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Sample records for medical education management

  1. Management studies in medical education.

    PubMed

    Noor Ghani, S; Saimy, I

    2005-08-01

    In 1977, the World Health Assembly (WHA) set the social target--the "Health For All" goal and in 1995, urged member states to "re-orientate medical education and medical practice for "Health For All" (resolution WHA 48.8). This led to World Health Organisation to enunciate the "5-star doctor" needing skills in healthcare management, quality assurance and health economics. The Faculty of Medicine, University of Malaya introduced the New Integrated Curriculum (NIC) in 1995. The objective was aimed at producing a competent doctor with a holistic approach to the practice of medicine. This was to be achieved by having 3 strands of studies i.e. The Scientific Basis of Medicine (SBM), the Doctor, Patient, Health and Society (DPHS), and Personal and Professional Development (PPD) over the 5-year programme, split into 3 phases. Elements of the "5-star doctor" were introduced in strand 2--DPHS and strand 3--PPD. Management studies were introduced in the Personal and Professional Development (PPD) strand. This led to an instructional module--"Principles of Management in Health Care Services (PMGT)" comprising of the Management of Self, Resources and People and incorporating a three week field programme. Evaluation is undertaken at the end of the phase IIIA of the studies. This NIC approach will be able to produce a "5-star doctor", a team player, leader, communicator and an effective manager. PMID:16315627

  2. Space Management for Medical Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Agro, Dino

    1978-01-01

    A reference on current methods and procedures for managing space in academic medical centers is provided. Focus is on elements of space management systems that can enhance the effectiveness of space allocation decisions. These include: space inventory, space standards, evaluation of space utilization, and space allocation. A bibliography is…

  3. Managed care and medical education: hard cases and hard choices.

    PubMed

    Friedman, E

    1997-05-01

    As managed care becomes more and more dominant in U.S. health care, it is coming into conflict with medical education. There are historical reasons for this: medical education traditionally excluded physicians who chose to work in health plans, and for profit managed care has tended to avoid subsidizing medical education. In order to improve the climate, three changes are necessary: medical education must understand the tense history of discord between the two; distinctions must be made between responsible and irresponsible managed care plans; and medical educators should not assume they own the moral high ground. Arrogance, a gross oversupply of physicians and especially specialists, scandals and fraud, an often callous attitude toward the poor, and other sins can be laid at medical education's door. The worse threat for both sides is that the public and payers could simply abandon both, leading to underfunding for health professions education, a society that does not trust its health care system, and the loss of superb teaching organizations. To prevent this, managed care and medical education should work together to solve several difficult problems: how to shrink the medical education infrastructure; how to report honestly the uses to which medical education funds are put; and how to identify and end irresponsible behavior on the part of health plans and medical education entities alike. If the two sides can exercise leadership in these areas, they will be able to protect and enhance the singular place of honor that medical education holds in this society. PMID:9159575

  4. Stress Management in Medical Education: A Review of the Literature.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shapiro, Shauna L.; Shapiro, Daniel E.; Schwartz, Gary E. R.

    2000-01-01

    Review of clinical studies providing empirical data on stress management programs in medical education found that student participants in such programs demonstrated improved immunologic functioning, decreased depression and anxiety, increased spirituality and empathy, enhanced knowledge of alternative therapies, improved knowledge of stress…

  5. 75 FR 391 - Medical Device Quality System Regulation Educational Forum on Risk Management Through the Product...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-05

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ] DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Medical Device Quality System Regulation Educational Forum... ``Medical Device Quality System Regulation Educational Forum on Risk Management through the Product...

  6. Resistance to medical educational change: management and communication.

    PubMed

    Tsai, Tsuen-Chiuan

    2007-01-01

    Medical education in Taiwan is currently undergoing active renovation. Reform and changes always bring resistance from the levels of individuals, institution and even the society. As an educational leader, to be able to manage resistance is a key to successful reform. This review article provides management strategies and communication skills to solve the resistance problem. The best solution to the problem is "to prevent" resistance from happening through identifying those who may be reluctant to change, and the reasons behind the potential resistance. Some of the reasons for resistance are threatening of self-interest and a loss of face, excess uncertainty, conservatism, fear of personal-worth declination in the organization, and different assessment or perception. The management and communication strategies are suggested to adjust to fit reform process, i.e., recognizing the needs for change, planning process, implementation, and institutionalization innovation. Finally, it is only with respect, empathy, sincerity and support that the resistance to changes can be resolved and difficulties can be overcome. PMID:19653408

  7. Integrating Medication Therapy Management Education into a Core Pharmacy Curriculum

    PubMed Central

    Kodali, Leela; Pace, Adam C.

    2016-01-01

    Objective. To describe the design of a core course directed at improving confidence and competence of students to perform medication therapy management (MTM) services. Design. Using the American Pharmacists Association (APhA) certificate training program framework, a core course was developed to teach MTM concepts to third-year student pharmacists. Using deep learning and authentic assignments, course instructors attempted to improve student confidence and readiness to provide MTM services. Assessment. Student ability to meet course objectives was evaluated by examinations and the APhA MTM program self-assessment. Students had an overall success rate of 93% on all three assessments. Student perceptions of confidence, competence, and importance of performing MTM services were measured using a survey instrument with 56 Likert-type items. Students completing both surveys reported significantly increased confidence and competence. Conclusion. Integrating MTM-specific education into the core curriculum increased student pharmacists’ perceived competence and confidence to perform MTM services. PMID:27293237

  8. Integrating Medication Therapy Management Education into a Core Pharmacy Curriculum.

    PubMed

    Poole, Traci M; Kodali, Leela; Pace, Adam C

    2016-05-25

    Objective. To describe the design of a core course directed at improving confidence and competence of students to perform medication therapy management (MTM) services. Design. Using the American Pharmacists Association (APhA) certificate training program framework, a core course was developed to teach MTM concepts to third-year student pharmacists. Using deep learning and authentic assignments, course instructors attempted to improve student confidence and readiness to provide MTM services. Assessment. Student ability to meet course objectives was evaluated by examinations and the APhA MTM program self-assessment. Students had an overall success rate of 93% on all three assessments. Student perceptions of confidence, competence, and importance of performing MTM services were measured using a survey instrument with 56 Likert-type items. Students completing both surveys reported significantly increased confidence and competence. Conclusion. Integrating MTM-specific education into the core curriculum increased student pharmacists' perceived competence and confidence to perform MTM services. PMID:27293237

  9. Managing the Learning Environment in Undergraduate Medical Education: The Sheffield Approach.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roberts, Chris; Lawson, Mary; Newble, David; Self, Ashley

    2003-01-01

    Describes one possible model for e-learning in undergraduate medical education with an emphasis on supporting and managing curriculum development. The Sheffield Networked Learning Environment (NLE) was developed in collaboration with other medical schools. (Author/SOE)

  10. The Education Review Board: A Mechanism for Managing Potential Conflicts of Interest in Medical Education.

    PubMed

    Borus, Jonathan F; Alexander, Erik K; Bierer, Barbara E; Bringhurst, F Richard; Clark, Christopher; Klanica, Kaley E; Stewart, Erin C; Friedman, Lawrence S

    2015-12-01

    Concerns about the influence of industry support on medical education, research, and patient care have increased in both medical and political circles. Some academic medical centers, questioning whether industry support of medical education could be appropriate and not a conflict of interest, banned such support. In 2009, a Partners HealthCare System commission concluded that interactions with industry remained important to Partners' charitable academic mission and made recommendations to transparently manage such relationships. An Education Review Board (ERB) was created to oversee and manage all industry support of Partners educational activities.Using a case review method, the ERB developed guidelines to implement the commission's recommendations. A multi-funder rule was established that prohibits industry support from only one company for any Partners educational activity. Within that framework, the ERB established guidelines on industry support of educational conferences, clinical fellowships, and trainees' expenses for attending external educational programs; gifts of textbooks and other educational materials; promotional opportunities associated with Partners educational activities; Partners educational activities under contract with an industry entity; and industry-run programs using Partners resources.Although many changes have resulted from the implementation of the ERB guidelines, the number of industry grants for Partners educational activities has remained relatively stable, and funding for these activities declined only moderately during the first three full calendar years (2011-2013) of ERB oversight. The ERB continually educates both the Partners community and industry about the rationale for its guidelines and its openness to their refinement in response to changes in the external environment. PMID:26083402

  11. Performance of Clinical Nurse Educators in Teaching Pharmacology and Medication Management: Nursing Students’ Perceptions

    PubMed Central

    Ghamari Zare, Zohre; Adib-Hajbaghery, Mohsen

    2016-01-01

    Background Pharmacological knowledge and medication management skills of student nurses greatly depend on the clinical nurse educators’ performance in this critical issue. However, the Iranian nurse educators’ performance in teaching pharmacology and medication management are not adequately studied. Objectives The current study aimed to investigate the nursing students’ perceptions on the status of clinical pharmaceutical and medication management education. Materials and Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted on all 152 nursing students registered in the seventh and eighth semesters at the Qom and Naragh branches of Islamic Azad University, and Kashan University of Medical Sciences in 2013 - 2014 academic year. The students’ perceptions on the performance of clinical nurse educators in teaching pharmacology and medication management were assessed using a researcher made questionnaire. The questionnaire consisted of 31 items regarding clinical educators’ performance in teaching pharmacology and medication management and two questions about students’ satisfaction with their level of knowledge and skills in pharmacology and medication management. Descriptive statistics was employed and analysis of variance was performed to compare the mean of scores of teaching pharmacology and medication management in the three universities. Results Among a total of 152 subjects, 82.9% were female and their mean age was 22.57 ± 1.55 years. According to the students, instructors had the weakest performance in the three items of teaching pharmacology and medication management based on the students’ learning needs, teaching medication management through a patient-centered method and teaching pharmacology and medication management based on the course plan. The students’ satisfaction regarding their own knowledge and skill of pharmacology and medication management was at medium level. Conclusions Nursing students gave a relatively low score in several aspects of

  12. Perspectives on management education: an exploratory study of UK and Portuguese medical students.

    PubMed

    Martins, Henrique M G; Detmer, Don E; Rubery, Eileen

    2005-09-01

    Healthcare management is becoming extremely important and large health organizations face increasing demands for leadership and system change. The role of doctors is pivotal but their relationship with management issues and practice has been a matter of long-lasting debate. The aim of this research was to establish opinions of medical students and other medical educational stakeholders on the value and structure of a management and leadership course in medical school. A survey of undergraduate medical students from two medical schools (n = 268) was carried out, and quantitative and qualitative data were analysed and compared with opinions collected from interviews with hospital managers and clinical professors. Portuguese medical students attributed higher relevance to leadership/management education than their UK counterparts. For both groups, such a course would be best: (1) situated in the clinical years, (2) optional and (3) one term/semester long. Main topics desired were 'Managing people/team management'; 'National Health Service'; 'Doctors and Leadership', 'Costs/prices and resource management'. In conclusion, leadership/management education is perceived as relevant but its inclusion in the medical curriculum as well as its content needs careful consideration. Education in informatics and knowledge management would also provide a positive contribution to professional development but is scarcely appreciated at present. PMID:16261667

  13. A proposal for health care management and leadership education within the UK undergraduate medical curriculum

    PubMed Central

    Mafe, Cecilia; Menyah, Effie; Nkere, Munachi

    2016-01-01

    Health care management and leadership education is an important gap in the undergraduate medical curriculum. Lack of training promotes poor decision making and may lead to inadequate health services, adversely affecting patients. We propose an integrated approach to health care management and leadership education at undergraduate level, to enable doctors to be effective leaders and manage resources appropriately and to ultimately improve patient care. PMID:26929680

  14. Improving undergraduate medical education about pain assessment and management: A qualitative descriptive study of stakeholders’ perceptions

    PubMed Central

    Tellier, Pierre-Paul; Bélanger, Emmanuelle; Rodríguez, Charo; Ware, Mark A; Posel, Nancy

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND Pain is one of the most common reasons for individuals to seek medical advice, yet it remains poorly managed. One of the main reasons that poor pain management persists is the lack of adequate knowledge and skills of practicing clinicians, which stems from a perceived lack of pain education during the training of undergraduate medical students. OBJECTIVE: To identify gaps in knowledge with respect to pain management as perceived by students, patients and educators. METHODS: A qualitative descriptive study was conducted. Data were generated through six focus groups with second- and fourth-year medical students, four focus groups with patients and individual semistructured interviews with nine educators. All interviews were audiotaped and an inductive thematic analysis was performed. RESULTS: A total of 70 individuals participated in the present study. Five main themes were identified: assessment of physical and psychosocial aspects of pain; clinical management of pain with pharmacology and alternative therapies; communication and the development of a good therapeutic relationship; ethical considerations surrounding pain; and institutional context of medical education about pain. CONCLUSION: Participating patients, students and pain experts recognized a need for additional medical education about pain assessment and management. Educational approaches need to teach students to gather appropriate information about pain, to acquire knowledge of a broad spectrum of therapeutic options, to develop a mutual, trusting relationship with patients and to become aware of their own biases and prejudice toward patients with pain. The results of the present study should be used to develop and enhance existing pain curricula content. PMID:23985579

  15. Medical and health administration education in managed care: needs, content and readings.

    PubMed

    Ziegenfuss, J T; Weitekamp, M

    1996-01-01

    With both public and private reform initiatives moving toward managed care, curriculum designs are timely and useful to a diverse audience. This paper discusses the need for and design of education in managed care in medical schools and health services programs. The pressures for offering education regarding managed care are derived from interests of various actors of the health system e.g. regulators, purchasers, providers and consumers. The content of education in managed care is defined in seven areas: (1) managed care and health systems design-history and concepts; (2) environment and governmental policy; (3) models, products, services, outcomes and quality; (4) managed care economics and finance; (5) organization and strategic management; (6) legal issues; and (7) future designs/redesigns. Education in managed care is delivered by universities, professional associations and private training and development corporations. All can benefit from a dialogue on curricular content. PMID:10166710

  16. Front office staff as medical educators, risk creators, and risk managers.

    PubMed

    Kapp, Marshall B

    2016-03-16

    The author describes his own negative series of encounters with the front office staff of a large specialty medical practice during a recent lengthy episode of significant medical distress. The author suggests several reasons, including legal risk management, that medical students should be exposed as part of their education to the interactions of patients with front office staffs (not just physicians) to get a fuller picture of patients' actual experiences with the health care system. PMID:27176757

  17. Health Services Management Education On-Site at a Military Medical Center

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Stephen J.; Poss, W. Bradley; Cupp, Craig L.

    2014-01-01

    A cooperative educational program with the U.S. military is described to illustrate a unique opportunity that confronted a graduate healthcare management program. The resulting degree program supported the military's operational medical mission but also presented interesting and unexpected challenges resulting from the wars in Iraq and…

  18. Information management of a medical school educational program: a state-of-the-art application.

    PubMed Central

    Kanter, S L

    1996-01-01

    Quality in the design and management of a medical school education program depends on the ability to access and analyze relevant information in a timely fashion. The components of medical-education information system should support learning and instruction as well as the administrative and research responsibilities of the program. A system capable of meeting these needs requires core, operational, and strategic components. This article discusses a conceptual schema of the medical school environment and reports the results of 3 1/2 years' experience developing core, operational, and strategic components as the University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine. The value of a simple conceptual schema as a design and development instrument was confirmed. Limitations of the system are discussed along with potential solutions. PMID:8653446

  19. A fundamental, national, medical disaster management plan: an education-based model.

    PubMed

    Djalali, Ahmadreza; Hosseinijenab, Vahid; Hasani, Azadeh; Shirmardi, Kianoush; Castrén, Maaret; Ohlén, Gunnar; Panahi, Farzad

    2009-01-01

    During disasters, especially following earthquakes, health systems are expected to play an essential role in reducing mortality and morbidity. The most significant naturally occurring disaster in Iran is earthquakes; they have killed >180,000 people in the last 90 years. According to the current plan in 2007, the disaster management system of Iran is composed of three main work groups: (1) Prevention and risk management, (2) Education, and (3) Operation. This organizational separation has resulted in lack of necessary training programs for experts of specialized organizations, e.g., the Ministry of Health and Medical Education (MOHME).The National Board of MOHME arranged a training program in the field of medical disaster management. A qualified training team was chosen to conduct this program in each collaborating center, based on a predefined schedule. All collaborating centers were asked to recall 5-7 experts from each member university. Working in medical disaster management field for greater than or equal to 2 years was an inclusion criterion. The training programs lasted three days, consisted of all relevant aspects of medical disaster management, and were conducted over a six-month period (November 2007-April 2008). Pre-test and post-tests were used to examine the participants' knowledge regarding disaster management; the mean score on the pretest was 67.1 +/-11.6 and 88.1 +/-6.2, respectively. All participants were asked to hold the same training course for their organizations in order to enhance knowledge of related managers, stakeholders, and workers, and build capacity at the local and provincial levels. The next step was supposed to be developing a comprehensive medical disaster management plan for the entire country. Establishing nine disaster management regional collaborating centers in the health system of Iran has provided an appropriate base for related programs to be rapidly and easily accomplished throughout the country. This tree-shaped model is

  20. “Unwell while Aboriginal”: iatrogenesis in Australian medical education and clinical case management

    PubMed Central

    Ewen, Shaun C; Hollinsworth, David

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Attention to Aboriginal health has become mandatory in Australian medical education. In parallel, clinical management has increasingly used Aboriginality as an identifier in both decision making and reporting of morbidity and mortality. This focus is applauded in light of the gross inequalities in health outcomes between indigenous people and other Australians. Methods A purposive survey of relevant Australian and international literature was conducted to map the current state of play and identify concerns with efforts to teach cultural competence with Aboriginal people in medical schools and to provide “culturally appropriate” clinical care. The authors critically analyzed this literature in light of their experiences in teaching Aboriginal studies over six decades in many universities to generate examples of iatrogenic effects and possible responses. Results and discussion Understanding how to most effectively embed Aboriginal content and perspectives in curriculum and how to best teach and assess these remains contested. This review canvasses these debates, arguing that well-intentioned efforts in medical education and clinical management can have iatrogenic impacts. Given the long history of racialization of Aboriginal people in Australian medicine and the relatively low levels of routine contact with Aboriginal people among students and clinicians, the review urges caution in compounding these iatrogenic effects and proposes strategies to combat or reduce them. Conclusion Long overdue efforts to recognize gaps and inadequacies in medical education about Aboriginal people and their health and to provide equitable health services and improved health outcomes are needed and welcome. Such efforts need to be critically examined and rigorously evaluated to avoid the reproduction of pathologizing stereotypes and reductionist explanations for persistent poor outcomes for Aboriginal people. PMID:27313485

  1. Computers in medical education: information and knowledge management, understanding, and learning.

    PubMed

    Henry, J B

    1990-10-01

    Desktop computers have evolved to permit physicians in practice and/or training to access and manage information to enhance knowledge, understanding, and learning. There are compelling reasons why the personal computer is key to learning and important in medical education. Above all, the computer enhances and amplifies the learning process. Using the desktop computer effectively is relatively easy. We teach our students to research information in books and journals and hope that, as practicing physicians, they do it even more to be current and maintain their competency. Why not a desktop computer to access and manage information, analyze it, and present findings? Computer technology is available to do virtually all of these tasks. Some tools are critical for medical students. For some time, all medical students have needed a black bag and microscope. Now every medical student needs a computer. Ample courseware is available and expanding rapidly for basic sciences and clinical disciplines. The explosion in biomedical information will continue. Finding information is key to understanding and learning rather than depending solely on memory, recall, or library trips for information. The desktop computer will benefit students, faculty, and future physicians and other health professionals as life-long learners. PMID:2210737

  2. Quality management of medical education at the Carl Gustav Carus Faculty of Medicine, University of Technology Dresden, Germany.

    PubMed

    Dieter, Peter Erich

    2008-12-01

    The Carl Gustav Carus Faculty of Medicine, University of Technology Dresden, Germany, was founded in 1993 after the reunification of Germany. In 1999, a reform process of medical education was started together with Harvard Medical International. The traditional teacher and discipline-centred curriculum was replaced by a student-centred, interdisciplinary and integrative curriculum which has been named DIPOL (Dresden Integrative Patient/Problem- Oriented Learning). The reform process was accompanied and supported by a parallel-ongoing Faculty Development Program. In 2004, a Quality Management Program in medical education was implemented, and in 2005 medical education received DIN EN ISO 9001:2000 certification. Quality Management Program and DIN EN ISO 9001:2000 certification were/are unique for the 34 medical schools in Germany. The students played a very important strategic role in all processes. They were/are members in all committees like the Faculty Board, the Board of Study Affairs (with equal representation) and the ongoing audits in the Quality Management Program. Students are the only ones who experience all years of the curriculum and are capable of detecting, for example gaps, overlaps, inconsistencies of the curriculum and assessments. Therefore, the in-depth knowledge of students about the medical school's curriculum is a very helpful and essential tool in curriculum reform processes and Quality Management Programs of medical education. The reform in medical education, the establishment of the Quality Management program and the certification resulted in an improvement of quality and output of medical education and medical research. PMID:19159039

  3. Quality management of eLearning for medical education: current situation and outlook

    PubMed Central

    Abrusch, Jasmin; Marienhagen, Jörg; Böckers, Anja; Gerhardt-Szép, Susanne

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: In 2008, the German Council of Science had advised universities to establish a quality management system (QMS) that conforms to international standards. The system was to be implemented within 5 years, i.e., until 2014 at the latest. The aim of the present study was to determine whether a QMS suitable for electronic learning (eLearning) domain of medical education to be used across Germany has meanwhile been identified. Methods: We approached all medical universities in Germany (n=35), using an anonymous questionnaire (8 domains, 50 items). Results: Our results (response rate 46.3%) indicated very reluctant application of QMS in eLearning and a major information deficit at the various institutions. Conclusions: Authors conclude that under the limitations of this study there seems to be a considerable need to improve the current knowledge on QMS for eLearning, and that clear guidelines and standards for their implementation should be further defined. PMID:26038685

  4. Academic medicine change management: the power of the liaison committee on medical education accreditation process.

    PubMed

    Chandran, Latha; Fleit, Howard B; Shroyer, A Laurie

    2013-09-01

    Stony Brook University School of Medicine (SBU SOM) used a Liaison Committee on Medical Education (LCME) site visit to design a change management approach that engaged students, revitalized faculty, and enabled significant, positive institutional transformation while flexibly responding to concurrent leadership transitions. This "from-the-trenches" description of novel LCME site-visit-related processes may provide an educational program quality improvement template for other U.S. medical schools. The SBU SOM site visit processes were proactively organized within five phases: (1) planning (4 months), (2) data gathering (12 months), (3) documentation (6 months), (4) visit readiness (2 months), and (5) visit follow-up (16 months). The authors explain the key activities associated with each phase.The SBU SOM internal leadership team designed new LCME-driven educational performance reports to identify challenging aspects of the educational program (e.g., timeliness of grades submitted, midcourse feedback completeness, clerkship grading variability across affiliate sites, learning environment or student mistreatment incidents). This LCME process increased institutional awareness, identified the school's LCME vulnerabilities, organized corrective actions, engaged key stakeholders in communication, ensured leadership buy-in, and monitored successes. The authors' strategies for success included establishing a strong internal LCME leadership team, proactively setting deadlines for all phases of the LCME process, assessing and communicating vulnerabilities and action plans, building multidisciplinary working groups, leveraging information technology, educating key stakeholders through meetings, retreats, and consultants, and conducting a mock site visit. The urgency associated with an impending high-stakes LCME site visit can facilitate positive, local, educational program quality improvement. PMID:23887000

  5. Applying the institutional review board data repository approach to manage ethical considerations in evaluating and studying medical education

    PubMed Central

    Thayer, Erin K.; Rathkey, Daniel; Miller, Marissa Fuqua; Palmer, Ryan; Mejicano, George C.; Pusic, Martin; Kalet, Adina; Gillespie, Colleen; Carney, Patricia A.

    2016-01-01

    Issue Medical educators and educational researchers continue to improve their processes for managing medical student and program evaluation data using sound ethical principles. This is becoming even more important as curricular innovations are occurring across undergraduate and graduate medical education. Dissemination of findings from this work is critical, and peer-reviewed journals often require an institutional review board (IRB) determination. Approach IRB data repositories, originally designed for the longitudinal study of biological specimens, can be applied to medical education research. The benefits of such an approach include obtaining expedited review for multiple related studies within a single IRB application and allowing for more flexibility when conducting complex longitudinal studies involving large datasets from multiple data sources and/or institutions. In this paper, we inform educators and educational researchers on our analysis of the use of the IRB data repository approach to manage ethical considerations as part of best practices for amassing, pooling, and sharing data for educational research, evaluation, and improvement purposes. Implications Fostering multi-institutional studies while following sound ethical principles in the study of medical education is needed, and the IRB data repository approach has many benefits, especially for longitudinal assessment of complex multi-site data. PMID:27443407

  6. Polymyositis: Medical Management

    MedlinePlus

    ... print email share facebook twitter google plus linkedin Medical Management Polymyositis (PM) is a highly treatable disease. ... Polymyositis (PM) Signs and Symptoms Diagnosis Causes/Inheritance Medical Management Research Find MDA in your Community Grants ...

  7. Dermatomysitis: Medical Management

    MedlinePlus

    ... print email share facebook twitter google plus linkedin Medical Management Dermatomysitis (DM) is a highly treatable disease. ... Dermatomyositis (DM) Signs and Symptoms Diagnosis Causes/Inheritance Medical Management Research Living With Dermatomyositis (DM) News Not ...

  8. Integrating Patients into Medical Education

    PubMed Central

    Fischer, Volkhard

    2012-01-01

    The discussions about medical education in the public focus upon quantity. The quality of the teaching process isn’t questioned. But the professionalization of medical education should start with a close look at bedside teaching because it is the core of training medical doctors. Patient-centered teaching: German medical leicensure act (Approbationsordnung) defines the quality of medical education by standard setting for group sizes and fixing the hours of bedside teaching. Although there are some fuzzy definitions it is possible to extract some special forms of bedside teaching. The capacity act (Kapazitätsverordnung) interprets these definitions for calculating the number of students who could be enrolled each year. Types of bedside teaching: The different forms of contact with patients which are necessary for a good medical education can be transformed into distinct types of courses. Our classification of courses with specific forms of patient contact is suitable to describe each German program of medical studies. This quantitative profile offers new opportunities for comparing medical education at the different faculties. Discussion: In many German medical schools the hours of bedside teaching are allocated in a verv pragmatical way according to the medical leicensure act. A more professional curriculum planning leads to a sophisticated use of these diverse forms of patient-centered teaching. Because this professional planning is better derived from the legal basis it offers new arguments against an economically oriented hospital management. PMID:22403598

  9. Medical education in Greece.

    PubMed

    Georgantopoulou, Catherine

    2009-01-01

    This paper aims to present an overview of current medical education in Greece. Greece has a centuries-long tradition in practising and teaching medicine. Medical training, although rigorous, is particularly humane. All Medical Schools in Modern Greece are currently, undergoing a series of changes in an effort to modernize training. The medical education system is also getting harmonized to European Standards for Higher Education, relating to Undergraduate, Postgraduate and Continuous Medical Education of doctors. A specific strength of the Greek educational system is its ethos that emphasises good working conditions and excellent support and supervision at all levels. The current overhauls in Higher Education occupy students, academics and the society at large. Political issues, such as accountability, regulation and autonomy of academia are generating debate. The two-cycle, Bachelor-Master, Undergraduate Model, as described in the Bologna Declaration is still to be implemented. Quality control measures are currently introduced in all academic sectors. PMID:19253151

  10. The Learning Objective Catalogue for Patient Safety in Undergraduate Medical Education – A Position Statement of the Committee for Patient Safety and Error Management of the German Association for Medical Education

    PubMed Central

    Kiesewetter, Jan; Gutmann, Johanna; Drossard, Sabine; Gurrea Salas, David; Prodinger, Wolfgang; Mc Dermott, Fiona; Urban, Bert; Staender, Sven; Baschnegger, Heiko; Hoffmann, Gordon; Hübsch, Grit; Scholz, Christoph; Meier, Anke; Wegscheider, Mirko; Hoffmann, Nicolas; Ohlenbusch-Harke, Theda; Keil, Stephanie; Schirlo, Christian; Kühne-Eversmann, Lisa; Heitzmann, Nicole; Busemann, Alexandra; Koechel, Ansgar; Manser, Tanja; Welbergen, Lena; Kiesewetter, Isabel

    2016-01-01

    Background: Since the report “To err is human” was published by the Institute of Medicine in the year 2000, topics regarding patient safety and error management are in the focal point of interest of science and politics. Despite international attention, a structured and comprehensive medical education regarding these topics remains to be missing. Goals: The Learning Objective Catalogue for Patient Safety described below the Committee for Patient Safety and Error Management of the German Association for Medical Education (GMA) has aimed to establish a common foundation for the structured implementation of patient safety curricula at the medical faculties in German-speaking countries. Methods: The development the Learning Objective Catalogue resulted via the participation of 13 faculties in two committee meetings, two multi-day workshops, and additional judgments of external specialists. Results: The Committee of Patient Safety and Error Management of GMA developed the present Learning Objective Catalogue for Patient Safety in Undergraduate Medical Education, structured in three chapters: Basics, Recognize Causes as Foundation for Proactive Behavior, and Approaches for Solutions. The learning objectives within the chapters are organized on three levels with a hierarchical organization of the topics. Overall, the Learning Objective Catalogue consists of 38 learning objectives. All learning objectives are referenced with the National Competency-based Catalogue of Learning Objectives for Undergraduate Medical Education. Discussion: The Learning Objective Catalogue for Patient Safety in Undergraduate Medical Education is a product that was developed through collaboration of members from 13 medical faculties. In the German-speaking countries, the Learning Objective Catalogue should advance discussion regarding the topics of patient safety and error management and help develop subsequent educational structures. The Learning Objective Catalogue for Patient Safety can

  11. Physician management of hypercholesterolemia. A randomized trial of continuing medical education.

    PubMed Central

    Browner, W S; Baron, R B; Solkowitz, S; Adler, L J; Gullion, D S

    1994-01-01

    To determine the effect of continuing medical education (CME) on compliance with the recommendations of the National Cholesterol Education Program Expert Panel on high serum cholesterol levels in adults, we randomly assigned primary physicians in 174 practices to 3 groups, 2 that underwent either standard or intensive CME and a control group. The standard CME group was offered a free 3-hour seminar on high serum cholesterol levels; the intensive CME group was offered in addition follow-up seminars and free office materials. After 18 months, we audited 13,099 medical records from the 140 practices that remained in the study. There were no significant differences (P > .15) in screening for high serum cholesterol or compliance with guidelines between the groups receiving continuing medical education (51% screening; 33% compliance) and the control group (57% screening; 37% compliance). In the prespecified subgroup of patients with hypercholesterolemia, there was a trend toward a modest benefit from the continuing medical education interventions: compliance was 21% in the control group, 23% in the standard CME group, and 27% in the intensive CME group (P = .07 overall). These results emphasize the need for better ways to change behavior in practicing physicians and the importance of studying the implementation of preventive health recommendations. PMID:7856157

  12. Rationing medical education.

    PubMed

    Walsh, Kieran

    2016-03-01

    The purpose of this paper is to discuss the role of rationing in medical education. Medical education is expensive and there is a limit to that which governments, funders or individuals can spend on it. Rationing involves the allocation of resources that are limited. This paper discussed the pros and cons of the application of rationing to medical education and the different forms of rationing that could be applied. Even though some stakeholders in medical education might be taken aback at the prospect of rationing, the truth is that rationing has always occurred in one form or another in medical education and in healthcare more broadly. Different types of rationing exist in healthcare professional education. For example rationing may be implicit or explicit or may be based on macro-allocation or micro-allocation decisions. Funding can be distributed equally among learners, or according to the needs of individual learners, or to ensure that overall usefulness is maximised. One final option is to allow the market to operate freely and to decide in that way. These principles of rationing can apply to individual learners or to institutions or departments or learning modes. Rationing is occurring in medical education, even though it might be implicit. It is worth giving consideration to methods of rationing and to make thinking about rationing more explicit. PMID:27358649

  13. Medical waste management plan.

    SciTech Connect

    Lane, Todd W.; VanderNoot, Victoria A.

    2004-12-01

    This plan describes the process for managing research generated medical waste at Sandia National Laboratories/California. It applies to operations at the Chemical and Radiation Detection Laboratory (CRDL), Building 968, and other biosafety level 1 or 2 activities at the site. It addresses the accumulation, storage, treatment and disposal of medical waste and sharps waste. It also describes the procedures to comply with regulatory requirements and SNL policies applicable to medical waste.

  14. Medical pedagogical resources management.

    PubMed

    Pouliquen, Bruno; Le Duff, Franck; Delamarre, Denis; Cuggia, Marc; Mougin, Fleur; Le Beux, Pierre

    2003-01-01

    The main objective of this work is to help the management of training resources for students using a pedagogical network available at the Medical School of Rennes. With the increase of the number of connections and the number of medical documents available on this network, the management of new contents requires a lot of efforts for the webmaster. In order to improve the management of the resources, we implemented an automatic web engine for teachers, able to manage the links for the most interesting resources for their practice. PMID:14664034

  15. Medical education in Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Lim, Victor K E

    2008-01-01

    Malaysia has a long history of medical education, with Singapore becoming the first medical school to serve the region after its foundation in 1905. The first school to be established in Kuala Lumpur after independence from the British was the Faculty of Medicine at the University of Malaya in 1963. Whilst today there are 21 public and private medical schools, all offering a 5 year undergraduate programme, some private schools have diversified by developing international collaboration and conduct twinning or credit-transfer programmes. All medical schools require accreditation by the National Accreditation Board and the Malaysian Medical Council. Although the criteria for accreditation is comprehensive and covers a broad range of areas of assessment, it is debatable whether it always matches the needs of the country. The dramatic increase in medical schools in the last two decades has posed challenges in terms of maintenance of quality, physical infrastructure and suitably qualified faculty. PMID:18464135

  16. Financing Medical Education by the States.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henderson, Tim

    This document reviews programs and policy options for states concerned with methods of financing medical education. An introductory section considers the current climate for medical education and the health care workforce, noting the rapid movement to managed care and the need to increase the number of primary care physicians. The next section…

  17. Slow medical education.

    PubMed

    Wear, Delese; Zarconi, Joseph; Kumagai, Arno; Cole-Kelly, Kathy

    2015-03-01

    Slow medical education borrows from other "slow" movements by offering a complementary orientation to medical education that emphasizes the value of slow and thoughtful reflection and interaction in medical education and clinical care. Such slow experiences, when systematically structured throughout the curriculum, offer ways for learners to engage in thoughtful reflection, dialogue, appreciation, and human understanding, with the hope that they will incorporate these practices throughout their lives as physicians. This Perspective offers several spaces in the medical curriculum where slowing down is possible: while reading and writing at various times in the curriculum and while providing clinical care, focusing particularly on conducting the physical exam and other dimensions of patient care. Time taken to slow down in these ways offers emerging physicians opportunities to more fully incorporate their experiences into a professional identity that embodies reflection, critical awareness, cultural humility, and empathy. The authors argue that these curricular spaces must be created in a very deliberate manner, even on busy ward services, throughout the education of physicians. PMID:25426738

  18. Changing medical education.

    PubMed

    Grant, J; Gale, R

    1989-05-01

    This paper is based on one which was prepared to support the World Conference of the World Federation for Medical Education in August 1988. It is designed to provide a broad perspective on the essential elements of an educational change process. The paper covers the stages in designing a change strategy and highlights the difficulties that any change agent is likely to encounter. A review of the history of change in education and organizations is followed by discussion of the need for change and the ability to change. Reasons for resistance to change are presented and discussed. Implementation and reinforcement of change are considered before a final section on evaluation. PMID:2725362

  19. Medical education: Changes and perspectives

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Qin; Lee, Liming; Gruppen, Larry D.; Ba, Denian

    2013-01-01

    As medical education undergoes significant internationalization, it is important for the medical education community to understand how different countries structure and provide medical education. This article highlights the current landscape of medical education in China, particularly the changes that have taken place in recent years. It also examines policies and offers suggestions about future strategies for medical education in China. Although many of these changes reflect international trends, Chinese medical education has seen unique transformations that reflect its particular culture and history. PMID:23631405

  20. Quality management of clinical-practical instruction for Practical Year medical students in Germany – Proposal for a catalogue of criteria from the German Society of Medical Education

    PubMed Central

    Raes, Patricia; Angstwurm, Matthias; Berberat, Pascal; Kadmon, Martina; Rotgans, Jerome; Streitlein-Böhme, Irmgard; Burckhardt, Gerhard; Fischer, Martin R.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: Amended in 2013, the current version of the German Medical Licensure Regulation contains structural specifications that are also required of non-university institutions involved in Practical Year clinical training. The criteria are worded in relatively general terms. Furthermore, not all of the structural specifications can be readily applied to every subject area. In order to ensure commensurability in Practical Year instruction in Germany, not least in light of recently introduced Practical Year mobility, it is necessary to define consistent quality criteria for Practical Year training. The authors therefore propose a catalogue of criteria for the quality management process in Practical Year instruction facilities. Methods: In January 2014, the board of directors of the German Society for Medical Education decided to establish a committee comprised of representatives from various German medical faculties. In a process similar to the Delphi methodology, the group developed criteria for structure, process and outcome quality in Practical Year training in Germany. Results: The criteria developed for structure, process and outcome quality apply to Practical Year training in academic teaching hospitals and university medical centres. Furthermore, modalities for review are proposed. Conclusions: The present catalogue of criteria is intended to contribute to the formation of a basis for the most consistent quality standards possible for Practical Year instruction in Germany. PMID:25489349

  1. Impact of medical informatics on medical education.

    PubMed

    Hou, S M

    1999-11-01

    In recent years, medical informatics has become a well-recognized branch of medicine. It is a multidisciplinary science that combines information technology and various specialties of medicine. The impact of medical informatics on medical education is advancing along with the rapid developments in computer science. Departments of medical informatics or similar divisions have appeared in schools of medicine in Taiwan in the past 5 years. At National Taiwan University College of Medicine, we offer curricula in basic computer concepts, network concepts, operating systems, word processing, database and data processing, computer media resources, multimedia computer statistics, intelligent health information systems, medical diagnostic support systems, and electronic medical record systems. Distance learning has also been favorably accepted on this campus. Recently, we proposed the concept of a virtual medical campus, which will break the physical barriers of time and space. We expect this revolution to influence every aspect of medicine, especially medical education. PMID:10705693

  2. New Media in Medical Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Agocs, Laszlo; Modis, Laszlo

    1994-01-01

    A Hungarian medical school is providing its students the means for self-education by connecting a media center to its medical education units and engaging in an instructional system which features problem-based learning. (AEF)

  3. Learning objects in medical education.

    PubMed

    Ruiz, Jorge G; Mintzer, Michael J; Issenberg, S Barry

    2006-11-01

    A learning object (LO) is a grouping of instructional materials structured to meet a specified educational objective. Digital LOs, which can be stored electronically, allow a new approach to instructional activity, making medical education more efficient, and potentially more cost-effective. They are reusable and can incorporate text, graphics, animations, audio, and video to support and enhance learning. A learning object can stand alone or be aggregated with additional objects to create larger forms of educational content meeting multiple educational objectives. Digital learning objects located in online repositories can be accessed by many computers and are easily handled by an array of learning management systems for delivery to learners at any time. Integrating digital learning objects with traditional educational methods in a blended learning approach assists medical educators in meeting the challenges of competing priorities. Multimedia LOs enable learners to tailor their experience to their preferred learning style. Through the use of learning objects, learners' reactions, their acquisition of knowledge, skills and attitudes, and their behavioral changes become readily measurable. Learning objects provide multiple research opportunities, such as their use in adaptive learning, their added value in preclinical versus clinical education, and their impact as part of a blended learning strategy. PMID:17594550

  4. Toward Continuous Medical Education

    PubMed Central

    Zeiger, Roni F

    2005-01-01

    While traditional continuing medical education (CME) courses increase participants' knowledge, they have minimal impact on the more relevant end points of physician behavior and patient outcomes. The interactive potential of online CME and its flexibility in time and place offer potential improvements over traditional CME. However, more emphasis should be placed on continuing education that occurs when clinicians search for answers to questions that arise in clinical practice, instead of that which occurs at an arbitrary time designated for CME. The use of learning portfolios and informationists can be integrated with self-directed CME to help foster a culture of lifelong learning. PMID:15693934

  5. [Medical education in Egypt].

    PubMed

    Barnard, H

    2002-06-15

    Modern medical training in Egypt was started by Antoine Clot Bey in 1837 and became part of the university programme in 1919. At present, it comprises six years of university education, followed by one year of internships and one year of compulsory employment with a state-owned hospital. There are now 13 medical faculties in Egypt, using three different curricula: traditional, Islamic and innovative. Their implementation is hampered by the large number of students (15,500 men and 7500 women), the low salaries and motivation of the instructors, the teaching in English rather than Arabic and the lack of recent study materials. It is therefore rather difficult to compare the effectiveness of the Egyptian system with that in the Netherlands. Due partly to the differences in language and culture, Dutch authorities are reluctant to recognise Egyptian medical diplomas. PMID:12092309

  6. Medication Management in Primary and Secondary Schools: Evaluation of Mental Health Related In-Service Education in Local Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reutzel, Thomas J.; Desai, Archana; Workman, Gloria; Atkin, John A.; Grady, Sarah; Todd, Timothy; Nguyen, Nhu; Watkins, Melissa; Tran, Kim; Liu, Nian; Rafinski, Michelle; Dang, Thanh

    2008-01-01

    An increasing number of students are taking medications while they are in school or are under the influence of medication during school hours. In a novel effort, clinical pharmacists and mental health therapists worked together to provide "mini-in-service" educational programs on psychological disorders and medications used to treat these…

  7. Undergraduate medical education.

    PubMed Central

    Rees, L; Wass, J

    1993-01-01

    Pressures from students and teachers, from professional bodies, and from changes in the way health care is delivered are all forcing a rethink of how medical students should be taught. These pressures may be more intense in London but are not confined to it. The recommendation the Tomlinson report advocates that has been generally welcomed is for more investment in primary care in London. General practitioners have much to teach medical schools about effective ways of learning, but incentives for teaching students in general practice are currently low, organising such teaching is difficult and needs resources, and resistance within traditional medical school hierarchies needs to be overcome. Likewise, students value learning within local communities, but the effort demanded of public health departments and community organisations is great at a time when they are under greater pressure than ever before. The arguments over research that favour concentration in four multifaculty schools are less clear cut for undergraduate education, where personal support for students is important. An immediate concern is that the effort demanded for reorganising along the lines suggested by Tomlinson will not leave medical schools much energy for innovating. Images p259-a PMID:8499026

  8. Community-Oriented Medical Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hays, Richard

    2007-01-01

    Community-orientated medicine is a topical area for debate in the current discussions about medical education, but it can be argued that medical education has always been in the community because medical practice is located therein. It is widely accepted that community settings provide a wealth of learning opportunities for students and trainees…

  9. Blended Learning in Medical Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zayapragassarazan, Z.; Kumar, Santosh

    2012-01-01

    The ongoing pedagogical advancements in medical education across the globe have gained the attention of academicians for the preparation of well-educated and competent physicians to address the healthcare issues facing today. The integration of technology into medical pedagogy has proved effective in many ways. This has made the medical education…

  10. Simulation in medical education.

    PubMed

    Khan, Kamran; Pattison, Tim; Sherwood, Morgan

    2011-01-01

    Studies in cognitive psychology inform us that the recall of information and its application are best when it is taught and rehearsed in environments similar to workplace. The healthcare professions are heavily task- and performance-based where non-technical skills, decision making and clinical reasoning are important alongside integrity, empathy and compassion. Most of these attributes are difficult to teach and assess in the traditional classrooms. Enhanced patient safety on one hand has to be the ultimate outcome of any medical curriculum while on the other hand, it itself can be potentially compromised in an apprenticeship-based model of medical education. A range of simulation techniques are very well placed to be used alongside clinical placements. These can be employed to enhance learning of healthcare professionals in safe environments, without compromising the patient safety, while maintaining a high degree of realism. This article builds an argument for the use of simulation techniques to enhance patient safety and points the readers to the AMEE Guide No. 50 on simulation, which is written as a practical manual on building a simulation programme in healthcare education. PMID:21182376

  11. Issues in Business and Medical Education: Brief Literature Review on Strategic Management of Health Care Institutions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Alan D.

    The literature on the use of strategic management principles by health care organizations is reviewed. After considering basic concepts of strategic management and managerial problems in nonprofit organizations, strategic planning and management of health care organizations are covered. Attention is directed to the health care environment,…

  12. Medical and Surgical Management of Male Infertility

    PubMed Central

    Sadri-Ardekani, Hooman

    2014-01-01

    This article is the review of the book “Medical & Surgical Management of Male Infertility” edited by Botros RMB Rizk, Nabil Aziz, Ashok Agarwal and Edmund Sabanegh Jr. This book (hardcover) was published by Jaypee Brothers Medical Publishing, New Delhi.London.Philadelphia.Panama on September 2013 (1st edition). The contents of the book and its relevance to medical education are discussed in this invited review.

  13. A New Approach to Teaching Veterinary Economics--Practice Management and Veterinary Medical Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morrow, David A.

    1976-01-01

    The procedure of having veterinary students enrolled in a course in Veterinary Economics and Practice Management visit a veterinary practice to obtain practice management data and to prepare a written analysis for the practice is described. This project has been continued for nine years at two different universities, involving 692 students and 624…

  14. The Revolution in Medical Education.

    PubMed

    Gutierrez, Christina M; Cox, Susan M; Dalrymple, John L

    2016-02-01

    Medical education has been gradually evolving for hundreds of years, but educators are now seeking to identify ways to prepare students for the future of health care delivery. Medical education reform today focuses on creating entirely new models and is moving away from the traditional, post-Flexnerian organization of the medical school curriculum. Content is now being integrated thematically and presented along interdisciplinary lines with an interdigitation of basic and clinical sciences across all four years. Current trends indicate education should contain elements that produce a physician who is able to improve the quality of health care by taking a humanistic approach to medicine, thinks critically, and participates effectively in multidisciplinary and team approaches to patient care. Ultimately, medical education innovation should recognize the development of a physician is a lifetime process and will approach the formation of physicians from a new paradigm to better serve the educator and prepare the learner for the medical practice of tomorrow. PMID:26859376

  15. Does Patient Partnership in Continuing Medical Education (CME) Improve the Outcome in Osteoporosis Management.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pazirandeh, Mahmood

    2002-01-01

    Patients (n=672) were screened and instructed about osteoporosis; 53 of their physicians attended lectures, a control group did not. A survey of 258 patients showed doctor-ordered screening tests increased regardless of lecture attendance. Increased patient-initiated discussions about osteoporosis suggest that patient education is effective.…

  16. Changes in medical education: the community perspective.

    PubMed

    Hensel, W A; Smith, D D; Barry, D R; Foreman, R

    1996-05-01

    The societal and economic forces driving change in medical education are affecting communities as well as universities. Each of the four authors of this paper is deeply involved in one of the components of their locale's well-developed community-based medical educational system, and each describes how change is influencing his role in that system, whether the role be managing a community hospital, directing a local Area Health Education Center, participating as a family medicine faculty member, or being a community preceptor. They agree on some common themes: (1) that it is good that medical students' education is moving into the community (e.g., this validates the importance of the community hospital to medical education, is an acknowledgment of the importance of generalism, and provides students invaluable learning experiences); (2) that educating medical students in the community is expensive, and more funding and resources are needed so that the area's hospitals, community faculty, preceptors, and support services can be fairly compensated for their commitment; and (3) that their community-based education system can no longer absorb the costs of training more medical students. This is not a criticism of academic medical centers, which are under tremendous financial pressures themselves, but is simply to state the community perspective and to urge fairness in the distribution of resources for medical education. Community institutions and academic medical centers will work individually to create their own integrated health care systems but must work together to create a better, more cost-effective system for educating medical students. PMID:9114859

  17. Course Evaluation in Medical Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kogan, Jennifer R.; Shea, Judy A.

    2007-01-01

    Course evaluation is integral to medical education. We discuss (1) distinctive features of medical education that impact on course evaluation, (2) a framework for course evaluations, (3) details that shape the evaluation process, (4) key measurement issues important to data gathering and interpretation, and (5) opportunities for expanding the…

  18. Financing of Graduate Medical Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maryland State Dept. of Fiscal Services, Annapolis.

    This study, conducted for the Maryland legislature, evaluated the current method for financing graduate medical education in hospital rates, particularly whether the costs of graduate education at the state's two academic medical centers are too high. The study involved discussions with the Health Services Cost Review Commission (HSCRC),…

  19. Electives in Graduate Medical Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kumar, Santosh; Zayapragassarazan, Z.

    2013-01-01

    Modern curricula have both compulsory portions and electives or portions chosen by students. Electives have been a part of graduate and postgraduate general higher education. Electives are included in various standards for graduate medical education and are also included in proposed Medical Council of India Regulations on Graduate Medical…

  20. Geriatric Medical Education in Israel

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leibovitz, Arthur; Baumoehl, Yehuda; Habot, Beni

    2004-01-01

    In this article we will focus on geriatric medical education in Israel and will review our experience in this field. A coordinated effort of the Ministry of Health and the Israeli Medical Association led to the establishment of a modern geriatric system and to the recognition of geriatrics as a medical specialty in the early 1980s. All four…

  1. Abraham Flexner and medical education.

    PubMed

    Ludmerer, Kenneth M

    2011-01-01

    The Flexner Report had its roots in the recognition in the mid-19th century that medical knowledge is not something fixed but something that grows and evolves. This new view of medical knowledge led to a recasting of the goal of medical education as that of instilling the proper techniques of acquiring and evaluating information rather than merely inculcating facts through rote memorization. Abraham Flexner, a brilliant educator, had the background to understand and popularize the meaning of this new view of education, and he took the unprecedented step of relating the developments in medical education to the ideas of John Dewey and the progressive education movement. Although the Flexner Report is typically viewed as a historical document--due to an understandable tendency to refer only to the second half of the report, where Flexner provides his famous critiques of the medical schools that existed at the time--this article argues that the Flexner Report is actually a living educational document of as much significance to medical educators today as in Flexner's time. The article analyzes Flexner's discussion of medical education and shows that his message--the importance of academic excellence, professional leadership, proper financial support, and service and altruism--is timeless, as applicable to the proper education of physicians today and tomorrow as in the past. PMID:21399378

  2. Knowledge Management within the Medical University.

    PubMed

    Rauzina, Svetlana Ye; Tikhonova, Tatiana A; Karpenko, Dmitriy S; Bogopolskiy, Gennady A; Zarubina, Tatiana V

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the work is studying the possibilities of ontological engineering in managing of medical knowledge. And also practical implementation of knowledge management system (KMS) in medical university. The educational process model is established that allows analyzing learning results within time scale. Glossary sub-system has been developed; ontologies of educational disciplines are constructed; environment for setup and solution of situational cases is established; ontological approach to assess competencies is developed. The possibilities of the system for solving situation tasks have been described. The approach to the evaluation of competence has been developed. PMID:26152966

  3. Implications for Veterinary Medical Education: Postprofessional Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kahrs, Robert F.

    1980-01-01

    Concern about delivery of veterinary medical services to animal agriculture and implications for postprofessional veterinary medical education are discussed. The individual needs and goals of livestock producers, practicing veterinarians, and veterinary academicians are so varied that actual delivery of veterinary medical services is difficult to…

  4. Availability of Education and Training for Medical Specialists about the Impact of Dementia on Comorbid Disease Management

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ibrahim, Joseph Elias; Davis, Marie-Claire

    2013-01-01

    Individuals with dementia carry an additional health burden of multiple comorbid conditions. Effectively assessing and treating these comorbid conditions requires the medical specialist to be aware of, understand, and manage the effects of dementia on their clinical subspecialty practice. This ecological study describes the dementia-related…

  5. Podiatric Medical Education: A Review.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pollock, George P.

    1980-01-01

    The basic curricular structure and courses deemed necessary to podiatric medical education are outlined and their rationale explained. Specialties appropriate to podiatric practice, such as electrophysiology and cardiovascular physiology, are noted, and the sequence of coursework suggested. (MSE)

  6. Final year medical education in Germany.

    PubMed

    Nikendei, Christoph; Krautter, Markus; Celebi, Nora; Obertacke, Udo; Jünger, Jana

    2012-01-01

    Medical education in Germany has undergone significant changes. The current article attempts to give an overview of final year medical education in Germany and implications for further developments. Challenges in final year medical education mainly arise from the lack of clearly defined learning objectives, the provision of structure, independent patient management and professional guidance and supervision. The abolition of the one-and-a-half-year period of pre-registration medical training in 2004 and the changes in the structure of state examinations in line with the amendment of medical licensing regulations in 2002, meant pressure on the efficiency of final year medical education on the one hand, and additional burden on final year students on the other. In this article, a broad variety of innovative models that have been implemented at different medical faculties, and which address final year students' needs, will be reported. Further challenges, such as the integration of general medicine rotations, the abolishment of the second state examination in its present form, and the integration of final year students' individual career plans will be discussed. PMID:22480889

  7. Professional medical education and genomics.

    PubMed

    Demmer, Laurie A; Waggoner, Darrel J

    2014-01-01

    Genomic medicine is a relatively new concept that involves using individual patients' genomic results in their clinical care. Genetic technology has advanced swiftly over the past decade, and most providers have been left behind without an understanding of this complex field. To realize its full potential, genomic medicine must be both understood and accepted by the greater medical community. The current state of professional medical education in genomics and genomic medicine is reviewed, including ongoing plans to expand educational efforts for medical students, clinical geneticists, and nongeneticist physicians. PMID:24635717

  8. Learning Experiences in Medical Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leggat, Peter A.

    2000-01-01

    Discusses the learning experience from both traditional and computer-assisted instructional methods. Describes the environments in which these methods are effective. Focuses on learning experiences in medical education and describes educational strategies, particularly the 'SPICES' model. Discusses the importance of mentoring in the psychosocial…

  9. Medical Information Management System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alterescu, S.; Hipkins, K. R.; Friedman, C. A.

    1979-01-01

    On-line interactive information processing system easily and rapidly handles all aspects of data management related to patient care. General purpose system is flexible enough to be applied to other data management situations found in areas such as occupational safety data, judicial information, or personnel records.

  10. [Quality management in medical laboratories].

    PubMed

    Fritzer-Szekeres, M

    2010-05-01

    During the 20th century understanding for quality has changed and international and national requirements for quality have been published. Therefore also medical branches started to establish quality management systems. Quality assurance has always been important for medical laboratories. Certification according to the standard ISO 9001 and accreditation according to the standard ISO 17025 have been the proof of fulfilling quality requirements. The relatively new standard ISO 15189 is the first standard for medical laboratories. This standard includes technical and management requirements for the medical laboratory. The main focus is the proof of competence within the personnel. As this standard is accepted throughout the European Union an increase in accreditations of medical laboratories is predictable. PMID:20454753

  11. Education Management Profile: Uzbekistan.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization, Bangkok (Thailand). Principal Regional Office for Asia and the Pacific.

    This education management profile of Uzbekistan contains the following: basic information about the country, key educational indicators, brief comments about the country and its history, a description of the education system, the management of education, access to education and school enrollment, problems and challenges, educational reform in…

  12. Medical-Information-Management System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alterescu, Sidney; Friedman, Carl A.; Frankowski, James W.

    1989-01-01

    Medical Information Management System (MIMS) computer program interactive, general-purpose software system for storage and retrieval of information. Offers immediate assistance where manipulation of large data bases required. User quickly and efficiently extracts, displays, and analyzes data. Used in management of medical data and handling all aspects of data related to care of patients. Other applications include management of data on occupational safety in public and private sectors, handling judicial information, systemizing purchasing and procurement systems, and analyses of cost structures of organizations. Written in Microsoft FORTRAN 77.

  13. Professionalism in Medical Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hilton, Sean; Southgate, Lesley

    2007-01-01

    Medical professionalism in today's society requires the exhibition of a range of qualities deployed in the service of patients, rather than more traditionally defined aspects such as mastery, autonomy and self-regulation. These qualities incorporate demonstrated clinical competence; aspiring to excellence in practice while demonstrating humility…

  14. Undergraduate medical education in Germany

    PubMed Central

    Chenot, Jean-François

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to give international readers an overview of the organisation, structure and curriculum, together with important advances and problems, of undergraduate medical education in Germany. Interest in medical education in Germany has been relatively low but has gained momentum with the new "Regulation of the Licensing of Doctors" which came into effect in 2003. Medical education had required substantial reform, particularly with respect to improving the links between theoretical and clinical teaching and the extension of interdisciplinary and topic-related instruction. It takes six years and three months to complete the curriculum and training is divided into three sections: basic science (2 years), clinical science (3 years) and final clinical year. While the reorganisation of graduate medical education required by the new "Regulation of the Licensing of Doctors" has stimulated multiple excellent teaching projects, there is evidence that some of the stipulated changes have not been implemented. Indeed, whether the medical schools have complied with this regulation and its overall success remains to be assessed systematically. Mandatory external accreditation and periodic reaccreditation of medical faculties need to be established in Germany. PMID:19675742

  15. Medical Management of Constipation

    PubMed Central

    Portalatin, Meredith; Winstead, Nathaniel

    2012-01-01

    Constipation is a common clinical problem. Initial management of chronic constipation should include lifestyle maneuvers, and increased fiber and fluids. Polyethylene glycol, sodium picosulfate, bisacodyl, prucalopride, lubiprostone, and linaclotide were all more effective than placebo for treating chronic idiopathic constipation. Many commonly used agents lack quality evidence supporting their use. PMID:23449608

  16. Medical equipment management strategies.

    PubMed

    Wang, Binseng; Furst, Emanuel; Cohen, Ted; Keil, Ode R; Ridgway, Malcolm; Stiefel, Robert

    2006-01-01

    Clinical engineering professionals need to continually review and improve their management strategies in order to keep up with improvements in equipment technology, as well as with increasing expectations of health care organizations. In the last 20 years, management strategies have evolved from the initial obsession with electrical safety to flexible criteria that fit the individual institution's needs. Few hospitals, however, are taking full advantage of the paradigm shift offered by the evolution of joint Commission standards. The focus should be on risks caused by equipment failure, rather than on equipment with highest maintenance demands. Furthermore, it is not enough to consider risks posed by individual pieces of equipment to individual patients. It is critical to anticipate the impact of an equipment failure on larger groups of patients, especially when dealing with one of a kind, sophisticated pieces of equipment that are required to provide timely and accurate diagnoses for immediate therapeutic decisions or surgical interventions. A strategy for incorporating multiple criteria to formulate appropriate management strategies is provided in this article. PMID:16796335

  17. Medical Education: The Hot Seat

    PubMed Central

    Pal, Ranabir; Kumar, Raman; Pal, Shrayan; Vidyasagar; Mukherji, Bijay; Debabrata, Sarbapalli

    2016-01-01

    Medical science has eventually metamorphosed from ‘Knowledge based’ to ‘Skill based’ applied social science. So, the age-old traditional courses and curriculums in Indian medical education need a overhauling with radical modifications. With a paradigm shift, we have to take into account not only the help of scientific feedback from the teachers and students but also from all the stakeholders of health care delivery system. PMID:27453838

  18. Basic medical science education must include medical informatics.

    PubMed

    Sarbadhikari, Suptendra Nath

    2004-10-01

    Medical Informatics is the science and art of processing medical information. In this age of "Information Explosion" choosing the useful one is rather difficult, and there lies the scope of electronic database management. However, still many outstanding personnel related to the healthcare sector take pride in being "computer illiterate". The onus of the best use lies on the end-user health care providers only. Another term tele-health encompasses all the e-health and telemedicine services. Computer aided or assisted learning (CAL) is a computer based tutorial method that uses the computer to pose questions, provide remedial information and chart a student through a course. Now the emphasis in medical education, is on problem based learning (PBL) and there CAL could be of utmost help if used judiciously. Basic Medical Education and Research lays the foundation for advancing and applying proper healthcare delivery systems. There is no doubt that deep knowledge of anatomy is mandatory for successful surgery. Also, comprehensive knowledge of physiology is essential for grasping the principles of pathology and pharmacology adequately, to avoid incorrect and inadequate practice of medicine. Similarly, medical informatics is not just a subject to be learnt and forgotten after the first professional MBBS examination. The final aim of every student should not only be to become a good user but also an expert for advancing medical knowledge base through medical informatics. In view of the fast changing world of medical informatics, it is of utmost necessity to formulate a flexible syllabus rather than a rigid one. PMID:15907048

  19. APA Summit on Medical Student Education Task Force on Informatics and Technology: Steps to Enhance the Use of Technology in Education through Faculty Development, Funding and Change Management

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hilty, Donald M.; Benjamin, Sheldon; Briscoe, Gregory; Hales, Deborah J.; Boland, Robert J.; Luo, John S.; Chan, Carlyle H.; Kennedy, Robert S.; Karlinsky, Harry; Gordon, Daniel B.; Yellowlees, Peter M.; Yager, Joel

    2006-01-01

    Objective: This article provides an overview of how trainees, faculty, and institutions use technology for acquiring knowledge, skills, and attitudes for practicing modern medicine. Method: The authors reviewed the literature on medical education, technology, and change, and identify the key themes and make recommendations for implementing…

  20. Improving Medical Education: Improving Patient Care

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pugsley, Lesley; McCrorie, Peter

    2007-01-01

    Is medical education unique among all other educational disciplines? Why does it not seem to conform to the rules laid down by universities for every other faculty? We explore the ways in which particular elements pertaining to medical education have been perceived historically and consider the ways in which medical educators and students have…

  1. [Learning theories and medical education].

    PubMed

    Gonçalves, E L

    1996-01-01

    The author analyses the most important aspects of learning theories: the behaviorist, the gestaltic and the construtivist ones and concludes that the most effective attitude assimilates all positive constributions of each theory. Examining three basic learning principles, the author also presents their relation to medical educative components: knowledge retainment, psycho-motor habilities breeding and interpersonal attitudes development. PMID:9035502

  2. Implementation of the Medical Education Partnership Initiative: medical students' perspective.

    PubMed

    Bagala, John Paul; Macheka, Nyasha D; Abebaw, Hiwot; Wen, Leana S

    2014-08-01

    The Medical Education Partnership Initiative (MEPI) is contributing to the transformation of medical training in Africa. In this paper, medical students present their perspective on how MEPI initiatives have influenced five key areas related to African medical trainees: educational infrastructure, information technology, community-based training, scientific research, and professional outlook and goals. They propose three new areas of focus that could further assist MEPI in bettering medical training in Africa. PMID:25072574

  3. Medical management after parathyroid intervention

    PubMed Central

    Tanaka, Motoko; Fukagawa, Masafumi

    2008-01-01

    Vitamin D or vitamin D analogues pulse therapy is seldom effective in patients with at least one parathyroid gland with nodular hyperplasia, and surgical parathyroidectomy or parathyroid intervention is indicated. In parathyroid interventions, especially in selective percutaneous ethanol injection therapy (PEIT), the enlarged parathyroid gland(s) with nodular hyperplasia is selectively destroyed by ethanol injection, while other glands with diffuse hyperplasia are managed by medical therapy. Thus, medical management, e.g., use of appropriate dose of vitamin D or vitamin D analogues after the PEIT procedure, is as important as the destruction of the hyperplastic tissue itself. Recent studies showed that the combination of PEIT and intravenous vitamin D pulse therapy lead to reduce serum PTH level and calcium-phosphorus products in haemodialysis patients. In this article, we focus on the importance of medical therapy after PEIT, and review the efficacy of the combination of PEIT and intravenous vitamin D pulse therapy for haemodialysis patients with secondary hyperparathyroidism. PMID:25983966

  4. Theories of Educational Management

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bush, Tony

    2006-01-01

    Educational management is a field of study and practice concerned with the operation of educational organizations. The present author has argued consistently (Bush, 1986; Bush, 1995; Bush, 1999; Bush, 2003) that educational management has to be centrally concerned with the purpose or aims of education. These purposes or goals provide the crucial…

  5. [Neutral Medical Claim Management Committee].

    PubMed

    Komatsu, Mitsuru

    2013-03-01

    The Ibaraki Medical Association established the Committee for Alternative Dispute Resolution called the Neutral Medical Claim Management Committee in 2006. Among 64 claims presented to the committee, 29 were settled through mediation or consultation. Patients were generally satisfied that their claims were considered fairly by the committee and that they were able to talk directly with healthcare professionals. However, some did not consider the committee to be completely neutral. The healthcare professionals involved rated the committee highly because they felt that the processes were neutral and no emotional aspects were involved. PMID:23617190

  6. Medical Waste Management Implications for Small Medical Facilities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Byrns, George; Burke, Thomas

    1992-01-01

    Discusses the implications of the Medical Waste Management Act of 1988 for small medical facilities, public health, and the environment. Reviews health and environmental risks associated with medical waste, current regulatory approaches, and classifications. Concludes that the health risk of medical wastes has been overestimated; makes…

  7. Medical management of abnormal pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Ratnam, S S; Prasad, R N

    1990-06-01

    Medical termination of abnormal pregnancy requires specific techniques since some conditions make therapy more effective, e.g., missed abortion intrauterine death and molar pregnancy, and others less so, e.g. anencephalic pregnancy. In all cases it is best to terminate the pregnancy as soon as possible to reduce anguish and risks of complications such as consumptive coagulopathy. Oxytocin is not consistently effective, but intraamniotic rivanol has oxytocic properties, and prostaglandins (PGs) are effective by several routes. Surgical methods are more popular in Japan and the US. A diagnostic flow chart is included and described. For missed abortion and fetal death vacuum aspiration or dilatation and evacuation are appropriate for early pregnancy, or PGs are used for later pregnancy, unless there are medical contraindications. Anencephalic pregnancy, usually diagnoses in 2nd or 3rd trimester, is resistant to medical therapy and must often be terminated by cesarean section. Molar pregnancy can be managed with vacuum aspiration at any length of gestation, but must be completed by curettage. Intraamniotic PGs are not advised for mole or fetal death. PG analogs can be administered intramuscularly, or vaginally in gel form. Other types of abnormal pregnancy that can be managed with PGs are spina bifida, hydrocephalus, hydrops fetalis, Dandy-Walker syndrome and Down's syndrome. Tubal pregnancy can be evacuated with intratubally administered PGs under laparoscopic control, thereby preserving tubal integrity. PMID:2225605

  8. MIMS - MEDICAL INFORMATION MANAGEMENT SYSTEM

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frankowski, J. W.

    1994-01-01

    MIMS, Medical Information Management System is an interactive, general purpose information storage and retrieval system. It was first designed to be used in medical data management, and can be used to handle all aspects of data related to patient care. Other areas of application for MIMS include: managing occupational safety data in the public and private sectors; handling judicial information where speed and accuracy are high priorities; systemizing purchasing and procurement systems; and analyzing organizational cost structures. Because of its free format design, MIMS can offer immediate assistance where manipulation of large data bases is required. File structures, data categories, field lengths and formats, including alphabetic and/or numeric, are all user defined. The user can quickly and efficiently extract, display, and analyze the data. Three means of extracting data are provided: certain short items of information, such as social security numbers, can be used to uniquely identify each record for quick access; records can be selected which match conditions defined by the user; and specific categories of data can be selected. Data may be displayed and analyzed in several ways which include: generating tabular information assembled from comparison of all the records on the system; generating statistical information on numeric data such as means, standard deviations and standard errors; and displaying formatted listings of output data. The MIMS program is written in Microsoft FORTRAN-77. It was designed to operate on IBM Personal Computers and compatibles running under PC or MS DOS 2.00 or higher. MIMS was developed in 1987.

  9. Medical Readers' Theater: Relevance to Geriatrics Medical Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shapiro, Johanna; Cho, Beverly

    2011-01-01

    Medical Readers' Theater (MRT) is an innovative and simple way of helping medical students to reflect on difficult-to-discuss topics in geriatrics medical education, such as aging stereotypes, disability and loss of independence, sexuality, assisted living, relationships with adult children, and end-of-life issues. The authors describe a required…

  10. Analysis of the Children's Hospital Graduate Medical Education Program Fund Allocations for Indirect Medical Education Costs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wynn, Barbara O.; Kawata, Jennifer

    This study analyzed issues related to estimating indirect medical education costs specific to pediatric discharges. The Children's Hospital Graduate Medical Education (CHGNE) program was established to support graduate medical education in children's hospitals. This provision authorizes payments for both direct and indirect medical education…

  11. Medical management of venous ulcers.

    PubMed

    Pascarella, Luigi; Shortell, Cynthia K

    2015-03-01

    Venous disease is the most common cause of chronic leg ulceration and represents an advanced clinical manifestation of venous insufficiency. Due to their frequency and chronicity, venous ulcers have a high socioeconomic impact, with treatment costs accounting for 1% of the health care budget in Western countries. The evaluation of patients with venous ulcers should include a thorough medical history for prior deep venous thrombosis, assessment for an hypercoagulable state, and a physical examination. Use of the CEAP (clinical, etiology, anatomy, pathophysiology) Classification System and the revised Venous Clinical Severity Scoring System is strongly recommended to characterize disease severity and assess response to treatment. This venous condition requires lifestyle modification, with affected individuals performing daily intervals of leg elevation to control edema; use of elastic compression garments; and moderate physical activity, such as walking wearing below-knee elastic stockings. Meticulous skin care, treatment of dermatitis, and prompt treatment of cellulitis are important aspects of medical management. The pharmacology of chronic venous insufficiency and venous ulcers include essentially two medications: pentoxifylline and phlebotropic agents. The micronized purified flavonoid fraction is an effective adjunct to compression therapy in patients with large, chronic ulceration. PMID:26358306

  12. [Medical audit: a modern undervalued management tool].

    PubMed

    Osorio, Guido; Sayes, Nilda; Fernández, Lautaro; Araya, Ester; Poblete, Dennis

    2002-02-01

    Medical audit is defined as the critical and periodical assessment of the quality of medical care, through the revision on medical records and hospital statistics. This review defines the work of the medical auditor and shows the fields of action of medical audit, emphasizing its importance and usefulness as a management tool. The authors propose that every hospital should create an audit system, should provide the necessary tools to carry out medical audits and should form an audit committee. PMID:11974537

  13. The medical-industrial complex, professional medical associations, and continuing medical education.

    PubMed

    Schofferman, Jerome

    2011-12-01

    Financial relationships among the biomedical industries, physicians, and professional medical associations (PMAs) can be professional, ethical, mutually beneficial, and, most importantly, can lead to improved medical care. However, such relationships, by their very nature, present conflicts of interest (COIs). One of the greatest concerns regarding COI is continuing medical education (CME), especially because currently industry funds 40-60% of CME. COIs have the potential to bias physicians in practice, educators, and those in leadership positions of PMAs and well as the staff of a PMA. These conflicts lead to the potential to bias the content and type of CME presentations and thereby influence physicians' practice patterns and patient care. Physicians are generally aware of the potential for bias when industry contributes funding for CME, but they are most often unable to detect the bias. This may because it is very subtle and/or the educators themselves may not realize that they have been influenced by their relationships with industry. Following Accreditation Council for Continuing Medical Education guidelines and mandating disclosure that is transparent and complete have become the fallback positions to manage COIs, but such disclosure does not really mitigate the conflict. The eventual and best solutions to ensure evidence-based education are complete divestment by educators and leaders of PMAs, minimal and highly controlled industry funding of PMAs, blind pooling of any industry contributions to PMAs and CME, strict verification of disclosures, clear separation of marketing from education at CME events, and strict oversight of presentations for the presence of bias. PMID:22145759

  14. A Historical Perspective of Medical Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Balcioglu, Huseyin; Bilge, Ugur; Unluoglu, Ilhami

    2015-01-01

    Even though there are significant developments in recent years in medical education, physicians are still needed reform and innovation in order to prepare the information society. The spots in the forefront of medical education in recent years; holistic approach in all processes, including health education, evidence-based medicine and…

  15. American Medical Education: Institutions, Programs, and Issues.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Robert F.

    This report presents information about the academic medical centers belonging to the Association of American Medical Colleges (AAMC) and profiles American medical education generally. Following a brief introduction, a section on institutions and resources offers information on medical schools' financial support, faculties, and faculty practice…

  16. Texas Medical Schools Beef Up Nutrition Education.

    PubMed

    Sorrel, Amy Lynn

    2015-11-01

    With lifestyle-related diseases on the rise, some medical schools help to arm future doctors with the nutrition knowledge they'll need. Texas medical schools and residency programs are getting ahead of the curve in addressing this public-health-meets-medical-education issue, with medical students often leading the charge. PMID:26536515

  17. Augmented reality in medical education?

    PubMed

    Kamphuis, Carolien; Barsom, Esther; Schijven, Marlies; Christoph, Noor

    2014-09-01

    Learning in the medical domain is to a large extent workplace learning and involves mastery of complex skills that require performance up to professional standards in the work environment. Since training in this real-life context is not always possible for reasons of safety, costs, or didactics, alternative ways are needed to achieve clinical excellence. Educational technology and more specifically augmented reality (AR) has the potential to offer a highly realistic situated learning experience supportive of complex medical learning and transfer. AR is a technology that adds virtual content to the physical real world, thereby augmenting the perception of reality. Three examples of dedicated AR learning environments for the medical domain are described. Five types of research questions are identified that may guide empirical research into the effects of these learning environments. Up to now, empirical research mainly appears to focus on the development, usability and initial implementation of AR for learning. Limited review results reflect the motivational value of AR, its potential for training psychomotor skills and the capacity to visualize the invisible, possibly leading to enhanced conceptual understanding of complex causality. PMID:24464832

  18. Management Operations in Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hentschke, Guilbert C.

    This book is intended to acquaint students and professionals in educational management with those activities in educational organizations requiring technical, business-related competence, and with selected management tools that aid in the analysis of those activities. Part 1, Fiscal Systems, includes discussions of fund accounting, direct costing,…

  19. Management Systems in Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wagner, Ivan D.

    Management systems have been adapted for educational administration in response to the need for quality of educational opportunity, collective bargaining, school district consolidation, decreasing enrollments, accountability laws, limited financial resources, and participatory decision-making. Management systems adapted, not adopted, from business…

  20. The role of the Malaysian Medical Council in medical education.

    PubMed

    Mahmud Mohd, M N

    2005-08-01

    The Malaysian Medical Council (MMC) operates under the Medical Act of 1971, which defines its core functions related to (a) the registration and practice of medical practitioners (b) the period of compulsory service (c) provisions to be enacted for purposes of (a) and (b). In the early years the MMC used the list of recognised colleges or Universities that appeared in the list of degrees recognised by the General Medical Council of United Kingdom (GMC). Over the years the MMC has undertaken the role of granting recognition to other medical schools in the country and overseas, and added the name of these schools to the existing register of recognised medical degrees in the second schedule of the Act. For the purpose of recognition of medical schools the MMC endorsed a guideline on standards and procedures on accreditation developed in 1996, which was later realigned with international and regional guidelines, in 2000 and 2001. It is recommended that the MMC establishes an active functional 'Education Committee' and that the role of MMC in medical education should be clearly and explicitly stated in the Act. An amendment to the Act would require the MMC to be responsible not only for undergraduate medical education but medical education in its entire phase. PMID:16315620

  1. Biostatistical and medical statistics graduate education

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    The development of graduate education in biostatistics and medical statistics is discussed in the context of training within a medical center setting. The need for medical researchers to employ a wide variety of statistical designs in clinical, genetic, basic science and translational settings justifies the ongoing integration of biostatistical training into medical center educational settings and informs its content. The integration of large data issues are a challenge. PMID:24472088

  2. Doctors or technicians: assessing quality of medical education

    PubMed Central

    Hasan, Tayyab

    2010-01-01

    Medical education institutions usually adapt industrial quality management models that measure the quality of the process of a program but not the quality of the product. The purpose of this paper is to analyze the impact of industrial quality management models on medical education and students, and to highlight the importance of introducing a proper educational quality management model. Industrial quality management models can measure the training component in terms of competencies, but they lack the educational component measurement. These models use performance indicators to assess their process improvement efforts. Researchers suggest that the performance indicators used in educational institutions may only measure their fiscal efficiency without measuring the quality of the educational experience of the students. In most of the institutions, where industrial models are used for quality assurance, students are considered as customers and are provided with the maximum services and facilities possible. Institutions are required to fulfill a list of recommendations from the quality control agencies in order to enhance student satisfaction and to guarantee standard services. Quality of medical education should be assessed by measuring the impact of the educational program and quality improvement procedures in terms of knowledge base development, behavioral change, and patient care. Industrial quality models may focus on academic support services and processes, but educational quality models should be introduced in parallel to focus on educational standards and products. PMID:23745059

  3. Medication therapy management services: definitions and outcomes.

    PubMed

    Pellegrino, Annette N; Martin, Michelle T; Tilton, Jessica J; Touchette, Daniel R

    2009-01-01

    In the US, the Medicare Modernization Act of 2003 required that Medicare Part D insurers provide medication therapy management (MTM) services (MTMS) to selected beneficiaries, with the goals of providing education, improving adherence, or detecting adverse drug events and medication misuse. These broad goals and variety in MTM programmes available make assessment of these programmes difficult. The objectives of this article are to review the definitions of MTMS proposed by various stakeholders, and to summarize and evaluate the outcomes of MTMS consistent with those that may be offered in Medicare Part D or reimbursed by State Medicaid programmes. MTM programmes are approved by the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services (CMS). Pharmacy, medical and insurance organizations have provided guidelines and definitions for MTM programmes, distinguishing them from other types of community pharmacy activities. MTM has been distinguished from disease state management because of the focus on medications and multiple conditions. It differs from patient counselling because it is delivered independent of dispensing and involves collaboration with patients and providers. There is no consensus on the recommended mode of delivery (i.e. face-to-face or by telephone) for MTM. A MEDLINE search was conducted to identify articles published after 2000 using the search terms 'medication therapy management' and 'medication management'. Studies with outcomes evaluating community-based programmes consistent with MTMS, regardless of MTMS reimbursement source, were included in the review. Seven publications describing four MTMS were identified. For each of the identified articles, we describe the study design, service setting, inclusion criteria and outcomes. An additional three surveys describing multiple MTMS were identified and are summarized. Finally, ongoing efforts by CMS to evaluate the success of MTMS in the US are described. To date, there are limited outcomes available for MTMS

  4. Evaluating ethics competence in medical education.

    PubMed Central

    Savulescu, J; Crisp, R; Fulford, K W; Hope, T

    1999-01-01

    We critically evaluate the ways in which competence in medical ethics has been evaluated. We report the initial stage in the development of a relevant, reliable and valid instrument to evaluate core critical thinking skills in medical ethics. This instrument can be used to evaluate the impact of medical ethics education programmes and to assess whether medical students have achieved a satisfactory level of performance of core skills and knowledge in medical ethics, within and across institutions. PMID:10536759

  5. Reform of medical education in Korea.

    PubMed

    Kim, Kyong-Jee; Kee, Changwon

    2010-01-01

    There are 41 medical schools in South Korea with over 3500 students graduating from the medical schools annually with the appropriate qualifications to practice medicine. Korean medical educators have made significant efforts to enhance the effectiveness of medical education by preparing students for the rapidly changing global environment of medicine and healthcare. This article outlines the reform efforts made by Korean medical schools to meet such demands, which includes the adoption of student-centered and competency-based education, e-learning, and authentic assessment of clinical performance. It also discusses the recent reform of the medical education system, driven by the Government's policy to prepare Korean higher education for an increasingly knowledge-based society. PMID:20163225

  6. Research priorities in medical education: A national study

    PubMed Central

    Tootoonchi, Mina; Yamani, Nikoo; Changiz, Tahereh; Yousefy, Alireza

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: One preliminary step to strengthen medical education research would be determining the research priorities. The aim of this study was to determine the research priorities of medical education in Iran in 2007-2008. METHODS: This descriptive study was carried out in two phases. Phase one was performed in 3 stages and used Delphi technique among academic staffs of Isfahan University of Medical Sciences. The three stages included a brainstorming workshop for 140 faculty members and educational experts resulting in a list of research priorities, then, in the second and third stages 99 and 76 questionnaires were distributed among faculty members. In the second phase, the final questionnaires were mailed to educational research center managers of universities type I, II and III, and were distributed among 311 academic members and educational experts to rate the items on a numerical scale ranging from 1 to 10. RESULTS: The most important research priorities included faculty members’ development methods, faculty members’ motives, satisfaction and welfare, criteria and procedures of faculty members’ promotion, teaching methods and learning techniques, job descriptions and professional skills of graduates, quality management in education, second language, clinical education, science production in medicine, faculty evaluation and information technology. CONCLUSIONS: This study shows the medial education research priorities in national level and in different types of medical universities in Iran. It is recommended that faculty members and research administrators consider the needs and requirements of education and plan the researches in education according to these priorities. PMID:23248661

  7. Undergraduate Rural Medical Education Program Development: Focus Group Consultation with the NRHA Rural Medical Educators Group

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Downey, Laura H.; Wheat, John R.; Leeper, James D.; Florence, Joseph A.; Boulger, James G.; Hunsaker, Matt L.

    2011-01-01

    Context: Over a decade ago, leaders in rural medical education established the Rural Medical Educators (RME) Group, an interest group within the National Rural Health Association, to support faculty in rural medical education programs. This group has convened an annual RME conclave since 2006. In 2008, this conclave convened 15 national leaders in…

  8. The Role of Medical Museums in Contemporary Medical Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marreez, Yehia M. A-H.; Willems, Luuk N. A.; Wells, Michael R.

    2010-01-01

    From the early 19th century until the most recent two decades, open-space and satellite museums featuring anatomy and pathology collections (collectively referred to as "medical museums") had leading roles in medical education. However, many factors have caused these roles to diminish dramatically in recent years. Chief among these are the great…

  9. Recommendations of the International Medical Informatics Association (IMIA) on education in health and medical informatics.

    PubMed

    2000-08-01

    The International Medical Informatics Association (IMIA) agreed on international recommendations in health informatics/medical informatics education. These should help to establish courses, course tracks or even complete programs in this field, to further develop existing educational activities in the various nations and to support international initiatives concerning education in health and medical informatics (HMI), particularly international activities in educating HMI specialists and the sharing of courseware. The IMIA recommendations centre on educational needs for healthcare professionals to acquire knowledge and skills in information processing and information and communication technology. The educational needs are described as a three-dimensional framework. The dimensions are: 1) professionals in healthcare (physicians, nurses, HMI professionals, ...), 2) type of specialisation in health and medical informatics (IT users, HMI specialists) and 3) stage of career progression (bachelor, master, ...). Learning outcomes are defined in terms of knowledge and practical skills for healthcare professionals in their role (a) as IT user and (b) as HMI specialist. Recommendations are given for courses/course tracks in HMI as part of educational programs in medicine, nursing, healthcare management, dentistry, pharmacy, public health, health record administration, and informatics/computer science as well as for dedicated programs in HMI (with bachelor, master or doctor degree). To support education in HMI, IMIA offers to award a certificate for high quality HMI education and supports information exchange on programs and courses in HMI through a WWW server of its Working Group on Health and Medical Informatics Education (http:www.imia.org/wg1). PMID:10992757

  10. The Medicalization of Education: A Historiographic Synthesis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Petrina, Stephen

    2006-01-01

    In this article, the author described eight, distinct practices through which schools were medicalized during the last decade of the 19th century and the first three decades of the 20th century. The medicalization of education was summarized in expanding definitions of educational hygiene, encompassing mental, neoscholastic, physical, and school…

  11. Medical education today: globalising with quality.

    PubMed

    Shahabudin, S H

    2005-08-01

    With globalization education has become a tradable service governed by the rules and regulations of GATS and worth trillions of dollars. International standards are rapidly being developed to facilitate cross border supply of services. In medical education, the WFME has produced International Guidelines on Quality in Medical Education which has a regional equivalent in the WHO Western Pacific Region, and the IIME has defined the minimum essential requirements of standards in medical education in seven core competences. Malaysia, having an explicit policy of making education a sector for revenue generation, has put in place regulatory frameworks and incentives to make the country a centre of educational excellence. Within the ambit of this national aspiration, medical education has grown phenomenally in the last decade. Standards and procedures for accreditation of medical schools in line with the world standards have been developed and implemented and policies are enforced to facilitate compliance to the standards. The ultimate goal is for medical schools to be self-accredited. In striving towards self-accreditation medical schools should be innovative in making changes in the three requirements of medical education. These are the intellectual and social imperatives and strategies for effective implementation. PMID:16315616

  12. Hidden Curriculum in Continuing Medical Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bennett, Nancy; Lockyer, Jocelyn; Mann, Karen; Batty, Helen; LaForet, Karen; Rethans, Jan-Joost; Silver, Ivan

    2004-01-01

    In developing curricula for undergraduate and graduate medical education, educators have become increasingly aware of an interweaving of the formal, informal, and hidden curricula and their influences on the outcomes of teaching and learning. But, to date, there is little in the literature about the hidden curriculum of medical practice, which…

  13. Child Psychiatry Curricula in Undergraduate Medical Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sawyer, Michael Gifford; Giesen, Femke; Walter, Garry

    2008-01-01

    A study to review the amount of time devoted to child psychiatry in undergraduate medical education is conducted. Results conclude that relatively low priority is given to child psychiatry in medical education with suggestions for international teaching standards on the subject.

  14. Changes in Medical Education in Spain.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gomez, Jose Manuel; Pujol, Ramon

    1998-01-01

    Discussion of medical education in Spain looks briefly at history and early reforms, then examines the current system, including emphasis on traditional teaching methods, focus on faculty research over teaching, inadequate resident assessment, and lack of coordination among continuing medical education providers. Ongoing reform efforts are also…

  15. Building Faculty Community: Fellowship in Graduate Medical Education Administration

    PubMed Central

    Edler, Alice A.; Dohn, Ann; Davidson, Heather A.; Grewal, Daisy; Behravesh, Bardia; Piro, Nancy

    2009-01-01

    Introduction The Department of Graduate Medical Education at Stanford Hospital and Clinics has developed a professional training program for program directors. This paper outlines the goals, structure, and expected outcomes for the one-year Fellowship in Graduate Medical Education Administration program. Background The skills necessary for leading a successful Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education (ACGME) training program require an increased level of curricular and administrative expertise. To meet the ACGME Outcome Project goals, program directors must demonstrate not only sophisticated understanding of curricular design but also competency-based performance assessment, resource management, and employment law. Few faculty-development efforts adequately address the complexities of educational administration. As part of an institutional-needs assessment, 41% of Stanford program directors indicated that they wanted more training from the Department of Graduate Medical Education. Intervention To address this need, the Fellowship in Graduate Medical Education Administration program will provide a curriculum that includes (1) readings and discussions in 9 topic areas, (2) regular mentoring by the director of Graduate Medical Education (GME), (3) completion of a service project that helps improve GME across the institution, and (4) completion of an individual scholarly project that focuses on education. Results The first fellow was accepted during the 2008–2009 academic year. Outcomes for the project include presentation of a project at a national meeting, internal workshops geared towards disseminating learning to peer program directors, and the completion of a GME service project. The paper also discusses lessons learned for improving the program. PMID:21975722

  16. Accreditation of Allied Medical Education Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Medical Association, Chicago, IL. Council on Medical Education.

    Prepared by the Council on Medical Education of the American Medical Association with the cooperation of collaborating organizations, this document is a collection of guidelines for accredited programs for medical assistants, nuclear medicine technology, orthopedic assistants, radiation therapy technology, and radiologic technologists. The…

  17. Medical Students' Affirmation of Ethics Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lehrmann, Jon A.; Hoop, Jinger; Hammond, Katherine Green; Roberts, Laura Weiss

    2009-01-01

    Objective: Despite the acknowledged importance of ethics education in medical school, little empirical work has been done to assess the needs and preferences of medical students regarding ethics curricula. Methods: Eighty-three medical students at the University of New Mexico participated in a self-administered written survey including 41 scaled…

  18. Alcohol and Drug Abuse in Medical Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Galanter, Marc, Ed.

    This book presents the state of the art of American medical education in alcohol and drug abuse, and is the culmination of a four-year collaborative effort among the medical school faculty of the Career Teacher Program in Alcohol and Drug Abuse. The first part contains reports, curricula, and survey data prepared for the medical education…

  19. Standardizing and personalizing science in medical education.

    PubMed

    Lambert, David R; Lurie, Stephen J; Lyness, Jeffrey M; Ward, Denham S

    2010-02-01

    In the century since the initial publication of the Flexner Report, medical education has emphasized a broad knowledge of science and a fundamental understanding of the scientific method, which medical educators believe are essential to the practice of medicine. The enormous growth of scientific knowledge that underlies clinical practice has challenged medical schools to accommodate this new information within the curricula. Although innovative educational modalities and new curricula have partly addressed this growth, the authors argue for a systematic restructuring of the content and structure of science education from the premedical setting through clinical practice. The overarching goal of science education is to provide students with a broad, solid foundation applicable to medicine, a deep understanding of the scientific method, and the attitudes and skills needed to apply new knowledge to patient care throughout their careers. The authors believe that to accomplish this successfully, the following changes must occur across the three major stages of medical education: (1) a reshaping of the scientific preparation that all students complete before medical school, (2) an increase in individualized science education during medical school, and (3) an emphasis on knowledge acquisition skills throughout graduate medical education and beyond to assure lifelong scientific learning. As students progress through the educational continuum, the balance of standardized and personalized scientific knowledge will shift toward personalization. Greater personalization demands that physicians possess well-refined skills in information acquisition, interpretation, and application for optimal lifelong learning and effective clinical practice. PMID:20107368

  20. Osteopathic Medical Education and Social Accountability.

    PubMed

    Phillips-Madson, Robyn; Dharamsi, Shafik

    2016-04-01

    The public's trust in physicians continues to decline. As a way to begin regaining this trust, stakeholders, including physicians, medical educators, patient advocacy groups, and community-based organizations, have called for medical education to meet societal health needs, particularly the needs of those members who are most vulnerable, by incorporating social accountability into the medical school curriculum. The unique attributes of the osteopath-ic medical profession provide an enabling and conducive environment for broader social accountability in the health care system. Osteopathic medical schools must actively safeguard the profession's unequivocal commitment to producing healers that are fiduciaries for their patients, communities, and populations at large. PMID:27018954

  1. Lived Experiences of Educational Leaders in Iranian Medical Education System: A Qualitative Study

    PubMed Central

    Sohrabi, Zohreh; Kheirkhah, Masoomeh; Vanaki, Zohreh; Arabshahi, Kamran Soltani; Farshad, Mohammad Mahdi; Farshad, Fatemeh; Farahani, Mansoureh Ashgale

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: High quality educational systems are necessary for sustainable development and responding to the needs of society. In the recent decades, concerns have increased on the quality of education and competency of graduates. Since graduates of medical education are directly involved with the health of society, the quality of this system is of high importance. Investigation in the lived experience of educational leaders in the medical education systems can help to promote its quality. The present research examines this issue in Iran. Methodology: The study was done using content-analysis qualitative approach and semi-structured interviews. The participants included 26 authorities including university chancellors and vice-chancellors, ministry heads and deputies, deans of medical and basic sciences departments, education expert, graduates, and students of medical fields. Sampling was done using purposive snowball method. Data were analyzed using conventional content analysis. Findings: Five main categories and 14 sub-categories were extracted from data analysis including: quantity-orientation, ambiguity in the trainings, unsuitable educational environment, personalization of the educational management, and ineffective interpersonal relationship. The final theme was identified as “Education in shadow”. Conclusion: Personalization and inclusion of personal preferences in management styles, lack of suitable grounds, ambiguity in the structure and process of education has pushed medical education toward shadows and it is not the first priority; this can lead to incompetency of medical science graduates. PMID:26925915

  2. A Review of Medical Education and Medical Informatics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haynes, R. Brian; And Others

    1989-01-01

    Information technology may help physicians to manage information more effectively through more accessible clinical indexes, databases of diagnostic test characteristics, computerized audits of clinical activities, on-line access to medical literature, etc. Medical informatics, a new discipline dedicated to the solution of information problems in…

  3. Improving Management Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Emiliani, M. L.

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: To present an outsider's view of how management education can be significantly improved. Design/methodology/approach: Focuses on correcting several obvious deficiencies in courses and degree programs to create highly differentiated educational experiences that are more relevant to student's needs and the organizations that employ…

  4. Globalization of Management Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bruner, Robert F.; Iannarelli, Juliane

    2011-01-01

    A new study, sponsored by the Association to Advance Collegiate Schools of Business, presented a comprehensive new perspective on the globalization of management education, (AACSB International, 2011). Its findings are sobering: with regard to emerging global trends in higher education and cross-border business, the report reveals a sizable gap…

  5. Pharmacists' Role in Improving Diabetes Medication Management

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Marie

    2009-01-01

    Today there are significant gaps between reaching the goal of “optimal medication therapy” and the current state of medication use in the United States. Pharmacists are highly accessible and well-trained—yet often underutilized—key health care professionals who can move us closer toward achieving better medication therapy outcomes for patients. Diabetes medication management programs led by pharmacists are described. This is consistent with the “medical home” concept of care that promotes primary care providers working collaboratively to coordinate patient-centered care. Pharmacists utilize their clinical expertise in monitoring and managing diabetes medication plans to positively impact health outcomes and empower patients to actively manage their health. In addition, pharmacists can serve as a resource to other health care providers and payers to assure safe, appropriate, cost-effective diabetes medication use. PMID:20046662

  6. [A medical consumable material management information system].

    PubMed

    Tang, Guoping; Hu, Liang

    2014-05-01

    Medical consumables material is essential supplies to carry out medical work, which has a wide range of varieties and a large amount of usage. How to manage it feasibly and efficiently that has been a topic of concern to everyone. This article discussed about how to design a medical consumable material management information system that has a set of standardized processes, bring together medical supplies administrator, suppliers and clinical departments. Advanced management mode, enterprise resource planning (ERP) applied to the whole system design process. PMID:25241525

  7. Transforming Medical Education: Is Competency-Based Medical Education the Right Approach?

    PubMed

    Whitcomb, Michael E

    2016-05-01

    There is growing recognition within the medical education community that medical education in this country needs to be changed to better prepare doctors for the challenges they will face in providing their patients high-quality medical care. A competency-based medical education (CBME) approach was endorsed by the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education and the American Board of Medical Specialties approximately 15 years ago, and a self-designated group-the International Competency-Based Medical Education (ICBME) Collaborators-is now calling on members of the medical education community to join them in their effort to establish CBME as the approach to be used in transforming medical education, not only in the United States but also around the world.In response to an article in this issue by a group of ICBME Collaborators, the author argues that more evidence about the effectiveness of CBME is needed before a global shift to this approach is undertaken. It is time for major organizations and foundations that are committed to improving medical education to step forward and take the lead in partnering with the medical education community to conduct a critical evaluation of CBME. In addition, maintenance of certification, relicensure, and continuing medical education programs should be evaluated for their effectiveness in ensuring that physicians are clinically competent not only at the beginning of their career but also until the end. PMID:26675191

  8. Managing Mandated Educational Change

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clement, Jennifer

    2014-01-01

    This paper explores teachers' perspectives on the management of mandated educational change in order to understand how it may be managed more effectively. A case study of teachers' responses to the introduction of a quality teaching initiative in two New South Wales schools found that while some teachers described the strong negative…

  9. In defence of utility: the medical humanities and medical education.

    PubMed

    Blease, Charlotte

    2016-06-01

    The idea that a study of the humanities helps to humanise doctors has become a leitmotif within the field. It is argued that the humanities (especially, literature) help to foster insights beyond those provided by biomedical training. Healthy young medics, it is claimed, can thereby gain significant insights into patienthood, and obtain important skills that may be valuable for their professional life. But the instrumentality of the humanities is not the only justification proffered for its inclusion in medical curricula. In this paper I critically examine the two overarching justifications recurrently cited in the mainstream literature-namely, (1) the instrumental worth and (2) the intrinsic value of the medical humanities in educating doctors. Examining these theses (and focusing on the views of a leading medical humanities scholar) I show that the bifurcation into instrumental versus non-instrumental justifications is not supported by the argumentation. Instead, I find that the particulars of the supposedly intrinsic justifications amount to an unambiguously instrumental defence of the humanities. Contextualizing the present investigation to probe further, I describe a long history of debate about the role of the humanities in British education and find that it rests on unsupported dichotomies (utility vs non-utility, theoretical vs applied, educated vs trained). I conclude that the medical humanities' manifesto would be more intellectually honest and coherent, and provide a more robust defence of its value in medical education, if it chose to embrace a wholly instrumental rationale for its role. PMID:26842744

  10. [Challenges of basical sciences in medical education].

    PubMed

    Rodríguez Carranza, Rodolfo

    2014-12-01

    The relevance of basic sciences in medical education has been recognized for centuries, and the importance of exposing medical students to science was acknowledged and reinforced by the recommendations of Flexner in 1910. Since then, traditional medical education has been divided into preclinical and clinical subjects; within this scheme, the first terms of undergraduate medical education usually concentrate on basic sciences, while subsequent ones focus on clinical sciences and clinical training. Since 1956, this educational scheme has been questioned and, in some schools, the medical curriculum has undergone significant structural changes; some of these reforms, especially integrated curricula, are associated with important reductions in the time allotted to individual basic science courses or even with their removal. The removal of basic science subjects from the medical curriculum is paradoxical because nowadays the value of biomedical knowledge and the scientific reasoning to make medical decisions is more appreciated than ever. To maintain its relevance in medical education, basic sciences have to confront three challenges: a) increasing its presence in clinical education; b) developing nuclear programs; and c) renewing laboratory instruction. PMID:25643888

  11. Reflections on Experimental Research in Medical Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cook, David A.; Beckman, Thomas J.

    2010-01-01

    As medical education research advances, it is important that education researchers employ rigorous methods for conducting and reporting their investigations. In this article we discuss several important yet oft neglected issues in designing experimental research in education. First, randomization controls for only a subset of possible confounders.…

  12. Medical Library Education in China.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crawford, David S.; Xiong, Dizhi

    1990-01-01

    The establishment of faculties of medical library and information science in four Chinese national medical universities is described. The faculties were established in the mid-1980s, and each is fully integrated into its university. Students receive three years of nonclinical medical training and two years of library and information science…

  13. Social marketing: application to medical education.

    PubMed

    David, S P; Greer, D S

    2001-01-16

    Medical education is often a frustrating endeavor, particularly when it attempts to change practice behavior. Traditional lecture-based educational methods are limited in their ability to sustain concentration and interest and to promote learner adherence to best-practice guidelines. Marketing techniques have been very effective in changing consumer behavior and physician behavior. However, the techniques of social marketing-goal identification, audience segmentation, and market research-have not been harnessed and applied to medical education. Social marketing can be applied to medical education in the effort to go beyond inoculation of learners with information and actually change behaviors. The tremendous potential of social marketing for medical education should be pilot-tested and systematically evaluated. PMID:11177316

  14. Postage stamps fading as medical education tool.

    PubMed

    Titford, Michael

    2009-07-01

    Postage stamps have often been used around the world to educate the general public and to promote programs and policies. Stamps with medical themes have also been used to educate the general public about different aspects of medicine. As a result of the newer methods of communication, however, fewer and fewer commemorative postage stamps are used and most members of the general public never see stamps with medical themes. This article reviews recently issued stamps of medical interest, and some other medical stamps that have been issued down through the years. Some stamps with connections to the South East United States are also discussed. PMID:19488002

  15. The UCSF Academy of Medical Educators.

    PubMed

    Cooke, Molly; Irby, David M; Debas, Haile T

    2003-07-01

    The Academy of Medical Educators at the University of California, San Francisco (UCSF), was established in 2000 to (1) foster excellence in teaching, (2) support teachers of medicine, and (3) promote curricular innovation. A membership organization, it recognizes five categories of educational activity: direct teaching, curriculum development and assessment of learner performance, advising and mentoring, educational administration and leadership, and educational research. Excellent medical student teaching and outstanding accomplishment in one or more areas of educational activity qualify a teacher for membership. Candidates prepare a portfolio that is reviewed internally and by national experts in medical education. Currently 37 faculty members, 3% of the entire school of medicine faculty, belong to the academy. The academy's innovations funding program disburses one-year grants to support curricular development and comparisons of pedagogical approaches; through this mechanism, the academy has funded 20 projects at a total cost of $442,300. Three fourths of expended funds support faculty release time. Faculty development efforts include promotion of the use of an educator's portfolio and the establishment of a mentoring program for junior faculty members built around observation of teaching. The Academy of Medical Educators vigorously supports expanded scholarship in education; the academy-sponsored Education Day is an opportunity for educators to present their work locally. Recipients of innovations-funding program grants are expected to present their work in an appropriate national forum and are assisted in doing this through quarterly scholarship clinics. The Academy of Medical Educators has been well received at UCSF and is enhancing the status of medical education and teachers. PMID:12857682

  16. Intelligent distributed medical image management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garcia, Hong-Mei C.; Yun, David Y.

    1995-05-01

    The rapid advancements in high performance global communication have accelerated cooperative image-based medical services to a new frontier. Traditional image-based medical services such as radiology and diagnostic consultation can now fully utilize multimedia technologies in order to provide novel services, including remote cooperative medical triage, distributed virtual simulation of operations, as well as cross-country collaborative medical research and training. Fast (efficient) and easy (flexible) retrieval of relevant images remains a critical requirement for the provision of remote medical services. This paper describes the database system requirements, identifies technological building blocks for meeting the requirements, and presents a system architecture for our target image database system, MISSION-DBS, which has been designed to fulfill the goals of Project MISSION (medical imaging support via satellite integrated optical network) -- an experimental high performance gigabit satellite communication network with access to remote supercomputing power, medical image databases, and 3D visualization capabilities in addition to medical expertise anywhere and anytime around the country. The MISSION-DBS design employs a synergistic fusion of techniques in distributed databases (DDB) and artificial intelligence (AI) for storing, migrating, accessing, and exploring images. The efficient storage and retrieval of voluminous image information is achieved by integrating DDB modeling and AI techniques for image processing while the flexible retrieval mechanisms are accomplished by combining attribute- based and content-based retrievals.

  17. Factors That Influence the Financing and Cost of Medical Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McPheeters, Harold L.

    Financing and cost factors in medical education and the effect of the many missions of a medical school on funding issues are discussed. The teaching mission of medical schools includes undergraduate medical education (preparation for the MD degree), graduate medical education (training of resident physicians), biomedical specialist education,…

  18. Fasa University Medical School: a novel experience in medical education

    PubMed Central

    RONAGHY, HOSSAIN A.; NASR, KHOSROW

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: In early 1970`s a combination of a shortage and misdistribution of health services and growing public dissatisfaction about the health care available, along with increasing expectations, has put great strain on the mind of the staff of the Department of Medicine Shiraz University School of Medicine. The purpose of this report is to give an account of what was originally planned and what has happened since the start of Fasa Medical School in April 1978. Methods: This is a case report about an experience in medical education in Iran. At the time, two major problems were facing our country. The first was gross mal-distribution of these healthcare facilities, which were mostly concentrated in Tehran and big cities of Iran, and the second problem was continuous exodus of Iranian Medical graduates to the Western countries. Results: The main idea of creating Fasa Medical School was to create a system in which primary care in small villages are provided by VHW with the middle level health workers of “Behdar Roustaee” to be supported by local physicians who  reside in small towns. Conclusion: For Fasa Medical School, education was emphasized on community based, student centered, and problem based medical education located in the community and based on teamwork and cooperation. PMID:25512919

  19. Medication education in nursing programmes in Finland--findings from a national survey.

    PubMed

    Sulosaari, Virpi; Huupponen, Risto; Torniainen, Kirsti; Hupli, Maija; Puukka, Pauli; Leino-Kilpi, Helena

    2014-01-01

    Medication management is one of the fundamental roles of nurses. Deficiencies in registered nurses' medication competence have been highlighted in previous research. It is important to ensure adequate medication competence to ensure safe practice upon graduation to nursing profession. Yet, little is known of the current medication education in undergraduate nursing programmes. This study aims to describe the current medication education in Finland. More precisely, we explored the curriculum content, teaching and evaluation methods. A national survey in which data was collected with two questionnaires was conducted: one targeted programme managers responsible for curriculum (n = 22) and the other one teachers (n = 136) involved with medication education. The data was analyzed statistically. The amount of medication education varied between the polytechnic schools involved. It appears that the content of teaching is quite comprehensive. However, we found under-emphasis on theoretical basis of medication care. This result is worrying since the understanding of the principles is essential for safe delivery of medication care. Also more emphasis on the use of self-treatment medications and therefore on patient education is warranted. The most often used teaching methods were lectures and skill laboratories. In all of the polytechnic schools, nurse students' medication competence was regularly evaluated. Based on previous research, there is scope for educational initiatives to improve nurse students' medication competence. Therefore, it is important to develop medication education to ensure that medication education with relevant content and with contemporary and evidence-based methods is provided during nurses' basic education. PMID:25632730

  20. Learning the law: practical proposals for UK medical education.

    PubMed

    Margetts, J K

    2016-02-01

    Ongoing serious breaches in medical professionalism might be avoided if UK doctors rethink their approach to law. UK medical education has a role in creating a climate of change by re-examining how law is taught to medical students. Adopting a more insightful approach in the UK to the impact of The Human Rights Act and learning to manipulate legal concepts, such as conflict of interest, need to be taught to medical students now if UK doctors are to manage complex decision-making in the NHS of the future. The literature is reviewed from a unique personal perspective of a doctor and lawyer, and practical proposals for developing medical education in law in the UK are suggested. PMID:23161613

  1. Total quality management approach improves medication replacement.

    PubMed

    Anderson, L K

    1994-07-01

    Total quality management (TQM) is based on understanding customer needs, improving key processes that affect customer satisfaction, and creating cross-functional teams to resolve process problems. This article describes application of TQM principles and problem-solving processes to improve one OR's medication exchange system. The problem was excessive monthly pharmacy medication replacement costs. The goal was to reduce the monthly medication replacement costs by 50%. Within four months, monthly medication replacement charges decreased from $656 to $302, and by one year, monthly charges decreased to $160. The new process had fewer steps, fewer staff members involved, and fewer delays in medication replacement. PMID:8085806

  2. Commissioning medical education: principles for best practice.

    PubMed

    Walsh, Kieran

    2016-04-01

    We need to ensure that we get value for money for our investments in medical education. Commissioning is one method of ensuring that we get value. However, like any other tool, it needs to be used properly. PMID:27071431

  3. Medical management of vascular anomalies.

    PubMed

    Trenor, Cameron C

    2016-03-01

    We have entered an exciting era in the care of patients with vascular anomalies. These disorders require multidisciplinary care and coordination and dedicated centers have emerged to address this need. Vascular tumors have been treated with medical therapies for many years, while malformations have been historically treated with endovascular and operative procedures. The recent serendipitous discoveries of propranolol and sirolimus for vascular anomalies have revolutionized this field. In particular, sirolimus responses are challenging the dogma that vascular malformations are not biologically active. While initially explored for lymphatic anomalies, sirolimus is now being used broadly throughout the spectrum of vascular anomalies. Whether medical therapies are reserved for refractory patients or used first line is currently dependent on the experience and availability of alternative therapies at each institution. On the horizon, we anticipate new drugs targeting genes and pathways involved in vascular anomalies to be developed. Also, combinations of medications and protocols combining medical and procedural approaches are in development for refractory patients. PMID:27607327

  4. Modeling Manipulation in Medical Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dailey, Jason I.

    2010-01-01

    As residents and medical students progress through their medical training, they are presented with multiple instances in which they feel they must manipulate the healthcare system and deceive others in order to efficiently treat their patients. This, however, creates a culture of manipulation resulting in untoward effects on trainees' ethical and…

  5. Tele-education as method of medical education.

    PubMed

    Masic, Izet; Pandza, Haris; Kulasin, Igor; Masic, Zlatan; Valjevac, Salih

    2009-01-01

    Development of computer networks and introduction and application of new technologies in all aspects of human activity needs to be followed by universities in their transformation on how to approach scientific, research, and education teaching curricula. Development and increased use of distance learning (DL) over the past decade have clearly shown the potential and efficiency of information technology applied in education. Use of information technology in medical education is where medical informatics takes its place as important scientific discipline which ensures benefit from IT in teaching and learning process involved. Definition of telemedicine as "use of technologies based on health care delivered on distance" covers areas such as electronic health, tele-health (eHealth), telematics, but also tele-education. Web based medical education today is offered in different forms--from online lectures, online exams, web based continuous education programs, use of electronic libraries, online medical and scientific databases etc. Department of Medical Informatics of Medical Faculty of University of Sarajevo has taken many steps to introduce distance learning in medical curricula--from organising professional--scientific events (congresses, workshop etc), organizing first tele-exam at the faculty and among first at the university, to offering online lectures and online education material at the Department's website (www.unsa-medinfo.org). Distance learning in medical education, as well as telemedicine, significantly influence health care in general and are shaping the future model of medical practice. Basic computer and networks skills must be a part of all future medical curricula. The impact of technical equipment on patient-doctor relationship must be taken into account, and doctors have to be trained and prepared for diagnosing or consulting patients by use of IT. Telemedicine requires special approach in certain medical fields--tele-consultation, tele

  6. Rural Medical Education: Review of the Literature

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Curran, Vernon R.; Bornstein, Stephen; Jong, Michael; Fleet, Lisa

    2004-01-01

    (Purpose) This report summarizes a synthesis of the literature related to the evidence, initiatives and approaches to rural/northern medical education, particularly its role in strengthening the medical workforce in rural areas. (Methodology) A literature review was conducted involving the literature databases MEDLINE (January 1990-March 2003),…

  7. Medical Treatment and Educational Problems in Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bartel, Nettie R.; Thurman, S. Kenneth

    1992-01-01

    The miracles of modern medical technology are sometimes accompanied by unanticipated costs affecting survivors' quality of life. This article considers the educational implications for three groups of children who could not survive without medical intervention: children treated for cancer, low birth-weight and premature infants, and the medically…

  8. Instructional Technology and Continuing Medical Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, George E.; Harless, William G.

    How has continuing medical education fared under instructional technology? For this reappraisal, the authors review the use of tapes, slides and film, in the medical profession in the U.S. and in the British Isles; radio and telephone, television, programed instruction, and computers (in their three-fold functions as retrievers of information,…

  9. Continuing Medical Education: The Norwegian Way.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holm, H. A.; And Others

    1993-01-01

    The Norwegian Medical Association is given responsibility for training and continuing medical education by the government. Government financial support enables the association to provide courses without support from the pharmaceutical industry. Current emphases include doctors as individual learners, as counselors, and as mentors. (SK)

  10. Just imagine: new paradigms for medical education.

    PubMed

    Mehta, Neil B; Hull, Alan L; Young, James B; Stoller, James K

    2013-10-01

    For all its traditional successes, the current model of medical education in the United States and Canada is being challenged on issues of quality, throughput, and cost, a process that has exposed numerous shortcomings in its efforts to meet the needs of the nations' health care systems. A radical change in direction is required because the current path will not lead to a solution.The 2010 publication Educating Physicians: A Call for Reform of Medical School and Residency identifies several goals for improving the medical education system, and proposals have been made to reform medical education to meet these goals. Enacting these recommendations practically and efficiently, while training more health care providers at a lower cost, is challenging.To advance solutions, the authors review innovations that are disrupting higher education and describe a vision for using these to create a new model for competency-based, learner-centered medical education that can better meet the needs of the health care system while adhering to the spirit of the above proposals. These innovations include collaboration amongst medical schools to develop massive open online courses for didactic content; faculty working in small groups to leverage this online content in a "flipped-classroom" model; and digital badges for credentialing entrustable professional activities over the continuum of learning. PMID:23969368

  11. Software engineering education in medical informatics.

    PubMed

    Leven, F J

    1989-11-01

    Requirements and approaches of Software Engineering education in the field of Medical Informatics are described with respect to the impact of (1) experiences characterizing the "software misery", (2) status and tendencies in software methodology, and (3) educational status and needs in computer science education influenced by the controversy "theoretical versus practical education". Special attention is directed toward the growing importance of analysis, design methods, and techniques in the professional spectrum of Medical Informatics, the relevance of general principles of systems engineering in health care, the potential of non-procedural programming paradigms, and the intersection of Artificial Intelligence and education. Realizations of and experiences with programs in the field of Software Engineering are reported with respect to special requirements in Medical Informatics. PMID:2695780

  12. Incorporating Environmental Health into Pediatric Medical and Nursing Education

    PubMed Central

    McCurdy, Leyla Erk; Roberts, James; Rogers, Bonnie; Love, Rebecca; Etzel, Ruth; Paulson, Jerome; Witherspoon, Nsedu Obot; Dearry, Allen

    2004-01-01

    Pediatric medical and nursing education currently lacks the environmental health content necessary to appropriately prepare pediatric health care professionals to prevent, recognize, manage, and treat environmental-exposure–related disease. Leading health institutions have recognized the need for improvements in health professionals’ environmental health education. Parents are seeking answers about the impact of environmental toxicants on their children. Given the biologic, psychological, and social differences between children and adults, there is a need for environmental health education specific to children. The National Environmental Education and Training Foundation, in partnership with the Children’s Environmental Health Network, created two working groups, one with expertise in medical education and one with expertise in nursing education. The working groups reviewed the transition from undergraduate student to professional to assess where in those processes pediatric environmental health could be emphasized. The medical education working group recommended increasing education about children’s environmental health in the medical school curricula, in residency training, and in continuing medical education. The group also recommended the expansion of fellowship training in children’s environmental health. Similarly, the nursing working group recommended increasing children’s environmental health content at the undergraduate, graduate, and continuing nursing education levels. Working groups also identified the key medical and nursing organizations that would be important in leveraging these changes. A concerted effort to prioritize pediatric environmental health by governmental organizations and foundations is essential in providing the resources and expertise to set policy and provide the tools for teaching pediatric environmental health to health care providers. PMID:15579423

  13. Applying adult learning practices in medical education.

    PubMed

    Reed, Suzanne; Shell, Richard; Kassis, Karyn; Tartaglia, Kimberly; Wallihan, Rebecca; Smith, Keely; Hurtubise, Larry; Martin, Bryan; Ledford, Cynthia; Bradbury, Scott; Bernstein, Henry Hank; Mahan, John D

    2014-07-01

    The application of the best practices of teaching adults to the education of adults in medical education settings is important in the process of transforming learners to become and remain effective physicians. Medical education at all levels should be designed to equip physicians with the knowledge, clinical skills, and professionalism that are required to deliver quality patient care. The ultimate outcome is the health of the patient and the health status of the society. In the translational science of medical education, improved patient outcomes linked directly to educational events are the ultimate goal and are best defined by rigorous medical education research efforts. To best develop faculty, the same principles of adult education and teaching adults apply. In a systematic review of faculty development initiatives designed to improve teaching effectiveness in medical education, the use of experiential learning, feedback, effective relationships with peers, and diverse educational methods were found to be most important in the success of these programs. In this article, we present 5 examples of applying the best practices in teaching adults and utilizing the emerging understanding of the neurobiology of learning in teaching students, trainees, and practitioners. These include (1) use of standardized patients to develop communication skills, (2) use of online quizzes to assess knowledge and aid self-directed learning, (3) use of practice sessions and video clips to enhance significant learning of teaching skills, (4) use of case-based discussions to develop professionalism concepts and skills, and (5) use of the American Academy of Pediatrics PediaLink as a model for individualized learner-directed online learning. These examples highlight how experiential leaning, providing valuable feedback, opportunities for practice, and stimulation of self-directed learning can be utilized as medical education continues its dynamic transformation in the years ahead. PMID

  14. Medication management during electroconvulsant therapy.

    PubMed

    Zolezzi, Monica

    2016-01-01

    Electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) has demonstrated to be highly effective and safe, even life saving for many psychiatric disorders such as major depression, bipolar disorder and schizophrenia. Most patients who require ECT are also on concurrent pharmacotherapy. As such, the objective of this article is to provide a review of the most recent literature focusing on the medications used during an ECT procedure and on the effects of concurrent psychiatric and non-psychiatric medications on the effectiveness and safety of ECT. The review also attempts to summarize the recommendations derived from existing documents to guide pharmacotherapy decisions for patients undergoing ECT. For this purpose, using electronic databases, an extensive search of the current literature was made using ECT and medications or drug classes as keywords. PMID:27143894

  15. Medication management during electroconvulsant therapy

    PubMed Central

    Zolezzi, Monica

    2016-01-01

    Electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) has demonstrated to be highly effective and safe, even life saving for many psychiatric disorders such as major depression, bipolar disorder and schizophrenia. Most patients who require ECT are also on concurrent pharmacotherapy. As such, the objective of this article is to provide a review of the most recent literature focusing on the medications used during an ECT procedure and on the effects of concurrent psychiatric and non-psychiatric medications on the effectiveness and safety of ECT. The review also attempts to summarize the recommendations derived from existing documents to guide pharmacotherapy decisions for patients undergoing ECT. For this purpose, using electronic databases, an extensive search of the current literature was made using ECT and medications or drug classes as keywords. PMID:27143894

  16. Time to return medical schools to their primary purpose: education.

    PubMed

    Abrahamson, S

    1996-04-01

    The author maintains that the quality of medical education has been dropping for the last few decades as medical schools become less and less focused on their primary purpose of training physicians. Until the years immediately following World War II, the administration of the medical school was carried out by a small staff headed by a dean whose role was to provide leadership in educational matters. Academic departments managed the educational program, and the faculty were expected to be teachers and to participate in educational planning, preparation of teaching materials, advising of students, assessment of students' performances, admission, and all other tasks associated with having a teaching position. Today, the administration of a typical school includes any number of assistants to the dean and a wide variety of other staff dealing not only with educational functions but with grant management, public relations, fund-raising, personnel policy, budgeting, and an enormous and complex parallel structure designed to manage clinical practice and to respond to market pressures. The role of faculty has also changed greatly; faculty are expected to be researchers and clinicians first, and teaching is usually shortchanged. The author explains why he believes these changes have come about; for example, the strong federal support of research after World War II, which encouraged a growing dependence of medical schools on research grants and consequently raised in importance those faculty who could obtain such grants. He concludes with common-sense proposals for reform (such as having the education of medical students in the hands of a small number of faculty whose prime responsibility is teaching), but admits that there are fundamental barriers to such reforms, especially vested interests and resistance to change. In the end, change will come only when those in power recognize that medical schools must be returned to their primary role of training physicians. PMID:8645396

  17. Health Occupations Education: Medical Assistant.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sloan, Jamee Reid

    These medical assistant instructional materials include 28 instructional units organized into sections covering orientation; anatomy and physiology, related disorders, disease, and skills; office practices; and clinical practices. Each unit includes eight basic components: performance objectives, suggested activities for teachers, information…

  18. Simplifying Education Management

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wiley, Wayne C.

    2004-01-01

    Managing district information, web sites, and data security as well as supplying information on-demand are just a few of the tasks causing educational administrators to seek new solutions these days. The answer is to streamline the business of running schools by putting all information in one place so coordinated data and files can be accessed.…

  19. Conducting Multilevel Analyses in Medical Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zyphur, Michael J.; Kaplan, Seth A.; Islam, Gazi; Barsky, Adam P.; Franklin, Michael S.

    2008-01-01

    A significant body of education literature has begun using multilevel statistical models to examine data that reside at multiple levels of analysis. In order to provide a primer for medical education researchers, the current work gives a brief overview of some issues associated with multilevel statistical modeling. To provide an example of this…

  20. A Linked Dataset of Medical Educational Resources

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dietze, Stefan; Taibi, Davide; Yu, Hong Qing; Dovrolis, Nikolas

    2015-01-01

    Reusable educational resources became increasingly important for enhancing learning and teaching experiences, particularly in the medical domain where resources are particularly expensive to produce. While interoperability across educational resources metadata repositories is yet limited to the heterogeneity of metadata standards and interface…

  1. Information Technologies (ITs) in Medical Education

    PubMed Central

    Masic, Izet; Pandza, Haris; Toromanovic, Selim; Masic, Fedja; Sivic, Suad; Zunic, Lejla; Masic, Zlatan

    2011-01-01

    Advances in medicine in recent decades are in significant correlation with the advances in the information technology. Modern information technologies (IT) have enabled faster, more reliable and comprehensive data collection. These technologies have started to create a large number of irrelevant information, which represents a limiting factor and a real growing gap, between the medical knowledge on one hand, and the ability of doctors to follow its growth on the other. Furthermore, in our environment, the term technology is generally reserved for its technical component. Education means, learning, teaching, or the process of acquiring skills or behavior modification through various exercises. Traditionally, medical education meant the oral, practical and more passive transferring of knowledge and skills from the educators to students and health professionals. For the clinical disciplines, of special importance are the principles, such as, “learning at bedside,” aided by the medical literature. In doing so, these techniques enable students to contact with their teachers, and to refer to the appropriate literature. The disadvantage of these educational methods is in the fact, that teachers often do not have enough time. Additionally they are not very convenient to the horizontal and vertical integration of teaching, create weak or almost no self education, as well as, low skill levels and poor integration of education with a real social environment. In this paper authors describe application of modern IT in medical education – their advantages and disadvantages comparing with traditional ways of education. PMID:23408471

  2. Medical management of thyroid eye disease

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Dawn D.; Gonzalez, Mithra O.; Durairaj, Vikram D.

    2010-01-01

    Thyroid eye disease (TED) is the most common cause of orbital disease in adults. The immunologic pathogenesis of TED has been an area of active research and considerable progress has resulted in an expansion of therapeutic options. Although surgical intervention may be required, a majority of TED patients can be managed with medical therapies. Of medical therapies, glucocorticoids remain the agent of choice in the control of TED activity. The objective of this review is to discuss the paradigm and options in medical management of TED. PMID:23960897

  3. Properties of Publications on Anatomy in Medical Education Literature

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vorstenbosch, Marc; Bolhuis, Sanneke; van Kuppeveld, Sascha; Kooloos, Jan; Laan, Roland

    2011-01-01

    Publications on anatomy in medical education appear to be largely anecdotal. To explore this, we investigated the literature on anatomy in medical education, aiming first to evaluate the contribution of the literature on anatomy in medical education to "best evidence medical education" (BEME) and second to evaluate the development of this…

  4. [The Traceability Management for Qualification Documents of Medical Instruments].

    PubMed

    Tang, Guoping; Hu, Liang; Xu, Xia; Fang, Zhiqiang; Hu, Juan

    2016-01-01

    The management for qualification documents of medical instruments is very important work to management department of medical instruments. Because the number of qualification documents of medical instruments is very large and they have an expiry date, it is difficult to manage them. This article discussed how to manage qualification documents of medical instruments, and an information management system that has a function of traceability management has been developed. This information management system standardizes management for qualification documents of medical instruments, and ensures that qualification documents of medical instruments are available and can be traced. Besides, it can reduce the amount of work for medical instruments management. PMID:27197505

  5. Recommendations of the International Medical Informatics Association (IMIA) on education in health and medical informatics.

    PubMed

    2004-01-01

    The International Medical Informatics Association (IMIA) agreed on international recommendations in health informatics / medical informatics education. These should help to establish courses, course tracks or even complete programs in this field, to further develop existing educational activities in the various nations and to support international initiatives concerning education in health and medical informatics (HMI), particularly international activities in educating HMI specialists and the sharing of courseware. The IMIA recommendations centre on educational needs for health care professionals to acquire knowledge and skills in information processing and information and communication technology. The educational needs are described as a three-dimensional framework. The dimensions are: 1) professionals in health care (physicians, nurses, HMI professionals, ...), 2) type of specialisation in health and medical informatics (IT users, HMI specialists) and 3) stage of career progression (bachelor, master, ...). Learning outcomes are defined in terms of knowledge and practical skills for health care professionals in their role (a) as IT user and (b) as HMI specialist. Recommendations are given for courses/course tracks in HMI as part of educational programs in medicine, nursing, health care management, dentistry, pharmacy, public health, health record administration, and informatics/computer science as well as for dedicated programs in HMI (with bachelor, master or doctor degree). To support education in HMI, IMIA offers to award a certificate for high quality HMI education and supports information exchange on programs and courses in HMI through a WWW server of its Working Group on Health and Medical Informatics Education (http://www.imia.org/wg1). PMID:15718686

  6. Stress Management Training in Medical School.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelly, Jeffrey A.; And Others

    1982-01-01

    An effort to teach medical students practical stress management skills is discussed. A group of students volunteered to participate in a six-session program that taught them personal stress management techniques including self-relaxation training, schedule-planning, priority-setting, leisure time-planning, and cognitive modification techniques.…

  7. [The education on medicines will change Japanese medical care].

    PubMed

    Mochizuki, Mayumi

    2013-01-01

    Teaching the three health principles and proper use of medicines are the basis of education on medicines. Before seeking prescription drugs, day-to-day health management is important. It is also important to understand that if a minor ailment persists, self-treatment with over-the-counter medications should be attempted. Since medications are double-edged swords, their proper use is the responsibility of patients to minimize the risk and maximize the effectiveness. This awareness should be taught during education on how to use medicines. A better understanding of medicines and fostering awareness through education on medicines will contribute to reductions in healthcare costs and promote the health of patients when they participate in their own care and learn how to self-medicate. PMID:24292177

  8. A meaningful MESS (Medical Education Scholarship Support)

    PubMed Central

    Whicker, Shari A.; Engle, Deborah L.; Chudgar, Saumil; DeMeo, Stephen; Bean, Sarah M.; Narayan, Aditee P.; Grochowski, Colleen O'Connor; Nagler, Alisa

    2016-01-01

    Background Graduate medical education faculty bear the responsibility of demonstrating active research and scholarship; however, faculty who choose education-focused careers may face unique obstacles related to the lack of promotion tracks, funding, career options, and research opportunities. Our objective was to address education research and scholarship barriers by providing a collaborative peer-mentoring environment and improve the production of research and scholarly outputs. Methods We describe a Medical Education Scholarship Support (MESS) group created in 2013. MESS is an interprofessional, multidisciplinary peer-mentoring education research community that now spans multiple institutions. This group meets monthly to address education research and scholarship challenges. Through this process, we develop new knowledge, research, and scholarly products, in addition to meaningful collaborations. Results MESS originated with eight founding members, all of whom still actively participate. MESS has proven to be a sustainable unfunded local community of practice, encouraging faculty to pursue health professions education (HPE) careers and fostering scholarship. We have met our original objectives that involved maintaining 100% participant retention; developing increased knowledge in at least seven content areas; and contributing to the development of 13 peer-reviewed publications, eight professional presentations, one Masters of Education project, and one educational curriculum. Discussion The number of individuals engaged in HPE research continues to rise. The MESS model could be adapted for use at other institutions, thereby reducing barriers HPE researchers face, providing an effective framework for trainees interested in education-focused careers, and having a broader impact on the education research landscape. PMID:27476538

  9. Can Medical Education be Researched?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lloyd, David A.

    1991-01-01

    The issues involved in conducting educational research are addressed. Some suggestions for methodology that can be used are suggested. Concerns about attempting to carry out investigations that follow the positivist model are discussed. (KR)

  10. Evaluating an interprofessional disease state and medication management review model.

    PubMed

    Hoti, Kreshnik; Forman, Dawn; Hughes, Jeffery

    2014-03-01

    There is lack of literature data reporting an incorporation of medication management reviews in students' interprofessional education (IPE) and practice programs in aged care settings. This pilot study reports how an interprofessional disease state and medication management review program (DSMMR) was established in a residential aged care facility in Perth, Western Australia. Students from the professions of nursing, pharmacy and physiotherapy focused on a wellness check in the areas of cognition, falls and continence while integrating a medication management review. Students' attitudes were explored using a pre- and post-placement questionnaire. Students indicated positive experience with the IPE DSMMR program which also resulted in their positive attitudinal shift towards IPE and practice. These findings indicated that aged care can be a suitable setting for student interprofessional programs focusing on DSMMR. PMID:24246025

  11. Understanding Patient Portal Use: Implications for Medication Management

    PubMed Central

    Mayberry, Lindsay Satterwhite; Wallston, Kenneth A; Johnson, Kevin B; Elasy, Tom A

    2013-01-01

    Background The Internet can be leveraged to provide disease management support, including medication adherence promotion that, when tailored, can effectively improve adherence to medications. The growing adoption of patient portals represents an opportunity to support medication management and adherence more broadly, but virtually no data exist about the real and potential impact of existing portals on these outcomes. Objective We sought to (1) understand who uses an existing patient portal and reasons for use and nonuse, (2) understand how portal users are using a portal to manage their medications, and (3) explore participants’ ideas for improving portal functionality for medication management and adherence support. Methods A total of 75 adults with type 2 diabetes participated in a mixed-methods study involving focus groups, a survey, and a medical chart review. We used quantitative data to identify differences between portal users and nonusers, and to test the relationship between the frequency of portal use and glycemic control among users. We used qualitative methods to understand how and why participants use a portal and their ideas for improving its medication management functionality. Results Of the enrolled participants, 81% (61/75) attended a focus group and/or completed a survey; portal users were more likely than nonusers to participate in that capacity (Fisher exact test; P=.01). Users were also more likely than nonusers to be Caucasian/white (Fisher exact test; P<.001), have higher incomes (Fisher exact test; P=.005), and be privately insured (Fisher exact test; P<.001). Users also tended to have more education than nonusers (Mann–Whitney U; P=.05), although this relationship was not significant at P<.05. Among users, more frequent use of a portal was associated with better A1C (Spearman rho =–0.30; P=.02). Reasons for nonuse included not knowing about the portal (n=3), not having access to a computer (n=3), or having a family member serve as

  12. Communicating Medical Needs to Non-Medical Managers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bacal, Kira; Miller, Robert; Doerr, Harold

    2004-01-01

    Differences in communication styles and languages between groups often lead to miscommunication, confusion, and/or frustration. Engineers, computer specialists, clinicians, and managers often utilize the English language in very different ways, with different groups using the same words to represent different concepts ("complaint" is a typical example). In addition, medical issues are often perceived as "off-nominal" and not "primary mission tasks" by managers, which can cause them to assign lower priorities to medical training time and resources. Knowledge bases differ due to variations in training and skill sets, and the goals (both immediate and long-term) of the communicators may also vary, with managers being primarily concerned with overall mission objectives, while clinicians focus on individual or group health issues. Furthermore, true communication is only possible when clinicians possess a deep understanding of mission requirements as well as the ability to communicate medical requirements on a priority basis using risk assessment, added value, and cost benefit analysis. These understandable differences may contribute to difficulties in expressing concerns and ideas in an efficient manner, particularly in projects, such as the space program or many military operations, where these varied groups must collaborate, and where the final decisions must be made by fully informed mission commanders. Methods: Three scenario-based approaches were developed utilizing decision trees and problem based learning, to help define and integrate these concepts. Results: Use of these techniques by NASA and military personnel will be presented. Discussion: To enhance communication, particularly of medical needs, one must identify the concerns and motivating factors for the other groups; for example, members of management may focus on financial concerns, a desire for risk mitigation, public perceptions, mission objectives, etc. Training clinicians to frame issues in these

  13. Opinions of Veterinary Medical Educators Towards the Problems and Needs of Veterinary Medical Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sisk, Dudley B.; And Others

    1976-01-01

    Members of the American Association of Veterinary Medical Colleges-Council of Educators were surveyed in an attempt to measure their opinions and feelings towards veterinary medical education. Their opinions on such topics as relationships between students, faculty, the curriculum, and the identity of veterinary medicine are reported. (LBH)

  14. The educational attributes and responsibilities of effective medical educators.

    PubMed

    Hatem, Charles J; Searle, Nancy S; Gunderman, Richard; Krane, N Kevin; Perkowski, Linda; Schutze, Gordon E; Steinert, Yvonne

    2011-04-01

    Of the many roles that the academic-educator may fulfill, that of teacher is particularly challenging. Building on prior recommendations from the literature, this article identifies the skill set of teachers across the medical education continuum-characteristics of attitude and attributes, knowledge, and pedagogic skills that permit effective teaching to be linked with effective learning and understanding. This examination which characterizes teachers' attitudes, knowledge, and skills serves to reemphasize the centrality of teaching within medical education, provides direction for faculty and institutions alike in the discharge of academic responsibilities, and makes educational accountability clear. This listing of teacher attitudes and responsibilities was vetted in 2009 by medical education leaders from across North America during a national conference on faculty development.A set of recommendations concerning faculty development issues for medical teachers is offered. The recommendations are intended to establish an academic culture in medical education that values and rewards-academically and fiscally-those centrally committed to the role of teacher. The challenges of defining skills, developing and funding programs, and ongoing evaluation must be faced to achieve success in teaching throughout medical education, now and in the future. Faculty members, fellow learners, and patients deserve no less. PMID:21346510

  15. Medical management of adult headache.

    PubMed

    Freitag, Frederick G; Schloemer, Fallon

    2014-04-01

    We review the therapies for primary headache disorders: migraine, chronic migraine, tension-type headache, and cluster headache. Recommendations follow the evidence-based treatments so far as is possible with expert opinion to give clinical guidance. Headache has 2 levels of care: acute treatments designed to stop a headache from progressing and alleviate all symptoms associated with the headache and preventive therapies for patients whose headache frequency is such that by itself produces significant disability and impact on quality of life, or where the frequency of use of acute medications, regardless of efficacy, poses risks in terms of overuse or adverse events. PMID:24680490

  16. Teaching Conflict: Professionalism and Medical Education.

    PubMed

    Holloway, K J

    2015-12-01

    Resistance by physicians, medical researchers, medical educators, and medical students to pharmaceutical industry influence in medicine is often based on the notion that physicians (guided by the ethics of their profession) and the industry (guided by profit) are in conflict. This criticism has taken the form of a professional movement opposing conflict of interest (COI) in medicine and medical education and has resulted in policies and guidelines that frame COI as the problem and outline measures to address this problem. In this paper, I offer a critique of this focus on COI that is grounded in a broader critique of neo-liberalism, arguing it individualizes the relationship between physicians and industry, too neatly delineates between the two entities, and reduces the network of social, economic, and political relations to this one dilemma. PMID:26133893

  17. China's Medical Education and Interventional Neuroradiology Training.

    PubMed

    Lv, Xianli; He, Hongwei; Wu, Zhongxue

    2015-11-01

    China's medical education system is complex and consists of degree programs lasting from 3 to 8 years, the inconsistency across previous educational backgrounds is a challenge when implementing residency training objectives and contents. Only in several advanced medical universities, education for interventional neuroradiology (INR) is a part of a rotation in the 2-year training for neurosurgery. Advanced INR techniques are confined to big cities such as Beijing, Shanghai and Guangzhou, where most of the Chinese INRs have their 6 to 12 months fellowship to major medical centers. With a tremendous economic growth in the region, we expect that INR practice will evolve at an equally rapid pace, and information presented in this chapter may soon become obsolete. PMID:26079783

  18. [Flipped classroom in basic medical education].

    PubMed

    Merenmies, Jussi; Niemi-Murola, Leila; Pyörälä, Eeva

    2015-01-01

    Medical education is facing changes in order to improve young doctors' competency to respond better to current needs of the patients and the society. Both curriculum content and teaching methods are revised. In addition to vibrant research in academic medical education, teachers are supported by the improved web-based learning environments and novel technical tools. Flipped classroom, a new paradigm that benefits from technical development, provides many opportunities for medical education. This teaching method always consists of two mutually complementary parts. The first part of the learning action takes place independently off classroom with video lectures or other stimuli for learning. The second part takes place in conjunction with the teacher and other students, and requires student group interactions. PMID:26677552

  19. Medical management of Peyronie's disease.

    PubMed

    Hellstrom, Wayne J G

    2009-01-01

    Peyronie's disease (PD) is a wound-healing disorder in which a fibrotic plaque forms in the tunica albuginea layer of the penis. It clinically presents as any combination of penile pain, angulation, and erectile dysfunction. Recent studies indicate that PD has a prevalence of 3%-9% in adult men. Although the exact etiology has not been established, PD likely results from a predisposing genetic susceptibility combined with an inciting event such as microtrauma during intercourse. During the initial acute phase (6-18 months), the condition may progress, stabilize, or regress. For this reason authorities recommend a more conservative treatment approach, with a trial of oral and/or intralesional pharmacotherapy, before surgical reconstruction is considered. Oral therapies most commonly employed include tocopherol (vitamin E) and paraaminobenzoate (Potaba), with colchicine, tamoxifen, propoleum, and acetyl-L-carnitine being used less often. There are a limited number of long-term placebo-controlled studies with these oral agents, and for the most part, studies have failed to show a consistent beneficial effect. Intralesional injection therapy for PD is more commonly used as a first-line therapy. The current standard of care includes injection with interferon-alpha-2b, verapamil, or collagenase. Interferon-alpha-2b, in particular, has been documented in a large, multicenter, placebo-controlled study to show significant benefit over placebo in decreasing penile curvature, plaque size, penile pain, and plaque density. However, intralesional interferon is associated with posttreatment flu-like symptoms unless patients are premedicated with a nonsteroid anti-inflammatory agent. Other available therapies that have not consistently shown efficacy in placebo-controlled studies include corticosteroids, orgotein, radiation, and extracorporeal shockwave therapy. Surgery is considered when men with PD do not respond to conservative or medical therapy for approximately 1 year and

  20. Management of medical waste in Tanzanian hospitals.

    PubMed

    Manyele, S V; Anicetus, H

    2006-09-01

    A survey was conducted to study the existing medical waste management (MWM) systems in Tanzanian hospitals during a nationwide health-care waste management-training programme conducted from 2003 to 2005. The aim of the programme was to enable health workers to establish MWM systems in their health facilities aimed at improving infection prevention and control and occupational health aspects. During the training sessions, a questionnaire was prepared and circulated to collect information on the MWM practices existing in hospitals in eight regions of the Tanzania. The analysis showed that increased population and poor MWM systems as well as expanded use of disposables were the main reasons for increased medical wastes in hospitals. The main disposal methods comprised of open pit burning (50%) and burying (30%) of the waste. A large proportion (71%) of the hospitals used dust bins for transporting waste from generation points to incinerator without plastic bags. Most hospitals had low incineration capacity, with few of them having fire brick incinerators. Most of the respondents preferred on-site versus off-site waste incineration. Some hospitals were using untrained casual labourers in medical waste management and general cleanliness. The knowledge level in MWM issues was low among the health workers. It is concluded that hospital waste management in Tanzania is poor. There is need for proper training and management regarding awareness and practices of medical waste management to cover all carders of health workers in the country. PMID:18254511

  1. Implications for Veterinary Medical Education: Paraprofessional Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lukens, Roger

    1980-01-01

    The emergence of the veterinary technician as an extension of the veterinarian's capability into animal agriculture is discussed. Some aspects reviewed include: technician education, current restrictions imposed by practice acts, general acceptance by the consumer, and effective relationships for veterinary technicians working under the…

  2. Sexual health innovations in undergraduate medical education.

    PubMed

    Ferrara, E; Pugnaire, M P; Jonassen, J A; O'Dell, K; Clay, M; Hatem, D; Carlin, M

    2003-10-01

    Recent national and global initiatives have drawn attention to the importance of sexual health to individuals' well-being. These initiatives advocate enhancement of efforts to address this under-represented topic in health professions curricula. University of Massachusetts Medical School (UMMS) has undertaken a comprehensive effort to develop an integrated curriculum in sexual health. The UMMS project draws upon the expertise of a multidisciplinary faculty of clinicians, basic scientists, a medical ethicist, and educators. This article describes the project's genesis and development at UMMS, and reports on three innovations in sexual health education implemented as part of this endeavor. PMID:14551577

  3. [Facilitations for medical education should be taken into consideration when designing new hospitals].

    PubMed

    Sørensen, Jette Led; Termansen, Anne-Mette Bang; Rasmussen, Naja Lynge; Laugesen, Toke Bie; Topperzer, Martha Krogh; Jensen, Kurt Stig; Hansen, Mette Marie Friis; Ottesen, Bent

    2016-04-18

    Based on trends in medical education and in patient management we discuss how new hospitals can be designed to focus on healthcare education. Hospitals have a major commitment and responsibility in the education of all kinds of undergraduate and postgraduate healthcare professionals, and this calls for dedicated environments. New hospitals must be designed not only for patient management, but also for healthcare education. This article is written by a multidisciplinary group and includes experiences within hospital management, medical education, implementation and architecture. PMID:27094634

  4. Evaluating instruction in medical education.

    PubMed

    Irby, D M

    1983-11-01

    The component parts and development of a comprehensive system to evaluate and improve teaching in a school of medicine are described by the author in this paper. This system integrates quantitative measures of teaching (student/resident ratings of classroom and clinical teaching), descriptive documentation (faculty teaching load, innovations, and research on teaching), and qualitative judgments (peer review) on the full spectrum of instruction in medicine. Medical school policies have standardized evaluation criteria, instrumentation, and procedures while granting departments flexibility in conducting peer review. The results of two studies indicate that the evaluation system described here has had a positive impact both on the improvement of teaching and on academic promotions. PMID:6631922

  5. Microethics in medical education and practice

    PubMed Central

    Mandal, Jharna; Dinoop, KP; Parija, Subhash Chandra

    2015-01-01

    “Microethics” is an avant-garde in the field of ethics. When the term “ethics” is brought into discussion in medical education or clinical practice, it customarily points to the traditional ethics, that is, biomedical ethics that deals with the ethical issues faced during unaccustomed or rare clinical circumstances. In contrast, microethics is a continuous ethical science existing in the physician-patient interaction that happens each day in every physician's clinical liaison. These ethical issues of everyday importance need to be introduced in the ethics training programs of medical institutions to provide insight and thereby promoting improvement in medical care and outcome. PMID:26629449

  6. Medical ethics and education for social responsibility.

    PubMed Central

    Roemer, M. I.

    1980-01-01

    The physician, said Henry Sigerist in 1940, has been acquiring an increasingly social role. For centuries, however, codes of medical ethics have concentrated on proper behavior toward individual patients and almost ignored the doctor's responsibilities to society. Major health service reforms have come principally from motivated lay leadership and citizen groups. Private physicians have been largely hostile toward movements to equalize the economic access for people to medical care and improve the supply and distribution of doctors. Medical practice in America and throughout the world has become seriously commercialized. In response, governments have applied various strategies to constrain physicians and induce more socially responsible behavior. But such external pressures should not be necessary if a broad socially oriented code of medical ethics were followed. Health care system changes would be most effective, but medical education could be thoroughly recast to clarify community health problems and policies required to meet them. Sigerist proposed such a new medical curriculum in 1941; if it had been introduced, a social code of medical ethics would not now seem utopian. An international conference might well be convened to consider how physicians should be educated to reach the inspiring goals of the World Health Organization. PMID:7405276

  7. Medical ultrasound education for bioengineers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vaezy, Shahram

    2005-04-01

    The widespread adoption of ultrasound technologies in medicine has necessitated the development of educational programs to address the growing demand for trained expertise in both academia and industry. The demand has been especially great in the field of therapeutic ultrasound that has experienced a significant level of research and development activities in the past decade. The applications cover a wide range including cancer treatment, hemorrhage control, cardiac ablation, gene therapy, and cosmetic surgery. A comprehensive educational program in ultrasound is well suited for bioengineering departments at colleges and universities. Our educational program for students in Bioengineering at the University of Washington includes a year-long coursework covering theory and practice of ultrasound, conducting research projects, attending and presenting at weekly seminars on literature survey, presentations at scientific meetings, and attending specialized workshops offered by various institutions for specific topics. An important aspect of this training is its multi-disciplinary approach, encompassing science, engineering, and medicine. The students are required to build teams with expertise in these disciplines. Our experience shows that these students are well prepared for careers in academia, conducting cutting edge research, as well as industry, being involved in the transformation of research end-products to commercially viable technology.

  8. Medical simulation: Overview, and application to wound modelling and management

    PubMed Central

    Pai, Dinker R.; Singh, Simerjit

    2012-01-01

    Simulation in medical education is progressing in leaps and bounds. The need for simulation in medical education and training is increasing because of a) overall increase in the number of medical students vis-à-vis the availability of patients; b) increasing awareness among patients of their rights and consequent increase in litigations and c) tremendous improvement in simulation technology which makes simulation more and more realistic. Simulation in wound care can be divided into use of simulation in wound modelling (to test the effect of projectiles on the body) and simulation for training in wound management. Though this science is still in its infancy, more and more researchers are now devising both low-technology and high-technology (virtual reality) simulators in this field. It is believed that simulator training will eventually translate into better wound care in real patients, though this will be the subject of further research. PMID:23162218

  9. Medical management of paraquat ingestion

    PubMed Central

    Gawarammana, Indika B; Buckley, Nicholas A

    2011-01-01

    Poisoning by paraquat herbicide is a major medical problem in parts of Asia while sporadic cases occur elsewhere. The very high case fatality of paraquat is due to inherent toxicity and lack of effective treatments. We conducted a systematic search for human studies that report toxicokinetics, mechanisms, clinical features, prognosis and treatment. Paraquat is rapidly but incompletely absorbed and then largely eliminated unchanged in urine within 12–24 h. Clinical features are largely due to intracellular effects. Paraquat generates reactive oxygen species which cause cellular damage via lipid peroxidation, activation of NF-κB, mitochondrial damage and apoptosis in many organs. Kinetics of distribution into these target tissues can be described by a two-compartment model. Paraquat is actively taken up against a concentration gradient into lung tissue leading to pneumonitis and lung fibrosis. Paraquat also causes renal and liver injury. Plasma paraquat concentrations, urine and plasma dithionite tests and clinical features provide a good guide to prognosis. Activated charcoal and Fuller's earth are routinely given to minimize further absorption. Gastric lavage should not be performed. Elimination methods such as haemodialysis and haemoperfusion are unlikely to change the clinical course. Immunosuppression with dexamethasone, cyclophosphamide and methylprednisolone is widely practised, but evidence for efficacy is very weak. Antioxidants such as acetylcysteine and salicylate might be beneficial through free radical scavenging, anti-inflammatory and NF-κB inhibitory actions. However, there are no published human trials. The case fatality is very high in all centres despite large variations in treatment. PMID:21615775

  10. Medical management of paraquat ingestion.

    PubMed

    Gawarammana, Indika B; Buckley, Nicholas A

    2011-11-01

    Poisoning by paraquat herbicide is a major medical problem in parts of Asia while sporadic cases occur elsewhere. The very high case fatality of paraquat is due to inherent toxicity and lack of effective treatments. We conducted a systematic search for human studies that report toxicokinetics, mechanisms, clinical features, prognosis and treatment. Paraquat is rapidly but incompletely absorbed and then largely eliminated unchanged in urine within 12-24 h. Clinical features are largely due to intracellular effects. Paraquat generates reactive oxygen species which cause cellular damage via lipid peroxidation, activation of NF-κB, mitochondrial damage and apoptosis in many organs. Kinetics of distribution into these target tissues can be described by a two-compartment model. Paraquat is actively taken up against a concentration gradient into lung tissue leading to pneumonitis and lung fibrosis. Paraquat also causes renal and liver injury. Plasma paraquat concentrations, urine and plasma dithionite tests and clinical features provide a good guide to prognosis. Activated charcoal and Fuller's earth are routinely given to minimize further absorption. Gastric lavage should not be performed. Elimination methods such as haemodialysis and haemoperfusion are unlikely to change the clinical course. Immunosuppression with dexamethasone, cyclophosphamide and methylprednisolone is widely practised, but evidence for efficacy is very weak. Antioxidants such as acetylcysteine and salicylate might be beneficial through free radical scavenging, anti-inflammatory and NF-κB inhibitory actions. However, there are no published human trials. The case fatality is very high in all centres despite large variations in treatment. PMID:21615775

  11. An Evaluation Model for Professional Education--Medical Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGuire, Christine H.

    There are striking similarities between medical education of today and progressive education of the thirties with respect to motivation for change, the values to be sought in change, and the zest with which change is pursued. It is in this climate conducive to change that a new approach to evaluation is beginning to make a significant contribution…

  12. Development of an Asset Map of Medical Education Research Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Christiaanse, Mary E.; Russell, Eleanor L.; Crandall, Sonia J.; Lambros, Ann; Manuel, Janeen C.; Kirk, Julienne K.

    2008-01-01

    Introduction: Medical education research is gaining recognition as scholarship within academic medical centers. This survey was conducted at a medium-sized academic medical center in the United States. The purpose of the study was to learn faculty interest in research in medical education, so assets could be used to develop educational scholarship…

  13. How to improve medical education website design

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background The Internet provides a means of disseminating medical education curricula, allowing institutions to share educational resources. Much of what is published online is poorly planned, does not meet learners' needs, or is out of date. Discussion Applying principles of curriculum development, adult learning theory and educational website design may result in improved online educational resources. Key steps in developing and implementing an education website include: 1) Follow established principles of curriculum development; 2) Perform a needs assessment and repeat the needs assessment regularly after curriculum implementation; 3) Include in the needs assessment targeted learners, educators, institutions, and society; 4) Use principles of adult learning and behavioral theory when developing content and website function; 5) Design the website and curriculum to demonstrate educational effectiveness at an individual and programmatic level; 6) Include a mechanism for sustaining website operations and updating content over a long period of time. Summary Interactive, online education programs are effective for medical training, but require planning, implementation, and maintenance that follow established principles of curriculum development, adult learning, and behavioral theory. PMID:20409344

  14. Self-management education and support in chronic disease management.

    PubMed

    McGowan, Patrick T

    2012-06-01

    With the changing health care environment, prevalence of chronic health conditions, and burgeoning challenges of health literacy, obesity, and homelessness, self-management support provides an opportunity for clinicians to enhance effectiveness and, at the same time, to engage patients to participate in managing their own personal care. This article reviews the differences between patient education and self-management and describes easy-to-use strategies that foster patient self-management and can be used by health care providers in the medical setting. It also highlights the importance of linking patients to nonmedical programs and services in the community. PMID:22608868

  15. Medical specialty boards can help measure graduate medical education outcomes.

    PubMed

    Peterson, Lars E; Carek, Peter; Holmboe, Eric S; Puffer, James C; Warm, Eric J; Phillips, Robert L

    2014-06-01

    U.S. graduate medical education (GME) training institutions are under increasing scrutiny to measure program outcomes as a demonstration of accountability for the sizeable funding they receive from the federal government. The Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education (ACGME) is a potential agent of measuring GME accountability but has no interaction with physicians after residency training is completed. American Board of Medical Specialty (ABMS) member boards interact with physicians throughout their careers through maintenance of certification (MOC) and are a potential source of valuable data on physician competency and quality of care, both of which could be used to measure GME accountability.The authors propose that ABMS boards and the ACGME deepen their existing relationship to better assess residency training outcomes. ABMS boards have a wealth of data on physicians collected as a by-product of MOC and business operations. Further, many ABMS boards collect practice demographics and scope-of-practice information through MOC enrollment surveys or recertification examination questionnaires. These data are potentially valuable in helping residencies know what their graduates are doing in practice. Part 4 of MOC generally involves assessment of the quality of care delivered in practice, and ABMS boards could share these deidentified data with the ACGME and residency programs to provide direct feedback on the practice outcomes of graduates.ABMS member boards and the ACGME should broaden their long-standing relationship to further develop shared roles and data-sharing mechanisms to better inform residencies and the public about GME training outcomes. PMID:24871232

  16. Continuing medical education in Turkey: Recent developments

    PubMed Central

    Yaman, Hakan

    2002-01-01

    Background The Turkish Association of Medicine founded a Continuing Medical Education Accreditation Committee in 1993 to evaluate and accredit scientific meetings and publications. The aims of this project were to raise the standards of meetings and to introduce compulsory revalidation and re-certification for physicians in Turkey. Discussion Since the year 1994, 2348 applications to the Continuing Medical Education board have been made (mostly for scientific meetings), and 95% of these applications have been accepted. Physicians received 139.014 credits during this time. This number is increasing every year. Meeting organisers' demand for such a kind of evaluation is increasing, because participants increasingly request it. Summary Efforts for revalidation and re-certification of physicians have not been completely successful yet. In the near future the Co-ordination Council of Medical Speciality Societies is going to oblige member associations to establish speciality boards. This will be the first step to the conventional use of Continuing Medical Education credits in occupational evaluation. Time-limited re-certification of physicians is the principal goal of Turkish Medical Association. Efforts to implement this change in legislation are being made. PMID:12074763

  17. Medical Informatics Education & Research in Greece

    PubMed Central

    Chouvarda, I.

    2015-01-01

    Summary Objectives This paper aims to present an overview of the medical informatics landscape in Greece, to describe the Greek ehealth background and to highlight the main education and research axes in medical informatics, along with activities, achievements and pitfalls. Methods With respect to research and education, formal and informal sources were investigated and information was collected and presented in a qualitative manner, including also quantitative indicators when possible. Results Greece has adopted and applied medical informatics education in various ways, including undergraduate courses in health sciences schools as well as multidisciplinary postgraduate courses. There is a continuous research effort, and large participation in EU-wide initiatives, in all the spectrum of medical informatics research, with notable scientific contributions, although technology maturation is not without barriers. Wide-scale deployment of eHealth is anticipated in the healthcare system in the near future. While ePrescription deployment has been an important step, ICT for integrated care and telehealth have a lot of room for further deployment. Conclusions Greece is a valuable contributor in the European medical informatics arena, and has the potential to offer more as long as the barriers of research and innovation fragmentation are addressed and alleviated. PMID:26123910

  18. Strategies for diagnosing and managing medication-induced headache.

    PubMed Central

    Edmeads, J. G.; Gawel, M. J.; Vickers, J.

    1997-01-01

    PROBLEM ADDRESSED: Headache is a common clinical disorder. Nearly 50% of patients with headaches use prescription medications, and 90% regularly use nonprescription drugs. Medication-induced headaches (MIH) are chronic daily headaches caused by overuse of medicine. OBJECTIVES: To summarize the diagnostic criteria for MIH, to determine the investigations necessary to confirm the diagnosis and exclude other possible diagnoses, and to establish recommendations for managing MIH. MAIN FINDINGS: Diagnosis of MIH is based on patient's history and the clinical characteristics of the headache. Treatment includes patient education and support, withdrawal of offending medications, relief of withdrawal symptoms, and specific treatment of residual headache. When migraine and other causes of headache are adequately addressed, patients will not seek additional pain relief. CONCLUSION: Medication-induced headache is preventable. The key to prevention is appropriate drug therapy to relieve the primary headache. All patients with MIH can be treated and most cured. PMID:9241463

  19. Admission to Medical Education in Ten Countries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burn, Barbara B., Ed.

    As part of a study of access and admission to higher education in Germany and the United States, a group of papers on medical admissions in various countries was commissioned. The papers presented in this book reveal wide differences in admissions policies and procedures. Barbara Burn examines some of the major issues in a foreword: representation…

  20. Research and Evaluation in Medical Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferris, Helena A.; Collins, Mary E.

    2015-01-01

    The landscape of medical education is continuously evolving, as are the needs of the learner. The appropriate use of research and evaluation is key when assessing the need for change and instituting one's innovative endeavours. This paper demonstrates how research seeks to generate new knowledge, whereas evaluation uses information acquired from…

  1. [Computers do not improve undergraduate medical education].

    PubMed

    van der Meer, J

    2006-04-29

    There is no convincing evidence that computer-assisted learning (CAL) leads to better doctors. Apprenticeships supervised by expert teachers are a time-honoured and effective way to educate future doctors. Medical faculties should not invest in CAL at the expense of properly supervised clerkships. PMID:17225741

  2. Continuing Medical Education, Perspectives, Problems, Prognosis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richards, Robert K.

    Predicting that continuing medical education (CME) will be mandatory for doctors within five years, this book traces CME's historical antecedents, analyzes the forces arrayed for and against it, and offers guidelines for its realistic use in a broad program of improving health care. An examination is made of: the evolution of undergraduate and…

  3. Shifting Paradigms of Research in Medical Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Irby, David M.; Edwards, Janine C. Ed.

    1990-01-01

    Medical educators debate which models of scientific research should be applied to problems in academic medicine. The reigning model was derived from the first scientific revolution of Newtonian physics. The emerging model is grounded in the second scientific revolution of Einstein's quantum physics. (Author/MSE)

  4. American Medical Education: The Student Viewpoint.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jessee, William F., Ed.

    A survey of student opinions on issues in medical education reveals several areas of consensus on needed changes. The following recommendations are suggested as a result of the survey: (1) Health care delivery should employ a multidisciplinary team of health professionals working to maintain health and prevent disease in communities. (2) Medical…

  5. Vanquishing Virtue: The Impact of Medical Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coulehan, Jack; Williams, Peter C.

    2001-01-01

    Asserts that North American medical education favors an explicit commitment to traditional values of doctoring--empathy, compassion, and altruism--but a tacit commitment to behaviors grounded in an ethic of detachment, self-interest, and objectivity. Explores differing ways (conflation, deflation, and maintaining of values) that students respond…

  6. Medical Terminology: Prefixes. Health Occupations Education Module.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Temple Univ., Philadelphia, PA. Div. of Vocational Education.

    This module on medical terminology (prefixes) is one of 17 modules designed for individualized instruction in health occupations education programs at both the secondary and postsecondary levels. This module consists of an introduction to prefixes, a list of resources needed, and three learning experiences. Each learning experience contains an…

  7. Characterizing Computer Systems Used in Medical Education

    PubMed Central

    Church, V. E.; Tidball, C. S.

    1979-01-01

    The diversity in computer systems used in medical education is described, and the lack of consistant classifications and comparisons noted. A classification scheme based on those characteristics specific to the development and presentation of instructional software is proposed. A graphic system profile approach is used to ensure clarity, while categorization of users and desirable features provides breadth and precision of coverage.

  8. Online Continuing Medical Education in Saudi Arabia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alwadie, Adnan D.

    2013-01-01

    As the largest country in the Middle East, Saudi Arabia and its health care system are well positioned to embark on an online learning intervention so that health care providers in all areas of the country have the resources for updating their professional knowledge and skills. After a brief introduction, online continuing medical education is…

  9. Medical education in the electronic medical record (EMR) era: benefits, challenges, and future directions.

    PubMed

    Tierney, Michael J; Pageler, Natalie M; Kahana, Madelyn; Pantaleoni, Julie L; Longhurst, Christopher A

    2013-06-01

    In the last decade, electronic medical record (EMR) use in academic medical centers has increased. Although many have lauded the clinical and operational benefits of EMRs, few have considered the effect these systems have on medical education. The authors review what has been documented about the effect of EMR use on medical learners through the lens of the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education's six core competencies for medical education. They examine acknowledged benefits and educational risks to use of EMRs, consider factors that promote their successful use when implemented in academic environments, and identify areas of future research and optimization of EMRs' role in medical education. PMID:23619078

  10. [The beginning of western medical education].

    PubMed

    Kee, C D

    1992-01-01

    Our country had quite an advanced system of medical education during the era of the Koryo Kingdom, and during the Choson Dynasty, the Kyong Guk Dae Jon, in which a systematized medical education was clearly described, was compiled in the era of King Sejong. However, the educational system was not for Western medicine. Western medicine was first introduced to our country in the 9th year of King Injo (1631) when Chong Du Won, Yi Yong Jun, etc. returned from Yon Gyong (Beiuin) with Chik Bang Oe Gi. Knowledge of Western medicine was disseminated by Shil Hak (practical learning) scholars who read a translation in Chinese characters, of Chik Bang Oe Gi. Yi Ik (Song Ho), Yi Gyu Gyong (O ju), Choe Han Gi (Hye Gang), Chong Yak Yong (Ta San), etc., read books of Western medicine and introduced in writing the excellent theory of Western medicine. In addition, Yu Hyong Won (Pan Gye), Pak Ji Won (Yon Am), Pak Je Ga (Cho Jong), etc., showed much interest in Western medicine, but no writings by them about western medicine can be found. With the establishment of a treaty of amity with Japan in the 13th year of King Kojong (1876), followed by the succession of amity treaties with Western powers, foreigners including medical doctors were permitted to flow into this country. At that time, doctors Horace N. Allen, W. B. Scranton, John W. Heron, Rosetta Sherwood (Rosetta S. Hall), etc., came to Korea and inaugurated hospitals, where they taught Western medicine to Korean students. Dr. Horace N. Allen, with the permission of king Kojong, established Che Jung Won in April 1885, and in March 1886, he began at the hospital to provide education of Western medicine to Korean students who were recrutied by the Korean Government. However, the education was not conduted on a regular basis, only training them for work as assistants. This is considered to be the pioneer case of Western medical education in this country. Before that time, Japanese medical doctors came to Korea, but there are no

  11. Roles, Functions, Training, and Proficiency Tests for Medical Record Personnel: A Guide to Curriculum Management.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clark, Fredric A.

    The curriculum management guide serves as an aid to medical record teachers and other medical record educators. It is designed to provide them with a useful tool to improve student performances by improved administration and management of programs. The guide documents one possible systematic approach to professional and vocational curriculum…

  12. Interprofessional education in the integrated medical education and health care system: A content analysis

    PubMed Central

    KHABAZ MAFINEJAD, MAHBOOBEH; AHMADY, SOLEIMAN; SOLTANI ARABSHAHI, SEYYED KAMRAN; BIGDELI, SHOALEH

    2016-01-01

    Introduction The current literature supports the inclusion of inter-professional education in healthcare education. Changes in the structure and nature of the integrated medical education and healthcare system provide some opportunities for interprofessional education among various professions. This study is an attempt to determine the perceptions of students and faculty members about interprofessional education in the context of the medical education and healthcare system. Methods This qualitative content analysis study was conducted using purposeful sampling in 2012. Thirteen semi-structured interviews were conducted with 6 faculty members and 7 students at Tehran and Iran Universities of Medical Sciences. Data collection and analysis were concurrent. Results Data analysis revealed four categories and nine subcategories. The categories emerging from individual interviews were “educational structure”, “mediating factors”, “conceptual understanding”, and “professional identity”. These categories are explained using quotes derived from the data. Conclusion Matching the existing educational context and structure with IPE through removing barriers and planning to prepare the required resources and facilities can solve numerous problems associated with implementation and design of inter-professional training programs in Iran.  In this way, promoting the development of a cooperative rather than a competitive learning and working atmosphere should be taken into account. The present findings will assist the managers and policy makers to consider IPE as a useful strategy in the integrated medical education and healthcare system. PMID:27382577

  13. Revealing undetected problems with medication therapy management services.

    PubMed

    Alexander, Akash J; Gatewood, Sharon B S

    2008-06-01

    Implementation of Medication Therapy Management (MTM) services under the Medicare Modernization Act of 2003 has highlighted the innovative roles that pharmacists are assuming in progressive, community-based practice settings. MTM underscores the vital role that community pharmacists have in helping patients achieve desirable therapeutic outcomes and reduce health care expenses. Pharmacists can: 1) obtain detailed medication histories, 2) assess patient adherence and the development of side effects, 3) educate patients on their medications and disease states, and 4) perform cost-effective therapeutic interchanges in collaboration with prescribers. This case describes an MTM session with a 68-year-old Caucasian male who is a regular prescription customer at a local grocery-store chain pharmacy. The patient was screened and identified by his Medicare Part D plan as one who qualifies for MTM services. He has a history of dyslipidemia, depression, and epilepsy. The patient was contacted by the pharmacist to participate in a MTM appointment to discuss his current medications and disease states. After obtaining a detailed history, the pharmacist identified significant medication-related problems including inappropriate prescribing of medication, self-treatment, and the patient's lack of knowledge concerning his medications. After discussions with the patient and his health care providers, a medication plan was created for the patient to follow. Open communication among the patient, pharmacist, and prescribers is a crucial component to ensure the success of MTM services. PMID:18764677

  14. Purchasing a decentralized medication management system.

    PubMed

    2006-03-01

    Decentralized medication management systems (DMMSs) are used in hospitals, long-term care facilities, prisons, outpatient clinics, surgery centers, and other places to manage the distribution of drugs. DMMSs consist of storage compartments for medications, with an internal computer that controls and records the administration of drugs. Some DMMSs are stationary cabinets and others are mobile carts. There have been important advances in DMMS technology since we evaluated these products in 1996, including enhanced computer memory and processing power, wider adoption of wireless networking, better user interfaces, and greater integration with other hospital information systems. To get the most out of a DMMS purchase or upgrade, facilities will need careful planning that involves assessing their own needs, selecting hardware and software configurations that meet those needs, and then choosing the right vendor and model. A properly selected DMMS can help to enforce medication distribution policies, prevent errors, and streamline processes. PMID:16610453

  15. District nurses' role in managing medication dysphagia.

    PubMed

    Griffith, Richard

    2016-08-01

    A survey commissioned by the Patients Association (2015) has shown that the risky practice of altering solid-form medication to assist patients with swallowing difficulties is a daily occurrence in care homes. District nurses and community matrons who provide care to patients and assist staff in care homes are well-placed to raise awareness of the impact that tampering with tablets has on patient safety. It is essential that district nurses and community matrons discharge their duty of care to patients in care homes by supporting effective medication management that meets the individual needs of those patients. This article considers the legal and professional standards that must inform a district nurse's support of medication management for a patient with swallowing difficulties residing in a care home. PMID:27479856

  16. Medical technology management: from planning to application.

    PubMed

    David, Y; Jahnke, E

    2005-01-01

    Appropriate deployment of technological innovation contributes to improvement in the quality of healthcare delivered, the containment of cost, and access to the healthcare system. Hospitals have been allocating a significant portion of their resources to procuring and managing capital assets; they are continuously faced with demands for new medical equipment and are asked to manage existing inventory for which they are not well prepared. To objectively manage their investment, hospitals are developing medical technology management programs that need pertinent information and planning methodology for integrating new equipment into existing operations as well as for optimizing costs of ownership of all equipment. Clinical engineers can identify technological solutions based on the matching of new medical equipment with hospital's objectives. They can review their institution's overall technological position, determine strengths and weaknesses, develop equipment-selection criteria, supervise installations, train users and monitor post procurement performance to assure meeting of goals. This program, together with cost accounting analysis, will objectively guide the capital assets decision-making process. Cost accounting analysis is a multivariate function that includes determining the amount, based upon a strategic plan and financial resources, of funding to be allocated annually for medical equipment acquisition and replacement. Often this function works closely with clinical engineering to establish equipment useful life and prioritization of acquisition, upgrade, and replacement of inventory within budget confines and without conducting time consuming, individual financial capital project evaluations. PMID:17282142

  17. Considering the clinical context of medical education.

    PubMed

    Famiglio, Linda M; Thompson, Michelle A; Kupas, Douglas F

    2013-09-01

    The article by Chen and colleagues in this issue suggests that the context in which clinical medical education is executed matters, especially if we intend to meet the projected future physician workforce needs in the United States. Placing learners in the highest-performing medical settings seems intuitive, but this can be disruptive to the patient care interface, especially in high-performing health care delivery systems. Simply placing learners in a well-functioning, highly reliable health care delivery system focused on systems of care and directed at improving quality and safety is not enough for learners. Educational experiences must be planned, organized, and strategically aligned with clinical operations to ensure seamless integration with highly reliable health care delivery systems. The authors draw on their experience at Geisinger Health System to explore the challenges and advantages to integrating the education and patient care missions of academic clinical sites for learners, patients, faculty, and the future of the workforce. PMID:23887008

  18. 28 CFR 549.63 - Initial medical evaluation and management.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Initial medical evaluation and management... MANAGEMENT MEDICAL SERVICES Hunger Strikes, Inmate § 549.63 Initial medical evaluation and management. (a... Bureau institution considered medically appropriate, or to a community hospital....

  19. Radiation Oncology Physics and Medical Physics Education

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bourland, Dan

    2011-10-01

    Medical physics, an applied field of physics, is the applications of physics in medicine. Medical physicists are essential professionals in contemporary healthcare, contributing primarily to the diagnosis and treatment of diseases through numerous inventions, advances, and improvements in medical imaging and cancer treatment. Clinical service, research, and teaching by medical physicists benefits thousands of patients and other individuals every day. This talk will cover three main topics. First, exciting current research and development areas in the medical physics sub-specialty of radiation oncology physics will be described, including advanced oncology imaging for treatment simulation, image-guided radiation therapy, and biologically-optimized radiation treatment. Challenges in patient safety in high-technology radiation treatments will be briefly reviewed. Second, the educational path to becoming a medical physicist will be reviewed, including undergraduate foundations, graduate training, residency, board certification, and career opportunities. Third, I will introduce the American Association of Physicists in Medicine (AAPM), which is the professional society that represents, advocates, and advances the field of medical physics (www.aapm.org).

  20. Curriculum Mapping with Academic Analytics in Medical and Healthcare Education

    PubMed Central

    Komenda, Martin; Víta, Martin; Vaitsis, Christos; Schwarz, Daniel; Pokorná, Andrea; Zary, Nabil; Dušek, Ladislav

    2015-01-01

    Background No universal solution, based on an approved pedagogical approach, exists to parametrically describe, effectively manage, and clearly visualize a higher education institution’s curriculum, including tools for unveiling relationships inside curricular datasets. Objective We aim to solve the issue of medical curriculum mapping to improve understanding of the complex structure and content of medical education programs. Our effort is based on the long-term development and implementation of an original web-based platform, which supports an outcomes-based approach to medical and healthcare education and is suitable for repeated updates and adoption to curriculum innovations. Methods We adopted data exploration and visualization approaches in the context of medical curriculum innovations in higher education institutions domain. We have developed a robust platform, covering detailed formal metadata specifications down to the level of learning units, interconnections, and learning outcomes, in accordance with Bloom’s taxonomy and direct links to a particular biomedical nomenclature. Furthermore, we used selected modeling techniques and data mining methods to generate academic analytics reports from medical curriculum mapping datasets. Results We present a solution that allows users to effectively optimize a curriculum structure that is described with appropriate metadata, such as course attributes, learning units and outcomes, a standardized vocabulary nomenclature, and a tree structure of essential terms. We present a case study implementation that includes effective support for curriculum reengineering efforts of academics through a comprehensive overview of the General Medicine study program. Moreover, we introduce deep content analysis of a dataset that was captured with the use of the curriculum mapping platform; this may assist in detecting any potentially problematic areas, and hence it may help to construct a comprehensive overview for the subsequent

  1. Modernizing and Transforming Medical Education at the Kilimanjaro Christian Medical University College

    PubMed Central

    Lisasi, Esther; Kulanga, Ahaz; Muiruri, Charles; Killewo, Lucy; Fadhili, Ndimangwa; Mimano, Lucy; Kapanda, Gibson; Tibyampansha, Dativa; Ibrahim, Glory; Nyindo, Mramba; Mteta, Kien; Kessi, Egbert; Ntabaye, Moshi; Bartlett, John

    2014-01-01

    The Kilimanjaro Christian Medical University (KCMU) College and the Medical Education Partnership Initiative (MEPI) are addressing the crisis in Tanzanian health care manpower by modernizing the college’s medical education with new tools and techniques. With a $10 million MEPI grant and the participation of its partner, Duke University, KCMU is harnessing the power of information technology (IT) to upgrade tools for students and faculty. Initiatives in eLearning have included bringing fiber-optic connectivity to the campus, offering campus-wide wireless access, opening student and faculty computer laboratories, and providing computer tablets to all incoming medical students. Beyond IT, the college is also offering wet laboratory instruction for hands-on diagnostic skills, team-based learning, and clinical skills workshops. In addition, modern teaching tools and techniques address the challenges posed by increasing numbers of students. To provide incentives for instructors, a performance-based compensation plan and teaching awards have been established. Also for faculty, IT tools and training have been made available, and a medical education course management system is now being widely employed. Student and faculty responses have been favorable, and the rapid uptake of these interventions by students, faculty, and the college’s administration suggests that the KCMU College MEPI approach has addressed unmet needs. This enabling environment has transformed the culture of learning and teaching at KCMU College, where a path to sustainability is now being pursued. PMID:25072581

  2. Modernizing and transforming medical education at the Kilimanjaro Christian Medical University College.

    PubMed

    Lisasi, Esther; Kulanga, Ahaz; Muiruri, Charles; Killewo, Lucy; Fadhili, Ndimangwa; Mimano, Lucy; Kapanda, Gibson; Tibyampansha, Dativa; Ibrahim, Glory; Nyindo, Mramba; Mteta, Kien; Kessi, Egbert; Ntabaye, Moshi; Bartlett, John

    2014-08-01

    The Kilimanjaro Christian Medical University (KCMU) College and the Medical Education Partnership Initiative (MEPI) are addressing the crisis in Tanzanian health care manpower by modernizing the college's medical education with new tools and techniques. With a $10 million MEPI grant and the participation of its partner, Duke University, KCMU is harnessing the power of information technology (IT) to upgrade tools for students and faculty. Initiatives in eLearning have included bringing fiber-optic connectivity to the campus, offering campus-wide wireless access, opening student and faculty computer laboratories, and providing computer tablets to all incoming medical students. Beyond IT, the college is also offering wet laboratory instruction for hands-on diagnostic skills, team-based learning, and clinical skills workshops. In addition, modern teaching tools and techniques address the challenges posed by increasing numbers of students. To provide incentives for instructors, a performance-based compensation plan and teaching awards have been established. Also for faculty, IT tools and training have been made available, and a medical education course management system is now being widely employed. Student and faculty responses have been favorable, and the rapid uptake of these interventions by students, faculty, and the college's administration suggests that the KCMU College MEPI approach has addressed unmet needs. This enabling environment has transformed the culture of learning and teaching at KCMU College, where a path to sustainability is now being pursued. PMID:25072581

  3. The medical management of unintentional radionuclide intakes.

    PubMed

    Breitenstein, B D

    2003-01-01

    As a general medical problem, radionuclide intakes that may cause significant health effects are uncommon events. In preparing to manage a radionuclide accident, planning is the key. The medical aspects of such an accident are only one part of the management, and a professional team approach is required. Specific priorities and sequencing are necessary in medically managing a radionuclide intake. As soon as is reasonably practical, promptly remove the victim(s) from further radionuclide, radiation field, or chemical exposure. Life and limb-saving medical aid takes precedence over ionising radiation concerns in nearly all cases. Next are the prevention and/or minimisation of internal intake of radionuclides and evaluation and control of external radionuclide contamination, followed by institution of treatment to minimise the retained radionuclide. Communication with the accident victim, and his or her family, and public affairs/media issues are important. Finally, follow-up treatment for internal intakes that may cause delayed health effects is given. PMID:14527016

  4. Ototoxic Medications (Medication Effects)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Toggle navigation Careers Certification Publications Events Advocacy Continuing Education Practice Management Research Home / Information for the Public / Hearing and Balance Ototoxic Medications ( ...

  5. Leveraging e-learning in medical education.

    PubMed

    Lewis, Kadriye O; Cidon, Michal J; Seto, Teresa L; Chen, Haiqin; Mahan, John D

    2014-07-01

    e-Learning has become a popular medium for delivering instruction in medical education. This innovative method of teaching offers unique learning opportunities for medical trainees. The purpose of this article is to define the present state of e-learning in pediatrics and how to best leverage e-learning for educational effectiveness and change in medical education. Through addressing under-examined and neglected areas in implementation strategies for e-learning, its usefulness in medical education can be expanded. This study used a systematic database review of published studies in the field of e-learning in pediatric training between 2003 and 2013. The search was conducted using educational and health databases: Scopus, ERIC, PubMed, and search engines Google and Hakia. A total of 72 reference articles were suitable for analysis. This review is supplemented by the use of "e-Learning Design Screening Questions" to define e-learning design and development in 10 randomly selected articles. Data analysis used template-based coding themes and counting of the categories using descriptive statistics.Our search for pediatric e-learning (using Google and Hakia) resulted in six well-defined resources designed to support the professional development of doctors, residents, and medical students. The majority of studies focused on instructional effectiveness and satisfaction. There were few studies about e-learning development, implementation, and needs assessments used to identify the institutional and learners' needs. Reviewed studies used various study designs, measurement tools, instructional time, and materials for e-learning interventions. e-Learning is a viable solution for medical educators faced with many challenges, including (1) promoting self-directed learning, (2) providing flexible learning opportunities that would offer continuous (24h/day/7 days a week) availability for learners, and (3) engaging learners through collaborative learning communities to gain

  6. Medical management of chronic stable angina

    PubMed Central

    Wee, Yong; Burns, Kylie; Bett, Nicholas

    2015-01-01

    Summary Stable angina pectoris is characterised by typical exertional chest pain that is relieved by rest or nitrates. Risk stratification of patients is important to define prognosis, to guide medical management and to select patients suitable for revascularisation. Medical treatment aims to relieve angina and prevent cardiovascular events. Beta blockers and calcium channel antagonists are first-line options for treatment. Short-acting nitrates can be used for symptom relief. Low-dose aspirin and statins are prescribed to prevent cardiovascular events. PMID:26648642

  7. Simulation-based medical education: an ethical imperative.

    PubMed

    Ziv, Amitai; Wolpe, Paul Root; Small, Stephen D; Glick, Shimon

    2003-08-01

    Medical training must at some point use live patients to hone the skills of health professionals. But there is also an obligation to provide optimal treatment and to ensure patients' safety and well-being. Balancing these two needs represents a fundamental ethical tension in medical education. Simulation-based learning can help mitigate this tension by developing health professionals' knowledge, skills, and attitudes while protecting patients from unnecessary risk. Simulation-based training has been institutionalized in other high-hazard professions, such as aviation, nuclear power, and the military, to maximize training safety and minimize risk. Health care has lagged behind in simulation applications for a number of reasons, including cost, lack of rigorous proof of effect, and resistance to change. Recently, the international patient safety movement and the U.S. federal policy agenda have created a receptive atmosphere for expanding the use of simulators in medical training, stressing the ethical imperative to "first do no harm" in the face of validated, large epidemiological studies describing unacceptable preventable injuries to patients as a result of medical management. Four themes provide a framework for an ethical analysis of simulation-based medical education: best standards of care and training, error management and patient safety, patient autonomy, and social justice and resource allocation. These themes are examined from the perspectives of patients, learners, educators, and society. The use of simulation wherever feasible conveys a critical educational and ethical message to all: patients are to be protected whenever possible and they are not commodities to be used as conveniences of training. PMID:12915366

  8. In-Flight Personalized Medication Management

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peletskaya, E.; Griko, Y. V.

    2016-01-01

    , technologies capable of predicting and managing medication side effects, interactions, and toxicity of drugs during spaceflight are needed. We propose to develop and customize for NASAs applications available on the market Personalized Prescribing System (PPS) that would provide a comprehensive, non-invasive solution for safer, targeted medication management for every crew member resulting in safer and more effective treatment and, consequently, better performance. PPS will function as both decision support and record-keeping tool for flight surgeons and astronauts in applying the recommended medications for situations arising in flight. The information on individual drug sensitivity will translate into personalized risk assessment for adverse drug reactions and treatment failures for each drug from the medication kit as well as predefined outcome of any combination of them. Dosage recommendations will also be made individually. The mobile app will facilitate ease of use by crew and medical professionals during training and flight missions.

  9. New approaches to medical education: an international perspective.

    PubMed

    Sefton, Ann Jervie

    2004-01-01

    Internationally, medical education has increasingly been the subject of scrutiny and debate. This article represents a review of the burgeoning literature on medical education. The focus is on encouraging teachers to improve the quality of students' learning. The educational rationale for some of the major current developments is considered. Change imposes significant challenges for teachers and students, although there are helpful examples from the literature. The curriculum must be internally consistent, based on well-defined educational principles and effectively managed. Goals or outcomes--broadly defined--must be debated and determined so that they are clear to staff, students and the community. Several interrelated issues must be considered and resolved--student selection, specification of content, identification of core clinical skills and broader academic and professional behaviours. The most effective educational processes must be determined in order to support active learning. Problem-based learning is now well established and its underlying principles are discussed. Assessment of students must encourage learning and ensure that well-defined academic and professional skills are achieved. Programmes must be subject to evaluation so that the quality of the experiences of students, staff and patients is progressively improved. In order to develop effective skills in teaching and in the management of programmes, teachers need to be supported by good staff development. PMID:15316255

  10. Educational Theory and Medical Education Practice: A Cautionary Note for Medical School Faculty.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Colliver, Jerry A.

    2002-01-01

    Reflects on educational theory, in particular cognitive theory, and concludes that theory is little more than metaphor, not rigorous, tested, confirmed scientific theory. Asserts that this metaphor may lead to ideas for basic and applied research, but in the meantime it cannot be trusted to determine practice in medical education. (EV)

  11. The Marvelous Medical Education Machine or How Medical Education can be 'Unstuck' in Time.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Friedman, Charles P.

    2000-01-01

    Discusses the effectiveness of medical education and argues for the appropriate use of emerging technology in training. Suggests using a "marvelous machine" concept for trainees and continuing education working on computer-based simulations for a comprehensive practice experience. (Contains 26 references.) (YDS)

  12. Continuing medical education: a personal view.

    PubMed Central

    Hayes, T. M.

    1995-01-01

    Over many generations doctors have kept up to date in ways which reflect their own learning styles. The current fashion for formalised and policed continuing medical education may prove ineffective unless it is recognised that individual needs must be taken into account. Attendance at formal courses based on lectures and papers may not suit a large proportion of those who attend to acquire the necessary points to satisfy their royal college. The ability to show that health care teams are up to date should come from effective clinical audit, which should also identify local educational needs. Images p995-a PMID:7728041

  13. Psychiatry's contribution to medical ethics education.

    PubMed

    Sider, R C; Clements, C

    1982-04-01

    Two recent trends in medical education, the growth of interest in biomedical ethics and the examination of psychiatry's status in medicine, have important implications for psychiatry. Educators are needed to bring a clinical perspective to bear on ethics instruction, yet psychiatrists risk missing this opportunity. Psychiatrists are uniquely suited to contribute because of their expertise in three areas: an understanding of the affective, nonrational components in ethical thought and behavior, a developmental perspective regarding personal morality, and an appreciation of the rootedness of ethics in the social ethos. Problems with contemporary ethical models of informed consent illustrate the value of psychiatry's contribution. PMID:7065297

  14. Harnessing the IT factor in medical education.

    PubMed

    Lim, Erle C H; Oh, Vernon M S; Koh, Dow-Rhoon; Seet, Raymond C S

    2008-12-01

    Escalating healthcare costs in Singapore have produced a significant movement of patients into ambulatory care, and the consequent dearth of clinical teaching materials. This deficiency has likewise prompted the creation of ambulatory teaching clinics and the use of standardised patients and simulators. In the last few decades, educators have utilised digital technology, for instance, digitally recorded heart and breath sounds, and digitised video vignettes, in medical education. We describe several pedagogical initiatives that we have undertaken at our university school of medicine. PMID:19159043

  15. Alternatives in Medical Education: Non-Animal Methods.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carlson, Peggy, Ed.

    The technology explosion in medical education has led to the use of computer models, videotapes, interactive videos, and state-of-the-art simulators in medical training. This booklet describes alternatives to using animals in medical education. Although it is mainly intended to describe products applicable to medical school courses, high-quality,…

  16. Defending diversity: affirmative action and medical education.

    PubMed Central

    DeVille, K

    1999-01-01

    Affirmative action programs of all types are under attack legally and politically. Although medical schools have not been specifically targeted, their affirmative action programs, like others in higher education, are potentially in danger. This article examines the current legal status of affirmative action in medical education and concludes that a refurbished defense of such programs is essential if they are to survive impending judicial and political scrutiny. An analysis of existing case law and available evidence suggests that a carefully reinvigorated diversity argument is the tactic most likely to pass constitutional muster, as well as the justification most likely to blunt growing public and political opposition to admissions policies that take race and ethnicity into consideration. PMID:10432920

  17. An Overview of Undergraduate Physiology Education in Turkish Medical Faculties

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Balkanci, Z. Dicle; Pehlivanoglu, Bilge

    2008-01-01

    Physiology education, which occupies an important place in undergraduate medical education, exhibits diversities across the world. Since there was no specific source of information about physiology education in Turkish medical faculties, the authors aimed to evaluate the general status of undergraduate physiology teaching of medical students in…

  18. Judicious Use of Simulation Technology in Continuing Medical Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Curtis, Michael T.; DiazGranados, Deborah; Feldman, Moshe

    2012-01-01

    Use of simulation-based training is fast becoming a vital source of experiential learning in medical education. Although simulation is a common tool for undergraduate and graduate medical education curricula, the utilization of simulation in continuing medical education (CME) is still an area of growth. As more CME programs turn to simulation to…

  19. University medical education in Kenya: The challenges.

    PubMed

    Ndetei, David M; Mathai, Muthoni; Khasakhala, Lincoln I; Mutiso, Victoria; Mbwayo, Anne W

    2010-01-01

    There are two medical schools training doctors in Kenya: the Moi University established in 1984 and the University of Nairobi established in 1967. The University of Nairobi has so far produced the majority of Kenyan doctors. Both are public universities with the Government being the main financier. The increased demand for university education and the inability to meet these demands has led to the introduction of a system of training self-sponsored medical students alongside Government-subsidised students. One other public university has started a medical school. The pressure to increase the number of schools and students in the absence of increased resources poses a particular challenge to the country. PMID:20854156

  20. Teaching older adults to self-manage medications: preventing adverse drug reactions.

    PubMed

    Curry, Linda Cox; Walker, Charles; Hogstel, Mildred O; Burns, Paulette

    2005-04-01

    Older adults use more prescription and OTC medications than any other age group. Because their medication regimens often are complicated by many medications and different doses, times, and administration methods, older adults are at high risk for medication mismanagement. The most common errors associated with medication mismanagement include mixing OTC and prescription medications, discontinuing prescriptions, taking wrong dosages, using incorrect techniques, and consuming inappropriate foods with specific medications. Both human and environmental factors contribute to medication mismanagement among older adults. Human factors include faulty communication between the health care provider and the patient; the patient's lack of knowledge; ADRs; alcohol-drug interactions; use of OTC medications and herbal products; cognitive, sensory, and motor impairments; and polypharmacy. Environmental factors include high cost of prescribed medications, improper medication storage, and absence of clearly marked expiration dates. Nurses need to take advantage of both formal and informal teaching opportunities in all settings to prepare a patient for medication self-management. Teaching should be individualized and based on a thorough assessment of the patient's abilities to administer medication safely and the specific medication regimen. By involving older adults as active partners in their health care, many errors and medication-related health problems can be prevented. New technologies and devices have the potential for improving the patient's self-management of medications. The role of nurses in educating older adults and their families about proper medication management is vital. PMID:15839523

  1. The Impact of Education Reform: An Asian Medical School's Experience.

    PubMed

    Koh, Gerald Ch; Lee, Jeremy Ne; Agrawal, Neelima; Tam, John Kc; Samarasekera, Dujeepa; Koh, Dow Rhoon; Wong, John El; Tan, Chay Hoon

    2016-05-01

    This study assessed the effectiveness of education reforms on student-reported learning outcomes at the end of the 5-year medical school (M5) and 1-year internship (HO) in 2006, 2007 and 2008. A self-administered anonymous survey with 17 learning outcomes assessed, derived from Harden's Three-Circle Outcomes Model for outcomes-based education, was administered to 683 students at the end of medical school (M5) and internship (HO) from 2006, 2007 and 2008. We identified learning outcomes which changed significantly for internship (Cohorts A, B and C) and medical school (Cohorts B, C and D) between cohorts from 2006 to 2008, and compared learning outcomes between medical school and internship within cohorts (i.e. Cohort B which was M5 in 2006 and HO in 2007; Cohort C which was M5 in 2007 and HO in 2008). The proportion of students who agreed that medical school helped them achieve learning outcomes increased significantly from 2006 to 2008 for 15 out of 17 learning outcomes assessed. The proportion of students who agreed that internship helped them achieve learning outcomes increased significantly from 2006 to 2008 for 6 learning outcomes assessed. For Cohorts B and C, internship was more effective than medical school in achieving 8 learning outcomes. Cohort C reported that internship was more effective than medical school in 3 additional learning outcomes than Cohort B: patient management, humility and dedication. We conclude that a successful journey of education reform is an ongoing process that needs to comprehensively address multifaceted components such as faculty, administration and curriculum. PMID:27383719

  2. Role of Medical Management for Uterine Leiomyomas.

    PubMed

    Kashani, Banafsheh N; Centini, Gabriele; Morelli, Sara S; Weiss, Gerson; Petraglia, Felice

    2016-07-01

    Uterine leiomyomas, or fibroids, are the most common benign tumor in reproductive aged women. Affected women may remain asymptomatic or may report symptoms related to abnormal uterine bleeding, infertility, or pelvic pain and pressure. Depending on a patient's symptomatology and reproductive plans, treatment options include expectant management, medical management (hormonal and non-hormonal), or surgical management (myomectomy or hysterectomy). In those wishing to defer surgical management, non-hormonal therapies such as non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and tranexamic acid have been shown to decrease menstrual blood loss. In patients with more symptomatic leiomyomas, hormonal therapies such as gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonists and selective progesterone receptor modulators are effective at reducing leiomyoma volume, uterine size, and menstrual blood loss. This manuscript will detail the available and emerging hormonal and non-hormonal treatments for symptomatic uterine leiomyomas. PMID:26796059

  3. Metaphysics and medical education: taking holism seriously.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Bruce

    2013-06-01

    Medical education is now suffused with concepts that have their source outside the traditional scientific and medical disciplines: concepts such as holism, connectedness and reflective practice. Teaching of these, and other problematic concepts such as medical uncertainty and error, has been defined more by the challenge they pose to the standard model rather than being informed by a strong positive understanding. This challenge typically involves a critical engagement with the idea of objectivity, which is rarely acknowledged as an inherently metaphysical critique. Consequently, these ideas prove to be difficult to teach well. I suggest that the lack of an integrating, positive narrative is the reason for teaching difficulty, and propose that what is needed is an explicit commitment to teach the metaphysics of medicine, with the concept of holism being the fulcrum on which the remaining concepts turn. An acknowledged metaphysical narrative will encompass the scientific realism that medical students typically bring to their tertiary education, and at the same time enable a bigger picture to be drawn that puts the newer and more problematic concepts into context. PMID:23692231

  4. Canadian medical education: 50 years of innovation and leadership.

    PubMed

    Dauphinee, W D

    1993-05-01

    Over the past 50 years, many Canadian medical educators have pursued ideas and visions, as individuals in the 1950s and 1960s and later in partnership with various national bodies. Relations between universities and national medical organizations have been productive in dealing with issues of postgraduate education and clinical assessment, in particular. From 1970 to 1990, strong education offices and formally trained educators led to many successes in the areas of research in cognition, continuing medical education and clinical assessment. Canadian medical education has now achieved international recognition for its work in all aspects of the continuum of the physician's education through vision, initiative and cooperation. PMID:8477386

  5. Twelve Tips for teaching medical professionalism at all levels of medical education.

    PubMed

    Al-Eraky, Mohamed Mostafa

    2015-01-01

    Review of studies published in medical education journals over the last decade reveals that teaching medical professionalism is essential, yet challenging. According to a recent Best Evidence in Medical Education (BEME) guide, there is no consensus on a theoretical or practical model to integrate the teaching of professionalism into medical education. The aim of this article is to outline a practical manual for teaching professionalism at all levels of medical education. Drawing from research literature and author's experience, Twelve Tips are listed and organised in four clusters with relevance to (1) the context, (2) the teachers, (3) the curriculum, and (4) the networking. With a better understanding of the guiding educational principles for teaching medical professionalism, medical educators will be able to teach one of the most challenging constructs in medical education. PMID:25776227

  6. Medical student disaster medicine education: the development of an educational resource

    PubMed Central

    Domres, Bernd D.; Stahl, Wolfgang; Bauer, Andreas; Houser, Christine M.; Himmelseher, Sabine

    2010-01-01

    Background Disaster medicine education is an enormous challenge, but indispensable for disaster preparedness. Aims We aimed to develop and implement a disaster medicine curriculum for medical student education that can serve as a peer-reviewed, structured educational guide and resource. Additionally, the process of designing, approving and implementing such a curriculum is presented. Methods The six-step approach to curriculum development for medical education was used as a formal process instrument. Recognized experts from professional and governmental bodies involved in disaster health care provided input using disaster-related physician training programs, scientific evidence if available, proposals for education by international disaster medicine organizations and their expertise as the basis for content development. Results The final course consisted of 14 modules composed of 2-h units. The concepts of disaster medicine, including response, medical assistance, law, command, coordination, communication, and mass casualty management, are introduced. Hospital preparedness plans and experiences from worldwide disaster assistance are reviewed. Life-saving emergency and limited individual treatment under disaster conditions are discussed. Specifics of initial management of explosive, war-related, radiological/nuclear, chemical, and biological incidents emphasizing infectious diseases and terrorist attacks are presented. An evacuation exercise is completed, and a mass casualty triage is simulated in collaboration with local disaster response agencies. Decontamination procedures are demonstrated at a nuclear power plant or the local fire department, and personal decontamination practices are exercised. Mannequin resuscitation is practiced while personal protective equipment is utilized. An interactive review of professional ethics, stress disorders, psychosocial interventions, and quality improvement efforts complete the training. Conclusions The curriculum offers

  7. ICT and Educational Property Management

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Desmarais, Gilbert

    2005-01-01

    An international PEB seminar on "Information and Communications Technology and Educational Property Management" was held in Montreal, Canada, from 31 October to 3 November 2004. The aim of this seminar was to examine how information and communications technology (ICT) can be incorporated into educational property management by investigating three…

  8. Managing Change in Further Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levacic, Rosalind, Ed.; Glatter, Ron, Ed.

    1997-01-01

    This book offers an opportunity to look in depth at the nature of changes in further education (FE) in Britain and how change has been managed: the drivers, the challenges, the constraints, the costs, and the meaning for all those involved in FE. "Introduction: Themes in the Management of Change in Further Education" (Rosalind Levacic) provides an…

  9. The Medical Education and Best Practice in Orthopedic Patient Care in Poland.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosiek, Anna; Leksowski, Krzysztof

    2012-07-01

    The leadership organization focuses on education, teamwork, customer relationship and developing strategy which help in building added value, in managing activities, time and quality. Everyday orthopedic experience shows that medical education is a mixture of: specific knowledge, skills and attitudes of people working together, and that creates effective teamwork in a hospital environment. Apart from the main reason of medical education, teaching about disease treatment and health problem solving, medical education should also concentrate on human factors and behavioral aspects of patient treatment in hospital.Assessment of an organization and medical education process by cultural and teamwork criteria, offers a powerful new way to think about performance at the frontlines of healthcare and in the future it could be gold standard for assessing the success of an organization, and standards in medical education, not only in orthopedics.

  10. The impact of E-learning in medical education.

    PubMed

    Ruiz, Jorge G; Mintzer, Michael J; Leipzig, Rosanne M

    2006-03-01

    The authors provide an introduction to e-learning and its role in medical education by outlining key terms, the components of e-learning, the evidence for its effectiveness, faculty development needs for implementation, evaluation strategies for e-learning and its technology, and how e-learning might be considered evidence of academic scholarship. E-learning is the use of Internet technologies to enhance knowledge and performance. E-learning technologies offer learners control over content, learning sequence, pace of learning, time, and often media, allowing them to tailor their experiences to meet their personal learning objectives. In diverse medical education contexts, e-learning appears to be at least as effective as traditional instructor-led methods such as lectures. Students do not see e-learning as replacing traditional instructor-led training but as a complement to it, forming part of a blended-learning strategy. A developing infrastructure to support e-learning within medical education includes repositories, or digital libraries, to manage access to e-learning materials, consensus on technical standardization, and methods for peer review of these resources. E-learning presents numerous research opportunities for faculty, along with continuing challenges for documenting scholarship. Innovations in e-learning technologies point toward a revolution in education, allowing learning to be individualized (adaptive learning), enhancing learners' interactions with others (collaborative learning), and transforming the role of the teacher. The integration of e-learning into medical education can catalyze the shift toward applying adult learning theory, where educators will no longer serve mainly as the distributors of content, but will become more involved as facilitators of learning and assessors of competency. PMID:16501260

  11. Virtual reality in medical education and assessment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sprague, Laurie A.; Bell, Brad; Sullivan, Tim; Voss, Mark; Payer, Andrew F.; Goza, Stewart Michael

    1994-01-01

    The NASA Johnson Space Center (JSC)/LinCom Corporation, the University of Texas Medical Branch at Galveston (UTMB), and the Galveston Independent School District (GISD) have teamed up to develop a virtual visual environment display (VIVED) that provides a unique educational experience using virtual reality (VR) technologies. The VIVED end product will be a self-contained educational experience allowing students a new method of learning as they interact with the subject matter through VR. This type of interface is intuitive and utilizes spatial and psychomotor abilities which are now constrained or reduced by the current two dimensional terminals and keyboards. The perpetual challenge to educators remains the identification and development of methodologies which conform the learners abilities and preferences. The unique aspects of VR provide an opportunity to explore a new educational experience. Endowing medical students with an understanding of the human body poses some difficulty challenges. One of the most difficult is to convey the three dimensional nature of anatomical structures. The ideal environment for addressing this problem would be one that allows students to become small enough to enter the body and travel through it - much like a person walks through a building. By using VR technology, this effect can be achieved; when VR is combined with multimedia technologies, the effect can be spectacular.

  12. Simulation-based medical education in pediatrics.

    PubMed

    Lopreiato, Joseph O; Sawyer, Taylor

    2015-01-01

    The use of simulation-based medical education (SBME) in pediatrics has grown rapidly over the past 2 decades and is expected to continue to grow. Similar to other instructional formats used in medical education, SBME is an instructional methodology that facilitates learning. Successful use of SBME in pediatrics requires attention to basic educational principles, including the incorporation of clear learning objectives. To facilitate learning during simulation the psychological safety of the participants must be ensured, and when done correctly, SBME is a powerful tool to enhance patient safety in pediatrics. Here we provide an overview of SBME in pediatrics and review key topics in the field. We first review the tools of the trade and examine various types of simulators used in pediatric SBME, including human patient simulators, task trainers, standardized patients, and virtual reality simulation. Then we explore several uses of simulation that have been shown to lead to effective learning, including curriculum integration, feedback and debriefing, deliberate practice, mastery learning, and range of difficulty and clinical variation. Examples of how these practices have been successfully used in pediatrics are provided. Finally, we discuss the future of pediatric SBME. As a community, pediatric simulation educators and researchers have been a leading force in the advancement of simulation in medicine. As the use of SBME in pediatrics expands, we hope this perspective will serve as a guide for those interested in improving the state of pediatric SBME. PMID:25748973

  13. Personnel Management in Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Millett, John D.; And Others

    This document on personnel management in higher education contains three papers that are designed to be used as guidelines for educational administrators. The first two papers, by John D. Millett, discuss the scope and problems of higher education administration and the problems associated with collective bargaining and tenure on college campuses.…

  14. [The credit system. Post-graduate medical education and continuous medical education].

    PubMed

    Ferreira, A M

    1994-04-01

    The author examines the objectives behind the possible adoption of a Credit System by the Portuguese Medical Association. Credits are units that allow physicians to keep a record of their educational and professional undertaking. The paper defines Postgraduate Medical Education and Continuing Medical Education and specifies to which group of physicians each term applies. It describes the types of activities and objectives of each form of medical education and explains the philosophy underlying both. The author also urges that the Portuguese Medical Association set up essential structures to ensure the efficient functioning of the system. The paper outlines the criteria to be used for awarding Credits and discusses the natures of credit-granting institutions. The Credits are grouped into pre-defined Categories of differing weight. The author also recommends a credit value for each activity and, taking into account the nature of each activity, assigns it to a specific Category. Several types of Forms for Applying for and Registering Credits are shown. The information on these Forms is to go on the physicians record, to be filed on a database with the Portuguese Medical Association at a place set aside for the purpose. PMID:8048362

  15. Medical Education 1926-1928. Bulletin, 1929, No. 10

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Colwell, N. P.

    1929-01-01

    This bulletin reports on the status of medical education in the United States for the years 1926-1928. During the past two years the number of medical schools recognized by the American Medical Association has been reduced from 80 to 74. Reports to the American Medical Association show that the enrollment of medical students has increased from…

  16. Problem-based learning curriculum in medical education at Kaohsiung Medical University.

    PubMed

    Lin, Yu-Chih; Huang, Yu-Sheng; Lai, Chung-Sheng; Yen, Jeng-Hsien; Tsai, Wen-Chan

    2009-05-01

    Problem-based learning (PBL) was first introduced to Kaohsiung Medical University in 1997 and was incorporated into the reform of the medical curriculum in 2005. An action committee was organized to manage PBL activities at Kaohsiung Medical University. A 2-year PBL curriculum with 14 blocks was delivered both in the School of Medicine and School of Post-Baccalaureate Medicine. Each block consists of lectures of basic and clinical science, clinical skills, and three PBL tutorials. Fifty-three well-edited PBL cases were created during the past 4 years. Some issues have arisen from the PBL curriculum including lack of tutors, low tutor numbers in tutorials, tutor training, and adequacy of assessment. Therefore, faculty development and a better system of evaluation and assessment are now our major tasks. We hope that our efforts to improve the PBL curriculum will provide students with a better education system. PMID:19502148

  17. Management of In-Flight Medical Emergencies: Are Senior Medical Students Prepared to Respond to this Community Need?

    PubMed Central

    Katzer, Robert J.; Duong, David; Weber, Matthew; Memmer, Amy; Buchanan, Ian

    2014-01-01

    Introduction In-flight medical emergencies on commercial aircraft are common in both domestic and international flights. We hypothesized that fourth-year medical students feel inadequately prepared to lend assistance during in-flight medical emergencies. This multicenter study of two U.S. medical schools obtains a baseline assessment of knowledge and confidence in managing in-flight medical emergencies. Methods A 25-question survey was administered to fourth-year medical students at two United States medical schools. Questions included baseline knowledge of in-flight medicine (10 questions) and perceived ability to respond to in-flight medical emergencies. Results 229 participants completed the survey (75% response rate). The average score on the fund of knowledge questions was 64%. Responses to the 5-point Likert scale questions indicated that, on average, students did not feel confident or competent responding to an in-flight medical emergency. Participants on average also disagreed with statements that they had adequate understanding of supplies, flight crew training, and ground-based management. Conclusion This multicenter survey indicates that fourth-year medical students do not feel adequately prepared to respond to in-flight medical emergencies and may have sub-optimal knowledge. This study provides an initial step in identifying a deficiency in current medical education. PMID:25493155

  18. 28 CFR 549.63 - Initial medical evaluation and management.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Initial medical evaluation and management... MANAGEMENT MEDICAL SERVICES Hunger Strikes, Inmate § 549.63 Initial medical evaluation and management. (a... hunger strike: (1) Measure and record height and weight; (2) Take and record vital signs; (3)...

  19. 28 CFR 549.63 - Initial medical evaluation and management.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Initial medical evaluation and management... MANAGEMENT MEDICAL SERVICES Hunger Strikes, Inmate § 549.63 Initial medical evaluation and management. (a... hunger strike: (1) Measure and record height and weight; (2) Take and record vital signs; (3)...

  20. 28 CFR 549.63 - Initial medical evaluation and management.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Initial medical evaluation and management... MANAGEMENT MEDICAL SERVICES Hunger Strikes, Inmate § 549.63 Initial medical evaluation and management. (a... hunger strike: (1) Measure and record height and weight; (2) Take and record vital signs; (3)...

  1. 28 CFR 549.63 - Initial medical evaluation and management.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Initial medical evaluation and management... MANAGEMENT MEDICAL SERVICES Hunger Strikes, Inmate § 549.63 Initial medical evaluation and management. (a... hunger strike: (1) Measure and record height and weight; (2) Take and record vital signs; (3)...

  2. Medical education reimagined: a call to action.

    PubMed

    Prober, Charles G; Khan, Salman

    2013-10-01

    The authors propose a new model for medical education based on the "flipped classroom" design. In this model, students would access brief (~10 minute) online videos to learn new concepts on their own time. The content could be viewed by the students as many times as necessary to master the knowledge in preparation for classroom time facilitated by expert faculty leading dynamic, interactive sessions where students can apply their newly mastered knowledge.The authors argue that the modern digitally empowered learner, the unremitting expansion of biomedical knowledge, and the increasing specialization within the practice of medicine drive the need to reimagine medical education. The changes that they propose emphasize the need to define a core curriculum that can meet learners where they are in a digitally oriented world, enhance the relevance and retention of knowledge through rich interactive exercises, and facilitate in-depth learning fueled by individual students' aptitude and passion. The creation and adoption of this model would be meaningfully enhanced by cooperative efforts across medical schools. PMID:23969367

  3. To the point: a primer on medical education research.

    PubMed

    Nuthalapaty, Francis S; Casey, Petra M; Cullimore, Amie J; Dugoff, Lorraine; Abbott, Jodi F; Chuang, Alice W; Dalrymple, John L; Hueppchen, Nancy A; Kaczmarczyk, Joseph M; Katz, Nadine T; Pradhan, Archana; Wolf, Abigail

    2012-07-01

    This article, from the To the Point series prepared by the Association of Professors of Gynecology and Obstetrics Undergraduate Medical Education Committee, provides educators with an introduction to medical educational research by describing the framework of educational scholarship, discussing the similarities and differences between clinical and educational research, reviewing the key steps in educational research, and providing examples of well-designed studies in the field of obstetrics and gynecology. PMID:22281429

  4. A Management Education Programme

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brian, J. D.

    1974-01-01

    The article describes the contents of three training modules developed within the areas of personnel management and management development: (1) management and management development, (2) leadership and management, and (3) human relations and managerial effectiveness: how to get things done through people. Each module consists of a three day course…

  5. Graduate Medical Education: Its Role in Achieving a True Medical Education Continuum.

    PubMed

    Aschenbrener, Carol A; Ast, Cori; Kirch, Darrell G

    2015-09-01

    Nearly half a century ago, Lowell T. Coggeshall recommended, through what has come to be known as the Coggeshall Report, that physician education-medical school (or undergraduate medical education [UME]), residency training (or graduate medical education [GME]), and continuing medical education (CME)-be "planned and provided as a continuum." While the dream of a true continuum remains unfulfilled, recent innovations focused on defining and assessing meaningful outcomes at last offer the anchor for the creation of a seamless, flexible, and ongoing pathway for the preparation of physicians. Recent innovations, including a widely accepted competency framework and entrustable professional activities (EPAs), provide key tools for creating a continuum. The competency framework is being leveraged in UME, GME, and CME and is serving as the foundation for the continuum. Learners and those who assess them are increasingly relying on observable behaviors (e.g., EPAs) to determine progress. The GME community in the United States and Canada has played-and continues to play-a leading role in the creation of these tools and a true medical education continuum. Despite some systemic challenges to implementation (e.g., premedical learner formation, time-in-step requirements), the GME community is already operationalizing these tools as a basis for other innovations that are improving transitions across the continuum (e.g., competency-based progression of residents). The medical education community's greatest responsibility in the years ahead will be to build on these efforts in GME-joining together to learn from one another and develop a continuum that serves the public and the profession. PMID:26177531

  6. Robotic automation of medication-use management.

    PubMed

    Enright, S M

    1993-11-01

    In the October 1993 issue of Physician Assistant, we published "Robots for Health Care," the first of two articles on the medical applications of robotics. That article discussed ways in which robots could help patients with manipulative disabilities to perform activities of daily living and hold paid employment; transfer patients from bed to chair and back again; add precision to the most exacting surgical procedures; and someday carry out diagnostic and therapeutic techniques from within the human body. This month, we are pleased to offer an article by Sharon Enright, an authority on pharmacy operations, who considers how an automated medication-management system that makes use of bar-code technology is capable of streamlining drug dispensing, controlling safety, increasing cost-effectiveness, and ensuring accurate and complete record-keeping. PMID:10130909

  7. The relationship between learning organization and organizational commitment among nursing managers in educational hospitals of Isfahan University of Medical Sciences in 2008-9

    PubMed Central

    Yaghoubi, Maryam; Raeisi, Ahmad Reza; Afshar, Mina; Yarmohammadian, Mohammad Hossein; Hasanzadeh, Akbar; Javadi, Marzi; Ansary, Maryam

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Old methods of administrating can’t cover the rapid changes of today. These changes redounded new organizations like learning organizations to be formed. The purpose of this research was to study the relationship between learning organization and organizational commitment among nursing managers. METHODS: This was a descriptive analytic survey. The population of study included 90 nursing managers of 9 educational hospitals. Data gathering was done via learning organizational (LO) and organizational commitment (OC) questionnaires. Data analysis was done using SPSS software. RESULTS: The mean score of LO was 56.9 ± 18.1 among nursing mangers, and the mean score of OC was 62.3 ± 10.1. In general, there was a significant relationship between LO and OC and there was a significant relationship between LO and job experience based on ANOVA test. CONCLUSIONS: In today’s changing environment of very rapid changes which have been seen in different areas of science and technology and the increasing complexity and dynamics of environmental factors, only organizations with active adaptation (dynamic equilibrium) can survive and remain capable of growth. This aim can be fulfilled just in learning organizations. PMID:21589785

  8. The future of graduate medical education in Germany – Position paper of the committee on graduate medical education of the Society for Medical Education (GMA)

    PubMed Central

    David, Dagmar M.; Euteneier, Alexander; Fischer, Martin R.; Hahn, Eckhart G.; Johannink, Jonas; Kulike, Katharina; Lauch, Robert; Lindhorst, Elmar; Noll-Hussong, Michael; Pinilla, Severin; Weih, Markus; Wennekes, Vanessa

    2013-01-01

    The German graduate medical education system is going through an important phase of changes. Besides the ongoing reform of the national guidelines for graduate medical education (Musterweiterbildungsordnung), other factors like societal and demographic changes, health and research policy reforms also play a central role for the future and competitiveness of graduate medical education. With this position paper, the committee on graduate medical education of the Society for Medical Education (GMA) would like to point out some central questions for this process and support the current discourse. As an interprofessional and interdisciplinary scientific society, the GMA has the resources to contribute in a meaningful way to an evidence-based and future-oriented graduate medical education strategy. In this position paper, we use four key questions with regards to educational goals, quality assurance, teaching competence and policy requirements to address the core issues for the future of graduate medical education in Germany. The GMA sees its task in contributing to the necessary reform processes as the only German speaking scientific society in the field of medical education. PMID:23737923

  9. The future of graduate medical education in Germany - position paper of the Committee on Graduate Medical Education of the Society for Medical Education (GMA).

    PubMed

    David, Dagmar M; Euteneier, Alexander; Fischer, Martin R; Hahn, Eckhart G; Johannink, Jonas; Kulike, Katharina; Lauch, Robert; Lindhorst, Elmar; Noll-Hussong, Michael; Pinilla, Severin; Weih, Markus; Wennekes, Vanessa

    2013-01-01

    The German graduate medical education system is going through an important phase of changes. Besides the ongoing reform of the national guidelines for graduate medical education (Musterweiterbildungsordnung), other factors like societal and demographic changes, health and research policy reforms also play a central role for the future and competitiveness of graduate medical education. With this position paper, the committee on graduate medical education of the Society for Medical Education (GMA) would like to point out some central questions for this process and support the current discourse. As an interprofessional and interdisciplinary scientific society, the GMA has the resources to contribute in a meaningful way to an evidence-based and future-oriented graduate medical education strategy. In this position paper, we use four key questions with regards to educational goals, quality assurance, teaching competence and policy requirements to address the core issues for the future of graduate medical education in Germany. The GMA sees its task in contributing to the necessary reform processes as the only German speaking scientific society in the field of medical education. PMID:23737923

  10. Ethnographic edutainment for transformative medical education: Thailand.

    PubMed

    Woratanarat, Thira

    2014-01-01

    Transformative learning is a most important issue in medical education. Ethnographic edutainment is a concept that consists of reward, competition, and motivation strategies, which are more effective in engaging with learners. First-year medical students (N = 321) were included in this study during the Doctor and Society course at Chulalongkorn University in 2011. Four preset learning objectives were set and participants assigned a term group project with clouding technologies. The deliverables and the attitude toward this method were evaluated. Nineteen of 20 (95%) groups achieved all objectives. Females rated higher scores for this activity than males (P < 0.001). Statistically significant differences were found between lecture-based sessions and field visit sessions as well as ethnographic edutainment activity sessions and other types (P < 0.01). The results were consistent in both male and female groups. Ethnographic edutainment can be well-accepted with higher satisfaction than some other types of teaching. PMID:25416434

  11. [Medical education centers: strategies and purpose].

    PubMed

    Binetti, P

    1999-01-01

    The introduction of new didactic guidelines, for the graduate degrees in medicine and allied disciplines, is secondary to the new needs of the National Health Care System, and in part to the significant developments of science. It is not easy to meet this challenge. It is likewise not easy to channel coherently the required changes, with respect to the scientific, clinical and didactic goals. Paradoxically the same institutions that are in such great need of transformation, are also a significant part of the existing problem. In many countries, schools of medicine have developed centers for medical education that are geared toward the development and growth of students, teachers-tutors, and patients alike. Medical education has become more global, in an attempt to meet much needed communication needs, from both ends, teachers and students, as well as the recipients of care, patients. One major goal of such centers is the introduction of innovative didactic activities. There is indeed a new tendency toward the development of methodological tracks aiming at the acquisition and consolidation of a deeper and broader cultural knowledge. Amongst these initiatives there is the introduction of an evaluation of the teaching delivered, as well as the development of a multidisciplinary approach to didactics. The latter, is a prerequisite of an effective training directed toward the development of the concept of "team approach", whose ultimate goal is patient care. In Italy, at the Università Campus Biomedico, in Rome, one of the first of such centers of medical education has been developed. Its goal is to be both a learning organization, as well as a center for both research and clinical services. PMID:10687267

  12. Continuing medical education, needs assessment, and program development: theoretical constructs.

    PubMed

    Aherne, M; Lamble, W; Davis, P

    2001-01-01

    Continuing medical education (CME) program development and needs assessment have historically been practiced within the tradition of Ralph Tyler's education model. In light of transformational social, political, economic, and technical forces that demand greater account-ability and responsiveness from physicians, CME units are challenged to transform their cultures and structures from models that deliver education to models that support the facilitation of learning for enhanced competence and performance. This article describes key change forces for physicians and brings program development and needs assessment into focus for the discussion. The impact of change forces on program development and needs assessment are examined, and some techniques to move beyond the traditional approach of felt needs are presented as a way of enabling strategic administrative planning and change management. PMID:11291588

  13. Electives in undergraduate medical education: AMEE Guide No. 88.

    PubMed

    Lumb, Andrew; Murdoch-Eaton, Deborah

    2014-07-01

    This Guide outlines the scope and potential roles an elective can contribute to undergraduate medical training and identifies ways to maximize learning opportunities, including within global health. The types of educational activity available for electives range from meeting individual educational need through to exploration of potential career pathways, with many factors influencing choice. Key areas of organization underpinning a successful elective before, during and after the placement include developing clarity of the intended educational outcomes as well as addressing practicalities such as travel and accommodation. Risk management including the implications for the participating schools as well as the student and their elective supervisors is crucial. This Guide would not be complete without some discussion around ethics and professional conduct during an elective, with consideration of the impact of elective placements, particularly in low-middle income countries. PMID:24787526

  14. Continuing medical education in oncology in Europe.

    PubMed

    Armand, J P; Costa, A; Geraghty, J; O'Higgins, N; Broe, P J; Holmberg, L; Sleijfer, D T; de Toeuf, J

    1996-07-01

    A European Conference on Continuing Medical Education (CME) in Oncology was designed and organised in Dublin (Ireland), on 12th and 13th October 1995 by the European School of Oncology in collaboration with University College Dublin and with the financial support of the European Commission (Europe Against Cancer Programme). Two experts were invited from each Member State and all attended the Conference with the sole exception of the representatives of Luxembourg, who did not attend due to unexpected important commitments. Observers were invited to contribute to the discussion as representatives of organisations that were involved either directly or indirectly in CME. The Conference took the format of a plenary session coupled with the identification of five discussion groups formed to debate key areas in CME at a European level in oncology (Table 1). As a result of these discussions and subsequent consultations, an agreement was reached on the following statements: (a) Continuing Medical Education (CME) is an ethical duty and an individual responsibility for each doctor. Although CME should remain voluntary at the present time, it is nevertheless a professional obligation since almost 50% of medical knowledge becomes obsolete after ten years. It should be organised with clear guidelines for medical personnel working in hospitals, in primary health care and in private practice. (b) The CME system within the European Union (EU) should remain self-directed without the necessity for interval examinations: it should be interdisciplinary and must be driven and controlled by the profession itself. (c) A common concept and system within a CME framework may have a considerable impact on EU integration. It should certainly be developed, maintained and monitored at national level but on the basis of a common European model to ensure scientific and cultural interchange among Member States. (d) It was agree that a credit system is needed to help doctors keep track of their CME

  15. Etiology and medical management of NEC.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Amit; Paria, Anshuman

    2016-06-01

    Necrotising enterocolitis (NEC) is a serious infection of the bowel that predominantly affects preterm infants and is a leading cause for mortality and morbidity in preterm infants. It involves a spectrum of pathology including widespread inflammation of the intestinal mucosa, invasion of the immature gut by enteric gas forming bacteria, dissection of the gut wall and portal veins by this gas, often culminating in ischemic necrosis of the intestine. This article provides an overview of the incidence, etio-pathological risk factors, preventive strategies and medical management of NEC. PMID:27080373

  16. Faculty Evaluation of Educational Strategies in Medical Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Das, Mandira; And Others

    1994-01-01

    This study sought to evaluate faculty opinion of existing medical curricula in two medical schools in different countries in terms of six educational strategies using the "SPICES continuum." Significant differences between existing educational plans of the two medical schools were identified. (LZ)

  17. AAMC Data Book. Statistical Information Related to Medical Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jolly, Paul, Ed.; Hudley, Dorothea M., Ed.

    This 1994 version of an annual data book on United States medical education offers extensive data on 12 topics which are fundamental or most frequently requested. Data sources include the Association of American Medical Colleges, the Educational Commission for Foreign Medical Graduates, the National Institutes of Health, Health Care Financing…

  18. Students' Views on Factors Affecting Empathy in Medical Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Winseman, Jeffrey; Malik, Abid; Morison, Julie; Balkoski, Victoria

    2009-01-01

    Objective: Empathy is a prominent goal of medical education that is too often underachieved. Using concept mapping, the authors constructed a student-generated conceptual model of factors viewed as affecting empathy during medical education. Methods: During the 2005-2006 academic year, 293 medical students and interns answered a brainstorming…

  19. Alcohol Medical Scholars Program--A Mentorship Program for Improving Medical Education regarding Substance Use Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neufeld, Karin J.; Schuckit, Marc A.; Hernandez-Avila, Carlos A.

    2011-01-01

    The Alcohol Medical Scholars Program (AMSP) is designed to improve medical education related to substance use disorders (SUDs) through mentorship of junior, full-time academic faculty from medical schools across the United States. Scholarship focuses on literature review and synthesis, lecture development and delivery, increasing SUD education in…

  20. Assessment of the Undergraduate Medical Education Environment in a Large UK Medical School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dunne, Fidelma; McAleer, Sean; Roff, Susan

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To assess the undergraduate educational environment in a large UK medical school. Method: Prospective study using the already validated Dundee Ready Education Environment (DREEM) questionnaire ("Appendix 1"). Setting: A large UK medical school. Participants: All medical students enrolled in the academic year 2002/2003. Main outcome…

  1. Whither (Whether) Medical Humanities? The Future of Humanities and Arts in Medical Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shapiro, Johanna

    2012-01-01

    This special issue of "Journal for Learning through the Arts" focuses on the uses of literature and arts in medical education. The introductory article addresses current debate in the field of medical humanities (MH), namely the existential question of what is the purpose of integrating humanities/arts in medical education; and then examines how…

  2. Understanding patient management: the need for medication adherence and persistence.

    PubMed

    Chia, Yc

    2008-01-01

    Poor patient adherence to medication is one of the major factors contributing to poor disease control, in particular in asymptomatic chronic diseases like hypertension and dyslipidaemia. The physical and economic burden on patients and the health care system as a result of non-adherence is great. It is estimated that poor adherence to hypertension medication accounts for as many as 7.1 million preventable deaths annually. Hence recognising and identifying non-adherence is the first step to addressing this problem. Medication adherence can be measured in various ways including self-report to electronic monitoring. In order to be more successful in managing non-adherence, attention must be paid to barriers to adherence, namely the interplay of patient factors, the health care providers themselves and the health care system itself. Taking these into account will probably have the greatest impact on improving medication adherence. Consequently strategies to help overcome these barriers are of paramount importance. Some of these strategies will include education of patients, improving communication between patients and health care providers, improving dose scheduling, providing drugs with less adverse effects, and improving accessibility to health care. Poor mediation adherence continues to be a huge challenge. While the patient is ultimately responsible for the taking of medication, good communication, involving the patient in decision making about their care and simplifying drug regimens go a long way in improving it. PMID:25606104

  3. Medical ethics, bioethics and research ethics education perspectives in South East Europe in graduate medical education.

    PubMed

    Mijaljica, Goran

    2014-03-01

    Ethics has an established place within the medical curriculum. However notable differences exist in the programme characteristics of different schools of medicine. This paper addresses the main differences in the curricula of medical schools in South East Europe regarding education in medical ethics and bioethics, with a special emphasis on research ethics, and proposes a model curriculum which incorporates significant topics in all three fields. Teaching curricula of Medical Schools in Bulgaria, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Croatia, Serbia, Macedonia and Montenegro were acquired and a total of 14 were analyzed. Teaching hours for medical ethics and/or bioethics and year of study in which the course is taught were also analyzed. The average number of teaching hours in medical ethics and bioethics is 27.1 h per year. The highest national average number of teaching hours was in Croatia (47.5 h per year), and the lowest was in Serbia (14.8). In the countries of the European Union the mean number of hours given to ethics teaching throughout the complete curriculum was 44. In South East Europe, the maximum number of teaching hours is 60, while the minimum number is 10 teaching hours. Research ethics topics also show a considerable variance within the regional medical schools. Approaches to teaching research ethics vary, even within the same country. The proposed model for education in this area is based on the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization Bioethics Core Curriculum. The model curriculum consists of topics in medical ethics, bioethics and research ethics, as a single course, over 30 teaching hours. PMID:23436144

  4. Medical Management of Drug-Resistant Tuberculosis

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Drug-resistant tuberculosis (TB) is still a major threat worldwide. However, recent scientific advances in diagnostic and therapeutic tools have improved the management of drug-resistant TB. The development of rapid molecular testing methods allows for the early detection of drug resistance and prompt initiation of an appropriate treatment. In addition, there has been growing supportive evidence for shorter treatment regimens in multidrug-resistant TB; and for the first time in over 50 years, new anti-TB drugs have been developed. The World Health Organization has recently revised their guidelines, primarily based on evidence from a meta-analysis of individual patient data (n=9,153) derived from 32 observational studies, and outlined the recommended combination and correct use of available anti-TB drugs. This review summarizes the updated guidelines with a focus on the medical management of drug-resistant TB. PMID:26175768

  5. Medical education and medical educators in South Asia--a set of challenges.

    PubMed

    Shankar, P Ravi; Piryani, Rano Mal

    2009-01-01

    South Asia has vast unmet health needs especially in rural areas. Community-based medical education can partly address these needs and can serve to introduce students to a number of community health problems. Climate change has the potential to produce major challenges for health and food security in South Asia. Medical students should be taught about climate change and methods to tackle its impact on health. The pharmaceutical industry in South Asia aggressively promotes their products. Disease mongering is becoming more common in South Asia. Educational initiatives to sensitize students regarding promotion are common in developed countries. In Nepal, an educational initiative critically looks at the industry's promotional tactics. Similar initiatives are required in other medical schools. The nature of the doctor-patient relationship is changing. An increasing demand for patient autonomy and for their involvement in therapeutic decisions is seen. Access to the internet and internet sources of health information is increasing. Medical schools should address these issues as well. Medical Humanities modules and courses in communication skills are required. Research can play an important role in alleviating the health problems of South Asia. Students should be taught the basics of scientific research and student research should be strongly encouraged. PMID:19149982

  6. Mobile Learning in Medical Education: Review.

    PubMed

    Walsh, Kieran

    2015-10-01

    In the past several years, mobile learning made rapid inroads into the provision of medical education. There are significant advantages associated with mobile learning. These include high access, low cost, more situated and contextual learning, convenience for the learner, continuous communication and interaction between learner and tutor and between learner and other learners, and the ability to self-assess themselves while learning. Like any other form of medical pedagogy, mobile learning has its downsides. Disadvantages of mobile learning include: inadequate technology, a risk of distraction from learning by using a device that can be used for multiple purposes, and the potential for breakdown in barriers between personal usage of the mobile device and professional or educational use. Despite these caveats, there is no question but that mobile learning offers much potential. In the future, it is likely that the strategy of mobile first, whereby providers of e-learning think of the user experience on a mobile first, will result in learners who increasingly expect that all e-learning provision will work seamlessly on a mobile device. PMID:26949301

  7. Education and Moral Respect for the Medical Student

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Christopher

    2016-01-01

    In this paper I argue that medical education must remain attuned to the interests that physicians have in their own self-development despite ongoing calls for ethics education aimed at ensuring physicians maintain focus on the interests of the patient and society. In particular, I argue that medical education should advance (and abide by) criteria…

  8. Cost in Medical Education: One Hundred and Twenty Years Ago

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walsh, Kieran

    2015-01-01

    The first full paper that is dedicated to cost in medical education appears in the "BMJ" in 1893. This paper "The cost of a medical education" outlines the likely costs associated with undergraduate education at the end of the nineteenth century, and offers guidance to the student on how to make financial planning. Many lessons…

  9. Accreditation of Medical Education in China: Accomplishments and Challenges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Qing

    2014-01-01

    As an external review mechanism, accreditation has played a positive global role in quality assurance and promotion of educational reform. Accreditation systems for medical education have been developed in more than 100 countries including China. In the past decade, Chinese standards for basic medical education have been issued together with…

  10. Continuing Medical Education: Linking the Community Hospital and the Medical School.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manning, Phil R.; And Others

    1979-01-01

    A group of community hospitals has been linked to the University of Southern California School of Medicine in a continuing medical education network. An educational development team based at the school helps community hospital physicians identify educational needs and develop responses using local and medical school experts as faculty. (Author/JMD)

  11. New Pathways to Medical Education: Learning To Learn at Harvard Medical School.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tosteson, Daniel C., Ed.; And Others

    This book details how Harvard Medical School (Massachusetts) overcame prevailing educational inertia and developed a curriculum and educational program consistent with preparing students to practice medicine in the 21st century. The New Pathway in General Medical Education program emphasizes both acquiring current knowledge and developing learning…

  12. On Whose Shoulders We Stand: Lessons from Exemplar Medical Educators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hitchcock, Maurice A.; Anderson, William A.

    2008-01-01

    The hiring of educators in medical schools (faculty who study the educational process and prepare others to become educators) has been one of the most successful educational innovations ever. Starting in 1954, through a collaboration between the Schools of Medicine and Education at the University of Buffalo, the innovation has spread to over half…

  13. Directory of Credit-Granting Policies in Medical Laboratory Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Committee for Careers in Medical Technology, Bethesda, MD.

    Ways now exist for medical laboratory workers to advance up the educational career ladder, gaining credit for prior training and/or experience. A total of 369 Certified Medical Laboratory Assistant Schools, colleges with Associate Degree Medical Laboratory Technicians programs, schools of Medical Technology, and colleges with baccalaureate Medical…

  14. Diagnostic Reasoning across the Medical Education Continuum

    PubMed Central

    Smith, C. Scott; Hill, William; Francovich, Chris; Morris, Magdalena; Robbins, Bruce; Robins, Lynne; Turner, Andrew

    2014-01-01

    We aimed to study linguistic and non-linguistic elements of diagnostic reasoning across the continuum of medical education. We performed semi-structured interviews of premedical students, first year medical students, third year medical students, second year internal medicine residents, and experienced faculty (ten each) as they diagnosed three common causes of dyspnea. A second observer recorded emotional tone. All interviews were digitally recorded and blinded transcripts were created. Propositional analysis and concept mapping were performed. Grounded theory was used to identify salient categories and transcripts were scored with these categories. Transcripts were then unblinded. Systematic differences in propositional structure, number of concept connections, distribution of grounded theory categories, episodic and semantic memories, and emotional tone were identified. Summary concept maps were created and grounded theory concepts were explored for each learning level. We identified three major findings: (1) The “apprentice effect” in novices (high stress and low narrative competence); (2) logistic concept growth in intermediates; and (3) a cognitive state transition (between analytical and intuitive approaches) in experts. These findings warrant further study and comparison.

  15. The ELEPHANT criteria in medical education: can medical education be fun?

    PubMed

    Gifford, Hugh; Varatharaj, Aravinthan

    2010-01-01

    'Hilarity and a good nature [and] a breezy cheerfulness help enormously in the study and in the practice of medicine,' said Sir William Osler, Regius Professor of Medicine at Oxford, pioneering medical educationalist, and arguably one of the greatest physicians of all time (Osler W. 1905 ). We present evidence that (1) Encouraging Learning, (2) Entertaining People, and (3) Having a Nice Time are dangerously powerful adjuncts to medical education. These are, by acronym, the ELEPHANT criteria. Encouraging is the motivating heart of the matter. Entertainment engages the mind and has been shown to enhance working memory and recall. Enjoyment is associated with deep learning, which comes with a whole host of benefits. However, learning in fear and misery can be an effective tool--but for other reasons--and the pessimistic personality type may respond badly to 'fun learning.' Even so, medical education that fulfills the ELEPHANT criteria can be an effective tool in training young doctors. PMID:20218834

  16. Medical Student Attitudes about Mental Illness: Does Medical-School Education Reduce Stigma?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Korszun, Ania; Dinos, Sokratis; Ahmed, Kamran; Bhui, Kamaldeep

    2012-01-01

    Background: Reducing stigma associated with mental illness is an important aim of medical education, yet evidence indicates that medical students' attitudes toward patients with mental health problems deteriorate as they progress through medical school. Objectives: Authors examined medical students' attitudes to mental illness, as compared with…

  17. Medical Students' Impressions and Satisfactions from Medical Professional Skill Education Lessons

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ongel, Kurtulus; Mergen, Haluk; Kayacan, Hacer; Yildizhan, Alpaslan

    2008-01-01

    (Background) To help us understand the medical students' reflections about professional skill educations we conducted a study on medical students' conceptions of selected medical phenomena, cardiopulmonary resuscitation, CPR. (Methods) The study was conducted in January 2008, using a sample consisting of medical students from one of the…

  18. Training of Leadership Skills in Medical Education

    PubMed Central

    Kiesewetter, Jan; Schmidt-Huber, Marion; Netzel, Janine; Krohn, Alexandra C.; Angstwurm, Matthias; Fischer, Martin R.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Effective team performance is essential in the delivery of high-quality health-care. Leadership skills therefore are an important part of physicians’ everyday clinical life. To date, the development of leadership skills are underrepresented in medical curricula. Appropriate training methods for equipping doctors with these leadership skills are highly desirable. Objective: The review aims to summarize the findings in the current literature regarding training in leadership skills in medicine and tries to integrate the findings to guide future research and training development. Method: The PubMED, ERIC, and PsycArticles, PsycINFO, PSYNDEX and Academic search complete of EBSCOhost were searched for training of leadership skills in medicine in German and English. Relevant articles were identified and findings were integrated and consolidated regarding the leadership principles, target group of training and number of participants, temporal resources of the training, training content and methods, the evaluation design and trainings effects. Results: Eight studies met all inclusion criteria and no exclusion criteria. The range of training programs is very broad and leadership skill components are diverse. Training designs implied theoretical reflections of leadership phenomena as well as discussions of case studies from practice. The duration of training ranged from several hours to years. Reactions of participants to trainings were positive, yet no behavioral changes through training were examined. Conclusions: More research is needed to understand the factors critical to success in the development of leadership skills in medical education and to adapt goal-oriented training methods. Requirements analysis might help to gain knowledge about the nature of leadership skills in medicine. The authors propose a stronger focus on behavioral training methods like simulation-based training for leadership skills in medical education. PMID:24282452

  19. Managing the Occupational Education Laboratory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Storm, George

    This guide for occupational educators deals with laboratory and instructional management on an interdisciplinary basis within the broad field of occupational education. The principles discussed are intended to be applied at all levels and in all types of laboratories. The text suggests effective ways of organizing laboratories so that students can…

  20. Psychotropic Medication Management in a Residential Group Care Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spellman, Douglas F.; Griffith, Annette K.; Huefner, Jonathan C.; Wise, Neil, III; McElderry, Ellen; Leslie, Laurel K.

    2010-01-01

    This article presents a psychotropic medication management approach that is used within a residential care program. The approach is used to assess medications at youths' times of entry and to facilitate decision making during care. Data from a typical case study have indicated that by making medication management decisions slowly, systematically,…

  1. Mobile technologies in medical education: AMEE Guide No. 105.

    PubMed

    Masters, Ken; Ellaway, Rachel H; Topps, David; Archibald, Douglas; Hogue, Rebecca J

    2016-06-01

    Mobile technologies (including handheld and wearable devices) have the potential to enhance learning activities from basic medical undergraduate education through residency and beyond. In order to use these technologies successfully, medical educators need to be aware of the underpinning socio-theoretical concepts that influence their usage, the pre-clinical and clinical educational environment in which the educational activities occur, and the practical possibilities and limitations of their usage. This Guide builds upon the previous AMEE Guide to e-Learning in medical education by providing medical teachers with conceptual frameworks and practical examples of using mobile technologies in medical education. The goal is to help medical teachers to use these concepts and technologies at all levels of medical education to improve the education of medical and healthcare personnel, and ultimately contribute to improved patient healthcare. This Guide begins by reviewing some of the technological changes that have occurred in recent years, and then examines the theoretical basis (both social and educational) for understanding mobile technology usage. From there, the Guide progresses through a hierarchy of institutional, teacher and learner needs, identifying issues, problems and solutions for the effective use of mobile technology in medical education. This Guide ends with a brief look to the future. PMID:27010681

  2. The continuing medical education needs of anaesthetists.

    PubMed

    Baylon, G J; Chung, F

    1992-09-01

    Learning needs assessment is the term applied to the process of identifying or diagnosing a learner's educational needs. It is the foundation of a systematic continuing medical education (CME) programme. Needs assessment has been identified as the most pressing problem of medical education directors in North America. Furthermore, the CME learning needs, interests or motivations of anaesthetists have never been studied. The amount of time and effort required for needs assessment is probably a major deterrent to this activity. The investigators adopted simple and straightforward means of assessing the "perceived learning needs" and topic interests of anaesthetists. Questionnaires were sent by mail to anaesthetists practicing in teaching and non-teaching hospitals in the Toronto area. The questionnaire presented a list of CME content areas. The respondents were asked to indicate on scale of 1 to 10 their Current Expertise, Ideal-Desired Expertise, and Interest-Motivation levels for each content area. Need Score for each content area was calculated by taking the difference between Ideal and Current Expertise responses. A total of 101/305 anaesthetists (29%) responded to the survey. Most of the respondents had been in anaesthesia practice for less than ten years. Regional nerve block, acute pain control, and medicolegal considerations received high overall ranks in both the need and interest categories. Paediatric anaesthesia, anaesthesia for trauma surgery and thoracic anaesthesia had top ranks among the subspecialty fields. Regional anaesthesia techniques received higher need and interest ranks than intravenous and inhalational techniques. The learning needs of anaesthetists of a large urban centre have been identified, and this information is useful to CME planners. PMID:1394751

  3. 42 CFR 423.153 - Drug utilization management, quality assurance, and medication therapy management programs (MTMPs).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... medication therapy management programs (MTMPs). 423.153 Section 423.153 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE... Drug utilization management, quality assurance, and medication therapy management programs (MTMPs). (a... to reduce medication errors and adverse drug interactions and improve medication use that include...

  4. 42 CFR 423.153 - Drug utilization management, quality assurance, and medication therapy management programs (MTMPs).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... medication therapy management programs (MTMPs). 423.153 Section 423.153 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE... management, quality assurance, and medication therapy management programs (MTMPs). (a) General rule. Each... and systems to reduce medication errors and adverse drug interactions and improve medication use...

  5. 42 CFR 423.153 - Drug utilization management, quality assurance, and medication therapy management programs (MTMPs).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... medication therapy management programs (MTMPs). 423.153 Section 423.153 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE... Drug utilization management, quality assurance, and medication therapy management programs (MTMPs). (a... to reduce medication errors and adverse drug interactions and improve medication use that include...

  6. Project Management in Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alpert, Shannon Atkinson

    2011-01-01

    This study identified factors that influenced the use of project management in higher education research projects. Using a qualitative grounded theory approach that included in-depth interviews with assistant professors, the researcher examined how these individuals were using project management processes and tools and factors that enabled,…

  7. Managing Assessment in Music Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nutter, Kelly

    1999-01-01

    Discusses assessment management in music education, explaining that assessment management plans include assessment methods that are reliable, valid, and authentic, the development of an assessment schedule and assessment reports, and using results to evaluate the overall music program. Provides selected resources, the components of a plan, and…

  8. Educational Management through Microcomputer Software.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gander, Sharon L.

    In order to determine whether business software packages (word processing, financial management, data management, graphics, statistical, or multi-functional integrated software packages with business applications) are effective tools for public service professionals (educators and government workers) when applied directly to individuals' daily…

  9. Women in Higher Education Management.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Commonwealth Secretariat, London (England).

    This volume contains 11 papers on the under-representation of women in higher education management in Bahrain, Finland, France, India, Indonesia, Malaysia, Nigeria, Peru, the United States and Canada, the South Pacific and the West Indies. All papers were written by women vice-chancellors, presidents and senior managers of universities in those…

  10. Education on medical informatics integrated in the campus information network system at Shimane Medical University.

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, K; Sasagawa, N; Kamae, I

    1995-01-01

    An integrated campus information network system at Shimane Medical University has been developed to organize medical information generated from each section and provide information services useful for education, research, and clinical practice. This report outlines: the education-research system in connection with a campus information network system, the MUMPS programming self-directed learning software, and the curriculum of education on medical informatics. PMID:8591392

  11. Why decision support systems are important for medical education.

    PubMed

    Konstantinidis, Stathis Th; Bamidis, Panagiotis D

    2016-03-01

    During the last decades, the inclusion of digital tools in health education has rapidly lead to a continuously enlarging digital era. All the online interactions between learners and tutors, the description, creation, reuse and sharing of educational digital resources and the interlinkage between them in conjunction with cheap storage technology has led to an enormous amount of educational data. Medical education is a unique type of education due to accuracy of information needed, continuous changing competences required and alternative methods of education used. Nowadays medical education standards provide the ground for organising the educational data and the paradata. Analysis of such education data through education data mining techniques is in its infancy, but decision support systems (DSSs) for medical education need further research. To the best of our knowledge, there is a gap and a clear need for identifying the challenges for DSSs in medical education in the era of medical education standards. Thus, in this Letter the role and the attributes of such a DSS for medical education are delineated and the challenges and vision for future actions are identified. PMID:27222734

  12. [Integration of the Internet into medical education].

    PubMed

    Taradi, Suncana Kukolja

    2002-01-01

    The Internet promises dramatic changes in the way we learn and teach, the way we interact as a society. Networked technologies introduce interactivity and multimedia into the educational process. The student of the 21st century will use his/her PC as a learning station, as a tutoring system, as an information provider and as a communication center. Therefore the passive classroom (teacher-centered teaching) will evolve into active studio learning (student-centered learning). This will be achieved by new teaching techniques and standards of quality. The role of the new generation of educators is to create exploratory learning environments that offer a wide range of views on many subject areas and encourage active lifelong learning. This will be achieved by 1) placing courseware on the web where it can be accessed by remote students and by 2) finding and reviewing teaching materials obtained from www for possible integration into the local lecture material. The paper suggests strategies for introducing medical educators to networked teaching. PMID:12038098

  13. Disruptive Technologies: A Credible Threat to Leading Programs in Continuing Medical Education?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Christensen, Clayton M.; Armstrong, Elizabeth G.

    1998-01-01

    Disruptive technologies are simple convenient innovations that have triggered failures of some well-managed companies. They may threaten continuing medical-education programs so focused on leading-edge technology they lose sight of the very different educational needs of growing numbers of health care providers, who are turning to consultants, the…

  14. Gender issues in medical and public health education.

    PubMed

    Wong, Y L

    2000-01-01

    There is no doubt that gender bias has been inherent in medical and public health education, research, and clinical practice. This paper discusses the central question for medical and public health educators viz. whether women's health concerns and needs could be best addressed by the conventional biomedical approach to medical and public health education, research, and practice. Gender inequalities in health and gender bias in medical and public health education are revealed. It is found that in most public health and prevention issues related to women's health, the core issue is male-female power relations, and not merely the lack of public health services, medical technology, or information. There is, thus, an urgent need to gender-sensitize public health and medical education. The paper proposes a gender analysis of health to distinguish between biological causes and social explanations for the health differentials between men and women. It also assessed some of the gender approaches to public health and medical education currently adopted in the Asia-Pacific region. It poses the pressing question of how medical and public health educators integrate the gender perspective into medical and public health education. The paper exhorts all medical and public health practitioners to explore new directions and identify innovative strategies to formulate a gender-sensitive curriculum towards the best practices in medicine and public health that will meet the health needs of women and men in the 21st century. PMID:11338745

  15. Medication management at home: enhancing nurse's skills and improving patient satisfaction--a longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Mager, Diana R; Morrissey Ross, Mary

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this longitudinal study was to improve nurse medication management skills during home care (HC) visits, and thus improve care quality and the related patient ratings of nurse performance. Nurses completed presurveys asking how often they asked to see, taught about, and explained side effects of patient medications. Two focus groups were held with HC nurses to determine barriers to provision of such medication interventions, followed by presentation of a series of 5 medication-related educational sessions. HC nurse's surveys 6 months later reveal an increased frequency of medication skill performance, and patient ratings in these same areas improved statistically significantly, nearing or surpassing national benchmarks. PMID:23659219

  16. Recent trends: Medical management of infectious keratitis

    PubMed Central

    Solanki, Sneha; Rathi, Manisha; Khanduja, Sumeet; Dhull, C.S.; Sachdeva, Sumit; Phogat, Jitender

    2015-01-01

    This review article highlights the newer diagnostic modalities and approaches in the medical management of infectious keratitis. A Medline literature search conducted to March 2014 has been included. Recent studies or publications were selected from international indexed journals using suitable key words. Development of specular microscopy and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) has a promising role as diagnostic modalities in infectious keratitis, especially in refractory cases. Previously fortified antibiotics have been the mainstay of treatment for bacterial keratitis. Recently, the advent of fourth-generation fluoroquinolones monotherapy has shown promising results in the management of bacterial keratitis. Corneal collagen cross-linking is being considered in the refractory cases. Topical natamycin and amphotericin B should be considered as the first choice anti-fungal agents in suspected filamentous or yeast infection respectively. Voriconazole and newer routes of administration such as intrastromal and intracameral injection of conventional anti-fungal agents have demonstrated a positive clinical response. Ganciclovir is a newer anti-viral agent with promising results in herpes simplex keratitis. Thus, introduction of newer diagnostic modalities and collagen cross-linking along with fourth-generation fluoroquinolones and newer azoles have a promising role in the management of infectious keratitis. PMID:26622133

  17. Perspective: Competency-based medical education: a defense against the four horsemen of the medical education apocalypse.

    PubMed

    Albanese, Mark; Mejicano, George; Gruppen, Larry

    2008-12-01

    Medical education is facing a convergence of challenges that the authors characterize as the four horsemen of the medical education apocalypse: teaching patient shortages, teacher shortages, conflicting systems, and financial problems. Rapidly expanding class sizes and new medical schools are coming online as medical student access to teaching patients is becoming increasingly difficult because of the decreasing length and increasing intensity of hospital stays, concerns about patient safety, patients who are stressed for time, teaching physician shortages and needs for increasing productivity from those who remain, and increasing emphasis on translational research. Further, medical education is facing reductions in funding from all sources, just as it is mounting its first major expansion in 40 years. The authors contend that medical education is on the verge of crisis and that little outside assistance is forthcoming. If medical education is to avoid a catastrophic decline, it will need to take steps to reinvent itself and make optimum use of all available resources. Curriculum materials developed nationally, increased reliance on simulation and standardized patient experiences, and adoption of quality-control methods such as competency-based education are suggested as ways to keep medical education vital in an environment that is increasingly preoccupied with fending off the four horsemen. The authors conclude with a call for a national dialogue about how the medical education community can address the problems represented by the four horsemen, and they offer some potential ways to maintain the vitality of medical education in the face of such overwhelming problems. PMID:19202480

  18. Collaborative drug therapy management and comprehensive medication management-2015.

    PubMed

    McBane, Sarah E; Dopp, Anna L; Abe, Andrew; Benavides, Sandra; Chester, Elizabeth A; Dixon, Dave L; Dunn, Michaelia; Johnson, Melissa D; Nigro, Sarah J; Rothrock-Christian, Tracie; Schwartz, Amy H; Thrasher, Kim; Walker, Scot

    2015-04-01

    The American College of Clinical Pharmacy (ACCP) previously published position statements on collaborative drug therapy management (CDTM) in 1997 and 2003. Since 2003, significant federal and state legislation addressing CDTM has evolved and expanded throughout the United States. CDTM is well suited to facilitate the delivery of comprehensive medication management (CMM) by clinical pharmacists. CMM, defined by ACCP as a core component of the standards of practice for clinical pharmacists, is designed to optimize medication-related outcomes in collaborative practice environments. New models of care delivery emphasize patient-centered, team-based care and increasingly link payment to the achievement of positive economic, clinical, and humanistic outcomes. Hence clinical pharmacists practicing under CDTM agreements or through other privileging processes are well positioned to provide CMM. The economic value of clinical pharmacists in team-based settings is well documented. However, patient access to CMM remains limited due to lack of payer recognition of the value of clinical pharmacists in collaborative care settings and current health care payment policy. Therefore, the clinical pharmacy discipline must continue to establish and expand its use of CDTM agreements and other collaborative privileging mechanisms to provide CMM. Continued growth in the provision of CMM by appropriately qualified clinical pharmacists in collaborative practice settings will enhance recognition of their positive impact on medication-related outcomes. PMID:25884536

  19. 78 FR 57159 - Scientific Information Request on Medication Therapy Management

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-17

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality Scientific Information Request on Medication... scientific information submissions. SUMMARY: The Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (AHRQ) is seeking scientific information submissions from the public on medication therapy management Scientific information...

  20. Why management and leadership education for internists?

    PubMed

    Martins, Henrique M G

    2010-10-01

    Around the world, there is an increasing need for more efficiency in healthcare alongside cost containment. Internal medicine physicians are in a pivotal position in this regard. In many countries, they act as bridges between ambulatory/continuity of care systems and hospital-based intensive care and sophisticated therapies. Within the medical field, they often bridge gaps between many specialities increasingly required to provide modern medical care. These skills of managing complex environments, being sensitive to health economics and using large amounts of information, are not normally taught or developed in programmes of internal medicine. While some skills are natural and acquired through practice, other skills would benefit from insights from the fields of management. On the other hand, it seems critical to have internists playing a leading role in the future care of aging populations, and they are the most likely to understand the needs of these multi-pathology cases. On a practical level, internists face the daily challenges of engaging and leading as many people as possible to provide the best care; this requires very good leadership, negotiation, team-working and change-management skills, all of which can be vastly enhanced with specific education initiatives that are targeted and customised to physicians' needs. Management education for internists should be "spiral", starting from medical school and expanding to incorporate issues as the physician matures into new activities and responsibilities. In practical terms, current internists and residents of internal medicine can be brought into contact with such education by a combination of workshops as well as residential and online courses. PMID:20816587

  1. Medical management of a cutaneous contamination.

    PubMed

    Berard, Philippe; Michel, Xavier; Menetrier, Florence; Laroche, Pierre

    2010-10-01

    The authors propose a process to improve the medical management of a cutaneous contamination in two ways: firstly by analysis of practices and products of decontamination used; secondly, by developing computer tools for the occupational physicians. This software will allow them to have a rapid dosimetric assessment in the event of a skin contamination by radioactive particles and will help them in their diagnostic and therapeutic decisions. A standardized data sheet was created allowing the exhaustive collection of adequate information in order to evaluate the skin dose. The selection of appropriate monitoring equipment with a 1 cm2 detector, depending on the place and on the surface of the contaminated area, will allow the evaluation and the quantification of the surface activities. A tool has been made as a software package, named Cutadose®, allowing the assessment of the skin dose in situ as well as the efficacy of the prescribed therapy. PMID:20838101

  2. Performance Management in Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    George, Paul S.

    1987-01-01

    Outlines a 10-step model of performance management from corporate and government practices for use in teaching appraisal. Performance management emphasizes each teacher's uniqueness while recognizing the need to support school system goals. Steps include: build rapport, identify key results areas, jointly determine specific objectives, and…

  3. [The educational change in medical schools].

    PubMed

    Castillo, Manuel; Hawes, Gustavo; Castillo, Silvana; Romero, Luis; Rojas, Ana María; Espinoza, Mónica; Oyarzo, Sandra

    2014-08-01

    This paper reports the reflections of a group of members of the University of Chile Faculty of Medicine, about the changes in teaching methods that medical schools should incorporate. In a complex scenario, not only new and better knowledge should be transmitted to students but also values, principles, critical reasoning and leadership, among others. In the first part, a proposal to understand this educational development in the context of complex universities, incorporating pedagogical skills and reviewing institutional leadership, is carried out. In the second part, the training of teaching physicians, as part of the changes, is extensively discussed. Physicians hired as academics in the University should have the opportunity to work mainly as teachers and be relieved of research obligations. For them, teaching should become a legitimate area of academic development. PMID:25424678

  4. Twelve tips for early career medical educators.

    PubMed

    Cristancho, Sayra; Varpio, Lara

    2016-04-01

    The first 10 years of career development pose unique challenges for MD- and PhD-trained faculty members working in medical education. These may include publishing peer-reviewed articles, winning grant funding, teaching, maintaining a clinical practice, and supporting professional communities both within and external to their institution. As the inaugural and current leaders of the ECME group in Canada, we have actively sought to better understand the challenges ECME faculty members face. We developed this understanding by surveying and tracking the qualitative reports of our ECME members, reviewing the (limited) literature available on ECME faculty members' experiences, and learning from our own experiences as ECME faculty and the advice shared by our own mentors. In this paper, we consolidate this knowledge into 12 tips for ECME faculty members. We suggest these tips will benefit both MD- and PhD-trained ECME faculty members as they strive for professional success. PMID:26492100

  5. [A course for continuing medical education].

    PubMed

    Mendoza Hernández, S

    1985-01-01

    To promote continuing medical education, the Central Military Hospital of Mexico offers a course in which the student may develop his skills for finding and using sources of information, applying the scientific method to biomedical research, and communicating the results thereof in writing. The methodology is more self-instructional than expository. The course program is divided into three modules geared to the general objectives, and the duration varies between 10 and 14 weeks. The course is attended in the final stage of the professional training, when the student has just completed his specialization, or when he is beginning it, on the premise that this is the best time to make clear to the physician the need to continue studying and learning throughout life. The author of this article explains why the course is important, states its specific objectives and, in an annex, presents the content of the program. PMID:4029062

  6. Medical management considerations for upper airway disease.

    PubMed

    Spaulding, G L

    1992-06-01

    The conducting airways, also commonly referred to as the upper airways, provide for the passage of air to and from the atmosphere and lungs. Anatomical components include the nasal passages, pharynx, larynx, trachea, and mainstem bronchi. Clinical problems involving the conducting airways can be manifested by relatively mild clinical signs of stertorous breathing, by life-threatening dyspnea, or by chronic bouts of inspiratory stridor and cough. Concurrent disease of the lower respiratory system (ie, chronic bronchitis) as well as other organ systems (ie, cardiovascular, nervous, endocrine) may significantly contribute to the etiology and pathophysiology of upper airway disease. Diagnosis of the diseases of the conducting airways is primarily based on history and physical examination. The dynamic nature of some conditions, related to the phases of respiration, can make diagnosis more difficult. In addition to direct visualization, radiographic and endoscopic evaluation are often useful. Many upper airway problems, especially congenital conditions, lend themselves to surgical palliation that should be performed as early in life as possible. Medical management is often directed at treating underlying diseases and the relief of clinical signs. Historically, the use of variety of drugs have been advocated and frequently include decongestants, cough suppressants, bronchodilators, glucocorticoids, and antibiotics. However, their use may be detrimental and contraindicated. In addition, therapy for some conditions (ie, laryngeal paralysis and intrathoracic tracheal collapse) may be better directed at increasing airway muscle tone in order to stabilized airway patency. Therapeutic agents that may be useful include aspirin and digitalis. The overall objective to medical management must be to balance potential therapeutic benefit against untoward effects in order to minimize clinical signs and to improve the animal's quality of life. PMID:1643322

  7. Becoming a medical educator: motivation, socialisation and navigation

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Despite an increasing concern about a future shortage of medical educators, little published research exists on career choices in medical education nor the impact of specific training posts in medical education (e.g. academic registrar/resident positions). Medical educators at all levels, from both medical and non-medical backgrounds, are crucial for the training of medical students, junior doctors and in continuing professional development. We explored the motivations and experiences of junior doctors considering an education career and undertaking a medical education registrar (MER) post. Methods Data were collected through semi-structured interviews with junior doctors and clinicians across Queensland Health. Framework analysis was used to identify themes in the data, based on our defined research questions and the medical education workforce issues prompting the study. We applied socio-cognitive career theory to guide our analysis and to explore the experience of junior doctors in medical education registrar posts as they enter, navigate and fulfil the role. Results We identified six key themes in the data: motivation for career choice and wanting to provide better education; personal goals, expectations and the need for self-direction; the influence of role models; defining one’s identity; support networks and the need for research as a potential barrier to pursuing a career in/with education. We also identified the similarities and differences between the MERs’ experiences to develop a composite of an MER’s journey through career choice, experience in role and outcomes. Conclusions There is growing interest from junior doctors in pursuing education pathways in a clinical environment. They want to enhance clinical teaching in the hospitals and become specialists with an interest in education, and have no particular interest in research or academia. This has implications for the recruitment and training of the next generation of clinical

  8. A student authored online medical education textbook: editing patterns and content evaluation of a medical student wiki.

    PubMed

    Thompson, C L; Schulz, Wade L; Terrence, Adam

    2011-01-01

    The University of Minnesota medical student wiki (UMMedWiki) allows students to collaboratively edit classroom notes to support medical education. Since 2007, UMMedWiki has grown to include 1,591 articles that have collectively received 1.2 million pageviews. Although small-scale wikis have become increasingly important, little is known about their dynamics compared to large wikis, such as Wikipedia. To better understand UMMedWiki's management and its potential reproducibility at other medical schools, we used an edit log with 28,000 entries to evaluate the behavior of its student editors. The development of tools to survey UMMedwiki allows for quality comparisons that improve both the wiki and the curriculum itself. We completed a content survey by comparing the UMMedWiki with two types of rubric data: TIME, a medical education taxonomy consisting of 1500 terms and national epidemiological data on 2,100 diseases. PMID:22195202

  9. A Smartwatch-Driven Medication Management System Compliant to the German Medication Plan.

    PubMed

    Keil, Andreas; Gegier, Konstantin; Pobiruchin, Monika; Wiesner, Martin

    2016-01-01

    Medication adherence is an important factor for the outcome of medical therapies. To support high adherence levels, smartwatches can be used to assist the patient. However, a successful integration of such devices into clinicians' or general practitioners' information systems requires the use of standards. In this paper, a medication management system supplied with smartwatch generated feedback events is presented. It allows physicians to manage their patients' medications and track their adherence in real time. Moreover, it fosters interoperability via a ISO/IEC 16022 data matrix which encodes related medication data in compliance with the German Medication Plan specification. PMID:27577368

  10. The Current State of Medical Education in Chinese Medical Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kosik, Russell Oliver; Huang, Lei; Cai, Qiaoling; Xu, Guo-Tong; Zhao, Xudong; Guo, Li; Tang, Wen; Chen, Qi; Fan, Angela Pei-Chen

    2014-01-01

    Today's doctor is as much a humanist as a scientist. Medical schools have responded to this change by introducing a variety of courses, most notably those concerning the humanities and ethics. Thus far, no one has examined the extent of use of these subjects in Chinese medical schools. The goal of this study is to determine how many and in…

  11. The Changing Medical Care System: Some Implications for Medical Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foreman, Spencer

    1986-01-01

    The medical care system is undergoing widespread and significant changes. Individual hospitals may be disappearing as mergers, acquisitions, and a variety of multi-institutional arrangements become the dominant form and as a host of free-standing medical enterprises spread out into the community. (MLW)

  12. Continuing medical education challenges in chronic fatigue syndrome

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background Chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) affects at least 4 million people in the United States, yet only 16% of people with CFS have received a diagnosis or medical care for their illness. Educating health care professionals about the diagnosis and management of CFS may help to reduce population morbidity associated with CFS. Methods This report presents findings over a 5-year period from May 2000 to June 2006 during which we developed and implemented a health care professional educational program. The objective of the program was to distribute CFS continuing education materials to providers at professional conferences, offer online continuing education credits in different formats (e.g., print, video, and online), and evaluate the number of accreditation certificates awarded. Results We found that smaller conference size (OR = 80.17; 95% CI 8.80, 730.25), CFS illness related target audiences (OR = 36.0; 95% CI 2.94, 436.34), and conferences in which CFS research was highlighted (OR = 4.15; 95% CI 1.16, 14.83) significantly contributed to higher dissemination levels, as measured by visit rates to the education booth. While print and online courses were equally requested for continuing education credit opportunities, the online course resulted in 84% of the overall award certificates, compared to 14% for the print course. This remained consistent across all provider occupations: physicians, nurses, physician assistants, and allied health professionals. Conclusion These findings suggest that educational programs promoting materials at conferences may increase dissemination efforts by targeting audiences, examining conference characteristics, and promoting online continuing education forums. PMID:19954535

  13. The Government-Medical Education Partnership.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Califano, Joseph A., Jr.

    1979-01-01

    Issues addressed in this speech to the Association of American Medical Colleges include: oversupply of doctors, geographic maldistribution, demographic changes needed by medical schools, federal strategies, medical ethics, preventive medicine, and the economics of health care.

  14. Cognitive simulators for medical education and training.

    PubMed

    Kahol, Kanav; Vankipuram, Mithra; Smith, Marshall L

    2009-08-01

    Simulators for honing procedural skills (such as surgical skills and central venous catheter placement) have proven to be valuable tools for medical educators and students. While such simulations represent an effective paradigm in surgical education, there is an opportunity to add a layer of cognitive exercises to these basic simulations that can facilitate robust skill learning in residents. This paper describes a controlled methodology, inspired by neuropsychological assessment tasks and embodied cognition, to develop cognitive simulators for laparoscopic surgery. These simulators provide psychomotor skill training and offer the additional challenge of accomplishing cognitive tasks in realistic environments. A generic framework for design, development and evaluation of such simulators is described. The presented framework is generalizable and can be applied to different task domains. It is independent of the types of sensors, simulation environment and feedback mechanisms that the simulators use. A proof of concept of the framework is provided through developing a simulator that includes cognitive variations to a basic psychomotor task. The results of two pilot studies are presented that show the validity of the methodology in providing an effective evaluation and learning environments for surgeons. PMID:19269350

  15. Satisfaction of Iranian Medical Universities’ faculty members towards holding Shahid Motahari Annual Educational Festival

    PubMed Central

    HOSSEINI, SEYYED NASROLLAH; MOHSENI BAND PEY, ANOSHIRAVAN; HOSSEINI, SEYYED ALI; KARAMI MATIN, BEHZAD; MIRZAEI ALAVIJEH, MEHDI; JALILIAN, FARZAD

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Shahid Motahari Annual Educational Festival aims to improve the quality of medical education in the Islamic Republic of Iran, and has held since 2008. The present study was performed to determine the satisfaction level of Iranian medical universities’ faculty members about holding Shahid Motahari Annual Educational Festival during the past six years, from 2008 to 2014. Methods This cross-sectional study was conducted on 473 faculty members (FMs) including deputies and educational administrators, managers, and faculty members of medical education development centers, members of scientific committees, and faculty members who participated in Shahid Motahari Festival from 42 medical sciences universities in Iran. Data collection instruments were two reliable and valid questionnaires on the background and also participants’ satisfaction towards Shahid Motahari Educational Festival. Data were analyzed using SPSS Software, version 14. Results Among all participants, 30 FMs (6.3%) were educational deputies, 36 FMs (7.6%) managers of medical education development centers, 226 FMs (56.2%) members of scientific committees, 29 FMs (6.1%) members of the national committees, 343 FMs (27.5%) attendees, and 264 FMs (55.8%) had participated for retraining. The total satisfaction level of the participants was 73.3% which shows a good satisfaction level. Conclusion The results identified the main important strength points such as “proposals’ review process at the country level” and weakness points such as “organizing the festival”. PMID:26457313

  16. In Progress: Reports of New Approaches in Medical Education. Annual, Peer-Reviewed Collection of Reports on Innovative Approaches to Medical Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, M. Brownell, Ed.

    1997-01-01

    Provides summary reports of 81 innovative approaches to medical education in the areas of program management and assessment, admission and student-support programs, computer applications, preclinical and clinical course integration, development of professional skills and values, introduction to clinical medicine, community-based experiences,…

  17. Where does medical education stand in nurturing the 3Rs in medical students: responsibility, resilience and resolve?

    PubMed

    Eley, Diann S; Stallman, Helen

    2014-10-01

    Over the past decade, the medical education literature has recognized the need to develop a culture that nurtures wellbeing and resilience in students. However, the introduction of or increase in student fees precipitated a shift in higher education policies toward a consumer model of education. Importantly, it has altered the expectations of students and promoted a sense of "entitlement", rather than "striving" for something where success is not guaranteed. This model is consistent with materialism and status, and removed from intrinsic goals that are associated with mental and physical wellbeing. This article challenges medical educators to reconsider the current context of student learning and realign it with the graduate attributes needed to be a competent and responsible medical practitioner by enabling students to develop the 3Rs of resilience, responsibility and resolve. We propose that brave decisions and actions must be made by medical educators to provide students with opportunities to learn independence, self-management, and self-regulation and guarantee their role in helping medical students become resilient and responsible doctors of tomorrow. PMID:25072531

  18. Pediatric hospitalists in medical education: current roles and future directions.

    PubMed

    Heydarian, Cyrus; Maniscalco, Jennifer

    2012-05-01

    As the field of pediatric hospital medicine has evolved, pediatric hospitalists have become increasingly involved in medical student and resident education--providing direct education during clinical rotations, developing novel curricula to meet the demands of the new educational environment, occupying leadership roles in medical education, and more. The literature suggests that hospitalists possess the essential skills for teaching effectively, yet most hospitalists feel that additional training beyond residency is necessary to refine their knowledge and skills in education and in other essential domains. Several pediatric hospital medicine fellowships and continuing medical education activities have been developed in the last decade to meet this growing need. The recent publication of the Pediatric Hospital Medicine Core Competencies will help define the roles and expectations of practicing pediatric hospitalists, and will serve as a framework for future curriculum development in both graduate and continuing medical education. PMID:22483082

  19. Supporting practice learning time for non-medical prescribing students: managers' views.

    PubMed

    Unwin, Rachel; Redman, Susan; Bain, Heather; Macphee, Michael; McElhinney, Evelyn; Downer, Frances; Paterson, Ruth

    2016-06-01

    Managers in healthcare services have ever-increasing demands to consider in relation to front line care, including the continuing professional education needs of qualified practitioners who are advancing their roles. One advancement is non-medical prescribing, and this article reports part of the findings from a survey undertaken in Scotland which explored managers' views of the clinical support of staff enrolled on a non-medical prescribing programme. The article discusses how managers have an important role to play in supporting these learners in practice, and suggests all stakeholders should be aware of the pressure this adds to managers, and seek creative solutions to support the process of learning. PMID:27246432

  20. Managing Engineering Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Staiger, Eugene H.

    1983-01-01

    The Ainsworth-Lund transformation process model offers a framework for observing and assessing growth/development by identifying needs and matching them to available resources. The model's four phases are described and an annotated bibliography is provided which documents the engineering education experiences corresponding to each phase. (JN)

  1. Promoting Interdisciplinary Collaboration: Trainees Addressing Siloed Medical Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kitts, Robert Li; Christodoulou, Joanna; Goldman, Stuart

    2011-01-01

    Objective: Professional siloing within medical institutions has been identified as a problem in medical education, including resident training. The authors discuss how trainees from different disciplines can collaborate to address this problem. Method: A group of trainees from psychiatry, developmental medicine, neurology, and education came…

  2. Basis of Accreditation for Educational Programs in Allied Medical Disciplines.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Canadian Medical Association, Ottawa (Ontario).

    Designed as a guide to accreditation for educational programs in the allied medical disciplines in Canada, this report provides educators with guidelines, general requirements and requirements for specific programs. Following information on the organization, structure, goals and terminology of accreditation of allied medical programs in Canada,…

  3. Patient Referrals: A Behavioral Outcome of Continuing Medical Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mahan, J. Maurice; And Others

    1978-01-01

    One method for evaluating an aspect of physician practice behavior, patient referrals, resulting from continuing medical education programs on cancer at the University of Texas Medical Branch is described. Data presented provide strong support for the effectiveness of continuing education in modifying physician practice behavior. (LBH)

  4. Medical Education and the Physician Workforce of Iraq

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Al Mosawi, Aamir Jalal

    2008-01-01

    The lack of resources in a country experiencing decades of successive wars, blockade, administrative corruption, and poor governance led to deteriorated standards throughout medical education. Although professional certification programs exist, continuing medical education accreditation and credit systems are required to monitor and certify the…

  5. 42 CFR 412.322 - Indirect medical education adjustment factor.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Indirect medical education adjustment factor. 412... HUMAN SERVICES MEDICARE PROGRAM PROSPECTIVE PAYMENT SYSTEMS FOR INPATIENT HOSPITAL SERVICES Prospective... Capital-Related Costs § 412.322 Indirect medical education adjustment factor. (a) Basic data....

  6. 42 CFR 412.322 - Indirect medical education adjustment factor.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Indirect medical education adjustment factor. 412... HUMAN SERVICES MEDICARE PROGRAM PROSPECTIVE PAYMENT SYSTEMS FOR INPATIENT HOSPITAL SERVICES Prospective... Capital-Related Costs § 412.322 Indirect medical education adjustment factor. (a) Basic data....

  7. 42 CFR 412.322 - Indirect medical education adjustment factor.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Indirect medical education adjustment factor. 412... HUMAN SERVICES MEDICARE PROGRAM PROSPECTIVE PAYMENT SYSTEMS FOR INPATIENT HOSPITAL SERVICES Prospective... Capital-Related Costs § 412.322 Indirect medical education adjustment factor. (a) Basic data....

  8. 42 CFR 412.322 - Indirect medical education adjustment factor.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Indirect medical education adjustment factor. 412... HUMAN SERVICES MEDICARE PROGRAM PROSPECTIVE PAYMENT SYSTEMS FOR INPATIENT HOSPITAL SERVICES Prospective... Capital-Related Costs § 412.322 Indirect medical education adjustment factor. (a) Basic data....

  9. Storytelling: Discourse Analysis for Understanding Collective Perceptions of Medical Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vovides, Yianna; Inman, Sarah

    2013-01-01

    Using discourse analysis, the goal of this exploratory project was to determine what practitioners of medical education in Sub-Saharan Africa considered key achievements, within the scope of their Medical Education Partnership Initiative (MEPI) activities, after their initial two-year implementation efforts. To do so, a series of 58 video stories…

  10. 42 CFR 412.322 - Indirect medical education adjustment factor.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Payment System for Inpatient Hospital Capital Costs Basic Methodology for Determining the Federal Rate for Capital-Related Costs § 412.322 Indirect medical education adjustment factor. (a) Basic data. CMS... 42 Public Health 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Indirect medical education adjustment factor....

  11. Expected Benefits of Streamlining Undergraduate Medical Education by Early Commitment to Specific Medical Specialties

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benbassat, Jochanan; Baumal, Reuben

    2012-01-01

    Undergraduate medical education is too long; it does not meet the needs for physicians' workforce; and its content is inconsistent with the job characteristics of some of its graduates. In this paper we attempt to respond to these problems by streamlining medical education along the following three reforms. First, high school graduates would be…

  12. Commercial Sites Outbid Medical Schools for Instructors in Continuing Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mangan, Katherine S.

    2000-01-01

    Reports that prominent medical professors are being solicited away from medical schools by large honoraria or high remuneration offered by commercial companies that provide continuing education services to physicians on the Internet. Suggests that medical schools consider potential partnerships with dot-com companies to develop continuing…

  13. Surgeons as Medical School Educators: An Untapped Resource

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haubert, Lisa M.; Way, David; DePhilip, Robert; Tam, Marty; Bishop, Julie; Jones, Kenneth; Moffatt-Bruce, Susan D.

    2011-01-01

    Despite extensive experience teaching residents, surgeons are an untapped resource for educating medical students. We hypothesized that by involving surgeons as teachers earlier in the medical school curriculum, medical students' interest in surgery will increase and their opinions of surgeons will improve. Five programs designed to involve…

  14. Summary of Closed Circuit Television Activities in Medical Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    London Univ. (England). Inst. of Education.

    This 1967 summary of closed circuit television (CCTV) activities in medical education presents descriptive information on 35 different medical institutions in Great Britain. Specific data on CCTV are offered by institution, equipment, and uses under each medical field: anatomy, anaesthetics, geriatrics, medicine, obstretrics and gynaecology,…

  15. Empathy, Humanism, and the Professionalization Process of Medical Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marcus, Eric R.

    1999-01-01

    Analysis of 400 dreams reported by medical students and house staff at a major academic medical center examined development of the two components of humanistic medicine: empathy and humanistic attitudes. Suggests that "critical episodes" of medical education produce emotional and psychological defenses in young physicians that affect their ability…

  16. Electronic Medical Records and Their Impact on Resident and Medical Student Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keenan, Craig R.; Nguyen, Hien H.; Srinivasan, Malathi

    2006-01-01

    Objective: Electronic medical records (EMRs) are becoming prevalent and integral tools for residents and medical students. EMRs can integrate point-of-service information delivery within the context of patient care. Though it may be an educational tool, little is known about how EMR technology is currently used for medical learners. Method: The…

  17. A critical review of the core medical training curriculum in the UK: A medical education perspective

    PubMed Central

    Gkotsi, Despoina; Panteliou, Eleftheria

    2014-01-01

    Summary This paper represents a systematic evaluation of the Core Medical Training Curriculum in the UK. The authors critically review the curriculum from a medical education perspective based mainly on the medical education literature as well as their personal experience of this curriculum. They conclude in practical recommendations and suggestions which, if adopted, could improve the design and implementation of this postgraduate curriculum. The systematic evaluation approach described in this paper is transferable to the evaluation of other undergraduate or postgraduate curricula, and could be a helpful guide for medical teachers involved in the delivery and evaluation of any medical curriculum PMID:25057366

  18. Evaluating educational preparation for a health education role in practice: the case of medication education.

    PubMed

    Latter, S; Rycroft-Malone, J; Yerrell, P; Shaw, D

    2000-11-01

    Current health care policy and practice contexts in the UK point to the importance of nurses' ability to make an effective contribution to educating patients about medication, as part of their role in health education and health promotion. Nurses' potential contribution to this important activity will inevitably be dependent on knowledge and skills acquired during preregistration and postregistration programmes of education. Against this backdrop, changes in pre and postregistration nurse education in the UK in the past decade highlight the importance and timeliness of evaluating the adequacy of educational preparation for a medication role. This paper reports on the findings from an evaluation of UK educational preparation for a medication education role in practice. A case study design was used to investigate current educational preparation at three education institutions. Multiple methods of data collection at each site involved focus group discussions with lecturers and practitioners, individual interviews with key personnel, nonparticipant observation of teaching sessions, postobservation interviews with students and curriculum analysis. Findings highlighted the importance of a number of dimensions of preparation for practice of such a role: the need for sufficient taught pharmacology; opportunities for application and integration of prerequisite knowledge and skills; the importance of practice-based learning; the need for an evidence-based curriculum, and the importance of clarifying outcomes and competencies required for a medication education role within pre and postregistration curricula. The paper concludes with a discussion and implications of the findings. PMID:11115014

  19. EFSUMB statement on medical student education in ultrasound [short version].

    PubMed

    Cantisani, V; Dietrich, C F; Badea, R; Dudea, S; Prosch, H; Cerezo, E; Nuernberg, D; Serra, A L; Sidhu, P S; Radzina, M; Piscaglia, F; Bachmann Nielsen, M; Calliada, F; Gilja, O H

    2016-02-01

    The European Federation of Societies for Ultrasound in Medicine and Biology (EFSUMB) recommends that ultrasound should be used systematically as an easy accessible and instructive educational tool in the curriculum of modern medical schools. Medical students should acquire theoretical knowledge of the modality and hands-on training should be implemented and adhere to evidence-based principles. In this paper we summarise EFSUMB policy statements on medical student education in ultrasound. PMID:26871409

  20. Improving medical graduates’ training in palliative care: advancing education and practice

    PubMed Central

    Head, Barbara A; Schapmire, Tara J; Earnshaw, Lori; Chenault, John; Pfeifer, Mark; Sawning, Susan; Shaw, Monica A

    2016-01-01

    The needs of an aging population and advancements in the treatment of both chronic and life-threatening diseases have resulted in increased demand for quality palliative care. The doctors of the future will need to be well prepared to provide expert symptom management and address the holistic needs (physical, psychosocial, and spiritual) of patients dealing with serious illness and the end of life. Such preparation begins with general medical education. It has been recommended that teaching and clinical experiences in palliative care be integrated throughout the medical school curriculum, yet such education has not become the norm in medical schools across the world. This article explores the current status of undergraduate medical education in palliative care as published in the English literature and makes recommendations for educational improvements which will prepare doctors to address the needs of seriously ill and dying patients. PMID:26955298

  1. Patients’ Perspective on the Value of Medication Management Appointments

    PubMed Central

    Cruz, Mario; Cruz, Robyn Flaum; Pincus, Harold Alan

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: There is ongoing concern that psychiatric medication management appointments add little value to care. The present study attempted to address this concern by capturing depressed patients’ views and opinions about the value of psychiatric medication management appointments. Methods: Seventy-eight semi-structured interviews were performed with white and African American depressed patients post medication management appointments. These interviews tapped patients’ views and opinions about the value of attending medication management appointments. Analysis: An iterative thematic analysis was performed. Findings: Patients reported greater appointment value when appointments included obtaining medications, discussing the need for medication changes or dose adjustments, and discussing the impact of medications on their illness. Additionally, greater appointment value was perceived by patients when there were non-medical conversations about life issues, immediate outcomes from the appointment such as motivation to continue in care, and specific qualities of providers that were appealing to patients. Conclusions: Patients’ perceived value of psychiatric medication management appointments is complex. Though important patient outcomes are obtaining medicine and perceiving improvement in their mental health, there are other valued appointment and provider factors. Some of these other valued factors embedded within medication management appointments could have therapeutic properties. These findings have implications for future clinical research and service delivery.

  2. 78 FR 9899 - National Committee on Foreign Medical Education and Accreditation

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-12

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION National Committee on Foreign Medical Education and Accreditation AGENCY: Office of Postsecondary Education, U.S. Department of Education, National Committee on Foreign Medical Education and...

  3. 77 FR 49788 - National Committee on Foreign Medical Education and Accreditation

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-17

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION National Committee on Foreign Medical Education and Accreditation AGENCY: Office of Postsecondary Education, U.S. Department of Education, National Committee on Foreign Medical Education and...

  4. Preventing and managing unprofessionalism in medical school faculties.

    PubMed

    Binder, Renee; Friedli, Amy; Fuentes-Afflick, Elena

    2015-04-01

    Professionalism is a required competency for medical students, residents, practicing physicians, and academic faculty. Faculty members must adhere to codes of conduct or risk discipline. The authors describe issues of unprofessionalism that culminate in allegations of faculty misconduct or filing of grievances in academic medicine and outline strategies for early intervention and prevention. The authors, vice and associate deans and executive director of the office of faculty affairs at a large U.S. medical school, have handled many allegations of unprofessional conduct over the past decade. They present case examples based on behaviors such as lack of respect, inappropriate language and behavior, failure to cooperate with members of the health care team, and sexual harassment/discrimination. They discuss factors complicating evaluation of these behaviors, including variable definitions of respect, different cultural norms, and false allegations. The authors make recommendations for prevention and intervention, including early identification, performance management, education about sexual harassment, and referrals to professional coaches, anger management classes, and faculty-staff assistance programs. PMID:25470311

  5. Medical foods: products for the management of chronic diseases.

    PubMed

    Morgan, Sarah L; Baggott, Joseph E

    2006-11-01

    Medical foods are a specific category of therapeutic agents created under the Orphan Drug Act of 1988, which separated medical foods from drugs for regulatory purposes. Products in this category share the requirements that they are intended for the nutritional management of a specific disease, are used under the guidance of a physician, and contain ingredients that are generally recognized as safe (GRAS). An example of medical foods are formulations intended to manage patients with inborn errors in amino acid metabolism. Newer medical foods are designed to manage hyperhomocysteinemia, pancreatic exocrine insufficiency, inflammatory conditions, cancer cachexia, and other diseases. PMID:17131945

  6. Things to come: postmodern digital knowledge management and medical informatics.

    PubMed Central

    Matheson, N W

    1995-01-01

    The overarching informatics grand challenge facing society is the creation of knowledge management systems that can acquire, conserve, organize, retrieve, display, and distribute what is known today in a manner that informs and educates, facilitates the discovery and creation of new knowledge, and contributes to the health and welfare of the planet. At one time the private, national, and university libraries of the world collectively constituted the memory of society's intellectual history. In the future, these new digital knowledge management systems will constitute human memory in its entirety. The current model of multiple local collections of duplicated resources will give way to specialized sole-source servers. In this new environment all scholarly scientific knowledge should be public domain knowledge: managed by scientists, organized for the advancement of knowledge, and readily available to all. Over the next decade, the challenge for the field of medical informatics and for the libraries that serve as the continuous memory for the biomedical sciences will be to come together to form a new organization that will lead to the development of postmodern digital knowledge management systems for medicine. These systems will form a portion of the evolving world brain of the 21st century. PMID:7743318

  7. Provider Education about Glaucoma and Glaucoma Medications during Videotaped Medical Visits.

    PubMed

    Sleath, Betsy; Blalock, Susan J; Carpenter, Delesha M; Muir, Kelly W; Sayner, Robyn; Lawrence, Scott; Giangiacomo, Annette L; Hartnett, Mary Elizabeth; Tudor, Gail; Goldsmith, Jason; Robin, Alan L

    2014-01-01

    Objective. The purpose of this study was to examine how patient, physician, and situational factors are associated with the extent to which providers educate patients about glaucoma and glaucoma medications, and which patient and provider characteristics are associated with whether providers educate patients about glaucoma and glaucoma medications. Methods. Patients with glaucoma who were newly prescribed or on glaucoma medications were recruited and a cross-sectional study was conducted at six ophthalmology clinics. Patients' visits were videotape recorded and patients were interviewed after visits. Generalized estimating equations were used to analyze the data. Results. Two hundred and seventy-nine patients participated. Providers were significantly more likely to educate patients about glaucoma and glaucoma medications if they were newly prescribed glaucoma medications. Providers were significantly less likely to educate African American patients about glaucoma. Providers were significantly less likely to educate patients of lower health literacy about glaucoma medications. Conclusion. Eye care providers did not always educate patients about glaucoma or glaucoma medications. Practice Implications. Providers should consider educating more patients about what glaucoma is and how it is treated so that glaucoma patients can better understand their disease. Even if a patient has already been educated once, it is important to reinforce what has been taught before. PMID:24868450

  8. Medical Management of Metastatic Medullary Thyroid Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Maxwell, Jessica E.; Sherman, Scott K.; O’Dorisio, Thomas M.; Howe, James R.

    2014-01-01

    Medullary thyroid cancer (MTC) is an aggressive form of thyroid cancer, which occurs in both heritable and sporadic forms. Discovery that mutations in the RET protooncogene predispose to familial cases of this disease has allowed for presymptomatic identification of gene carriers and prophylactic surgery to improve the prognosis of these patients. A significant number of patients with the sporadic type of MTC and even with familial disease, still present with nodal or distant metastases, making surgical cure difficult. Over the past several decades, many different types of therapy for metastatic disease have been attempted, with limited success. Improved understanding of the molecular defects and pathways involved in both familial and sporadic MTC has resulted in new hope for these patients with the development of drugs targeting the specific alterations responsible. This new era of targeted therapy with kinase inhibitors represents a significant step forward from previous trials of chemotherapy, radiotherapy, and hormonal therapy. Although much progress has been made, additional agents and strategies are needed to achieve durable, long-term responses in patients with metastatic MTC. This article reviews the history and results of medical management for metastatic MTC from the early 1970s up until the present day. PMID:24942936

  9. [Medical management of cholangiocarcinomas in 2015].

    PubMed

    Marret, Grégoire; Neuzillet, Cindy; Rousseau, Benoît; Tournigand, Christophe

    2016-04-01

    Cholangiocarcinoma is a rare malignancy carrying a poor prognosis. Most patients are diagnosed with advanced-stage disease and are then ineligible for surgical resection, which is the only potentially curative therapeutic modality. The aim of this article is to provide an up-to-date review of medical management of patients with cholangiocarcinoma. The benefit of adjuvant therapy in patients undergoing curative-intent surgery is under evaluation. Combination chemotherapy with gemcitabine and platinum is the standard first-line treatment for patients with advanced cholangiocarcinoma. Targeted agents are not currently recommended due to limited data on use in this setting. The role of second-line chemotherapy is not established in advanced cholangiocarcinoma. Identification of predictive and prognostic markers to select patients who could benefit from second-line therapy is a major issue. A better understanding of the biological and molecular mechanisms underlying the carcinogenesis and the phenotypic heterogeneity of cholangiocarcinoma may path the way of new therapeutic strategies. PMID:26922666

  10. [Management of rheumatoid arthritis medications and pregnancy].

    PubMed

    Funakubo Asanuma, Yu

    2015-01-01

    Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) affects mainly women during their childbearing years. As aging of childbirth advances in Japan, women who plan pregnancy would increase after they developed RA. Recent findings showed that high disease activity of RA might impair fertility. Planning pregnancy is preferable after female patients achive and maintain low disease activity or remission of RA. Women on methotrexate, which is the anchor drug for RA, need to discontinue the medication with a high risk of causing birth defects during conception and pregnancy. Data of RA patients exposed TNF inhibitors during pregnancy has been accumulating in recent years. These data suggest that increased risk of spontaneous abortion and congenital abnomalies has not been observed. Although there is insufficient data about safety of breastfeeding while using TNF inhibitors, the secretion of the drugs in breast milk is very little and fetal toxicity has not been observed. Since long term safety of children exposed TNF inhibitors in uterus has not been established, we should discontinue the drugs as soon as pregnancy is recognized. TNF inhibitors may be an useful tools for management of active RA resistant to conventional DMARDs in women who desire to bear children. PMID:25765688

  11. Self-Determination in Medical Education: Encouraging Medical Educators to Be More like Blues Artists and Poets

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Patrick, Heather; Williams, Geoffrey C.

    2009-01-01

    Historically, medical education has focused largely on medical students' intellectual development, mostly ignoring the broader psychological milieu of medical practice. This chasm can result in practitioners who are less likely to process their emotions and/or support their patient's needs, and more likely to experience burnout. Self-determination…

  12. Community Education: Managing for Success.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Association of School Administrators, Arlington, VA.

    An examination of several school systems across the country offering community education programs provided information for this report on successful management techniques and unique program ideas, featuring tips from experts and a number of "how-to" suggestions. Drawing particularly on the experiences of administrators with programs in Flint,…

  13. Internationalisation Strategies for Management Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howe, W. Stewart; Martin, Graeme

    1998-01-01

    A literature review and case study of a British business school examined these areas: (1) competing rationales for internationalizing management education; (2) transfer of best practice from the west; and (3) problems that parent and host countries face in joint ventures. (SK)

  14. Total Quality Management in Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, James H.

    1993-01-01

    Ways to apply the concepts and processes of Total Quality Management (TQM) to education are discussed in this document. Following the introduction and the preface, chapter 1 provides a historical overview and describes the four cornerstones of TQM--an understanding of systems, psychology, knowledge, and statistics. Chapter 2 describes some of the…

  15. Institutional Management in Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development, Paris (France). Centre for Educational Research and Innovation.

    This is the report of a conference sponsored by the Centre for Educational Research and Innovation. The conference discussed the findings of the Centre's 2-year program which attempted to demonstrate how the resource management of universities may be improved through better decisionmaking in the realms of finance, information, human flows, the use…

  16. Educational Management: Theory and Practice.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Okumbe, J. A.

    This book provides the reader with principal theories and practices of management in educational organizations. It attempts to widen both the breadth and depth of the body of knowledge in this area of specialization. The work provides useful reference material for students and scholars at the undergraduate and postgraduate levels in universities…

  17. STRUCTURING EDUCATION FOR BUSINESS MANAGEMENT.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    WHITT, ROBERT L.

    IN TERMS OF SERVICES RECEIVED, LOCAL SCHOOLS BENEFIT SUBSTANTIALLY FROM EDUCATIONAL BUSINESS MANAGEMENT. IN ORDER TO ISOLATE BUSINESS ADMINISTRATIVE PROBLEMS OF THE SCHOOL SYSTEM, AN ANALYSIS WAS CONDUCTED AT EACH OF 6 ADMINISTRATIVE SERVICE LEVELS--LOCAL (ATTENDANCE LEVEL), DISTRICT, AREA, REGIONAL, STATE, AND MULTI-STATE. AS A RESULT OF MERGED…

  18. Medical universities in Austria: impact of curriculum modernization on medical education

    PubMed Central

    Lischka, Martin

    2010-01-01

    During the last decade medical education in Austria has seen more changes than in the whole of the previous century, with a complete overhaul of the structure of undergraduate curricula. Curricula now are organized in thematic, integrated modules, students have early patient encounters, the number of examinations has been drastically reduced, objective examinations have been introduced throughout the entire course as has skills training, and quality management is assured. As a consequence of the judgement of the European Court in 2005 against discrimination and in favour of equal treatment of EU citizens, free enrolment was abandoned and admission tests were introduced. In postgraduate training, licensing examinations are now obligatory. Crucial results from the point of view of students as well as with regard to the supply of manpower to the health care system are a sharp decrease in the formerly extremely long mean duration of study programmes and a sharp fall in drop-out rates. The now fully autonomous medical universities have the opportunity to intensify collaboration and to embark on a process of continuous renewal. Structural reform of undergraduate and postgraduate curricula will eventually ensure full equality of Austrian and other European medical qualifications. PMID:21818199

  19. Introducing: Rehabilitation Counseling To Medical Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zelle, J. A.

    1972-01-01

    The insertion of vocational rehabilitation content into the medical school and hospital teaching practice has a reciprocating effect on a wide variety of medical and allied health science personnel. (Editor)

  20. Medical Physics Education at the University of Novi Sad - Serbia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stanković, Slobodanka; Vesković, Miroslav; Klisurić, Olivera; Spasić, Vesna

    2007-04-01

    Overview of new educational program and training in Medical Physics at the University of Novi Sad is presented, where the medical physics education from undergraduate to doctoral study is established in the last decade. Necessity for basic and additional education and hospital training for medical physicists becomes the evident subject in clinical practice in which physicists and physicians are in close collaboration to ensure high quality of patient care. Learning objectives: to incorporate the latest scientific and professional findings in the field of medical physics, medical diagnostics, therapy and instruments; to accomodate students' pursuits of individual fields by offering elective courses from different areas of current medical practice; to reflect the multidisciplinary spirit of the studies, since teaching is performed by experts from diverse fields.

  1. Universities and medical schools: reflections on a half-century of Canadian medical education.

    PubMed

    Naimark, A

    1993-05-01

    After 50 years of accelerated development, universities and medical schools have entered a period of uncertainty and instability. The Flexnerian paradigm of medical education, rooted in biomedical science and conducted under the aegis of a university, reached its apotheosis by the late 1960s and the early 1970s. Fuelled by the introduction of comprehensive, government-sponsored health care insurance and advances in technology, the demand for health care professionals and for access to facilities increased sharply. Medical education, research and advanced clinical services expanded dramatically aided by the emergence of academic health sciences centres and accompanied by a wave of medical curriculum reform. Now medical schools must strike a dynamic balance in responding to the continued expansion of knowledge and technology, the demand for social equity and the exigencies of prolonged fiscal constraint. They must also balance the biological and sociological approaches to medicine in establishing the foundations for the future development of Canadian medical education. PMID:8477376

  2. The Medical Staff Ride: an education tool for military medical leadership development.

    PubMed

    Bricknell, Martin C M

    2016-08-01

    This paper provides a description of the Medical Staff Ride as an educational tool for military medical leadership. It is based upon two Medical Staff Rides covering the Somme Campaign 1916 and the Normandy Campaign 1944. It describes the key educational activity 'The Stand' at which history and current issues are brought together through study of a particular location on the historical battlefield. The Medical Staff Ride can be divided into six distinct phases, each of which have common question sets for analysis by attendees. The Medical Staff Ride can be shown to have valuable educational outcomes that are efficient in time and cost, and effective in achieving personal learning. The supporting Readers for the two Medical Staff Rides covered by this paper are available as electronic supplement to this edition of the journal. PMID:26115999

  3. Medical dramas on television: a brief guide for educators.

    PubMed

    Hirt, C; Wong, K; Erichsen, S; White, J S

    2013-01-01

    The popularity of medical television dramas is well-established and medical educators are beginning to recognize the power of medical media as a potential tool for education. The purpose of this study was to view a number of medical dramas and consider their potential use in medical education. A total of 177 episodes from eight popular television medical dramas produced between 1990 and 2009 were systematically viewed and analyzed and a brief guide was developed for each drama. The dramas analyzed contained a wealth of material applicable to medical education. In our experience, each drama may be best suited to a particular educational use: for example, clips from "ER" and "Scrubs" offer more examples of teaching and learning than "House" and "Grey's Anatomy", which are perhaps better suited for topics on ethics or team work. We hope that this brief guide will encourage others to consider integrating this material into their teaching, and to explore how television drama may be used most effectively in medical education. PMID:23228106

  4. Evaluation of Continuing Medical Education for Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Diseases.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Li Wang, Virginia; And Others

    1979-01-01

    A continuing medical education program is discussed that addresses chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and that links primary care physicians to a source of needed clinical knowledge at a relatively low cost. The educational methods, evaluation design, diagnosis of educational needs, selection of program content and behavioral outcomes are…

  5. A New Vision for Distance Learning and Continuing Medical Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harden, Ronald M.

    2005-01-01

    Increasing demands on continuing medical education (CME) are taking place at a time of significant developments in educational thinking and new learning technologies. Such developments allow today's CME providers to better meet the CRISIS criteria for effective continuing education: convenience, relevance, individualization, self-assessment,…

  6. Role of anaesthesiologists in undergraduate medical education.

    PubMed

    Prys-Roberts, C

    2000-12-01

    Although anaesthesia and intensive care medicine are postgraduate subjects, few would deny the value of exposing medical undergraduates to clinical training in these areas. The present review addresses developments in medical undergraduate training curricula, and the specific benefits that can be provided for medical students, at all stages of training, by anaesthesiologists working in operating theatres, intensive care units and pain clinics. PMID:17016371

  7. Medical education in the Russian Federation.

    PubMed

    Wright, R A; Goldfarb, A S

    1996-11-01

    The process of becoming a medical doctor in the Russian Federation is detailed in this paper. There has been a decline in the number of students entering the medical profession, as well as a marked decrease in the faculty members at the medical institutes since perestroika. This is secondary to a marked decrease in financial support as well as falling morale. PMID:9217911

  8. Sexual harassment in medical education: liability and protection.

    PubMed

    Recupero, Patricia Ryan; Heru, Alison M; Price, Marilyn; Alves, Jody

    2004-09-01

    The prevalence and frequency of sexual harassment in medical education is well documented. On the graduation questionnaire administered by the Association of American Medical Colleges in 2003, 15% of medical students reported experiences of mistreatment during medical school. On items that specifically address sexual mistreatment, over 2% of students reported experiencing gender-based exclusion from training opportunities, and unwanted sexual advances and offensive sexist comments from school personnel. Sexual harassment of medical trainees by faculty supervisors is obviously unethical and may also be illegal under education discrimination laws. In two cases in 1998 and 1999, the U.S. Supreme Court clarified that schools may be held liable under Title IX of the Education Amendments of 1972 for the sexual harassment of their students. In 2001, the Office of Civil Rights of the Department of Education released revised policy guidelines on sexual harassment that reflect the Supreme Court rulings. Medical school administrators should undertake formal assessments of the educational environment in their training programs as a first step toward addressing the problem of sexual harassment. The authors recommend that medical schools implement measures to both prevent and remedy sexual harassment in their training programs. These constructive approaches include applying faculty and student education, establishing a system for notification and response, and creating an institutional structure to provide continuous evaluation of the educational environment. PMID:15326003

  9. Medical students' use of Facebook for educational purposes.

    PubMed

    Ali, Anam

    2016-06-01

    Medical students use Facebook to interact with one another both socially and educationally. This study investigates how medical students in a UK medical school use Facebook to support their learning. In particular, it identifies the nature of their educational activities, and details their experiences of using an educational Facebook group. Twenty-four medical students who self-identified as being Facebook users were invited to focus groups to attain a general overview of Facebook use within an educational context. A textual analysis was then conducted on a small group of intercalating medical students who used a self-created Facebook group to supplement their learning. Five of these students participated in semi-structured interviews. Six common themes were generated. These included 'collaborative learning', 'strategic uses for the preparation for assessment', 'sharing experiences and providing support', 'creating and maintaining connections', 'personal planning and practical organization' and 'sharing and evaluating educational resources'. Evidence from this study shows that medical students are using Facebook informally to enhance their learning and undergraduate lives. Facebook has enabled students to create a supportive learning community amongst their peers. Medical educators wishing to capitalize on Facebook, as a platform for formal educational initiatives, should remain cautious of intruding on this peer online learning community. PMID:27271571

  10. Towards a paperless medical physics residency management system.

    PubMed

    Schubert, Leah K; Miften, Moyed

    2014-01-01

    Documentation is a required component of a residency program, but can be difficult to collect and disseminate, resulting in minimal utilization by residents and faculty. The purpose of this work is to adapt a commercially-available Web-based medical residency management system to improve the learning experience by efficiently distributing program information, documenting resident activities, and providing frequent monitoring and timely feedback of resident progress. To distribute pro- gram information, program requirements and rotation readings were uploaded. An educational conference calendar was created with associated files and attendance records added. To document resident progress, requirements for over 37 different clinical procedures were added, for which the resident logged the total number of procedures performed. Progress reports were created and automatically distributed. To provide feedback to the resident, an extensive electronic evaluation system was created. Results are shown for the initial 21 months of program existence, consisting of a single resident for the first 12 months and two residents for the subsequent 9 months. The system recorded that 130 documents were uploaded and 100% of required documents were downloaded by the resident. In total, 385 educational conferences and meetings were offered, of which the residents attended 95%. The second-year and first-year residents logged 1030 and 522 clinical proce- dures, respectively. The residents submitted a total of 116 status reports detailing weekly activities, 100% of which were reviewed by faculty within an average of 11.3 days. A total of 65 evaluations of the residents were submitted. The residents reviewed 100% of respective evaluations within an average of 1.5 days. We have successfully incorporated a paperless, Web-based management system in a medical physics residency program. A robust electronic documentation system has been implemented, which has played a central role in enhancing the

  11. Review of online educational resources for medical physicists.

    PubMed

    Prisciandaro, Joann I

    2013-01-01

    Medical physicists are often involved in the didactic training of graduate students, residents (both physics and physicians), and technologists. As part of continuing medical education, we are also involved in maintenance of certification projects to assist in the education of our peers. As such, it is imperative that we remain current concerning available educational resources. Medical physics journals offer book reviews, allowing us an opportunity to learn about newly published books in the field. A similar means of communication is not currently available for online educational resources. This information is conveyed through informal means. This review presents a summary of online resources available to the medical physics community that may be useful for educational purposes. PMID:24257289

  12. The revolution in medical education-the role of simulation.

    PubMed

    Satava, Richard M

    2009-12-01

    The last major change in medical education was the Flexner Report, over a century ago. Since that time, iterative improvements have occurred to the question-and-answer and "see one, do one, teach one" educational environment. However, multiple external forces-from the 80-hour work week to the emphasis on patient safety to competing demands on student and faculty time-have raised calls for a fundamental revamping of the entire medical educational process. Fortunately, new methods, curricula, and processes, such as Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education competencies or Objective Structured Assessment of Technical Skills, as well as innovative technologies such as web-based learning and simulation, have provided opportunities to support the revolution in medical education that will be responsive to national priorities, the public concern, and, most of all, to patient safety. PMID:21975972

  13. 75 FR 79006 - Council on Graduate Medical Education; Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-17

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Health Resources and Services Administration Council on Graduate Medical Education...-463), notice is hereby given of the following meeting: Name: Council on Graduate Medical Education... of presentations covering various aspects of graduate medical education, Bureau of Health...

  14. Managing Medical System Development Through Documentation

    PubMed Central

    Hanmer, Jean

    1980-01-01

    Health Care administrators managing a computer system development project need tools to control the project. This paper describes the concept of management control, its purpose and techniques for exercising it. Preparation of system documentation provides a vehicle for management control which can guide the behavior of the contractor, the institution's managers and staff. Techniques for managing and reviewing documentation in a management control framework are presented.

  15. Conventional Medical Education and the History of Simulation in Radiology.

    PubMed

    Chetlen, Alison L; Mendiratta-Lala, Mishal; Probyn, Linda; Auffermann, William F; DeBenedectis, Carolynn M; Marko, Jamie; Pua, Bradley B; Sato, Takashi Shawn; Little, Brent P; Dell, Carol M; Sarkany, David; Gettle, Lori Mankowski

    2015-10-01

    Simulation is a promising method for improving clinician performance, enhancing team training, increasing patient safety, and preventing errors. Training scenarios to enrich medical student and resident education, and apply toward competency assessment, recertification, and credentialing are important applications of simulation in radiology. This review will describe simulation training for procedural skills, interpretive and noninterpretive skills, team-based training and crisis management, professionalism and communication skills, as well as hybrid and in situ applications of simulation training. A brief overview of current simulation equipment and software and the barriers and strategies for implementation are described. Finally, methods of measuring competency and assessment are described, so that the interested reader can successfully implement simulation training into their practice. PMID:26276167

  16. [9 reflexions on health and medical education in Mexico].

    PubMed

    Narro, J

    1994-01-01

    In Mexico's case, the fields of healthcare and medical education are closely vinculated. On the other hand, contemporary society lives in a deep transformation process. In the present article, some paradoxes and contrasts in relation to health and medical education characterize the reality in Mexico. Particular emphasis is made on the analysis of the profound differences which exist between the two federative entities which present the extreme figures on life expectancy at birth. The thesis which supports the document, recognizes the need for integral analysis of the organizational and administrative processes of healthcare and medical education in Mexico. PMID:8964327

  17. [Evidence-based management of medical disposable materials].

    PubMed

    Yang, Hai

    2009-03-01

    Evidence-based management of medical disposable materials pays attention to collect evidence comprehensively and systematically, accumulate and create evidence through its own work and also evaluate evidence strictly. This can be used as a function to guide out job. Medical disposable materials evidence system contains product register qualification, product quality certification, supplier's behavior, internal and external communication evidence. Managers can find different ways in creating and using evidence referring to specific inside and outside condition. Evidence-based management can help accelerating the development of management of medical disposable materials from traditional experience pattern to a systematic and scientific pattern. It also has the very important meaning to improve medical quality, control the unreasonable growth of medical expense and make purchase and supply chain be more efficient. PMID:19565800

  18. Troubling Muddy Waters: Problematizing Reflective Practice in Global Medical Education.

    PubMed

    Naidu, Thirusha; Kumagai, Arno K

    2016-03-01

    The idea of exporting the concept of reflective practice for a global medical education audience is growing. However, the uncritical export and adoption of Western concepts of reflection may be inappropriate in non-Western societies. The emphasis in Western medical education on the use of reflection for a specific end--that is, the improvement of individual clinical practice--tends to ignore the range of reflective practice, concentrating on reflection alone while overlooking critical reflection and reflexivity. This Perspective places the concept of reflective practice under a critical lens to explore a broader view for its application in medical education outside the West. The authors suggest that ideas about reflection in medicine and medical education may not be as easily transferable from Western to non-Western contexts as concepts from biomedical science are. The authors pose the question, When "exporting" Western medical education strategies and principles, how often do Western-trained educators authentically open up to the possibility that there are alternative ways of seeing and knowing that may be valuable in educating Western physicians? One answer lies in the assertion that educators should aspire to turn exportation of educational theory into a truly bidirectional, collaborative exchange in which culturally conscious views of reflective practice contribute to humanistic, equitable patient care. This discussion engages in troubling the already-muddy waters of reflective practice by exploring the global applicability of reflective practice as it is currently applied in medical education. The globalization of medical education demands critical reflection on reflection itself. PMID:26630601

  19. Creating Competitive Advantage through Effective Management Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Longenecker, Clinton O.; Ariss, Sonny S.

    2002-01-01

    Managers trained in executive education programs (n=203) identified ways in which management education can increase an organization's competitive advantage: exposure to new ideas and practices, skill development, and motivation. Characteristics of effective management education included experience-based learning orientation, credible instructors,…

  20. A Comment on "T2QM (Teaching and Total Quality Management) for Medical Teachers" by R.G. Bing-You.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leinster, S. J.

    1997-01-01

    Responds to R.G. Bing-You's argument for the application of total quality management (TQM) techniques to medical teaching. Argues that attempts to apply TQM to medical education are fundamentally flawed because medical education is not an intrinsically commercial transition. (DDR)

  1. Planning, Designing and Managing Higher Education Institutions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Daigneau, William A.; Valenti, Mark S.; Ricciarini, Sylvana; Bender, Stephen O.; Alleyne, Nicole; Di Grappa, Michael; Duart, Josep M.; Lupianez, Francisco; Sanchez, Miguel Angel Ehrenzweig

    2005-01-01

    The OECD Programme on Educational Building, together with the Association of Higher Education Facilities Officers (APPA) and the OECD Programme on Institutional Management in Higher Education, organised an international conference on the planning, design and management of facilities for higher education institutions on April 24-27, 2005. The…

  2. Reframing medical education to support professional identity formation.

    PubMed

    Cruess, Richard L; Cruess, Sylvia R; Boudreau, J Donald; Snell, Linda; Steinert, Yvonne

    2014-11-01

    Teaching medical professionalism is a fundamental component of medical education. The objective is to ensure that students understand the nature of professionalism and its obligations and internalize the value system of the medical profession. The recent emergence of interest in the medical literature on professional identity formation gives reason to reexamine this objective. The unstated aim of teaching professionalism has been to ensure the development of practitioners who possess a professional identity. The teaching of medical professionalism therefore represents a means to an end.The principles of identity formation that have been articulated in educational psychology and other fields have recently been used to examine the process through which physicians acquire their professional identities. Socialization-with its complex networks of social interaction, role models and mentors, experiential learning, and explicit and tacit knowledge acquisition-influences each learner, causing them to gradually "think, act, and feel like a physician."The authors propose that a principal goal of medical education be the development of a professional identity and that educational strategies be developed to support this new objective. The explicit teaching of professionalism and emphasis on professional behaviors will remain important. However, expanding knowledge of identity formation in medicine and of socialization in the medical environment should lend greater logic and clarity to the educational activities devoted to ensuring that the medical practitioners of the future will possess and demonstrate the qualities of the "good physician." PMID:25054423

  3. Autonomy support for autonomous motivation in medical education

    PubMed Central

    Kusurkar, Rashmi A.; Croiset, Gerda

    2015-01-01

    Background Medical students often study only to fare well in their examinations or pursue a specific specialty, or study only those topics that they perceive to be useful in medical practice. The motivation for study in these cases comes from external or internal pressures or from the desire to obtain rewards. Self-determination theory (SDT) classifies this type of motivation as controlled motivation and the type of motivation that comes from genuine interest or personal value as autonomous motivation. Autonomous motivation, in comparison with controlled motivation, has been associated with better learning, academic success, and less exhaustion. SDT endorses autonomous motivation and suggests that autonomy support is important for autonomous motivation. The meaning of autonomy is misinterpreted by many. This article tries to focus on how to be autonomy-supportive in medical education. Discussion Autonomy support refers to the perception of choice in learning. Some of the ways of supporting autonomy in medical education are small group teaching, problem-based learning, and gradual increase in responsibility of patients. Autonomy-supportive teaching behavior is not a trait and can be learned. Autonomy support in medical education is not limited to bringing in changes in the medical curriculum for students; it is about an overall change in the way of thinking and working in medical schools that foster autonomy among those involved in education. Research into autonomy in medical education is limited. Some topics that need to be investigated are the ideas and perceptions of students and teachers about autonomy in learning. Conclusion Autonomy support in medical education can enhance autonomous motivation of students for medical study and practice and make them autonomy-supportive in their future medical practice and teaching. PMID:25953033

  4. Emotional intelligence as a crucial component to medical education

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Objectives The primary focus of this review was to discover what is already known about Emotional Intelligence (EI) and the role it plays within social relationships, as well as its importance in the fields of health care and health care education. This article analyzes the importance of EI in the field of health care and recommends various ways that this important skill can be built into medical programs. Methods Information was gathered using various database searches including EBSCOHOST, Academic Search Premier and ERIC. The search was conducted in English language journals from the last ten years. Descriptors include: Emotional Intelligence, medical students and communication skills, graduate medical education, Emotional Intelligence and graduate medical education, Emotional Intelligence training programs, program evaluation and development. Results Results of the study show a direct correlation between medical education and emotional intelligence competencies, which makes the field of medical education an ideal one in which to integrate further EI training. Conclusions The definition of EI as an ability-based skill allows for training in specific competencies that can be directly applied to a specialized field. When EI is conceptualized as an ability that can be taught, learned, and changed, it may be used to address the specific aspects of the clinician–patient relationship that are not working well. For this reason, teaching EI should be a priority in the field of medical education in order to better facilitate this relationship in the future. PMID:26638080

  5. Social accountability of medical education: aspects on global accreditation.

    PubMed

    Lindgren, Stefan; Karle, Hans

    2011-01-01

    Medical doctors constitute a profession which embraces trust from and accountability to society. This responsibility extends to all medical educational institutions. Social accountability of medical education means a willingness and ability to adjust to the needs of patients and health care systems both nationally and globally. But it also implies a responsibility to contribute to the development of medicine and society through fostering competence for research and improvement. Accreditation is a process by which a statutory body evaluates and recognises an educational institution and/or its programme with respect to meeting approved criteria. It is a means for quality assurance, but also a strong power to reinforce the need for improvement and reforms. It must be performed through internationally recognised and transparent standards and should foremost promote quality development. The social accountability of medical education must be included in all accreditation processes at all levels. The global standards programme by World Federation for Medical Education (WFME) provides tools for national or regional accreditation but also guidance for reforms and quality improvement. The standards are used worldwide and have been adopted to local needs in most parts of the world. They are framed to specify attainment at two levels: basic standards or minimum requirements and standards for quality development. The concept of social accountability is embedded in all parts of the WFME standards documents. In 2011, a revision of the standards for undergraduate education has been instituted. Strengthening of aspects on social accountability of medical education will be a particular concern. PMID:21774655

  6. Education for Medical Librarianship: A Comparative Review of Education for a Profession in Transition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Groen, Frances; Xiong, Dizhi

    1994-01-01

    Compares two distinct approaches to education for medical librarianship--those of the People's Republic of China and of North America. Topics discussed include formal degree programs; certification; the relationship between educators and practitioners; the changing needs of medical librarians regarding continuing education; lifelong learning; and…

  7. Financial-Ratio Analysis and Medical School Management.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eastaugh, Steven R.

    1980-01-01

    The value of a uniform program of financial assistance to medical education and research is questioned. Medical schools have an uneven ability to compensate for declining federal capitation and research grants. Financial-ratio analysis and cluster analysis are utilized to suggest four adaptive responses to future financial pressures. (Author/MLW)

  8. Medical students call for national standards in anatomical education.

    PubMed

    Farey, John E; Sandeford, Jonathan C; Evans-McKendry, Greg D

    2014-11-01

    The diminishing number of hours dedicated to formal instruction in anatomy has led to a debate within medical education as to the level required for safe clinical practice. We provide a review of the current state of anatomical education in Australian medical schools and state the case for national standards. In light of the review presented, council members of the Australian Medical Students' Association voted to affirm that consideration should be given to developing undergraduate learning goals for anatomy, providing a codified medical student position on the teaching of anatomy in Australian medical schools. Crucially, the position states that time-intensive methods of instruction such as dissection should be a rite of passage for medical students in the absence of evidence demonstrating the superiority of modern teaching methods. We believe the bodies with a vested interest in the quality of medical graduates, namely the Australian Medical Council, Medical Deans Australia & New Zealand, and the postgraduate colleges should collaborate and develop clear guidelines that make explicit the core knowledge of anatomy expected of medical graduates at each stage of their career with a view to safe clinical practice. In addition, Australian universities have a role to play in conducting further research into contemporary learning styles and the most efficacious methods of delivering anatomical education. PMID:24661596

  9. The Cost of Postgraduate Medical Education and Continuing Medical Education: Re-Examining the Status Fifty Years Back

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    The subject of the cost and value of medical education is becoming increasingly important. However, this subject is not a new one. Fifty years ago, Mr. DH Patey, Dr. OF Davies, and Dr. John Ellis published a report on the state of postgraduate medical education in the UK. The report was wide-ranging, but it made a considerable mention of cost. In this short article, I have presented the documentary research that I conducted on their report. I have analyzed it from a positivist perspective and have concentrated on the subject of cost, as it appears in their report. The authors describe reforms within postgraduate medical education; however, they are clear from the start that the issue of cost can often be a barrier to such reforms. They state the need for basic facilities for medical education, but then outline the financial barriers to their development. The authors then discuss the costs of library services for education. They state that the "annual spending on libraries varies considerably throughout the country." The authors also describe the educational experiences of newly graduated doctors. According to them, the main problem is that these doctors do not have time to attend formal educational events, and that this will not be possible until there is "a more graduated approach to responsible clinical work," something which is not possible without financial investment. While concluding their report, the authors state that the limited money invested in postgraduate medical education and continuing medical education has been well spent, and that this has had a dual effect on improving medical education as well as the standards of medical care. PMID:25802685

  10. The cost of postgraduate medical education and continuing medical education: re-examining the status fifty years back.

    PubMed

    Walsh, Kieran

    2015-03-01

    The subject of the cost and value of medical education is becoming increasingly important. However, this subject is not a new one. Fifty years ago, Mr. DH Patey, Dr. OF Davies, and Dr. John Ellis published a report on the state of postgraduate medical education in the UK. The report was wide-ranging, but it made a considerable mention of cost. In this short article, I have presented the documentary research that I conducted on their report. I have analyzed it from a positivist perspective and have concentrated on the subject of cost, as it appears in their report. The authors describe reforms within postgraduate medical education; however, they are clear from the start that the issue of cost can often be a barrier to such reforms. They state the need for basic facilities for medical education, but then outline the financial barriers to their development. The authors then discuss the costs of library services for education. They state that the "annual spending on libraries varies considerably throughout the country." The authors also describe the educational experiences of newly graduated doctors. According to them, the main problem is that these doctors do not have time to attend formal educational events, and that this will not be possible until there is "a more graduated approach to responsible clinical work," something which is not possible without financial investment. While concluding their report, the authors state that the limited money invested in postgraduate medical education and continuing medical education has been well spent, and that this has had a dual effect on improving medical education as well as the standards of medical care. PMID:25802685

  11. [Medical Humanities--the Historical Significance and Mission in Medical Education].

    PubMed

    Fujino, Akihiro

    2015-12-01

    In this paper we consider the significance and mission of medical humanities in medical education from the following six viewpoints: (1) misunderstanding of the medical humanities; (2) its historical development; (3) the criteria for the ideal physician; (4) the contents of current Medical Humanities education; (5) the basic philosophy; and (6) its relation to medical professionalism. Medical humanities consists of the three academic components of bioethics, clinical ethics and medical anthropology, and it is a philosophy and an art which penetrate to the fundamental essence of medicine. The purpose of medical humanities is to develop one's own humanity and spirituality through medical practice and contemplation by empathizing with patients' illness narratives through spiritual self-awakening and by understanding the mutual healing powers of human relations by way of the realization of primordial life. The basic philosophy is "the coincidence of contraries". The ultimate mission of medical humanities is to cultivate physicians to educate themselves and have a life-long philosophy of devotion to understanding, through experience, the coincidence of contraries. PMID:26667195

  12. Importance of patient education on home medical care waste disposal in Japan

    SciTech Connect

    Ikeda, Yukihiro

    2014-07-15

    Highlights: • Attached office nurses more recovered medical waste from patients’ homes. • Most nurses educated their patients on how to store home medical care waste in their homes and on how to separate them. • Around half of nurses educated their patients on where to dispose of their home medical care waste. - Abstract: To determine current practices in the disposal and handling of home medical care (HMC) waste, a questionnaire was mailed to 1965 offices nationwide. Of the office that responded, 1283 offices were analyzed. Offices were classified by management configuration: those attached to hospitals were classified as ”attached offices” and others as “independent offices”. More nurses from attached offices recovered medical waste from patients’ homes than those from independent offices. Most nurses educated their patients on how to store HMC waste in their homes (79.3% of total) and on how to separate HMC waste (76.5% of total). On the other hand, only around half of nurses (47.3% from attached offices and 53.2% from independent offices) educated their patients on where to dispose of their HMC waste. 66.0% of offices replied that patients had separated their waste appropriately. The need for patient education has emerged in recent years, with education for nurses under the diverse conditions of HMC being a key factor in patient education.

  13. Strategic management of Public Hospitals' medical services.

    PubMed

    Hao, Aimin; Yi, Tao; Li, Xia; Wei, Lei; Huang, Pei; Xu, Xinzhou; Yi, Lihua

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The quality of medical services provided by competing public hospitals is the primary consideration of the public in determining the selection of a specific hospital for treatment. The main objective of strategic planning is to improve the quality of public hospital medical services. This paper provides an introduction to the history, significance, principles and practices of public hospital medical service strategy, as well as advancing the opinion that public hospital service strategy must not merely aim to produce but actually result in the highest possible level of quality, convenience, efficiency and patient satisfaction. PMID:27273960

  14. Commentary: getting to the next phase in medical education--a role for the vice-chair for education.

    PubMed

    Pangaro, Louis N

    2012-08-01

    The author argues that a particular kind of departmental leadership is needed lest medical education become hostage both to distant management through regulatory metrics (which can displace local, institutional creativity) and to the financial pressures within the institution. Departmental chairs themselves have often been seen as barriers to successful integration and redesign of medical school curricula. The vice-chair for education is a critical figure in achieving this new kind of leadership.The author describes three forms of curriculum planning and management: phase 1, where the department chair makes the decisions; phase 2, dominated by regulation from above (in part a reaction to problems with the phase 1 approach); and phase 3, the author's vision of an approach in which decisions occur within departments but with an awareness of the institution as a collaborative system, and grounded in educational theory and research. The vice-chair for education would have a key role, carrying out interdepartmental planning and assessment for the chairs, who would provide them the needed time, training (in leadership and in educational theory and practice), support (from professional educators, with advanced degrees in education), and routes to academic advancement.Responding effectively to a complex and changing environment requires senior leaders at the middle-management level (such as vice-chairs for education) who are well trained in both the content of their specialties and also in interpersonal and collaborative skills, and who have the desire to reach a common future. PMID:22827983

  15. Effect of Continuing Medical Education on Practice Patterns

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Talley, Robert C.

    1978-01-01

    Data are reported suggesting that a change in practice patterns did occur subsequent to a continuing medical education program. Twenty-eight physicians took a course in pulmonary artery pressure monitoring and followup surveys indicate its objectives were met. (LBH)

  16. Creation of a regional medical-nutrition education network.

    PubMed

    Feldman, E B; Borum, P R; DiGirolamo, M; Feldman, D S; Greene, J M; Leonard, S B; Morgan, S L; Moinuddin, J F; Read, M S; Weinsier, R L

    1989-01-01

    The Southeastern Regional Medical-Nutrition Education Network (SER-MEN) was developed to coordinate and improve nutrition education in a consortium of the medical schools in Alabama, Florida, Georgia, and South Carolina. SERMEN's central office is at the Medical College of Georgia with the testing office at the University of Alabama at Birmingham. Students, faculty, and consultants in nutrition, education, and computer networking work together on projects on each campus that are coordinated and planned through semiannual meetings. A standardized examination was developed with the Nutrition Test-Item Bank to assess nutrition knowledge at various years of medical students from network schools. Each SERMEN school is connected to a microcomputer system at the central office that provides access to a data base of nutrition education and resources on each campus for developing curricula and syllabi. Funding has been provided by societies, foundations, and government agencies. PMID:2911995

  17. The Future of Computers in Continuing Medical Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Storey, Patrick B.

    1983-01-01

    This article provides an attempt to project the way in which a computer-based approach to continuing medical education might emerge based on the present perception of what patient care, teaching, and learning are like. (SSH)

  18. Changes to postgraduate medical education in the 21st century.

    PubMed

    Patel, Mehool

    2016-08-01

    Medicine is a constantly evolving profession, especially with the advent of rapid advances in the scientific base that underpins this vocation. In order to ensure that training in medicine is contemporary with the continuous evolution of the profession, there has been a multitude of changes to postgraduate medical education, particularly in the UK. This article aims to provide an overview of relevant key changes to postgraduate medical education in the UK during the 21st century, including changes to the structure, governance and commissioning of medical education, effects of European Working Time Directive on training, recent recommendations in the Future Hospital Commission report and Shape of training report, and recent requirements for accreditation of medical education trainers. Many of these recommendations will require complex discussions often at organisational levels, hopefully with some realistic and pragmatic solutions for implementation. PMID:27481371

  19. Educational Management for Extinction! (Book Review).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smyth, John

    2000-01-01

    Helen Gunter's "Rethinking Education: the Consequences of Jurassic Management" (1997) tackles the relevance of fashionable school management practices. Educational management has become a huge, lucrative multimedia enterprise that promotes management language and culture at the expense of pedagogy, professional collegiality, and scrutiny of…

  20. 77 FR 13312 - National Committee on Foreign Medical Education and Accreditation

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-06

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION National Committee on Foreign Medical Education and Accreditation AGENCY: National Committee on Foreign Medical Education and Accreditation, Office of Postsecondary Education, U.S. Department of...

  1. 76 FR 63612 - National Committee on Foreign Medical Education and Accreditation Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-13

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION National Committee on Foreign Medical Education and Accreditation Meeting AGENCY: National Committee on Foreign Medical Education and Accreditation, Office of Postsecondary Education, U.S. Department...

  2. 78 FR 45917 - National Committee on Foreign Medical Education and Accreditation Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-30

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION National Committee on Foreign Medical Education and Accreditation Meeting AGENCY: Office of Postsecondary Education, National Committee on Foreign Medical Education and Accreditation, U.S. Department of...

  3. E-Learning as New Method of Medical Education

    PubMed Central

    Masic, Izet

    2008-01-01

    CONFLICT OF INTEREST: NONE DECLARED Distance learning refers to use of technologies based on health care delivered on distance and covers areas such as electronic health, tele-health (e-health), telematics, telemedicine, tele-education, etc. For the need of e-health, telemedicine, tele-education and distance learning there are various technologies and communication systems from standard telephone lines to the system of transmission digitalized signals with modem, optical fiber, satellite links, wireless technologies, etc. Tele-education represents health education on distance, using Information Communication Technologies (ICT), as well as continuous education of a health system beneficiaries and use of electronic libraries, data bases or electronic data with data bases of knowledge. Distance learning (E-learning) as a part of tele-education has gained popularity in the past decade; however, its use is highly variable among medical schools and appears to be more common in basic medical science courses than in clinical education. Distance learning does not preclude traditional learning processes; frequently it is used in conjunction with in-person classroom or professional training procedures and practices. Tele-education has mostly been used in biomedical education as a blended learning method, which combines tele-education technology with traditional instructor-led training, where, for example, a lecture or demonstration is supplemented by an online tutorial. Distance learning is used for self-education, tests, services and for examinations in medicine i.e. in terms of self-education and individual examination services. The possibility of working in the exercise mode with image files and questions is an attractive way of self education. Automated tracking and reporting of learners’ activities lessen faculty administrative burden. Moreover, e-learning can be designed to include outcomes assessment to determine whether learning has occurred. This review article

  4. The Scylla and Charybdis of Medical Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Petersdorf, Robert G.

    1988-01-01

    Teaching hospitals are caught between two modi operandi of the 1980s--cost containment and competition. The major area of conflict faced by medical school faculty are the demands of clinical practice and research. Medical students originally motivated by idealistic concerns are seduced by the specialties and subspecialties. (MLW)

  5. The Medical Record Review and Resident Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schuller, Arthur B.; Stotz, Ronald

    1977-01-01

    With data from mother-infant pairs during the puerperium as an example, three possibilities for using the medical record review are discussed: (1) as a means of specifying objectives for patient care and trainee competence; (2) for assessing trainee progress and teaching program effectiveness; and (3) for assessing the effects of medical science…

  6. Interactive Videodisc Case Studies for Medical Education

    PubMed Central

    Harless, William G.; Zier, Marcia A.; Duncan, Robert C.

    1986-01-01

    The TIME Project of the Lister Hill National Center for Biomedical Communications is using interactive videodisc, microprocessor and voice recognition technology to create patient simulations for use in the training of medical students. These interactive case studies embody dramatic, lifelike portrayals of the social and medical conditions of a patient and allow uncued, verbal intervention by the student for independent clinical decisions.

  7. Dietary and medical management of recurrent nephrolithiasis.

    PubMed

    Shah, Silvi; Calle, Juan Camilo

    2016-06-01

    Dietary approaches and medical treatment can prevent recurrence of urinary stones. Some interventions are appropriate for all types of stones, but there are particular risk factors that may need directed therapy. PMID:27281259

  8. The Yale Plan of Medical Education: the early years.

    PubMed Central

    Viseltear, A. J.

    1986-01-01

    This paper considers the early years of the Yale Plan of Medical Education, which has come to be called the Yale System. It chronicles and analyzes the incremental development of the System and considers evaluations of the plan and modifications introduced over time. Also considered are external factors which influenced design and implementation. The paper covers the period of medical education at Yale from the 1920s to the early 1950s. PMID:3538682

  9. Personnel Administration: Management of Large Medical Libraries *

    PubMed Central

    Kronick, David A.

    1965-01-01

    Machines themselves are not dehumanizing. Employed with proper management in total systems they enable us better to achieve human goals. Large libraries are complex systems involving man-machine relationships which must be studied with the new management techniques of systems analysis and operations research. Management science deals with a wide variety of problems encountered in the economy of the modern library. Librarians must know about these techniques if they are to fulfill their roles as managers of information services and systems. Good management also involves taking cognizance of the human factors in the old meaning of the term. Some parallels may be found between child rearing and personnel management, but the primary one is that managers must pay the same kind of thoughtful attention to their problems. Good management techniques may be learned empirically by trial and error, but they are better acquired systematically through consultation and study. PMID:5897259

  10. [Continuing medical education in Croatia and the European Union].

    PubMed

    Drazancić, A

    2000-01-01

    The Continuing Medical Education (CME), with attention to other forms of Continuing Professional Development (CPD) in Croatia and the today endeavors in the European Union, are presented. In European Union the formal CME is in its starting. The "European Accreditation Council for Continuing Medical Education" (EACCME) of the UEMS is established, which has formulated the principles of continuing education, the credit hours and their realizing, that would enable the mutual recognition of education in all European countries. In Croatia the starting of CME was at beginning of the 20th century, when the professional societies of Croatian Medical Association were founded. CPD was almost exclusively connected to activities of "Andrija Stampar" School of Public Health, to the School of Medicine in Zagreb and partly in Rijeka, which established a great number of postgraduate studies. The CME i.e. the courses of education were tightly connected to activities of the Croatian Medical Association, of its professional societies and its Academy of Medical Sciences, but also to activities of School of Medicine in Zagreb and Rijeka, and recently in Split and Osijek. Since 1995 the third partner, the Croatian Medical Chamber joined too. The number of CME meetings during 1998 is presented. The approximate calculation for needed annual courses of CME for all medical specialties in Croatia is presented. The formation of the National Authority for CME is suggested, in which all the interested institutions should be represented. PMID:11210822

  11. Andragogy and medical education: are medical students internally motivated to learn?

    PubMed

    Misch, Donald A

    2002-01-01

    Andragogy - the study of adult education - has been endorsed by many medical educators throughout North America. There remains, however, considerable controversy as to the validity and utility of adult education principles as espoused by the field's founder, Malcolm Knowles. Whatever the utility of andragogic doctrine in general education settings, there is reason to doubt its wholesale applicability to the training of medical professionals. Malcolm Knowles' last tenet of andragogy holds that adult learners are more motivated by internal than by external factors. The validity of this hypothesis in medical education is examined, and it is demonstrated that medical students' internal and external motivation are context-dependent, not easily distinguishable, and interrelate with one another in complex ways. Furthermore, the psychological motivation for medical student learning is determined by a variety of factors that range from internal to external, unconscious to conscious, and individual to societal. The andragogic hypothesis of increased internal motivation to learn on the part of adults in general, and medical trainees in particular, is rejected as simplistic, misleading, and counterproductive to developing a greater understanding of the forces that drive medical students to learn. PMID:12075147

  12. Students' medical ethics rounds: a combinatorial program for medical ethics education.

    PubMed

    Beigy, Maani; Pishgahi, Ghasem; Moghaddas, Fateme; Maghbouli, Nastaran; Shirbache, Kamran; Asghari, Fariba; Abolfat-H Zadeh, Navid

    2016-01-01

    It has long been a common goal for both medical educators and ethicists to develop effective methods or programs for medical ethics education. The current lecture-based courses of medical ethics programs in medical schools are demonstrated as insufficient models for training "good doctors''. In this study, we introduce an innovative program for medical ethics education in an extra-curricular student-based design named Students' Medical Ethics Rounds (SMER). In SMER, a combination of educational methods, including theater-based case presentation, large group discussion, expert opinions, role playing and role modeling were employed. The pretest-posttest experimental design was used to assess the impact of interventions on the participants' knowledge and attitude regarding selected ethical topics. A total of 335 students participated in this study and 86.57% of them filled the pretest and posttest forms. We observed significant improvements in the knowledge (P < 0.0500) and attitude (P < 0.0001) of participants. Interestingly, 89.8% of participants declared that their confidence regarding how to deal with the ethical problems outlined in the sessions was increased. All of the applied educational methods were reported as helpful. We found that SMER might be an effective method of teaching medical ethics. We highly recommend the investigation of the advantages of SMER in larger studies and interdisciplinary settings. PMID:27471586

  13. Students’ medical ethics rounds: a combinatorial program for medical ethics education

    PubMed Central

    Beigy, Maani; Pishgahi, Ghasem; Moghaddas, Fateme; Maghbouli, Nastaran; Shirbache, Kamran; Asghari, Fariba; Abolfat-h Zadeh, Navid

    2016-01-01

    It has long been a common goal for both medical educators and ethicists to develop effective methods or programs for medical ethics education. The current lecture-based courses of medical ethics programs in medical schools are demonstrated as insufficient models for training “good doctors’’. In this study, we introduce an innovative program for medical ethics education in an extra-curricular student-based design named Students’ Medical Ethics Rounds (SMER). In SMER, a combination of educational methods, including theater-based case presentation, large group discussion, expert opinions, role playing and role modeling were employed. The pretest-posttest experimental design was used to assess the impact of interventions on the participants’ knowledge and attitude regarding selected ethical topics. A total of 335 students participated in this study and 86.57% of them filled the pretest and posttest forms. We observed significant improvements in the knowledge (P < 0.0500) and attitude (P < 0.0001) of participants. Interestingly, 89.8% of participants declared that their confidence regarding how to deal with the ethical problems outlined in the sessions was increased. All of the applied educational methods were reported as helpful. We found that SMER might be an effective method of teaching medical ethics. We highly recommend the investigation of the advantages of SMER in larger studies and interdisciplinary settings. PMID:27471586

  14. Five Phases for Managing Change in Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bowsher, Jack E.

    1989-01-01

    Educators should make learning more work related and companies should make work more learning related. A five-phase system for managing educational change includes (1) unstructured education; (2) inventory of education programs and costs; (3) planning, measurement, and organization; (4) implementation of structured education; and (5) refining…

  15. Transforming Vietnam's Medical Education through E-Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Churton, Michael W.

    2011-01-01

    The costs for providing medical school education and services in Vietnam's universities continue to increase. Through a collaborative project between the Government of the Netherlands and Vietnam's Ministry of Health, a five year experimental program to develop in-country capacity and reduce the dependence upon a foreign medical service delivery…

  16. Problems and Challenges in Medical Education in India

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goswami, Sribas; Sahai, Manjari

    2015-01-01

    As India marches towards an exciting new future of growth and progress, medical education will play a pivotal role in crafting a sustained development agenda. The idea of creating a healthy society is no longer a debatable luxury; its significance has been grasped by policy shapers worldwide. In a developing nation like India, medical services…

  17. The Shortcomings of Medical Education Highlighted through Film

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mahajan, Pranav

    2012-01-01

    The aims of this report are to highlight the shortcomings in medical education. To use a student made short film as an example of how issues that cause medical student distress can be displayed. To show that the process of film-making is a useful tool in reflection. To display that film is an effective device in raising awareness. (Contains 3…

  18. Service Learning in Medical Education: Project Description and Evaluation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Borges, Nicole J.; Hartung, Paul J.

    2007-01-01

    Although medical education has long recognized the importance of community service, most medical schools have not formally nor fully incorporated service learning into their curricula. To address this problem, we describe the initial design, development, implementation, and evaluation of a service-learning project within a first-year medical…

  19. Do Continuing Medical Education Articles Foster Shared Decision Making?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Labrecque, Michel; Lafortune, Valerie; Lajeunesse, Judith; Lambert-Perrault, Anne-Marie; Manrique, Hermes; Blais, Johanne; Legare, France

    2010-01-01

    Introduction: Defined as reviews of clinical aspects of a specific health problem published in peer-reviewed and non-peer-reviewed medical journals, offered without charge, continuing medical education (CME) articles form a key strategy for translating knowledge into practice. This study assessed CME articles for mention of evidence-based…

  20. The Significance of Scientific Capital in UK Medical Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brosnan, Caragh

    2011-01-01

    For decades, debates over medical curriculum reform have centred on the role of science in medical education, but the meaning of "science" in this domain is vague and the persistence of the debate has not been explained. Following Bourdieu, this paper examines struggles over legitimate knowledge and the forms of capital associated with science in…

  1. Medicine for Somewhere: The Emergence of Place in Medical Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ross, Brian M.; Daynard, Kim; Greenwood, David

    2014-01-01

    Until recently medical education has been largely silent on those aspects of the physician's life, both professional and unprofessional, that differ from place to place. This has contributed to health inequity through an undersupply of health care workers to many communities. A growing movement for social accountability in medical education…

  2. Four Models of Medical Education about Elder Mistreatment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heath, John M.; Dyer, Carmel B.; Kerzner, Lawrence J.; Mosqueda, Laura; Murphy, Carole

    2002-01-01

    Describe four models of incorporating elder-mistreatment curriculum and collaboration with adult protective services into geriatrics medical education. Draws on efforts at the University of Medicine and Dentistry of New Jersey--Robert Wood Johnson Medical School; the University of California, Irvine College of Medicine; Hennepin County Medical…

  3. Rasch Analysis of Professional Behavior in Medical Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lange, R.; Verhulst, S. J.; Roberts, N. K.; Dorsey, J. K.

    2015-01-01

    The use of students' "consumer feedback" to assess faculty behavior and improve the process of medical education is a significant challenge. We used quantitative Rasch measurement to analyze pre-categorized student comments listed by 385 graduating medical students. We found that students differed little with respect to the number of…

  4. Health Care Reform and Medical Education: Forces toward Generalism.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Neil, Edward H.; Seifer, Sarena D.

    1995-01-01

    Health care reforms will dramatically change the culture of medical schools in areas of patient care, research, and education programs. Academic medical centers must construct mutually beneficial partnerships that will position them to take advantage of the opportunities rather than leave them without the diversity of resources needed to make…

  5. Council of Medical Specialty Societies: Committed to Continuing Medical Education Reform

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McDonald, Walter J.

    2005-01-01

    The Council of Medical Specialty Societies (CMSS) recognizes the need for continuing medical education (CME) reform and intends to be actively engaged in that process. While recognizing that CME reform must involve many organizations, the CMSS and particularly the 23 societies that make up the CMSS are in a position to affect many of the needed…

  6. Cost in medical education: one hundred and twenty years ago.

    PubMed

    Walsh, Kieran

    2015-10-01

    The first full paper that is dedicated to cost in medical education appears in the BMJ in 1893. This paper "The cost of a medical education" outlines the likely costs associated with undergraduate education at the end of the nineteenth century, and offers guidance to the student on how to make financial planning. Many lessons can be gleaned from the paper about the cost and other aspects of nineteenth century medical education. Cost is viewed almost exclusively from the domain of the male gender. Cost is viewed not just from the perspective of a young man but of a young gentleman. There is a strong implication that medicine is a club and that you have to have money to join the club and then to take part in the club's activities. Cost affects choice of medical school and selection into schools. The paper places great emphasis on the importance of passing exams at their first sitting and progressing through each year in a timely manner-mainly to save costs. The subject of cost is viewed from the perspective of the payer-at this time students and their families. The paper encourages the reader to reflect on what has and has not changed in this field since 1893. Modern medical education is still expensive; its expense deters students; and we have only started to think about how to control costs or how to ensure value. Too much of the cost of medical education continues to burden students and their families. PMID:25134666

  7. Challenges for medical educators: Results of a survey among members of the German association for medical education

    PubMed Central

    Huwendiek, Sören; Hahn, Eckhart G.; Tönshoff, Burkhard; Nikendei, Christoph

    2013-01-01

    Background: Despite the increasing interest in medical education in the German-speaking countries, there is currently no information available on the challenges which medical educators face. To address this problem, we carried out a web-based survey among the members of the Association for Medical Education (Gesellschaft für medizinische Ausbildung, GMA). Methods: A comprehensive survey was carried out on the need for further qualifications, expertise and the general conditions of medical educators in Germany. As part of this study, the educators were asked to list the three main challenges which they faced and which required urgent improvement. The results were analysed by means of qualitative content analysis. Results: The questionnaire was completed by 147 of the 373 members on the GMA mailing list (response rate: 39%). The educators named a total of 346 challenges and emphasised the following areas: limited academic recognition for engagement in teaching (53.5% of educators), insufficient institutional (31.5%) and financial support (28.4%), a curriculum in need of reform (22.8%), insufficient time for teaching assignments (18,9%), inadequate teacher competence in teaching methods (18.1%), restricted faculty development programmes (18.1%), limited networking within the institution (11.0%), lack of teaching staff (10.2%), varying preconditions of students (8.7%), insufficient recognition and promotion of medical educational research (5.5%), extensive assessment requirements (4.7%), and the lack of role models within medical education (3.2%). Conclusion: The medical educators found the biggest challenges which they faced to be limited academic recognition and insufficient institutional and financial support. Consequently, improvements should be implemented to address these issues. PMID:24062818

  8. MO-E-18C-06: Enriching Medical Physics Education By Visualizing The Invisible

    SciTech Connect

    Sprawls, P

    2014-06-15

    Purpose: To enhance the understanding of medical physics concepts and develop higher levels of learning relating to invisible physics phenomena such as radiation. To provide medical physics educators in all countries of the world with understanding of knowledge structures in the human brain, the different levels of learning, and the types of knowledge required for higher level functions such as problem solving, creative innovations, and applied clinical applications. To provide medical physics educators with an open access resource (tool) that they can use in their teaching activities to enrich and elevate the level of learning for their students, residents, etc. with respect to the invisible realm of medical physics. Methods: An experienced clinical medical physicist and educator has created and provided with open access three complementary web-based resources to achieve the purposes described above. One is a module focusing on the medical physics learning process with respect to mental knowledge structures, how they relate to outcomes and applications, and learning activities that are required to develop the required knowledge structures. The second is an extensive set of visuals that educators can use in their activities (classes, small group discussions, etc.) to visualize the invisible. The third is an interactive online simulation where learners can adjust factors and visually observe changes in x-radiation.These resources are available online at www.BLINDED FOR REVIEW . Results: Medical physics education, especially for non-physicists, is becoming much more interesting and useful especially with respect to invisible radiation. The global impact is that medical imaging professionals can be more effective in optimizing x-ray imaging procedures and risk management when they have knowledge levels that enhance problem solving, innovation, and creativity. Conclusion: Medical physics educators in all institutions can be much more effective and efficient in the

  9. What are the implications of implementation science for medical education?

    PubMed Central

    Price, David W.; Wagner, Dianne P.; Krane, N. Kevin; Rougas, Steven C.; Lowitt, Nancy R.; Offodile, Regina S.; Easdown, L. Jane; Andrews, Mark A. W.; Kodner, Charles M.; Lypson, Monica; Barnes, Barbara E.

    2015-01-01

    Background Derived from multiple disciplines and established in industries outside of medicine, Implementation Science (IS) seeks to move evidence-based approaches into widespread use to enable improved outcomes to be realized as quickly as possible by as many as possible. Methods This review highlights selected IS theories and models, chosen based on the experience of the authors, that could be used to plan and deliver medical education activities to help learners better implement and sustain new knowledge and skills in their work settings. Results IS models, theories and approaches can help medical educators promote and determine their success in achieving desired learner outcomes. We discuss the importance of incorporating IS into the training of individuals, teams, and organizations, and employing IS across the medical education continuum. Challenges and specific strategies for the application of IS in educational settings are also discussed. Conclusions Utilizing IS in medical education can help us better achieve changes in competence, performance, and patient outcomes. IS should be incorporated into curricula across disciplines and across the continuum of medical education to facilitate implementation of learning. Educators should start by selecting, applying, and evaluating the teaching and patient care impact one or two IS strategies in their work. PMID:25911282

  10. Management of Postoperative Pain in Medical Institutions in Shandong Province in China.

    PubMed

    Liu, Donghua; Ma, Jianzhong; Zhang, Zongwang; Yu, Ailan; Chen, Xueli; Feng, Cuicui; Lei, Weifu

    2016-02-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate current situation of postoperative pain management in medical institutions in Shandong Province.A questionnaire was developed on the basis of guidelines of acute pain and pain quality assessment scale. The questionnaire was used to obtain information regarding the nature and scale of the medical institution, structure of pain management organization, implementation of pain assessment, and analgesic techniques and processes used in clinical practice. A multistage stratified and cluster sampling method was employed to investigate the current situation of postoperative pain management in 168 medical institutions in Shandong Province.For acute pain service (APS), 32% of the hospitals established postoperative pain management organizations similar to APS. For pain evaluation, 57.1% of the hospitals evaluated pain as the fifth vital sign, and 47.0% of the hospitals evaluated pain at rest and during activity. Furthermore, 43.0% of the surveyed hospitals employed patient-controlled analgesia mode, of which hospitals employing brachial plexus block, lumbar plexus block, and femoral nerve block analgesia accounted for 5.0%, 1.0%, and 4.0%, respectively. The survey revealed that 51.0% of the hospitals educated patients about pain and pain management, of which patients were postoperatively educated by ward nurses in 5.0% and patients were educated by APS during ward rounds in 2.0%.There is a lack of standardized postoperative pain management, the involvement of nurses in pain management is scarce, and the pain assessment and education and application of advanced analgesic management techniques were found to be inadequate in medical institutions in Shandong Province. PMID:26871800

  11. Management of Postoperative Pain in Medical Institutions in Shandong Province in China

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Donghua; Ma, Jianzhong; Zhang, Zongwang; Yu, Ailan; Chen, Xueli; Feng, Cuicui; Lei, Weifu

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The aim of the study was to investigate current situation of postoperative pain management in medical institutions in Shandong Province.A questionnaire was developed on the basis of guidelines of acute pain and pain quality assessment scale. The questionnaire was used to obtain information regarding the nature and scale of the medical institution, structure of pain management organization, implementation of pain assessment, and analgesic techniques and processes used in clinical practice. A multistage stratified and cluster sampling method was employed to investigate the current situation of postoperative pain management in 168 medical institutions in Shandong Province. For acute pain service (APS), 32% of the hospitals established postoperative pain management organizations similar to APS. For pain evaluation, 57.1% of the hospitals evaluated pain as the fifth vital sign, and 47.0% of the hospitals evaluated pain at rest and during activity. Furthermore, 43.0% of the surveyed hospitals employed patient-controlled analgesia mode, of which hospitals employing brachial plexus block, lumbar plexus block, and femoral nerve block analgesia accounted for 5.0%, 1.0%, and 4.0%, respectively. The survey revealed that 51.0% of the hospitals educated patients about pain and pain management, of which patients were postoperatively educated by ward nurses in 5.0% and patients were educated by APS during ward rounds in 2.0%. There is a lack of standardized postoperative pain management, the involvement of nurses in pain management is scarce, and the pain assessment and education and application of advanced analgesic management techniques were found to be inadequate in medical institutions in Shandong Province. PMID:26871800

  12. 21 CFR 880.6315 - Remote Medication Management System.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Remote Medication Management System. 880.6315 Section 880.6315 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GENERAL HOSPITAL AND PERSONAL USE DEVICES General Hospital and Personal Use Miscellaneous Devices § 880.6315...

  13. Medication Management Assessment for Older Adults in the Community

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Orwig, Denise; Brandt, Nicole; Gruber-Baldini, Ann L.

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to describe the Medication Management Instrument for Deficiencies in the Elderly (MedMaIDE) and to provide results of reliability and validity testing. Design and Methods: Participants were 50 older adults, aged 65 and older, who lived in the community, took at least one prescription medication, and were then…

  14. 21 CFR 880.6315 - Remote Medication Management System.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Remote Medication Management System. 880.6315 Section 880.6315 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GENERAL HOSPITAL AND PERSONAL USE DEVICES General Hospital and Personal Use Miscellaneous Devices § 880.6315...

  15. Application of data mining to medical risk management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsumoto, Shusaku; Matsuoka, Kimiko; Yokoyama, Shigeki

    2008-03-01

    This paper proposes an application of data mining to medical risk management, where data mining techniques were applied to detection, analysis and evaluation of risks potentially existing in clinical environments. We applied this technique to the following two medical domains: risk aversion of nurse incidents and infection control. The results show that data mining methods were effective to detection and aversion of risk factors.

  16. An online interactive simulation system for medical imaging education.

    PubMed

    Dikshit, Aditya; Wu, Dawei; Wu, Chunyan; Zhao, Weizhao

    2005-09-01

    This report presents a recently developed web-based medical imaging simulation system for teaching students or other trainees who plan to work in the medical imaging field. The increased importance of computer and information technology widely applied to different imaging techniques in clinics and medical research necessitates a comprehensive medical imaging education program. A complete tutorial of simulations introducing popular imaging modalities, such as X-ray, MRI, CT, ultrasound and PET, forms an essential component of such an education. Internet technologies provide a vehicle to carry medical imaging education online. There exist a number of internet-based medical imaging hyper-books or online documentations. However, there are few providing interactive computational simulations. We focus on delivering knowledge of the physical principles and engineering implementation of medical imaging techniques through an interactive website environment. The online medical imaging simulation system presented in this report outlines basic principles underlying different imaging techniques and image processing algorithms and offers trainees an interactive virtual laboratory. For education purposes, this system aims to provide general understanding of each imaging modality with comprehensive explanations, ample illustrations and copious references as its thrust, rather than complex physics or detailed math. This report specifically describes the development of the tutorial for commonly used medical imaging modalities. An internet-accessible interface is used to simulate various imaging algorithms with user-adjustable parameters. The tutorial is under the MATLAB Web Server environment. Macromedia Director MX is used to develop interactive animations integrating theory with graphic-oriented simulations. HTML and JavaScript are used to enable a user to explore these modules online in a web browser. Numerous multiple choice questions, links and references for advanced study are

  17. Medical Education in Peoples's Republic of China.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cooper, John A. D.; Yingang, Lin

    1987-01-01

    The three types of physicians trained in the People's Republic of China (practitioners in Chinese medicine, traditional Mongolian medicine, and western-style medicine) and the design of the medical schools and programs are discussed. (MSE)

  18. "Teaching as a Competency": competencies for medical educators.

    PubMed

    Srinivasan, Malathi; Li, Su-Ting T; Meyers, Fredrick J; Pratt, Daniel D; Collins, John B; Braddock, Clarence; Skeff, Kelley M; West, Daniel C; Henderson, Mark; Hales, Robert E; Hilty, Donald M

    2011-10-01

    Most medical faculty receive little or no training about how to be effective teachers, even when they assume major educational leadership roles. To identify the competencies required of an effective teacher in medical education, the authors developed a comprehensive conceptual model. After conducting a literature search, the authors met at a two-day conference (2006) with 16 medical and nonmedical educators from 10 different U.S. and Canadian organizations and developed an initial draft of the "Teaching as a Competency" conceptual model. Conference participants used the physician competencies (from the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education [ACGME]) and the roles (from the Royal College's Canadian Medical Education Directives for Specialists [CanMEDS]) to define critical skills for medical educators. The authors then refined this initial framework through national/regional conference presentations (2007, 2008), an additional literature review, and expert input. Four core values grounded this framework: learner engagement, learner-centeredness, adaptability, and self-reflection. The authors identified six core competencies, based on the ACGME competencies framework: medical (or content) knowledge; learner- centeredness; interpersonal and communication skills; professionalism and role modeling; practice-based reflection; and systems-based practice. They also included four specialized competencies for educators with additional programmatic roles: program design/implementation, evaluation/scholarship, leadership, and mentorship. The authors then cross-referenced the competencies with educator roles, drawing from CanMEDS, to recognize role-specific skills. The authors have explored their framework's strengths, limitations, and applications, which include targeted faculty development, evaluation, and resource allocation. The Teaching as a Competency framework promotes a culture of effective teaching and learning. PMID:21869655

  19. Effects on Deaf Patients of Medication Education by Pharmacists.

    PubMed

    Hyoguchi, Naomi; Kobayashi, Daisuke; Kubota, Toshio; Shimazoe, Takao

    2016-10-01

    Deaf people often experience difficulty in understanding medication information provided by pharmacists due to communication barriers. We held medication education lectures for deaf and hard of hearing (HH) individuals and examined the extent to which deaf participants understood medication-related information as well as their attitude about medication. We used two questionnaires to compare the results from the deaf participants with those from the HH and hearing participants. We found that before the lecture, the deaf participants' understanding of medication use was lower than that of the HH and hearing participants. The deaf participants' knowledge increased after the lecture, but did not improve to the level exhibited by the HH participants. However, the deaf participants felt confident using medication despite their low comprehension levels. In conclusion, adjusting the medication information provided by pharmacists according to the recipient's reading level could help improve deaf patients' knowledge; however, such measures might not increase deaf patients' comprehension levels sufficiently. PMID:27262170

  20. Medical group management: a marketing orientation.

    PubMed

    Bopp, K D; Allcorn, S

    1986-09-01

    This article considers the pragmatic aspects of conducting a situation/marketing audit for group medical practices. This audit is a key component in the formulation of a competitive strategy and the development of a marketing program. Given are a series of questions that may be used by medical groups to guide assessment of the opportunities and threats present in the environment as well as the strengths and weaknesses of the organization in meeting the environmental challenges. Furthermore, the article provides a framework for thinking about strategy and the variables that should be considered and aligned to achieve effective implementation of strategy. Finally, the parameters are outlined for deciding on a marketing program: the mix of marketing tools (service design, distribution channels, pricing and promotion) that should be employed to offensively and/or defensively position the medical group in the competitive marketplace. PMID:10301113

  1. Enabling medication management through health information technology (Health IT).

    PubMed Central

    McKibbon, K Ann; Lokker, Cynthia; Handler, Steve M; Dolovich, Lisa R; Holbrook, Anne M; O'Reilly, Daria; Tamblyn, Robyn; J Hemens, Brian; Basu, Runki; Troyan, Sue; Roshanov, Pavel S; Archer, Norman P; Raina, Parminder

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVES The objective of the report was to review the evidence on the impact of health information technology (IT) on all phases of the medication management process (prescribing and ordering, order communication, dispensing, administration and monitoring as well as education and reconciliation), to identify the gaps in the literature and to make recommendations for future research. DATA SOURCES We searched peer-reviewed electronic databases, grey literature, and performed hand searches. Databases searched included MEDLINE®, Embase, CINAHL (Cumulated Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature), Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, International Pharmaceutical Abstracts, Compendex, Inspec (which includes IEEE Xplore), Library and Information Science Abstracts, E-Prints in Library and Information Science, PsycINFO, Sociological Abstracts, and Business Source Complete. Grey literature searching involved Internet searching, reviewing relevant Web sites, and searching electronic databases of grey literatures. AHRQ also provided all references in their e-Prescribing, bar coding, and CPOE knowledge libraries. METHODS Paired reviewers looked at citations to identify studies on a range of health IT used to assist in the medication management process (MMIT) during multiple levels of screening (titles and abstracts, full text and final review for assignment of questions and data abstrction). Randomized controlled trials and cohort, case-control, and case series studies were independently assessed for quality. All data were abstracted by one reviewer and examined by one of two different reviewers with content and methods expertise. RESULTS 40,582 articles were retrieved. After duplicates were removed, 32,785 articles were screened at the title and abstract phase. 4,578 full text articles were assessed and 789 articles were included in the final report. Of these, 361 met only content criteria and were listed without further abstraction. The final report included data

  2. The Role of Self-Concept in Medical Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yeung, Alexander Seeshing; Li, Bingyi; Wilson, Ian; Craven, Rhonda G.

    2014-01-01

    Much research has acknowledged the importance of self-concept for adolescents' academic behaviour, motivation and aspiration, but little is known about the role of self-concept underpinning the motivation and aspiration of higher education students in a specialised field such as medical education. This article draws upon a programme of…

  3. A Three-Step Approach to Veterinary Medical Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kavanaugh, J. F.

    1976-01-01

    A formal education plan with two admission steps is outlined. Animal agriculture and the basic sciences are combined in a two-year middle stage. The medical education (third stage) that specifically addresses pathology and the clinical sciences encompasses three years. (Author/LBH)

  4. "Portfolios" as a method of assessment in medical education.

    PubMed

    Haldane, Thea

    2014-01-01

    Portfolios are increasingly used in postgraduate medical education and in gastroenterology training as an assessment tool, as documentation of competence, a database of procedure experience (for example endoscopy experience) and for revalidation purposes. In this paper the educational theory behind their use is described and the evidence for their use is discussed. PMID:24834299

  5. From Cases to Projects in Problem-Based Medical Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stentoft, Diana; Duroux, Meg; Fink, Trine; Emmersen, Jeppe

    2014-01-01

    Problem-based learning (PBL) based on patient cases has become a well-established worldwide educational approach in medical education. Recent studies indicate that case-based PBL when used throughout an entire curriculum may develop into a counter-productive routine for students as well as teachers. Consequently, there is a need to develop PBL…

  6. Learning Environment in Medical Schools Adopting Different Educational Strategies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Al Rukban, Mohammad Othman; Khalil, Mahmoud Salah; Al-Zalabani, Abdulmohsen

    2010-01-01

    Faculty of Medicine, King Fahad Medical City (KFMC) has adopted a problem based learning (PBL) curriculum. This study investigates the educational environment in the school; it also compares the educational environment prevailing in problem based learning curriculum with that of conventional and outcome based curricula. A cross sectional study…

  7. Cardiopulmonary Disease in Newborns: A Study in Continuing Medical Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weinberg, Armin D.; And Others

    1979-01-01

    A film describing tachypea as an early manifestation of congenital heart disease was shown to physicians and nurses at 27 hospitals during regular continuing medical education activities. Findings from pre-test and post-test data show that need-oriented educational programs can measurably improve the quality of patient care. (Author/LBH)

  8. The Medical Model and the Preparation of Education Professionals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grady, Marilyn L.

    1993-01-01

    By reviewing the training of medical professionals, one can identify similarities to the preparation of education professionals (teachers). On a basic level, the medicine and education fields are both practice-oriented; require individuals with problem-solving, decision-making, and interpersonal skills; depend on information bases that multiply…

  9. Curriculum Development in Medical Education: From Acronyms to Dynamism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prideaux, David

    2007-01-01

    Medical education is a rapidly expanding discipline with its practitioners drawn from a mix of backgrounds. Among them there is an increased understanding of the centrality of the curriculum process in the translation of educational ideas in practice. There are four main trends that underlie this increased understanding: a widened conception of…

  10. Assessment in Medical Education; What Are We Trying to Achieve?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferris, Helena; O'Flynn, Dermot

    2015-01-01

    Within the arena of medical education, it is generally acknowledged that assessment drives learning. Assessment is one of the most significant influences on a student's experience of higher education and improving assessment has a huge impact on the quality of learning (Liu, N. and Carless, D, 2006). Ideally we want to enhance student's capacity…

  11. Ethical participation of children and youth in medical education

    PubMed Central

    Hilliard, RI; Fernandez, CV; Tsai, E

    2011-01-01

    Children and youth (referred to as ‘children’ in the present statement), whether actual patients or volunteers, frequently participate in medical education. The present position statement discusses the numerous ethical challenges that may arise including respect for persons, truth telling and confidentiality. The statement provides guidelines that may be helpful to educators from a wide variety of disciplines. PMID:22468127

  12. Continuing Veterinary Medical Education: Responsibilities, Support and Rewards

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gage, E. Dean; And Others

    1978-01-01

    The Advanced Studies Committee of the Association of American Veterinary Medical Colleges addresses these questions: What are the responsibilities of the school of veterinary science department in continuing education? How should continuing education be funded? What are the appropriate mechanisms for recognizing or rewarding faculty participation…

  13. Design for Medical Education. The Development and Planning of a Medical College and Care Center.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peery, Thomas M.; Green, Alan C.

    Planning and design procedures which one medical education center employed in translating its educational objectives, philosophy and techniques into laboratory, classroom and clinic facilities are described. Basic planning considerations included--(1) determination of the curriculum, (2) facility utilization rate, (3) housing of research…

  14. Self-management of medical abortion: a qualitative evidence synthesis.

    PubMed

    Wainwright, Megan; Colvin, Christopher J; Swartz, Alison; Leon, Natalie

    2016-05-01

    Medical abortion is a method of pregnancy termination that by its nature enables more active involvement of women in the process of managing, and sometimes even administering the medications for, their abortions. This qualitative evidence synthesis reviewed the global evidence on experiences with, preferences for, and concerns about greater self-management of medical abortion with lesser health professional involvement. We focused on qualitative research from multiple perspectives on women's experiences of self-management of first trimester medical abortion (<12weeks gestation). We included research from both legal and legally-restricted contexts whether medical abortion was accessed through formal or informal systems. A review team of four identified 36 studies meeting inclusion criteria, extracted data from these studies, and synthesized review findings. Review findings were organized under the following themes: general perceptions of self-management, preparation for self-management, logistical considerations, issues of choice and control, and meaning and experience. The synthesis highlights that the qualitative evidence base is still small, but that the available evidence points to the overall acceptability of self-administration of medical abortion. We highlight particular considerations when offering self-management options, and identify key areas for future research. Further qualitative research is needed to strengthen this important evidence base. PMID:27578349

  15. Information technology and its role in anaesthesia training and continuing medical education.

    PubMed

    Chu, Larry F; Erlendson, Matthew J; Sun, John S; Clemenson, Anna M; Martin, Paul; Eng, Reuben L

    2012-03-01

    Today's educators are faced with substantial challenges in the use of information technology for anaesthesia training and continuing medical education. Millennial learners have uniquely different learning styles than previous generations of students. These preferences distinctly incorporate the use of digital information technologies and social technologies to support learning. To be effective teachers, modern educators must be familiar with these new information technologies and understand how to use them for medical education. Examples of new information technologies include learning management systems, lecture capture, social media (YouTube, Flickr), social networking (Facebook), Web 2.0, multimedia (video learning triggers and point-of-view video) and mobile computing applications. The information technology challenges for educators in the twenty-first century include: (a) understanding how technology shapes the learning preferences of today's anaesthesia residents, (b) distinguishing between the function and properties of new learning technologies and (c) properly using these learning technologies to enhance the anaesthesia curriculum. PMID:22559955

  16. Clinical simulators: applications and implications for rural medical education.

    PubMed

    Ypinazar, V A; Margolis, S A

    2006-01-01

    Medical education has undergone significant changes globally. Calls for the revitalisation of centuries old pathways of learning have resulted in innovative medical curricula. Didactic modes of teaching which involved the learning of copious amounts of facts have given way to curricula that focus on the horizontal and vertical integration of basic and clinical sciences. Increasing concern for patient care and safety has led to a 'gap' between the needs of medical students to acquire necessary psychomotor skills and the safety and wellbeing of the patient. This has resulted in alternate teaching methods that include non-patient based training for the acquisition of clinical skills. The use of computerised, full-sized human simulators provides medical students with the necessary psychomotor and clinical reasoning skills in a realistic learning environment, while remaining risk free to patients. These clinical simulators are powerful learning tools that have applications at all levels of medical education across multiple disciplines, emphasising the multidisciplinary approach required in many medical situations. This article reviews the literature on medical simulation and provides the contextual basis for the establishment of a Clinical Simulation Learning Centre (CSLC) in a rural clinical school in Australia. The educational program, as well as the design, layout and equipment of the CSLC are described, as well as implications for rural practitioners. The CSLC has been a major capital investment in a relatively under-resourced part of regional Australia and has provided opportunities for ongoing education across a range of healthcare professionals in the community. PMID:16764503

  17. Global health education in U.S. Medical schools

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Interest in global health (GH) among medical students worldwide is measurably increasing. There is a concomitant emphasis on emphasizing globally-relevant health professions education. Through a structured literature review, expert consensus recommendations, and contact with relevant professional organizations, we review the existing state of GH education in US medical schools for which data were available. Several recommendations from professional societies have been developed, along with a renewed emphasis on competencies in global health. The implementation of these recommendations was not observed as being uniform across medical schools, with variation noted in the presence of global health curricula. Recommendations for including GH in medical education are suggested, as well as ways to formalize GH curricula, while providing flexibility for innovation and adaptation PMID:23331630

  18. The relation between medical education and the medical profession's world view.

    PubMed

    Burger, W

    2001-01-01

    Thinking in medicine is still dominated by the cartesian view of science of the past centuries, dividing individuals into the reasoning mind (res cogitans) and an objective body as part of all non-subjective things of the world (res extensa). This classical scientific paradigm does not take into account the influence the observer exerts on the observed phenomena. Applying this paradigm to medical research and education has consequences regarding the relationship between physicians and patients as well as between medical teachers and their students. An improvement of medical education towards a broader understanding of complex illnesses with their psychosocial implications must be based on philosophical and epistemological issues. The requirements of modern medicine cannot just be met by adding more psycho-social content to somatic medical education or by changing the didactic approach without reflection on the underlying concepts and the relation of the human being to his world. PMID:11315423

  19. The ethics of conducting graduate medical education research on residents.

    PubMed

    Keune, Jason D; Brunsvold, Melissa E; Hohmann, Elizabeth; Korndorffer, James R; Weinstein, Debra F; Smink, Douglas S

    2013-04-01

    The field of graduate medical education (GME) research is attracting increased attention and broader participation. The authors review the special ethical and methodological considerations pertaining to medical education research. Because residents are at once a convenient and captive study population, a risk of coercion exists, making the provision of consent important. The role of the institutional review board (IRB) is often difficult to discern because GME activities can have multiple simultaneous purposes, educational activities may go forward with or without a research component, and the subjects of educational research studies are not patients. The authors provide a road map for researchers with regard to research oversight by the IRB and also address issues related to research quality. The matters of whether educational research studies should have educational value for the study subject and whether to use individual information obtained when residents participate as research subjects are explored. PMID:23425981

  20. General practitioners' continuing medical education within and outside their practice.

    PubMed Central

    Owen, P. A.; Allery, L. A.; Harding, K. G.; Hayes, T. M.

    1989-01-01

    To study continuing medical education 96 out of 101 general practitioners chosen at random from the list held by a family practitioner committee were interviewed. The results provided little evidence of regular attendance at local postgraduate centre meetings, though practice based educational meetings were common. Thirty one of the general practitioners worked in practices that held one or more practice based educational meetings each month at which the doctors provided the main educational content. Performance review was undertaken in the practices of 51 of the general practitioners, and 80 of the doctors recognised its value. The general practitioners considered that the most valuable educational activities occurred within the practice, the most valued being contact with partners. They asked for increased contact with hospital doctors. The development of general practitioners' continuing medical education should be based on the content of the individual general practitioner's day to day work and entail contact with his or her professional colleagues. PMID:2504381

  1. Flexible medical image management using service-oriented architecture.

    PubMed

    Shaham, Oded; Melament, Alex; Barak-Corren, Yuval; Kostirev, Igor; Shmueli, Noam; Peres, Yardena

    2012-01-01

    Management of medical images increasingly involves the need for integration with a variety of information systems. To address this need, we developed Content Management Offering (CMO), a platform for medical image management supporting interoperability through compliance with standards. CMO is based on the principles of service-oriented architecture, implemented with emphasis on three areas: clarity of business process definition, consolidation of service configuration management, and system scalability. Owing to the flexibility of this platform, a small team is able to accommodate requirements of customers varying in scale and in business needs. We describe two deployments of CMO, highlighting the platform's value to customers. CMO represents a flexible approach to medical image management, which can be applied to a variety of information technology challenges in healthcare and life sciences organizations. PMID:22874344

  2. Managing and Educating Outside: A Cree Hunter's Perspective on Management Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jolly, Freddy; Whiteman, Gail; Atkinson, Miriam; Radu, Ioana

    2011-01-01

    Educational approaches addressing environmental sustainability are of growing interest to management educators. The James Bay Cree in Canada offer a novel and ecologically embedded approach to management education as an inspiring template for integrating a deep sense-of-place within management education. The authors describe the Cree approach as…

  3. Medical and Surgical Management of Carney Complex.

    PubMed

    Siordia, Juan A

    2015-07-01

    Carney complex is a rare, autosomal dominant genetic disorder that consists of multiple myxomatous lesions and endocrine abnormalities, including skin lesions, cardiac myxomas, primary pigmented nodular adrenocortical disease, and acromegaly. This review discusses the medical and surgical treatment of patients with Carney complex. PMID:25996461

  4. Preparation, Confidence, and Attitudes About Chronic Noncancer Pain in Graduate Medical Education

    PubMed Central

    Yanni, Leanne M.; McKinney-Ketchum, Jessica L.; Harrington, Sarah B.; Huynh, Christine; Amin, BS, Saad; Matsuyama, Robin; Coyne, Patrick; Johnson, Betty A.; Fagan, Mark; Garufi-Clark, Linda

    2010-01-01

    Background Physicians report they feel ill-prepared to manage chronic noncancer pain (CNCP), in part because of inadequate training. Published studies and clinical observation demonstrate that trainees lack confidence and reflect negative attitudes about CNCP. Overall, there is minimal published guidance on specific specialty roles and responsibilities in CNCP management. Objective The purpose of this study was to assess resident preparation, confidence, and attitudes about CNCP across graduate medical education programs and to assess resident perception of roles and responsibilities in CNCP management. Methods In 2006 we surveyed residents from 13 graduate medical education programs in 3 institutions about CNCP and report quantitative and qualitative analyses of survey responses from 246 respondents. Results A total of 59% of respondents rated their medical school preparation and 36% rated their residency preparation as “fair” or “poor”; only 17% reported being “confident” or “very confident” in assessing patients with CNCP; and 30% used negative or derogatory terms (eg, manipulative, irritable, needy) to describe patients with CNCP. Respondents from postgraduate years 3–6 were more than twice as likely as postgraduate year 1 or postgraduate year 2 respondents (44% versus 21% and 20%, respectively) to use negative or derogatory terms (P  =  .0007). Respondents were significantly more likely to report that pain specialists are “good” or “excellent” in managing CNCP compared with generalists (73% versus 6%; P < .0001). Conclusion Education in pain management should begin in medical school and continue through graduate medical education, regardless of specialty. Early and sustained training interventions are needed to foster empathy in caring for patients with pain. Residency and fellowhip training should impart a clear understanding of each specialty's role and responsibilities in pain management to better foster patient-centered pain

  5. Medical Asepsis, Research, and Continuing Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trussell, Patricia M.; Crow, Sue

    1977-01-01

    Emphasizes the need that continuing education programs for nurses in hospitals orient newly employed graduate nurses specifically to infection control measures as carried out in that institution and then to reinforce these learnings by regular planned programs. Points out ways that those responsible for inservice nursing education can facilitate…

  6. [Health Literacy and patient education in medical rehabilitation].

    PubMed

    Bitzer, Eva Maria; Spörhase, U

    2015-09-01

    Medical rehabilitation in Germany has a long tradition. It is covered by the statutory sickness funds and pension schemes, and is aimed at the prevention of work disability and need for nursing care due to chronic conditions. Chronically ill but health-literate patients - patients capable of making good health-related decisions, or of participating strongly in this decision making - have better health outcomes. To enhance health literacy and participation, medical rehabilitation relies heavily on patient education. This article describes health literacy from the perspective of educational research, outlines the basics of learning principles, and draws conclusions for developing patient education programmes in medical rehabilitation. Implementing a constructivist learning paradigm promotes changes within the trainer team and within the rehabilitation institution - turning it into a health-literate health care organisation. Health literacy in medical rehabilitation is aimed at neither turning the patient into a physician nor replacing evidence-based recommendations through subjective preferences. Medical rehabilitation reaches patients best by using modern health education programmes based on findings from education research, theoretically founded and directed towards building competencies. Furthermore, an educationally qualified training team and a rehabilitation institution are essential in enabling formal and informal learning processes. PMID:26153473

  7. Medical education practice-based research networks: Facilitating collaborative research

    PubMed Central

    Schwartz, Alan; Young, Robin; Hicks, Patricia J.; APPD LEARN, For

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background: Research networks formalize and institutionalize multi-site collaborations by establishing an infrastructure that enables network members to participate in research, propose new studies, and exploit study data to move the field forward. Although practice-based clinical research networks are now widespread, medical education research networks are rapidly emerging. Aims: In this article, we offer a definition of the medical education practice-based research network, a brief description of networks in existence in July 2014 and their features, and a more detailed case study of the emergence and early growth of one such network, the Association of Pediatric Program Directors Longitudinal Educational Assessment Research Network (APPD LEARN). Methods: We searched for extant networks through peer-reviewed literature and the world-wide web. Results: We identified 15 research networks in medical education founded since 2002 with membership ranging from 8 to 120 programs. Most focus on graduate medical education in primary care or emergency medicine specialties. Conclusions: We offer four recommendations for the further development and spread of medical education research networks: increasing faculty development, obtaining central resources, studying networks themselves, and developing networks of networks. PMID:25319404

  8. Environmental Education: Compendium for Integrated Waste Management.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    California Integrated Waste Management Board, Sacramento.

    This compendium is a tool for bringing waste management education into classrooms. Curriculum materials gathered from across the country were reviewed by California's top environmental educators, both for correlation with the state's educational frameworks and for accuracy and completeness of waste management information. Materials that cover…

  9. Guide for Managers of Adult Education Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hudson River Center for Program Development, Glenmont, NY.

    This document is intended to help adult education program managers throughout New York become oriented to the world of adult education, handle their new responsibilities as program managers, and obtain up-to-date information to assist them in making educational and administrative decisions. The following are among the topics discussed in the…

  10. Complexity: A Frontier for Management Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Axley, Stephen R.; McMahon, Timothy R.

    2006-01-01

    This article critiques the mechanistic grounding of traditional management education and proposes complexity science as a fitting explanatory model for an age of complexity, contributing timely and important educational content and instructional processes to management education. It highlights some of those contributions and reviews instructional…

  11. [LaMedica. The medical education academy on the internet].

    PubMed

    Melamed, R J; Friedl, R; Engl, T; Lanwert, S; Preisack, M B; Jonas, D; Bickeböller, R

    2002-01-01

    At present, "modern media" are still a novelty in medical education. The "LaMedica Project"--a program supported by the Federal Ministry for Education and Research--intends to provide an Internet-based education and training system for the entire field of medicine, using all available media resources. This online educational program will provide subjects for medical laypersons as well as medical experts. Various styles of learning and different learning requests will be promoted. The project presented mirrors the cutting edge of database technology, computer-based training and media didactics, critical content processing as well as supplying individual subjects. This report summarizes our 10 months of experience with this program at the Department for Urology and Pediatric Urology of the Johann Wolfgang Goethe University of Frankfurt Main. PMID:11963770

  12. Needles and Haystacks: Finding Funding for Medical Education Research.

    PubMed

    Gruppen, Larry D; Durning, Steven J

    2016-04-01

    Medical education research suffers from a significant and persistent lack of funding. Although adequate funding has been shown to improve the quality of research, there are a number of factors that continue to limit it. The competitive environment for medical education research funding makes it essential to understand strategies for improving the search for funding sources and the preparation of proposals. This article offers a number of resources, strategies, and suggestions for finding funding. Investigators must be able to frame their research in the context of significant issues and principles in education. They must set their proposed work in the context of prior work and demonstrate its potential for significant new contributions. Because there are few funding sources earmarked for medical education research, researchers much also be creative, flexible, and adaptive as they seek to present their ideas in ways that are appealing and relevant to the goals of funders. Above all, the search for funding requires persistence and perseverance. PMID:26556292

  13. Movement Disorders: A Brief Guide in Medication Management.

    PubMed

    Julius, Anthony; Longfellow, Katelan

    2016-07-01

    Movement disorders can be challenging to manage and often use a specific set of medications. Because it is a complex and broad field within neurology, many providers are unfamiliar with the classes of medications. This paper details medications used for specific conditions, explains why these medications are helpful, and shares pearls and pitfalls related to each agent, focusing on parameters such as dose titration, side effect profiles, and specific drug-drug interactions and challenges. We focus on the most commonly encountered movement disorders, including essential tremor, Parkinson's disease, rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder, and restless leg syndrome. PMID:27235613

  14. In Search of Coherence: A View from the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leach, David C.

    2005-01-01

    The Conjoint Committee on Continuing Medical Education has developed a position paper, a set of recommendations, and next steps in the reform of continuing medical education (CME). The Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education (ACGME) sets standards for and accredits residency programs in graduate medical education and is not directly…

  15. [Medical education in a bachelors and masters system].

    PubMed

    Harendza, S; Guse, A H

    2009-09-01

    Gain of basic and applied medical knowledge and the changing demands of society with regard to medical professions are the main factors for continuous reforms in medical curricula. The Bologna Declaration of 1999 initiated the development of a unified European higher education area. A key tool for unification is the introduction of the Bachelors/Masters system. Although some European countries have adapted their medical curricula to the Bachelors/Masters system there is still debate on this issue in Germany. Some societies, e.g., the Society for Medical Education, demonstrated how the Bachelors/Masters system might be transferred to Germany. Moreover, the German Association of Medical Students already published a core curriculum compatible with the Bologna criteria. Some central elements of the Bologna Declaration have already been or could easily be integrated into the current structure of medical studies, e.g., quality assurance or a credit point transfer system. Furthermore, in the framework of the German medical licensure law, it is possible to introduce a curriculum fully compatible with the Bologna Declaration. A meaningful prerequisite would be a unified national (or European) qualification frame and catalog of learning objectives, designed according to the Bologna criteria. This should guarantee good mobility for medical students within Europe. PMID:19669708

  16. Collaborative Learning Environments for Management Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seufert, Sabine; Seufert, Andreas

    Confronted with the pressure of a rapidly changing environment, organizations demand new skills and capabilities of future managers. These demands and the findings of learning theory necessitate a corresponding change in education of tomorrow's managers. Future management education requires a balance between the imparting of knowledge to the…

  17. Educational Quality Correlates of Online Graduate Management Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Millson, Murray R.; Wilemon, David

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of our paper is to describe and compare educational models based on four major concepts that can be used to assess educational quality. We focus on graduate management programs since they are increasingly supporting their education offerings with state-of-the-art technology. We examine why some distance educational models are more…

  18. Managing adverse effects of glaucoma medications

    PubMed Central

    Inoue, Kenji

    2014-01-01

    Glaucoma is a chronic, progressive disease in which retinal ganglion cells disappear and subsequent, gradual reductions in the visual field ensues. Glaucoma eye drops have hypotensive effects and like all other medications are associated with adverse effects. Adverse reactions may either result from the main agent or from preservatives used in the drug vehicle. The preservative benzalkonium chloride, is one such compound that causes frequent adverse reactions such as superficial punctate keratitis, corneal erosion, conjunctival allergy, and conjunctival injection. Adverse reactions related to main hypotensive agents have been divided into those affecting the eye and those affecting the entire body. In particular, β-blockers frequently cause systematic adverse reactions, including bradycardia, decrease in blood pressure, irregular pulse and asthma attacks. Prostaglandin analogs have distinctive local adverse reactions, including eyelash bristling/lengthening, eyelid pigmentation, iris pigmentation, and upper eyelid deepening. No systemic adverse reactions have been linked to prostaglandin analog eye drop usage. These adverse reactions may be minimized when they are detected early and prevented by reducing the number of different eye drops used (via fixed combination eye drops), reducing the number of times eye drops are administered, using benzalkonium chloride-free eye drops, using lower concentration eye drops, and providing proper drop instillation training. Additionally, a one-time topical medication can be given to patients to allow observation of any adverse reactions, thereafter the preparation of a topical medication with the fewest known adverse reactions can be prescribed. This does require precise patient monitoring and inquiries about patient symptoms following medication use. PMID:24872675

  19. [Compassionate care and management in the medical-social sector].

    PubMed

    Lambert Barraquier, Arièle

    2016-05-01

    Compassionate care can appear ambiguous when subject to critical examination. The spotlight falls on the responsibility and activity of management with regard to policy guidance and the management of activities in the medical-social field. Discussion around this subject enables an assessment of current standards and ethical progress to be carried out. PMID:27157562

  20. Transforming educational accountability in medical ethics and humanities education toward professionalism.

    PubMed

    Doukas, David J; Kirch, Darrell G; Brigham, Timothy P; Barzansky, Barbara M; Wear, Stephen; Carrese, Joseph A; Fins, Joseph J; Lederer, Susan E

    2015-06-01

    Effectively developing professionalism requires a programmatic view on how medical ethics and humanities should be incorporated into an educational continuum that begins in premedical studies, stretches across medical school and residency, and is sustained throughout one's practice. The Project to Rebalance and Integrate Medical Education National Conference on Medical Ethics and Humanities in Medical Education (May 2012) invited representatives from the three major medical education and accreditation organizations to engage with an expert panel of nationally known medical educators in ethics, history, literature, and the visual arts. This article, based on the views of these representatives and their respondents, offers a future-tense account of how professionalism can be incorporated into medical education.The themes that are emphasized herein include the need to respond to four issues. The first theme highlights how ethics and humanities can provide a response to the dissonance that occurs in current health care delivery. The second theme focuses on how to facilitate preprofessional readiness for applicants through reform of the medical school admission process. The third theme emphasizes the importance of integrating ethics and humanities into the medical school administrative structure. The fourth theme underscores how outcomes-based assessment should reflect developmental milestones for professional attributes and conduct. The participants emphasized that ethics and humanities-based knowledge, skills, and conduct that promote professionalism should be taught with accountability, flexibility, and the premise that all these traits are essential to the formation of a modern professional physician. PMID:25539516