that provide a practical starting point for investigating the function of proteins involved in the operation of the eukaryotic cell cycle. PMID:26254920

  13. Exosomes Secreted by Toxoplasma gondii-Infected L6 Cells: Their Effects on Host Cell Proliferation and Cell Cycle Changes

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Min Jae; Jung, Bong-Kwang; Cho, Jaeeun; Song, Hyemi; Pyo, Kyung-Ho; Lee, Ji Min; Kim, Min-Kyung; Chai, Jong-Yil

    2016-01-01

    Toxoplasma gondii infection induces alteration of the host cell cycle and cell proliferation. These changes are not only seen in directly invaded host cells but also in neighboring cells. We tried to identify whether this alteration can be mediated by exosomes secreted by T. gondii-infected host cells. L6 cells, a rat myoblast cell line, and RH strain of T. gondii were selected for this study. L6 cells were infected with or without T. gondii to isolate exosomes. The cellular growth patterns were identified by cell counting with trypan blue under confocal microscopy, and cell cycle changes were investigated by flow cytometry. L6 cells infected with T. gondii showed decreased proliferation compared to uninfected L6 cells and revealed a tendency to stay at S or G2/M cell phase. The treatment of exosomes isolated from T. gondii-infected cells showed attenuation of cell proliferation and slight enhancement of S phase in L6 cells. The cell cycle alteration was not as obvious as reduction of the cell proliferation by the exosome treatment. These changes were transient and disappeared at 48 hr after the exosome treatment. Microarray analysis and web-based tools indicated that various exosomal miRNAs were crucial for the regulation of target genes related to cell proliferation. Collectively, our study demonstrated that the exosomes originating from T. gondii could change the host cell proliferation and alter the host cell cycle. PMID:27180572

  14. Cycle life test of secondary spacecraft cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harkness, J. D.

    1980-01-01

    The results of the life cycling program on rechargeable calls are reported. Information on required data, the use of which the data will be put, application details, including orbital description, charge control methods, load rquirements, etc., are given. Cycle tests were performed on 660 sealed, nickel cadmium cells. The cells consisted of seven sample classifications ranging form 3.0 to 20 amp. hours. Nickel cadmium, silver cadmium, and silver zinc sealed cells, excluding synchronous orbit and accelerated test packs were added. The capacities of the nickel cadmium cells, the silver cadmium and the silver zinc cells differed in range of amp hrs. The cells were cylced under different load, charge control, and temperature conditions. All cell packs are recharged by use of a pack voltage limit. All charging is constant current until the voltage limit is reached.

  15. Cycle life test of secondary spacecraft cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harkness, J. D.

    1980-04-01

    The results of the life cycling program on rechargeable calls are reported. Information on required data, the use of which the data will be put, application details, including orbital description, charge control methods, load rquirements, etc., are given. Cycle tests were performed on 660 sealed, nickel cadmium cells. The cells consisted of seven sample classifications ranging form 3.0 to 20 amp. hours. Nickel cadmium, silver cadmium, and silver zinc sealed cells, excluding synchronous orbit and accelerated test packs were added. The capacities of the nickel cadmium cells, the silver cadmium and the silver zinc cells differed in range of amp hrs. The cells were cylced under different load, charge control, and temperature conditions. All cell packs are recharged by use of a pack voltage limit. All charging is constant current until the voltage limit is reached.

  16. A role for homologous recombination proteins in cell cycle regulation

    PubMed Central

    Kostyrko, Kaja; Bosshard, Sandra; Urban, Zuzanna; Mermod, Nicolas

    2015-01-01

    Eukaryotic cells respond to DNA breaks, especially double-stranded breaks (DSBs), by activating the DNA damage response (DDR), which encompasses DNA repair and cell cycle checkpoint signaling. The DNA damage signal is transmitted to the checkpoint machinery by a network of specialized DNA damage-recognizing and signal-transducing molecules. However, recent evidence suggests that DNA repair proteins themselves may also directly contribute to the checkpoint control. Here, we investigated the role of homologous recombination (HR) proteins in normal cell cycle regulation in the absence of exogenous DNA damage. For this purpose, we used Chinese Hamster Ovary (CHO) cells expressing the Fluorescent ubiquitination-based cell cycle indicators (Fucci). Systematic siRNA-mediated knockdown of HR genes in these cells demonstrated that the lack of several of these factors alters cell cycle distribution, albeit differentially. The knock-down of MDC1, Rad51 and Brca1 caused the cells to arrest in the G2 phase, suggesting that they may be required for the G2/M transition. In contrast, inhibition of the other HR factors, including several Rad51 paralogs and Rad50, led to the arrest in the G1/G0 phase. Moreover, reduced expression of Rad51B, Rad51C, CtIP and Rad50 induced entry into a quiescent G0-like phase. In conclusion, the lack of many HR factors may lead to cell cycle checkpoint activation, even in the absence of exogenous DNA damage, indicating that these proteins may play an essential role both in DNA repair and checkpoint signaling. PMID:26125600

  17. Cell Cycle Regulation in the Developing Lens

    PubMed Central

    Griep, Anne E.

    2007-01-01

    Regulation of cell proliferation is a critical aspect of the development of multicellular organisms. The ocular lens is an excellent model system in which to unravel the mechanisms controlling cell proliferation during development. In recent years, several cell cycle regulators have been shown to be essential for maintaining normal patterns of lens cell proliferation. Additionally, many growth factor signaling pathways and cell adhesion factors have been shown to have the capacity to regulate lens cell proliferation. Given this complexity, understanding the cross talk between these many signaling pathways and how they are coordinated are important directions for the future. PMID:17218126

  18. Flavonoids: from cell cycle regulation to biotechnology.

    PubMed

    Woo, Ho-Hyung; Jeong, Byeong Ryong; Hawes, Martha C

    2005-03-01

    Flavonoids have been proposed to play diverse roles in plant growth and development, including defense, symbiosis, pollen development and male fertility, polar auxin transport, and protection against ultraviolet radiation. Recently, a new role in cell cycle regulation has emerged. Genetic alteration of glucuronide metabolism by altered expression of a Pisum sativum UDP-glucuronosyltransferase (PsUGT1) results in an altered cell cycle in pea, alfalfa, and Arabidopsis. In alfalfa, altered expression of PsUGT1 results in accumulation of a flavonoid-like compound that suppresses growth of cultured cells. The results are consistent with the hypothesis that PsUGT1 functions by controlling cellular levels of a factor controlling cell cycle (FCC). PMID:15834800

  19. Cell cycle-specific effects of lovastatin.

    PubMed Central

    Jakóbisiak, M; Bruno, S; Skierski, J S; Darzynkiewicz, Z

    1991-01-01

    Lovastatin (LOV), the drug recently introduced to treat hypercholesteremia, inhibits the synthesis of mevalonic acid. The effects of LOV on the cell cycle progression of the human bladder carcinoma T24 cell line expressing activated p21ras were investigated. At a concentration of 2-10 microM, LOV arrested cells in G1 and also prolonged--or arrested a minor fraction of cells in--the G2 phase of the cell cycle; at a concentration of 50 microM, LOV was cytotoxic. The cytostatic effects were reversed by addition of exogenous mevalonate. Cells arrested in the cycle by LOV were viable for up to 72 hr and did not show any changes in RNA or protein content or chromatin condensation, which would be typical of either unbalanced growth or deep quiescence. The expression of the proliferation-associated nuclear proteins Ki-67 and p105 in these cells was reduced by up to 72% and 74%, respectively, compared with exponentially growing control cells. After removal of LOV, the cells resumed progression through the cycle; they entered S phase asynchronously after a lag of approximately 6 hr. Because mevalonate is essential for the posttranslational modification (isoprenylation) of p21ras, which in turn allows this protein to become attached to the cell membrane, the data suggest that the LOV-induced G1 arrest may be a consequence of the loss of the signal transduction capacity of p21ras. Indeed, while exposure of cells to LOV had no effect on the cellular content of p21ras (detected immunocytochemically), it altered the intracellular location of this protein, causing its dissociation from the cell membrane and translocation toward the cytoplasm and nucleus. However, it is also possible that inhibition of isoprenylation of proteins other than p21ras (e.g., nuclear lamins) by LOV may be responsible for the observed suppression of growth of T24 cells. Images PMID:1673788

  20. Parvovirus infection-induced cell death and cell cycle arrest

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Aaron Yun; Qiu, Jianming

    2011-01-01

    The cytopathic effects induced during parvovirus infection have been widely documented. Parvovirus infection-induced cell death is often directly associated with disease outcomes (e.g., anemia resulting from loss of erythroid progenitors during parvovirus B19 infection). Apoptosis is the major form of cell death induced by parvovirus infection. However, nonapoptotic cell death, namely necrosis, has also been reported during infection of the minute virus of mice, parvovirus H-1 and bovine parvovirus. Recent studies have revealed multiple mechanisms underlying the cell death during parvovirus infection. These mechanisms vary in different parvoviruses, although the large nonstructural protein (NS)1 and the small NS proteins (e.g., the 11 kDa of parvovirus B19), as well as replication of the viral genome, are responsible for causing infection-induced cell death. Cell cycle arrest is also common, and contributes to the cytopathic effects induced during parvovirus infection. While viral NS proteins have been indicated to induce cell cycle arrest, increasing evidence suggests that a cellular DNA damage response triggered by an invading single-stranded parvoviral genome is the major inducer of cell cycle arrest in parvovirus-infected cells. Apparently, in response to infection, cell death and cell cycle arrest of parvovirus-infected cells are beneficial to the viral cell lifecycle (e.g., viral DNA replication and virus egress). In this article, we will discuss recent advances in the understanding of the mechanisms underlying parvovirus infection-induced cell death and cell cycle arrest. PMID:21331319

  1. Modeling of Sonos Memory Cell Erase Cycle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Phillips, Thomas A.; MacLeond, Todd C.; Ho, Fat D.

    2010-01-01

    Silicon-oxide-nitride-oxide-silicon (SONOS) nonvolatile semiconductor memories (NVSMS) have many advantages. These memories are electrically erasable programmable read-only memories (EEPROMs). They utilize low programming voltages, endure extended erase/write cycles, are inherently resistant to radiation, and are compatible with high-density scaled CMOS for low power, portable electronics. The SONOS memory cell erase cycle was investigated using a nonquasi-static (NQS) MOSFET model. The SONOS floating gate charge and voltage, tunneling current, threshold voltage, and drain current were characterized during an erase cycle. Comparisons were made between the model predictions and experimental device data.

  2. K+ channels and cell cycle progression in tumor cells

    PubMed Central

    Ouadid-Ahidouch, Halima; Ahidouch, Ahmed

    2013-01-01

    K+ ions play a major role in many cellular processes. The deregulation of K+ signaling is associated with a variety of diseases such as hypertension, atherosclerosis, or diabetes. K+ ions are important for setting the membrane potential, the driving force for Ca2+ influx, and regulate volume of growing cells. Moreover, it is increasingly recognized that K+ channels control cell proliferation through a novel signaling mechanisms triggered and modulated independently of ion fluxes. In cancer, aberrant expression, regulation and/or sublocalization of K+ channels can alter the downstream signals that converge on the cell cycle machinery. Various K+ channels are involved in cell cycle progression and are needed only at particular stages of the cell cycle. Consistent with this idea, the expression of Eag1 and HERG channels fluctuate along the cell cycle. Despite of acquired knowledge, our understanding of K+ channels functioning in cancer cells requires further studies. These include identifying the molecular mechanisms controlling the cell cycle machinery. By understanding how K+ channels regulate cell cycle progression in cancer cells, we will gain insights into how cancer cells subvert the need for K+ signal and its downstream targets to proliferate. PMID:23970866

  3. Natural flavonoids targeting deregulated cell cycle progression in cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Singh, Rana Pratap; Agarwal, Rajesh

    2006-03-01

    The prolonged duration requiring alteration of multi-genetic and epigenetic molecular events for cancer development provides a strong rationale for cancer prevention, which is developing as a potential strategy to arrest or reverse carcinogenic changes before the appearance of the malignant disease. Cell cycle progression is an important biological event having controlled regulation in normal cells, which almost universally becomes aberrant or deregulated in transformed and neoplastic cells. In this regard, targeting deregulated cell cycle progression and its modulation by various natural and synthetic agents are gaining widespread attention in recent years to control the unchecked growth and proliferation in cancer cells. In fact, a vast number of experimental studies convincingly show that many phytochemicals halt uncontrolled cell cycle progression in cancer cells. Among these phytochemicals, natural flavonoids have been identified as a one of the major classes of natural anticancer agents exerting antineoplastic activity via cell cycle arrest as a major mechanism in various types of cancer cells. This review is focused at the modulatory effects of natural flavonoids on cell cycle regulators including cyclin-dependent kinases and their inhibitors, cyclins, p53, retinoblastoma family of proteins, E2Fs, check-point kinases, ATM/ATR and survivin controlling G1/S and G2/M check-point transitions in cell cycle progression, and discusses how these molecular changes could contribute to the antineoplastic effects of natural flavonoids. PMID:16515531

  4. Cell Cycle Regulation of DNA Replication

    PubMed Central

    Sclafani, R. A.; Holzen, T. M.

    2008-01-01

    Eukaryotic DNA replication is regulated to ensure all chromosomes replicate once and only once per cell cycle. Replication begins at many origins scattered along each chromosome. Except for budding yeast, origins are not defined DNA sequences and probably are inherited by epigenetic mechanisms. Initiation at origins occurs throughout the S phase according to a temporal program that is important in regulating gene expression during development. Most replication proteins are conserved in evolution in eukaryotes and archaea, but not in bacteria. However, the mechanism of initiation is conserved and consists of origin recognition, assembly of pre-replication (pre-RC) initiative complexes, helicase activation, and replisome loading. Cell cycle regulation by protein phosphorylation ensures that pre-RC assembly can only occur in G1 phase, whereas helicase activation and loading can only occur in S phase. Checkpoint regulation maintains high fidelity by stabilizing replication forks and preventing cell cycle progression during replication stress or damage. PMID:17630848

  5. Synchronized Cell Cycle Arrest Promotes Osteoclast Differentiation.

    PubMed

    Kwon, Minsuk; Kim, Jin-Man; Lee, Kyunghee; Park, So-Young; Lim, Hyun-Sook; Kim, Taesoo; Jeong, Daewon

    2016-01-01

    Osteoclast progenitors undergo cell cycle arrest before differentiation into osteoclasts, induced by exposure to macrophage colony-stimulating factor (M-CSF) and receptor activator of nuclear factor-κB ligand (RANKL). The role of such cell cycle arrest in osteoclast differentiation has remained unclear, however. We here examined the effect of synchronized cell cycle arrest on osteoclast formation. Osteoclast progenitors deprived of M-CSF in culture adopted a uniform morphology and exhibited cell cycle arrest at the G₀-G₁ phase in association with both down-regulation of cyclins A and D1 as well as up-regulation of the cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor p27(Kip1). Such M-CSF deprivation also promoted the differentiation of osteoclast progenitors into multinucleated osteoclasts expressing high levels of osteoclast marker proteins such as NFATc1, c-Fos, Atp6v0d2, cathepsin K, and integrin β3 on subsequent exposure to M-CSF and RANKL. Our results suggest that synchronized arrest and reprogramming of osteoclast progenitors renders them poised to respond to inducers of osteoclast formation. Further characterization of such effects may facilitate induction of the differentiation of heterogeneous and multipotent cells into desired cell lineages. PMID:27517906

  6. Synchronized Cell Cycle Arrest Promotes Osteoclast Differentiation

    PubMed Central

    Kwon, Minsuk; Kim, Jin-Man; Lee, Kyunghee; Park, So-Young; Lim, Hyun-Sook; Kim, Taesoo; Jeong, Daewon

    2016-01-01

    Osteoclast progenitors undergo cell cycle arrest before differentiation into osteoclasts, induced by exposure to macrophage colony-stimulating factor (M-CSF) and receptor activator of nuclear factor-κB ligand (RANKL). The role of such cell cycle arrest in osteoclast differentiation has remained unclear, however. We here examined the effect of synchronized cell cycle arrest on osteoclast formation. Osteoclast progenitors deprived of M-CSF in culture adopted a uniform morphology and exhibited cell cycle arrest at the G0–G1 phase in association with both down-regulation of cyclins A and D1 as well as up-regulation of the cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor p27Kip1. Such M-CSF deprivation also promoted the differentiation of osteoclast progenitors into multinucleated osteoclasts expressing high levels of osteoclast marker proteins such as NFATc1, c-Fos, Atp6v0d2, cathepsin K, and integrin β3 on subsequent exposure to M-CSF and RANKL. Our results suggest that synchronized arrest and reprogramming of osteoclast progenitors renders them poised to respond to inducers of osteoclast formation. Further characterization of such effects may facilitate induction of the differentiation of heterogeneous and multipotent cells into desired cell lineages. PMID:27517906

  7. SPARC expression induces cell cycle arrest via STAT3 signaling pathway in medulloblastoma cells

    SciTech Connect

    Chetty, Chandramu; Dontula, Ranadheer; Gujrati, Meena; Lakka, Sajani S.

    2012-01-13

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Ectopic expression of SPARC impaired cell proliferation in medulloblastoma cells. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer SPARC expression induces STAT3 mediated cell cycle arrest in medulloblastoma cells. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer SPARC expression significantly inhibited pre-established tumor growth in nude-mice. -- Abstract: Dynamic cell interaction with ECM components has profound influence in cancer progression. SPARC is a component of the ECM, impairs the proliferation of different cell types and modulates tumor cell aggressive features. We previously reported that SPARC expression significantly impairs medulloblastoma tumor growth in vivo. In this study, we demonstrate that expression of SPARC inhibits medulloblastoma cell proliferation. MTT assay indicated a dose-dependent reduction in tumor cell proliferation in adenoviral mediated expression of SPARC full length cDNA (Ad-DsRed-SP) in D425 and UW228 cells. Flow cytometric analysis showed that Ad-DsRed-SP-infected cells accumulate in the G2/M phase of cell cycle. Further, immunoblot and immunoprecipitation analyses revealed that SPARC induced G2/M cell cycle arrest was mediated through inhibition of the Cyclin-B-regulated signaling pathway involving p21 and Cdc2 expression. Additionally, expression of SPARC decreased STAT3 phosphorylation at Tyr-705; constitutively active STAT3 expression reversed SPARC induced G2/M arrest. Ad-DsRed-SP significantly inhibited the pre-established orthotopic tumor growth and tumor volume in nude-mice. Immunohistochemical analysis of tumor sections from mice treated with Ad-DsRed-SP showed decreased immunoreactivity for pSTAT3 and increased immunoreactivity for p21 compared to tumor section from mice treated with mock and Ad-DsRed. Taken together our studies further reveal that STAT3 plays a key role in SPARC induced G2/M arrest in medulloblastoma cells. These new findings provide a molecular basis for the mechanistic understanding of the

  8. Cell cycle checkpoint regulators reach a zillion

    PubMed Central

    Yasutis, Kimberly M.; Kozminski, Keith G.

    2013-01-01

    Entry into mitosis is regulated by a checkpoint at the boundary between the G2 and M phases of the cell cycle (G2/M). In many organisms, this checkpoint surveys DNA damage and cell size and is controlled by both the activation of mitotic cyclin-dependent kinases (Cdks) and the inhibition of an opposing phosphatase, protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A). Misregulation of mitotic entry can often lead to oncogenesis or cell death. Recent research has focused on discovering the signaling pathways that feed into the core checkpoint control mechanisms dependent on Cdk and PP2A. Herein, we review the conserved mechanisms of the G2/M transition, including recently discovered upstream signaling pathways that link cell growth and DNA replication to cell cycle progression. Critical consideration of the human, frog and yeast models of mitotic entry frame unresolved and emerging questions in this field, providing a prediction of signaling molecules and pathways yet to be discovered. PMID:23598718

  9. Potassium channels in cell cycle and cell proliferation

    PubMed Central

    Urrego, Diana; Tomczak, Adam P.; Zahed, Farrah; Stühmer, Walter; Pardo, Luis A.

    2014-01-01

    Normal cell-cycle progression is a crucial task for every multicellular organism, as it determines body size and shape, tissue renewal and senescence, and is also crucial for reproduction. On the other hand, dysregulation of the cell-cycle progression leading to uncontrolled cell proliferation is the hallmark of cancer. Therefore, it is not surprising that it is a tightly regulated process, with multifaceted and very complex control mechanisms. It is now well established that one of those mechanisms relies on ion channels, and in many cases specifically on potassium channels. Here, we summarize the possible mechanisms underlying the importance of potassium channels in cell-cycle control and briefly review some of the identified channels that illustrate the multiple ways in which this group of proteins can influence cell proliferation and modulate cell-cycle progression. PMID:24493742

  10. SAFT nickel hydrogen cell cycling status

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Borthomieu, Yannick; Duquesne, Didier

    1994-01-01

    An overview of the NiH2 cell development is given. The NiH2 SAFT system is an electrochemical (single or dual) stack (IPV). The stack is mounted in an hydroformed Inconel 718 vessel operating at high pressure, equipped with 'rabbit ears' ceramic brazed electrical feedthroughs. The cell design is described: positive electrode, negative electrode, and stack configuration. Overviews of low earth orbit and geostationary earth orbit cyclings are provided. DPA results are also provided. The cycling and DPA results demonstrate that SAFT NiH2 is characterized by high reliability and very stable performances.

  11. Identification of genes involved in Ca2+ ionophore A23187-mediated apoptosis and demonstration of a high susceptibility for transcriptional repression of cell cycle genes in B lymphoblasts from a patient with Scott syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Kozian, Detlef; Proulle, Valérie; Nitsche, Almut; Galitzine, Marie; Martinez, Marie-Carmen; Schumann, Beatrice; Meyer, Dominique; Herrmann, Matthias; Freyssinet, Jean-Marie; Kerbiriou-Nabias, Danièle

    2005-01-01

    Background In contrast to other agents able to induce apoptosis of cultured cells, Ca2+ ionophore A23187 was shown to elicit direct activation of intracellular signal(s). The phenotype of the cells derived from patients having the hemorrhagic disease Scott syndrome, is associated with an abnormally high proportion of apoptotic cells, both in basal culture medium and upon addition of low ionophore concentrations in long-term cultures. These features are presumably related to the mutation also responsible for the defective procoagulant plasma membrane remodeling. We analyzed the specific transcriptional re-programming induced by A23187 to get insights into the effect of this agent on gene expression and a defective gene regulation in Scott cells. Results The changes in gene expression upon 48 hours treatment with 200 nM A23187 were measured in Scott B lymphoblasts compared to B lymphoblasts derived from the patient's daughter or unrelated individuals using Affymetrix microarrays. In a similar manner in all of the B cell lines, results showed up-regulation of 55 genes, out of 12,000 represented sequences, involved in various pathways of the cell metabolism. In contrast, a group of 54 down-regulated genes, coding for histones and proteins involved in the cell cycle progression, was more significantly repressed in Scott B lymphoblasts than in the other cell lines. These data correlated with the alterations of the cell cycle phases in treated cells and suggested that the potent effect of A23187 in Scott B lymphoblasts may be the consequence of the underlying molecular defect. Conclusion The data illustrate that the ionophore A23187 exerts its pro-apoptotic effect by promoting a complex pattern of genetic changes. These results also suggest that a subset of genes participating in various steps of the cell cycle progress can be transcriptionally regulated in a coordinated fashion. Furthermore, this research brings a new insight into the defect in cultured Scott B

  12. The cell cycle and acute kidney injury

    PubMed Central

    Price, Peter M.; Safirstein, Robert L.; Megyesi, Judit

    2009-01-01

    Acute kidney injury (AKI) activates pathways of cell death and cell proliferation. Although seemingly discrete and unrelated mechanisms, these pathways can now be shown to be connected and even to be controlled by similar pathways. The dependence of the severity of renal-cell injury on cell cycle pathways can be used to control and perhaps to prevent acute kidney injury. This review is written to address the correlation between cellular life and death in kidney tubules, especially in acute kidney injury. PMID:19536080

  13. Control points within the cell cycle

    SciTech Connect

    Van't Hof, J.

    1984-01-01

    Evidence of the temporal order of chromosomal DNA replication argues favorably for the view that the cell cycle is controlled by genes acting in sequence whose time of expression is determined by mitosis and the amount of nuclear DNA (2C vs 4C) in the cell. Gl and G2 appear to be carbohydrate dependent in that cells starved of either carbohydrate of phosphate fail to make these transitions. Cells deprived of nitrate, however, fail only at Gl to S transition indicating that the controls that operate in G1 differ from those that operate in G2. 46 references, 5 figures.

  14. Cell cycle-dependent regulation of extra-adrenal glucocorticoid synthesis in murine intestinal epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Atanasov, Atanas G; Leiser, Dominic; Roesselet, Corinne; Noti, Mario; Corazza, Nadia; Schoonjans, Kristina; Brunner, Thomas

    2008-12-01

    Glucocorticoids are anti-inflammatory steroids with important applications in the treatment of inflammatory diseases. Endogenous glucocorticoids are mainly produced by the adrenal glands, although there is increasing evidence for extra-adrenal sources. Recent findings show that intestinal crypt cells produce glucocorticoids, which contribute to the maintenance of intestinal immune homeostasis. Intestinal glucocorticoid synthesis is critically regulated by the transcription factor liver receptor homologue-1 (LRH-1). As expression of steroidogenic enzymes and LRH-1 is restricted to the proliferating cells of the crypts, we aimed to investigate the role of the cell cycle in the regulation of LRH-1 activity and intestinal glucocorticoid synthesis. We here show that either pharmacological or molecular modulation of cell cycle progression significantly inhibited expression of steroidogenic enzymes and synthesis of glucocorticoids in intestinal epithelial cells. Synchronization of intestinal epithelial cells in the cell cycle revealed that expression of steroidogenic enzymes is preferentially induced at the G(1)/S stage. Differentiation of immature intestinal epithelial cells to mature nonproliferating cells also resulted in reduced expression of steroidogenic enzymes. This cell cycle-related effect on intestinal steroidogenesis was found to be mediated through the regulation of LRH-1 transcriptional activity. This mechanism may restrict intestinal glucocorticoid synthesis to the proliferating cells of the crypts. PMID:18711026

  15. Cell cycle constraints on capsulation and bacteriophage susceptibility

    PubMed Central

    Ardissone, Silvia; Fumeaux, Coralie; Bergé, Matthieu; Beaussart, Audrey; Théraulaz, Laurence; Radhakrishnan, Sunish Kumar; Dufrêne, Yves F; Viollier, Patrick H

    2014-01-01

    Despite the crucial role of bacterial capsules in pathogenesis, it is still unknown if systemic cues such as the cell cycle can control capsule biogenesis. In this study, we show that the capsule of the synchronizable model bacterium Caulobacter crescentus is cell cycle regulated and we unearth a bacterial transglutaminase homolog, HvyA, as restriction factor that prevents capsulation in G1-phase cells. This capsule protects cells from infection by a generalized transducing Caulobacter phage (φCr30), and the loss of HvyA confers insensitivity towards φCr30. Control of capsulation during the cell cycle could serve as a simple means to prevent steric hindrance of flagellar motility or to ensure that phage-mediated genetic exchange happens before the onset of DNA replication. Moreover, the multi-layered regulatory circuitry directing HvyA expression to G1-phase is conserved during evolution, and HvyA orthologues from related Sinorhizobia can prevent capsulation in Caulobacter, indicating that alpha-proteobacteria have retained HvyA activity. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.03587.001 PMID:25421297

  16. Mitochondrial dynamics and the cell cycle

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Nuclear-mitochondrial (NM) communication impacts many aspects of plant development including vigor, sterility and viability. Dynamic changes in mitochondrial number, shape, size, and cellular location takes place during the cell cycle possibly impacting the process itself and leading to distribution...

  17. Sulfur Cycling Mediates Calcium Carbonate Geochemistry in Modern Marine Stromatolites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Visscher, P. T.; Hoeft, S. E.; Bebout, B. M.; Reid, R. P.

    2004-01-01

    Modem marine stromatolites forming in Highborne Cay, Exumas (Bahamas), contain microbial mats dominated by Schizothrix. Although saturating concentrations of Ca2+ and CO32- exist, microbes mediate CaCO3 precipitation. Cyanobacterial photosynthesis in these stromatolites aids calcium carbonate precipitation by removal of HS+ through CO2 use. Photorespiration and exopolymer production predominantly by oxygenic phototrophs fuel heterotrophic activity: aerobic respiration (approximately 60 umol/sq cm.h) and sulfate reduction (SR; 1.2 umol SO42-/sq cm.h) are the dominant C- consuming processes. Aerobic microbial respiration and the combination of SR and H2S oxidation both facilitate CaCO3 dissolution through H+ production. Aerobic respiration consumes much more C on an hourly basis, but duel fluctuating O2 and H2 depth profiles indicate that overall, SR consumes only slightly less (0.2-0.5) of the primary production. Moreover, due to low O2 concentrations when SR rates are peaking, reoxidation of the H2S formed is incomplete: both thiosulfate and polythionates are formed. The process of complete H2S oxidation yields H+. However, due to a low O2 concentration late in the day and relatively high O2 concentrations early in the following morning, a two-stage oxidation takes place: first, polythionates are formed from H2S, creating alkalinity which coincides with CaCO3 precipitation; secondly, oxidation of polythionates to sulfate yields acidity, resulting in dissolution, etc. Vertical profiles confirmed that the pH peaked late in the afternoon (greater than 8.8) and had the lowest values (less than 7.4) early in the morning. Thus, the effect of this S-cycling through alkalinity production, followed by acidification during H2S oxidation, results in a six times stronger fluctuation in acidity than photosynthesis plus aerobic respiration accomplish. This implies that anaerobic processes play a pivotal role in stromatolite formation.

  18. Cell cycle nucleic acids, polypeptides and uses thereof

    DOEpatents

    Gordon-Kamm, William J.; Lowe, Keith S.; Larkins, Brian A.; Dilkes, Brian R.; Sun, Yuejin

    2007-08-14

    The invention provides isolated nucleic acids and their encoded proteins that are involved in cell cycle regulation. The invention further provides recombinant expression cassettes, host cells, transgenic plants, and antibody compositions. The present invention provides methods and compositions relating to altering cell cycle protein content, cell cycle progression, cell number and/or composition of plants.

  19. Indirect-fired gas turbine dual fuel cell power cycle

    SciTech Connect

    Micheli, P.L.; Williams, M.C.; Sudhoff, F.A.

    1998-04-01

    The present invention relates generally to an integrated fuel cell power plant, and more specifically to a combination of cycles wherein a first fuel cell cycle tops an indirect-fired gas turbine cycle and a second fuel cell cycle bottoms the gas turbine cycle so that the cycles are thermally integrated in a tandem operating arrangement. The United States Government has rights in this invention pursuant to the employer-employee relationship between the United States Department of Energy and the inventors.

  20. FUEL CELL/MICRO-TURBINE COMBINED CYCLE

    SciTech Connect

    Larry J. Chaney; Mike R. Tharp; Tom W. Wolf; Tim A. Fuller; Joe J. Hartvigson

    1999-12-01

    A wide variety of conceptual design studies have been conducted that describe ultra-high efficiency fossil power plant cycles. The most promising of these ultra-high efficiency cycles incorporate high temperature fuel cells with a gas turbine. Combining fuel cells with a gas turbine increases overall cycle efficiency while reducing per kilowatt emissions. This study has demonstrated that the unique approach taken to combining a fuel cell and gas turbine has both technical and economic merit. The approach used in this study eliminates most of the gas turbine integration problems associated with hybrid fuel cell turbine systems. By using a micro-turbine, and a non-pressurized fuel cell the total system size (kW) and complexity has been reduced substantially from those presented in other studies, while maintaining over 70% efficiency. The reduced system size can be particularly attractive in the deregulated electrical generation/distribution environment where the market may not demand multi-megawatt central stations systems. The small size also opens up the niche markets to this high efficiency, low emission electrical generation option.

  1. Cell shape dynamics during the staphylococcal cell cycle

    PubMed Central

    Monteiro, João M.; Fernandes, Pedro B.; Vaz, Filipa; Pereira, Ana R.; Tavares, Andreia C.; Ferreira, Maria T.; Pereira, Pedro M.; Veiga, Helena; Kuru, Erkin; VanNieuwenhze, Michael S.; Brun, Yves V.; Filipe, Sérgio R.; Pinho, Mariana G.

    2015-01-01

    Staphylococcus aureus is an aggressive pathogen and a model organism to study cell division in sequential orthogonal planes in spherical bacteria. However, the small size of staphylococcal cells has impaired analysis of changes in morphology during the cell cycle. Here we use super-resolution microscopy and determine that S. aureus cells are not spherical throughout the cell cycle, but elongate during specific time windows, through peptidoglycan synthesis and remodelling. Both peptidoglycan hydrolysis and turgor pressure are required during division for reshaping the flat division septum into a curved surface. In this process, the septum generates less than one hemisphere of each daughter cell, a trait we show is common to other cocci. Therefore, cell surface scars of previous divisions do not divide the cells in quadrants, generating asymmetry in the daughter cells. Our results introduce a need to reassess the models for division plane selection in cocci. PMID:26278781

  2. Bioelectrical regulation of cell cycle and the planarian model system.

    PubMed

    Barghouth, Paul G; Thiruvalluvan, Manish; Oviedo, Néstor J

    2015-10-01

    Cell cycle regulation through the manipulation of endogenous membrane potentials offers tremendous opportunities to control cellular processes during tissue repair and cancer formation. However, the molecular mechanisms by which biophysical signals modulate the cell cycle remain underappreciated and poorly understood. Cells in complex organisms generate and maintain a constant voltage gradient across the plasma membrane known as the transmembrane potential. This potential, generated through the combined efforts of various ion transporters, pumps and channels, is known to drive a wide range of cellular processes such as cellular proliferation, migration and tissue regeneration while its deregulation can lead to tumorigenesis. These cellular regulatory events, coordinated by ionic flow, correspond to a new and exciting field termed molecular bioelectricity. We aim to present a brief discussion on the biophysical machinery involving membrane potential and the mechanisms mediating cell cycle progression and cancer transformation. Furthermore, we present the planarian Schmidtea mediterranea as a tractable model system for understanding principles behind molecular bioelectricity at both the cellular and organismal level. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Membrane channels and transporters in cancers. PMID:25749155

  3. Fibronectin mediates mesendodermal cell fate decisions

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Paul; Andersen, Peter; Hassel, David; Kaynak, Bogac L.; Limphong, Pattraranee; Juergensen, Lonny; Kwon, Chulan; Srivastava, Deepak

    2013-01-01

    Non-cell-autonomous signals often play crucial roles in cell fate decisions during animal development. Reciprocal signaling between endoderm and mesoderm is vital for embryonic development, yet the key signals and mechanisms remain unclear. Here, we show that endodermal cells efficiently promote the emergence of mesodermal cells in the neighboring population through signals containing an essential short-range component. The endoderm-mesoderm interaction promoted precardiac mesoderm formation in mouse embryonic stem cells and involved endodermal production of fibronectin. In vivo, fibronectin deficiency resulted in a dramatic reduction of mesoderm accompanied by endodermal expansion in zebrafish embryos. This event was mediated by regulation of Wnt signaling in mesodermal cells through activation of integrin-β1. Our findings highlight the importance of the extracellular matrix in mediating short-range signals and reveal a novel function of endoderm, involving fibronectin and its downstream signaling cascades, in promoting the emergence of mesoderm. PMID:23715551

  4. Modeling of SONOS Memory Cell Erase Cycle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Phillips, Thomas A.; MacLeod, Todd C.; Ho, Fat H.

    2011-01-01

    Utilization of Silicon-Oxide-Nitride-Oxide-Silicon (SONOS) nonvolatile semiconductor memories as a flash memory has many advantages. These electrically erasable programmable read-only memories (EEPROMs) utilize low programming voltages, have a high erase/write cycle lifetime, are radiation hardened, and are compatible with high-density scaled CMOS for low power, portable electronics. In this paper, the SONOS memory cell erase cycle was investigated using a nonquasi-static (NQS) MOSFET model. Comparisons were made between the model predictions and experimental data.

  5. Solid oxide fuel cell combined cycles

    SciTech Connect

    Bevc, F.P.; Lundberg, W.L.; Bachovchin, D.M.

    1996-12-31

    The integration of the solid oxide fuel cell and combustion turbine technologies can result in combined-cycle power plants, fueled with natural gas, that have high efficiencies and clean gaseous emissions. Results of a study are presented in which conceptual designs were developed for 3 power plants based upon such an integration, and ranging in rating from 3 to 10 MW net ac. The plant cycles are described and characteristics of key components summarized. Also, plant design-point efficiency estimates are presented as well as values of other plant performance parameters.

  6. Metformin impairs growth of endometrial cancer cells via cell cycle arrest and concomitant autophagy and apoptosis

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Effective therapies for early endometrial cancer usually involve surgical excision and consequent infertility Therefore, new treatment approaches that preserve fertility should be developed. Metformin, a well-tolerated anti-diabetic drug, can inhibit cancer cell growth. However, the mechanism of metformin action is not well understood. Here we investigate the roles of autophagy and apoptosis in the anti-cancer effects of metformin on endometrial cancer cells. Methods Ishikawa endometrial cancer cells were treated with metformin. WST-8 assays, colony formation assays, flow cytometry, caspase luminescence measurement, immunofluorescence, and western blots were used to assess the effects of metformin on cell viability, proliferation, cell cycle progression, apoptosis, and autophagy. Results Metformin-treated cells exhibited significantly lower viability and proliferation and significantly more cell cycle arrest in G1 and G2/M than control cells. These cells also exhibited significantly more apoptosis via both intrinsic and extrinsic pathways. In addition, metformin treatment induced autophagy. Inhibition of autophagy, either by Beclin1 knockdown or by 3-methyladenine-mediated inhibition of caspase-3/7, suppressed the anti-proliferative effects of metformin on endometrial cancer cells. These findings indicate that the anti-proliferative effects and apoptosis caused by metformin are partially or completely dependent on autophagy. Conclusions We showed that metformin suppresses endometrial cancer cell growth via cell cycle arrest and concomitant autophagy and apoptosis. PMID:24966801

  7. The Global Regulatory Architecture of Transcription during the Caulobacter Cell Cycle

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Bo; Schrader, Jared M.; Kalogeraki, Virginia S.; Abeliuk, Eduardo; Dinh, Cong B.; Pham, James Q.; Cui, Zhongying Z.; Dill, David L.; McAdams, Harley H.; Shapiro, Lucy

    2015-01-01

    Each Caulobacter cell cycle involves differentiation and an asymmetric cell division driven by a cyclical regulatory circuit comprised of four transcription factors (TFs) and a DNA methyltransferase. Using a modified global 5′ RACE protocol, we globally mapped transcription start sites (TSSs) at base-pair resolution, measured their transcription levels at multiple times in the cell cycle, and identified their transcription factor binding sites. Out of 2726 TSSs, 586 were shown to be cell cycle-regulated and we identified 529 binding sites for the cell cycle master regulators. Twenty-three percent of the cell cycle-regulated promoters were found to be under the combinatorial control of two or more of the global regulators. Previously unknown features of the core cell cycle circuit were identified, including 107 antisense TSSs which exhibit cell cycle-control, and 241 genes with multiple TSSs whose transcription levels often exhibited different cell cycle timing. Cumulatively, this study uncovered novel new layers of transcriptional regulation mediating the bacterial cell cycle. PMID:25569173

  8. Westinghouse fuel cell combined cycle systems

    SciTech Connect

    Veyo, S.

    1996-12-31

    Efficiency (voltage) of the solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) should increase with operating pressure, and a pressurized SOFC could function as the heat addition process in a Brayton cycle gas turbine (GT) engine. An overall cycle efficiency of 70% should be possible. In cogeneration, half of the waste heat from a PSOFC/GT should be able to be captured in process steam and hot water, leading to a fuel effectiveness of about 85%. In order to make the PSOFC/GT a commercial reality, satisfactory operation of the SOFC at elevated pressure must be verified, a pressurized SOFC generator module must be designed, built, and tested, and the combined cycle and parameters must be optimized. A prototype must also be demonstrated. This paper describes progress toward making the PSOFC/GT a reality.

  9. 4D chromatin dynamics in cycling cells

    PubMed Central

    Strickfaden, Hilmar; Zunhammer, Andreas; van Koningsbruggen, Silvana; Köhler, Daniela

    2010-01-01

    This live cell study of chromatin dynamics in four dimensions (space and time) in cycling human cells provides direct evidence for three hypotheses first proposed by Theodor Boveri in seminal studies of fixed blastomeres from Parascaris equorum embryos: (I) Chromosome territory (CT) arrangements are stably maintained during interphase. (II) Chromosome proximity patterns change profoundly during prometaphase. (III) Similar CT proximity patterns in pairs of daughter nuclei reflect symmetrical chromosomal movements during anaphase and telophase, but differ substantially from the arrangement in mother cell nucleus. Hypothesis I could be confirmed for the majority of interphase cells. A minority, however, showed complex, rotational movements of CT assemblies with large-scale changes of CT proximity patterns, while radial nuclear arrangements were maintained. A new model of chromatin dynamics is proposed. It suggests that long-range DNA-DNA interactions in cell nuclei may depend on a combination of rotational CT movements and locally constrained chromatin movements. PMID:21327076

  10. Highly synergistic effect of sequential treatment with epigenetic and anticancer drugs to overcome drug resistance in breast cancer cells is mediated via activation of p21 gene expression leading to G2/M cycle arrest

    PubMed Central

    Vijayaraghavalu, Sivakumar; Dermawan, Josephine Kamtai; Venugopalan, Cheriyath; Labhasetwar, Vinod

    2012-01-01

    Epigenetic alterations such as aberrant DNA methylation and histone modifications contribute substantially to both the cause and maintenance of drug resistance. These epigenetic changes lead to silencing of tumor suppressor genes involved in key DNA damage-response pathways, making drug-resistant cancer cells nonresponsive to conventional anticancer drug therapies. Our hypothesis is that treating drug-resistant cells with epigenetic drugs could restore the sensitivity to anticancer drugs by reactivating previously silenced genes. To test our hypothesis, we used drug-resistant breast cancer cells (MCF-7/ADR) and two epigenetic drugs that act via different mechanisms—5-aza-2′ deoxycytidine (Decitabine, DAC), a demethylating agent and suberoylanilide hydroxamic acid (SAHA), a histone deacetylase inhibitor—in combination with doxorubicin. We show that the sequential treatment of resistant cells, first with an epigenetic drug (DAC), and then with doxorubicin, induces a highly synergistic effect, thus reducing the IC50 of doxorubicin by several thousand folds. The sequential treatment caused over 90% resistant cells to undergo G2/M cell cycle arrest, determined to be due to upregulation of p21WAF1/CIP1 expression, which is responsible for cell-cycle regulation. The induction of p21WAF1/CIP1 correlated well with the depletion of DNA methyltransferase1 (DNMT1), an enzyme that promotes methylation of DNA, suggesting that the p21WAF1/CIP1 gene may have been methylated and hence is inactive in MCF-7/ADR cells. Microarray analysis shows expression of several tumor suppressor genes and downregulation of tumor promoter genes, particularly in sequentially treated resistant cells. Sequential treatment was found to be significantly more effective than simultaneous treatment, and DAC was more effective than SAHA in overcoming doxorubicin resistance. Synergistic effect with sequential treatment was also seen in drug-sensitive breast cancer cells, but the effect was

  11. Sphingosine-1-phosphate receptor 3 influences cell cycle progression in muscle satellite cells

    PubMed Central

    Fortier, Mathieu; Figeac, Nicolas; White, Robert B.; Knopp, Paul; Zammit, Peter S.

    2013-01-01

    Skeletal muscle retains a resident stem cell population called satellite cells, which are mitotically quiescent in mature muscle, but can be activated to produce myoblast progeny for muscle homeostasis, hypertrophy and repair. We have previously shown that satellite cell activation is partially controlled by the bioactive phospholipid, sphingosine-1-phosphate, and that S1P biosynthesis is required for muscle regeneration. Here we investigate the role of sphingosine-1-phosphate receptor 3 (S1PR3) in regulating murine satellite cell function. S1PR3 levels were high in quiescent myogenic cells before falling during entry into cell cycle. Retrovirally-mediated constitutive expression of S1PR3 led to suppressed cell cycle progression in satellite cells, but did not overtly affect the myogenic program. Conversely, satellite cells isolated from S1PR3-null mice exhibited enhanced proliferation ex-vivo. In vivo, acute cardiotoxin-induced muscle regeneration was enhanced in S1PR3-null mice, with bigger muscle fibres compared to control mice. Importantly, genetically deleting S1PR3 in the mdx mouse model of Duchenne muscular dystrophy produced a less severe muscle dystrophic phenotype, than when signalling though S1PR3 was operational. In conclusion, signalling though S1PR3 suppresses cell cycle progression to regulate function in muscle satellite cells. PMID:23911934

  12. Analysis of cell cycle position in mammalian cells.

    PubMed

    Cecchini, Matthew J; Amiri, Mehdi; Dick, Frederick A

    2012-01-01

    The regulation of cell proliferation is central to tissue morphogenesis during the development of multicellular organisms. Furthermore, loss of control of cell proliferation underlies the pathology of diseases like cancer. As such there is great need to be able to investigate cell proliferation and quantitate the proportion of cells in each phase of the cell cycle. It is also of vital importance to indistinguishably identify cells that are replicating their DNA within a larger population. Since a cell's decision to proliferate is made in the G1 phase immediately before initiating DNA synthesis and progressing through the rest of the cell cycle, detection of DNA synthesis at this stage allows for an unambiguous determination of the status of growth regulation in cell culture experiments. DNA content in cells can be readily quantitated by flow cytometry of cells stained with propidium iodide, a fluorescent DNA intercalating dye. Similarly, active DNA synthesis can be quantitated by culturing cells in the presence of radioactive thymidine, harvesting the cells, and measuring the incorporation of radioactivity into an acid insoluble fraction. We have considerable expertise with cell cycle analysis and recommend a different approach. We Investigate cell proliferation using bromodeoxyuridine/fluorodeoxyuridine (abbreviated simply as BrdU) staining that detects the incorporation of these thymine analogs into recently synthesized DNA. Labeling and staining cells with BrdU, combined with total DNA staining by propidium iodide and analysis by flow cytometry offers the most accurate measure of cells in the various stages of the cell cycle. It is our preferred method because it combines the detection of active DNA synthesis, through antibody based staining of BrdU, with total DNA content from propidium iodide. This allows for the clear separation of cells in G1 from early S phase, or late S phase from G2/M. Furthermore, this approach can be utilized to investigate the effects

  13. Targeting cell cycle regulators in hematologic malignancies

    PubMed Central

    Aleem, Eiman; Arceci, Robert J.

    2015-01-01

    Hematologic malignancies represent the fourth most frequently diagnosed cancer in economically developed countries. In hematologic malignancies normal hematopoiesis is interrupted by uncontrolled growth of a genetically altered stem or progenitor cell (HSPC) that maintains its ability of self-renewal. Cyclin-dependent kinases (CDKs) not only regulate the mammalian cell cycle, but also influence other vital cellular processes, such as stem cell renewal, differentiation, transcription, epigenetic regulation, apoptosis, and DNA repair. Chromosomal translocations, amplification, overexpression and altered CDK activities have been described in different types of human cancer, which have made them attractive targets for pharmacological inhibition. Mouse models deficient for one or more CDKs have significantly contributed to our current understanding of the physiological functions of CDKs, as well as their roles in human cancer. The present review focuses on selected cell cycle kinases with recent emerging key functions in hematopoiesis and in hematopoietic malignancies, such as CDK6 and its role in MLL-rearranged leukemia and acute lymphocytic leukemia, CDK1 and its regulator WEE-1 in acute myeloid leukemia (AML), and cyclin C/CDK8/CDK19 complexes in T-cell acute lymphocytic leukemia. The knowledge gained from gene knockout experiments in mice of these kinases is also summarized. An overview of compounds targeting these kinases, which are currently in clinical development in various solid tumors and hematopoietic malignances, is presented. These include the CDK4/CDK6 inhibitors (palbociclib, LEE011, LY2835219), pan-CDK inhibitors that target CDK1 (dinaciclib, flavopiridol, AT7519, TG02, P276-00, terampeprocol and RGB 286638) as well as the WEE-1 kinase inhibitor, MK-1775. The advantage of combination therapy of cell cycle inhibitors with conventional chemotherapeutic agents used in the treatment of AML, such as cytarabine, is discussed. PMID:25914884

  14. MEF2D deficiency in neonatal cardiomyocytes triggers cell cycle re-entry and programmed cell death in vitro.

    PubMed

    Estrella, Nelsa L; Clark, Amanda L; Desjardins, Cody A; Nocco, Sarah E; Naya, Francisco J

    2015-10-01

    The cardiomyocyte cell cycle is a poorly understood process. Mammalian cardiomyocytes permanently withdraw from the cell cycle shortly after birth but can re-enter the cell cycle and proliferate when subjected to injury within a brief temporal window in the neonatal period. Thus, investigating the mechanisms of cell cycle regulation in neonatal cardiomyocytes may provide critical insight into the molecular events that prevent adult myocytes from proliferating in response to injury or stress. MEF2D is a key transcriptional mediator of pathological remodeling in the adult heart downstream of various stress-promoting insults. However, the specific gene programs regulated by MEF2D in cardiomyocytes are unknown. By performing genome-wide transcriptome analysis using MEF2D-depleted neonatal cardiomyocytes, we found a significant impairment in the cell cycle, characterized by the up-regulation of numerous positive cell cycle regulators. Expression of Pten, the primary negative regulator of PI3K/Akt, was significantly reduced in MEF2D-deficient cardiomyocytes and found to be a direct target gene of MEF2D. Consistent with these findings mutant cardiomyocytes showed activation of the PI3K/Akt survival pathway. Paradoxically, prolonged deficiency of MEF2D in neonatal cardiomyocytes did not trigger proliferation but instead resulted in programmed cell death, which is likely mediated by the E2F transcription factor. These results demonstrate a critical role for MEF2D in cell cycle regulation of post-mitotic, neonatal cardiomyocytes in vitro. PMID:26294766

  15. Temporal Organization of the Cell Cycle

    PubMed Central

    Tyson, John J.; Novak, Bela

    2009-01-01

    Summary The coordination of growth, DNA replication and division in proliferating cells can be adequately explained by a ‘clock + checkpoint’ model. The clock is an underlying circular sequence of states; the checkpoints ensure that the cycle proceeds without mistakes. From the molecular complexities of the control system in modern eukaryotes, we isolate a simple network of positive and negative feedbacks that embodies a clock + checkpoints. The model accounts for the fundamental physiological properties of mitotic cell divisions, evokes a new view of the meiotic program, and suggests how the control system may have evolved in the first place. PMID:18786381

  16. Elutriation for Cell Cycle Synchronization in Fission Yeast.

    PubMed

    Kume, Kazunori

    2016-01-01

    Cell synchronization is a powerful technique for studying the eukaryotic cell cycle events precisely. The fission yeast is a rod-shaped cell whose growth is coordinated with the cell cycle. Monitoring the cellular growth of fission yeast is a relatively simple way to measure the cell cycle stage of a cell. Here, we describe a detailed method of unperturbed cell synchronization, named centrifugal elutriation, for fission yeast. PMID:26254921

  17. Cell cycle population effects in perturbation studies

    PubMed Central

    O'Duibhir, Eoghan; Lijnzaad, Philip; Benschop, Joris J; Lenstra, Tineke L; van Leenen, Dik; Groot Koerkamp, Marian JA; Margaritis, Thanasis; Brok, Mariel O; Kemmeren, Patrick; Holstege, Frank CP

    2014-01-01

    Growth condition perturbation or gene function disruption are commonly used strategies to study cellular systems. Although it is widely appreciated that such experiments may involve indirect effects, these frequently remain uncharacterized. Here, analysis of functionally unrelated Saccharyomyces cerevisiae deletion strains reveals a common gene expression signature. One property shared by these strains is slower growth, with increased presence of the signature in more slowly growing strains. The slow growth signature is highly similar to the environmental stress response (ESR), an expression response common to diverse environmental perturbations. Both environmental and genetic perturbations result in growth rate changes. These are accompanied by a change in the distribution of cells over different cell cycle phases. Rather than representing a direct expression response in single cells, both the slow growth signature and ESR mainly reflect a redistribution of cells over different cell cycle phases, primarily characterized by an increase in the G1 population. The findings have implications for any study of perturbation that is accompanied by growth rate changes. Strategies to counter these effects are presented and discussed. PMID:24952590

  18. Cell cycle regulation of Golgi membrane dynamics.

    PubMed

    Tang, Danming; Wang, Yanzhuang

    2013-06-01

    The Golgi apparatus is a membranous organelle in the cell that plays essential roles in protein and lipid trafficking, sorting, processing, and modification. Its basic structure is a stack of closely aligned flattened cisternae. In mammalian cells, dozens of Golgi stacks are often laterally linked into a ribbon-like structure. Biogenesis of the Golgi during cell division occurs through a sophisticated disassembly and reassembly process that can be divided into three distinct but cooperative steps, including the deformation and reformation of the Golgi cisternae, stacks, and ribbon. Here, we review our current understanding of the protein machineries that control these three steps in the cycle of mammalian cell division: GRASP65 and GRASP55 in Golgi stack and ribbon formation; ubiquitin and AAA ATPases in postmitotic Golgi membrane fusion; and golgins and cytoskeleton in Golgi ribbon formation. PMID:23453991

  19. RACK1 inhibits colonic cell growth by regulating Src activity at cell cycle checkpoints.

    PubMed

    Mamidipudi, V; Dhillon, N K; Parman, T; Miller, L D; Lee, K C; Cartwright, C A

    2007-05-01

    Previously, we showed that Src tyrosine kinases are activated early in the development of human colon cancer and are suppressed as intestinal cells differentiate. We identified RACK1 as an endogenous substrate, binding partner and inhibitor of Src. Here we show (by overexpressing RACK1, depleting Src or RACK1 and utilizing cell-permeable peptides that perturb RACK1's interaction with Src) that RACK1 regulates growth of colon cells by suppressing Src activity at G(1) and mitotic checkpoints, and consequently delaying cell cycle progression. Activated Src rescues RACK1-inhibited growth of HT-29 cells. Conversely, inhibiting Src abolishes growth promoted by RACK1 depletion in normal cells. Two potential mechanisms whereby RACK1 regulates mitotic exit are identified: suppression of Src-mediated Sam68 phosphorylation and maintenance of the cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK) 1-cyclin B complex in an active state. Our results reveal novel mechanisms of cell cycle control in G(1) and mitosis of colon cells. The significance of this work lies in the discovery of a mechanism by which the growth of colon cancer cells can be slowed, by RACK1 suppression of an oncogenic kinase at critical cell cycle checkpoints. Small molecules that mimic RACK1 function may provide a powerful new approach to the treatment of colon cancer. PMID:17072338

  20. Cell cycle of globose basal cells in rat olfactory epithelium.

    PubMed

    Huard, J M; Schwob, J E

    1995-05-01

    The olfactory epithelium of adult mammals has the unique property of generating olfactory sensory neurons throughout life. Cells of the basal compartment, which include horizontal and globose basal cells, are responsible for the ongoing process of neurogenesis in this system. We report here that the globose basal cells in olfactory epithelium of rats, as in mice, are the predominant type of proliferating cell, and account for 97.6% of the actively dividing cells in the basal compartment of the normal epithelium. Globose basal cells have not been fully characterized in terms of their proliferative properties, and the dynamic aspects of neurogenesis are not well understood. As a consequence, it is uncertain whether cell kinetic properties are under any regulation that could affect the rate of neurogenesis. To address this gap in our knowledge, we have determined the duration of both the synthesis phase (S-phase) and the full cell cycle of globose basal cells in adult rats. The duration of the S-phase was found to be 9 hr in experiments utilizing sequential injections of either IdU followed by BrdU or 3H-thy followed by BrdU. The duration of the cell cycle was determined by varying the time interval between the injections of 3H-thy and BrdU and tracking the set of cells that exit S shortly after the first injection. With this paradigm, the interval required for these cells to traverse G2, M, G1, and a second S-phase, is equivalent to the duration of one mitotic cycle and equals 17 hr. These observations serve as the foundation to assess whether the cell cycle duration is subject to regulation in response to experimental injury, and whether such regulation is partly responsible for changes in the rate of neurogenesis in such settings. PMID:7647371

  1. Cell cycle-controlled interaction of nucleolin with the retinoblastoma protein and cancerous cell transformation.

    PubMed

    Grinstein, Edgar; Shan, Ying; Karawajew, Leonid; Snijders, Peter J F; Meijer, Chris J L M; Royer, Hans-Dieter; Wernet, Peter

    2006-08-01

    Retinoblastoma protein (Rb) is a multifunctional tumor suppressor, frequently inactivated in certain types of human cancer. Nucleolin is an abundant multifunctional phosphoprotein of proliferating and cancerous cells, recently identified as cell cycle-regulated transcription activator, controlling expression of human papillomavirus type 18 (HPV18) oncogenes in cervical cancer. Here we find that nucleolin is associated with Rb in intact cells in the G1 phase of the cell cycle, and the complex formation is mediated by the growth-inhibitory domain of Rb. Association with Rb inhibits the DNA binding function of nucleolin and in consequence the interaction of nucleolin with the HPV18 enhancer, resulting in Rb-mediated repression of the HPV18 oncogenes. The intracellular distribution of nucleolin in epithelial cells is Rb-dependent, and an altered nucleolin localization in human cancerous tissues results from a loss of Rb. Our findings suggest that deregulated nucleolin activity due to a loss of Rb contributes to tumor development in malignant diseases, thus providing further insights into the molecular network for the Rb-mediated tumor suppression. PMID:16698799

  2. Cell cycle-dependence of HL-60 cell deformability.

    PubMed Central

    Tsai, M A; Waugh, R E; Keng, P C

    1996-01-01

    In this study, the role of cytoskeleton in HL-60 deformability during the cell cycle was investigated. G1, S, and G2/M cell fractions were separated by centrifugal elutriation. Cell deformability was evaluated by pipette aspiration. Tested at the same aspiration pressures, S cells were found to be less deformable than G1 cells. Moreover, HL-60 cells exhibited power-law fluid behavior: mu = mu c(gamma m/ gamma c)-b, where mu is cytoplasmic viscosity, gamma m is mean shear rate, mu c is the characteristic viscosity at the characteristic shear rate gamma c, and b is a material constant. At a given shear rate, S cells (mu c = 276 +/- 14 Pa.s, b = 0.51 +/- 0.03) were more viscous than G1 cells (mu c = 197 +/- 25, b = 0.53 +/- 0.02). To evaluate the relative importance of different cytoskeletal components in these cell cycle-dependent properties, HL-60 cells were treated with 30 microM dihydrocytochalasin B (DHB) to disrupt F-actin or 100 microM colchicine to collapse microtubules. DHB dramatically softened both G1 and S cells, which reduced the material constants mu c by approximately 65% and b by 20-30%. Colchicine had a limited effect on G1 cells but significantly reduced mu c of S cells (approximately 25%). Thus, F-actin plays the predominate role in determining cell mechanical properties, but disruption of microtubules may also influence the behavior of proliferating cells in a cell cycle-dependent fashion. Images FIGURE 1 PMID:8785361

  3. Secretome identification of immune cell factors mediating metastatic cell homing

    PubMed Central

    Aguado, Brian A.; Wu, Jia J.; Azarin, Samira M.; Nanavati, Dhaval; Rao, Shreyas S.; Bushnell, Grace G.; Medicherla, Chaitanya B.; Shea, Lonnie D.

    2015-01-01

    Metastatic cell homing is a complex process mediated in part by diffusible factors secreted from immune cells found at a pre-metastatic niche. We report on connecting secretomics and TRanscriptional Activity CEll aRray (TRACER) data to identify functional paracrine interactions between immune cells and metastatic cells as novel mediators of homing. Metastatic breast cancer mouse models were used to generate a diseased splenocyte conditioned media (D-SCM) containing immune cell secreted factors. MDA-MB-231 metastatic cell activity including cell invasion, migration, transendothelial migration, and proliferation were increased in D-SCM relative to control media. Our D-SCM secretome analysis yielded 144 secreted factor candidates that contribute to increased metastatic cell activity. The functional mediators of homing were identified using MetaCore software to determine interactions between the immune cell secretome and the TRACER-identified active transcription factors within metastatic cells. Among the 5 candidate homing factors identified, haptoglobin was selected and validated in vitro and in vivo as a key mediator of homing. Our studies demonstrate a novel systems biology approach to identify functional signaling factors associated with a cellular phenotype, which provides an enabling tool that complements large-scale protein identification provided by proteomics. PMID:26634905

  4. MicroRNAs and cell cycle of malignant glioma.

    PubMed

    Ouyang, Qing; Xu, Lunshan; Cui, Hongjuan; Xu, Minhui; Yi, Liang

    2016-01-01

    The control of malignant glioma cell cycle by microRNAs (miRNAs) is well established. The deregulation of miRNAs in glioma may contribute to tumor proliferation by directly targeting the critical cell-cycle regulators. Tumor suppressive miRNAs inhibit cell cycle through repressing the expression of positive cell-cycle regulators. However, oncogenic miRNAs promote the cell-cycle progression by targeting cell-cycle negative regulators. Recent studies have identified that transcription factors had involved in the expression of miRNAs. Transcription factors and miRNAs are implicated in regulatory network of glioma cell cycle, the deregulation of these transcription factors might be a cause of the deregulation of miRNAs. Abnormal versions of miRNAs have been implicated in the cell cycle of glioma. Based on those, miRNAs are excellent biomarker candidates and potential targets for therapeutic intervention in glioma. PMID:26000816

  5. Mitochondrial Regulation of Cell Cycle and Proliferation

    PubMed Central

    Antico Arciuch, Valeria Gabriela; Elguero, María Eugenia; Poderoso, Juan José

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Eukaryotic mitochondria resulted from symbiotic incorporation of α-proteobacteria into ancient archaea species. During evolution, mitochondria lost most of the prokaryotic bacterial genes and only conserved a small fraction including those encoding 13 proteins of the respiratory chain. In this process, many functions were transferred to the host cells, but mitochondria gained a central role in the regulation of cell proliferation and apoptosis, and in the modulation of metabolism; accordingly, defective organelles contribute to cell transformation and cancer, diabetes, and neurodegenerative diseases. Most cell and transcriptional effects of mitochondria depend on the modulation of respiratory rate and on the production of hydrogen peroxide released into the cytosol. The mitochondrial oxidative rate has to remain depressed for cell proliferation; even in the presence of O2, energy is preferentially obtained from increased glycolysis (Warburg effect). In response to stress signals, traffic of pro- and antiapoptotic mitochondrial proteins in the intermembrane space (B-cell lymphoma-extra large, Bcl-2-associated death promoter, Bcl-2 associated X-protein and cytochrome c) is modulated by the redox condition determined by mitochondrial O2 utilization and mitochondrial nitric oxide metabolism. In this article, we highlight the traffic of the different canonical signaling pathways to mitochondria and the contributions of organelles to redox regulation of kinases. Finally, we analyze the dynamics of the mitochondrial population in cell cycle and apoptosis. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 16, 1150–1180. PMID:21967640

  6. Roles of cell signaling pathways in cell-to-cell contact-mediated Epstein-Barr virus transmission.

    PubMed

    Nanbo, Asuka; Terada, Haruna; Kachi, Kunihiro; Takada, Kenzo; Matsuda, Tadashi

    2012-09-01

    Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), a human gamma herpesvirus, establishes a life-long latent infection in B lymphocytes and epithelial cells following primary infection. Several lines of evidence indicate that the efficiency of EBV infection in epithelial cells is accelerated up to 10(4)-fold by coculturing with EBV-infected Burkitt's lymphoma (BL) cells compared to infection with cell-free virions, indicating that EBV infection into epithelial cells is mainly mediated via cell-to-cell contact. However, the molecular mechanisms involved in this pathway are poorly understood. Here, we establish a novel assay to assess cell-to-cell contact-mediated EBV transmission by coculturing an EBV-infected BL cell line with an EBV-negative epithelial cell line under stimulation for lytic cycle induction. By using this assay, we confirmed that EBV was transmitted from BL cells to epithelial cells via cell-to-cell contact but not via cell-to-cell fusion. The inhibitor treatments of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) and nuclear factor (NF)-κB pathways blocked EBV transmission in addition to lytic induction. The blockage of the phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) pathway impaired EBV transmission coupled with the inhibition of lytic induction. Knockdown of the RelA/p65 subunit of NF-κB reduced viral transmission. Moreover, these signaling pathways were activated in cocultured BL cells and in epithelial cells. Finally, we observed that viral replication was induced in cocultured BL cells. Taken together, our data suggest that cell-to-cell contact induces multiple cell signaling pathways in BL cells and epithelial cells, contributing to the induction of the viral lytic cycle in BL cells and the enhancement of viral transmission to epithelial cells. PMID:22718812

  7. [Cell cycle, mitosis and therapeutic applications].

    PubMed

    Levy, Antonin; Albiges-Sauvin, Laurence; Massard, Christophe; Soria, Jean-Charles; Deutsch, Eric

    2011-10-01

    Genomic DNA is constantly under stress of endogenous and exogenous DNA damaging agents. Without proper care, the DNA damage causes an alteration of the genomic structure and can lead to cell death or the occurrence of mutations involved in tumorigenesis. During the process of evolution, organisms have acquired a series of response mechanisms and repair of DNA damage, thereby ensuring the maintenance of genome stability and faithful transmission of genetic information. The checkpoints are the major mechanisms by which a cell can respond to DNA damage, either by actively stopping the cell cycle or by induction of apoptosis. Two parallel signalling pathways, ATM and ATR respond to genotoxic stress by activating their downstream target proteins including the two effectors kinases CHK1 and CHK2. Promising preliminary data render these proteins potential targets for therapeutic development against cancer. PMID:21669563

  8. Regulation of Sp1 by cell cycle related proteins

    PubMed Central

    Tapias, Alicia; Ciudad, Carlos J.; Roninson, Igor B.; Noé, Véronique

    2009-01-01

    Sp1 transcription factor regulates the expression of multiple genes, including the Sp1 gene itself. We analyzed the ability of different cell cycle regulatory proteins to interact with Sp1 and to affect Sp1 promoter activity. Using an antibody array, we observed that CDK4, SKP2, Rad51, BRCA2 and p21 could interact with Sp1 and we confirmed these interactions by co-immunoprecipitation. CDK4, SKP2, Rad51, BRCA2 and p21 also activated the Sp1 promoter. Among the known Sp1-interacting proteins, E2F-DP1, Cyclin D1, Stat3 and Rb activated the Sp1 promoter, whereas p53 and NFκB inhibited it. The proteins that regulated Sp1 gene expression were shown by positive chromatin immunoprecipitation to be bound to the Sp1 promoter. Moreover, SKP2, BRCA2, p21, E2F-DP1, Stat3, Rb, p53 and NFκB had similar effects on an artificial promoter containing only Sp1 binding sites. Transient transfections of CDK4, Rad51, E2F-DP1, p21 and Stat3 increased mRNA expression from the endogenous Sp1 gene in HeLa cells whereas overexpression of NFκB, and p53 decreased Sp1 mRNA levels. p21 expression from a stably integrated inducible promoter in HT1080 cells activated Sp1 expression at the promoter and mRNA levels, but at the same time it decreased Sp1 protein levels due to the activation of Sp1 degradation. The observed multiple effects of cell cycle regulators on Sp1 suggest that Sp1 may be a key mediator of cell cycle associated changes in gene expression. PMID:18769160

  9. Apoptosis and cell-cycle arrest in human and murine tumor cells are initiated by isoprenoids.

    PubMed

    Mo, H; Elson, C E

    1999-04-01

    Diverse classes of phytochemicals initiate biological responses that effectively lower cancer risk. One class of phytochemicals, broadly defined as pure and mixed isoprenoids, encompasses an estimated 22,000 individual components. A representative mixed isoprenoid, gamma-tocotrienol, suppresses the growth of murine B16(F10) melanoma cells, and with greater potency, the growth of human breast adenocarcinoma (MCF-7) and human leukemic (HL-60) cells. beta-Ionone, a pure isoprenoid, suppresses the growth of B16 cells and with greater potency, the growth of MCF-7, HL-60 and human colon adenocarcinoma (Caco-2) cells. Results obtained with diverse cell lines differing in ras and p53 status showed that the isoprenoid-mediated suppression of growth is independent of mutated ras and p53 functions. beta-Ionone suppressed the growth of human colon fibroblasts (CCD-18Co) but only when present at three-fold the concentration required to suppress the growth of Caco-2 cells. The isoprenoids initiated apoptosis and, concomitantly arrested cells in the G1 phase of the cell cycle. Both suppress 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl CoA reductase activity. beta-Ionone and lovastatin interfered with the posttranslational processing of lamin B, an activity essential to assembly of daughter nuclei. This interference, we postulate, renders neosynthesized DNA available to the endonuclease activities leading to apoptotic cell death. Lovastatin-imposed mevalonate starvation suppressed the glycosylation and translocation of growth factor receptors to the cell surface. As a consequence, cells were arrested in the G1 phase of the cell cycle. This rationale may apply to the isoprenoid-mediated G1-phase arrest of tumor cells. The additive and potentially synergistic actions of these isoprenoids in the suppression of tumor cell proliferation and initiation of apoptosis coupled with the mass action of the diverse isoprenoid constituents of plant products may explain, in part, the impact of fruit, vegetable

  10. S-benzyl-cysteine-mediated cell cycle arrest and apoptosis involving activation of mitochondrial-dependent caspase cascade through the p53 pathway in human gastric cancer SGC-7901 cells.

    PubMed

    Sun, Hua-Jun; Meng, Lin-Yi; Shen, Yang; Zhu, Yi-Zhun; Liu, Hong-Rui

    2013-01-01

    S-benzyl-cysteine (SBC) is a structural analog of S-allylcysteine (SAC), which is one of the major water- soluble compounds in aged garlic extract. In this study, anticancer activities and the underlying mechanisms of SBC action were investigated and compared these with those of SAC using human gastric cancer SGC-7901 cells. SBC significantly suppressed the survival rate of SGC-7901 cells in a concentration- and time-dependent manner, and the inhibitory activities of SBC were stronger than those of SAC. Flow cytometry revealed that SBC induced G2-phase arrest and apoptosis in SGC-7901 cells. Typical apoptotic morphological changes were observed by Hoechst 33258 dye assay. SBC-treatment dramatically induced the dissipation of mitochondrial membrane potential (Δψm), and enhanced the enzymatic activities of caspase-9 and caspase-3 whilst hardly affecting caspase-8 activity. Furthermore, Western blotting indicated that SBC-induced apoptosis was accompanied by up-regulation of the expression of p53, Bax and the down-regulation of Bcl-2. Taken together, this study suggested that SBC exerts cytotoxic activity involving activation of mitochondrial-dependent apoptosis through p53 and Bax/Bcl-2 pathways in human gastric cancer SGC-7901 cells. PMID:24377536

  11. Exploring Viral Mediated Carbon Cycling in Thawing Permafrost Microbial Communities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trubl, G. G.; Solonenko, N.; Moreno, M.; Sullivan, M. B.; Rich, V. I.

    2014-12-01

    Viruses are the most abundant biological entities on Earth and their impact on carbon cycling in permafrost habitats is poorly understood. Arctic C cycling is particularly important to interpret due to the rapid climate change occurring and the large amount of C stockpiled there (~1/3 of global soil C is stored in permafrost). Viruses of microbes (i.e. phages) play central roles in C cycling in the oceans, through cellular lysis (phage drive the largest ocean C flux about 150 Gt yr-1, dwarfing all others by >5-fold), production of associated DOC, as well as transport and expression during infection (1029 transduction events day-1). C cycling in thawing permafrost systems is critical in understanding the climate trajectory and phages may be as important for C cycling here as they are in the ocean. The thawed C may become a food source for microbes, producing CO2 and potentially CH4, both potent greenhouse gases. To address the potential role of phage in C cycling in these dynamic systems, we are examining phage from an arctic permafrost thaw gradient in northern Sweden. We have developed a protocol for successfully extracting phage from peat soils and are quantifying phage in 15 peat and 2 lake sediment cores, with the goal of sequencing viromes. Preliminary data suggest that phage are present at 109 g-1 across the permafrost thaw gradient (compared to the typical marine count ~105 ml-1), implying a potentially robust phage-host interaction web in these changing environments. We are examining phage from 11 depth intervals (covering the active and permafrost layer) in the cores to assess phage-host community dynamics. Phage morphology and abundance for each layer and environment are being determined using qTEM and EFM. Understanding the phage that infect bacteria and archaea in these rapidly changing habitats will provide insight into the controls on current and future CH4 and CO2 emissions in permafrost habitats.

  12. Regulation of Neuronal Cell Cycle and Apoptosis by MicroRNA 34a.

    PubMed

    Modi, Prashant Kumar; Jaiswal, Surbhi; Sharma, Pushkar

    2016-01-01

    The cell cycle of neurons remains suppressed to maintain the state of differentiation and aberrant cell cycle reentry results in loss of neurons, which is a feature in neurodegenerative disorders like Alzheimer's disease (AD). Present studies revealed that the expression of microRNA 34a (miR-34a) needs to be optimal in neurons, as an aberrant increase or decrease in its expression causes apoptosis. miR-34a keeps the neuronal cell cycle under check by preventing the expression of cyclin D1 and promotes cell cycle arrest. Neurotoxic amyloid β1-42 peptide (Aβ42) treatment of cortical neurons suppressed miR-34a, resulting in unscheduled cell cycle reentry, which resulted in apoptosis. The repression of miR-34a was a result of degradation of TAp73, which was mediated by aberrant activation of the MEK extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) pathway by Aβ42. A significant decrease in miR-34a and TAp73 was observed in the cortex of a transgenic (Tg) mouse model of AD, which correlated well with cell cycle reentry observed in the neurons of these animals. Importantly, the overexpression of TAp73α and miR-34a reversed cell cycle-related neuronal apoptosis (CRNA). These studies provide novel insights into how modulation of neuronal cell cycle machinery may lead to neurodegeneration and may contribute to the understanding of disorders like AD. PMID:26459758

  13. Loratadine dysregulates cell cycle progression and enhances the effect of radiation in human tumor cell lines

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background The histamine receptor-1 (H1)-antagonist, loratadine has been shown to inhibit growth of human colon cancer xenografts in part due to cell cycle arrest in G2/M. Since this is a radiation sensitive phase of the cell cycle, we sought to determine if loratadine modifies radiosensitivity in several human tumor cell lines with emphasis on human colon carcinoma (HT29). Methods Cells were treated with several doses of loratadine at several time points before and after exposure to radiation. Radiation dose modifying factors (DMF) were determined using full radiation dose response survival curves. Cell cycle phase was determined by flow cytometry and the expression of the cell cycle-associated proteins Chk1, pChk1ser345, and Cyclin B was analyzed by western blot. Results Loratadine pre-treatment of exponentially growing cells (75 μM, 24 hours) increased radiation-induced cytotoxicity yielding a radiation DMF of 1.95. However, treatment of plateau phase cells also yielded a DMF of 1.3 suggesting that mechanisms other than cell cycle arrest also contribute to loratadine-mediated radiation modification. Like irradiation, loratadine initially induced G2/M arrest and activation of the cell-cycle associated protein Chk1 to pChk1ser345, however a subsequent decrease in expression of total Chk1 and Cyclin B correlated with abrogation of the G2/M checkpoint. Analysis of DNA repair enzyme expression and DNA fragmentation revealed a distinct pattern of DNA damage in loratadine-treated cells in addition to enhanced radiation-induced damage. Taken together, these data suggest that the observed effects of loratadine are multifactorial in that loratadine 1) directly damages DNA, 2) activates Chk1 thereby promoting G2/M arrest making cells more susceptible to radiation-induced DNA damage and, 3) downregulates total Chk1 and Cyclin B abrogating the radiation-induced G2/M checkpoint and allowing cells to re-enter the cell cycle despite the persistence of damaged DNA. Conclusions

  14. MDA-7 results in downregulation of AKT concomitant with apoptosis and cell cycle arrest in breast cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    Valero, V; Wingate, H; Chada, S; Liu, Y; Palalon, F; Mills, G; Keyomarsi, K; Hunt, KK

    2013-01-01

    The melanoma differentiation-associated gene-7 (mda-7) is a known mediator of apoptosis in cancer cells but not in normal cells. We hypothesized that MDA-7 interferes with the prosurvival signaling pathways that are commonly altered in cancer cells to induce growth arrest and apoptosis. We also identified the cell signaling pathways that are antagonized by MDA-7 leading to apoptosis. Using an adenoviral expression system, mda-7 was introduced into the breast cancer cell lines SKBr3, MCF-7 and MDA-MB-468, each with a different estrogen receptor (ER) and HER-2 receptor status. Downstream targets of MDA-7 were assessed by reverse phase protein array analysis, western blot analysis and immunofluorescence confocal microscopy. Our results show that MDA-7-induced apoptosis was mediated by caspases in all cell lines tested. However, MDA-7 modulates additional pathways in SKBr3 (HER-2 positive) and MCF-7 (ER positive) cells including downregulation of AKT-GSK3β and upregulation of cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitors in the nucleus. This leads to cell cycle arrest in addition to apoptosis. In conclusion, MDA-7 abrogates tumor-promoting pathways including the activation of caspase-dependent signaling pathways ultimately leading to apoptosis. In addition, depending on the phenotype of the breast cancer cell, MDA-7 modulates cell cycle regulating pathways to mediate cell cycle arrest. PMID:21546925

  15. Nonthermal-plasma-mediated animal cell death

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Wanil; Woo, Kyung-Chul; Kim, Gyoo-Cheon; Kim, Kyong-Tai

    2011-01-01

    Animal cell death comprising necrosis and apoptosis occurred in a well-regulated manner upon specific stimuli. The physiological meanings and detailed molecular mechanisms of cell death have been continuously investigated over several decades. Necrotic cell death has typical morphological changes, such as cell swelling and cell lysis followed by DNA degradation, whereas apoptosis shows blebbing formation and regular DNA fragmentation. Cell death is usually adopted to terminate cancer cells in vivo. The current strategies against tumour are based on the induction of cell death by adopting various methods, including radiotherapy and chemotherapeutics. Among these, radiotherapy is the most frequently used treatment method, but it still has obvious limitations. Recent studies have suggested that the use of nonthermal air plasma can be a prominent method for inducing cancer cell death. Plasma-irradiated cells showed the loss of genomic integrity, mitochondrial dysfunction, plasma membrane damage, etc. Tumour elimination with plasma irradiation is an emerging concept in cancer therapy and can be accelerated by targeting certain tumour-specific proteins with gold nanoparticles. Here, some recent developments are described so that the mechanisms related to plasma-mediated cell death and its perspectives in cancer treatment can be understood.

  16. Feedback and Modularity in Cell Cycle Control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skotheim, Jan

    2009-03-01

    Underlying the wonderful diversity of natural forms is the ability of an organism to grow into its appropriate shape. Regulation ensures that cells grow, divide and differentiate so that the organism and its constitutive parts are properly proportioned and of suitable size. Although the size-control mechanism active in an individual cell is of fundamental importance to this process, it is difficult to isolate and study in complex multi-cellular systems and remains poorly understood. This motivates our use of the budding yeast model organism, whose Start checkpoint integrates multiple internal (e.g. cell size) and external signals into an irreversible decision to enter the cell cycle. We have endeavored to address the following two questions: What makes the Start transition irreversible? How does a cell compute its own size? I will report on the progress we have made. Our work is part of an emerging framework for understanding biological control circuits, which will allow us to discern the function of natural systems and aid us in engineering synthetic systems.

  17. Alteration of cell cycle progression by Sindbis virus infection

    SciTech Connect

    Yi, Ruirong; Saito, Kengo; Isegawa, Naohisa; Shirasawa, Hiroshi

    2015-07-10

    We examined the impact of Sindbis virus (SINV) infection on cell cycle progression in a cancer cell line, HeLa, and a non-cancerous cell line, Vero. Cell cycle analyses showed that SINV infection is able to alter the cell cycle progression in both HeLa and Vero cells, but differently, especially during the early stage of infection. SINV infection affected the expression of several cell cycle regulators (CDK4, CDK6, cyclin E, p21, cyclin A and cyclin B) in HeLa cells and caused HeLa cells to accumulate in S phase during the early stage of infection. Monitoring SINV replication in HeLa and Vero cells expressing cell cycle indicators revealed that SINV which infected HeLa cells during G{sub 1} phase preferred to proliferate during S/G{sub 2} phase, and the average time interval for viral replication was significantly shorter in both HeLa and Vero cells infected during G{sub 1} phase than in cells infected during S/G{sub 2} phase. - Highlights: • SINV infection was able to alter the cell cycle progression of infected cancer cells. • SINV infection can affect the expression of cell cycle regulators. • SINV infection exhibited a preference for the timing of viral replication among the cell cycle phases.

  18. Mitochondrial dynamics and the cell cycle

    PubMed Central

    Kianian, Penny M. A.; Kianian, Shahryar F.

    2014-01-01

    Nuclear-mitochondrial (NM) communication impacts many aspects of plant development including vigor, sterility, and viability. Dynamic changes in mitochondrial number, shape, size, and cellular location takes place during the cell cycle possibly impacting the process itself and leading to distribution of this organelle into daughter cells. The genes that underlie these changes are beginning to be identified in model plants such as Arabidopsis. In animals disruption of the drp1 gene, a homolog to the plant drp3A and drp3B, delays mitochondrial division. This mutation results in increased aneuploidy due to chromosome mis-segregation. It remains to be discovered if a similar outcome is observed in plants. Alloplasmic lines provide an opportunity to understand the communication between the cytoplasmic organelles and the nucleus. Examples of studies in these lines, especially from the extensive collection in wheat, point to the role of mitochondria in chromosome movement, pollen fertility and other aspects of development. PMID:24904617

  19. Mast Cell-Mediated Mechanisms of Nociception

    PubMed Central

    Aich, Anupam; Afrin, Lawrence B.; Gupta, Kalpna

    2015-01-01

    Mast cells are tissue-resident immune cells that release immuno-modulators, chemo-attractants, vasoactive compounds, neuropeptides and growth factors in response to allergens and pathogens constituting a first line of host defense. The neuroimmune interface of immune cells modulating synaptic responses has been of increasing interest, and mast cells have been proposed as key players in orchestrating inflammation-associated pain pathobiology due to their proximity to both vasculature and nerve fibers. Molecular underpinnings of mast cell-mediated pain can be disease-specific. Understanding such mechanisms is critical for developing disease-specific targeted therapeutics to improve analgesic outcomes. We review molecular mechanisms that may contribute to nociception in a disease-specific manner. PMID:26690128

  20. Progestins reinitiate cell cycle progression in antiestrogen-arrested breast cancer cells through the B-isoform of progesterone receptor.

    PubMed

    McGowan, Eileen M; Russell, Amanda J; Boonyaratanakornkit, Viroj; Saunders, Darren N; Lehrbach, Gillian M; Sergio, C Marcelo; Musgrove, Elizabeth A; Edwards, Dean P; Sutherland, Robert L

    2007-09-15

    Estrogen treatment of MCF-7 human breast cancer cells allows the reinitiation of synchronous cell cycle progression in antiestrogen-arrested cells. Here, we report that progestins also reinitiate cell cycle progression in this model. Using clonal cell lines derived from progesterone receptor (PR)-negative MCF-7M13 cells expressing wild-type or mutant forms of PRA and PRB, we show that this effect is mediated via PRB, not PRA. Cell cycle progression did not occur with a DNA-binding domain mutant of PRB but was unaffected by mutation in the NH(2)-terminal, SH3 domain interaction motif, which mediates rapid progestin activation of c-Src. Thus, the progestin-induced proliferative response in antiestrogen-inhibited cells is mediated primarily by the transcriptional activity of PRB. Analysis of selected cell cycle targets showed that progestin treatment induced levels of cyclin D1 expression and retinoblastoma protein (Rb) phosphorylation similar to those induced by estradiol. In contrast, progestin treatment resulted in only a 1.2-fold induction of c-Myc compared with a 10-fold induction by estradiol. These results support the conclusion that progestin, in a PRB-dependent manner, can overcome the growth-inhibitory effects of antiestrogens in estrogen receptor/PR-positive breast cancer cells by the induction of cyclin D1 expression. The mediation of this effect by PRB, but not PRA, further suggests a mechanism whereby abnormal regulation of the normal expression ratios of PR isoforms in breast cancer could lead to the attenuation of antiestrogen-mediated growth arrest. PMID:17875737

  1. Redox polymer mediation for enzymatic biofuel cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gallaway, Joshua

    Mediated biocatalytic cathodes prepared from the oxygen-reducing enzyme laccase and redox-conducting osmium hydrogels were characterized for use as cathodes in enzymatic biofuel cells. A series of osmium-based redox polymers was synthesized with redox potentials spanning the range from 0.11 V to 0.85 V (SHE), and the resulting biocatalytic electrodes were modeled to determine reaction kinetic constants using the current response, measured osmium concentration, and measured apparent electron diffusion. As in solution-phase systems, the bimolecular rate constant for mediation was found to vary greatly with mediator potential---from 250 s-1M-1 when mediator and enzyme were close in potential to 9.4 x 10 4 s-1M-1 when this overpotential was large. Optimum mediator potential for a cell operating with a non-limiting platinum anode and having no mass transport limitation from bulk solution was found to be 0.66 V (SHE). Redox polymers were synthesized under different concentrations, producing osmium variation. An increase from 6.6% to 7.2% osmium increased current response from 1.2 to 2.1 mA/cm2 for a planar film in 40°C oxygen-saturated pH 4 buffer, rotating at 900 rpm. These results translated to high surface area electrodes, nearly doubling current density to 13 mA/cm2, the highest to date for such an electrode. The typical fungal laccase from Trametes versicolor was replaced by a bacterially-expressed small laccase from Streptomyces coelicolor, resulting in biocatalytic films that reduced oxygen at increased pH, with full functionality at pH 7, producing 1.5 mA/cm 2 in planar configuration. Current response was biphasic with pH, matching the activity profile of the free enzyme in solution. The mediated enzyme electrode system was modeled with respect to apparent electron diffusion, mediator concentration, and transport of oxygen from bulk solution, all of which are to some extent controlled by design. Each factor was found to limit performance in certain circumstances

  2. Estrous cycle regulation of extrasynaptic δ-containing GABA(A) receptor-mediated tonic inhibition and limbic epileptogenesis.

    PubMed

    Wu, Xin; Gangisetty, Omkaram; Carver, Chase Matthew; Reddy, Doodipala Samba

    2013-07-01

    The ovarian cycle affects susceptibility to behavioral and neurologic conditions. The molecular mechanisms underlying these changes are poorly understood. Deficits in cyclical fluctuations in steroid hormones and receptor plasticity play a central role in physiologic and pathophysiologic menstrual conditions. It has been suggested that synaptic GABA(A) receptors mediate phasic inhibition in the hippocampus and extrasynaptic receptors mediate tonic inhibition in the dentate gyrus. Here we report a novel role of extrasynaptic δ-containing GABA(A) receptors as crucial mediators of the estrous cycle-related changes in neuronal excitability in mice, with hippocampus subfield specificity. In molecular and immunofluorescence studies, a significant increase occurred in δ-subunit, but not α4- and γ2-subunits, in the dentate gyrus during diestrus. However, δ-subunit upregulation was not evident in the CA1 region. The δ-subunit expression was undiminished by age and ovariectomy and in mice lacking progesterone receptors, but it was significantly reduced by finasteride, a neurosteroid synthesis inhibitor. Electrophysiologic studies confirmed greater potentiation of GABA currents by progesterone-derived neurosteroid allopregnanolone in dissociated dentate gyrus granule cells in diestrus than in CA1 pyramidal cells. The baseline conductance and allopregnanolone potentiation of tonic currents in dentate granule cells from hippocampal slices were higher than in CA1 pyramidal cells. In behavioral studies, susceptibility to hippocampus kindling epileptogenesis was lower in mice during diestrus. These results demonstrate the estrous cycle-related plasticity of neurosteroid-sensitive, δ-containing GABA(A) receptors that mediate tonic inhibition and seizure susceptibility. These findings may provide novel insight on molecular cascades of menstrual disorders like catamenial epilepsy, premenstrual syndrome, and migraine. PMID:23667248

  3. PLK-1: Angel or devil for cell cycle progression.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Shiv; Sharma, Ashish Ranjan; Sharma, Garima; Chakraborty, Chiranjib; Kim, Jaebong

    2016-04-01

    PLK-1 is a key player in the eukaryotic cell cycle. Cell cycle progression is precisely controlled by cell cycle regulatory kinases. PLK-1 is a mitotic kinase that actively regulates the G2/M transition, mitosis, mitotic exit, and cytokinesis. During cell cycle progression, PLK-1 controls various events related to the cell cycle maturation, directly and/or indirectly. On the contrary, aberrant expression of PLK-1 is strongly associated with tumorigenesis and its poor prognosis. The misexpression of PLK-1 causes the abnormalities including aneuploidy, mitotic defects, leading to tumorigenesis through inhibiting the p53 and pRB genes. Therefore, we reviewed the role of PLK-1 in the cell cycle progression and in the tumorigenesis either as a cell cycle regulator or on an attractive anti-cancer drug target. PMID:26899266

  4. PGC-1α regulates the cell cycle through ATP and ROS in CH1 cells* #

    PubMed Central

    Fu, Xu-feng; Yao, Kun; Du, Xing; Li, Yan; Yang, Xiu-yu; Yu, Min; Li, Mei-zhang; Cui, Qing-hua

    2016-01-01

    Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ coactivator 1α (PGC-1α) is a transcriptional co-activator involved in mitochondrial biogenesis, respiratory capacity, and oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS). PGC-1α plays an important role in cellular metabolism and is associated with tumorigenesis, suggesting an involvement in cell cycle progression. However, the underlying mechanisms mediating its involvement in these processes remain unclear. To elucidate the signaling pathways involved in PGC-1α function, we established a cell line, CH1 PGC-1α, which stably overexpresses PGC-1α. Using this cell line, we found that over-expression of PGC-1α stimulated extra adenosine triphosphate (ATP) and reduced reactive oxygen species (ROS) production. These effects were accompanied by up-regulation of the cell cycle checkpoint regulators CyclinD1 and CyclinB1. We hypothesized that ATP and ROS function as cellular signals to regulate cyclins and control cell cycle progression. Indeed, we found that reduction of ATP levels down-regulated CyclinD1 but not CyclinB1, whereas elevation of ROS levels down-regulated CyclinB1 but not CyclinD1. Furthermore, both low ATP levels and elevated ROS levels inhibited cell growth, but PGC-1α was maintained at a constant level. Together, these results demonstrate that PGC-1α regulates cell cycle progression through modulation of CyclinD1 and CyclinB1 by ATP and ROS. These findings suggest that PGC-1α potentially coordinates energy metabolism together with the cell cycle. PMID:26834014

  5. The androgen receptor mediates antiapoptotic function in myometrial cells.

    PubMed

    Li, H; Li, Y; Morin, D; Plymate, S; Lye, S; Dong, X

    2014-01-01

    During pregnancy, myometrial phenotype is programmed into three characteristic stages referred to as the early proliferative, the midterm hypertrophic, and the late contractile stage. Increased myometrial growth in the early and midterm of pregnancy involves a complex process of cell proliferation, antiapoptosis and differentiation. We have previously demonstrated that the androgen receptor (AR) is required for myometrial cell proliferation by modulating IGF-1 signaling during early pregnancy. Here, we report that AR also exerts its antiapoptotic function in human myometrial cells. Enhanced AR expression protects, whereas AR silencing sensitizes myometrial cells to both intrinsic and extrinsic apoptotic stimuli. AR agonist inhibits, whereas AR antagonist induces myometrial cells to undergo apoptotic cell death. Gene microarray analysis confirms that the central functions of AR in myometrial cells are to regulate cell cycling and apoptosis through three major gene groups involving the epidermal growth factor (EGF) signaling, RNA splicing and DNA repair processes. AR mediates its antiapoptotic function through two distinct pathways. In the receptor-dependent pathway, AR is required for the expression of several protein factors within the EGF signaling pathway. Through the PI3K/Akt pathway, AR enhances the expression of the antiapoptotic protein Mcl-1. In the ligand-dependent pathway, AR agonist triggers the activation of Src kinase, which in turn phosphorylates STAT3 to increase Mcl-1 expression. We conclude from these results that the AR signaling exerts antiapoptotic function in myometrial cells, further supporting its key role in programming of myometrial phenotype. PMID:25032861

  6. Capacity fade of Sony 18650 cells cycled at elevated temperatures. Part I. Cycling performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramadass, P.; Haran, Bala; White, Ralph; Popov, Branko N.

    The capacity fade of Sony 18650 Li-ion cells increases with increase in temperature. After 800 cycles, the cells cycled at RT and 45 °C showed a capacity fade of 30 and 36%, respectively. The cell cycled at 55 °C showed a capacity loss of about 70% after 490 cycles. The rate capability of the cells continues to decrease with cycling. Impedance measurements showed an overall increase in the cell resistance with cycling and temperature. Impedance studies of the electrode materials showed an increased positive electrode resistance when compared to that of the negative electrode for cells cycled at RT and 45 °C. However, cells cycled at 50 and 55 °C exhibit higher negative electrode resistance. The increased capacity fade for the cells cycled at high temperatures can be explained by taking into account the repeated film formation over the surface of anode, which results in increased rate of lithium loss and also in a drastic increase in the negative electrode resistance with cycling.

  7. Mnt–Max to Myc–Max complex switching regulates cell cycle entry

    PubMed Central

    Walker, William; Zhou, Zi-Qiang; Ota, Sara; Wynshaw-Boris, Anthony; Hurlin, Peter J.

    2005-01-01

    The c-Myc oncoprotein is strongly induced during the G0 to S-phase transition and is an important regulator of cell cycle entry. In contrast to c-Myc, the putative Myc antagonist Mnt is maintained at a constant level during cell cycle entry. Mnt and Myc require interaction with Max for specific DNA binding at E-box sites, but have opposing transcriptional activities. Here, we show that c-Myc induction during cell cycle entry leads to a transient decrease in Mnt–Max complexes and a transient switch in the ratio of Mnt–Max to c-Myc–Max on shared target genes. Mnt overexpression suppressed cell cycle entry and cell proliferation, suggesting that the ratio of Mnt–Max to c-Myc–Max is critical for cell cycle entry. Furthermore, simultaneous Cre-Lox mediated deletion of Mnt and c-Myc in mouse embryo fibroblasts rescued the cell cycle entry and proliferative block caused by c-Myc ablation alone. These results demonstrate that Mnt-Myc antagonism plays a fundamental role in regulating cell cycle entry and proliferation. PMID:15866886

  8. Cell mediated immune regulation in autoimmunity.

    PubMed

    Gillissen, G; Pusztai-Markos, Z

    1979-01-01

    Autoimmunity is the term for the immune conditions characterized by a specific humoral or cell mediated response to the body's own tissues. The termination of the natural state of self tolerance may lead to immunopathological manifestations with clinical consequences, i.e. autoimmune diseases. In a very general sense, one may classify autoimmune diseases into two groups with respect to the underlying mechanism: 1. There are autoimmune diseases which develop in the presence of a normal intact regulation mechanism. 2. Another group whose development must be understood on the basis of a cellular dysfunction. In the first case, dequestered or semi-sequestered autoantigens are liberated as a consequence of exogenic influences inducing the sensitization of immunocompetent cells. The immune system then reacts with these autoantigens in the same way as with foreign substances. This kind of autoimmune disease will, however, not be dealt with here. In the second case, autoantigens are normally, i.e. in healthy individuals, accessible to the immunocompetent cells. To understand the reason for the development of an autoimmune reaction one must first clarify the mechanism of self tolerance. Then one must examine the way in which a break of this physiological state takes place. One of the major unanswered questions is the relative importance of antibody-mediated and cell-mediated immune mechanisms in the onset and further development of autoimmune diseases. Recently it has been suggested that a dysfunction at the cellular level might represent the basic cause which induces the termination of selftolerance. Most of the conceptions about the mechanism by which autoimmune diseases are triggered were gained through experiments with animals. It is, however, difficult to use these experimental results to explain human diseases; in humans many questions are still open. Undoubtedly, the mechanisms of induction and maintenance of self tolerance and also the ways in which autoimmune

  9. Roscovitine Suppresses CD4+ T Cells and T Cell-Mediated Experimental Uveitis

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Zili; Liu, Qi; Leskov, Konstantin S.; Wu, Xiumei; Duan, Jie; Zhang, Gary L.; Hall, Mark; Rosenbaum, James T.

    2013-01-01

    Background T cells are essential for the development of uveitis and other autoimmune diseases. After initial activation, CD4+ lymphocytes express the co-stimulatory molecule OX40 that plays an important role in T cell proliferation. Cyclin dependent kinase 2 (CdK2) plays a pivotal role in the cell cycle transition from G1 to S phase. In addition, recent research has implicated CdK2 in T cell activation. Thus, we sought to test the immunosuppressive effect of roscovitine, a potent CdK2 inhibitor, on CD4+ T cell activation, proliferation, and function. Design and Methods Mouse CD4+ T cells were activated by anti-CD3 and anti-CD28 antibodies. The expression of OX40, CD44, and CdK2 were analyzed by flow cytometry. In addition, cell cycle progression and apoptosis of control and roscovitine-treated T lymphocytes were measured by BrdU incorporation and annexin V assay, respectively. Furthermore, the immunoregulatory effect of roscovitine was evaluated in both ovalbumin-induced uveitis and experimental autoimmune uveitis (EAU) models. Results In this study, we found that T cell activation induced OX40 expression. Cell cycle analysis showed that more CD4+OX40+ cells entered S phase than OX40- T cells. Concurrently, CD4+OX40+ cells had a higher level of CdK2 expression. Roscovitine treatment blocked activated CD4+ cells from entering S phase. In addition, roscovitine not only reduced the viability of CD4+ lymphocytes but also suppressed T cell activation and cytokine production. Finally, roscovitine significantly attenuated the severity of T cell-dependent, OX40-enhanced uveitis. Conclusion These results implicate CdK2 in OX40-augmented T cell response and expansion. Furthermore, this study suggests that roscovitine is a novel, promising, therapeutic agent for treating T cell-mediated diseases such as uveitis. PMID:24260551

  10. Host cell kinases and the hepatitis C virus life cycle.

    PubMed

    Colpitts, Che C; Lupberger, Joachim; Doerig, Christian; Baumert, Thomas F

    2015-10-01

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection relies on virus-host interactions with human hepatocytes, a context in which host cell kinases play critical roles in every step of the HCV life cycle. During viral entry, cellular kinases, including EGFR, EphA2 and PKA, regulate the localization of host HCV entry factors and induce receptor complex assembly. Following virion internalization, viral genomes replicate on endoplasmic reticulum-derived membranous webs. The formation of membranous webs depends on interactions between the HCV NS5a protein and PI4KIIIα. The phosphorylation status of NS5a, regulated by PI4KIIIα, CKI and other kinases, also acts as a molecular switch to virion assembly, which takes place on lipid droplets. The formation of lipid droplets is enhanced by HCV activation of IKKα. In view of the multiple crucial steps in the viral life cycle that are mediated by host cell kinases, these enzymes also represent complementary targets for antiviral therapy. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Inhibitors of Protein Kinases. PMID:25896387