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Sample records for medical disability assessment

  1. A theoretical framework to describe communication processes during medical disability assessment interviews

    PubMed Central

    van Rijssen, H Jolanda; Schellart, Antonius JM; Anema, Johannes R; van der Beek, Allard J

    2009-01-01

    Background Research in different fields of medicine suggests that communication is important in physician-patient encounters and influences satisfaction with these encounters. It is argued that this also applies to the non-curative tasks that physicians perform, such as sickness certification and medical disability assessments. However, there is no conceptualised theoretical framework that can be used to describe intentions with regard to communication behaviour, communication behaviour itself, and satisfaction with communication behaviour in a medical disability assessment context. Objective The objective of this paper is to describe the conceptualisation of a model for the communication behaviour of physicians performing medical disability assessments in a social insurance context and of their claimants, in face-to-face encounters during medical disability assessment interviews and the preparation thereof. Conceptualisation The behavioural model, based on the Theory of Planned Behaviour (TPB), is conceptualised for the communication behaviour of social insurance physicians and claimants separately, but also combined during the assessment interview. Other important concepts in the model are the evaluation of communication behaviour (satisfaction), intentions, attitudes, skills, and barriers for communication. Conclusion The conceptualisation of the TPB-based behavioural model will help to provide insight into the communication behaviour of social insurance physicians and claimants during disability assessment interviews. After empirical testing of the relationships in the model, it can be used in other studies to obtain more insight into communication behaviour in non-curative medicine, and it could help social insurance physicians to adapt their communication behaviour to their task when performing disability assessments. PMID:19807905

  2. Medication and Reading Disability.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Humphries, Laurie L.

    1981-01-01

    The clinical syndrome which relates most frequently to the reading-disabled child is the attention deficity disorder. The child psychiatrist will generally resort to medication only when behavioral management techniques have failed. The two most frequently used medications are Ritalin and Dexedrine, central nervous system stimulants. (JN)

  3. [How to write a medical report for the assessment of disability].

    PubMed

    Calvet, Xavier; Motos, Jaume; Villoria, Albert

    2014-01-01

    The present article revises practical aspects on the format and content of the clinical reports used for the evaluation of disability for the Spanish Disability Grants System. As a framework for understanding how these clinical reports should be, the review includes also a short overview of the different types of disability grants and the administrative and court mechanisms for granting. PMID:24216011

  4. Assessment of Learning Disabilities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shepard, Lorrie A.

    The assessment and diagnosis of learning disabilities (LD) in the school is problematic. How do educators determine who is learning disabled? What practices are recommended? The main focus of the paper is on specific, relatively technical points that influence the validity of assessment. Since technical concerns are only one of the factors…

  5. Travelers with Disabilities and Medical Conditions

    MedlinePlus

    ... Claims Travel Tips Travel Bulletin Travel Checklist FAQ Disabilities and Medical Conditions To ensure your security, all ... other questions or concerns about traveling with a disability please contact passenger support . If you are approved ...

  6. The learning-disabled medical student.

    PubMed

    Accardo, P; Haake, C; Whitman, B

    1989-10-01

    Developmental pediatricians are being consulted by medical school promotion committees with regard to the course of action to be taken with learning-disabled medical students experiencing academic difficulties. Faculty attitude, a difficulty understanding the nature of learning disabilities, appears to be a major contributor to poor medical school performance on the part of learning-disabled adults. Utilizing the sequential-simultaneous information processing model as a simplified introduction to learning disability patterns, the authors argue that recommending intensive remediation of rote spelling and writing skills in students engaged in graduate education represents both a waste of time and a further emotional trauma to these young professionals. PMID:2808719

  7. Athletes with Disabilities. Removing Medical Barriers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peck, David M.; McKeag, Douglas B.

    1994-01-01

    Disability-related conditions such as bladder problems or pressure sores need not keep people from activity. Although active individuals with disabilities require some specialized management, they mainly need medical care for sports-related cuts, sprains, and strains. Physicians can help remove medical barriers to participation for active…

  8. Supporting medical students with learning disabilities in Asian medical schools

    PubMed Central

    Majumder, Md. Anwarul Azim; Rahman, Sayeeda; D’Souza, Urban JA; Elbeheri, Gad; Abdulrahman, Khalid Bin; Huq, M Muzaherul

    2010-01-01

    Learning disabilities (LDs) represent the largest group of disabilities in higher education (HE) institutes, including medical schools, and the numbers are continuing to rise. The worrying concern is that two-thirds to half of these students with LDs remain undiagnosed when they start their undergraduate education and may even graduate without having their disabilities diagnosed. These students struggle with their academic abilities, receive poor grades and, as a result, develop lower perceptions of their intellectual abilities than do those students without LDs. All these ultimately hamper their professional practice, employment, and career progression. Appropriate and adequate educational policies, provisions, and practices help students to progress satisfactorily. In Asian countries, public and professional awareness about LDs is low, supportive provisions are limited, legislations are inadequate, data are scarce, and equal-opportunity/widening-participation policies are not implemented effectively in the HE sector. This article discusses the issues related to LDs in medical education and draws policy, provision, and practice implications to identify, assess, and support students with LDs in medical schools, particularly in an Asian context. PMID:23745060

  9. Psychoactive Medication and Learning Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eaton, Marie; And Others

    1977-01-01

    A seven-year-old emotionally disturbed boy with some features of the hyperkinetic syndrome was placed on a double-blind placebo control program to assess the effects of psychoactive medications (Ritalin and Dexedrine) on academic and social behaviors. (Author)

  10. Dynamic Assessment of Language Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Deirdre

    2015-01-01

    The paper reports a study of a narrative-based Dynamic Assessment (DA) procedure developed in the USA that is used in the UK with children with developmental language disabilities. Three monolingual English children with language disabilities are assessed by a speech/language pathologist/therapist who is learning to work with DA in collaboration…

  11. Medical and Behavioral Symptoms as Potential Medication Side Effects in Adults with Developmental Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Valdovinos, Maria G.; Caruso, Mary; Roberts, Celeste; Kim, Geunyoung; Kennedy, Craig H.

    2005-01-01

    The incidence of medical and behavioral symptoms that could occur as side effects of psychotropic medication was assessed in a sample of 30 adults with developmental disabilities. Using a retrospective chart review method, we measured symptoms in six a priori classes of potential side effects over a 2-year period. The majority of side effects…

  12. Controversial Medical Treatments of Learning Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sieben, Robert L.

    1977-01-01

    The author presents a critical review of popular medical treatments for children with learning disabilities, including dietary treatment (food additives theories, brain allergies, hypoglycemia, megavitamin therapy, and trace mineral tests) and neurophysiologic retraining (patterning, sensory integrative therapy, and optometric training). (IM)

  13. Assessment of ADHD Documentation from Candidates Requesting Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA) Accommodations for the National Board of Osteopathic Medical Examiners COMLEX Exam

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Joy, Javed A.; Julius, Rose J.; Akter, Rashida; Baron, David A.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: Every year increasing numbers of candidates request special accommodations for high-stakes medical licensing examinations, due to ADHD, on the basis of the Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA). This poses significant challenges for both the applicant and the medical boards and has significant financial, legal, and ethical implications.…

  14. [Medical and technical compensation of disabilities].

    PubMed

    Didier, J P; Gras, P; Cassillas, J M

    1994-10-01

    Thanks to technological advances handicaps can be treated in a better way by physicians. This real Metrology of Handicap constitutes a preliminary stage to medical decision. Functional repercussions of a lesion can thus be accurately assessed before the well adapted compensatory means are conceived, prescribed and applied. A better understanding of physiopathological mechanisms involving lesion, deficit and handicap and of compensatory procedures used by disabled people depends from this assessment. Some examples will be reported such as energy expenditure, 3-dimensional biomechanical analysis of daily activities and the correlation between both approaches. Likewise, efficiency of therapeutics can be assessed such as the analysis of gait with appliances with different types of prosthetic feet or effects on muscle of various training programs. Besides, sophisticated orthesis, prosthesis and living aids can be developed with the help of data processing, robotics and electrostimulation. This new type of devices will be added to the range of standard devices developed at little cost by occupational therapists. As for the future, caution is imperative. "Repaired" man turning "robotised" is an image provided by media that might bring disillusions. On one hand, numerous social, economic and personal factors intervene in the determination of the plan for life by the individual and his family. Thereby, all the possibilities offered by technological advances might not be studied in the choice of plan of life. On the other hand, priorities in aims of an increasingly demanding individual economy will be dictated by collective economy focused on cost management. However, the concept of increase in life expectancy without disability will be relevant in the determination of health policy and the role of rehabilitation physicians will be all the more important because they are the only one to be able to coordinate a team qualified to choose and apply the best therapeutics. Times

  15. Scuba Divers with Disabilities Challenge Medical Protocols and Ethics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lin, Leslie Y.

    1987-01-01

    Persons with disabilities are diving, as are individuals with such conditions as asthma and epilepsy. A review considers relevant medical and ethical implications of such activity among disabled persons. (Author/CB)

  16. A Critique of "Controversial Medical Treatments of Learning Disabilities"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feingold, Benjamin F.

    1977-01-01

    The author replies to the article titled "Controversial Medical Treatments of Learning Disabilities" (R. Sieben), and discusses research on the relationship between food additives and hyperactivity, and dietary treatments for learning disabled children. (IM)

  17. Medical Education and Disability Discrimination: The Law and Future Implications.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Helms, Lelia B.; Helms, Charles M.

    1994-01-01

    Analysis of federal statutes and case law concerning disabilities suggests that medical educators may be expected to refine policies to identify when physicians with disabilities are otherwise qualified; the essential tasks performed by physicians; reasonable accommodations for students with disabilities; and how communication about disabilities…

  18. Assessment Strategies for Students with Disabilities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guidubaldi, John; And Others

    1989-01-01

    Discusses improvements in assessment of children and adolescents with disabilities including new psychological testing standards, updated and renormed cognitive assessments, and vocational assessments with increased ecological validity. Cites progress made in technical qualities of assessment and utilization. (Authors/CM)

  19. Disability Support Workers' Knowledge and Education Needs about Psychotropic Medication

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Donley, Mandy; Chan, Jeffrey; Webber, Lynne

    2012-01-01

    Disability support workers are the predominant workforce employed to support people with an intellectual disability in Australia. Many support workers are required to assist people they support to take psychotropic medications in the form of chemical restraint. Support workers in Australia receive limited education and training in this area and as…

  20. 20 CFR 416.993 - Medical evidence in continuing disability review cases.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... SECURITY INCOME FOR THE AGED, BLIND, AND DISABLED Determining Disability and Blindness Continuing Or Stopping Disability Or Blindness § 416.993 Medical evidence in continuing disability review cases....

  1. 20 CFR 416.993 - Medical evidence in continuing disability review cases.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... SECURITY INCOME FOR THE AGED, BLIND, AND DISABLED Determining Disability and Blindness Continuing Or Stopping Disability Or Blindness § 416.993 Medical evidence in continuing disability review cases....

  2. 20 CFR 416.993 - Medical evidence in continuing disability review cases.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... SECURITY INCOME FOR THE AGED, BLIND, AND DISABLED Determining Disability and Blindness Continuing Or Stopping Disability Or Blindness § 416.993 Medical evidence in continuing disability review cases....

  3. 20 CFR 416.993 - Medical evidence in continuing disability review cases.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... SECURITY INCOME FOR THE AGED, BLIND, AND DISABLED Determining Disability and Blindness Continuing Or Stopping Disability Or Blindness § 416.993 Medical evidence in continuing disability review cases....

  4. 20 CFR 416.993 - Medical evidence in continuing disability review cases.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... SECURITY INCOME FOR THE AGED, BLIND, AND DISABLED Determining Disability and Blindness Continuing Or Stopping Disability Or Blindness § 416.993 Medical evidence in continuing disability review cases....

  5. Technology in the Assessment of Learning Disability.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bigler, Erin D.; Lajiness-O'Neill, Renee; Howes, Nancy-Louise

    1998-01-01

    Reviews recent neuroradiologic and brain imaging techniques in the assessment of learning disability. Technologies reviewed include computerized tomography; magnetic resonance imaging; electrophysiological and metabolic imaging; computerized electroencepholographic studies of evoked potentials, event-related potentials, spectral analysis, and…

  6. 20 CFR 404.1593 - Medical evidence in continuing disability review cases.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Medical evidence in continuing disability... Stopping Disability § 404.1593 Medical evidence in continuing disability review cases. (a) General. If you... disabled, we will have your case file with the supporting medical evidence previously used to establish...

  7. 20 CFR 404.1593 - Medical evidence in continuing disability review cases.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... disabled, we will have your case file with the supporting medical evidence previously used to establish or... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Medical evidence in continuing disability... Stopping Disability § 404.1593 Medical evidence in continuing disability review cases. (a) General. If...

  8. Who Pays for the Medical Care of People with Disabilities? Disability Statistics Abstract, Number 13.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trupin, Laura; Rice, Dorothy P.; Max, Wendy

    This statistical abstract presents data on the sources of payment for medical care for people with disabilities in different age groups. All estimates come from the National Medical Expenditures Survey, a nationally representative survey of the civilian non-institutionalized population of the U.S. conducted in 1987. Six categories of payment…

  9. Identification and assessment of students with disabilities.

    PubMed

    Reschly, D J

    1996-01-01

    Students with disabilities or suspected disabilities are evaluated by schools to determine whether they are eligible for special education services and, if eligible, to determine what services will be provided. In many states, the results of this evaluation also affect how much funding assistance the school will receive to meet the students' special needs. Special education classification is not uniform across states or regions. Students with identical characteristics can be diagnosed as disabled in one state but not in another and may be reclassified when they move across state or school district lines. Most disabilities with a clear medical basis are recognized by the child's physician or parents soon after birth or during the preschool years. In contrast, the majority of students with disabilities are initially referred for evaluation by their classroom teacher (or parents) because of severe and chronic achievement or behavioral problems. There is evidence that the prevalence of some disabilities varies by age, the high-incidence disabilities such as learning disabilities and speech-language disabilities occur primarily at the mild level, the mild disabilities exist on broad continua in which there are no clear demarcations between those who have and those who do not have the disability, and even "mild" disabilities may constitute formidable barriers to academic progress and significantly limit career opportunities. Problems with the current classification system include stigma to the child, low reliability, poor correlation between categorization and treatment, obsolete assumptions still in use in treatment, and disproportionate representation of minority students. Both African-American and Hispanic students are disproportionately represented in special education but in opposite directions. The disproportionately high number of African Americans in special education reflects the fact that more African-American students than white students are diagnosed with

  10. Disabled Readers: Insight, Assessment, Instruction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sawyer, Diane J., Ed.

    Focusing on helping teachers to understand and help children who have reading disabilities, the 13 papers in this volume were prepared by practitioners at various levels from public school, community, and university settings. The papers included in part one offer insights into the concomitant aspects of reading difficulties. Specific topics…

  11. 42 CFR 436.322 - Medically needy coverage of the disabled.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Medically needy coverage of the disabled. 436.322... Optional Coverage of the Medically Needy § 436.322 Medically needy coverage of the disabled. If the agency provides Medicaid to the medically needy, it may provide Medicaid to disabled individuals who meet— (a)...

  12. 42 CFR 436.322 - Medically needy coverage of the disabled.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Medically needy coverage of the disabled. 436.322... Optional Coverage of the Medically Needy § 436.322 Medically needy coverage of the disabled. If the agency provides Medicaid to the medically needy, it may provide Medicaid to disabled individuals who meet— (a)...

  13. 42 CFR 436.322 - Medically needy coverage of the disabled.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Medically needy coverage of the disabled. 436.322... Optional Coverage of the Medically Needy § 436.322 Medically needy coverage of the disabled. If the agency provides Medicaid to the medically needy, it may provide Medicaid to disabled individuals who meet— (a)...

  14. 42 CFR 436.322 - Medically needy coverage of the disabled.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Medically needy coverage of the disabled. 436.322... Optional Coverage of the Medically Needy § 436.322 Medically needy coverage of the disabled. If the agency provides Medicaid to the medically needy, it may provide Medicaid to disabled individuals who meet— (a)...

  15. 42 CFR 436.322 - Medically needy coverage of the disabled.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Medically needy coverage of the disabled. 436.322... Optional Coverage of the Medically Needy § 436.322 Medically needy coverage of the disabled. If the agency provides Medicaid to the medically needy, it may provide Medicaid to disabled individuals who meet— (a)...

  16. "Without handicap": issues of medical schools and physically disabled students.

    PubMed

    Reichgott, M J

    1996-07-01

    The Americans with Disabilities Act of 1990 requires that access to education not be denied simply on the basis of disability. The law requires definition of "basic qualifications" required of all applicants, "essential elements" of the curriculum, and whether accommodation would alter the "fundamental nature" of the learning experience or impose "undue burden." Medical schools have a very low proportion of physically disabled students, which the author argues is largely a result of schools' conception of the "undifferentiated graduate" as being capable of performing the history, physical examination, and any medical procedure without an intermediary. But the author maintains that medical students need not be unblemished physically; medical educators' obligation is to educate those students who are qualified to become physicians by virtue of intelligence, professional attitude, and ability to effectively interact and communicate. With respect to clinical training, it is important to consider whether personal, hands-on experience is required for adequate learning to occur. Because most physicians limit the scopes of their practices and do not perform all procedures, because those physicians who develop physical disabilities are not precluded from continuing in some forms of medical practice, and because technologic advances allow for the substitution of imaging and diagnostic testing for the more conventional approach to the physical examination, the requirement for hands-on capability becomes less compelling. Yet not every physically disabled applicant should be admitted to medical school, and those admitted require coaching, guidance, and career advice in order to succeed with their physical limitations. The author suggests that one of the seminal concepts of medical education, "without handicap," should be seen not as referring to the pre-existing physical status of students but instead as the obligation of educators to provide all their students with the

  17. Attitudes of medical clerks toward persons with intellectual disabilities

    PubMed Central

    Ouellette-Kuntz, Hélène; Burge, Philip; Cleaver, Shaun; Isaacs, Barry; Lunsky, Yona; Jones, Jessica; Hastie, Rianne

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Objective To assess the attitudes of upper-year undergraduate medical students (ie, clerks) toward the philosophy of community inclusion of persons with intellectual disabilities (ID) according to demographic, personal contact, and training variables. Design Cross-sectional self-administered survey. Setting Clerkship rotations at Queen’s University in Kingston, Ont, and the University of Toronto in Ontario in 2006. Participants A total of 258 clerks. Main outcome measures Scores on the Community Living Attitudes Scale—Short Form. Results There were no differences in the Community Living Attitudes Scale—Short Form subscale scores across categories of demographic characteristics, personal contact, or having received didactic training about ID. Clerks who had seen patients with ID during their medical school training had higher mean sheltering subscale scores than those who had not (3.27 vs 3.07, P = .02). Additional analysis revealed that 88.5% of clerks who had seen patients with ID reported seeing 5 or fewer such patients, and that those who rated the quality of their supervision more positively had higher mean scores on the empowerment subscale and lower mean scores on the sheltering subscale. Conclusion Although specific training has the potential to promote more socially progressive attitudes regarding persons with ID, lower-quality supervision is associated with higher endorsement of items expressing the need to shelter individuals with ID from harm and lower endorsement of items promoting empowerment. PMID:22734171

  18. Clinician Experiences Assessing Work Disability Related to Mental Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Dewa, Carolyn S.; Hees, Hiske; Trojanowski, Lucy; Schene, Aart H.

    2015-01-01

    Objective Medical certification is one of the basic administrative mechanisms used by social policies aimed at income protection. The assessment of work disability is central to the income protection application. Yet, there is evidence suggesting that determining work disability related to mental disorders is challenging. Although essential to the disability application process, few studies have looked at physician and other clinician experiences with the process. However, this type of information is critical to developing processes to support providers who participate in the assessments. This purpose of this paper is to explore the experiences of physicians and other clinicians assessing public long-term work disability related to mental disorders. Methods This is an exploratory and descriptive study using qualitative methods. Clinician input was gathered through focus groups and individual in-depth interviews. Verbatim transcripts were analyzed to identify recurrent and significant themes that arose during the focus groups and individual interviews. Results Many of the experiences that the clinicians in this sample discussed related to the difficulty of trying to fill the roles of advocate and medical expert as well as the challenge of determining the impact of functional capacity and work ability. The findings also highlight the current gap in knowledge about the factors that affect successful functioning in general and at work in particular. Conclusions Given the challenges created by the current state of knowledge, it may be useful to consider a category of “partial disability”. In addition, the fact that work disability depends on the interaction between the experience of the mental disorder and specific job requirements and the fact that people applying for public long-term disability are not working, it might be helpful to offer a clear description and guidelines of the meaning of work ability. PMID:25789478

  19. 20 CFR 220.110 - Medically disabled.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... are based on medically acceptable clinical and laboratory techniques. (c) Addiction to alcohol or drugs. If a claimant has a condition diagnosed as addiction to alcohol or drugs, this condition will...

  20. 20 CFR 220.110 - Medically disabled.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... are based on medically acceptable clinical and laboratory techniques. (c) Addiction to alcohol or drugs. If a claimant has a condition diagnosed as addiction to alcohol or drugs, this condition will...

  1. 20 CFR 220.110 - Medically disabled.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... are based on medically acceptable clinical and laboratory techniques. (c) Addiction to alcohol or drugs. If a claimant has a condition diagnosed as addiction to alcohol or drugs, this condition will...

  2. 20 CFR 220.110 - Medically disabled.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... are based on medically acceptable clinical and laboratory techniques. (c) Addiction to alcohol or drugs. If a claimant has a condition diagnosed as addiction to alcohol or drugs, this condition will...

  3. 20 CFR 220.110 - Medically disabled.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... are based on medically acceptable clinical and laboratory techniques. (c) Addiction to alcohol or drugs. If a claimant has a condition diagnosed as addiction to alcohol or drugs, this condition will...

  4. LIMITING OCCUPATIONAL MEDICAL EVALUATIONS UNDER THE AMERICANS WITH DISABILITIES ACT AND THE GENETIC INFORMATION NONDISCRIMINATION ACT.

    PubMed

    Rothstein, Mark A; Roberts, Jessica; Guidotti, Tee L

    2015-01-01

    Although medical care delivery by one's personal physician is the paradigmatic American healthcare arrangement, in the workplace setting, many Americans undergo medical evaluations to assess their fitness for duty or degree of impairment. This Article explores the complex and evolving legal status of occupational medical evaluations. Beginning with the legal and ethical frameworks of occupational medical practice, the Article then examines the effects of increasingly detailed legal regulation under the Americans with Disabilities Act and the Genetic Information Nondiscrimination Act on employees, employers, and physicians. PMID:26863849

  5. Occurrence of Medical Concerns in Psychiatric Outpatients with Intellectual Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Azimi, Kousha; Modi, Miti; Hurlbut, Janice; Lunsky, Yona

    2016-01-01

    Despite the fact that adults with both intellectual disabilities (ID) and psychiatric disorders are at increased risk for physical health problems, few studies have described their medical concerns specifically. This study reports on the rates of physical health issues and completion of recommended health screenings among 78 adult outpatients with…

  6. 76 FR 44086 - Agency Information Collection (Report of Medical Examination for Disability Evaluation) Activity...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-22

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS Agency Information Collection (Report of Medical Examination for Disability Evaluation) Activity.... 2900-0052.'' SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Title: Report of Medical Examination for Disability...

  7. The Assessment of Severely Intellectually Disabled Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kontu, Elina; Pirttimaa, Raija

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this study was to gather information on the tools used by special education teachers for the assessment of severely intellectually disabled students (SID), preparing an individual education plan, and about the methodology used for monitoring their learning progress. The survey included all Finnish special education teachers working with…

  8. Physical Activity Assessments for Individuals with Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fittipaldi-Wert, Jeanine; Brock, Sheri J.

    2006-01-01

    Physical activity is important in maintaining and improving overall health for all. Students with disabilities tend to have lower fitness levels due to the lack of participation in physical activities, therefore, progressions and modifications to physical activities are needed. Assessing the physical activity levels of students with disabilities…

  9. Accessible Reading Assessments for Students with Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abedi, Jamal; Bayley, Robert; Ewers, Nancy; Mundhenk, Kimberly; Leon, Seth; Kao, Jenny; Herman, Joan

    2012-01-01

    Assessments developed and field tested for the mainstream student population may not be accessible for students with disabilities (SWDs) as a result of the impact of extraneous variables, including cognitive features, such as depth of knowledge required, grammatical and lexical complexity, lexical density, and textual/visual features. This study…

  10. Measurement of Environmental Constructs in Disability Assessment Instruments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guscia, Roma; Ekberg, Stuart; Harries, Julia; Kirby, Neil

    2006-01-01

    The International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF) assumes a biopsychosocial basis for disability and provides a framework for understanding how environmental factors contribute to the experience of disability. To determine the utility of prevalent disability assessment instruments, the authors examined the extent to…

  11. Assessing Calculators as Assessment Accommodations for Students with Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bouck, Emily C.; Yadav, Aman

    2008-01-01

    This study explored the performance of 75 seventh-grade students with and without disabilities, educated in inclusive mathematics classes, on open-ended, problem-solving mathematics assessments. In the study, approximately half of the students used a graphing calculator on the first assessment and not on the second assessment (n = 35; 46.7%),…

  12. Assessment of bone health in children with disabilities.

    PubMed

    Kecskemethy, Heidi H; Harcke, H Theodore

    2014-01-01

    Evaluating the bone health of children with disabilities is challenging and requires consideration of many factors in clinical decision-making. Feeding problems and growth deficits, immobility/inability to bear weight, effect of medications, and the nature of his or her disease can all directly affect a child's overall picture of bone health. Familiarity with the tools available to assess bone health is important for practitioners. The most commonly used method to assess bone density, dual energy x-ray absorptiometry, can be performed effectively when one appreciates the techniques that make scanning patients with disabilities possible. There are specific techniques that are especially useful for measuring bone density in children with disabilities; standard body sites are not always obtainable. Consideration of clinical condition and treatment must be considered when interpreting dual energy x-ray absorptiometry scans. Serial measurements have been shown to be effective in monitoring change in bone content and in providing information on which to base decisions regarding medical treatment. PMID:25096863

  13. 38 CFR 3.358 - Compensation for disability or death from hospitalization, medical or surgical treatment...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... disability or death from hospitalization, medical or surgical treatment, examinations or vocational... Special Purposes § 3.358 Compensation for disability or death from hospitalization, medical or surgical... disability resulting from a disease or injury or aggravation of an existing disease or injury suffered as...

  14. [Occupational disability in epilepsy. The assessment criteria].

    PubMed

    Vicente-Herrero, M T; Terradillos García, M J; Capdevila García, L; Ramírez Iñiguez de la Torre, M V; López-González, Á A; Aguilar Jiménez, E

    2016-03-01

    Epilepsy is a chronic disease cursing with recurrent and paroxysmal crises due to anomalies in the electrical activity of brain, and is controllable in most of the patients by using antiepileptic drugs, in single or combination therapy. Probably one of the most complex aspects of epilepsy is the assessment of disability for work of the affected person. For this purpose, multiple factors need to be taken into account for homogeneous decision-making, and according to criteria of approval and within the principle of equity inherent in the granting of Social Security disability benefits. This requires the cooperation of all professionals involved in the different specialties, with reports using common criteria and taking into account the disease itself, as well as the effects of the prescribed treatments, the effects of which can contribute to the limitations in the performance of certain professions of risk. PMID:25440966

  15. 76 FR 27380 - Proposed Information Collection (Report of Medical Examination for Disability Evaluation...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-11

    ... AFFAIRS Proposed Information Collection (Report of Medical Examination for Disability Evaluation); Comment.... Title: Report of Medical Examination for Disability Evaluation, VA Form 21-2545. OMB Control Number... solicits comments for information needed from claimants prior to undergoing a VA medical examination...

  16. Medication use in residential care for older people with intellectual disabilities.

    PubMed

    2016-08-01

    Medication administration may appear to be a 'simple' nursing task, but this audit published in Learning Disability Practice found that, due to a combination of multiple medication use and medical complexity in older people with learning disabilities, it can be more complicated than staff realise. PMID:27573967

  17. Assessing Individuals with Disabilities in Educational, Employment, and Counseling Settings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ekstrom, Ruth B., Ed.; Smith, Douglas K., Ed.

    This book is designed to assist testing professionals as they face the challenge of how best to assess and test people with disabilities. Chapters include: (1) "Testing Individuals with Disabilities: Reconciling Social Science and Social Policy" (Diana Pullin); (2) "The Psychometrics of Testing Individuals with Disabilities" (Kurt F. Geisinger and…

  18. Learning Disabilities: New Directions for Assessment and Intervention.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jordan, Nancy C., Ed.; Goldsmith-Phillips, Josephine, Ed.

    This collection of original papers synthesizes research on learning disabilities in school-age children, with the theme of connecting learning disabilities research with assessment and practice. The volume begins with a paper by Howard S. Adelman titled "Learning Disabilities: On Interpreting Research Translations." Part I of the collection then…

  19. Concurrent Medical Conditions and Health Care Use and Needs among Children with Learning and Behavioral Developmental Disabilities, National Health Interview Survey, 2006-2010

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schieve, Laura A.; Gonzalez, Vanessa; Boulet, Sheree L.; Visser, Susanna N.; Rice, Catherine E.; Braun, Kim Van Naarden; Boyle, Coleen A.

    2012-01-01

    Studies document various associated health risks for children with developmental disabilities (DDs). Further study is needed by disability type. Using the 2006-2010 National Health Interview Surveys, we assessed the prevalence of numerous medical conditions (e.g. asthma, frequent diarrhea/colitis, seizures), health care use measures (e.g. seeing a…

  20. 42 CFR 435.324 - Medically needy coverage of the disabled in States that cover individuals receiving SSI.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Medically needy coverage of the disabled in States... Coverage of the Medically Needy § 435.324 Medically needy coverage of the disabled in States that cover... the medically needy, it may provide Medicaid to disabled individuals who meet— (a) The...

  1. 42 CFR 435.324 - Medically needy coverage of the disabled in States that cover individuals receiving SSI.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Medically needy coverage of the disabled in States... Coverage of the Medically Needy § 435.324 Medically needy coverage of the disabled in States that cover... the medically needy, it may provide Medicaid to disabled individuals who meet— (a) The...

  2. 42 CFR 435.324 - Medically needy coverage of the disabled in States that cover individuals receiving SSI.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Medically needy coverage of the disabled in States... Coverage of the Medically Needy § 435.324 Medically needy coverage of the disabled in States that cover... the medically needy, it may provide Medicaid to disabled individuals who meet— (a) The...

  3. 42 CFR 435.324 - Medically needy coverage of the disabled in States that cover individuals receiving SSI.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Medically needy coverage of the disabled in States... Coverage of the Medically Needy § 435.324 Medically needy coverage of the disabled in States that cover... the medically needy, it may provide Medicaid to disabled individuals who meet— (a) The...

  4. [What Psychiatrists Should Know about the Medical Documentation They Issue: Admission for Medical Care and Protection, Medical Treatment for Persons with Disabilities, Mental Health Disability Certification, etc].

    PubMed

    Yamasaki, Masao

    2015-01-01

    Psychiatrists issue a wide variety of documentation, among which are torms such as Registration of Admission for Medical Care and Protection, Periodic Report of Condition, Certification of Medical Treatment for Persons with Disabilities, and Mental Health Disability Certification, which are required under laws such as the Act on Mental Health and Welfare for the Mentally Disabled. These documents are important in that they are related to protecting the human rights of people with mental disorders, as well as securing appropriate medical and welfare services for them. However, in the course of reviewing and evaluating documentation at our Mental Health and Welfare Center, we encounter forms which are incomplete, or which contain inappropriate content. In order to protect the human rights of people with mental disorders, and to ensure the provision of appropriate medical and welfare services for them, I call on psychiatrists to issue carefully written and appropriate documentation. In this talk I will focus primarily on what psychiatrists should know when filling in forms in the course of their day-to-day clinical work. PMID:26552320

  5. A New Disability Rating Method according to the Job Using the Korean Academy of Medical Science Disability Guideline

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Jay-young; Kwon, Young-Jun; Kim, Yongkyu; Rhie, Jeong-Bae; Jeong, In-Chul

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop a disability rating scale according to job classification using the Korean Academy of Medical Society (KAMS) guidelines. All jobs were categorized based on their level of physical activity and professional skills. The KAMS guidelines were used for the impairment rating. We modified the California Schedule for rating permanent disabilities. The differences were plotted to compare between the impairment rate and the job-adjusted disability rate. The KAMS job-adjusted disability rates were then compared to the McBride and workers' compensation rates. A total of 1,206 occupations were classified into 44 groups. The occupational disability indexes were rated on a scale of 1 to 7. The differences in the McBride disability rates varied inconsistently from 0% to 35%, while the differences in the KAMS disability rates were between 0% and 18%. The KAMS disability rates were slightly higher than the McBride disability rates for the upper extremities, but were lower for the lower extremities and internal organs. This is the first Korean job-adjusted disability rating method. There are several limitations, but its impairment rating is more scientific and reflects the current Korean occupational environment. PMID:23255842

  6. The Use of Psychotropic Medication with Adults with Learning Disabilities: Survey Findings and Implications for Services

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chapman, Melanie; Gledhill, Paul; Jones, Phillip; Burton, Mark; Soni, Saroj

    2006-01-01

    This paper describes the findings of a survey into prescribing of psychotropic medication with adults with learning disabilities in a British city. A self-completion questionnaire was sent to staff in dispersed housing and community learning disability teams to gather information about the number of people prescribed psychoactive medication, the…

  7. Attitude to Medication of Parents/Primary Carers of People With Intellectual Disability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rasaratnam, R.; Crouch, K.; Regan, A.

    2004-01-01

    To investigate the influence of attitudes of carers of people with intellectual disability (ID) towards giving medication. Ninety-three carers of service users who are currently attending outpatients clinic (Harrow Learning Disability service) were interviewed, using the RAMS (Rating of Attitude to Medication Scale) interview schedule. A…

  8. Development of an Instrument to Measure Medical Students' Attitudes toward People with Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Symons, Andrew B.; Fish, Reva; McGuigan, Denise; Fox, Jeffery; Akl, Elie A.

    2012-01-01

    As curricula to improve medical students' attitudes toward people with disabilities are developed, instruments are needed to guide the process and evaluate effectiveness. The authors developed an instrument to measure medical students' attitudes toward people with disabilities. A pilot instrument with 30 items in four sections was administered to…

  9. Performance Assessment System for Students with Disabilities: Introductory. Revised.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Florida State Dept. of Education, Tallahassee. Bureau of Instructional Support and Community Services.

    Florida's Performance Assessment System for Students with Disabilities (PASSD) is a response to growing demands that students with disabilities be included in school evaluation and accountability efforts through alternate assessments. Chapter 1 introduces PASSD and provides background information. It notes that the focus of PASSD is noncategorical…

  10. Guidelines for Assessment of and Intervention With Persons With Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Psychologist, 2012

    2012-01-01

    The goal of these "Guidelines for Assessment of and Intervention With Persons With Disabilities" is to help psychologists conceptualize and implement more effective, fair, and ethical psychological assessments and interventions with persons with disabilities. The guidelines provide suggestions on ways psychologists can make their practices more…

  11. [Evaluation of disability pensions by a medical polyclinic: 1990-1995].

    PubMed

    Siegenthaler, M; Osterwalder, P; Vetter, W

    1998-10-21

    The question if and in what manner changes of the labour market, in first line increasing unemployment, may influence the composition of the collective demanding a disability pension on one hand and the diagnoses relevant for assessment of requests on the other hand have been investigated as well as possible influences on the criteria for assessments. To this end all expert reports elaborated by the Medical Outpatient Clinic of the University Hospital of Zürich and submitted to the disability insurance between 1990 and 1995 have been evaluated retrospectively. The results show that the fraction of men remained stable around 70% over the whole observation period. The number of persons employed in auxiliary functions remained also constantly high. Over the whole period of observation there was a high, growing percentage of foreign applicants. The most marked change during the observation period was a significant increase of unemployment in the collective. This increase particularly affected applicants with higher ranking jobs or persons over 50. Foreigners became an important part of the unemployed applicants. Rheumatoid disorders and "back pain" in particular were of increasing importance among the relevant diagnoses for assessment of disability. There was a significant decline in the extent of invalidity acknowledged in marked contrast to our initial expectation that the strictness of the applied criteria would weaken when confronted with an increasing number of applications. PMID:9844487

  12. Multicultural Life Skills Assessment of Individuals with Severe Disabilities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lim, Levan H. F.; Browder, Diane M.

    1994-01-01

    This article addresses the need for a multicultural perspective on life skills assessment for students with severe disabilities. Guidelines for making a life skills assessment process more multicultural are offered. (Author/DB)

  13. Confronting Similar Challenges? Disabled and Non-Disabled Students' Learning and Assessment Experiences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Madriaga, Manuel; Hanson, Katie; Heaton, Caroline; Kay, Helen; Newitt, Sarah; Walker, Ann

    2010-01-01

    The article presents evidence from a systematic survey of disabled (n = 172) and non-disabled (n = 312) students regarding their learning and assessment experiences within one higher education institution in the UK. This study builds upon previous work in the sector, with the aim of gathering evidence to inform inclusive policy and practice for…

  14. Including Students with Disabilities in National Academic Assessments in Korea

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Choi, JongKeun; Lee, Daesik; Jung, Eunju

    2012-01-01

    In Korea, the effort to include students with disabilities in the educational accountability system has just begun. This paper reviews how Korean students with disabilities have been tested using the National Assessment of Educational Achievement (NAEA) and what issues have emerged as a result of the testing. Analysis of the 2009 and 2010 NAEA…

  15. Assessment of Risk Manageability of Intellectually Disabled Sex Offenders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boer, Douglas P.; Tough, Susan; Haaven, James

    2004-01-01

    Background: There are no validated risk assessment tools for intellectually disabled (ID) sex offenders, with the exception of the work of Lindsay et al. ["Journal of Applied Research in Intellectual Disabilities" (2004) 17: 267] regarding the prediction of risk for aggressive behaviour of ID offenders in residential settings. ID sex offenders…

  16. How States Define Alternate Assessments for Students with Disabilities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Browder, Diane; Ahlgrim-Delzell, Lynn; Flowers, Claudia; Karvonen, Meagan; Spooner, Fred; Algozzine, Robert

    Since the passage of the 1997 amendments to the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act, inclusion of all students with disabilities in accountability systems has been mandatory. By 2001, school personnel began to understand that alternate assessment needed to focus on students' performance on state standards, and nearly all states had created…

  17. Assessment of Children with Intellectual Giftedness and Reading Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Volker, Martin A.; Lopata, Christopher; Cook-Cottone, Catherine

    2006-01-01

    This article discusses the current issues involved in the evaluation of children who have both intellectual gifts and a specific learning disability (SLD) in reading. Given recent changes in federal special education law (i.e., the Individuals With Disabilities Education Improvement Act of 2004), the use of a unified assessment model that…

  18. 10 CFR 712.14 - Medical assessment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Medical assessment. 712.14 Section 712.14 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY HUMAN RELIABILITY PROGRAM Establishment of and Procedures for the Human Reliability Program Procedures § 712.14 Medical assessment. (a) Purpose. The HRP medical assessment is performed to evaluate whether an HRP candidate or...

  19. Attitude before method: disability in vulnerability and capacity assessment.

    PubMed

    Twigg, John

    2014-07-01

    Many agencies working on disaster risk reduction use vulnerability and capacity assessment (VCA) to identify vulnerable groups, to assess their needs and capacities, and to develop appropriate programmes and policies. In theory, VCA offers a good opportunity to incorporate disabled people's needs and resources in counter-disaster programming. This paper seeks to establish and explain the extent to which disability is included in VCA in practice. It reviews VCA reports and findings, formal VCA guidance, and other methodological literature. The review indicates that disability is a neglected issue in VCA practice and that manuals and guidelines, while promoting the general ideal of inclusiveness, are insufficiently aware of the challenges to achieving this in practice and do not offer enough guidance on how to reach and include disabled people. Ways of overcoming these problems are suggested. However, the real challenge may be to change core attitudes and perceptions of disability within implementing organisations. PMID:24905706

  20. Psychotropic Medication Adherence among Community-Based Individuals with Developmental Disabilities and Mental Illness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tan, Xi; Marshall, Vincent D.; Balkrishnan, Rajesh; Patel, Isha; Chang, Jongwha; Erickson, Steven R.

    2015-01-01

    Psychotropic medications are a common treatment for mental illness in people with developmental disabilities. Medication adherence is a critical determinant of the effectiveness of psychotropic drugs, but psychotropic medication adherence research specific to this population remains limited. This retrospective study analyzed Marketscan®…

  1. 20 CFR 410.424 - Determining total disability: Medical criteria only.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... criteria only. 410.424 Section 410.424 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION FEDERAL COAL MINE... Pneumoconiosis § 410.424 Determining total disability: Medical criteria only. (a) Medical considerations alone... equivalent of an impairment listed in the appendix to this subpart only if the medical findings with...

  2. How Far Must Schools Go in Providing Medical Services to Students with Disabilities?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Von Urff, Carol

    1998-01-01

    Discusses provisions and regulations of the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act governing the types of (costly) medical services that must be provided to students with severe disabilities. Summarizes court applications. School districts must fulfill their obligations under federal and state law, regardless of their financial limitations or…

  3. Structured Medication Review to Improve Pharmacotherapy in People with Intellectual Disability and Behavioural Problems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scheifes, Arlette; Egberts, Toine C. G.; Stolker, Joost Jan; Nijman, Henk. L. I.; Heerdink, Eibert R.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Polypharmacy and chronic drug use are common in people with intellectual disability and behavioural problems, although evidence of effectiveness and safety in this population is lacking. This study examined the effects of a structured medication review and aimed to improve pharmacotherapy in inpatients with intellectual disability.…

  4. Psychiatric Services for Individuals with Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities: Medication Management

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Russell, Andrew T.; Hahn, Joan Earle; Hayward, Katharine

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to describe the medication management and treatment provided in a specialty outpatient psychiatry clinic for 198 community-residing children and adults with intellectual disability and other developmental disabilities (IDD) referred to the clinic and discharged between 1999 and 2008. Using a descriptive design, data…

  5. Antipsychotic Medication Prescription Patterns in Adults with Developmental Disabilities Who Have Experienced Psychiatric Crisis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lunsky, Yona; Elserafi, Jonny

    2012-01-01

    Antipsychotic medication rates are high in adults with developmental disability. This study considered rates of antipsychotic use in 743 adults with developmental disability who had experienced a psychiatric crisis. Nearly half (49%) of these adults were prescribed antipsychotics. Polypharmacy was common with 22% of those prescribed antipsychotics…

  6. Comprehensive Assessment and Evaluation of Students with Learning Disabilities: A Paper Prepared by the National Joint Committee on Learning Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Learning Disability Quarterly, 2011

    2011-01-01

    The National Joint Committee on Learning Disabilities (NJCLD) strongly supports comprehensive assessment and evaluation of students with learning disabilities by a multidisciplinary team for the identification and diagnosis of students with learning disabilities. Comprehensive assessment of individual students requires the use of multiple data…

  7. 20 CFR 416.996 - Continued disability or blindness benefits pending appeal of a medical cessation determination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Continued disability or blindness benefits... Disability and Blindness Continuing Or Stopping Disability Or Blindness § 416.996 Continued disability or blindness benefits pending appeal of a medical cessation determination. (a) General. If we determine...

  8. 20 CFR 416.996 - Continued disability or blindness benefits pending appeal of a medical cessation determination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Continued disability or blindness benefits... Disability and Blindness Continuing Or Stopping Disability Or Blindness § 416.996 Continued disability or blindness benefits pending appeal of a medical cessation determination. (a) General. If we determine...

  9. 20 CFR 416.996 - Continued disability or blindness benefits pending appeal of a medical cessation determination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Continued disability or blindness benefits... Disability and Blindness Continuing Or Stopping Disability Or Blindness § 416.996 Continued disability or blindness benefits pending appeal of a medical cessation determination. (a) General. If we determine...

  10. 20 CFR 416.996 - Continued disability or blindness benefits pending appeal of a medical cessation determination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Continued disability or blindness benefits... Disability and Blindness Continuing Or Stopping Disability Or Blindness § 416.996 Continued disability or blindness benefits pending appeal of a medical cessation determination. (a) General. If we determine...

  11. 20 CFR 416.996 - Continued disability or blindness benefits pending appeal of a medical cessation determination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Continued disability or blindness benefits... Disability and Blindness Continuing Or Stopping Disability Or Blindness § 416.996 Continued disability or blindness benefits pending appeal of a medical cessation determination. (a) General. If we determine...

  12. [Validity of care assessment in disabled and mentally retarded children].

    PubMed

    Häussler, M; Streit, A; Strassburg, H-M

    2002-10-01

    16 children with spastic cerebral palsy and 25 mentally retarded children were assessed via the scales "Self-Care" and "Mobility" of the Pediatric Evaluation of Disability Inventory (PEDI). Age-adjusted PEDI scores were compared with the classification according to the three levels of the German statutory nursing insurance. Good correlations and highly significant dependence were found in children with spastic cerebral palsy but no dependence was seen in mentally retarded children. Apparently, assessment guidelines of the German statutory nursing insurance do not guarantee a valid assessment in all disabled children. In conclusion, future assessments of nursing needs in children should employ standardised assessment methods. PMID:12375229

  13. Assessing One and All: Educational Accountability for Students with Disabilities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elliot, Stephen N.; Braden, Jeffery P.; White, Jennifer L.

    This book is about the assessment and inclusion of all students, including those with disabilities, in statewide and district assessment programs. It addresses aspects of assessment such as testing practices, test content, legal guidelines, technical aspects of tests, students' learning objectives, and instructional programs. Throughout the book,…

  14. Medical and dental technology assessment.

    PubMed

    Ballard, G T

    1996-09-01

    Spiraling costs dictate that healthcare expenditures be limited to medical products and services of demonstrated safety and effectiveness, if quality care is to be provided at affordable cost. Scientifically conducted, randomized controlled trials are essential elements of this process. Applicable governmental regulatory procedures are reviewed. These serve as the foundation of the technology assessment process and should not be restricted or curtailed. Healthcare provider groups may make significant contributions in this area, when scientific investigation and objective research are emphasized. Technology manufacturers must promote and support objective analysis of their products. Healthcare insurers are assuming greater responsibility and involvement in outcomes research and technology assessment. The process by which this is accomplished by a major insurer is described. Private insurers and governmental agencies should share data in a consolidated research effort. This will require data base adjustments for compatibility and comparability in inter-agency analysis. Insurance company data bases are significant public health assets that have yet to be utilized to the fullest extent. PMID:8931239

  15. Common Pediatric Disabilities: Medical Aspects and Educational Implications.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tyler, Janet Siantz; Colson, Steven

    1994-01-01

    This paper presents definitions of common pediatric disabilities and information about incidence, causes, diagnosis, common characteristics, complications with educational implications, and multidisciplinary intervention approaches. It covers the following conditions: attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, cerebral palsy, Down syndrome, fragile…

  16. Recent developments in assessing medical students.

    PubMed Central

    Fowell, S. L.; Bligh, J. G.

    1998-01-01

    Most medical schools in the UK are revising their undergraduate courses in response to the recommendations published by the General Medical Council Education Committee in Tomorrow's doctors. However, achievement of the objectives of curricular change is attendant on revision of the assessment process. This paper reviews traditional and more recently developed methods for assessment of medical education in the light of the General Medical Council's recommendations which relate specifically to summative assessment of the core curriculum. The importance of reliability and validity is highlighted, and the case for criterion-referenced assessment is examined. PMID:9538481

  17. The Impact of Medical Conditions on the Support of Children with Profound Intellectual and Multiple Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zijlstra, H. P.; Vlaskamp, C.

    2005-01-01

    Background: The aim of this study was to analyse the impact of medical conditions of children with profound intellectual and multiple disabilities on the professional support they receive in centres for special education. Method: The medical files, the daily records and daily communication records between parents and professionals were reviewed…

  18. Parental Perceptions of Family Centered Care in Medical Homes of Children with Neurodevelopmental Disabilities.

    PubMed

    Zajicek-Farber, Michaela L; Lotrecchiano, Gaetano R; Long, Toby M; Farber, Jon Matthew

    2015-08-01

    Life course theory sets the framework for strong inclusion of family centered care (FCC) in quality medical homes of children with neurodevelopmental disabilities (CNDD). The purpose of this study was to explore the perceptions of families with their experiences of FCC in medical homes for CNDD. Using a structured questionnaire, the Family-Centered Care Self-Assessment Tool developed by Family Voices, this study surveyed 122 parents of CNDD in a large urban area during 2010-2012. Data collected information on FCC in the provision of primary health care services for CNDD and focused on family-provider partnerships, care setting practices and policies, and community services. Frequency analysis classified participants' responses as strengths in the "most of the time" range, and weaknesses in the "never" range. Only 31 % of parents were satisfied with the primary health care their CNDD received. Based on an accepted definition of medical home services, 16 % of parents reported their CNDD had most aspects of a medical home, 64 % had some, and 20 % had none. Strengths in FCC were primarily evident in the family-provider partnership and care settings when focused on meeting the medical care needs of the child. Weaknesses in FCC were noted in meeting the needs of families, coordination, follow-up, and support with community resources. Improvements in key pediatric health care strategies for CNDD are recommended. CNDD and their families have multifaceted needs that require strong partnerships among parents, providers, and communities. Quality medical homes must include FCC and valued partnerships with diverse families and community-based providers. PMID:25724538

  19. No More Excuses: New Research on Assessing Students with Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sireci, Stephen G.

    2009-01-01

    The articles in this special issue of the "Journal of Applied Testing Technology" represent significant steps forward in the area of evaluating the validity of methods for assessing the educational achievement of students with disabilities. The studies address some of the most difficult student groups to assess--students with learning…

  20. Disability Assessment for Patients with Stroke.

    PubMed

    Jette, A M

    1997-01-01

    This review focuses on six prominent disability instruments designed and used in stroke research. The strengths and limitations of each are reviewed against four criteria which should be considered in selecting among existing instruments: the conceptual scope; the scaling method; its psychometric properties; and the instrument's feasibility. Outcomes measurement is an active area of investigation and the clinical researcher should follow the rehabilitation literature closely to keep abreast of the latest developments. PMID:27620373

  1. 42 CFR 435.340 - Protected medically needy coverage for blind and disabled individuals eligible in December 1973.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Protected medically needy coverage for blind and... Coverage of the Medically Needy § 435.340 Protected medically needy coverage for blind and disabled... of the blindness or disability criteria of the AB, APTD, or AABD plan; (b) For each consecutive...

  2. 42 CFR 435.340 - Protected medically needy coverage for blind and disabled individuals eligible in December 1973.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Protected medically needy coverage for blind and... Coverage of the Medically Needy § 435.340 Protected medically needy coverage for blind and disabled... of the blindness or disability criteria of the AB, APTD, or AABD plan; (b) For each consecutive...

  3. 42 CFR 435.340 - Protected medically needy coverage for blind and disabled individuals eligible in December 1973.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Protected medically needy coverage for blind and... Coverage of the Medically Needy § 435.340 Protected medically needy coverage for blind and disabled... of the blindness or disability criteria of the AB, APTD, or AABD plan; (b) For each consecutive...

  4. 42 CFR 435.340 - Protected medically needy coverage for blind and disabled individuals eligible in December 1973.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Protected medically needy coverage for blind and... Coverage of the Medically Needy § 435.340 Protected medically needy coverage for blind and disabled... of the blindness or disability criteria of the AB, APTD, or AABD plan; (b) For each consecutive...

  5. 42 CFR 435.340 - Protected medically needy coverage for blind and disabled individuals eligible in December 1973.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Protected medically needy coverage for blind and... Coverage of the Medically Needy § 435.340 Protected medically needy coverage for blind and disabled... of the blindness or disability criteria of the AB, APTD, or AABD plan; (b) For each consecutive...

  6. Chronic migraine with medication overuse: association between disability and quality of life measures, and impact of disease on patients' lives.

    PubMed

    Raggi, Alberto; Schiavolin, Silvia; Leonardi, Matilde; Giovannetti, Ambra Mara; Bussone, Gennaro; Curone, Marcella; Di Fiore, Paola; Grazzi, Licia; Usai, Susanna; D'Amico, Domenico

    2015-01-15

    Patients with chronic migraine with medication overuse (CM-MO) have decreased quality of life (QoL) and increased disability: the degree to which these outcomes are connected to disease severity and the pattern of MO towards disease severity are unclear. Patients under withdrawal were administered the Migraine Disability Assessment (MIDAS), the WHO Disability Assessment Schedule (WHODAS), and the Migraine-Specific Quality of Life Questionnaire (MSQ). They overused NSAIDs, triptans, NSAIDs and triptans, and other drugs (ergotamine, caffeine, opioids/barbiturates). We calculated the correlations between MIDAS, WHODAS, and MSQ; compared WHODAS to normative scores; compared MIDAS, WHODAS, and MSQ in patients with different CM-MO severity; and run a logistic regression to predict CM-MO severity based on overused drugs. One hundred ninety-four patients were enrolled: correlations between WHODAS, MSQ, and MIDAS were moderate; wide differences on WHODAS against normative were found; and no trend was found across severity groups. Compared to triptans overusers, patients overusing NSAID and other drugs had higher odds of severe CM-MO. Coupling different disability measures with QoL assessment offered different insights on the lived experience of CM-MO. Future studies are needed to clarify the relationship between overused drugs and CM-MO severity: we added evidence that NSAIDs do not have protective effect in high-frequency CM-MO. PMID:25434715

  7. A Comprehensive Approach to Assessing and Remediating Learning Disabilities in Learning Disabled College Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Washington, Michael H.

    A systems approach was used to assess, remediate, and/or develop compensatory strategies in learning disabled college students. The approach consisted of four components: an analysis of the educational task, preparation of criterion measures, preparation of behavioral objectives, and preparation of instructional sequences. A task analysis was…

  8. Knowledge and Perceptions of Newly Graduated Medical Practitioners in Malaysia of Their Role in Medical Care of People with Developmental Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moyle, Judith L.; Iacono, Teresa; Liddell, Merilyn

    2010-01-01

    Improving content and consistency on developmental disabilities in undergraduate medical curricula has been recommended as a means of improving health outcomes for people with developmental disabilities. Although often the subject of studies in Western countries, little is known about content on developmental disabilities in undergraduate…

  9. [The application of migraine disability assessment questionnaire (MIDAS)].

    PubMed

    Hung, Pei-Hua; Fuh, Jong-Ling; Wang, Shuu-Jiun

    2006-03-01

    Migraine is a recurring and disabling pain disorder. The prevalence is estimated as 9.1% in Taiwan. Patients suffer from significant loss of work, time at school or ability to perform household chores, as well as other family or leisure activities. Treatment strategies during migraine attacks should be tailored based on the severity of disability. Stewart and Lipton (1999) developed the Migraine Disability Assessment Questionnaire (MIDAS) to assess the severity of disability related to migraine. This simple, self-administered, 7-item questionnaire focuses on disability in three domains (school or paid work, household chores, and family, social, or leisure activities) in the first 5 items of the questionnaire. The internal consistency, test-retest reliability, validity, ease of use, and clinical utility were all tested with good results. The questionnaire offers a simple tool to improve physician-patient communication. As for treatment strategies, a recent large-scale study done in the USA showed that it is more efficacious to treat migraine patients by adopting a strategy of stratified care based on different disability status than a stepped-care strategy. The simple questionnaire, MIDAS, has received world-wide popularity and has been translated into Japanese, Italian and Turkish. All of these versions showed good reliability and validity. Recently, one of our studies demonstrated that the Taiwan version also yielded comparable internal consistency, reliability, and validity. We hope that the MIDAS questionnaire can be widely adopted in Taiwan to help physicians assess their patients' disability related to migraine and provide clues for clinical management. PMID:16599285

  10. Hospitalizations of Adults with Intellectual Disability in Academic Medical Centers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ailey, Sarah H.; Johnson, Tricia; Fogg, Louis; Friese, Tanya R.

    2014-01-01

    Individuals with intellectual disability (ID) represent a small but important group of hospitalized patients who often have complex health care needs. Individuals with ID experience high rates of hospitalization for ambulatory-sensitive conditions and high rates of hospitalizations in general, even when in formal community care systems; however,…

  11. Sterilization and medical treatment of the mentally disabled: some legal and ethical reflections.

    PubMed

    Rivet, M

    1990-01-01

    Comparative cares involving the sterilization of mentally disabled persons are cited to contextualise reforms made by legal organizations and institutions in Canada in the field. An assessment of the current state of affairs regarding sterilization is made. PMID:2126840

  12. Discrepancy Dinosaurs and the Evolution of Specific Learning Disability Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moores-Abdool, Whitney; Unzueta, Caridad H.; Vazquez Donet, Dolores; Bijlsma, Eduard

    2008-01-01

    Identifying Specific Learning Disability (SLD) has been an arduous task. Until IDEA 2004, diagnosing SLD was limited to IQ discrepancy models lacking in both empirical evidence and contributing to minority over-representation. This paper examines the history of SLD assessment, the phenomena of minority over-representation, and the implementation…

  13. Investigating Access to Educational Assessment for Students with Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woods, Kevin; Parkinson, Gill; Lewis, Sarah

    2010-01-01

    Many countries have established systems for identifying, and providing for, the range of students with disabilities during their formal educational assessments. Most systems include the provision of variously termed "special access arrangements" (SAAs), such as the provision of extra time or practical assistance with some aspect of an examination.…

  14. Reinforcer Assessment for Children with Developmental Disabilities and Visual Impairments.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paclawskyj, Theodosia R.; Vollmer, Timothy R.

    1995-01-01

    The applicability of two reinforcer assessment procedures to children with developmental disabilities and visual impairments was evaluated. Greater differentiation between stimuli occurred with a choice procedure than with a preference procedure. Measurement of compliance and responding rate in adaptive skill training confirmed that the choice…

  15. Assessing Social Perception Abilities in Learning Disabled Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maheady, Larry; Maitland, George E.

    1982-01-01

    Experimental attempts at assessing the social perception skills of learning disabled (LD) children are reviewed, along with methodological concerns relative to these experiments, and possible directions for future social perception research. Ten studies that examined LD children's ability to interpret nonverbal cues indicated they performed more…

  16. Pica in Persons with Developmental Disabilities: Characteristics, Diagnosis, and Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matson, Johnny L.; Belva, Brian; Hattier, Megan A.; Matson, Michael L.

    2011-01-01

    Pica is a very serious and often life threatening problem which occurs largely in persons with developmental disabilities. The topic has received sporadic attention from researchers for several decades. This paper reviews definitions, diagnostic implications, causes, prevalence, and assessment methods that have been described in the research…

  17. Assessment of Cognitive Social Skills in Learning Disabled Boys.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Romano, Joan M.; Bellack, Alan S.

    Cognitive social skills were assessed in 22 learning disabled (LD), 18 behavior problem, and 20 control boys in grades 7-9. Measures included an interview tapping social knowledge, self-reported behavior, generation of alternative solutions to social problems, and the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-Revised Vocabulary Scale. Sociometric…

  18. Assessment of Anger Coping Skills in Individuals with Intellectual Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Willner, P.; Brace, N.; Phillips, J.

    2005-01-01

    Recent controlled studies have supported the effectiveness of anger management training for people with intellectual disabilities (IDs). This report describes an evaluation instrument designed to assess their usage of specific anger coping skills. The Profile of Anger Coping Skills (PACS) is designed for completion by a staff member or carer.…

  19. Clinical Assessment of Adult Sexual Offenders with Learning Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tudway, Jeremy A.; Darmoody, Malcolm

    2005-01-01

    Assessment and treatment of adults with learning disabilities who commit sexual offences presents a number of challenges. Much of the professional forensic and psychiatric literature on work with this group concentrates on the development of interventions based on theoretical models of sexual offending originating from the mainstream criminal…

  20. Sexual Risk Assessment for People with Intellectual Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Embregts, P.; van den Bogaard, K.; Hendriks, L.; Heestermans, M.; Schuitemaker, M.; van Wouwe, H.

    2010-01-01

    Given that sexually offensive behavior on the part of people with intellectual disabilities has been identified as a significant problem, we developed a risk assessment questionnaire, that takes not only various static and dynamic factors into account but also environmental risk variables. Psychologists and staff members completed this Risk…

  1. Are multiple choice tests fair to medical students with specific learning disabilities?

    PubMed

    Ricketts, Chris; Brice, Julie; Coombes, Lee

    2010-05-01

    The purpose of multiple choice tests of medical knowledge is to estimate as accurately as possible a candidate's level of knowledge. However, concern is sometimes expressed that multiple choice tests may also discriminate in undesirable and irrelevant ways, such as between minority ethnic groups or by sex of candidates. There is little literature to establish whether multiple choice tests may also discriminate against students with specific learning disabilities (SLDs), in particular those with a diagnosis of dyslexia, and whether the commonly-used accommodations allow such students to perform up to their capability. We looked for evidence to help us determine whether multiple choice tests could be relied upon to test all medical students fairly, regardless of disability. We analyzed the mean scores of over 900 undergraduate medical students on eight multiple-choice progress tests containing 1,000 items using a repeated-measures analysis of variance. We included disability, gender and ethnicity as possible explanatory factors, as well as year group. There was no significant difference between mean scores of students with an SLD who had test accommodations and students with no SLD and no test accommodation. Virtually all students were able to complete the tests within the allowed time. There were no significant differences between the mean scores of known minority ethnic groups or between the genders. We conclude that properly-designed multiple-choice tests of medical knowledge do not systematically discriminate against medical students with specific learning disabilities. PMID:19763855

  2. Developmental Dyscalculia and Medical Assessment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shalev, Ruth S.; Gross-Tsur, Varda

    1993-01-01

    Medical evaluation of seven third-grade children with developmental dyscalculia in a mainstream setting identified neurological conditions (including petit mal seizures, Gerstmann syndrome, and attention deficit disorder without hyperactivity) in all the children. Findings suggest that children who are not improving academically should undergo…

  3. 10 CFR 712.14 - Medical assessment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... certification. This psychological evaluation consists of a psychological assessment (test), approved by the... (test) may also be conducted as warranted. (3) Every third year. The medical assessment for recertification must include a psychological assessment (test) approved by the Director, Office of Health...

  4. 10 CFR 712.14 - Medical assessment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... certification. This psychological evaluation consists of a psychological assessment (test), approved by the... (test) may also be conducted as warranted. (3) Every third year. The medical assessment for recertification must include a psychological assessment (test) approved by the Director, Office of Health...

  5. 10 CFR 712.14 - Medical assessment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... certification. This psychological evaluation consists of a psychological assessment (test), approved by the... (test) may also be conducted as warranted. (3) Every third year. The medical assessment for recertification must include a psychological assessment (test) approved by the Director, Office of Health...

  6. 10 CFR 712.14 - Medical assessment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... certification. This psychological evaluation consists of a psychological assessment (test), approved by the... (test) may also be conducted as warranted. (3) Every third year. The medical assessment for recertification must include a psychological assessment (test) approved by the Director, Office of Health...

  7. Working with Individuals Who Are Medically Fragile or Have Physical Disabilities. Module Six. Facilitator's Edition [and] Student's Edition. Strategies for Paraprofessionals Who Support Individuals with Disabilities Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ness, Jean E.

    The sixth in a series of federally supported modules for training paraprofessional school personnel who work with students with disabilities, this module presents information on working with individuals who are medically fragile or have physical disabilities. Both a facilitator's edition and a student's edition are provided. Chapter 1 examines the…

  8. 42 CFR 435.330 - Medically needy coverage of the aged, blind, and disabled in States using more restrictive...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Medically needy coverage of the aged, blind, and....330 Medically needy coverage of the aged, blind, and disabled in States using more restrictive... categorically needy only to those aged, blind, or disabled individuals who meet more restrictive...

  9. 42 CFR 435.330 - Medically needy coverage of the aged, blind, and disabled in States using more restrictive...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Medically needy coverage of the aged, blind, and....330 Medically needy coverage of the aged, blind, and disabled in States using more restrictive... categorically needy only to those aged, blind, or disabled individuals who meet more restrictive...

  10. 42 CFR 435.330 - Medically needy coverage of the aged, blind, and disabled in States using more restrictive...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Medically needy coverage of the aged, blind, and....330 Medically needy coverage of the aged, blind, and disabled in States using more restrictive... categorically needy only to those aged, blind, or disabled individuals who meet more restrictive...

  11. 42 CFR 435.330 - Medically needy coverage of the aged, blind, and disabled in States using more restrictive...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Medically needy coverage of the aged, blind, and....330 Medically needy coverage of the aged, blind, and disabled in States using more restrictive... categorically needy only to those aged, blind, or disabled individuals who meet more restrictive...

  12. Facing Learning Disabilities in the Adult Years. Understanding Dyslexia, ADHD, Assessment, Intervention, and Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shapiro, Joan; Rich, Rebecca

    This text provides information on learning disabilities in adults and offers practical ways to compensate. Chapters address: (1) definitions of learning disability; (2) etiology of learning disabilities; (3) our cognitive or thinking systems; (4) different assessment settings and some of the tests used to diagnose a learning disability; (5)…

  13. Medical Assessment of Late Effects of National Socialist Persecution

    PubMed Central

    Grobin, W.

    1965-01-01

    Emotional involvement of the examiner, hostility and mistrust on the part of the examinees and the long interval since the original events comprise some of the problems facing medical assessors of survivors of National Socialist persecution. Experience with over 100 such persons confirmed the high incidence of irreversible and usually disabling disorders, mainly functional and psychiatric—“late damage” as it has been designated in recent reports on this subject. The most common disorders encountered in the assessments of 70 survivors are reviewed. A number of organic diseases such as organic brain damage, active tuberculosis and fractures were revealed only after careful search. Recent findings by psychiatric assessors are reviewed; their plea for greater familiarity with late effects in survivors of National Socialist persecution is echoed, and the need for medical, psychiatric and social support of these unfortunate individuals is emphasized. PMID:14289139

  14. [MEDRISK--an expert system for medical risk assessment].

    PubMed

    Mayer-Ohly, E; Regenauer, A

    1995-10-01

    The Munich Reinsurance Company has developed a rule-based expert system for assessing substandard risk in life, disability and accidental death benefit. It is one of the most comprehensive medical expert systems yet conceived and currently includes entries for over 7500 impairment terms. Based on the most up-to-date insurance medical knowledge MEDRISK allows underwriters, irrespective of their level of experience, to process both simple and highly complex cases. The system which takes account of the interactive effect that can exist between different impairments as well as the influence which occupational factors can exert, always produces consistent and case-specific decisions. The number of impairments and types of insurance included in MEDRISK can be expanded. After tests at Munich Re and at a number of insurance companies, the system ist now ready to be launched in German speaking markets. PMID:7483188

  15. Atypical Antipsychotic Medication Improves Aggression, but Not Self-Injurious Behaviour, in Adults with Intellectual Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ruedrich, S. L.; Swales, T. P.; Rossvanes, C.; Diana, L.; Arkadiev, V.; Lim, K.

    2008-01-01

    Objective: Atypical antipsychotic medications have largely supplanted their typical counterparts, both for psychosis and for the treatment of aggression and/or self-injurious behaviour (SIB), in persons with intellectual disabilities (ID). However, with the exception of risperidone, little systematic research supports their use in such persons.…

  16. Medical Expenditures Attributable to Cerebral Palsy and Intellectual Disability among Medicaid-Enrolled Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kancherla, Vijaya; Amendah, Djesika D.; Grosse, Scott D.; Yeargin-Allsopp, Marshalyn; Van Naarden Braun, Kim

    2012-01-01

    This study estimated medical expenditures attributable to cerebral palsy (CP) among children enrolled in Medicaid, stratified by the presence of co-occurring intellectual disability (ID), relative to children without CP or ID. The MarketScan[R] Medicaid Multi-State database was used to identify children with CP for 2003-2005 by using the…

  17. Children on Medication: Volume I. Hyperactivity, Learning Disabilities, and Mental Retardation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gadow, Kenneth D.

    Intended for caregivers, the book provides basic information about the use of medication for children with hyperactivity, learning disabilities, and mental retardation. The main emphasis is on psychotropic drug use for hyperactivity and aggressiveness. Chapter 1 explains fundamental terms and concepts relating to drug therapy. Major stresses…

  18. Conforming a Voluntary Medical Leave of Absence Policy to Recent Interpretations of Disability Law

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meilman, Philip W.

    2016-01-01

    In 2011, Georgetown University worked to revise its medical leave of absence (MLOA) policy to be in conformity with evolving standards and interpretations of disability law as it pertains to university students. The article describes the new policy, which was reviewed and approved by the U.S. Department of Education's Office for Civil Rights.…

  19. Comorbid Diagnosis and Concomitant Medical Treatment for Children with Emotional and Behavioral Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hall, Kristina M.; Bowman, Krista A.; Ley, Katie; Frankenberger, William

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of the current study was to determine the types of psychiatric disorders and the corresponding medications prescribed to children enrolled in elementary Emotional Behavioral Disability (EBD) programs. The project employed a questionnaire that was distributed to elementary level teachers (EBD) to: (a) determine the proportion of …

  20. The Relationship among Side Effects Associated with Anti-Epileptic Medications in Those with Intellectual Disability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sipes, Megan; Matson, Johnny L.; Belva, Brian; Turygin, Nicole; Kozlowski, Alison M.; Horovitz, Max

    2011-01-01

    Seizures are fairly common in those with intellectual disabilities. In order to treat these seizures, antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) are often used and in many cases are effective. However, these medications often create a variety of associated side effects. In order to monitor these side effects, measures such as the SEIZES-B have been used. While…

  1. An Approach to Meeting the Needs of Medical Students with Learning Disabilities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walters, Janice A.; Croen, Lila G.

    1993-01-01

    A study at the Albert Einstein College of Medicine (Yeshiva University, New York) has identified students from each medical class with previously unidentified learning disabilities. In three case studies, the importance of early identification and support is illustrated. In each case, dramatic improvement occurred with student awareness and…

  2. Medical Service Utilization among Youth with School-Identified Disabilities in Residential Care

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lambert, Matthew C.; Trout, Alexandra L.; Nelson, Timothy D.; Epstein, Michael H.; W. Thompson, Ronald

    2016-01-01

    Background: Behavioral, social, emotional, and educational risks among children and youth with school identified disabilities served in residential care have been well documented. However, the health care needs and medical service utilization of this high-risk population are less well known. Given the risks associated with children with…

  3. Using pictures to assess reinforcers in individuals with developmental disabilities.

    PubMed

    Graff, Richard B; Gibson, Lenwood

    2003-09-01

    Tangible preference assessments were compared with pictorial preference assessments for 4 individuals with developmental disabilities. In the tangible assessment, on each trial two stimuli were selected and placed in front of the participant, who approached one. In the pictorial assessment, on each trial two line drawings were placed in front of the participant, who pointed to one. For both assessments, the percentage of opportunities each stimulus was approached or touched was calculated, and hierarchies of preferred items were developed. The two assessments yielded similar preference hierarchies for 3 of 4 participants. Reinforcer assessments using a simple free operant response confirmed that items identified as highly preferred on tangible and pictorial assessments functioned as reinforcers. PMID:12971123

  4. Impact of evidence-based standardized assessment on the disability clinical interview for diagnosis of service-connected PTSD: a cluster-randomized trial.

    PubMed

    Speroff, Theodore; Sinnott, Patricia L; Marx, Brian; Owen, Richard R; Jackson, James C; Greevy, Robert; Sayer, Nina; Murdoch, Maureen; Shane, Andrea C; Smith, Jeffrey; Alvarez, JoAnn; Nwosu, Samuel K; Keane, Terence; Weathers, Frank; Schnurr, Paula P; Friedman, Matthew J

    2012-12-01

    Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is one of the fastest growing compensated medical conditions. The present study compared usual disability examiner practices for PTSD with a standardized assessment that incorporates evidence-based assessments. The design was a multicenter, cluster randomized, parallel-group study involving 33 clinical examiners and 384 veterans at 6 Veterans Affairs medical centers. The standardized group incorporated the Clinician Administered PTSD Scale and the World Health Organization Disability Assessment Schedule-II into their assessment interview. The main outcome measures were completeness and accuracy of PTSD diagnosis and completeness of functional assessment. The standardized assessments were 85% complete for diagnosis compared to 30% for nonstandardized assessments (p < .001), and, for functional impairment, 76% versus 3% (p < .001). The findings demonstrate that the quality of PTSD disability examination would be improved by using evidence-based assessment. PMID:23225029

  5. Dyslexia and Learning Disabilities: Medical Diagnosis with Educational Therapy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Westerman, S. Thomas; And Others

    1982-01-01

    Ways of diagnosing dyslexia are discussed along with the developmental symptoms, which include balancing and hearing deficiencies, reversal of letters or words and unusual posture. Medical treatment with antihistamines and other drugs is described. Approximately 75 percent of individuals are shown to respond favorably to therapy. (CM)

  6. Why We Need Reliable, Valid, and Appropriate Learning Disability Assessments: The Perspective of a Postsecondary Disability Service Provider

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wolforth, Joan

    2012-01-01

    This paper discusses issues regarding the validity and reliability of psychoeducational assessments provided to Disability Services Offices at Canadian Universities. Several vignettes illustrate some current issues and the potential consequences when university students are given less than thorough disability evaluations and ascribed diagnoses.…

  7. Assessing choice making among children with multiple disabilities.

    PubMed Central

    Sigafoos, J; Dempsey, R

    1992-01-01

    Some learners with multiple disabilities display idiosyncratic gestures that are interpreted as a means of making choices. In the present study, we assessed the validity of idiosyncratic choice-making behaviors of 3 children with multiple disabilities. Opportunities for each child to choose between food and drink were provided under two conditions. In one condition, the children were given the food or drink item corresponding to their prior choice. In the other condition, the teacher delivered the item opposite to that chosen. It was reasoned that valid choice-making behaviors would be reflected in a greater tendency to accept the chosen item and refuse the unchosen item. Direct observations revealed all children consistently indicated choices during both conditions. Choices of both the food and drink items were made by all 3 children. A reversal design demonstrated that acts of refusal were more frequent when choices were followed by delivery of the item opposite to that chosen. Similar assessment procedures may be effective in determining the function of idiosyncratic gestures exhibited by persons with multiple disabilities. For children lacking such skills, intervention to teach valid choice-making behaviors may be needed to complement assessment procedures. PMID:1429325

  8. Assessing Early Language Development in Children with Vision Disability and Motor Disability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hennessey, Stephen

    2011-01-01

    This article describes a method for identifying test items as disability neutral for children with vision and motor disabilities. Graduate students rated 130 items of the Preschool Language Scale and obtained inter-rater correlation coefficients of 0.58 for ratings of items as disability neutral for children with vision disability, and 0.77 for…

  9. Effect of Chronic Medical Conditions in Veterans with Multiple Sclerosis on Long-Term Disability.

    PubMed

    Rabadi, Meheroz H; Aston, Christopher E

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND The goal of this observational study was to examine the effect of common chronic medical conditions (CMCs) on long-term disability (activity limitation) in veterans already diagnosed with multiple sclerosis (MS). MATERIAL AND METHODS We retrospectively reviewed the electronic charts of 124 veterans with MS who have been regularly followed in our MS clinic for 10 or more years. General linear model analysis examined whether MS-related severity as measured by the Expanded Disability Status Scale (EDSS) and the presence of CMCs affected long-term disability as measured by the total score on the Functional Independence Measure (TFIM). RESULTS Commonly encountered CMCs were increased BMI (61%), hyperlipidemia (78%), hypertension (65%), current smokers (47%), and arthritis/arthralgia (24%). Results suggest that the number of CMCs was not predictive of final TFIM scores; of the variables examined, only initial EDSS score was predictive of final TFIM scores. CONCLUSIONS The presence of CMCs did not affect the long-term disability in veterans diagnosed with MS, this was due mainly to CMCs being closely monitored and co-treated with other medical specialties. PMID:27494787

  10. Effect of Chronic Medical Conditions in Veterans with Multiple Sclerosis on Long-Term Disability

    PubMed Central

    Rabadi, Meheroz H.; Aston, Christopher E.

    2016-01-01

    Background The goal of this observational study was to examine the effect of common chronic medical conditions (CMCs) on long-term disability (activity limitation) in veterans already diagnosed with multiple sclerosis (MS). Material/Methods We retrospectively reviewed the electronic charts of 124 veterans with MS who have been regularly followed in our MS clinic for 10 or more years. General linear model analysis examined whether MS-related severity as measured by the Expanded Disability Status Scale (EDSS) and the presence of CMCs affected long-term disability as measured by the total score on the Functional Independence Measure (TFIM). Results Commonly encountered CMCs were increased BMI (61%), hyperlipidemia (78%), hypertension (65%), current smokers (47%), and arthritis/arthralgia (24%). Results suggest that the number of CMCs was not predictive of final TFIM scores; of the variables examined, only initial EDSS score was predictive of final TFIM scores. Conclusions The presence of CMCs did not affect the long-term disability in veterans diagnosed with MS, this was due mainly to CMCs being closely monitored and co-treated with other medical specialties. PMID:27494787

  11. Medical treatment for older people and people with disabilities: 1989 developments. National Legal Center Staff.

    PubMed

    1990-01-01

    Pending before the United States Supreme Court are cases involving eligibility of children with disabilities for Supplemental Security Income (SSI) benefits and a guardian's authority to withhold nutrition and hydration from a permanently disabled but not terminally ill ward. The United States Commission on Civil Rights has issued a comprehensive report demonstrating evidence of current discrimination against infants with disabilities and examining current legal protections. In the federal courts, litigation continues in a case brought by parents on behalf of their infants with disabilities who were allegedly denied medical treatment on the basis of disability. State courts continue to examine the rights of competent and incompetent patients to forgo life-sustaining treatment, including nutrition and hydration. Discrimination against persons with AIDS or HIV continues to affect their access to health care. In 1989 forty states and the District of Columbia have "living will" legislation, and nine states have durable power of attorney for health care laws; however, the provisions of each vary from state to state. PMID:2138594

  12. Outcomes Assessment in Veterinary Medical Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Black, Leslie S.; Turnwald, Grant H.; Meldrum, James B.

    2002-01-01

    Describes the Virginia-Maryland Regional College of Veterinary Medicine's use of outcomes assessment (OA) as part of the accreditation review process for the American Veterinary Medical Association. Discusses its nine OA survey instruments and use of resulting data during accreditation. (EV)

  13. Urgent Medical Assessment after Child Sexual Abuse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Palusci, Vincent J.; Cox, Edward O.; Shatz, Eugene M.; Schultze, Joel M.

    2006-01-01

    Background: Immediate medical assessment has been recommended for children after sexual abuse to identify physical injuries, secure forensic evidence, and provide for the safety of the child. However, it is unclear whether young children seen urgently within 72 hours of reported sexual contact would have higher frequencies of interview or…

  14. 14 CFR 382.23 - May carriers require a passenger with a disability to provide a medical certificate?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false May carriers require a passenger with a disability to provide a medical certificate? 382.23 Section 382.23 Aeronautics and Space OFFICE OF THE... BASIS OF DISABILITY IN AIR TRAVEL Nondiscrimination and Access to Services and Information § 382.23...

  15. 14 CFR 382.23 - May carriers require a passenger with a disability to provide a medical certificate?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false May carriers require a passenger with a disability to provide a medical certificate? 382.23 Section 382.23 Aeronautics and Space OFFICE OF THE... BASIS OF DISABILITY IN AIR TRAVEL Nondiscrimination and Access to Services and Information § 382.23...

  16. 14 CFR 382.23 - May carriers require a passenger with a disability to provide a medical certificate?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false May carriers require a passenger with a disability to provide a medical certificate? 382.23 Section 382.23 Aeronautics and Space OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (AVIATION PROCEEDINGS) SPECIAL REGULATIONS NONDISCRIMINATION ON THE BASIS OF DISABILITY IN AIR...

  17. 14 CFR 382.23 - May carriers require a passenger with a disability to provide a medical certificate?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false May carriers require a passenger with a disability to provide a medical certificate? 382.23 Section 382.23 Aeronautics and Space OFFICE OF THE... BASIS OF DISABILITY IN AIR TRAVEL Nondiscrimination and Access to Services and Information § 382.23...

  18. Longitudinal Prescribing Patterns for Psychoactive Medications in Community-Based Individuals with Developmental Disabilities: Utilization of Pharmacy Records

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lott, I. T.; McGregor, M.; Engelman, L.; Touchette, P.; Tournay, A.; Sandman, C.; Fernandez, G.; Plon, L.; Walsh, D.

    2004-01-01

    Little is known about longitudinal prescribing practices for psychoactive medications for individuals with intellectual disabilities and developmental disabilities (IDDD) who are living in community settings. Computerized pharmacy records were accessed for 2344 community-based individuals with IDDD for whom a total of 3421 prescriptions were…

  19. Results of barbiturate antiepileptic drug discontinuation on antipsychotic medication dose in individuals with intellectual disability.

    PubMed

    Hanzel, T E; Bauernfeind, J D; Kalachnik, J E; Harder, S R

    2000-04-01

    Five individuals with intellectual disability prescribed both a barbiturate antiepileptic drug (AED) and an antipsychotic medication were identified in a public residential facility. It was hypothesized that antipsychotic medication was prescribed at doses higher than necessary as a result of inadvertent barbiturate AED behavioural side-effects thought to be part of the underlying psychiatric or behavioural condition. To test this hypothesis, barbiturate AEDs were gradually reduced, and replaced with either carbamazepine or valproic acid, and antipsychotic medication was gradually reduced as well. Challenging behaviours, such as physical aggression, self-injurious behaviour and property destruction, were measured with a frequency count or partial interval recording, and retrospectively analysed for time periods of approximately 60 days before phenobarbital reduction, after phenobarbital discontinuation and after the lowest antipsychotic medication dose. Challenging behaviour collectively decreased by 81.5% after barbiturate discontinuation, mean antipsychotic medication dose significantly decreased from 146 mg day(-1) (SD = 98) to 106 mg day(-1) (SD = 88) chlorpromazine equivalence, and antipsychotic medication was discontinued in the cases of two individuals. Compared to the prebarbiturate AED reduction period, challenging behaviour collectively decreased by 96.3% after the lowest antipsychotic medication dose, which confirmed that reduced antipsychotic medication was not achieved at the expense of behaviour deterioration. The data supported the hypothesis that discontinuation of barbiturate AEDs results in decreased challenging behaviour and less antipsychotic medication. PMID:10898379

  20. Development of a Preschool Developmental Assessment Scale for Assessment of Developmental Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leung, Cynthia; Mak, Rose; Lau, Vanessa; Cheung, Jasmine; Lam, Catherine

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this paper was to describe the development of the cognitive domain of the Preschool Developmental Assessment Scale (PDAS) for assessment of preschool children with developmental disabilities. The initial version of the cognitive domain consisted of 87 items. They were administered to 324 preschool children, including 240 children from…

  1. Behavioral and Psychiatric Differences in Medication Side Effects in Adults with Severe Intellectual Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matson, Johnny L.; Fodstad, Jill C.; Rivet, Tessa T.; Rojahn, Johannes

    2009-01-01

    Participants were 109 adults with severe intellectual disabilities and long histories of psychotropic drug use. Side effect profiles were examined in the context of types of mental health disorders observed using the Diagnostic Assessment for the Severely Handicapped-Revised (DASH-II) and the Behavior Problems Inventory-Revised (BPI-01). The best…

  2. Assessment of Reading and Learning Disabilities: A Research-Based Intervention-Oriented Approach.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fletcher, Jack M.; Foorman, Barbara R.; Boudousquie, Amy

    2002-01-01

    Reviews implications of the three primary components of the federal definition of learning disabilities (discrepancy, heterogeneity, and exclusion) for the assessment of children with learning disabilities (LD). Also proposes a rationale and procedures for more efficient approaches to the identification of children as learning disabled that are…

  3. Frames of Reference for the Assessment of Learning Disabilities: New Views on Measurement Issues.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lyon, G. Reid, Ed.

    This book offers 27 papers addressing critical issues in the assessment of students with all kinds of learning disabilities. Papers have the following titles and authors: "Critical Issues in the Measurement of Learning Disabilities" (G. Reid Lyon); "A Matrix of Decision Points in the Measurement of Learning Disabilities" (Barbara K. Keogh);…

  4. Disability retirement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eck, R. L.

    1975-01-01

    Eligibility for disability retirement is discussed. General guidelines and a few standards are given. Usually the same basic medical principles apply to the evaluation of claims for disability retirement as apply to determining medical suitability for initial employment.

  5. 10 CFR 712.36 - Medical assessment process.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Medical assessment process. 712.36 Section 712.36 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY HUMAN RELIABILITY PROGRAM Medical Standards § 712.36 Medical assessment process. (a) The Designated Physician, under the supervision of the SOMD, is responsible for the medical assessment of HRP candidates and...

  6. Physically Disabled People Assess the Quality of their Lives.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weinberg, Nancy

    1984-01-01

    Interviews conducted with 30 disabled adults having varying degrees of orthopedic and spinal cord disabilities, deafness, and severe visual impairments revealed that 50 percent of the congenitally disabled would choose surgery guaranteed to completely cure the disability, and 50 percent opted for no surgery, fearing change in their satisfying…

  7. Assessment and Documentation Considerations for Postsecondary Students with Learning Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lindstrom, Jennifer H.; Lindstrom, Will

    2011-01-01

    In order to gain access to accommodations and services at colleges and universities, students with learning disabilities must provide documentation of their disabilities, and as students with learning disabilities access higher education at increasing rates, the need for documentation of their disabilities and its impact becomes even more…

  8. Disability Identity--Disability Pride

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Nicola

    2012-01-01

    This paper discusses a way of thinking about disability which has emerged out of the UK Disabled People's Movement over the last three decades in opposition to the preceding medical model of disability which viewed disability as synonymous with problem. Disabled people are increasingly challenging the notion that their embodiment is inherently…

  9. Agreement in Quality of Life Assessment between Adolescents with Intellectual Disability and Their Parents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Golubovic, Spela; Skrbic, Renata

    2013-01-01

    Intellectual disability affects different aspects of functioning and quality of life, as well as the ability to independently assess the quality of life itself. The paper examines the agreement in the quality of life assessments made by adolescents with intellectual disability and their parents compared with assessments made by adolescents without…

  10. Confronting the Unique Challenges of Including English Language Learners with Disabilities in Statewide Assessments. ELLs with Disabilities Report 9

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Michael E.; Minnema, Jane E.; Thurlow, Martha L.; Hall-Lande, Jennifer

    2005-01-01

    This report examines this state-level knowledge base to determine the challenges that state educational agencies face when including English language learners with disabilities in statewide assessments and the solutions they have identified. To do this telephone interviews were conducted with state department personnel in the areas of assessment,…

  11. The State of Health in Older Adults in Japan: Trends in Disability, Chronic Medical Conditions and Mortality

    PubMed Central

    Ishii, Shinya; Ogawa, Sumito; Akishita, Masahiro

    2015-01-01

    Both life expectancy and healthy life expectancy in Japan have been increasing and are among the highest in the world, but the gap between them has also been widening. To examine the recent trends in old age disability, chronic medical conditions and mortality in Japan, we retrospectively analyzed three nationally representative datasets: Comprehensive Survey of Living Conditions (2001–2013), Patient Survey (1996–2011) and Vital Statistics (1995–2010). We obtained the sex- and age-stratified trends in disability rate, treatment rates of nine selected chronic medical conditions (cerebrovascular diseases, joint disorders, fractures, osteoporosis, ischemic heart disease, diabetes mellitus, hypertension, pneumonia and malignant neoplasms), total mortality rate and mortality rates from specific causes (cerebrovascular diseases, heart diseases, pneumonia and malignant neoplasms) in both sexes in four age strata (65–69, 70–74, 75–79, 80–84 years). Disability rates declined significantly in both sexes. Treatment rates of all selected medical conditions also decreased significantly, except for fractures in women and pneumonia. Both total mortality rate and cause-specific mortality rates decreased in both sexes. We concluded that the recent decline in disability rates, treatment rates of chronic medical conditions and mortality rates points toward overall improvement in health conditions in adults over the age of 65 years in Japan. Nonetheless, considering the increase in the number of older adults, the absolute number of older adults with disability or chronic medical conditions will continue to increase and challenge medical and long-term care systems. PMID:26431468

  12. International Classification of Impairments, Disabilities and Handicaps: exercises in its application in a hospital medical record.

    PubMed

    Ford, B

    1984-01-01

    The principles and philosophies of the WHO International Classification of Impairments, Disabilities and Handicaps were enthusiastically espoused by all staff of a large rehabilitation hospital. It was universally seen as an accurate and standardized way of recording and reporting a patient's functional state and opened up opportunities for research between causation and consequences of diseases, the relations of impairments to handicaps, and so on. In short, it promised a hard data base about disability, which presently has been studied only anecdotally, or by large random community samples. The joy of the principle turned into torment when the attempts to apply the system to current and past medical records were made. Retrospective codification of existing records was found to be virtually impossible. Recorded data were patchy, insufficiently precise to translate into IDH codes and the codifier had to make so many value judgements, interpretations and guesses to squeeze what was written on the record into IDH codes. A totally new and disciplined way of making notations in medical records would be required to make this method applicable, and such a discipline presents challenges to the medical administrator which dwarfs the production of the WHO manual.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:6241185

  13. Avoiding genetic genocide: understanding good intentions and eugenics in the complex dialogue between the medical and disability communities

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Paul Steven; Levine, Rebecca Leah

    2013-01-01

    The relationship between the medical and disability communities is complex and is influenced by historical, social, and cultural factors. Although clinicians, health-care researchers, and people with disabilities all work from the standpoint of the best interest of disabled individuals, the notion of what actually is “best” is often understood quite differently among these constituencies. Eugenics campaigns, legal restrictions on reproductive and other freedoms, and prenatal testing recommendations predicated on the lesser worth of persons with disabilities have all contributed toward the historic trauma experienced by the disability community, particularly with respect to medical genetics. One premise of personalized medicine is that different individuals require different solutions. Disabled persons’ experiences are a reminder that these solutions can be best realized by maintaining awareness and sensitivity in a complex ethical and moral terrain. Geneticists should recognize that their research may have implications for those with disabilities; they should recognize the impact of the historical trauma of the eugenics movement, and seek to involve people with disabilities in discussions about policies that affect them. Dialogue can be messy and uncomfortable, but it is the only way to avoid the mistakes of the past and to ensure a more equitable, and healthful, future. PMID:22899092

  14. The Documentation of Health Problems in Relation to Prescribed Medication in People with Profound Intellectual and Multiple Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van der Heide, D. C.; van der Putten, A. A. J.; van den Berg, P. B.; Taxis, K.; Vlaskamp, C.

    2009-01-01

    Background: Persons with profound intellectual and multiple disabilities (PIMD) suffer from a wide range of health problems and use a wide range of different drugs. This study investigated for frequently used medication whether there was a health problem documented in the medical notes for the drug prescribed. Method: Persons with PIMD with an…

  15. 42 CFR 435.330 - Medically needy coverage of the aged, blind, and disabled in States using more restrictive...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... disabled in States using more restrictive eligibility requirements for Medicaid than those used under SSI... eligibility requirements for Medicaid than those used under SSI. (a) If an agency provides Medicaid as... than used under SSI and elects to cover the medically needy, it may provide Medicaid as medically...

  16. Medical Discrimination against Children with Disabilities. A Report of the U.S. Commission on Civil Rights.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Commission on Civil Rights, Washington, DC.

    This report, prepared pursuant to Public Law 98-183 (Child Abuse Amendments of 1984), examines the nature and extent of the practice of withholding medical treatment or nourishment from infants born with disabilities and makes recommendations to remedy deficiencies in existing law. Evidence suggests that decisions to withhold medically indicated…

  17. Some Educational Implications for Students with Profound Disabilities at Risk for Inadequate Nutrition and the Nontherapeutic Effects of Medication.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ault, Marilyn Mulligan; And Others

    1994-01-01

    This paper examines the educational relevance for students with profound disabilities of being at risk for poor nutrition and for problems caused by the nontherapeutic effects of some medications. Two classroom-based cases describe the resolution of a nutritional and a medication problem, including the role of the teacher and health-related…

  18. The Effects of Training on the Ability of Adults with an Intellectual Disability to Give Informed Consent to Medication

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferguson, L.; Murphy, G. H.

    2014-01-01

    Background: This study had two aims: to investigate the capacity of individuals with intellectual disabilities (ID) to make decisions about their medications, and to evaluate whether the provision of training (information) sessions on medications would increase their capacity. Method: Twenty-eight adults (18 male and 10 female), with a mild to…

  19. 38 CFR 3.361 - Benefits under 38 U.S.C. 1151(a) for additional disability or death due to hospital care, medical...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    .... 1151(a) for additional disability or death due to hospital care, medical or surgical treatment.... 1151(a) for additional disability or death due to hospital care, medical or surgical treatment..., VA compares the veteran's condition immediately before the beginning of the hospital care, medical...

  20. The Impact of Cognitive Assessment on the Identity of People with Learning Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davidson, Terence; Smith, Hilary; Burns, Jan

    2014-01-01

    Researchers and clinicians have hypothesised that cognitive assessments have the power to influence the self-identity of people with learning disabilities. This research aimed to explore the experience of a sample of people who had been given a cognitive assessment by a psychologist based in a team for people with learning disabilities. Five…

  1. The 2% Transition: Supporting Access to State Assessments for Students with Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jamgochian, Elisa M.; Ketterlin-Geller, Leanne R.

    2015-01-01

    Most students with disabilities participate in state assessments with or without accommodations [based on each student's Individualized Education Program (IEP)]. A small number of students with the most severe or profound intellectual disabilities participate in an alternate assessment based on alternate achievement standards (AA-AAS). Until…

  2. Guidelines for Providing Accommodations Using CASAS Assessment for Learners with Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    CASAS - Comprehensive Adult Student Assessment Systems (NJ1), 2005

    2005-01-01

    These guidelines address methods for administering Comprehensive Adult Student Assessment System (CASAS) assessments using accommodations for learners with documented disabilities. The suggested accommodations for disability categories include provisions for: (1) Accommodations in test administration procedures; and (2) Use of appropriate CASAS…

  3. Self-Report Assessment of Executive Functioning in College Students with Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grieve, Adam; Webne-Behrman, Lisa; Couillou, Ryan; Sieben-Schneider, Jill

    2014-01-01

    This study presents a unique assessment of executive functioning (EF) among postsecondary students with disabilities, with the aim of understanding the extent to which students with different disabilities and in different age groups assess their own difficulties with relevant and educationally-adaptive skills such as planning, initiating, managing…

  4. Use of a medication passport in a disabled child seen across many care settings.

    PubMed

    Jubraj, Barry; Blair, Mitchel

    2015-01-01

    Written information for patients about their medicines has demonstrable benefits for their understanding and adherence. In the UK, no single, complete record of medications for individual patients can be guaranteed. Therefore, patients and carers are often relied on to recall the complete medication list, which can be a challenge given multiple and potentially stressful appointments. Wide-ranging feedback suggests that a medication 'passport' developed by the National Institute for Health Research Collaboration for Leadership in Applied Health Research and Care North West London (NIHR CLAHRC NWL) has benefited elderly patients, who often attend many appointments where the current medication list may not be available. We describe the use of this passport (known as 'My Medication Passport'--MMP) in a child with multiple disabilities. The practical advantages are explored, including the potential for a paediatric version to facilitate discussions around the administration of medicines. MMP is an early example of a useful tool to help children and young people, parents and carers to manage medicines more effectively. PMID:25716039

  5. Mislabeled Reading and Learning Disabilities: Assessment and Treatment for Reading Difficulties in Students with Learning Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sze, Susan

    2009-01-01

    Reading affects a plethora of areas in life. Students with learning disabilities often fall into this category due to a lack of practice with reading and less time to focus on building skills. This paper examines the background, the relationship between reading and learning disabilities, the characteristics of students with learning disabilities…

  6. Computer-Assisted Teaching and Assessment of Disabled Students in Higher Education: The Interface between Academic Standards and Disability Rights

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Konur, O.

    2007-01-01

    Computer-assisted teaching and assessment has become a regular feature across many areas of the curriculum in higher education courses around the world in recent years. This development has resulted in the "digital divide" between disabled students and their nondisabled peers regarding their participation in computer-assisted courses. However,…

  7. 2010-11 Publicly Reported Assessment Results for Students with Disabilities and ELLs with Disabilities. Technical Report 68

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Albus, Deb; Thurlow, Martha

    2013-01-01

    This is the fourteenth report by the National Center on Educational Outcomes (NCEO) that analyzes public reporting practices for assessment data for students with disabilities in K-12 schools in the United States. This report includes information about both the 50 regular states and the 11 unique states (American Samoa, Bureau of Indian Education,…

  8. Development of a training programme in disability assessment methidology based on international classification of functioning, disability and health (icf) for psychiatric disability claims in Georgia.

    PubMed

    de Boer, W; Danelia, M; Zurabashvili, D; Chigladze, L

    2014-01-01

    The new concept for social integration of people with disabilities pointed at the need to develop disability assessment methodology with the subsequent validization, based on modern approaches that conceptualise disability as arising from the interaction of a person's functional status with the physical, cultural and policy environments, therefore focussing on an individual's functional abilities. The academy of Swiss insurance medicine, ASIM, worked together with Georgian representatives to develop the principles of functional assessment and provide a method of applying these principles. As instrument for output specification the Mini ICF APP was selected, translated and back translated from German to Georgian. A training course of one day was conducted after which psychiatrists tested the approach in 5 cases each and suggested minor modifications of interpretation. After this they each performed 40 assessments with the new methodology. Doing the assessments with the new procedure was appreciated by all participants and provoked no problems. Being asked to fill out the Mini ICF form in a systematic fashion makes the reports more objective and transparent. The shift to a functional approach in evaluation of disability for work is practicable with the methodology ASIM has developed for this purpose and this fits with the present legislation. This approach could be used in other fields than psychiatry as well. PMID:25214277

  9. Medical and Social Problems of the Disabled. A Report Based on the Technical Discussions of the Regional Committee for Europe (31st Session). EURO Reports and Studies 73.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kallio, V.

    The booklet reports on needs of disabled persons and discusses European rehabilitation programs in light of the emphasis on the International Year of Disabled Persons (IYDP). An introductory section reviews concepts and definitions of disability, prevention, and rehabilitation. A section on medical and social problems reviews population data and…

  10. Violence risk assessment as a medical intervention: ethical tensions

    PubMed Central

    Roychowdhury, Ashimesh; Adshead, Gwen

    2014-01-01

    Risk assessment differs from other medical interventions in that the welfare of the patient is not the immediate object of the intervention. However, improving the risk assessment process may reduce the chance of risk assessment itself being unjust. We explore the ethical arguments in relation to risk assessment as a medical intervention, drawing analogies, where applicable, with ethical arguments raised by general medical investigations. The article concludes by supporting the structured professional judgement approach as a method of risk assessment that is most consistent with the respect for principles of medical ethics. Recommendations are made for the future direction of risk assessment indicated by ethical theory. PMID:25237503

  11. 6220 institutionalised people with intellectual disability referred for visual assessment between 1993 and 2003: overview and trends

    PubMed Central

    van Isterdael, C E D; Stilma, J S; Bezemer, P D; Tijmes, N T

    2006-01-01

    Aims To summarise the results of visual performance tests and other data of institutionalised people with intellectual disability referred to a visual advisory centre (VAC) between 1993 and 2003, and to determine trends in these data. Methods A retrospective medical record review was undertaken of 6220 consecutive people examined ophthalmologically according to a standard protocol by one VAC that specialised in visual assessment and treatment of people with intellectual disability, between 1993 and 2003. χ2 test for linear trend was used and linear regression coefficients were calculated. Results The proportion of people aged ⩾50 years increased from 19.3% to 34.2% between 1995 and 2003 (p<0.001); the combined figure of severe or profound intellectual disability decreased from 80.0% to 52.6% (p<0.001); the proportion of mobile people increased from 52.1% to 98.0% (p<0.001); the combined proportion of people with visual impairment or blindness decreased from 70.9% to 22.9% (p<0.001), and that of people with visual disorders decreased from 89.6% to 75.3% (p<0.001). Causes of intellectual disability were identified in 58.4% people; 20.8% had Down's syndrome. Conclusion Many ocular diagnoses were found, indicating the need for ophthalmological monitoring. Specialised centres are helpful, because assessment and treatment of people with intellectual disability is complicated and time consuming. Protocols for efficient referral will have to be developed. A major task lies ahead to improve the treatment rates of refractive errors, cataract and strabismus, and to find specific causes of intellectual disability. PMID:16854828

  12. [Medical expert assessment in civil and criminal law--stand for evaluating medical expert assessment].

    PubMed

    Kienzle, H F

    1996-11-01

    The standard for the assessment of the medical expert opinion is defined by the high demands expected from the judgement of a high court: Objectiveness, solid knowledge, self-criticism, in contestability in diction and firmness in the argumentation. From the legal point of view, the knowledge of the medical expert witness has to clearly go beyond the knowledge of his profession. The obligation for objectiveness is the basis of expert witness' activity. From the medical point of view, the physician has to take into account during the preparation of his expert assessment that structural deficiency of the personnel and surgical equipment of a department for surgery frequently plays a role due to the development of surgery to high tech medicine and the hospital physician cannot affect this. It is necessary for a physician as an expert witness to have basic knowledge about the evidence law and the medical liability process. On the other hand, judges and lawyers should basically know the medical way of thinking. PMID:9064929

  13. Negative mechanistic reasoning in medical intervention assessment.

    PubMed

    Jerkert, Jesper

    2015-12-01

    Traditionally, mechanistic reasoning has been assigned a negligible role in standard EBM (evidence-based medicine) literature, although some recent authors have argued for an upgrade. Even so, the mechanistic reasoning that has received attention has almost exclusively been positive--both in an epistemic sense of claiming that there is a mechanistic chain and in a health-related sense of there being claimed benefits for the patient. Negative mechanistic reasoning has been neglected, both in the epistemic and in the health-related sense. I distinguish three main types of negative mechanistic reasoning and subsume them under a new definition of mechanistic reasoning in the context of assessing medical interventions. This definition is wider than a previous suggestion in the literature. Each negative type corresponds to a range of evidential strengths, and it is argued that there are differences with respect to typical evidential strengths. The variety of negative mechanistic reasoning should be acknowledged in EBM, and it presents a serious challenge to proponents of so-called medical hierarchies of evidence. PMID:26597869

  14. Developmental Behaviour Checklist (DBC) in the Assessment of Psychopathology in Finnish Children with Intellectual Disability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koskentausta, Terhi; Almqvist, Fredrik

    2004-01-01

    We evaluated the Developmental Behaviour Checklist (DBC) in the assessment of psychopathology in a Finnish population of children with intellectual disability. Disruptive behaviour was more common in children with mild intellectual disability, and problems with social interaction and communication in those with moderate, severe or profound…

  15. Graduation Policies for Students with Disabilities Who Participate in States' General Assessments. Synthesis Report 98

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thurlow, Martha L.; Albus, Debra A.; Lazarus, Sheryl S.

    2015-01-01

    Graduation requirements and diploma options for students with disabilities who participate in the general assessment has been a topic of interest for many years. The recent push for all students, including those with disabilities, to leave school ready for college and career has heightened the importance of understanding what states are requiring…

  16. Differentials of a State Reading Assessment: Item Functioning, Distractor Functioning, and Omission Frequency for Disability Categories

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kato, Kentaro; Moen, Ross E.; Thurlow, Martha L.

    2009-01-01

    Large data sets from a state reading assessment for third and fifth graders were analyzed to examine differential item functioning (DIF), differential distractor functioning (DDF), and differential omission frequency (DOF) between students with particular categories of disabilities (speech/language impairments, learning disabilities, and emotional…

  17. No Child Left Behind: Determining Appropriate Assessment Accommodations for Students with Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cortiella, Candace

    2005-01-01

    Under the No Child Left Behind Act (NCLB), public school students throughout the country must participate in annual testing in specific academic areas and grades outlined in the law, including students with disabilities. Requiring the inclusion of all students with disabilities in state- and district-wide assessments helps ensure that schools,…

  18. Screening and Assessment of Specific Learning Disabilities in Higher Education Institutes in the Republic of Ireland

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harkin, Emma; Doyle, Alison; Mc Guckin, Conor

    2015-01-01

    Students with specific learning difficulties (SpLD) in higher education institutions (HEIs) in the Republic of Ireland are required to have a formal psycho-educational assessment from an educational psychologist to register with Disability Services in HEIs, to be eligible for support through the Fund for Students with Disabilities (FSD). Such…

  19. Assessment of Functional Caregiving in Homes with a Child with an Intellectual Disability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bezruczko, Nikolaus; Chen, Shu-Pi C.; Gulley, S. Beverly; Maher, Joan M.; Lawton, Cathrine S.

    2011-01-01

    The authors report on the nature of assessing functional caregiving (FC) via three studies, conducted by a university-public preschool collaboration that was designed to measure mothers' confidence to care for children with intellectual disabilities in their homes. Caregiving of children with intellectual disabilities was conceptualized in terms…

  20. Sleep and Developmental Disabilities: Assessment, Treatment, and Outcome Measures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doran, Scott M.; Harvey, Mark T.; Horner, Robert H.

    2006-01-01

    People with developmental disabilities sleep less and experience higher incidence of clinical sleep disorders than the general population. Exploring the neurophysiology linking sleep with daytime performance in patients with developmental disabilities is now possible using minimally sufficient sleep and sleep-sensitive behavioral assays. Although…

  1. Assessment, Prevention, and Intervention for Abuse among Individuals with Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilczynski, Susan M.; Connolly, Sarah; Dubard, Melanie; Henderson, Amanda; Mcintosh, David

    2015-01-01

    Individuals with disabilities are at increased risk for abuse by their parents, caretakers, and the staff who are entrusted with their care as well as from the general population. Many individuals with disabilities have cognitive or communication impairments that place them at even higher risk for abuse. These limitations also make it more…

  2. The Integrated Medical Model: A Risk Assessment and Decision Support Tool for Space Flight Medical Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kerstman, Eric; Minard, Charles; Saile, Lynn; deCarvalho, Mary Freire; Myers, Jerry; Walton, Marlei; Butler, Douglas; Iyengar, Sriram; Johnson-Throop, Kathy; Baumann, David

    2009-01-01

    The Integrated Medical Model (IMM) is a decision support tool that is useful to mission planners and medical system designers in assessing risks and designing medical systems for space flight missions. The IMM provides an evidence based approach for optimizing medical resources and minimizing risks within space flight operational constraints. The mathematical relationships among mission and crew profiles, medical condition incidence data, in-flight medical resources, potential crew functional impairments, and clinical end-states are established to determine probable mission outcomes. Stochastic computational methods are used to forecast probability distributions of crew health and medical resource utilization, as well as estimates of medical evacuation and loss of crew life. The IMM has been used in support of the International Space Station (ISS) medical kit redesign, the medical component of the ISS Probabilistic Risk Assessment, and the development of the Constellation Medical Conditions List. The IMM also will be used to refine medical requirements for the Constellation program. The IMM outputs for ISS and Constellation design reference missions will be presented to demonstrate the potential of the IMM in assessing risks, planning missions, and designing medical systems. The implementation of the IMM verification and validation plan will be reviewed. Additional planned capabilities of the IMM, including optimization techniques and the inclusion of a mission timeline, will be discussed. Given the space flight constraints of mass, volume, and crew medical training, the IMM is a valuable risk assessment and decision support tool for medical system design and mission planning.

  3. Teaching and Assessing Low-Achieving Students with Disabilities: A Guide to Alternate Assessments Based on Modified Achievement Standards

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perie, Marianne, Ed.

    2010-01-01

    For lower-achieving students with disabilities, effective and appropriate alternate assessment based on modified achievement standards (AA-MAS) can open the door to greater expectations and opportunities. State policymakers have the option of providing certain students who have disabilities with AA-MAS aligned with grade-level content--and now…

  4. Accountability for the Results of Educating Students with Disabilities: Assessment Conference Report on the New Assessment Provisions of the 1997 Amendments to the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ysseldyke, James E.; Thurlow, Martha L.; Kozleski, Elizabeth; Reschly, Daniel

    Based on the findings of a 1998 conference on the new assessment and accountability requirements in the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA), this report discusses critical issues that surround the assessment provisions included in the 1997 IDEA amendments and contains recommendations related to state and district-wide assessments…

  5. 26 CFR 31.3121(a)(4)-1 - Payments on account of sickness or accident disability, or medical or hospitalization expenses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 15 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Payments on account of sickness or accident... account of sickness or accident disability, or medical or hospitalization expenses. The term “wages” does... employee's sickness or accident disability or the medical or hospitalization expenses in connection...

  6. 26 CFR 31.3121(a)(4)-1 - Payments on account of sickness or accident disability, or medical or hospitalization expenses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 15 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Payments on account of sickness or accident... account of sickness or accident disability, or medical or hospitalization expenses. The term “wages” does... employee's sickness or accident disability or the medical or hospitalization expenses in connection...

  7. 26 CFR 31.3121(a)(4)-1 - Payments on account of sickness or accident disability, or medical or hospitalization expenses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 15 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Payments on account of sickness or accident... account of sickness or accident disability, or medical or hospitalization expenses. The term “wages” does... employee's sickness or accident disability or the medical or hospitalization expenses in connection...

  8. 26 CFR 31.3121(a)(4)-1 - Payments on account of sickness or accident disability, or medical or hospitalization expenses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 15 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Payments on account of sickness or accident... account of sickness or accident disability, or medical or hospitalization expenses. The term “wages” does... employee's sickness or accident disability or the medical or hospitalization expenses in connection...

  9. 26 CFR 31.3121(a)(4)-1 - Payments on account of sickness or accident disability, or medical or hospitalization expenses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 15 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Payments on account of sickness or accident... account of sickness or accident disability, or medical or hospitalization expenses. The term “wages” does... employee's sickness or accident disability or the medical or hospitalization expenses in connection...

  10. Antipsychotic Use and Metabolic Monitoring in Individuals with Developmental Disabilities Served in a Medicaid Medical Home.

    PubMed

    Ruiz, Lisa M; Damron, Mackenzie; Jones, Kyle B; Weedon, Dean; Carbone, Paul S; Bakian, Amanda V; Bilder, Deborah A

    2016-06-01

    This study describes antipsychotic use and metabolic monitoring rates among individuals with developmental disabilities enrolled in a subspecialty medical home (N = 826). Four hundred ninety-nine participants (60.4 %) were taking antipsychotics, which was associated with male gender (p = 0.01), intellectual disability with and without autism spectrum disorder (p = 0.001 and p = 0.04, respectively), and inversely associated with the youngest and oldest age categories (p = 0.001 and p = 0.04, respectively). Among those taking antipsychotics, annual metabolic monitoring rates ranged from 89 % (lipids) to 99 % (weight). Age was positively associated with glucose (p < 0.001) and lipid monitoring (p < 0.001). Adult participants with dyslipidemia (p < 0.01), prediabetes/diabetes (p = 0.04), and hypertension (p = 0.02) were significantly more likely to obtain lipid monitoring. These values exceeded previously reported rates suggesting the importance of an integrated care model. PMID:26818535

  11. Unhealthy Body Weight, Illness Absence, Presenteeism, Medical Payments, and Disability Leave: A Longitudinal View.

    PubMed

    Gifford, Brian

    2015-08-01

    The objective of this study is to examine how much of the relationships between unhealthy body weight, and health and productivity outcomes are attributable to health status, and how much can be ameliorated by weight loss or improvements in health. Cross-sectional and first-difference regressions were conducted of employees' body mass index (BMI) category, illness absences, presenteeism, medical spending, and disability leaves. Employees in the obese BMI category have significantly worse outcomes than employees in the healthy and overweight BMI categories. Controlling for physical and emotional health status mediates much of the observed relationships. Improved health, stress, and psychological distress are associated with reduced illness absence and presenteeism among overweight and obese employees. Obese employees who lost weight experienced reduced presenteeism. The findings suggest that overweight and obese employees can realize improved productivity without weight loss. PMID:25375972

  12. Measuring Disability and Its Predicting Factors in a Large Database in Taiwan Using the World Health Organization Disability Assessment Schedule 2.0

    PubMed Central

    Chi, Wen-Chou; Chang, Kwang-Hwa; Escorpizo, Reuben; Yen, Chia-Feng; Liao, Hua-Fang; Chang, Feng-Hang; Chiou, Hung-Yi; Teng, Sue-Wen; Chiu, Wen-Ta; Liou, Tsan-Hon

    2014-01-01

    The definition of disability had been unclear until the International Classification of Functioning, Disability, and Health was promulgated in 2001 by the World Health Organization (WHO). Disability is a critical but relatively neglected public-health concern. We conducted this study to measure disabilities by using the WHO Disability Assessment Schedule 2.0 (WHODAS 2.0) and identify the factors that contribute to disabilities. We obtained and analyzed the data on people who applied to Taiwan’s disability registration system between September 2012 and August 2013. A total of 158,174 cases were selected for this study. Among the people included in this study, 53% were male, and the females were on average 3 years older than the males. More males than females were of a low socioeconomic status, but the rate of employment was higher among the males than among the females. Age, sex, place of residence, and types and severity of impairment were all determined to be factors that independently contributed to disability. This study has demonstrated that disability can be measured and compared using WHODAS 2.0. Increasing the public-health attention devoted to disability and identifying the factors associated with disability can promote independence and social participation in people with disabilities. PMID:25429682

  13. Comparison of disability and quality of life measures in patients with long-term psychotic disorders and patients with multiple sclerosis: an application of the WHO Disability Assessment Schedule II and WHO Quality of Life-BREF.

    PubMed

    Chopra, Prem; Herrman, Helen; Kennedy, Genevieve

    2008-06-01

    The aim of this article is to compare the applications of the WHO Disability Assessment Schedule II (WHODAS II) and WHO Quality of Life-BREF (WHOQOL-BREF) in the assessment of patients with psychotic disorders and multiple sclerosis, and to assess the feasibility and usefulness of such universal measures in the psychiatric as well as physical rehabilitation setting. Twenty patients with psychotic disorders from St Vincent's Mental Health Service and 20 patients from the Medical Rehabilitation Ward of St Vincent's Hospital were assessed. The WHODAS II and WHOQOL-BREF were administered to each patient to obtain their perception of the impact of their disability and their health-related quality of life (HRQoL). The WHODAS II and WHOQOL-BREF interviews were meaningful as they highlighted aspects of patients' disabilities as well as issues that led to impairment in HRQoL. The WHODAS II and WHOQOL-BREF total scores were higher overall for patients with multiple sclerosis, reflecting, in particular, the physical impact of this condition. Patients with psychotic disorders generally did not report difficulty in self-care. Both patients with multiple sclerosis and patients with psychotic disorders reported similar levels of difficulty in the domain of participation in society. Universal measures of disability and HRQoL are feasible for use in patients with long-term physical and psychiatric illnesses. Similarities in the disability profiles of patients in the two groups reflect the consequences of the long-term conditions under investigation. Both groups of patients reported similar levels of social disability, confirming that barriers to participation in society affect all patients with disabling conditions. PMID:18467928

  14. Shared Agency and Collaboration between the Family and Professionals in Medical Rehabilitation of Children with Severe Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jarvikoski, Aila; Martin, Marjatta; Autti-Ramo, Ilona; Harkapaa, Kristiina

    2013-01-01

    Implementation of medical rehabilitation for children with severe disabilities, arranged by the Social Insurance Institution of Finland, is based on collaboration of the family with several professionals and organizations providing the necessary services. Therefore, it sets special challenges for service provision. Parents' experiences of…

  15. Medication Use among Australian Adults with Intellectual Disability in Primary Healthcare Settings: A Cross-Sectional Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doan, Tan N.; Lennox, Nicholas G.; Taylor-Gomez, Miriam; Ware, Robert S.

    2013-01-01

    Background: There is concern about widespread medication use by people with intellectual disability (ID), especially psychotropic and anticonvulsant agents. However, there is sparse information on prescribing patterns in Australia. Method: This cross-sectional study was conducted between 2000 and 2002 among adults with ID who live in the community…

  16. 78 FR 12130 - Social Security Ruling, SSR 13-3p; Appeal of an Initial Medical Disability Cessation...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-21

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION Social Security Ruling, SSR 13-3p; Appeal of an Initial Medical Disability Cessation Determination or Decision AGENCY: Social Security Administration. ACTION: Notice of Social Security Ruling...

  17. 42 CFR 435.324 - Medically needy coverage of the disabled in States that cover individuals receiving SSI.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Medically needy coverage of the disabled in States that cover individuals receiving SSI. 435.324 Section 435.324 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE... individuals receiving SSI. If the agency provides Medicaid to individuals receiving SSI and elects to...

  18. Use of Medication for the Management of Behavior Problems among Adults with Intellectual Disabilities: A Clinicians' Consensus Survey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Unwin, Gemma Louise; Deb, Shoumitro

    2008-01-01

    Current prescribing preferences among relevant experts regarding the use of psychotropic medication for the management of behavior problems in adults with intellectual disabilities in the absence of a diagnosed psychiatric illness was defined. We used a questionnaire design to synthesize the preferences of a large group, namely, clinical…

  19. The Effectiveness of Antidepressant Medication in the Management of Behaviour Problems in Adults with Intellectual Disabilities: A Systematic Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sohanpal, S. K.; Deb, S.; Thomas, C.; Soni, R.; Lenotre, L.; Unwin, G.

    2007-01-01

    Background: A comprehensive systematic review was performed to establish the current evidence base regarding the effectiveness of antidepressant medication for the management of behaviour problems in adults with intellectual disabilities. Method: An electronic search of PsycInfo, Embase, Medline and Cinahl databases was conducted spanning the time…

  20. The Americans with Disabilities Act and Family and Medical Leave Act: Legal Requirements, Negotiations and Policy Considerations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Juengart, Laurie S.

    The Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA) and Family and Medical Leave Act (FMLA) are two major pieces of social legislation that impact private and public employers, including school districts. Public school employers must have thorough awareness of the legal requirements of both laws and must analyze the ways in which those requirements…

  1. Epilepsy and Other Developmental Disabilities: A Needs Assessment for the Panhandle of Texas

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sheldon, Mary E.; And Others

    1977-01-01

    A needs assessment survey was conducted with 178 physicians, service agency representatives, and school counselors and administrators in the Texas panhandle area to determine the most needed services for the developmentally disabled. (IM)

  2. A Medical Ethics Assessment of the Case of Terri Schiavo

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Preston, Tom; Kelly, Michael

    2006-01-01

    The social, legal, and political discussion about the decision to stop feeding and hydration for Terri Schiavo lacked a medical ethics assessment. The authors used the principles of medical indications, quality of life, patient preference, and contextual features as a guide to medical decision-making in this case. Their conclusions include the…

  3. Contingent fees in medical malpractice litigation - a qualitative assessment.

    PubMed

    Ottensmeyer, D J; Smith, H L; Porter, J

    1983-08-01

    The medical profession has experienced high liability insurance premiums accompanied by widespread use of contingent fees in medical malpractice litigation. It is worthwhile, therefore, to assess qualitatively the merits of contingent fees, the evidence suggesting that they are associated with unjustified litigation and their implications for the medical and legal professions. PMID:6636743

  4. Assessment of the Undergraduate Medical Education Environment in a Large UK Medical School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dunne, Fidelma; McAleer, Sean; Roff, Susan

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To assess the undergraduate educational environment in a large UK medical school. Method: Prospective study using the already validated Dundee Ready Education Environment (DREEM) questionnaire ("Appendix 1"). Setting: A large UK medical school. Participants: All medical students enrolled in the academic year 2002/2003. Main outcome…

  5. Dis/Abling States, Dis/Abling Citizenship: Young Aboriginal Mothers and the Medicalization of Fetal Alcohol Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salmon, Amy

    2007-01-01

    This article draws on data collected in group interviews with six young, urban Aboriginal mothers whose lives have included substance use and Fetal Alcohol Syndrome/ Fetal Alcohol Effects (hereafter FAS/FAE) to highlight the multiple and often contradictory ways in which disability as a constituent of social relations is defined in public policy…

  6. Communication Services and Supports for Individuals with Severe Disabilities: Guidance for Assessment and Intervention

    PubMed Central

    Brady, Nancy C.; Bruce, Susan; Goldman, Amy; Erickson, Karen; Mineo, Beth; Ogletree, Bill T.; Paul, Diane; Romski, Mary Ann; Sevcik, Rose; Siegel, Ellin; Schoonover, Judith; Snell, Marti; Sylvester, Lorraine; Wilkinson, Krista

    2015-01-01

    The National Joint Committee for the Communication Needs of People with Severe Disabilities (NJC) reviewed literature regarding practices for people with severe disabilities in order to update guidance provided in documents originally published in 1992. Changes in laws, definitions, and policies that affect communication attainments by persons with severe disabilities are presented, along with guidance regarding assessment and intervention practices. A revised version of the Communication Bill of Rights, a powerful document that describes the communication rights of all individuals, including those with severe disabilities is included in this article. The information contained within this article is intended to be used by professionals, family members, and individuals with severe disabilities to inform and advocate for effective communication services and opportunities. PMID:26914467

  7. Communication Services and Supports for Individuals With Severe Disabilities: Guidance for Assessment and Intervention.

    PubMed

    Brady, Nancy C; Bruce, Susan; Goldman, Amy; Erickson, Karen; Mineo, Beth; Ogletree, Bill T; Paul, Diane; Romski, Mary Ann; Sevcik, Rose; Siegel, Ellin; Schoonover, Judith; Snell, Marti; Sylvester, Lorraine; Wilkinson, Krista

    2016-03-01

    The National Joint Committee for the Communication Needs of People With Severe Disabilities (NJC) reviewed literature regarding practices for people with severe disabilities in order to update guidance provided in documents originally published in 1992. Changes in laws, definitions, and policies that affect communication attainments by persons with severe disabilities are presented, along with guidance regarding assessment and intervention practices. A revised version of the Communication Bill of Rights, a powerful document that describes the communication rights of all individuals, including those with severe disabilities is included in this article. The information contained within this article is intended to be used by professionals, family members, and individuals with severe disabilities to inform and advocate for effective communication services and opportunities. PMID:26914467

  8. Driving evaluation methods for able-bodied persons and individuals with lower extremity disabilities: a review of assessment modalities

    PubMed Central

    Greve, Julia Maria D'Andréa; Santos, Luciana; Alonso, Angelica Castilho; Tate, Denise G

    2015-01-01

    Assessing the driving abilities of individuals with disabilities is often a very challenging task because each medical condition is accompanied by physical impairments and because relative individual functional performance may vary depending on personal characteristics. We identified existing driving evaluation modalities for able-bodied and lower extremity-impaired subjects (spinal cord injury patients and amputees) and evaluated the potential relationships between driving performance and the motor component of driving. An extensive scoping review of the literature was conducted to identify driving assessment tools that are currently used for able-bodied individuals and for those with spinal cord injury or lower extremity amputation. The literature search focused on the assessment of the motor component of driving. References were electronically obtained via Medline from the PubMed, Ovid, Web of Science and Google Scholar databases. This article compares the current assessments of driving performance for those with lower extremity impairments with the assessments used for able-bodied persons. Very few articles were found concerning “Lower Extremity Disabilities,” thus confirming the need for further studies that can provide evidence and guidance for such assessments in the future. Little is known about the motor component of driving and its association with the other driving domains, such as vision and cognition. The available research demonstrates the need for a more evidenced-based understanding of how to best evaluate persons with lower extremity impairment. PMID:26375567

  9. Generalizability Theory Applied to Reading Assessments for Students with Significant Cognitive Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tindal, Gerald; Yovanoff, Paul; Geller, Josh P.

    2010-01-01

    Students with significant disabilities must participate in large-scale assessments, often using an alternate assessment judged against alternate achievement standards. The development and administration of this type of assessment must necessarily balance meaningful participation with accurate measurement. In this study, generalizability theory is…

  10. Use of Portfolio Assessment with Students with Cognitive Disabilities/Mental Retardation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klein-Ezell, Colleen; Ezell, Dan

    2005-01-01

    Portfolio assessment has gained momentum as educators search for more authentic ways to document student performance. Many aspects of portfolio assessment are beneficial for students with cognitive disabilities/mental retardation. This article explores various benefits the portfolio assessment process offers diagnosticians and other educators…

  11. Measurement Invariance in the Assessment of People with an Intellectual Disability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MacLean, Hannah; McKenzie, Karen; Kidd, Gill; Murray, Aja L.; Schwannauer, Matthias

    2011-01-01

    Intellectual assessment is central to the process of diagnosing an intellectual disability and the assessment process needs to be valid and reliable. One fundamental aspect of validity is that of measurement invariance, i.e. that the assessment measures the same thing in different populations. There are reasons to believe that measurement…

  12. Disability Discourse: Overview and Critiques of the Medical and Social Models

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haegele, Justin Anthony; Hodge, Samuel

    2016-01-01

    Over time, the meaning of disability has been understood in a variety of ways. The way in which disability is understood is important because the language people use to describe individuals with disabilities influences their expectations and interactions with them. For physical education teachers, philosophical orientation in regard to disability…

  13. Assessing Perceived Professionalism in Medical School Applicants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elam, Carol I.; Ziegler, Craig H.; Greenberg, Ruth B.; Bailey, Beth A.

    2009-01-01

    One way of assuring professional behavior in doctors is to ensure that only those students who are likely to behave professionally are admitted to medical school. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the usefulness of an instrument to evaluate the professional bearing of applicants at the time of the medical school interview. Specifically,…

  14. Assessing Multiple Medication Use With Probabilities of Benefits and Harms

    PubMed Central

    Murphy, Terrence E.; Agostini, Joseph V.; Van Ness, Peter H.; Peduzzi, Peter; Tinetti, Mary E.; Allore, Heather G.

    2012-01-01

    Objective A quantitative framework to assess harms and benefits of candidate medications in the context of drugs that a patient is already taking is proposed. Method Probabilities of harms and benefits of a given medication are averaged to yield a utility value. The utility values of all medications under consideration are combined as a geometric mean to yield an overall measure of favorability. The grouping of medications yielding the highest favorability value is chosen. Results Five examples of choosing between widely used candidate medications demonstrate the feasibility of the proposed framework. Discussion The framework proposed provides a simple method for considering the trade-offs involved in prescribing multiple medications. It can be adapted to include additional parameters representing severity of condition, prioritization of outcomes, patient preferences, dosages, and medication interactions. Inconsistent reporting in the medical literature of data about benefits and harms of medications, dosages, and interactions constitutes its primary limitation. PMID:18625759

  15. Assessment of Interpersonal Risk (AIR) in Adults with Learning Disabilities and Challenging Behaviour--Piloting a New Risk Assessment Tool

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Campbell, Martin; McCue, Michael

    2013-01-01

    A new risk assessment tool, "Assessment of Interpersonal Risk" (AIR), was piloted and evaluated to measure risk factors and compatibility between individuals living in an assessment and treatment unit in one NHS area. The adults with learning disabilities in this unit had severe and enduring mental health problems and/or behaviour that is severely…

  16. Temporomandibular joint effusion and its relationship with perceived disability assessed using musculoskeletal ultrasound and a patient-reported disability index

    PubMed Central

    Bird, Lance; Bright, Phillip

    2015-01-01

    The relationship between effusion of the temporomandibular joint (TMJ) and patient-reported disability is poorly researched. This pilot study explored the link between TMJ inflammation as measured by ultrasound and patient disability assessed by the Steigerwald Maher TMD Disability Index (SMTDI). The study design used a prospective correlational approach involving a sample with TMJ dysfunction (TMD). Twenty-four patients were recruited from the European School of Osteopathy and a Kent dental practice. Participants completed the SMTDI to determine the level of TMD (symptomatic score >20). A SonoSite SLA “Hockey Stick” [13-6 MHz] musculo-skeletal transducer was placed over the TMJ in a transverse direction and effusion was calculated indirectly by measuring capsular width. An upper left quadrant protocol was used throughout. A regression analysis was run with participants’ gender, age and capsular width as predictor variables modelled against reported SMTDI. Larger capsular widths were found to be significant predictors of SMTDI scores (r = 0.803, p < 0.0001). The patient profile matched with the previous studies and the TMD sufferer population, indicating external validity. Results suggest that the SMTDI could be integrated into practice life as a quick, accessible and easy tool to monitor patients’ progress and assess levels of inflammation, without the need for repetitive imaging. The study design proved reproducible and a larger scale study is indicated.

  17. Temporomandibular joint effusion and its relationship with perceived disability assessed using musculoskeletal ultrasound and a patient-reported disability index.

    PubMed

    Johnston, Katie; Bird, Lance; Bright, Phillip

    2015-05-01

    The relationship between effusion of the temporomandibular joint (TMJ) and patient-reported disability is poorly researched. This pilot study explored the link between TMJ inflammation as measured by ultrasound and patient disability assessed by the Steigerwald Maher TMD Disability Index (SMTDI). The study design used a prospective correlational approach involving a sample with TMJ dysfunction (TMD). Twenty-four patients were recruited from the European School of Osteopathy and a Kent dental practice. Participants completed the SMTDI to determine the level of TMD (symptomatic score >20). A SonoSite SLA "Hockey Stick" [13-6 MHz] musculo-skeletal transducer was placed over the TMJ in a transverse direction and effusion was calculated indirectly by measuring capsular width. An upper left quadrant protocol was used throughout. A regression analysis was run with participants' gender, age and capsular width as predictor variables modelled against reported SMTDI. Larger capsular widths were found to be significant predictors of SMTDI scores (r = 0.803, p < 0.0001). The patient profile matched with the previous studies and the TMD sufferer population, indicating external validity. Results suggest that the SMTDI could be integrated into practice life as a quick, accessible and easy tool to monitor patients' progress and assess levels of inflammation, without the need for repetitive imaging. The study design proved reproducible and a larger scale study is indicated. PMID:27433242

  18. Medical Devices Assess, Treat Balance Disorders

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2009-01-01

    series of dynamic protocols to isolate and assess balance function deficiencies. The technology was based on Nashner s novel, engineering-inspired concept of balance as an adaptable collaboration between multiple sensory and motor systems. CDP proved useful not only for examining astronauts, but for anyone suffering from balance problems. Today, CDP is the standard medical tool for objectively evaluating balance control.

  19. Computerized Adaptive Assessment of Cognitive Abilities among Disabled Adults.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Engdahl, Brian

    This study examined computerized adaptive testing and cognitive ability testing of adults with cognitive disabilities. Adult subjects (N=250) were given computerized tests on language usage and space relations in one of three administration conditions: paper and pencil, fixed length computer adaptive, and variable length computer adaptive.…

  20. Assessing the Prevalence of Intellectual Disability among Young Male Prisoners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herrington, V.

    2009-01-01

    Background: In recent years, academic debate has (re)focused on the extent of the co-occurrence of intellectual disability (ID) and criminality, although findings from prevalence studies examining this link have been inconsistent. In April 2004, a process for transferring responsibility for commissioning healthcare services in UK prisons to…

  1. Depression among Students with Learning Disabilities: Assessing the Risk

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maag, John W.; Reid, Robert

    2006-01-01

    Researchers have found that students with learning disabilities (LD) obtain statistically higher scores on measures of depression than their peers without LD. However, what is not known is whether students with LD display greater levels of clinical depression than their peers without LD. If they do, then special education services should address…

  2. Spelling Assessment of Students with Disabilities: Formal and Informal Procedures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beirne-Smith, Mary; Riley, Tamar F.

    2009-01-01

    Accurate spelling is a complex act that requires cognitive and linguistic knowledge of the phonological, morphological, syntactical, and semantic principles of our language. Students with disabilities frequently exhibit spelling difficulties related to language learning disorders and inefficient cognitive processing. These difficulties often are…

  3. What Is Intellectual Disability? How Is It Assessed and Classified?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parmenter, Trevor R.

    2011-01-01

    People with an intellectual disability have existed across human history, making up a part of all cultures. They represent a small part of the extremely wide variety of people in the human population at any one time. This review essay examines the 11th and latest Definition and Classification Manual published by the American Association on…

  4. An Assessment of Intellectual Disability Among Aboriginal Australians

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glasson, E. J.; Sullivan, S. G.; Hussain, R.; Bittles, A. H.

    2005-01-01

    Background: The health and well-being of Indigenous people is a significant global problem, and Aboriginal Australians suffer from a considerably higher burden of disease and lower life expectancy than the non-Indigenous population. Intellectual disability (ID) can further compromise health, but there is little information that documents the…

  5. Automated Assessment of Medical Training Evaluation Text

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Rui; Pakhomov, Serguei; Gladding, Sophia; Aylward, Michael; Borman-Shoap, Emily; Melton, Genevieve B.

    2012-01-01

    Medical post-graduate residency training and medical student training increasingly utilize electronic systems to evaluate trainee performance based on defined training competencies with quantitative and qualitative data, the later of which typically consists of text comments. Medical education is concomitantly becoming a growing area of clinical research. While electronic systems have proliferated in number, little work has been done to help manage and analyze qualitative data from these evaluations. We explored the use of text-mining techniques to assist medical education researchers in sentiment analysis and topic analysis of residency evaluations with a sample of 812 evaluation statements. While comments were predominantly positive, sentiment analysis improved the ability to discriminate statements with 93% accuracy. Similar to other domains, Latent Dirichlet Analysis and Information Gain revealed groups of core subjects and appear to be useful for identifying topics from this data. PMID:23304426

  6. A model for selecting assessment methods for evaluating medical students in African medical schools.

    PubMed

    Walubo, Andrew; Burch, Vanessa; Parmar, Paresh; Raidoo, Deshandra; Cassimjee, Mariam; Onia, Rudy; Ofei, Francis

    2003-09-01

    Introduction of more effective and standardized assessment methods for testing students' performance in Africa's medical institutions has been hampered by severe financial and personnel shortages. Nevertheless, some African institutions have recognized the problem and are now revising their medical curricula, and, therefore, their assessment methods. These institutions, and those yet to come, need guidance on selecting assessment methods so as to adopt models that can be sustained locally. The authors provide a model for selecting assessment methods for testing medical students' performance in African medical institutions. The model systematically evaluates factors that influence implementation of an assessment method. Six commonly used methods (the essay examinations, short-answer questions, multiple-choice questions, patient-based clinical examination, problem-based oral examination [POE], and objective structured clinical examination) are evaluated by scoring and weighting against performance, cost, suitability, and safety factors. In the model, the highest score identifies the most appropriate method. Selection of an assessment method is illustrated using two institutional models, one depicting an ideal situation in which the objective structured clinical examination was preferred, and a second depicting the typical African scenario in which the essay and short-answer-question examinations were best. The POE method received the highest score and could be recommended as the most appropriate for Africa's medical institutions, but POE assessments require changing the medical curricula to a problem-based learning approach. The authors' model is easy to understand and promotes change in the medical curriculum and method of student assessment. PMID:14507620

  7. Learning from lives together: medical and social work students' experiences of learning from people with disabilities in the community.

    PubMed

    Anderson, E S; Smith, R; Thorpe, L N

    2010-05-01

    The study aims to evaluate an interprofessional community-based learning event, focussing on disability. The learning opportunity was based on the Leicester Model of Interprofessional Education, organised around the experiences and perceptions of service users and their carers. Programme participants were drawn from medicine and social work education in Leicester, UK, bringing together diverse traditions in the care of people with disabilities. Small student groups (3-4 students) worked from one of the eight community rehabilitation hospitals through a programme of contact with people with disabilities in hospital, at home or in other community settings. The evaluation, in March 2005, used a mixed methods approach, incorporating questionnaire surveys, focus group interviews with students and feedback from service users. Responses were collated and analysed using quantitative and qualitative measures. Fifty social work and 100 medical students completed the first combined delivery of the module. The findings indicated that the merging of social work and medical perspectives appear to create some tensions, although overall the student experience was found to be beneficial. Service users (16 responses) valued the process. They were not concerned at the prospect of meeting a number of students at home or elsewhere and were pleased to think of themselves as educators. Problems and obstacles still anticipated include changing the mindset of clinicians and practising social workers to enable them to support students from each other's disciplines in practice learning. The generally positive outcomes highlight that disability focussed joint learning offers a meaningful platform for interprofessional education in a practice environment. PMID:20534068

  8. Medical ethics and law: assessing the core curriculum.

    PubMed

    Fenwick, Angela

    2014-10-01

    The Institute of Medical Ethics (IME) has produced a guide to the assessment of medical ethics and law (MEL) in UK medical schools which is available on-line. It complements the work which was carried out in 2010 to up-date the MEL consensus statement on what should be considered core content. The guide aims to provide practical help for teachers on what, when and how to assess medical students' learning. The briefing paper gives a background introduction to the guide, outlines its purpose and plans for future work. PMID:24830444

  9. 26 CFR 31.3121(a)(2)-1 - Payments on account of sickness or accident disability, medical or hospitalization expenses, or...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 15 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Payments on account of sickness or accident... account of sickness or accident disability, medical or hospitalization expenses, or death. (a) The term...— (1) Sickness or accident disability of an employee or any of his dependents, only if payment...

  10. 26 CFR 31.3121(a)(2)-1 - Payments on account of sickness or accident disability, medical or hospitalization expenses, or...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 15 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Payments on account of sickness or accident... account of sickness or accident disability, medical or hospitalization expenses, or death. (a) The term...— (1) Sickness or accident disability of an employee or any of his dependents, only if payment...

  11. 26 CFR 31.3121(a)(2)-1 - Payments on account of sickness or accident disability, medical or hospitalization expenses, or...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 15 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Payments on account of sickness or accident... account of sickness or accident disability, medical or hospitalization expenses, or death. (a) The term...— (1) Sickness or accident disability of an employee or any of his dependents, only if payment...

  12. 26 CFR 31.3121(a)(2)-1 - Payments on account of sickness or accident disability, medical or hospitalization expenses, or...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 15 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Payments on account of sickness or accident... account of sickness or accident disability, medical or hospitalization expenses, or death. (a) The term...— (1) Sickness or accident disability of an employee or any of his dependents, only if payment...

  13. 26 CFR 31.3121(a)(2)-1 - Payments on account of sickness or accident disability, medical or hospitalization expenses, or...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 15 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Payments on account of sickness or accident... account of sickness or accident disability, medical or hospitalization expenses, or death. (a) The term...— (1) Sickness or accident disability of an employee or any of his dependents, only if payment...

  14. Mental Health Assessment and Intervention for People with Complex Communication Needs Associated with Developmental Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Di Marco, Mark; Iacono, Teresa

    2007-01-01

    This paper addresses the issues of assessment and psychological interventions of mental health in people with complex communication needs of people with intellectual disability and/or cerebral palsy. The literature indicates that research data have been lacking in this area, with a dearth of appropriate assessment tools and information on how to…

  15. The Impact of Alternate Assessment on Teaching and Learning for Students with Significant Cognitive Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roden, Melinda Reed

    2011-01-01

    Federal legislation mandates all students, including those with significant cognitive disabilities, participate in standards based education and in state assessments linked to those standards. To address this issue, this study used a multiple case study design in order to determine the impact alternate assessments based on alternate achievement…

  16. Children with Reading Disabilities: Does Dynamic Assessment Help in the Classification?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swanson, H. Lee; Howard, Crystal B.

    2005-01-01

    This study was conducted to determine whether the cognitive performance of reading disabled and poor readers can be separated under dynamic assessment procedures, and whether measures related to dynamic assessment add unique variance, beyond IO, in predicting reading achievement scores. The sample consisted of 70 children (39 females and 31…

  17. Replications and Extensions in Arousal Assessment for Sex Offenders with Developmental Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reyes, Jorge R.; Vollmer, Timothy R.; Hall, Astrid

    2011-01-01

    Three adult male sex offenders with developmental disabilities participated in phallometric assessments that involved repeated measures of arousal when exposed to various stimuli. Arousal assessment outcomes were similar to those obtained by Reyes et al. (2006). Additional data-analysis methods provided further information about sexual…

  18. Assessment of Deviant Arousal in Adult Male Sex Offenders with Developmental Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reyes, Jorge R.; Vollmer, Timothy R.; Sloman, Kimberly N.; Hall, Astrid; Reed, Robert; Jansen, Greg; Carr, Sam; Jackson, Kevin; Stoutimore, Michael

    2006-01-01

    Ten individuals, residing in a treatment facility specializing in the rehabilitation of sex offenders with developmental disabilities, participated in an arousal assessment involving the use of the penile plethysmograph. The arousal assessments involved measuring change in penile circumference to various categories of stimuli both appropriate…

  19. Assessment of Leisure Preferences for Students with Severe Developmental Disabilities and Communication Difficulties

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kreiner, Janice; Flexer, Robert

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop and to evaluate the Preferences for Leisure Attributes (PLA) Assessment, a forced-choice computer software program for students with severe disabilities and communication difficulties. In order to determine content validity of the PLA Assessment, four experts in related fields assigned critical attributes…

  20. Alternate Assessments of Students with Significant Disabilities: Alternative Approaches, Common Technical Challenges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elliott, Stephen N.; Roach, Andrew T.

    2007-01-01

    This article examines three typical approaches to alternate assessment for students with significant cognitive disabilities--portfolios, performance assessments, and rating scales. A detailed analysis of common and unique design features of these approaches is provided, including features of each approach that influence the psychometric quality of…

  1. Increasing Compliance in Students with Intellectual Disabilities Using Functional Behavioral Assessment and Self-Monitoring

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wadsworth, Jamie P.; Hansen, Blake D.; Wills, Sarah B.

    2015-01-01

    Noncompliance in three elementary age students with intellectual disabilities was assessed using functional behavioral assessments. Escape was identified as the primary function of the behavior in all three students, and access to tangible items was identified in one of the students as a secondary function. Teacher-monitoring and self-monitoring…

  2. Risk Assessment and Risk Management in Offenders with Intellectual Disabilities: Are We There Yet?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pouls, Claudia; Jeandarme, Inge

    2015-01-01

    Research on risk assessment and risk management in offenders with intellectual disabilities (OIDs), although far behind compared to the mainstream offender literature, is now expanding. The current review provides an overview of the predictive value of risk assessment and treatment outcome monitoring tools developed for both mainstream forensic…

  3. Should Actuarial Risk Assessments Be Used with Sex Offenders Who Are Intellectually Disabled?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harris, Andrew J. R.; Tough, Susan

    2004-01-01

    Background: Objective actuarial assessments are critical for making risk decisions, determining the necessary level of supervision and intensity of treatment ( Andrews & Bonta 2003). This paper reviews the history of organized risk assessment and discusses some issues in current attitudes towards sexual offenders with intellectual disabilities.…

  4. Teacher Perspectives on Inclusion of Students with Disabilities in High-Stakes Assessments.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crawford, Lindy; Almond, Patricia; Tindal, Gerald; Hollenbeck, Keith

    2002-01-01

    Fifty-seven general and special education teachers shared their perceptions about inclusion of students with disabilities in large-scale assessment programs. The majority of teachers shared apprehensions about the inclusion of all students in statewide assessment programs, while a few exhibited enthusiasm for the process. Teachers were primarily…

  5. Pain Management in Intellectually Disabled Children: Assessment, Treatment, and Translational Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Valkenburg, Abraham J.; van Dijk, Monique; de Klein, Annelies; van den Anker, Johannes N.; Tibboel, Dick

    2010-01-01

    The primary focus of pain research in intellectually disabled individuals is still on pain assessment. Several observational pain assessment scales are available, each with its own characteristics, its own target group and its own validated use. Observational studies report differences in the treatment of intra- and postoperative pain of…

  6. Preparing Students with Learning Disabilities for Large-Scale Writing Assessments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olinghouse, Natalie G.; Colwell, Ryan P.

    2013-01-01

    This article provides recommendations for teachers to better prepare 3rd through 12th grade students with learning disabilities for large-scale writing assessments. The variation across large-scale writing assessments and the multiple needs of struggling writers indicate the need for test preparation to be embedded within a comprehensive,…

  7. Discrimination Skills Predict Effective Preference Assessment Methods for Adults with Developmental Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, May S. H.; Nguyen, Duong; Yu, C. T.; Thorsteinsson, Jennifer R.; Martin, Toby L.; Martin, Garry L.

    2008-01-01

    We examined the relationship between three discrimination skills (visual, visual matching-to-sample, and auditory-visual) and four stimulus modalities (object, picture, spoken, and video) in assessing preferences of leisure activities for 7 adults with developmental disabilities. Three discrimination skills were measured using the Assessment of…

  8. Psychometric Properties of the Disability Assessment Schedule (DAS) for Behavior Problems: An Independent Investigation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tsakanikos, Elias; Underwood, Lisa; Sturmey, Peter; Bouras, Nick; McCarthy, Jane

    2011-01-01

    The present study employed the Disability Assessment Schedule (DAS) to assess problem behaviors in a large sample of adults with ID (N = 568) and evaluate the psychometric properties of this instrument. Although the DAS problem behaviors were found to be internally consistent (Cronbach's [alpha] = 0.87), item analysis revealed one weak item…

  9. Australian General Practitioner Uptake of a Remunerated Medicare Health Assessment for People with Intellectual Disability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koritsas, Stella; Iacono, Teresa; Davis, Robert

    2012-01-01

    In 2007 the Australian Commonwealth Government announced the Medicare Health Assessment for People with an Intellectual Disability as part of the Enhanced Primary Care (EPC) program (Department of Health and Ageing, 2008). The annual health assessment is a structured framework for general practitioners (GPs), which enables an annual comprehensive…

  10. Case Study of the Influences on Alternate Assessment Outcomes for Students with Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karvonen, Meagan; Flowers, Claudia; Browder, Diane M.; Wakeman, Shawnee Y.; Algozzine, Bob

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this year-long, collective case study was to investigate what influences contributed to alternate assessment outcomes for students with significant disabilities. This study of seven students and teachers in two school districts revealed seven main factors that contributed to students' scores on the state's alternate assessment,…

  11. Advancing Accessibility and Accommodations in Content Assessments for Students with Disabilities and English Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thurlow, Martha L.; Kopriva, Rebecca J.

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this chapter is to review what has happened, and what is likely to happen, as accessibility and accommodations research and practice for content assessments are advanced to ensure the appropriate inclusion and validity of assessment results for English learners (ELs) and students with disabilities. A description of accommodations…

  12. School-Based Functional Assessments for Children with Physical Disabilities in Grades K-12

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Richard W.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop three school-based assessments and determine the content validity for each assessment. The School Activities and Participation Analysis-Elementary (SAPA-E) measures functional movement performance in children with physical disability attending the elementary school, and the School Activities and…

  13. Assessment of Cognitive Ability of Students with Severe and Low-Incidence Disabilities--Part 2

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crepeau-Hobson, Franci; Vujeva, Hana

    2012-01-01

    The assessment of cognitive ability in students with the most severe disabilities presents a challenge to the clinicians who are charged with this task. This article is the second of a two-part series that summarizes what is currently known about effective assessment of the cognitive ability of students with significant impairments in order to…

  14. Assessing Intellectual Disability in Children: Are IQ Measures Sufficient, or Even Necessary?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Colmar, Susan; Maxwell, Amanda; Miller, Leanne

    2006-01-01

    A number of critical issues concerning the assessment of children with intellectual disabilities, including definitional problems, psychometric factors, and practical difficulties, are raised in this article. It is suggested that school counsellors and psychologists should consider these issues when assessing children with probable or known…

  15. Rating Performance Assessments of Students with Disabilities: A Study of Reliability and Bias

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mastergeorge, Ann M.; Martinez, Jose Felipe

    2010-01-01

    Inclusion of students with disabilities in district-wide and state assessments is mandated by federal regulations, and teachers sometimes play an important role in rating these students' work. In this study, trained teachers rated student proficiency in performance assessments in language arts and mathematics in third, fifth, and ninth grades. The…

  16. Validation of Personal Digital Photography to Assess Dietary Quality among People with Intellectual Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elinder, L. S.; Brunosson, A.; Bergstrom, H.; Hagstromer, M.; Patterson, E.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Dietary assessment is a challenge in general, and specifically in individuals with intellectual disabilities (ID). This study aimed to evaluate personal digital photography as a method of assessing different aspects of dietary quality in this target group. Method: Eighteen adults with ID were recruited from community residences and…

  17. Accommodations for Students with Disabilities on State English Language Proficiency Assessments: A Review of 2011 State Policies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Christensen, Laurene L.; Albus, Debra A.; Liu, Kristin K.; Thurlow, Martha L.; Kincaid, Aleksis

    2013-01-01

    English language learners (ELLs) with disabilities are required to participate in all state and district assessments similar to their peers without disabilities. This includes assessments used for the Elementary and Secondary Education Act (ESEA) Title I accountability purposes for demonstrating proficiency in academic content, assessments used…

  18. The Utility of the Montreal Cognitive Assessment as a Mental Capacity Assessment Tool for Patients with a Learning Disability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edge, Daniel; Oyefeso, Adenekan; Evans, Carys; Evans, Amber

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To determine the psychometric properties of the Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA) in patients with a learning disability and examine it's utility for conducting mental capacity assessment. Method: This study was a cross-sectional, instrument validation study in an inpatient hospital setting, located in the East of England. The sample…

  19. Assessment of Global Functioning in Adolescents with Autism Spectrum Disorders: Utility of the Developmental Disability-Child Global Assessment Scale

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White, Susan W.; Smith, Laura A.; Schry, Amie R.

    2014-01-01

    Assessment of global functioning is an important consideration in treatment outcome research; yet, there is little guidance on its evidence-based assessment for children with autism spectrum disorders. This study investigated the utility and validity of clinician-rated global functioning using the Developmental Disability-Child Global Assessment…

  20. [Spanish version of the new World Health Organization Disability Assessment Schedule II (WHO-DAS-II): initial phase of development and pilot study. Cantabria disability work group].

    PubMed

    Vázquez-Barquero, J L; Vázquez Bourgón, E; Herrera Castanedo, S; Saiz, J; Uriarte, M; Morales, F; Gaite, L; Herrán, A; Ustün, T B

    2000-01-01

    The aim of the present paper is to present the initial phases of the development of the Spanish version of the "World Health Organization Disablement Assessment Schedule II" WHO-DAS-II and also to describe the quantitative and qualitative methodological strategies used in the elaboration process of an instrument: i) compatible with the new International Classification of Functioning and Disability -ICIDH-2- of the World Health Organisation; ii) with criteria of cross-cultural applicability and; iii) to allow us to assess the disability in all its dimensions. PMID:10937388

  1. Assessment in Medical Education; What Are We Trying to Achieve?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferris, Helena; O'Flynn, Dermot

    2015-01-01

    Within the arena of medical education, it is generally acknowledged that assessment drives learning. Assessment is one of the most significant influences on a student's experience of higher education and improving assessment has a huge impact on the quality of learning (Liu, N. and Carless, D, 2006). Ideally we want to enhance student's capacity…

  2. Weaving together peer assessment, audios and medical vignettes in teaching medical terms

    PubMed Central

    Khan, Lateef M.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives The current study aims at exploring the possibility of aligning peer assessment, audiovisuals, and medical case-report extracts (vignettes) in medical terminology teaching. In addition, the study wishes to highlight the effectiveness of audio materials and medical history vignettes in preventing medical students' comprehension, listening, writing, and pronunciation errors. The study also aims at reflecting the medical students' attitudes towards the teaching and learning process. Methods The study involved 161 medical students who received an intensive medical terminology course through audio and medical history extracts. Peer assessment and formative assessment platforms were applied through fake quizzes in a pre- and post-test manner. An 18-item survey was distributed amongst students to investigate their attitudes and feedback towards the teaching and learning process. Quantitative and qualitative data were analysed using the SPSS software. Results The students did better in the posttests than on the pretests for both the quizzes of audios and medical vignettes showing a t-test of -12.09 and -13.60 respectively. Moreover, out of the 133 students, 120 students (90.22%) responded to the survey questions. The students gave positive attitudes towards the application of audios and vignettes in the teaching and learning of medical terminology and towards the learning process. Conclusions The current study revealed that the teaching and learning of medical terminology have more room for the application of advanced technologies, effective assessment platforms, and active learning strategies in higher education. It also highlights that students are capable of carrying more responsibilities of assessment, feedback, and e-learning. PMID:26637986

  3. A Medical Interviewing Curriculum Intervention for Medical Students' Assessment of Suicide Risk

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fiedorowicz, Jess G.; Tate, Jodi; Miller, Anthony C.; Franklin, Ellen M.; Gourley, Ryan; Rosenbaum, Marcy

    2013-01-01

    Objective: Effective communication strategies are required to assess suicide risk. The authors determined whether a 2-hour simulated-patient activity during a psychiatry clerkship improved self-assessment of medical interviewing skills relevant to suicide risk-assessment. Methods: In the 2-hour simulated-patient intervention, at least one…

  4. Modeling the World Health Organization Disability Assessment Schedule II using non-parametric item response models.

    PubMed

    Galindo-Garre, Francisca; Hidalgo, María Dolores; Guilera, Georgina; Pino, Oscar; Rojo, J Emilio; Gómez-Benito, Juana

    2015-03-01

    The World Health Organization Disability Assessment Schedule II (WHO-DAS II) is a multidimensional instrument developed for measuring disability. It comprises six domains (getting around, self-care, getting along with others, life activities and participation in society). The main purpose of this paper is the evaluation of the psychometric properties for each domain of the WHO-DAS II with parametric and non-parametric Item Response Theory (IRT) models. A secondary objective is to assess whether the WHO-DAS II items within each domain form a hierarchy of invariantly ordered severity indicators of disability. A sample of 352 patients with a schizophrenia spectrum disorder is used in this study. The 36 items WHO-DAS II was administered during the consultation. Partial Credit and Mokken scale models are used to study the psychometric properties of the questionnaire. The psychometric properties of the WHO-DAS II scale are satisfactory for all the domains. However, we identify a few items that do not discriminate satisfactorily between different levels of disability and cannot be invariantly ordered in the scale. In conclusion the WHO-DAS II can be used to assess overall disability in patients with schizophrenia, but some domains are too general to assess functionality in these patients because they contain items that are not applicable to this pathology. PMID:25524862

  5. Are Medical Students Assigning Proper Global Assessment of Functioning Scores?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Warsi, Mustafa K.; Sattar, S. Pirzada; Din, Amad U.; Petty, Frederick; Padala, Prasad R.

    2007-01-01

    Objective: This article seeks to determine whether medical students can estimate the appropriate score for the Global Assessment of Functioning (GAF) compared with psychiatry residents and staff psychiatrists. The authors hypothesized that medical students' estimations of GAF scores for patients in clinical vignettes would differ from those…

  6. Internal Medicine Residents Do Not Accurately Assess Their Medical Knowledge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Roger; Panda, Mukta; Desbiens, Norman

    2008-01-01

    Background: Medical knowledge is essential for appropriate patient care; however, the accuracy of internal medicine (IM) residents' assessment of their medical knowledge is unknown. Methods: IM residents predicted their overall percentile performance 1 week (on average) before and after taking the in-training exam (ITE), an objective and well…

  7. [Medical expert assessment in civil and criminal law--legal evaluation of medical expert opinion].

    PubMed

    Schlund, G H

    1996-11-01

    The constitutional position of the judge and the medical expert witness during a lawsuit is explained. From this, the demands on a judicial expert witness for the preparation of his expert assessment are derived and the judge's function in the appointment of the expert witness is explained. Additionally, criteria, duties, and rules are worked out, which should be followed by the judge during assessment of the medical expert testimony. PMID:9064930

  8. Functioning and disability analysis of patients with traumatic brain injury and spinal cord injury by using the world health organization disability assessment schedule 2.0.

    PubMed

    Kuo, Chia-Ying; Liou, Tsan-Hon; Chang, Kwang-Hwa; Chi, Wen-Chou; Escorpizo, Reuben; Yen, Chia-Feng; Liao, Hua-Fang; Chiou, Hung-Yi; Chiu, Wen-Ta; Tsai, Jo-Ting

    2015-04-01

    The purpose of this study is to compare traumatic brain injuries (TBI) and spinal cord injuries (SCI) patients' function and disability by using the World Health Organization Disability Assessment Schedule 2.0 (WHODAS 2.0); and to clarify the factors that contribute to disability. We analyzed data available between September 2012 and August 2013 from Taiwan's national disability registry which is based on the International Classification of Functioning, Disability, and Health (ICF) framework. Of the 2664 cases selected for the study, 1316 pertained to TBI and 1348 to SCI. A larger percentage of patients with TBI compared with those with SCI exhibited poor cognition, self-care, relationships, life activities, and participation in society (all p < 0.001). Age, sex, injury type, socioeconomic status, place of residence, and severity of impairment were determined as factors that independently contribute to disability (all p < 0.05). The WHODAS 2.0 is a generic assessment instrument which is appropriate for assessing the complex and multifaceted disability associated with TBI and SCI. Further studies are needed to validate the WHODAS 2.0 for TBI and SCI from a multidisciplinary perspective. PMID:25874682

  9. Functioning and Disability Analysis of Patients with Traumatic Brain Injury and Spinal Cord Injury by Using the World Health Organization Disability Assessment Schedule 2.0

    PubMed Central

    Kuo, Chia-Ying; Liou, Tsan-Hon; Chang, Kwang-Hwa; Chi, Wen-Chou; Escorpizo, Reuben; Yen, Chia-Feng; Liao, Hua-Fang; Chiou, Hung-Yi; Chiu, Wen-Ta; Tsai, Jo-Ting

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to compare traumatic brain injuries (TBI) and spinal cord injuries (SCI) patients’ function and disability by using the World Health Organization Disability Assessment Schedule 2.0 (WHODAS 2.0); and to clarify the factors that contribute to disability. We analyzed data available between September 2012 and August 2013 from Taiwan’s national disability registry which is based on the International Classification of Functioning, Disability, and Health (ICF) framework. Of the 2664 cases selected for the study, 1316 pertained to TBI and 1348 to SCI. A larger percentage of patients with TBI compared with those with SCI exhibited poor cognition, self-care, relationships, life activities, and participation in society (all p < 0.001). Age, sex, injury type, socioeconomic status, place of residence, and severity of impairment were determined as factors that independently contribute to disability (all p < 0.05). The WHODAS 2.0 is a generic assessment instrument which is appropriate for assessing the complex and multifaceted disability associated with TBI and SCI. Further studies are needed to validate the WHODAS 2.0 for TBI and SCI from a multidisciplinary perspective. PMID:25874682

  10. Validation of the MG-DIS: a disability assessment for myasthenia gravis.

    PubMed

    Raggi, Alberto; Leonardi, Matilde; Schiavolin, Silvia; Antozzi, Carlo; Brenna, Greta; Maggi, Lorenzo; Mantegazza, Renato

    2016-05-01

    This paper is aimed to present the validation of the myasthenia gravis disability assessment (MG-DIS), a MG-specific patient-reported disability outcome measure. Consecutive MG patients were enrolled, followed-up for 12 months and administered the SF-36, the WHO disability assessment schedule (WHODAS 2.0) and the preliminary 31-item MG-DIS addressing impairments and activity limitations. Factor structure and metric properties were assessed. In total, 109 patients were enrolled: 76 were females, mean age 50, mean MG duration 10.4 years, 86 were AChR-positive. The MG-DIS was reduced to 20 items, explaining 70.6 % of the original questionnaire variance, four subscales (generalized impairment-related problems; bulbar function-related problems; mental health and fatigue-related problems; vision-related problems) and an overall disability index. The MG-DIS has good metric properties (Cronbach's alpha ranging between .808 and .930), is stable, showed to be more sensitive than the WHODAS 2.0 and SF-36 to detect group differences and longitudinal changes and was well correlated with the MG-composite (.642). The MG-DIS includes items representing ocular, generalized, bulbar and respiratory symptoms, and is therefore well-built around MG-specific features. MG-DIS can be used in clinical trials as well as in observational or epidemiological studies to characterize patients' disability level and address the amount of improvement in disability. Further studies are needed to explore the possibility of a shorter disability scale. PMID:26931109

  11. Lag Times in Reporting Injuries, Receiving Medical Care, and Missing Work: Associations With the Length of Work Disability in Occupational Back Injuries

    PubMed Central

    Besen, Elyssa; Harrell, Mason; Pransky, Glenn

    2016-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this study is to examine the associations between lag times following occupational low back injury and the length of work disability. Methods: In a retrospective cohort study using workers’ compensation claims, random effects Tobit models were used to explore how disability length relates to three lag times: the number of days from the date of injury to reporting the injury, the number of days from the date of injury to medical care, and the number of days from the date of injury to initiating work disability. Results: In general, shorter lag times for each of the different lags were related to shorter lengths of disability. Conclusions: Decreasing the length of the lag times in reporting injuries, receiving medical care, and missing work may help to decrease the length of work disability for workers after low back injury. PMID:26445030

  12. REPLICATIONS AND EXTENSIONS IN AROUSAL ASSESSMENT FOR SEX OFFENDERS WITH DEVELOPMENTAL DISABILITIES

    PubMed Central

    Reyes, Jorge R; Vollmer, Timothy R; Hall, Astrid

    2011-01-01

    Three adult male sex offenders with developmental disabilities participated in phallometric assessments that involved repeated measures of arousal when exposed to various stimuli. Arousal assessment outcomes were similar to those obtained by Reyes et al. (2006). Additional data-analysis methods provided further information about sexual preferences, thus replicating and extending previous research. The results provide preliminary data for establishing a preference gradient by age. Implications for the use of repeated measures and preference gradients in arousal assessments are discussed. PMID:21709795

  13. Virtual reality in medical education and assessment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sprague, Laurie A.; Bell, Brad; Sullivan, Tim; Voss, Mark; Payer, Andrew F.; Goza, Stewart Michael

    1994-01-01

    The NASA Johnson Space Center (JSC)/LinCom Corporation, the University of Texas Medical Branch at Galveston (UTMB), and the Galveston Independent School District (GISD) have teamed up to develop a virtual visual environment display (VIVED) that provides a unique educational experience using virtual reality (VR) technologies. The VIVED end product will be a self-contained educational experience allowing students a new method of learning as they interact with the subject matter through VR. This type of interface is intuitive and utilizes spatial and psychomotor abilities which are now constrained or reduced by the current two dimensional terminals and keyboards. The perpetual challenge to educators remains the identification and development of methodologies which conform the learners abilities and preferences. The unique aspects of VR provide an opportunity to explore a new educational experience. Endowing medical students with an understanding of the human body poses some difficulty challenges. One of the most difficult is to convey the three dimensional nature of anatomical structures. The ideal environment for addressing this problem would be one that allows students to become small enough to enter the body and travel through it - much like a person walks through a building. By using VR technology, this effect can be achieved; when VR is combined with multimedia technologies, the effect can be spectacular.

  14. Assessing accuracy of an electronic provincial medication repository

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Jurisdictional drug information systems are being implemented in many regions around the world. British Columbia, Canada has had a provincial medication dispensing record, PharmaNet, system since 1995. Little is known about how accurately PharmaNet reflects actual medication usage. Methods This prospective, multi-centre study compared pharmacist collected Best Possible Medication Histories (BPMH) to PharmaNet profiles to assess accuracy of the PharmaNet profiles for patients receiving a BPMH as part of clinical care. A review panel examined the anonymized BPMHs and discrepancies to estimate clinical significance of discrepancies. Results 16% of medication profiles were accurate, with 48% of the discrepant profiles considered potentially clinically significant by the clinical review panel. Cardiac medications tended to be more accurate (e.g. ramipril was accurate >90% of the time), while insulin, warfarin, salbutamol and pain relief medications were often inaccurate (80–85% of the time). 1215 sequential BPMHs were collected and reviewed for this study. Conclusions The PharmaNet medication repository has a low accuracy and should be used in conjunction with other sources for medication histories for clinical or research purposes. This finding is consistent with other, smaller medication repository accuracy studies in other jurisdictions. Our study highlights specific medications that tend to be lower in accuracy. PMID:22621690

  15. Assessment of Disability among the Elderly in Xiamen of China: A Representative Sample Survey of 14,292 Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Wei; Fang, Ya; Mao, Fanzhen; Hao, Shichao; Chen, Junze; Yuan, Manqiong; Han, Yaofeng; Hong, Y. Alicia

    2015-01-01

    Background The unprecedented number of elderly individuals in China presents a serious public health challenge. Limited data are available on the prevalence of disability or factors resulting in disability among the elderly in China. Objective We aimed to assess the prevalence of disability and related risk factors among the elderly of Xiamen, China. Methods A cross-sectional study was performed on individuals who were ≥60 years of age. The subjects were recruited by multi-stage sampling; a total of 14,292 valid questionnaires were received. Study measurements included activities of daily living (ADL), demographics, and health status. The ADL was assessed by the Katz Index Scale to evaluate disability. Chi-square tests and binary logistic regression were used to identify factors associated with disabilities. Results Among the valid participants, 4.27% had at least one disability. Bathing was the most frequently reported disability and feeding was the least frequently reported disability. Disabilities were significantly associated with female gender, older age, unmarried status, living with family, urban residence, illiteracy, poor economic status, self-rated bad health, chronic illnesses, lower life satisfaction, bad mood, and feelings of loneliness. Conclusion Functional disability among the elderly requires more public attention. Culturally appropriate policies and programs are also needed to address the care for the disabled elderly. PMID:26126109

  16. Content validation using an expert panel: assessment process for assistive technology adopted by farmers with disabilities.

    PubMed

    Mathew, S N; Field, W E; French, B F

    2011-07-01

    This article reports the use of an expert panel to perform content validation of an experimental assessment process for the safety of assistive technology (AT) adopted by farmers with disabilities. The validation process was conducted by a panel of six experts experienced in the subject matter, i.e., design, use, and assessment of AT for farmers with disabilities. The exercise included an evaluation session and two focus group sessions. The evaluation session consisted of using the assessment process under consideration by the panel to evaluate a set of nine ATs fabricated by a farmer on his farm site. The expert panel also participated in the focus group sessions conducted immediately before and after the evaluation session. The resulting data were analyzed using discursive analysis, and the results were incorporated into the final assessment process. The method and the results are presented with recommendations for the use of expert panels in research projects and validation of assessment tools. PMID:21919319

  17. Assessment of the Self-Determination of Spanish Students with Intellectual Disabilities and other Educational Needs

    PubMed Central

    Gomez-Vela, Maria; Verdugo, Miguel Angel; Gonzalez Gil, Francisca; Corbella, Marta Badia; Wehmeyer, Michael L.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the self-determination of Spanish high school students with Intellectual Disability and other Special Educational Needs (SEN). A total of 371 students between 11 and 17 years of age participated in the study. Of these, 46.4% (n=171) presented SEN, specifically learning disabilities (n=97; 26.2%), borderline and intellectual disability with higher IQ scores (n=43; 11.6%) and mild intellectual disability (n=32; 8.6%). The remaining students without SEN made up the control group. The assessment was carried out using a translated and validated Spanish version of The Arc’s Self-Determination Scale (Wehmeyer, 1995). This measure had appropriate psychometric properties. Students with SEN obtained significantly lower scores than their peers without SEN. However, no differences were found in relation to the type of SEN or, more specifically, in relation to the presence of intellectual disability. The educational implications of the results are discussed. PMID:25057433

  18. Peer Assessment among First Year Medical Students in Anatomy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spandorfer, John; Puklus, Tanya; Rose, Victoria; Vahedi, Mithaq; Collins, Lauren; Giordano, Carolyn; Schmidt, Richard; Braster, Chris

    2014-01-01

    Peer assessment has been shown to be an effective tool to promote professionalism in medical students. Peer assessment may be particularly useful in anatomy dissection laboratory as the required close collaboration and long hours of anatomy laboratory provide students insights into their peers' work habits and interpersonal skills. The…

  19. Continuing Medical Education, Needs Assessment, and Program Development: Theoretical Constructs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aherne, Michael; Lamble, Wayne; Davis, Paul

    2001-01-01

    Continuing medical education needs assessment should be reconceived for a changing health-care environment. The physician-patient relationship is being changed by empowerment of health consumers and public policy concerns regarding the health care system. Needs assessment should focus on environmental scanning, identification of key forces, use of…

  20. Eliciting a Distal Gesture via Dynamic Assessment among Students with Moderate to Severe Intellectual Disability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McLaughlin, Katherine; Cascella, Paul W.

    2008-01-01

    This study attempted to elicit distal gestures within dynamic assessment structured sampling events from six children with moderate to severe intellectual disability (ages 8-13). Using four communication temptations and a least-to-most prompting hierarchy across three sessions, three participants who had both pre-symbolic and preintentional…

  1. Assessment of Job Application and Employment Interview Skills for Job Seekers with Disabilities: Assessor's Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hinman, Suki; And Others

    The job application form and interview skills assessment procedures presented in this manual were developed to serve as one component of the Diagnostic Employability Profile, designed to serve disabled clients of vocational rehabilitation services. Since the overall objective of the job application is to secure a job interview, assessment…

  2. Validating Dynamic Assessment of Triadic Gaze for Young Children with Severe Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olswang, Lesley B.; Feuerstein, Julie L.; Pinder, Gay Lloyd; Dowden, Patricia

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: This research investigated the use of a dynamic assessment (DA) to identify differences among young children with severe disabilities, which would predict progress in learning behaviors indicating coordinated joint attention (CJA). Method: Six children 10-24 months of age were enrolled in a 16-week treatment for behaviors indicating CJA,…

  3. An Evaluation of a Stimulus Preference Assessment of Auditory Stimuli for Adolescents with Developmental Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Horrocks, Erin; Higbee, Thomas S.

    2008-01-01

    Previous researchers have used stimulus preference assessment (SPA) methods to identify salient reinforcers for individuals with developmental disabilities including tangible, leisure, edible and olfactory stimuli. In the present study, SPA procedures were used to identify potential auditory reinforcers and determine the reinforcement value of…

  4. Psychometric Comparisons of Three Measures for Assessing Motor Functions in Preschoolers with Intellectual Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wuang, Y-P.; Su, C-Y.; Huang, M-H.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Deficit in motor performance is common in children with intellectual disabilities (ID). A motor function measure with sound psychometric properties is indispensable for clinical and research use. The purpose of this study was to compare the psychometric properties of three commonly used clinical measures for assessing motor function in…

  5. Assessment of Anger and Aggression in Male Offenders With Developmental Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Novaco, Raymond W.; Taylor, John L.

    2004-01-01

    Systematic assessment of anger among people with developmental disabilities has been lacking, especially for hospital inpatients. Reliability and validity of anger self-report psychometric scales were investigated with 129 male patients, mostly forensic. Anger prevalence and its relationship to demographic, cognitive, and personality variables and…

  6. Improving Social Skills Assessment of Children with Disabilities: Construct Development and Applications of Technology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Irvin, Larry K.; Walker, Hill M.

    1993-01-01

    This article describes a prototype videodisc method of assessing social competence, knowledge, and perception in children with disabilities. It notes major hardware features (Macintosh IIx computer), software features (using SuperCard), improved examinee response modes, and improved data entry techniques. (DB)

  7. Assessing Opportunity-to-Learn for Students with Disabilities in General and Special Education Classes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kurz, Alexander; Elliott, Stephen N.; Lemons, Christopher J.; Zigmond, Naomi; Kloo, Amanda; Kettler, Ryan J.

    2014-01-01

    Current legislation encourages schools to educate students with disabilities (SWDs) in general education settings to the greatest extent appropriate. However, it is unclear whether inclusion in general education settings provides SWDs a sufficient opportunity to learn the academic content assessed by accountability measures. This initial study was…

  8. Adapting the Sheehan Disability Scale to Assess Child and Parent Impairment Related to Childhood Anxiety Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whiteside, Stephen P.

    2009-01-01

    This study describes a child adaptation of the Sheehan Disability Scale, a measure of impairment among anxious adults. Parallel child and parent report forms were created to assess the degree to which anxiety interferes with child and parent social, educational/occupational, and family functioning. Data from 267 anxious children (140 boys ages…

  9. Functional Behavioral Assessment and Students at Risk for or with Emotional Disabilities: Current Issues and Considerations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gable, Robert A.; Park, Kristy Lee; Scott, Terrance M.

    2014-01-01

    The use of functional behavioral assessment (FBA) is an effective tool to address a wide range of severe behavior problems of students at risk for or with emotional disabilities (ED). However, the transformation of a procedure proven effective under highly-controlled clinical conditions to a practical and effective strategy for use in applied…

  10. Evaluation of Multiple-Stimulus Preference Assessment with Adults with Developmental Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davies, Gareth; Chand, Carly; Yu, C. T.; Martin, Toby L.; Martin, Garry L.

    2013-01-01

    We compared multiple-stimulus without replacement (MSWO) and paired-stimulus (PS) procedures to assess stimulus preferences of adults with developmental disabilities. Stimulus preference rankings for six food items obtained by the two procedures were positively correlated for all participants (M = 0.72, range 0.41 to 1). However, four participants…

  11. Communication-Based Assessment of Developmental Age for Young Children with Developmental Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeVeney, Shari L.; Hoffman, Lesa; Cress, Cynthia J.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: In this study, the authors compared a multiple-domain strategy for assessing developmental age of young children with developmental disabilities who were at risk for long-term reliance on augmentative and alternative communication (AAC) with a communication-based strategy composed of receptive language and communication indices that may…

  12. Review of the Choice and Preference Assessment Literature for Individuals with Severe to Profound Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tullis, Christopher A.; Cannella-Malone, Helen I.; Basbigill, Abby R.; Yeager, Amanda; Fleming, Courtney V.; Payne, Daniel; Wu, Pei-Fang

    2011-01-01

    Since 2002, the body of literature examining choice interventions and preference assessments for individuals with severe to profound disabilities has grown substantially. This paper is an extension of the Lancioni, O'Reilly, & Emerson (1996) and Cannella, O'Reilly, & Lancioni (2005) papers and reviews 50 studies conducted between 2002 and 2010…

  13. 75 FR 28625 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Assessment...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-21

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Assessment of Post-Treatment Lyme Disease Syndrome, Funding...-Treatment Lyme Disease Syndrome,'' FOA CK10-004. Contact Person for More Information: Maurine Goodman,...

  14. Assessing Residential Segregation among Medicaid Recipients with Psychiatric Disability in Philadelphia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Metraux, Stephen; Caplan, Joel M.; Klugman, Dutch; Hadley, Trevor R.

    2007-01-01

    This study assesses the extent of residential segregation among 15,246 people diagnosed with psychiatric disabilities and receiving Medicaid (MA) in Philadelphia, and an identically sized group of MA recipients serving as matched controls. Results indicate that overall levels of residential segregation among this group were modest at their most…

  15. Alternate Assessment for Students with Significant Cognitive Disabilities: An Educator's Guide

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kleinert, Harold L.; Kearns, Jacqui Farmer

    2010-01-01

    To support K-12 students with significant disabilities and get an accurate picture of their skills and knowledge, schools need to implement effective alternate assessment based on alternate achievement standards (AA-AAS). This is the guidebook every team should have--not only to develop successful AA-AAS linked with grade-level content standards,…

  16. Pain Assessment and Management in Infants and Young Children with Developmental Disabilities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oberlander, Tim F.

    2001-01-01

    This article reviews the nature and source of pain in young children with disabilities, challenges facing the clinician, and approaches for assessing and managing pain in infants and young children with significant neurologic impairments. The need for continued research to improve professional awareness and establish practice guidelines is urged.…

  17. Identifying Students with Learning Disabilities: Composite Profile Analysis Using the Cognitive Assessment System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huang, Leesa V.; Bardos, Achilles N.; D'Amato, Rik Carl

    2010-01-01

    The detection of cognitive patterns in children with learning disabilities (LD) has been a priority in the identification process. Subtest profile analysis from traditional cognitive assessment has drawn sharp criticism for inaccurate identification and weak connections to educational planning. Therefore, the purpose of this study is to use a new…

  18. Assessment of Cognitive Ability of Students with Severe and Low-Incidence Disabilities--Part 1

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crepeau-Hobson, Franci; Vujeva, Hana

    2012-01-01

    Students with severe and low-incidence disabilities comprise a heterogeneous population that often presents a challenge to the professionals charged with evaluating their skills and abilities. This is especially true in conducting a valid assessment of the cognitive ability of these children. Often, school psychologists are limited to the use of…

  19. "Measuring up"? Assessment and Students with Disabilities in the Modern University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bessant, Judith

    2012-01-01

    In this article, I ask how university students with disabilities negotiate with staff arrangements for alternative assessment practices. I draw on three case studies using a personal pronoun perspective to challenge the conventional view that educational policy and teaching practice are forms of rational action. I demonstrate how the lives of…

  20. Almost There in Public Reporting of Assessment Results for Students with Disabilities. Technical Report 39

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thurlow, Martha L.; Wiley, Hilda Ives

    2004-01-01

    This report is the sixth analysis of state reports conducted by the National Center on Educational Outcomes (NCEO) to examine the extent to which states publicly report information about students with disabilities in statewide assessments. Descriptions of statewide testing systems are presented and examined as to whether these systems included…

  1. Using Videoconferencing to Support Teachers to Conduct Preference Assessments with Students with Autism and Developmental Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Machalicek, Wendy; O'Reilly, Mark; Chan, Jeffrey M.; Rispoli, Mandy; Lang, Russell; Davis, Tonya; Shogren, Karrie; Sorrells, Audrey; Lancioni, Giulio; Sigafoos, Jeff; Green, Vanessa; Langthorne, Paul

    2009-01-01

    We used widely available videoconferencing equipment to support teachers to conduct preference assessments for three students with autism and developmental disabilities. Supervisors located at a university used videoconferencing equipment to collect data on students' choice of items, the fidelity of teacher implementation of the assessment…

  2. Psychological Factors in Risk Assessment and Management of Inappropriate Sexual Behaviour by Men with Intellectual Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Mark; Willner, Paul

    2004-01-01

    Aim: This study examined the responses of care managers and direct care staff to vignettes of inappropriate sexual behaviour (ISB) by a man with an intellectual disability. The aim was to identify psychological factors that influenced their assessment of risk and the perceived need for risk management strategies. Method: The vignettes varied in…

  3. Actuarial Risk Assessment and Recidivism in a Sample of UK Intellectually Disabled Sexual Offenders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilcox, Dan; Beech, Anthony; Markall, Helena F.; Blacker, Janine

    2009-01-01

    This study examines the effectiveness of three risk assessment instruments: Static-99, Risk Matrix 2000 (RM2000) and the Rapid Risk of Sex Offender Recidivism (RRASOR), in predicting sexual recidivism among 27 intellectually disabled sex offenders. The overall sexual offence reconviction rate was 30%, while non-recidivists remained offence-free…

  4. Assessment of Minimum Competency in Fifth Grade Learning Disabled Students: Test Modifications Make a Difference.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grise, Philip; And Others

    1982-01-01

    Learning disabled fifth graders in Florida were given modified versions of the Florida State Student Assessment Test. Modifications such as additional examples, smaller subsections, unjustified formats, and grouping of items in order of difficulty facilitated the students' performance. Use of large-print tests made little difference. (Authors/PP)

  5. Assessment of the Component Skills for Cognitive Therapy in Adults with Intellectual Disability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Joyce, Theresa; Globe, Amanda; Moody, Clare

    2006-01-01

    Background: This study examines the extent to which a random sample of adults with intellectual disabilities possess the component skills necessary to undergo cognitive behaviour therapy (CBT). Method: Seventy-two individuals underwent a range of assessments, including measures of language ability, ability to identify and to label emotions,…

  6. Assessment of Computer-Based Preferences of Students with Profound Multiple Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mechling, Linda C.; Bishop, Vanessa A.

    2011-01-01

    This article reports on two studies investigating the use of computer-based stimuli that may then be used to develop activities and programming for students with profound multiple disabilities (PMD). Both studies used an alternating treatments design and systematic assessment strategy to present stimuli sequentially and to measure student…

  7. Methodological Issues in Inclusive Intellectual Disability Research: A Health Promotion Needs Assessment of People Attending Irish Disability Services

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boland, M.; Daly, L.; Staines, A.

    2008-01-01

    Background: This paper describes a novel combination of inclusive methods to evaluate health and health promotion needs of service users (clients) with intellectual disability. Sixty centres provide disability services to over 900 clients with intellectual disability in the East Coast Area Health Board region of Ireland (population approximately…

  8. Play-Based Assessment of Communication-Related Skills in Young Children with Disabilities: The Validation of an Assessment Tool

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Uys, Kitty; Alant, Erna

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to describe the processes followed to develop an authentic, reliable and valid play-based assessment of communication-related behaviours in young children with severe disabilities. The Daily Multiple Measurement Instrument (DMMI) was developed to be used based on an intervention package of play activities. The…

  9. A two-dimensional assessment of selected medical websites.

    PubMed

    Koong, Kai S; Liu, Lai C; Zeng, Mingying

    2006-01-01

    Two major dimensions are commonly used for assessing the breadth and depth of the information content in medical websites. The first dimension deals with quality characteristics consisting of authorship, attribution, confidentiality, currency, disclosure, legitimacy and purpose. Functional variables such as access to medical libraries, reference books, health organisations, information sites, guidelines and reviews, clinical trial sites, drug questions, locating an expert and alternative medicine make up the second dimension. The trend is toward the use of both dimensions for evaluating medical websites. This study examines the breadth and depth of the medical information in the websites of the top 51 medical schools in the USA. The results of this study indicate that there are certain quality-standard measures that are present in all medical websites. However, there are also clear distinctions in quality as well as functional attributes that separate the higher-ranked medical schools from the lower ones. Medical professionals, computer system developers, and end-users of medical information will find the results of this study useful. PMID:18048233

  10. Assessing Children for the Presence of a Disability. Resources You Can Use. NICHCY Bibliography. 2nd Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gutierrez, Mary Kate, Comp.

    This resource list is intended to provide school systems with information on assessment of school-aged children for the presence of a disability. The 104 references are broken down into the following categories: general assessment information; assessment tools; critiques of assessment tools; curriculum-based assessment; assessments of different…

  11. Efficacy of Atypical Antipsychotic Medication in the Management of Behaviour Problems in Children with Intellectual Disabilities and Borderline Intelligence: A Systematic Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Unwin, Gemma L.; Deb, Shoumitro

    2011-01-01

    The use of medications to manage problem behaviours is widespread. However, robust evidence to support their use seems to be lacking. The aim was to review research evidence into the efficacy of atypical antipsychotic medication in managing problem behaviour in children with intellectual disabilities and borderline intelligence. A systematic…

  12. The Effectiveness of Mood Stabilizers and Antiepileptic Medication for the Management of Behaviour Problems in Adults with Intellectual Disability: A Systematic Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deb, S.; Chaplin, R.; Sohanpal, S.; Unwin, G.; Soni, R.; Lenotre, L.

    2008-01-01

    Background: Psychotropic medications are used to manage behaviour problems in adults with intellectual disability (ID). One group of psychotropic medication are mood stabilizers such as lithium and some antiepileptic drugs. Method: A comprehensive systematic review was performed to determine the evidence base for the effectiveness of mood…

  13. The Effect of an Intervention Aimed at Reducing Errors when Administering Medication through Enteral Feeding Tubes in an Institution for Individuals with Intellectual Disability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Idzinga, J. C.; de Jong, A. L.; van den Bemt, P. M. L. A.

    2009-01-01

    Background: Previous studies, both in hospitals and in institutions for clients with an intellectual disability (ID), have shown that medication errors at the administration stage are frequent, especially when medication has to be administered through an enteral feeding tube. In hospitals a specially designed intervention programme has proven to…

  14. Disablement, Disability and the Nigerian Society.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abang, Theresa B.

    1988-01-01

    The condition of the disabled in developing nations, particularly Nigeria, is considered. Discussed are prevention of disability by control of infectious diseases, effects of myth and superstition on attitudes toward the disabled, the lack of medical facilities, and the rights of the disabled to an education and building access. (Author/DB)

  15. Ethical and legal issues associated with using response-to-intervention to assess learning disabilities.

    PubMed

    Burns, Matthew K; Jacob, Susan; Wagner, Angela R

    2008-06-01

    The Individuals with Disabilities Education Improvement Act of 2004 allows schools to use a child's response to research-based intervention (RTI) as a part of procedures to identify students with learning disabilities. This paper considers whether RTI-based assessment models meet ethical and legal standards for acceptable assessment practices. Based on a review of available research, it was concluded that RTI-based assessment practices, when carefully crafted and implemented, have the potential to be multifaceted, fair, valid, and useful. Threats to acceptable RTI-based assessment practices include: the lack of research-based interventions appropriate for diverse academic domains, ethnic groups, grades K-12, and students with limited English proficiency; uncertainty regarding how to determine when nonresponse to intervention warrants formal referral for evaluation of special education eligibility; difficulty translating scientifically sound RTI practices to the local school level; and inadequate staff training and poor treatment fidelity. Suggested directions for future research are included. PMID:19083360

  16. Approach to learning disability.

    PubMed

    Kulkarni, M; Kalantre, S; Upadhye, S; Karande, S; Ahuja, S

    2001-06-01

    Learning disabilities (LD) is one of the important causes of poor academic performance in school going children. Learning disabilities are developmental disorders that usually manifest during the period of normal education. These disabilities create a significant gap between the true potential and day to day performance of an individual. Dyslexia, dysgraphia and dyscalculia denote the problem related to reading, writing and mathematics. Perinatal problems are certain neurological conditions, known to be associated with LD; however, genetic predisposition seems to be the most probable etiological factors. Evaluation of a child suspected to be having LD consists of medical examination, vision and hearing test analysis of school performance. The psycho-behaviour assessment and education testing are essential in the process of diagnosis. The experienced persons in the field of LD should interpret the results of such tests. With Individualized Remedial Education Plan (IEP) most children learn to cope up with disability and may get integrated in a regular steam. PMID:11450386

  17. Assessing medical technology in less-developed countries.

    PubMed

    Sideman, S; BenDak, J D

    1997-01-01

    Less developed countries (LDCs) are limited in medical resources. Medical technology and the management talent required to handle it play a particularly major role in their national health care and has significant economic, political, and ethical ramifications. This study of the assessment process of medical technology in the LDCs proposes a limited framework for the analysis of the major parameters involved, i.e., stakeholders, boundaries and constraints, goals and objectives, criteria to be met, performance measures, and measurement of performance. The importance of the intangible factors is elucidated. PMID:9308274

  18. Medical simulation: the new tool for training and skill assessment.

    PubMed

    Carroll, John D; Messenger, John C

    2008-01-01

    Medical simulation is a new method to facilitate skill training and assessment. Simulation has achieved a high degree of sophistication in aviation and other fields. However, the complexity of health care, the numerous stakeholders, and the lack of central control of medical education have been barriers to the development and broad implementation of medical simulation. Acceptance by the medical community is growing, with the publication of scientific validation studies, the development of economic models and funding, and the integration of simulation into existing curricula and training programs. The major forces for implementing simulation will most likely come from the medical device industry and from institutions with mandates to improve the quality of health care and enhance patient safety. Certification boards are expected to increase their utilization of simulation technology to objectively assess proficiency of skills relevant to physicians and the health care system. Medical simulation has made the transition from an experimental technology to the clinical world, and the next five to 10 years may be viewed as the golden age of medical simulation. PMID:18192765

  19. Internal consistency & validity of Indian Disability Evaluation and Assessment Scale (IDEAS) in patients with schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    Grover, Sandeep; Shah, Ruchita; Kulhara, Parmanand; Malhotra, Rama

    2014-01-01

    Background & objectives: The Indian Disability Evaluation and Assessment Scale (IDEAS) has been recommended for assessment and certification of disability by the Government of India (GOI). However, the psychometric properties of IDEAS as adopted by GOI remain understudied. Our aim, thus, was to study the internal consistency and validity of IDEAS in patients with schizophrenia. Methods: A total of 103 consenting patients with residual schizophrenia were assessed for disability, quality of life (QOL) and psychopathology using the IDEAS, WHO QOL-100 and Positive and Negative symptom scale (PANSS) respectively. Internal consistency was calculated using Cronbach's alpha. For construct validity, relations between IDEAS, and psychopathology and QOL were studied. Results: The inter-item correlations for IDEAS were significant with a Cronbach's alpha of 0.721. All item scores other than score on communication and understanding; total and global IDEAS scores correlated significantly with the positive, negative and general sub-scales, and total PANSS scores. Communication and understanding was significantly related to negative sub-scale score only. Total and global disability scores correlated negatively with all the domains of WHOQOL-100 (P<0.01). The individual IDEAS item scores correlated negatively with various WHOQOL-100 domains (P< 0.01). Interpretation & conclusions: This study findings showed that the GOI-modified IDEAS had good internal consistency and construct validity as tested in patients with residual schizophrenia. Similar studies need to be done with other groups of patients. PMID:25579145

  20. Assessing the Likelihood of Rare Medical Events in Astronauts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Myers, Jerry G., Jr.; Leandowski, Beth E.; Brooker, John E.; Weaver, Aaron S.

    2011-01-01

    Despite over half a century of manned space flight, the space flight community is only now coming to fully assess the short and long term medical dangers of exposure to reduced gravity environments. Further, as new manned spacecraft are designed and with the advent of commercial flight capabilities to the general public, a full understanding of medical risk becomes even more critical for maintaining and understanding mission safety and crew health. To address these critical issues, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Human Research Program (HRP) has begun to address the medical hazards with a formalized risk management approach by effectively identifying and attempting to mitigate acute and chronic medical risks to manned space flight. This paper describes NASA Glenn Research Center?s (GRC) efforts to develop a systematic methodology to assess the likelihood of in-flight medical conditions. Using a probabilistic approach, medical risks are assessed using well established and accepted biomedical and human performance models in combination with fundamentally observed data that defines the astronauts? physical conditions, environment and activity levels. Two different examples of space flight risk are used to show the versatility of our approach and how it successfully integrates disparate information to provide HRP decision makers with a valuable source of information which is otherwise lacking.

  1. Predicting Optimal Preference Assessment Methods for Individuals with Developmental Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomson, Kendra M.; Czarnecki, Diana; Martin, Toby L.; Yu, C. T.; Martin, Garry L.

    2007-01-01

    The single-stimulus (SS) preference assessment procedure has been described as more appropriate than the paired stimulus (PS) procedure for "lower functioning" individuals, but this guideline's vagueness limits its usefulness. We administered the SS and PS preference assessment procedures with food items to seven individuals with severe or…

  2. Real medical benefit assessed by indirect comparison.

    PubMed

    Falissard, Bruno; Zylberman, Myriam; Cucherat, Michel; Izard, Valérie; Meyer, François

    2009-01-01

    Frequently, in data packages submitted for Marketing Approval to the CHMP, there is a lack of relevant head-to-head comparisons of medicinal products that could enable national authorities responsible for the approval of reimbursement to assess the Added Therapeutic Value (ASMR) of new clinical entities or line extensions of existing therapies.Indirect or mixed treatment comparisons (MTC) are methods stemming from the field of meta-analysis that have been designed to tackle this problem. Adjusted indirect comparisons, meta-regressions, mixed models, Bayesian network analyses pool results of randomised controlled trials (RCTs), enabling a quantitative synthesis.The REAL procedure, recently developed by the HAS (French National Authority for Health), is a mixture of an MTC and effect model based on expert opinions. It is intended to translate the efficacy observed in the trials into effectiveness expected in day-to-day clinical practice in France. PMID:19671436

  3. Assessment and non-clinical impact of medical devices.

    PubMed

    Dervaux, Benoît; Szwarcensztein, Karine; Josseran, Anne; Barna, Alexandre; Carbonneil, Cédric; Chevrie, Karine; Debroucker, Frédérique; Grumblat, Anne; Grumel, Olivier; Massol, Jacques; Maugendre, Philippe; Méchin, Hubert; Orlikowski, David; Roussel, Christophe; Rumeau-Pichon, Catherine; Sales, Jean-Patrick; Vicaut, Eric

    2015-01-01

    Medical devices (MDs) cover a wide variety of products. They accompany changes in medical practice in step with technology innovations. Innovations in the field of MDs can improve the conditions of use of health technology and/or modify the organisation of care beyond the strict diagnostic or therapeutic benefit for the patients. However, these non purely clinical criteria seem to be only rarely documented or taken into account in the assessment of MDs during reimbursement decisions at national level or for formulary listing by hospitals even though multidimensional models for the assessment of health technologies have been developed that take into account the views of all stakeholders in the healthcare system In this article, after summarising the background concerning the assessment of health technologies in France, a definition of non-clinical criteria for the assessment of MDs is proposed and a decision tree for the assessment of MDs is described. Future lines of approach are proposed as a conclusion. PMID:25747839

  4. Assessment of an itinerant medical evaluation program for school dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Sandler, A D

    1999-04-01

    This paper describes an itinerant medical evaluation (IME) project and reports on the outcome of 108 consecutive referrals made in the first year. Subjects were of ages 5 to 17 years. Most students had been evaluated by the schools but were not receiving special education or related services. IME led to clinical diagnosis of ADHD in 70% of the sample, and specific learning disabilities were diagnosed in 26%. Several other clinically significant and educationally relevant diagnoses were made. As a result of the IME, many students were placed in special education and/or began to receive related services. At three-month follow-up, classroom accommodations were being made for 97% of the students. Teachers reported they felt more capable of teaching challenging students as a result of the IME. Significant improvements occurred in hyperactivity, conduct problems, and inattention, and grades improved in 31% of the sample. Reasons for the project's success are discussed. PMID:10354982

  5. Bicycle accidents often cause disability--an analysis of medical and social consequences of nonfatal bicycle accidents.

    PubMed

    Olkkonen, S; Lahdenranta, U; Slätis, P; Honkanen, R

    1993-06-01

    Social and medical consequences of 278 children and 264 adults injured in bicycle accidents and seen in two hospitals in Helsinki in 1985-86 were analyzed. Information was collected from patient records, by means of a special questionnaire and by telephone interview. A child outpatient required 1.7 and a child inpatient 3.0 physician visits on an average, while adults required 2.2 and 4.9 visits, respectively. The average duration of hospital stay was 8 days for hospitalized adults and 6 days for children. Rehabilitative care outside the hospital was received by 6% of the adult outpatients and 25% of the inpatients, but none of the injured children. The mean duration of work disability was 82 days among inpatients, 11 days among outpatients, 127 days among the inpatients injured in motor vehicle collisions and 65 days among inpatients injured in other bicycle accidents. Of inpatients 32% and of outpatients 5% reported persistent (> 6 months) disability. Persistent disability was recorded in 11% of children, in 47% of adults and in 67% of elderly inpatients. Most serious consequences were due to intracranial injuries in motor vehicle-bicycle collisions. Of the hospitalized bicyclists 4% suffered from severe cognitive and behavioural changes or sense impairment and of adult inpatients 3% suffered from permanent work disability. The average costs of health and social services were about FIM 1000 per adult outpatient and FIM 13000 per adult inpatient. In prevention high priority should be given to motor vehicle collisions, head injuries and injuries among the elderly bicyclists. PMID:8367689

  6. Assessing burden of disease as disability adjusted life years in life cycle assessment.

    PubMed

    Kobayashi, Yumi; Peters, Greg M; Ashbolt, Nicholas J; Shiels, Sean; Khan, Stuart J

    2015-10-15

    Disability adjusted life years (DALYs) have been used to quantify endpoint indicators of the human burden of disease in life cycle assessment (LCA). The purpose of this paper was to examine the current use of DALYs in LCA, and also to consider whether DALYs as used in LCA have the potential to be compatible with DALYs as used in quantitative risk assessment (QRA) to facilitate direct comparison of the results of the two approaches. A literature review of current usage of DALYs in LCA was undertaken. Two prominent methods were identified: ReCiPe 2008 and LIME2. The methods and assumptions used in their calculations were then critically reviewed. The assumptions used for the derivation of characterization factors in DALYs were found to be considerably different between LCA methods. In many cases, transparency of these calculations and assumptions is lacking. Furthermore, global average DALY values are often used in these calculations, but may not be applicable for impact categories where the local factors play a significant role. The concept of DALYs seems beneficial since it enables direct comparison and aggregation of different health impacts. However, given the different assumptions used in each LCA method, it is important that LCA practitioners are aware of the differences and select the appropriate method for the focus of their study. When applying DALYs as a common metric between LCA and QRA, understanding the background information on how DALYs were derived is crucial to ensure the consistency of DALYs used in LCA and QRA for resulting DALYs to be comparable and to minimize any double counting of effects. PMID:26042893

  7. Medical ethics course for undergraduate medical students: a needs assessment study.

    PubMed

    Asghari, Fariba; Samadi, Aniseh; Rashidian, Arash

    2013-01-01

    Education needs assessment is one of the essential components of curriculum development. In this study, we aimed to assess the educational needs of general physicians for medical ethics. We conducted a three-stage Delphi study of general physicians' views on important ethical issues in their practice. In the item generation stage we retrieved 45 important educational items from a survey of general physicians, patients, well known ethical clinicians, and a review of other universities' curricula and international literature. The questionnaire was designed to ask the importance of each generated item. We then sent the questionnaire to general physicians. Items scored as highly important by more than 80% of the respondents in the first or second consensus development surveys were considered as educational priorities. Four academic medical ethics teachers reviewed and commented on the findings. The response rate to the first consensus development survey was 38%, of whom 77% also responded to the second survey. We developed consensus on 24 medical ethics items for inclusion in medical ethics curriculum. All items were also considered important by medical ethics teachers, and they added four further items to the list. Despite the attention given to ethical issues originating from technological advances, the most important educational needs of general physicians in medical ethics are still the traditional issues concerning the doctor-patient relationship and professionalism. PMID:24427484

  8. Medication persistence over 2 years of follow-up in a cohort of early rheumatoid arthritis patients: associated factors and relationship with disease activity and with disability

    PubMed Central

    Pascual-Ramos, Virginia; Contreras-Yáñez, Irazú; Villa, Antonio R; Cabiedes, Javier; Rull-Gabayet, Marina

    2009-01-01

    Introduction Aggressive treatment with disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs (DMARDs) plays a major role in improving early rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patient outcomes. Persistence and adherence with medication occurs variably (20% to 70%). The objectives of the study were to determine medication persistence (MP) in early RA patients over 13 consecutive visits each 2 months apart, to investigate the relationship between MP and disease activity, disability and structural damage, and to identify baseline prognosticators. Methods Charts from 75 patients of an early RA cohort were reviewed. At each visit, a rheumatologist interviewed patients regarding therapy, scored disease activity with the 28-joint disease activity score (DAS28) and disability with the health assessment questionnaire (HAQ), and recorded comorbidities and treatment. A complete medical history was obtained at baseline. MP was defined as the duration of time from initiation to discontinuation of at least one DMARD and/or corticosteroids for at least 1 week and was reported as a dichotomous variable at consecutive evaluations. Structural damage was defined by detection of new erosions on radiography. Descriptive statistics, Student's t test, the chi-squared test, and logistic regression analyses were used. Results The proportion of MP patients decreased from 98% at 2 months to 34% at 2 years. MP patients (n = 32) had similar DAS28 to non-MP patients (n = 53) at initial visits, lower DAS28 and greater DAS28 improvements at follow-ups (P ≤ 0.05 at visits 4, 6, 7 and 9) and reached sustained remission (≥ 3 consecutive visits with DAS28 < 2.6) more frequently (82.8% versus 46.5%, P = 0.003) and earlier (7.7 ± 4.6 versus 13.6 ± 5.7 months, P = 0.001) than non-MP patients. MP patients had similar baseline HAQ scores, but lower HAQ scores at follow-up (P ≤ 0.05 at visits 3, 5, 6, 7, 9, 10 and 13). More non-MP patients developed erosive disease than MP patients (26.8% versus 17.9%, P = 0.56). Older age

  9. The Human Rights Context for Ethical Requirements for Involving People with Intellectual Disability in Medical Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Iacono, T.; Carling-Jenkins, R.

    2012-01-01

    Background: The history of ethical guidelines addresses protection of human rights in the face of violations. Examples of such violations in research involving people with intellectual disabilities (ID) abound. We explore this history in an effort to understand the apparently stringent criteria for the inclusion of people with ID in research, and…

  10. 77 FR 47426 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Medical Certification for Disability Exceptions, Form N...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-08

    ... Immigration Services (USCIS) published a 60-day notice in the Federal Register at 77 FR 27474 to extend... Register on May 10, 2012, at 77 FR 27474, allowing for a 60-day public comment period. USCIS received one... Certification for Disability Exceptions, Form N-648, Extension, Without Change, of a Currently...

  11. Development and Psychometric Properties of an Assessment for Persons with Intellectual Disability--The InterRAI ID

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Lynn; Hirdes, John P.; Fries, Brant E.; Smith, Trevor F.

    2007-01-01

    This paper describes the development of the interRAI-Intellectual Disability (interRAI ID), a comprehensive instrument that assesses all key domains of interest to service providers relative to a person with an intellectual disability (ID). The authors report on the reliability and validity of embedded scales for cognition, self-care, aggression,…

  12. Determining the Leisure Needs of People Having Disabilities: Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands Needs Assessment Survey Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peniston, Lorraine C.

    This needs assessment survey attempted to determine if community recreation programs, including school-based and college-based programs, are meeting the needs of citizens with disabilities living on the Northern Mariana Islands. The survey polled 35 people with disabilities about the effectiveness of community recreation programs and services and…

  13. The Influence of Access to General Education Curriculum on Alternate Assessment Performance of Students with Significant Cognitive Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roach, Andrew T.; Elliott, Stephen N.

    2006-01-01

    The primary purpose of this investigation was to understand the influence of access to the general curriculum on the performance of students with significant cognitive disabilities, as measured by the Wisconsin Alternate Assessment (WAA) for Students with Disabilities. Special education teachers (N=113) submitted case materials for students with…

  14. The Luria-Nebraska Neuropsychological Battery and the WAIS-R in Assessment of Adults with Specific Learning Disabilities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Katz, Lynda; Goldstein, Gerald

    1993-01-01

    Compared intellectual (Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale for Adults-Revised) and neuropsychological (Luria-Nebraska Neuropsychological Battery) assessment as valid methods of identifying learning disabilities in adults. Findings from 155 subjects revealed that both instruments were able to distinguish adults with and without learning disabilities.…

  15. The Psychiatric Assessment Schedule for Adult with Developmental Disability (PAS-ADD) Checklist: Reliability and Validity of French Version

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gerber, F.; Carminati, G. Galli

    2013-01-01

    Background: The lack of psychometric measures of psychopathology especially in intellectual disabilities (ID) population was addressed by creation of the Psychiatric Assessment Schedule for Adult with Developmental Disability (PAS-ADD-10) in Moss et?al. This schedule is a structured interview designed for professionals in psychopathology. The…

  16. Assessing risk of hospital readmissions for improving medical practice.

    PubMed

    Kulkarni, Parimal; Smith, L Douglas; Woeltje, Keith F

    2016-09-01

    We compare statistical approaches for predicting the likelihood that individual patients will require readmission to hospital within 30 days of their discharge and for setting quality-control standards in that regard. Logistic regression, neural networks and decision trees are found to have comparable discriminating power when applied to cases that were not used to calibrate the respective models. Significant factors for predicting likelihood of readmission are the patient's medical condition upon admission and discharge, length (days) of the hospital visit, care rendered during the hospital stay, size and role of the medical facility, the type of medical insurance, and the environment into which the patient is discharged. Separately constructed models for major medical specialties (Surgery/Gynecology, Cardiorespiratory, Cardiovascular, Neurology, and Medicine) can improve the ability to identify high-risk patients for possible intervention, while consolidated models (with indicator variables for the specialties) can serve well for assessing overall quality of care. PMID:25876516

  17. A real-time assessment of factors influencing medication events.

    PubMed

    Dollarhide, Adrian W; Rutledge, Thomas; Weinger, Matthew B; Fisher, Erin Stucky; Jain, Sonia; Wolfson, Tanya; Dresselhaus, Timothy R

    2014-01-01

    Reducing medical error is critical to improving the safety and quality of healthcare. Physician stress, fatigue, and excessive workload are performance-shaping factors (PSFs) that may influence medical events (actual administration errors and near misses), but direct relationships between these factors and patient safety have not been clearly defined. This study assessed the real-time influence of emotional stress, workload, and sleep deprivation on self-reported medication events by physicians in academic hospitals. During an 18-month study period, 185 physician participants working at four university-affiliated teaching hospitals reported medication events using a confidential reporting application on handheld computers. Emotional stress scores, perceived workload, patient case volume, clinical experience, total sleep, and demographic variables were also captured via the handheld computers. Medication event reports (n = 11) were then correlated with these demographic and PSFs. Medication events were associated with 36.1% higher perceived workload (p < .05), 38.6% higher inpatient caseloads (p < .01), and 55.9% higher emotional stress scores (p < .01). There was a trend for reported events to also be associated with less sleep (p = .10). These results confirm the effect of factors influencing medication events, and support attention to both provider and hospital environmental characteristics for improving patient safety. PMID:23551380

  18. Assessment Modifications for Students with Disabilities in Sport Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tindall, Daniel; Foley, John

    2011-01-01

    The main goals of the sport education model (SEM) are to help students become competent, literate, and enthusiastic sportspersons by offering learning opportunities through contextualized sport experiences within the physical education setting. While various resources recommend suitable and easy-to-use assessment tools for physical education…

  19. Assessing the Attitudes of Administrators to Include Students with Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abernathy, Frederick Douglas

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to assess the attitudes of administrators in a medium sized school district in the Southeastern region of the United States. The researcher used a quantitative descriptive comparative pre-test and post-test design with a convenience sampling of the district administrators. There were 21 administrators at the…

  20. "Portfolios" as a method of assessment in medical education.

    PubMed

    Haldane, Thea

    2014-01-01

    Portfolios are increasingly used in postgraduate medical education and in gastroenterology training as an assessment tool, as documentation of competence, a database of procedure experience (for example endoscopy experience) and for revalidation purposes. In this paper the educational theory behind their use is described and the evidence for their use is discussed. PMID:24834299

  1. Assessment of Critical Thinking Ability in Medical Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Macpherson, Karen; Owen, Cathy

    2010-01-01

    In this study conducted with 80 first-year students in a graduate medical course at the Australian National University, Canberra, students' critical thinking skills were assessed using the Watson-Glaser Critical Thinking Appraisal (Forms A and B) in a test-retest design. Results suggested that overall subjects retained consistent patterns of…

  2. New Technology Provides Urgent Medical Information and Protects Privacy: Providing Important Information in Medical Situations for the Developmentally Disabled

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seelig, Richard

    2006-01-01

    Fernando Viesca has a 24-year-old son who suffers from Angelman Syndrome, a little known chromosomal disorder that has left him with significant functional deficiencies. When Nando lived at home, his father took care of him full time, thus alleviating any worries about medical care. However, now that Nando lives in a group home, his father is no…

  3. Accuracy of teacher assessments of second-language students at risk for reading disability.

    PubMed

    Limbos, M M; Geva, E

    2001-01-01

    This study examined the accuracy of teacher assessments in screening for reading disabilities among students of English as a second language (ESL) and as a first language (L1). Academic and oral language tests were administered to 369 children (249 ESL, 120 L1) at the beginning of Grade 1 and at the end of Grade 2. Concurrently, 51 teachers nominated children at risk for reading failure and completed rating scales assessing academic and oral language skills. Scholastic records were reviewed for notation of concern or referral. The criterion measure was a standardized reading score based on phonological awareness, rapid naming, and word recognition. Results indicated that teacher rating scales and nominations had low sensitivity in identifying ESL and L1 students at risk for reading disability at the 1-year mark. Relative to other forms of screening, teacher-expressed concern had lower sensitivity. Finally, oral language proficiency contributed to misclassifications in the ESL group. PMID:15497265

  4. [Medical expert assessment in civil and criminal law--medical expert assessment from the viewpoint of the attorney].

    PubMed

    Dierks, C

    1996-11-01

    Dealing with a medical expert assessment requires experience and perseverance of the lawyer. Exact knowledge about the expert opinion itself and the procedural options is of greatest importance due to the decisive impact of the medical expert assessment on the outcome of the lawsuit. The lawyer has to consider at any time of the process whether he can initiate an expert assessment, whether he has to evaluate, criticize or question obtained expert assessments, whether he has to challenge the expert or possibly has to introduce another expert into the lawsuit. The expert witness has to have professional knowledge and the lawyer as well as the court have to absorb this knowledge and use it accordingly. PMID:9064931

  5. Assessment of Patients with Intellectual Disability using the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health to Evaluate Dental Treatment Tolerability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maeda, S.; Kita, F.; Miyawaki, T.; Takeuchi, K.; Ishida, R.; Egusa, M.; Shimada, M.

    2005-01-01

    Patients with serious intellectual disability (ID) are occasionally unable to tolerate dental treatment when intravenous sedation or general anaesthesia (IVSGA) is involved. In order to make a decision regarding the application of IVSGA, the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF) is useful. Therefore, in this…

  6. Longitudinal assessment of medical student attitudes toward older people.

    PubMed

    De Biasio, Justin C; Parkas, Valerie; Soriano, Rainier P

    2016-08-01

    Delivering adequate care to older people requires an increasing number of physicians competent in the treatment of this expanding subpopulation. Attitudes toward older adults are important as predictors of the quality of care of older people and of medical trainee likelihood to enter the geriatrics field. This study assessed the attitudes of 404 US medical students (MS) from the start of medical school to graduation using the University of California, Los Angeles (UCLA) Geriatrics Attitude Scale. It is the first study to utilize a longitudinal design to assess attitudes among students in a medical school with a longitudinal geriatrics clinical experience in the first two years and a required geriatrics clerkship in the third year. Participants' attitude scores toward older people were found to significantly decrease from 3.9 during the first two years to 3.7 during the final two. Significant differences existed between MS1 and MS3, MS1 and MS4, MS2 and MS3, and MS2 and MS4. Women and older students held significantly more positive attitudes than men and younger students. These results show that planned clinical exposures to older adults may not be sufficient to halt the decline in attitudes in medical school. A comprehensive empathy-building intervention embedded in the curriculum may better prevent this decline. PMID:26619339

  7. The Work Disability Functional Assessment Battery (WD-FAB): Feasibility and Psychometric Properties

    PubMed Central

    Meterko, Mark; Marfeo, Elizabeth E.; McDonough, Christine M.; Jette, Alan M.; Ni, Pengsheng; Bogusz, Kara; Rasch, Elizabeth K; Brandt, Diane E.; Chan, Leighton

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To assess the feasibility and psychometric properties of eight scales covering two domains of the newly developed Work Disability Functional Assessment Battery (WD-FAB): physical function (PF) and behavioral health (BH) function. Design Cross-sectional. Setting Community. Participants Adults unable to work due to a physical (n=497) or mental (n=476) disability. Interventions None. Main Outcome Measures Each disability group responded to a survey consisting of the relevant WD-FAB scales and existing measures of established validity. The WD-FAB scales were evaluated with regard to data quality (score distribution; percent “I don’t know” responses), efficiency of administration (number of items required to achieve reliability criterion; time required to complete the scale) by computerized adaptive testing (CAT), and measurement accuracy as tested by person fit. Construct validity was assessed by examining both convergent and discriminant correlations between the WD-FAB scales and scores on same-domain and cross-domain established measures. Results Data quality was good and CAT efficiency was high across both WD-FAB domains. Measurement accuracy was very good for the PF scales; BH scales demonstrated more variability. Construct validity correlations, both convergent and divergent, between all WD-FAB scales and established measures were in the expected direction and range of magnitude. Conclusions The data quality, CAT efficacy, person fit and construct validity of the WD-FAB scales were well supported and suggest that the WD-FAB could be used to assess physical and behavioral health function related to work disability. Variation in scale performance suggests the need for future work on item replenishment and refinement, particularly regarding the Self-Efficacy scale. PMID:25528263

  8. Support Needs of Children with Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities: Age-Related Implications for Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shogren, Karrie A.; Seo, Hyojeong; Wehmeyer, Michael L.; Palmer, Susan B.; Thompson, James R.; Hughes, Carolyn; Little, Todd D.

    2015-01-01

    The Supports Intensity Scale-Children's Version (SIS-C) was developed to assess the support needs of children and youth aged 5 to 16 years with intellectual and developmental disabilities. Data from the standardization sample of the SIS-C were analyzed to evaluate the impact of the age cohorts (5-6, 7-8, 9-10, 11-12, 13-14, and 15-16 years) used…

  9. Teaching and assessing professionalism in medical learners and practicing physicians.

    PubMed

    Mueller, Paul S

    2015-04-01

    Professionalism is a core competency of physicians. Clinical knowledge and skills (and their maintenance and improvement), good communication skills, and sound understanding of ethics constitute the foundation of professionalism. Rising from this foundation are behaviors and attributes of professionalism: accountability, altruism, excellence, and humanism, the capstone of which is professionalism. Patients, medical societies, and accrediting organizations expect physicians to be professional. Furthermore, professionalism is associated with better clinical outcomes. Hence, medical learners and practicing physicians should be taught and assessed for professionalism. A number of methods can be used to teach professionalism (e.g. didactic lectures, web-based modules, role modeling, reflection, interactive methods, etc.). Because of the nature of professionalism, no single tool for assessing it among medical learners and practicing physicians exists. Instead, multiple assessment tools must be used (e.g. multi-source feedback using 360-degree reviews, patient feedback, critical incident reports, etc.). Data should be gathered continuously throughout an individual's career. For the individual learner or practicing physician, data generated by these tools can be used to create a "professionalism portfolio," the totality of which represents a picture of the individual's professionalism. This portfolio in turn can be used for formative and summative feedback. Data from professionalism assessments can also be used for developing professionalism curricula and generating research hypotheses. Health care leaders should support teaching and assessing professionalism at all levels of learning and practice and promote learning environments and institutional cultures that are consistent with professionalism precepts. PMID:25973263

  10. Measuring Academic Achievement of Students with Significant Cognitive Disabilities: Building Understanding of Alternate Assessment Scoring Criteria. Synthesis Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Quenemoen, Rachel; Thompson, Sandra; Thurlow, Martha

    This report compares the assumptions and values embedded in scoring criteria used in five states (Arkansas, Kentucky, Louisiana, Oregon, and Vermont) for alternate assessments of students with significant cognitive disabilities. The five states use different alternate assessment approaches, including portfolio assessment, performance assessment,…

  11. Emotional intelligence assessment in a graduate entry medical school curriculum

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The management of emotions in the workplace is a skill related to the ability to demonstrate empathic behaviour towards patients; to manage emotional reactions in oneself and to lead others as part of a team. This ability has been defined as emotional intelligence (EI) and doctor’s EI may be related to communication skills and to patient satisfaction levels. This study reports on the use of two assessments of EI as part of a course on Personal and Professional Development (PPD) in a graduate medical school curriculum. Methods Fifty one graduate entry medical students completed an eight session course on PPD between December 2005 and January 2006. Students completed two measures of EI: self-report (EQ-i) and ability (MSCEIT V2.0) over a two year study period. The data gathered were used to explore the relationship between self-report and ability EI and between EI and student demographics, academic performance and change over time. Results Analysis of the EI data demonstrated that self-report EI did not change over time and was not related to ability EI. Females scored higher than males on a number of self-report and ability EI scores. Self-reported self-awareness was found to deteriorate in males and females over time. High self-reported EI was found to be associated with poor performance on clinical competency assessments but with good performance on a number of bio-medical knowledge based assessments. Conclusions This report concludes that assessments of EI can be incorporated into a medical school curriculum as part of a PPD programme and that the concept of EI may be associated with performance in medical school. PMID:23497237

  12. Peer assessment among first year medical students in anatomy.

    PubMed

    Spandorfer, John; Puklus, Tanya; Rose, Victoria; Vahedi, Mithaq; Collins, Lauren; Giordano, Carolyn; Schmidt, Richard; Braster, Chris

    2014-01-01

    Peer assessment has been shown to be an effective tool to promote professionalism in medical students. Peer assessment may be particularly useful in anatomy dissection laboratory as the required close collaboration and long hours of anatomy laboratory provide students insights into their peers' work habits and interpersonal skills. The objective of this study was to quantitatively and qualitatively analyze the use of a validated peer assessment tool in Gross Anatomy. Students in a first year medical school class evaluated three members of their dissection group using an online survey tool. The mid-course and end-of-course evaluation included open-ended comments, as well as a five-point scale that measured three work habits, two interpersonal attributes and one overall score. All 267 students completed the assignment. The overall score and four of the five other assessed categories showed significant improvement from the mid- to end-of-course evaluations. Quantitative and qualitative data also revealed significant improvement among the students who received the lowest mid-course assessments. Seventy-six percent of the class agreed with the statement: "Based on the feedback I received, I made a change in how I worked with or taught my peers." The use of this peer assessment tool used by students in anatomy was associated with improvements in work habits and interpersonal attributes, particularly by the cohort of students who received the lowest mid-course feedback. Peer assessment offers students an opportunity to improve their interpersonal skills and work habits. PMID:23959790

  13. [Temporary disability and its legal implications].

    PubMed

    Martin-Fumadó, Carles; Martí Amengual, Gabriel; Puig Bausili, Lluïsa; Arimany-Manso, Josep

    2014-03-01

    Temporary disability is the condition that workers face when, as the result of illness (common or professional) or accident (work-related or not), they are temporarily prevented from performing their work and require health care. The management of temporary disability is a medical act that involves (in addition to a complex clinical assessment) obvious social, occupational and financial connotations and requires continuing medical follow-up from doctors, as well as responses to medical-legal conflicts. The regulatory framework on the subject is extensive in the Spanish setting and highly diverse in the European setting. Beyond the regulatory framework, the repercussions of temporary disability are self-evident at all levels. Although determining temporary disability is a common medical act for practicing physicians, it is not exempt from risks or difficulties arising from the assessment itself and the characteristics of practicing medical care. Established medical-legal conflicts include the processing of health data and the requirements for transferring information related to workers' temporary disability to their company's medical services. The interest and usefulness demonstrated by the data obtained from forensic medicine for public health require the incorporation of these data into general healthcare information, as it could be essential to the surveillance of worker health. The recommendations established by medical societies, as good practice guidelines, are especially useful in this type of conflict. PMID:24913752

  14. Teaching and Assessing Communication Skills in Medical Undergraduate Training.

    PubMed

    Modi, Jyoti Nath; Anshu, -; Chhatwal, Jugesh; Gupta, Piyush; Singh, Tejinder

    2016-06-01

    Good communication skills are essential for an optimal doctor-patient relationship, and also contribute to improved health outcomes. Although the need for training in communication skills is stated as a requirement in the 1997 Graduate Medical Education Regulations of the Medical Council of India, formal training in these skills has been fragmentary and non-uniform in most Indian curricula. The Vision 2015 document of the Medical Council of India reaffirms the need to include training in communication skills in the MBBS curriculum. Training in communication skills needs approaches which are different from that of teaching other clinical subjects. It is also a challenge to ensure that students not only imbibe the nuances of communication and interpersonal skills, but adhere to them throughout their careers. This article addresses the possible ways of standardizing teaching and assessment of communication skills and integrating them into the existing curriculum. PMID:27376604

  15. Beyond Misconceptions: Assessing Pain in Children with Mild to Moderate Intellectual Disability

    PubMed Central

    Zabalia, Marc

    2013-01-01

    To assess and manage pain in children and adolescents with mild to moderate intellectual disability, healthcare providers need access to updated tools and current knowledge. Recent studies show that these children can verbally express pain and use self-assessment tools accurately. Moreover, they know pain coping strategies. Finally, they show mental imaging skills and are able to recall autobiographical memories. These new data suggest that such children and adolescents could be candidates to for hypno-analgesia protocols and behavioral relaxation. PMID:24350192

  16. All-data approach to assessing financial capability in people with psychiatric disabilities.

    PubMed

    Lazar, Christina M; Black, Anne C; McMahon, Thomas J; Rosenheck, Robert A; Ries, Richard; Ames, Donna; Rosen, Marc I

    2016-04-01

    The goal of this project was to develop an evidence-based method to assess the ability of disabled persons to manage federal disability payments. This article describes the development of the Financial Incapability Structured Clinical Assessment done Longitudinally (FISCAL) measure of financial capability. The FISCAL was developed by an iterative process of literature review, pilot testing, and expert consultation. Independent assessors used the FISCAL to rate the financial capability of 118 participants (57% female, 58% Caucasian) who received Social Security disability payments, had recently been treated in acute care facilities for psychiatric disorders, and who did not have representative payees or conservators. Altogether, 48% of participants were determined financially incapable by the FISCAL, of whom 60% were incapable because of unmet basic needs, 91% were incapable because of spending that harmed them (e.g., on illicit drugs or alcohol), 56% were incapable because of both unmet needs and harmful spending, and 5% were incapable because of contextual factors. As expected, incapable individuals scored higher on a measure of money mismanagement (p < .001) compared with capable individuals. Interrater reliability for FISCAL capability determinations was very good (κ = .77) and interrater agreement was 89%. In this population, the FISCAL had construct validity; ratings demonstrated good reliability and correlated with a related measure. Potentially, the FISCAL can be used to validate other measures of capability and to help understand how people on limited incomes manage their funds. PMID:26146947

  17. Assessment of Medical Risks and Optimization of their Management using Integrated Medical Model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fitts, Mary A.; Madurai, Siram; Butler, Doug; Kerstman, Eric; Risin, Diana

    2008-01-01

    The Integrated Medical Model (IMM) Project is a software-based technique that will identify and quantify the medical needs and health risks of exploration crew members during space flight and evaluate the effectiveness of potential mitigation strategies. The IMM Project employs an evidence-based approach that will quantify probability and consequences of defined in-flight medical risks, mitigation strategies, and tactics to optimize crew member health. Using stochastic techniques, the IMM will ultimately inform decision makers at both programmatic and institutional levels and will enable objective assessment of crew health and optimization of mission success using data from relevant cohort populations and from the astronaut population. The objectives of the project include: 1) identification and documentation of conditions that may occur during exploration missions (Baseline Medical Conditions List [BMCL), 2) assessment of the likelihood of conditions in the BMCL occurring during exploration missions (incidence rate), 3) determination of the risk associated with these conditions and quantify in terms of end states (Loss of Crew, Loss of Mission, Evacuation), 4) optimization of in-flight hardware mass, volume, power, bandwidth and cost for a given level of risk or uncertainty, and .. validation of the methodologies used.

  18. Assessing medical student cultural competence: what really matters

    PubMed Central

    Sherrill, Windsor W.; Truong, Khoa D.; Pribonic, Anne P.; Schalkoff, Christine A.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives The study aimed to explore medical students’ attitudes and beliefs toward Latino patients, specifically: to assess students’ levels of knowledge, cultural competence, and comfort with Latinos; to determine students’ exposure to and previous experience with Latinos; and to evaluate whether factors such as study abroad, living abroad, previous clinical experience with Latinos, and language proficiency predict Latino knowledge, cultural competence, and comfort with Latinos. Methods This study utilized a cross-sectional survey design. Participants were third and fourth year medical students at three medical schools in the Southeastern United States. Three composite measures: Latino knowledge, Cultural competence, and Comfort with Latino patients, were predicted in a multivariate regression model including individual sociodemographic characteristics and past clinical or social experience with Latinos. Results A total of 170 medical students completed the survey (43% response rate). Spanish language proficiency was a statistically significant predictor (t(131)=2.72, p<0.05) of Latino knowledge. Social interaction with Latinos in the past year (t(126)=3.09, p<0.01), ever having lived in a Spanish-speaking country (t(126)=2.86,  p<0.01), and Spanish language proficiency (t(126)=3.28, p<0.01) independently predicted cultural competence. Previous clinical experience with Latinos was not significantly associated with the three composite dependent variables, and comfort with Latino patients was not significantly predicted by any of the six Latino-related explanatory variables. Conclusions Factors prior to medical school matriculation and during medical education may contribute to increased cultural competence and comfort with multicultural patients. Cultural patient-partner programs may be an effective way to increase cultural competence within the confines of medical school curricula.  PMID:27474895

  19. 20 CFR 404.1593 - Medical evidence in continuing disability review cases.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... physician, psychologist, or others who have treated or evaluated you, as well as any other evidence that... your physician, psychologist, or other medical sources. See § 404.1512(d)(1) concerning what we mean...

  20. 20 CFR 404.1593 - Medical evidence in continuing disability review cases.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... physician, psychologist, or others who have treated or evaluated you, as well as any other evidence that... your physician, psychologist, or other medical sources. See § 404.1512(d)(1) concerning what we mean...

  1. Ill health and use of medical care. Community-based assessment of morbidity in children.

    PubMed

    Diaz, C; Starfield, B; Holtzman, N; Mellits, E D; Hankin, J; Smalky, K; Benson, P

    1986-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the relationship between morbidity and ambulatory care utilization in a randomly selected sample of children with stable patterns of use of services in a prepaid multispecialty group practice. The unique features of the approach were a focus on long-term relationships (over 8 years) and on assessment of health status by a combination of parent reports, child reports, teacher reports, and physical examination. Domains of health status that were assessed included types and frequencies of health conditions and disability associated with them, functional status (physical health, mental health, social health, general well-being), school absence, vision and hearing screening, and physical abnormalities. Children with persistently high levels of use of services in a 6-year period (1974-79) were more likely to have health problems of all types, both concurrent and in a subsequent 2-year period (1980-81) than children with lower levels of use. As these findings were in agreement with those obtained in a study where morbidity was determined by diagnoses recorded in medical records, it is likely that the measures could be more generally useful to assess child health status in the community. Moreover, they distinguish groups of children who differ in their pattern of use of services and hence may be useful in the planning and budgeting of services for child populations. PMID:3762248

  2. Improving physical health for people taking antipsychotic medication in the Community Learning Disabilities Service.

    PubMed

    Hall, Ian; Shah, Amar

    2016-01-01

    Adherence with antipsychotic monitoring guidelines is notoriously low nationally. Without active monitoring and measures to improve metabolic abnormalities, more patients may develop related morbidity and mortality. An audit highlighted antipsychotic monitoring in this learning disability service in London did not match guideline recommendations. People with intellectual disability also experience health inequalities. Psychiatrists are well placed to provide advice and assistance that is suitable for those with complex communication, behaviour, and social needs. The QI team tested ideas to increase rates of antipsychotic reviews. The focus was the follow up monitoring of all universal measures recommended by NICE 2014, collected at 2-weekly intervals. We trialled interventions in four broad categories; Intervention 1: to make monitoring more structured and planned; Intervention 2: to increase staff and patient awareness of healthy eating and exercise programs; Intervention 3: to increase the collection of diet and exercise histories from patients; Intervention 4: to improve the uptake of blood tests. The interventions created an improvement in monitoring. There are lessons in the methodology for others carrying out similar projects. PMID:27335645

  3. Improving physical health for people taking antipsychotic medication in the Community Learning Disabilities Service

    PubMed Central

    Hall, Ian; Shah, Amar; Thomson, Helen

    2016-01-01

    Adherence with antipsychotic monitoring guidelines is notoriously low nationally. Without active monitoring and measures to improve metabolic abnormalities, more patients may develop related morbidity and mortality. An audit highlighted antipsychotic monitoring in this learning disability service in London did not match guideline recommendations. People with intellectual disability also experience health inequalities. Psychiatrists are well placed to provide advice and assistance that is suitable for those with complex communication, behaviour, and social needs. The QI team tested ideas to increase rates of antipsychotic reviews. The focus was the follow up monitoring of all universal measures recommended by NICE 2014, collected at 2-weekly intervals. We trialled interventions in four broad categories; Intervention 1: to make monitoring more structured and planned; Intervention 2: to increase staff and patient awareness of healthy eating and exercise programs; Intervention 3: to increase the collection of diet and exercise histories from patients; Intervention 4: to improve the uptake of blood tests. The interventions created an improvement in monitoring. There are lessons in the methodology for others carrying out similar projects. PMID:27335645

  4. A model of the pre-assessment learning effects of summative assessment in medical education.

    PubMed

    Cilliers, Francois J; Schuwirth, Lambert W T; Herman, Nicoline; Adendorff, Hanelie J; van der Vleuten, Cees P M

    2012-03-01

    It has become axiomatic that assessment impacts powerfully on student learning. However, surprisingly little research has been published emanating from authentic higher education settings about the nature and mechanism of the pre-assessment learning effects of summative assessment. Less still emanates from health sciences education settings. This study explored the pre-assessment learning effects of summative assessment in theoretical modules by exploring the variables at play in a multifaceted assessment system and the relationships between them. Using a grounded theory strategy, in-depth interviews were conducted with individual medical students and analyzed qualitatively. Respondents' learning was influenced by task demands and system design. Assessment impacted on respondents' cognitive processing activities and metacognitive regulation activities. Individually, our findings confirm findings from other studies in disparate non-medical settings and identify some new factors at play in this setting. Taken together, findings from this study provide, for the first time, some insight into how a whole assessment system influences student learning over time in a medical education setting. The findings from this authentic and complex setting paint a nuanced picture of how intricate and multifaceted interactions between various factors in an assessment system interact to influence student learning. A model linking the sources, mechanism and consequences of the pre-assessment learning effects of summative assessment is proposed that could help enhance the use of summative assessment as a tool to augment learning. PMID:21461880

  5. A Multi-Centre Audit of the Use of Medication for the Management of Behavioural Problems in Adults with Intellectual Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Unwin, Gemma L.; Deb, Shoumitro

    2008-01-01

    The aim was to investigate prescribing practices surrounding the use of medication for the management of behavioural problems in adults with intellectual disabilities with reference to a national guideline development project. A case note review methodology was employed to explore adherence to the audit criteria that were derived from the…

  6. Decision-Making after Prenatal Diagnosis of a Syndrome Predisposing to Intellectual Disability: What Prospective Parents Need to Know and the Importance of Non-Medical Information

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huyard, Caroline

    2012-01-01

    Background: Recently researchers have suggested that non-medical information may impact the decision to continue or terminate a pregnancy after a prenatal diagnosis. This study is an investigation of what type of information prospective parents need for this decision-making in the case of a condition predisposing to intellectual disability.…

  7. Quantifying Morbidity Burdens and Medical Utilization of Children with Intellectual Disabilities in Taiwan: A Nationwide Study Using the ACG Case-Mix Adjustment System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Wui-Chiang; Chen, Tzeng-Ji

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to quantify morbidity burdens of children with intellectual disability (ID) and to examine its association with total medical utilization and expenditure on a national basis in Taiwan. People under 18 years of age that had been continuously enrolled in the National Health Insurance (NHI) between year 2008 and 2010…

  8. Integration of a Psychiatric Service in a Long-Term Charitable Facility for People with Intellectual Disabilities: A 5-Year Medication Survey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ruggerini, Ciro; Guaraldi, Gian Paolo; Russo, Angela; Neviani, Vittoria; Castagnini, Augusto

    2004-01-01

    Since the implementation of a psychiatric service in a long-term facility for people with intellectual disability, the usage of psychotropic and anti-convulsant drugs has been surveyed over the 5-year period 1994-1999. At that time, although the overall prevalence rate of residents on medication was not declining significantly, a decrease in…

  9. Transferring Young People with Profound Intellectual and Multiple Disabilities from Pediatric to Adult Medical Care: Parents' Experiences and Recommendations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bindels-de Heus, Karen G. C. B.; van Staa, AnneLoes; van Vliet, Ingeborg; Ewals, Frans V. P. M.; Hilberink, Sander R.

    2013-01-01

    Many children with profound intellectual and multiple disabilities (PIMD) now reach adulthood. The aim of this study was to elicit parents' experiences with the transfer from pediatric to adult medical care. A convenience sample of 131 Dutch parents of young people with PIMD (16--26 years) completed a web-based questionnaire. Twenty-two…

  10. Longitudinal Functional Analysis of Problem Behavior during an Atypical Neuroleptic Medication Cross-over Evaluation for an Adolescent with Developmental Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, Timothy R.; Tervo, Raymond C.; McComas, Jennifer J.; Rivard, Patrick F.; Symons, Frank J.

    2009-01-01

    This quasi-longitudinal descriptive case study evaluated problem behavior for an adolescent boy with developmental disabilities via repeated functional behavioral analysis (FBA) probes during a blinded cross-over from the atypical neuroleptic Risperdal (Risperidone) to Seroquel (Quetiapine). The repeated FBA probes showed no medication differences…

  11. Relationship between IEP Characteristics and Test Scores on an Alternate Assessment for Students with Significant Cognitive Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karvonen, Meagan; Huynh, Huynh

    2007-01-01

    Although many studies have examined the alignment of state standards with large-scale assessment and instruction, fewer have attended to alignment concerning alternate assessments for students with significant disabilities. This study was designed to (1) compare expectations in one state's alternate assessment (AA) with curricular priorities…

  12. Teaching and Assessing Professionalism in Medical Learners and Practicing Physicians*

    PubMed Central

    Mueller, Paul S.

    2015-01-01

    Professionalism is a core competency of physicians. Clinical knowledge and skills (and their maintenance and improvement), good communication skills, and sound understanding of ethics constitute the foundation of professionalism. Rising from this foundation are behaviors and attributes of professionalism: accountability, altruism, excellence, and humanism, the capstone of which is professionalism. Patients, medical societies, and accrediting organizations expect physicians to be professional. Furthermore, professionalism is associated with better clinical outcomes. Hence, medical learners and practicing physicians should be taught and assessed for professionalism. A number of methods can be used to teach professionalism (e.g. didactic lectures, web-based modules, role modeling, reflection, interactive methods, etc.). Because of the nature of professionalism, no single tool for assessing it among medical learners and practicing physicians exists. Instead, multiple assessment tools must be used (e.g. multi-source feedback using 360-degree reviews, patient feedback, critical incident reports, etc.). Data should be gathered continuously throughout an individual’s career. For the individual learner or practicing physician, data generated by these tools can be used to create a “professionalism portfolio,” the totality of which represents a picture of the individual’s professionalism. This portfolio in turn can be used for formative and summative feedback. Data from professionalism assessments can also be used for developing professionalism curricula and generating research hypotheses. Health care leaders should support teaching and assessing professionalism at all levels of learning and practice and promote learning environments and institutional cultures that are consistent with professionalism precepts. PMID:25973263

  13. Evaluating the Supports Intensity Scale as a Potential Assessment Instrument for Resource Allocation for Persons with Intellectual Disability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chou, Yueh-Ching; Lee, Yue-Chune; Chang, Shu-chuan; Yu, Amy Pei-Lung

    2013-01-01

    This study evaluated the potential of using the Supports Intensity Scale (SIS) for resource allocation for people with intellectual disabilities (ID) in Taiwan. SIS scores were compared with those obtained from three tools that are currently used in Taiwan for homecare services: the medical diagnosis issued by local authorities and two scales…

  14. Diagnosing a Learning Disability in a Hearing-Impaired Child.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Plapinger, Donald; Sikora, Darryn

    1990-01-01

    This paper presents a case study that used an interdisciplinary diagnostic approach to determine whether a hearing-impaired nine-year-old child had a learning disability and to determine the type of disability. The assessment included medical examination, gross and fine motor skills, psychological functioning, mental processing and achievement,…

  15. Factors affecting disability in patients attending the internal medicine departments of general hospitals.

    PubMed

    Sata, M; Yoshitake, K; Utsunomiya, H; Hatada, K; Ohtsuka, T; Sugasaki, H; Nakane, Y

    1999-12-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of sociodemographic factors, physical factors and mental factors on the physical and social disability of patients attending outpatient clinics of general hospitals. Physical and psychiatric morbidity in 1580 consecutive patients attending the internal medicine department of general hospitals was assessed using a stratified two-stage sampling design method. Of the total, 336 patients completed the second stage interview composed of Primary Care Version of Composite International Diagnostic Interview and Groningen Social Disability Schedule to assess sociodemographic, physical and mental factors. In this study, restricted activity days, disability days and Brief Disability Questionnaire were used for the assessment of physical disability, and Groningen Social Disability Schedule was used for social disability. Sociodemographic, physical and mental factors were all related to disability. Among sociodemographic factors, unemployment was associated with physical disability and social disability mildly. Among physical factors, the severity of physical disease was not associated with disability and medically explained somatic symptoms were associated with disability. Furthermore, the mental factor was more strongly associated with physical and social disability. It could be said that the mental factor is more strongly associated with physical and social disability than sociodemographic or physical factors. In addition, even mild mental symptoms not leading to ICD-10 mental disorders affected disability. From the viewpoint of the patients' burden, it is important to assess the mental symptoms as well as physical status in outpatient clinics of internal medicine or primary care. PMID:10687740

  16. Doctors or technicians: assessing quality of medical education

    PubMed Central

    Hasan, Tayyab

    2010-01-01

    Medical education institutions usually adapt industrial quality management models that measure the quality of the process of a program but not the quality of the product. The purpose of this paper is to analyze the impact of industrial quality management models on medical education and students, and to highlight the importance of introducing a proper educational quality management model. Industrial quality management models can measure the training component in terms of competencies, but they lack the educational component measurement. These models use performance indicators to assess their process improvement efforts. Researchers suggest that the performance indicators used in educational institutions may only measure their fiscal efficiency without measuring the quality of the educational experience of the students. In most of the institutions, where industrial models are used for quality assurance, students are considered as customers and are provided with the maximum services and facilities possible. Institutions are required to fulfill a list of recommendations from the quality control agencies in order to enhance student satisfaction and to guarantee standard services. Quality of medical education should be assessed by measuring the impact of the educational program and quality improvement procedures in terms of knowledge base development, behavioral change, and patient care. Industrial quality models may focus on academic support services and processes, but educational quality models should be introduced in parallel to focus on educational standards and products. PMID:23745059

  17. Are Multiple Choice Tests Fair to Medical Students with Specific Learning Disabilities?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ricketts, Chris; Brice, Julie; Coombes, Lee

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of multiple choice tests of medical knowledge is to estimate as accurately as possible a candidate's level of knowledge. However, concern is sometimes expressed that multiple choice tests may also discriminate in undesirable and irrelevant ways, such as between minority ethnic groups or by sex of candidates. There is little literature…

  18. Associated Medical Disorders and Disabilities in Children with Autistic Disorder: A Population-Based Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kielinen, Marko; Rantala, Heikki; Timonen, Eija; Linna, Sirkka-Liisa; Moilanen, Irma

    2004-01-01

    A population-based survey was conducted among 152,732 Finnish children and adolescents aged under 16 years and living in northern Finland. Diagnoses and associated medical conditions were derived from the hospital and institutional records of this area. One hundred and eighty-seven children with DSM-IV autistic disorder were identified. Associated…

  19. Continuing medical education, needs assessment, and program development: theoretical constructs.

    PubMed

    Aherne, M; Lamble, W; Davis, P

    2001-01-01

    Continuing medical education (CME) program development and needs assessment have historically been practiced within the tradition of Ralph Tyler's education model. In light of transformational social, political, economic, and technical forces that demand greater account-ability and responsiveness from physicians, CME units are challenged to transform their cultures and structures from models that deliver education to models that support the facilitation of learning for enhanced competence and performance. This article describes key change forces for physicians and brings program development and needs assessment into focus for the discussion. The impact of change forces on program development and needs assessment are examined, and some techniques to move beyond the traditional approach of felt needs are presented as a way of enabling strategic administrative planning and change management. PMID:11291588

  20. Validating Dynamic Assessment of Triadic Gaze for Young Children with Severe Disabilities

    PubMed Central

    Olswang, Lesley B.; Feuerstein, Julie L.; Pinder, Gay Lloyd; Dowden, Patricia

    2013-01-01

    Purpose This research investigated a dynamic assessment (DA) to identify differences among young children with severe disabilities, which would predict progress in learning behaviors indicating coordinated joint attention (CJA). Method Six children 11–24 months of age were enrolled in a 16-week treatment for behaviors indicating CJA, specifically triadic gaze (TG), a three-point gaze shift between object and adult. An initial static assessment documented eligibility and baseline performance of TG. DA procedures were then implemented to determine each child’s performance with examiner support in producing behaviors suggesting joint attention (i.e., tracking, gaze toward an object or an adult, scanning between objects, scanning an object and adult, and TG). Results Results demonstrated differences among children during the DA via a DA score and a behavioral profile. Further, these results were predictive of differences among children in subsequent learning of TG. Conclusions These data support the validity of DA for describing heterogeneity among young children with severe disabilities who look similar on static assessment but appear differently ready to learn behaviors associated with joint attention. This knowledge will assist clinicians in planning more efficacious services for young children who struggle to communicate and are at risk for extended therapeutic needs. PMID:23813200

  1. Predicting the relative efficacy of three presentation methods for assessing preferences of persons with developmental disabilities.

    PubMed Central

    Conyers, Carole; Doole, Adrienne; Vause, Tricia; Harapiak, Shayla; Yu, Dickie C T; Martin, Garry L

    2002-01-01

    Choices were presented to 9 individuals with developmental disabilities using a two-choice format. Each pair of items, selected based on prior preference assessment, was presented to each participant in three conditions (actual items, pictures of the items, and spoken-name presentation) using a reversal design. The evaluation was conducted using food items, and was then repeated using nonfood items. The participants were also given a test to measure their skills on discrimination tasks ranging in difficulty from simple to conditional discriminations. The participants' abilities to make consistent choices with food and nonfood items were predicted, with 94% accuracy, by their discrimination skills. The findings suggest that presentation methods can affect the accuracy of a choice assessment, and that the systematic assessment of basic discrimination skills can be used to predict the effectiveness of different presentation methods in this population. PMID:11936545

  2. Educational Assessment and Accountability for All Students: Facilitating the Meaningful Participation of Students with Disabilities in District and Statewide Assessment Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elliott, Stephen N.

    This guide provides information about the assessment and inclusion of all students in statewide and district assessment programs. In particular, it focuses on tactics for including students with disabilities in assessment to achieve a more complete picture of student learning and educational accountability. It is designed to help Wisconsin…

  3. Including Pupils with Special Educational Needs and Disability in National Assessment: Comparison of Three Country Case Studies through an Inclusive Assessment Framework

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Douglas, Graeme; McLinden, Mike; Robertson, Christopher; Travers, Joseph; Smith, Emma

    2016-01-01

    The assessment of educational progress and outcomes of pupils is important to all concerned with education. This includes testing which is undertaken for accountability and award bearing purposes. This article examines how students with special educational needs and disability (SEND) are included in assessment. An "inclusive assessment"…

  4. Development and Validation of the Intellectual Disability Literacy Scale for Assessment of Knowledge, Beliefs and Attitudes to Intellectual Disability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scior, Katrina; Furnham, Adrian

    2011-01-01

    Research into the general public's responses to individuals with intellectual disabilities has been dominated by attitudinal research. While this approach has unquestionably generated useful findings, it ignores important aspects, such as lay knowledge, explanatory models and beliefs about suitable interventions that can produce a multi-faceted…

  5. The Physician and Teacher as Team: Assessing the Effects of Medication

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scranton, Thomas R.; And Others

    1978-01-01

    To determine the effects of medication on the classroom learning of learning disabled children, five educationally relevant tasks were administered by the teacher to two 8-year-old boys receiving continuous Ritalin dosages interspersed with Ritalin or placebo dosaged on a random basis. (Author)

  6. The Utility and Psychometric Properties of the Abel-Blasingame Assessment System for "Individuals with Intellectual Disabilities"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blasingame, Gerry D.; Abel, Gene G.; Jordan, Alan; Wiegel, Markus

    2011-01-01

    This article describes the development and utility of the Abel-Blasingame Assessment System for "individuals with intellectual disabilities" (ABID) for assessment of sexual interest and problematic sexual behaviors. The study examined the preliminary psychometric properties and evaluated the clinical utility of the ABID based on a sample of 495…

  7. Australian Students with Disabilities Accessing NAPLAN: Lessons from a Decade of Inclusive Assessment in the United States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elliott, Stephen N.; Davies, Michael; Kettler, Ryan J.

    2012-01-01

    Australian legislation and educational policies may espouse, but not yet fully enact, inclusive assessments for all. In relation to the National Assessment Program for Literacy and Numeracy (NAPLAN), for example, almost 5% of students are either exempt or withdrawn. The achievement levels of these students, many of whom have disabilities, are not…

  8. Addition to Transition Assessment Resources: A Template for Determining the Use of Guardianship Alternatives for Students Who Have Intellectual Disability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Millar, Dorothy Squatrito

    2014-01-01

    The main purpose of this article is to add to the transition assessment resources by introducing the Guardianship Alternative Assessment Template (GAAT) as it relates to guardianship prevention for youth and adults who have an intellectual disability. Guardianship refers to a legal intervention when a court determines that adult individuals are…

  9. The P15--A Multinational Assessment Battery for Collecting Data on Health Indicators Relevant to Adults with Intellectual Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perry, J.; Linehan, C.; Kerr, M.; Salvador-Carulla, L.; Zeilinger, E.; Weber, G.; Walsh, P.; Van Schrojenstein Lantman-De-Valk, H.; Haveman, M.; Azema, B.; Buono, S.; Cara, A. C.; Germanavicius, A.; Van Hove, G.; Maatta, T.; Berger, D. M.; Tossebro, J.

    2010-01-01

    Background: Health disparities between adults with intellectual disabilities (ID) and the general population have been well documented but, to date, no dedicated assessment battery for measuring health disparity has been available. This paper reports on the development and testing of a multinational assessment battery for collecting data on a…

  10. Measuring Cognition of Students with Disabilities Using Technology-Enabled Assessments: Recommendations for a National Research Agenda

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bechard, Sue; Sheinker, Jan; Abell, Rosemary; Barton, Karen; Burling, Kelly; Camacho, Christopher; Cameto, Renee; Haertel, Geneva; Hansen, Eric; Johnstone, Chris; Kingston, Neal; Murray, Elizabeth; Parker, Caroline E.; Redfield, Doris; Tucker, Bill

    2010-01-01

    This article represents one outcome from the "Invitational Research Symposium on Technology-Enabled and Universally Designed Assessments," which examined technology-enabled assessments (TEA) and universal design (UD) as they relate to students with disabilities (SWD). It was developed to stimulate research into TEAs designed to better understand…

  11. Evidence of the Validity of "Teaching Strategies GOLD[R]" Assessment Tool for English Language Learners and Children with Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Do-Hong; Lambert, Richard G.; Burts, Diane C.

    2013-01-01

    Research Findings: This study examined the measurement equivalence of the "Teaching Strategies GOLD[R]" assessment system across subgroups of children based on their primary language and disability status. This study is based on teacher-collected assessment data for 3-, 4-, and 5-year-old children for the fall of 2010, winter of 2010, and spring…

  12. A Multimethod Assessment of Anxiety and Problem Behavior in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders and Intellectual Disability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moskowitz, Lauren J.; Mulder, Emile; Walsh, Caitlin E.; McLaughlin, Darlene Magito; Zarcone, Jennifer R.; Proudfit, Greg Hajcak; Carr, Edward G.

    2013-01-01

    Despite the increased risk for anxiety disorders in children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD), there is a lack of research on the assessment and treatment of anxiety in this population, particularly for those with an intellectual disability (ID). The present study evaluated a multimethod strategy for the assessment of anxiety and problem…

  13. The Assessment of Basic Learning Abilities Test for Predicting Learning of Persons with Intellectual Disabilities: A Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Garry L.; Thorsteinsson, Jennifer R.; Yu, C. T.; Martin, Toby L.; Vause, Tricia

    2008-01-01

    The Assessment of Basic Learning Abilities (ABLA) Test uses standard prompting and reinforcement procedures to assess the ease or difficulty with which a testee is able to learn a simple imitation and five two-choice discriminations. The authors review studies that have examined performance of participants with developmental disabilities (DD) on…

  14. Standards of Work Performance. A Functional Assessment and Training Manual for Training People with Disabilities for Employment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Riches, Vivienne C.

    This manual is designed to assist trainers in using the Australian Standards of Work Performance in ongoing functional assessment and databased training of disabled persons for employment. It is divided into three sections. Section 1 begins with an overview of the functional assessment component of a databased training system and details the…

  15. Developing and Assessing Curriculum on the Physics of Medical Instruments

    PubMed Central

    Christensen, Warren; Johnson, James K.; Van Ness, Grace R.; Mylott, Elliot; Dunlap, Justin C.; Anderson, Elizabeth A.; Widenhorn, Ralf

    2013-01-01

    Undergraduate educational settings often struggle to provide students with authentic biologically or medically relevant situations and problems that simultaneously improve their understanding of physics. Through exercises and laboratory activities developed in an elective Physics in Biomedicine course for upper-level biology or pre–health majors at Portland State University, we aim to teach fundamental physical concepts, such as light absorption and emission and atomic energy levels, through analysis of biological systems and medical devices. The activities address the properties of electromagnetic waves as they relate to the interaction with biological tissue and make links between physics and biomedical applications such as microscopy or laser eye surgery. We report on the effect that engaging students in tasks with actual medical equipment has had on their conceptual understanding of light and spectroscopy. These initial assessments indicate that students’ understanding improves in some areas as a result of taking the course, but gains are not uniform and are relatively low for other topics. We also find a promising “nonshift” in student attitudes toward learning science as a result of taking the course. A long-term goal of this work is to develop these materials to the extent that they can eventually be imported into an introductory curriculum for life sciences majors. PMID:23737632

  16. Organisational impact: Definition and assessment methods for medical devices.

    PubMed

    Roussel, Christophe; Carbonneil, Cédric; Audry, Antoine

    2016-02-01

    Health technology assessment (HTA) is a rapidly developing area and the value of taking non-clinical fields into consideration is growing. Although the health-economic aspect is commonly recognised, evaluating organisational impact has not been studied nearly as much. The goal of this work was to provide a definition of organisational impact in the sector of medical devices by defining its contours and exploring the evaluation methods specific to this field. Following an analysis of the literature concerning the impact of technologies on organisations as well as the medical literature, and also after reviewing the regulatory texts in this respect, the group of experts identified 12 types of organisational impact. A number of medical devices were carefully screened using the criteria grid, which proved to be operational and to differentiate properly. From the analysis of the practice and of the methods described, the group was then able to derive a few guidelines to successfully evaluate organisational impact. This work shows that taking organisational impact into consideration may be critical alongside of the other criteria currently in favour (clinically and economically). What remains is to confer a role in the decision-making process on this factor and one that meets the economic efficiency principle. PMID:27080633

  17. [Are there differences in the assessment of medical and non-medical interventions?].

    PubMed

    Raspe, Heiner

    2009-01-01

    Usually medical and/or non-medical interventions are applied to treat both acute and chronic disease. The non-medical measures include a broad range of heterogeneous principles, among them surgical, physical, technical and psychological ones. Not uncommonly, these measures derive from particular theoretical concepts. They frequently involve complex interventions, that is, programmes with varying combinations of different interacting measures. It has been postulated by advocates of the so called complementary medicine that 'different treatment concepts and hence different assessment methods' not only do, but must exist. This claim will be examined in a four-step procedure, and it will be demonstrated that this claim cannot be maintained: 1) in the face of the German Social Code, Book V Para. 35b Sect. 1, 2) with respect to the required and available knowledge base, 3) against the background of professionally approved international standards of EbM and 4) the requirements of scientific acceptance of psychotherapeutic methods and procedures. PMID:19645338

  18. Determinants of frailty: the added value of assessing medication.

    PubMed

    Coelho, Tiago; Paúl, Constança; Gobbens, Robbert J J; Fernandes, Lia

    2015-01-01

    This study aims to analyze which determinants predict frailty in general and each frailty domain (physical, psychological, and social), considering the integral conceptual model of frailty, and particularly to examine the contribution of medication in this prediction. A cross-sectional study was designed using a non-probabilistic sample of 252 community-dwelling elderly from three Portuguese cities. Frailty and determinants of frailty were assessed with the Tilburg Frailty Indicator. The amount and type of different daily-consumed medication were also examined. Hierarchical regression analysis were conducted. The mean age of the participants was 79.2 years (±7.3), and most of them were women (75.8%), widowed (55.6%) and with a low educational level (0-4 years: 63.9%). In this study, determinants explained 46% of the variance of total frailty, and 39.8, 25.3, and 27.7% of physical, psychological, and social frailty respectively. Age, gender, income, death of a loved one in the past year, lifestyle, satisfaction with living environment and self-reported comorbidity predicted total frailty, while each frailty domain was associated with a different set of determinants. The number of daily-consumed drugs was independently associated with physical frailty, and the consumption of medication for the cardiovascular system and for the blood and blood-forming organs explained part of the variance of total and physical frailty. The adverse effects of polymedication and its direct link with the level of comorbidities could explain the independent contribution of the amount of prescribed drugs to frailty prediction. On the other hand, findings in regard to medication type provide further evidence of the association of frailty with cardiovascular risk. In the present study, a significant part of frailty was predicted, and the different contributions of each determinant to frailty domains highlight the relevance of the integral model of frailty. The added value of a simple

  19. Validity and Reliability of the Bahasa Melayu Version of the Migraine Disability Assessment Questionnaire

    PubMed Central

    Shaik, Munvar Miya; Hassan, Norul Badriah; Bhaskar, Shalini; Gan, Siew Hua

    2014-01-01

    Background. The study was designed to determine the validity and reliability of the Bahasa Melayu version (MIDAS-M) of the Migraine Disability Assessment (MIDAS) questionnaire. Methods. Patients having migraine for more than six months attending the Neurology Clinic, Hospital Universiti Sains Malaysia, Kubang Kerian, Kelantan, Malaysia, were recruited. Standard forward and back translation procedures were used to translate and adapt the MIDAS questionnaire to produce the Bahasa Melayu version. The translated Malay version was tested for face and content validity. Validity and reliability testing were further conducted with 100 migraine patients (1st administration) followed by a retesting session 21 days later (2nd administration). Results. A total of 100 patients between 15 and 60 years of age were recruited. The majority of the patients were single (66%) and students (46%). Cronbach's alpha values were 0.84 (1st administration) and 0.80 (2nd administration). The test-retest reliability for the total MIDAS score was 0.73, indicating that the MIDAS-M questionnaire is stable; for the five disability questions, the test-retest values ranged from 0.77 to 0.87. Conclusion. The MIDAS-M questionnaire is comparable with the original English version in terms of validity and reliability and may be used for the assessment of migraine in clinical settings. PMID:25121099

  20. Architecture for Integrated Medical Model Dynamic Probabilistic Risk Assessment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jaworske, D. A.; Myers, J. G.; Goodenow, D.; Young, M.; Arellano, J. D.

    2016-01-01

    Probabilistic Risk Assessment (PRA) is a modeling tool used to predict potential outcomes of a complex system based on a statistical understanding of many initiating events. Utilizing a Monte Carlo method, thousands of instances of the model are considered and outcomes are collected. PRA is considered static, utilizing probabilities alone to calculate outcomes. Dynamic Probabilistic Risk Assessment (dPRA) is an advanced concept where modeling predicts the outcomes of a complex system based not only on the probabilities of many initiating events, but also on a progression of dependencies brought about by progressing down a time line. Events are placed in a single time line, adding each event to a queue, as managed by a planner. Progression down the time line is guided by rules, as managed by a scheduler. The recently developed Integrated Medical Model (IMM) summarizes astronaut health as governed by the probabilities of medical events and mitigation strategies. Managing the software architecture process provides a systematic means of creating, documenting, and communicating a software design early in the development process. The software architecture process begins with establishing requirements and the design is then derived from the requirements.

  1. Psychological, neuropsychological, and medical considerations in assessment and management of pain.

    PubMed

    Martelli, Michael F; Zasler, Nathan D; Bender, Mark C; Nicholson, Keith

    2004-01-01

    Pain is a common yet challenging problem, particularly following traumatic injuries to the head or neck. It is a complex, multidimensional subjective experience with no clear or objective measures; yet it can have a significantly disabling effect across a wide range of functions. Persisting misconceptions owing to mind-body dualism have hampered advances in its understanding and treatment. In this article, a conceptualization of pain informed by recent research and derived from a more useful biopsychosocial model guides discussion of relevant medical, psychological, and neuropsychological considerations. This pain process model explains chronicity in terms of hyperresponsiveness and dysregulation of inhibitory or excitatory pain modulation mechanisms. Related neurocognitive effects of chronic pain are examined and recommendations for minimizing its confounding effects in neuropsychological evaluations are offered. A biopsychosocial assessment model is presented to guide understanding of the myriad of factors that contribute to chronicity. A brief survey of general classes and samples of the more useful pain assessment instruments is included. Finally, this model offers a rational means of organizing and planning individually tailored pain interventions, and some of the most useful pharmacologic, physical, and behavioral strategies are reviewed. PMID:14732828

  2. Development and assessment of learning objects about intramuscular medication administration

    PubMed Central

    Tamashiro, Lilian Mayumi Chinen; Peres, Heloisa Helena Ciqueto

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: to develop and assess a learning object about intramuscular medication administration for nursing undergraduates and nurses. METHOD: a random, intentional and non-probabilistic sample was selected of nurses from a Brazilian social network of nursing and students from the Undergraduate Program at the University of São Paulo School of Nursing to serve as research subjects and assess the object. RESULTS: the participants, 8 nurses and 8 students, studied the object and answered an assessment instrument that included the following criteria: educational aspects (relevance of the theme, objectives and texts/hypertexts), interface of the environment (navigation, accessibility and screen design) and didactic resources (interactivity and presentation of resources). In total, 128 significant answers were obtained, 124 (97%) of which were positive, assessed as excellent and satisfactory, considered as a flexible, dynamic, objective resources that is appropriate to the nursing learning process. CONCLUSION: the educational technology shows a clear and easily understandable language and the teaching method could be applied in other themes, contributing to the education and training of nursing professionals, positively affecting nursing teaching, stimulating the knowledge, autonomous and independent learning, aligned with the new professional education requirements. PMID:25493665

  3. Associations of Lifestyle, Medication, and Socio-Demographic Factors with Disability in People with Multiple Sclerosis: An International Cross-Sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    De Livera, Alysha M.; Marck, Claudia H.; Brown, Chelsea R.; Neate, Sandra L.; Taylor, Keryn L.; Weiland, Tracey J.

    2016-01-01

    Objective Emerging evidence links modifiable lifestyle risk factors to disease progression in multiple sclerosis (MS). We sought further evidence around this hypothesis through detailed analysis of the association with disability of lifestyle behaviours of a large international sample of people with MS. Materials and Methods A total of 2469 people with MS from 57 countries provided self-reported data via cross-sectional online survey on lifestyle (mostly with validated tools) and the primary outcome measure, disability (Patient Determined Disease Steps), categorised from 8 steps into 3 categories, mild, moderate and major disability. Multinomial logistic regression modelling derived relative risk ratios (RRRs) for disability categories. Results RRRs of having moderate vs mild disability were: diet (per 30 points on 100 point scale) 0.72 (95%CI 0.52–0.98), ever smoking 1.32 (1.06–1.65), exercise (moderate/high vs low) 0.35 (0.28–0.44), latitude (per degree from the equator) 1.02 (1.01–1.04), and number of comorbidities (2 vs none) 1.43 (1.04–1.95), (3 vs none) 1.56 (1.13–2.16). RRRs of having major vs mild disability were: exercise (moderate/high vs low) 0.07 (0.04–0.11), alcohol consumption (moderate vs low) 0.45 (0.30–0.68), plant-based omega 3 supplementation 0.39 (0.18–0.86), and disease-modifying medication use 0.45 (0.29–0.70). Conclusions Healthier lifestyle has strong associations with disability in our large international sample of people with MS, supporting further investigation into the role of lifestyle risk factors in MS disease progression. PMID:27560626

  4. Nutritional care of medical inpatients: a health technology assessment

    PubMed Central

    Lassen, Karin O; Olsen, Jens; Grinderslev, Edvin; Kruse, Filip; Bjerrum, Merete

    2006-01-01

    Background The inspiration for the present assessment of the nutritional care of medical patients is puzzlement about the divide that exists between the theoretical knowledge about the importance of the diet for ill persons, and the common failure to incorporate nutritional aspects in the treatment and care of the patients. The purpose is to clarify existing problems in the nutritional care of Danish medical inpatients, to elucidate how the nutritional care for these inpatients can be improved, and to analyse the costs of this improvement. Methods Qualitative and quantitative methods are deployed to outline how nutritional care of medical inpatients is performed at three Danish hospitals. The practices observed are compared with official recommendations for nutritional care of inpatients. Factors extraneous and counterproductive to optimal nutritional care are identified from the perspectives of patients and professional staff. A review of the literature illustrates the potential for optimal nutritional care. A health economic analysis is performed to elucidate the savings potential of improved nutritional care. Results The prospects for improvements in nutritional care are ameliorated if hospital management clearly identifies nutritional care as a priority area, and enjoys access to management tools for quality assurance. The prospects are also improved if a committed professional at the ward has the necessary time resources to perform nutritional care in practice, and if the care staff can requisition patient meals rich in nutrients 24 hours a day. At the kitchen production level prospects benefit from a facilitator contact between care and kitchen staff, and if the kitchen staff controls the whole food path from the kitchen to the patient. At the patient level, prospects are improved if patients receive information about the choice of food and drink, and have a better nutrition dialogue with the care staff. Better nutritional care of medical patients in Denmark

  5. A White Paper on the medical and social needs of people with epilepsy and intellectual disability: the Task Force on Intellectual Disabilities and Epilepsy of the International League Against Epilepsy.

    PubMed

    Kerr, Mike; Linehan, Christine; Thompson, Rose; Mula, Marco; Gil-Nagal, Antonio; Zuberi, Sameer M; Glynn, Mike

    2014-12-01

    This White Paper builds on the publication of the International League Against Epilepsy (ILAE) and International Bureau for Epilepsy (IBE) report "Listening for a change-medical and social needs of people with intellectual disability who have epilepsy" (Listening for a change the medical and social needs of people with epilepsy and intellectual disability, ILAE, 2013). The Paper presents an overview of the recommendations of the report, which aim to improve the health and social care of this important population of people with epilepsy worldwide. Actions in four domains are indicated: (1) the development of standards and initiatives that would enhance diagnosis, pathways to investigation, and treatment; (2) the development of guidelines for treatment, specifically best practice in the management of antiepileptic drugs including rescue medication; (3) the development of standards for primary care, multidisciplinary teamwork, and clinical consultations, with emphasis on the need to enhance communication and improve access to information; and (4) the enhancement of links among different stakeholders including medical services, educational establishments, employment services, organizations providing opportunities for social engagement, and family members. The breadth of needs of this population is a challenge to the epilepsy world, spanning all the professional groupings, care providers, and the research modalities in epilepsy. PMID:25378101

  6. The Integrated Medical Model - A Risk Assessment and Decision Support Tool for Human Space Flight Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kerstman, Eric; Minard, Charles G.; Saile, Lynn; FreiredeCarvalho, Mary; Myers, Jerry; Walton, Marlei; Butler, Douglas; Lopez, Vilma

    2010-01-01

    The Integrated Medical Model (IMM) is a decision support tool that is useful to space flight mission planners and medical system designers in assessing risks and optimizing medical systems. The IMM employs an evidence-based, probabilistic risk assessment (PRA) approach within the operational constraints of space flight.

  7. An Analysis of Assessment Instruments in Use by the California Community Colleges to Identify and Assess Students with Specific Learning Disabilities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ostertag, Bruce A.; Baker, Ronald E.

    In 1982, a survey of California community colleges was conducted to determine the formal and informal devices used to identify and assess learning disabled average (LDA) students; the characteristics, skills, and behaviors measured; the personnel who administered the assessment instruments; and the intake process and identification and assessment…

  8. Validity and reliability of Turkish translation of Migraine Disability Assessment (MIDAS) questionnaire in patients with migraine.

    PubMed

    Gedikoglu, U; Coskun, O; Inan, L E; Ucler, S; Tunc, T; Emre, U

    2005-06-01

    The Migraine Disability Assessment (MIDAS) questionnaire is a brief, self-administered questionnaire which is designed to quantify headache-related disability in a 3-month period. We have tested a Turkish version of the MIDAS questionnaire in 60 migraine patients. Sixty of the clinically diagnosed migraine headache sufferers were enrolled in a 90-day diary study and completed the MIDAS questionnaire in the first, 21st and the last day of the 90-day study. The scores taken from the diary and the scores of the MIDAS taken at different times were evaluated by the correlation tests of both Pearson and Spearman for each question and total scores. Cronbach's scores taken from the diary and taken from the test of the MIDAS which was applied at different times were evaluated. Pearson's correlation on the responses in the initial MIDAS questions was between 0.44 (reduced productivity in household chores) and 0.78 (missed work or school days). The correlation of the Spearman was similar to the Pearson values. As a result, we found that the overall score of the MIDAS has a good reliability and its internal consistency is also good (Cronbach's alpha 0.87). These findings support the use of the MIDAS questionnaire as a clinical and research tool on Turkish patients. PMID:15910570

  9. Issues in the assessment of reading disabilities in L2 children--beliefs and research evidence.

    PubMed

    Geva, E

    2000-01-01

    In bilingual and multilingual settings one is constantly challenged by the difficulty of teasing apart phenomena associated with normal second language (L2) reading acquisition from authentic warning signs of reading failure. The bulk of this paper focuses on a critical discussion of a cluster of beliefs that pertain to the issues concerning the diagnosis of reading disability in multilingual and bilingual settings among school children. Findings from available research on reading acquisition among bilingual children and research focusing specifically on the assessment of English-as-a-second language (ESL) children who might be at risk for reading disability are used to evaluate the validity of these beliefs. While some beliefs are supported by research, others are not. In particular, the research suggests that reliable diagnosis of dyslexia among ESL children can be achieved by examining within-language differences on various indices of basic reading skills such as phonological processing, and by noting a significant gap between oral and reading comprehension. PMID:10840504

  10. Medication review using a Systematic Tool to Reduce Inappropriate Prescribing (STRIP) in adults with an intellectual disability: A pilot study.

    PubMed

    Zaal, Rianne J; Ebbers, Susan; Borms, Mirka; Koning, Bart de; Mombarg, Erna; Ooms, Piet; Vollaard, Hans; van den Bemt, Patricia M L A; Evenhuis, Heleen M

    2016-08-01

    A Systematic Tool to Reduce Inappropriate Prescribing (STRIP), which includes the Screening Tool to Alert doctors to Right Treatment (START) and the Screening Tool of Older Peoples' Prescriptions (STOPP), has recently been developed in the Netherlands for older patients with polypharmacy in the general population. Active involvement of the patient is part of this systematic multidisciplinary medication review. Although annual review of pharmacotherapy is recommended for people with an intellectual disability (ID), a specific tool for this population is not yet available. Besides, active involvement can be compromised by ID. Therefore, the objective of this observational pilot study was to evaluate the process of medication review using STRIP in adults with an ID living in a centralized or dependent setting and the identification of drug-related problems using this tool. The study was performed in three residential care organizations for ID. In each organization nine clients with polypharmacy were selected by an investigator (a physician in training to become a specialized physician for individuals with an ID) for a review using STRIP. Clients as well as their legal representatives (usually a family member) and professional caregivers were invited to participate. Reviews were performed by an investigator together with a pharmacist. First, to evaluate the process time-investments of the investigator and the pharmacist were described. Besides, the proportion of reviews in which a client and/or his legal representative participated was calculated as well as the proportion of professional caregivers that participated. Second, to evaluate the identification of drug-related problems using STRIP, the proportion of clients with at least one drug-related problem was calculated. Mean time investment was 130minutes for the investigator and 90minutes for the pharmacist. The client and/or a legal representatives were present during 25 of 27 reviews (93%). All 27 professional

  11. Medication use in a large international sample of people with multiple sclerosis: associations with quality of life, relapse rate and disability

    PubMed Central

    Jelinek, George A.; Weiland, Tracey J.; Hadgkiss, Emily J.; Marck, Claudia H.; Pereira, Naresh; van der Meer, Dania M.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: To examine associations between medication use and health-related quality of life (HRQOL), relapse rate and disability in an international cohort of people with multiple sclerosis (PwMS). Methods: Using Web 2.0 platforms, the authors recruited PwMS who completed survey items on demographics, medication use, HRQOL, relapse rate and disability. Results: Of 2276 respondents from 56 countries, approximately half were taking a disease-modifying drug (DMD), most commonly glatiramer acetate or an interferon. Use of DMDs was not consistently associated with HRQOL. Individually, glatiramer acetate was associated with better HRQOL when compared with other DMDs or no DMD use. Overall, DMD use was neither associated with disability nor lower relapse rate, although those taking a DMD >12 months had 23.9% fewer relapses than those not taking a DMD. Polypharmacy, defined as those taking five or more over the counter, prescription or herbal medications, irrespective of DMD use, was associated with markedly worse HRQOL across all domains. Discussion: There was no consistent association of DMD use with better health outcomes in this large international \\sample of PwMS, although relapse rate appears lower for those taking a DMD for >12 months. Glatiramer acetate had associations with better HRQOL compared with other DMDs. PMID:25905471

  12. The Assessment of Physical and Program Accessibility for Students with Physical (Mobility) Disabilities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peterson, Deana R.

    A checklist and instructions are presented for evaluating the level of accessibility to school buildings, grounds, curricula, technology, and extracurricular activities for students with physical (mobility) disabilities. Legislative mandates (including The Americans with Disabilities Act of 1990, and Individuals with Disabilities Education Act)…

  13. A Preliminary Assessment of Police Officers' Knowledge and Perceptions of Persons with Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Modell, Scott J.; Mak, Suzanna

    2008-01-01

    Individuals with developmental disabilities are 4 to 10 times more likely to become crime victims than individuals without disabilities (D. Sobsey, D. Wells, R. Lucardie, & S. Mansell, 1995). Victimization rates for persons with disabilities is highest for sexual assault (more than 10 times as high) and robbery (more than 12 times as high). There…

  14. The Assessment of the Likelihood of Mammography Usage with Relevant Factors among Women with Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kung, Pei-Tseng; Tsai, Wen-Chen; Chiou, Shang-Jyh

    2012-01-01

    Research that identifies the determinants of low mammography use among disabled people is scant. This study examines the determining factors related to the low usage of mammography among women with disabilities. To identify the barriers that prevent women with disabilities from participating in mammography screening can help authorities conceive…

  15. Neglected Numerators, Drifting Denominators, and Fractured Fractions: Determining Participation Rates for Students with Disabilities in Statewide Assessment Programs. Synthesis Report 23.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Erickson, Ron; And Others

    This report evaluates the degree to which current assessment practices and programs include students with disabilities. It notes the difficulty of accurately determining the participation of students with disabilities in large-scale assessment programs due to a lack of data, differing definitions of eligible testing populations, and the…

  16. Assessing Children with Traumatic Brain Injuries: Integrating Educational and Medical Issues.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shaw, Steven R.; Yingst, Christine A.

    1992-01-01

    This overview of traumatic brain injuries discusses (1) incidence and prevalence; (2) characteristics; (3) the recovery process; and (4) educational/medical assessment, including premorbid functioning, current functioning, educationally relevant medical issues, and amount and type of family support. (JDD)

  17. Evidence-based assessment of learning disabilities in children and adolescents.

    PubMed

    Fletcher, Jack M; Francis, David J; Morris, Robin D; Lyon, G Reid

    2005-09-01

    The reliability and validity of 4 approaches to the assessment of children and adolescents with learning disabilities (LD) are reviewed, including models based on (a) aptitude-achievement discrepancies, (b) low achievement, (c) intra-individual differences, and (d) response to intervention (RTI). We identify serious psychometric problems that affect the reliability of models based on aptitude-achievement discrepancies and low achievement. There are also significant validity problems for models based on aptitude-achievement discrepancies and intra-individual differences. Models that incorporate RTI have considerable potential for addressing both the reliability and validity issues but cannot represent the sole criterion for LD identification. We suggest that models incorporating both low achievement and RTI concepts have the strongest evidence base and the most direct relation to treatment. The assessment of children for LD must reflect a stronger underlying classification that takes into account relations with other childhood disorders as well as the reliability and validity of the underlying classification and resultant assessment and identification system. The implications of this type of model for clinical assessments of children for whom LD is a concern are discussed. PMID:16083392

  18. A Bayesian computational model for online character recognition and disability assessment during cursive eye writing

    PubMed Central

    Diard, Julien; Rynik, Vincent; Lorenceau, Jean

    2013-01-01

    This research involves a novel apparatus, in which the user is presented with an illusion inducing visual stimulus. The user perceives illusory movement that can be followed by the eye, so that smooth pursuit eye movements can be sustained in arbitrary directions. Thus, free-flow trajectories of any shape can be traced. In other words, coupled with an eye-tracking device, this apparatus enables “eye writing,” which appears to be an original object of study. We adapt a previous model of reading and writing to this context. We describe a probabilistic model called the Bayesian Action-Perception for Eye On-Line model (BAP-EOL). It encodes probabilistic knowledge about isolated letter trajectories, their size, high-frequency components of the produced trajectory, and pupil diameter. We show how Bayesian inference, in this single model, can be used to solve several tasks, like letter recognition and novelty detection (i.e., recognizing when a presented character is not part of the learned database). We are interested in the potential use of the eye writing apparatus by motor impaired patients: the final task we solve by Bayesian inference is disability assessment (i.e., measuring and tracking the evolution of motor characteristics of produced trajectories). Preliminary experimental results are presented, which illustrate the method, showing the feasibility of character recognition in the context of eye writing. We then show experimentally how a model of the unknown character can be used to detect trajectories that are likely to be new symbols, and how disability assessment can be performed by opportunistically observing characteristics of fine motor control, as letter are being traced. Experimental analyses also help identify specificities of eye writing, as compared to handwriting, and the resulting technical challenges. PMID:24273525

  19. A Bayesian computational model for online character recognition and disability assessment during cursive eye writing.

    PubMed

    Diard, Julien; Rynik, Vincent; Lorenceau, Jean

    2013-01-01

    This research involves a novel apparatus, in which the user is presented with an illusion inducing visual stimulus. The user perceives illusory movement that can be followed by the eye, so that smooth pursuit eye movements can be sustained in arbitrary directions. Thus, free-flow trajectories of any shape can be traced. In other words, coupled with an eye-tracking device, this apparatus enables "eye writing," which appears to be an original object of study. We adapt a previous model of reading and writing to this context. We describe a probabilistic model called the Bayesian Action-Perception for Eye On-Line model (BAP-EOL). It encodes probabilistic knowledge about isolated letter trajectories, their size, high-frequency components of the produced trajectory, and pupil diameter. We show how Bayesian inference, in this single model, can be used to solve several tasks, like letter recognition and novelty detection (i.e., recognizing when a presented character is not part of the learned database). We are interested in the potential use of the eye writing apparatus by motor impaired patients: the final task we solve by Bayesian inference is disability assessment (i.e., measuring and tracking the evolution of motor characteristics of produced trajectories). Preliminary experimental results are presented, which illustrate the method, showing the feasibility of character recognition in the context of eye writing. We then show experimentally how a model of the unknown character can be used to detect trajectories that are likely to be new symbols, and how disability assessment can be performed by opportunistically observing characteristics of fine motor control, as letter are being traced. Experimental analyses also help identify specificities of eye writing, as compared to handwriting, and the resulting technical challenges. PMID:24273525

  20. Validation Study of the Spanish Version of the Disability Assessment for Dementia Scale.

    PubMed

    Sánchez-Pérez, Alicia; López-Roig, Sofía; Pérez, Ana Pampliega; Gómez, Paula Peral; Pastor, María Ángeles; Pomares, Miriam Hurtado

    2015-11-01

    The aim of this study was to determine reliability and validity of the Spanish version of the Disability Assessment for Dementia Scale (DAD-E) in the following areas: content, response process, internal structure, and relation to other constructs.We designed a cross-sectional observational study. The DAD-E was administered to 132 participants diagnosed with mild cognitive decline, prodromal Alzheimer disease, Alzheimer disease, or no cognitive decline. For the reliability study, we performed analyses of internal consistency, test-retest, and equivalent measures. To study validity, we performed item analysis, principal components analysis, and correlations with other measures.The sample was composed of 37 healthy participants (28%) and 95 patients (72%). In the total scale, Cronbach alpha was 0.963, intraclass correlation coefficient in the test-retest analysis was 0.983 (95% CI [95% confidence interval] = 0.969-0.991), and the analysis for equivalent measures was 0.949 (95% CI = 0.897-0.975). Out of the 40 items, we found that 37 presented a correlation index with the total score above 0.40. The principal components analysis suggests that 61.7% of the variance is explained by a single component that groups all scores on Activities of Daily Living. The DAD total score presents correlations with Barthel's Index of 0.882 (P = 0.000) and with Lawton and Brodie's Index of 0.877 (P = 0.000) and with the Mini Mental State Examination of 0.679 (P = 0.000).The DAD-E is a reliable and valid instrument to assess functional disability in people with cognitive decline in Spanish population. PMID:26554794

  1. Validation Study of the Spanish Version of the Disability Assessment for Dementia Scale

    PubMed Central

    Sánchez-Pérez, Alicia; López-Roig, Sofía; Pérez, Ana Pampliega; Gómez, Paula Peral; Pastor, María Ángeles; Pomares, Miriam Hurtado

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The aim of this study was to determine reliability and validity of the Spanish version of the Disability Assessment for Dementia Scale (DAD-E) in the following areas: content, response process, internal structure, and relation to other constructs. We designed a cross-sectional observational study. The DAD-E was administered to 132 participants diagnosed with mild cognitive decline, prodromal Alzheimer disease, Alzheimer disease, or no cognitive decline. For the reliability study, we performed analyses of internal consistency, test–retest, and equivalent measures. To study validity, we performed item analysis, principal components analysis, and correlations with other measures. The sample was composed of 37 healthy participants (28%) and 95 patients (72%). In the total scale, Cronbach alpha was 0.963, intraclass correlation coefficient in the test–retest analysis was 0.983 (95% CI [95% confidence interval] = 0.969–0.991), and the analysis for equivalent measures was 0.949 (95% CI = 0.897–0.975). Out of the 40 items, we found that 37 presented a correlation index with the total score above 0.40. The principal components analysis suggests that 61.7% of the variance is explained by a single component that groups all scores on Activities of Daily Living. The DAD total score presents correlations with Barthel's Index of 0.882 (P = 0.000) and with Lawton and Brodie's Index of 0.877 (P = 0.000) and with the Mini Mental State Examination of 0.679 (P = 0.000). The DAD-E is a reliable and valid instrument to assess functional disability in people with cognitive decline in Spanish population. PMID:26554794

  2. Unintended Consequences of State and Federal Antidiscrimination and Family Medical Leave Legislation on the Employment Rates of Persons with Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lehmann, Ilana; Crimando, William

    2008-01-01

    Although some writers have suggested that the Americans With Disabilities Act (ADA), contrary to its intent, was responsible for a decline in employment for persons with disabilities, there is little strong empirical support for such an assertion. This study is an attempt to demonstrate that, in fact, the dismal labor market experience following…

  3. Concordance of the Mini-Psychiatric Assessment Schedule for Adults Who Have Developmental Disabilities (PASADD) and the Brief Symptom Inventory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beail, N.; Mitchell, K.; Vlissides, N.; Jackson, T.

    2015-01-01

    Background: When assessing the mental health needs of people who have intellectual disabilities (ID) it is important to use measures that have good validity and reliability to ensure accurate case recognition and reliable and valid outcome data. Measures developed for this purpose tend to be self-report or by informant report. Multi-trait…

  4. Serving Clientele with Disabilities: An Assessment of Texas FCS Agents' Needs for Implementing Inclusive Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peterson, Rick L.; Grenwelge, Cheryl; Benz, Michael R.; Zhang, Dalun; Resch, J. Aaron; Mireles, Gerardo; Mahadevan, Lakshmi

    2012-01-01

    This article reports on a qualitative study to assess Texas Family Consumer Science (FCS) Extension professionals' experiences working with individuals with disabilities and their perceived skills in promoting and delivering inclusive educational programming for this audience. Study results indicate that overall Extension educators viewed…

  5. School Psychologists' Perceptions regarding the Practice of Identifying Reading Disabilities: Cognitive Assessment and Response to Intervention Considerations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Machek, Greg R.; Nelson, Jason M.

    2010-01-01

    This study surveyed a national sample of school psychologists with respect to the identification of reading disabilities (RD). It covers school psychologists' opinions regarding perceived benefits of the use of cognitive assessment in RD identification, both within and outside of an IQ-achievement discrepancy model. The survey also solicited…

  6. Psycho-Educational Assessment of Specific Learning Disabilities: Views and Practices of Australian Psychologists and Guidance Counsellors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meteyard, John D.; Gilmore, Linda

    2015-01-01

    This article reports an investigation of the views and practices of 203 Australian psychologists and guidance counsellors with respect to psycho-educational assessment of students with specific learning disabilities (SLDs). Results from an online survey indicated that practitioners draw upon a wide range of theoretical perspectives when…

  7. Reporting on State Assessment Data for Students with Disabilities: Synthesis of the 2007 NCEO Report. inForum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Muller, Eve

    2007-01-01

    The National Center on Educational Outcomes (NCEO) has conducted nine analyses of the public reporting of state assessment results for students with disabilities including four since the passage of the No Child Left Behind Act of 2001 (NCLB). This document synthesizes findings reported in NCEO's most recent analysis, "Nearing the Target in…

  8. Choice and Preference Assessment Research with People with Severe to Profound Developmental Disabilities: A Review of the Literature

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cannella, Helen I.; O'Reilly, Mark F.; Lancioni, Giulio E.

    2005-01-01

    Since the last major empirical review on choice interventions and preference assessments among people with severe to profound developmental disabilities (Lancioni, O'Reilly, & Emerson, 1996) the body of research in this area has grown extensively. This paper reviews thirty studies carried out between 1996 and 2002 that have been sorted into four…

  9. Alignment Analysis and Content Validity of the Wisconsin Assessment for Students with Disabilities. WCER Working Paper No. 2003-2

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roach, Andrew T.; Elliott, Stephen N.; Webb, Norman L.

    2003-01-01

    The primary purpose of the investigation was to determine the extent to which (a) the Wisconsin Alternate Assessment (WAA) adequately measures the skills and concepts that make up the curriculum and instruction of students with significant disabilities; and (b) the WAA adequately measures the concepts and skill areas represented in Wisconsin's…

  10. Uneven Transparency: NCLB Tests Take Precedence in Public Assessment Reporting for Students with Disabilities. Technical Report 43

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Center on Educational Outcomes, University of Minnesota, 2005

    2005-01-01

    This report marks the eighth analysis conducted by the National Center on Educational Outcomes (NCEO) of the public reporting of state assessment results for students with disabilities. This is the third analysis that NCEO has conducted since the passage of the federal No Child Left Behind Act (NCLB). Overall, a total of 48 states reported some…

  11. Assessing the Effects of Automatically Delivered Stimulation on the Use of Simple Exercise Tools by Students with Multiple Disabilities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lancioni, Giulio E.; Singh, Nirbhay N.; O'Reilly, Mark F.; Oliva, Doretta; Campodonico, Francesca; Groeneweg, Jop

    2003-01-01

    This study assessed the effects of automatically delivered stimulation on the activity level and mood of three students with multiple disabilities during their use of a stepper and a stationary bicycle. Stimuli from a pool of favorite stimulus events were delivered electronically while students were actively exercising. Findings indicated the…

  12. Development of Knowledge Domains and an Instrument to Assess Probation Officers' Knowledge of Offenders with Intellectual Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dixon, Valerie E.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop an instrument to assess probation officers knowledge levels of offenders with intellectual disabilities by utilizing a synthesis of subject matter analysis technique and a comprehensive review of literature. This study was conducted in two phases. The first phase was devoted to establishing the knowledge…

  13. Psychometric Evaluation of a Scale to Assess Satisfaction with Life among People with Intellectual Disabilities Living in Community Residences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bergstrom, H.; Hochwalder, J.; Kottorp, A.; Elinder, L. S.

    2013-01-01

    Background: In the context of a health intervention among people with intellectual disabilities (ID), there was a need to assess satisfaction with some aspects of life, in order to monitor both potential positive and negative effects of the intervention. The aim of the present study was to develop and evaluate an easily administered scale for…

  14. Public Reporting of 2007-2008 Assessment Information on Students with Disabilities: Progress on the Gap Front. Technical Report 57

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bremer, Chris; Albus, Debra; Thurlow, Martha L.

    2011-01-01

    This is the twelfth annual report by the National Center on Educational Outcomes (NCEO) analyzing public reporting of disaggregated assessment data for elementary and secondary students with disabilities in the United States. Reporting disaggregated performance data at the state and district level to the public is required of states by the…

  15. Why IEP Teams Assign Low Performers with Mild Disabilities to the Alternate Assessment Based on Alternate Achievement Standards

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cho, Hyun-Jeong; Kingston, Neal

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this case study was to determine teachers' rationales for assigning students with mild disabilities to alternate assessment based on alternate achievement standards (AA-AAS). In interviews, special educators stated that their primary considerations in making the assignments were low academic performance, student use of extended…

  16. A Perspective on Education and Assessment in Other Nations: Where Are Students with Disabilities? Synthesis Report 19.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elliott, Judy L.; And Others

    This report reviews five major international comparative studies on educational practices, assessment systems, and educational outcomes for students with disabilities. The five studies reviewed are: (1) the Reading Literacy Survey conducted by the International Association for the Evaluation of Educational Achievement (IEA); (2) the International…

  17. Differential predictors of the long-term levels of pain intensity, work disability, healthcare use, and medication use in a sample of workers' compensation claimants.

    PubMed

    Wideman, Timothy H; Sullivan, Michael J L

    2011-02-01

    The fear avoidance model of pain (FAM) conceptualizes pain catastrophizing as the cognitive antecedent of pain-related fear, and pain-related fear as the emotional antecedent of depression and disability. The FAM is essentially one of mediation whereby pain-related fear becomes the process by which depression or disability ensue. However, emerging literature suggests that pain catastrophizing, pain-related fear, and depression might be at least partially distinct in their prediction of different pain-related outcomes. The primary purpose of the present study was to evaluate whether psychological factors in the FAM (pain catastrophizing, pain-related fear, and depression) differentially predict long-term pain-related outcomes. Toward this objective, we conducted a prospective study using a cohort of 202 individuals with subacute work-related musculoskeletal injuries. Participants completed a 7-week physical therapy program with a functional rehabilitation orientation. Posttreatment measures of fear of movement, pain catastrophizing, depression, and pain self-efficacy were used to predict the persistence of pain symptoms, healthcare use, medication use, and return-to-work at one-year follow-up. Results from hierarchical linear and logistic regression analyses revealed that pain catastrophizing and fear of movement act as differential predictors of long-term pain-related outcomes. Specifically, we found unique relationships between pain catastrophizing and long-term pain intensity, and fear of movement and long-term work disability. After controlling for pain intensity and FAM variables, pain self-efficacy was shown to be a unique predictor of medication use. Implications for the FAM and the clinical management of musculoskeletal pain conditions are discussed. Unique relationships were found between pain catastrophizing and long-term pain intensity, between fear of movement and long-term work disability, and between pain self-efficacy and medication use at one

  18. Oral Assessment and Postgraduate Medical Examinations: Establishing Conditions for Validity, Reliability and Fairness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Memon, Muhammed Ashraf; Joughin, Gordon Rowland; Memon, Breda

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this review was to examine the practice of oral assessment in postgraduate medical education in the context of the core assessment constructs of validity, reliability and fairness. Although oral assessment has a long history in the certification process of medical specialists and is a well-established part of such proceedings for a…

  19. Investigating Computer-Based Formative Assessments in a Medical Terminology Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilbanks, Jammie T.

    2012-01-01

    Research has been conducted on the effectiveness of formative assessments and on effectively teaching medical terminology; however, research had not been conducted on the use of formative assessments in a medical terminology course. A quantitative study was performed which captured data from a pretest, self-assessment, four module exams, and a…

  20. Using Multiple Assessments to Evaluate Medical Students' Clinical Ability in Psychiatric Clerkships

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Peng-Wei; Cheng, Cheng-Chung; Chou, Frank Huang-Chih; Tsang, Hin-Yeung; Chang, Yu-San; Huang, Mei-Feng; Yen, Cheng-Fang

    2011-01-01

    Background: No single assessment method can successfully evaluate the clinical ability of medical students in psychiatric clerkships; however, few studies have examined the efficacy of multiple assessments, especially in psychiatry. The aim of this study was to examine the relationship among different types of assessments of medical students'…

  1. Paralympic Athletes and "Knowing Disability"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fitzgerald, Hayley

    2012-01-01

    This article explores non-disabled young people's understandings of Paralympic athletes and the disability sports they play. The article examines how society has come to know disability by discussing medical and social model views of disability. The conceptual tools offered by Pierre Bourdieu are utilised as a means of understanding the nature and…

  2. Disability Glare in the Aging Eye. Assessment and Impact on Driving☆

    PubMed Central

    van den Berg, Thomas J.T.P.; (René) van Rijn, L.J.; Kaper-Bongers, R.; Vonhoff, D.J.; Völker-Dieben, H.J.; Grabner, G.; Nischler, C.; Emesz, M.; Wilhelm, H.; Gamer, D.; Schuster, A.; Franssen, L.; de Wit, G.C.; Coppens, J.E.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose To compare different methods for the assessment of disability glare sensitivity in the elderly, to arrive at an objective assessment of the condition of the eye. To delineate the importance of straylight values in vision. Methods Three groups of subjects were studied: 1) Young subjects without any eye disease, 2) elderly subjects without any eye disease and 3) elderly subjects with (early) cataract in at least one eye. All subjects underwent 2 glare tests, 2 straylight tests, ETDRS visual acuity test, Pelli Robson contrast sensitivity test, refraction, LOCS III cataract classification. Straylight was quantified by means of the straylight parameter s. Results Repeatability, discriminative ability, and added value as compared to visual acuity were low for the glare tests and good for the straylight measurements. For young normal subjects, with log(s)=0.9, the standard glare situation with low beams gives a contrast reduction of 1.3, whereas for the healthy 77 year olds this increases to 2. With cataract hardly affecting visual acuity, log(s) can be as high as 1.8, resulting in a contrast reduction of 3.4. Conclusion Straylight measurement is of relevance for the assessment of the glare-related hindrance during driving, and can be used to objectify complaints and aid in the decision-making regarding cataract surgery.

  3. Bayesian Analysis for Risk Assessment of Selected Medical Events in Support of the Integrated Medical Model Effort

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gilkey, Kelly M.; Myers, Jerry G.; McRae, Michael P.; Griffin, Elise A.; Kallrui, Aditya S.

    2012-01-01

    The Exploration Medical Capability project is creating a catalog of risk assessments using the Integrated Medical Model (IMM). The IMM is a software-based system intended to assist mission planners in preparing for spaceflight missions by helping them to make informed decisions about medical preparations and supplies needed for combating and treating various medical events using Probabilistic Risk Assessment. The objective is to use statistical analyses to inform the IMM decision tool with estimated probabilities of medical events occurring during an exploration mission. Because data regarding astronaut health are limited, Bayesian statistical analysis is used. Bayesian inference combines prior knowledge, such as data from the general U.S. population, the U.S. Submarine Force, or the analog astronaut population located at the NASA Johnson Space Center, with observed data for the medical condition of interest. The posterior results reflect the best evidence for specific medical events occurring in flight. Bayes theorem provides a formal mechanism for combining available observed data with data from similar studies to support the quantification process. The IMM team performed Bayesian updates on the following medical events: angina, appendicitis, atrial fibrillation, atrial flutter, dental abscess, dental caries, dental periodontal disease, gallstone disease, herpes zoster, renal stones, seizure, and stroke.

  4. Assessing the Social Skills and Problem Behaviors of Adolescents With Severe Disabilities Enrolled in General Education Classes.

    PubMed

    Lyons, Gregory L; Huber, Heartley B; Carter, Erik W; Chen, Rui; Asmus, Jennifer M

    2016-07-01

    Although enhancing the social competence of students with severe disabilities has long remained a prominent focus of school-based intervention efforts, relatively little attention has focused on identifying the most critical social and behavioral needs of students during high school. We examined the social skills and problem behaviors of 137 adolescents with severe disabilities from the vantage point of both special educators and parents. We sought to identify areas of potential intervention need, explore factors associated with social skill and problem behavior ratings, and examine the extent to which teachers and parents converged in their assessments of these needs. Our findings indicate teachers and parents of high school students with severe disabilities rated social skills as considerably below average and problem behaviors as above average. In addition, lower social skills ratings were evident for students with greater support needs, lower levels of overall adaptive behavior, and a special education label of autism. We found moderate consistency in the degree to which teachers and parents aligned in their assessments of both social skills and problem behavior. We offer recommendations for assessment and intervention focused on strengthening the social competence of adolescents with severe disabilities within secondary school classrooms, as well as promising avenues for future research. PMID:27351700

  5. [Medical expert assessment in civil and criminal law from the medical viewpoint].

    PubMed

    Carstensen, G

    1996-11-01

    The demands on a medical witness are discussed. Physicians have to learn to deal with the legal conditions of their profession but lawyers have to be ready to understand the circumstances of the medical activity. Since 1975, independent medical bodies in the form of arbitration committees and expert boards have been founded in the Federal Republic of Germany. This extended the field of action for medical experts. However, a definition of the term "expert" is missing. There are rules for the continuing medical training by the German societies of physicians which should guide the courts. PMID:9064926

  6. Objective assessment of sleep and sleep problems in older adults with intellectual disabilities.

    PubMed

    van de Wouw, Ellen; Evenhuis, Heleen M; Echteld, Michael A

    2013-08-01

    Little is known about sleep in older adults with intellectual disability (ID). Aim of this study was to investigate sleep and its associated factors, and to estimate the prevalence of sleep problems in this population. This study was part of the healthy aging and intellectual disabilities study. Sleep was assessed using the Actiwatch, a watch-like device that measures sleep and wakefulness based on movement activity. Participants (n=551) wore the Actiwatch at least seven days and nights continuously. Variables of interest were time in bed (TIB), sleep onset latency, total sleep time, wake after sleep onset, sleep efficiency and get-up time latency. Multivariate analyses were used to investigate factors associated with these sleep parameters. Provisional definitions were drafted to estimate the prevalence of sleep problems. Mean TIB was 630 min. Longer TIB was independently associated with higher age, more severe level of ID, living at a central facility, wheelchair dependence, female gender and depressive symptoms (adjusted R(2)=.358, F-change=8.302, p<.001). The prevalence of sleep problems was 23.9% settling problem, 63.1% night waking problem, 20.9% short sleep time, 9.3% early waking problem. 72% of the participants had at least one problem, 12.3% had three or more sleep problems. Older adults with ID lie in bed very long, and the prevalence of sleep problems is high. Further research should focus on causality of the relationships found in this study, and effects of sleep problems on health and well-being in this population. PMID:23692894

  7. Relationships between the Nevada brief cognitive assessment instrument and the St. Louis University mental status examination in the assessment of disability applicants.

    PubMed

    Brown, David H; Lawson, Lauren E; McDaniel, William F; Wildman, Robert W

    2012-12-01

    Mental status examinations of individuals applying for disability are most often authorized as "2-hour" evaluations and are to include a complete clinical and employment history, assessment of neurocognitive functions, an estimate of general level of intelligence, psychological and social adjustment, functional abilities, and a complete multipage report of the results. In the interest of meeting these demands we have been using the Nevada brief cognitive assessment instrument (NBCAI) to rapidly estimate verbal intelligence, and we have adopted the Saint Louis University Mental Status Examination (SLUMS) to investigate neurocognitive functions. Areas of correspondence and differences between these screens are presented along with an explanation of why execution of both screens could be useful in addressing psychological questions concerning disability. The two instruments failed to correlate significantly in a group of patients undergoing pre-surgical evaluation likely because this sample was more highly educated and more homogeneous than the sample of disability referrals. For example, although the ages of the samples were close (disability sample mean and standard deviation age: 43.88 and 11.35 years; pre-surgical sample mean and standard deviation age: 46.14 and 2.84 years), they differed considerably in level of education (disability sample mean and standard deviation: 11.03 and 2.15; pre-surgical mean and standard deviation: 15.22 and 2.84). The pre-surgical group had mean performances close to the ceiling levels of both instruments. PMID:23402058

  8. Validation of a medical record-based delirium risk assessment

    PubMed Central

    Rudolph, James L.; Harrington, Mary Beth; Lucatorto, Michelle A.; Chester, Jennifer G.; Francis, Joseph; Shay, Kenneth

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To improve identification of patients at high risk for delirium, this study developed a chart abstraction tool for delirium risk and validated the tool against clinical expert diagnosis of delirium Design Prospective Cohort Study Setting Tertiary VA Hospital in New England Participants 100 Veterans admitted to the medical service Measurements While admitted, each participant underwent serial assessments for delirium by a clinical expert. Using the four criteria of a validated delirium prediction rule (e.g. cognitive impairment, sensory deficit, severe illness, and dehydration), chart review terms were selected for each criteria and delirium risk was the sum of criteria present (range 0–4; 4-worst). After discharge, the chart tool was completed by a nurse blinded to the expert’s diagnosis. Results The participants (n=100) were largely older (mean age 81 ±7years) men (94% male) and 23% developed overall delirium (14% incident). The rate of overall delirium in participants with 0, 1–2, and 3–4 risk factors was 11%, 18%, and 50% (p=.01) respectively with a c-statistic of 0.65 (95% Confidence Interval 0.54, 0.76). For incident delirium, the rate was 11%, 13%, and 25% (p=.53) and the c-statistic of 0.56 (95%CI 0.42, 0.74). Discharge to a rehabilitation center or nursing home increased with increasing delirium risk (0%, 18%, 60%, p=.02). Conclusions A chart abstraction tool was effective at identifying overall delirium risk, but not incident delirium risk. While the tool cannot replace clinical assessment and diagnosis of delirium, the use of this tool as an educational, clinical, or quality measurement aid warrants additional study. PMID:22091575

  9. Medication for older patients.

    PubMed

    2016-09-01

    A growing body of literature documents multiple morbidities and multiple medication use among older people with intellectual disabilities. In Ireland in 2012, 8.6% of all medication-related adverse events were reported from the disability sector. PMID:27581916

  10. In vitro method for medical risk assessment of laser fumes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malkusch, W.; Rehn, B.; Bruch, J.

    1995-02-01

    Laser processing of different materials may produce toxic fumes. In preventive occupational medicine it is necessary to evaluate valid hygienic standards for work places. The basis for such hygienic standards is the classification of laser fumes by their fibrogenic, emphysematous, immunological or other harmful potencies in biological assay systems. This paper is part of a European project on laser safety. Our part in this project is the development of a method for the investigation of lung responses using in vitro cell assays. The appropriate laser fume samples will be supplied by other groups in this European project. In contrast to the cell assays usually used in risk assessment, our method is based on isolated target cells in the lung, such as alveolar macrophages. The test criteria are mediator release, surfactant reactions, release of reactive oxygen species and cell proliferation. As demonstrated in the lung response to other dusts (minerals, fibres etc) these parameters are medically relevant factors in the pathogenic alveolar dust response. The paper gives basic information about the method using lung cell assays and the results of known substances, in comparison with a dust generated by laser processing.

  11. [Cardiopulmonary exercise testing in occupational medical fitness examination and assessment].

    PubMed

    Preisser, A M; Ochmann, U

    2011-11-01

    Medical expert opinion by occupational physicians and pneumologists has two main objectives: making a diagnosis with probability bordering on certainty and clarifying a causal relationship to a present or former occupational exposure to irritant toxic, allergenic or fibrosing dusts, gases, welding fumes or mineral fibres. Especially for conditions that are associated with exertional dyspnea, the diagnosis at rest using spirometry, body plethysmography, pulmonary function test, blood gas analysis, electrocardiogram and echocardiography is of limited use. This paper identifies the indications for cardiopulmonary exercise testing (CPET) in occupational medicine, explains the related measurements and their differential diagnostic value with special consideration of the flow-volume curve under exercise as well as the alveolar-arterial oxygen gradient. Diagnostic statements on the relevance of oxygen uptake measured at continuous and peak load compared to the wattage ascertained on the bicycle ergometer are presented. Characteristic CPET findings are explained in terms of their differential diagnostic significance. Furthermore, the importance of CPET for the assessment of occupational disease-related functional loss (clinical proportions in the reduction of working capacity) is shown. PMID:22083292

  12. Disability adjusted life year (DALY): a useful tool for quantitative assessment of environmental pollution.

    PubMed

    Gao, Tingting; Wang, Xiaochang C; Chen, Rong; Ngo, Huu Hao; Guo, Wenshan

    2015-04-01

    Disability adjusted life year (DALY) has been widely used since 1990s for evaluating global and/or regional burden of diseases. As many environmental pollutants are hazardous to human health, DALY is also recognized as an indicator to quantify the health impact of environmental pollution related to disease burden. Based on literature reviews, this article aims to give an overview of the applicable methodologies and research directions for using DALY as a tool for quantitative assessment of environmental pollution. With an introduction of the methodological framework of DALY, the requirements on data collection and manipulation for quantifying disease burdens are summarized. Regarding environmental pollutants hazardous to human beings, health effect/risk evaluation is indispensable for transforming pollution data into disease data through exposure and dose-response analyses which need careful selection of models and determination of parameters. Following the methodological discussions, real cases are analyzed with attention paid to chemical pollutants and pathogens usually encountered in environmental pollution. It can be seen from existing studies that DALY is advantageous over conventional environmental impact assessment for quantification and comparison of the risks resulted from environmental pollution. However, further studies are still required to standardize the methods of health effect evaluation regarding varied pollutants under varied circumstances before DALY calculation. PMID:25549348

  13. [Work disability in public press professions].

    PubMed

    Akermann, S

    2002-09-01

    In this study more than 1,000 cases of long-term disability among members of the press and media were evaluated. Mental disorders were the main cause of disability in almost every fourth case. In women psychiatric illnesses were even more important. The most common diagnosis was that of a depressive disorder which accounted for more than half of all psychiatric cases. The causes of disability of other insurance systems such as the German social security scheme and the pension and disability plan for the medical profession were compared. Mental illnesses are the leading cause of disability in white collar workers and orthopaedic illnesses, especially disorders of the vertebral column, are the leading cause in blue collar workers, as one might have expected. In females mental disorders are even more common than in men whereas men tend to have more cardiovascular problems than women. In this study also some interesting features regarding disability caused by various illnesses after long-term follow-up were found. This opens unknown perspectives allowing new assessment of diseases and eventually will enable the actuary to price medical diagnoses for disability insurance. PMID:12242775

  14. Teacher Perceptions of the Influence that No Child Left Behind Has on State Assessment of Students with Disabilities: Implications to Educational Administration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Easter-Pierce, Charlesa A.

    2009-01-01

    Parents, advocates, and educators have widely publicized NCLB as the most significant piece of legislation that affects the education of students with disabilities since the passage of the first IDEA legislation in 1975. Prior to NCLB, IDEA 1997 required the inclusion of students with disabilities in state and district assessments; however,…

  15. Communication Services and Supports for Individuals with Severe Disabilities: Guidance for Assessment and Intervention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brady, Nancy C.; Bruce, Susan; Goldman, Amy; Erickson, Karen; Mineo, Beth; Ogletree, Bill T.; Paul, Diane; Romski, Mary Ann; Sevcik, Rose; Siegel, Ellin; Schoonover, Judith; Snell, Marti; Sylvester, Lorraine; Wilkinson, Krista

    2016-01-01

    The National Joint Committee for the Communication Needs of People With Severe Disabilities (NJC) reviewed literature regarding practices for people with severe disabilities in order to update guidance provided in documents originally published in 1992. Changes in laws, definitions, and policies that affect communication attainments by persons…

  16. Rapid Assessment of Severe Cognitive Impairment in Individuals with Developmental Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walsh, D. M.; Finwall, J.; Touchette, P. E.; McGregor, M. R.; Fernandez, G. E.; Lott, I. T.; Sandman, C. A.

    2007-01-01

    Background: Most standardized intelligence tests require more than 1hour for administration, which is problematic when evaluating individuals with intellectual disabilities and developmental disabilities (IDDD), because a significant proportion of these individuals can not tolerate lengthy evaluations. Furthermore, most standardized intelligence…

  17. A Structured Method of Assessing Dynamic Risk Factors among Sexual Abusers with Intellectual Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGrath, Robert J.; Livingston, Joy A.; Falk, Gail

    2007-01-01

    The nature and severity of dynamic risk factors among a group of 87 adult male sexual abusers with intellectual disabilities were examined as was the psychometric properties of a new scale designed to measure these risk factors. The Treatment Intervention and Progress Scale for Sexual Abusers with Intellectual Disabilities (TIPS-ID) is composed of…

  18. Offenders with Intellectual Disability: Characteristics, Prevalence, and Issues in Forensic Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salekin, Karen L.; Olley, J. Gregory; Hedge, Krystal A.

    2010-01-01

    Although the problem of people with disabilities as victims of crime has been well recognized, the known characteristics of people with intellectual disabilities (ID) also make them vulnerable to becoming perpetrators of crimes. Most such crimes are minor, but the 2002 "Atkins v. Virginia" decision called national attention to people with ID and…

  19. The Development of an Assessment Tool for the Bereavement Needs of People with Learning Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blackman, Noelle

    2008-01-01

    Many people with learning disabilities are not well supported when someone close to them dies. This can make it an even more difficult time than it needs to be. This is about how staff can help people with learning disabilities when somebody close to them dies. It has some questions for them to think about. It is well documented that the death of…

  20. Risk Assessment: Actuarial Prediction and Clinical Judgement of Offending Incidents and Behaviour for Intellectual Disability Services

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lindsay, William R.; Beail, Nigel

    2004-01-01

    Background: Research on prediction of violent and sexual offending behaviour has developed considerably in the mainstream criminological literature. Apart from one publication [Quinsey (2004) "Offenders with Developmental Disabilities," pp. 131-142] this has not been extended to the field of intellectual disabilities. Methods: Work on actuarial…

  1. Assessing Components of Empathy in Sex-Offenders with Intellectual Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ralfs, Sonya; Beail, Nigel

    2012-01-01

    Background: Because of a lack of research investigating empathy in sex offenders with intellectual disabilities, this study explored empathy in sex offenders and non-offenders with intellectual disabilities. Specific aims were to explore differences between these groups on measures of the components of empathy. Methods: The scores of 21…

  2. Dimensional Integration of Assessment Outcomes with Intervention Services for Children with Specific Learning Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Decker, Scott

    2012-01-01

    This article reviews critical issues with integrating different procedures for identifying children with specific learning disabilities permitted in the federal regulations of the 2004 Individual With Disabilities Education Act 2004. Theoretical differences between behavioral approaches that focus on recording behavioral responses based on…

  3. Discrepancies, Responses, and Patterns: Selecting a Method of Assessment for Specific Learning Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ihori, Derek; Olvera, Pedro

    2015-01-01

    The Individuals with Disabilities Education Act allows three methods of determining whether a student qualifies for special education as a student with a specific learning disability (SLD). The first and most controversial is the Discrepancy model, which requires a significant discrepancy between the student's intellectual ability and…

  4. An Assessment of Policies Guiding School Emergency Disaster Management for Students with Disabilities in Australia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boon, Helen Joanna; Pagliano, Paul; Brown, Lawrence; Tsey, Komla

    2012-01-01

    Recent weather-related disasters (i.e., floods, fires) impacting Australia may potentially increase in frequency and severity as a result of predicted climate variability. The dearth of literature pertaining to school emergency response planning for vulnerable students with disabilities (including those with intellectual disabilities) when such…

  5. Assessing posttraumatic stress disorder in children with mild to borderline intellectual disabilities

    PubMed Central

    Mevissen, Liesbeth; Didden, Robert; Korzilius, Hubert; de Jongh, Ad

    2016-01-01

    Background Evidence suggests that children with mild to borderline intellectual disabilities (MBID; IQ 50–85) have an elevated risk for both being exposed to potentially traumatic events and developing a posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). In this target group, PTSD often remains undiscovered due to a lack of diagnostic instruments. Valid instruments for the assessment of PTSD in children with MBID are therefore needed. Objective The aim of the current study was to validate the adapted PTSD section of the Anxiety Disorders Interview Schedule for Children (ADIS-C) for the assessment of PTSD in children with MBID according to DSM-IV-TR and DSM-5 criteria. Method Eighty children (aged 6–18 years) with MBID who were referred to an outpatient psychiatric service and their primary caregivers were interviewed using the adapted ADIS-C. Results The adapted ADIS-C PTSD section has excellent interrater reliability and good convergent validity. PTSD symptoms described spontaneously by children with MBID and their caregivers closely matched those included in the DSM-IV-TR and DSM-5. Many of the children who met Criterion A did not meet PTSD symptom criteria. Conversely, children meeting the full PTSD criteria were more likely than other children with MBID to have been exposed to at least one traumatic event meeting Criterion A and to a higher total number of potentially traumatic events. Conclusions The results support the reliability and validity of the adapted ADIS-C PTSD section for assessing PTSD in children with MBID. The use of this clinical interview helps to improve detection of PTSD and subsequent access to trauma-focused interventions for this at risk target group. PMID:26758506

  6. Effectiveness of a biopsychosocial e-learning intervention on the clinical judgements of medical students and GP trainees regarding future risk of disability in patients with chronic lower back pain: study protocol for a randomised controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Dwyer, Christopher P; MacNeela, Pádraig; Reynolds, Bronagh; Hamm, Robert M; Main, Christopher J; O'Connor, Laura L; Conneely, Sinéad; Taheny, Darragh; Slattery, Brian W; O'Neill, Ciaran; NicGabhainn, Saoirse; Murphy, Andrew W; Kropmans, Thomas; McGuire, Brian E

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Chronic lower back pain (CLBP) is a major healthcare problem with wide ranging effects. It is a priority for appropriate management of CLBP to get individuals back to work as early as possible. Interventions that identify biopsychosocial barriers to recovery have been observed to lead to successfully reduced pain-related work absences and increased return to work for individuals with CLBP. Modern conceptualisations of pain adopt a biopsychosocial approach, such as the flags approach. Biopsychosocial perspectives have been applied to judgements about future adjustment, recovery from pain and risk of long-term disability; and provide a helpful model for understanding the importance of contextual interactions between psychosocial and biological variables in the experience of pain. Medical students and general practitioner (GP) trainees are important groups to target with education about biopsychosocial conceptualisations of pain and related clinical implications. Aim The current study will compare the effects of an e-learning intervention that focuses on a biopsychosocial model of pain, on the clinical judgements of medical students and trainees. Methods and analysis Medical student and GP trainee participants will be randomised to 1 of 2 study conditions: (1) a 20 min e-learning intervention focused on the fundamentals of the flags approach to clinical judgement-making regarding risk of future pain-related disability; compared with a (2) wait-list control group on judgement accuracy and weighting (ie, primary outcomes); flags approach knowledge, attitudes and beliefs towards pain, judgement speed and empathy (ie, secondary outcomes). Participants will be assessed at preintervention and postintervention. Ethics and dissemination The study will be performed in agreement with the Declaration of Helsinki and is approved by the National University of Ireland Galway Research Ethics Committee. The results of the trial will be published according to the

  7. Modeling people with motor disabilities to empower the automatic accessibility and ergonomic assessment of new products.

    PubMed

    Kaklanis, Nikolaos; Stavropoulos, Georgios; Tzovaras, Dimitrios

    2015-11-01

    Virtual User Models (VUMs) can be a valuable tool for accessibility and ergonomic evaluation of designs in simulation environments. As increasing the accessibility of a design is usually translated into additional costs and increased development time, the need for specifying the percentage of population for which the design will be accessible is crucial. This paper addresses the development of VUMs representing specific groups of people with disabilities. In order to create such VUMs, we need to know the functional limitations, i.e. disability parameters, caused by each disability and their variability over the population. Measurements were obtained from 90 subjects with motor disabilities and were analyzed using both parametric and nonparametric regression methods as well as a proposed hybrid regression method able to handle small sample sizes. Validation results showed that in most cases the proposed regression analysis can produce valid estimations on the variability of each disability parameter. PMID:26154211

  8. Medication Management Assessment for Older Adults in the Community

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Orwig, Denise; Brandt, Nicole; Gruber-Baldini, Ann L.

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to describe the Medication Management Instrument for Deficiencies in the Elderly (MedMaIDE) and to provide results of reliability and validity testing. Design and Methods: Participants were 50 older adults, aged 65 and older, who lived in the community, took at least one prescription medication, and were then…

  9. Assessing the Academic Medical Center as a Supportive Learning Community

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gannon, Sam C.

    2011-01-01

    Academic medical centers are well-known for their emphasis on teaching, research and public service; however, like most large, bureaucratic organizations, they oftentimes suffer from an inability to learn as an organization. The role of the research administrator in the academic medical center has grown over time as the profession itself has…

  10. Training Medical Students about Hazardous Drinking Using Simple Assessment Techniques

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hidalgo, Jesús López-Torres; Pretel, Fernando Andrés; Bravo, Beatriz Navarro; Rabadan, Francisco Escobar; Serrano Selva, Juan Pedro; Latorre Postigo, Jose Miguel; Martínez, Ignacio Párraga

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To examine the ability of medical students to identify hazardous drinkers using screening tools recommended in clinical practice. Design: Observational cross-sectional study. Setting: Faculty of Medicine of Castilla-La Mancha, Spain. Method: The medical students learnt to use Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT) and…

  11. Standardizing assessment practices of undergraduate medical competencies across medical schools: challenges, opportunities and lessons learned from a consortium of medical schools in Uganda

    PubMed Central

    Mubuuke, Aloysius Gonzaga; Mwesigwa, Catherine; Maling, Samuel; Rukundo, Godfrey; Kagawa, Mike; Kitara, David Lagoro; Kiguli, Sarah

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Health professions education is gradually moving away from the more traditional approaches to new innovative ways of training aimed at producing professionals with the necessary competencies to address the community health needs. In response to these emerging trends, Medical Education for Equitable Services to All Ugandans (MESAU), a consortium of Ugandan medical schools developed key competencies desirable of graduates and successfully implemented Competency Based Education (CBE) for undergraduate medical students. Objectives To examine the current situation and establish whether assessment methods of the competencies are standardized across MESAU schools as well as establish the challenges, opportunities and lessons learned from the MESAU consortium. Methods It was a cross-sectional descriptive study involving faculty of the medical schools in Uganda. Data was collected using focus group discussions and document reviews. Findings were presented in form of themes. Results Although the MESAU schools have implemented the developed competencies within their curricular, the assessment methods are still not standardized with each institution having its own assessment procedures. Lack of knowledge and skills regarding assessment of the competencies was evident amongst the faculty. The fear for change amongst lecturers was also noted as a major challenge. However, the institutional collaboration created while developing competencies was identified as key strength. Conclusion Findings demonstrated that despite having common competencies, there is no standardized assessment blue print applicable to all MESAU schools. Continued collaboration and faculty development in assessment is strongly recommended. PMID:25995778

  12. Performance Trends and Use of Accommodations on a Statewide Assessment: Students with Disabilities in the KIRIS On-Demand Assessments from 1992-93 through 1995-96. State Assessment Series, Maryland/Kentucky Report 3.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trimble, Scott

    This report discusses the performance of students with disabilities on the Kentucky Instructional Results Information System (KIRIS) on-demand assessments. These assessments, which consist of constructed response or essay-like questions over the period of 1992-93 through 1995-96, are part of the regular KIRIS assessment, which also includes…

  13. How does the medical graduates' self-assessment of their clinical competency differ from experts' assessment?

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The assessment of the performance of medical school graduates during their first postgraduate years provides an early indicator of the quality of the undergraduate curriculum and educational process. The objective of this study was to assess the clinical competency of medical graduates, as perceived by the graduates themselves and by the experts. Methods This is a hospital based cross-sectional study. It covered 105 medical graduates and 63 experts selected by convenient sampling method. A self-administered questionnaire covering the different areas of clinical competency constructed on a five-point Likert scale was used for data collection. Data processing and analysis were performed using the Statistical Package for Social Science (SPSS) 16.0. The mean, frequency distribution, and percentage of the variables were calculated. A non-parametric Kruskal Wallis test was applied to verify whether the graduates' and experts' assessments were influenced by the graduates' variables such as age, gender, experience, type of hospital, specialty and location of work at a (p ≤ 0.05) level of significance. Results The overall mean scores for experts' and graduates' assessments were 3.40 and 3.63, respectively (p= 0.035). Almost 87% of the graduates perceived their competency as good and very good in comparison with only 67.7% by experts. Female and male graduates who rated themselves as very good were 33.8% and 25% respectively. More than 19% of the graduates in the age group > 30 years perceived their clinical competency as inadequate in contrast with only 6.2% of the graduates in the youngest age group. Experts rated 40% of the female graduates as inadequate versus 20% of males, (p= 0.04). More than 40% of the graduates in younger age group were rated by experts as inadequate, versus 9.7% of the higher age group >30 years (p = 0.03). Conclusion There was a wide discrepancy between the graduates' self-assessment and experts' assessment, particularly in the level

  14. Assessment of Burden of Malaria in Gwanda District, Zimbabwe, Using the Disability Adjusted Life Years

    PubMed Central

    Gunda, Resign; Chimbari, Moses John; Mukaratirwa, Samson

    2016-01-01

    Malaria is one of the highest contributors to morbidity and mortality in Zimbabwe. However, there is paucity of knowledge regarding disability adjusted life years (DALYs) as a measure of burden of malaria in affected communities. The DALYs metric was used to assess the burden of malaria in Gwanda District with the aim of contributing to a better understanding of the impact of disease on affected communities. Data was collected from health facility malaria registers and the District Health Information System (DHIS) to estimate DALYs at household and district levels respectively. The household DALYs included 130 malaria cases from 2013 to 2015 while the DALYs for the district included 719 confirmed malaria cases from 2011 to 2015. Households lost a total of 153.89 DALYs with the majority of the disease burden (65.55%) occurring in the most economically productive age group (15–45 years) with a mean loss of 1.18 DALYs per malaria case. At district level, 251.09 DALYs were lost due to malaria and the calculated average district DALY rate for 2011–2015 was 36.29 DALYs/100,000 persons per year. It is important to estimate malaria burden to assist policy makers in making informed decisions when channelling resources for control and prevention of the disease. PMID:26907320

  15. Assessment of Burden of Malaria in Gwanda District, Zimbabwe, Using the Disability Adjusted Life Years.

    PubMed

    Gunda, Resign; Chimbari, Moses John; Mukaratirwa, Samson

    2016-02-01

    Malaria is one of the highest contributors to morbidity and mortality in Zimbabwe. However, there is paucity of knowledge regarding disability adjusted life years (DALYs) as a measure of burden of malaria in affected communities. The DALYs metric was used to assess the burden of malaria in Gwanda District with the aim of contributing to a better understanding of the impact of disease on affected communities. Data was collected from health facility malaria registers and the District Health Information System (DHIS) to estimate DALYs at household and district levels respectively. The household DALYs included 130 malaria cases from 2013 to 2015 while the DALYs for the district included 719 confirmed malaria cases from 2011 to 2015. Households lost a total of 153.89 DALYs with the majority of the disease burden (65.55%) occurring in the most economically productive age group (15-45 years) with a mean loss of 1.18 DALYs per malaria case. At district level, 251.09 DALYs were lost due to malaria and the calculated average district DALY rate for 2011-2015 was 36.29 DALYs/100,000 persons per year. It is important to estimate malaria burden to assist policy makers in making informed decisions when channelling resources for control and prevention of the disease. PMID:26907320

  16. Assessing the problem of counterfeit medications in the United Kingdom.

    PubMed

    Jackson, G; Patel, S; Khan, S

    2012-03-01

    Counterfeit medicines pose an ever-increasing threat to public health, although precise tracking of illegal counterfeit prescription drug activity is difficult. Available data indicate that all types of medications have been targeted. Adverse health effects, including death, have resulted from using counterfeit medications; consumers who self-medicate without appropriate interactions with the healthcare system rarely receive adequate healthcare. The Internet provides a large, convenient route for counterfeiters to reach potential buyers with unregulated, often dangerous, products. The majority of medicines purchased via unverified Internet sites are counterfeit; often, these products lack the purported drug compound or have variable concentrations of active ingredients and sometimes contain dangerous toxins. Although many consumers acknowledge some degree of risk with purchasing medications via the Internet, speed, convenience and cost often prompt these purchases. Counterfeit medications also have been detected in the legitimate supply chain, but represent a significantly smaller proportion of sales than those purchased via the Internet. Pilot programmes in Europe have demonstrated that product verification systems prevent penetration of counterfeit products into the legitimate supply chain. Significant EU legislation, including stronger penalties for counterfeiting, is in development. In the United Kingdom, the Medicines and Healthcare Products Regulatory Agency (MHRA) launched an initiative against counterfeit medication. Healthcare professionals should report suspected cases of counterfeit medication to the MHRA, be alert to threats to the medicine supply, and provide practical advice to patients about ordering medications online, including avoiding unregulated Internet pharmacies, and being suspicious of sites offering substantial discounts and prescription-only medication without a prescription. PMID:22070229

  17. Measuring functional health among the elderly: development of the Japanese version of the World Health Organization Disability Assessment Schedule II.

    PubMed

    Tazaki, Miyako; Yamaguchi, Tesuo; Yatsunami, Mitsutoshi; Nakane, Yoshibumi

    2014-03-01

    The Japanese version of the World Health Organization Disability Assessment Schedule II (WHODAS II-J) was developed and its psychometric properties were evaluated, and then used to determine the influence of disability on quality of life among the elderly in Japan. The study included three phases: qualitative, preliminary and field. For the qualitative portion of the study, six key informants were interviewed before the translation/back-translation procedure. For the preliminary study, 17 healthy elderly individuals were interviewed using the 12-item interview version of the WHODAS II-J. For the field study, different versions of the WHODAS II-J and the Japanese version of the World Health Organization Quality of Life BREF (WHOQOL-BREF) were tested with different participants (the 36-item interview version with 30 participants living in a nursing home, the 36-item proxy version with 30 caregivers working in the nursing home, and the 12-item and 36-item self-report versions with 132 and 129 healthy elderly living in Kanto and Kinki regions, respectively). In total, 321 elderly individuals participated in the field study. Of these participants, physical or mental disabilities were present in 47. Cronbach's α scores calculated for each of six domains of the WHODAS II ranged from 0.67 to 0.98. A significant correlation was observed between the results of the WHODAS II-J and the degree of disability (P<0.01), and a negative correlation was observed between WHOQOL-BREF and WHODAS II-J scores (P<0.01). A significant difference was found between healthy elderly individuals and those with disabilities in three domains: getting around, self-care, and life activities (P<0.01). In conclusion, the WHODAS II-J is a reliable and valid instrument for assessment of function in the elderly population in Japan. PMID:24051962

  18. Medical Updates Number 5 to the International Space Station Probability Risk Assessment (PRA) Model Using the Integrated Medical Model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Butler, Doug; Bauman, David; Johnson-Throop, Kathy

    2011-01-01

    The Integrated Medical Model (IMM) Project has been developing a probabilistic risk assessment tool, the IMM, to help evaluate in-flight crew health needs and impacts to the mission due to medical events. This package is a follow-up to a data package provided in June 2009. The IMM currently represents 83 medical conditions and associated ISS resources required to mitigate medical events. IMM end state forecasts relevant to the ISS PRA model include evacuation (EVAC) and loss of crew life (LOCL). The current version of the IMM provides the basis for the operational version of IMM expected in the January 2011 timeframe. The objectives of this data package are: 1. To provide a preliminary understanding of medical risk data used to update the ISS PRA Model. The IMM has had limited validation and an initial characterization of maturity has been completed using NASA STD 7009 Standard for Models and Simulation. The IMM has been internally validated by IMM personnel but has not been validated by an independent body external to the IMM Project. 2. To support a continued dialogue between the ISS PRA and IMM teams. To ensure accurate data interpretation, and that IMM output format and content meets the needs of the ISS Risk Management Office and ISS PRA Model, periodic discussions are anticipated between the risk teams. 3. To help assess the differences between the current ISS PRA and IMM medical risk forecasts of EVAC and LOCL. Follow-on activities are anticipated based on the differences between the current ISS PRA medical risk data and the latest medical risk data produced by IMM.

  19. [Consolidating the medical model of disability: on poliomyelitis and constitution of orthopedic surgery and orthopaedics as a speciality in Spain (1930-1950)].

    PubMed

    Martínez-Pérez, José

    2009-01-01

    At the beginning of the 1930s, various factors made it necessary to transform one of the institutions which was renowned for its work regarding the social reinsertion of the disabled, that is, the Instituto de Reeducación Profesional de Inválidos del Trabajo (Institute for Occupational Retraining of Invalids of Work). The economic crisis of 1929 and the legislative reform aimed at regulating occupational accidents highlighted the failings of this institution to fulfill its objectives. After a time of uncertainty, the centre was renamed the Instituto Nacional de Reeducación de Inválidos (National Institute for Retraining of Invalids). This was done to take advantage of its work in championing the recovery of all people with disabilities.This work aims to study the role played in this process by the poliomyelitis epidemics in Spain at this time. It aims to highlight how this disease justified the need to continue the work of a group of professionals and how it helped to reorient the previous programme to re-educate the "invalids." Thus we shall see the way in which, from 1930 to 1950, a specific medical technology helped to consolidate an "individual model" of disability and how a certain cultural stereotype of those affected developed as a result. Lastly, this work discusses the way in which all this took place in the midst of a process of professional development of orthopaedic surgeons. PMID:19753686

  20. Assessing theory of mind nonverbally in those with intellectual disability and ASD: the penny hiding game.

    PubMed

    San José Cáceres, Antonia; Keren, Noa; Booth, Rhonda; Happé, Francesca

    2014-10-01

    Individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and low intellectual/language abilities are often omitted from experimental studies because of the challenges of testing these individuals. It is vital to develop appropriate and accessible tasks so that this significant part of the spectrum is not neglected. The theory of mind (ToM) has been extensively assessed in ASD, predominantly in relatively high-functioning individuals with reasonable language skills. This study aims to assess the ToM abilities of a sample of 132 participants with intellectual disability (ID) with and without ASD, matched in verbal mental age (VMA) and chronological age, using a naturalistic and nonverbal deception task: the Penny Hiding Game (PHG). The relationship between performance on the PHG and everyday adaptation was also studied. The PHG proved accessible to most participants, suggesting its suitability for use with individuals with low cognitive skills, attentional problems, and limited language. The ASD + ID group showed significantly more PHG errors, and fewer tricks, than the ID group. PHG performance correlated with Vineland adaptation scores for both groups. VMA was a major predictor of passing the task in both groups, and participants with ASD + ID required, on average, 2 years higher VMA than those with ID only, to achieve the same level of PHG success. VMA moderated the association between PHG performance and real-life social skills for the ASD + ID more than the ID group, suggesting that severely impaired individuals with ASD may rely on verbal ability to overcome their social difficulties, whereas individuals with ID alone may use more intuitive social understanding both in the PHG and everyday situations. PMID:25258194